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Sample records for polyporus versicolor

  1. Cell-Free Solubilization of Coal by Polyporus versicolor

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Martin S.; Bowers, William C.; Aronson, Harold; Gray, Edward T.

    1987-01-01

    Solubilization of coal was demonstrated with filtrates (0.45-μm-pore-size filters) obtained from the broth in which Polyporus versicolor had grown. The rate and extent of solubilization were dependent on the age of the fungal cultures, the particle size of the coal, the pH of the filtrates, and the presence of proteins in the filtrates. The rate of solubilization of coal was significantly reduced after proteins in the filtrates were denatured by acid hydrolysis. PMID:16347500

  2. Cell growth and catecholase production for Polyporus versicolor in submerged culture.

    PubMed Central

    Carroad, P A; Wilke, C R

    1977-01-01

    Cell growth and catecholase production for Polyporus veriscolor (ATCC 12679) were studied in mechanically agitated submerged culture, as functions of temperature. The exponential-phase growth rate exhibited a maximum at 28 degrees C. Over the range of 20 degrees C to approximately 30 degrees C, both cell mass and enzyme yield factors were constant. At higher temperatures (30 to 40 degrees C) cell mass yield factor decreased and enzyme yield factor increased. Specific respiration rate of P. versicolor was determined. Thermal deactivation of catecholase was investigated between 30 and 50 degrees C, and deactivation rates were fit to an Arrhenius rate expression. PMID:869531

  3. Liquefaction of coal by Polyporus versicolor and Poria monticola. Progress report, 1 January-31 March 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, M.S.

    1985-01-01

    Both Polyporus versicolor and Poria monticola were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection. Growth of Polyporus was shown to be faster and stronger than that of Poria under all conditions tested and the results reported here are based upon liquefaction of lignite coal by Polyporus. The liquefied coal samples were treated with acetonitrile which gave two fractions, a black precipitate and a light yellow liquid phase supernatant. This supernatant consists of acetonitrile and organic compounds which are soluble in acetonitrile. If the supernatant is drawn off with a Pasteur pipette followed by addition of water to the black precipitate, the precipitate dissolves instantly in the water producing a black liquid. Using these techniques, the products of coal liquefaction have been divided into two phases which are soluble either in acetonitrile or in water. Both fractions have been analyzed by HPLC and compounds have been partially separated. No peaks have been identified. However, two principal peaks of the acetonitrile fraction have been sent to PETC for chemical analysis by GC-MS. 9 figs.

  4. Degradation of Coal by the Fungi Polyporus versicolor and Poria monticola

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Martin S.; Gabriele, Peter D.

    1982-01-01

    We report that two species of basidiomycete fungi (Polyporus versicolor and Poria monticola) grow in minimal liquid or solid medium when supplemented with crushed lignite coal. The fungi also grow directly on crushed lignite coal. The growth of both fungi was observed qualitatively as the production and extension of hyphae. No fungal growth occurred in minimal agar medium without coal. The fungi degraded solid lignite coal to a black liquid product which never appeared in cultures unless fungi and coal were present together. Apparently, lignite coal can serve as the principal substrate for the growth of the fungi. Infrared analyses of the liquid products of lignite degradation showed both similarities to and differences from the original lignite. Images PMID:16346060

  5. Liquefaction of coal by Polyporus versicolor and Poria monticola. Final report, 1 September 1984-31 August 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    Polyporus versicolor (ATCC 12679), obtained from the American Type Culture Collection, Rockville, MD, has been demonstrated to degrade leonardite, lignite, and subbituminous coals to a black liquid product which is called the bioextract. The process of solubilizing the coal has been termed liquification. Fungi were routinely maintained in both solid Sabouraud maltose agar (6%) and in Sabouraud maltose broth cultures. All cultures were incubated at 30/sup 0/C, 84 to 98% relative humidity, and pH = 5.8. All materials which came into contact with the fungi were sterilized before use. Experimental cultures were incubated as described for stock cultures. Cultures were incubated for approximately 12 days to produce a mature fungal mat across a glass petri dish. Coal pieces (approximately 5 mm/sup 3/) were placed directly on the hyphal mat. Liquified coal (the bioextract) was removed from the top of the mycelium and/or coal pieces and either stored for analyses at 4/sup 0/C or else freeze-dried and stored dessicated at room temperature. The bioextract has been produced in sufficient quantity to permit various methods of analysis including high performance liquid chromatography, UV-visible spectrophotometry, titrimetry, electrophoresis, proton nmr spectroscopy, and calorimetry. The solubility of the bioextract in different solvents has also been determined. 6 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Tinea versicolor

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001465.htm Tinea versicolor To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Tinea versicolor is a long-term (chronic) fungal infection ...

  7. Tinea Versicolor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview Also called pityriasis versicolor We all have yeast living on our skin. When the yeast grow out of control, a person can get ... you have a fungal infection on your skin. Yeast is a type of fungus. Many people get ...

  8. Endogenous respiration of Polyporus sulphureus

    SciTech Connect

    Li, S.M.W.; Siehr, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    Thirty percent of the dry weight of the basidiomycete Polyporus sulphureus is triterpenoid acid. The endogenous respiratory quotient of this organism is 0.8 indicating that the triterpenoid is being used as an endogenous storage material. Monosaccharides did not seem to be utilized as exogenous substrates but Krebs-cycle intermediates stimulated oxygen uptake. Pyruvic acid inhibited oxygen uptake. Studies with /sup 14/C-labeled glucose indicated that 27% of the glucose was metabolized by way of glycolysis. The hexose-monophosphate pathway was the major metabolic path for the utilization of glucose. Despite the fact that P. sulphureus is associated with brown rot, its carbon metabolism suggests that it utilizes substances associated with the degradation of lignin more readily than it does glucose.

  9. Effect of glucose on alpha-glucan degradation in Polyporus circinatus.

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, M B; Zancan, G T

    1981-01-01

    The effect of glucose on the enzymes involved in the degradation of a reserve alpha-glucan in Polyporus circinatus was studied. The levels of phosphorylase activity, endoamylase, amylo-1,6-glucosidase were regulated by glucose concentration. PMID:6161914

  10. Chemical constituents of Simarouba versicolor.

    PubMed

    Arriaga, Angela C; de Mesquita, Aldenor C; Pouliquen, Yvone B M; de Lima, Roberto A; Cavalcante, Sergio H; de Carvalho, Mario G; de Siqueira, José A; Alegrio, Leila V; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2002-09-01

    From the roots, stems and fruits of Simarouba versicolor (Simaroubaceae) were isolated quassinoids (3, 5-7), triterpenoids (8-14), a mixture of steroids (15-17), the flavonoid kaempferol (18) and the squalene derivative 11,14-diacetoxy-7,10; 15,18-diepoxy-6,19-dihidroxy-6,7,10,11,14,15,18,19-octahydrosqualene (19). Spectral data were used for structural characterization. PMID:12378309

  11. Antitumor plants. IV. Constituents of Simarouba versicolor.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, P C; Larrahondo, J E; LeQuesne, P W; Raffauf, R F

    1977-01-01

    beta-Sitosterol, epilupeo, amarolide-11-acetate, amarolide-2,11-diacetate, ailanthinone and glaucarubinone have been isolated from S. versicolor. The cytotoxic and antileukemic activities of extracts of this plant are due chiefly to glaucarubinone. PMID:895397

  12. Tinea versicolor in dark-skinned individuals.

    PubMed

    Kallini, Joseph R; Riaz, Fauzia; Khachemoune, Amor

    2014-02-01

    In this article, we review the salient features of tinea versicolor and describe the epidemiology, clinical presentation, and histopathology of this mycosis in dark-skinned individuals. Tinea versicolor is caused by an overgrowth of the Malassezia genus. It manifests clinically as asymptomatic hypopigmented macules, hyperpigmented macules, or a combination of the two. Under light microscopy, Malassezia presents as a dimorphic fungus - in both the hyphal and yeast form. Most clinicians have found that the majority of dark-skinned patients present solely with hypopigmented lesions. Under light microscopy, lesions on dark skin involved with tinea versicolor tend to have a thicker stratum corneum, more tonofilaments in the granulosum, and more sequestered melanosomes. Differential diagnosis includes confluent and reticulated papillomatosis, seborrheic dermatitis, pityriasis rosea, pityriasis alba, and vitiligo. Tinea versicolor can be successfully managed in most cases with topical antifungal treatments. Cases of recurrence, such as those seen in immunocompromised patients, may necessitate scheduled oral or topical therapy. PMID:24320140

  13. Uncommon presentations of tinea versicolor

    PubMed Central

    Varada, Sowmya; Dabade, Tushar; Loo, Daniel S.

    2014-01-01

    Tinea versicolor (TV) is a common cutaneous fungal infection characterized by superficial scaling and a mild disturbance of skin pigmentation. It typically affects the chest, upper back, and shoulders. However, involvement of more unusual regions of the body such as the face and scalp, arms and legs, intertriginous sites, genitalia, areolae, and palms and soles has been reported. This report details two such cases observed at our institution: a 32-year-old woman with involvement of the popliteal fossa and a 16-year-old boy with involvement of the groin. The clinician must be aware of these variations in location and perform the appropriate diagnostic workup when lesions have the characteristic morphology of TV despite an unusual location. The etiology, pathophysiology, and epidemiology of TV are reviewed and current literature describing other instances of TV in uncommon locations is discussed. PMID:25126470

  14. [Physicochemical properties of medicinal fungus Polyporus umbellatus sclerotial exudate].

    PubMed

    Xing, Yong-Mei; Li, Hong-Lian; Guo, Shun-Xing

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the physicochemical properties of Polyporus umbellatus sclerotial exudate. Morphological characteristics of the sclerotia and its exudate were observed during different stages of sclerotial formation. The pH of the exudate was detected at different time during cultivation. A phenol-sulfuric acid method was employed to determine the polysaccharide content of P. umbellatus sclerotial exudate during cultivating time. Additionally, the protein content was measured by means of BCA protein assay. Furthermore, CAT content was detected using ultraviolet absorption method. That the protein content of the exudate and CAT specific activity rose gradually during the passage of the cultivating time indicated a high level of oxidative stress during P. umbellatus sclerotial exudate formation. The results showed that the pH of the exudate increased gradually and then dropped down during sclerotial formation. That the pH of the exudate maintained the acidity state during the cultivation indirectly indicated that acidic environment would help sclerotial formation. The exudate produced gradually and was absorbed by the sclerotia itself. PMID:24754165

  15. beta-Mannosidase from the mushroom Polyporus sulfureus.

    PubMed

    Wan, C C; Muldrey, J E; Li, S C; Li, Y T

    1976-07-25

    beta-D-Mannosidase (EC 3.2.1.25), a useful tool for the structural studies of heterosaccharide chains, has been isolated in a highly purified form from the fruiting bodies of the mushroom Polyporus sulfureus. This mushroom is unique among reported sources of this enzyme in that it has the advantage of being almost free of alpha-mannosidase activity. The purification procedure involves ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by Sephadex G-100 filtration and chromatography on columns of DEAE-cellulose and hydroxylapatite. The final enzyme preparation gives essentially a single band on disc gel electrophoresis. The purified enzyme liberates the beta-D-mannopyranosyl unit from various natural substrates such as the core glycopeptide, Man(GlcNAc)2-Asn isolated from ovalbumin, from Taka-amylase A, and from human alpha1-acid glycoprotein. It also hydrolyzes (Man)2-GlcNAc from the urine of an alpha-mannosidosis patient, 1,4-D-mannobiose and mannotriose isolated from ivory nut mannan, 4-O-beta-D-mannopyranosyl-L-rhamnose, 6-O-beta-D-mannopyranosyl-D-galactose and 4-O-beta-D-mannopyranosyl-N-acetylglucosamine. The molecular weight of this enzyme is estimated to be about 64,000 by gel filtration. For p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-mannopyranoside, the pH optimum is between 2.4 and 3.4 and the Km is 1.6 mM. PMID:6478

  16. Characterization of pyrene biodegradation by white-rot fungus Polyporus sp. S133.

    PubMed

    Hadibarata, Tony; Kristanti, Risky Ayu; Fulazzaky, Mohamad Ali; Nugroho, Agung Endro

    2012-01-01

    A white-rot fungus of Polyporus sp. S133 was isolated from an oil-polluted soil. The metabolism of pyrene by this fungus was investigated in liquid medium with 5 mg of the compound. Depletion of pyrene was evident during the 30-day growth period and was 21% and 90%, respectively, in cometabolism and metabolism of pyrene alone. Pyrene was absorbed to fungal cells or biodegraded to form simpler structural compounds. Seventy-one percent of eliminated pyrene was transformed by Polyporus sp. S133 into other compounds, whereas only 18% was absorbed in the fungal cell. The effects of pH and temperature on biomass production of Polyporus sp. S133 for pyrene were examined; the properties of laccase and 1,2-dioxygenase produced by Polyporus sp. S133 during pyrene degradation were investigated. The optimal values of pH were 3, 5, and 4 for laccase, 1,2-dioxygenase, and biomass production, respectively, whereas the optimal values of temperature were 25 °C for laccase and 50 °C for 1,2-dioxygenase and biomass production. Under optimal conditions, pyrene was mainly metabolized to 1-hydroxypyrene and gentisic acid. The structure of 1-hydroxypyrene and gentisic acid was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after identification using thin-layer chromatography. PMID:23586956

  17. Decolorization and degradation mechanism of Amaranth by Polyporus sp. S133.

    PubMed

    Hadibarata, Tony; Nor, Nurafifah Mohd

    2014-09-01

    Polyporus sp. S133 decolorized the Amaranth in 72 h (30 mg L(-1)) under static and shaking conditions. Liquid medium containing glucose has shown the highest decolorization of Amaranth by Polyporus sp. S133. When the effect of increasing inoculum concentration on decolorization of Amaranth was studied, maximum decolorization was observed with 15 % inoculum concentration. Significant increase in the enzyme production of laccase (102.2 U L(-1)) was observed over the period of Amaranth decolorization compared to lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase. Germination rate of Sorghum vulgare and Triticum aestivum was less with Amaranth treatment as compared to metabolites obtained after its decolorization. Based on the metabolites detected by GC-MS, it was proposed that Amaranth was bio-transformed into two intermediates, 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid and 1,4-naphthaquinone. Overall findings suggested the ability of Polyporus sp. S133 for the decolorization of azo dye and ensured the ecofriendly degradation of Amaranth. PMID:24623464

  18. Identification of metabolites from phenanthrene oxidation by phenoloxidases and dioxygenases of Polyporus sp. S133.

    PubMed

    Hadibarata, Tony; Tachibana, Sanro; Askari, Muhamad

    2011-03-01

    Phenanthrene degradation by Polyporus sp. S133, a new phenanthrene-degrading strain, was investigated in this work. The analysis of degradation was performed by calculation of the remaining phenanthrene by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. When cells were grown in phenanthrene culture after 92 h, all but 200 and 250 mg/l of the phenanthrene had been degraded. New metabolic pathways of phenanthrene and a better understanding of the phenoloxidases and dioxygenase mechanism involved in degradation of phenanthrene were explored in this research. The mechanism of degradation was determined through identification of the several metabolites; 9,10-phenanthrenequinone, 2,2'-diphenic acid, salicylic acid, and catechol. 9,10-Oxidation and ring cleavage to give 9,10-phenanthrenequinone is the major fate of phenanthrene in ligninolytic Polyporus sp. S133. The identification of 2,2'-diphenic acid in culture extracts indicates that phenanthrene was initially attacked through dioxigenation at C9 and C10 to give cis-9,10-dihydrodiol. Dehydrogenation of phenanthrene-cis-9,10-dihydrodiol to produce the corresponding diol, followed by ortho-cleavage of the oxygenated ring, produced 2,2'-diphenic acid. Several enzymes (manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, laccase, 1,2-dioxygenase, and 2,3-dioxygenase) produced by Polyporus sp. S133 was detected during the incubation. The highest level of activity was shown at 92 h of culture. PMID:21464602

  19. Submerged culture conditions for the production of mycelial biomass and antimicrobial metabolites by Polyporus tricholoma Mont.

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Gladys Rosane Thomé; Liebl, Mariane; Tavares, Lorena Benathar Ballod; Paulert, Roberta; Smânia Júnior, Artur

    2008-01-01

    Basidiomycete fungi of the Polyporus genus are a source of secondary metabolites which are of medicinal interest as antibacterial compounds. As these substances are produced in a small amount by the fungi, the study of the cultivation conditions in vitro that could possibly optimize their production seems of major importance. The effects of glucose and lactose, pH and agitation on biomass concentration and on the specific growth rate caused by the basidiomycete Polyporus tricholoma were investigated. The initial pH (4.5, 6.5 and 8.5) was autoregulated at pH 5.5, and the agitation increased the mycelial growth and the specific growth rate. The high concentration of carbon sources (4%) increased biomass production. The lactose concentration and the absence of agitation were determinant in the production of antibacterial metabolites. The characterization of the antibacterial substance by GC-MS indicated a major compound, isodrimenediol, produced by the fungus Polyporus tricholoma with activity against Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:24031266

  20. Penile shaft involvement in pityriasis versicolor.

    PubMed

    Khaddar, Rym Kort; Cherif, Faika; Ben Hadid, Rym; Mokni, Mourad; Ben Osman, Amel

    2008-06-01

    The Malassezia yeasts are among the normal human cutaneous flora in adults. They are also reported as part of the microflora of male genital region, mostly in uncircumcised males. The prevalence of Malassezia yeast colonization on the glans penis of circumcised males is discussed in multiple studies. We report the case of a male patient with extensive pityriasis versicolor that does not involve the preputial space. PMID:18709297

  1. Atrophying Pityriasis Versicolor: Is This a New Variant of Pityriasis Versicolor?

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yun-Seok; Shin, Min-Kyung

    2010-01-01

    An atypical clinical form of pityriasis versicolor has been infrequently reported, in which cutaneous atrophy is associated with individual pityriasis versicolor lesions. The pathogenesis of this atrophy remains unclear, but is believed to be a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to antigens derived from the Malassezia species. A 60-year-old man presented with multiple, slightly scaly, and depressed maculopatches or plaques on the trunk and extremities. Our microscopic examination of the skin scrapings on a KOH preparation revealed numerous short hyphae and spores. The patient was treated daily with 200 mg of itraconazole in combination with topical antifungals, achieving clinical improvement and mycological recovery, which was confirmed upon follow-up 1 month later. This is the first case report of atrophying pityriasis versicolor in Korea. It needs to be differentiated from other atrophying disorders of the skin. PMID:21165220

  2. Aflatoxin Control in Maize by Trametes versicolor

    PubMed Central

    Scarpari, Marzia; Bello, Cristiano; Pietricola, Chiara; Zaccaria, Marco; Bertocchi, Luigi; Angelucci, Alessandra; Ricciardi, Maria Rosaria; Scala, Valeria; Parroni, Alessia; Fabbri, Anna A.; Reverberi, Massimo; Zjalic, Slaven; Fanelli, Corrado

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus is a well-known ubiquitous fungus able to contaminate both in pre- and postharvest period different feed and food commodities. During their growth, these fungi can synthesise aflatoxins, secondary metabolites highly hazardous for animal and human health. The requirement of products with low impact on the environment and on human health, able to control aflatoxin production, has increased. In this work the effect of the basidiomycete Trametes versicolor on the aflatoxin production by A. flavus both in vitro and in maize, was investigated. The goal was to propose an environmental loyal tool for a significant control of aflatoxin production, in order to obtain feedstuffs and feed with a high standard of quality and safety to enhance the wellbeing of dairy cows. The presence of T. versicolor, grown on sugar beet pulp, inhibited the production of aflatoxin B1 in maize by A. flavus. Furthermore, treatment of contaminated maize with culture filtrates of T. versicolor containing ligninolytic enzymes, showed a significant reduction of the content of aflatoxin B1. PMID:25525683

  3. Aflatoxin control in maize by Trametes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Scarpari, Marzia; Bello, Cristiano; Pietricola, Chiara; Zaccaria, Marco; Bertocchi, Luigi; Angelucci, Alessandra; Ricciardi, Maria Rosaria; Scala, Valeria; Parroni, Alessia; Fabbri, Anna A; Reverberi, Massimo; Zjalic, Slaven; Fanelli, Corrado

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus is a well-known ubiquitous fungus able to contaminate both in pre- and postharvest period different feed and food commodities. During their growth, these fungi can synthesise aflatoxins, secondary metabolites highly hazardous for animal and human health. The requirement of products with low impact on the environment and on human health, able to control aflatoxin production, has increased. In this work the effect of the basidiomycete Trametes versicolor on the aflatoxin production by A. flavus both in vitro and in maize, was investigated. The goal was to propose an environmental loyal tool for a significant control of aflatoxin production, in order to obtain feedstuffs and feed with a high standard of quality and safety to enhance the wellbeing of dairy cows. The presence of T. versicolor, grown on sugar beet pulp, inhibited the production of aflatoxin B1 in maize by A. flavus. Furthermore, treatment of contaminated maize with culture filtrates of T. versicolor containing ligninolytic enzymes, showed a significant reduction of the content of aflatoxin B1. PMID:25525683

  4. Pityriasis versicolor on the groin mimicking erythrasma.

    PubMed

    Aste, N; Pau, M; Aste, N

    2004-06-01

    Pityriasis versicolor (PV) is a widespread dermatomycosis caused by yeasts. Erythrasma is a superficial bacterial skin disease affecting the major folds of the body, particularly the groin. We report the case of a 45-year-old man, affected by PV, exclusively localized in the inguinal folds and in the inner surface of the thighs, characterized by lesions clinically reproducing erythrasma. The authors underline the possibility that PV mimics erythrasma and vice versa, especially in those countries in which both diseases are quite common, and stress the importance of performing a simple mycological examination to avoid gross diagnostic and therapeutic errors. PMID:15189194

  5. Structure and bioactivity of a polysaccharide containing uronic acid from Polyporus umbellatus sclerotia.

    PubMed

    He, Pengfei; Zhang, Anqiang; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J; Sun, Peilong

    2016-11-01

    Polyporus umbellatus is a medicinal fungus, has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for thousands years for treatment of edema, scanty urine, vaginal discharge, jaundice and diarrhea. The structure of a soluble polysaccharide (named PUP80S1), purified from the sclerotia of Polyporus umbellatus was elucidated by gas chromatography (GC), GC-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. PUP80S1 is a branched polysaccharide containing approximately 8.5% uronic acid and having an average molecular weight of 8.8kDa. Atomic force microscopy of PUP80S1 reveals a globular chain conformation in water. Antioxidant tests, Oxygen radical absorption capacity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assays indicate that PUP80S1 possesses significant antioxidant activity. But the related polysaccharide, PUP60S2, which contains more uronic acid residues and a higher level of branching, shows better antioxidant activity. These results suggest that structure features of polysaccharides play an important role in their physiological functions. PMID:27516268

  6. Ligninolytic fungus Polyporus sp. S133 mediated metabolic degradation of fluorene.

    PubMed

    Lazim, Zainab Mat; Hadibarata, Tony

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of nonionic surfactants on the efficacy of fluorine degradation by Polyporus sp. S133 in a liquid culture. Fluorene was observed to be degraded in its entirety by Polyporus sp. S133 subsequent to a 23-day incubation period. The fastest cell growth rate was observed in the initial 7 days in the culture that was supplemented with Tween 80. The degradation process was primarily modulated by the activity of two ligninolytic enzymes, laccase and MnP. The highest laccase activity was stimulated by the addition of Tween 80 (2443U/L) followed by mixed surfactant (1766U/L) and Brij 35 (1655U/L). UV-vis spectroscopy, TLC analysis and mass spectrum analysis of samples subsequent to the degradation process in the culture medium confirmed the biotransformation of fluorene. Two metabolites, 9-fluorenol (λmax 270, tR 8.0min and m/z 254) and protocatechuic acid (λmax 260, tR 11.3min and m/z 370), were identified in the treated medium. PMID:27287336

  7. Morphology of the Male Reproductive System of the Social Wasp, Polistes Versicolor Versicolor, with Phylogenetic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Vinícius Albano; Moreira, Jane; Lino-Neto, José

    2010-01-01

    Variation in the morphology of the adult male reproductive system among different groups of Hymenoptera offer characteristics that help studies of behavior and the evolutionary history of this group. The objective of this study was to describe the adult male reproductive system of the wasp Polistes versicolor versicolor Olivier (Vespidae: Polistini). The reproductive systems were dissected, fixed and embedded for light microscopy. In P. v. versicolor, the reproductive system includes a pair of testes, each one with three fusiform follicles. From each follicle emerges an efferent duct that later join together, forming a deferent duct. The first half of the deferent duct is enlarged and differentiated into a region specialized for sperm storage, the seminal vesicle. At the post-vesicular region of each of the deferent ducts an accessory gland emerges. The seminal vesicle and the accessory gland are covered with a capsule forming a vesicle-gland complex, also observed in some species of North American Polistes. Sperm are released from testes in bundles, which are disorganized inside seminal vesicles. In the testicular follicles, 95 spermatozoa were observed per cyst on average. PMID:20673189

  8. Sterigmatocystin in dairy cattle feed contaminated with Aspergillus versicolor.

    PubMed Central

    Vesonder, R F; Horn, B W

    1985-01-01

    Sterigmatocystin (7.75 micrograms/g of feed) and a high-propagule-density of Aspergillus versicolor were detected in feed associated with acute clinical symptoms of bloody diarrhea and death in dairy cattle. Nine isolates of A. versicolor from the feed produced 13 to 89 micrograms of sterigmatocystin per g on cracked corn and lower amounts in liquid culture. This is the first report of sterigmatocystin in dairy cattle feed in the United States. PMID:3977312

  9. Identification of metabolites from benzo[a]pyrene oxidation by ligninolytic enzymes of Polyporus sp. S133.

    PubMed

    Hadibarata, Tony; Kristanti, Risky Ayu

    2012-11-30

    The biodegradation of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) by using Polyporus sp. S133, a white-rot fungus isolated from oil-contaminated soil was investigated. Approximately 73% of the initial concentration of BaP was degraded within 30 d of incubation. The isolation and characterization of 3 metabolites by thin layer chromatography, column chromatography, and UV-vis spectrophotometry in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, indicated that Polyporus sp. S133 transformed BaP to BaP-1,6-quinone. This quinone was further degraded in 2 ways. First, BaP-1,6-quinone was decarboxylated and oxidized to form coumarin, which was then hydroxylated to hydroxycoumarin, and finally to hydroxyphenyl acetic acid by addition of an epoxide group. Second, Polyporus sp. S133 converted BaP-1,6-quinone into a major product, 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid. During degradation, free extracellular laccase was detected with reduced activity of lignin peroxidase, manganese-dependent peroxidase and 2,3-dioxygenase, suggesting that laccase and 1,2-dioxygenase might play an important role in the transformation of PAHs compounds. PMID:22835655

  10. Solubilization of Leonardite by an Extracellular Fraction from Coriolus versicolor.

    PubMed

    Pyne, J W; Stewart, D L; Fredrickson, J; Wilson, B W

    1987-12-01

    Coriolus versicolor has previously been shown to degrade leonardite, an oxidized form of lignite. An extracellular fraction containing protein purified from a C. versicolor culture solubilized leonardite in vitro. Expression of the activity did not require the presence of leonardite and appeared during idiophase. During ion-exchange and gel filtration column chromatography, leonardite-biosolubilizing activity eluted with syringaldazine oxidase activity and with protein, as measured by A(280) and the biuret protein assay. Syringaldazine is a substrate of the polyphenol oxidase formed by C. versicolor. Comparison of leonardite-biosolubilizing activity with the effects of chelators and surface-active agents on leonardite showed that biosolubilization was not due to either surfactant or chelating ability. Heat treatment of the preparation at 60 degrees C for 30 min significantly reduced both syringaldazine oxidase and leonardite-biosolubilizing activities. Cyanide, azide, and thioglycolate, which are known inhibitors of syringaldazine oxidase activity of C. versicolor, also inhibited leonardite biosolubilization. From these data, we conclude that the purified protein fraction from C. versicolor contains a syringaldazine oxidase activity that participates in leonardite biosolubilization by enzymatic action. PMID:16347501

  11. Solubilization of Leonardite by an Extracellular Fraction from Coriolus versicolor

    PubMed Central

    Pyne, John W.; Stewart, Dorothy L.; Fredrickson, James; Wilson, Bary W.

    1987-01-01

    Coriolus versicolor has previously been shown to degrade leonardite, an oxidized form of lignite. An extracellular fraction containing protein purified from a C. versicolor culture solubilized leonardite in vitro. Expression of the activity did not require the presence of leonardite and appeared during idiophase. During ion-exchange and gel filtration column chromatography, leonardite-biosolubilizing activity eluted with syringaldazine oxidase activity and with protein, as measured by A280 and the biuret protein assay. Syringaldazine is a substrate of the polyphenol oxidase formed by C. versicolor. Comparison of leonardite-biosolubilizing activity with the effects of chelators and surface-active agents on leonardite showed that biosolubilization was not due to either surfactant or chelating ability. Heat treatment of the preparation at 60°C for 30 min significantly reduced both syringaldazine oxidase and leonardite-biosolubilizing activities. Cyanide, azide, and thioglycolate, which are known inhibitors of syringaldazine oxidase activity of C. versicolor, also inhibited leonardite biosolubilization. From these data, we conclude that the purified protein fraction from C. versicolor contains a syringaldazine oxidase activity that participates in leonardite biosolubilization by enzymatic action. PMID:16347501

  12. Solubilization of leonardite by an extracellular fraction from Coriolus versicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Pyne, J.W. Jr.; Stewart, D.L.; Fredrickson, J.; Wilson, B.W.

    1987-12-01

    Coriolus versicolor has previously been shown to degrade leonardite, an oxidized form of lignite. An extracellular fraction containing protein purified from a C. versicolor culture solubilized leonardite in vitro. Expression of the activity did not require the presence of leonardite and appeared during idiophase. During ion-exchange and gel filtration column chromatography, leonardite-biosolubilizing activity eluted with syringaldazine oxidase activity and with protein, as measured by A//sub 280/ and the biuret protein assay. Syringaldazine is a substrate of the polyphenol oxidase formed by C. versicolor. Comparison of leonardite-biosolubilizing activity with the effects of chelators and surface-active agents on leonardite showed that biosolubilization was not due to either surfactant or chelating ability. Heat treatment of the preparation at 60/sup 0/C for 30 min significantly reduced both syringaldazine oxidase and leonardite-biosolubilizing activities. Cyanide, azide, and thioglycolate, which are know inhibitors of syringaldazine oxidase activity of C. versicolor, also inhibited leonardite biosolubilization. From these data, we conclude that the purified protein fraction from C. versicolor contains a syringaldazine oxidase activity that participates in leonardite biosolubilization by enzymatic action.

  13. Characterization of purified and Xerogel immobilized Novel Lignin Peroxidase produced from Trametes versicolor IBL-04 using solid state medium of Corncobs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    isolated white rot fungal strain T. versicolor IBL-04 showed tremendous potential for LiP synthesis in SSF of corncobs in high titters (592 U/mL) than other reported Trametes (Coriolus, Polyporus) species. The results obtained after dual phase characterization suggested xerogel matrix entrapment a promising tool for enzyme immobilization, hyper-activation and stabilization against high temperature and inactivating agents. The pH and temperature optima, extra thermo-stability features and kinetic characteristics of this novel LiP of T. versicolor IBL-04 make it a versatile enzyme for various industrial and biotechnological applications. PMID:22862820

  14. Nox gene expression and cytochemical localization of hydrogen peroxide in Polyporus umbellatus sclerotial formation.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yong-Mei; Chen, Juan; Song, Chao; Liu, Ying-Ying; Guo, Shun-Xing; Wang, Chun-Lan

    2013-01-01

    The effect of temperature shift on Polyporus umbellatus sclerotial development was investigated. Micromorphology of the sclerotia was observed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The cytochemical localization of H2O2 expressed as CeCl3 deposition at the subcellular level was observed by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Nox gene expression in sclerotia and mycelia was detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis. In addition, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) specific activities increased during sclerotial development and decreased after the antioxidant diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) was used. Results indicated that the temperature shift treatment induced P. umbellatus sclerotial formation. Compared with the mycelia, the Nox gene was respectively upregulated by 10.577-, 30.984- and 25.469-fold in the sclerotia of SI, SD and SM stages respectively. During the sclerotial formation, H2O2 accumulation was observed in the cell walls or around the organelle membranes of the mycelial cells. The antioxidant DPI decreased the generation of H2O2 in mycelial cells. The specific activity of SOD and CAT levels was decreased significantly by DPI. The activity of the two antioxidant enzymes in the mycelia increased much more during sclerotial formation (p < 0.05). Oxidative stress was closely associated with sclerotial development in P. umbellatus induced by temperature shift treatment. PMID:24264041

  15. Taxonomy and Phylogeny of Polyporus Group Melanopus (Polyporales, Basidiomycota) from China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jun-Liang; Zhu, Lin; Chen, Hong; Cui, Bao-Kai

    2016-01-01

    Melanopus is a morphological group of Polyporus which contains species with a black cuticle on the stipe. In this article, taxonomic and phylogenetic studies on Melanopus group were carried out on the basis of morphological characters and phylogenetic evidence of DNA sequences of multiple loci including the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions, the large subunit nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (nLSU), the small subunit nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (nSSU), the small subunit mitochondrial rRNA gene sequences (mtSSU), the translation elongation factor 1-α gene (EF1-α), the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB1), the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB2), and β-tubulin gene sequences (β-tubulin). The phylogenetic result confirmed that the previously so-called Melanopus group is not a monophyletic assemblage, and species in this group distribute into two distinct clades: the Picipes clade and the Squamosus clade. Four new species of Picipes are described, and nine new combinations are proposed. A key to species of Picipes is provided. PMID:27486931

  16. Transcriptomic analysis of the white rot fungus Polyporus brumalis provides insight into sesquiterpene biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su-Yeon; Kim, Myungkil; Kim, Seon-Hong; Hong, Chang-Young; Ryu, Sun-Hwa; Choi, In-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Object of this study was to identify genes and enzymes that are involved in sesquiterpene biosynthesis in the wood rotting fungus, Polyporus brumalis. Sesquiterpenes, β-eudesmane and β-eudesmol, were produced by the mycelium of P. brumalis cultured in modified medium. However, theses final products were not observed when the fungus was grown in potato dextrose medium. We used next generation sequencing (NGS) to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to terpene metabolism. This approach generated 25,000 unigenes and 127 metabolic pathways that were assigned to Kyoto Encyclopedia Genes Groups (KEGG). Further analysis of samples from modified medium indicated significant upregulation of 8 unigenes involved in the mevalonate (MVA) and methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) biosynthetic pathways. These pathways generate isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) and farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP), which are precursors for the synthesis of sesquiterpenes. Furthermore, genes encoding germacrene A synthase, which facilitate the cyclization of FPP, were only differentially expressed in mycelium from fungi grown in modified medium. Our data provide a resource for studying the molecular mechanisms underpinning sesquiterpene biosynthesis and terpene metabolism. PMID:26686622

  17. Molecular characterization of manganese peroxidases from white-rot fungus Polyporus brumalis.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Sun-Hwa; Kim, Boyeong; Kim, Myungkil; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2014-03-01

    The cDNAs of six manganese-dependent peroxidases (MnPs) were isolated from white-rot fungus Polyporus brumalis. The MnP proteins shared similar properties with each other in terms of size (approximately 360-365 amino acids) and primary structure, showing 62-96 % amino acid sequence identity. RT-PCR analysis indicated that these six genes were predominantly expressed in shallow stationary culture (SSC) in a liquid medium. Gene expression was induced by treatment with dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and wood chips. Expression of pbmnp4 was strongly induced by both treatments, whereas that of pbmnp5 was induced only by DBP, while pbmnp6 was induced by wood chips only. Then, we overexpressed pbmnp4 in P. brumalis under the control of the GPD promoter. Overexpression of pbmnp4 effectively increased MnP activity; the transformant that had the highest MnP activity also demonstrated the most effective decolorization of Remazol Brilliant Blue R dye. Identification of MnP cDNAs can contribute to the efficient production of lignin-degradation enzymes and may lead to utilization of basidiomycetous fungi for degradation of lignin and numerous recalcitrant xenobiotics. PMID:23828244

  18. Genetic Diversity and Evolution of Chinese Traditional Medicinal Fungus Polyporus umbellatus (Polyporales, Basidiomycota)

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Xiaoke; Ma, Xueting; Hart, Miranda M.; Wang, Airong; Guo, Shunxing

    2013-01-01

    Background Polyporus umbellatus is an important medicinal fungus distributed throughout most area of China. Its wide distribution may have resulted in substantial intraspecific genetic diversity for the fungus, potentially creating variation in its medical value. To date, we know little about the intraspecific genetic diversity of P. umbellatus. Methodology/Principal Findings The objective of this research was to assess genetic differences of P. umbellatus from geographically diverse regions of China based on nrDNA ITS and 28S rRNA (LSU, large subunit) sequences. Significant sequence variations in the ITS and LSU sequences were detected. All sclerotial samples were clustered into four clades based on phylogenetic analysis of ITS, LSU and a combined data set of both regions. Heterogeneity of ITS and LSU sequences was detected in 5 and 7 samples respectively. All clone sequences clustered into the same clade except for one LSU clone sequences (from Henan province) which clustered into two clades (Clade I and Clade II). Significant genetic divergence in P. umbellatus was observed and the genetic diversification was greater among sclerotial samples from Shaanxi, Henan and Gansu provinces than among other provinces. Polymorphism of ITS and LSU sequences indicated that in China, P. umbellatus may spread from a center (Shaanxi, Henan and Gansu province) to other regions. Conclusions/Significance We found sclerotial samples of P. umbellatus contained levels of intraspecific genetic diversity. These findings suggested that P. umbellatus populations in Shaanxi, Henan and Gansu are important resources of genetic diversity and should be conserved accordingly. PMID:23554929

  19. Taxonomy and Phylogeny of Polyporus Group Melanopus (Polyporales, Basidiomycota) from China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jun-Liang; Zhu, Lin; Chen, Hong; Cui, Bao-Kai

    2016-01-01

    Melanopus is a morphological group of Polyporus which contains species with a black cuticle on the stipe. In this article, taxonomic and phylogenetic studies on Melanopus group were carried out on the basis of morphological characters and phylogenetic evidence of DNA sequences of multiple loci including the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions, the large subunit nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (nLSU), the small subunit nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (nSSU), the small subunit mitochondrial rRNA gene sequences (mtSSU), the translation elongation factor 1-α gene (EF1-α), the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB1), the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB2), and β-tubulin gene sequences (β-tubulin). The phylogenetic result confirmed that the previously so-called Melanopus group is not a monophyletic assemblage, and species in this group distribute into two distinct clades: the Picipes clade and the Squamosus clade. Four new species of Picipes are described, and nine new combinations are proposed. A key to species of Picipes is provided. PMID:27486931

  20. Effective induction of pblac1 laccase by copper ion in Polyporus brumalis ibrc05015.

    PubMed

    Nakade, Keiko; Nakagawa, Yuko; Yano, Akira; Konno, Naotake; Sato, Toshitsugu; Sakamoto, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    Polyporus brumalis ibrc05015 is a strain capable of high laccase (Lac) production. Among several inducers, 0.25 mM copper was most effective for Lac production. One of the Lacs induced by copper was PbLac1, and its transcription was induced within 60 min after copper addition. The promoter region of pblac1 contained six putative metal response elements and one Ace1 consensus cis-element. We cloned the P. brumalis PbAce1 transcription factor, a homologue of Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcription factor Ace1, which regulates metallothionein genes in response to excess copper. PbAce1 complemented the function of Ace1 in an S. cerevisiae Δace strain. The conserved N-terminal copper-fist DNA binding domain of PbAce1 was required for complementation. In the PbAce1 complemented Δace1 strain, the pblac1 promoter was constitutively expressed at a high level, independent of copper concentration. PbAce1 has two Cys-rich repeat motifs (PbC1 and PbC2), which are similar to the Cys-rich repeat domain in metallothionein proteins, and are uniquely conserved in the C-terminal domain of basidiomycetous Ace1 sequences. These C-terminal domains could be involved in copper sensing and concentration-dependent Lac production in basidiomycetous fungi. PMID:23332833

  1. Nox Gene Expression and Cytochemical Localization of Hydrogen Peroxide in Polyporus umbellatus Sclerotial Formation

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yong-Mei; Chen, Juan; Song, Chao; Liu, Ying-Ying; Guo, Shun-Xing; Wang, Chun-Lan

    2013-01-01

    The effect of temperature shift on Polyporus umbellatus sclerotial development was investigated. Micromorphology of the sclerotia was observed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The cytochemical localization of H2O2 expressed as CeCl3 deposition at the subcellular level was observed by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Nox gene expression in sclerotia and mycelia was detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis. In addition, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) specific activities increased during sclerotial development and decreased after the antioxidant diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) was used. Results indicated that the temperature shift treatment induced P. umbellatus sclerotial formation. Compared with the mycelia, the Nox gene was respectively upregulated by 10.577-, 30.984- and 25.469-fold in the sclerotia of SI, SD and SM stages respectively. During the sclerotial formation, H2O2 accumulation was observed in the cell walls or around the organelle membranes of the mycelial cells. The antioxidant DPI decreased the generation of H2O2 in mycelial cells. The specific activity of SOD and CAT levels was decreased significantly by DPI. The activity of the two antioxidant enzymes in the mycelia increased much more during sclerotial formation (p < 0.05). Oxidative stress was closely associated with sclerotial development in P. umbellatus induced by temperature shift treatment. PMID:24264041

  2. The effect of surfactant on pollutant biosorption of Trametes versicolor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gül, Ülküye Dudu; Silah, Hülya; Akbaş, Halide; Has, Merve

    2016-04-01

    The major problem concerning industrial wastewater is treatment of dye and heavy metal containing effluents. Industrial effluents are also contained surfactants that are used as levelling, dispersing and wetting agents. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of surfactant on textile dye biosorption properties of a white rot fungus named Trametes versicolor. Reactive dyes are commonly used in textile industry because of their advantages such as brightness and excellent color fastness. A recative textile dye, called Everzol Black, was used in this study. The low-cost mollasses medium is used for fungal growth. The usage of mollases, the sugar refinery effluent as a source of energy and nutrients, gained importance because of reducing the cost and also reusing another waste. In biosorption process the effect of surfactant on dye removal properties of T. versicolor was examined as a function of pH, dye consentration and surfactant concentration. The results of this study showed that the surfactant enhanced the dye removal capacity of Trametes versicolor. The dye and surfactant molecules were interacted electrostatically and these electrostatic interactions improved dye removal properties of filamentous fungus T. versicolor. The results of this study recommended the use of surfactants as an inducer in textile wastewater treatment technologies.

