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Sample records for polyporus versicolor

  1. Cell-Free Solubilization of Coal by Polyporus versicolor

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Martin S.; Bowers, William C.; Aronson, Harold; Gray, Edward T.

    1987-01-01

    Solubilization of coal was demonstrated with filtrates (0.45-μm-pore-size filters) obtained from the broth in which Polyporus versicolor had grown. The rate and extent of solubilization were dependent on the age of the fungal cultures, the particle size of the coal, the pH of the filtrates, and the presence of proteins in the filtrates. The rate of solubilization of coal was significantly reduced after proteins in the filtrates were denatured by acid hydrolysis. PMID:16347500

  2. Cell growth and catecholase production for Polyporus versicolor in submerged culture.

    PubMed Central

    Carroad, P A; Wilke, C R

    1977-01-01

    Cell growth and catecholase production for Polyporus veriscolor (ATCC 12679) were studied in mechanically agitated submerged culture, as functions of temperature. The exponential-phase growth rate exhibited a maximum at 28 degrees C. Over the range of 20 degrees C to approximately 30 degrees C, both cell mass and enzyme yield factors were constant. At higher temperatures (30 to 40 degrees C) cell mass yield factor decreased and enzyme yield factor increased. Specific respiration rate of P. versicolor was determined. Thermal deactivation of catecholase was investigated between 30 and 50 degrees C, and deactivation rates were fit to an Arrhenius rate expression. PMID:869531

  3. Liquefaction of coal by Polyporus versicolor and Poria monticola. Progress report, 1 January-31 March 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, M.S.

    1985-01-01

    Both Polyporus versicolor and Poria monticola were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection. Growth of Polyporus was shown to be faster and stronger than that of Poria under all conditions tested and the results reported here are based upon liquefaction of lignite coal by Polyporus. The liquefied coal samples were treated with acetonitrile which gave two fractions, a black precipitate and a light yellow liquid phase supernatant. This supernatant consists of acetonitrile and organic compounds which are soluble in acetonitrile. If the supernatant is drawn off with a Pasteur pipette followed by addition of water to the black precipitate, the precipitate dissolves instantly in the water producing a black liquid. Using these techniques, the products of coal liquefaction have been divided into two phases which are soluble either in acetonitrile or in water. Both fractions have been analyzed by HPLC and compounds have been partially separated. No peaks have been identified. However, two principal peaks of the acetonitrile fraction have been sent to PETC for chemical analysis by GC-MS. 9 figs.

  4. Degradation of Coal by the Fungi Polyporus versicolor and Poria monticola

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Martin S.; Gabriele, Peter D.

    1982-01-01

    We report that two species of basidiomycete fungi (Polyporus versicolor and Poria monticola) grow in minimal liquid or solid medium when supplemented with crushed lignite coal. The fungi also grow directly on crushed lignite coal. The growth of both fungi was observed qualitatively as the production and extension of hyphae. No fungal growth occurred in minimal agar medium without coal. The fungi degraded solid lignite coal to a black liquid product which never appeared in cultures unless fungi and coal were present together. Apparently, lignite coal can serve as the principal substrate for the growth of the fungi. Infrared analyses of the liquid products of lignite degradation showed both similarities to and differences from the original lignite. Images PMID:16346060

  5. Liquefaction of coal by Polyporus versicolor and Poria monticola. Final report, 1 September 1984-31 August 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    Polyporus versicolor (ATCC 12679), obtained from the American Type Culture Collection, Rockville, MD, has been demonstrated to degrade leonardite, lignite, and subbituminous coals to a black liquid product which is called the bioextract. The process of solubilizing the coal has been termed liquification. Fungi were routinely maintained in both solid Sabouraud maltose agar (6%) and in Sabouraud maltose broth cultures. All cultures were incubated at 30/sup 0/C, 84 to 98% relative humidity, and pH = 5.8. All materials which came into contact with the fungi were sterilized before use. Experimental cultures were incubated as described for stock cultures. Cultures were incubated for approximately 12 days to produce a mature fungal mat across a glass petri dish. Coal pieces (approximately 5 mm/sup 3/) were placed directly on the hyphal mat. Liquified coal (the bioextract) was removed from the top of the mycelium and/or coal pieces and either stored for analyses at 4/sup 0/C or else freeze-dried and stored dessicated at room temperature. The bioextract has been produced in sufficient quantity to permit various methods of analysis including high performance liquid chromatography, UV-visible spectrophotometry, titrimetry, electrophoresis, proton nmr spectroscopy, and calorimetry. The solubility of the bioextract in different solvents has also been determined. 6 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Tinea versicolor

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001465.htm Tinea versicolor To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Tinea versicolor is a long-term (chronic) fungal infection ...

  7. Tinea Versicolor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview Also called pityriasis versicolor We all have yeast living on our skin. When the yeast grow out of control, a person can get ... you have a fungal infection on your skin. Yeast is a type of fungus. Many people get ...

  8. Endogenous respiration of Polyporus sulphureus

    SciTech Connect

    Li, S.M.W.; Siehr, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    Thirty percent of the dry weight of the basidiomycete Polyporus sulphureus is triterpenoid acid. The endogenous respiratory quotient of this organism is 0.8 indicating that the triterpenoid is being used as an endogenous storage material. Monosaccharides did not seem to be utilized as exogenous substrates but Krebs-cycle intermediates stimulated oxygen uptake. Pyruvic acid inhibited oxygen uptake. Studies with /sup 14/C-labeled glucose indicated that 27% of the glucose was metabolized by way of glycolysis. The hexose-monophosphate pathway was the major metabolic path for the utilization of glucose. Despite the fact that P. sulphureus is associated with brown rot, its carbon metabolism suggests that it utilizes substances associated with the degradation of lignin more readily than it does glucose.

  9. Effect of glucose on alpha-glucan degradation in Polyporus circinatus.

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, M B; Zancan, G T

    1981-01-01

    The effect of glucose on the enzymes involved in the degradation of a reserve alpha-glucan in Polyporus circinatus was studied. The levels of phosphorylase activity, endoamylase, amylo-1,6-glucosidase were regulated by glucose concentration. PMID:6161914

  10. Chemical constituents of Simarouba versicolor.

    PubMed

    Arriaga, Angela C; de Mesquita, Aldenor C; Pouliquen, Yvone B M; de Lima, Roberto A; Cavalcante, Sergio H; de Carvalho, Mario G; de Siqueira, José A; Alegrio, Leila V; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2002-09-01

    From the roots, stems and fruits of Simarouba versicolor (Simaroubaceae) were isolated quassinoids (3, 5-7), triterpenoids (8-14), a mixture of steroids (15-17), the flavonoid kaempferol (18) and the squalene derivative 11,14-diacetoxy-7,10; 15,18-diepoxy-6,19-dihidroxy-6,7,10,11,14,15,18,19-octahydrosqualene (19). Spectral data were used for structural characterization. PMID:12378309

  11. Tinea versicolor in dark-skinned individuals.

    PubMed

    Kallini, Joseph R; Riaz, Fauzia; Khachemoune, Amor

    2014-02-01

    In this article, we review the salient features of tinea versicolor and describe the epidemiology, clinical presentation, and histopathology of this mycosis in dark-skinned individuals. Tinea versicolor is caused by an overgrowth of the Malassezia genus. It manifests clinically as asymptomatic hypopigmented macules, hyperpigmented macules, or a combination of the two. Under light microscopy, Malassezia presents as a dimorphic fungus - in both the hyphal and yeast form. Most clinicians have found that the majority of dark-skinned patients present solely with hypopigmented lesions. Under light microscopy, lesions on dark skin involved with tinea versicolor tend to have a thicker stratum corneum, more tonofilaments in the granulosum, and more sequestered melanosomes. Differential diagnosis includes confluent and reticulated papillomatosis, seborrheic dermatitis, pityriasis rosea, pityriasis alba, and vitiligo. Tinea versicolor can be successfully managed in most cases with topical antifungal treatments. Cases of recurrence, such as those seen in immunocompromised patients, may necessitate scheduled oral or topical therapy. PMID:24320140

  12. Antitumor plants. IV. Constituents of Simarouba versicolor.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, P C; Larrahondo, J E; LeQuesne, P W; Raffauf, R F

    1977-01-01

    beta-Sitosterol, epilupeo, amarolide-11-acetate, amarolide-2,11-diacetate, ailanthinone and glaucarubinone have been isolated from S. versicolor. The cytotoxic and antileukemic activities of extracts of this plant are due chiefly to glaucarubinone. PMID:895397

  13. Uncommon presentations of tinea versicolor

    PubMed Central

    Varada, Sowmya; Dabade, Tushar; Loo, Daniel S.

    2014-01-01

    Tinea versicolor (TV) is a common cutaneous fungal infection characterized by superficial scaling and a mild disturbance of skin pigmentation. It typically affects the chest, upper back, and shoulders. However, involvement of more unusual regions of the body such as the face and scalp, arms and legs, intertriginous sites, genitalia, areolae, and palms and soles has been reported. This report details two such cases observed at our institution: a 32-year-old woman with involvement of the popliteal fossa and a 16-year-old boy with involvement of the groin. The clinician must be aware of these variations in location and perform the appropriate diagnostic workup when lesions have the characteristic morphology of TV despite an unusual location. The etiology, pathophysiology, and epidemiology of TV are reviewed and current literature describing other instances of TV in uncommon locations is discussed. PMID:25126470

  14. beta-Mannosidase from the mushroom Polyporus sulfureus.

    PubMed

    Wan, C C; Muldrey, J E; Li, S C; Li, Y T

    1976-07-25

    beta-D-Mannosidase (EC 3.2.1.25), a useful tool for the structural studies of heterosaccharide chains, has been isolated in a highly purified form from the fruiting bodies of the mushroom Polyporus sulfureus. This mushroom is unique among reported sources of this enzyme in that it has the advantage of being almost free of alpha-mannosidase activity. The purification procedure involves ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by Sephadex G-100 filtration and chromatography on columns of DEAE-cellulose and hydroxylapatite. The final enzyme preparation gives essentially a single band on disc gel electrophoresis. The purified enzyme liberates the beta-D-mannopyranosyl unit from various natural substrates such as the core glycopeptide, Man(GlcNAc)2-Asn isolated from ovalbumin, from Taka-amylase A, and from human alpha1-acid glycoprotein. It also hydrolyzes (Man)2-GlcNAc from the urine of an alpha-mannosidosis patient, 1,4-D-mannobiose and mannotriose isolated from ivory nut mannan, 4-O-beta-D-mannopyranosyl-L-rhamnose, 6-O-beta-D-mannopyranosyl-D-galactose and 4-O-beta-D-mannopyranosyl-N-acetylglucosamine. The molecular weight of this enzyme is estimated to be about 64,000 by gel filtration. For p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-mannopyranoside, the pH optimum is between 2.4 and 3.4 and the Km is 1.6 mM. PMID:6478

  15. [Physicochemical properties of medicinal fungus Polyporus umbellatus sclerotial exudate].

    PubMed

    Xing, Yong-Mei; Li, Hong-Lian; Guo, Shun-Xing

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the physicochemical properties of Polyporus umbellatus sclerotial exudate. Morphological characteristics of the sclerotia and its exudate were observed during different stages of sclerotial formation. The pH of the exudate was detected at different time during cultivation. A phenol-sulfuric acid method was employed to determine the polysaccharide content of P. umbellatus sclerotial exudate during cultivating time. Additionally, the protein content was measured by means of BCA protein assay. Furthermore, CAT content was detected using ultraviolet absorption method. That the protein content of the exudate and CAT specific activity rose gradually during the passage of the cultivating time indicated a high level of oxidative stress during P. umbellatus sclerotial exudate formation. The results showed that the pH of the exudate increased gradually and then dropped down during sclerotial formation. That the pH of the exudate maintained the acidity state during the cultivation indirectly indicated that acidic environment would help sclerotial formation. The exudate produced gradually and was absorbed by the sclerotia itself. PMID:24754165

  16. Characterization of pyrene biodegradation by white-rot fungus Polyporus sp. S133.

    PubMed

    Hadibarata, Tony; Kristanti, Risky Ayu; Fulazzaky, Mohamad Ali; Nugroho, Agung Endro

    2012-01-01

    A white-rot fungus of Polyporus sp. S133 was isolated from an oil-polluted soil. The metabolism of pyrene by this fungus was investigated in liquid medium with 5 mg of the compound. Depletion of pyrene was evident during the 30-day growth period and was 21% and 90%, respectively, in cometabolism and metabolism of pyrene alone. Pyrene was absorbed to fungal cells or biodegraded to form simpler structural compounds. Seventy-one percent of eliminated pyrene was transformed by Polyporus sp. S133 into other compounds, whereas only 18% was absorbed in the fungal cell. The effects of pH and temperature on biomass production of Polyporus sp. S133 for pyrene were examined; the properties of laccase and 1,2-dioxygenase produced by Polyporus sp. S133 during pyrene degradation were investigated. The optimal values of pH were 3, 5, and 4 for laccase, 1,2-dioxygenase, and biomass production, respectively, whereas the optimal values of temperature were 25 °C for laccase and 50 °C for 1,2-dioxygenase and biomass production. Under optimal conditions, pyrene was mainly metabolized to 1-hydroxypyrene and gentisic acid. The structure of 1-hydroxypyrene and gentisic acid was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after identification using thin-layer chromatography. PMID:23586956

  17. Decolorization and degradation mechanism of Amaranth by Polyporus sp. S133.

    PubMed

    Hadibarata, Tony; Nor, Nurafifah Mohd

    2014-09-01

    Polyporus sp. S133 decolorized the Amaranth in 72 h (30 mg L(-1)) under static and shaking conditions. Liquid medium containing glucose has shown the highest decolorization of Amaranth by Polyporus sp. S133. When the effect of increasing inoculum concentration on decolorization of Amaranth was studied, maximum decolorization was observed with 15 % inoculum concentration. Significant increase in the enzyme production of laccase (102.2 U L(-1)) was observed over the period of Amaranth decolorization compared to lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase. Germination rate of Sorghum vulgare and Triticum aestivum was less with Amaranth treatment as compared to metabolites obtained after its decolorization. Based on the metabolites detected by GC-MS, it was proposed that Amaranth was bio-transformed into two intermediates, 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid and 1,4-naphthaquinone. Overall findings suggested the ability of Polyporus sp. S133 for the decolorization of azo dye and ensured the ecofriendly degradation of Amaranth. PMID:24623464

  18. Submerged culture conditions for the production of mycelial biomass and antimicrobial metabolites by Polyporus tricholoma Mont.

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Gladys Rosane Thomé; Liebl, Mariane; Tavares, Lorena Benathar Ballod; Paulert, Roberta; Smânia Júnior, Artur

    2008-01-01

    Basidiomycete fungi of the Polyporus genus are a source of secondary metabolites which are of medicinal interest as antibacterial compounds. As these substances are produced in a small amount by the fungi, the study of the cultivation conditions in vitro that could possibly optimize their production seems of major importance. The effects of glucose and lactose, pH and agitation on biomass concentration and on the specific growth rate caused by the basidiomycete Polyporus tricholoma were investigated. The initial pH (4.5, 6.5 and 8.5) was autoregulated at pH 5.5, and the agitation increased the mycelial growth and the specific growth rate. The high concentration of carbon sources (4%) increased biomass production. The lactose concentration and the absence of agitation were determinant in the production of antibacterial metabolites. The characterization of the antibacterial substance by GC-MS indicated a major compound, isodrimenediol, produced by the fungus Polyporus tricholoma with activity against Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:24031266

  19. Identification of metabolites from phenanthrene oxidation by phenoloxidases and dioxygenases of Polyporus sp. S133.

    PubMed

    Hadibarata, Tony; Tachibana, Sanro; Askari, Muhamad

    2011-03-01

    Phenanthrene degradation by Polyporus sp. S133, a new phenanthrene-degrading strain, was investigated in this work. The analysis of degradation was performed by calculation of the remaining phenanthrene by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. When cells were grown in phenanthrene culture after 92 h, all but 200 and 250 mg/l of the phenanthrene had been degraded. New metabolic pathways of phenanthrene and a better understanding of the phenoloxidases and dioxygenase mechanism involved in degradation of phenanthrene were explored in this research. The mechanism of degradation was determined through identification of the several metabolites; 9,10-phenanthrenequinone, 2,2'-diphenic acid, salicylic acid, and catechol. 9,10-Oxidation and ring cleavage to give 9,10-phenanthrenequinone is the major fate of phenanthrene in ligninolytic Polyporus sp. S133. The identification of 2,2'-diphenic acid in culture extracts indicates that phenanthrene was initially attacked through dioxigenation at C9 and C10 to give cis-9,10-dihydrodiol. Dehydrogenation of phenanthrene-cis-9,10-dihydrodiol to produce the corresponding diol, followed by ortho-cleavage of the oxygenated ring, produced 2,2'-diphenic acid. Several enzymes (manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, laccase, 1,2-dioxygenase, and 2,3-dioxygenase) produced by Polyporus sp. S133 was detected during the incubation. The highest level of activity was shown at 92 h of culture. PMID:21464602

  20. Penile shaft involvement in pityriasis versicolor.

    PubMed

    Khaddar, Rym Kort; Cherif, Faika; Ben Hadid, Rym; Mokni, Mourad; Ben Osman, Amel

    2008-06-01

    The Malassezia yeasts are among the normal human cutaneous flora in adults. They are also reported as part of the microflora of male genital region, mostly in uncircumcised males. The prevalence of Malassezia yeast colonization on the glans penis of circumcised males is discussed in multiple studies. We report the case of a male patient with extensive pityriasis versicolor that does not involve the preputial space. PMID:18709297

  1. Atrophying Pityriasis Versicolor: Is This a New Variant of Pityriasis Versicolor?

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yun-Seok; Shin, Min-Kyung

    2010-01-01

    An atypical clinical form of pityriasis versicolor has been infrequently reported, in which cutaneous atrophy is associated with individual pityriasis versicolor lesions. The pathogenesis of this atrophy remains unclear, but is believed to be a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to antigens derived from the Malassezia species. A 60-year-old man presented with multiple, slightly scaly, and depressed maculopatches or plaques on the trunk and extremities. Our microscopic examination of the skin scrapings on a KOH preparation revealed numerous short hyphae and spores. The patient was treated daily with 200 mg of itraconazole in combination with topical antifungals, achieving clinical improvement and mycological recovery, which was confirmed upon follow-up 1 month later. This is the first case report of atrophying pityriasis versicolor in Korea. It needs to be differentiated from other atrophying disorders of the skin. PMID:21165220

  2. Aflatoxin Control in Maize by Trametes versicolor

    PubMed Central

    Scarpari, Marzia; Bello, Cristiano; Pietricola, Chiara; Zaccaria, Marco; Bertocchi, Luigi; Angelucci, Alessandra; Ricciardi, Maria Rosaria; Scala, Valeria; Parroni, Alessia; Fabbri, Anna A.; Reverberi, Massimo; Zjalic, Slaven; Fanelli, Corrado

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus is a well-known ubiquitous fungus able to contaminate both in pre- and postharvest period different feed and food commodities. During their growth, these fungi can synthesise aflatoxins, secondary metabolites highly hazardous for animal and human health. The requirement of products with low impact on the environment and on human health, able to control aflatoxin production, has increased. In this work the effect of the basidiomycete Trametes versicolor on the aflatoxin production by A. flavus both in vitro and in maize, was investigated. The goal was to propose an environmental loyal tool for a significant control of aflatoxin production, in order to obtain feedstuffs and feed with a high standard of quality and safety to enhance the wellbeing of dairy cows. The presence of T. versicolor, grown on sugar beet pulp, inhibited the production of aflatoxin B1 in maize by A. flavus. Furthermore, treatment of contaminated maize with culture filtrates of T. versicolor containing ligninolytic enzymes, showed a significant reduction of the content of aflatoxin B1. PMID:25525683

  3. Aflatoxin control in maize by Trametes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Scarpari, Marzia; Bello, Cristiano; Pietricola, Chiara; Zaccaria, Marco; Bertocchi, Luigi; Angelucci, Alessandra; Ricciardi, Maria Rosaria; Scala, Valeria; Parroni, Alessia; Fabbri, Anna A; Reverberi, Massimo; Zjalic, Slaven; Fanelli, Corrado

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus is a well-known ubiquitous fungus able to contaminate both in pre- and postharvest period different feed and food commodities. During their growth, these fungi can synthesise aflatoxins, secondary metabolites highly hazardous for animal and human health. The requirement of products with low impact on the environment and on human health, able to control aflatoxin production, has increased. In this work the effect of the basidiomycete Trametes versicolor on the aflatoxin production by A. flavus both in vitro and in maize, was investigated. The goal was to propose an environmental loyal tool for a significant control of aflatoxin production, in order to obtain feedstuffs and feed with a high standard of quality and safety to enhance the wellbeing of dairy cows. The presence of T. versicolor, grown on sugar beet pulp, inhibited the production of aflatoxin B1 in maize by A. flavus. Furthermore, treatment of contaminated maize with culture filtrates of T. versicolor containing ligninolytic enzymes, showed a significant reduction of the content of aflatoxin B1. PMID:25525683

  4. Pityriasis versicolor on the groin mimicking erythrasma.

    PubMed

    Aste, N; Pau, M; Aste, N

    2004-06-01

    Pityriasis versicolor (PV) is a widespread dermatomycosis caused by yeasts. Erythrasma is a superficial bacterial skin disease affecting the major folds of the body, particularly the groin. We report the case of a 45-year-old man, affected by PV, exclusively localized in the inguinal folds and in the inner surface of the thighs, characterized by lesions clinically reproducing erythrasma. The authors underline the possibility that PV mimics erythrasma and vice versa, especially in those countries in which both diseases are quite common, and stress the importance of performing a simple mycological examination to avoid gross diagnostic and therapeutic errors. PMID:15189194

  5. Ligninolytic fungus Polyporus sp. S133 mediated metabolic degradation of fluorene.

    PubMed

    Lazim, Zainab Mat; Hadibarata, Tony

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of nonionic surfactants on the efficacy of fluorine degradation by Polyporus sp. S133 in a liquid culture. Fluorene was observed to be degraded in its entirety by Polyporus sp. S133 subsequent to a 23-day incubation period. The fastest cell growth rate was observed in the initial 7 days in the culture that was supplemented with Tween 80. The degradation process was primarily modulated by the activity of two ligninolytic enzymes, laccase and MnP. The highest laccase activity was stimulated by the addition of Tween 80 (2443U/L) followed by mixed surfactant (1766U/L) and Brij 35 (1655U/L). UV-vis spectroscopy, TLC analysis and mass spectrum analysis of samples subsequent to the degradation process in the culture medium confirmed the biotransformation of fluorene. Two metabolites, 9-fluorenol (λmax 270, tR 8.0min and m/z 254) and protocatechuic acid (λmax 260, tR 11.3min and m/z 370), were identified in the treated medium. PMID:27287336

  6. Structure and bioactivity of a polysaccharide containing uronic acid from Polyporus umbellatus sclerotia.

    PubMed

    He, Pengfei; Zhang, Anqiang; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J; Sun, Peilong

    2016-11-01

    Polyporus umbellatus is a medicinal fungus, has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for thousands years for treatment of edema, scanty urine, vaginal discharge, jaundice and diarrhea. The structure of a soluble polysaccharide (named PUP80S1), purified from the sclerotia of Polyporus umbellatus was elucidated by gas chromatography (GC), GC-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. PUP80S1 is a branched polysaccharide containing approximately 8.5% uronic acid and having an average molecular weight of 8.8kDa. Atomic force microscopy of PUP80S1 reveals a globular chain conformation in water. Antioxidant tests, Oxygen radical absorption capacity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assays indicate that PUP80S1 possesses significant antioxidant activity. But the related polysaccharide, PUP60S2, which contains more uronic acid residues and a higher level of branching, shows better antioxidant activity. These results suggest that structure features of polysaccharides play an important role in their physiological functions. PMID:27516268

  7. Morphology of the Male Reproductive System of the Social Wasp, Polistes Versicolor Versicolor, with Phylogenetic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Vinícius Albano; Moreira, Jane; Lino-Neto, José

    2010-01-01

    Variation in the morphology of the adult male reproductive system among different groups of Hymenoptera offer characteristics that help studies of behavior and the evolutionary history of this group. The objective of this study was to describe the adult male reproductive system of the wasp Polistes versicolor versicolor Olivier (Vespidae: Polistini). The reproductive systems were dissected, fixed and embedded for light microscopy. In P. v. versicolor, the reproductive system includes a pair of testes, each one with three fusiform follicles. From each follicle emerges an efferent duct that later join together, forming a deferent duct. The first half of the deferent duct is enlarged and differentiated into a region specialized for sperm storage, the seminal vesicle. At the post-vesicular region of each of the deferent ducts an accessory gland emerges. The seminal vesicle and the accessory gland are covered with a capsule forming a vesicle-gland complex, also observed in some species of North American Polistes. Sperm are released from testes in bundles, which are disorganized inside seminal vesicles. In the testicular follicles, 95 spermatozoa were observed per cyst on average. PMID:20673189

  8. Sterigmatocystin in dairy cattle feed contaminated with Aspergillus versicolor.

    PubMed Central

    Vesonder, R F; Horn, B W

    1985-01-01

    Sterigmatocystin (7.75 micrograms/g of feed) and a high-propagule-density of Aspergillus versicolor were detected in feed associated with acute clinical symptoms of bloody diarrhea and death in dairy cattle. Nine isolates of A. versicolor from the feed produced 13 to 89 micrograms of sterigmatocystin per g on cracked corn and lower amounts in liquid culture. This is the first report of sterigmatocystin in dairy cattle feed in the United States. PMID:3977312

  9. Identification of metabolites from benzo[a]pyrene oxidation by ligninolytic enzymes of Polyporus sp. S133.

    PubMed

    Hadibarata, Tony; Kristanti, Risky Ayu

    2012-11-30

    The biodegradation of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) by using Polyporus sp. S133, a white-rot fungus isolated from oil-contaminated soil was investigated. Approximately 73% of the initial concentration of BaP was degraded within 30 d of incubation. The isolation and characterization of 3 metabolites by thin layer chromatography, column chromatography, and UV-vis spectrophotometry in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, indicated that Polyporus sp. S133 transformed BaP to BaP-1,6-quinone. This quinone was further degraded in 2 ways. First, BaP-1,6-quinone was decarboxylated and oxidized to form coumarin, which was then hydroxylated to hydroxycoumarin, and finally to hydroxyphenyl acetic acid by addition of an epoxide group. Second, Polyporus sp. S133 converted BaP-1,6-quinone into a major product, 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid. During degradation, free extracellular laccase was detected with reduced activity of lignin peroxidase, manganese-dependent peroxidase and 2,3-dioxygenase, suggesting that laccase and 1,2-dioxygenase might play an important role in the transformation of PAHs compounds. PMID:22835655

  10. Solubilization of leonardite by an extracellular fraction from Coriolus versicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Pyne, J.W. Jr.; Stewart, D.L.; Fredrickson, J.; Wilson, B.W.

    1987-12-01

    Coriolus versicolor has previously been shown to degrade leonardite, an oxidized form of lignite. An extracellular fraction containing protein purified from a C. versicolor culture solubilized leonardite in vitro. Expression of the activity did not require the presence of leonardite and appeared during idiophase. During ion-exchange and gel filtration column chromatography, leonardite-biosolubilizing activity eluted with syringaldazine oxidase activity and with protein, as measured by A//sub 280/ and the biuret protein assay. Syringaldazine is a substrate of the polyphenol oxidase formed by C. versicolor. Comparison of leonardite-biosolubilizing activity with the effects of chelators and surface-active agents on leonardite showed that biosolubilization was not due to either surfactant or chelating ability. Heat treatment of the preparation at 60/sup 0/C for 30 min significantly reduced both syringaldazine oxidase and leonardite-biosolubilizing activities. Cyanide, azide, and thioglycolate, which are know inhibitors of syringaldazine oxidase activity of C. versicolor, also inhibited leonardite biosolubilization. From these data, we conclude that the purified protein fraction from C. versicolor contains a syringaldazine oxidase activity that participates in leonardite biosolubilization by enzymatic action.

  11. Solubilization of Leonardite by an Extracellular Fraction from Coriolus versicolor.

    PubMed

    Pyne, J W; Stewart, D L; Fredrickson, J; Wilson, B W

    1987-12-01

    Coriolus versicolor has previously been shown to degrade leonardite, an oxidized form of lignite. An extracellular fraction containing protein purified from a C. versicolor culture solubilized leonardite in vitro. Expression of the activity did not require the presence of leonardite and appeared during idiophase. During ion-exchange and gel filtration column chromatography, leonardite-biosolubilizing activity eluted with syringaldazine oxidase activity and with protein, as measured by A(280) and the biuret protein assay. Syringaldazine is a substrate of the polyphenol oxidase formed by C. versicolor. Comparison of leonardite-biosolubilizing activity with the effects of chelators and surface-active agents on leonardite showed that biosolubilization was not due to either surfactant or chelating ability. Heat treatment of the preparation at 60 degrees C for 30 min significantly reduced both syringaldazine oxidase and leonardite-biosolubilizing activities. Cyanide, azide, and thioglycolate, which are known inhibitors of syringaldazine oxidase activity of C. versicolor, also inhibited leonardite biosolubilization. From these data, we conclude that the purified protein fraction from C. versicolor contains a syringaldazine oxidase activity that participates in leonardite biosolubilization by enzymatic action. PMID:16347501

  12. Solubilization of Leonardite by an Extracellular Fraction from Coriolus versicolor

    PubMed Central

    Pyne, John W.; Stewart, Dorothy L.; Fredrickson, James; Wilson, Bary W.

    1987-01-01

    Coriolus versicolor has previously been shown to degrade leonardite, an oxidized form of lignite. An extracellular fraction containing protein purified from a C. versicolor culture solubilized leonardite in vitro. Expression of the activity did not require the presence of leonardite and appeared during idiophase. During ion-exchange and gel filtration column chromatography, leonardite-biosolubilizing activity eluted with syringaldazine oxidase activity and with protein, as measured by A280 and the biuret protein assay. Syringaldazine is a substrate of the polyphenol oxidase formed by C. versicolor. Comparison of leonardite-biosolubilizing activity with the effects of chelators and surface-active agents on leonardite showed that biosolubilization was not due to either surfactant or chelating ability. Heat treatment of the preparation at 60°C for 30 min significantly reduced both syringaldazine oxidase and leonardite-biosolubilizing activities. Cyanide, azide, and thioglycolate, which are known inhibitors of syringaldazine oxidase activity of C. versicolor, also inhibited leonardite biosolubilization. From these data, we conclude that the purified protein fraction from C. versicolor contains a syringaldazine oxidase activity that participates in leonardite biosolubilization by enzymatic action. PMID:16347501

  13. Characterization of purified and Xerogel immobilized Novel Lignin Peroxidase produced from Trametes versicolor IBL-04 using solid state medium of Corncobs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    isolated white rot fungal strain T. versicolor IBL-04 showed tremendous potential for LiP synthesis in SSF of corncobs in high titters (592 U/mL) than other reported Trametes (Coriolus, Polyporus) species. The results obtained after dual phase characterization suggested xerogel matrix entrapment a promising tool for enzyme immobilization, hyper-activation and stabilization against high temperature and inactivating agents. The pH and temperature optima, extra thermo-stability features and kinetic characteristics of this novel LiP of T. versicolor IBL-04 make it a versatile enzyme for various industrial and biotechnological applications. PMID:22862820

  14. Genetic Diversity and Evolution of Chinese Traditional Medicinal Fungus Polyporus umbellatus (Polyporales, Basidiomycota)

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Xiaoke; Ma, Xueting; Hart, Miranda M.; Wang, Airong; Guo, Shunxing

    2013-01-01

    Background Polyporus umbellatus is an important medicinal fungus distributed throughout most area of China. Its wide distribution may have resulted in substantial intraspecific genetic diversity for the fungus, potentially creating variation in its medical value. To date, we know little about the intraspecific genetic diversity of P. umbellatus. Methodology/Principal Findings The objective of this research was to assess genetic differences of P. umbellatus from geographically diverse regions of China based on nrDNA ITS and 28S rRNA (LSU, large subunit) sequences. Significant sequence variations in the ITS and LSU sequences were detected. All sclerotial samples were clustered into four clades based on phylogenetic analysis of ITS, LSU and a combined data set of both regions. Heterogeneity of ITS and LSU sequences was detected in 5 and 7 samples respectively. All clone sequences clustered into the same clade except for one LSU clone sequences (from Henan province) which clustered into two clades (Clade I and Clade II). Significant genetic divergence in P. umbellatus was observed and the genetic diversification was greater among sclerotial samples from Shaanxi, Henan and Gansu provinces than among other provinces. Polymorphism of ITS and LSU sequences indicated that in China, P. umbellatus may spread from a center (Shaanxi, Henan and Gansu province) to other regions. Conclusions/Significance We found sclerotial samples of P. umbellatus contained levels of intraspecific genetic diversity. These findings suggested that P. umbellatus populations in Shaanxi, Henan and Gansu are important resources of genetic diversity and should be conserved accordingly. PMID:23554929

  15. Taxonomy and Phylogeny of Polyporus Group Melanopus (Polyporales, Basidiomycota) from China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jun-Liang; Zhu, Lin; Chen, Hong; Cui, Bao-Kai

    2016-01-01

    Melanopus is a morphological group of Polyporus which contains species with a black cuticle on the stipe. In this article, taxonomic and phylogenetic studies on Melanopus group were carried out on the basis of morphological characters and phylogenetic evidence of DNA sequences of multiple loci including the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions, the large subunit nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (nLSU), the small subunit nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (nSSU), the small subunit mitochondrial rRNA gene sequences (mtSSU), the translation elongation factor 1-α gene (EF1-α), the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB1), the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB2), and β-tubulin gene sequences (β-tubulin). The phylogenetic result confirmed that the previously so-called Melanopus group is not a monophyletic assemblage, and species in this group distribute into two distinct clades: the Picipes clade and the Squamosus clade. Four new species of Picipes are described, and nine new combinations are proposed. A key to species of Picipes is provided. PMID:27486931

  16. Nox gene expression and cytochemical localization of hydrogen peroxide in Polyporus umbellatus sclerotial formation.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yong-Mei; Chen, Juan; Song, Chao; Liu, Ying-Ying; Guo, Shun-Xing; Wang, Chun-Lan

    2013-01-01

    The effect of temperature shift on Polyporus umbellatus sclerotial development was investigated. Micromorphology of the sclerotia was observed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The cytochemical localization of H2O2 expressed as CeCl3 deposition at the subcellular level was observed by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Nox gene expression in sclerotia and mycelia was detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis. In addition, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) specific activities increased during sclerotial development and decreased after the antioxidant diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) was used. Results indicated that the temperature shift treatment induced P. umbellatus sclerotial formation. Compared with the mycelia, the Nox gene was respectively upregulated by 10.577-, 30.984- and 25.469-fold in the sclerotia of SI, SD and SM stages respectively. During the sclerotial formation, H2O2 accumulation was observed in the cell walls or around the organelle membranes of the mycelial cells. The antioxidant DPI decreased the generation of H2O2 in mycelial cells. The specific activity of SOD and CAT levels was decreased significantly by DPI. The activity of the two antioxidant enzymes in the mycelia increased much more during sclerotial formation (p < 0.05). Oxidative stress was closely associated with sclerotial development in P. umbellatus induced by temperature shift treatment. PMID:24264041

  17. Taxonomy and Phylogeny of Polyporus Group Melanopus (Polyporales, Basidiomycota) from China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jun-Liang; Zhu, Lin; Chen, Hong; Cui, Bao-Kai

    2016-01-01

    Melanopus is a morphological group of Polyporus which contains species with a black cuticle on the stipe. In this article, taxonomic and phylogenetic studies on Melanopus group were carried out on the basis of morphological characters and phylogenetic evidence of DNA sequences of multiple loci including the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions, the large subunit nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (nLSU), the small subunit nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (nSSU), the small subunit mitochondrial rRNA gene sequences (mtSSU), the translation elongation factor 1-α gene (EF1-α), the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB1), the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB2), and β-tubulin gene sequences (β-tubulin). The phylogenetic result confirmed that the previously so-called Melanopus group is not a monophyletic assemblage, and species in this group distribute into two distinct clades: the Picipes clade and the Squamosus clade. Four new species of Picipes are described, and nine new combinations are proposed. A key to species of Picipes is provided. PMID:27486931

  18. Transcriptomic analysis of the white rot fungus Polyporus brumalis provides insight into sesquiterpene biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su-Yeon; Kim, Myungkil; Kim, Seon-Hong; Hong, Chang-Young; Ryu, Sun-Hwa; Choi, In-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Object of this study was to identify genes and enzymes that are involved in sesquiterpene biosynthesis in the wood rotting fungus, Polyporus brumalis. Sesquiterpenes, β-eudesmane and β-eudesmol, were produced by the mycelium of P. brumalis cultured in modified medium. However, theses final products were not observed when the fungus was grown in potato dextrose medium. We used next generation sequencing (NGS) to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to terpene metabolism. This approach generated 25,000 unigenes and 127 metabolic pathways that were assigned to Kyoto Encyclopedia Genes Groups (KEGG). Further analysis of samples from modified medium indicated significant upregulation of 8 unigenes involved in the mevalonate (MVA) and methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) biosynthetic pathways. These pathways generate isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) and farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP), which are precursors for the synthesis of sesquiterpenes. Furthermore, genes encoding germacrene A synthase, which facilitate the cyclization of FPP, were only differentially expressed in mycelium from fungi grown in modified medium. Our data provide a resource for studying the molecular mechanisms underpinning sesquiterpene biosynthesis and terpene metabolism. PMID:26686622

  19. Molecular characterization of manganese peroxidases from white-rot fungus Polyporus brumalis.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Sun-Hwa; Kim, Boyeong; Kim, Myungkil; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2014-03-01

    The cDNAs of six manganese-dependent peroxidases (MnPs) were isolated from white-rot fungus Polyporus brumalis. The MnP proteins shared similar properties with each other in terms of size (approximately 360-365 amino acids) and primary structure, showing 62-96 % amino acid sequence identity. RT-PCR analysis indicated that these six genes were predominantly expressed in shallow stationary culture (SSC) in a liquid medium. Gene expression was induced by treatment with dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and wood chips. Expression of pbmnp4 was strongly induced by both treatments, whereas that of pbmnp5 was induced only by DBP, while pbmnp6 was induced by wood chips only. Then, we overexpressed pbmnp4 in P. brumalis under the control of the GPD promoter. Overexpression of pbmnp4 effectively increased MnP activity; the transformant that had the highest MnP activity also demonstrated the most effective decolorization of Remazol Brilliant Blue R dye. Identification of MnP cDNAs can contribute to the efficient production of lignin-degradation enzymes and may lead to utilization of basidiomycetous fungi for degradation of lignin and numerous recalcitrant xenobiotics. PMID:23828244

  20. Nox Gene Expression and Cytochemical Localization of Hydrogen Peroxide in Polyporus umbellatus Sclerotial Formation

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yong-Mei; Chen, Juan; Song, Chao; Liu, Ying-Ying; Guo, Shun-Xing; Wang, Chun-Lan

    2013-01-01

    The effect of temperature shift on Polyporus umbellatus sclerotial development was investigated. Micromorphology of the sclerotia was observed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The cytochemical localization of H2O2 expressed as CeCl3 deposition at the subcellular level was observed by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Nox gene expression in sclerotia and mycelia was detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis. In addition, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) specific activities increased during sclerotial development and decreased after the antioxidant diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) was used. Results indicated that the temperature shift treatment induced P. umbellatus sclerotial formation. Compared with the mycelia, the Nox gene was respectively upregulated by 10.577-, 30.984- and 25.469-fold in the sclerotia of SI, SD and SM stages respectively. During the sclerotial formation, H2O2 accumulation was observed in the cell walls or around the organelle membranes of the mycelial cells. The antioxidant DPI decreased the generation of H2O2 in mycelial cells. The specific activity of SOD and CAT levels was decreased significantly by DPI. The activity of the two antioxidant enzymes in the mycelia increased much more during sclerotial formation (p < 0.05). Oxidative stress was closely associated with sclerotial development in P. umbellatus induced by temperature shift treatment. PMID:24264041

  1. Effective induction of pblac1 laccase by copper ion in Polyporus brumalis ibrc05015.

    PubMed

    Nakade, Keiko; Nakagawa, Yuko; Yano, Akira; Konno, Naotake; Sato, Toshitsugu; Sakamoto, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    Polyporus brumalis ibrc05015 is a strain capable of high laccase (Lac) production. Among several inducers, 0.25 mM copper was most effective for Lac production. One of the Lacs induced by copper was PbLac1, and its transcription was induced within 60 min after copper addition. The promoter region of pblac1 contained six putative metal response elements and one Ace1 consensus cis-element. We cloned the P. brumalis PbAce1 transcription factor, a homologue of Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcription factor Ace1, which regulates metallothionein genes in response to excess copper. PbAce1 complemented the function of Ace1 in an S. cerevisiae Δace strain. The conserved N-terminal copper-fist DNA binding domain of PbAce1 was required for complementation. In the PbAce1 complemented Δace1 strain, the pblac1 promoter was constitutively expressed at a high level, independent of copper concentration. PbAce1 has two Cys-rich repeat motifs (PbC1 and PbC2), which are similar to the Cys-rich repeat domain in metallothionein proteins, and are uniquely conserved in the C-terminal domain of basidiomycetous Ace1 sequences. These C-terminal domains could be involved in copper sensing and concentration-dependent Lac production in basidiomycetous fungi. PMID:23332833

  2. The effect of surfactant on pollutant biosorption of Trametes versicolor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gül, Ülküye Dudu; Silah, Hülya; Akbaş, Halide; Has, Merve

    2016-04-01

    The major problem concerning industrial wastewater is treatment of dye and heavy metal containing effluents. Industrial effluents are also contained surfactants that are used as levelling, dispersing and wetting agents. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of surfactant on textile dye biosorption properties of a white rot fungus named Trametes versicolor. Reactive dyes are commonly used in textile industry because of their advantages such as brightness and excellent color fastness. A recative textile dye, called Everzol Black, was used in this study. The low-cost mollasses medium is used for fungal growth. The usage of mollases, the sugar refinery effluent as a source of energy and nutrients, gained importance because of reducing the cost and also reusing another waste. In biosorption process the effect of surfactant on dye removal properties of T. versicolor was examined as a function of pH, dye consentration and surfactant concentration. The results of this study showed that the surfactant enhanced the dye removal capacity of Trametes versicolor. The dye and surfactant molecules were interacted electrostatically and these electrostatic interactions improved dye removal properties of filamentous fungus T. versicolor. The results of this study recommended the use of surfactants as an inducer in textile wastewater treatment technologies.