  3. Trametes versicolor extract modifies human fecal microbiota composition in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhuo-Teng; Liu, Bo; Mukherjee, Purna; Newburg, David S

    2013-06-01

    Trametes versicolor is a mushroom used as a traditional Chinese medicine (Yun-zhi) for a wide array of seemingly disparate conditions. We hypothesized that many of its multiple purported activities could be mediated through stimulation of beneficial mutualist components of the microbiota. Human fecal microbiota was cultured anaerobically to determine its ability to ferment a common extract of T. versicolor, designated polysaccharide peptide (PSP), and the ability of PSP to alter the composition of the microbial community. The presence of PSP and fructooligosaccharides (FOS, a common prebiotic) in the medium, but not cellulose, significantly increased levels of Bifidobacterium spp. PSP also elevated Lactobacillus spp., while reducing Clostridium spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Enterococcus spp. Levels of Streptococcus spp., Bacteroides spp. and Escherichia did not significantly change. Fermentation of PSP increased the concentration of organic acids (lactate and short-chain fatty acids), decreased the pH, and induced β-galactosidase and β-glucosidase activities. The genera of the human microbiota that are promoted by FOS and other prebiotics are also stimulated by the Trametes versicolor extract, PSP. Thus, Trametes versicolor, a common East Asian botanical, contains putative prebiotic agents that alter human gut microbiota and pH. This prebiotic-like activity may help explain some of the plethora of the health benefits attributed to this traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:23435630

  4. Sclerotial Formation of Polyporus umbellatus by Low Temperature Treatment under Artificial Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yong-Mei; Zhang, Li-Chun; Liang, Han-Qiao; Lv, Jing; Song, Chao; Guo, Shun-Xing; Wang, Chun-Lan; Lee, Tae-Soo; Lee, Min-Woong

    2013-01-01

    Background Polyporus umbellatus sclerotia have been used as a diuretic agent in China for over two thousand years. A shortage of the natural P. umbellatus has prompted researchers to induce sclerotial formation in the laboratory. Methodology/Principal Finding P. umbellatus cultivation in a sawdust-based substrate was investigated to evaluate the effect of low temperature conditions on sclerotial formation. A phenol-sulfuric acid method was employed to determine the polysaccharide content of wild P. umbellatus sclerotia and mycelia and sclerotia grown in low-temperature treatments. In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, expressed as the fluorescence intensity of mycelia during sclerotial differentiation was determined. Analysis of ROS generation and sclerotial formation in mycelia after treatment with the antioxidants such as diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI), apocynin (Apo), or vitamin C were studied. Furthermore, macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of sclerotial differentiation were observed. Sclerotia were not induced by continuous cultivation at 25°C. The polysaccharide content of the artificial sclerotia is 78% of that of wild sclerotia. In the low-temperature treatment group, the fluorescent intensity of ROS was higher than that of the room temperature (25°C) group which did not induce sclerotial formation all through the cultivation. The antioxidants DPI and Apo reduced ROS levels and did not induce sclerotial formation. Although the concentration-dependent effects of vitamin C (5–15 mg mL−1) also reduced ROS generation and inhibited sclerotial formation, using a low concentration of vitamin C (1 mg mL−1) successfully induced sclerotial differentiation and increased ROS production. Conclusions/Significance Exposure to low temperatures induced P. umbellatus sclerotial morphogenesis during cultivation. Low temperature treatment enhanced ROS in mycelia, which may be important in triggering sclerotial differentiation in P. umbellatus

  5. Pityriasis versicolor on penile shaft in a renal transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Han-Won; Cho, Jae-We; Lee, Kyu-Suk

    2012-08-01

    Pityriasis versicolor is a superficial infection of the stratum corneum, which is caused by the Malassezia species. Tge Malassezia species consist of 12 subspecies, including M. furfur, M. pachydermatis, M. symphodialis and M. globasa. The Malassezia species are classified as a normal flora, particularly in the sebum rich areas of the skin, and they convert from saprophytic yeast to parasitic mycelial morpholgic form to cause clinical disease. But majorities of their distributions are in the upper back, the neck, the thighs, and the forearm, and not in the penis. It is well known that the renal transplant patients, who take immunosuppressive agents, have impairment in the protective cell mediated immunity. Thus, they are more susceptible to infectious diseases, such as a fungal infection. Therefore, clinical manifestations show higher incidence of disease, but they mostly occur in an expected distribution. We here report a case of pityriasis versicolor in a renal transplant recipient on penile shaft, which is an unusual area. PMID:22879720

  6. Partial purification of coriolus versicolor's extracellular polyphenol oxidase (PPO)

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, N.L.; Dashek, W.V. )

    1993-05-01

    Coriolus versicolor, a white-rot basidiomycete, secretes ligno-celluloytic enzymes. Because these are valuable to paper-pulp agricultural industries, trials are in progress to substrate induce these enzymes enhance their secretions. Reported are attempts to develop an extracellular PPO (o-diphenols to 0-diquinones) purification protocol applicable to [open quote]batch-cultured[close quote] C. versicolor. Whereas dialysis (MW [open quote]cut-off[close quote], 14,000) of 13 day growth medium (GM) resulted in 2.17 fold PPO spc. act. increase, dialysis plus a 0-30% (NH[sub 4])[sub 2]SO[sub 4] [open quote]cut[close quote] yielded a 3.27 fold enhancement. Subsequent GM chromatography on DEAE CM-Sephadexes revealed that PPO exchanged with DEAE's counterion without enhancing spc. act. Gel filtration of GM commercial PPOs on G-150 resulted in similar elutions indicating a substitute for ion exchange chromatography. Time-dependent fungal growth in liquid medium followed by viscometry utilizing CMC revealed a GM endocellulase 2 days after inoculation an activity rise to day 12. Filteration of Onozuka cellulase on G-150 yielded an elution profile similar to those of GM authentic PPO's compounding C. versicolor's PPO purification. SDS-PAGE of dialyzed GM revealed 4 proteins, one of which was removed by the (NH[sub 4])[sub 2]SO[sub 4]. The m[sub TS] of commercial Sigma's PPO Onozuka cellulase were 0.76 0.59, respectively, for comparison to C. versicolor's PPO. Affinity, hydroxylapatite hydrophobic interaction chromatographies may yield a single SDS-PAGE PPO band.

  7. [Pityriasis versicolor--modern views on etiology, pathogenesis and therapy].

    PubMed

    Karadaglić, Dj

    1992-01-01

    Pityriasis versicolor (Tinea versicolor) is a superficial chronic fungal infection caused by Pityrisporum species which are normal "inhabitants" of the cutaneous flora. The morphologic changes from yeast to mycelial hypha form are important in the development of clinical lesions. The onset and course of the disease are under the influence of genetic factors, age, sex, climate, local environmental factors, malnutrition, pregnancy, oral contraceptives, corticosteroid and immunosuppressive treatment. They favorize transformation of saphrophytic to pathogenic form, and are the cause of recurrences and chronicity of the disease. The ultrastructural and immunologic studies which are carried out today would significantly contribute to a better understanding of pathogenesis of the disease. The disease is limited to seborrheic areas of the skin and commonly has three clinical forms: papulosquamous, follicular and inverse. This can make great problems in differential diagnosis. In the treatment of these patients it should be kept in mind that Pityriasis versicolor is not a primary contagious disease and that conversion of Pityrisporum depends on the predisposing factors. Numerous medicaments with local and systemic effect which are used nowaday in the treatment and prevention of pityriasis are reported. Way of application, doses, duration of therapy, advantages and disadvantages are given in detail. PMID:1465674

  8. Sterigmatocystin production by nine newly described Aspergillus species in section Versicolores grown on two different media

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nine recently described Aspergillus species and four known species in section Versicolores were tested for their ability to produce Nine recently described Aspergillus species and four known species in section Versicolores were tested for their ability to produce sterigmatocystin (ST) on two liquid ...

  9. Enhanced lignin biodegradation by a laccase-overexpressed white-rot fungus Polyporus brumalis in the pretreatment of wood chips.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Sun-Hwa; Cho, Myung-Kil; Kim, Myungkil; Jung, Sang-Min; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2013-11-01

    The laccase gene of Polyporus brumalis was genetically transformed to overexpress its laccase. The transformants exhibited increased laccase activity and effective decolorization of the dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R than the wild type. When the transformants were pretreated with wood chips from a red pine (softwood) and a tulip tree (hardwood) for 15 and 45 days, they showed higher lignin-degradation activity as well as higher wood-chip weight loss than the wild type. When the wood chips treated with the transformant were enzymatically saccharified, the highest sugar yields were found to be 32.5 % for the red pine wood and 29.5 % for the tulip tree wood, on the basis of the dried wood weights, which were 1.6-folds higher than those for the wild type. These results suggested that overexpression of the laccase gene from P. brumalis significantly contributed to the pretreatment of lignocellulose for increasing sugar yields. PMID:23975277

  10. Nucleoside derivatives from the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus versicolor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min; Fu, Xiu-Mei; Kong, Chui-Jian; Wang, Chang-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Four nucleoside derivatives (1-4) were isolated from the fungus Aspergillus versicolor derived from the gorgonian Dichotella gemmacea collected in the South China Sea. Their structures were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic method of NMR and MS analysis. All isolated metabolites were evaluated for their cytotoxicity, antibacterial activity and lethality towards brine shrimp Artemia salina. Compounds 1/2 exhibited selective antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis with an MIC value of 12.5 μM. It should be noted that 1 and 2, whose structures were listed in SciFinder Scholar, had no associated reference. This is the first report about their isolation, structure elucidation and biological activities. PMID:24670197

  11. Identification of Malassezia yeast species isolated from patients with pityriasis versicolor.

    PubMed

    Petry, Vanessa; Tanhausen, Fernanda; Weiss, Luciana; Milan, Thais; Mezzari, Adelina; Weber, Magda Blessmann

    2011-01-01

    Pityriasis versicolor (PV) is a disease with worldwide distribution. Twelve different species of Malassezia yeast have been described. The objective of this study was to determine which species of Malassezia are more prevalent in patients with pityriasis versicolor. Samples were collected by scraping the lesions of 87 patients with a clinical suspicion of pityriasis versicolor. The samples were then submitted to fungal microscopy and culture to identify the species. The species found were: Malassezia sympodialis (30%), Malassezia furfur (25.7%), Malassezia globosa (22.7%), Malassezia restricta (12.1%), Malassezia obtusa (7.6%) and Malassezia slooffiae (1.5%). PMID:21987156

  12. Geographic host use variabiliy and host range evolutionary dynamics in the phytophagous insect Apagomerella versicolor (Cerambycidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The high diversity of phytophagous insects has been explained by the tendency of the group towards specialization; however, generalism may be advantageous in some environments. The cerambycid Apagomerella versicolor exhibits intraspecific geographical variation in host use. In northern Argentina it ...

  13. Applications of Trametes versicolor crude culture filtrates in detoxification of biomass pretreatment hydrolyzates.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Rajeev Kumar; Rajan, Kalavathy; Carrier, Danielle Julie

    2015-01-01

    Laccases have wide range of substrate specificity and find applications from pulp industry to waste water remediation. Laccases have also been used in combined pretreatment of biomass hydrolyzates to remove enzymatic and fermentation inhibitors. In this study, laccase production by Trametes versicolor strains isolated from different regions of the United States was induced using copper salts. T. versicolor crude culture filtrates (CCF), without any purification step, were tested for removal of model inhibitor compounds as well as in poplar and rice straw pretreatment hydrolyzates. Phenolic inhibitors were removed by 76% and 94% from the dilute acid hydrolyzates of rice straw and poplar, respectively, when incubated with the CCF for 12h, at room temperature. Xylo-oligosaccharide concentrations present in rice straw hydrolyzates were reduced by 64% when incubated with T. versicolor CCF. T. versicolor CCF could be a low cost technology for decreasing enzymatic and fermentation inhibitors. PMID:25876229

  14. Antiviral butyrolactones from the endophytic fungus Aspergillus versicolor.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Min; Du, Gang; Yang, Hai-Ying; Xia, Cong-Fang; Yang, Juan-Xia; Ye, Yan-qing; Gao, Xue-Mei; Li, Xiao-Nian; Hu, Qiu-Fen

    2015-02-01

    Versicolactones A-D (1-4), four new butyrolactones, along with four known butyrolactones (5-8) were isolated from the fermentation products of the endophytic fungus Aspergillus versicolor. The structures of compounds 1-4, including absolute configuration, were elucidated by interpretation of the NMR and CD data. Compound 2 was further confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. In particular, compound 1 is the first naturally occurring butyrolactone possessing an unusual 2-oxopropyl group. More importantly, compounds 1 and 8 displayed significant antitobacco mosaic virus activities with inhibition rates of 46.4 % and 35.4 %, even more potent than the positive control ningnanmycin (30.8 %). Compound 1 also showed moderate cytotoxicity against A549 and MCF7 cells with IC50 values of 3.2 and 2.5 µM, respectively. PMID:25590371

  15. Effects of catalysts on liquefaction of Agaricus versicolor (L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durak, Halil

    2016-04-01

    Supercritical liquefaction process is used for producing energy from biomass. The common reaction conditions for supercritical liquefaction process are the 240-380 °C temperature range and 5-20 Mpa pressure values range. Agaricus versicolor (L.) was liquefied by acetone in an autoclave (75 mL) under high pressure with (aluminium oxide and calcium hydroxide) and without catalyst at 290 °C for producing bio-oil. The products of liquefaction (bio-oil) were analysed and characterized using various methods including elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. GC-MS identified 27 different compounds in the bio-oils obtained at 290 °C.

  16. Effect of Residual Lignin Type and Amount on Bleaching of Kraft Pulp by Trametes versicolor

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Ian D.; Paice, Michael G.

    1994-01-01

    The white rot fungus Trametes (Coriolus) versicolor can delignify and brighten unbleached hardwood kraft pulp within a few days, but softwood kraft pulps require longer treatment. To determine the contributions of higher residual lignin contents (kappa numbers) and structural differences in lignins to the recalcitrance of softwood kraft pulps to biobleaching, we tested softwood and hardwood pulps cooked to the same kappa numbers, 26 and 12. A low-lignin-content (overcooked) softwood pulp resisted delignification by T. versicolor, but a high-lignin-content (lightly cooked) hardwood pulp was delignified at the same rate as a normal softwood pulp. Thus, the longer time taken by T. versicolor to brighten softwood kraft pulp than hardwood pulp results from the higher residual lignin content of the softwood pulp; possible differences in the structures of the residual lignins are important only when the lignin becomes highly condensed. Under the conditions used in this study, when an improved fungal inoculum was used, six different softwood pulps were all substantially brightened by T. versicolor. Softwood pulps whose lignin contents were decreased by extended modified continuous cooking or oxygen delignification to kappa numbers as low as 15 were delignified by T. versicolor at the same rate as normal softwood pulp. More intensive O2 delignification, like overcooking, decreased the susceptibility of the residual lignin in the pulps to degradation by T. versicolor. PMID:16349246

  17. Recombinant Tyrosinase from Polyporus arcularius: Overproduction in Escherichia coli, Characterization, and Use in a Study of Aurones as Tyrosinase Effectors.

    PubMed

    Marková, Eva; Kotik, Michael; Křenková, Alena; Man, Petr; Haudecoeur, Romain; Boumendjel, Ahcène; Hardré, Renaud; Mekmouche, Yasmina; Courvoisier-Dezord, Elise; Réglier, Marius; Martínková, Ludmila

    2016-04-13

    Tyrosinases act in the development of organoleptic properties of tea, raisins, etc., but also cause unwanted browning of fruits, vegetables, and mushrooms. The tyrosinase from Agaricus bisporus has been used as a model to study tyrosinase inhibitors, which are also indispensable in the treatment of skin pigmentation disorders. However, this model has disadvantages such as side enzyme activities and the presence of multiple isoenzymes. Therefore, we aimed to introduce a new tyrosinase model. The pro-tyrosinase from Polyporus arcularius was overproduced in Escherichia coli. Trypsin digestion led to a cleavage after R388 and hence enzyme activation. The tyrosinase was a homodimer and transformed L-DOPA and tert-butylcatechol preferentially. Various aurons were examined as effectors of this enzyme. 2'- and 3'-hydroxyaurones acted as its activators and 2',4'-dihydroxyaurone as an inhibitor, whereas 4'-hydroxyaurones were its substrates. The enzyme is a promising model for tyrosinase effector studies, being a single isoenzyme and void of side enzyme activities. PMID:26961852

  18. Development of Microsatellite Markers Derived from Expressed Sequence Tags of Polyporales for Genetic Diversity Analysis of Endangered Polyporus umbellatus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuejin; Chen, Yuanyuan; Wang, Ruihong; Zeng, Ailin; Deyholos, Michael K; Shu, Jia; Guo, Hongbo

    2015-01-01

    A large scale of EST sequences of Polyporales was screened in this investigation in order to identify EST-SSR markers for various applications. The distribution of EST sequences and SSRs in five families of Polyporales was analyzed, respectively. Mononucleotide was the most abundant type, followed by trinucleotide. Among five families, Ganodermataceae occupied the most SSR markers, followed by Coriolaceae. Functional prediction of SSR marker-containing EST sequences in Ganoderma lucidum obtained three main groups, namely, cellular component, biological process, and molecular function. Thirty EST-SSR primers were designed to evaluate the genetic diversity of 13 natural Polyporus umbellatus accessions. Twenty one EST-SSRs were polymorphic with average PIC value of 0.33 and transferability rate of 71%. These 13 P. umbellatus accessions showed relatively high genetic diversity. The expected heterozygosity, Nei's gene diversity, and Shannon information index were 0.41, 0.39, and 0.57, respectively. Both UPGMA dendrogram and principal coordinate analysis (PCA) showed the same cluster result that divided the 13 accessions into three or four groups. PMID:26146636

  19. Biotransformation of (-)-α-pinene and geraniol to α-terpineol and p-menthane-3,8-diol by the white rot fungus, Polyporus brumalis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su-Yeon; Kim, Seon-Hong; Hong, Chang-Young; Park, Se-Yeong; Choi, In-Gyu

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the monoterpenes, α-pinene and geraniol, were biotransformed to synthesize monoterpene alcohol compounds. Polyporus brumalis which is classified as a white rot fungus was used as a biocatalyst. Consequently α-terpineol was synthesized from α-pinene by P. brumalis mycelium, after three days. Moreover, another substrate, the acyclic monoterpenoids geraniol was transformed into the cyclic compound, p-menthane-3, 8-diol (PMD). The main metabolites, i.e., α-terpineol and PMD, are known to be bioactive monoterpene alcohol compounds. This study highlights the potential of fungal biocatalysts for monoterpene transformation. PMID:26115995

  20. Molecular Identification and Prevalence of Malassezia Species in Pityriasis Versicolor Patients From Kashan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Talaee, Rezvan; Katiraee, Farzad; Ghaderi, Maryam; Erami, Mahzad; Kazemi Alavi, Azam; Nazeri, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Malassezia species are lipophilic yeasts found on the skin surface of humans and other warm-blooded vertebrates. It is associated with various human diseases, especially pityriasis versicolor, which is a chronic superficial skin disorder. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to identify Malassezia species isolated from patients’ samples affected by pityriasis versicolor, using molecular methods in Kashan, Iran. Patients and Methods: A total of 140 subjects, suspected of having pityriasis versicolor from Kashan, were clinically diagnosed and then confirmed by direct microscopic examination. The scraped skin specimens were inoculated in modified Dixon’s medium. DNA was extracted from the colonies and PCR amplification was carried out for the 26s rDNA region. PCR products were used to further restriction fragment length polymorphism by CfoI enzyme. Results: Direct examination was positive in 93.3% of suspected pityriasis versicolor lesions. No statistically significant difference was observed in the frequency of Malassezia species between women and men. The highest prevalence of tinea versicolor was seen in patients 21–30 years-of-age. No difference could be seen in the frequency of Malassezia species depending on the age of the patients. In total, 65% of patients with pityriasis versicolor had hyperhidrosis. The most commonly isolated Malassezia species in the pityriasis versicolor lesions were; Malassezia globosa (66%), M. furfur (26%), M. restricta (3%), M. sympodialis (3%), and M. slooffiae (2%). Malassezia species were mainly isolated from the neck and chest. Conclusions: This study showed M. globosa to be the most common Malassezia species isolated from Malassezia skin disorders in Kashan, Iran. The PCR-RFLP method was useful in the rapid identification of the Malassezia species. By using these methods, the detection and identification of individual Malassezia species from clinical samples was substantially easier. PMID:25485051

  1. Coriolus versicolor: a medicinal mushroom with promising immunotherapeutic values.

    PubMed

    Chu, Kevin K W; Ho, Susan S S; Chow, Albert H L

    2002-09-01

    Coriolus versicolor (CV) is a medicinal mushroom widely prescribed for the prophylaxis and treatment of cancer and infection in China. In recent years, it has been extensively demonstrated both preclinically and clinically that aqueous extracts obtained from CV display a wide array of biological activities, including stimulatory effects on different immune cells and inhibition of cancer growth. The growing popularity of aqueous CV extracts as an adjunct medical modality to conventional cancer therapies has generated substantial commercial interest in developing these extracts into consistent and efficacious oral proprietary products. While very limited information is available on the physical, chemical, and pharmacodynamic properties of the active principles present in these extracts, there has been sufficient scientific evidence to support the feasibility of developing at least some of these constituents into an evidence-based immunodulatory agent. In this article, the background, traditional usage, pharmacological activities, clinical effects, adverse reactions, active constituents, and regulatory aspects of CV are reviewed. Presented also in this review are the current uses and administration, potential drug interactions, and contraindication of aqueous extracts prepared from CV. PMID:12211223

  2. Induction of apoptosis in MCF‑7 human breast cancer cells by Khz (fusion of Ganoderma lucidum and Polyporus umbellatus mycelium).

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hwan; Kim, Ju Sung; Kim, Zoo Haye; Huang, Ren Bin; Chae, Young Lye; Wang, Ren Sheng

    2016-02-01

    Khz (fusion of Ganoderma lucidum and Polyporus umbellatus), isolated from the mycelia of G. lucidum and P. umbellatus, exerts anti‑proliferative effects against malignant cells; however, its activity against human breast cancer cells remains to be elucidated. In the present study, cell proliferation was assessed using a 3-(4,5‑dimethylthiazol‑2‑yl)-2,5‑diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, and poptosis was examined using annexin V‑propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry. The activation of caspases 7, 8 and 9 were detected in the Khz‑treated cells using western blotting. The results demonstrated that Khz increased the intracellular calcium concentration and induced the production of reactive oxygen species in MCF‑7 breast cancer cells, as determined using flow cytometry. The results also demonstrated that Khz inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in the MCF‑7 cells. In addition, the mechanism by which Khz induces apoptosis in cancer cells was investigated. Khz induced apoptosis preferentially in transformed cells, with a minimal effect on non‑transformed cells, suggesting its potential as an anticancer therapeutic agent. Oxidative stress is associated with apoptotic and non‑apoptotic cell death, although pro‑oxidative conditions are not a pre‑requisite for apoptosis. Assessment of the activation status of caspases 7, 8 and 9 revealed that the levels of cleaved caspases were significantly increased in the cells treated with Khz. It is widely accepted that calcium signaling is important in apoptosis, and the present study observed an increase in [Ca2+]i in response to Khz treatment. The anti‑proliferative and pro‑apoptotic effects of Khz suggest that this extract may be developed as a potential anticancer agent. PMID:26648109

  3. Immunomodulatory Activity of Polysaccharide-Protein Complex from the Mushroom Sclerotia of Polyporus rhinocerus in Murine Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chaoran; Chen, Jialun; Chen, Lei; Huang, Xuesong; Cheung, Peter C K

    2016-04-27

    A novel water-soluble polysaccharide-protein complex (PRW1) isolated from the sclerotia of an edible mushroom Polyporus rhinocerus which was purified by membrane ultrafiltration could significantly activate murine macrophages RAW264.7 in vitro. PRW1 had a molecular weight of less than 50 kDa and was found to be a highly branched heteropolysaccharide-protein complex composed of 45.7 ± 0.97% polysaccharide and 44.2 ± 0.41% protein. Based on the results of total acid hydrolysis, methylation analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the carbohydrate moiety of PRW1 was found to be a β-d-mannoglucan with its backbone containing →1)-d-Glcp-(4→, →1)-d-Glcp-(6→, and →1)-d-Manp-(2→ residues (molar ratio of 5:4:6) and having terminal d-Glcp as side chain (degree of branching of 0.62). In vitro studies showed that PRW1 significantly induced NO production and enhanced the release of a variety of cytokines including G-CSF, GM-CSF, IL-6, IL12p40/70, MCP-1, MCP-5, MIP-1-α, MIP-2, RANTES, sTNFRI, and TNF-α. Mechanistically, PRW1 treatment triggered ERK phosphorylation to activate macrophages within 15 min and significantly increased the expression level of inducible NOS after 6 h. In summary, this study indicates that PRW1 derived from the sclerotia of P. rhinocerus is a potential immunomodulatory agent for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:27054263

  4. Occurrence of Toxigenic Aspergillus versicolor Isolates and Sterigmatocystin in Carpet Dust from Damp Indoor Environments

    PubMed Central

    Engelhart, Steffen; Loock, Annette; Skutlarek, Dirk; Sagunski, Helmut; Lommel, Annette; Färber, Harald; Exner, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Over the past decade, there has been growing concern regarding the role of toxigenic fungi in damp indoor environments; however, there is still a lack of field investigations on exposure to mycotoxins. The goal of our pilot study was to quantify the proportion of toxigenic Aspergillus versicolor isolates in native carpet dust from damp dwellings with mold problems and to determine whether sterigmatocystin can be detected in this matrix. Carpet dust samples (n = 11) contained from <2.5 × 101 to 3.6 × 105 (median, 3.1 × 104) A. versicolor CFU/g of dust, and the median proportion of A. versicolor from total culturable fungi was 18%. Based on thin-layer chromatography detection of sterigmatocystin, 49 of 50 A. versicolor isolates (98%) were found to be toxigenic in vitro. By using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry, sterigmatocystin could be detected in low concentrations (2 to 4 ng/g of dust) in 2 of 11 native carpet dust samples. From this preliminary study, we conclude that most strains of A. versicolor isolated from carpet dust are able to produce sterigmatocystin in vitro and that sterigmatocystin may occasionally occur in carpet dust from damp indoor environments. Further research and systematic field investigation are needed to confirm our results and to provide an understanding of the health implications of mycotoxins in indoor environments. PMID:12147486

  5. Occurrence of the Toxin-Producing Aspergillus versicolor Tiraboschi in Residential Buildings.

    PubMed

    Piontek, Marlena; Łuszczyńska, Katarzyna; Lechów, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    In an area representative of a moderate climate zone (Lubuskie Province in Poland), mycological tests in over 270 flats demonstrated the occurrence of 82 species of moulds. Aspergillus versicolor Tiraboschi was often encountered on building partitions (frequency 4: frequently). The ability to synthesize the carcinogenic sterigmatocystin (ST) means that it poses a risk to humans and animals. Biotoxicological tests of biomasses of A. versicolor were conducted in the Microbiological and Toxicological Laboratory, using the planarians Dugesia tigrina (Girard). The obtained results of the tests covered a broad range of toxicity levels of isolated strains: from weakly toxic (100-1000 mg·L(-3)) to potently toxic (1-10 mg·L(-3)). The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) physicochemical method confirmed the ability of A. versicolor strains to synthesize sterigmatocystin. All of the samples of the air-dry biomasses of the fungi contained ST in the range between 0.03 and 534.38 mg·kg(-1). In the bio-safety level (BSL) classification A. versicolor belongs to category 1. Additionally, A. versicolor is an allergenic mould. PMID:27589778

  6. Corn forage biological pretreatment by Trametes versicolor in a tray bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Planinić, Mirela; Zelić, Bruno; Čubel, Ivan; Bucić-Kojić, Ana; Tišma, Marina

    2016-08-01

    Trametes versicolor is a white-rot fungus known to be efficient in lignin removal due to its complex extracellular lignocellulolytic enzymatic system. Therefore, it can be used in the treatment of lignocellulose waste from agro, food, and wood industries. In a first experiment, corn forage treatment with T. versicolor was investigated in laboratory jars. In a second experiment, the process was scaled up to a tray bioreactor. In the tray bioreactor, the process of lignin degradation was improved, resulting in an increase in lignin conversion of up to 71% during seven days' treatment. PMID:27401159

  7. Neotype designation for Calotes versicolor Daudin, 1802 (Sauria: Agamidae) with notes on its systematics.

    PubMed

    Gowande, Gaurang; Mishra, Anurag; Mirza, Zeeshan A

    2016-01-01

    Calotes versicolor Daudin, 1802 is one of the most widespread agamid lizard species which was described without a locality. The type specimen of the species has long been considered lost; however most workers considered Pondicherry as the type locality for the species. Studies by Zug et al. 2006 confirmed that C. versicolor is a complex of multiple species which necessitates fixing type locality and specimen for the species in order to resolve the systematics of the species complex. An adult male from Pondicherry was collected and is here designated as the neotype. A re-description of the species is provided along with notes on systematics of the species. PMID:27395587

  8. [Pityriasis versicolor : new aspects of an old disease].

    PubMed

    Mayser, P A; Preuss, J

    2012-11-01

    Pityriasis versicolor (PV) is one of the most common infectious skin diseases, as well as the most common dermatosis associated with pigmentation alterations of the skin. PV is prevalent in 1% of the population living in temperate climate zones and more common during the summer. In tropical areas, PV is found in up to 50% of all patients consulting a dermatologist. Of the known Malassezia species, M. globosa is currently felt to play a key role in the pathogenesis of PV, as it is most commonly found in PV lesions. In addition, its round-shaped cells may contribute to the characteristic histology of the disease ("spaghetti and meatballs"). However, the clinical appearance of PV including hyper- and hypopigmentation, fluorescence of the lesions, as well as a lack of inflammation despite high fungal load cannot fully be explained by the presence of M. globosa, which is also found on healthy skin. In M. furfur a tryptophan-dependent metabolic pathway generates a number of indole pigments, which may be associated with the clinical appearance of PV. In the model organism Ustilago maydis it was shown that the formation of the indole compounds occurs spontaneously after initial conversion of tryptophan into indole pyruvate controlled by the key enzyme aminotransferase Tam 1. We review the present knowledge of PV and highlight the potential role of Tam1 in explaining the poorly understood aspects of the disease. Promising therapeutic results using the application of Tam1 inhibitors to treat PV support the enzyme's important role in the disease pathogenesis. PMID:23114508

  9. Spontaneous and experimental intoxication of cattle by Simarouba versicolor A. St.-Hill (Simaroubaceae).

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Nilton M; Bacha, Flavia B; Santos, Ariany C; Carvalho, Amanda Q; Faccin, Tatiane C; Pott, Arnildo; Lemos, Ricardo A A

    2013-03-15

    This study describes an outbreak of Simarouba versicolor intoxication in cattle from Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, and reproduces it experimentally. Clinical signs of the affected animals were weakness, tremors, hind limbs incoordination, reluctance to move, sternal and lateral recumbency and death. The main necropsy findings, observed in the abomasum and in segments of the small and large intestines, were diffuse redness and mucosal and serosal swelling. Histological examination revealed necrosis of lymphoid tissues and necrotizing enterocolitis. One experiment was carried out using 3 male calves to test the toxicity of a single dose of S. versicolor leaves at 15 g/kg, 5 g/kg and 2.5 g/kg. Clinical signs, necropsy findings and histological examination of calves receiving 15 g/kg and 5 g/kg leaves were similar to those of cattle from the intoxication outbreak. The calf fed 2.5 g/kg leaves developed clinical symptoms of poisoning and recovered naturally. In a second experiment, two male calves received daily administration of S. versicolor leaves at 1.5 g/kg and 2.5 g/kg for 10 days. They developed clinical signs of intoxication within 24 h and recovered eight to nine days after the leaves were administered. These findings suggest that S. versicolor was responsible for the outbreak studied, although this plant does not have cumulative intoxication effects on cattle. PMID:23319076

  10. Potential of extracellular enzymes from Trametes versicolor F21a in Microcystis spp. degradation.

    PubMed

    Du, Jingjing; Pu, Gaozhong; Shao, Chen; Cheng, Shujun; Cai, Ji; Zhou, Liang; Jia, Yong; Tian, Xingjun

    2015-03-01

    Studies have shown that microorganisms may be used to eliminate cyanobacteria in aquatic environments. The present study showed that the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor F21a could degrade Microcystis aeruginosa. After T. versicolor F21a and Microcystis spp. were co-incubated for 60h, >96% of Microcystis spp. cells were degraded by T. versicolor F21a. The activities of extracellular enzymes showed that cellulase, β-glucosidase, protease, and laccase were vital to Microcystis spp. degradation in the early stage (0h to 24h), while β-glucosidase, protease, laccase, and manganese peroxidase in the late stage (24h to 60h). The positive and significant correlation of the degradation rate with these enzyme activities indicated that these enzymes were involved in the degradation rate of Microcystis spp. cells at different phases. It suggested that the extracellular enzymes released by T. versicolor F21a might be vital to Microcystis spp. degradation. The results of this study may be used to develop alternative microbial control agents for cyanobacterial control. PMID:25579906

  11. Foundation Pattern, Productivity and Colony Success of the Paper Wasp, Polistes versicolor

    PubMed Central

    Alves de Oliveira, Simone; Monteiro de Castro, Mariana; Prezoto, Fábio

    2010-01-01

    Polistes versicolor (Olivier) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) colonies are easily found in anthropic environments; however there is little information available on biological, ecological and behavioral interactions of this species under these environmental conditions. The objective of this work was to characterize the foundation pattern, the productivity, and the success of colonies of P. versicolor in anthropic environments. From August 2003 to December 2004, several colonies were studied in the municipal district of Juiz de Fora, Southeastern Brazil. It was possible to determine that before the beginning of nest construction the foundress accomplishes recognition flights in the selected area, and later begins the construction of the peduncle and the first cell. As soon as new cells are built, the hexagonal outlines appear and the peduncle is reinforced. Foundation of nests on gypsum plaster was significantly larger (p < 0.0001; χ2 test) in relation to the other types of substrate, revealing the synantropism of the species. On average, the P. versicolor nest presents 244.2 ± 89.5 (100–493) cells and a medium production of 171.67 ± 109.94 (37–660) adults. Cells that produced six individuals were verified. Usually, new colonies were founded by an association of females, responsible for the success of 51.5%. Although these results enlarge knowledge on the foundation pattern of P. versicolor in anthropic environments, other aspects of the foundation process require further investigation. PMID:20879919

  12. Aspergillus section Versicolores: nine new species and multilocus DNA sequence based phylogeny

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ß-tubulin, calmodulin, internal transcribed spacer and partial lsu-rDNA, RNA polymerase, DNA replication licensing factor Mcm7, and pre-rRNA processing protein Tsr1 were amplified and sequenced from 62 A. versicolor clade isolates and analyzed phylogenetically using the concordance model to establis...