  3. Trametes versicolor extract modifies human fecal microbiota composition in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhuo-Teng; Liu, Bo; Mukherjee, Purna; Newburg, David S

    2013-06-01

    Trametes versicolor is a mushroom used as a traditional Chinese medicine (Yun-zhi) for a wide array of seemingly disparate conditions. We hypothesized that many of its multiple purported activities could be mediated through stimulation of beneficial mutualist components of the microbiota. Human fecal microbiota was cultured anaerobically to determine its ability to ferment a common extract of T. versicolor, designated polysaccharide peptide (PSP), and the ability of PSP to alter the composition of the microbial community. The presence of PSP and fructooligosaccharides (FOS, a common prebiotic) in the medium, but not cellulose, significantly increased levels of Bifidobacterium spp. PSP also elevated Lactobacillus spp., while reducing Clostridium spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Enterococcus spp. Levels of Streptococcus spp., Bacteroides spp. and Escherichia did not significantly change. Fermentation of PSP increased the concentration of organic acids (lactate and short-chain fatty acids), decreased the pH, and induced β-galactosidase and β-glucosidase activities. The genera of the human microbiota that are promoted by FOS and other prebiotics are also stimulated by the Trametes versicolor extract, PSP. Thus, Trametes versicolor, a common East Asian botanical, contains putative prebiotic agents that alter human gut microbiota and pH. This prebiotic-like activity may help explain some of the plethora of the health benefits attributed to this traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:23435630

  4. Sclerotial Formation of Polyporus umbellatus by Low Temperature Treatment under Artificial Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yong-Mei; Zhang, Li-Chun; Liang, Han-Qiao; Lv, Jing; Song, Chao; Guo, Shun-Xing; Wang, Chun-Lan; Lee, Tae-Soo; Lee, Min-Woong

    2013-01-01

    Background Polyporus umbellatus sclerotia have been used as a diuretic agent in China for over two thousand years. A shortage of the natural P. umbellatus has prompted researchers to induce sclerotial formation in the laboratory. Methodology/Principal Finding P. umbellatus cultivation in a sawdust-based substrate was investigated to evaluate the effect of low temperature conditions on sclerotial formation. A phenol-sulfuric acid method was employed to determine the polysaccharide content of wild P. umbellatus sclerotia and mycelia and sclerotia grown in low-temperature treatments. In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, expressed as the fluorescence intensity of mycelia during sclerotial differentiation was determined. Analysis of ROS generation and sclerotial formation in mycelia after treatment with the antioxidants such as diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI), apocynin (Apo), or vitamin C were studied. Furthermore, macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of sclerotial differentiation were observed. Sclerotia were not induced by continuous cultivation at 25°C. The polysaccharide content of the artificial sclerotia is 78% of that of wild sclerotia. In the low-temperature treatment group, the fluorescent intensity of ROS was higher than that of the room temperature (25°C) group which did not induce sclerotial formation all through the cultivation. The antioxidants DPI and Apo reduced ROS levels and did not induce sclerotial formation. Although the concentration-dependent effects of vitamin C (5–15 mg mL−1) also reduced ROS generation and inhibited sclerotial formation, using a low concentration of vitamin C (1 mg mL−1) successfully induced sclerotial differentiation and increased ROS production. Conclusions/Significance Exposure to low temperatures induced P. umbellatus sclerotial morphogenesis during cultivation. Low temperature treatment enhanced ROS in mycelia, which may be important in triggering sclerotial differentiation in P. umbellatus

  5. Pityriasis versicolor on penile shaft in a renal transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Han-Won; Cho, Jae-We; Lee, Kyu-Suk

    2012-08-01

    Pityriasis versicolor is a superficial infection of the stratum corneum, which is caused by the Malassezia species. Tge Malassezia species consist of 12 subspecies, including M. furfur, M. pachydermatis, M. symphodialis and M. globasa. The Malassezia species are classified as a normal flora, particularly in the sebum rich areas of the skin, and they convert from saprophytic yeast to parasitic mycelial morpholgic form to cause clinical disease. But majorities of their distributions are in the upper back, the neck, the thighs, and the forearm, and not in the penis. It is well known that the renal transplant patients, who take immunosuppressive agents, have impairment in the protective cell mediated immunity. Thus, they are more susceptible to infectious diseases, such as a fungal infection. Therefore, clinical manifestations show higher incidence of disease, but they mostly occur in an expected distribution. We here report a case of pityriasis versicolor in a renal transplant recipient on penile shaft, which is an unusual area. PMID:22879720

  6. Partial purification of coriolus versicolor's extracellular polyphenol oxidase (PPO)

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, N.L.; Dashek, W.V. )

    1993-05-01

    Coriolus versicolor, a white-rot basidiomycete, secretes ligno-celluloytic enzymes. Because these are valuable to paper-pulp agricultural industries, trials are in progress to substrate induce these enzymes enhance their secretions. Reported are attempts to develop an extracellular PPO (o-diphenols to 0-diquinones) purification protocol applicable to [open quote]batch-cultured[close quote] C. versicolor. Whereas dialysis (MW [open quote]cut-off[close quote], 14,000) of 13 day growth medium (GM) resulted in 2.17 fold PPO spc. act. increase, dialysis plus a 0-30% (NH[sub 4])[sub 2]SO[sub 4] [open quote]cut[close quote] yielded a 3.27 fold enhancement. Subsequent GM chromatography on DEAE CM-Sephadexes revealed that PPO exchanged with DEAE's counterion without enhancing spc. act. Gel filtration of GM commercial PPOs on G-150 resulted in similar elutions indicating a substitute for ion exchange chromatography. Time-dependent fungal growth in liquid medium followed by viscometry utilizing CMC revealed a GM endocellulase 2 days after inoculation an activity rise to day 12. Filteration of Onozuka cellulase on G-150 yielded an elution profile similar to those of GM authentic PPO's compounding C. versicolor's PPO purification. SDS-PAGE of dialyzed GM revealed 4 proteins, one of which was removed by the (NH[sub 4])[sub 2]SO[sub 4]. The m[sub TS] of commercial Sigma's PPO Onozuka cellulase were 0.76 0.59, respectively, for comparison to C. versicolor's PPO. Affinity, hydroxylapatite hydrophobic interaction chromatographies may yield a single SDS-PAGE PPO band.

  7. [Pityriasis versicolor--modern views on etiology, pathogenesis and therapy].

    PubMed

    Karadaglić, Dj

    1992-01-01

    Pityriasis versicolor (Tinea versicolor) is a superficial chronic fungal infection caused by Pityrisporum species which are normal "inhabitants" of the cutaneous flora. The morphologic changes from yeast to mycelial hypha form are important in the development of clinical lesions. The onset and course of the disease are under the influence of genetic factors, age, sex, climate, local environmental factors, malnutrition, pregnancy, oral contraceptives, corticosteroid and immunosuppressive treatment. They favorize transformation of saphrophytic to pathogenic form, and are the cause of recurrences and chronicity of the disease. The ultrastructural and immunologic studies which are carried out today would significantly contribute to a better understanding of pathogenesis of the disease. The disease is limited to seborrheic areas of the skin and commonly has three clinical forms: papulosquamous, follicular and inverse. This can make great problems in differential diagnosis. In the treatment of these patients it should be kept in mind that Pityriasis versicolor is not a primary contagious disease and that conversion of Pityrisporum depends on the predisposing factors. Numerous medicaments with local and systemic effect which are used nowaday in the treatment and prevention of pityriasis are reported. Way of application, doses, duration of therapy, advantages and disadvantages are given in detail. PMID:1465674

  8. Sterigmatocystin production by nine newly described Aspergillus species in section Versicolores grown on two different media

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nine recently described Aspergillus species and four known species in section Versicolores were tested for their ability to produce Nine recently described Aspergillus species and four known species in section Versicolores were tested for their ability to produce sterigmatocystin (ST) on two liquid ...

  9. Enhanced lignin biodegradation by a laccase-overexpressed white-rot fungus Polyporus brumalis in the pretreatment of wood chips.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Sun-Hwa; Cho, Myung-Kil; Kim, Myungkil; Jung, Sang-Min; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2013-11-01

    The laccase gene of Polyporus brumalis was genetically transformed to overexpress its laccase. The transformants exhibited increased laccase activity and effective decolorization of the dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R than the wild type. When the transformants were pretreated with wood chips from a red pine (softwood) and a tulip tree (hardwood) for 15 and 45 days, they showed higher lignin-degradation activity as well as higher wood-chip weight loss than the wild type. When the wood chips treated with the transformant were enzymatically saccharified, the highest sugar yields were found to be 32.5 % for the red pine wood and 29.5 % for the tulip tree wood, on the basis of the dried wood weights, which were 1.6-folds higher than those for the wild type. These results suggested that overexpression of the laccase gene from P. brumalis significantly contributed to the pretreatment of lignocellulose for increasing sugar yields. PMID:23975277

  10. Nucleoside derivatives from the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus versicolor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min; Fu, Xiu-Mei; Kong, Chui-Jian; Wang, Chang-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Four nucleoside derivatives (1-4) were isolated from the fungus Aspergillus versicolor derived from the gorgonian Dichotella gemmacea collected in the South China Sea. Their structures were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic method of NMR and MS analysis. All isolated metabolites were evaluated for their cytotoxicity, antibacterial activity and lethality towards brine shrimp Artemia salina. Compounds 1/2 exhibited selective antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis with an MIC value of 12.5 μM. It should be noted that 1 and 2, whose structures were listed in SciFinder Scholar, had no associated reference. This is the first report about their isolation, structure elucidation and biological activities. PMID:24670197

  11. Identification of Malassezia yeast species isolated from patients with pityriasis versicolor.

    PubMed

    Petry, Vanessa; Tanhausen, Fernanda; Weiss, Luciana; Milan, Thais; Mezzari, Adelina; Weber, Magda Blessmann

    2011-01-01

    Pityriasis versicolor (PV) is a disease with worldwide distribution. Twelve different species of Malassezia yeast have been described. The objective of this study was to determine which species of Malassezia are more prevalent in patients with pityriasis versicolor. Samples were collected by scraping the lesions of 87 patients with a clinical suspicion of pityriasis versicolor. The samples were then submitted to fungal microscopy and culture to identify the species. The species found were: Malassezia sympodialis (30%), Malassezia furfur (25.7%), Malassezia globosa (22.7%), Malassezia restricta (12.1%), Malassezia obtusa (7.6%) and Malassezia slooffiae (1.5%). PMID:21987156

  12. Geographic host use variabiliy and host range evolutionary dynamics in the phytophagous insect Apagomerella versicolor (Cerambycidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The high diversity of phytophagous insects has been explained by the tendency of the group towards specialization; however, generalism may be advantageous in some environments. The cerambycid Apagomerella versicolor exhibits intraspecific geographical variation in host use. In northern Argentina it ...

  13. Applications of Trametes versicolor crude culture filtrates in detoxification of biomass pretreatment hydrolyzates.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Rajeev Kumar; Rajan, Kalavathy; Carrier, Danielle Julie

    2015-01-01

    Laccases have wide range of substrate specificity and find applications from pulp industry to waste water remediation. Laccases have also been used in combined pretreatment of biomass hydrolyzates to remove enzymatic and fermentation inhibitors. In this study, laccase production by Trametes versicolor strains isolated from different regions of the United States was induced using copper salts. T. versicolor crude culture filtrates (CCF), without any purification step, were tested for removal of model inhibitor compounds as well as in poplar and rice straw pretreatment hydrolyzates. Phenolic inhibitors were removed by 76% and 94% from the dilute acid hydrolyzates of rice straw and poplar, respectively, when incubated with the CCF for 12h, at room temperature. Xylo-oligosaccharide concentrations present in rice straw hydrolyzates were reduced by 64% when incubated with T. versicolor CCF. T. versicolor CCF could be a low cost technology for decreasing enzymatic and fermentation inhibitors. PMID:25876229

  14. Antiviral butyrolactones from the endophytic fungus Aspergillus versicolor.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Min; Du, Gang; Yang, Hai-Ying; Xia, Cong-Fang; Yang, Juan-Xia; Ye, Yan-qing; Gao, Xue-Mei; Li, Xiao-Nian; Hu, Qiu-Fen

    2015-02-01

    Versicolactones A-D (1-4), four new butyrolactones, along with four known butyrolactones (5-8) were isolated from the fermentation products of the endophytic fungus Aspergillus versicolor. The structures of compounds 1-4, including absolute configuration, were elucidated by interpretation of the NMR and CD data. Compound 2 was further confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. In particular, compound 1 is the first naturally occurring butyrolactone possessing an unusual 2-oxopropyl group. More importantly, compounds 1 and 8 displayed significant antitobacco mosaic virus activities with inhibition rates of 46.4 % and 35.4 %, even more potent than the positive control ningnanmycin (30.8 %). Compound 1 also showed moderate cytotoxicity against A549 and MCF7 cells with IC50 values of 3.2 and 2.5 µM, respectively. PMID:25590371

  15. Effects of catalysts on liquefaction of Agaricus versicolor (L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durak, Halil

    2016-04-01

    Supercritical liquefaction process is used for producing energy from biomass. The common reaction conditions for supercritical liquefaction process are the 240-380 °C temperature range and 5-20 Mpa pressure values range. Agaricus versicolor (L.) was liquefied by acetone in an autoclave (75 mL) under high pressure with (aluminium oxide and calcium hydroxide) and without catalyst at 290 °C for producing bio-oil. The products of liquefaction (bio-oil) were analysed and characterized using various methods including elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. GC-MS identified 27 different compounds in the bio-oils obtained at 290 °C.

  16. Effect of Residual Lignin Type and Amount on Bleaching of Kraft Pulp by Trametes versicolor

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Ian D.; Paice, Michael G.

    1994-01-01

    The white rot fungus Trametes (Coriolus) versicolor can delignify and brighten unbleached hardwood kraft pulp within a few days, but softwood kraft pulps require longer treatment. To determine the contributions of higher residual lignin contents (kappa numbers) and structural differences in lignins to the recalcitrance of softwood kraft pulps to biobleaching, we tested softwood and hardwood pulps cooked to the same kappa numbers, 26 and 12. A low-lignin-content (overcooked) softwood pulp resisted delignification by T. versicolor, but a high-lignin-content (lightly cooked) hardwood pulp was delignified at the same rate as a normal softwood pulp. Thus, the longer time taken by T. versicolor to brighten softwood kraft pulp than hardwood pulp results from the higher residual lignin content of the softwood pulp; possible differences in the structures of the residual lignins are important only when the lignin becomes highly condensed. Under the conditions used in this study, when an improved fungal inoculum was used, six different softwood pulps were all substantially brightened by T. versicolor. Softwood pulps whose lignin contents were decreased by extended modified continuous cooking or oxygen delignification to kappa numbers as low as 15 were delignified by T. versicolor at the same rate as normal softwood pulp. More intensive O2 delignification, like overcooking, decreased the susceptibility of the residual lignin in the pulps to degradation by T. versicolor. PMID:16349246

  17. Development of Microsatellite Markers Derived from Expressed Sequence Tags of Polyporales for Genetic Diversity Analysis of Endangered Polyporus umbellatus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuejin; Chen, Yuanyuan; Wang, Ruihong; Zeng, Ailin; Deyholos, Michael K; Shu, Jia; Guo, Hongbo

    2015-01-01

    A large scale of EST sequences of Polyporales was screened in this investigation in order to identify EST-SSR markers for various applications. The distribution of EST sequences and SSRs in five families of Polyporales was analyzed, respectively. Mononucleotide was the most abundant type, followed by trinucleotide. Among five families, Ganodermataceae occupied the most SSR markers, followed by Coriolaceae. Functional prediction of SSR marker-containing EST sequences in Ganoderma lucidum obtained three main groups, namely, cellular component, biological process, and molecular function. Thirty EST-SSR primers were designed to evaluate the genetic diversity of 13 natural Polyporus umbellatus accessions. Twenty one EST-SSRs were polymorphic with average PIC value of 0.33 and transferability rate of 71%. These 13 P. umbellatus accessions showed relatively high genetic diversity. The expected heterozygosity, Nei's gene diversity, and Shannon information index were 0.41, 0.39, and 0.57, respectively. Both UPGMA dendrogram and principal coordinate analysis (PCA) showed the same cluster result that divided the 13 accessions into three or four groups. PMID:26146636

  18. Recombinant Tyrosinase from Polyporus arcularius: Overproduction in Escherichia coli, Characterization, and Use in a Study of Aurones as Tyrosinase Effectors.

    PubMed

    Marková, Eva; Kotik, Michael; Křenková, Alena; Man, Petr; Haudecoeur, Romain; Boumendjel, Ahcène; Hardré, Renaud; Mekmouche, Yasmina; Courvoisier-Dezord, Elise; Réglier, Marius; Martínková, Ludmila

    2016-04-13

    Tyrosinases act in the development of organoleptic properties of tea, raisins, etc., but also cause unwanted browning of fruits, vegetables, and mushrooms. The tyrosinase from Agaricus bisporus has been used as a model to study tyrosinase inhibitors, which are also indispensable in the treatment of skin pigmentation disorders. However, this model has disadvantages such as side enzyme activities and the presence of multiple isoenzymes. Therefore, we aimed to introduce a new tyrosinase model. The pro-tyrosinase from Polyporus arcularius was overproduced in Escherichia coli. Trypsin digestion led to a cleavage after R388 and hence enzyme activation. The tyrosinase was a homodimer and transformed L-DOPA and tert-butylcatechol preferentially. Various aurons were examined as effectors of this enzyme. 2'- and 3'-hydroxyaurones acted as its activators and 2',4'-dihydroxyaurone as an inhibitor, whereas 4'-hydroxyaurones were its substrates. The enzyme is a promising model for tyrosinase effector studies, being a single isoenzyme and void of side enzyme activities. PMID:26961852

  19. Biotransformation of (-)-α-pinene and geraniol to α-terpineol and p-menthane-3,8-diol by the white rot fungus, Polyporus brumalis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su-Yeon; Kim, Seon-Hong; Hong, Chang-Young; Park, Se-Yeong; Choi, In-Gyu

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the monoterpenes, α-pinene and geraniol, were biotransformed to synthesize monoterpene alcohol compounds. Polyporus brumalis which is classified as a white rot fungus was used as a biocatalyst. Consequently α-terpineol was synthesized from α-pinene by P. brumalis mycelium, after three days. Moreover, another substrate, the acyclic monoterpenoids geraniol was transformed into the cyclic compound, p-menthane-3, 8-diol (PMD). The main metabolites, i.e., α-terpineol and PMD, are known to be bioactive monoterpene alcohol compounds. This study highlights the potential of fungal biocatalysts for monoterpene transformation. PMID:26115995

  20. Molecular Identification and Prevalence of Malassezia Species in Pityriasis Versicolor Patients From Kashan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Talaee, Rezvan; Katiraee, Farzad; Ghaderi, Maryam; Erami, Mahzad; Kazemi Alavi, Azam; Nazeri, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Malassezia species are lipophilic yeasts found on the skin surface of humans and other warm-blooded vertebrates. It is associated with various human diseases, especially pityriasis versicolor, which is a chronic superficial skin disorder. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to identify Malassezia species isolated from patients’ samples affected by pityriasis versicolor, using molecular methods in Kashan, Iran. Patients and Methods: A total of 140 subjects, suspected of having pityriasis versicolor from Kashan, were clinically diagnosed and then confirmed by direct microscopic examination. The scraped skin specimens were inoculated in modified Dixon’s medium. DNA was extracted from the colonies and PCR amplification was carried out for the 26s rDNA region. PCR products were used to further restriction fragment length polymorphism by CfoI enzyme. Results: Direct examination was positive in 93.3% of suspected pityriasis versicolor lesions. No statistically significant difference was observed in the frequency of Malassezia species between women and men. The highest prevalence of tinea versicolor was seen in patients 21–30 years-of-age. No difference could be seen in the frequency of Malassezia species depending on the age of the patients. In total, 65% of patients with pityriasis versicolor had hyperhidrosis. The most commonly isolated Malassezia species in the pityriasis versicolor lesions were; Malassezia globosa (66%), M. furfur (26%), M. restricta (3%), M. sympodialis (3%), and M. slooffiae (2%). Malassezia species were mainly isolated from the neck and chest. Conclusions: This study showed M. globosa to be the most common Malassezia species isolated from Malassezia skin disorders in Kashan, Iran. The PCR-RFLP method was useful in the rapid identification of the Malassezia species. By using these methods, the detection and identification of individual Malassezia species from clinical samples was substantially easier. PMID:25485051

  1. Coriolus versicolor: a medicinal mushroom with promising immunotherapeutic values.

    PubMed

    Chu, Kevin K W; Ho, Susan S S; Chow, Albert H L

    2002-09-01

    Coriolus versicolor (CV) is a medicinal mushroom widely prescribed for the prophylaxis and treatment of cancer and infection in China. In recent years, it has been extensively demonstrated both preclinically and clinically that aqueous extracts obtained from CV display a wide array of biological activities, including stimulatory effects on different immune cells and inhibition of cancer growth. The growing popularity of aqueous CV extracts as an adjunct medical modality to conventional cancer therapies has generated substantial commercial interest in developing these extracts into consistent and efficacious oral proprietary products. While very limited information is available on the physical, chemical, and pharmacodynamic properties of the active principles present in these extracts, there has been sufficient scientific evidence to support the feasibility of developing at least some of these constituents into an evidence-based immunodulatory agent. In this article, the background, traditional usage, pharmacological activities, clinical effects, adverse reactions, active constituents, and regulatory aspects of CV are reviewed. Presented also in this review are the current uses and administration, potential drug interactions, and contraindication of aqueous extracts prepared from CV. PMID:12211223

  2. Induction of apoptosis in MCF‑7 human breast cancer cells by Khz (fusion of Ganoderma lucidum and Polyporus umbellatus mycelium).

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hwan; Kim, Ju Sung; Kim, Zoo Haye; Huang, Ren Bin; Chae, Young Lye; Wang, Ren Sheng

    2016-02-01

    Khz (fusion of Ganoderma lucidum and Polyporus umbellatus), isolated from the mycelia of G. lucidum and P. umbellatus, exerts anti‑proliferative effects against malignant cells; however, its activity against human breast cancer cells remains to be elucidated. In the present study, cell proliferation was assessed using a 3-(4,5‑dimethylthiazol‑2‑yl)-2,5‑diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, and poptosis was examined using annexin V‑propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry. The activation of caspases 7, 8 and 9 were detected in the Khz‑treated cells using western blotting. The results demonstrated that Khz increased the intracellular calcium concentration and induced the production of reactive oxygen species in MCF‑7 breast cancer cells, as determined using flow cytometry. The results also demonstrated that Khz inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in the MCF‑7 cells. In addition, the mechanism by which Khz induces apoptosis in cancer cells was investigated. Khz induced apoptosis preferentially in transformed cells, with a minimal effect on non‑transformed cells, suggesting its potential as an anticancer therapeutic agent. Oxidative stress is associated with apoptotic and non‑apoptotic cell death, although pro‑oxidative conditions are not a pre‑requisite for apoptosis. Assessment of the activation status of caspases 7, 8 and 9 revealed that the levels of cleaved caspases were significantly increased in the cells treated with Khz. It is widely accepted that calcium signaling is important in apoptosis, and the present study observed an increase in [Ca2+]i in response to Khz treatment. The anti‑proliferative and pro‑apoptotic effects of Khz suggest that this extract may be developed as a potential anticancer agent. PMID:26648109

  3. Immunomodulatory Activity of Polysaccharide-Protein Complex from the Mushroom Sclerotia of Polyporus rhinocerus in Murine Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chaoran; Chen, Jialun; Chen, Lei; Huang, Xuesong; Cheung, Peter C K

    2016-04-27

    A novel water-soluble polysaccharide-protein complex (PRW1) isolated from the sclerotia of an edible mushroom Polyporus rhinocerus which was purified by membrane ultrafiltration could significantly activate murine macrophages RAW264.7 in vitro. PRW1 had a molecular weight of less than 50 kDa and was found to be a highly branched heteropolysaccharide-protein complex composed of 45.7 ± 0.97% polysaccharide and 44.2 ± 0.41% protein. Based on the results of total acid hydrolysis, methylation analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the carbohydrate moiety of PRW1 was found to be a β-d-mannoglucan with its backbone containing →1)-d-Glcp-(4→, →1)-d-Glcp-(6→, and →1)-d-Manp-(2→ residues (molar ratio of 5:4:6) and having terminal d-Glcp as side chain (degree of branching of 0.62). In vitro studies showed that PRW1 significantly induced NO production and enhanced the release of a variety of cytokines including G-CSF, GM-CSF, IL-6, IL12p40/70, MCP-1, MCP-5, MIP-1-α, MIP-2, RANTES, sTNFRI, and TNF-α. Mechanistically, PRW1 treatment triggered ERK phosphorylation to activate macrophages within 15 min and significantly increased the expression level of inducible NOS after 6 h. In summary, this study indicates that PRW1 derived from the sclerotia of P. rhinocerus is a potential immunomodulatory agent for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:27054263

  4. Occurrence of Toxigenic Aspergillus versicolor Isolates and Sterigmatocystin in Carpet Dust from Damp Indoor Environments

    PubMed Central

    Engelhart, Steffen; Loock, Annette; Skutlarek, Dirk; Sagunski, Helmut; Lommel, Annette; Färber, Harald; Exner, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Over the past decade, there has been growing concern regarding the role of toxigenic fungi in damp indoor environments; however, there is still a lack of field investigations on exposure to mycotoxins. The goal of our pilot study was to quantify the proportion of toxigenic Aspergillus versicolor isolates in native carpet dust from damp dwellings with mold problems and to determine whether sterigmatocystin can be detected in this matrix. Carpet dust samples (n = 11) contained from <2.5 × 101 to 3.6 × 105 (median, 3.1 × 104) A. versicolor CFU/g of dust, and the median proportion of A. versicolor from total culturable fungi was 18%. Based on thin-layer chromatography detection of sterigmatocystin, 49 of 50 A. versicolor isolates (98%) were found to be toxigenic in vitro. By using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry, sterigmatocystin could be detected in low concentrations (2 to 4 ng/g of dust) in 2 of 11 native carpet dust samples. From this preliminary study, we conclude that most strains of A. versicolor isolated from carpet dust are able to produce sterigmatocystin in vitro and that sterigmatocystin may occasionally occur in carpet dust from damp indoor environments. Further research and systematic field investigation are needed to confirm our results and to provide an understanding of the health implications of mycotoxins in indoor environments. PMID:12147486

  5. Occurrence of the Toxin-Producing Aspergillus versicolor Tiraboschi in Residential Buildings.

    PubMed

    Piontek, Marlena; Łuszczyńska, Katarzyna; Lechów, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    In an area representative of a moderate climate zone (Lubuskie Province in Poland), mycological tests in over 270 flats demonstrated the occurrence of 82 species of moulds. Aspergillus versicolor Tiraboschi was often encountered on building partitions (frequency 4: frequently). The ability to synthesize the carcinogenic sterigmatocystin (ST) means that it poses a risk to humans and animals. Biotoxicological tests of biomasses of A. versicolor were conducted in the Microbiological and Toxicological Laboratory, using the planarians Dugesia tigrina (Girard). The obtained results of the tests covered a broad range of toxicity levels of isolated strains: from weakly toxic (100-1000 mg·L(-3)) to potently toxic (1-10 mg·L(-3)). The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) physicochemical method confirmed the ability of A. versicolor strains to synthesize sterigmatocystin. All of the samples of the air-dry biomasses of the fungi contained ST in the range between 0.03 and 534.38 mg·kg(-1). In the bio-safety level (BSL) classification A. versicolor belongs to category 1. Additionally, A. versicolor is an allergenic mould. PMID:27589778

  6. Neotype designation for Calotes versicolor Daudin, 1802 (Sauria: Agamidae) with notes on its systematics.

    PubMed

    Gowande, Gaurang; Mishra, Anurag; Mirza, Zeeshan A

    2016-01-01

    Calotes versicolor Daudin, 1802 is one of the most widespread agamid lizard species which was described without a locality. The type specimen of the species has long been considered lost; however most workers considered Pondicherry as the type locality for the species. Studies by Zug et al. 2006 confirmed that C. versicolor is a complex of multiple species which necessitates fixing type locality and specimen for the species in order to resolve the systematics of the species complex. An adult male from Pondicherry was collected and is here designated as the neotype. A re-description of the species is provided along with notes on systematics of the species. PMID:27395587

  7. Corn forage biological pretreatment by Trametes versicolor in a tray bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Planinić, Mirela; Zelić, Bruno; Čubel, Ivan; Bucić-Kojić, Ana; Tišma, Marina

    2016-08-01

    Trametes versicolor is a white-rot fungus known to be efficient in lignin removal due to its complex extracellular lignocellulolytic enzymatic system. Therefore, it can be used in the treatment of lignocellulose waste from agro, food, and wood industries. In a first experiment, corn forage treatment with T. versicolor was investigated in laboratory jars. In a second experiment, the process was scaled up to a tray bioreactor. In the tray bioreactor, the process of lignin degradation was improved, resulting in an increase in lignin conversion of up to 71% during seven days' treatment. PMID:27401159

  8. [Pityriasis versicolor : new aspects of an old disease].

    PubMed

    Mayser, P A; Preuss, J

    2012-11-01

    Pityriasis versicolor (PV) is one of the most common infectious skin diseases, as well as the most common dermatosis associated with pigmentation alterations of the skin. PV is prevalent in 1% of the population living in temperate climate zones and more common during the summer. In tropical areas, PV is found in up to 50% of all patients consulting a dermatologist. Of the known Malassezia species, M. globosa is currently felt to play a key role in the pathogenesis of PV, as it is most commonly found in PV lesions. In addition, its round-shaped cells may contribute to the characteristic histology of the disease ("spaghetti and meatballs"). However, the clinical appearance of PV including hyper- and hypopigmentation, fluorescence of the lesions, as well as a lack of inflammation despite high fungal load cannot fully be explained by the presence of M. globosa, which is also found on healthy skin. In M. furfur a tryptophan-dependent metabolic pathway generates a number of indole pigments, which may be associated with the clinical appearance of PV. In the model organism Ustilago maydis it was shown that the formation of the indole compounds occurs spontaneously after initial conversion of tryptophan into indole pyruvate controlled by the key enzyme aminotransferase Tam 1. We review the present knowledge of PV and highlight the potential role of Tam1 in explaining the poorly understood aspects of the disease. Promising therapeutic results using the application of Tam1 inhibitors to treat PV support the enzyme's important role in the disease pathogenesis. PMID:23114508

  9. Aspergillus section Versicolores: nine new species and multilocus DNA sequence based phylogeny

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ß-tubulin, calmodulin, internal transcribed spacer and partial lsu-rDNA, RNA polymerase, DNA replication licensing factor Mcm7, and pre-rRNA processing protein Tsr1 were amplified and sequenced from 62 A. versicolor clade isolates and analyzed phylogenetically using the concordance model to establis...

  10. Spontaneous and experimental intoxication of cattle by Simarouba versicolor A. St.-Hill (Simaroubaceae).

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Nilton M; Bacha, Flavia B; Santos, Ariany C; Carvalho, Amanda Q; Faccin, Tatiane C; Pott, Arnildo; Lemos, Ricardo A A

    2013-03-15

    This study describes an outbreak of Simarouba versicolor intoxication in cattle from Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, and reproduces it experimentally. Clinical signs of the affected animals were weakness, tremors, hind limbs incoordination, reluctance to move, sternal and lateral recumbency and death. The main necropsy findings, observed in the abomasum and in segments of the small and large intestines, were diffuse redness and mucosal and serosal swelling. Histological examination revealed necrosis of lymphoid tissues and necrotizing enterocolitis. One experiment was carried out using 3 male calves to test the toxicity of a single dose of S. versicolor leaves at 15 g/kg, 5 g/kg and 2.5 g/kg. Clinical signs, necropsy findings and histological examination of calves receiving 15 g/kg and 5 g/kg leaves were similar to those of cattle from the intoxication outbreak. The calf fed 2.5 g/kg leaves developed clinical symptoms of poisoning and recovered naturally. In a second experiment, two male calves received daily administration of S. versicolor leaves at 1.5 g/kg and 2.5 g/kg for 10 days. They developed clinical signs of intoxication within 24 h and recovered eight to nine days after the leaves were administered. These findings suggest that S. versicolor was responsible for the outbreak studied, although this plant does not have cumulative intoxication effects on cattle. PMID:23319076

  11. Potential of extracellular enzymes from Trametes versicolor F21a in Microcystis spp. degradation.

    PubMed

    Du, Jingjing; Pu, Gaozhong; Shao, Chen; Cheng, Shujun; Cai, Ji; Zhou, Liang; Jia, Yong; Tian, Xingjun

    2015-03-01

    Studies have shown that microorganisms may be used to eliminate cyanobacteria in aquatic environments. The present study showed that the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor F21a could degrade Microcystis aeruginosa. After T. versicolor F21a and Microcystis spp. were co-incubated for 60h, >96% of Microcystis spp. cells were degraded by T. versicolor F21a. The activities of extracellular enzymes showed that cellulase, β-glucosidase, protease, and laccase were vital to Microcystis spp. degradation in the early stage (0h to 24h), while β-glucosidase, protease, laccase, and manganese peroxidase in the late stage (24h to 60h). The positive and significant correlation of the degradation rate with these enzyme activities indicated that these enzymes were involved in the degradation rate of Microcystis spp. cells at different phases. It suggested that the extracellular enzymes released by T. versicolor F21a might be vital to Microcystis spp. degradation. The results of this study may be used to develop alternative microbial control agents for cyanobacterial control. PMID:25579906

  12. Foundation Pattern, Productivity and Colony Success of the Paper Wasp, Polistes versicolor

    PubMed Central

    Alves de Oliveira, Simone; Monteiro de Castro, Mariana; Prezoto, Fábio

    2010-01-01

    Polistes versicolor (Olivier) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) colonies are easily found in anthropic environments; however there is little information available on biological, ecological and behavioral interactions of this species under these environmental conditions. The objective of this work was to characterize the foundation pattern, the productivity, and the success of colonies of P. versicolor in anthropic environments. From August 2003 to December 2004, several colonies were studied in the municipal district of Juiz de Fora, Southeastern Brazil. It was possible to determine that before the beginning of nest construction the foundress accomplishes recognition flights in the selected area, and later begins the construction of the peduncle and the first cell. As soon as new cells are built, the hexagonal outlines appear and the peduncle is reinforced. Foundation of nests on gypsum plaster was significantly larger (p < 0.0001; χ2 test) in relation to the other types of substrate, revealing the synantropism of the species. On average, the P. versicolor nest presents 244.2 ± 89.5 (100–493) cells and a medium production of 171.67 ± 109.94 (37–660) adults. Cells that produced six individuals were verified. Usually, new colonies were founded by an association of females, responsible for the success of 51.5%. Although these results enlarge knowledge on the foundation pattern of P. versicolor in anthropic environments, other aspects of the foundation process require further investigation. PMID:20879919

  13. SIXTEEN YEARS OF PITYRIASIS VERSICOLOR IN METROPOLITAN AREA OF PORTO ALEGRE, SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    HEIDRICH, Daiane; DABOIT, Tatiane Caroline; STOPIGLIA, Cheila Denise Ottonelli; MAGAGNIN, Cibele Massotti; VETORATTO, Gerson; AMARO, Taís Guarienti; SCROFERNEKER, Maria Lúcia

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Pityriasis versicolor is the most common of the diseases caused by Malasseziayeasts. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of pityriasis versicolor and its etiological aspects in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil. A retrospective crosssectional study with data from patients of a reference hospital from 1996 to 2011 was performed. Collected data included: date, age, gender, ethnicity, anatomical region of lesion and the direct mycological examination results. Among the positive results in the direct mycological examination, 5.8% (2,239) were positive for pityriasis versicolor. The angular coefficient (B) was -0.3%/year, showing a decrease over the years. The disease was more prevalent in men (7.1% of men versus 5.1% of women that underwent the direct mycological examination); younger age (median 31 years old); "pardo" and black people (3.7% more than expected in the sample); trunk (73.44% of the affected anatomic sites). Lesions in rare sites (groin, genitals, legs, feet and hands) were also observed in this study. In conclusion, due to the decrease in the prevalence of pityriasis versicolor, long-term epidemiological studies in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil, are needed to continue the monitoring of this disease. PMID:26422149

  14. DESTRUCTION OF ASPERGILLUS VERSICOLOR, PENICILLIUM CRYSOGENUM, STACHYBOTRYS CHARTARUM, AND CLADOSPORIUM CLADOSPORIDES SPORES USING CHEMICAL OXIDATION TREATMENT PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The survival of aqueous suspensions of Penicillium chrysogenum, Stachybotrys chartarum, Aspergillus versicolor, and Cladosporium cladosporioides spores was evaluated using various combinations of hydrogen peroxide and iron (II) as catalyst. Spores were suspended in water and trea...

  15. Role of laccase and low molecular weight metabolites from Trametes versicolor in dye decolorization.

    PubMed

    Moldes, Diego; Fernández-Fernández, María; Sanromán, M Ángeles

    2012-01-01

    The studies regarding decolorization of dyes by laccase may not only inform about the possible application of this enzyme for environmental purposes, but also may provide important information about its reaction mechanism and the influence of several factors that could be involved. In this paper, decolorization of crystal violet and phenol red was carried out with different fractions of extracellular liquids from Trametes versicolor cultures, in order to describe the role of laccase in this reaction. Moreover, the possible role of the low molecular weight metabolites (LMWMs) also produced by the fungus was evaluated. The results confirm the existence of a nonenzymatic decolorization factor, since the nonprotein fraction of the extracellular liquids from cultures of T. versicolor has shown decolorization capability. Several experiments were performed in order to identify the main compounds related to this ability, which are probably low molecular weight peroxide compounds. PMID:22566767

  16. Over production of lignocellulosic enzymes of Coriolus versicolor by genetic engineering methodology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, A.L.

    1998-07-01

    The project seeks to understand the biological and chemical processes involved in the secretion of the enzyme polyphenol oxidase (PPO) by the hyphae, the basic unit of the filamentous fungus Coriolus versicolor. These studies are made to determine rational strategies for enhanced secretion of PPO, both with the use of recombinant DNA techniques and without. This effort focuses on recombinant DNA techniques to enhance enzyme production. The major thrust of this project was two-fold: to mass produce C. versicolor tyrosinase (polyphenol oxidase) by genetic engineering as well as cultural manipulations; and to utilize PPO as a biocatalyst in the processing of lignocellulose as a renewable energy resource. In this study, the assessment of genomic and cDNA recombinant clones with regards to the overproduction of PPO continued. Further, immunocytochemical techniques were employed to assess the mechanism(s) involved in the secretion of PPO by the hyphae. Also, factors influencing PPO secretion were examined.

  17. Sociogenetic structure of Polistes (Aphanilopterus) versicolor Olivier, 1791 colonies (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistini)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The observation of two distinct, well-defined oviposition areas in nests of the primitively eusocial wasp Polistes versicolor suggests the presence of multiple egg-layers and territorial behaviors. Electrophoretic analysis of enzyme loci in pupae from 35 colonies revealed an average observed heterozygosity of 0.10 and the existence of private polymorphisms, thereby indicating a low dispersion in this species. No evidence of diploid males was found. Phenotypic segregation analysis revealed the presence of more than one egg-laying female in 15 out of 35 colonies, as well as spatially preferential oviposition in 2 out of 13 nests, with distinct oviposition areas. Genetic relatedness estimates for brood were lower than expected for haplodiploid species under monogynous conditions (r = 0.75 for female broods and r = 0.5 for male) in 4 of those 13 nests, thereby inferring complex sociogenetic structuring in Polistes versicolor colonies. PMID:21637576

  18. Aroma Characterization and Safety Assessment of a Beverage Fermented by Trametes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanyan; Fraatz, Marco Alexander; Müller, Julia; Schmitz, Hans-Joachim; Birk, Florian; Schrenk, Dieter; Zorn, Holger

    2015-08-12

    A cereal-based beverage was developed by fermentation of wort with the basidiomycete Trametes versicolor. The beverage possessed a fruity, fresh, and slightly floral aroma. The volatiles of the beverage were isolated by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and additionally by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME). The aroma compounds were analyzed by a gas chromatography system equipped with a tandem mass spectrometer and an olfactory detection port (GC-MS/MS-O) followed by aroma (extract) dilution analysis. Thirty-four different odor impressions were perceived, and 27 corresponding compounds were identified. Fifteen key odorants with flavor dilution (FD) factors ranging from 8 to 128 were quantitated, and their respective odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated. Six key odorants were synthesized de novo by T. versicolor. Furthermore, quantitative changes during the fermentation process were analyzed. To prepare for the market introduction of the beverage, a comprehensive safety assessment was performed. PMID:26189508

  19. Symbiosis initiation in the bacterially luminous sea urchin cardinalfish Siphamia versicolor.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, P V; Gould, A L; Wittenrich, M L; Nakamura, M

    2012-09-01

    To determine how each new generation of the sea urchin cardinalfish Siphamia versicolor acquires the symbiotic luminous bacterium Photobacterium mandapamensis, and when in its development the S. versicolor initiates the symbiosis, procedures were established for rearing S. versicolor larvae in an aposymbiotic state. Under the conditions provided, larvae survived and developed for 28 days after their release from the mouths of males. Notochord flexion began at 8 days post release (dpr). By 28 dpr, squamation was evident and the caudal complex was complete. The light organ remained free of bacteria but increased in size and complexity during development of the larvae. Thus, aposymbiotic larvae of the fish can survive and develop for extended periods, major components of the luminescence system develop in the absence of the bacteria and the bacteria are not acquired directly from a parent, via the egg or during mouth brooding. Presentation of the symbiotic bacteria to aposymbiotic larvae at 8-10 dpr, but not earlier, led to initiation of the symbiosis. Upon colonization of the light organ, the bacterial population increased rapidly and cells forming the light-organ chambers exhibited a differentiated appearance. Therefore, the light organ apparently first becomes receptive to colonization after 1 week post-release development, the symbiosis is initiated by bacteria acquired from the environment and bacterial colonization induces morphological changes in the nascent light organ. The abilities to culture larvae of S. versicolor for extended periods and to initiate the symbiosis in aposymbiotic larvae are key steps in establishing the experimental tractability of this highly specific vertebrate and microbe mutualism. PMID:22957874

  20. Study of the Distribution of Malassezia Species in Patients with Pityriasis Versicolor in Kolar Region, Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Archana, Banur Raju; Beena, Paravangada Madappa; Kumar, Shiva

    2015-01-01

    Context: Pityriasis versicolor is a superficial, chronically recurring fungal infection caused by Malassezia species. Recently it has been revised taxanomically into 14 species, in that only 7 species have been well studied in relation to pityriasis versicolor. Aims: To identify Malassezia species isolated from patients with pityriasis versicolor and to find out any correlation between the species with clinical presentation of lesions. Settings and Design: Prospective study comprising of 100 clinically diagnosed cases of pityriasis versicolor attending Dermatology Outpatient Department over a period of 1 year. Materials and Methods: The clinical specimens were collected under aseptic precautions and subjected to culture on Sabouraud's Dextrose Agar overlaid with olive oil and modified Dixon agar. The isolates were identified by biochemical tests. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was done using proportion, mean and chi-square test. Results: Of the 100 cases, 73% were males, 26% were females and predominant age group was 21-30 years. Out of 100 samples, 70 yielded growth. The most common isolate was M. sympodialis (50%), followed by M. furfur (32.86%), M. globosa (14.28%) and M. slooffiae (2.86%). Among 100 cases, 74% had hypopigmented and 26% had hyperpigmented lesions. M. sympodialis and M. furur were predominantly isolated from hypopigmented lesions and M. globosa and M. slooffiae were found to be more common in hyperpigmented lesions. Conclusions: M. sympodialis was the most common isolate, followed by M. furfur, M. globosa and M. slooffiae. There was no significant difference in distribution of different species in patients with hypo or hyper pigmented lesions PMID:26120178

  1. Fate of Residual Lignin during Delignification of Kraft Pulp by Trametes versicolor

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Ian D.

    1998-01-01

    The fungus Trametes versicolor can delignify and brighten kraft pulps. To better understand the mechanism of this biological bleaching and the by-products formed, I traced the transformation of pulp lignin during treatment with the fungus. Hardwood and softwood kraft pulps containing 14C-labelled residual lignin were prepared by laboratory pulping of lignin-labelled aspen and spruce wood and then incubated with T. versicolor. After initially polymerizing the lignin, the fungus depolymerized it to alkali-extractable forms and then to soluble forms. Most of the labelled carbon accumulated in the water-soluble pool. The extractable and soluble products were oligomeric; single-ring aromatic products were not detected. The mineralization of the lignin carbon to CO2 varied between experiments, up to 22% in the most vigorous cultures. The activities of the known enzymes laccase and manganese peroxidase did not account for all of the lignin degradation that took place in the T. versicolor cultures. This fungus may produce additional enzymes that could be useful in enzyme bleaching systems. PMID:9603823

  2. Transformation of halogen-, alkyl-, and alkoxy-substituted anilines by a lactase of Trametes versicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, T.; Liu, S.Y.; Bollag, J.M.

    1985-05-01

    The lactase of the fungus Trametes versicolor was able to polymerize various halogen-, alkyl-, and alkoxy-substituted anilines, showing substrate specificity similar to that of horseradish peroxidase, whereas the lactase of Rhizoctonia praticola was active only with p-methoxyaniline. The substrate specificities of the enzymes were determined by using gas chromatography to measure the decrease in substrate concentration during incubation. With p-chloroaniline as the substrate, the peroxidase and the Trametes lactase showed maximum activity near pH 4.2. The transformation of this substrate gave rise to a number of oligomers, ranging from dimers to pentamers, as determined by mass spectrometry. The product profiles obtained by high-pressure liquid chromatography were similar for the two enzymes. A chemical reaction was observed between p-chloroaniline and an enzymatically formed dimer, resulting in the formation of a trimer. All three enzymes oxidized p-methoxyaniline to 2-amino-5-p-anisidinobenzoquinone di-p-methoxyphenylimine, but only the T. versicolor lactase and the peroxidase caused the formation of a pentamer (2,5-di-p-anisidinobenzoquinone di-p-methoxyphenylimine). These results demonstrate that in addition to horseradish peroxidase, a T. versicolor lactase can also polymerize aniline derivatives.

  3. Transcriptional Responses in the Hemiparasitic Plant Triphysaria versicolor to Host Plant Signals1[w

    PubMed Central

    Matvienko, Marta; Torres, Manuel J.; Yoder, John I.

    2001-01-01

    Parasitic plants in the Scrophulariaceae use chemicals released by host plant roots to signal developmental processes critical for heterotrophy. Haustoria, parasitic plant structures that attach to and invade host roots, develop on roots of the hemiparasitic plant Triphysaria versicolor within a few hours of exposure to either maize (Zea mays) root exudate or purified haustoria-inducing factors. We prepared a normalized, subtractive cDNA library enriched for transcripts differentially abundant in T. versicolor root tips treated with the allelopathic quinone 2,6-dimethoxybenzoquinone (DMBQ). Northern analyses estimated that about 10% of the cDNAs represent transcripts strongly up-regulated in roots exposed to DMBQ. Northern and reverse northern analyses demonstrated that most DMBQ-responsive messages were similarly up-regulated in T. versicolor roots exposed to maize root exudates. From the cDNA sequences we assembled a unigene set of 137 distinct transcripts and assigned functions by homology comparisons. Many of the proteins encoded by the transcripts are predicted to function in quinone detoxification, whereas others are more likely associated with haustorium development. The identification of genes transcriptionally regulated by haustorium-inducing factors provides a framework for dissecting genetic pathways recruited by parasitic plants during the transition to heterotrophic growth. PMID:11553755

  4. Enhancing the Antioxidant Ability of Trametes versicolor Polysaccharopeptides by an Enzymatic Hydrolysis Process.

    PubMed

    Jhan, Mei-Hsin; Yeh, Ching-Hua; Tsai, Chia-Chun; Kao, Ching-Tian; Chang, Chao-Kai; Hsieh, Chang-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Polysaccharopeptides (PSPs) are among the main bioactive constituents of Trametes versicolor (T. versicolor). The purpose of this research was to investigate the antioxidant activities of enzymatic hydrolysates obtained from T. versicolor polysaccharopeptides by 80 U/mL β-1,3-glucanase (PSPs-EH80). The half-inhibitory concentration (IC50) of PSPs-EH80 in metal chelating assay, ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging test results were 0.83 mg/mL, 0.14 mg/mL and 0.52 mg/mL, respectively, which were lower than that of PSPs-EH 20 U/mL. The molecular weights of the PSPs-EH80 hydrolysates were 300, 190, 140 and 50 kDa, respectively, and the hydrolysis of polysaccharides by β-1,3-glucanase did not change the original functional group. PSPs-EH80 reduced the reactive oxygen species (ROS) content at least twice that of treatment without PSPs-EH80. In addition, an oxidative damage test showed that PSPs-EH80 can improve HaCaT cell survival. According to our results, PSP demonstrates the potential of anti-oxidative damage; besides, enzyme hydrolysis can improve the ability of the PSP. PMID:27626400

  5. Bioaugmentation of sewage sludge with Trametes versicolor in solid-phase biopiles produces degradation of pharmaceuticals and affects microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E; Jelić, Aleksandra; Pereira, M Alcina; Sousa, Diana Z; Petrović, Mira; Alves, M Madalena; Barceló, Damià; Caminal, Glòria; Vicent, Teresa

    2012-11-01

    The use of sludge (biosolids) in land application may contribute to the spread of organic micropollutants as wastewater treatments do not completely remove these compounds. Therefore, the development of alternative strategies for sludge treatment is a matter of recent concern. The elimination of pharmaceuticals at pre-existent concentrations from sewage sludge was assessed, for the first time, in nonsterile biopiles by means of fungal bioaugmentation with Trametes versicolor (BTV-systems) and compared with the effect of autochthonous microbiota (NB-systems). The competition between the autochthonous fungal/bacterial communities and T. versicolor was studied using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and the cloning/sequencing approach. An inhibitory effect exerted by T. versicolor over bacterial populations was suggested. However, after 21 days, T. versicolor was no longer the main taxon in the fungal communities. The elimination profiles revealed an enhanced removal of atorvastatin-diclofenac-hydrochlorothiazide (during the whole treatment) and ranitidine-fenofibrate (at short periods) in the BTV biopiles in respect to NB biopiles, coincident with the presence of the fungus. For ibuprofen-clarithromycin-furosemide, the elimination profiles were similar irrespective of the system, and with carbamazepine no significant degradation was obtained. The results suggest that a fungal treatment with T. versicolor could be a promising process for the remediation of some pharmaceuticals in complex matrices such as biosolids. PMID:23030544

  6. Spirulina versicolor improves insulin sensitivity and attenuates hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress in fructose-fed rats

    PubMed Central

    Hozayen, Walaa G.; Mahmoud, Ayman M.; Soliman, Hanan A.; Mostafa, Sanura R.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The current study aimed to investigate the anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemic and insulin sensitizing effects of the cyanobacterium Spirulina versicolor extract in fructose-fed rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were fed 30% fructose solution in drinking water for 4 weeks. Animals exhibited hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia were selected for further investigations. Diabetic and control rats were orally supplemented with 50 mg/kg body weight S. versicolor extract for 4 weeks. Results: At the end of 8 weeks, fructose-fed rats showed a significant increase in serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, cardiovascular risk indices and insulin resistance. Treatment of the fructose-fed rats with S. versicolor extract improved this metabolic profile. Fructose feeding produced a significant increase in serum tumor necrosis factor alpha and a decrease in adiponectin levels. In addition, fructose-fed rats exhibited a significant increase in liver, kidney and heart lipid peroxidation levels, and declined antioxidant defenses. Supplementation of the fructose-fed rats with S. versicolor extract reversed these alterations. Conclusion: S. versicolor attenuates hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress and inflammation, and is thus effective in improving insulin sensitivity in fructose-fed rats. PMID:27069726

  7. Statistical Correlation between Ligninolytic Enzymes Secretion and Remazol Brilliant Yellow-3GL Dye Degradation Potential of Trametes versicolor IBL-04.

    PubMed

    Asgher, Muhammad; Shah, Syed Agha Hassan; Iqbal, Hafiz Muhammad Nasir

    2016-04-01

    Trametes versicolor IBL-04 was used for biodegradation of Remazol Brilliant Yellow 3-GL (RBY3-GL) reactive textile dye in Kirk's basal salts medium. During the initial screening study, the maximum decolorization (93.5%) of RBY3-GL was achieved in 7 days' shaking incubation period at pH 4 and 30 °C. Different physical and nutritional factors were statistically optimized to enhance the efficiency of T. versicolor IBL-04 for maximum decolorization. Under optimal conditions T. versicolor IBL-04 completely decolorized (100%) the RBY3-GL in 2 days of incubation with negligible adsorption on fungal mycelia. Laccase was the major enzyme (938.3 U/mL) secreted by T. versicolor IBL-04 along with comparatively lower activities of MnP. In this article and for the first time, a statistical correlation has been successfully investigated between the ligninolytic enzymes from an indigenously isolated white rot fungi, T. versicolor IBL-04, and the degradation of RBY3-GL. PMID:27131057

  8. Lignin Peroxidase Activity Is Not Important in Biological Bleaching and Delignification of Unbleached Kraft Pulp by Trametes versicolor

    PubMed Central

    Archibald, Frederick S.

    1992-01-01

    The discovery in 1983 of fungal lignin peroxidases able to catalyze the oxidation of nonphenolic aromatic lignin model compounds and release some CO2 from lignin has been seen as a major advance in understanding how fungi degrade lignin. Recently, the fungus Trametes versicolor was shown to be capable of substantial decolorization and delignification of unbleached industrial kraft pulps over 2 to 5 days. The role, if any, of lignin peroxidase in this biobleaching was therefore examined. Several different assays indicated that T. versicolor can produce and secrete peroxidase proteins, but only under certain culture conditions. However, work employing a new lignin peroxidase inhibitor (metavanadate ions) and a new lignin peroxidase assay using the dye azure B indicated that secreted lignin peroxidases do not play a role in the T. versicolor pulp-bleaching system. Oxidative activity capable of degrading 2-keto-4-methiolbutyric acid (KMB) appeared unique to ligninolytic fungi and always accompanied pulp biobleaching. PMID:16348775

  9. Differential Regulation of mnp2, a New Manganese Peroxidase-Encoding Gene from the Ligninolytic Fungus Trametes versicolor PRL 572

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Tomas; Nyman, Per Olof; Cullen, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    A peroxidase-encoding gene, mnp2, and its corresponding cDNA were characterized from the white-rot basidiomycete Trametes versicolor PRL 572. We used quantitative reverse transcriptase-mediated PCR to identify mnp2 transcripts in nutrient-limited stationary cultures. Although mnp2 lacks upstream metal response elements (MREs), addition of MnSO4 to cultures increased mnp2 transcript levels 250-fold. In contrast, transcript levels of an MRE-containing gene of T. versicolor, mnp1, increased only eightfold under the same conditions. Thus, the manganese peroxidase genes in T. versicolor are differentially regulated, and upstream MREs are not necessarily involved. Our results support the hypothesis that fungal and plant peroxidases arose through an ancient duplication and folding of two structural domains, since we found the mnp1 and mnp2 polypeptides to have internal homology. PMID:11916737

  10. Degradation of pharmaceuticals from membrane biological reactor sludge with Trametes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Llorens-Blanch, Guillem; Badia-Fabregat, Marina; Lucas, Daniel; Rodriguez-Mozaz, Sara; Barceló, Damià; Pennanen, Taina; Caminal, Gloria; Blánquez, Paqui

    2015-02-01

    Emerging contaminants are a wide group of chemical products that are found at low concentrations in the environment. These contaminants can be either natural, e.g., estrogens, or synthetics, such as pesticides and pharmaceuticals, which can enter the environment through the water and sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). The growth of Trametes versicolor on membrane biological reactor (MBR) sludge in bioslurry systems at the Erlenmeyer scale was assessed and its capacity for removing pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) was evaluated. The ability of the fungus to remove hydrochlorothiazide (HZT) from liquid media cultures was initially assessed. Consequently, different bioslurry media (complete nutrient, glucose and no-nutrient addition) and conditions (sterile and non-sterile) were tested, and the removal of spiked HZT was monitored under each condition. The highest spiked HZT removal was assessed under non-sterile conditions without nutrient addition (93.2%). Finally, the removal assessment of a broad set of pharmaceuticals was performed in non-spiked bioslurry. Under non-sterile conditions, the fungus was able to completely degrade 12 out of the 28 drugs initially detected in the MBR sludge, achieving an overall degradation of 66.9%. Subsequent microbial analysis showed that the microbial diversity increased after 15 days of treatment, but there was still some T. versicolor in the bioslurry. Results showed that T. versicolor can be used to remove PPCPs in bioslurry systems under non-sterile conditions, without extra nutrients in the media, and in matrices as complex as an MBR sludge. PMID:25563204

  11. Carbon and nitrogen balance of leaf-eating sesarmid crabs ( Neoepisesarma versicolor) offered different food sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thongtham, Nalinee; Kristensen, Erik

    2005-10-01

    Carbon and nitrogen budgets for the leaf-eating crab, Neoepisesarma versicolor, were established for individuals living on pure leaf diets. Crabs were fed fresh (green), senescent (yellow) and partly degraded (brown) leaves of the mangrove tree Rhizophora apiculata. Ingestion, egestion and metabolic loss of carbon and nitrogen were determined from laboratory experiments. In addition, bacterial abundance in various compartments of the crabs' digestive tract was enumerated after dissection of live individuals. Ingestion and egestion rates (in terms of dry weight) were highest, while the assimilation efficiency was poorest for crabs fed on brown leaves. The low assimilation efficiency was more than counteracted by the high ingestion rate providing more carbon for growth than for crabs fed green and yellow leaves. In any case, the results show that all types of leaves can provide adequate carbon while nitrogen was insufficient to support both maintenance (yellow leaves) and growth (green, yellow and brown leaves). Leaf-eating crabs must therefore obtain supplementary nitrogen by other means in order to meet their nitrogen requirement. Three hypotheses were evaluated: (1) crabs supplement their diet with bacteria and benthic microalgae by ingesting own faeces and/or selective grazing at the sediment surface; (2) assimilation of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the crabs' own intestinal system; and (3) nitrogen storage following occasional feeding on animal tissues (e.g. meiofauna and carcasses). It appears that hypothesis 1 is of limited importance for N. versicolor since faeces and sediment can only supply a minor fraction of the missing nitrogen due to physical constraints on the amount of material the crabs can consume. Hypothesis 2 can be ruled out because tests showed no nitrogen fixation activity in the intestinal system of N. versicolor. It is therefore likely that leaf-eating crabs provide most of their nitrogen requirement from intracellular deposits

  12. Impact assessment of bisphenol A on lignin-modifying enzymes by basidiomycete Trametes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Takamiya, Minako; Magan, Naresh; Warner, Philip J

    2008-06-15

    The impact of different concentrations of bisphenol A (BPA) was evaluated on growth of the white-rot basidiomycete, Trametes versicolor, and on the expression of genes encoding lignin-modifying enzyme (LME) activities. Effective doses (EDs) were obtained from fungal growth rate to monitor LME activities and the expression levels of their encoding genes. The fungus showed mycelial growth at concentrations of up to 300 microg ml(-1) of BPA with an ED50 value of 185 microg ml(-1). The LME activities were stimulated by BPA concentrations up to 300 microg ml(-1). The lignin peroxidase (LIP) encoding gene may be sensitive to BPA stress. PMID:17996365

  13. β-glucans from Coriolus versicolor protect mice against S. typhimurium challenge by activation of macrophages.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shao-Hua; Yang, Wen-Tao; Huang, Ke-Yan; Jiang, Yan-Long; Yang, Gui-Lian; Wang, Chun-Feng; Li, Yu

    2016-05-01

    The effects of β-glucans from Coriolus versicolor (CVP), which are extracted from a well-known immune stimulator C. versicolor, have been demonstrated extensively in vitro and in vivo. However, until now, the phagocytic activity has not been elucidated. Hence, the objective of the present study was to identify the antibacterial activity of CVP or CVP-treated macrophages by an analysis of cell cytotoxicity, phagocytic activity, intracellular bacterial survival, macrophage activation, production of nitric oxide (NO) and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in CVP-treated macrophages using flow cytometry, RT-PCR, a gentamicin protection assay, a Nitric oxide assay and an iNOS enzymatic activity assay. The results indicate that CVP-treated macrophages can phagocytize and kill bacteria, probably due to the production of NO and iNOS. More importantly, CVP-treated macrophages are effective at protecting mice against the challenge of Salmonella typhimurium. The results of this study suggest that the antibacterial effects of CVP are probably caused by the activation of innate immune cells, especially macrophages, because the activated macrophage produces NO, which kills bacteria. These phenomena indicate the possibility of CVP as a potential alternative for antibiotics against resistant bacteria. PMID:26802244

  14. Hormonal modulation of phonotaxis and advertisement-call preferences in the gray treefrog (Hyla versicolor)

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Noah M.; Gerhardt, H. Carl

    2009-01-01

    Hormonal levels fluctuate during the breeding season in many anurans, but the identity of the hormones that modulate breeding behavior and their effects remain unclear. We tested the influence of a combined treatment of progesterone and prostaglandin on phonotaxis, the key proceptive reproductive behavior of female anurans. First, we found that female gray treefrogs (Hyla versicolor) treated with progesterone and prostaglandin exhibited phonotaxis to synthetic male advertisement signals significantly more often than animals treated with ringers vehicle or uninjected controls. Responsive females had greater levels of plasma progesterone and estradiol compared to both control groups, suggesting that these steroids may be promoting phonotaxis. Second, we found that the selectivity of hormonally-induced phonotaxis in H. versicolor was similar to that observed in freshly captured breeding animals. Females made the same choices between acoustic signals after hormone treatments in tests of frequency, call rate and pulse rate, compared to their responses without treatment immediately after collection from the breeding chorus. The preference for a longer call was, however, significantly weaker after hormone induction of phonotaxis. Hormonally primed females were also less likely to respond in any test and took longer to respond than did freshly collected females. Consequently, our study shows how progesterone-prostaglandin induced phonotaxis in female treefrogs influences both the quality and quantity of phonotaxis, relative to that exhibited by naturally breeding females. PMID:18926827

  15. Corolla morphology influences diversification rates in bifid toadflaxes (Linaria sect. Versicolores)

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Mazuecos, Mario; Blanco-Pastor, José Luis; Gómez, José M.; Vargas, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The role of flower specialization in plant speciation and evolution remains controversial. In this study the evolution of flower traits restricting access to pollinators was analysed in the bifid toadflaxes (Linaria sect. Versicolores), a monophyletic group of ∼30 species and subspecies with highly specialized corollas. Methods A time-calibrated phylogeny based on both nuclear and plastid DNA sequences was obtained using a coalescent-based method, and flower morphology was characterized by means of morphometric analyses. Directional trends in flower shape evolution and trait-dependent diversification rates were jointly analysed using recently developed methods, and morphological shifts were reconstructed along the phylogeny. Pollinator surveys were conducted for a representative sample of species. Key Results A restrictive character state (narrow corolla tube) was reconstructed in the most recent common ancestor of Linaria sect. Versicolores. After its early loss in the most species-rich clade, this character state has been convergently reacquired in multiple lineages of this clade in recent times, yet it seems to have exerted a negative influence on diversification rates. Comparative analyses and pollinator surveys suggest that the narrow- and broad-tubed flowers are evolutionary optima representing divergent strategies of pollen placement on nectar-feeding insects. Conclusions The results confirm that different forms of floral specialization can lead to dissimilar evolutionary success in terms of diversification. It is additionally suggested that opposing individual-level and species-level selection pressures may have driven the evolution of pollinator-restrictive traits in bifid toadflaxes. PMID:24142920

  16. Dectin-1 and IL-17A suppress murine asthma induced by Aspergillus versicolor but not Cladosporium cladosporioides due to differences in β-glucan surface exposure.

    PubMed

    Mintz-Cole, Rachael A; Gibson, Aaron M; Bass, Stacey A; Budelsky, Alison L; Reponen, Tiina; Hershey, Gurjit K Khurana

    2012-10-01

    There is considerable evidence supporting a role for mold exposure in the pathogenesis and expression of childhood asthma. Aspergillus versicolor and Cladosporium cladosporioides are common molds that have been implicated in asthma. In a model of mold-induced asthma, mice were repeatedly exposed to either A. versicolor or C. cladosporioides spores. The two molds induced distinct phenotypes, and this effect was observed in both BALB/c and C57BL/6 strains. C. cladosporioides induced robust airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), eosinophilia, and a predominately Th2 response, whereas A. versicolor induced a strong Th17 response and neutrophilic inflammation, but very mild AHR. Neutralization of IL-17A resulted in strong AHR and eosinophilic inflammation following A. versicolor exposure. In Dectin-1-deficient mice, A. versicolor exposure resulted in markedly attenuated IL-17A and robust AHR compared with wild-type mice. In contrast, C. cladosporioides induced AHR and eosinophilic inflammation independent of IL-17A and Dectin-1. A. versicolor, but not C. cladosporioides, spores had increased exposure of β-glucans on their surface and were able to bind Dectin-1. Thus, the host response to C. cladosporioides was IL-17A- and Dectin-1-independent, whereas Dectin-1- and IL-17A-dependent pathways were protective against the development of asthma after exposure to A. versicolor. PMID:22962686

  17. The Antibacterial Activity of Coriolus versicolor Methanol Extract and Its Effect on Ultrastructural Changes of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella Enteritidis

    PubMed Central

    Matijašević, Danka; Pantić, Milena; Rašković, Božidar; Pavlović, Vladimir; Duvnjak, Dunja; Sknepnek, Aleksandra; Nikšić, Miomir

    2016-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of methanol extract obtained from fruiting body of industrially grown basidiomycete Coriolus versicolor was examined. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values against various bacteria ranged from 0.625 to 20 mg mL-1. C. versicolor expressed bactericidal activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The growth curves of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, measured at 630 nm, and confirmed with macrodilution method showed that the obtained extract could inhibit the growth of tested bacteria. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the loss of 260-nm-absorbing material were used to examine the ultrastructural changes in bacteria induced by the extract. When S. aureus was exposed to the MIC of C. versicolor, elongated and malformed cells were observed by SEM, while S. Enteritidis treated cells appeared shorter and aggregated with ruptured cell walls. TEM revealed the formation of non-membrane-enclosed bodies and depleted inner content of S. aureus. Larger and irregular periplasmic space and deformed and scattered components of the cell envelope were observed in treated S. Enteritidis. The loss of 260-nm-absorbing material indicated that the disruptive action of the extract on cytoplasmic membrane was more pronounced in S. aureus than in S. Enteritidis treated cells. The UV and FTIR spectrophotometric analyses revealed diverse composition of C. versicolor extract and high content of total phenolics. Altogether, mushroom extracts could be used to develop nutraceuticals or drugs effective against pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:27540376

  18. The Antibacterial Activity of Coriolus versicolor Methanol Extract and Its Effect on Ultrastructural Changes of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella Enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Matijašević, Danka; Pantić, Milena; Rašković, Božidar; Pavlović, Vladimir; Duvnjak, Dunja; Sknepnek, Aleksandra; Nikšić, Miomir

    2016-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of methanol extract obtained from fruiting body of industrially grown basidiomycete Coriolus versicolor was examined. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values against various bacteria ranged from 0.625 to 20 mg mL(-1). C. versicolor expressed bactericidal activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The growth curves of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, measured at 630 nm, and confirmed with macrodilution method showed that the obtained extract could inhibit the growth of tested bacteria. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the loss of 260-nm-absorbing material were used to examine the ultrastructural changes in bacteria induced by the extract. When S. aureus was exposed to the MIC of C. versicolor, elongated and malformed cells were observed by SEM, while S. Enteritidis treated cells appeared shorter and aggregated with ruptured cell walls. TEM revealed the formation of non-membrane-enclosed bodies and depleted inner content of S. aureus. Larger and irregular periplasmic space and deformed and scattered components of the cell envelope were observed in treated S. Enteritidis. The loss of 260-nm-absorbing material indicated that the disruptive action of the extract on cytoplasmic membrane was more pronounced in S. aureus than in S. Enteritidis treated cells. The UV and FTIR spectrophotometric analyses revealed diverse composition of C. versicolor extract and high content of total phenolics. Altogether, mushroom extracts could be used to develop nutraceuticals or drugs effective against pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:27540376

  19. Starch degradation and nutrition value improvement in corn grits by solid state fermentation technique with Coriolus versicolor

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Mian; Zhang, Song

    2011-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate effect of Coriolus versicolor mycelia on degrading starch and improving nutrition value in corn grits through solid state fermentation technique. The results showed that using soybean meal as a nitrogen source, α-amylase secreted from C. versicolor expressed 407.25U/g of activity, leading to 45.15% of starch degraded. The activity grew with fermentation time until the 15th day, after that the amylase was deactivated rapidly. An orthogonal experiment designed for the study illustrated that degradation rate of starch in corn grits attained to maximum, 50.51%, when 100g of corn grits, added 16g of soybean meal, were fermented by C. versicolor for 12 days, in an initial pH 5.5. After fermenting, compared to the nonfermented control, contents of amino acids, total sugar, crude fat and crude protein were increased by 21.00%, 38.45%, 55.56%, 69.15% respectively. The significant improvement of nutrition value in corn grits is probably attributed to the intense metabolism of C. versicolor. PMID:24031762

  20. Further Evidence for a Polymorphism in Gametic Segregation in the Tetraploid Treefrog HYLA VERSICOLOR Using a Glutamate Oxaloacetic Transaminase Locus

    PubMed Central

    Danzmann, Roy G.; Bogart, James P.