  13. SIXTEEN YEARS OF PITYRIASIS VERSICOLOR IN METROPOLITAN AREA OF PORTO ALEGRE, SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    HEIDRICH, Daiane; DABOIT, Tatiane Caroline; STOPIGLIA, Cheila Denise Ottonelli; MAGAGNIN, Cibele Massotti; VETORATTO, Gerson; AMARO, Taís Guarienti; SCROFERNEKER, Maria Lúcia

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Pityriasis versicolor is the most common of the diseases caused by Malasseziayeasts. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of pityriasis versicolor and its etiological aspects in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil. A retrospective crosssectional study with data from patients of a reference hospital from 1996 to 2011 was performed. Collected data included: date, age, gender, ethnicity, anatomical region of lesion and the direct mycological examination results. Among the positive results in the direct mycological examination, 5.8% (2,239) were positive for pityriasis versicolor. The angular coefficient (B) was -0.3%/year, showing a decrease over the years. The disease was more prevalent in men (7.1% of men versus 5.1% of women that underwent the direct mycological examination); younger age (median 31 years old); "pardo" and black people (3.7% more than expected in the sample); trunk (73.44% of the affected anatomic sites). Lesions in rare sites (groin, genitals, legs, feet and hands) were also observed in this study. In conclusion, due to the decrease in the prevalence of pityriasis versicolor, long-term epidemiological studies in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil, are needed to continue the monitoring of this disease. PMID:26422149

  14. DESTRUCTION OF ASPERGILLUS VERSICOLOR, PENICILLIUM CRYSOGENUM, STACHYBOTRYS CHARTARUM, AND CLADOSPORIUM CLADOSPORIDES SPORES USING CHEMICAL OXIDATION TREATMENT PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The survival of aqueous suspensions of Penicillium chrysogenum, Stachybotrys chartarum, Aspergillus versicolor, and Cladosporium cladosporioides spores was evaluated using various combinations of hydrogen peroxide and iron (II) as catalyst. Spores were suspended in water and trea...

  15. Over production of lignocellulosic enzymes of Coriolus versicolor by genetic engineering methodology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, A.L.

    1998-07-01

    The project seeks to understand the biological and chemical processes involved in the secretion of the enzyme polyphenol oxidase (PPO) by the hyphae, the basic unit of the filamentous fungus Coriolus versicolor. These studies are made to determine rational strategies for enhanced secretion of PPO, both with the use of recombinant DNA techniques and without. This effort focuses on recombinant DNA techniques to enhance enzyme production. The major thrust of this project was two-fold: to mass produce C. versicolor tyrosinase (polyphenol oxidase) by genetic engineering as well as cultural manipulations; and to utilize PPO as a biocatalyst in the processing of lignocellulose as a renewable energy resource. In this study, the assessment of genomic and cDNA recombinant clones with regards to the overproduction of PPO continued. Further, immunocytochemical techniques were employed to assess the mechanism(s) involved in the secretion of PPO by the hyphae. Also, factors influencing PPO secretion were examined.

  16. Sociogenetic structure of Polistes (Aphanilopterus) versicolor Olivier, 1791 colonies (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistini)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The observation of two distinct, well-defined oviposition areas in nests of the primitively eusocial wasp Polistes versicolor suggests the presence of multiple egg-layers and territorial behaviors. Electrophoretic analysis of enzyme loci in pupae from 35 colonies revealed an average observed heterozygosity of 0.10 and the existence of private polymorphisms, thereby indicating a low dispersion in this species. No evidence of diploid males was found. Phenotypic segregation analysis revealed the presence of more than one egg-laying female in 15 out of 35 colonies, as well as spatially preferential oviposition in 2 out of 13 nests, with distinct oviposition areas. Genetic relatedness estimates for brood were lower than expected for haplodiploid species under monogynous conditions (r = 0.75 for female broods and r = 0.5 for male) in 4 of those 13 nests, thereby inferring complex sociogenetic structuring in Polistes versicolor colonies. PMID:21637576

  17. Role of laccase and low molecular weight metabolites from Trametes versicolor in dye decolorization.

    PubMed

    Moldes, Diego; Fernández-Fernández, María; Sanromán, M Ángeles

    2012-01-01

    The studies regarding decolorization of dyes by laccase may not only inform about the possible application of this enzyme for environmental purposes, but also may provide important information about its reaction mechanism and the influence of several factors that could be involved. In this paper, decolorization of crystal violet and phenol red was carried out with different fractions of extracellular liquids from Trametes versicolor cultures, in order to describe the role of laccase in this reaction. Moreover, the possible role of the low molecular weight metabolites (LMWMs) also produced by the fungus was evaluated. The results confirm the existence of a nonenzymatic decolorization factor, since the nonprotein fraction of the extracellular liquids from cultures of T. versicolor has shown decolorization capability. Several experiments were performed in order to identify the main compounds related to this ability, which are probably low molecular weight peroxide compounds. PMID:22566767

  18. Aroma Characterization and Safety Assessment of a Beverage Fermented by Trametes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanyan; Fraatz, Marco Alexander; Müller, Julia; Schmitz, Hans-Joachim; Birk, Florian; Schrenk, Dieter; Zorn, Holger

    2015-08-12

    A cereal-based beverage was developed by fermentation of wort with the basidiomycete Trametes versicolor. The beverage possessed a fruity, fresh, and slightly floral aroma. The volatiles of the beverage were isolated by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and additionally by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME). The aroma compounds were analyzed by a gas chromatography system equipped with a tandem mass spectrometer and an olfactory detection port (GC-MS/MS-O) followed by aroma (extract) dilution analysis. Thirty-four different odor impressions were perceived, and 27 corresponding compounds were identified. Fifteen key odorants with flavor dilution (FD) factors ranging from 8 to 128 were quantitated, and their respective odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated. Six key odorants were synthesized de novo by T. versicolor. Furthermore, quantitative changes during the fermentation process were analyzed. To prepare for the market introduction of the beverage, a comprehensive safety assessment was performed. PMID:26189508

  19. Symbiosis initiation in the bacterially luminous sea urchin cardinalfish Siphamia versicolor.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, P V; Gould, A L; Wittenrich, M L; Nakamura, M

    2012-09-01

    To determine how each new generation of the sea urchin cardinalfish Siphamia versicolor acquires the symbiotic luminous bacterium Photobacterium mandapamensis, and when in its development the S. versicolor initiates the symbiosis, procedures were established for rearing S. versicolor larvae in an aposymbiotic state. Under the conditions provided, larvae survived and developed for 28 days after their release from the mouths of males. Notochord flexion began at 8 days post release (dpr). By 28 dpr, squamation was evident and the caudal complex was complete. The light organ remained free of bacteria but increased in size and complexity during development of the larvae. Thus, aposymbiotic larvae of the fish can survive and develop for extended periods, major components of the luminescence system develop in the absence of the bacteria and the bacteria are not acquired directly from a parent, via the egg or during mouth brooding. Presentation of the symbiotic bacteria to aposymbiotic larvae at 8-10 dpr, but not earlier, led to initiation of the symbiosis. Upon colonization of the light organ, the bacterial population increased rapidly and cells forming the light-organ chambers exhibited a differentiated appearance. Therefore, the light organ apparently first becomes receptive to colonization after 1 week post-release development, the symbiosis is initiated by bacteria acquired from the environment and bacterial colonization induces morphological changes in the nascent light organ. The abilities to culture larvae of S. versicolor for extended periods and to initiate the symbiosis in aposymbiotic larvae are key steps in establishing the experimental tractability of this highly specific vertebrate and microbe mutualism. PMID:22957874

  20. Study of the Distribution of Malassezia Species in Patients with Pityriasis Versicolor in Kolar Region, Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Archana, Banur Raju; Beena, Paravangada Madappa; Kumar, Shiva

    2015-01-01

    Context: Pityriasis versicolor is a superficial, chronically recurring fungal infection caused by Malassezia species. Recently it has been revised taxanomically into 14 species, in that only 7 species have been well studied in relation to pityriasis versicolor. Aims: To identify Malassezia species isolated from patients with pityriasis versicolor and to find out any correlation between the species with clinical presentation of lesions. Settings and Design: Prospective study comprising of 100 clinically diagnosed cases of pityriasis versicolor attending Dermatology Outpatient Department over a period of 1 year. Materials and Methods: The clinical specimens were collected under aseptic precautions and subjected to culture on Sabouraud's Dextrose Agar overlaid with olive oil and modified Dixon agar. The isolates were identified by biochemical tests. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was done using proportion, mean and chi-square test. Results: Of the 100 cases, 73% were males, 26% were females and predominant age group was 21-30 years. Out of 100 samples, 70 yielded growth. The most common isolate was M. sympodialis (50%), followed by M. furfur (32.86%), M. globosa (14.28%) and M. slooffiae (2.86%). Among 100 cases, 74% had hypopigmented and 26% had hyperpigmented lesions. M. sympodialis and M. furur were predominantly isolated from hypopigmented lesions and M. globosa and M. slooffiae were found to be more common in hyperpigmented lesions. Conclusions: M. sympodialis was the most common isolate, followed by M. furfur, M. globosa and M. slooffiae. There was no significant difference in distribution of different species in patients with hypo or hyper pigmented lesions PMID:26120178

  1. Fate of Residual Lignin during Delignification of Kraft Pulp by Trametes versicolor

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Ian D.

    1998-01-01

    The fungus Trametes versicolor can delignify and brighten kraft pulps. To better understand the mechanism of this biological bleaching and the by-products formed, I traced the transformation of pulp lignin during treatment with the fungus. Hardwood and softwood kraft pulps containing 14C-labelled residual lignin were prepared by laboratory pulping of lignin-labelled aspen and spruce wood and then incubated with T. versicolor. After initially polymerizing the lignin, the fungus depolymerized it to alkali-extractable forms and then to soluble forms. Most of the labelled carbon accumulated in the water-soluble pool. The extractable and soluble products were oligomeric; single-ring aromatic products were not detected. The mineralization of the lignin carbon to CO2 varied between experiments, up to 22% in the most vigorous cultures. The activities of the known enzymes laccase and manganese peroxidase did not account for all of the lignin degradation that took place in the T. versicolor cultures. This fungus may produce additional enzymes that could be useful in enzyme bleaching systems. PMID:9603823

  2. Transformation of halogen-, alkyl-, and alkoxy-substituted anilines by a lactase of Trametes versicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, T.; Liu, S.Y.; Bollag, J.M.

    1985-05-01

    The lactase of the fungus Trametes versicolor was able to polymerize various halogen-, alkyl-, and alkoxy-substituted anilines, showing substrate specificity similar to that of horseradish peroxidase, whereas the lactase of Rhizoctonia praticola was active only with p-methoxyaniline. The substrate specificities of the enzymes were determined by using gas chromatography to measure the decrease in substrate concentration during incubation. With p-chloroaniline as the substrate, the peroxidase and the Trametes lactase showed maximum activity near pH 4.2. The transformation of this substrate gave rise to a number of oligomers, ranging from dimers to pentamers, as determined by mass spectrometry. The product profiles obtained by high-pressure liquid chromatography were similar for the two enzymes. A chemical reaction was observed between p-chloroaniline and an enzymatically formed dimer, resulting in the formation of a trimer. All three enzymes oxidized p-methoxyaniline to 2-amino-5-p-anisidinobenzoquinone di-p-methoxyphenylimine, but only the T. versicolor lactase and the peroxidase caused the formation of a pentamer (2,5-di-p-anisidinobenzoquinone di-p-methoxyphenylimine). These results demonstrate that in addition to horseradish peroxidase, a T. versicolor lactase can also polymerize aniline derivatives.

  3. Transcriptional Responses in the Hemiparasitic Plant Triphysaria versicolor to Host Plant Signals1[w

    PubMed Central

    Matvienko, Marta; Torres, Manuel J.; Yoder, John I.

    2001-01-01

    Parasitic plants in the Scrophulariaceae use chemicals released by host plant roots to signal developmental processes critical for heterotrophy. Haustoria, parasitic plant structures that attach to and invade host roots, develop on roots of the hemiparasitic plant Triphysaria versicolor within a few hours of exposure to either maize (Zea mays) root exudate or purified haustoria-inducing factors. We prepared a normalized, subtractive cDNA library enriched for transcripts differentially abundant in T. versicolor root tips treated with the allelopathic quinone 2,6-dimethoxybenzoquinone (DMBQ). Northern analyses estimated that about 10% of the cDNAs represent transcripts strongly up-regulated in roots exposed to DMBQ. Northern and reverse northern analyses demonstrated that most DMBQ-responsive messages were similarly up-regulated in T. versicolor roots exposed to maize root exudates. From the cDNA sequences we assembled a unigene set of 137 distinct transcripts and assigned functions by homology comparisons. Many of the proteins encoded by the transcripts are predicted to function in quinone detoxification, whereas others are more likely associated with haustorium development. The identification of genes transcriptionally regulated by haustorium-inducing factors provides a framework for dissecting genetic pathways recruited by parasitic plants during the transition to heterotrophic growth. PMID:11553755

  4. Enhancing the Antioxidant Ability of Trametes versicolor Polysaccharopeptides by an Enzymatic Hydrolysis Process.

    PubMed

    Jhan, Mei-Hsin; Yeh, Ching-Hua; Tsai, Chia-Chun; Kao, Ching-Tian; Chang, Chao-Kai; Hsieh, Chang-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Polysaccharopeptides (PSPs) are among the main bioactive constituents of Trametes versicolor (T. versicolor). The purpose of this research was to investigate the antioxidant activities of enzymatic hydrolysates obtained from T. versicolor polysaccharopeptides by 80 U/mL β-1,3-glucanase (PSPs-EH80). The half-inhibitory concentration (IC50) of PSPs-EH80 in metal chelating assay, ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging test results were 0.83 mg/mL, 0.14 mg/mL and 0.52 mg/mL, respectively, which were lower than that of PSPs-EH 20 U/mL. The molecular weights of the PSPs-EH80 hydrolysates were 300, 190, 140 and 50 kDa, respectively, and the hydrolysis of polysaccharides by β-1,3-glucanase did not change the original functional group. PSPs-EH80 reduced the reactive oxygen species (ROS) content at least twice that of treatment without PSPs-EH80. In addition, an oxidative damage test showed that PSPs-EH80 can improve HaCaT cell survival. According to our results, PSP demonstrates the potential of anti-oxidative damage; besides, enzyme hydrolysis can improve the ability of the PSP. PMID:27626400

  5. Bioaugmentation of sewage sludge with Trametes versicolor in solid-phase biopiles produces degradation of pharmaceuticals and affects microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E; Jelić, Aleksandra; Pereira, M Alcina; Sousa, Diana Z; Petrović, Mira; Alves, M Madalena; Barceló, Damià; Caminal, Glòria; Vicent, Teresa

    2012-11-01

    The use of sludge (biosolids) in land application may contribute to the spread of organic micropollutants as wastewater treatments do not completely remove these compounds. Therefore, the development of alternative strategies for sludge treatment is a matter of recent concern. The elimination of pharmaceuticals at pre-existent concentrations from sewage sludge was assessed, for the first time, in nonsterile biopiles by means of fungal bioaugmentation with Trametes versicolor (BTV-systems) and compared with the effect of autochthonous microbiota (NB-systems). The competition between the autochthonous fungal/bacterial communities and T. versicolor was studied using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and the cloning/sequencing approach. An inhibitory effect exerted by T. versicolor over bacterial populations was suggested. However, after 21 days, T. versicolor was no longer the main taxon in the fungal communities. The elimination profiles revealed an enhanced removal of atorvastatin-diclofenac-hydrochlorothiazide (during the whole treatment) and ranitidine-fenofibrate (at short periods) in the BTV biopiles in respect to NB biopiles, coincident with the presence of the fungus. For ibuprofen-clarithromycin-furosemide, the elimination profiles were similar irrespective of the system, and with carbamazepine no significant degradation was obtained. The results suggest that a fungal treatment with T. versicolor could be a promising process for the remediation of some pharmaceuticals in complex matrices such as biosolids. PMID:23030544

  6. Spirulina versicolor improves insulin sensitivity and attenuates hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress in fructose-fed rats

    PubMed Central

    Hozayen, Walaa G.; Mahmoud, Ayman M.; Soliman, Hanan A.; Mostafa, Sanura R.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The current study aimed to investigate the anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemic and insulin sensitizing effects of the cyanobacterium Spirulina versicolor extract in fructose-fed rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were fed 30% fructose solution in drinking water for 4 weeks. Animals exhibited hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia were selected for further investigations. Diabetic and control rats were orally supplemented with 50 mg/kg body weight S. versicolor extract for 4 weeks. Results: At the end of 8 weeks, fructose-fed rats showed a significant increase in serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, cardiovascular risk indices and insulin resistance. Treatment of the fructose-fed rats with S. versicolor extract improved this metabolic profile. Fructose feeding produced a significant increase in serum tumor necrosis factor alpha and a decrease in adiponectin levels. In addition, fructose-fed rats exhibited a significant increase in liver, kidney and heart lipid peroxidation levels, and declined antioxidant defenses. Supplementation of the fructose-fed rats with S. versicolor extract reversed these alterations. Conclusion: S. versicolor attenuates hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress and inflammation, and is thus effective in improving insulin sensitivity in fructose-fed rats. PMID:27069726

  7. Statistical Correlation between Ligninolytic Enzymes Secretion and Remazol Brilliant Yellow-3GL Dye Degradation Potential of Trametes versicolor IBL-04.

    PubMed

    Asgher, Muhammad; Shah, Syed Agha Hassan; Iqbal, Hafiz Muhammad Nasir

    2016-04-01

    Trametes versicolor IBL-04 was used for biodegradation of Remazol Brilliant Yellow 3-GL (RBY3-GL) reactive textile dye in Kirk's basal salts medium. During the initial screening study, the maximum decolorization (93.5%) of RBY3-GL was achieved in 7 days' shaking incubation period at pH 4 and 30 °C. Different physical and nutritional factors were statistically optimized to enhance the efficiency of T. versicolor IBL-04 for maximum decolorization. Under optimal conditions T. versicolor IBL-04 completely decolorized (100%) the RBY3-GL in 2 days of incubation with negligible adsorption on fungal mycelia. Laccase was the major enzyme (938.3 U/mL) secreted by T. versicolor IBL-04 along with comparatively lower activities of MnP. In this article and for the first time, a statistical correlation has been successfully investigated between the ligninolytic enzymes from an indigenously isolated white rot fungi, T. versicolor IBL-04, and the degradation of RBY3-GL. PMID:27131057

  8. Differential Regulation of mnp2, a New Manganese Peroxidase-Encoding Gene from the Ligninolytic Fungus Trametes versicolor PRL 572

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Tomas; Nyman, Per Olof; Cullen, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    A peroxidase-encoding gene, mnp2, and its corresponding cDNA were characterized from the white-rot basidiomycete Trametes versicolor PRL 572. We used quantitative reverse transcriptase-mediated PCR to identify mnp2 transcripts in nutrient-limited stationary cultures. Although mnp2 lacks upstream metal response elements (MREs), addition of MnSO4 to cultures increased mnp2 transcript levels 250-fold. In contrast, transcript levels of an MRE-containing gene of T. versicolor, mnp1, increased only eightfold under the same conditions. Thus, the manganese peroxidase genes in T. versicolor are differentially regulated, and upstream MREs are not necessarily involved. Our results support the hypothesis that fungal and plant peroxidases arose through an ancient duplication and folding of two structural domains, since we found the mnp1 and mnp2 polypeptides to have internal homology. PMID:11916737

  9. Lignin Peroxidase Activity Is Not Important in Biological Bleaching and Delignification of Unbleached Kraft Pulp by Trametes versicolor

    PubMed Central

    Archibald, Frederick S.

    1992-01-01

    The discovery in 1983 of fungal lignin peroxidases able to catalyze the oxidation of nonphenolic aromatic lignin model compounds and release some CO2 from lignin has been seen as a major advance in understanding how fungi degrade lignin. Recently, the fungus Trametes versicolor was shown to be capable of substantial decolorization and delignification of unbleached industrial kraft pulps over 2 to 5 days. The role, if any, of lignin peroxidase in this biobleaching was therefore examined. Several different assays indicated that T. versicolor can produce and secrete peroxidase proteins, but only under certain culture conditions. However, work employing a new lignin peroxidase inhibitor (metavanadate ions) and a new lignin peroxidase assay using the dye azure B indicated that secreted lignin peroxidases do not play a role in the T. versicolor pulp-bleaching system. Oxidative activity capable of degrading 2-keto-4-methiolbutyric acid (KMB) appeared unique to ligninolytic fungi and always accompanied pulp biobleaching. PMID:16348775

  10. Degradation of pharmaceuticals from membrane biological reactor sludge with Trametes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Llorens-Blanch, Guillem; Badia-Fabregat, Marina; Lucas, Daniel; Rodriguez-Mozaz, Sara; Barceló, Damià; Pennanen, Taina; Caminal, Gloria; Blánquez, Paqui

    2015-02-01

    Emerging contaminants are a wide group of chemical products that are found at low concentrations in the environment. These contaminants can be either natural, e.g., estrogens, or synthetics, such as pesticides and pharmaceuticals, which can enter the environment through the water and sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). The growth of Trametes versicolor on membrane biological reactor (MBR) sludge in bioslurry systems at the Erlenmeyer scale was assessed and its capacity for removing pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) was evaluated. The ability of the fungus to remove hydrochlorothiazide (HZT) from liquid media cultures was initially assessed. Consequently, different bioslurry media (complete nutrient, glucose and no-nutrient addition) and conditions (sterile and non-sterile) were tested, and the removal of spiked HZT was monitored under each condition. The highest spiked HZT removal was assessed under non-sterile conditions without nutrient addition (93.2%). Finally, the removal assessment of a broad set of pharmaceuticals was performed in non-spiked bioslurry. Under non-sterile conditions, the fungus was able to completely degrade 12 out of the 28 drugs initially detected in the MBR sludge, achieving an overall degradation of 66.9%. Subsequent microbial analysis showed that the microbial diversity increased after 15 days of treatment, but there was still some T. versicolor in the bioslurry. Results showed that T. versicolor can be used to remove PPCPs in bioslurry systems under non-sterile conditions, without extra nutrients in the media, and in matrices as complex as an MBR sludge. PMID:25563204

  11. Carbon and nitrogen balance of leaf-eating sesarmid crabs ( Neoepisesarma versicolor) offered different food sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thongtham, Nalinee; Kristensen, Erik

    2005-10-01

    Carbon and nitrogen budgets for the leaf-eating crab, Neoepisesarma versicolor, were established for individuals living on pure leaf diets. Crabs were fed fresh (green), senescent (yellow) and partly degraded (brown) leaves of the mangrove tree Rhizophora apiculata. Ingestion, egestion and metabolic loss of carbon and nitrogen were determined from laboratory experiments. In addition, bacterial abundance in various compartments of the crabs' digestive tract was enumerated after dissection of live individuals. Ingestion and egestion rates (in terms of dry weight) were highest, while the assimilation efficiency was poorest for crabs fed on brown leaves. The low assimilation efficiency was more than counteracted by the high ingestion rate providing more carbon for growth than for crabs fed green and yellow leaves. In any case, the results show that all types of leaves can provide adequate carbon while nitrogen was insufficient to support both maintenance (yellow leaves) and growth (green, yellow and brown leaves). Leaf-eating crabs must therefore obtain supplementary nitrogen by other means in order to meet their nitrogen requirement. Three hypotheses were evaluated: (1) crabs supplement their diet with bacteria and benthic microalgae by ingesting own faeces and/or selective grazing at the sediment surface; (2) assimilation of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the crabs' own intestinal system; and (3) nitrogen storage following occasional feeding on animal tissues (e.g. meiofauna and carcasses). It appears that hypothesis 1 is of limited importance for N. versicolor since faeces and sediment can only supply a minor fraction of the missing nitrogen due to physical constraints on the amount of material the crabs can consume. Hypothesis 2 can be ruled out because tests showed no nitrogen fixation activity in the intestinal system of N. versicolor. It is therefore likely that leaf-eating crabs provide most of their nitrogen requirement from intracellular deposits

  12. Impact assessment of bisphenol A on lignin-modifying enzymes by basidiomycete Trametes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Takamiya, Minako; Magan, Naresh; Warner, Philip J

    2008-06-15

    The impact of different concentrations of bisphenol A (BPA) was evaluated on growth of the white-rot basidiomycete, Trametes versicolor, and on the expression of genes encoding lignin-modifying enzyme (LME) activities. Effective doses (EDs) were obtained from fungal growth rate to monitor LME activities and the expression levels of their encoding genes. The fungus showed mycelial growth at concentrations of up to 300 microg ml(-1) of BPA with an ED50 value of 185 microg ml(-1). The LME activities were stimulated by BPA concentrations up to 300 microg ml(-1). The lignin peroxidase (LIP) encoding gene may be sensitive to BPA stress. PMID:17996365

  13. Hormonal modulation of phonotaxis and advertisement-call preferences in the gray treefrog (Hyla versicolor)

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Noah M.; Gerhardt, H. Carl

    2009-01-01

    Hormonal levels fluctuate during the breeding season in many anurans, but the identity of the hormones that modulate breeding behavior and their effects remain unclear. We tested the influence of a combined treatment of progesterone and prostaglandin on phonotaxis, the key proceptive reproductive behavior of female anurans. First, we found that female gray treefrogs (Hyla versicolor) treated with progesterone and prostaglandin exhibited phonotaxis to synthetic male advertisement signals significantly more often than animals treated with ringers vehicle or uninjected controls. Responsive females had greater levels of plasma progesterone and estradiol compared to both control groups, suggesting that these steroids may be promoting phonotaxis. Second, we found that the selectivity of hormonally-induced phonotaxis in H. versicolor was similar to that observed in freshly captured breeding animals. Females made the same choices between acoustic signals after hormone treatments in tests of frequency, call rate and pulse rate, compared to their responses without treatment immediately after collection from the breeding chorus. The preference for a longer call was, however, significantly weaker after hormone induction of phonotaxis. Hormonally primed females were also less likely to respond in any test and took longer to respond than did freshly collected females. Consequently, our study shows how progesterone-prostaglandin induced phonotaxis in female treefrogs influences both the quality and quantity of phonotaxis, relative to that exhibited by naturally breeding females. PMID:18926827

  14. β-glucans from Coriolus versicolor protect mice against S. typhimurium challenge by activation of macrophages.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shao-Hua; Yang, Wen-Tao; Huang, Ke-Yan; Jiang, Yan-Long; Yang, Gui-Lian; Wang, Chun-Feng; Li, Yu

    2016-05-01

    The effects of β-glucans from Coriolus versicolor (CVP), which are extracted from a well-known immune stimulator C. versicolor, have been demonstrated extensively in vitro and in vivo. However, until now, the phagocytic activity has not been elucidated. Hence, the objective of the present study was to identify the antibacterial activity of CVP or CVP-treated macrophages by an analysis of cell cytotoxicity, phagocytic activity, intracellular bacterial survival, macrophage activation, production of nitric oxide (NO) and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in CVP-treated macrophages using flow cytometry, RT-PCR, a gentamicin protection assay, a Nitric oxide assay and an iNOS enzymatic activity assay. The results indicate that CVP-treated macrophages can phagocytize and kill bacteria, probably due to the production of NO and iNOS. More importantly, CVP-treated macrophages are effective at protecting mice against the challenge of Salmonella typhimurium. The results of this study suggest that the antibacterial effects of CVP are probably caused by the activation of innate immune cells, especially macrophages, because the activated macrophage produces NO, which kills bacteria. These phenomena indicate the possibility of CVP as a potential alternative for antibiotics against resistant bacteria. PMID:26802244

  15. Corolla morphology influences diversification rates in bifid toadflaxes (Linaria sect. Versicolores)

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Mazuecos, Mario; Blanco-Pastor, José Luis; Gómez, José M.; Vargas, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The role of flower specialization in plant speciation and evolution remains controversial. In this study the evolution of flower traits restricting access to pollinators was analysed in the bifid toadflaxes (Linaria sect. Versicolores), a monophyletic group of ∼30 species and subspecies with highly specialized corollas. Methods A time-calibrated phylogeny based on both nuclear and plastid DNA sequences was obtained using a coalescent-based method, and flower morphology was characterized by means of morphometric analyses. Directional trends in flower shape evolution and trait-dependent diversification rates were jointly analysed using recently developed methods, and morphological shifts were reconstructed along the phylogeny. Pollinator surveys were conducted for a representative sample of species. Key Results A restrictive character state (narrow corolla tube) was reconstructed in the most recent common ancestor of Linaria sect. Versicolores. After its early loss in the most species-rich clade, this character state has been convergently reacquired in multiple lineages of this clade in recent times, yet it seems to have exerted a negative influence on diversification rates. Comparative analyses and pollinator surveys suggest that the narrow- and broad-tubed flowers are evolutionary optima representing divergent strategies of pollen placement on nectar-feeding insects. Conclusions The results confirm that different forms of floral specialization can lead to dissimilar evolutionary success in terms of diversification. It is additionally suggested that opposing individual-level and species-level selection pressures may have driven the evolution of pollinator-restrictive traits in bifid toadflaxes. PMID:24142920

  16. Dectin-1 and IL-17A suppress murine asthma induced by Aspergillus versicolor but not Cladosporium cladosporioides due to differences in β-glucan surface exposure.

    PubMed

    Mintz-Cole, Rachael A; Gibson, Aaron M; Bass, Stacey A; Budelsky, Alison L; Reponen, Tiina; Hershey, Gurjit K Khurana

    2012-10-01

    There is considerable evidence supporting a role for mold exposure in the pathogenesis and expression of childhood asthma. Aspergillus versicolor and Cladosporium cladosporioides are common molds that have been implicated in asthma. In a model of mold-induced asthma, mice were repeatedly exposed to either A. versicolor or C. cladosporioides spores. The two molds induced distinct phenotypes, and this effect was observed in both BALB/c and C57BL/6 strains. C. cladosporioides induced robust airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), eosinophilia, and a predominately Th2 response, whereas A. versicolor induced a strong Th17 response and neutrophilic inflammation, but very mild AHR. Neutralization of IL-17A resulted in strong AHR and eosinophilic inflammation following A. versicolor exposure. In Dectin-1-deficient mice, A. versicolor exposure resulted in markedly attenuated IL-17A and robust AHR compared with wild-type mice. In contrast, C. cladosporioides induced AHR and eosinophilic inflammation independent of IL-17A and Dectin-1. A. versicolor, but not C. cladosporioides, spores had increased exposure of β-glucans on their surface and were able to bind Dectin-1. Thus, the host response to C. cladosporioides was IL-17A- and Dectin-1-independent, whereas Dectin-1- and IL-17A-dependent pathways were protective against the development of asthma after exposure to A. versicolor. PMID:22962686

  17. Starch degradation and nutrition value improvement in corn grits by solid state fermentation technique with Coriolus versicolor

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Mian; Zhang, Song

    2011-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate effect of Coriolus versicolor mycelia on degrading starch and improving nutrition value in corn grits through solid state fermentation technique. The results showed that using soybean meal as a nitrogen source, α-amylase secreted from C. versicolor expressed 407.25U/g of activity, leading to 45.15% of starch degraded. The activity grew with fermentation time until the 15th day, after that the amylase was deactivated rapidly. An orthogonal experiment designed for the study illustrated that degradation rate of starch in corn grits attained to maximum, 50.51%, when 100g of corn grits, added 16g of soybean meal, were fermented by C. versicolor for 12 days, in an initial pH 5.5. After fermenting, compared to the nonfermented control, contents of amino acids, total sugar, crude fat and crude protein were increased by 21.00%, 38.45%, 55.56%, 69.15% respectively. The significant improvement of nutrition value in corn grits is probably attributed to the intense metabolism of C. versicolor. PMID:24031762

  18. Further Evidence for a Polymorphism in Gametic Segregation in the Tetraploid Treefrog HYLA VERSICOLOR Using a Glutamate Oxaloacetic Transaminase Locus

    PubMed Central

    Danzmann, Roy G.; Bogart, James P.

    1983-01-01

    Intra- and interspecific cross combinations between the tetraploid treefrog Hyla versicolor, and between H. versicolor and the diploid treefrog Hyla chrysoscelis were performed. Progeny phenotypes resulting from these crosses were examined electrophoretically using a polymorphic glutamate oxaloacetic transminase (GOT-1) locus, to determine the mechanism of chromosome segregation in H. versicolor, and to test theoretical expectations for isozyme expression in interspecific (2n x 4n or 4n x 2n) hybrids. In some intraspecific tetraploid crosses progeny phenotypes fit a disomic mode of segregation, whereas in other crosses a tetrasomic mode of segregation was the most probable. Additional crosses produced phenotypic ratios that conformed to either a disomic or tetrasomic mode of segregation. These results suggest that a polymorphism, with respect to segregation of gametes, exists in H. versicolor, resulting from differences in chromosome pairings during meiosis I. This polymorphism in gametic segregation occurred in both sexes. Certain crosses, however, produced phenotypic ratios that did not conform to any chromosome segregation model. Progeny phenotypes observed from most interspecific crosses conformed to expected interspecific isozyme staining intensity models. Symmetrical heterozygotes, representing either a single dose for both alternate alleles or double doses for both alternate alleles, were also observed. Such phenotypes are unexpected in triploid progeny. A null allele was postulated to account for the aberrant segregation ratios and phenotypes observed in certain intra- and interspecific crosses. PMID:6852524

  19. The Antibacterial Activity of Coriolus versicolor Methanol Extract and Its Effect on Ultrastructural Changes of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella Enteritidis

    PubMed Central

    Matijašević, Danka; Pantić, Milena; Rašković, Božidar; Pavlović, Vladimir; Duvnjak, Dunja; Sknepnek, Aleksandra; Nikšić, Miomir

    2016-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of methanol extract obtained from fruiting body of industrially grown basidiomycete Coriolus versicolor was examined. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values against various bacteria ranged from 0.625 to 20 mg mL-1. C. versicolor expressed bactericidal activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The growth curves of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, measured at 630 nm, and confirmed with macrodilution method showed that the obtained extract could inhibit the growth of tested bacteria. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the loss of 260-nm-absorbing material were used to examine the ultrastructural changes in bacteria induced by the extract. When S. aureus was exposed to the MIC of C. versicolor, elongated and malformed cells were observed by SEM, while S. Enteritidis treated cells appeared shorter and aggregated with ruptured cell walls. TEM revealed the formation of non-membrane-enclosed bodies and depleted inner content of S. aureus. Larger and irregular periplasmic space and deformed and scattered components of the cell envelope were observed in treated S. Enteritidis. The loss of 260-nm-absorbing material indicated that the disruptive action of the extract on cytoplasmic membrane was more pronounced in S. aureus than in S. Enteritidis treated cells. The UV and FTIR spectrophotometric analyses revealed diverse composition of C. versicolor extract and high content of total phenolics. Altogether, mushroom extracts could be used to develop nutraceuticals or drugs effective against pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:27540376

  20. The Antibacterial Activity of Coriolus versicolor Methanol Extract and Its Effect on Ultrastructural Changes of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella Enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Matijašević, Danka; Pantić, Milena; Rašković, Božidar; Pavlović, Vladimir; Duvnjak, Dunja; Sknepnek, Aleksandra; Nikšić, Miomir

    2016-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of methanol extract obtained from fruiting body of industrially grown basidiomycete Coriolus versicolor was examined. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values against various bacteria ranged from 0.625 to 20 mg mL(-1). C. versicolor expressed bactericidal activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The growth curves of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, measured at 630 nm, and confirmed with macrodilution method showed that the obtained extract could inhibit the growth of tested bacteria. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the loss of 260-nm-absorbing material were used to examine the ultrastructural changes in bacteria induced by the extract. When S. aureus was exposed to the MIC of C. versicolor, elongated and malformed cells were observed by SEM, while S. Enteritidis treated cells appeared shorter and aggregated with ruptured cell walls. TEM revealed the formation of non-membrane-enclosed bodies and depleted inner content of S. aureus. Larger and irregular periplasmic space and deformed and scattered components of the cell envelope were observed in treated S. Enteritidis. The loss of 260-nm-absorbing material indicated that the disruptive action of the extract on cytoplasmic membrane was more pronounced in S. aureus than in S. Enteritidis treated cells. The UV and FTIR spectrophotometric analyses revealed diverse composition of C. versicolor extract and high content of total phenolics. Altogether, mushroom extracts could be used to develop nutraceuticals or drugs effective against pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:27540376

  1. Leaf removal by sesarmid crabs in Bangrong mangrove forest, Phuket, Thailand; with emphasis on the feeding ecology of Neoepisesarma versicolor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thongtham, Nalinee; Kristensen, Erik; Puangprasan, Som-Ying

    2008-12-01

    Field measurements on leaf removal by populations of sesarmid crabs at different locations in the Bangrong mangrove forest, Phuket, Thailand, indicated that crabs on average can remove 87% of the daily leaf litter fall by ingestion or burial. The removal rate is correlated positively with the number of crab burrows and negatively with tidal inundation time. The results from the field were supplemented with observations on the behavior of Neoepisesarma versicolor in laboratory microcosms and a mangrove mesocosm. N. versicolor feeds primarily at night and total time spent feeding was up to an order of magnitude higher in the artificial microcosms than under simulated in situ conditions in the mesocosm. Most of the time during both day and night was spent resting near the entrance or inside burrows. N. versicolor mainly feeds on mangrove leaves and scraps of food material from the sediment surface. This is supported by examinations of stomach content, which showed that 62% is composed of higher plant material and 38% of detritus and mineral particles from the sediment. The nutritive value of leaves and detritus is insufficient to maintain crab growth. Sesarmid crabs may instead obtain the needed nutrients by occasional consumption of nitrogen-rich animal tissues, such as carcasses of fish and crustaceans, as indicated by the presence of animal remains in the stomach and the willingness of crabs to consume fish meat. Laboratory experiments on leaf consumption and leaf preferences of N. versicolor indicate that they preferentially feed on brown leaves, if available, followed by green and yellow leaves. If all species of sesarmid crabs in the Bangrong mangrove forest consume leaves at the same rate as N. versicolor, they could potentially ingest 52% of the total litter fall.

  2. Studies of laccase from Trametes versicolor in aqueous solutions of several methylimidazolium ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Alberto; Rodríguez, Oscar; Tavares, Ana Paula M; Macedo, Eugenia A; Longo, María Asunción; Sanromán, María Angeles

    2011-08-01

    Stability and kinetic behavior of laccase from Trametes versicolor in the presence of several ionic liquids from the methylimidazolium family have been investigated. In general laccase stability diminished as the size of the alkylic substitute in the methylimidazolium ring increased. Higher concentrations of ionic liquids caused more destabilization than lower ones. Thus, low concentrations of [C(2)mim(+)][EtSO(4)(-)] allowed maintaining enzymatic stability. [C(4)mim(+)][Cl(-)] appeared to have a stabilizing effect on laccase, as little activity decay was observed within three weeks. Kinetic studies indicated that both [C(2)mim(+)][EtSO(4)(-)] and [C(4)mim(+)][Cl(-)] inhibited laccase activity, although 10-fold more [C(2)mim(+)][EtSO(4)(-)] than [C(4)mim(+)][Cl(-)] was required to cause the same degree of inhibition. A kinetic model was developed to represent the experimental data. PMID:21669518

  3. Synergistic effects of a combined exposure to herbicides and an insecticide in Hyla versicolor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mazanti, L.; Sparling, D.W.; Rice, C.; Bialek, K.; Stevenson, C.; Teels, B.

    2003-01-01

    Combinations of the herbicides atrazine and metolachlor and the insecticide chlorpyrifos were tested under both laboratory and field conditions to determine their individual and combined effects on amphibian populations. In the lab Hyla versicolor tadpoles experienced 100% mortality when exposed to a high combination of the pesticides (2.0 mg/L atrazine, 2.54 mg/L metolachlor, 1.0 mg/L chlorpyrifos) whereas low concentrations of the pesticides (0.2 mg/L atrazine, 0.25 mg/L metolachlor, 0.1 mg/L chlorpyrifos) or high concentrations of either herbicides or insecticide alone caused lethargy, reduced growth and delayed metamorphosis but no significant mortality. In the field high herbicide, low insecticide and low herbicide, low insecticide mixtures significantly reduced amphibian populations compared to controls but in the low herbicide, low insecticide wetlands amphibian populations were able to recover through recruitment by the end of the season.

  4. Bioactive anthraquinones from endophytic fungus Aspergillus versicolor isolated from red sea algae.

    PubMed

    Hawas, Usama W; El-Beih, Ahmed Atef; El-Halawany, Ali M

    2012-10-01

    The marine fungus Aspergillus versicolor was isolated from the inner tissue of the Red Sea green alga Halimeda opuntia. The fungus was identified by its morphology and 18s rDNA. Cultivation of this fungal strain led to a new metabolite named isorhodoptilometrin-1-methyl ether (1) along with the known compounds emodin (2), 1-methyl emodin (3), evariquinone (4), 7-hydroxyemodin 6,8-methyl ether (5), siderin (6), arugosin C (7), and variculanol (8). The structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR spectroscopic analysis and mass spectrometry. The biological properties of ethyl acetate extract and compounds 1-3 and 6-8 were explored for antimicrobial activity, anti-cancer activity and inhibition of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) protease. PMID:23139125

  5. Complete mitochondrial genome of the versicoloured emerald hummingbird Amazilia versicolor, a polymorphic species.

    PubMed

    Prosdocimi, Francisco; Souto, Helena Magarinos; Ruschi, Piero Angeli; Furtado, Carolina; Jennings, W Bryan

    2016-09-01

    The genome of the versicoloured emerald hummingbird (Amazilia versicolor) was partially sequenced in one-sixth of an Illumina HiSeq lane. The mitochondrial genome was assembled using MIRA and MITObim software, yielding a circular molecule of 16,861 bp in length and deposited in GenBank under the accession number KF624601. The mitogenome contained 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer tRNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs and 1 non-coding control region. The molecule was assembled using 21,927 sequencing reads of 100 bp each, resulting in ∼130 × coverage of uniformly distributed reads along the genome. This is the forth mitochondrial genome described for this highly diverse family of birds and may benefit further phylogenetic, phylogeographic, population genetic and species delimitation studies of hummingbirds. PMID:25758043

  6. Biological decolourisation of pulp mill effluent using white rot fungus Trametes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, S V; Murthy, D V S; Swaminathan, T

    2012-07-01

    The conventional biological treatment methods employed in the pulp and paper industries are not effective in reducing the colour and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The white-rot fungi are reported to have the ability to biodegrade the lignin and its derivatives. This paper is focused on the biological treatment of pulp mill effluent from a bagasse-based pulp and paper industry using fungal treatment. Experiments were conducted using the white rot fungus, Trametes versicolor in shake flasks operated in batch mode with different carbon sources. The decolourisation efficiencies of 82.5% and 80.3% were obtained in the presence of 15 g/L and 5 g/L of glucose and sucrose concentrations respectively with a considerable COD reduction. The possibility of reusing the grown fungus was examined for repeated treatment studies. PMID:24749195

  7. Tinea Versicolor

    MedlinePlus

    ... containing selenium sulfide can be used as a lotion by applying it to the affected areas overnight ... recommend one of the following treatments: Selenium sulfide lotion (or shampoo, which can be used as a ...

  8. Tinea versicolor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2009:chap 267. James WD, Berger TG, Elston DM. Diseases resulting from fungi and yeasts. In: James WD, Berger TG, Elston DM, eds. Andrews' Diseases ...

  9. Degradation of selected agrochemicals by the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Mir-Tutusaus, Josep Anton; Masís-Mora, Mario; Corcellas, Cayo; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià; Sarrà, Montserrat; Caminal, Glòria; Vicent, Teresa; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E

    2014-12-01

    Use of agrochemicals is a worldwide practice that exerts an important effect on the environment; therefore the search of approaches for the elimination of such pollutants should be encouraged. The degradation of the insecticides imiprothrin (IP) and cypermethrin (CP), the insecticide/nematicide carbofuran (CBF) and the antibiotic of agricultural use oxytetracycline (OTC) were assayed with the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor. Experiments with fungal pellets demonstrated extensive degradation of the four tested agrochemicals, at rates that followed the pattern IP>OTC>CP>CBF. In vitro assays with laccase-mediator systems showed that this extracellular enzyme participates in the transformation of IP but not in the cases of CBF and OTC. On the other hand, in vivo studies with inhibitors of cytochrome P450 revealed that this intracellular system plays an important role in the degradation of IP, OTC and CBF, but not for CP. The compounds 3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (DCCA) and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (PBA) were detected as transformation products of CP, as a result of the breakdown of the molecule. Meanwhile, 3-hydroxycarbofuran was detected as a transformation product of CBF; this metabolite tended to accumulate during the process, nonetheless, the toxicity of the system was effectively reduced. Simultaneous degradation of CBF and OTC showed a reduction in toxicity; similarly, when successive additions of OTC were done during the slower degradation of CBF, the fungal pellets were able to degrade both compounds. The simultaneous degradation of the four compounds successfully took place with minimal inhibition of fungal activity and resulted in the reduction of the global toxicity, thus supporting the potential use of T. versicolor for the treatment of diverse agrochemicals. PMID:25217998

  10. Species diversity and cytotoxic potency of airborne sterigmatocystin-producing Aspergilli from the section Versicolores.

    PubMed

    Despot, Daniela Jakšić; Kocsubé, Sandor; Bencsik, Ottó; Kecskeméti, Anita; Szekeres, András; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Varga, Janos; Klarić, Maja Šegvić

    2016-08-15

    This study presents the distribution and species diversity of sterigmatocystin-producing Aspergilli from the section Versicolores in the indoor air of apartment-AP, basements-BS and grain mill-GM in Croatia, as well as the cytotoxic potency of isolates. The species comprised 0.7-20% of total airborne fungi detected in the AP, 11-55% in the BS, and 0-2% in the GM. Based on CaM sequences, seven species were identified; dominant were Aspergillus jensenii and Aspergillus creber, followed by Aspergillus protuberus, Aspergillus venenatus, Aspergillus tennesseensis, Aspergillus amoenus, Aspergillus griseoaurantiacus and three undescribed species. All of the identified species produced sterigmatocystin-STC (HPLC/UV-VIS); A. griseoaurantiacus (208.29μg/mL) and A. jensenii (1.192-133.63μg/mL) produced the highest levels, the lowest were detected in A. protuberus and A. tennesseensis (0.117-2.749μg/mL). Lower species diversity was obtained in the GM due to overgrowth with more propulsive fungi. Relatively high STC levels (0.06-2.35μg/g) detected in 52% of GM dust samples confirmed the presence of STC-producers, although this STC cannot be exclusively attributed to Aspergilli (Versicolores). STC and the majority of STC-producing Aspergilli were cytotoxic to human lung A549 cells (IC50 0.9-2.3μg/mL) and THP-1 macrophage-like cells (IC50 0.3-0.6μg/mL) in relatively low concentrations suggesting that humans can be at high risk during chronic exposure. PMID:27100010

  11. Effects of Kraft Pulp and Lignin on Trametes versicolor Carbon Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Brian P.; Archibald, Frederick

    1993-01-01

    The white rot basidiomycete Trametes (Coriolus) versicolor can substantially increase the brightness and decrease the lignin content of washed, unbleached hardwood kraft pulp (HWKP). Monokaryotic strain 52J was used to study how HWKP and the lignin in HWKP affect the carbon metabolism and secretions of T. versicolor. Earlier work indicated that a biobleaching culture supernatant contained all components necessary for HWKP biobleaching and delignification, but the supernatant needed frequent contact with the fungus to maintain these activities. Thus, labile small fungal metabolites may be the vital biobleaching system components renewed or replaced by the fungus. Nearly all of the CO2 evolved by HWKP-containing cultures came from the added glucose, indicating that HWKP is not an important source of carbon or energy during biobleaching. Carbon dioxide appeared somewhat earlier in the absence of HWKP, but the culture partial O2 pressure was little affected by the presence of pulp. The presence of HWKP in a culture markedly increased the culture's production of a number of acidic metabolites, including 2-phenyllactate, oxalate, adipate, glyoxylate, fumarate, mandelate, and glycolate. Although the total concentration of these pulp-induced metabolites was only 4.3 mM, these compounds functioned as effective manganese-complexing agents for the manganese peroxidase-mediated oxidation of phenol red, propelling the reaction at 2.4 times the rate of 50 mM sodium malonate, the standard chelator-buffer. The presence of HWKP in a culture also markedly stimulated fungal secretion of the enzymes manganese peroxidase, cellulase, and cellobiose-quinone oxidoreductase, but not laccase (phenol oxidase) or lignin peroxidase. PMID:16348963

  12. Phenylquinolinones with antitumor activity from the Indian Ocean-derived fungus Aspergillus versicolor Y31-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peihai; Fan, Yaqin; Chen, Hao; Chao, Yaxi; Du, Ning; Chen, Junhui

    2016-02-01

    Two phenylquinolinones, including one new compound (1) and a previously isolated compound (2), were isolated from the ethyl acetate extracts of the fungus Aspergillus versicolor Y31-2, which was obtained from seawater samples collected from the Indian Ocean. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic analyses. 4-(3-Hydroxyphenyl)-3-methoxyquinolin-2(1H)-one (1) exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against MCF-7 (human breast carcinoma cell line) and SMMC-7721 (human liver cancer cell line) cells with IC50 values of 16.6 and 18.2 μmol/L, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first reported account of the isolation of compounds 1 and 2 as the secondary metabolites of the seawater derived fungus Aspergillus versicolor from the Indian Ocean.

  13. ``Winter'' aggregations, colony cycle, and seasonal phenotypic change in the paper wasp Polistes versicolor in subtropical Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobbi, Nivar; Noll, Fernando B.; Penna, Marcelo A. H.

    2006-10-01

    Social wasps from temperate zones have clear annual colony cycles, and the young queens hibernate during winter. In the subtropics, the only previously reported evidence for the existence of “hibernation” is the facultative winter aggregations of females during harsh climate conditions. As in temperate-zone species analyzed so far, we show in this study that in the paper wasp, Polistes versicolor, a subtropical species, body size increases as an unfavorable season approaches. Our morphological studies indicate that larger females come from winter aggregations—that is, they are new queens. Multivariate analyses indicate that size is the only variable analyzed that shows a relationship to the differences. Given the absence of a harsh climate, we suggest that the occurrence of winter aggregations in tropical P. versicolor functions to allow some females to wait for better environmental conditions to start a new nest, rather than all being obliged to start a new nest as soon as they emerge.

  14. Phenylquinolinones with antitumor activity from the Indian Ocean-derived fungus Aspergillus versicolor Y31-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peihai; Fan, Yaqin; Chen, Hao; Chao, Yaxi; Du, Ning; Chen, Junhui

    2016-09-01

    Two phenylquinolinones, including one new compound ( 1) and a previously isolated compound ( 2), were isolated from the ethyl acetate extracts of the fungus Aspergillus versicolor Y31-2, which was obtained from seawater samples collected from the Indian Ocean. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic analyses. 4-(3-Hydroxyphenyl)-3-methoxyquinolin-2(1H)-one ( 1) exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against MCF-7 (human breast carcinoma cell line) and SMMC-7721 (human liver cancer cell line) cells with IC50 values of 16.6 and 18.2 μmol/L, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first reported account of the isolation of compounds 1 and 2 as the secondary metabolites of the seawater derived fungus Aspergillus versicolor from the Indian Ocean.

  15. Biodegradation of pesticide triclosan by A. versicolor in simulated wastewater and semi-synthetic media.

    PubMed

    Ertit Taştan, Burcu; Dönmez, Gönül

    2015-02-01

    Triclosan is known as an antimicrobial agent, a powerful bacteriostat and an important pesticide. In this paper biodegradation of triclosan by Aspergillus versicolor was investigated. Effects of simulated wastewater and semi-synthetic media on fungal triclosan degradation process were detected. HPLC analysis showed that fungal triclosan biodegradation yield was 71.91% at about 7.5 mg/L concentration in semi-synthetic medium and was 37.47% in simulated wastewater. Fungus could be able to tolerate the highest triclosan concentration (15.69 mg/L). The biodegradation yield was 29.81% and qm was 2.22 mg/g at this concentration. Some of the parameters, such as pH, culture media, increasing triclosan and biomass concentrations were optimized in order to achieve the effective triclosan biodegradation process. The highest triclosan biodegradation yields of all microorganisms were achieved by A. versicolor. PMID:25752427

  16. Examining multiple sublethal contaminants on the gray treefrog (Hyla versicolor): effects of an insecticide, herbicide, and fertilizer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boone, M.D.; Bridges-Britton, C. M.

    2006-01-01

    We examined the single and interactive effects of an insecticide, an herbicide, and a fertilizer on gray treefrog (Hyla versicolor) tadpoles. Tadpoles were reared in mesocosms from hatching through metamorphosis and were exposed to the presence or absence of as many as three contaminants. Tadpoles did not appear to be more susceptible to single versus multiple contaminants, which may result from positive changes in food resources that compensate for the effects of other contaminants. ?? 2006 SETAC.

  17. Adsorption of Trametes versicolor laccase to soil iron and aluminum minerals: enzyme activity, kinetics and stability studies.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yue; Jiang, Ying; Jiao, Jiaguo; Liu, Manqiang; Hu, Feng; Griffiths, Bryan S; Li, Huixin

    2014-02-01

    Laccases play an important role in the degradation of soil phenol or phenol-like substance and can be potentially used in soil remediation through immobilization. Iron and aluminum minerals can adsorb extracellular enzymes in soil environment. In the present study, we investigated the adsorptive interaction of laccase, from the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor, with soil iron and aluminum minerals and characterized the properties of the enzyme after adsorption to minerals. Results showed that both soil iron and aluminum minerals adsorbed great amount of laccase, independent of the mineral specific surface areas. Adsorbed laccases retained 26-64% of the activity of the free enzyme. Compared to the free laccase, all adsorbed laccases showed higher Km values and lower Vmax values, indicating a reduced enzyme-substrate affinity and a lower rate of substrate conversion in reactions catalyzed by the adsorbed laccase. Adsorbed laccases exhibited increased catalytic activities compared to the free laccase at low pH, implying the suitable application of iron and aluminum mineral-adsorbed T. versicolor laccase in soil bioremediation, especially in acid soils. In terms of the thermal profiles, adsorbed laccases showed decreased thermal stability and higher temperature sensitivity relative to the free laccase. Moreover, adsorption improved the resistance of laccase to proteolysis and extended the lifespan of laccase. Our results implied that adsorbed T. versicolor laccase on soil iron and aluminum minerals had promising potential in soil remediation. PMID:24225344

  18. Discovery of novel xylosides in co-culture of basidiomycetes Trametes versicolor and Ganoderma applanatum by integrated metabolomics and bioinformatics.

    PubMed

    Yao, Lu; Zhu, Li-Ping; Xu, Xiao-Yan; Tan, Ling-Ling; Sadilek, Martin; Fan, Huan; Hu, Bo; Shen, Xiao-Ting; Yang, Jie; Qiao, Bin; Yang, Song

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptomic analysis of cultured fungi suggests that many genes for secondary metabolite synthesis are presumably silent under standard laboratory condition. In order to investigate the expression of silent genes in symbiotic systems, 136 fungi-fungi symbiotic systems were built up by co-culturing seventeen basidiomycetes, among which the co-culture of Trametes versicolor and Ganoderma applanatum demonstrated the strongest coloration of confrontation zones. Metabolomics study of this co-culture discovered that sixty-two features were either newly synthesized or highly produced in the co-culture compared with individual cultures. Molecular network analysis highlighted a subnetwork including two novel xylosides (compounds 2 and 3). Compound 2 was further identified as N-(4-methoxyphenyl)formamide 2-O-β-D-xyloside and was revealed to have the potential to enhance the cell viability of human immortalized bronchial epithelial cell line of Beas-2B. Moreover, bioinformatics and transcriptional analysis of T. versicolor revealed a potential candidate gene (GI: 636605689) encoding xylosyltransferases for xylosylation. Additionally, 3-phenyllactic acid and orsellinic acid were detected for the first time in G. applanatum, which may be ascribed to response against T.versicolor stress. In general, the described co-culture platform provides a powerful tool to discover novel metabolites and help gain insights into the mechanism of silent gene activation in fungal defense. PMID:27616058

  19. Long term storage of Pleurotus ostreatus and Trametes versicolor isolates using different cryopreservation techniques and its impact on laccase activity.

    PubMed

    Eichlerová, Ivana; Homolka, Ladislav; Tomšovský, Michal; Lisá, Ludmila

    2015-12-01

    The strain Pleurotus ostreatus Florida f6, its 45 basidiospore-derived isolates (both monokaryons and dikaryons prepared in our laboratory), Trametes versicolor strain CCBAS 614 and 22 other T. versicolor isolates obtained from the sporocarps collected in distant localities were successfully preserved for 12 y using perlite and straw cryopreservation protocols. All tested isolates survived a 12-year storage in liquid nitrogen (LN) and their laccase production and Poly B411 decolorization capacity was preserved. Also mycelium extension rate and the types of colony appearance of individual isolates remained unchanged. Different cryopreservation techniques were also tested for the short time (24 h) and the long time (6 m) storage of the culture liquid with extracellular laccase produced by T. versicolor strain CCBAS 614. The results showed that 10 % glycerol was the most suitable cryopreservant. The absence of the cryopreservant did not cause high loss of laccase activity in the samples; the presence of DMSO (5 or 10 %) in LN-stored samples caused mostly a decrease of laccase activity. For the preservation of laccase activity in the liquid culture the storage in the freezer at -80 °C is more convenient than the storage in liquid nitrogen. PMID:26615755

  20. A multivariate analysis of genetic variation in the advertisement call of the gray treefrog, Hyla versicolor.

    PubMed

    Welch, Allison M; Smith, Michael J; Gerhardt, H Carl

    2014-06-01

    Genetic variation in sexual displays is crucial for an evolutionary response to sexual selection, but can be eroded by strong selection. Identifying the magnitude and sources of additive genetic variance underlying sexually selected traits is thus an important issue in evolutionary biology. We conducted a quantitative genetics experiment with gray treefrogs (Hyla versicolor) to investigate genetic variances and covariances among features of the male advertisement call. Two energetically expensive traits showed significant genetic variation: call duration, expressed as number of pulses per call, and call rate, represented by its inverse, call period. These two properties also showed significant genetic covariance, consistent with an energetic constraint to call production. Combining the genetic variance-covariance matrix with previous estimates of directional sexual selection imposed by female preferences predicts a limited increase in call duration but no change in call rate despite significant selection on both traits. In addition to constraints imposed by the genetic covariance structure, an evolutionary response to sexual selection may also be limited by high energetic costs of long-duration calls and by preferences that act most strongly against very short-duration calls. Meanwhile, the persistence of these preferences could be explained by costs of mating with males with especially unattractive calls. PMID:24621402

  1. Lethal and sublethal effects of embryonic and larval exposure of Hyla versicolor to Stormwater pond sediments.

    PubMed

    Brand, Adrianne B; Snodgrass, Joel W; Gallagher, Matthew T; Casey, Ryan E; Van Meter, Robin

    2010-02-01

    Stormwater ponds are common features of modern stormwater management practices. Stormwater ponds often retain standing water for extended periods of time, develop vegetative characteristics similar to natural wetlands, and attract wildlife. However, because stormwater ponds are designed to capture pollutants, wildlife that utilize ponds might be exposed to pollutants and suffer toxicological effects. To investigate the toxicity of stormwater pond sediments to Hyla versicolor, an anuran commonly found using retention ponds for breeding, we exposed embryos and larvae to sediments in laboratory microcosms. Exposure to pond sediments reduced survival of embryos by approximately 50% but did not affect larval survival. Larvae exposed to stormwater pond sediment developed significantly faster (x = 39 days compared to 42 days; p = 0.005) and were significantly larger at metamorphosis (x = 0.49 g compared to 0.36 g; p < 0.001) than controls that were exposed to clean sand. Substantial amounts (712-2215 mg/l) of chloride leached from pond sediments into the water column of treatment microcosms; subsequently, survival of embryos was negatively correlated (r (2) = 0.50; p < 0.001) with water conductivity during development. Our results, along with the limited number of other toxicological studies of stormwater ponds, suggest that road salt contributes to the degradation of stormwater pond habitat quality for amphibian reproduction and that future research should focus on understanding interactions among road salts and other pollutants and stressors characteristic of urban environments. PMID:19685097

  2. Phase 1 Clinical Trial of Trametes versicolor in Women with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Torkelson, Carolyn J.; Sweet, Erin; Martzen, Mark R.; Sasagawa, Masa; Wenner, Cynthia A.; Gay, Juliette; Putiri, Amy; Standish, Leanna J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Orally administered preparations from the Trametes versicolor (Tv) mushroom have been hypothesized to improve immune response in women with breast cancer after standard chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Methods. A phase I, two-center, dose escalation study was done to determine the maximum tolerated dose of a Tv preparation when taken daily in divided doses for 6 weeks after recent completion of radiotherapy. Eleven participants were recruited and nine women completed the study. Each cohort was comprised of three participants given one of three doses of Tv (3, 6, or 9 grams). Immune data was collected pre- and postradiation, at 3 on-treatment time points and after a 3-week washout. Results. Nine adverse events were reported (7 mild, 1 moderate, and 1 severe), suggesting that Tv was well tolerated. Immunological results indicated trends in (1) increased lymphocyte counts at 6 and 9 grams/day; (2) increased natural killer cell functional activity at 6 grams/day; (3) dose-related increases in CD8+ T cells and CD19+ B cells , but not CD4+ T cells or CD16+56+ NK cells. Conclusion. These findings show that up to 9 grams/day of a Tv preparation is safe and tolerable in women with breast cancer in the postprimary treatment setting. This Tv preparation may improve immune status in immunocompromised breast cancer patients following standard primary oncologic treatment. PMID:22701186

  3. Engineering and production of laccase from Trametes versicolor in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Theerachat, Monnat; Emond, Stéphane; Cambon, Emmanuelle; Bordes, Florence; Marty, Alain; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Chulalaksananukul, Warawut; Guieysse, David; Remaud-Siméon, Magali; Morel, Sandrine

    2012-12-01

    The lcc1 gene coding for the laccase from Trametes versicolor DSM11269 was cloned into the genome of Yarrowia lipolytica using either single or multiple integration sites. The levels of the recombinant laccase activity secreted in the culture media were 0.25 and 1 U ml(-1) for single and multiple integrations, respectively. The strain with a single integration was successfully used to express variant libraries which were screened on ABTS substrate. The strain encoding the double mutant L185P/Q214K (rM4A) showed a sixfold enhancement in secreted enzyme activity. The catalytic efficiency of the purified rM-4A laccase was respectively increased 2.4- and 2.8-fold towards ABTS and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, compared to the rWT. Culture supernatants containing either rWT or rM-4A catalyzed the almost complete decolorization of an Amaranth solution (70 nMs(-1)). Taken together, our results open new perspectives for the use of Y. lipolytica as a molecular evolution platform to engineer laccases with improved properties. PMID:23026343

  4. A safety assessment of Coriolus versicolor biomass as a food supplement

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Ana B.; Ferrão, Jorge; Fernandes, Tito

    2016-01-01

    Background Coriolus versicolor (CV) is a common mushroom with antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiviral, antibacterial, and immunomodulatory properties. The existence of these properties has been extensively proven mainly using CV extract; research on the biomass form is scarce. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the safety of the CV biomass form, as it is commonly used as a food supplement. Design CV biomass powder was dissolved in distilled water and administered daily (2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 g/kg live weight) in single doses by gavage to both female and male Charles River albino rats. Results No adverse or lethal effects were observed as a consequence of the daily administration of CV biomass. In addition, compared with the control group, no abnormal findings were observed at necropsy and histopathological examination. Conclusions A safe profile of CV biomass for human consumption can be inferred from the absence of any remarkable adverse effects in rats. PMID:26969586

  5. Production and structural analysis of the polysaccharide secreted by Trametes (Coriolus) versicolor ATCC 200801.

    PubMed

    Rau, Udo; Kuenz, Anja; Wray, Victor; Nimtz, Manfred; Wrenger, Julika; Cicek, Hasan

    2009-01-01

    Trametes versicolor ATCC 200801 secretes 4.1 g L(-1) of exopolysaccharide (EPS) when synthetic minimal medium and low-shear bioreactor cultivation technique are used. Structural and compositional analyses by thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy yielded predominantly glucose and small amounts of galactose, mannose, arabinose, and xylose. The main EPS is composed of beta-1,3/beta-1,6-linked D-glucose molecules which is identical with Schizophyllan but does not possess a triple helical arrangement as secondary structure. Two molar mass fractions were detected by size exclusion chromatography yielding weight-average molecular weights of 4,100 and 2.6 kDa. Protein content varies between 2-3.6% (w/w). The exopolysaccharide is different in the nature of the glycosidic linkage, composition of monosaccharides, protein content, and weight-average molecular weight compared to the well-known polysaccharopeptide (PSP) and polysaccharopeptide Krestin (PSK). PMID:18800181

  6. Seawater influence monitored by NaCl on the growth of Trametes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, Aya

    2016-01-01

    There are only a few scientific data about the function of ecosystems after tsunami disasters. The ecosystems help the environment to recover after a disaster, and therefore, the research on its function is important. We estimated the seawater influences on wood degradation after a tsunami disaster by the growth of Trametes versicolor. The debris from the Great East Japan Earthquake on the pacific coast in March 2011 was used for the simulations. Its growth on debris was compared with those on seawater-treated woods, and the amount of sodium chloride was examined to know the approximate amount of salts in the samples. Sodium chloride contents were employed as an indicative parameter of sea salts, which contained many elements. As a result, this common white-rot fungus degraded wood debris in the same way as sound sapwood. Although the study was conducted at the laboratory level, this is the first report from the real debris, which assessed the fungal decomposition ability of the ecosystem after a tsunami disaster. PMID:26538261

  7. Fungal biodegradation of lignopolystyrene graft copolymers. [Pleurotus ostreatus; Phanerochaete chrysosporium; Trametes versicolor; Gloeophyllum trabeum

    SciTech Connect

    Milstein, O.; Gersonde, R.; Huttermann, A. ); MengJiu Chen; Meister, J.J )

    1992-10-01

    White rot basidiomycetes were able to biodegrade styrene (1-phenylethene) graft copolymers of lignin containing different proportions of lignin and polystyrene (poly(1-phenylethylene)). The biodegradation tests were run on lignin-styrene copolymerization products which contained 10.3, 32.2, and 50.4{percent} (wt/wt) lignin. The polymer samples were incubated with the white rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and Trametes versicolor and the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum. White rot fungi degraded the plastic samples at a rate which increased with increasing lignin content in the copolymer sample. Both polystyrene and lignin components of the copolymer were readily degraded. Polystyrene pellets were not degradable in these tests. Degradation was verified for both incubated and control samples by weight loss, quantitative UV spectrophotometric analysis of both lignin and styrene residues, scanning electron microscopy of the plastic surface, and the presence of enzymes active in degradation during incubation. Brown rot fungus did not affect any of the plastics. White rot fungi produced and secreted oxidative enzymes associated with lignin degradation in liquid media during incubation with lignin-polystyrene copolymer.

  8. Treatment of a textile effluent from dyeing with cochineal extracts using Trametes versicolor fungus.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Figueroa, Gabriela; Ruiz-Aguilar, Graciela M L; López-Martínez, Leticia; González-Sánchez, Guillermo; Cuevas-Rodríguez, Germán; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Refugio

    2011-01-01

    Trametes versicolor (Tv) fungus can degrade synthetic dyes that contain azo groups, anthraquinone, triphenylmethane polymers, and heterocyclic groups. However, no references have been found related to the degradation of natural dyes, such as the carminic acid that is contained in the cochineal extract. Experiments to determine the decolorization of the effluent used in the cotton dyeing process with cochineal extract by means of Tv fungus were done. Treatments to determine decolorization in the presence or absence of Kirk's medium, glucose, and fungus, with an addition of 50% (v v-1) of nonsterilized effluent were performed. Physicochemical characterization was performed at the start and end of the treatment. Degradation kinetics were determined. A direct relationship was found between the dry weight of fungi, pH, and the decolorization system, with higher decolorization at lower pH levels (pH ~4.3). High decolorization (81% ± 0.09; 88% ± 0.17; and 99% ± 0.04) for three of the eight treatments (Kirk's medium without glucose, Kirk's medium with glucose, and without medium with glucose, respectively) was found. Toxicity tests determined an increase in the initial effluent toxicity (7.33 TU) compared with the final treatment (47.73 TU) in a period of 11 days. For this system, a degradation sequence of the carminic acid structure present in the effluent by the Tv fungus is suggested, in which it is seen that metabolites still containing aromatic structures are generated. PMID:21552764

  9. Isolation and Identification of the Coal-Solubilizing Agent Produced by Trametes versicolor

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Martin S.; Feldman, Kathleen A.; Brown, Cynthia S.; Gray, Edward T.

    1990-01-01

    Low-ranked coals were dissolved by using cell extracts derived from liquid cultures of Trametes versicolor. The coal-solubilizing agent (CSA) was separated from the broth components by a multistep isolation procedure including reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography, size exclusion chromatography, ethanol fractionation, and recrystallization. Staircase voltammetry was used to show that two CSA moieties can coordinate to aqueous copper(II) ion. A molecular weight determination (using amperometry) gave an apparent molecular weight of 1.34 × 102 g/mol ± 8%. Nuclear magnetic resonance indicated that all protons on CSA are exchangeable in D2O and that there is only one type of carbon in CSA. The infrared spectrum of recrystallized CSA is identical to that of ammonium oxalate, and X-ray studies confirmed the crystal structure and composition of CSA to be that of ammonium oxalate monohydrate. The equivalent weight of the coal in solution, when the coal was dissolved by ammonium oxalate, is 7,940 g of coal per mol of iron present in the coal. PMID:16348335

  10. Oxidative transformation of natural and synthetic phenolic mixtures by Trametes versicolor laccase.

    PubMed

    Canfora, Loredana; Iamarino, Giuseppina; Rao, Maria Antonietta; Gianfreda, Liliana

    2008-02-27

    The efficiency of Trametes versicolor laccase in the transformation of phenols (caffeic acid, catechol, hydroxytyrosol, methylcatechol, protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, m-tyrosol, 3-hydroxybenzoic acid, 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, 2,6-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde) usually present in waste water, such as that derived from an olive oil factory, was investigated. According to their response to 24 h laccase action the 11 phenolic compounds were classified in three groups: reactive (88-100% transformation), intermediate reactive (transformation lower than 50%), and recalcitrant (not transformed at all). The enzyme was able to transform the 11 substrates even when they were present in a mixture and also toward a phenolic extract from a Moroccan olive oil mill waste water (OMW) sample. The disappearance of protocatechuic, 3-hydroxyphenylacetic, and 2,6-dihydroxybenzoic acids, and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde was enhanced whereas that of caffeic acid and m-tyrosol was depressed when the phenols were present in the mixture. A reduction of enzyme activity occurred in single and/or complex phenolic mixtures after enzymatic oxidation. No correspondence between phenol transformation and disappearance of enzymatic activity was, however, observed. The overall results suggest that laccases are effective in the transformation of simple and complex phenolic mixtures. PMID:18205305

  11. Female gray treefrogs, Hyla versicolor, are responsive to visual stimuli but unselective of stimulus characteristics.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Michael S; Galante, Holland; Höbel, Gerlinde

    2014-09-15

    The visual ecology of nocturnal anurans is poorly understood, but there is growing evidence that vision plays a role in important behaviors such as mate choice. While several recent studies have demonstrated that females are responsive to visual cues when selecting mates, the forces responsible for these preferences are unknown. We investigated the responsiveness of female gray treefrogs, Hyla versicolor, to video playbacks of calling conspecific males in which we varied attributes of the vocal sac, a conspicuous visual characteristic of calling males and a target of female choice in other species. Females responded surprisingly strongly to the video playbacks, but did so indiscriminately with respect to variation in vocal sac characteristics. We followed up on these results with a series of additional tests that examined female responses to abstract stimuli. Females continued to respond to such stimuli, leading us to conclude that their behavior was related to a generalized phototactic response. Because of this, we were unable to make conclusions regarding female preferences for vocal sac characteristics. Nonetheless, our results are significant in two respects. First, we illustrate that despite much effort into improving video playback methodologies, challenges remain, and we offer our experimental design as a method to ensure that appropriate conclusions can be drawn from such studies. Second, we argue that the female phototactic response has potentially significant behavioral implications and in general the consequences of anuran visual preferences deserve further investigation. PMID:25013111

  12. Production and Characterization of Trametes versicolor Mutants Unable To Bleach Hardwood Kraft Pulp

    PubMed Central

    Addleman, K.; Dumonceaux, T.; Paice, M. G.; Bourbonnais, R.; Archibald, F. S.