    1983-01-01

    Intra- and interspecific cross combinations between the tetraploid treefrog Hyla versicolor, and between H. versicolor and the diploid treefrog Hyla chrysoscelis were performed. Progeny phenotypes resulting from these crosses were examined electrophoretically using a polymorphic glutamate oxaloacetic transminase (GOT-1) locus, to determine the mechanism of chromosome segregation in H. versicolor, and to test theoretical expectations for isozyme expression in interspecific (2n x 4n or 4n x 2n) hybrids. In some intraspecific tetraploid crosses progeny phenotypes fit a disomic mode of segregation, whereas in other crosses a tetrasomic mode of segregation was the most probable. Additional crosses produced phenotypic ratios that conformed to either a disomic or tetrasomic mode of segregation. These results suggest that a polymorphism, with respect to segregation of gametes, exists in H. versicolor, resulting from differences in chromosome pairings during meiosis I. This polymorphism in gametic segregation occurred in both sexes. Certain crosses, however, produced phenotypic ratios that did not conform to any chromosome segregation model. Progeny phenotypes observed from most interspecific crosses conformed to expected interspecific isozyme staining intensity models. Symmetrical heterozygotes, representing either a single dose for both alternate alleles or double doses for both alternate alleles, were also observed. Such phenotypes are unexpected in triploid progeny. A null allele was postulated to account for the aberrant segregation ratios and phenotypes observed in certain intra- and interspecific crosses. PMID:6852524

  1. Leaf removal by sesarmid crabs in Bangrong mangrove forest, Phuket, Thailand; with emphasis on the feeding ecology of Neoepisesarma versicolor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thongtham, Nalinee; Kristensen, Erik; Puangprasan, Som-Ying

    2008-12-01

    Field measurements on leaf removal by populations of sesarmid crabs at different locations in the Bangrong mangrove forest, Phuket, Thailand, indicated that crabs on average can remove 87% of the daily leaf litter fall by ingestion or burial. The removal rate is correlated positively with the number of crab burrows and negatively with tidal inundation time. The results from the field were supplemented with observations on the behavior of Neoepisesarma versicolor in laboratory microcosms and a mangrove mesocosm. N. versicolor feeds primarily at night and total time spent feeding was up to an order of magnitude higher in the artificial microcosms than under simulated in situ conditions in the mesocosm. Most of the time during both day and night was spent resting near the entrance or inside burrows. N. versicolor mainly feeds on mangrove leaves and scraps of food material from the sediment surface. This is supported by examinations of stomach content, which showed that 62% is composed of higher plant material and 38% of detritus and mineral particles from the sediment. The nutritive value of leaves and detritus is insufficient to maintain crab growth. Sesarmid crabs may instead obtain the needed nutrients by occasional consumption of nitrogen-rich animal tissues, such as carcasses of fish and crustaceans, as indicated by the presence of animal remains in the stomach and the willingness of crabs to consume fish meat. Laboratory experiments on leaf consumption and leaf preferences of N. versicolor indicate that they preferentially feed on brown leaves, if available, followed by green and yellow leaves. If all species of sesarmid crabs in the Bangrong mangrove forest consume leaves at the same rate as N. versicolor, they could potentially ingest 52% of the total litter fall.

  2. Biological decolourisation of pulp mill effluent using white rot fungus Trametes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, S V; Murthy, D V S; Swaminathan, T

    2012-07-01

    The conventional biological treatment methods employed in the pulp and paper industries are not effective in reducing the colour and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The white-rot fungi are reported to have the ability to biodegrade the lignin and its derivatives. This paper is focused on the biological treatment of pulp mill effluent from a bagasse-based pulp and paper industry using fungal treatment. Experiments were conducted using the white rot fungus, Trametes versicolor in shake flasks operated in batch mode with different carbon sources. The decolourisation efficiencies of 82.5% and 80.3% were obtained in the presence of 15 g/L and 5 g/L of glucose and sucrose concentrations respectively with a considerable COD reduction. The possibility of reusing the grown fungus was examined for repeated treatment studies. PMID:24749195

  3. Bioactive anthraquinones from endophytic fungus Aspergillus versicolor isolated from red sea algae.

    PubMed

    Hawas, Usama W; El-Beih, Ahmed Atef; El-Halawany, Ali M

    2012-10-01

    The marine fungus Aspergillus versicolor was isolated from the inner tissue of the Red Sea green alga Halimeda opuntia. The fungus was identified by its morphology and 18s rDNA. Cultivation of this fungal strain led to a new metabolite named isorhodoptilometrin-1-methyl ether (1) along with the known compounds emodin (2), 1-methyl emodin (3), evariquinone (4), 7-hydroxyemodin 6,8-methyl ether (5), siderin (6), arugosin C (7), and variculanol (8). The structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR spectroscopic analysis and mass spectrometry. The biological properties of ethyl acetate extract and compounds 1-3 and 6-8 were explored for antimicrobial activity, anti-cancer activity and inhibition of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) protease. PMID:23139125

  4. Studies of laccase from Trametes versicolor in aqueous solutions of several methylimidazolium ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Alberto; Rodríguez, Oscar; Tavares, Ana Paula M; Macedo, Eugenia A; Longo, María Asunción; Sanromán, María Angeles

    2011-08-01

    Stability and kinetic behavior of laccase from Trametes versicolor in the presence of several ionic liquids from the methylimidazolium family have been investigated. In general laccase stability diminished as the size of the alkylic substitute in the methylimidazolium ring increased. Higher concentrations of ionic liquids caused more destabilization than lower ones. Thus, low concentrations of [C(2)mim(+)][EtSO(4)(-)] allowed maintaining enzymatic stability. [C(4)mim(+)][Cl(-)] appeared to have a stabilizing effect on laccase, as little activity decay was observed within three weeks. Kinetic studies indicated that both [C(2)mim(+)][EtSO(4)(-)] and [C(4)mim(+)][Cl(-)] inhibited laccase activity, although 10-fold more [C(2)mim(+)][EtSO(4)(-)] than [C(4)mim(+)][Cl(-)] was required to cause the same degree of inhibition. A kinetic model was developed to represent the experimental data. PMID:21669518

  5. Synergistic effects of a combined exposure to herbicides and an insecticide in Hyla versicolor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mazanti, L.; Sparling, D.W.; Rice, C.; Bialek, K.; Stevenson, C.; Teels, B.

    2003-01-01

    Combinations of the herbicides atrazine and metolachlor and the insecticide chlorpyrifos were tested under both laboratory and field conditions to determine their individual and combined effects on amphibian populations. In the lab Hyla versicolor tadpoles experienced 100% mortality when exposed to a high combination of the pesticides (2.0 mg/L atrazine, 2.54 mg/L metolachlor, 1.0 mg/L chlorpyrifos) whereas low concentrations of the pesticides (0.2 mg/L atrazine, 0.25 mg/L metolachlor, 0.1 mg/L chlorpyrifos) or high concentrations of either herbicides or insecticide alone caused lethargy, reduced growth and delayed metamorphosis but no significant mortality. In the field high herbicide, low insecticide and low herbicide, low insecticide mixtures significantly reduced amphibian populations compared to controls but in the low herbicide, low insecticide wetlands amphibian populations were able to recover through recruitment by the end of the season.

  6. Complete mitochondrial genome of the versicoloured emerald hummingbird Amazilia versicolor, a polymorphic species.

    PubMed

    Prosdocimi, Francisco; Souto, Helena Magarinos; Ruschi, Piero Angeli; Furtado, Carolina; Jennings, W Bryan

    2016-09-01

    The genome of the versicoloured emerald hummingbird (Amazilia versicolor) was partially sequenced in one-sixth of an Illumina HiSeq lane. The mitochondrial genome was assembled using MIRA and MITObim software, yielding a circular molecule of 16,861 bp in length and deposited in GenBank under the accession number KF624601. The mitogenome contained 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer tRNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs and 1 non-coding control region. The molecule was assembled using 21,927 sequencing reads of 100 bp each, resulting in ∼130 × coverage of uniformly distributed reads along the genome. This is the forth mitochondrial genome described for this highly diverse family of birds and may benefit further phylogenetic, phylogeographic, population genetic and species delimitation studies of hummingbirds. PMID:25758043

  7. Tinea versicolor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2009:chap 267. James WD, Berger TG, Elston DM. Diseases resulting from fungi and yeasts. In: James WD, Berger TG, Elston DM, eds. Andrews' Diseases ...

  8. Tinea Versicolor

    MedlinePlus

    ... containing selenium sulfide can be used as a lotion by applying it to the affected areas overnight ... recommend one of the following treatments: Selenium sulfide lotion (or shampoo, which can be used as a ...

  9. Effects of Kraft Pulp and Lignin on Trametes versicolor Carbon Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Brian P.; Archibald, Frederick

    1993-01-01

    The white rot basidiomycete Trametes (Coriolus) versicolor can substantially increase the brightness and decrease the lignin content of washed, unbleached hardwood kraft pulp (HWKP). Monokaryotic strain 52J was used to study how HWKP and the lignin in HWKP affect the carbon metabolism and secretions of T. versicolor. Earlier work indicated that a biobleaching culture supernatant contained all components necessary for HWKP biobleaching and delignification, but the supernatant needed frequent contact with the fungus to maintain these activities. Thus, labile small fungal metabolites may be the vital biobleaching system components renewed or replaced by the fungus. Nearly all of the CO2 evolved by HWKP-containing cultures came from the added glucose, indicating that HWKP is not an important source of carbon or energy during biobleaching. Carbon dioxide appeared somewhat earlier in the absence of HWKP, but the culture partial O2 pressure was little affected by the presence of pulp. The presence of HWKP in a culture markedly increased the culture's production of a number of acidic metabolites, including 2-phenyllactate, oxalate, adipate, glyoxylate, fumarate, mandelate, and glycolate. Although the total concentration of these pulp-induced metabolites was only 4.3 mM, these compounds functioned as effective manganese-complexing agents for the manganese peroxidase-mediated oxidation of phenol red, propelling the reaction at 2.4 times the rate of 50 mM sodium malonate, the standard chelator-buffer. The presence of HWKP in a culture also markedly stimulated fungal secretion of the enzymes manganese peroxidase, cellulase, and cellobiose-quinone oxidoreductase, but not laccase (phenol oxidase) or lignin peroxidase. PMID:16348963

  10. Degradation of selected agrochemicals by the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Mir-Tutusaus, Josep Anton; Masís-Mora, Mario; Corcellas, Cayo; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià; Sarrà, Montserrat; Caminal, Glòria; Vicent, Teresa; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E

    2014-12-01

    Use of agrochemicals is a worldwide practice that exerts an important effect on the environment; therefore the search of approaches for the elimination of such pollutants should be encouraged. The degradation of the insecticides imiprothrin (IP) and cypermethrin (CP), the insecticide/nematicide carbofuran (CBF) and the antibiotic of agricultural use oxytetracycline (OTC) were assayed with the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor. Experiments with fungal pellets demonstrated extensive degradation of the four tested agrochemicals, at rates that followed the pattern IP>OTC>CP>CBF. In vitro assays with laccase-mediator systems showed that this extracellular enzyme participates in the transformation of IP but not in the cases of CBF and OTC. On the other hand, in vivo studies with inhibitors of cytochrome P450 revealed that this intracellular system plays an important role in the degradation of IP, OTC and CBF, but not for CP. The compounds 3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (DCCA) and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (PBA) were detected as transformation products of CP, as a result of the breakdown of the molecule. Meanwhile, 3-hydroxycarbofuran was detected as a transformation product of CBF; this metabolite tended to accumulate during the process, nonetheless, the toxicity of the system was effectively reduced. Simultaneous degradation of CBF and OTC showed a reduction in toxicity; similarly, when successive additions of OTC were done during the slower degradation of CBF, the fungal pellets were able to degrade both compounds. The simultaneous degradation of the four compounds successfully took place with minimal inhibition of fungal activity and resulted in the reduction of the global toxicity, thus supporting the potential use of T. versicolor for the treatment of diverse agrochemicals. PMID:25217998

  11. Species diversity and cytotoxic potency of airborne sterigmatocystin-producing Aspergilli from the section Versicolores.

    PubMed

    Despot, Daniela Jakšić; Kocsubé, Sandor; Bencsik, Ottó; Kecskeméti, Anita; Szekeres, András; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Varga, Janos; Klarić, Maja Šegvić

    2016-08-15

    This study presents the distribution and species diversity of sterigmatocystin-producing Aspergilli from the section Versicolores in the indoor air of apartment-AP, basements-BS and grain mill-GM in Croatia, as well as the cytotoxic potency of isolates. The species comprised 0.7-20% of total airborne fungi detected in the AP, 11-55% in the BS, and 0-2% in the GM. Based on CaM sequences, seven species were identified; dominant were Aspergillus jensenii and Aspergillus creber, followed by Aspergillus protuberus, Aspergillus venenatus, Aspergillus tennesseensis, Aspergillus amoenus, Aspergillus griseoaurantiacus and three undescribed species. All of the identified species produced sterigmatocystin-STC (HPLC/UV-VIS); A. griseoaurantiacus (208.29μg/mL) and A. jensenii (1.192-133.63μg/mL) produced the highest levels, the lowest were detected in A. protuberus and A. tennesseensis (0.117-2.749μg/mL). Lower species diversity was obtained in the GM due to overgrowth with more propulsive fungi. Relatively high STC levels (0.06-2.35μg/g) detected in 52% of GM dust samples confirmed the presence of STC-producers, although this STC cannot be exclusively attributed to Aspergilli (Versicolores). STC and the majority of STC-producing Aspergilli were cytotoxic to human lung A549 cells (IC50 0.9-2.3μg/mL) and THP-1 macrophage-like cells (IC50 0.3-0.6μg/mL) in relatively low concentrations suggesting that humans can be at high risk during chronic exposure. PMID:27100010

  12. Phenylquinolinones with antitumor activity from the Indian Ocean-derived fungus Aspergillus versicolor Y31-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peihai; Fan, Yaqin; Chen, Hao; Chao, Yaxi; Du, Ning; Chen, Junhui

    2016-02-01

    Two phenylquinolinones, including one new compound (1) and a previously isolated compound (2), were isolated from the ethyl acetate extracts of the fungus Aspergillus versicolor Y31-2, which was obtained from seawater samples collected from the Indian Ocean. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic analyses. 4-(3-Hydroxyphenyl)-3-methoxyquinolin-2(1H)-one (1) exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against MCF-7 (human breast carcinoma cell line) and SMMC-7721 (human liver cancer cell line) cells with IC50 values of 16.6 and 18.2 μmol/L, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first reported account of the isolation of compounds 1 and 2 as the secondary metabolites of the seawater derived fungus Aspergillus versicolor from the Indian Ocean.

  13. ``Winter'' aggregations, colony cycle, and seasonal phenotypic change in the paper wasp Polistes versicolor in subtropical Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobbi, Nivar; Noll, Fernando B.; Penna, Marcelo A. H.

    2006-10-01

    Social wasps from temperate zones have clear annual colony cycles, and the young queens hibernate during winter. In the subtropics, the only previously reported evidence for the existence of “hibernation” is the facultative winter aggregations of females during harsh climate conditions. As in temperate-zone species analyzed so far, we show in this study that in the paper wasp, Polistes versicolor, a subtropical species, body size increases as an unfavorable season approaches. Our morphological studies indicate that larger females come from winter aggregations—that is, they are new queens. Multivariate analyses indicate that size is the only variable analyzed that shows a relationship to the differences. Given the absence of a harsh climate, we suggest that the occurrence of winter aggregations in tropical P. versicolor functions to allow some females to wait for better environmental conditions to start a new nest, rather than all being obliged to start a new nest as soon as they emerge.

  14. Phenylquinolinones with antitumor activity from the Indian Ocean-derived fungus Aspergillus versicolor Y31-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peihai; Fan, Yaqin; Chen, Hao; Chao, Yaxi; Du, Ning; Chen, Junhui

    2016-09-01

    Two phenylquinolinones, including one new compound ( 1) and a previously isolated compound ( 2), were isolated from the ethyl acetate extracts of the fungus Aspergillus versicolor Y31-2, which was obtained from seawater samples collected from the Indian Ocean. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic analyses. 4-(3-Hydroxyphenyl)-3-methoxyquinolin-2(1H)-one ( 1) exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against MCF-7 (human breast carcinoma cell line) and SMMC-7721 (human liver cancer cell line) cells with IC50 values of 16.6 and 18.2 μmol/L, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first reported account of the isolation of compounds 1 and 2 as the secondary metabolites of the seawater derived fungus Aspergillus versicolor from the Indian Ocean.

  15. Biodegradation of pesticide triclosan by A. versicolor in simulated wastewater and semi-synthetic media.

    PubMed

    Ertit Taştan, Burcu; Dönmez, Gönül

    2015-02-01

    Triclosan is known as an antimicrobial agent, a powerful bacteriostat and an important pesticide. In this paper biodegradation of triclosan by Aspergillus versicolor was investigated. Effects of simulated wastewater and semi-synthetic media on fungal triclosan degradation process were detected. HPLC analysis showed that fungal triclosan biodegradation yield was 71.91% at about 7.5 mg/L concentration in semi-synthetic medium and was 37.47% in simulated wastewater. Fungus could be able to tolerate the highest triclosan concentration (15.69 mg/L). The biodegradation yield was 29.81% and qm was 2.22 mg/g at this concentration. Some of the parameters, such as pH, culture media, increasing triclosan and biomass concentrations were optimized in order to achieve the effective triclosan biodegradation process. The highest triclosan biodegradation yields of all microorganisms were achieved by A. versicolor. PMID:25752427

  16. Examining multiple sublethal contaminants on the gray treefrog (Hyla versicolor): effects of an insecticide, herbicide, and fertilizer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boone, M.D.; Bridges-Britton, C. M.

    2006-01-01

    We examined the single and interactive effects of an insecticide, an herbicide, and a fertilizer on gray treefrog (Hyla versicolor) tadpoles. Tadpoles were reared in mesocosms from hatching through metamorphosis and were exposed to the presence or absence of as many as three contaminants. Tadpoles did not appear to be more susceptible to single versus multiple contaminants, which may result from positive changes in food resources that compensate for the effects of other contaminants. ?? 2006 SETAC.

  17. Long term storage of Pleurotus ostreatus and Trametes versicolor isolates using different cryopreservation techniques and its impact on laccase activity.

    PubMed

    Eichlerová, Ivana; Homolka, Ladislav; Tomšovský, Michal; Lisá, Ludmila

    2015-12-01

    The strain Pleurotus ostreatus Florida f6, its 45 basidiospore-derived isolates (both monokaryons and dikaryons prepared in our laboratory), Trametes versicolor strain CCBAS 614 and 22 other T. versicolor isolates obtained from the sporocarps collected in distant localities were successfully preserved for 12 y using perlite and straw cryopreservation protocols. All tested isolates survived a 12-year storage in liquid nitrogen (LN) and their laccase production and Poly B411 decolorization capacity was preserved. Also mycelium extension rate and the types of colony appearance of individual isolates remained unchanged. Different cryopreservation techniques were also tested for the short time (24 h) and the long time (6 m) storage of the culture liquid with extracellular laccase produced by T. versicolor strain CCBAS 614. The results showed that 10 % glycerol was the most suitable cryopreservant. The absence of the cryopreservant did not cause high loss of laccase activity in the samples; the presence of DMSO (5 or 10 %) in LN-stored samples caused mostly a decrease of laccase activity. For the preservation of laccase activity in the liquid culture the storage in the freezer at -80 °C is more convenient than the storage in liquid nitrogen. PMID:26615755

  18. Discovery of novel xylosides in co-culture of basidiomycetes Trametes versicolor and Ganoderma applanatum by integrated metabolomics and bioinformatics.

    PubMed

    Yao, Lu; Zhu, Li-Ping; Xu, Xiao-Yan; Tan, Ling-Ling; Sadilek, Martin; Fan, Huan; Hu, Bo; Shen, Xiao-Ting; Yang, Jie; Qiao, Bin; Yang, Song

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptomic analysis of cultured fungi suggests that many genes for secondary metabolite synthesis are presumably silent under standard laboratory condition. In order to investigate the expression of silent genes in symbiotic systems, 136 fungi-fungi symbiotic systems were built up by co-culturing seventeen basidiomycetes, among which the co-culture of Trametes versicolor and Ganoderma applanatum demonstrated the strongest coloration of confrontation zones. Metabolomics study of this co-culture discovered that sixty-two features were either newly synthesized or highly produced in the co-culture compared with individual cultures. Molecular network analysis highlighted a subnetwork including two novel xylosides (compounds 2 and 3). Compound 2 was further identified as N-(4-methoxyphenyl)formamide 2-O-β-D-xyloside and was revealed to have the potential to enhance the cell viability of human immortalized bronchial epithelial cell line of Beas-2B. Moreover, bioinformatics and transcriptional analysis of T. versicolor revealed a potential candidate gene (GI: 636605689) encoding xylosyltransferases for xylosylation. Additionally, 3-phenyllactic acid and orsellinic acid were detected for the first time in G. applanatum, which may be ascribed to response against T.versicolor stress. In general, the described co-culture platform provides a powerful tool to discover novel metabolites and help gain insights into the mechanism of silent gene activation in fungal defense. PMID:27616058

  19. Adsorption of Trametes versicolor laccase to soil iron and aluminum minerals: enzyme activity, kinetics and stability studies.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yue; Jiang, Ying; Jiao, Jiaguo; Liu, Manqiang; Hu, Feng; Griffiths, Bryan S; Li, Huixin

    2014-02-01

    Laccases play an important role in the degradation of soil phenol or phenol-like substance and can be potentially used in soil remediation through immobilization. Iron and aluminum minerals can adsorb extracellular enzymes in soil environment. In the present study, we investigated the adsorptive interaction of laccase, from the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor, with soil iron and aluminum minerals and characterized the properties of the enzyme after adsorption to minerals. Results showed that both soil iron and aluminum minerals adsorbed great amount of laccase, independent of the mineral specific surface areas. Adsorbed laccases retained 26-64% of the activity of the free enzyme. Compared to the free laccase, all adsorbed laccases showed higher Km values and lower Vmax values, indicating a reduced enzyme-substrate affinity and a lower rate of substrate conversion in reactions catalyzed by the adsorbed laccase. Adsorbed laccases exhibited increased catalytic activities compared to the free laccase at low pH, implying the suitable application of iron and aluminum mineral-adsorbed T. versicolor laccase in soil bioremediation, especially in acid soils. In terms of the thermal profiles, adsorbed laccases showed decreased thermal stability and higher temperature sensitivity relative to the free laccase. Moreover, adsorption improved the resistance of laccase to proteolysis and extended the lifespan of laccase. Our results implied that adsorbed T. versicolor laccase on soil iron and aluminum minerals had promising potential in soil remediation. PMID:24225344

  20. Production and Characterization of Trametes versicolor Mutants Unable To Bleach Hardwood Kraft Pulp

    PubMed Central

    Addleman, K.; Dumonceaux, T.; Paice, M. G.; Bourbonnais, R.; Archibald, F. S.

    1995-01-01

    Protoplasts of the monokaryotic strain 52J of Trametes versicolor were treated with UV light and screened for the inability to produce a colored precipitate on guaiacol-containing agar plates. Mutants unable to oxidize guaiacol had absent or very low secretion of laccase and manganese peroxidase (MnP) proteins. All isolates unable to secrete MnP were also unable to bleach or delignify kraft pulp. One mutant strain, M49, which grew normally but did not oxidize guaiacol, was tested further with a number of other substrates whose degradation has been associated with delignification by white rot fungi. Compared with the parent, 52J, mutant M49, secreting no MnP and low laccase, could not brighten or delignify kraft pulp, produced less ethylene from 2-keto methiolbutyric acid, released much less (sup14)CO(inf2) from [(sup14)C]DHP (a synthetic lignin-like polymerizate), and produced much less methanol from pulp. This mutant also displayed decreased abilities to oxidize the dyes poly B-411, poly R-478, and phenol red compared with the wild-type strain and was also unable to decolorize kraft bleachery effluent or mineralize its organochlorine. Addition of purified MnP in conjunction with H(inf2)O(inf2), MnSO(inf4), and an Mn(III) chelator to M49 cultures partially restored methanol production, pulp delignification, and biobleaching in some cases. PMID:16535150

  1. Manganese Peroxidase, Produced by Trametes versicolor during Pulp Bleaching, Demethylates and Delignifies Kraft Pulp

    PubMed Central

    Paice, M. G.; Reid, I. D.; Bourbonnais, R.; Archibald, F. S.; Jurasek, L.

    1993-01-01

    Previous work has shown that Trametes (Coriolus) versicolor bleaches kraft pulp brownstock with the concomitant release of methanol. In this work, the fungus is shown to produce both laccase and manganese peroxidase (MnP) but not lignin peroxidase during pulp bleaching. MnP production was enhanced by the presence of pulp and/or Mn(II) ions. The maximum level of secreted MnP was coincident with the maximum rate of fungal bleaching. Culture filtrates isolated from bleaching cultures produced Mn(II)- and hydrogen peroxide-dependent pulp demethylation and delignification. Laccase and MnP were separated by ion-exchange chromatography. Purified MnP alone produced most of the demethylation and delignification exhibited by the culture filtrates. On the basis of the methanol released and the total and phenolic methoxyl contents of the pulp, it appears that MnP shows a preference for the oxidation of phenolic lignin substructures. The extensive increase in brightness observed in the fungus-treated pulp was not found with MnP alone. Therefore, either the MnP effect must be optimized or other enzymes or compounds from the fungus are also required for brightening. Images PMID:16348850

  2. Engineering and production of laccase from Trametes versicolor in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Theerachat, Monnat; Emond, Stéphane; Cambon, Emmanuelle; Bordes, Florence; Marty, Alain; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Chulalaksananukul, Warawut; Guieysse, David; Remaud-Siméon, Magali; Morel, Sandrine

    2012-12-01

    The lcc1 gene coding for the laccase from Trametes versicolor DSM11269 was cloned into the genome of Yarrowia lipolytica using either single or multiple integration sites. The levels of the recombinant laccase activity secreted in the culture media were 0.25 and 1 U ml(-1) for single and multiple integrations, respectively. The strain with a single integration was successfully used to express variant libraries which were screened on ABTS substrate. The strain encoding the double mutant L185P/Q214K (rM4A) showed a sixfold enhancement in secreted enzyme activity. The catalytic efficiency of the purified rM-4A laccase was respectively increased 2.4- and 2.8-fold towards ABTS and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, compared to the rWT. Culture supernatants containing either rWT or rM-4A catalyzed the almost complete decolorization of an Amaranth solution (70 nMs(-1)). Taken together, our results open new perspectives for the use of Y. lipolytica as a molecular evolution platform to engineer laccases with improved properties. PMID:23026343

  3. A safety assessment of Coriolus versicolor biomass as a food supplement

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Ana B.; Ferrão, Jorge; Fernandes, Tito

    2016-01-01

    Background Coriolus versicolor (CV) is a common mushroom with antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiviral, antibacterial, and immunomodulatory properties. The existence of these properties has been extensively proven mainly using CV extract; research on the biomass form is scarce. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the safety of the CV biomass form, as it is commonly used as a food supplement. Design CV biomass powder was dissolved in distilled water and administered daily (2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 g/kg live weight) in single doses by gavage to both female and male Charles River albino rats. Results No adverse or lethal effects were observed as a consequence of the daily administration of CV biomass. In addition, compared with the control group, no abnormal findings were observed at necropsy and histopathological examination. Conclusions A safe profile of CV biomass for human consumption can be inferred from the absence of any remarkable adverse effects in rats. PMID:26969586

  4. Production and structural analysis of the polysaccharide secreted by Trametes (Coriolus) versicolor ATCC 200801.

    PubMed

    Rau, Udo; Kuenz, Anja; Wray, Victor; Nimtz, Manfred; Wrenger, Julika; Cicek, Hasan

    2009-01-01

    Trametes versicolor ATCC 200801 secretes 4.1 g L(-1) of exopolysaccharide (EPS) when synthetic minimal medium and low-shear bioreactor cultivation technique are used. Structural and compositional analyses by thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy yielded predominantly glucose and small amounts of galactose, mannose, arabinose, and xylose. The main EPS is composed of beta-1,3/beta-1,6-linked D-glucose molecules which is identical with Schizophyllan but does not possess a triple helical arrangement as secondary structure. Two molar mass fractions were detected by size exclusion chromatography yielding weight-average molecular weights of 4,100 and 2.6 kDa. Protein content varies between 2-3.6% (w/w). The exopolysaccharide is different in the nature of the glycosidic linkage, composition of monosaccharides, protein content, and weight-average molecular weight compared to the well-known polysaccharopeptide (PSP) and polysaccharopeptide Krestin (PSK). PMID:18800181

  5. Seawater influence monitored by NaCl on the growth of Trametes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, Aya

    2016-01-01

    There are only a few scientific data about the function of ecosystems after tsunami disasters. The ecosystems help the environment to recover after a disaster, and therefore, the research on its function is important. We estimated the seawater influences on wood degradation after a tsunami disaster by the growth of Trametes versicolor. The debris from the Great East Japan Earthquake on the pacific coast in March 2011 was used for the simulations. Its growth on debris was compared with those on seawater-treated woods, and the amount of sodium chloride was examined to know the approximate amount of salts in the samples. Sodium chloride contents were employed as an indicative parameter of sea salts, which contained many elements. As a result, this common white-rot fungus degraded wood debris in the same way as sound sapwood. Although the study was conducted at the laboratory level, this is the first report from the real debris, which assessed the fungal decomposition ability of the ecosystem after a tsunami disaster. PMID:26538261

  6. A multivariate analysis of genetic variation in the advertisement call of the gray treefrog, Hyla versicolor.

    PubMed

    Welch, Allison M; Smith, Michael J; Gerhardt, H Carl

    2014-06-01

    Genetic variation in sexual displays is crucial for an evolutionary response to sexual selection, but can be eroded by strong selection. Identifying the magnitude and sources of additive genetic variance underlying sexually selected traits is thus an important issue in evolutionary biology. We conducted a quantitative genetics experiment with gray treefrogs (Hyla versicolor) to investigate genetic variances and covariances among features of the male advertisement call. Two energetically expensive traits showed significant genetic variation: call duration, expressed as number of pulses per call, and call rate, represented by its inverse, call period. These two properties also showed significant genetic covariance, consistent with an energetic constraint to call production. Combining the genetic variance-covariance matrix with previous estimates of directional sexual selection imposed by female preferences predicts a limited increase in call duration but no change in call rate despite significant selection on both traits. In addition to constraints imposed by the genetic covariance structure, an evolutionary response to sexual selection may also be limited by high energetic costs of long-duration calls and by preferences that act most strongly against very short-duration calls. Meanwhile, the persistence of these preferences could be explained by costs of mating with males with especially unattractive calls. PMID:24621402

  7. Lethal and sublethal effects of embryonic and larval exposure of Hyla versicolor to Stormwater pond sediments.

    PubMed

    Brand, Adrianne B; Snodgrass, Joel W; Gallagher, Matthew T; Casey, Ryan E; Van Meter, Robin

    2010-02-01

    Stormwater ponds are common features of modern stormwater management practices. Stormwater ponds often retain standing water for extended periods of time, develop vegetative characteristics similar to natural wetlands, and attract wildlife. However, because stormwater ponds are designed to capture pollutants, wildlife that utilize ponds might be exposed to pollutants and suffer toxicological effects. To investigate the toxicity of stormwater pond sediments to Hyla versicolor, an anuran commonly found using retention ponds for breeding, we exposed embryos and larvae to sediments in laboratory microcosms. Exposure to pond sediments reduced survival of embryos by approximately 50% but did not affect larval survival. Larvae exposed to stormwater pond sediment developed significantly faster (x = 39 days compared to 42 days; p = 0.005) and were significantly larger at metamorphosis (x = 0.49 g compared to 0.36 g; p < 0.001) than controls that were exposed to clean sand. Substantial amounts (712-2215 mg/l) of chloride leached from pond sediments into the water column of treatment microcosms; subsequently, survival of embryos was negatively correlated (r (2) = 0.50; p < 0.001) with water conductivity during development. Our results, along with the limited number of other toxicological studies of stormwater ponds, suggest that road salt contributes to the degradation of stormwater pond habitat quality for amphibian reproduction and that future research should focus on understanding interactions among road salts and other pollutants and stressors characteristic of urban environments. PMID:19685097

  8. Phase 1 Clinical Trial of Trametes versicolor in Women with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Torkelson, Carolyn J.; Sweet, Erin; Martzen, Mark R.; Sasagawa, Masa; Wenner, Cynthia A.; Gay, Juliette; Putiri, Amy; Standish, Leanna J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Orally administered preparations from the Trametes versicolor (Tv) mushroom have been hypothesized to improve immune response in women with breast cancer after standard chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Methods. A phase I, two-center, dose escalation study was done to determine the maximum tolerated dose of a Tv preparation when taken daily in divided doses for 6 weeks after recent completion of radiotherapy. Eleven participants were recruited and nine women completed the study. Each cohort was comprised of three participants given one of three doses of Tv (3, 6, or 9 grams). Immune data was collected pre- and postradiation, at 3 on-treatment time points and after a 3-week washout. Results. Nine adverse events were reported (7 mild, 1 moderate, and 1 severe), suggesting that Tv was well tolerated. Immunological results indicated trends in (1) increased lymphocyte counts at 6 and 9 grams/day; (2) increased natural killer cell functional activity at 6 grams/day; (3) dose-related increases in CD8+ T cells and CD19+ B cells , but not CD4+ T cells or CD16+56+ NK cells. Conclusion. These findings show that up to 9 grams/day of a Tv preparation is safe and tolerable in women with breast cancer in the postprimary treatment setting. This Tv preparation may improve immune status in immunocompromised breast cancer patients following standard primary oncologic treatment. PMID:22701186

  9. Oxidative transformation of natural and synthetic phenolic mixtures by Trametes versicolor laccase.

    PubMed

    Canfora, Loredana; Iamarino, Giuseppina; Rao, Maria Antonietta; Gianfreda, Liliana

    2008-02-27

    The efficiency of Trametes versicolor laccase in the transformation of phenols (caffeic acid, catechol, hydroxytyrosol, methylcatechol, protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, m-tyrosol, 3-hydroxybenzoic acid, 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, 2,6-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde) usually present in waste water, such as that derived from an olive oil factory, was investigated. According to their response to 24 h laccase action the 11 phenolic compounds were classified in three groups: reactive (88-100% transformation), intermediate reactive (transformation lower than 50%), and recalcitrant (not transformed at all). The enzyme was able to transform the 11 substrates even when they were present in a mixture and also toward a phenolic extract from a Moroccan olive oil mill waste water (OMW) sample. The disappearance of protocatechuic, 3-hydroxyphenylacetic, and 2,6-dihydroxybenzoic acids, and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde was enhanced whereas that of caffeic acid and m-tyrosol was depressed when the phenols were present in the mixture. A reduction of enzyme activity occurred in single and/or complex phenolic mixtures after enzymatic oxidation. No correspondence between phenol transformation and disappearance of enzymatic activity was, however, observed. The overall results suggest that laccases are effective in the transformation of simple and complex phenolic mixtures. PMID:18205305

  10. Female gray treefrogs, Hyla versicolor, are responsive to visual stimuli but unselective of stimulus characteristics.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Michael S; Galante, Holland; Höbel, Gerlinde

    2014-09-15

    The visual ecology of nocturnal anurans is poorly understood, but there is growing evidence that vision plays a role in important behaviors such as mate choice. While several recent studies have demonstrated that females are responsive to visual cues when selecting mates, the forces responsible for these preferences are unknown. We investigated the responsiveness of female gray treefrogs, Hyla versicolor, to video playbacks of calling conspecific males in which we varied attributes of the vocal sac, a conspicuous visual characteristic of calling males and a target of female choice in other species. Females responded surprisingly strongly to the video playbacks, but did so indiscriminately with respect to variation in vocal sac characteristics. We followed up on these results with a series of additional tests that examined female responses to abstract stimuli. Females continued to respond to such stimuli, leading us to conclude that their behavior was related to a generalized phototactic response. Because of this, we were unable to make conclusions regarding female preferences for vocal sac characteristics. Nonetheless, our results are significant in two respects. First, we illustrate that despite much effort into improving video playback methodologies, challenges remain, and we offer our experimental design as a method to ensure that appropriate conclusions can be drawn from such studies. Second, we argue that the female phototactic response has potentially significant behavioral implications and in general the consequences of anuran visual preferences deserve further investigation. PMID:25013111

  11. An open-label study of naftifine hydrochloride 1% gel in the treatment of tinea versicolor.

    PubMed

    Gold, Michael H; Bridges, Tancy; Avakian, Edward; Plaum, Stefan; Pappert, Eric J; Fleischer, Alan B; Hardas, Bhushan

    2011-01-01

    Tinea versicolor (TV) is a superficial cutaneous fungal infection characterized by cutaneous pigment changes, pruritus, scaling, and erythema. This open-label, single-center pilot study evaluated the efficacy and safety of naftifine 1% gel applied twice daily for 2 weeks in 10 men and women (median age 38 years) with TV. Baseline mycology status was determined by potassium hydroxide (KOH) and microscopy and clinical symptom severity (CSS) scored by the investigator using a 0 to 9 scale (0=absent, 9=worst). Patients applied naftifine HCI 1% gel to the affected area twice daily for 14 days. They returned for follow-up efficacy and safety assessments at the end of treatment (week 2), 2 weeks after treatment (week 4), and 6 weeks after treatment (week 8). All patients had a positive mycology at baseline; one was KOH negative at week 2, two were negative at week 4, and five (50%) were negative at week 8. Mean investigator total CSS score decreased from a baseline value of 4.7 to 3.2 at week 2 (32% improvement), 2.6 at week 4 (45% improvement), and 2.7 at week 8 (43% improvement). The patients rated their symptoms to be improved at all follow-up visits. There were no treatment-related adverse events during the study. These results suggest that naftifine 1% gel is a safe and efficacious topical treatment for TV. PMID:22165042

  12. Fungal biodegradation of lignopolystyrene graft copolymers. [Pleurotus ostreatus; Phanerochaete chrysosporium; Trametes versicolor; Gloeophyllum trabeum

    SciTech Connect

    Milstein, O.; Gersonde, R.; Huttermann, A. ); MengJiu Chen; Meister, J.J )

    1992-10-01

    White rot basidiomycetes were able to biodegrade styrene (1-phenylethene) graft copolymers of lignin containing different proportions of lignin and polystyrene (poly(1-phenylethylene)). The biodegradation tests were run on lignin-styrene copolymerization products which contained 10.3, 32.2, and 50.4{percent} (wt/wt) lignin. The polymer samples were incubated with the white rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and Trametes versicolor and the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum. White rot fungi degraded the plastic samples at a rate which increased with increasing lignin content in the copolymer sample. Both polystyrene and lignin components of the copolymer were readily degraded. Polystyrene pellets were not degradable in these tests. Degradation was verified for both incubated and control samples by weight loss, quantitative UV spectrophotometric analysis of both lignin and styrene residues, scanning electron microscopy of the plastic surface, and the presence of enzymes active in degradation during incubation. Brown rot fungus did not affect any of the plastics. White rot fungi produced and secreted oxidative enzymes associated with lignin degradation in liquid media during incubation with lignin-polystyrene copolymer.

  13. Treatment of a textile effluent from dyeing with cochineal extracts using Trametes versicolor fungus.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Figueroa, Gabriela; Ruiz-Aguilar, Graciela M L; López-Martínez, Leticia; González-Sánchez, Guillermo; Cuevas-Rodríguez, Germán; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Refugio

    2011-01-01

    Trametes versicolor (Tv) fungus can degrade synthetic dyes that contain azo groups, anthraquinone, triphenylmethane polymers, and heterocyclic groups. However, no references have been found related to the degradation of natural dyes, such as the carminic acid that is contained in the cochineal extract. Experiments to determine the decolorization of the effluent used in the cotton dyeing process with cochineal extract by means of Tv fungus were done. Treatments to determine decolorization in the presence or absence of Kirk's medium, glucose, and fungus, with an addition of 50% (v v-1) of nonsterilized effluent were performed. Physicochemical characterization was performed at the start and end of the treatment. Degradation kinetics were determined. A direct relationship was found between the dry weight of fungi, pH, and the decolorization system, with higher decolorization at lower pH levels (pH ~4.3). High decolorization (81% ± 0.09; 88% ± 0.17; and 99% ± 0.04) for three of the eight treatments (Kirk's medium without glucose, Kirk's medium with glucose, and without medium with glucose, respectively) was found. Toxicity tests determined an increase in the initial effluent toxicity (7.33 TU) compared with the final treatment (47.73 TU) in a period of 11 days. For this system, a degradation sequence of the carminic acid structure present in the effluent by the Tv fungus is suggested, in which it is seen that metabolites still containing aromatic structures are generated. PMID:21552764

  14. Isolation and Identification of the Coal-Solubilizing Agent Produced by Trametes versicolor

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Martin S.; Feldman, Kathleen A.; Brown, Cynthia S.; Gray, Edward T.

    1990-01-01

    Low-ranked coals were dissolved by using cell extracts derived from liquid cultures of Trametes versicolor. The coal-solubilizing agent (CSA) was separated from the broth components by a multistep isolation procedure including reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography, size exclusion chromatography, ethanol fractionation, and recrystallization. Staircase voltammetry was used to show that two CSA moieties can coordinate to aqueous copper(II) ion. A molecular weight determination (using amperometry) gave an apparent molecular weight of 1.34 × 102 g/mol ± 8%. Nuclear magnetic resonance indicated that all protons on CSA are exchangeable in D2O and that there is only one type of carbon in CSA. The infrared spectrum of recrystallized CSA is identical to that of ammonium oxalate, and X-ray studies confirmed the crystal structure and composition of CSA to be that of ammonium oxalate monohydrate. The equivalent weight of the coal in solution, when the coal was dissolved by ammonium oxalate, is 7,940 g of coal per mol of iron present in the coal. PMID:16348335

  15. Effects of onion (Allium cepa L.) and garlic (Allium sativum L.) essential oils on the Aspergillus versicolor growth and sterigmatocystin production.

    PubMed

    Kocić-Tanackov, Sunčica; Dimić, Gordana; Lević, Jelena; Tanackov, Ilija; Tepić, Aleksandra; Vujičić, Biserka; Gvozdanović-Varga, Jelica

    2012-05-01

    In the present study the effects of individual and combined essential oils (EOs) extracted from onion (Allium cepa L.) bulb and garlic (Allium sativum L.) clove on the growth of Aspergillus versicolor and sterigmatocystin (STC) production were investigated. The EOs obtained by hydrodistillation were analyzed by GC/MS. Twenty one compounds were identified in onion EO. The major components were: dimethyl-trisulfide (16.64%), methyl-propyl-trisulfide (14.21%), dietil-1,2,4-tritiolan (3R,5S-, 3S,5S- and 3R,5R- isomers) (13.71%), methyl-(1-propenyl)-disulfide (13.14%), and methyl-(1-propenyl)-trisulfide (13.02%). The major components of garlic EO were diallyl-trisulfide (33.55%), and diallyl-disulfide (28.05%). The mycelial growth and the STC production were recorded after 7, 14, and 21 d of the A. versicolor growth in Yeast extract sucrose (YES) broth containing different EOs concentrations. Compared to the garlic EO, the onion EO showed a stronger inhibitory effect on the A. versicolor mycelial growth and STC production. After a 21-d incubation of fungi 0.05 and 0.11 μg/mL of onion EO and 0.11 μg/mL of garlic EO completely inhibited the A. versicolor mycelial growth and mycotoxins biosynthesis. The combination of EOs of onion (75%) and garlic (25%) had a synergistic effect on growth inhibition of A. versicolor and STC production. PMID:22497489

  16. Diversification and Demography of the Oriental Garden Lizard (Calotes versicolor) on Hainan Island and the Adjacent Mainland

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yong; Guo, Xianguang; Ho, Simon Y. W.; Shi, Haitao; Li, Jiatang; Li, Jun; Cai, Bo; Wang, Yuezhao

    2013-01-01

    The Oriental garden lizard (Calotes versicolor) is one of the few non-gekkonid lizards that are geographically widespread in the tropics. We investigated its population dynamics on Hainan Island and the adjacent mainland of China and Vietnam, focusing on the impact of cyclic upheaval and submergence of land bridges during the Pleistocene. Our Bayesian phylogenetic analysis reveals two mitochondrial lineages, A and B, which are estimated to have coalesced about 0.26 million years ago (95% credibility interval: 0.05–0.61 million years ago). Lineage A contains individuals mainly from central and southern Wuzhi Mountain on Hainan Island, whereas lineage B mainly comprises individuals from other sites on the island plus the adjacent mainland. The estimated coalescence times within lineages A (0.05 million years ago) and B (0.13 million years ago) fall within a period of cyclical land-bridge formation and disappearance in the Pleistocene. A spatial analysis of molecular variance identified two distinct population groupings: I, primarily containing lineage A, and II, mainly consisting of lineage B. However, haplotypes from lineages A and B occur sympatrically, suggesting that gene flow is ongoing. Neither Wuzhi Mountain nor Qiongzhou Strait and Gulf of Tonkin act as barriers to gene flow among C. versicolor populations. Analyses of the data using mismatch distributions and extended Bayesian skyline plots provide evidence of a relatively stable population size through time for Group I, and moderate population expansions and contractions during the end of the Pleistocene for Group II. We conclude that the phylogeographical patterns of C. versicolor are the combined product of Pleistocene sea-level oscillations and nonphysical barriers to gene flow. PMID:23840304

  17. Treatment of pityriasis versicolor with topical application of essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf - therapeutic pilot study*

    PubMed Central

    Carmo, Egberto Santos; Pereira, Fillipe de Oliveira; Cavalcante, Neuza Maria; Gayoso, Carla Wanderley; Lima, Edeltrudes de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pityriasis versicolor is a fungal infection caused by Malassezia spp. that has frequent relapses. OBJECTIVES The main objective of this research was to perform phase I and II clinical studies, using formulations containing essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus in patients with pityriasis versicolor. METHODS Phase I study included twenty volunteers to ascertain the safety of the formulations. In phase II, 47 volunteers randomly received essential oil formulations at 1.25 μL/mL concentration, for forty days. The shampoo should be applied three times a week and the cream twice a day. A control group in phase II, consisting of 29 volunteers, received the same formulations but with 2% ketoconazole as the active ingredient. RESULTS No significant adverse events were observed in volunteers during Phase I. In Phase II, 30 (63.83%) volunteers using essential oil and 18 (62.07%) using ketoconazole remained until the end of the study. We observed a predominance of lesions in disseminated form, with M. sympodialis detected as the predominant agent identified in cultures. After 40 days of treatment, the rate of mycological cure was 60% (p <0.05) for the group treated with essential oil of C. citratus and over 80% (p <0.05) for the group treated with ketoconazole formulations. CONCLUSIONS Notwithstanding the safety and antifungal effects observed in this study after application of formulations containing the essential oil of C. citratus, further studies with larger populations should be performed to confirm the actual potential of these formulations in the treatment of patients with Pityriasis versicolor. PMID:23793205

  18. Interaction between perchlorate and iodine in the metamorphosis of Hyla versicolor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparling, D.; Harvey, G.; Nzengung, V.

    2003-01-01

    Perchlorate (ClO4-) is a water-soluble, inorganic anion that is often combined with ammonium, potassium or other cations for use in industry and agriculture. Ammonium perchlorate, for example, is a potent oxidizer and is used in various military applications including rocket fuel. It has also been found in an historically widely used fertilizer, Chilean nitrate and in other fertilizers. It has been found in ground and surface waters of over 30 states and is considered a human health risk. Because of its similar atomic radius and volume, perchlorate competes with iodide for thyroid uptake and storage and thereby inhibits production of thyroid hormones. Amphibians may be particularly affected by perchlorate because they rely on the thyroid for metamorphosis. This study exposed early larval Hyla versicolor to concentrations of perchlorate ranging from 2.2 to 50 ppm to determine the effects of perchlorate on a native amphibian. In addition, three controls, 0 perchlorate, 0 perchlorate with 0.10 ppm iodide (C + I) and 50 ppm perchlorate + 0.10 ppm iodide (50 + I) were tested. Mortality (< 11% with all treatments) and growth appeared to be unaffected by perchlorate. Inhibition of development started with 2.2 ppm perchlorate and little or no development occurred at 22.9 ppm and above. This inhibition was particularly apparent at the latter stages of development including hindlimb formation and metamorphosis. The estimated EC50 for total inhibition of metamorphosis at 70 days of treatment was 3.63 ppm. There was no evidence of inhibition of development with the 50 + I, C + I, or controls, indicating that the presence of small concentrations of iodide could counter the effects of perchlorate. When tadpoles that had been inhibited by perchlorate were subsequently treated with iodide, development through prometamorphosis progressed but mortality was very high.

  19. Interaction between perchlorate and iodine in the metamorphosis of Hyla versicolor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparling, D.W.; Harvey, G.; Nzengung, V.

    2003-01-01

    Perchlorate (ClO4-) is a water-soluble, inorganic anion that is often combined with ammonium, potassium or other cations for use in industry and agriculture. Ammonium perchlorate, for example, is a potent oxidizer and is used in various military applications including rocket fuel. It has also been found in an historically widely used fertilizer, Chilean nitrate and in other fertilizers. It has been found in ground and surface waters of over 30 states and is considered a human health risk. Because of its similar atomic radius and volume, perchlorate competes with iodide for thyroid uptake and storage and thereby inhibits production of thyroid hormones. Amphibians may be particularly affected by perchlorate because they rely on the thyroid for metamorphosis. This study exposed early larval Hyla versicolor to concentrations of perchlorate ranging from 2.2 to 50 ppm to determine the effects of perchlorate on a native amphibian. In addition, three controls, 0 perchlorate, 0 perchlorate with 0.10 ppm iodide (C + I) and 50 ppm perchlorate + 0.10 ppm iodide (50 + I) were tested. Mortality (<11% with all treatments) and growth appeared to be unaffected by perchlorate. Inhibition of development started with 2.2 ppm perchlorate and little or no development occurred at 22.9 ppm and above. This inhibition was particularly apparent at the latter stages of development including hindlimb formation and metamorphosis. The estimated EC50 for total inhibition of metamorphosis at 70 days of treatment was 3.63 ppm. There was no evidence of inhibition of development with the 50 + I, C + I, or controls, indicating that the presence of small concentrations of iodide could counter the effects of perchlorate. When tadpoles that had been inhibited by perchlorate were subsequently treated with iodide, development through prometamorphosis progressed but mortality was very high.

  20. Influence of treatment conditions on the oxidation of micropollutants by Trametes versicolor laccase.

    PubMed

    Margot, Jonas; Maillard, Julien; Rossi, Luca; Barry, D A; Holliger, Christof

    2013-09-25

    Many organic compounds present at low concentrations in municipal wastewater, such as various pharmaceuticals and biocides, are recalcitrant in conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). To improve their biodegradation, oxidoreductase enzymes such as laccases were tested. The goal was to find optimal conditions for the transformation of two anti-inflammatory pharmaceuticals (diclofenac (DFC) and mefenamic acid (MFA)), one biocide (triclosan (TCN)) and one plastic additive (bisphenol A (BPA)) by Trametes versicolor laccase. Experiments were conducted in spiked solutions at different pH values (from 3 to 9), enzyme concentrations (70-1400 Ul(-1)), reaction times (0-26 hours) and temperatures (10, 25 and 40°C) following a Doehlert experimental design. A semi-empirical model was developed to understand better the combined effects of the four factors and to determine optimal values. This model was able to fit well the experimental data (R(2)>0.97) and showed good predictive ability. All four factors had a significant effect on the micropollutant oxidation with the greatest influence shown by pH. Results for single compounds were different from those obtained for mixtures of micropollutants. For instance, DFC transformation occurred at much higher rates in mixtures under alkaline conditions. Optimal conditions were compound-dependent, but were found to be between pH 4.5 to 6.5 and between 25°C to more than 40°C. A laccase concentration of 730 Ul(-1) was sufficient to obtain a high removal rate (>90%) of the four individual compounds (range of times: 40 min to 5 hours), showing the potential of laccases to improve biodegradation of environmentally persistent compounds. PMID:23831273

  1. Kraft Pulp Bleaching and Delignification by Dikaryons and Monokaryons of Trametes versicolor

    PubMed Central

    Addleman, Katherine; Archibald, Frederick

    1993-01-01

    The ability of 10 dikaryotic and 20 monokaryotic strains of Trametes (Coriolus) versicolor to bleach and delignify hardwood and softwood kraft pulps was assessed. A dikaryon (52P) and two of its mating-compatible monokaryons (52J and 52D) derived via protoplasting were compared. All three regularly bleached hardwood kraft pulp more than 20 brightness points (International Standards Organization) in 5 days and softwood kraft pulp the same amount in 12 days. Delignification (kappa number reduction) by the dikaryon and the monokaryons was similar, but the growth of the monokaryons was slower. Insoluble dark pigments were commonly found in the mycelium, medium, and pulp of the dikaryon only. Laccase and manganese peroxidase (MnP) but not lignin peroxidase activities were secreted during bleaching by all three strains. Their laccase and MnP isozyme patterns were compared on native gels. No segregation of isozyme bands between the monokaryons was found. Hardwood kraft pulp appeared to adsorb several laccase isozyme bands. One MnP isozyme (pI, 3.2) was secreted in the presence of pulp by all three strains, but a second (pI, 4.9) was produced only by 52P. A lower level of soluble MnP activity in one monokaryon (52D) was associated with reduced bleaching ability and a lower level of methanol production. Since monokaryon 52J bleached pulp better than its parent dikaryon 52P, especially per unit of biomass, this genetically simpler monokaryon will be the preferred subject for further genetic manipulation and improvement of fungal pulp biological bleaching. Images PMID:16348851

  2. High Laccase Expression by Trametes versicolor in a Simulated Textile Effluent with Different Carbon Sources and PHs.

    PubMed

    Ottoni, Cristiane; Simões, Marta F; Fernandes, Sara; Santos, Cledir R; Lima, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Textile effluents are highly polluting and have variable and complex compositions. They can be extremely complex, with high salt concentrations and alkaline pHs. A fixed-bed bioreactor was used in the present study to simulate a textile effluent treatment, where the white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor, efficiently decolourised the azo dye Reactive Black 5 over 28 days. This occurred under high alkaline conditions, which is unusual, but advantageous, for successful decolourisation processes. Active dye decolourisation was maintained by operation in continuous culture. Colour was eliminated during the course of operation and maximum laccase (Lcc) activity (80.2 U∙L(-1)) was detected after glycerol addition to the bioreactor. Lcc2 gene expression was evaluated with different carbon sources and pH values based on reverse transcriptase-PCR (polymerase chain reaction). Glycerol was shown to promote the highest lcc2 expression at pH 5.5, followed by sucrose and then glucose. The highest levels of expression occurred between three and four days, which corroborate the maximum Lcc activity observed for sucrose and glycerol on the bioreactor. These results give new insights into the use of T. versicolor in textile dye wastewater treatment with high pHs. PMID:27490563

  3. Quantification of flavonoid glycosides in an aqueous extract from the traditional Mongolian medicinal plant Dianthus versicolor FISCH.

    PubMed

    Obmann, Astrid; Zehl, Martin; Purevsuren, Sodnomtseren; Narantuya, Samdan; Reznicek, Gottfried; Kletter, Christa; Glasl, Sabine

    2011-02-01

    An HPLC-diode array detection (DAD) method was established in order to investigate dried aerial parts of Dianthus versicolor FISCH. (Caryophyllaceae), a plant used in traditional Mongolian medicine against liver impairment. Aqueous extracts were separated on an Aquasil(®) C(18) column with a linear gradient of acetonitrile (ACN) and water (adjusted to pH 2.8 with formic acid) as the mobile phase. LC-IT-MS facilitated the assignment of 26 flavonoids, among them a series of rare C-glycosylated as well as O-glycosylated derivatives, which are assumed to be the active principles. Quantification was performed and validated using isovitexin-7-O-glucoside (saponarin) as the external standard. The method showed good linear behaviour (r(2) ≥0.9999) over the investigated concentration range (0.007-3.5 mg/mL). The good precision of the method allowed the successful qualitative and quantitative analysis of flavonoid-glycosides in the aqueous extracts prepared from five different D. versicolor samples. Depending on the origin of the samples, the total flavonoid content was found to vary considerably from 0.41 to 3.30% in the aqueous extracts and from 0.07 to 0.57% in the crude drug. In addition, the relative composition of the various flavonoids was found to differ strongly. These results highlight the need for proper quality control for this herbal drug. PMID:21268252

  4. High Laccase Expression by Trametes versicolor in a Simulated Textile Effluent with Different Carbon Sources and PHs

    PubMed Central

    Ottoni, Cristiane; Simões, Marta F.; Fernandes, Sara; Santos, Cledir R.; Lima, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Textile effluents are highly polluting and have variable and complex compositions. They can be extremely complex, with high salt concentrations and alkaline pHs. A fixed-bed bioreactor was used in the present study to simulate a textile effluent treatment, where the white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor, efficiently decolourised the azo dye Reactive Black 5 over 28 days. This occurred under high alkaline conditions, which is unusual, but advantageous, for successful decolourisation processes. Active dye decolourisation was maintained by operation in continuous culture. Colour was eliminated during the course of operation and maximum laccase (Lcc) activity (80.2 U∙L−1) was detected after glycerol addition to the bioreactor. Lcc2 gene expression was evaluated with different carbon sources and pH values based on reverse transcriptase-PCR (polymerase chain reaction). Glycerol was shown to promote the highest lcc2 expression at pH 5.5, followed by sucrose and then glucose. The highest levels of expression occurred between three and four days, which corroborate the maximum Lcc activity observed for sucrose and glycerol on the bioreactor. These results give new insights into the use of T. versicolor in textile dye wastewater treatment with high pHs. PMID:27490563

  5. Terbinafin 1% Cream and Ketoconazole 2% Cream in the Treatment of Pityriasis Versicolor: A randomized comparative clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Rad, Farrokh; Nik-Khoo, Bahram; Yaghmaee, Roxana; Gharibi, Fardin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To make a comparison between terbinafine 1% cream and ketoconazole 2% cream in the treatment of pityriasis versicolor. Methods: This randomized single blind study included 110 patients with clinical diagnosis of pityriasis versicolor and positive mycological test for Malassezia furfur. The patients were randomly assigned to two groups. Group 1 used terbinafine cream and group 2 applied ketoconazole cream on the skin lesions for two weeks. Each group consisted of 55 patients. Clinical and mycological examinations were performed at baseline, at the end of the 2nd, 4th and 8th week of starting the treatment regimens. Results: At the end of the 2nd week we achieved cure rates of 72% and 64.3% for group 1 and group 2 respectively. At the end of the 4th week the respective cure rates for group 1 and group 2 were 81.2% and 69%, and at the end of the 8th week 70.8% of the patients in group 1 and 61.9% of the patients in group 2 were cured. Conclusion: The results of this study showed no significant statistical differences between the two groups in regard to cure and recurrence rates. But the numbers of cured patients were higher and recurrent cases were lower in group 1. PMID:25674122

  6. Isolation, structure elucidation, and biomimetic total synthesis of versicolamide B and the isolation of antipodal (-)-stephacidin A and (+)-notoamide B from Aspergillus versicolor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new prenylated indole alkaloid, versicolamide B, was isolated from cultures of Aspergillus versicolor NRRL 35600. The structure was assigned by 2D NMR data, and confirmed by a biomimetic total synthesis. Versicolamide B is the first member of the paraherquamide-stephacidin family of alkaloids fo...

  7. Induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells by surface-capping selenium nanoparticles: an effect enhanced by polysaccharide-protein complexes from Polyporus rhinocerus.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hualian; Zhu, Huili; Li, Xiaoling; Liu, Zumei; Zheng, Wenjie; Chen, Tianfeng; Yu, Bo; Wong, Ka-Hing

    2013-10-16

    Surface-capping agents play key roles in cellular uptake and biological activity of functional nanomaterials. In the present study, functionalized selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) have been successfully synthesized using Polyporus rhinocerus water-soluble polysaccharide-protein complexes (PRW) as the capping agent during the reduction of selenium salts. The acquired monodisperse, spherical PRW-SeNPs presented desirable size distribution and stability in the solution. Moreover, PRW surface decoration significantly enhanced the cellular uptake of SeNPs via endocytosis. Exposure to PRW-SeNPs significantly inhibited the growth of A549 cells through induction of apoptosis and G2/M phase arrest (IC50 = 4.06 ± 0.25 μM) supported by an increase of sub-G1 and G2/M phase cell populations, DNA fragmentation, and chromatin condensation. Caspase-3/8 activation induced by PRW-SeNPs indicated that the activation of death receptors was the main cause of PRW-SeNP-induced apoptosis. Collectively, the results suggest that it is highly efficient to use PRW as a surface decorator of SeNPs to enhance cellular uptake and anticancer efficacy, and the PRW-SeNPs are potential chemopreventive agents for lung cancer therapy. PMID:24053442

  8. Structure and binding analysis of Polyporus squamosus lectin in complex with the Neu5Ac[alpha]2-6Gal[beta]1-4GlcNAc human-type influenza receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Kadirvelraj, Renuka; Grant, Oliver C.; Goldstein, Irwin J.; Winter, Harry C.; Tateno, Hiroaki; Fadda, Elisa; Woods, Robert J.

    2013-03-07

    Glycan chains that terminate in sialic acid (Neu5Ac) are frequently the receptors targeted by pathogens for initial adhesion. Carbohydrate-binding proteins (lectins) with specificity for Neu5Ac are particularly useful in the detection and isolation of sialylated glycoconjugates, such as those associated with pathogen adhesion as well as those characteristic of several diseases including cancer. Structural studies of lectins are essential in order to understand the origin of their specificity, which is particularly important when employing such reagents as diagnostic tools. Here, we report a crystallographic and molecular dynamics (MD) analysis of a lectin from Polyporus squamosus (PSL) that is specific for glycans terminating with the sequence Neu5Ac{alpha}2-6Gal{beta}. Because of its importance as a histological reagent, the PSL structure was solved (to 1.7 {angstrom}) in complex with a trisaccharide, whose sequence (Neu5Ac{alpha}2-6Gal{beta}1-4GlcNAc) is exploited by influenza A hemagglutinin for viral adhesion to human tissue. The structural data illuminate the origin of the high specificity of PSL for the Neu5Ac{alpha}2-6Gal sequence. Theoretical binding free energies derived from the MD data confirm the key interactions identified crystallographically and provide additional insight into the relative contributions from each amino acid, as well as estimates of the importance of entropic and enthalpic contributions to binding.

  9. Versixanthones A-F, Cytotoxic Xanthone-Chromanone Dimers from the Marine-Derived Fungus Aspergillus versicolor HDN1009.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guangwei; Yu, Guihong; Kurtán, Tibor; Mándi, Attila; Peng, Jixing; Mo, Xiaomei; Liu, Ming; Li, Hui; Sun, Xinhua; Li, Jing; Zhu, Tianjiao; Gu, Qianqun; Li, Dehai

    2015-11-25

    Six unusual xanthone-chromanone dimers, versixanthones A-F (1-6), featuring different formal linkages of tetrahydroxanthone and 2,2-disubstituted chroman-4-one monomers, were isolated from a culture of the mangrove-derived fungus Aspergillus versicolor HDN1009. The absolute configurations of 1-6, representing the central and axial chirality elements or preferred helicities, were established by a combination of X-ray diffraction analysis, chemical conversions, and TDDFT-ECD calculations. The interconversion of different biaryl linkages between 1 and 4 and between 2 and 3 in DMSO by a retro-oxa-Michael mechanism provided insight into the formation of the xanthone-chromanone dimers and supported the assignments of their absolute configurations. Compounds 1-6 exhibited cytotoxicities against the seven tested cancer cell lines, with the best IC50 value of 0.7 μM. Compound 5 showed further inhibitory activity against topoisomerase I. PMID:26506221

  10. Avertoxins A-D, Prenyl Asteltoxin Derivatives from Aspergillus versicolor Y10, an Endophytic Fungus of Huperzia serrata.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingzi; Sun, Mingwei; Hao, Huilin; Lu, Chunhua

    2015-12-24

    Aspergillus versicolor Y10 is an endophytic fungus isolated from Huperzia serrata, which showed inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase. An investigation of the chemical constituents of Y10 led to the isolation of four new prenylated asteltoxin derivatives, named avertoxins A-D (2-5), together with the known mycotoxin asteltoxin (1). In the present study, we report structure elucidation for 2-5 and the revised NMR assignments for asteltoxin and demonstrated that avertoxin B (3) is an active inhibitor against human acetylcholinesterase with the IC50 value of 14.9 μM (huperzine A as the positive control had an IC50 of 0.6 μM). In addition, the cytotoxicity of asteltoxin (1) and avertoxins A-D (2-5) against MDA-MB-231, HCT116, and HeLa cell lines was evaluated. PMID:26618211

  11. Secondary metabolites of a deep sea derived fungus Aspergillus versicolor CXCTD-06-6a and their bioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xianglan; Cai, Shengxin; Zhu, Tianjiao; Gu, Qianqun; Li, Dehai; Luan, Yepeng

    2014-08-01

    In order to obtain novel secondary metabolites, a deep sea inhabiting fungus Aspergillus versicolor CXCTD-06-6a was investigated. One new diketopiperazine brevianamide W ( 1a), as well as five known diketopiperazine alkaloids, diketopiperazine V ( 1b), brevianamide Q ( 2), brevianamide R ( 3), brevianamide K ( 4), and brevianamide E ( 5), were isolated from the EtOAc extract of the fermentation broth. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopy techniques (NMR, MS). The six compounds exhibited moderate radical scavenging activity against DPPH with clearance ratio of 55.0% ( 1a and 1b), 53.7% ( 2), 46.2% ( 3), 61.4% ( 4) and 19.3% ( 5) at a concentration of 13.9 μmol L-1, respectively; while the positive control ascorbic acid showed a ratio of 70.3% at the concentration of 28.4 μmol L-1.

  12. Degradation of UV filters in sewage sludge and 4-MBC in liquid medium by the ligninolytic fungus Trametes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Badia-Fabregat, Marina; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Olivares, Alba; Piña, Benjamí; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Vicent, Teresa; Barceló, Damià; Caminal, Glòria

    2012-08-15

    Ultraviolet (UV) filters are xenobiotic compounds that can enter the environment through the liquid effluent of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and through adsorption in the sludge by-product because of their high hydrophobicity, as the sludge is subsequently applied as a fertiliser. A solid-state treatment of WWTP sludge with the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor is reported in the present work as a feasible method for UV filter degradation, with reductions ranging from 87% in the case of 3-(4'-methylbenzylidene) camphor (4-MBC) to 100% for benzophenone-3 (BP3) and its metabolite 4,4'-dihydroxybenzophenone (4DHB). This study represents a first step in the development of a future fungal treatment for UV filters; thus, it is essential to prove that elimination is due only to the action of the fungus and not that of other microorganisms. To this end, the sludge was sterilised prior to fungal treatment. Biological assays indicate that T. versicolor readily eliminates oestrogenic activity, although it may be inefficient at eliminating other compounds, including some with dioxin-like activity. Degradation studies of 4-MBC in liquid media were also performed, and complete removal was achieved in less than 24 h. The main metabolites were identified, and the first steps of the transformation pathway were elucidated: a mono- or di-hydroxylation by cytochrome P450 and a subsequent conjugation with a pentose. None of 4-MBC transformation products was found to be responsible for increased dioxin-like activity in the sludge. PMID:22487399

  13. Historical Isolation versus Recent Long-Distance Connections between Europe and Africa in Bifid Toadflaxes (Linaria sect. Versicolores)

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Mazuecos, Mario; Vargas, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Background Due to its complex, dynamic and well-known paleogeography, the Mediterranean region provides an ideal framework to study the colonization history of plant lineages. The genus Linaria has its diversity centre in the Mediterranean region, both in Europe and Africa. The last land connection between both continental plates occurred during the Messinian Salinity Crisis, in the late Miocene (5.96 to 5.33 Ma). Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed the colonization history of Linaria sect. Versicolores (bifid toadflaxes), which includes c. 22 species distributed across the Mediterranean, including Europe and Africa. Two cpDNA regions (rpl32-trnLUAG and trnK-matK) were sequenced from 66 samples of Linaria. We conducted phylogenetic, dating, biogeographic and phylogeographic analyses to reconstruct colonization patterns in space and time. Four major clades were found: two of them exclusively contain Iberian samples, while the other two include northern African samples together with some European samples. The bifid toadflaxes have been split in African and European clades since the late Miocene, and most lineage and speciation differentiation occurred during the Pliocene and Quaternary. We have strongly inferred four events of post-Messinian colonization following long-distance dispersal from northern Africa to the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily and Greece. Conclusions/Significance The current distribution of Linaria sect. Versicolores lineages is explained by both ancient isolation between African and European populations and recent events of long-distance dispersal over sea barriers. This result provides new evidence for the biogeographic complexity of the Mediterranean region. PMID:21779399

  14. Trametes versicolor Protein YZP Activates Regulatory B Lymphocytes – Gene Identification through De Novo Assembly and Function Analysis in a Murine Acute Colitis Model

    PubMed Central

    Kuan, Yen-Chou; Wu, Ying-Jou; Hung, Chih-Liang; Sheu, Fuu

    2013-01-01

    Background Trametes versicolor (Yun-Zhi) is a medicinal fungus used as a chemotherapy co-treatment to enhance anti-tumor immunity. Although the efficacies of T. versicolor extracts have been documented, the active ingredients and mechanisms underlying the actions of these extracts remain uncharacterized. Results We purified a new protein, YZP, from the fruiting bodies of T. versicolor and identified the gene encoding YZP using RNA-seq and de novo assembly technologies. YZP is a 12-kDa non-glycosylated protein comprising 139 amino acids, including an 18-amino acids signal peptide. YZP induced a greater than 60-fold increase in IL-10 secretion in mice B lymphocytes; moreover, YZP specifically triggered the differentiation of CD1d+ B cells into IL-10-producing regulatory B cells (Bregs) and enhanced the expression of CD1d. YZP-induced B cells suppressed approximately 40% of the LPS-activated macrophage production of inflammatory cytokines in a mixed leukocyte reaction and significantly alleviated the disease activity and colonic inflammation in a DSS-induced acute colitis murine model. Furthermore, YZP activated Breg function via interaction with TLR2 and TLR4 and up-regulation of the TLR-mediated signaling pathway. Conclusions We purified a novel Breg-stimulating protein, YZP, from T. versicolor and developed an advanced approach combining RNA-seq and de novo assembly technologies.to clone its gene. We demonstrated that YZP activated CD1d+ Breg differentiation through TLR2/4-mediated signaling pathway, and the YZP-stimulated B cells exhibited anti-inflammatory efficacies in vitro and in murine acute colitis models. PMID:24019869

  15. Comparative biosorption of mercuric ions from aquatic systems by immobilized live and heat-inactivated Trametes versicolor and Pleurotus sajur-caju.

    PubMed

    Arica, M Y; Arpa, C; Kaya, B; Bektaş, S; Denizli, A; Genç, O

    2003-09-01

    Trametes versicolor and Pleurotus sajur-caju mycelia immobilized in Ca-alginate beads were used for the removal of mercuric ions from aqueous solutions. The sorption of Hg(II) ions by alginate beads and both immobilized live and heat-killed fungal mycelia of T. versicolor and P. sajur-caju was studied in the concentration range of 0.150-3.00 mmol dm(-3). The biosorption of Hg(II) increased as the initial concentration of Hg(II) ions increased in the medium. Maximum biosorption capacities for plain alginate beads were 0.144+/-0.005 mmol Hg(II)/g; for immobilized live and heat-killed fungal mycelia of T. versicolor were 0.171+/-0.007 mmol Hg(II)/g and 0.383+/-0.012 mmol Hg(II)/g respectively; whereas for live and heat-killed P. sajur-caju, the values were 0.450+/-0.014 mmol Hg(II)/g and 0.660+/-0.019 mmol Hg(II)/g respectively. Biosorption equilibrium was established in about 1 h and the equilibrium adsorption was well described by Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. Between 15 and 45 degrees C the biosorption capacity was not affected and maximum adsorption was observed between pH 4.0 and 6.0. The alginate-fungus beads could be regenerated using 10 mmol dm(-3) HCl solution, with up to 97% recovery. The biosorbents were reused in five biosorption-desorption cycles without a significant loss in biosorption capacity. Heat-killed T. versicolor and P. sajur-caju removed 73% and 81% of the Hg(II) ions, respectively, from synthetic wastewater samples. PMID:12699933

  16. A Novel Contrast Stain for the Rapid Diagnosis of Pityriasis Versicolor: A Comparison of Chicago Sky Blue 6B Stain, Potassium Hydroxide Mount and Culture

    PubMed Central

    Lodha, Nikita; Poojary, Shital Amin

    2015-01-01

    Background: The mycological study of pityriasis versicolor is usually done by potassium hydroxide (KOH) mount and culture. However, KOH mount lacks a color contrast and requires a trained eye to interpret, while culture is difficult to perform, time consuming and has low sensitivity. Chicago Sky Blue 6B (CSB) is a new contrast stain that highlights the fungal hyphae and spores, blue against a purplish background. Aims and Objectives: This study was done to compare the utility of a novel contrast stain (CSB stain) with KOH mount and culture. Materials and Methods: Skin scrapings from the lesions of 100 clinically diagnosed cases of P. versicolor were subjected to (1) KOH mount and CSB stain for direct microscopic examination and (2) culture using Sabouraud's dextrose agar. The statistical analysis of CSB stain and culture was done using KOH mount as the reference method, as it is the most commonly performed and practical diagnostic test available for P. versicolor. An interrater reliability analysis using the Cohen's Kappa statistic was performed to determine consistency (agreement) among the different modalities. Observations and Results: Direct microscopy with CSB stain, KOH mount and mycological culture showed positive results in 98 (98%), 92 (92%) and 56 (56%) patients, respectively. Using KOH mount as the reference method, CSB stain had a sensitivity of 100% which was significantly higher than culture (60.9%). Statistically significant fair agreement was found between CSB stain and KOH mount (94% with κ=0.38, P < 0.001). Negligible agreement was found between CSB stain and culture (66%, κ=0.199, P = 0.001) as well as between KOH mount and culture (64%, κ=0.051, P = 0.107). Conclusion: CSB staining of skin scrapings is the most sensitive method for the diagnosis of pityriasis versicolor. Due to the distinct contrast provided by CSB, it is easy to perform, rapid and qualitatively superior to KOH mount. PMID:26288400

  17. Bioconversion of D-glucose into D-glucosone by glucose 2-oxidase from Coriolus versicolor at moderate pressures.

    PubMed

    Karmali, Amin; Coelho, José

    2011-04-01

    Glucose 2-oxidase (pyranose oxidase, pyranose:oxygen-2-oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.3.10) from Coriolus versicolor catalyses the oxidation of D-glucose at carbon 2 in the presence of molecular O₂ producing D-glucosone (2-keto-glucose and D-arabino-2-hexosulose) and H₂O₂. It was used to convert D-glucose into D-glucosone at moderate pressures (i.e. up to 150 bar) with compressed air in a modified commercial batch reactor. Several parameters affecting biocatalysis at moderate pressures were investigated as follows: pressure, [enzyme], [glucose], pH, temperature, nature of fluid and the presence of catalase. Glucose 2-oxidase was purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography on epoxy-activated Sepharose 6B-IDA-Cu(II) column at pH 6.0. The rate of bioconversion of D-glucose increased with the pressure since an increase in the pressure with compressed air resulted in higher rates of conversion. On the other hand, the presence of catalase increased the rate of reaction which strongly suggests that H₂O₂ acted as inhibitor for this reaction. The rate of bioconversion of D-glucose by glucose 2-oxidase in the presence of either nitrogen or supercritical CO₂ at 110 bar was very low compared with the use of compressed air at the same pressure. The optimum temperature (55 °C) and pH (5.0) of D-glucose bioconversion as well as kinetic parameters for this enzyme were determined under moderate pressure. The activation energy (E (a)) was 32.08 kJ mol⁻¹ and kinetic parameters (V(max), K(m), K(cat) and K(cat)/K(m)) for this bioconversion were 8.8 U mg⁻¹ protein, 2.95 mM, 30.81 s⁻¹ and 10,444.06 s⁻¹ M⁻¹, respectively. The biomass of C. versicolor as well as the cell-free extract containing glucose 2-oxidase activity were also useful for bioconversion of D-glucose at moderate pressures. The enzyme was apparently stable at moderate pressures since such pressures did not affect significantly the enzyme activity. PMID:20872184

  18. Activation of Dormant Secondary Metabolite Production by Introducing Neomycin Resistance into the Deep-Sea Fungus, Aspergillus versicolor ZBY-3

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yuan; Cui, Cheng-Bin; Li, Chang-Wei; Hua, Wei; Wu, Chang-Jing; Zhu, Tian-Jiao; Gu, Qian-Qun

    2014-01-01

    A new ultrasound-mediated approach has been developed to introduce neomycin-resistance to activate silent pathways for secondary metabolite production in a bio-inactive, deep-sea fungus, Aspergillus versicolor ZBY-3. Upon treatment of the ZBY-3 spores with a high concentration of neomycin by proper ultrasound irradiation, a total of 30 mutants were obtained by single colony isolation. The acquired resistance of the mutants to neomycin was confirmed by a resistance test. In contrast to the ZBY-3 strain, the EtOAc extracts of 22 of the 30 mutants inhibited the human cancer K562 cells, indicating that these mutants acquired a capability to produce antitumor metabolites. HPLC-photodiode array detector (PDAD)-UV and HPLC-electron spray ionization (ESI)-MS analyses of the EtOAc extracts of seven bioactive mutants and the ZBY-3 strain indicated that diverse secondary metabolites have been newly produced in the mutant extracts in contrast to the ZBY-3 extract. The followed isolation and characterization demonstrated that six metabolites, cyclo(d-Pro-d-Phe) (1), cyclo(d-Tyr-d-Pro) (2), phenethyl 5-oxo-l-prolinate (3), cyclo(l-Ile-l-Pro) (4), cyclo(l-Leu-l-Pro) (5) and 3β,5α,9α-trihydroxy-(22E,24R)-ergosta-7,22-dien-6-one (6), were newly produced by the mutant u2n2h3-3 compared to the parent ZBY-3 strain. Compound 3 was a new compound; 2 was isolated from a natural source for the first time, and all of these compounds were also not yet found in the metabolites of other A. versicolor strains. Compounds 1–6 inhibited the K562 cells, with inhibition rates of 54.6% (1), 72.9% (2), 23.5% (3), 29.6% (4), 30.9% (5) and 51.1% (6) at 100 μg/mL, and inhibited also other human cancer HL-60, BGC-823 and HeLa cells, to some extent. The present study demonstrated the effectiveness of the ultrasound-mediated approach to activate silent metabolite production in fungi by introducing acquired resistance to aminoglycosides and its potential for discovering new compounds from silent

  19. Crystal Structure of Novel Metallocarboxypeptidase Inhibitor from Marine Mollusk Nerita versicolor in Complex with Human Carboxypeptidase A4*

    PubMed Central

    Covaleda, Giovanni; Alonso del Rivero, Maday; Chávez, María A.; Avilés, Francesc X.; Reverter, David

    2012-01-01

    NvCI is a novel exogenous proteinaceous inhibitor of metallocarboxypeptidases from the marine snail Nerita versicolor. The complex between human carboxypeptidase A4 and NvCI has been crystallized and determined at 1.7 Å resolution. The NvCI structure defines a distinctive protein fold basically composed of a two-stranded antiparallel β-sheet connected by three loops and the inhibitory C-terminal tail and stabilized by three disulfide bridges. NvCI is a tight-binding inhibitor that interacts with the active site of the enzyme in a substrate-like manner. NvCI displays an extended and novel interface with human carboxypeptidase A4, responsible for inhibitory constants in the picomolar range for some members of the M14A subfamily of carboxypeptidases. This makes NvCI the strongest inhibitor reported so far for this family. The structural homology displayed by the C-terminal tails of different carboxypeptidase inhibitors represents a relevant example of convergent evolution. PMID:22294694

  20. Defining core habitat of local populations of the gray treefrog (Hyla versicolor) based on choice of oviposition site.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jarrett R; Semlitsch, Raymond D

    2003-10-01

    Concern over amphibian population declines and loss of terrestrial and aquatic habitat have emphasized the need to define habitat requirements for each stage in a species' life history. The realization that pond-breeding amphibians spend most of their lives in the terrestrial environment suggests the need to protect terrestrial as well as aquatic habitat. Many studies on amphibian populations have focused on emigration from breeding sites to define habitat use; however these studies do not typically elucidate terrestrial activities of adults within the breeding season. We measured colonization rates of artificial pools by gray treefrogs (Hyla versicolor) at multiple distances from natural breeding ponds. We found a non-random distribution of egg deposition among distances, with 95% of eggs deposited within 15 m of the breeding pond. Additionally, we found that the time to first colonization of artificial pools increased with respect to distance. Our results indicate that adult gray treefrogs may travel up to 200 m within a breeding season, and that multiple breeding ponds may be considered part of a single population. We suggest that a minimum core terrestrial habitat of 60 m surrounding breeding sites is appropriate for protection of local populations of gray treefrogs. PMID:12883991

  1. Optimization of cultivation and nutrition conditions and substrate pretreatment for solid-substrate fermentation of wheat straw by Coriolus versicolor.