    1995-01-01

    Protoplasts of the monokaryotic strain 52J of Trametes versicolor were treated with UV light and screened for the inability to produce a colored precipitate on guaiacol-containing agar plates. Mutants unable to oxidize guaiacol had absent or very low secretion of laccase and manganese peroxidase (MnP) proteins. All isolates unable to secrete MnP were also unable to bleach or delignify kraft pulp. One mutant strain, M49, which grew normally but did not oxidize guaiacol, was tested further with a number of other substrates whose degradation has been associated with delignification by white rot fungi. Compared with the parent, 52J, mutant M49, secreting no MnP and low laccase, could not brighten or delignify kraft pulp, produced less ethylene from 2-keto methiolbutyric acid, released much less (sup14)CO(inf2) from [(sup14)C]DHP (a synthetic lignin-like polymerizate), and produced much less methanol from pulp. This mutant also displayed decreased abilities to oxidize the dyes poly B-411, poly R-478, and phenol red compared with the wild-type strain and was also unable to decolorize kraft bleachery effluent or mineralize its organochlorine. Addition of purified MnP in conjunction with H(inf2)O(inf2), MnSO(inf4), and an Mn(III) chelator to M49 cultures partially restored methanol production, pulp delignification, and biobleaching in some cases. PMID:16535150

  13. Manganese Peroxidase, Produced by Trametes versicolor during Pulp Bleaching, Demethylates and Delignifies Kraft Pulp

    PubMed Central

    Paice, M. G.; Reid, I. D.; Bourbonnais, R.; Archibald, F. S.; Jurasek, L.

    1993-01-01

    Previous work has shown that Trametes (Coriolus) versicolor bleaches kraft pulp brownstock with the concomitant release of methanol. In this work, the fungus is shown to produce both laccase and manganese peroxidase (MnP) but not lignin peroxidase during pulp bleaching. MnP production was enhanced by the presence of pulp and/or Mn(II) ions. The maximum level of secreted MnP was coincident with the maximum rate of fungal bleaching. Culture filtrates isolated from bleaching cultures produced Mn(II)- and hydrogen peroxide-dependent pulp demethylation and delignification. Laccase and MnP were separated by ion-exchange chromatography. Purified MnP alone produced most of the demethylation and delignification exhibited by the culture filtrates. On the basis of the methanol released and the total and phenolic methoxyl contents of the pulp, it appears that MnP shows a preference for the oxidation of phenolic lignin substructures. The extensive increase in brightness observed in the fungus-treated pulp was not found with MnP alone. Therefore, either the MnP effect must be optimized or other enzymes or compounds from the fungus are also required for brightening. Images PMID:16348850

  14. An open-label study of naftifine hydrochloride 1% gel in the treatment of tinea versicolor.

    PubMed

    Gold, Michael H; Bridges, Tancy; Avakian, Edward; Plaum, Stefan; Pappert, Eric J; Fleischer, Alan B; Hardas, Bhushan

    2011-01-01

    Tinea versicolor (TV) is a superficial cutaneous fungal infection characterized by cutaneous pigment changes, pruritus, scaling, and erythema. This open-label, single-center pilot study evaluated the efficacy and safety of naftifine 1% gel applied twice daily for 2 weeks in 10 men and women (median age 38 years) with TV. Baseline mycology status was determined by potassium hydroxide (KOH) and microscopy and clinical symptom severity (CSS) scored by the investigator using a 0 to 9 scale (0=absent, 9=worst). Patients applied naftifine HCI 1% gel to the affected area twice daily for 14 days. They returned for follow-up efficacy and safety assessments at the end of treatment (week 2), 2 weeks after treatment (week 4), and 6 weeks after treatment (week 8). All patients had a positive mycology at baseline; one was KOH negative at week 2, two were negative at week 4, and five (50%) were negative at week 8. Mean investigator total CSS score decreased from a baseline value of 4.7 to 3.2 at week 2 (32% improvement), 2.6 at week 4 (45% improvement), and 2.7 at week 8 (43% improvement). The patients rated their symptoms to be improved at all follow-up visits. There were no treatment-related adverse events during the study. These results suggest that naftifine 1% gel is a safe and efficacious topical treatment for TV. PMID:22165042

  15. Effects of onion (Allium cepa L.) and garlic (Allium sativum L.) essential oils on the Aspergillus versicolor growth and sterigmatocystin production.

    PubMed

    Kocić-Tanackov, Sunčica; Dimić, Gordana; Lević, Jelena; Tanackov, Ilija; Tepić, Aleksandra; Vujičić, Biserka; Gvozdanović-Varga, Jelica

    2012-05-01

    In the present study the effects of individual and combined essential oils (EOs) extracted from onion (Allium cepa L.) bulb and garlic (Allium sativum L.) clove on the growth of Aspergillus versicolor and sterigmatocystin (STC) production were investigated. The EOs obtained by hydrodistillation were analyzed by GC/MS. Twenty one compounds were identified in onion EO. The major components were: dimethyl-trisulfide (16.64%), methyl-propyl-trisulfide (14.21%), dietil-1,2,4-tritiolan (3R,5S-, 3S,5S- and 3R,5R- isomers) (13.71%), methyl-(1-propenyl)-disulfide (13.14%), and methyl-(1-propenyl)-trisulfide (13.02%). The major components of garlic EO were diallyl-trisulfide (33.55%), and diallyl-disulfide (28.05%). The mycelial growth and the STC production were recorded after 7, 14, and 21 d of the A. versicolor growth in Yeast extract sucrose (YES) broth containing different EOs concentrations. Compared to the garlic EO, the onion EO showed a stronger inhibitory effect on the A. versicolor mycelial growth and STC production. After a 21-d incubation of fungi 0.05 and 0.11 μg/mL of onion EO and 0.11 μg/mL of garlic EO completely inhibited the A. versicolor mycelial growth and mycotoxins biosynthesis. The combination of EOs of onion (75%) and garlic (25%) had a synergistic effect on growth inhibition of A. versicolor and STC production. PMID:22497489

  16. Treatment of pityriasis versicolor with topical application of essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf - therapeutic pilot study*

    PubMed Central

    Carmo, Egberto Santos; Pereira, Fillipe de Oliveira; Cavalcante, Neuza Maria; Gayoso, Carla Wanderley; Lima, Edeltrudes de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pityriasis versicolor is a fungal infection caused by Malassezia spp. that has frequent relapses. OBJECTIVES The main objective of this research was to perform phase I and II clinical studies, using formulations containing essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus in patients with pityriasis versicolor. METHODS Phase I study included twenty volunteers to ascertain the safety of the formulations. In phase II, 47 volunteers randomly received essential oil formulations at 1.25 μL/mL concentration, for forty days. The shampoo should be applied three times a week and the cream twice a day. A control group in phase II, consisting of 29 volunteers, received the same formulations but with 2% ketoconazole as the active ingredient. RESULTS No significant adverse events were observed in volunteers during Phase I. In Phase II, 30 (63.83%) volunteers using essential oil and 18 (62.07%) using ketoconazole remained until the end of the study. We observed a predominance of lesions in disseminated form, with M. sympodialis detected as the predominant agent identified in cultures. After 40 days of treatment, the rate of mycological cure was 60% (p <0.05) for the group treated with essential oil of C. citratus and over 80% (p <0.05) for the group treated with ketoconazole formulations. CONCLUSIONS Notwithstanding the safety and antifungal effects observed in this study after application of formulations containing the essential oil of C. citratus, further studies with larger populations should be performed to confirm the actual potential of these formulations in the treatment of patients with Pityriasis versicolor. PMID:23793205

  17. Diversification and Demography of the Oriental Garden Lizard (Calotes versicolor) on Hainan Island and the Adjacent Mainland

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yong; Guo, Xianguang; Ho, Simon Y. W.; Shi, Haitao; Li, Jiatang; Li, Jun; Cai, Bo; Wang, Yuezhao

    2013-01-01

    The Oriental garden lizard (Calotes versicolor) is one of the few non-gekkonid lizards that are geographically widespread in the tropics. We investigated its population dynamics on Hainan Island and the adjacent mainland of China and Vietnam, focusing on the impact of cyclic upheaval and submergence of land bridges during the Pleistocene. Our Bayesian phylogenetic analysis reveals two mitochondrial lineages, A and B, which are estimated to have coalesced about 0.26 million years ago (95% credibility interval: 0.05–0.61 million years ago). Lineage A contains individuals mainly from central and southern Wuzhi Mountain on Hainan Island, whereas lineage B mainly comprises individuals from other sites on the island plus the adjacent mainland. The estimated coalescence times within lineages A (0.05 million years ago) and B (0.13 million years ago) fall within a period of cyclical land-bridge formation and disappearance in the Pleistocene. A spatial analysis of molecular variance identified two distinct population groupings: I, primarily containing lineage A, and II, mainly consisting of lineage B. However, haplotypes from lineages A and B occur sympatrically, suggesting that gene flow is ongoing. Neither Wuzhi Mountain nor Qiongzhou Strait and Gulf of Tonkin act as barriers to gene flow among C. versicolor populations. Analyses of the data using mismatch distributions and extended Bayesian skyline plots provide evidence of a relatively stable population size through time for Group I, and moderate population expansions and contractions during the end of the Pleistocene for Group II. We conclude that the phylogeographical patterns of C. versicolor are the combined product of Pleistocene sea-level oscillations and nonphysical barriers to gene flow. PMID:23840304

  18. Interaction between perchlorate and iodine in the metamorphosis of Hyla versicolor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparling, D.; Harvey, G.; Nzengung, V.

    2003-01-01

    Perchlorate (ClO4-) is a water-soluble, inorganic anion that is often combined with ammonium, potassium or other cations for use in industry and agriculture. Ammonium perchlorate, for example, is a potent oxidizer and is used in various military applications including rocket fuel. It has also been found in an historically widely used fertilizer, Chilean nitrate and in other fertilizers. It has been found in ground and surface waters of over 30 states and is considered a human health risk. Because of its similar atomic radius and volume, perchlorate competes with iodide for thyroid uptake and storage and thereby inhibits production of thyroid hormones. Amphibians may be particularly affected by perchlorate because they rely on the thyroid for metamorphosis. This study exposed early larval Hyla versicolor to concentrations of perchlorate ranging from 2.2 to 50 ppm to determine the effects of perchlorate on a native amphibian. In addition, three controls, 0 perchlorate, 0 perchlorate with 0.10 ppm iodide (C + I) and 50 ppm perchlorate + 0.10 ppm iodide (50 + I) were tested. Mortality (< 11% with all treatments) and growth appeared to be unaffected by perchlorate. Inhibition of development started with 2.2 ppm perchlorate and little or no development occurred at 22.9 ppm and above. This inhibition was particularly apparent at the latter stages of development including hindlimb formation and metamorphosis. The estimated EC50 for total inhibition of metamorphosis at 70 days of treatment was 3.63 ppm. There was no evidence of inhibition of development with the 50 + I, C + I, or controls, indicating that the presence of small concentrations of iodide could counter the effects of perchlorate. When tadpoles that had been inhibited by perchlorate were subsequently treated with iodide, development through prometamorphosis progressed but mortality was very high.

  19. Interaction between perchlorate and iodine in the metamorphosis of Hyla versicolor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparling, D.W.; Harvey, G.; Nzengung, V.

    2003-01-01

    Perchlorate (ClO4-) is a water-soluble, inorganic anion that is often combined with ammonium, potassium or other cations for use in industry and agriculture. Ammonium perchlorate, for example, is a potent oxidizer and is used in various military applications including rocket fuel. It has also been found in an historically widely used fertilizer, Chilean nitrate and in other fertilizers. It has been found in ground and surface waters of over 30 states and is considered a human health risk. Because of its similar atomic radius and volume, perchlorate competes with iodide for thyroid uptake and storage and thereby inhibits production of thyroid hormones. Amphibians may be particularly affected by perchlorate because they rely on the thyroid for metamorphosis. This study exposed early larval Hyla versicolor to concentrations of perchlorate ranging from 2.2 to 50 ppm to determine the effects of perchlorate on a native amphibian. In addition, three controls, 0 perchlorate, 0 perchlorate with 0.10 ppm iodide (C + I) and 50 ppm perchlorate + 0.10 ppm iodide (50 + I) were tested. Mortality (<11% with all treatments) and growth appeared to be unaffected by perchlorate. Inhibition of development started with 2.2 ppm perchlorate and little or no development occurred at 22.9 ppm and above. This inhibition was particularly apparent at the latter stages of development including hindlimb formation and metamorphosis. The estimated EC50 for total inhibition of metamorphosis at 70 days of treatment was 3.63 ppm. There was no evidence of inhibition of development with the 50 + I, C + I, or controls, indicating that the presence of small concentrations of iodide could counter the effects of perchlorate. When tadpoles that had been inhibited by perchlorate were subsequently treated with iodide, development through prometamorphosis progressed but mortality was very high.

  20. Influence of treatment conditions on the oxidation of micropollutants by Trametes versicolor laccase.

    PubMed

    Margot, Jonas; Maillard, Julien; Rossi, Luca; Barry, D A; Holliger, Christof

    2013-09-25

    Many organic compounds present at low concentrations in municipal wastewater, such as various pharmaceuticals and biocides, are recalcitrant in conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). To improve their biodegradation, oxidoreductase enzymes such as laccases were tested. The goal was to find optimal conditions for the transformation of two anti-inflammatory pharmaceuticals (diclofenac (DFC) and mefenamic acid (MFA)), one biocide (triclosan (TCN)) and one plastic additive (bisphenol A (BPA)) by Trametes versicolor laccase. Experiments were conducted in spiked solutions at different pH values (from 3 to 9), enzyme concentrations (70-1400 Ul(-1)), reaction times (0-26 hours) and temperatures (10, 25 and 40°C) following a Doehlert experimental design. A semi-empirical model was developed to understand better the combined effects of the four factors and to determine optimal values. This model was able to fit well the experimental data (R(2)>0.97) and showed good predictive ability. All four factors had a significant effect on the micropollutant oxidation with the greatest influence shown by pH. Results for single compounds were different from those obtained for mixtures of micropollutants. For instance, DFC transformation occurred at much higher rates in mixtures under alkaline conditions. Optimal conditions were compound-dependent, but were found to be between pH 4.5 to 6.5 and between 25°C to more than 40°C. A laccase concentration of 730 Ul(-1) was sufficient to obtain a high removal rate (>90%) of the four individual compounds (range of times: 40 min to 5 hours), showing the potential of laccases to improve biodegradation of environmentally persistent compounds. PMID:23831273

  1. Kraft Pulp Bleaching and Delignification by Dikaryons and Monokaryons of Trametes versicolor

    PubMed Central

    Addleman, Katherine; Archibald, Frederick

    1993-01-01

    The ability of 10 dikaryotic and 20 monokaryotic strains of Trametes (Coriolus) versicolor to bleach and delignify hardwood and softwood kraft pulps was assessed. A dikaryon (52P) and two of its mating-compatible monokaryons (52J and 52D) derived via protoplasting were compared. All three regularly bleached hardwood kraft pulp more than 20 brightness points (International Standards Organization) in 5 days and softwood kraft pulp the same amount in 12 days. Delignification (kappa number reduction) by the dikaryon and the monokaryons was similar, but the growth of the monokaryons was slower. Insoluble dark pigments were commonly found in the mycelium, medium, and pulp of the dikaryon only. Laccase and manganese peroxidase (MnP) but not lignin peroxidase activities were secreted during bleaching by all three strains. Their laccase and MnP isozyme patterns were compared on native gels. No segregation of isozyme bands between the monokaryons was found. Hardwood kraft pulp appeared to adsorb several laccase isozyme bands. One MnP isozyme (pI, 3.2) was secreted in the presence of pulp by all three strains, but a second (pI, 4.9) was produced only by 52P. A lower level of soluble MnP activity in one monokaryon (52D) was associated with reduced bleaching ability and a lower level of methanol production. Since monokaryon 52J bleached pulp better than its parent dikaryon 52P, especially per unit of biomass, this genetically simpler monokaryon will be the preferred subject for further genetic manipulation and improvement of fungal pulp biological bleaching. Images PMID:16348851

  2. High Laccase Expression by Trametes versicolor in a Simulated Textile Effluent with Different Carbon Sources and PHs.

    PubMed

    Ottoni, Cristiane; Simões, Marta F; Fernandes, Sara; Santos, Cledir R; Lima, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Textile effluents are highly polluting and have variable and complex compositions. They can be extremely complex, with high salt concentrations and alkaline pHs. A fixed-bed bioreactor was used in the present study to simulate a textile effluent treatment, where the white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor, efficiently decolourised the azo dye Reactive Black 5 over 28 days. This occurred under high alkaline conditions, which is unusual, but advantageous, for successful decolourisation processes. Active dye decolourisation was maintained by operation in continuous culture. Colour was eliminated during the course of operation and maximum laccase (Lcc) activity (80.2 U∙L(-1)) was detected after glycerol addition to the bioreactor. Lcc2 gene expression was evaluated with different carbon sources and pH values based on reverse transcriptase-PCR (polymerase chain reaction). Glycerol was shown to promote the highest lcc2 expression at pH 5.5, followed by sucrose and then glucose. The highest levels of expression occurred between three and four days, which corroborate the maximum Lcc activity observed for sucrose and glycerol on the bioreactor. These results give new insights into the use of T. versicolor in textile dye wastewater treatment with high pHs. PMID:27490563

  3. High Laccase Expression by Trametes versicolor in a Simulated Textile Effluent with Different Carbon Sources and PHs

    PubMed Central

    Ottoni, Cristiane; Simões, Marta F.; Fernandes, Sara; Santos, Cledir R.; Lima, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Textile effluents are highly polluting and have variable and complex compositions. They can be extremely complex, with high salt concentrations and alkaline pHs. A fixed-bed bioreactor was used in the present study to simulate a textile effluent treatment, where the white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor, efficiently decolourised the azo dye Reactive Black 5 over 28 days. This occurred under high alkaline conditions, which is unusual, but advantageous, for successful decolourisation processes. Active dye decolourisation was maintained by operation in continuous culture. Colour was eliminated during the course of operation and maximum laccase (Lcc) activity (80.2 U∙L−1) was detected after glycerol addition to the bioreactor. Lcc2 gene expression was evaluated with different carbon sources and pH values based on reverse transcriptase-PCR (polymerase chain reaction). Glycerol was shown to promote the highest lcc2 expression at pH 5.5, followed by sucrose and then glucose. The highest levels of expression occurred between three and four days, which corroborate the maximum Lcc activity observed for sucrose and glycerol on the bioreactor. These results give new insights into the use of T. versicolor in textile dye wastewater treatment with high pHs. PMID:27490563

  4. Quantification of flavonoid glycosides in an aqueous extract from the traditional Mongolian medicinal plant Dianthus versicolor FISCH.

    PubMed

    Obmann, Astrid; Zehl, Martin; Purevsuren, Sodnomtseren; Narantuya, Samdan; Reznicek, Gottfried; Kletter, Christa; Glasl, Sabine

    2011-02-01

    An HPLC-diode array detection (DAD) method was established in order to investigate dried aerial parts of Dianthus versicolor FISCH. (Caryophyllaceae), a plant used in traditional Mongolian medicine against liver impairment. Aqueous extracts were separated on an Aquasil(®) C(18) column with a linear gradient of acetonitrile (ACN) and water (adjusted to pH 2.8 with formic acid) as the mobile phase. LC-IT-MS facilitated the assignment of 26 flavonoids, among them a series of rare C-glycosylated as well as O-glycosylated derivatives, which are assumed to be the active principles. Quantification was performed and validated using isovitexin-7-O-glucoside (saponarin) as the external standard. The method showed good linear behaviour (r(2) ≥0.9999) over the investigated concentration range (0.007-3.5 mg/mL). The good precision of the method allowed the successful qualitative and quantitative analysis of flavonoid-glycosides in the aqueous extracts prepared from five different D. versicolor samples. Depending on the origin of the samples, the total flavonoid content was found to vary considerably from 0.41 to 3.30% in the aqueous extracts and from 0.07 to 0.57% in the crude drug. In addition, the relative composition of the various flavonoids was found to differ strongly. These results highlight the need for proper quality control for this herbal drug. PMID:21268252

  5. Terbinafin 1% Cream and Ketoconazole 2% Cream in the Treatment of Pityriasis Versicolor: A randomized comparative clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Rad, Farrokh; Nik-Khoo, Bahram; Yaghmaee, Roxana; Gharibi, Fardin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To make a comparison between terbinafine 1% cream and ketoconazole 2% cream in the treatment of pityriasis versicolor. Methods: This randomized single blind study included 110 patients with clinical diagnosis of pityriasis versicolor and positive mycological test for Malassezia furfur. The patients were randomly assigned to two groups. Group 1 used terbinafine cream and group 2 applied ketoconazole cream on the skin lesions for two weeks. Each group consisted of 55 patients. Clinical and mycological examinations were performed at baseline, at the end of the 2nd, 4th and 8th week of starting the treatment regimens. Results: At the end of the 2nd week we achieved cure rates of 72% and 64.3% for group 1 and group 2 respectively. At the end of the 4th week the respective cure rates for group 1 and group 2 were 81.2% and 69%, and at the end of the 8th week 70.8% of the patients in group 1 and 61.9% of the patients in group 2 were cured. Conclusion: The results of this study showed no significant statistical differences between the two groups in regard to cure and recurrence rates. But the numbers of cured patients were higher and recurrent cases were lower in group 1. PMID:25674122

  6. Isolation, structure elucidation, and biomimetic total synthesis of versicolamide B and the isolation of antipodal (-)-stephacidin A and (+)-notoamide B from Aspergillus versicolor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new prenylated indole alkaloid, versicolamide B, was isolated from cultures of Aspergillus versicolor NRRL 35600. The structure was assigned by 2D NMR data, and confirmed by a biomimetic total synthesis. Versicolamide B is the first member of the paraherquamide-stephacidin family of alkaloids fo...

  7. Structure and binding analysis of Polyporus squamosus lectin in complex with the Neu5Ac[alpha]2-6Gal[beta]1-4GlcNAc human-type influenza receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Kadirvelraj, Renuka; Grant, Oliver C.; Goldstein, Irwin J.; Winter, Harry C.; Tateno, Hiroaki; Fadda, Elisa; Woods, Robert J.

    2013-03-07

    Glycan chains that terminate in sialic acid (Neu5Ac) are frequently the receptors targeted by pathogens for initial adhesion. Carbohydrate-binding proteins (lectins) with specificity for Neu5Ac are particularly useful in the detection and isolation of sialylated glycoconjugates, such as those associated with pathogen adhesion as well as those characteristic of several diseases including cancer. Structural studies of lectins are essential in order to understand the origin of their specificity, which is particularly important when employing such reagents as diagnostic tools. Here, we report a crystallographic and molecular dynamics (MD) analysis of a lectin from Polyporus squamosus (PSL) that is specific for glycans terminating with the sequence Neu5Ac{alpha}2-6Gal{beta}. Because of its importance as a histological reagent, the PSL structure was solved (to 1.7 {angstrom}) in complex with a trisaccharide, whose sequence (Neu5Ac{alpha}2-6Gal{beta}1-4GlcNAc) is exploited by influenza A hemagglutinin for viral adhesion to human tissue. The structural data illuminate the origin of the high specificity of PSL for the Neu5Ac{alpha}2-6Gal sequence. Theoretical binding free energies derived from the MD data confirm the key interactions identified crystallographically and provide additional insight into the relative contributions from each amino acid, as well as estimates of the importance of entropic and enthalpic contributions to binding.

  8. Induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells by surface-capping selenium nanoparticles: an effect enhanced by polysaccharide-protein complexes from Polyporus rhinocerus.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hualian; Zhu, Huili; Li, Xiaoling; Liu, Zumei; Zheng, Wenjie; Chen, Tianfeng; Yu, Bo; Wong, Ka-Hing

    2013-10-16

    Surface-capping agents play key roles in cellular uptake and biological activity of functional nanomaterials. In the present study, functionalized selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) have been successfully synthesized using Polyporus rhinocerus water-soluble polysaccharide-protein complexes (PRW) as the capping agent during the reduction of selenium salts. The acquired monodisperse, spherical PRW-SeNPs presented desirable size distribution and stability in the solution. Moreover, PRW surface decoration significantly enhanced the cellular uptake of SeNPs via endocytosis. Exposure to PRW-SeNPs significantly inhibited the growth of A549 cells through induction of apoptosis and G2/M phase arrest (IC50 = 4.06 ± 0.25 μM) supported by an increase of sub-G1 and G2/M phase cell populations, DNA fragmentation, and chromatin condensation. Caspase-3/8 activation induced by PRW-SeNPs indicated that the activation of death receptors was the main cause of PRW-SeNP-induced apoptosis. Collectively, the results suggest that it is highly efficient to use PRW as a surface decorator of SeNPs to enhance cellular uptake and anticancer efficacy, and the PRW-SeNPs are potential chemopreventive agents for lung cancer therapy. PMID:24053442

  9. Avertoxins A-D, Prenyl Asteltoxin Derivatives from Aspergillus versicolor Y10, an Endophytic Fungus of Huperzia serrata.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingzi; Sun, Mingwei; Hao, Huilin; Lu, Chunhua

    2015-12-24

    Aspergillus versicolor Y10 is an endophytic fungus isolated from Huperzia serrata, which showed inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase. An investigation of the chemical constituents of Y10 led to the isolation of four new prenylated asteltoxin derivatives, named avertoxins A-D (2-5), together with the known mycotoxin asteltoxin (1). In the present study, we report structure elucidation for 2-5 and the revised NMR assignments for asteltoxin and demonstrated that avertoxin B (3) is an active inhibitor against human acetylcholinesterase with the IC50 value of 14.9 μM (huperzine A as the positive control had an IC50 of 0.6 μM). In addition, the cytotoxicity of asteltoxin (1) and avertoxins A-D (2-5) against MDA-MB-231, HCT116, and HeLa cell lines was evaluated. PMID:26618211

  10. Secondary metabolites of a deep sea derived fungus Aspergillus versicolor CXCTD-06-6a and their bioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xianglan; Cai, Shengxin; Zhu, Tianjiao; Gu, Qianqun; Li, Dehai; Luan, Yepeng

    2014-08-01

    In order to obtain novel secondary metabolites, a deep sea inhabiting fungus Aspergillus versicolor CXCTD-06-6a was investigated. One new diketopiperazine brevianamide W ( 1a), as well as five known diketopiperazine alkaloids, diketopiperazine V ( 1b), brevianamide Q ( 2), brevianamide R ( 3), brevianamide K ( 4), and brevianamide E ( 5), were isolated from the EtOAc extract of the fermentation broth. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopy techniques (NMR, MS). The six compounds exhibited moderate radical scavenging activity against DPPH with clearance ratio of 55.0% ( 1a and 1b), 53.7% ( 2), 46.2% ( 3), 61.4% ( 4) and 19.3% ( 5) at a concentration of 13.9 μmol L-1, respectively; while the positive control ascorbic acid showed a ratio of 70.3% at the concentration of 28.4 μmol L-1.

  11. Versixanthones A-F, Cytotoxic Xanthone-Chromanone Dimers from the Marine-Derived Fungus Aspergillus versicolor HDN1009.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guangwei; Yu, Guihong; Kurtán, Tibor; Mándi, Attila; Peng, Jixing; Mo, Xiaomei; Liu, Ming; Li, Hui; Sun, Xinhua; Li, Jing; Zhu, Tianjiao; Gu, Qianqun; Li, Dehai

    2015-11-25

    Six unusual xanthone-chromanone dimers, versixanthones A-F (1-6), featuring different formal linkages of tetrahydroxanthone and 2,2-disubstituted chroman-4-one monomers, were isolated from a culture of the mangrove-derived fungus Aspergillus versicolor HDN1009. The absolute configurations of 1-6, representing the central and axial chirality elements or preferred helicities, were established by a combination of X-ray diffraction analysis, chemical conversions, and TDDFT-ECD calculations. The interconversion of different biaryl linkages between 1 and 4 and between 2 and 3 in DMSO by a retro-oxa-Michael mechanism provided insight into the formation of the xanthone-chromanone dimers and supported the assignments of their absolute configurations. Compounds 1-6 exhibited cytotoxicities against the seven tested cancer cell lines, with the best IC50 value of 0.7 μM. Compound 5 showed further inhibitory activity against topoisomerase I. PMID:26506221

  12. Degradation of UV filters in sewage sludge and 4-MBC in liquid medium by the ligninolytic fungus Trametes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Badia-Fabregat, Marina; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Olivares, Alba; Piña, Benjamí; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Vicent, Teresa; Barceló, Damià; Caminal, Glòria

    2012-08-15

    Ultraviolet (UV) filters are xenobiotic compounds that can enter the environment through the liquid effluent of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and through adsorption in the sludge by-product because of their high hydrophobicity, as the sludge is subsequently applied as a fertiliser. A solid-state treatment of WWTP sludge with the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor is reported in the present work as a feasible method for UV filter degradation, with reductions ranging from 87% in the case of 3-(4'-methylbenzylidene) camphor (4-MBC) to 100% for benzophenone-3 (BP3) and its metabolite 4,4'-dihydroxybenzophenone (4DHB). This study represents a first step in the development of a future fungal treatment for UV filters; thus, it is essential to prove that elimination is due only to the action of the fungus and not that of other microorganisms. To this end, the sludge was sterilised prior to fungal treatment. Biological assays indicate that T. versicolor readily eliminates oestrogenic activity, although it may be inefficient at eliminating other compounds, including some with dioxin-like activity. Degradation studies of 4-MBC in liquid media were also performed, and complete removal was achieved in less than 24 h. The main metabolites were identified, and the first steps of the transformation pathway were elucidated: a mono- or di-hydroxylation by cytochrome P450 and a subsequent conjugation with a pentose. None of 4-MBC transformation products was found to be responsible for increased dioxin-like activity in the sludge. PMID:22487399

  13. Historical Isolation versus Recent Long-Distance Connections between Europe and Africa in Bifid Toadflaxes (Linaria sect. Versicolores)

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Mazuecos, Mario; Vargas, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Background Due to its complex, dynamic and well-known paleogeography, the Mediterranean region provides an ideal framework to study the colonization history of plant lineages. The genus Linaria has its diversity centre in the Mediterranean region, both in Europe and Africa. The last land connection between both continental plates occurred during the Messinian Salinity Crisis, in the late Miocene (5.96 to 5.33 Ma). Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed the colonization history of Linaria sect. Versicolores (bifid toadflaxes), which includes c. 22 species distributed across the Mediterranean, including Europe and Africa. Two cpDNA regions (rpl32-trnLUAG and trnK-matK) were sequenced from 66 samples of Linaria. We conducted phylogenetic, dating, biogeographic and phylogeographic analyses to reconstruct colonization patterns in space and time. Four major clades were found: two of them exclusively contain Iberian samples, while the other two include northern African samples together with some European samples. The bifid toadflaxes have been split in African and European clades since the late Miocene, and most lineage and speciation differentiation occurred during the Pliocene and Quaternary. We have strongly inferred four events of post-Messinian colonization following long-distance dispersal from northern Africa to the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily and Greece. Conclusions/Significance The current distribution of Linaria sect. Versicolores lineages is explained by both ancient isolation between African and European populations and recent events of long-distance dispersal over sea barriers. This result provides new evidence for the biogeographic complexity of the Mediterranean region. PMID:21779399

  14. Trametes versicolor Protein YZP Activates Regulatory B Lymphocytes – Gene Identification through De Novo Assembly and Function Analysis in a Murine Acute Colitis Model

    PubMed Central

    Kuan, Yen-Chou; Wu, Ying-Jou; Hung, Chih-Liang; Sheu, Fuu

    2013-01-01

    Background Trametes versicolor (Yun-Zhi) is a medicinal fungus used as a chemotherapy co-treatment to enhance anti-tumor immunity. Although the efficacies of T. versicolor extracts have been documented, the active ingredients and mechanisms underlying the actions of these extracts remain uncharacterized. Results We purified a new protein, YZP, from the fruiting bodies of T. versicolor and identified the gene encoding YZP using RNA-seq and de novo assembly technologies. YZP is a 12-kDa non-glycosylated protein comprising 139 amino acids, including an 18-amino acids signal peptide. YZP induced a greater than 60-fold increase in IL-10 secretion in mice B lymphocytes; moreover, YZP specifically triggered the differentiation of CD1d+ B cells into IL-10-producing regulatory B cells (Bregs) and enhanced the expression of CD1d. YZP-induced B cells suppressed approximately 40% of the LPS-activated macrophage production of inflammatory cytokines in a mixed leukocyte reaction and significantly alleviated the disease activity and colonic inflammation in a DSS-induced acute colitis murine model. Furthermore, YZP activated Breg function via interaction with TLR2 and TLR4 and up-regulation of the TLR-mediated signaling pathway. Conclusions We purified a novel Breg-stimulating protein, YZP, from T. versicolor and developed an advanced approach combining RNA-seq and de novo assembly technologies.to clone its gene. We demonstrated that YZP activated CD1d+ Breg differentiation through TLR2/4-mediated signaling pathway, and the YZP-stimulated B cells exhibited anti-inflammatory efficacies in vitro and in murine acute colitis models. PMID:24019869

  15. Comparative biosorption of mercuric ions from aquatic systems by immobilized live and heat-inactivated Trametes versicolor and Pleurotus sajur-caju.