    PubMed

    Yadav, J S; Tripathi, J P

    1991-01-01

    Bioconversion of wheat straw by solid-substrate fermentation (SSF) with Coriolus versicolor was optimized by varying its physiological parameters. Selective delignification (more lignin than holocellulose degradation) and increases in crude protein (CP) content and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) were taken as the criteria to select optimum levels of these parameters. The fungus behaved optimally under the following set of cultural and nutritional conditions: pH 5.5, moisture level 55%, temperature 30 degrees C, duration of fermentation 21 d, form of inoculum--grain culture, turning frequency--once at mid-incubation, urea (nitrogen source) 1.5% (sterile) or 3.0% (nonsterile), single superphosphate (phosphorus + sulfur source) 1.0%, no addition of free polysaccharides (as whey or molasses). A maximum of 17.5% increase in IVDMD involving 4.3% degradation of lignin, was attained in the optimized SSF under laboratory conditions. The digestibility improvement could be further increased by using a substrate pretreatment (physical/chemical/biological) in the following order of preference: NaOH treatment, urea or urine treatment, ensiling, steaming, grinding. For practical farm applications, urea treatment and ensiling appeared most feasible. The laboratory optimized process was also scaled up to 4 kg (sterile and unsterile) and 50 kg (unsterile) fermentations. PMID:1841863

  2. Polyamide 6/chitosan nanofibers as support for the immobilization of Trametes versicolor laccase for the elimination of endocrine disrupting chemicals.

    PubMed

    Maryšková, Milena; Ardao, Inés; García-González, Carlos A; Martinová, Lenka; Rotková, Jana; Ševců, Alena

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in efforts to improve wastewater treatment as the concentration of dangerous pollutants, such as endocrine disrupting chemicals, in wastewater increases. These compounds, which mimic the effect of hormones, have a negative impact on human health and are not easily removed from water. One way to effectively eliminate these pollutants is to use enzymatically activated materials. In this study, we report on the use of laccase from the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor immobilized onto polyamide 6/chitosan (PA6/CHIT) nanofibers modified using two different spacers (bovine serum albumin and hexamethylenediamine). We then tested the ability of the PA6/CHIT-laccase biocatalysts to eliminate a mixture containing 50μM of two endocrine disrupting chemicals: bisphenol A and 17α-ethinylestradiol. The PA6/CHIT nanofiber matrix used in this study not only proved to be a suitable carrier for immobilized and modified laccase but was also efficient in the removal of a mixture of endocrine disrupting chemicals in three treatment cycles. PMID:27233125

  3. Short- and long-term movements of painted lobster ( Panulirus versicolor) on a coral reef at Northwest Island, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisch, A. J.

    2007-06-01

    Understanding movements of palinurid (spiny) lobsters is important to fisheries management. However, movement data obtained with mark-capture techniques are often influenced by artefacts (e.g., displacement, tag-loss, tag-induced injury). To avoid these problems, a novel approach was employed to investigate the movements of an important coral reef palinurid, the painted lobster ( Panulirus versicolor). Eighty adult individuals were captured by hand near Northwest Island, Australia. Each lobster was tagged internally (with elastomer) and externally (with plastic zip-ties) to enable both short- (1-10 days) and long-term (6-24 months) observations. Shortly thereafter, all lobsters were manually returned to their shelters (dens). After 6-24 months, 44 lobsters were recaptured, giving an overall recapture rate of 55%. All of these individuals were recaptured within 500 m of their original den, thus indicating a high level of site-fidelity for this species. Short-term observations revealed that individuals moved frequently to and from nearby dens, and that male lobsters typically moved further than female lobsters. It is hypothesized that male lobsters move about their home range more actively, perhaps to seek mating opportunities or to defend resources. The significance of these observations is discussed with respect to the management of this important fishery resource.

  4. Antifungal New Oxepine-Containing Alkaloids and Xanthones from the Deep-Sea-Derived Fungus Aspergillus versicolor SCSIO 05879.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junfeng; He, Weijun; Huang, Xiaolong; Tian, Xinpeng; Liao, Shengrong; Yang, Bin; Wang, Fazuo; Zhou, Xiaojiang; Liu, Yonghong

    2016-04-13

    Phytopathogenic fungi remain a continuous and huge threat in the agricultural fields. The agrochemical industry has made great development of the use of microbial natural products, which has been regarded as an effective strategy against phytopathogenic fungi. Antifungal bioassay-directed fractionation was used to isolate two new oxepine-containing alkaloids (1 and 2), two new 4-aryl-quinolin-2-one alkaloids (3 and 4), and four new prenylated xanthones (5-8) from the deep-sea-derived fungus Aspergillus versicolor SCSIO 05879. Extensive NMR spectroscopic analysis, quantum mechanical calculations, and X-ray single-crystal diffraction were used to elucidate their structures, including their absolute configurations. Versicoloids A and B, versicone A, and cottoquinazoline A showed antifungal activities against three phytopathogenic fungi. The antifungal activities of these bioactive compounds strongly depend on the fungal species. Especially versicoloids A and B showed strong fungicidal effect (MIC of 1.6 μg/mL) against Colletotrichum acutatum, compared with that of the positive control cycloheximide (MIC of 6.4 μg/mL). The results of antifungal experiments indicated that versicoloids A and B may be regarded as candidate agents of antifungal agrochemicals. PMID:26998701

  5. Extracellular polysaccharide with novel structure and antioxidant property produced by the deep-sea fungus Aspergillus versicolor N2bc.

    PubMed

    Yan, Meng-Xia; Mao, Wen-Jun; Liu, Xue; Wang, Shu-Yao; Xia, Zheng; Cao, Su-Jian; Li, Jing; Qin, Ling; Xian, Hua-Li

    2016-08-20

    An extracellular polysaccharide, N1, was obtained from the culture medium of the deep-sea fungus Aspergillus versicolor N2bc by a combination of ethanol precipitation, ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. N1 was a mannoglucogalactan with molecular weight of about 20.5kDa. Results of chemical and spectroscopic analyses, including Fourier-transform infrared, one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that the main chain of N1 consisted of →2)-α-d-Glcp-(1→, →2)-β-d-Glcp-(1→ and →6)-β-d-Manp-(1→ units, substituted at C-6 position of →2)-α-d-Glcp-(1→ units. The branches were composed of galactofuranose-oligosaccharides built up of →5)-β-d-Galf-(1→, →6)-β-d-Galf-(1→ and terminal β-d-Galf units. At an average, there were two branching points for every five sugar residues in the backbone. N1 possessed a high in vitro antioxidant activity as evaluated by scavenging assays involving superoxide, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl radicals and reducing power. The investigation revealed that N1 was a novel antioxidant polysaccharide differing from previously described extracellular polysaccharides and could be a potential antioxidant. PMID:27178933

  6. An Analysis of the Malassezia Species Distribution in the Skin of Patients with Pityriasis Versicolor in Chengdu, China

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zhen; Ran, Yuping; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Min; Wan, Huiying; Li, Conghui

    2014-01-01

    Pityriasis versicolor (PV) is a common clinical problem associated with Malassezia species (Malassezia spp.). Controversies remain regarding the specific species involved in the development of PV. This study analyzed the difference in Malassezia spp. distribution in lesional and nonlesional skin in Chinese PV patients. A paired design was applied. Lesional and nonlesional scales from 24 cases were collected; real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR was used to detect 10 different Malassezia spp. In lesional skin, the highest detection rates were for M. globosa (95.8%), M. restricta (91.7%), and M. sympodialis (50.0%). In nonlesional skin, the highest detection rates were for M. globosa (87.5%), M. restricta (79.2%), and M. dermatis (33.3%). A significant difference in the detection rate was only found for M. sympodialis (50.8% versus 20.8%, P = 0.04). Compared with nonlesional skin, the amount of M. globosa, M. restricta, and M. sympodialis in lesional skin was significantly higher (3.8 ± 1.3,  2.5 ± 1.1, and 3.2 ± 1.6 times higher, resp.). The results of this study do not indicate that M. globosa and M. restricta are directly correlated with PV development; however, M. sympodialis is more likely related to PV development in Chinese individuals. PMID:25177714

  7. Development and performance assessment of a qualitative SYBR® green real-time PCR assay for the detection of Aspergillus versicolor in indoor air.

    PubMed

    Libert, X; Chasseur, C; Bladt, S; Packeu, A; Bureau, F; Roosens, N H; De Keersmaecker, S C J

    2015-09-01

    Currently, contamination of indoor environment by fungi and molds is considered as a public health problem. The monitoring of indoor airborne fungal contamination is a common tool to help understanding the link between fungi in houses and respiratory problems. Classical analytical monitoring methods, based on cultivation and microscopic identification, depend on the growth of the fungi. Consequently, they are biased by difficulties to grow some species on certain culture media and under certain conditions or by noncultivable or dead fungi that can consequently not be identified. However, they could have an impact on human health as they might be allergenic. Since molecular methods do not require a culture step, they seem an excellent alternative for the monitoring of indoor fungal contaminations. As a case study, we developed a SYBR® green real-time PCR-based assay for the specific detection and identification of Aspergillus versicolor, which is frequently observed in indoor environment and known to be allergenic. The developed primers amplify a short region of the internal transcribed spacer 1 from the 18S ribosomal DNA complex. Subsequently, the performance of this quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method was assessed using specific criteria, including an evaluation of the selectivity, PCR efficiency, dynamic range, and repeatability. The limit of detection was determined to be 1 or 2 copies of genomic DNA of A. versicolor. In order to demonstrate that this SYBR® green qPCR assay is a valuable alternative for monitoring indoor fungal contamination with A. versicolor, environmental samples collected in contaminated houses were analyzed and the results were compared to the ones obtained with the traditional methods. PMID:26184975

  8. Co-composting of spent coffee ground with olive mill wastewater sludge and poultry manure and effect of Trametes versicolor inoculation on the compost maturity.

    PubMed

    Hachicha, Ridha; Rekik, Olfa; Hachicha, Salma; Ferchichi, Mounir; Woodward, Steve; Moncef, Nasri; Cegarra, Juan; Mechichi, Tahar

    2012-07-01

    The co-composting of spent coffee grounds, olive mill wastewater sludge and poultry manure was investigated on a semi-industrial scale. In order to reduce the toxicity of the phenolic fraction and to improve the degree of composting humification, composts were inoculated with the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor in the early stages of the maturation phase. During composting, a range of physico-chemical parameters (temperature and both organic matter and C/N reduction), total organic carbon, total nitrogen, elemental composition, lignin degradation and spectroscopic characteristics of the humic acids (HAs) were determined; impacts of the composting process on germination index of Hordeum vulgare and Lactuca sativa were assessed. The coffee waste proved to be a highly compostable feedstock, resulting in mature final compost with a germination index of 120% in less than 5 months composting. In addition, inoculation with T. versicolor led to a greater degree of aromatization of HA than in the control pile. Moreover, in the inoculated mixture, lignin degradation was three times greater and HA increased by 30% (P<0.05), compared to the control pile. In the T. versicolor inoculated mixture, the averages of C and N were significantly enhanced in the HA molecules (P<0.05), by 26% and 22%, respectively. This improvement in the degree of humification was confirmed by the ratio of optical densities of HA solutions at 465 and 665 nm which was lower for HA from the treated mixture (4.5) than that from the control pile (5.4). PMID:22537889

  9. Differential patterns of accumulation and depuration of dietary selenium and vanadium during metamorphosis in the Gray Treefrog (Hyla versicolor).

    PubMed

    Rowe, Christopher L; Heyes, Andrew; Hilton, Jessica

    2011-02-01

    Selenium (Se) and vanadium (V) are contaminants commonly found in aquatic systems affected by wastes derived from fossil fuels. To examine their effects on a widely distributed species of amphibian, we exposed gray tree frogs (Hyla versicolor) to Se (as SeO₂) or V (as NaVO₃) in their diet from the early larval period to metamorphosis. Concentrations of Se in Se-enriched food were 1.0 (Se control), 7.5 (Se low), and 32.7 (Se high) μg/g dw. Concentrations of V in V-enriched food were 3.0 (V control), 132.1 (V low), and 485.7 (V high) μg/g dw. Although we observed bioaccumulation of both metals throughout the larval period, no effects on growth, survival, metabolic rate, or lipid content were observed. Se concentrations in tissues did not vary among life stages, neither in Se low nor Se high treatments, such that maximum accumulation had occurred by the mid-larval period. In addition, there was no evidence of depuration of Se in either the Se low or the Se high treatments during metamorphosis. A strikingly different pattern of accumulation and depuration occurred in V-exposed individuals. In treatments V low and V high, maximum body burdens occurred in "premetamorphs" (i.e., animals with developed forelimbs but in which tail resorption had not begun), whereas body burdens in animals having completed metamorphosis were much lower and similar to those in larvae. These results suggest that compared with Se-exposed animals, V-exposed animals were able to depurate a substantial amount of accumulated V during the metamorphic period. In an ecologic context, it appears that amphibians exposed to Se during the larval period may serve as a vector of the metal to terrestrial predators, yet potential transfer of accumulated V to predators would largely be restricted to the aquatic habitat. PMID:20878520

  10. Kinetic evidence for the interactive inhibition of laccase from Trametes versicolor by pH and chloride.

    PubMed

    Raseda, Nasrin; Hong, Soonho; Kwon, O Yul; Ryu, Keungarp

    2014-12-28

    The interactive inhibitory effects of pH and chloride on the catalysis of laccase from Trametes versicolor were investigated by studying the alteration of inhibition characteristics of sodium chloride at different pHs for the oxidation of 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid). At pH 3.0, the addition of sodium chloride (50 mM) brought about a 40-fold increase in Km(app) and a 4-fold decrease in Vmax(app). As the pH increased to 7.0, the inhibitory effects of sodium chloride became significantly weakened. The mixed-inhibition mechanism was successfully used to quantitatively estimate the competitive and uncompetitive inhibition strengths by chloride at two different pHs (pH 3.0 and 6.0). At pH 3.0, the competitive inhibition constant, Ki, was 0.35 mM, whereas the uncompetitive inhibition constant, Ki', was 18.1 mM, indicating that the major cause of the laccase inhibition by chloride is due to the competitive inhibition step. At a higher pH of 6.0, where the inhibition of the laccase by hydroxide ions takes effect, the inhibition of the laccase by chloride diminished to a great extent, showing increased values of both the competitive inhibition constant (Ki= 23.7 mM) and uncompetitive inhibition constant (Ki' = 324 mM). These kinetic results evidenced that the hydroxide anion and chloride share a common mechanism to inhibit the laccase activity. PMID:25152059

  11. A comparative study on decolorization of reactive azo and indigoid dyes by free/immobilized pellets of Trametes versicolor and Funalia trogii.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Seval Cing; Yesilada, Ozfer

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate decolorization of Acid Blue 74 and Reactive Blue 198 dyes by free and immobilized white rot fungal pellets in order to confirm the possibility of practical application via repeated-batch cultivation. Decolorization studies were conducted using free pellets (FP), fungal cells immobilized on activated carbon (IFCAC) and pinewood (IFCP), and also fungal cells entrapped in alginate beads (FCEAB). No additional nitrogen and carbon source was used and high decolorization rates were achieved in only dye-contained media without pH adjustment. Acid Blue 74 was decolorized 96 and 94% within 2 hr by Trametes versicolor and Funalia trogii free pellets, respectively. These values were 87 and 84% for Reactive Blue 198, in this respect. Immobilization of fungal cells on pinewood increased the usability of pellets and the average decolorization efficiency of both dyes. The micro environment changed in the presence of pinewood and increased the stability of immobilized pellets. Decolorization was performed rapidly and efficiently. Laccase activity enhanced with availability of pinewood, and high laccase production with F. trogii was obtained. After separation by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), the molecular weight of T versicolor and F. trogii laccase bands was determined 64 and 61 kDa approximately. Green bands were obtained by the activity staining process with laccase substrate (ABTS) after gel renaturation step. PMID:26688979

  12. Polysaccharide peptides from Coriolus versicolor exert differential immunomodulatory effects on blood lymphocytes and breast cancer cell line MCF-7 in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kowalczewska, Małgorzata; Piotrowski, Jakub; Jędrzejewski, Tomasz; Kozak, Wiesław

    2016-06-01

    The protein-bound polysaccharides (PBP), isolated from Coriolus versicolor (CV) fungus, are considered as natural compounds with potential therapeutic applications. The immunopotentiating and antitumor activity of polysaccharopeptides has been previously examined, however similar findings could not be achieved. The source of PBP, variations in extraction process as well as environmental factors seems to affect the biological properties of these active CV components. Since further analysis are needed to draw more definite conclusion, the present study aimed to investigate the immunomodulatory properties of the PBP extract, isolated from commercially available capsules of C. versicolor. Our results revealed that the effect mediated by PBP extract depends on the target cells. We reported that the polysaccharopeptides induced a significant decrease in breast cancer MCF-7 cells growth, which was TNF-α-dependent phenomenon. Interestingly, the level of two others cytokines, IL-1β and IL-6 was not affected. On the other hand, in this study we noticed that protein-bound polysaccharides extracted from CV significantly augmented the proliferative response of blood lymphocytes in a time-dependent manner, which was associated with IL-6 and IL-1β mRNA upregulation. Moreover we found that the cells response to PBP stimuli might be inversely related to its concentration. PMID:27091479

  13. Batch production of Pyranose 2-oxidase from Trametes versicolor (ATCC 11235) in medium with a lignocellulosic substrate and enzymatic bleaching of cotton fabrics.

    PubMed

    Pazarlioglu, Nurdan Kasikara; Erden, Emre; Ucar, M Cigdem; Akkaya, Alper; Sariisik, A Merih

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this work was to determine new, different and low-cost substrates that can be used for enzyme production from the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor (ATCC 11235) by taking advantage of the broad substrate specificity of pyranose 2-oxidase. In this report, we investigated the production of pyranose 2-oxidase from T. versicolor (ATCC 11235) using ten different agricultural residues such as clover straw, almond shells, hazelnut cobs, grass and others. Pyranose 2-oxidase activity was determined as 2.332 U/g at the 9th day in a submerged culture containing clover straw and tap water shaken at 150 rpm and 26°C, and the optimum clover straw concentration was determined to be 12 g/l. The effects of different glucose, nitrogen and phosphate sources on the production of pyranose 2-oxidase were studied in the clover straw medium. Analyses of biomass, protein, reduced sugar and nitrogen concentrations were also monitored in a clover straw medium that did not contain carbon or nitrogen and phosphate sources under the parameters determined. The produced pyranose 2-oxidase was used for improving the properties of cotton fabrics. PMID:22805934

  14. The use of Trametes versicolor laccase for the polymerization of aniline in the presence of vesicles as templates.

    PubMed

    Junker, Katja; Kissner, Reinhard; Rakvin, Boris; Guo, Zengwei; Willeke, Martin; Busato, Stephan; Weber, Thomas; Walde, Peter

    2014-02-01

    The enzymatic polymerization of aniline to polyaniline (PANI) with Trametes versicolor laccase (TvL) as catalyst and dioxygen (O₂) as oxidant was investigated in an aqueous medium containing unilamellar vesicles with an average diameter of about 80 nm formed from AOT (=sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate). Compared to the same reaction carried out with horseradish peroxidase isoenzyme C (HRPC) as catalyst and hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) as oxidant, notable differences were found in the kinetics of the reaction, as well as in the characteristics of the PANI obtained. Under comparable optimal conditions, which are pH 3.5 for TvL/O₂ and pH 4.3 for HRPC/H₂O₂, the reaction with TvL/O₂ was much slower than with HRPC/H₂O₂, i.e. ≈27 days vs. 1 day reaction time to reach equilibrium with >90% yield at 25 °C. Although in both cases, aniline monomer coupling occurred mainly via the carbon atom in para position of aniline, UV-vis-NIR absorption and EPR measurements indicate that the reaction with TvL/O₂ yielded mainly overoxidized products (with λ(max)=730 nm). These products had a lower amount of unpaired electrons if compared with the products obtained with HRPC/H₂O₂ (with λ(max)≈1000 nm, which is characteristic for the polaron state of PANI-ES, the emeraldine salt form of PANI). Similarly to previous findings with HRPC/H₂O₂, enzyme inactivation occurred during the polymerization also in the case of TvL/O₂. Since the aqueous PANI-vesicle suspensions obtained are of high colloidal stability, they can be used directly as ink in a conventional thermal inkjet printer for printing on paper or on surface treated polyimide films. Printed PANI-ES patterns on paper changed colour from green (emeraldine salt) to blue (emeraldine base) upon exposure to ammonia gas, demonstrating the expected ammonia sensing properties. PMID:24411448

  15. Correlation between mesopore volume of carbon supports and the immobilization of laccase from Trametes versicolor for the decolorization of Acid Orange 7.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Montoya, Luis A; Hernández-Montoya, Virginia; Montes-Morán, Miguel A; Cervantes, Francisco J

    2015-10-01

    Immobilization of laccase from Trametes versicolor was carried out using carbon supports prepared from different lignocellulosic wastes. Enzymes were immobilized by physical adsorption. Taguchi methodology was selected for the design of experiments regarding the preparation of the carbon materials, which included the use of activating agents for the promotion of mesoporosity. A good correlation between the mesopore volumes of the carbon supports and the corresponding laccase loadings attained was observed. Specifically, the chemical activation of pecan nut shell with FeCl3 led to a highly mesoporous material that also behaved as the most efficient support for the immobilization of laccase. This particular laccase/carbon support system was used as biocatalyst for the decolorization of aqueous solutions containing Acid Orange 7. Mass spectrometry coupled to a liquid chromatograph allowed us to identify the products of the dye degradation. PMID:26241936

  16. High-quality permanent draft genome sequence of Bradyrhizobium sp. Tv2a.2, a microsymbiont of Tachigali versicolor discovered in Barro Colorado Island of Panama

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tian, Rui; Parker, Matthew; Seshadri, Rekha; Reddy, TBK; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Baeshen, Mohammed N.; Baeshen, Nabih A.; et al

    2015-05-17

    Bradyrhizobiumsp. Tv2a.2 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that was isolated from an effective nitrogen-fixing root nodule of Tachigali versicolor collected in Barro Colorado Island of Panama. Here we describe the features of Bradyrhizobiumsp. Tv2a.2, together with high-quality permanent draft genome sequence information and annotation. The 8,496,279 bp high-quality draft genome is arranged in 87 scaffolds of 87 contigs, contains 8,109 protein-coding genes and 72 RNA-only encoding genes. In conclusion, this rhizobial genome was sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project.

  17. Differential expression of estrogen receptor alpha in the embryonic adrenal-kidney-gonadal complex of the oviparous lizard, Calotes versicolor (Daud.).

    PubMed

    Inamdar, L S; Khodnapur, B S; Nindi, R S; Dasari, S; Seshagiri, P B

    2015-09-01

    Estrogen signalling is critical for ovarian differentiation in reptiles with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). To elucidate the involvement of estrogen in this process, adrenal-kidney-gonadal (AKG) expression of estrogen receptor (ERα) was studied at female-producing temperature (FPT) in the developing embryos of the lizard, Calotes versicolor which exhibits a distinct pattern of TSD. The eggs of this lizard were incubated at 31.5±0.5°C (100% FPT). The torso of embryos containing adrenal-kidney-gonadal complex (AKG) was collected during different stages of development and subjected to Western blotting and immunohistochemistry analysis. The ERα antibody recognized two protein bands with apparent molecular weight ∼55 and ∼45kDa in the total protein extracts of embryonic AKG complex of C. versicolor. The observed results suggest the occurrence of isoforms of ERα. The differential expression of two different protein isoforms may reveal their distinct role in cell proliferation during gonadal differentiation. This is the first report to reveal two isoforms of the ERα in a reptile during development. Immunohistochemical studies reveal a weak, but specific, cytoplasmic ERα immunostaining exclusively in the AKG during late thermo-sensitive period suggesting the responsiveness of AKG to estrogens before gonadal differentiation at FPT. Further, cytoplasmic as well as nuclear expression of ERα in the medulla and in oogonia of the cortex (faint activity) at gonadal differentiation stage suggests that the onset of gonadal estrogen activity coincides with sexual differentiation of gonad. Intensity and pattern of the immunoreactions of ERα in the medullary region at FPT suggest endogenous production of estrogen which may act in a paracrine fashion to induce neighboring cells into ovarian differentiation pathway. PMID:25127850

  18. Lignin oxidation by laccase isozymes from Trametes versicolor and role of the mediator 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate) in kraft lignin depolymerization.

    PubMed Central

    Bourbonnais, R; Paice, M G; Reid, I D; Lanthier, P; Yaguchi, M

    1995-01-01

    Two laccase isozymes (I and II) produced by the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor were purified, and their reactivities towards various substrates and lignins were studied. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of these enzymes were determined and compared to other known laccase sequences. Laccase II showed a very high sequence similarity to a laccase which was previously reported to depolymerize lignin. The reactivities of the two isozymes on most of the substrates tested were similar, but there were some differences in the oxidation rate of polymeric substrates. We found that the two laccases produced similar qualitative effects on kraft lignin and residual lignin in kraft pulp, with no evidence of a marked preference for depolymerization by either enzyme. However, the presence of the mediator 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate) prevented and reversed the polymerization of kraft lignin by either laccase. The delignification of hardwood and softwood kraft pulps with the two isozymes and the mediator was compared; either laccase was able to reduce the kappa number of pulp, but only in the presence of 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate). PMID:7646025

  19. Enhanced biodegradation of antibiotic combinations via the sequential treatment of the sludge resulting from pharmaceutical wastewater treatment using white-rot fungi Trametes versicolor and Bjerkandera adusta.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Sevcan

    2016-07-01

    While anaerobic treatment is capable of treating pharmaceutical wastewater and removing antibiotics in liquid phases, solid phases may still contain significant amounts of antibiotics following this treatment. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the use of white-rot fungi to remove erythromycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline combinations from biosolids. The degradation potential of Trametes versicolor and Bjerkandera adusta was evaluated via the sequential treatment of anaerobic sludge. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analyses were used to identify competition between the autochthonous microbial communities and white-rot fungi. Solid-phase treatment using white-rot fungi substantially reduced antibiotic concentrations and toxicity in sludge. According to PCR-DGGE results, there is an association between species of fungus and antibiotic type as a result of the different transformation pathways of fungal strains. Fungal post-treatment of sludge represents a promising method of removing antibiotic combinations, therefore holding a significant promise as an environmentally friendly means of degrading the antibiotics present in sludge. PMID:27033714

  20. A Ca-alginate particle co-immobilized with Phanerochaete chrysosporium cells and the combined cross-linked enzyme aggregates from Trametes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanchun; Wang, Zhi; Xu, Xudong; Jin, Liqiang

    2015-12-01

    For improving stability of immobilized white-rot fungus to treat various effluents, Phanerochaete chrysosporium cells and the combined cross-link enzyme aggregates (combi-CLEAs) prepared from Trametes versicolor were co-immobilized into the Ca-alginate gel particles in this paper. The activity yields of obtained combi-CLEAs were 42.7% for lignin peroxidases (LiPs), 31.4% for manganese peroxidases (MnPs) and 40.4% for laccase (Lac), respectively. And their specific activities were 30.2U/g as combi-CLEAs-LiPs, 9.5 U/g as combi-CLEAs-MnPs and 28.4 U/g as combi-CLEAs-Lac. Further, the present of the combi-CLEAs in the particles extremely improved their ability to degrade the dyes. Compared to the immobilized Ph. chrysosporium without the combi-CLEAs, the co-immobilized particles enhanced the decolorized rate of Acid Violet 7 (from 45.2% to 93.4%) and Basic Fuchsin (from 12.1% to 67.9%). In addition, the addition of the combi-CLEAs improved the adaptability of the white-rot fungal particles to adverse environmental conditions. PMID:26413897

  1. Solid-state fermentation of Jatropha seed cake for optimization of lipase, protease and detoxification of anti-nutrients in Jatropha seed cake using Aspergillus versicolor CJS-98.

    PubMed

    Veerabhadrappa, Mohankumar Bavimane; Shivakumar, Sharath Belame; Devappa, Somashekar

    2014-02-01

    This study focused on the solid-state fermentation of Jatropha seed cake (JSC), a byproduct generated after biodiesel production. Presence of anti-nutritional compounds and toxins restricts its application in livestock feed. The disposal of the JSC is a major environmental problem in the future, due to the generation of huge quantity of JSC after biodiesel extraction. Hence the JSC was assessed for its suitability as substrate for production and optimization of lipase and protease from Aspergillus versicolor CJS-98 by solid-state fermentation (SSF). The present study was also focused on the biodetoxification of anti-nutrients and toxins in JSC. The SSF parameters were optimized for maximum production of lipase and protease. Under the optimized conditions, the JSC supplemented with maltose and peptone (2%), adjusted to pH 7.0, moisture content 40%, inoculated with 1 × 10(7) spores per 5 g cake and incubated at 25°C, produced maximum lipase, 1288 U/g and protease, 3366 U/g at 96 h. The anti-nutrients like phytic acid (6.08%), tannins (0.37%), trypsin inhibitors (697.5 TIU/g), cyanogenic glucosides (692.5 μg/100 g), and lectins (0.309 mg/ml), were reduced to 1.70%, 0.23%, 12.5 TIU/g, 560.6 μg/100 g and 0.034 mg/ml respectively. The main toxic compound phorbol esters content in the JSC was reduced from 0.083% to 0.015% after SSF. Our results indicate that viability of SSF to utilize the huge amount of seed cake generated after extraction of biodiesel, for production of industrial enzymes and biodetoxification of anti-nutrients, toxins. PMID:23958640

  2. Khz-cp (crude polysaccharide extract obtained from the fusion of Ganoderma lucidum and Polyporus umbellatus mycelia) induces apoptosis by increasing intracellular calcium levels and activating P38 and NADPH oxidase-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species in SNU-1 cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Khz-cp is a crude polysaccharide extract that is obtained after nuclear fusion in Ganoderma lucidum and Polyporus umbellatus mycelia (Khz). It inhibits the growth of cancer cells. Methods Khz-cp was extracted by solvent extraction. The anti-proliferative activity of Khz-cp was confirmed by using Annexin-V/PI-flow cytometry analysis. Intracellular calcium increase and measurement of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were performed by using flow cytometry and inverted microscope. SNU-1 cells were treated with p38, Bcl-2 and Nox family siRNA. siRNA transfected cells was employed to investigate the expression of apoptotic, growth and survival genes in SNU-1 cells. Western blot analysis was performed to confirm the expression of the genes. Results In the present study, Khz-cp induced apoptosis preferentially in transformed cells and had only minimal effects on non-transformed cells. Furthermore, Khz-cp was found to induce apoptosis by increasing the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and activating P38 to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) via NADPH oxidase and the mitochondria. Khz-cp-induced apoptosis was caspase dependent and occurred via a mitochondrial pathway. ROS generation by NADPH oxidase was critical for Khz-cp-induced apoptosis, and although mitochondrial ROS production was also required, it appeared to occur secondary to ROS generation by NADPH oxidase. Activation of NADPH oxidase was shown by the translocation of the regulatory subunits p47phox and p67phox to the cell membrane and was necessary for ROS generation by Khz-cp. Khz-cp triggered a rapid and sustained increase in [Ca2+]i that activated P38. P38 was considered to play a key role in the activation of NADPH oxidase because inhibition of its expression or activity abrogated membrane translocation of the p47phox and p67phox subunits and ROS generation. Conclusions In summary, these data indicate that Khz-cp preferentially induces apoptosis in cancer cells and that the

  3. Modestobacter versicolor sp. nov., an actinobacterium from biological soil crusts that produces melanins under oligotrophy, with emended descriptions of the genus Modestobacter and Modestobacter multiseptatus Mevs et al. 2000.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Gundlapally S N; Potrafka, Ruth M; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran

    2007-09-01

    A novel isolate, CP153-2(T), was obtained from topsoil biological crusts in the Colorado Plateau (USA). Colonies were black in colour due to melanin-like pigments when grown on oligotrophic medium, but not when grown on copiotrophic medium. Induction of melanogenesis was independent of growth phase or illumination conditions, including exposure to UVB and UVA radiation, but exposure to UVB could enhance total pigment production and growth under low nitrogen prevented its synthesis. This mode of regulation was previously unknown among melanin-producing bacteria. Polyphasic characterization of the strain revealed that cells were short, straight to curved or irregular rods that developed into pairs and formed multiseptate short filaments, with rare bud-like cells. Short rods were typically motile by means of flagella; multicellular structures tended to be sessile. Cells stained Gram-positive, grew at 4-30 degrees C and had a narrow range of pH tolerance (pH 5-9). The major fatty acids were iso-C(15:0) iso-C(16 : 0), anteiso-C(15 : 0) and C(18 : 1); MK-9(H(4)) was the major respiratory quinone. Its peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity data, its closest relative (98.1 % similarity) was Modestobacter multiseptatus DSM 44406(T), which is similar morphologically. Based on the above characteristics, strain CP153-2(T) was also assigned to the genus Modestobacter. However, CP153-2(T) had a relatedness of only 49.9 % in whole-genome reassociation comparisons with the type strain of M. multiseptatus and thus formally represents a novel species, for which the name Modestobacter versicolor sp. nov. is proposed. Additional evidence in support of a novel species comes from phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics. Strain CP153-2(T) (=ATCC BAA-1040(T) =DSM 16678(T)) is the type strain of M. versicolor. PMID:17766865

  4. Environmental biodegradability of [¹⁴C] single-walled carbon nanotubes by Trametes versicolor and natural microbial cultures found in New Bedford Harbor sediment and aerated wastewater treatment plant sludge.

    PubMed

    Parks, Ashley N; Chandler, G Thomas; Ho, Kay T; Burgess, Robert M; Ferguson, P Lee

    2015-02-01

    Little is known about environmental biodegradability or biotransformations of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT). Because of their strong association with aquatic organic matter, detailed knowledge of the ultimate fate and persistence of SWNT requires investigation of possible biotransformations (i.e., biodegradation) in environmental media. In the present study, [(14)C]SWNT were utilized to track biodegradation over 6 mo by pure liquid culture of the fungus Trametes versicolor and mixed bacterial isolates from field-collected sediment or aerated wastewater treatment plant sludge. The mixed cultures were chosen as more environmentally relevant media where SWNT will likely be deposited under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Activity of [(14)C] was assessed in solid, aqueous, and (14)CO2 gaseous phases to determine amounts of intact SWNT, partially soluble SWNT degradation products, and mineralized SWNT, respectively, during the 6 mo of the experiment. Mass balances based on radiocarbon activity were approximately 100% over 6 mo, and no significant degradation of SWNT was observed. Approximately 99% of the [(14)C] activity remained in the solid phase, 0.8% in the aqueous phase, and less than 0.1% was mineralized to (14)CO2, regardless of culture type. These results suggest that SWNT are not readily biodegraded by pure fungal cultures or environmental microbial communities, and are likely persistent in environmental media. PMID:25352477

  5. Biodegradation of the X-ray contrast agent iopromide and the fluoroquinolone antibiotic ofloxacin by the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor in hospital wastewaters and identification of degradation products.

    PubMed

    Gros, Meritxell; Cruz-Morato, Carles; Marco-Urrea, Ernest; Longrée, Philipp; Singer, Heinz; Sarrà, Montserrat; Hollender, Juliane; Vicent, Teresa; Rodriguez-Mozaz, Sara; Barceló, Damià

    2014-09-01

    This paper describes the degradation of the X-ray contrast agent iopromide (IOP) and the antibiotic ofloxacin (OFLOX) by the white-rot-fungus Trametes versicolor. Batch studies in synthetic medium revealed that between 60 and 80% of IOP and OFLOX were removed when spiked at approximately 12 mg L(-1) and 10 mg L(-1), respectively. A significant number of transformation products (TPs) were identified for both pharmaceuticals, confirming their degradation. IOP TPs were attributed to two principal reactions: (i) sequential deiodination of the aromatic ring and (ii) N-dealkylation of the amide at the hydroxylated side chain of the molecule. On the other hand, OFLOX transformation products were attributed mainly to the oxidation, hydroxylation and cleavage of the piperazine ring. Experiments in 10 L-bioreactor with fungal biomass fluidized by air pulses operated in batch achieved high percentage of degradation of IOP and OFLOX when load with sterile (87% IOP, 98.5% OFLOX) and unsterile (65.4% IOP, 99% OFLOX) hospital wastewater (HWW) at their real concentration (μg L(-1) level). Some of the most relevant IOP and OFLOX TPs identified in synthetic medium were also detected in bioreactor samples. Acute toxicity tests indicated a reduction of the toxicity in the final culture broth from both experiments in synthetic medium and in batch bioreactor. PMID:24867600

  6. The influence of moisture content variation on fungal pigment formation in spalted wood.

    PubMed

    Tudor, Daniela; Robinson, Sara C; Cooper, Paul A

    2012-01-01

    Eight fungal species known to produce wood pigmentation were tested for reaction to various moisture contents in two hardwood species. Fungal pigmentation by Trametes versicolor and Xylaria polymorpha was stimulated at low water concentrations in both Acer saccharum (sugar maple) and Fagus grandifolia (American beech), while Inonotus hispidus and Polyporus squamosus were stimulated above 22-28% and 34-38% moisture content in beech and in sugar maple respectively. Fomes fomentarius and Polyporus brumalis produced maximum pigmentation in beech at 26 - 41% and in sugar maple at 59 - 96% moisture content. The pink staining Scytalidium cuboideum pigmented both wood species at above 35% moisture content. This research indicates that controlling the moisture content values of wood substrates can stimulate the intensity of pigmentation of specific fungi when spalting wood for decorative and commercial purpose. PMID:23245292

  7. Identification of a laccase from Ganoderma lucidum CBS 229.93 having potential for enhancing cellulase catalyzed lignocellulose degradation.

    PubMed

    Sitarz, Anna K; Mikkelsen, Jørn D; Højrup, Peter; Meyer, Anne S

    2013-12-10

    Based on a differential pre-screening of 44 white-rot fungi on a lignocellulose-supplemented minimal medium, four basidiomycetes were selected for further study: Ganoderma lucidum, Polyporus brumalis, Polyporus ciliatus and Trametes versicolor. Only G. lucidum was able to grow vividly on malt extract or minimal media supplemented with alkali lignin. When grown on malt extract or minimal medium supplemented with lignocellulose (sugar cane bagasse), the crude G. lucidum protein extract exhibited high laccase activity, ∼3U/mL toward syringaldazine. This activity was 13-17 fold higher than the corresponding activities of the crude protein extracts of P. brumalis, P. ciliatus and T. versicolor. Native PAGE electrophoresis of the crude G. lucidum extract confirmed the presence of an active laccase. The G. lucidum laccase had a molecular weight of ∼62.5kDa, and a Km value of 0.107mM (determined on ABTS). A partial amino acid sequence analysis of four short de novo sequenced peptides, defined after trypsin digest analysis using MALDI-TOF MS/MS analysis, revealed 64-100% homology to sequences in related laccases in the UniProt database, but also indicated that certain sequence stretches had low homology. Addition of the laccase-rich G. lucidum broth to lignocellulosic biomass (pretreated sugar cane bagasse) together with a state-of-the-art cellulase enzyme preparation (Cellic™CTec1) produced significantly increased cellulolytic yields, which were also better than those obtained with a T. versicolor laccase addition, indicating that the laccase from G. lucidum has unique properties that may be momentous in lignocellulosic biomass conversion. PMID:24315640

  8. Development of recombinant biocatalysts expressing laccase enzyme from Trametes versicolor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing demands for sustainable energy necessitate the use of biorenewable sources such as agricultural and forestry wastes. A major challenge of using lignocellulosic biomass for biofuel production is the recalcitrant nature of the lignin structure. Laccase is a multi-copper oxidase that catal...

  9. Biodegradation of ddt (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane) by the white rot fungus phanerochaete chrysosporium

    SciTech Connect

    Bumpus, J.A.; Aust, S.D.

    1987-01-01

    Extensive biodegradation of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by disappearance and mineralization of (14C) DDT in nutrient nitrogen-deficient cultures. Mass balance studies demonstrated the formation of polar and water-soluble metabolites during degradation. Hexane-extractable metabolites identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry included 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane(DDD), 2,2,2-trichloro-1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethanol (dicofol), 2,2-dichloro-1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethanol (FW-152), and 4,4'-dichlorobenzophenone (DBP). DDD was the first metabolite observed; it appeared after 3 days of incubation and disappeared from culture upon continued incubation. This, as well as the fact that ((14)C) dicofol was mineralized, demonstrates that intermediates formed during DDT degradation are also metabolized. These results demonstrate that the pathway for DDT degradation in P. chrysosporium is clearly different from the major pathway proposed for microbial or environmental degradation of DDT. Like P. chrysosporium ME-446 and BKM-F-1767, the white rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus, Phellinus weirii, and Polyporus versicolor also mineralized DDT.

  10. Novel medicinal mushroom blend suppresses growth and invasiveness of human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiahua; Sliva, Daniel

    2010-12-01

    Mushrooms are an integral part of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), and have been used for millennia to prevent or treat a variety of diseases. Currently mushrooms or their extracts are used globally in the form of dietary supplements. In the present study we have evaluated the anticancer effects of the dietary supplement, MycoPhyto® Complex (MC), a novel medicinal mushroom blend which consists of a blend of mushroom mycelia from the species Agaricus blazei, Cordyceps sinensis, Coriolus versicolor, Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa and Polyporus umbellatus, and β-1,3-glucan isolated from the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we show that MC demonstrates cytostatic effects through the inhibition of cell proliferation and cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase of highly invasive human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231. DNA-microarray analysis revealed that MC inhibits expression of cell cycle regulatory genes (ANAPC2, ANAPC2, BIRC5, Cyclin B1, Cyclin H, CDC20, CDK2, CKS1B, Cullin 1, E2F1, KPNA2, PKMYT1 and TFDP1). Moreover, MC also suppresses the metastatic behavior of MDA-MB-231 by the inhibition of cell adhesion, cell migration and cell invasion. The potency of MC to inhibit invasiveness of breast cancer cells is linked to the suppression of secretion of the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) from MDA-MB-231 cells. In conclusion, the MC dietary supplement could have potential therapeutic value in the treatment of invasive human breast cancer. PMID:21042722

  11. Potential of fungal co-culturing for accelerated biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil.

    PubMed

    Yanto, Dede Heri Yuli; Tachibana, Sanro

    2014-08-15

    The potential of fungal co-culture of the filamentous Pestalotiopsis sp. NG007 with four different basidiomycetes--Trametes versicolor U97, Pleurotus ostreatus PL1, Cerena sp. F0607, and Polyporus sp. S133--for accelerating biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) was studied using three different physicochemical characteristic PHCs in soil. All the combinations showed a mutual intermingling mycelial interaction on the agar plates. However, only NG007/S133 (50/50) exhibited an optimum growth rate and enzymatic activities that supported the degradation of asphalt in soil. The co-culture also degraded all fractions at even higher concentrations of the different PHCs. In addition, asphaltene, which is a difficult fraction for a single microorganism to degrade, was markedly degraded by the co-culture, which indicated that the simultaneous biodegradation of aliphatic, aromatic, resin, and asphaltene fractions had occurred in the co-culture. An examination of in-vitro degradation by the crude enzymes and the retrieval fungal culture from the soil after the experiment confirmed the accelerated biodegradation due to enhanced enzyme activities in the co-culture. The addition of piperonyl butoxide or AgNO3 inhibited biodegradation by 81-99%, which demonstrated the important role of P450 monooxygenases and/or dioxygenases in the initial degradation of the aliphatic and aromatic fractions in PHCs. PMID:24997261

  12. Applications of micellar enzymology to clean coal technology

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, C.T.

    1990-10-26

    This project is designed to develop methods for pre-combustion coal remediation by implementing recent advances in enzyme biochemistry. The novel approach of this study is incorporation of hydrophilic oxidative enzymes in reverse micelles in an organic solvent. Enzymes from commercial sources or microbial extracts are being investigated for their capacity to remove organic sulfur from coal by oxidation of the sulfur groups, splitting of C-S bonds and loss of sulfur as sulfuric acid Dibenzothiophene (DBT) and ethlyphenylsulfide (EPS) are serving as models of organic sulfur-containing components of coal in initial studies. A goal of this project is to define a reverse micelle system that optimizes the catalytic activity of enzymes toward desulfurization of model compounds and ultimately coal samples. Among the variables which will be examined are the surfactant, the solvent, the water:surfactant ration and the pH and ionic strength of the aqueous phase. Studies were carried out with HRP, Type I RZ=1.2 and Type VI RZ=3.2 and laccase from Polyporus versicolor. Substrates for HRP assays included hydrogen peroxide, DBT, DBT sulfoxide, and DBT sulfone. Buffers included sodium phosphate. For formation of reverse micelle solutions the surfactant AOT, di(2-ethyl-hexyl)sodium sulphosuccinate, was obtained from Sigma Chemical Co. Isooctant was used as organic solvent. 12 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Production of manganic chelates by laccase from the lignin-degrading fungus Trametes (Coriolus) versicolor.

    PubMed Central

    Archibald, F; Roy, B

    1992-01-01

    Many ligninolytic basidiomycete fungi have been shown to secrete a group of peroxidase isozymes whose sole function appears to be the peroxide-dependent oxidation of manganous [Mn(II)] to manganic [Mn(III)] ions. Manganic chelates and these Mn peroxidases have been implicated as central to the degradation of various natural and synthetic lignins and lignin-containing effluents by white rot (ligninolytic) fungi. Another group of enzymes, the laccases, are commonly secreted by wood-rotting fungi, but are generally regarded as being able to oxidize (and usually polymerize) only phenolic substrates. In this report it is shown that in the presence of appropriate oxidizable phenolic accessory substances or primary substrates, a variety of laccases and peroxidases catalyzing one-electron oxidations can also produce Mn(III) chelates from Mn(II). PMID:1622216

  14. Cloning and Expression of Laccase from Trametes versicolor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a Novel Vector System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The long-term goal of this research is to increase efficiency and decrease cost of ethanol fermentation of lignocellulosic feedstocks by combining pre-treatment using laccase enzyme and subsequent fermentation to ethanol through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation paradigms. The first st...

  15. Potential of acetylacetone as a mediator for Trametes versicolor laccase in enzymatic transformation of organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hua; Sun, Hongfei; Zhang, Shujuan; Wu, Bingdang; Pan, Bingcai

    2015-07-01

    Low-cost and environmentally friendly mediators could facilitate the application of laccase (EC 1.10.3.2) in variant biotechnological processes. Acetylacetone (AA) represents an inexpensive and low toxic small molecular diketone that has been proven as an effective mediator for laccase in free radical polymerization. However, the potential of AA as a mediator for laccase in pollutant detoxification and/or degradation is still unknown. In this work, the roles of AA in laccase-induced polymerization and transformation were investigated. AA was demonstrated to be a highly efficient mediator in the laccase-induced grafting copolymerization of acrylamide and chitosan. The efficacy of AA in the laccase-induced decoloration of malachite green (MG) was compared with that of the widely used 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT). The laccase-AA system had the highest turnover number (TON, 39.1 μmol/U), followed by the laccase-only system (28.5 μmol/U), while the TON of the laccase-HBT system was the lowest (14.9 μmol/U). The pseudo-first-order transformation rate constant (k 1) of MG in the laccase-AA system was up to 0.283 h(-1) under the given conditions, while the k 1 of AA caused by laccase was only 0.008 h(-1). In the five-cycle run, the concentration of AA remained stable. The larger TON of the laccase-AA system and the stability of AA in the cycling runs demonstrate that AA was more recyclable than HBT in the LMS, leading to a prolonged serving life of laccase. These results suggest that AA might be a potential redox mediator for laccase. PMID:25772881

  16. EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF MULTIVARIATE FEMALE CHOICE IN GRAY TREEFROGS (Hyla versicolor)

    PubMed Central

    Gerhardt, H. Carl; Brooks, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Even simple biological signals vary in several measurable dimensions. Understanding their evolution requires, therefore, a multivariate understanding of selection, including how different properties interact to determine the effectiveness of the signal. We combined experimental manipulation with multivariate selection analysis to assess female mate choice on the simple trilled calls of male gray treefrogs. We independently and randomly varied five behaviorally relevant acoustic properties in 154 synthetic calls. We compared response times of each of 154 females to one of these calls with its response to a standard call that had mean values of the five properties. We found directional and quadratic selection on two properties indicative of the amount of signaling, pulse number and call rate. Canonical rotation of the fitness surface showed that these properties, along with pulse rate, contributed heavily to a major axis of stabilizing selection, a result consistent with univariate studies showing diminishing effects of increasing pulse number well beyond the mean. Spectral properties contributed to a second major axis of stabilizing selection. The single major axis of disruptive selection suggested that a combination of two temporal and two spectral properties with values differing from the mean should be especially attractive. PMID:19500145

  17. Synthesis and effect of modification on methacylate - acrylate microspheres for Trametes versicolor laccase enzyme immobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazlan, Siti Zulaikha; Hanifah, Sharina Abu

    2014-09-01

    Immobilization of laccase on the modified copolymer methacrylate-acrylate microspheres was studied. A poly (glycidyl methacrylate-co-n-butyl acrylate) microsphere consists of epoxy groups were synthesized using suspension photocuring technique. The epoxy group in poly (GMA-nBA) microspheres were converted into amino groups with aldehyde group. Laccase immobilization is based on having the amino groups on the enzyme surface and aldehyde group on the microspheres via covalent binding. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis proved the successful surface modification on microspheres. The FTIR spectrum shows the characteristic peaks at 1646 cm-1 assigned to the conformation of the polymerization that took place between monomer GMA and nBA respectively. In addition, after modification, FTIR peaks that assigned to the epoxy ring (844 cm-1 and 904 cm-1) were decreased. The results obtained from FTIR method signify good agreement with the epoxy content method. Hence, the activity of the laccase-immobilized microspheres increased upon increasing the epoxy content. Furthermore, poly (GMA-nBA) exhibited uniform microspheres with below 2 μm surface. Immobilized enzyme showed a broader pH profile and higher temperature compared native enzyme.

  18. A high throughput colorimetric assay of β-1,3-D-glucans by Congo red dye.

    PubMed

    Semedo, Magda C; Karmali, Amin; Fonseca, Luís

    2015-02-01

    Mushroom strains contain complex nutritional biomolecules with a wide spectrum of therapeutic and prophylactic properties. Among these compounds, β-d-glucans play an important role in immuno-modulating and anti-tumor activities. The present work involves a novel colorimetric assay method for β-1,3-d-glucans with a triple helix tertiary structure by using Congo red. The specific interaction that occurs between Congo red and β-1,3-d-glucan was detected by bathochromic shift from 488 to 516 nm (>20 nm) in UV-Vis spectrophotometer. A micro- and high throughput method based on a 96-well microtiter plate was devised which presents several advantages over the published methods since it requires only 1.51 μg of polysaccharides in samples, greater sensitivity, speed, assay of many samples and very cheap. β-D-Glucans of several mushrooms (i.e., Coriolus versicolor, Ganoderma lucidum, Pleurotus ostreatus, Ganoderma carnosum, Hericium erinaceus, Lentinula edodes, Inonotus obliquus, Auricularia auricular, Polyporus umbellatus, Cordyseps sinensis, Agaricus blazei, Poria cocos) were isolated by using a sequence of several extractions with cold and boiling water, acidic and alkaline conditions and quantified by this microtiter plate method. FTIR spectroscopy was used to study the structural features of β-1,3-D-glucans in these mushroom samples as well as the specific interaction of these polysaccharides with Congo red. The effect of NaOH on triple helix conformation of β-1,3-D-glucans was investigated in several mushroom species. PMID:25555819

  19. Aldehyde PEGylation of laccase from Trametes versicolor in route to increase its stability: effect on enzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Mayolo-Deloisa, Karla; González-González, Mirna; Simental-Martínez, Jesús; Rito-Palomares, Marco

    2015-03-01

    Laccase is a multicopper oxidase that catalyzes the oxidation of phenolic compounds. Laccase can be used in bioremediation, beverage (wine, fruit juice, and beer) processing, ascorbic acid determination, sugar beet pectin gelation baking, and as a biosensor. Recently, the antiproliferative activity of laccase toward tumor cells has been reported. Because of the potential applications of this enzyme, the efforts for enhancing and stabilizing its activity have increased. Thus, the PEGylation of laccase can be an alternative. PEGylation is the covalent attachment of one or more molecules of methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) to a protein. Normally, during the PEGylation reaction, the activity is reduced but the stability increases; thus, it is important to minimize the loss of activity. In this work, the effects of molar ratio (1:4, 1:8, and 1:12), concentration of laccase (6 and 12 mg/ml), reaction time (4 and 17 h), molecular weight, and type of mPEG (20, 30, 40 kDa and 40 kDa-branched) were analyzed. The activity was measured using three substrates: ABTS, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, and syringaldazine. The best conditions for laccase PEGylation were 12 mg/ml of laccase, molar ratio 1:4, and 4 h reaction time. Under these conditions, the enzyme was able to maintain nearly 100% of its enzymatic activity with ABTS. The PEGylation of laccase has not been extensively explored, so it is important to analyze the effects of this bioconjugation in route to produce a robust modified enzyme. PMID:25652594

  20. Biomarker Analysis of American Toad (Anaxyrus Americanus) and Grey Tree Frog (Hyla Versicolor) Tadpoles Following Exposure to Atrazine

    EPA Science Inventory

    To better understand the mode of action of atrazine in amphibians, we utilized mass spectrometry-based metabolomics to investigate the biochemical changes in two species of larval amphibians exposed to atrazine. Our objectives were to 1) Use changes in endogenous metabolites to f...

  1. Effect of anomalous pulse timing on call discrimination by females of the gray treefrog (Hyla versicolor): behavioral correlates of neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Joshua J; Huth, Kenneth; Hunce, Raymond; Lentine, Brandon

    2010-06-15

    Research has demonstrated that certain midbrain neurons of anurans 'count' interpulse intervals (IPIs). Some neurons fire after exposure to fewer intervals than do others. Counting can be reset to zero if an IPI falls outside the cell's tolerance range. We tested female gray treefrogs for behavioral correlates of these neural response patterns using phonotaxis tests in order to gain a better understanding of the mechanistic bases of female responses to calls. For example, previous work demonstrated females often prefer longer to shorter pulsed advertisement calls, even when the former occur at lower rates. Call attractiveness can also be reduced when pulse duration and timing have been manipulated experimentally or disrupted by acoustic interference. In this study, female responses were consistent with neural data, emphasizing the importance of IPIs. Females discriminated in favor of calls with normal interpulse timing relative to those in which a single IPI was too long or too short. Our data suggest that neural resetting of interval counting by inappropriate intervals may more strongly influence females than reduced firing in response to such intervals on an individual basis. Data also suggest a transition point between 125 ms and 175 ms at which an interval between pulse strings is treated as an interval between calls. PMID:20511520

  2. TRANSFORMATION OF 2-HYDROXYDIBENZOFURAN BY LACCASES OF THE WHITE ROT FUNGI TRAMETES VERSICOLOR AND PYCNOPORUS CINNABARINUS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF OLIGOMERIZATION PRODUCTS. (R823847)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  3. Continuous treatment of non-sterile hospital wastewater by Trametes versicolor: How to increase fungal viability by means of operational strategies and pretreatments.

    PubMed

    Mir-Tutusaus, J A; Sarrà, M; Caminal, G

    2016-11-15

    Hospital wastewaters have a high load of pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs). Fungal treatments could be appropriate for source treatment of such effluents but the transition to non-sterile conditions proved to be difficult due to competition with indigenous microorganisms, resulting in very short-duration operations. In this article, coagulation-flocculation and UV-radiation processes were studied as pretreatments to a fungal reactor treating non-sterile hospital wastewater in sequential batch operation and continuous operation modes. The influent was spiked with ibuprofen and ketoprofen, and both compounds were successfully degraded by over 80%. UV pretreatment did not extent the fungal activity after coagulation-flocculation measured as laccase production and pellet integrity. Sequential batch operation did not reduce bacteria competition during fungal treatment. The best strategy was the addition of a coagulation-flocculation pretreatment to a continuous reactor, which led to an operation of 28days without biomass renovation. PMID:27469044

  4. Redox modulation of cellular stress response and lipoxin A4 expression by Coriolus versicolor in rat brain: Relevance to Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Trovato, A; Siracusa, R; Di Paola, R; Scuto, M; Fronte, V; Koverech, G; Luca, M; Serra, A; Toscano, M A; Petralia, A; Cuzzocrea, S; Calabrese, V

    2016-03-01

    Increasing evidence supports the notion that oxidative stress-driven neuroinflammation is an early pathological feature in neurodegenerative diseases. As a prominent intracellular redox system involved in neuroprotection, the vitagene system is emerging as a potential neurohormetic target for novel cytoprotective interventions. Vitagenes encode for cytoprotective heat shock proteins 70, heme oxygenase-1, thioredoxin and lipoxin A4. Emerging interest is now focusing on molecules capable of activating the vitagene system as novel therapeutic targets to minimize deleterious consequences associated with free radical-induced cell damage, such as in neurodegeneration. Mushroom-derived lipoxin A4 (LXA4) is an emerging endogenous eicosanoid able to promote resolution of inflammation, acting as an endogenous "braking signal" in the inflammatory process. Mushrooms have long been used in traditional medicine for thousands of years, being now increasingly recognized as rich source of polysaccharopeptides endowed with significant antitumor, antioxidant, antiviral, antibacterial and cytoprotective effects, thereby capable of stimulating host immune responses. Here we provide evidence of a neuroprotective action of the Coriolus mushroom when administered orally to rat. Expression of LXA4 was measured in different brain regions after oral administration of a Coriolus biomass preparation, given for 30 days. LXA4 up-regulation was associated with an increased content of redox sensitive proteins involved in cellular stress response, such as Hsp72, heme oxygenase-1 and thioredoxin. In the brain of rats receiving Coriolus, maximum induction of LXA4 was observed in cortex and hippocampus. Hsps induction was associated with no significant changes in IkBα, NFkB and COX-2 brain levels. Conceivably, activation of LXA4 signaling and modulation of stress-responsive vitagene proteins could serve as a potential therapeutic target for AD-related inflammation and neurodegenerative damage. PMID:26433056

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL BIODEGRADABILITY OF [14C] SINGLE-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBESBY TRAMETES VERSICOLOR AND NATURAL MICROBIAL CULTURES FOUND IN NEWBEDFORD HARBOR SEDIMENT AND AERATED WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Little is known about environmental biodegradability or biotransformations of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT). Because of their strong association with aquatic organic matter, detailed knowledge of the ultimate fate and persistence of SWNT requires investigation of possible...

  6. Skin color - patchy

    MedlinePlus

    ... medication reactions or certain drugs Sunburn or suntan Tinea versicolor Unevenly applying sunscreen, leading to areas of ... ketoconazole, or tolnaftate (Tinactin) lotion can help treat tinea versicolor. Apply as directed to the affected area ...

  7. Diversity of Polypore Bracket Mushrooms, Polyporales (Agaricomycetes), Recorded in Armenia and Their Medicinal Properties.

    PubMed

    Badalyan, Susanna M; Gharibyan, Narine G

    2016-01-01

    The list of polypore bracket mushrooms (Polyporales) recorded in Armenia is presented. The order Polyporales in Armenia is currently represented by 87 species (4 varieties) belonging to 47 genera. Information regarding the study of the medicinal properties (e.g., antifungal, antibacterial, mitogenic, regenerative, antioxidant, proteolytic) of genetically identified mycelial collections of several polypore species-mainly from the genera Daedalea, Fomes, Fomitopsis, Ganoderma, Laetiporus, Piptoporus, Polyporus, and Trametes-is reported, as well. PMID:27481301

  8. Microbial screening test for lignite degradation. Quarterly progress report No. 1, January-March 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, T.F.

    1985-01-01

    Potassium permanganate and sodium hypochlorite oxidation of lignitic coal were performed. Ion chromatography of low molecular weight carboxylic acids - oxalic acid, formic acid, and acetic acid - produced by potassium permanganate and sodium hypochlorite oxidation was executed. Oxalic acid was found to be the most predominant low molecular weight species. It was estimated that about 10% of the carbon present in the chemical structure of lignite was converted to oxalic acid by sodium hypochlorite oxidation. Ion chromatography analysis showed that about 43% of the lignite carbon was converted to carbon dioxide in all experiments. Biological degradation of lignite by P. versicolor, a white-rot fungus, on lignite/agar and lignite slurry was attempted. Apparently, P. versicolor is capable of growing on lignite slurry. Acclimation of P. versicolor to lignite was proceeded. Biochemical reaction test for laccase production of P. versicolor was performed and found to be positive. 15 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT METHODS FOR THE EXTRACTION OF DNA FROM FUNGAL CONIDIA BY QUANTITATIVE COMPETITIVE PCR ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five different DNA extraction methods were evaluated for their effectiveness in recovering PCR templates from the conidia of a series of fungal species often encountered in indoor air. The test organisms were Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium chrysogenum, Stachybotrys chartaru...

  10. Laboratory research on the efficacy of chlorine dioxide fumigation for the remediation of mold-contaminated buildings--conference paper

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this project was to determine the efficacy ofCl02 fumigation to inactivate viable mold, mycotoxins, and allergens on building materials. Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus versicolor, Aspergillus Jumigatus, Chaetomium globosum, and Stachybotrys chartarum were indivi...

  11. Degradation of hop bitter acids by fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Huszcza, Ewa Bartmanska, Agnieszka; Aniol, Miroslaw; Maczka, Wanda; Zolnierczyk, Anna; Wawrzenczyk, Czeslaw

    2008-07-01

    Nine fungal strains related to: Trametes versicolor, Nigrospora oryzae, Inonotus radiatus, Crumenulopsis sororia, Coryneum betulinum, Cryptosporiopsis radicicola, Fusarium equiseti, Rhodotorula glutinis and Candida parapsilosis were tested for their ability to degrade humulones and lupulones. The best results were obtained for T. versicolor culture, in which humulones and lupulones were fully degraded after 4 days of incubation in the dark or after 36 h in the light. The experiments were performed on a commercial hop extract and on sterilized spent hops.

  12. Regulation of coal polymer degradation by fungi. Eighth quarterly report, [January--March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, R.L.; Bumpus, J.A.

    1996-07-28

    Progress is reported on solubilization of low-rank coal by enzyme activity derived from Trametes versicolor or P. chrysosporium. Specifically during the reporting period efforts were directed towards the determining the effect of pH on solubilization of leonardite, the role of laccase in low coal solubilization and metabolism, the decolorization of soluble coal macromolecule by P. chrysosprium and T. versicolor in solid agar gel, and the solubilization of low rank coal in slurry cultures and solid phase reactors.

  13. Embryonic thermosensitivity and hatchling morphology differ between two coexisting lizards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Yan-Fu; Li, Hong; Gao, Jian-Fang; Ji, Xiang

    2011-07-01

    We incubated eggs of two coexisting lizards, Phrynocephalus frontalis and Phrynocephalus versicolor, at three constant temperatures (24, 28 and 32 °C) to examine whether they differ in embryonic thermosensitivity and hatchling morphology. Eggs incubated at the three temperatures produced morphologically different hatchlings in P. versicolor but not in P. frontalis. Snout-vent length (SVL), body mass and head width were greater in P. versicolor hatchlings from the 24 °C treatment than those from the 32 °C treatment when accounting for differences in initial egg mass, and tail length was smaller in P. versicolor hatchlings from the 24 °C treatment than those from the 32 °C treatment when accounting for differences in final egg mass. Body mass, head length, head width, tail length, fore-limb length and hind-limb length were greater in P. frontalis hatchlings than in P. versicolor hatchling when accounting for differences in initial or final egg mass. Moreover, P. frontalis females produce larger hatchlings than do P. versicolor females of the same SVL not only by laying larger eggs, but also by investing more dry materials (and thus, more energy) into the egg. Given a link between interspecific competition (and niche restriction) and morphology, it seems likely that morphological differences at hatching may facilitate the coexistence of the two lizards. The two lizards differed in embryonic thermosensitivity and water uptake by eggs during incubation, suggesting that they use different microhabitats in the area of sympatry.

  14. A study of over production and enhanced secretion of enzymes. Quarterly report 1

    SciTech Connect

    Dashek, W.V.

    1992-12-28

    The current project is concerned with the over-production and enhanced secretion of PPO, cellulase and lignin peroxidase. The project is divided into two segments: over-production of lignocellulolytic enzymes by genetic engineering methodologies and hyper-production and enhanced secretion of these enzymes by biochemical/electron microscopical techniques. The former approach employs recombinant DNA procedures, ligation of appropriate nuclease generated DNA fragments into a vector and the subsequent transformation of Escherichia coli to yield E. coli harboring a C. versicolor DNA insert. The biochemistry/electron microscopical method involves substrate induction and the time-dependent addition of respiration and PPO inhibitors to elevate C.versicolor`s ability to synthesize and secrete lignocellulosic enzymes. In this connection, cell fractionation/kinetic analysis, TEM immunoelectron microscopic localization and TEM substrate localization of PPO are being employed to assess the route of secretion. Both approaches will culminate in the batch culture of either E. coli or C. versicolor, in a fermentor with the subsequent development of rapid isolation and purification procedures to yield elevated quantities of pure lignocellulosic enzymes. During the past year, research effort were directed toward determining the route of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) secretion by the wood-decay fungus, Coriolus versicolor. In addition, research activities were continued to over-produce and to purify PPO as well as define the time-dependent intra- and extra-cellular appearances of C. versicolor ligninases and cellulases.

  15. Species-specificity of temporal processing in the auditory midbrain of gray treefrogs: interval-counting neurons.

    PubMed

    Rose, Gary J; Hanson, Jessica L; Leary, Christopher J; Graham, Jalina A; Alluri, Rishi K; Vasquez-Opazo, Gustavo A

    2015-05-01

    Interval-counting neurons (ICNs) respond after a threshold number of sound pulses have occurred with specific intervals; a single aberrant interval can reset the counting process. Female gray treefrogs, Hyla chrysoscelis and H. versicolor, discriminate against synthetic 'calls' possessing a single interpulse interval 2-3 three times the optimal value, suggesting that ICNs are important for call recognition. The calls of H. versicolor consist of pulses that are longer in duration, rise more slowly in amplitude and are repeated at a slower rate than those of H. chrysoscelis. Results of recordings from midbrain auditory neurons in these species include: (1) ICNs were found in both species and their temporal selectivity appeared to result from interplay between excitation and inhibition; (2) band-pass cells in H. versicolor were tuned to slower pulse rates than those in H. chrysoscelis; (3) ICNs that were selective for slow-rise pulse shape were found almost exclusively in H. versicolor, but fast-rise-selective neurons were found in both species, and (4) band-suppression ICNs in H. versicolor showed response minima at higher pulse rates than those in H. chrysoscelis. Selectivity of midbrain ICNs for pulse rise time and repetition rate thus correlate well with discriminatory abilities of these species that promote reproductive isolation. PMID:25764308

  16. Copper inducing effect on laccase production of white rot fungi native from Misiones (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Fonseca, María I; Shimizu, Ernesto; Zapata, Pedro D; Villalba, Laura L

    2010-05-01

    Fungi may be selected as models for gene expression studies and further adaptation for biotechnological enzyme production. The aim of this work was to evaluate laccase production and to analyze the effect of Cu(2+) on selected fungi natives of Misiones, Ganoderma applanatum (strain F), Peniophora sp. (BAFC 633), Pycnoporus sanguineus (BAFC 2126) and Coriolus versicolor f. antarcticus (BAFC 266). Fungi secretion system of G. applanatum, Peniophora sp., P. sanguineus and C. versicolor f. antarcticus is sensitive to stimulation by copper. Biomass values of G. applanatum, Peniophora sp. and C. versicolor f. antarcticus did not show differences between treatments. P. sanguineus biomass underwent a dramatic growth inhibition with 1mM Cu(2+) and marked delay in growth with 0.5mM Cu(2+). Proteins were increased with copper in Peniophora sp., C. versicolor and G. applanatum. G. applanatum and Peniophora sp. reached the highest enzyme activity at 10th day equivalent to 49.2-fold and 19.7-fold higher than the control samples, respectively. Copper produced an increase of constitutive laccases in all fungi and an additional inducible isoenzyme in Peniophora sp., C. versicolor f. antarcticus and G. applanatum. PMID:25919631

  17. Effect of different carbon sources on decolourisation of an industrial textile dye under alkaline-saline conditions.

    PubMed

    Ottoni, Cristiane; Lima, Luis; Santos, Cledir; Lima, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    White-rot fungal strains of Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium were selected to study the decolourisation of the textile dye, Reactive Black 5, under alkaline-saline conditions. Free and immobilised T. versicolor cells showed 100 % decolourisation in the growth medium supplemented with 15 g l(-1) NaCl, pH 9.5 at 30 °C in liquid batch culture. Continuous culture experiments were performed in a fixed-bed reactor using free and immobilised T. versicolor cells and allowed 85-100 % dye decolourisation. The immobilisation conditions for the biomass and the additional supply of carbon sources improved the decolourisation performance during a long-term trial of 40 days. Lignin peroxidase, laccase and glyoxal oxidase activities were detected during the experiments. The laccase activity varied depending on carbon source utilized and glycerol-enhanced laccase activity compared to sucrose during extended growth. PMID:23982200

  18. Microbial degradation of thidiazuron and its photoproduct.

    PubMed

    Benezet, H J; Knowles, C O

    1982-01-01

    Degradation of the cotton defoliant thidiazuron and its photoproduct photothidiazuron by soil and thirteen species of microorganisms was examined. Aspergillus versicolor, Torula rosea, and Flavobacter sp. were most active in degrading thidiazuron. Unknown water-soluble metabolites and phenylurea were the major products. A. versicolor and Penicillium cyclopium were most active in degrading photothidiazuron. 4-Hydroxyphenylphotothidiazuron was the major organosoluble product formed by A. versicolor; phenylurea and an unidentified metabolite constituted the major organosoluble products from P. cyclopium. Both microbes also formed appreciable water-soluble metabolites. Radioactive carbon dioxide was formed from thidiazuron-aniline-14C by Oscillatoria sp. but not by Chlorella sp., suggesting that the former algal species utilized the defoliant as an energy source. PMID:7073312

  19. Food partitioning of leaf-eating mangrove crabs ( Sesarminae): Experimental and stable isotope ( 13C and 15N) evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Ditte K.; Kristensen, Erik; Mangion, Perrine

    2010-05-01

    The feasibility of mangrove leaves as a full diet for sesarmid crabs has been questioned for decades. Since these leaves are nitrogen-poor, sesarmids probably obtain nitrogen from other sources to sustain growth. The aim of this study was to assess the food partitioning of the sesarmid species Neoepisesarma versicolor with emphasis on nitrogen allocation. The preference for animal tissue when crabs were pre-fed diets of different nitrogen content was determined in the laboratory. Furthermore, the possible in situ diet composition of N. versicolor was established from carbon and nitrogen stable isotope signature ( δ13C and δ15N) of freshly caught individuals and their potential food sources, using a concentration-dependent mixing model. N. versicolor showed significantly higher feeding preferences for fish meat when pre-fed leaf material without than with access to meat, indicating that this crab species can meet its nitrogen demand by ingesting animal tissue. The stable isotope mixing model based on in situ materials suggests that the diet of N. versicolor consists of ˜60% leaves in terms of biomass, leaving ˜40% for other sources such as animal tissue and benthic microorganisms. The biomass contribution from animal tissues, in form of e.g. other crustaceans and fish carcasses, was found to account for ˜15%. Despite the relative low biomass fraction, animal food sources may contribute with up to half of the nitrogen in the diet of N. versicolor. The quantity of ingested sediment most likely exceeds that of animal tissues. However, due to the low concentration of assimilable microalgae and other microorganism, we propose that sediment associated sources are less important as a nitrogen source for N. versicolor than hitherto presumed.