    PubMed

    Arica, M Y; Arpa, C; Kaya, B; Bektaş, S; Denizli, A; Genç, O

    2003-09-01

    Trametes versicolor and Pleurotus sajur-caju mycelia immobilized in Ca-alginate beads were used for the removal of mercuric ions from aqueous solutions. The sorption of Hg(II) ions by alginate beads and both immobilized live and heat-killed fungal mycelia of T. versicolor and P. sajur-caju was studied in the concentration range of 0.150-3.00 mmol dm(-3). The biosorption of Hg(II) increased as the initial concentration of Hg(II) ions increased in the medium. Maximum biosorption capacities for plain alginate beads were 0.144+/-0.005 mmol Hg(II)/g; for immobilized live and heat-killed fungal mycelia of T. versicolor were 0.171+/-0.007 mmol Hg(II)/g and 0.383+/-0.012 mmol Hg(II)/g respectively; whereas for live and heat-killed P. sajur-caju, the values were 0.450+/-0.014 mmol Hg(II)/g and 0.660+/-0.019 mmol Hg(II)/g respectively. Biosorption equilibrium was established in about 1 h and the equilibrium adsorption was well described by Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. Between 15 and 45 degrees C the biosorption capacity was not affected and maximum adsorption was observed between pH 4.0 and 6.0. The alginate-fungus beads could be regenerated using 10 mmol dm(-3) HCl solution, with up to 97% recovery. The biosorbents were reused in five biosorption-desorption cycles without a significant loss in biosorption capacity. Heat-killed T. versicolor and P. sajur-caju removed 73% and 81% of the Hg(II) ions, respectively, from synthetic wastewater samples. PMID:12699933

  16. A Novel Contrast Stain for the Rapid Diagnosis of Pityriasis Versicolor: A Comparison of Chicago Sky Blue 6B Stain, Potassium Hydroxide Mount and Culture

    PubMed Central

    Lodha, Nikita; Poojary, Shital Amin

    2015-01-01

    Background: The mycological study of pityriasis versicolor is usually done by potassium hydroxide (KOH) mount and culture. However, KOH mount lacks a color contrast and requires a trained eye to interpret, while culture is difficult to perform, time consuming and has low sensitivity. Chicago Sky Blue 6B (CSB) is a new contrast stain that highlights the fungal hyphae and spores, blue against a purplish background. Aims and Objectives: This study was done to compare the utility of a novel contrast stain (CSB stain) with KOH mount and culture. Materials and Methods: Skin scrapings from the lesions of 100 clinically diagnosed cases of P. versicolor were subjected to (1) KOH mount and CSB stain for direct microscopic examination and (2) culture using Sabouraud's dextrose agar. The statistical analysis of CSB stain and culture was done using KOH mount as the reference method, as it is the most commonly performed and practical diagnostic test available for P. versicolor. An interrater reliability analysis using the Cohen's Kappa statistic was performed to determine consistency (agreement) among the different modalities. Observations and Results: Direct microscopy with CSB stain, KOH mount and mycological culture showed positive results in 98 (98%), 92 (92%) and 56 (56%) patients, respectively. Using KOH mount as the reference method, CSB stain had a sensitivity of 100% which was significantly higher than culture (60.9%). Statistically significant fair agreement was found between CSB stain and KOH mount (94% with κ=0.38, P < 0.001). Negligible agreement was found between CSB stain and culture (66%, κ=0.199, P = 0.001) as well as between KOH mount and culture (64%, κ=0.051, P = 0.107). Conclusion: CSB staining of skin scrapings is the most sensitive method for the diagnosis of pityriasis versicolor. Due to the distinct contrast provided by CSB, it is easy to perform, rapid and qualitatively superior to KOH mount. PMID:26288400

  17. Bioconversion of D-glucose into D-glucosone by glucose 2-oxidase from Coriolus versicolor at moderate pressures.

    PubMed

    Karmali, Amin; Coelho, José

    2011-04-01

    Glucose 2-oxidase (pyranose oxidase, pyranose:oxygen-2-oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.3.10) from Coriolus versicolor catalyses the oxidation of D-glucose at carbon 2 in the presence of molecular O₂ producing D-glucosone (2-keto-glucose and D-arabino-2-hexosulose) and H₂O₂. It was used to convert D-glucose into D-glucosone at moderate pressures (i.e. up to 150 bar) with compressed air in a modified commercial batch reactor. Several parameters affecting biocatalysis at moderate pressures were investigated as follows: pressure, [enzyme], [glucose], pH, temperature, nature of fluid and the presence of catalase. Glucose 2-oxidase was purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography on epoxy-activated Sepharose 6B-IDA-Cu(II) column at pH 6.0. The rate of bioconversion of D-glucose increased with the pressure since an increase in the pressure with compressed air resulted in higher rates of conversion. On the other hand, the presence of catalase increased the rate of reaction which strongly suggests that H₂O₂ acted as inhibitor for this reaction. The rate of bioconversion of D-glucose by glucose 2-oxidase in the presence of either nitrogen or supercritical CO₂ at 110 bar was very low compared with the use of compressed air at the same pressure. The optimum temperature (55 °C) and pH (5.0) of D-glucose bioconversion as well as kinetic parameters for this enzyme were determined under moderate pressure. The activation energy (E (a)) was 32.08 kJ mol⁻¹ and kinetic parameters (V(max), K(m), K(cat) and K(cat)/K(m)) for this bioconversion were 8.8 U mg⁻¹ protein, 2.95 mM, 30.81 s⁻¹ and 10,444.06 s⁻¹ M⁻¹, respectively. The biomass of C. versicolor as well as the cell-free extract containing glucose 2-oxidase activity were also useful for bioconversion of D-glucose at moderate pressures. The enzyme was apparently stable at moderate pressures since such pressures did not affect significantly the enzyme activity. PMID:20872184

  18. Activation of Dormant Secondary Metabolite Production by Introducing Neomycin Resistance into the Deep-Sea Fungus, Aspergillus versicolor ZBY-3

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yuan; Cui, Cheng-Bin; Li, Chang-Wei; Hua, Wei; Wu, Chang-Jing; Zhu, Tian-Jiao; Gu, Qian-Qun

    2014-01-01

    A new ultrasound-mediated approach has been developed to introduce neomycin-resistance to activate silent pathways for secondary metabolite production in a bio-inactive, deep-sea fungus, Aspergillus versicolor ZBY-3. Upon treatment of the ZBY-3 spores with a high concentration of neomycin by proper ultrasound irradiation, a total of 30 mutants were obtained by single colony isolation. The acquired resistance of the mutants to neomycin was confirmed by a resistance test. In contrast to the ZBY-3 strain, the EtOAc extracts of 22 of the 30 mutants inhibited the human cancer K562 cells, indicating that these mutants acquired a capability to produce antitumor metabolites. HPLC-photodiode array detector (PDAD)-UV and HPLC-electron spray ionization (ESI)-MS analyses of the EtOAc extracts of seven bioactive mutants and the ZBY-3 strain indicated that diverse secondary metabolites have been newly produced in the mutant extracts in contrast to the ZBY-3 extract. The followed isolation and characterization demonstrated that six metabolites, cyclo(d-Pro-d-Phe) (1), cyclo(d-Tyr-d-Pro) (2), phenethyl 5-oxo-l-prolinate (3), cyclo(l-Ile-l-Pro) (4), cyclo(l-Leu-l-Pro) (5) and 3β,5α,9α-trihydroxy-(22E,24R)-ergosta-7,22-dien-6-one (6), were newly produced by the mutant u2n2h3-3 compared to the parent ZBY-3 strain. Compound 3 was a new compound; 2 was isolated from a natural source for the first time, and all of these compounds were also not yet found in the metabolites of other A. versicolor strains. Compounds 1–6 inhibited the K562 cells, with inhibition rates of 54.6% (1), 72.9% (2), 23.5% (3), 29.6% (4), 30.9% (5) and 51.1% (6) at 100 μg/mL, and inhibited also other human cancer HL-60, BGC-823 and HeLa cells, to some extent. The present study demonstrated the effectiveness of the ultrasound-mediated approach to activate silent metabolite production in fungi by introducing acquired resistance to aminoglycosides and its potential for discovering new compounds from silent

  19. Optimization of cultivation and nutrition conditions and substrate pretreatment for solid-substrate fermentation of wheat straw by Coriolus versicolor.

    PubMed

    Yadav, J S; Tripathi, J P

    1991-01-01

    Bioconversion of wheat straw by solid-substrate fermentation (SSF) with Coriolus versicolor was optimized by varying its physiological parameters. Selective delignification (more lignin than holocellulose degradation) and increases in crude protein (CP) content and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) were taken as the criteria to select optimum levels of these parameters. The fungus behaved optimally under the following set of cultural and nutritional conditions: pH 5.5, moisture level 55%, temperature 30 degrees C, duration of fermentation 21 d, form of inoculum--grain culture, turning frequency--once at mid-incubation, urea (nitrogen source) 1.5% (sterile) or 3.0% (nonsterile), single superphosphate (phosphorus + sulfur source) 1.0%, no addition of free polysaccharides (as whey or molasses). A maximum of 17.5% increase in IVDMD involving 4.3% degradation of lignin, was attained in the optimized SSF under laboratory conditions. The digestibility improvement could be further increased by using a substrate pretreatment (physical/chemical/biological) in the following order of preference: NaOH treatment, urea or urine treatment, ensiling, steaming, grinding. For practical farm applications, urea treatment and ensiling appeared most feasible. The laboratory optimized process was also scaled up to 4 kg (sterile and unsterile) and 50 kg (unsterile) fermentations. PMID:1841863

  20. Polyamide 6/chitosan nanofibers as support for the immobilization of Trametes versicolor laccase for the elimination of endocrine disrupting chemicals.

    PubMed

    Maryšková, Milena; Ardao, Inés; García-González, Carlos A; Martinová, Lenka; Rotková, Jana; Ševců, Alena

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in efforts to improve wastewater treatment as the concentration of dangerous pollutants, such as endocrine disrupting chemicals, in wastewater increases. These compounds, which mimic the effect of hormones, have a negative impact on human health and are not easily removed from water. One way to effectively eliminate these pollutants is to use enzymatically activated materials. In this study, we report on the use of laccase from the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor immobilized onto polyamide 6/chitosan (PA6/CHIT) nanofibers modified using two different spacers (bovine serum albumin and hexamethylenediamine). We then tested the ability of the PA6/CHIT-laccase biocatalysts to eliminate a mixture containing 50μM of two endocrine disrupting chemicals: bisphenol A and 17α-ethinylestradiol. The PA6/CHIT nanofiber matrix used in this study not only proved to be a suitable carrier for immobilized and modified laccase but was also efficient in the removal of a mixture of endocrine disrupting chemicals in three treatment cycles. PMID:27233125

  1. Defining core habitat of local populations of the gray treefrog (Hyla versicolor) based on choice of oviposition site.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jarrett R; Semlitsch, Raymond D

    2003-10-01

    Concern over amphibian population declines and loss of terrestrial and aquatic habitat have emphasized the need to define habitat requirements for each stage in a species' life history. The realization that pond-breeding amphibians spend most of their lives in the terrestrial environment suggests the need to protect terrestrial as well as aquatic habitat. Many studies on amphibian populations have focused on emigration from breeding sites to define habitat use; however these studies do not typically elucidate terrestrial activities of adults within the breeding season. We measured colonization rates of artificial pools by gray treefrogs (Hyla versicolor) at multiple distances from natural breeding ponds. We found a non-random distribution of egg deposition among distances, with 95% of eggs deposited within 15 m of the breeding pond. Additionally, we found that the time to first colonization of artificial pools increased with respect to distance. Our results indicate that adult gray treefrogs may travel up to 200 m within a breeding season, and that multiple breeding ponds may be considered part of a single population. We suggest that a minimum core terrestrial habitat of 60 m surrounding breeding sites is appropriate for protection of local populations of gray treefrogs. PMID:12883991

  2. Antifungal New Oxepine-Containing Alkaloids and Xanthones from the Deep-Sea-Derived Fungus Aspergillus versicolor SCSIO 05879.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junfeng; He, Weijun; Huang, Xiaolong; Tian, Xinpeng; Liao, Shengrong; Yang, Bin; Wang, Fazuo; Zhou, Xiaojiang; Liu, Yonghong

    2016-04-13

    Phytopathogenic fungi remain a continuous and huge threat in the agricultural fields. The agrochemical industry has made great development of the use of microbial natural products, which has been regarded as an effective strategy against phytopathogenic fungi. Antifungal bioassay-directed fractionation was used to isolate two new oxepine-containing alkaloids (1 and 2), two new 4-aryl-quinolin-2-one alkaloids (3 and 4), and four new prenylated xanthones (5-8) from the deep-sea-derived fungus Aspergillus versicolor SCSIO 05879. Extensive NMR spectroscopic analysis, quantum mechanical calculations, and X-ray single-crystal diffraction were used to elucidate their structures, including their absolute configurations. Versicoloids A and B, versicone A, and cottoquinazoline A showed antifungal activities against three phytopathogenic fungi. The antifungal activities of these bioactive compounds strongly depend on the fungal species. Especially versicoloids A and B showed strong fungicidal effect (MIC of 1.6 μg/mL) against Colletotrichum acutatum, compared with that of the positive control cycloheximide (MIC of 6.4 μg/mL). The results of antifungal experiments indicated that versicoloids A and B may be regarded as candidate agents of antifungal agrochemicals. PMID:26998701

  3. Short- and long-term movements of painted lobster ( Panulirus versicolor) on a coral reef at Northwest Island, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisch, A. J.

    2007-06-01

    Understanding movements of palinurid (spiny) lobsters is important to fisheries management. However, movement data obtained with mark-capture techniques are often influenced by artefacts (e.g., displacement, tag-loss, tag-induced injury). To avoid these problems, a novel approach was employed to investigate the movements of an important coral reef palinurid, the painted lobster ( Panulirus versicolor). Eighty adult individuals were captured by hand near Northwest Island, Australia. Each lobster was tagged internally (with elastomer) and externally (with plastic zip-ties) to enable both short- (1-10 days) and long-term (6-24 months) observations. Shortly thereafter, all lobsters were manually returned to their shelters (dens). After 6-24 months, 44 lobsters were recaptured, giving an overall recapture rate of 55%. All of these individuals were recaptured within 500 m of their original den, thus indicating a high level of site-fidelity for this species. Short-term observations revealed that individuals moved frequently to and from nearby dens, and that male lobsters typically moved further than female lobsters. It is hypothesized that male lobsters move about their home range more actively, perhaps to seek mating opportunities or to defend resources. The significance of these observations is discussed with respect to the management of this important fishery resource.

  4. Crystal Structure of Novel Metallocarboxypeptidase Inhibitor from Marine Mollusk Nerita versicolor in Complex with Human Carboxypeptidase A4*

    PubMed Central

    Covaleda, Giovanni; Alonso del Rivero, Maday; Chávez, María A.; Avilés, Francesc X.; Reverter, David

    2012-01-01

    NvCI is a novel exogenous proteinaceous inhibitor of metallocarboxypeptidases from the marine snail Nerita versicolor. The complex between human carboxypeptidase A4 and NvCI has been crystallized and determined at 1.7 Å resolution. The NvCI structure defines a distinctive protein fold basically composed of a two-stranded antiparallel β-sheet connected by three loops and the inhibitory C-terminal tail and stabilized by three disulfide bridges. NvCI is a tight-binding inhibitor that interacts with the active site of the enzyme in a substrate-like manner. NvCI displays an extended and novel interface with human carboxypeptidase A4, responsible for inhibitory constants in the picomolar range for some members of the M14A subfamily of carboxypeptidases. This makes NvCI the strongest inhibitor reported so far for this family. The structural homology displayed by the C-terminal tails of different carboxypeptidase inhibitors represents a relevant example of convergent evolution. PMID:22294694

  5. Extracellular polysaccharide with novel structure and antioxidant property produced by the deep-sea fungus Aspergillus versicolor N2bc.

    PubMed

    Yan, Meng-Xia; Mao, Wen-Jun; Liu, Xue; Wang, Shu-Yao; Xia, Zheng; Cao, Su-Jian; Li, Jing; Qin, Ling; Xian, Hua-Li

    2016-08-20

    An extracellular polysaccharide, N1, was obtained from the culture medium of the deep-sea fungus Aspergillus versicolor N2bc by a combination of ethanol precipitation, ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. N1 was a mannoglucogalactan with molecular weight of about 20.5kDa. Results of chemical and spectroscopic analyses, including Fourier-transform infrared, one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that the main chain of N1 consisted of →2)-α-d-Glcp-(1→, →2)-β-d-Glcp-(1→ and →6)-β-d-Manp-(1→ units, substituted at C-6 position of →2)-α-d-Glcp-(1→ units. The branches were composed of galactofuranose-oligosaccharides built up of →5)-β-d-Galf-(1→, →6)-β-d-Galf-(1→ and terminal β-d-Galf units. At an average, there were two branching points for every five sugar residues in the backbone. N1 possessed a high in vitro antioxidant activity as evaluated by scavenging assays involving superoxide, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl radicals and reducing power. The investigation revealed that N1 was a novel antioxidant polysaccharide differing from previously described extracellular polysaccharides and could be a potential antioxidant. PMID:27178933

  6. An Analysis of the Malassezia Species Distribution in the Skin of Patients with Pityriasis Versicolor in Chengdu, China

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zhen; Ran, Yuping; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Min; Wan, Huiying; Li, Conghui

    2014-01-01

    Pityriasis versicolor (PV) is a common clinical problem associated with Malassezia species (Malassezia spp.). Controversies remain regarding the specific species involved in the development of PV. This study analyzed the difference in Malassezia spp. distribution in lesional and nonlesional skin in Chinese PV patients. A paired design was applied. Lesional and nonlesional scales from 24 cases were collected; real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR was used to detect 10 different Malassezia spp. In lesional skin, the highest detection rates were for M. globosa (95.8%), M. restricta (91.7%), and M. sympodialis (50.0%). In nonlesional skin, the highest detection rates were for M. globosa (87.5%), M. restricta (79.2%), and M. dermatis (33.3%). A significant difference in the detection rate was only found for M. sympodialis (50.8% versus 20.8%, P = 0.04). Compared with nonlesional skin, the amount of M. globosa, M. restricta, and M. sympodialis in lesional skin was significantly higher (3.8 ± 1.3,  2.5 ± 1.1, and 3.2 ± 1.6 times higher, resp.). The results of this study do not indicate that M. globosa and M. restricta are directly correlated with PV development; however, M. sympodialis is more likely related to PV development in Chinese individuals. PMID:25177714

  7. Development and performance assessment of a qualitative SYBR® green real-time PCR assay for the detection of Aspergillus versicolor in indoor air.

    PubMed

    Libert, X; Chasseur, C; Bladt, S; Packeu, A; Bureau, F; Roosens, N H; De Keersmaecker, S C J

    2015-09-01

    Currently, contamination of indoor environment by fungi and molds is considered as a public health problem. The monitoring of indoor airborne fungal contamination is a common tool to help understanding the link between fungi in houses and respiratory problems. Classical analytical monitoring methods, based on cultivation and microscopic identification, depend on the growth of the fungi. Consequently, they are biased by difficulties to grow some species on certain culture media and under certain conditions or by noncultivable or dead fungi that can consequently not be identified. However, they could have an impact on human health as they might be allergenic. Since molecular methods do not require a culture step, they seem an excellent alternative for the monitoring of indoor fungal contaminations. As a case study, we developed a SYBR® green real-time PCR-based assay for the specific detection and identification of Aspergillus versicolor, which is frequently observed in indoor environment and known to be allergenic. The developed primers amplify a short region of the internal transcribed spacer 1 from the 18S ribosomal DNA complex. Subsequently, the performance of this quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method was assessed using specific criteria, including an evaluation of the selectivity, PCR efficiency, dynamic range, and repeatability. The limit of detection was determined to be 1 or 2 copies of genomic DNA of A. versicolor. In order to demonstrate that this SYBR® green qPCR assay is a valuable alternative for monitoring indoor fungal contamination with A. versicolor, environmental samples collected in contaminated houses were analyzed and the results were compared to the ones obtained with the traditional methods. PMID:26184975

  8. Co-composting of spent coffee ground with olive mill wastewater sludge and poultry manure and effect of Trametes versicolor inoculation on the compost maturity.

    PubMed

    Hachicha, Ridha; Rekik, Olfa; Hachicha, Salma; Ferchichi, Mounir; Woodward, Steve; Moncef, Nasri; Cegarra, Juan; Mechichi, Tahar

    2012-07-01

    The co-composting of spent coffee grounds, olive mill wastewater sludge and poultry manure was investigated on a semi-industrial scale. In order to reduce the toxicity of the phenolic fraction and to improve the degree of composting humification, composts were inoculated with the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor in the early stages of the maturation phase. During composting, a range of physico-chemical parameters (temperature and both organic matter and C/N reduction), total organic carbon, total nitrogen, elemental composition, lignin degradation and spectroscopic characteristics of the humic acids (HAs) were determined; impacts of the composting process on germination index of Hordeum vulgare and Lactuca sativa were assessed. The coffee waste proved to be a highly compostable feedstock, resulting in mature final compost with a germination index of 120% in less than 5 months composting. In addition, inoculation with T. versicolor led to a greater degree of aromatization of HA than in the control pile. Moreover, in the inoculated mixture, lignin degradation was three times greater and HA increased by 30% (P<0.05), compared to the control pile. In the T. versicolor inoculated mixture, the averages of C and N were significantly enhanced in the HA molecules (P<0.05), by 26% and 22%, respectively. This improvement in the degree of humification was confirmed by the ratio of optical densities of HA solutions at 465 and 665 nm which was lower for HA from the treated mixture (4.5) than that from the control pile (5.4). PMID:22537889

  9. Kinetic evidence for the interactive inhibition of laccase from Trametes versicolor by pH and chloride.

    PubMed

    Raseda, Nasrin; Hong, Soonho; Kwon, O Yul; Ryu, Keungarp

    2014-12-28

    The interactive inhibitory effects of pH and chloride on the catalysis of laccase from Trametes versicolor were investigated by studying the alteration of inhibition characteristics of sodium chloride at different pHs for the oxidation of 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid). At pH 3.0, the addition of sodium chloride (50 mM) brought about a 40-fold increase in Km(app) and a 4-fold decrease in Vmax(app). As the pH increased to 7.0, the inhibitory effects of sodium chloride became significantly weakened. The mixed-inhibition mechanism was successfully used to quantitatively estimate the competitive and uncompetitive inhibition strengths by chloride at two different pHs (pH 3.0 and 6.0). At pH 3.0, the competitive inhibition constant, Ki, was 0.35 mM, whereas the uncompetitive inhibition constant, Ki', was 18.1 mM, indicating that the major cause of the laccase inhibition by chloride is due to the competitive inhibition step. At a higher pH of 6.0, where the inhibition of the laccase by hydroxide ions takes effect, the inhibition of the laccase by chloride diminished to a great extent, showing increased values of both the competitive inhibition constant (Ki= 23.7 mM) and uncompetitive inhibition constant (Ki' = 324 mM). These kinetic results evidenced that the hydroxide anion and chloride share a common mechanism to inhibit the laccase activity. PMID:25152059

  10. Differential patterns of accumulation and depuration of dietary selenium and vanadium during metamorphosis in the Gray Treefrog (Hyla versicolor).

    PubMed

    Rowe, Christopher L; Heyes, Andrew; Hilton, Jessica

    2011-02-01

    Selenium (Se) and vanadium (V) are contaminants commonly found in aquatic systems affected by wastes derived from fossil fuels. To examine their effects on a widely distributed species of amphibian, we exposed gray tree frogs (Hyla versicolor) to Se (as SeO₂) or V (as NaVO₃) in their diet from the early larval period to metamorphosis. Concentrations of Se in Se-enriched food were 1.0 (Se control), 7.5 (Se low), and 32.7 (Se high) μg/g dw. Concentrations of V in V-enriched food were 3.0 (V control), 132.1 (V low), and 485.7 (V high) μg/g dw. Although we observed bioaccumulation of both metals throughout the larval period, no effects on growth, survival, metabolic rate, or lipid content were observed. Se concentrations in tissues did not vary among life stages, neither in Se low nor Se high treatments, such that maximum accumulation had occurred by the mid-larval period. In addition, there was no evidence of depuration of Se in either the Se low or the Se high treatments during metamorphosis. A strikingly different pattern of accumulation and depuration occurred in V-exposed individuals. In treatments V low and V high, maximum body burdens occurred in "premetamorphs" (i.e., animals with developed forelimbs but in which tail resorption had not begun), whereas body burdens in animals having completed metamorphosis were much lower and similar to those in larvae. These results suggest that compared with Se-exposed animals, V-exposed animals were able to depurate a substantial amount of accumulated V during the metamorphic period. In an ecologic context, it appears that amphibians exposed to Se during the larval period may serve as a vector of the metal to terrestrial predators, yet potential transfer of accumulated V to predators would largely be restricted to the aquatic habitat. PMID:20878520

  11. Polysaccharide peptides from Coriolus versicolor exert differential immunomodulatory effects on blood lymphocytes and breast cancer cell line MCF-7 in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kowalczewska, Małgorzata; Piotrowski, Jakub; Jędrzejewski, Tomasz; Kozak, Wiesław

    2016-06-01

    The protein-bound polysaccharides (PBP), isolated from Coriolus versicolor (CV) fungus, are considered as natural compounds with potential therapeutic applications. The immunopotentiating and antitumor activity of polysaccharopeptides has been previously examined, however similar findings could not be achieved. The source of PBP, variations in extraction process as well as environmental factors seems to affect the biological properties of these active CV components. Since further analysis are needed to draw more definite conclusion, the present study aimed to investigate the immunomodulatory properties of the PBP extract, isolated from commercially available capsules of C. versicolor. Our results revealed that the effect mediated by PBP extract depends on the target cells. We reported that the polysaccharopeptides induced a significant decrease in breast cancer MCF-7 cells growth, which was TNF-α-dependent phenomenon. Interestingly, the level of two others cytokines, IL-1β and IL-6 was not affected. On the other hand, in this study we noticed that protein-bound polysaccharides extracted from CV significantly augmented the proliferative response of blood lymphocytes in a time-dependent manner, which was associated with IL-6 and IL-1β mRNA upregulation. Moreover we found that the cells response to PBP stimuli might be inversely related to its concentration. PMID:27091479

  12. Batch production of Pyranose 2-oxidase from Trametes versicolor (ATCC 11235) in medium with a lignocellulosic substrate and enzymatic bleaching of cotton fabrics.

    PubMed

    Pazarlioglu, Nurdan Kasikara; Erden, Emre; Ucar, M Cigdem; Akkaya, Alper; Sariisik, A Merih

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this work was to determine new, different and low-cost substrates that can be used for enzyme production from the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor (ATCC 11235) by taking advantage of the broad substrate specificity of pyranose 2-oxidase. In this report, we investigated the production of pyranose 2-oxidase from T. versicolor (ATCC 11235) using ten different agricultural residues such as clover straw, almond shells, hazelnut cobs, grass and others. Pyranose 2-oxidase activity was determined as 2.332 U/g at the 9th day in a submerged culture containing clover straw and tap water shaken at 150 rpm and 26°C, and the optimum clover straw concentration was determined to be 12 g/l. The effects of different glucose, nitrogen and phosphate sources on the production of pyranose 2-oxidase were studied in the clover straw medium. Analyses of biomass, protein, reduced sugar and nitrogen concentrations were also monitored in a clover straw medium that did not contain carbon or nitrogen and phosphate sources under the parameters determined. The produced pyranose 2-oxidase was used for improving the properties of cotton fabrics. PMID:22805934

  13. A comparative study on decolorization of reactive azo and indigoid dyes by free/immobilized pellets of Trametes versicolor and Funalia trogii.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Seval Cing; Yesilada, Ozfer

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate decolorization of Acid Blue 74 and Reactive Blue 198 dyes by free and immobilized white rot fungal pellets in order to confirm the possibility of practical application via repeated-batch cultivation. Decolorization studies were conducted using free pellets (FP), fungal cells immobilized on activated carbon (IFCAC) and pinewood (IFCP), and also fungal cells entrapped in alginate beads (FCEAB). No additional nitrogen and carbon source was used and high decolorization rates were achieved in only dye-contained media without pH adjustment. Acid Blue 74 was decolorized 96 and 94% within 2 hr by Trametes versicolor and Funalia trogii free pellets, respectively. These values were 87 and 84% for Reactive Blue 198, in this respect. Immobilization of fungal cells on pinewood increased the usability of pellets and the average decolorization efficiency of both dyes. The micro environment changed in the presence of pinewood and increased the stability of immobilized pellets. Decolorization was performed rapidly and efficiently. Laccase activity enhanced with availability of pinewood, and high laccase production with F. trogii was obtained. After separation by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), the molecular weight of T versicolor and F. trogii laccase bands was determined 64 and 61 kDa approximately. Green bands were obtained by the activity staining process with laccase substrate (ABTS) after gel renaturation step. PMID:26688979

  14. The use of Trametes versicolor laccase for the polymerization of aniline in the presence of vesicles as templates.

    PubMed

    Junker, Katja; Kissner, Reinhard; Rakvin, Boris; Guo, Zengwei; Willeke, Martin; Busato, Stephan; Weber, Thomas; Walde, Peter

    2014-02-01

    The enzymatic polymerization of aniline to polyaniline (PANI) with Trametes versicolor laccase (TvL) as catalyst and dioxygen (O₂) as oxidant was investigated in an aqueous medium containing unilamellar vesicles with an average diameter of about 80 nm formed from AOT (=sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate). Compared to the same reaction carried out with horseradish peroxidase isoenzyme C (HRPC) as catalyst and hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) as oxidant, notable differences were found in the kinetics of the reaction, as well as in the characteristics of the PANI obtained. Under comparable optimal conditions, which are pH 3.5 for TvL/O₂ and pH 4.3 for HRPC/H₂O₂, the reaction with TvL/O₂ was much slower than with HRPC/H₂O₂, i.e. ≈27 days vs. 1 day reaction time to reach equilibrium with >90% yield at 25 °C. Although in both cases, aniline monomer coupling occurred mainly via the carbon atom in para position of aniline, UV-vis-NIR absorption and EPR measurements indicate that the reaction with TvL/O₂ yielded mainly overoxidized products (with λ(max)=730 nm). These products had a lower amount of unpaired electrons if compared with the products obtained with HRPC/H₂O₂ (with λ(max)≈1000 nm, which is characteristic for the polaron state of PANI-ES, the emeraldine salt form of PANI). Similarly to previous findings with HRPC/H₂O₂, enzyme inactivation occurred during the polymerization also in the case of TvL/O₂. Since the aqueous PANI-vesicle suspensions obtained are of high colloidal stability, they can be used directly as ink in a conventional thermal inkjet printer for printing on paper or on surface treated polyimide films. Printed PANI-ES patterns on paper changed colour from green (emeraldine salt) to blue (emeraldine base) upon exposure to ammonia gas, demonstrating the expected ammonia sensing properties. PMID:24411448

  15. High-quality permanent draft genome sequence of Bradyrhizobium sp. Tv2a.2, a microsymbiont of Tachigali versicolor discovered in Barro Colorado Island of Panama

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tian, Rui; Parker, Matthew; Seshadri, Rekha; Reddy, TBK; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Baeshen, Mohammed N.; Baeshen, Nabih A.; et al

    2015-05-17

    Bradyrhizobiumsp. Tv2a.2 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that was isolated from an effective nitrogen-fixing root nodule of Tachigali versicolor collected in Barro Colorado Island of Panama. Here we describe the features of Bradyrhizobiumsp. Tv2a.2, together with high-quality permanent draft genome sequence information and annotation. The 8,496,279 bp high-quality draft genome is arranged in 87 scaffolds of 87 contigs, contains 8,109 protein-coding genes and 72 RNA-only encoding genes. In conclusion, this rhizobial genome was sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project.

  16. Correlation between mesopore volume of carbon supports and the immobilization of laccase from Trametes versicolor for the decolorization of Acid Orange 7.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Montoya, Luis A; Hernández-Montoya, Virginia; Montes-Morán, Miguel A; Cervantes, Francisco J

    2015-10-01

    Immobilization of laccase from Trametes versicolor was carried out using carbon supports prepared from different lignocellulosic wastes. Enzymes were immobilized by physical adsorption. Taguchi methodology was selected for the design of experiments regarding the preparation of the carbon materials, which included the use of activating agents for the promotion of mesoporosity. A good correlation between the mesopore volumes of the carbon supports and the corresponding laccase loadings attained was observed. Specifically, the chemical activation of pecan nut shell with FeCl3 led to a highly mesoporous material that also behaved as the most efficient support for the immobilization of laccase. This particular laccase/carbon support system was used as biocatalyst for the decolorization of aqueous solutions containing Acid Orange 7. Mass spectrometry coupled to a liquid chromatograph allowed us to identify the products of the dye degradation. PMID:26241936

  17. Differential expression of estrogen receptor alpha in the embryonic adrenal-kidney-gonadal complex of the oviparous lizard, Calotes versicolor (Daud.).

    PubMed

    Inamdar, L S; Khodnapur, B S; Nindi, R S; Dasari, S; Seshagiri, P B

    2015-09-01

    Estrogen signalling is critical for ovarian differentiation in reptiles with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). To elucidate the involvement of estrogen in this process, adrenal-kidney-gonadal (AKG) expression of estrogen receptor (ERα) was studied at female-producing temperature (FPT) in the developing embryos of the lizard, Calotes versicolor which exhibits a distinct pattern of TSD. The eggs of this lizard were incubated at 31.5±0.5°C (100% FPT). The torso of embryos containing adrenal-kidney-gonadal complex (AKG) was collected during different stages of development and subjected to Western blotting and immunohistochemistry analysis. The ERα antibody recognized two protein bands with apparent molecular weight ∼55 and ∼45kDa in the total protein extracts of embryonic AKG complex of C. versicolor. The observed results suggest the occurrence of isoforms of ERα. The differential expression of two different protein isoforms may reveal their distinct role in cell proliferation during gonadal differentiation. This is the first report to reveal two isoforms of the ERα in a reptile during development. Immunohistochemical studies reveal a weak, but specific, cytoplasmic ERα immunostaining exclusively in the AKG during late thermo-sensitive period suggesting the responsiveness of AKG to estrogens before gonadal differentiation at FPT. Further, cytoplasmic as well as nuclear expression of ERα in the medulla and in oogonia of the cortex (faint activity) at gonadal differentiation stage suggests that the onset of gonadal estrogen activity coincides with sexual differentiation of gonad. Intensity and pattern of the immunoreactions of ERα in the medullary region at FPT suggest endogenous production of estrogen which may act in a paracrine fashion to induce neighboring cells into ovarian differentiation pathway. PMID:25127850

  18. Enhanced biodegradation of antibiotic combinations via the sequential treatment of the sludge resulting from pharmaceutical wastewater treatment using white-rot fungi Trametes versicolor and Bjerkandera adusta.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Sevcan

    2016-07-01

    While anaerobic treatment is capable of treating pharmaceutical wastewater and removing antibiotics in liquid phases, solid phases may still contain significant amounts of antibiotics following this treatment. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the use of white-rot fungi to remove erythromycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline combinations from biosolids. The degradation potential of Trametes versicolor and Bjerkandera adusta was evaluated via the sequential treatment of anaerobic sludge. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analyses were used to identify competition between the autochthonous microbial communities and white-rot fungi. Solid-phase treatment using white-rot fungi substantially reduced antibiotic concentrations and toxicity in sludge. According to PCR-DGGE results, there is an association between species of fungus and antibiotic type as a result of the different transformation pathways of fungal strains. Fungal post-treatment of sludge represents a promising method of removing antibiotic combinations, therefore holding a significant promise as an environmentally friendly means of degrading the antibiotics present in sludge. PMID:27033714

  19. A Ca-alginate particle co-immobilized with Phanerochaete chrysosporium cells and the combined cross-linked enzyme aggregates from Trametes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanchun; Wang, Zhi; Xu, Xudong; Jin, Liqiang

    2015-12-01

    For improving stability of immobilized white-rot fungus to treat various effluents, Phanerochaete chrysosporium cells and the combined cross-link enzyme aggregates (combi-CLEAs) prepared from Trametes versicolor were co-immobilized into the Ca-alginate gel particles in this paper. The activity yields of obtained combi-CLEAs were 42.7% for lignin peroxidases (LiPs), 31.4% for manganese peroxidases (MnPs) and 40.4% for laccase (Lac), respectively. And their specific activities were 30.2U/g as combi-CLEAs-LiPs, 9.5 U/g as combi-CLEAs-MnPs and 28.4 U/g as combi-CLEAs-Lac. Further, the present of the combi-CLEAs in the particles extremely improved their ability to degrade the dyes. Compared to the immobilized Ph. chrysosporium without the combi-CLEAs, the co-immobilized particles enhanced the decolorized rate of Acid Violet 7 (from 45.2% to 93.4%) and Basic Fuchsin (from 12.1% to 67.9%). In addition, the addition of the combi-CLEAs improved the adaptability of the white-rot fungal particles to adverse environmental conditions. PMID:26413897

  20. Lignin oxidation by laccase isozymes from Trametes versicolor and role of the mediator 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate) in kraft lignin depolymerization.

    PubMed Central

    Bourbonnais, R; Paice, M G; Reid, I D; Lanthier, P; Yaguchi, M

    1995-01-01

    Two laccase isozymes (I and II) produced by the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor were purified, and their reactivities towards various substrates and lignins were studied. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of these enzymes were determined and compared to other known laccase sequences. Laccase II showed a very high sequence similarity to a laccase which was previously reported to depolymerize lignin. The reactivities of the two isozymes on most of the substrates tested were similar, but there were some differences in the oxidation rate of polymeric substrates. We found that the two laccases produced similar qualitative effects on kraft lignin and residual lignin in kraft pulp, with no evidence of a marked preference for depolymerization by either enzyme. However, the presence of the mediator 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate) prevented and reversed the polymerization of kraft lignin by either laccase. The delignification of hardwood and softwood kraft pulps with the two isozymes and the mediator was compared; either laccase was able to reduce the kappa number of pulp, but only in the presence of 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate). PMID:7646025

  1. Solid-state fermentation of Jatropha seed cake for optimization of lipase, protease and detoxification of anti-nutrients in Jatropha seed cake using Aspergillus versicolor CJS-98.