  20. Based on biochemical and physiological behavior, where is Aspergillus egyptiacus better placed?

    PubMed

    Zohri, A A; Ismail, M A

    1994-01-01

    Physiological and biochemical properties were tested in 45 isolates of Aspergillus egyptiacus (16 isolates), Emericella nidulans (16) and Aspergillus versicolor (13). The three fungal species exhibited common and similar features. The big similarity between A. egyptiacus and E. nidulans was greater than between A. egyptiacus and A. versicolor. It included the inability to produce base either from sodium citrate or lactic acid media, growth at 45 degrees C (thermophilicity), and production of very similar pigmentations on Aspergillus flavus and parasiticus agar. A. egyptiacus is therefore better placed in the Aspergillus nidulans-Emericella assemblage. PMID:7537240

  1. Lentinoid and Polyporoid Fungi, Two Generic Conglomerates Containing Important Medicinal Mushrooms in Molecular Perspective.

    PubMed

    Zmitrovich, Ivan V; Kovalenko, Alexander E

    2016-01-01

    Polyporoid and lentinoid fungi contain the important producers of substances having immunomodulatory, antitumoral, antiviral, and antihyperlipidemic effects. The discovery of several phylogenetic lines within the lentinoid-polyporoid continuum will help with target metabolomic analysis of species still not studied in pharmacological respects. The purpose of the present work was to increase a resolution in the lentinoid-polyporoid phylogenetic zone by means of selection of both the main representatives of Lentinus-related genera and poorly known/intermediate taxa such as Lentinus suavissimus, Neofavolus spp., and the resupinate part of Polyporus (genera Perenniporia and Pachykytospora) in the context of the basic structure of the Polyporales tree. The molecular phylogeny of highlighting all the polyporoid and lentinoid nodes was reconstructed using nLSU ITS rDNA and TEF datasets. The data obtained from ITS, TEF, and LSU coincide in support of core Polyporaceae of 10 clades corresponded to the generic level and 7 of these (Cerioporus, Cladomeris, Favolus, Lentinus, Neofavolus, Picipes, and Polyporus s.str.) contain generic units characterized by polyporoid or lentinoid morphotypes. The other 2 clades containing lentinoid taxa are outside the core Polyporaceae, namely Panus (Meruliaceae, Polyporales) and Neolentinus (Gloeophyllaceae, Gloeophyllales). A new genus, Picipes, is described and 25 new combinations are proposed. PMID:27279442

  2. Lignin biodegradation and ligninolytic enzyme studies during biopulping of Acacia mangium wood chips by tropical white rot fungi.

    PubMed

    Liew, C Y; Husaini, A; Hussain, H; Muid, S; Liew, K C; Roslan, H A

    2011-06-01

    White rot fungi are good lignin degraders and have the potential to be used in industry. In the present work, Phellinus sp., Daedalea sp., Trametes versicolor and Pycnoporus coccineus were selected due to their relatively high ligninolytic enzyme activity, and grown on Acacia mangium wood chips under solid state fermentation. Results obtained showed that manganese peroxidase produced is far more compared to lignin peroxidase, suggesting that MnP might be the predominating enzymes causing lignin degradation in Acacia mangium wood chips. Cellulase enzyme assays showed that no significant cellulase activity was detected in the enzyme preparation of T. versicolor and Phellinus sp. This low cellulolytic activity further suggests that these two white rot strains are of more interest in lignin degradation. The results on lignin losses showed 20-30% of lignin breakdown at 60 days of biodegradation. The highest lignin loss was found in Acacia mangium biotreated with T. versicolor after 60 days and recorded 26.9%, corresponding to the percentage of their wood weight loss recorded followed by P. coccineus. In general, lignin degradation was only significant from 20 days onwards. The overall percentage of lignin weight loss was within the range of 1.02-26.90% over the biodegradation periods. Microscopic observations conducted using scanning electron microscope showed that T. versicolor, P. coccineus, Daedalea sp. and Phellinus sp. had caused lignin degradation in Acacia mangium wood chips. PMID:25187145

  3. A diversified approach to evaluate biostimulation and bioaugmentation strategies for heavy-oil-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Lladó, S; Solanas, A M; de Lapuente, J; Borràs, M; Viñas, M

    2012-10-01

    A diversified approach involving chemical, microbiological and ecotoxicity assessment of soil polluted by heavy mineral oil was adopted, in order to improve our understanding of the biodegradability of pollutants, microbial community dynamics and ecotoxicological effects of various bioremediation strategies. With the aim of improving hydrocarbon degradation, the following bioremediation treatments were assayed: i) addition of inorganic nutrients; ii) addition of the rhamnolipid-based biosurfactant M(AT10); iii) inoculation of an aliphatic hydrocarbon-degrading microbial consortium (TD); and iv) inoculation of a known hydrocarbon-degrading white-rot fungus strain of Trametes versicolor. After 200 days, all the bioremediation assays achieved between 30% and 50% total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) biodegradation, with the T. versicolor inoculation degrading it the most. Biostimulation and T. versicolor inoculation promoted the Brevundimonas genus concurrently with other α-proteobacteria, β-proteobacteria and Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides (CFB) as well as Actinobacteria groups. However, T. versicolor inoculation, which produced the highest hydrocarbon degradation in soil, also promoted autochthonous Gram-positive bacterial groups, such as Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. An acute toxicity test using Eisenia fetida confirmed the improvement in the quality of the soil after all biostimulation and bioaugmentation strategies. PMID:22858534

  4. Effect of relative humidity on fungal colonization of fiberglass insulation.

    PubMed Central

    Ezeonu, I M; Noble, J A; Simmons, R B; Price, D L; Crow, S A; Ahearn, D G

    1994-01-01

    Fiberglass duct liners and fiberglass duct boards from eight buildings whose occupants complained of unacceptable or moldy odors in the air were found to be heavily colonized by fungi, particularly by Aspergillus versicolor. Unused fiberglass was found to be susceptible to fungal colonization in environmental chambers dependent upon relative humidity. No colonization was observed at relative humidities below 50%. Images PMID:8031101

  5. Fungal production of volatiles during growth on fiberglass.

    PubMed Central

    Ezeonu, I M; Price, D L; Simmons, R B; Crow, S A; Ahearn, D G

    1994-01-01

    Acoustic and thermal fiberglass insulation materials used in heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems were colonized with fungi in laboratory chambers. The mixed fungal population, principally Aspergillus versicolor, Acremonium obclavatum, and Cladosporium herbarum, produced odoriferous volatiles, including 2-ethyl hexanol, cyclohexane, and benzene. These volatiles may be related to poor indoor air quality and the sick building syndrome. PMID:7993098

  6. Can Differences in Host Behavior Drive Patterns of Disease Prevalence in Tadpoles?

    PubMed Central

    Venesky, Matthew D.; Kerby, Jacob L.; Storfer, Andrew; Parris, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    Differences in host behavior and resistance to disease can influence the outcome of host-pathogen interactions. We capitalized on the variation in aggregation behavior of Fowler's toads (Anaxyrus [ = Bufo] fowleri) and grey treefrogs (Hyla versicolor) tadpoles and tested for differences in transmission of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and host-specific fitness consequences (i.e., life history traits that imply fitness) of infection in single-species amphibian mesocosms. On average, A. fowleri mesocosms supported higher Bd prevalences and infection intensities relative to H. versicolor mesocosms. Higher Bd prevalence in A. fowleri mesocosms may result, in part, from higher intraspecific transmission due to the aggregation of tadpoles raised in Bd treatments. We also found that, independent of species, tadpoles raised in the presence of Bd were smaller and less developed than tadpoles raised in disease-free conditions. Our results indicate that aggregation behavior might increase Bd prevalence and that A. fowleri tadpoles carry heavier infections relative to H. versicolor tadpoles. However, our results demonstrate that Bd appears to negatively impact larval growth and developmental rates of A. fowleri and H. versicolor similarly, even in the absence of high Bd prevalence. PMID:21949824

  7. Preparation of starch-sodium lignosulfonate graft copolymers via laccase catalysis and characterization of antioxidant activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Graft copolymers of waxy maize starch and sodium lignosulfonate (SLS) were prepared by Trametes Versicolor laccase catalysis in aqueous solution. Amount of SLS grafted based on phenol analysis was 0.5% and 1.0% in the absence and presence of 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT), respectively. Starch-SLS gra...

  8. Biodecontamination of water from bisphenol A using ligninolytic fungi and the modulation role of humic acids.

    PubMed

    Loffredo, Elisabetta; Traversa, Andreina; Senesi, Nicola

    2012-05-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor compound (EDC) of xenobiotic origin occurring in natural waters and wastewaters, especially in the most industrialized and urbanized areas. Recent investigations report the use of ligninolytic fungi for the removal of aromatic contaminants, including some EDCs, from different matrices. Humic acids (HA) are widely spread in all natural systems and their presence is ascertained to interfere with microbial growth and activity. The objective of this study was to assess the capacity of three ligninolytic fungi, Trametes versicolor, Stereum hirsutum and Pleurotus ostreatus, to remove BPA at the concentration of 4.6 mg L(-1) from water. Fungal growth on potato dextrose agar (PDA), in the absence and in the presence of a leonardite HA or a green compost HA, was evaluated during the biodecontamination process. The methodological approach adopted in this study excluded the presence of the mycelium in the contaminated water. Results obtained evidenced a relevant removal of BPA by any fungus when PDA only was used as growing medium. The addition of leonardite HA and compost HA stimulated the mycelial growth of any fungus, especially T. versicolor, and significantly enhanced the removal of the contaminant from water by, respectively, T. versicolor only and T. versicolor and S. hirsutum. PMID:22305120

  9. ENHANCED ENZYMATIC REMOVAL OF CHLOROPHENOLS IN THE PRESENCE OF CO-SUBSTRATES. (R823847)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of reactive co-substrates such as guaiacol and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol on the removal of chlorinated phenols by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and a
    laccase from the fungus Trametes versicolor was investigated. Addition of 50 mM guaiacol enhanced the precipitation of 4-ch...

  10. [Cutaneous Malassezia infections and Malassezia associated dermatoses: An update].

    PubMed

    Nenoff, P; Krüger, C; Mayser, P

    2015-06-01

    The lipophilic yeast fungus Malassezia (M.) spp. is the only fungal genus or species which is part of the physiological human microbiome. Today, at least 14 different Malassezia species are known; most of them can only be identified using molecular biological techniques. As a facultative pathogenic microorganism, Malassezia represents the causative agent both of superficial cutaneous infections and of blood stream infections. Pityriasis versicolor is the probably most frequent infection caused by Malassezia. Less common, Malassezia folliculitis occurs. There is only an episodic report on Malassezia-induced onychomycosis. Seborrhoeic dermatitis represents a Malassezia-associated inflammatory dermatosis. In addition, Malassezia allergenes should be considered as the trigger of "Head-Neck"-type atopic dermatitis. Ketoconazole possesses the strongest in vitro activity against Malassezia, and represents the treatment of choice for topical therapy of pityriasis versicolor. Alternatives include other azole antifungals but also the allylamine terbinafine and the hydroxypyridone antifungal agent ciclopirox olamine. "Antiseborrhoeic" agents, e.g. zinc pyrithione, selenium disulfide, and salicylic acid, are also effective in pityriasis versicolor. The drug of choice for oral treatment of pityriasis versicolor is itraconazole; an effective alternative represents fluconazole. Seborrhoeic dermatitis is best treated with topical medication, including topical corticosteroids and antifungal agents like ketoconazole or sertaconazole. Calcineurin inhibitors, e.g. pimecrolimus and tacrolimus, are reliable in seborrhoeic dermatitis, however are used off-label. PMID:25968082

  11. Species specificity of temporal processing in the auditory midbrain of gray treefrogs: long-interval neurons.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Jessica L; Rose, Gary J; Leary, Christopher J; Graham, Jalina A; Alluri, Rishi K; Vasquez-Opazo, Gustavo A

    2016-01-01

    In recently diverged gray treefrogs (Hyla chrysoscelis and H. versicolor), advertisement calls that differ primarily in pulse shape and pulse rate act as an important premating isolation mechanism. Temporally selective neurons in the anuran inferior colliculus may contribute to selective behavioral responses to these calls. Here we present in vivo extracellular and whole-cell recordings from long-interval-selective neurons (LINs) made during presentation of pulses that varied in shape and rate. Whole-cell recordings revealed that interplay between excitation and inhibition shapes long-interval selectivity. LINs in H. versicolor showed greater selectivity for slow-rise pulses, consistent with the slow-rise pulse characteristics of their calls. The steepness of pulse-rate tuning functions, but not the distributions of best pulse rates, differed between the species in a manner that depended on whether pulses had slow or fast-rise shape. When tested with stimuli representing the temporal structure of the advertisement calls of H. chrysoscelis or H. versicolor, approximately 27 % of LINs in H. versicolor responded exclusively to the latter stimulus type. The LINs of H. chrysoscelis were less selective. Encounter calls, which are produced at similar pulse rates in both species (≈5 pulses/s), are likely to be effective stimuli for the LINs of both species. PMID:26614093

  12. Submicronic Fungal Bioaerosols: High-Resolution Microscopic Characterization and Quantification

    PubMed Central

    Afanou, Komlavi Anani; Straumfors, Anne; Skogstad, Asbjørn; Nilsen, Terje; Synnes, Ole; Skaar, Ida; Hjeljord, Linda; Tronsmo, Arne; Green, Brett James

    2014-01-01

    Submicronic particles released from fungal cultures have been suggested to be additional sources of personal exposure in mold-contaminated buildings. In vitro generation of these particles has been studied with particle counters, eventually supplemented by autofluorescence, that recognize fragments by size and discriminate biotic from abiotic particles. However, the fungal origin of submicronic particles remains unclear. In this study, submicronic fungal particles derived from Aspergillus fumigatus, A. versicolor, and Penicillium chrysogenum cultures grown on agar and gypsum board were aerosolized and enumerated using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). A novel bioaerosol generator and a fungal spores source strength tester were compared at 12 and 20 liters min−1 airflow. The overall median numbers of aerosolized submicronic particles were 2 × 105 cm−2, 2.6 × 103 cm−2, and 0.9 × 103 cm−2 for A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, and P. chrysogenum, respectively. A. fumigatus released significantly (P < 0.001) more particles than A. versicolor and P. chrysogenum. The ratios of submicronic fragments to larger particles, regardless of media type, were 1:3, 5:1, and 1:2 for A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, and P. chrysogenum, respectively. Spore fragments identified by the presence of rodlets amounted to 13%, 2%, and 0% of the submicronic particles released from A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, and P. chrysogenum, respectively. Submicronic particles with and without rodlets were also aerosolized from cultures grown on cellophane-covered media, indirectly confirming their fungal origin. Both hyphae and conidia could fragment into submicronic particles and aerosolize in vitro. These findings further highlight the potential contribution of fungal fragments to personal fungal exposure. PMID:25217010

  13. Submicronic fungal bioaerosols: high-resolution microscopic characterization and quantification.

    PubMed

    Afanou, Komlavi Anani; Straumfors, Anne; Skogstad, Asbjørn; Nilsen, Terje; Synnes, Ole; Skaar, Ida; Hjeljord, Linda; Tronsmo, Arne; Green, Brett James; Eduard, Wijnand

    2014-11-01

    Submicronic particles released from fungal cultures have been suggested to be additional sources of personal exposure in mold-contaminated buildings. In vitro generation of these particles has been studied with particle counters, eventually supplemented by autofluorescence, that recognize fragments by size and discriminate biotic from abiotic particles. However, the fungal origin of submicronic particles remains unclear. In this study, submicronic fungal particles derived from Aspergillus fumigatus, A. versicolor, and Penicillium chrysogenum cultures grown on agar and gypsum board were aerosolized and enumerated using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). A novel bioaerosol generator and a fungal spores source strength tester were compared at 12 and 20 liters min(-1) airflow. The overall median numbers of aerosolized submicronic particles were 2 × 10(5) cm(-2), 2.6 × 10(3) cm(-2), and 0.9 × 10(3) cm(-2) for A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, and P. chrysogenum, respectively. A. fumigatus released significantly (P < 0.001) more particles than A. versicolor and P. chrysogenum. The ratios of submicronic fragments to larger particles, regardless of media type, were 1:3, 5:1, and 1:2 for A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, and P. chrysogenum, respectively. Spore fragments identified by the presence of rodlets amounted to 13%, 2%, and 0% of the submicronic particles released from A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, and P. chrysogenum, respectively. Submicronic particles with and without rodlets were also aerosolized from cultures grown on cellophane-covered media, indirectly confirming their fungal origin. Both hyphae and conidia could fragment into submicronic particles and aerosolize in vitro. These findings further highlight the potential contribution of fungal fragments to personal fungal exposure. PMID:25217010

  14. Aerodynamic characteristics and respiratory deposition of fungal fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Seung-Hyun; Seo, Sung-Chul; Schmechel, Detlef; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Reponen, Tiina

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the aerodynamic characteristics of fungal fragments and to estimate their respiratory deposition. Fragments and spores of three different fungal species ( Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium melinii, and Stachybotrys chartarum) were aerosolized by the fungal spore source strength tester (FSSST). An electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI) measured the size distribution in real-time and collected the aerosolized fungal particles simultaneously onto 12 impactor stages in the size range of 0.3-10 μm utilizing water-soluble ZEF-X10 coating of the impaction stages to prevent spore bounce. For S. chartarum, the average concentration of released fungal fragments was 380 particles cm -3, which was about 514 times higher than that of spores. A. versicolor was found to release comparable amount of spores and fragments. Microscopic analysis confirmed that S. chartarum and A. versicolor did not show any significant spore bounce, whereas the size distribution of P. melinii fragments was masked by spore bounce. Respiratory deposition was calculated using a computer-based model, LUDEP 2.07, for an adult male and a 3-month-old infant utilizing the database on the concentration and size distribution of S. chartarum and A. versicolor aerosols measured by the ELPI. Total deposition fractions for fragments and spores were 27-46% and 84-95%, respectively, showing slightly higher values in an infant than in an adult. For S. chartarum, fragments demonstrated 230-250 fold higher respiratory deposition than spores, while the number of deposited fragments and spores of A. versicolor were comparable. It was revealed that the deposition ratio (the number of deposited fragments divided by that of deposited spores) in the lower airways for an infant was 4-5 times higher than that for an adult. As fungal fragments have been shown to contain mycotoxins and antigens, further exposure assessment should include the measurement of fungal fragments for

  15. Multistage process for the production of bioethanol from almond shell.

    PubMed

    Kacem, Imen; Koubaa, Mohamed; Maktouf, Sameh; Chaari, Fatma; Najar, Taha; Chaabouni, Moncef; Ettis, Nadia; Ellouz Chaabouni, Semia

    2016-07-01

    This work describes the feasibility of using almond shell as feedstock for bioethanol production. A pre-treatment step was carried out using 4% NaOH for 60min at 121°C followed by 1% sulfuric acid for 60min at 121°C. Enzymatic saccharification of the pre-treated almond shell was performed using Penicillium occitanis enzymes. The process was optimized using a hybrid design with four parameters including the incubation time, temperature, enzyme loads, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) concentration. The optimum hydrolysis conditions led to a sugar yield of 13.5%. A detoxification step of the enzymatic hydrolysate was carried out at pH 5 using 1U/ml of laccase enzyme produced by Polyporus ciliatus. Fermenting efficiency of the hydrolysates was greatly improved by laccase treatment, increasing the ethanol yield from 30% to 84%. These results demonstrated the efficiency of using almond shell as a promising source for bioethanol production. PMID:27017125

  16. Manganese regulation of manganese peroxidase expression and lignin degradation by the white rot fungus Dichomitus squalens

    SciTech Connect

    Perie, F.; Gold, M.H. )

    1991-08-01

    Extracellular manganese peroxidase and laccase activities were detected in cultures of Dichomitus squalens (Polyporus anceps) under conditions favoring lignin degradation. In contrast, neither extracellular lignin peroxidase nor aryl alcohol oxidase activity was detected in cultures grown under a wide variety of conditions. The mineralization of {sup 14}C-ring-, -side chain-, and -methoxy-labeled synthetic guaiacyl lignins by D. squalens and the expression of extracellular manganese peroxidase were dependent on the presence of Mn(II), suggesting that manganese peroxidase is an important component of this organism's lignin degradation system. The expression of laccase activity was independent of manganese. In contrast to previous findings with Phanero-chaete chrysosporium, lignin degradation by D. squalens proceeded in the cultures containing excess carbon and nitrogen.

  17. Terpenoids and sterols from some Japanese mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Yaoita, Yasunori; Kikuchi, Masao; Machida, Koichi

    2014-03-01

    Over the past twenty years, our research group has been studying the chemical constituents of mushrooms. From nineteen species, namely, Amanita virgineoides Bas (Amanitaceae), Daedaleopsis tricolor (Bull.: Fr.) Bond. et Sing. (Polyporaceae), Grifolafrondosa (Fr.) S. F. Gray (Polyporaceae), Hericium erinaceum (Bull.: Fr.) Pers. (Hericiaceae), Hypsizigus marmoreus (Peck) Bigelow (Tricholomataceae), Lactarius piperatus (Scop.: Fr.) S. F. Gray (Russulaceae), Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Sing. (Pleurotaceae), Lyophyllyum connatum (Schum.: Fr.) Sing. (Tricholomataceae), Naematoloma sublateritium (Fr.) Karst. (Strophariaceae), Ompharia lapidescens Schroeter (Polyporaceae), Panellus serotinus (Pers.: Fr.) Kuhn. (Tricholomataceae), Pholiota nameko (T. Ito) S. Ito et Imai in Imai (Strophariaceae), Pleurotus eringii (DC.: Fr.) Quel. (Pleurotaceae), Polyporus umbellatus Fries (Polyporaceae), Russula delica Fr. (Russulaceae), Russula sanguinea (Bull.) Fr. (Russulaceae), Sarcodon aspratus (Berk.) S. Ito (Thelephoraceae), Tricholoma matsutake (S. Ito et Imai) Sing. (Tricholomataceae), and Tricholomaportentosum (Fr.) Quel. (Tricholomataceae), we isolated eight new sesquiterpenoids, six new meroterpenoids, three new triterpenoids, and twenty eight new sterols. In this review, structural features of these new compounds are discussed. PMID:24689228

  18. Microbial desulphurization of Turkish lignites by White Rot Fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Pinar Aytar; Mesut Sam; Ahmet Cabuk

    2008-03-15

    Biodesulphurization experiments were carried out with Tuncbilek lignite, characterized by high sulfur content (2.59%) by using Trametes versicolor ATCC 200801 and Phanerochaete chrysosporium ME 446. At fungal biomass studies, the effects of various parameters on fungal desulphurization of coals such as pH, temperature, pulp density, incubation time, and sterilization were investigated for both microorganisms. The maximum desulphurization (40%) was observed after 6 days of incubation at 35{sup o}C for T. versicolor. The optimum pH was measured at 6, and the agitation rate was fixed at 125 rpm. The pulp density was found as 5% (w/v) for the high extent of desulphurization. Also, calorific value did not change during this experiment. However, the ash and metal contents of coal were eliminated. 30 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Nutritional value of spiny lobsters (Panulirus sp.) from Southern Coast of Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haryono, F. Eko Dwi; Hutabarat, Sahala; Hutabarat, Johannes; Ambariyanto

    2015-12-01

    Five species of spiny lobsters are known to live in southern coast of Java. These lobsters are very popular seafood which was believed to have high nutritional value. However, nutrition content of these species from the area has not been investigated. This research was conducted to study nutrition content in these crustaceans. Five spiny lobsters i.e. Panulirus homarus, P. versicolor, P. ornatus, P. penicullatus, and P. longipes, were collected randomly from different locations at the southern coast of Java. Morphometric measurements were conducted prior to proximate analysis of these lobsters. All species of spiny lobsters investigated have similar carapace length. However, P. homarus and P. versicolor have the highest muscle weight. Proximate analysis shows that P. homarus also has high protein (24.18%) and carbohydrate content (55.68%) and lowest lipid content (6.18%) compare with other species. These results suggest that this lobster has best nutritional value for consumption.

  20. Quantitative structure-activity relationship of antifungal activity of rosin derivatives.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Nguyen, Thi Thanh Hien; Li, Shujun; Liang, Tao; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Li, Jian

    2015-01-15

    To develop new rosin-based wood preservatives with good antifungal activity, 24 rosin derivatives were synthesized, bioassay tested with Trametes versicolor and Gloeophyllum trabeum, and subjected to analysis of their quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR). A QSAR analysis using Ampac 9.2.1 and Codessa 2.7.16 software built two QSAR models of antifungal ratio for T. versicolor and G. trabeum with values of R(2)=0.9740 and 0.9692, respectively. Based on the models, tri-N-(3-hydroabietoxy-2-hydroxy) propyl-triethyl ammonium chloride was designed and the bioassay test result proved its better inhibitory effect against the two selected fungi as expected. PMID:25466709

  1. [Occurrence of indole alkaloids among secondary metabolites of soil Aspergillus].

    PubMed

    Vinokurova, N G; Khmel'nitskaia, I I; Baskunov, B P; Arinbasarov, M U

    2003-01-01

    The occurrence of indole alkaloids among secondary fungal metabolites was studied in species of the genus Aspergillus, isolated from soils that were sampled in various regions of Russia (a total of 102 isolates of the species A. niger, A. phoenicis, A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. versicolor, A. ustus, A. clavatus, and A. ochraceus). Clavine alkaloids were represented by fumigaclavine, which was formed by A. fumigatus. alpha-Cyclopiazonic acid was formed by isolates of A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. versicolor, A. phoenicis, and A. clavatus. The occurrence of indole-containing diketopiperazine alkaloids was documented for isolates of A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. clavatus, and A. ochraceus. No indole-containing metabolites were found among the metabolites of A. ustus or A. niger. PMID:12722658

  2. Fungicides affect the production of extracellular mucilaginous material (ECMM) and the peripheral growth unit (PGU) in two wood-rotting basidiomycetes.

    PubMed

    Vesentini, Damiano; Dickinson, David J; Murphy, Richard J

    2006-10-01

    This study shows the effect of two fungicides on the production of extracellular mucilaginous material (ECMM) in two wood-rotting basidiomycetes and identifies a mechanism that might be responsible for the variation observed. Increasing concentrations of the fungicides copper sulphate (CuSO4) and cyproconazole in the growth medium increased the proportion of ECMM in the biomass of Trametes versicolor and Gloeophyllum trabeum. These fungicides also caused a reduction in the length of the peripheral growth unit (PGU) of the mycelia leading to a more highly branched morphology and a larger number of hyphal tips, the sites for active secretion of ECMM, per unit length of mycelium. It is postulated that both in T. versicolor and G. trabeum this change in growth leads to the increases observed in the proportion of ECMM in the total biomass. The implications of these results are discussed with a view to a potential protective role of ECMM against stress and toxic environments. PMID:17008083

  3. New and rare lignicolous hyphomycetes from Zhejiang Province, China* §

    PubMed Central

    Wongsawas, Mongkol; Wang, Hong-kai; Hyde, Kevin D.; Lin, Fu-cheng

    2008-01-01

    Sporidesmiopsis zhejiangensis sp. nov. and Spadicoides americana were found on submerged wood from streams in Zhejiang Province, China. Sporidesmiopsis zhejiangensis is characterized by obclavate to fusiform, 5-6-distoseptate, versicolorous, verruculose conidia with an apical mucilaginous sheath. Spadicoides americana is a new record to China. These taxa are described and illustrated, and morphological differences between these species and their similar species were summarized. PMID:18837107

  4. Aflatoxin and sterigmatocystin contamination of pistachio nuts in orchards.

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, N F; Buchanan, J R; Fortlage, R J

    1976-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus and A. versicolor were both shown to be weak pathogens of developing pistachio fruits, producing aflatoxin and sterigmatocystin, respectively. Aflatoxin concentrations approached those reported in cereal and legume seeds. Fungus lesions on the first hulls were followed by invasion of seeds despite the sclerified shell. Infections and mycotoxins present before harvest would presumably lead to further build-up after harvest if drying was slow or storage was under high humidity. PMID:823868

  5. Bacterial versus fungal laccase: potential for micropollutant degradation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Relatively high concentrations of micropollutants in municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents underscore the necessity to develop additional treatment steps prior to discharge of treated wastewater. Microorganisms that produce unspecific oxidative enzymes such as laccases are a potential means to improve biodegradation of these compounds. Four strains of the bacterial genus Streptomyces (S. cyaneus, S. ipomoea, S. griseus and S. psammoticus) and the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor were studied for their ability to produce active extracellular laccase in biologically treated wastewater with different carbon sources. Among the Streptomyces strains evaluated, only S. cyaneus produced extracellular laccase with sufficient activity to envisage its potential use in WWTPs. Laccase activity produced by T. versicolor was more than 20 times greater, the highest activity being observed with ash branches as the sole carbon source. The laccase preparation of S. cyaneus (abbreviated LSc) and commercial laccase from T. versicolor (LTv) were further compared in terms of their activity at different pH and temperatures, their stability, their substrate range, and their micropollutant oxidation efficiency. LSc and LTv showed highest activities under acidic conditions (around pH 3 to 5), but LTv was active over wider pH and temperature ranges than LSc, especially at near-neutral pH and between 10 and 25°C (typical conditions found in WWTPs). LTv was also less affected by pH inactivation. Both laccase preparations oxidized the three micropollutants tested, bisphenol A, diclofenac and mefenamic acid, with faster degradation kinetics observed for LTv. Overall, T. versicolor appeared to be the better candidate to remove micropollutants from wastewater in a dedicated post-treatment step. PMID:24152339

  6. Bacterial versus fungal laccase: potential for micropollutant degradation.

    PubMed

    Margot, Jonas; Bennati-Granier, Chloé; Maillard, Julien; Blánquez, Paqui; Barry, David A; Holliger, Christof

    2013-01-01

    Relatively high concentrations of micropollutants in municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents underscore the necessity to develop additional treatment steps prior to discharge of treated wastewater. Microorganisms that produce unspecific oxidative enzymes such as laccases are a potential means to improve biodegradation of these compounds. Four strains of the bacterial genus Streptomyces (S. cyaneus, S. ipomoea, S. griseus and S. psammoticus) and the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor were studied for their ability to produce active extracellular laccase in biologically treated wastewater with different carbon sources. Among the Streptomyces strains evaluated, only S. cyaneus produced extracellular laccase with sufficient activity to envisage its potential use in WWTPs. Laccase activity produced by T. versicolor was more than 20 times greater, the highest activity being observed with ash branches as the sole carbon source. The laccase preparation of S. cyaneus (abbreviated LSc) and commercial laccase from T. versicolor (LTv) were further compared in terms of their activity at different pH and temperatures, their stability, their substrate range, and their micropollutant oxidation efficiency. LSc and LTv showed highest activities under acidic conditions (around pH 3 to 5), but LTv was active over wider pH and temperature ranges than LSc, especially at near-neutral pH and between 10 and 25°C (typical conditions found in WWTPs). LTv was also less affected by pH inactivation. Both laccase preparations oxidized the three micropollutants tested, bisphenol A, diclofenac and mefenamic acid, with faster degradation kinetics observed for LTv. Overall, T. versicolor appeared to be the better candidate to remove micropollutants from wastewater in a dedicated post-treatment step. PMID:24152339

  7. Profile and Morphology of Fungal Aerosols Characterized by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM)

    PubMed Central

    Afanou, Komlavi Anani; Straumfors, Anne; Skogstad, Asbjørn; Skaar, Ida; Hjeljord, Linda; Skare, Øivind; Green, Brett James; Tronsmo, Arne; Eduard, Wijnand

    2016-01-01

    Fungal aerosols consist of spores and fragments with diverse array of morphologies; however, the size, shape, and origin of the constituents require further characterization. In this study, we characterize the profile of aerosols generated from Aspergillus fumigatus, A. versicolor, and Penicillium chrysogenum grown for 8 weeks on gypsum boards. Fungal particles were aerosolized at 12 and 20 L min−1 using the Fungal Spore Source Strength Tester (FSSST) and the Stami particle generator (SPG). Collected particles were analyzed with field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). We observed spore particle fraction consisting of single spores and spore aggregates in four size categories, and a fragment fraction that contained submicronic fragments and three size categories of larger fragments. Single spores dominated the aerosols from A. fumigatus (median: 53%), while the submicronic fragment fraction was the highest in the aerosols collected from A. versicolor (median: 34%) and P. chrysogenum (median: 31%). Morphological characteristics showed near spherical particles that were only single spores, oblong particles that comprise some spore aggregates and fragments (<3.5 μm), and fiber-like particles that regroup chained spore aggregates and fragments (>3.5 μm). Further, the near spherical particles dominated the aerosols from A. fumigatus (median: 53%), while oblong particles were dominant in the aerosols from A. versicolor (68%) and P. chrysogenum (55%). Fiber-like particles represented 21% and 24% of the aerosols from A. versicolor and P. chrysogenum, respectively. This study shows that fungal particles of various size, shape, and origin are aerosolized, and supports the need to include a broader range of particle types in fungal exposure assessment. PMID:26855468

  8. A tale of two spartinas: Climatic, photobiological and isotopic insights on the fitness of non-indigenous versus native species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, B.; Baeta, A.; Rousseau-Gueutin, M.; Ainouche, M.; Marques, J. C.; Caçador, I.

    2015-12-01

    Salt marshes are facing a new threat: the invasion by non-indigenous species (NIS), Although its introduction time is not established yet, in 1999 Spartina versicolor was already identified as a NIS in the Mediterranean marshes, significantly spreading its area of colonization. Using the Mediterranean native Spartina maritima as a reference, the present research studied the ecophysiological fitness of this NIS in its new environment, as a tool to understand its potential invasiveness. It was found that Spartina versicolor had a stable photobiological pattern, with only minor fluctuations during an annual cycle, and lower efficiencies comparated to S. maritima. The NIS seems to be rather insensitive to the observed abiotic factors fluctuations (salinity and pH of the sediment), and thus contrasts with the native S. maritima, known to be salinity dependent with higher productivity values in higher salinity environments. Most of the differences observed between the photobiology of these species could be explained by their nitrogen nutrition (here evaluated by the δ15N stable isotope) and directly related with the Mediterranean climate. Enhanced by a higher N availability during winter, the primary production of S. maritima which lead to dilution of the foliar δ15N concentration in the newly formed biomass, similarly to what is observed along a rainfall gradient. On the other hand, S. versicolor showed an increased δ15N in its tissues along the annual rainfall gradient, probably due to a δ15N concentration effect during low biomass production periods (winter and autumn). Together with the photobiological traits, these isotopic data point out to a climatic misfit of S. versicolor to the Mediterranean climate compared to the native S. maritima. This appears to be the major constrain shaping the ecophysiological fitness of this NIS, its primary production and consequently, its spreading rate along the Mediterranean marshes.

  9. Chemical polymorphism and antifungal activity of essential oils from leaves of different provenances of indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Sen-Sung; Liu, Ju-Yun; Hsui, Yen-Ray; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2006-01-01

    The essential oils isolated from nine geographical provenances of indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh.) leaves were examined by GC-MS and their chemical constituents were compared. According to GC-MS and cluster analyses the leaf essential oils of the nine provenances and their relative contents were classified into six chemotypes-cinnamaldehyde type, cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type, cinnamyl acetate type, linalool type, camphor type and mixed type. In addition, the antifungal activities of leaf essential oils and their constituents from six chemotypes of indigenous cinnamon were investigated in this study. Results from the antifungal tests demonstrated that the leaf essential oils of cinnamaldehyde type and cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type had an excellent inhibitory effect against white-rot fungi, Trametes versicolor and Lenzites betulina and brown-rot fungus Laetiporus sulphureus. The antifungal indices of leaf essential oils from these two chemotypes at the level of 200 micro/ml against T. versicolor, L. betulina and L. sulphureus were all 100%. Among them, the IC(50) (50% of inhibitory concentrations) value of the essential oil of cinnamaldehyde type leaf against L. sulphureus was 52-59microg/ml. Cinnamaldehyde possessed the strongest antifungal activities in comparison with other constituents of the essential oils from cinnamaldehyde type leaf, at the level of 100microg/ml its antifungal indices against T. versicolor, L. betulina and L. sulphureus were 100%. The IC50 values of cinnamaldehyde against T. versicolor, L. betulina and L. sulphureus were 73, 74 and 73microg/ml, respectively. PMID:16171686

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) biodegradation by basidiomycetes fungi, Pseudomonas isolate, and their cocultures: comparative in vivo and in silico approach.

    PubMed

    Arun, A; Raja, P Praveen; Arthi, R; Ananthi, M; Kumar, K Sathish; Eyini, M

    2008-12-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) biodegradation potential of the five basidiomycetes' fungal monocultures and their cocultures was compared with that of a Pseudomonas isolate recovered from oil-spilled soil. As utilization of hydrocarbons by the microorganisms is associated with biosurfactant production, the level of biosurfactant production and its composition by the selected microorganisms was also investigated. The Pseudomonas isolate showed higher ability to degrade three of the five PAHs but the isolate did not produce biosurfactant higher than C. versicolor and P. ostreatus. Among the PAHs, the most effective biodegradation of PAH--pyrene (42%)--was obtained with the fungus C. versicolor. Cocultures involving the fungi and Pseudomonas could not significantly degrade the selected PAHs compounds above that degraded by the most efficient monoculture. A slight increase in pyrene degradation was observed in cocultures of C. versicolor and F. palustris (93.7% pyrene). The crude biosurfactant was biochemically characterized as a multicomponent surfactant consisting of protein and polysaccharides. The PAH biodegradation potential of the basidiomycetes fungi positively correlated with their potential to express ligninolytic enzymes such as lignin peroxidase (Lip), manganese peroxidase (Mnp), and laccase. The present study utilized in silico method such as protein-ligand docking using the FRED in Open Eye software as a tool to assess the level of ligninolytic enzymes and PAHs interactions. The in silico analysis using FRED revealed that of the five PAHs, maximum interaction occurred between pyrene and all the three ligninolytic enzymes. The results of the in silico analysis corroborated with our experimental results showing that pyrene was degraded to the maximum extent by species such as C. versicolor and P. ostreatus. PMID:18975143