    PubMed

    Veerabhadrappa, Mohankumar Bavimane; Shivakumar, Sharath Belame; Devappa, Somashekar

    2014-02-01

    This study focused on the solid-state fermentation of Jatropha seed cake (JSC), a byproduct generated after biodiesel production. Presence of anti-nutritional compounds and toxins restricts its application in livestock feed. The disposal of the JSC is a major environmental problem in the future, due to the generation of huge quantity of JSC after biodiesel extraction. Hence the JSC was assessed for its suitability as substrate for production and optimization of lipase and protease from Aspergillus versicolor CJS-98 by solid-state fermentation (SSF). The present study was also focused on the biodetoxification of anti-nutrients and toxins in JSC. The SSF parameters were optimized for maximum production of lipase and protease. Under the optimized conditions, the JSC supplemented with maltose and peptone (2%), adjusted to pH 7.0, moisture content 40%, inoculated with 1 × 10(7) spores per 5 g cake and incubated at 25°C, produced maximum lipase, 1288 U/g and protease, 3366 U/g at 96 h. The anti-nutrients like phytic acid (6.08%), tannins (0.37%), trypsin inhibitors (697.5 TIU/g), cyanogenic glucosides (692.5 μg/100 g), and lectins (0.309 mg/ml), were reduced to 1.70%, 0.23%, 12.5 TIU/g, 560.6 μg/100 g and 0.034 mg/ml respectively. The main toxic compound phorbol esters content in the JSC was reduced from 0.083% to 0.015% after SSF. Our results indicate that viability of SSF to utilize the huge amount of seed cake generated after extraction of biodiesel, for production of industrial enzymes and biodetoxification of anti-nutrients, toxins. PMID:23958640

  2. Khz-cp (crude polysaccharide extract obtained from the fusion of Ganoderma lucidum and Polyporus umbellatus mycelia) induces apoptosis by increasing intracellular calcium levels and activating P38 and NADPH oxidase-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species in SNU-1 cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Khz-cp is a crude polysaccharide extract that is obtained after nuclear fusion in Ganoderma lucidum and Polyporus umbellatus mycelia (Khz). It inhibits the growth of cancer cells. Methods Khz-cp was extracted by solvent extraction. The anti-proliferative activity of Khz-cp was confirmed by using Annexin-V/PI-flow cytometry analysis. Intracellular calcium increase and measurement of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were performed by using flow cytometry and inverted microscope. SNU-1 cells were treated with p38, Bcl-2 and Nox family siRNA. siRNA transfected cells was employed to investigate the expression of apoptotic, growth and survival genes in SNU-1 cells. Western blot analysis was performed to confirm the expression of the genes. Results In the present study, Khz-cp induced apoptosis preferentially in transformed cells and had only minimal effects on non-transformed cells. Furthermore, Khz-cp was found to induce apoptosis by increasing the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and activating P38 to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) via NADPH oxidase and the mitochondria. Khz-cp-induced apoptosis was caspase dependent and occurred via a mitochondrial pathway. ROS generation by NADPH oxidase was critical for Khz-cp-induced apoptosis, and although mitochondrial ROS production was also required, it appeared to occur secondary to ROS generation by NADPH oxidase. Activation of NADPH oxidase was shown by the translocation of the regulatory subunits p47phox and p67phox to the cell membrane and was necessary for ROS generation by Khz-cp. Khz-cp triggered a rapid and sustained increase in [Ca2+]i that activated P38. P38 was considered to play a key role in the activation of NADPH oxidase because inhibition of its expression or activity abrogated membrane translocation of the p47phox and p67phox subunits and ROS generation. Conclusions In summary, these data indicate that Khz-cp preferentially induces apoptosis in cancer cells and that the

  3. Modestobacter versicolor sp. nov., an actinobacterium from biological soil crusts that produces melanins under oligotrophy, with emended descriptions of the genus Modestobacter and Modestobacter multiseptatus Mevs et al. 2000.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Gundlapally S N; Potrafka, Ruth M; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran

    2007-09-01

    A novel isolate, CP153-2(T), was obtained from topsoil biological crusts in the Colorado Plateau (USA). Colonies were black in colour due to melanin-like pigments when grown on oligotrophic medium, but not when grown on copiotrophic medium. Induction of melanogenesis was independent of growth phase or illumination conditions, including exposure to UVB and UVA radiation, but exposure to UVB could enhance total pigment production and growth under low nitrogen prevented its synthesis. This mode of regulation was previously unknown among melanin-producing bacteria. Polyphasic characterization of the strain revealed that cells were short, straight to curved or irregular rods that developed into pairs and formed multiseptate short filaments, with rare bud-like cells. Short rods were typically motile by means of flagella; multicellular structures tended to be sessile. Cells stained Gram-positive, grew at 4-30 degrees C and had a narrow range of pH tolerance (pH 5-9). The major fatty acids were iso-C(15:0) iso-C(16 : 0), anteiso-C(15 : 0) and C(18 : 1); MK-9(H(4)) was the major respiratory quinone. Its peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity data, its closest relative (98.1 % similarity) was Modestobacter multiseptatus DSM 44406(T), which is similar morphologically. Based on the above characteristics, strain CP153-2(T) was also assigned to the genus Modestobacter. However, CP153-2(T) had a relatedness of only 49.9 % in whole-genome reassociation comparisons with the type strain of M. multiseptatus and thus formally represents a novel species, for which the name Modestobacter versicolor sp. nov. is proposed. Additional evidence in support of a novel species comes from phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics. Strain CP153-2(T) (=ATCC BAA-1040(T) =DSM 16678(T)) is the type strain of M. versicolor. PMID:17766865

  4. Biodegradation of the X-ray contrast agent iopromide and the fluoroquinolone antibiotic ofloxacin by the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor in hospital wastewaters and identification of degradation products.

    PubMed

    Gros, Meritxell; Cruz-Morato, Carles; Marco-Urrea, Ernest; Longrée, Philipp; Singer, Heinz; Sarrà, Montserrat; Hollender, Juliane; Vicent, Teresa; Rodriguez-Mozaz, Sara; Barceló, Damià

    2014-09-01

    This paper describes the degradation of the X-ray contrast agent iopromide (IOP) and the antibiotic ofloxacin (OFLOX) by the white-rot-fungus Trametes versicolor. Batch studies in synthetic medium revealed that between 60 and 80% of IOP and OFLOX were removed when spiked at approximately 12 mg L(-1) and 10 mg L(-1), respectively. A significant number of transformation products (TPs) were identified for both pharmaceuticals, confirming their degradation. IOP TPs were attributed to two principal reactions: (i) sequential deiodination of the aromatic ring and (ii) N-dealkylation of the amide at the hydroxylated side chain of the molecule. On the other hand, OFLOX transformation products were attributed mainly to the oxidation, hydroxylation and cleavage of the piperazine ring. Experiments in 10 L-bioreactor with fungal biomass fluidized by air pulses operated in batch achieved high percentage of degradation of IOP and OFLOX when load with sterile (87% IOP, 98.5% OFLOX) and unsterile (65.4% IOP, 99% OFLOX) hospital wastewater (HWW) at their real concentration (μg L(-1) level). Some of the most relevant IOP and OFLOX TPs identified in synthetic medium were also detected in bioreactor samples. Acute toxicity tests indicated a reduction of the toxicity in the final culture broth from both experiments in synthetic medium and in batch bioreactor. PMID:24867600

  5. Environmental biodegradability of [¹⁴C] single-walled carbon nanotubes by Trametes versicolor and natural microbial cultures found in New Bedford Harbor sediment and aerated wastewater treatment plant sludge.

    PubMed

    Parks, Ashley N; Chandler, G Thomas; Ho, Kay T; Burgess, Robert M; Ferguson, P Lee

    2015-02-01

    Little is known about environmental biodegradability or biotransformations of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT). Because of their strong association with aquatic organic matter, detailed knowledge of the ultimate fate and persistence of SWNT requires investigation of possible biotransformations (i.e., biodegradation) in environmental media. In the present study, [(14)C]SWNT were utilized to track biodegradation over 6 mo by pure liquid culture of the fungus Trametes versicolor and mixed bacterial isolates from field-collected sediment or aerated wastewater treatment plant sludge. The mixed cultures were chosen as more environmentally relevant media where SWNT will likely be deposited under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Activity of [(14)C] was assessed in solid, aqueous, and (14)CO2 gaseous phases to determine amounts of intact SWNT, partially soluble SWNT degradation products, and mineralized SWNT, respectively, during the 6 mo of the experiment. Mass balances based on radiocarbon activity were approximately 100% over 6 mo, and no significant degradation of SWNT was observed. Approximately 99% of the [(14)C] activity remained in the solid phase, 0.8% in the aqueous phase, and less than 0.1% was mineralized to (14)CO2, regardless of culture type. These results suggest that SWNT are not readily biodegraded by pure fungal cultures or environmental microbial communities, and are likely persistent in environmental media. PMID:25352477

  6. The influence of moisture content variation on fungal pigment formation in spalted wood.

    PubMed

    Tudor, Daniela; Robinson, Sara C; Cooper, Paul A

    2012-01-01

    Eight fungal species known to produce wood pigmentation were tested for reaction to various moisture contents in two hardwood species. Fungal pigmentation by Trametes versicolor and Xylaria polymorpha was stimulated at low water concentrations in both Acer saccharum (sugar maple) and Fagus grandifolia (American beech), while Inonotus hispidus and Polyporus squamosus were stimulated above 22-28% and 34-38% moisture content in beech and in sugar maple respectively. Fomes fomentarius and Polyporus brumalis produced maximum pigmentation in beech at 26 - 41% and in sugar maple at 59 - 96% moisture content. The pink staining Scytalidium cuboideum pigmented both wood species at above 35% moisture content. This research indicates that controlling the moisture content values of wood substrates can stimulate the intensity of pigmentation of specific fungi when spalting wood for decorative and commercial purpose. PMID:23245292

  7. Identification of a laccase from Ganoderma lucidum CBS 229.93 having potential for enhancing cellulase catalyzed lignocellulose degradation.

    PubMed

    Sitarz, Anna K; Mikkelsen, Jørn D; Højrup, Peter; Meyer, Anne S

    2013-12-10

    Based on a differential pre-screening of 44 white-rot fungi on a lignocellulose-supplemented minimal medium, four basidiomycetes were selected for further study: Ganoderma lucidum, Polyporus brumalis, Polyporus ciliatus and Trametes versicolor. Only G. lucidum was able to grow vividly on malt extract or minimal media supplemented with alkali lignin. When grown on malt extract or minimal medium supplemented with lignocellulose (sugar cane bagasse), the crude G. lucidum protein extract exhibited high laccase activity, ∼3U/mL toward syringaldazine. This activity was 13-17 fold higher than the corresponding activities of the crude protein extracts of P. brumalis, P. ciliatus and T. versicolor. Native PAGE electrophoresis of the crude G. lucidum extract confirmed the presence of an active laccase. The G. lucidum laccase had a molecular weight of ∼62.5kDa, and a Km value of 0.107mM (determined on ABTS). A partial amino acid sequence analysis of four short de novo sequenced peptides, defined after trypsin digest analysis using MALDI-TOF MS/MS analysis, revealed 64-100% homology to sequences in related laccases in the UniProt database, but also indicated that certain sequence stretches had low homology. Addition of the laccase-rich G. lucidum broth to lignocellulosic biomass (pretreated sugar cane bagasse) together with a state-of-the-art cellulase enzyme preparation (Cellic™CTec1) produced significantly increased cellulolytic yields, which were also better than those obtained with a T. versicolor laccase addition, indicating that the laccase from G. lucidum has unique properties that may be momentous in lignocellulosic biomass conversion. PMID:24315640

  8. Development of recombinant biocatalysts expressing laccase enzyme from Trametes versicolor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing demands for sustainable energy necessitate the use of biorenewable sources such as agricultural and forestry wastes. A major challenge of using lignocellulosic biomass for biofuel production is the recalcitrant nature of the lignin structure. Laccase is a multi-copper oxidase that catal...

  9. Novel medicinal mushroom blend suppresses growth and invasiveness of human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiahua; Sliva, Daniel

    2010-12-01

    Mushrooms are an integral part of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), and have been used for millennia to prevent or treat a variety of diseases. Currently mushrooms or their extracts are used globally in the form of dietary supplements. In the present study we have evaluated the anticancer effects of the dietary supplement, MycoPhyto® Complex (MC), a novel medicinal mushroom blend which consists of a blend of mushroom mycelia from the species Agaricus blazei, Cordyceps sinensis, Coriolus versicolor, Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa and Polyporus umbellatus, and β-1,3-glucan isolated from the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we show that MC demonstrates cytostatic effects through the inhibition of cell proliferation and cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase of highly invasive human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231. DNA-microarray analysis revealed that MC inhibits expression of cell cycle regulatory genes (ANAPC2, ANAPC2, BIRC5, Cyclin B1, Cyclin H, CDC20, CDK2, CKS1B, Cullin 1, E2F1, KPNA2, PKMYT1 and TFDP1). Moreover, MC also suppresses the metastatic behavior of MDA-MB-231 by the inhibition of cell adhesion, cell migration and cell invasion. The potency of MC to inhibit invasiveness of breast cancer cells is linked to the suppression of secretion of the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) from MDA-MB-231 cells. In conclusion, the MC dietary supplement could have potential therapeutic value in the treatment of invasive human breast cancer. PMID:21042722

  10. Potential of fungal co-culturing for accelerated biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil.

    PubMed

    Yanto, Dede Heri Yuli; Tachibana, Sanro

    2014-08-15

    The potential of fungal co-culture of the filamentous Pestalotiopsis sp. NG007 with four different basidiomycetes--Trametes versicolor U97, Pleurotus ostreatus PL1, Cerena sp. F0607, and Polyporus sp. S133--for accelerating biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) was studied using three different physicochemical characteristic PHCs in soil. All the combinations showed a mutual intermingling mycelial interaction on the agar plates. However, only NG007/S133 (50/50) exhibited an optimum growth rate and enzymatic activities that supported the degradation of asphalt in soil. The co-culture also degraded all fractions at even higher concentrations of the different PHCs. In addition, asphaltene, which is a difficult fraction for a single microorganism to degrade, was markedly degraded by the co-culture, which indicated that the simultaneous biodegradation of aliphatic, aromatic, resin, and asphaltene fractions had occurred in the co-culture. An examination of in-vitro degradation by the crude enzymes and the retrieval fungal culture from the soil after the experiment confirmed the accelerated biodegradation due to enhanced enzyme activities in the co-culture. The addition of piperonyl butoxide or AgNO3 inhibited biodegradation by 81-99%, which demonstrated the important role of P450 monooxygenases and/or dioxygenases in the initial degradation of the aliphatic and aromatic fractions in PHCs. PMID:24997261

  11. Applications of micellar enzymology to clean coal technology

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, C.T.

    1990-10-26

    This project is designed to develop methods for pre-combustion coal remediation by implementing recent advances in enzyme biochemistry. The novel approach of this study is incorporation of hydrophilic oxidative enzymes in reverse micelles in an organic solvent. Enzymes from commercial sources or microbial extracts are being investigated for their capacity to remove organic sulfur from coal by oxidation of the sulfur groups, splitting of C-S bonds and loss of sulfur as sulfuric acid Dibenzothiophene (DBT) and ethlyphenylsulfide (EPS) are serving as models of organic sulfur-containing components of coal in initial studies. A goal of this project is to define a reverse micelle system that optimizes the catalytic activity of enzymes toward desulfurization of model compounds and ultimately coal samples. Among the variables which will be examined are the surfactant, the solvent, the water:surfactant ration and the pH and ionic strength of the aqueous phase. Studies were carried out with HRP, Type I RZ=1.2 and Type VI RZ=3.2 and laccase from Polyporus versicolor. Substrates for HRP assays included hydrogen peroxide, DBT, DBT sulfoxide, and DBT sulfone. Buffers included sodium phosphate. For formation of reverse micelle solutions the surfactant AOT, di(2-ethyl-hexyl)sodium sulphosuccinate, was obtained from Sigma Chemical Co. Isooctant was used as organic solvent. 12 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Biodegradation of ddt (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane) by the white rot fungus phanerochaete chrysosporium

    SciTech Connect

    Bumpus, J.A.; Aust, S.D.

    1987-01-01

    Extensive biodegradation of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by disappearance and mineralization of (14C) DDT in nutrient nitrogen-deficient cultures. Mass balance studies demonstrated the formation of polar and water-soluble metabolites during degradation. Hexane-extractable metabolites identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry included 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane(DDD), 2,2,2-trichloro-1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethanol (dicofol), 2,2-dichloro-1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethanol (FW-152), and 4,4'-dichlorobenzophenone (DBP). DDD was the first metabolite observed; it appeared after 3 days of incubation and disappeared from culture upon continued incubation. This, as well as the fact that ((14)C) dicofol was mineralized, demonstrates that intermediates formed during DDT degradation are also metabolized. These results demonstrate that the pathway for DDT degradation in P. chrysosporium is clearly different from the major pathway proposed for microbial or environmental degradation of DDT. Like P. chrysosporium ME-446 and BKM-F-1767, the white rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus, Phellinus weirii, and Polyporus versicolor also mineralized DDT.

  13. Potential of acetylacetone as a mediator for Trametes versicolor laccase in enzymatic transformation of organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hua; Sun, Hongfei; Zhang, Shujuan; Wu, Bingdang; Pan, Bingcai

    2015-07-01

    Low-cost and environmentally friendly mediators could facilitate the application of laccase (EC 1.10.3.2) in variant biotechnological processes. Acetylacetone (AA) represents an inexpensive and low toxic small molecular diketone that has been proven as an effective mediator for laccase in free radical polymerization. However, the potential of AA as a mediator for laccase in pollutant detoxification and/or degradation is still unknown. In this work, the roles of AA in laccase-induced polymerization and transformation were investigated. AA was demonstrated to be a highly efficient mediator in the laccase-induced grafting copolymerization of acrylamide and chitosan. The efficacy of AA in the laccase-induced decoloration of malachite green (MG) was compared with that of the widely used 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT). The laccase-AA system had the highest turnover number (TON, 39.1 μmol/U), followed by the laccase-only system (28.5 μmol/U), while the TON of the laccase-HBT system was the lowest (14.9 μmol/U). The pseudo-first-order transformation rate constant (k 1) of MG in the laccase-AA system was up to 0.283 h(-1) under the given conditions, while the k 1 of AA caused by laccase was only 0.008 h(-1). In the five-cycle run, the concentration of AA remained stable. The larger TON of the laccase-AA system and the stability of AA in the cycling runs demonstrate that AA was more recyclable than HBT in the LMS, leading to a prolonged serving life of laccase. These results suggest that AA might be a potential redox mediator for laccase. PMID:25772881

  14. Cloning and Expression of Laccase from Trametes versicolor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a Novel Vector System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The long-term goal of this research is to increase efficiency and decrease cost of ethanol fermentation of lignocellulosic feedstocks by combining pre-treatment using laccase enzyme and subsequent fermentation to ethanol through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation paradigms. The first st...

  15. Synthesis and effect of modification on methacylate - acrylate microspheres for Trametes versicolor laccase enzyme immobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazlan, Siti Zulaikha; Hanifah, Sharina Abu

    2014-09-01

    Immobilization of laccase on the modified copolymer methacrylate-acrylate microspheres was studied. A poly (glycidyl methacrylate-co-n-butyl acrylate) microsphere consists of epoxy groups were synthesized using suspension photocuring technique. The epoxy group in poly (GMA-nBA) microspheres were converted into amino groups with aldehyde group. Laccase immobilization is based on having the amino groups on the enzyme surface and aldehyde group on the microspheres via covalent binding. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis proved the successful surface modification on microspheres. The FTIR spectrum shows the characteristic peaks at 1646 cm-1 assigned to the conformation of the polymerization that took place between monomer GMA and nBA respectively. In addition, after modification, FTIR peaks that assigned to the epoxy ring (844 cm-1 and 904 cm-1) were decreased. The results obtained from FTIR method signify good agreement with the epoxy content method. Hence, the activity of the laccase-immobilized microspheres increased upon increasing the epoxy content. Furthermore, poly (GMA-nBA) exhibited uniform microspheres with below 2 μm surface. Immobilized enzyme showed a broader pH profile and higher temperature compared native enzyme.

  16. EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF MULTIVARIATE FEMALE CHOICE IN GRAY TREEFROGS (Hyla versicolor)

    PubMed Central

    Gerhardt, H. Carl; Brooks, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Even simple biological signals vary in several measurable dimensions. Understanding their evolution requires, therefore, a multivariate understanding of selection, including how different properties interact to determine the effectiveness of the signal. We combined experimental manipulation with multivariate selection analysis to assess female mate choice on the simple trilled calls of male gray treefrogs. We independently and randomly varied five behaviorally relevant acoustic properties in 154 synthetic calls. We compared response times of each of 154 females to one of these calls with its response to a standard call that had mean values of the five properties. We found directional and quadratic selection on two properties indicative of the amount of signaling, pulse number and call rate. Canonical rotation of the fitness surface showed that these properties, along with pulse rate, contributed heavily to a major axis of stabilizing selection, a result consistent with univariate studies showing diminishing effects of increasing pulse number well beyond the mean. Spectral properties contributed to a second major axis of stabilizing selection. The single major axis of disruptive selection suggested that a combination of two temporal and two spectral properties with values differing from the mean should be especially attractive. PMID:19500145

  17. Production of manganic chelates by laccase from the lignin-degrading fungus Trametes (Coriolus) versicolor.

    PubMed Central

    Archibald, F; Roy, B

    1992-01-01

    Many ligninolytic basidiomycete fungi have been shown to secrete a group of peroxidase isozymes whose sole function appears to be the peroxide-dependent oxidation of manganous [Mn(II)] to manganic [Mn(III)] ions. Manganic chelates and these Mn peroxidases have been implicated as central to the degradation of various natural and synthetic lignins and lignin-containing effluents by white rot (ligninolytic) fungi. Another group of enzymes, the laccases, are commonly secreted by wood-rotting fungi, but are generally regarded as being able to oxidize (and usually polymerize) only phenolic substrates. In this report it is shown that in the presence of appropriate oxidizable phenolic accessory substances or primary substrates, a variety of laccases and peroxidases catalyzing one-electron oxidations can also produce Mn(III) chelates from Mn(II). PMID:1622216

  18. A high throughput colorimetric assay of β-1,3-D-glucans by Congo red dye.

    PubMed

    Semedo, Magda C; Karmali, Amin; Fonseca, Luís

    2015-02-01

    Mushroom strains contain complex nutritional biomolecules with a wide spectrum of therapeutic and prophylactic properties. Among these compounds, β-d-glucans play an important role in immuno-modulating and anti-tumor activities. The present work involves a novel colorimetric assay method for β-1,3-d-glucans with a triple helix tertiary structure by using Congo red. The specific interaction that occurs between Congo red and β-1,3-d-glucan was detected by bathochromic shift from 488 to 516 nm (>20 nm) in UV-Vis spectrophotometer. A micro- and high throughput method based on a 96-well microtiter plate was devised which presents several advantages over the published methods since it requires only 1.51 μg of polysaccharides in samples, greater sensitivity, speed, assay of many samples and very cheap. β-D-Glucans of several mushrooms (i.e., Coriolus versicolor, Ganoderma lucidum, Pleurotus ostreatus, Ganoderma carnosum, Hericium erinaceus, Lentinula edodes, Inonotus obliquus, Auricularia auricular, Polyporus umbellatus, Cordyseps sinensis, Agaricus blazei, Poria cocos) were isolated by using a sequence of several extractions with cold and boiling water, acidic and alkaline conditions and quantified by this microtiter plate method. FTIR spectroscopy was used to study the structural features of β-1,3-D-glucans in these mushroom samples as well as the specific interaction of these polysaccharides with Congo red. The effect of NaOH on triple helix conformation of β-1,3-D-glucans was investigated in several mushroom species. PMID:25555819

  19. Aldehyde PEGylation of laccase from Trametes versicolor in route to increase its stability: effect on enzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Mayolo-Deloisa, Karla; González-González, Mirna; Simental-Martínez, Jesús; Rito-Palomares, Marco

    2015-03-01

    Laccase is a multicopper oxidase that catalyzes the oxidation of phenolic compounds. Laccase can be used in bioremediation, beverage (wine, fruit juice, and beer) processing, ascorbic acid determination, sugar beet pectin gelation baking, and as a biosensor. Recently, the antiproliferative activity of laccase toward tumor cells has been reported. Because of the potential applications of this enzyme, the efforts for enhancing and stabilizing its activity have increased. Thus, the PEGylation of laccase can be an alternative. PEGylation is the covalent attachment of one or more molecules of methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) to a protein. Normally, during the PEGylation reaction, the activity is reduced but the stability increases; thus, it is important to minimize the loss of activity. In this work, the effects of molar ratio (1:4, 1:8, and 1:12), concentration of laccase (6 and 12 mg/ml), reaction time (4 and 17 h), molecular weight, and type of mPEG (20, 30, 40 kDa and 40 kDa-branched) were analyzed. The activity was measured using three substrates: ABTS, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, and syringaldazine. The best conditions for laccase PEGylation were 12 mg/ml of laccase, molar ratio 1:4, and 4 h reaction time. Under these conditions, the enzyme was able to maintain nearly 100% of its enzymatic activity with ABTS. The PEGylation of laccase has not been extensively explored, so it is important to analyze the effects of this bioconjugation in route to produce a robust modified enzyme. PMID:25652594

  20. Effect of anomalous pulse timing on call discrimination by females of the gray treefrog (Hyla versicolor): behavioral correlates of neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Joshua J; Huth, Kenneth; Hunce, Raymond; Lentine, Brandon

    2010-06-15

    Research has demonstrated that certain midbrain neurons of anurans 'count' interpulse intervals (IPIs). Some neurons fire after exposure to fewer intervals than do others. Counting can be reset to zero if an IPI falls outside the cell's tolerance range. We tested female gray treefrogs for behavioral correlates of these neural response patterns using phonotaxis tests in order to gain a better understanding of the mechanistic bases of female responses to calls. For example, previous work demonstrated females often prefer longer to shorter pulsed advertisement calls, even when the former occur at lower rates. Call attractiveness can also be reduced when pulse duration and timing have been manipulated experimentally or disrupted by acoustic interference. In this study, female responses were consistent with neural data, emphasizing the importance of IPIs. Females discriminated in favor of calls with normal interpulse timing relative to those in which a single IPI was too long or too short. Our data suggest that neural resetting of interval counting by inappropriate intervals may more strongly influence females than reduced firing in response to such intervals on an individual basis. Data also suggest a transition point between 125 ms and 175 ms at which an interval between pulse strings is treated as an interval between calls. PMID:20511520

  1. Biomarker Analysis of American Toad (Anaxyrus Americanus) and Grey Tree Frog (Hyla Versicolor) Tadpoles Following Exposure to Atrazine

    EPA Science Inventory

    To better understand the mode of action of atrazine in amphibians, we utilized mass spectrometry-based metabolomics to investigate the biochemical changes in two species of larval amphibians exposed to atrazine. Our objectives were to 1) Use changes in endogenous metabolites to f...

  2. Redox modulation of cellular stress response and lipoxin A4 expression by Coriolus versicolor in rat brain: Relevance to Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Trovato, A; Siracusa, R; Di Paola, R; Scuto, M; Fronte, V; Koverech, G; Luca, M; Serra, A; Toscano, M A; Petralia, A; Cuzzocrea, S; Calabrese, V

    2016-03-01

    Increasing evidence supports the notion that oxidative stress-driven neuroinflammation is an early pathological feature in neurodegenerative diseases. As a prominent intracellular redox system involved in neuroprotection, the vitagene system is emerging as a potential neurohormetic target for novel cytoprotective interventions. Vitagenes encode for cytoprotective heat shock proteins 70, heme oxygenase-1, thioredoxin and lipoxin A4. Emerging interest is now focusing on molecules capable of activating the vitagene system as novel therapeutic targets to minimize deleterious consequences associated with free radical-induced cell damage, such as in neurodegeneration. Mushroom-derived lipoxin A4 (LXA4) is an emerging endogenous eicosanoid able to promote resolution of inflammation, acting as an endogenous "braking signal" in the inflammatory process. Mushrooms have long been used in traditional medicine for thousands of years, being now increasingly recognized as rich source of polysaccharopeptides endowed with significant antitumor, antioxidant, antiviral, antibacterial and cytoprotective effects, thereby capable of stimulating host immune responses. Here we provide evidence of a neuroprotective action of the Coriolus mushroom when administered orally to rat. Expression of LXA4 was measured in different brain regions after oral administration of a Coriolus biomass preparation, given for 30 days. LXA4 up-regulation was associated with an increased content of redox sensitive proteins involved in cellular stress response, such as Hsp72, heme oxygenase-1 and thioredoxin. In the brain of rats receiving Coriolus, maximum induction of LXA4 was observed in cortex and hippocampus. Hsps induction was associated with no significant changes in IkBα, NFkB and COX-2 brain levels. Conceivably, activation of LXA4 signaling and modulation of stress-responsive vitagene proteins could serve as a potential therapeutic target for AD-related inflammation and neurodegenerative damage. PMID:26433056

  3. Continuous treatment of non-sterile hospital wastewater by Trametes versicolor: How to increase fungal viability by means of operational strategies and pretreatments.

    PubMed

    Mir-Tutusaus, J A; Sarrà, M; Caminal, G

    2016-11-15

    Hospital wastewaters have a high load of pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs). Fungal treatments could be appropriate for source treatment of such effluents but the transition to non-sterile conditions proved to be difficult due to competition with indigenous microorganisms, resulting in very short-duration operations. In this article, coagulation-flocculation and UV-radiation processes were studied as pretreatments to a fungal reactor treating non-sterile hospital wastewater in sequential batch operation and continuous operation modes. The influent was spiked with ibuprofen and ketoprofen, and both compounds were successfully degraded by over 80%. UV pretreatment did not extent the fungal activity after coagulation-flocculation measured as laccase production and pellet integrity. Sequential batch operation did not reduce bacteria competition during fungal treatment. The best strategy was the addition of a coagulation-flocculation pretreatment to a continuous reactor, which led to an operation of 28days without biomass renovation. PMID:27469044

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL BIODEGRADABILITY OF [14C] SINGLE-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBESBY TRAMETES VERSICOLOR AND NATURAL MICROBIAL CULTURES FOUND IN NEWBEDFORD HARBOR SEDIMENT AND AERATED WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Little is known about environmental biodegradability or biotransformations of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT). Because of their strong association with aquatic organic matter, detailed knowledge of the ultimate fate and persistence of SWNT requires investigation of possible...

  5. TRANSFORMATION OF 2-HYDROXYDIBENZOFURAN BY LACCASES OF THE WHITE ROT FUNGI TRAMETES VERSICOLOR AND PYCNOPORUS CINNABARINUS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF OLIGOMERIZATION PRODUCTS. (R823847)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  6. Skin color - patchy

    MedlinePlus

    ... medication reactions or certain drugs Sunburn or suntan Tinea versicolor Unevenly applying sunscreen, leading to areas of ... ketoconazole, or tolnaftate (Tinactin) lotion can help treat tinea versicolor. Apply as directed to the affected area ...

  7. Diversity of Polypore Bracket Mushrooms, Polyporales (Agaricomycetes), Recorded in Armenia and Their Medicinal Properties.

    PubMed

    Badalyan, Susanna M; Gharibyan, Narine G

    2016-01-01

    The list of polypore bracket mushrooms (Polyporales) recorded in Armenia is presented. The order Polyporales in Armenia is currently represented by 87 species (4 varieties) belonging to 47 genera. Information regarding the study of the medicinal properties (e.g., antifungal, antibacterial, mitogenic, regenerative, antioxidant, proteolytic) of genetically identified mycelial collections of several polypore species-mainly from the genera Daedalea, Fomes, Fomitopsis, Ganoderma, Laetiporus, Piptoporus, Polyporus, and Trametes-is reported, as well. PMID:27481301

  8. Microbial screening test for lignite degradation. Quarterly progress report No. 1, January-March 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, T.F.

    1985-01-01

    Potassium permanganate and sodium hypochlorite oxidation of lignitic coal were performed. Ion chromatography of low molecular weight carboxylic acids - oxalic acid, formic acid, and acetic acid - produced by potassium permanganate and sodium hypochlorite oxidation was executed. Oxalic acid was found to be the most predominant low molecular weight species. It was estimated that about 10% of the carbon present in the chemical structure of lignite was converted to oxalic acid by sodium hypochlorite oxidation. Ion chromatography analysis showed that about 43% of the lignite carbon was converted to carbon dioxide in all experiments. Biological degradation of lignite by P. versicolor, a white-rot fungus, on lignite/agar and lignite slurry was attempted. Apparently, P. versicolor is capable of growing on lignite slurry. Acclimation of P. versicolor to lignite was proceeded. Biochemical reaction test for laccase production of P. versicolor was performed and found to be positive. 15 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT METHODS FOR THE EXTRACTION OF DNA FROM FUNGAL CONIDIA BY QUANTITATIVE COMPETITIVE PCR ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five different DNA extraction methods were evaluated for their effectiveness in recovering PCR templates from the conidia of a series of fungal species often encountered in indoor air. The test organisms were Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium chrysogenum, Stachybotrys chartaru...

  10. Laboratory research on the efficacy of chlorine dioxide fumigation for the remediation of mold-contaminated buildings--conference paper

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this project was to determine the efficacy ofCl02 fumigation to inactivate viable mold, mycotoxins, and allergens on building materials. Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus versicolor, Aspergillus Jumigatus, Chaetomium globosum, and Stachybotrys chartarum were indivi...

  11. Degradation of hop bitter acids by fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Huszcza, Ewa Bartmanska, Agnieszka; Aniol, Miroslaw; Maczka, Wanda; Zolnierczyk, Anna; Wawrzenczyk, Czeslaw

    2008-07-01

    Nine fungal strains related to: Trametes versicolor, Nigrospora oryzae, Inonotus radiatus, Crumenulopsis sororia, Coryneum betulinum, Cryptosporiopsis radicicola, Fusarium equiseti, Rhodotorula glutinis and Candida parapsilosis were tested for their ability to degrade humulones and lupulones. The best results were obtained for T. versicolor culture, in which humulones and lupulones were fully degraded after 4 days of incubation in the dark or after 36 h in the light. The experiments were performed on a commercial hop extract and on sterilized spent hops.

  12. Regulation of coal polymer degradation by fungi. Eighth quarterly report, [January--March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, R.L.; Bumpus, J.A.

    1996-07-28

    Progress is reported on solubilization of low-rank coal by enzyme activity derived from Trametes versicolor or P. chrysosporium. Specifically during the reporting period efforts were directed towards the determining the effect of pH on solubilization of leonardite, the role of laccase in low coal solubilization and metabolism, the decolorization of soluble coal macromolecule by P. chrysosprium and T. versicolor in solid agar gel, and the solubilization of low rank coal in slurry cultures and solid phase reactors.

  13. Embryonic thermosensitivity and hatchling morphology differ between two coexisting lizards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Yan-Fu; Li, Hong; Gao, Jian-Fang; Ji, Xiang

    2011-07-01

    We incubated eggs of two coexisting lizards, Phrynocephalus frontalis and Phrynocephalus versicolor, at three constant temperatures (24, 28 and 32 °C) to examine whether they differ in embryonic thermosensitivity and hatchling morphology. Eggs incubated at the three temperatures produced morphologically different hatchlings in P. versicolor but not in P. frontalis. Snout-vent length (SVL), body mass and head width were greater in P. versicolor hatchlings from the 24 °C treatment than those from the 32 °C treatment when accounting for differences in initial egg mass, and tail length was smaller in P. versicolor hatchlings from the 24 °C treatment than those from the 32 °C treatment when accounting for differences in final egg mass. Body mass, head length, head width, tail length, fore-limb length and hind-limb length were greater in P. frontalis hatchlings than in P. versicolor hatchling when accounting for differences in initial or final egg mass. Moreover, P. frontalis females produce larger hatchlings than do P. versicolor females of the same SVL not only by laying larger eggs, but also by investing more dry materials (and thus, more energy) into the egg. Given a link between interspecific competition (and niche restriction) and morphology, it seems likely that morphological differences at hatching may facilitate the coexistence of the two lizards. The two lizards differed in embryonic thermosensitivity and water uptake by eggs during incubation, suggesting that they use different microhabitats in the area of sympatry.

  14. A study of over production and enhanced secretion of enzymes. Quarterly report 1

    SciTech Connect

    Dashek, W.V.

    1992-12-28

    The current project is concerned with the over-production and enhanced secretion of PPO, cellulase and lignin peroxidase. The project is divided into two segments: over-production of lignocellulolytic enzymes by genetic engineering methodologies and hyper-production and enhanced secretion of these enzymes by biochemical/electron microscopical techniques. The former approach employs recombinant DNA procedures, ligation of appropriate nuclease generated DNA fragments into a vector and the subsequent transformation of Escherichia coli to yield E. coli harboring a C. versicolor DNA insert. The biochemistry/electron microscopical method involves substrate induction and the time-dependent addition of respiration and PPO inhibitors to elevate C.versicolor`s ability to synthesize and secrete lignocellulosic enzymes. In this connection, cell fractionation/kinetic analysis, TEM immunoelectron microscopic localization and TEM substrate localization of PPO are being employed to assess the route of secretion. Both approaches will culminate in the batch culture of either E. coli or C. versicolor, in a fermentor with the subsequent development of rapid isolation and purification procedures to yield elevated quantities of pure lignocellulosic enzymes. During the past year, research effort were directed toward determining the route of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) secretion by the wood-decay fungus, Coriolus versicolor. In addition, research activities were continued to over-produce and to purify PPO as well as define the time-dependent intra- and extra-cellular appearances of C. versicolor ligninases and cellulases.

  15. Species-specificity of temporal processing in the auditory midbrain of gray treefrogs: interval-counting neurons.

    PubMed

    Rose, Gary J; Hanson, Jessica L; Leary, Christopher J; Graham, Jalina A; Alluri, Rishi K; Vasquez-Opazo, Gustavo A

    2015-05-01

    Interval-counting neurons (ICNs) respond after a threshold number of sound pulses have occurred with specific intervals; a single aberrant interval can reset the counting process. Female gray treefrogs, Hyla chrysoscelis and H. versicolor, discriminate against synthetic 'calls' possessing a single interpulse interval 2-3 three times the optimal value, suggesting that ICNs are important for call recognition. The calls of H. versicolor consist of pulses that are longer in duration, rise more slowly in amplitude and are repeated at a slower rate than those of H. chrysoscelis. Results of recordings from midbrain auditory neurons in these species include: (1) ICNs were found in both species and their temporal selectivity appeared to result from interplay between excitation and inhibition; (2) band-pass cells in H. versicolor were tuned to slower pulse rates than those in H. chrysoscelis; (3) ICNs that were selective for slow-rise pulse shape were found almost exclusively in H. versicolor, but fast-rise-selective neurons were found in both species, and (4) band-suppression ICNs in H. versicolor showed response minima at higher pulse rates than those in H. chrysoscelis. Selectivity of midbrain ICNs for pulse rise time and repetition rate thus correlate well with discriminatory abilities of these species that promote reproductive isolation. PMID:25764308

  16. Copper inducing effect on laccase production of white rot fungi native from Misiones (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Fonseca, María I; Shimizu, Ernesto; Zapata, Pedro D; Villalba, Laura L

    2010-05-01

    Fungi may be selected as models for gene expression studies and further adaptation for biotechnological enzyme production. The aim of this work was to evaluate laccase production and to analyze the effect of Cu(2+) on selected fungi natives of Misiones, Ganoderma applanatum (strain F), Peniophora sp. (BAFC 633), Pycnoporus sanguineus (BAFC 2126) and Coriolus versicolor f. antarcticus (BAFC 266). Fungi secretion system of G. applanatum, Peniophora sp., P. sanguineus and C. versicolor f. antarcticus is sensitive to stimulation by copper. Biomass values of G. applanatum, Peniophora sp. and C. versicolor f. antarcticus did not show differences between treatments. P. sanguineus biomass underwent a dramatic growth inhibition with 1mM Cu(2+) and marked delay in growth with 0.5mM Cu(2+). Proteins were increased with copper in Peniophora sp., C. versicolor and G. applanatum. G. applanatum and Peniophora sp. reached the highest enzyme activity at 10th day equivalent to 49.2-fold and 19.7-fold higher than the control samples, respectively. Copper produced an increase of constitutive laccases in all fungi and an additional inducible isoenzyme in Peniophora sp., C. versicolor f. antarcticus and G. applanatum. PMID:25919631

  17. Effect of different carbon sources on decolourisation of an industrial textile dye under alkaline-saline conditions.

    PubMed

    Ottoni, Cristiane; Lima, Luis; Santos, Cledir; Lima, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    White-rot fungal strains of Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium were selected to study the decolourisation of the textile dye, Reactive Black 5, under alkaline-saline conditions. Free and immobilised T. versicolor cells showed 100 % decolourisation in the growth medium supplemented with 15 g l(-1) NaCl, pH 9.5 at 30 °C in liquid batch culture. Continuous culture experiments were performed in a fixed-bed reactor using free and immobilised T. versicolor cells and allowed 85-100 % dye decolourisation. The immobilisation conditions for the biomass and the additional supply of carbon sources improved the decolourisation performance during a long-term trial of 40 days. Lignin peroxidase, laccase and glyoxal oxidase activities were detected during the experiments. The laccase activity varied depending on carbon source utilized and glycerol-enhanced laccase activity compared to sucrose during extended growth. PMID:23982200

  18. Microbial degradation of thidiazuron and its photoproduct.

    PubMed

    Benezet, H J; Knowles, C O

    1982-01-01

    Degradation of the cotton defoliant thidiazuron and its photoproduct photothidiazuron by soil and thirteen species of microorganisms was examined. Aspergillus versicolor, Torula rosea, and Flavobacter sp. were most active in degrading thidiazuron. Unknown water-soluble metabolites and phenylurea were the major products. A. versicolor and Penicillium cyclopium were most active in degrading photothidiazuron. 4-Hydroxyphenylphotothidiazuron was the major organosoluble product formed by A. versicolor; phenylurea and an unidentified metabolite constituted the major organosoluble products from P. cyclopium. Both microbes also formed appreciable water-soluble metabolites. Radioactive carbon dioxide was formed from thidiazuron-aniline-14C by Oscillatoria sp. but not by Chlorella sp., suggesting that the former algal species utilized the defoliant as an energy source. PMID:7073312

  19. Food partitioning of leaf-eating mangrove crabs ( Sesarminae): Experimental and stable isotope ( 13C and 15N) evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Ditte K.; Kristensen, Erik; Mangion, Perrine

    2010-05-01

    The feasibility of mangrove leaves as a full diet for sesarmid crabs has been questioned for decades. Since these leaves are nitrogen-poor, sesarmids probably obtain nitrogen from other sources to sustain growth. The aim of this study was to assess the food partitioning of the sesarmid species Neoepisesarma versicolor with emphasis on nitrogen allocation. The preference for animal tissue when crabs were pre-fed diets of different nitrogen content was determined in the laboratory. Furthermore, the possible in situ diet composition of N. versicolor was established from carbon and nitrogen stable isotope signature ( δ13C and δ15N) of freshly caught individuals and their potential food sources, using a concentration-dependent mixing model. N. versicolor showed significantly higher feeding preferences for fish meat when pre-fed leaf material without than with access to meat, indicating that this crab species can meet its nitrogen demand by ingesting animal tissue. The stable isotope mixing model based on in situ materials suggests that the diet of N. versicolor consists of ˜60% leaves in terms of biomass, leaving ˜40% for other sources such as animal tissue and benthic microorganisms. The biomass contribution from animal tissues, in form of e.g. other crustaceans and fish carcasses, was found to account for ˜15%. Despite the relative low biomass fraction, animal food sources may contribute with up to half of the nitrogen in the diet of N. versicolor. The quantity of ingested sediment most likely exceeds that of animal tissues. However, due to the low concentration of assimilable microalgae and other microorganism, we propose that sediment associated sources are less important as a nitrogen source for N. versicolor than hitherto presumed.

  20. Based on biochemical and physiological behavior, where is Aspergillus egyptiacus better placed?

    PubMed

    Zohri, A A; Ismail, M A

    1994-01-01

    Physiological and biochemical properties were tested in 45 isolates of Aspergillus egyptiacus (16 isolates), Emericella nidulans (16) and Aspergillus versicolor (13). The three fungal species exhibited common and similar features. The big similarity between A. egyptiacus and E. nidulans was greater than between A. egyptiacus and A. versicolor. It included the inability to produce base either from sodium citrate or lactic acid media, growth at 45 degrees C (thermophilicity), and production of very similar pigmentations on Aspergillus flavus and parasiticus agar. A. egyptiacus is therefore better placed in the Aspergillus nidulans-Emericella assemblage. PMID:7537240

  1. Lentinoid and Polyporoid Fungi, Two Generic Conglomerates Containing Important Medicinal Mushrooms in Molecular Perspective.

    PubMed

    Zmitrovich, Ivan V; Kovalenko, Alexander E

    2016-01-01

    Polyporoid and lentinoid fungi contain the important producers of substances having immunomodulatory, antitumoral, antiviral, and antihyperlipidemic effects. The discovery of several phylogenetic lines within the lentinoid-polyporoid continuum will help with target metabolomic analysis of species still not studied in pharmacological respects. The purpose of the present work was to increase a resolution in the lentinoid-polyporoid phylogenetic zone by means of selection of both the main representatives of Lentinus-related genera and poorly known/intermediate taxa such as Lentinus suavissimus, Neofavolus spp., and the resupinate part of Polyporus (genera Perenniporia and Pachykytospora) in the context of the basic structure of the Polyporales tree. The molecular phylogeny of highlighting all the polyporoid and lentinoid nodes was reconstructed using nLSU ITS rDNA and TEF datasets. The data obtained from ITS, TEF, and LSU coincide in support of core Polyporaceae of 10 clades corresponded to the generic level and 7 of these (Cerioporus, Cladomeris, Favolus, Lentinus, Neofavolus, Picipes, and Polyporus s.str.) contain generic units characterized by polyporoid or lentinoid morphotypes. The other 2 clades containing lentinoid taxa are outside the core Polyporaceae, namely Panus (Meruliaceae, Polyporales) and Neolentinus (Gloeophyllaceae, Gloeophyllales). A new genus, Picipes, is described and 25 new combinations are proposed. PMID:27279442

  2. A diversified approach to evaluate biostimulation and bioaugmentation strategies for heavy-oil-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Lladó, S; Solanas, A M; de Lapuente, J; Borràs, M; Viñas, M

    2012-10-01

    A diversified approach involving chemical, microbiological and ecotoxicity assessment of soil polluted by heavy mineral oil was adopted, in order to improve our understanding of the biodegradability of pollutants, microbial community dynamics and ecotoxicological effects of various bioremediation strategies. With the aim of improving hydrocarbon degradation, the following bioremediation treatments were assayed: i) addition of inorganic nutrients; ii) addition of the rhamnolipid-based biosurfactant M(AT10); iii) inoculation of an aliphatic hydrocarbon-degrading microbial consortium (TD); and iv) inoculation of a known hydrocarbon-degrading white-rot fungus strain of Trametes versicolor. After 200 days, all the bioremediation assays achieved between 30% and 50% total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) biodegradation, with the T. versicolor inoculation degrading it the most. Biostimulation and T. versicolor inoculation promoted the Brevundimonas genus concurrently with other α-proteobacteria, β-proteobacteria and Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides (CFB) as well as Actinobacteria groups. However, T. versicolor inoculation, which produced the highest hydrocarbon degradation in soil, also promoted autochthonous Gram-positive bacterial groups, such as Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. An acute toxicity test using Eisenia fetida confirmed the improvement in the quality of the soil after all biostimulation and bioaugmentation strategies. PMID:22858534

  3. Effect of relative humidity on fungal colonization of fiberglass insulation.

    PubMed Central

    Ezeonu, I M; Noble, J A; Simmons, R B; Price, D L; Crow, S A; Ahearn, D G

    1994-01-01

    Fiberglass duct liners and fiberglass duct boards from eight buildings whose occupants complained of unacceptable or moldy odors in the air were found to be heavily colonized by fungi, particularly by Aspergillus versicolor. Unused fiberglass was found to be susceptible to fungal colonization in environmental chambers dependent upon relative humidity. No colonization was observed at relative humidities below 50%. Images PMID:8031101

  4. Fungal production of volatiles during growth on fiberglass.

    PubMed Central

    Ezeonu, I M; Price, D L; Simmons, R B; Crow, S A; Ahearn, D G

    1994-01-01

    Acoustic and thermal fiberglass insulation materials used in heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems were colonized with fungi in laboratory chambers. The mixed fungal population, principally Aspergillus versicolor, Acremonium obclavatum, and Cladosporium herbarum, produced odoriferous volatiles, including 2-ethyl hexanol, cyclohexane, and benzene. These volatiles may be related to poor indoor air quality and the sick building syndrome. PMID:7993098

  5. Can Differences in Host Behavior Drive Patterns of Disease Prevalence in Tadpoles?

    PubMed Central

    Venesky, Matthew D.; Kerby, Jacob L.; Storfer, Andrew; Parris, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    Differences in host behavior and resistance to disease can influence the outcome of host-pathogen interactions. We capitalized on the variation in aggregation behavior of Fowler's toads (Anaxyrus [ = Bufo] fowleri) and grey treefrogs (Hyla versicolor) tadpoles and tested for differences in transmission of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and host-specific fitness consequences (i.e., life history traits that imply fitness) of infection in single-species amphibian mesocosms. On average, A. fowleri mesocosms supported higher Bd prevalences and infection intensities relative to H. versicolor mesocosms. Higher Bd prevalence in A. fowleri mesocosms may result, in part, from higher intraspecific transmission due to the aggregation of tadpoles raised in Bd treatments. We also found that, independent of species, tadpoles raised in the presence of Bd were smaller and less developed than tadpoles raised in disease-free conditions. Our results indicate that aggregation behavior might increase Bd prevalence and that A. fowleri tadpoles carry heavier infections relative to H. versicolor tadpoles. However, our results demonstrate that Bd appears to negatively impact larval growth and developmental rates of A. fowleri and H. versicolor similarly, even in the absence of high Bd prevalence. PMID:21949824

  6. Species specificity of temporal processing in the auditory midbrain of gray treefrogs: long-interval neurons.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Jessica L; Rose, Gary J; Leary, Christopher J; Graham, Jalina A; Alluri, Rishi K; Vasquez-Opazo, Gustavo A

    2016-01-01

    In recently diverged gray treefrogs (Hyla chrysoscelis and H. versicolor), advertisement calls that differ primarily in pulse shape and pulse rate act as an important premating isolation mechanism. Temporally selective neurons in the anuran inferior colliculus may contribute to selective behavioral responses to these calls. Here we present in vivo extracellular and whole-cell recordings from long-interval-selective neurons (LINs) made during presentation of pulses that varied in shape and rate. Whole-cell recordings revealed that interplay between excitation and inhibition shapes long-interval selectivity. LINs in H. versicolor showed greater selectivity for slow-rise pulses, consistent with the slow-rise pulse characteristics of their calls. The steepness of pulse-rate tuning functions, but not the distributions of best pulse rates, differed between the species in a manner that depended on whether pulses had slow or fast-rise shape. When tested with stimuli representing the temporal structure of the advertisement calls of H. chrysoscelis or H. versicolor, approximately 27 % of LINs in H. versicolor responded exclusively to the latter stimulus type. The LINs of H. chrysoscelis were less selective. Encounter calls, which are produced at similar pulse rates in both species (≈5 pulses/s), are likely to be effective stimuli for the LINs of both species. PMID:26614093

  7. Preparation of starch-sodium lignosulfonate graft copolymers via laccase catalysis and characterization of antioxidant activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Graft copolymers of waxy maize starch and sodium lignosulfonate (SLS) were prepared by Trametes Versicolor laccase catalysis in aqueous solution. Amount of SLS grafted based on phenol analysis was 0.5% and 1.0% in the absence and presence of 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT), respectively. Starch-SLS gra...

  8. Biodecontamination of water from bisphenol A using ligninolytic fungi and the modulation role of humic acids.

    PubMed

    Loffredo, Elisabetta; Traversa, Andreina; Senesi, Nicola

    2012-05-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor compound (EDC) of xenobiotic origin occurring in natural waters and wastewaters, especially in the most industrialized and urbanized areas. Recent investigations report the use of ligninolytic fungi for the removal of aromatic contaminants, including some EDCs, from different matrices. Humic acids (HA) are widely spread in all natural systems and their presence is ascertained to interfere with microbial growth and activity. The objective of this study was to assess the capacity of three ligninolytic fungi, Trametes versicolor, Stereum hirsutum and Pleurotus ostreatus, to remove BPA at the concentration of 4.6 mg L(-1) from water. Fungal growth on potato dextrose agar (PDA), in the absence and in the presence of a leonardite HA or a green compost HA, was evaluated during the biodecontamination process. The methodological approach adopted in this study excluded the presence of the mycelium in the contaminated water. Results obtained evidenced a relevant removal of BPA by any fungus when PDA only was used as growing medium. The addition of leonardite HA and compost HA stimulated the mycelial growth of any fungus, especially T. versicolor, and significantly enhanced the removal of the contaminant from water by, respectively, T. versicolor only and T. versicolor and S. hirsutum. PMID:22305120

  9. ENHANCED ENZYMATIC REMOVAL OF CHLOROPHENOLS IN THE PRESENCE OF CO-SUBSTRATES. (R823847)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of reactive co-substrates such as guaiacol and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol on the removal of chlorinated phenols by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and a
    laccase from the fungus Trametes versicolor was investigated. Addition of 50 mM guaiacol enhanced the precipitation of 4-ch...

  10. [Cutaneous Malassezia infections and Malassezia associated dermatoses: An update].

    PubMed

    Nenoff, P; Krüger, C; Mayser, P

    2015-06-01

    The lipophilic yeast fungus Malassezia (M.) spp. is the only fungal genus or species which is part of the physiological human microbiome. Today, at least 14 different Malassezia species are known; most of them can only be identified using molecular biological techniques. As a facultative pathogenic microorganism, Malassezia represents the causative agent both of superficial cutaneous infections and of blood stream infections. Pityriasis versicolor is the probably most frequent infection caused by Malassezia. Less common, Malassezia folliculitis occurs. There is only an episodic report on Malassezia-induced onychomycosis. Seborrhoeic dermatitis represents a Malassezia-associated inflammatory dermatosis. In addition, Malassezia allergenes should be considered as the trigger of "Head-Neck"-type atopic dermatitis. Ketoconazole possesses the strongest in vitro activity against Malassezia, and represents the treatment of choice for topical therapy of pityriasis versicolor. Alternatives include other azole antifungals but also the allylamine terbinafine and the hydroxypyridone antifungal agent ciclopirox olamine. "Antiseborrhoeic" agents, e.g. zinc pyrithione, selenium disulfide, and salicylic acid, are also effective in pityriasis versicolor. The drug of choice for oral treatment of pityriasis versicolor is itraconazole; an effective alternative represents fluconazole. Seborrhoeic dermatitis is best treated with topical medication, including topical corticosteroids and antifungal agents like ketoconazole or sertaconazole. Calcineurin inhibitors, e.g. pimecrolimus and tacrolimus, are reliable in seborrhoeic dermatitis, however are used off-label. PMID:25968082

  11. Lignin biodegradation and ligninolytic enzyme studies during biopulping of Acacia mangium wood chips by tropical white rot fungi.

    PubMed

    Liew, C Y; Husaini, A; Hussain, H; Muid, S; Liew, K C; Roslan, H A

    2011-06-01

    White rot fungi are good lignin degraders and have the potential to be used in industry. In the present work, Phellinus sp., Daedalea sp., Trametes versicolor and Pycnoporus coccineus were selected due to their relatively high ligninolytic enzyme activity, and grown on Acacia mangium wood chips under solid state fermentation. Results obtained showed that manganese peroxidase produced is far more compared to lignin peroxidase, suggesting that MnP might be the predominating enzymes causing lignin degradation in Acacia mangium wood chips. Cellulase enzyme assays showed that no significant cellulase activity was detected in the enzyme preparation of T. versicolor and Phellinus sp. This low cellulolytic activity further suggests that these two white rot strains are of more interest in lignin degradation. The results on lignin losses showed 20-30% of lignin breakdown at 60 days of biodegradation. The highest lignin loss was found in Acacia mangium biotreated with T. versicolor after 60 days and recorded 26.9%, corresponding to the percentage of their wood weight loss recorded followed by P. coccineus. In general, lignin degradation was only significant from 20 days onwards. The overall percentage of lignin weight loss was within the range of 1.02-26.90% over the biodegradation periods. Microscopic observations conducted using scanning electron microscope showed that T. versicolor, P. coccineus, Daedalea sp. and Phellinus sp. had caused lignin degradation in Acacia mangium wood chips. PMID:25187145

  12. Submicronic fungal bioaerosols: high-resolution microscopic characterization and quantification.

    PubMed

    Afanou, Komlavi Anani; Straumfors, Anne; Skogstad, Asbjørn; Nilsen, Terje; Synnes, Ole; Skaar, Ida; Hjeljord, Linda; Tronsmo, Arne; Green, Brett James; Eduard, Wijnand

    2014-11-01

    Submicronic particles released from fungal cultures have been suggested to be additional sources of personal exposure in mold-contaminated buildings. In vitro generation of these particles has been studied with particle counters, eventually supplemented by autofluorescence, that recognize fragments by size and discriminate biotic from abiotic particles. However, the fungal origin of submicronic particles remains unclear. In this study, submicronic fungal particles derived from Aspergillus fumigatus, A. versicolor, and Penicillium chrysogenum cultures grown on agar and gypsum board were aerosolized and enumerated using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). A novel bioaerosol generator and a fungal spores source strength tester were compared at 12 and 20 liters min(-1) airflow. The overall median numbers of aerosolized submicronic particles were 2 × 10(5) cm(-2), 2.6 × 10(3) cm(-2), and 0.9 × 10(3) cm(-2) for A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, and P. chrysogenum, respectively. A. fumigatus released significantly (P < 0.001) more particles than A. versicolor and P. chrysogenum. The ratios of submicronic fragments to larger particles, regardless of media type, were 1:3, 5:1, and 1:2 for A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, and P. chrysogenum, respectively. Spore fragments identified by the presence of rodlets amounted to 13%, 2%, and 0% of the submicronic particles released from A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, and P. chrysogenum, respectively. Submicronic particles with and without rodlets were also aerosolized from cultures grown on cellophane-covered media, indirectly confirming their fungal origin. Both hyphae and conidia could fragment into submicronic particles and aerosolize in vitro. These findings further highlight the potential contribution of fungal fragments to personal fungal exposure. PMID:25217010

  13. Submicronic Fungal Bioaerosols: High-Resolution Microscopic Characterization and Quantification

    PubMed Central

    Afanou, Komlavi Anani; Straumfors, Anne; Skogstad, Asbjørn; Nilsen, Terje; Synnes, Ole; Skaar, Ida; Hjeljord, Linda; Tronsmo, Arne; Green, Brett James

    2014-01-01

    Submicronic particles released from fungal cultures have been suggested to be additional sources of personal exposure in mold-contaminated buildings. In vitro generation of these particles has been studied with particle counters, eventually supplemented by autofluorescence, that recognize fragments by size and discriminate biotic from abiotic particles. However, the fungal origin of submicronic particles remains unclear. In this study, submicronic fungal particles derived from Aspergillus fumigatus, A. versicolor, and Penicillium chrysogenum cultures grown on agar and gypsum board were aerosolized and enumerated using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). A novel bioaerosol generator and a fungal spores source strength tester were compared at 12 and 20 liters min−1 airflow. The overall median numbers of aerosolized submicronic particles were 2 × 105 cm−2, 2.6 × 103 cm−2, and 0.9 × 103 cm−2 for A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, and P. chrysogenum, respectively. A. fumigatus released significantly (P < 0.001) more particles than A. versicolor and P. chrysogenum. The ratios of submicronic fragments to larger particles, regardless of media type, were 1:3, 5:1, and 1:2 for A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, and P. chrysogenum, respectively. Spore fragments identified by the presence of rodlets amounted to 13%, 2%, and 0% of the submicronic particles released from A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, and P. chrysogenum, respectively. Submicronic particles with and without rodlets were also aerosolized from cultures grown on cellophane-covered media, indirectly confirming their fungal origin. Both hyphae and conidia could fragment into submicronic particles and aerosolize in vitro. These findings further highlight the potential contribution of fungal fragments to personal fungal exposure. PMID:25217010

  14. Aerodynamic characteristics and respiratory deposition of fungal fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Seung-Hyun; Seo, Sung-Chul; Schmechel, Detlef; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Reponen, Tiina

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the aerodynamic characteristics of fungal fragments and to estimate their respiratory deposition. Fragments and spores of three different fungal species ( Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium melinii, and Stachybotrys chartarum) were aerosolized by the fungal spore source strength tester (FSSST). An electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI) measured the size distribution in real-time and collected the aerosolized fungal particles simultaneously onto 12 impactor stages in the size range of 0.3-10 μm utilizing water-soluble ZEF-X10 coating of the impaction stages to prevent spore bounce. For S. chartarum, the average concentration of released fungal fragments was 380 particles cm -3, which was about 514 times higher than that of spores. A. versicolor was found to release comparable amount of spores and fragments. Microscopic analysis confirmed that S. chartarum and A. versicolor did not show any significant spore bounce, whereas the size distribution of P. melinii fragments was masked by spore bounce. Respiratory deposition was calculated using a computer-based model, LUDEP 2.07, for an adult male and a 3-month-old infant utilizing the database on the concentration and size distribution of S. chartarum and A. versicolor aerosols measured by the ELPI. Total deposition fractions for fragments and spores were 27-46% and 84-95%, respectively, showing slightly higher values in an infant than in an adult. For S. chartarum, fragments demonstrated 230-250 fold higher respiratory deposition than spores, while the number of deposited fragments and spores of A. versicolor were comparable. It was revealed that the deposition ratio (the number of deposited fragments divided by that of deposited spores) in the lower airways for an infant was 4-5 times higher than that for an adult. As fungal fragments have been shown to contain mycotoxins and antigens, further exposure assessment should include the measurement of fungal fragments for

  15. Multistage process for the production of bioethanol from almond shell.

    PubMed

    Kacem, Imen; Koubaa, Mohamed; Maktouf, Sameh; Chaari, Fatma; Najar, Taha; Chaabouni, Moncef; Ettis, Nadia; Ellouz Chaabouni, Semia

    2016-07-01

    This work describes the feasibility of using almond shell as feedstock for bioethanol production. A pre-treatment step was carried out using 4% NaOH for 60min at 121°C followed by 1% sulfuric acid for 60min at 121°C. Enzymatic saccharification of the pre-treated almond shell was performed using Penicillium occitanis enzymes. The process was optimized using a hybrid design with four parameters including the incubation time, temperature, enzyme loads, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) concentration. The optimum hydrolysis conditions led to a sugar yield of 13.5%. A detoxification step of the enzymatic hydrolysate was carried out at pH 5 using 1U/ml of laccase enzyme produced by Polyporus ciliatus. Fermenting efficiency of the hydrolysates was greatly improved by laccase treatment, increasing the ethanol yield from 30% to 84%. These results demonstrated the efficiency of using almond shell as a promising source for bioethanol production. PMID:27017125

  16. Terpenoids and sterols from some Japanese mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Yaoita, Yasunori; Kikuchi, Masao; Machida, Koichi

    2014-03-01

    Over the past twenty years, our research group has been studying the chemical constituents of mushrooms. From nineteen species, namely, Amanita virgineoides Bas (Amanitaceae), Daedaleopsis tricolor (Bull.: Fr.) Bond. et Sing. (Polyporaceae), Grifolafrondosa (Fr.) S. F. Gray (Polyporaceae), Hericium erinaceum (Bull.: Fr.) Pers. (Hericiaceae), Hypsizigus marmoreus (Peck) Bigelow (Tricholomataceae), Lactarius piperatus (Scop.: Fr.) S. F. Gray (Russulaceae), Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Sing. (Pleurotaceae), Lyophyllyum connatum (Schum.: Fr.) Sing. (Tricholomataceae), Naematoloma sublateritium (Fr.) Karst. (Strophariaceae), Ompharia lapidescens Schroeter (Polyporaceae), Panellus serotinus (Pers.: Fr.) Kuhn. (Tricholomataceae), Pholiota nameko (T. Ito) S. Ito et Imai in Imai (Strophariaceae), Pleurotus eringii (DC.: Fr.) Quel. (Pleurotaceae), Polyporus umbellatus Fries (Polyporaceae), Russula delica Fr. (Russulaceae), Russula sanguinea (Bull.) Fr. (Russulaceae), Sarcodon aspratus (Berk.) S. Ito (Thelephoraceae), Tricholoma matsutake (S. Ito et Imai) Sing. (Tricholomataceae), and Tricholomaportentosum (Fr.) Quel. (Tricholomataceae), we isolated eight new sesquiterpenoids, six new meroterpenoids, three new triterpenoids, and twenty eight new sterols. In this review, structural features of these new compounds are discussed. PMID:24689228

  17. Manganese regulation of manganese peroxidase expression and lignin degradation by the white rot fungus Dichomitus squalens

    SciTech Connect

    Perie, F.; Gold, M.H. )

    1991-08-01

    Extracellular manganese peroxidase and laccase activities were detected in cultures of Dichomitus squalens (Polyporus anceps) under conditions favoring lignin degradation. In contrast, neither extracellular lignin peroxidase nor aryl alcohol oxidase activity was detected in cultures grown under a wide variety of conditions. The mineralization of {sup 14}C-ring-, -side chain-, and -methoxy-labeled synthetic guaiacyl lignins by D. squalens and the expression of extracellular manganese peroxidase were dependent on the presence of Mn(II), suggesting that manganese peroxidase is an important component of this organism's lignin degradation system. The expression of laccase activity was independent of manganese. In contrast to previous findings with Phanero-chaete chrysosporium, lignin degradation by D. squalens proceeded in the cultures containing excess carbon and nitrogen.

  18. Nutritional value of spiny lobsters (Panulirus sp.) from Southern Coast of Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haryono, F. Eko Dwi; Hutabarat, Sahala; Hutabarat, Johannes; Ambariyanto

    2015-12-01

    Five species of spiny lobsters are known to live in southern coast of Java. These lobsters are very popular seafood which was believed to have high nutritional value. However, nutrition content of these species from the area has not been investigated. This research was conducted to study nutrition content in these crustaceans. Five spiny lobsters i.e. Panulirus homarus, P. versicolor, P. ornatus, P. penicullatus, and P. longipes, were collected randomly from different locations at the southern coast of Java. Morphometric measurements were conducted prior to proximate analysis of these lobsters. All species of spiny lobsters investigated have similar carapace length. However, P. homarus and P. versicolor have the highest muscle weight. Proximate analysis shows that P. homarus also has high protein (24.18%) and carbohydrate content (55.68%) and lowest lipid content (6.18%) compare with other species. These results suggest that this lobster has best nutritional value for consumption.

  19. Quantitative structure-activity relationship of antifungal activity of rosin derivatives.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Nguyen, Thi Thanh Hien; Li, Shujun; Liang, Tao; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Li, Jian

    2015-01-15

    To develop new rosin-based wood preservatives with good antifungal activity, 24 rosin derivatives were synthesized, bioassay tested with Trametes versicolor and Gloeophyllum trabeum, and subjected to analysis of their quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR). A QSAR analysis using Ampac 9.2.1 and Codessa 2.7.16 software built two QSAR models of antifungal ratio for T. versicolor and G. trabeum with values of R(2)=0.9740 and 0.9692, respectively. Based on the models, tri-N-(3-hydroabietoxy-2-hydroxy) propyl-triethyl ammonium chloride was designed and the bioassay test result proved its better inhibitory effect against the two selected fungi as expected. PMID:25466709

  20. Microbial desulphurization of Turkish lignites by White Rot Fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Pinar Aytar; Mesut Sam; Ahmet Cabuk

    2008-03-15

    Biodesulphurization experiments were carried out with Tuncbilek lignite, characterized by high sulfur content (2.59%) by using Trametes versicolor ATCC 200801 and Phanerochaete chrysosporium ME 446. At fungal biomass studies, the effects of various parameters on fungal desulphurization of coals such as pH, temperature, pulp density, incubation time, and sterilization were investigated for both microorganisms. The maximum desulphurization (40%) was observed after 6 days of incubation at 35{sup o}C for T. versicolor. The optimum pH was measured at 6, and the agitation rate was fixed at 125 rpm. The pulp density was found as 5% (w/v) for the high extent of desulphurization. Also, calorific value did not change during this experiment. However, the ash and metal contents of coal were eliminated. 30 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Fungicides affect the production of extracellular mucilaginous material (ECMM) and the peripheral growth unit (PGU) in two wood-rotting basidiomycetes.

    PubMed

    Vesentini, Damiano; Dickinson, David J; Murphy, Richard J

    2006-10-01

    This study shows the effect of two fungicides on the production of extracellular mucilaginous material (ECMM) in two wood-rotting basidiomycetes and identifies a mechanism that might be responsible for the variation observed. Increasing concentrations of the fungicides copper sulphate (CuSO4) and cyproconazole in the growth medium increased the proportion of ECMM in the biomass of Trametes versicolor and Gloeophyllum trabeum. These fungicides also caused a reduction in the length of the peripheral growth unit (PGU) of the mycelia leading to a more highly branched morphology and a larger number of hyphal tips, the sites for active secretion of ECMM, per unit length of mycelium. It is postulated that both in T. versicolor and G. trabeum this change in growth leads to the increases observed in the proportion of ECMM in the total biomass. The implications of these results are discussed with a view to a potential protective role of ECMM against stress and toxic environments. PMID:17008083

  2. [Occurrence of indole alkaloids among secondary metabolites of soil Aspergillus].

    PubMed

    Vinokurova, N G; Khmel'nitskaia, I I; Baskunov, B P; Arinbasarov, M U

    2003-01-01

    The occurrence of indole alkaloids among secondary fungal metabolites was studied in species of the genus Aspergillus, isolated from soils that were sampled in various regions of Russia (a total of 102 isolates of the species A. niger, A. phoenicis, A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. versicolor, A. ustus, A. clavatus, and A. ochraceus). Clavine alkaloids were represented by fumigaclavine, which was formed by A. fumigatus. alpha-Cyclopiazonic acid was formed by isolates of A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. versicolor, A. phoenicis, and A. clavatus. The occurrence of indole-containing diketopiperazine alkaloids was documented for isolates of A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. clavatus, and A. ochraceus. No indole-containing metabolites were found among the metabolites of A. ustus or A. niger. PMID:12722658

  3. Profile and Morphology of Fungal Aerosols Characterized by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM)

    PubMed Central

    Afanou, Komlavi Anani; Straumfors, Anne; Skogstad, Asbjørn; Skaar, Ida; Hjeljord, Linda; Skare, Øivind; Green, Brett James; Tronsmo, Arne; Eduard, Wijnand

    2016-01-01

    Fungal aerosols consist of spores and fragments with diverse array of morphologies; however, the size, shape, and origin of the constituents require further characterization. In this study, we characterize the profile of aerosols generated from Aspergillus fumigatus, A. versicolor, and Penicillium chrysogenum grown for 8 weeks on gypsum boards. Fungal particles were aerosolized at 12 and 20 L min−1 using the Fungal Spore Source Strength Tester (FSSST) and the Stami particle generator (SPG). Collected particles were analyzed with field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). We observed spore particle fraction consisting of single spores and spore aggregates in four size categories, and a fragment fraction that contained submicronic fragments and three size categories of larger fragments. Single spores dominated the aerosols from A. fumigatus (median: 53%), while the submicronic fragment fraction was the highest in the aerosols collected from A. versicolor (median: 34%) and P. chrysogenum (median: 31%). Morphological characteristics showed near spherical particles that were only single spores, oblong particles that comprise some spore aggregates and fragments (<3.5 μm), and fiber-like particles that regroup chained spore aggregates and fragments (>3.5 μm). Further, the near spherical particles dominated the aerosols from A. fumigatus (median: 53%), while oblong particles were dominant in the aerosols from A. versicolor (68%) and P. chrysogenum (55%). Fiber-like particles represented 21% and 24% of the aerosols from A. versicolor and P. chrysogenum, respectively. This study shows that fungal particles of various size, shape, and origin are aerosolized, and supports the need to include a broader range of particle types in fungal exposure assessment. PMID:26855468

  4. A tale of two spartinas: Climatic, photobiological and isotopic insights on the fitness of non-indigenous versus native species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, B.; Baeta, A.; Rousseau-Gueutin, M.; Ainouche, M.; Marques, J. C.; Caçador, I.

    2015-12-01

    Salt marshes are facing a new threat: the invasion by non-indigenous species (NIS), Although its introduction time is not established yet, in 1999 Spartina versicolor was already identified as a NIS in the Mediterranean marshes, significantly spreading its area of colonization. Using the Mediterranean native Spartina maritima as a reference, the present research studied the ecophysiological fitness of this NIS in its new environment, as a tool to understand its potential invasiveness. It was found that Spartina versicolor had a stable photobiological pattern, with only minor fluctuations during an annual cycle, and lower efficiencies comparated to S. maritima. The NIS seems to be rather insensitive to the observed abiotic factors fluctuations (salinity and pH of the sediment), and thus contrasts with the native S. maritima, known to be salinity dependent with higher productivity values in higher salinity environments. Most of the differences observed between the photobiology of these species could be explained by their nitrogen nutrition (here evaluated by the δ15N stable isotope) and directly related with the Mediterranean climate. Enhanced by a higher N availability during winter, the primary production of S. maritima which lead to dilution of the foliar δ15N concentration in the newly formed biomass, similarly to what is observed along a rainfall gradient. On the other hand, S. versicolor showed an increased δ15N in its tissues along the annual rainfall gradient, probably due to a δ15N concentration effect during low biomass production periods (winter and autumn). Together with the photobiological traits, these isotopic data point out to a climatic misfit of S. versicolor to the Mediterranean climate compared to the native S. maritima. This appears to be the major constrain shaping the ecophysiological fitness of this NIS, its primary production and consequently, its spreading rate along the Mediterranean marshes.

  5. New and rare lignicolous hyphomycetes from Zhejiang Province, China* §

    PubMed Central

    Wongsawas, Mongkol; Wang, Hong-kai; Hyde, Kevin D.; Lin, Fu-cheng

    2008-01-01

    Sporidesmiopsis zhejiangensis sp. nov. and Spadicoides americana were found on submerged wood from streams in Zhejiang Province, China. Sporidesmiopsis zhejiangensis is characterized by obclavate to fusiform, 5-6-distoseptate, versicolorous, verruculose conidia with an apical mucilaginous sheath. Spadicoides americana is a new record to China. These taxa are described and illustrated, and morphological differences between these species and their similar species were summarized. PMID:18837107

  6. Aflatoxin and sterigmatocystin contamination of pistachio nuts in orchards.

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, N F; Buchanan, J R; Fortlage, R J

    1976-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus and A. versicolor were both shown to be weak pathogens of developing pistachio fruits, producing aflatoxin and sterigmatocystin, respectively. Aflatoxin concentrations approached those reported in cereal and legume seeds. Fungus lesions on the first hulls were followed by invasion of seeds despite the sclerified shell. Infections and mycotoxins present before harvest would presumably lead to further build-up after harvest if drying was slow or storage was under high humidity. PMID:823868

  7. Bacterial versus fungal laccase: potential for micropollutant degradation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Relatively high concentrations of micropollutants in municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents underscore the necessity to develop additional treatment steps prior to discharge of treated wastewater. Microorganisms that produce unspecific oxidative enzymes such as laccases are a potential means to improve biodegradation of these compounds. Four strains of the bacterial genus Streptomyces (S. cyaneus, S. ipomoea, S. griseus and S. psammoticus) and the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor were studied for their ability to produce active extracellular laccase in biologically treated wastewater with different carbon sources. Among the Streptomyces strains evaluated, only S. cyaneus produced extracellular laccase with sufficient activity to envisage its potential use in WWTPs. Laccase activity produced by T. versicolor was more than 20 times greater, the highest activity being observed with ash branches as the sole carbon source. The laccase preparation of S. cyaneus (abbreviated LSc) and commercial laccase from T. versicolor (LTv) were further compared in terms of their activity at different pH and temperatures, their stability, their substrate range, and their micropollutant oxidation efficiency. LSc and LTv showed highest activities under acidic conditions (around pH 3 to 5), but LTv was active over wider pH and temperature ranges than LSc, especially at near-neutral pH and between 10 and 25°C (typical conditions found in WWTPs). LTv was also less affected by pH inactivation. Both laccase preparations oxidized the three micropollutants tested, bisphenol A, diclofenac and mefenamic acid, with faster degradation kinetics observed for LTv. Overall, T. versicolor appeared to be the better candidate to remove micropollutants from wastewater in a dedicated post-treatment step. PMID:24152339

  8. Bacterial versus fungal laccase: potential for micropollutant degradation.

    PubMed

    Margot, Jonas; Bennati-Granier, Chloé; Maillard, Julien; Blánquez, Paqui; Barry, David A; Holliger, Christof

    2013-01-01

    Relatively high concentrations of micropollutants in municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents underscore the necessity to develop additional treatment steps prior to discharge of treated wastewater. Microorganisms that produce unspecific oxidative enzymes such as laccases are a potential means to improve biodegradation of these compounds. Four strains of the bacterial genus Streptomyces (S. cyaneus, S. ipomoea, S. griseus and S. psammoticus) and the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor were studied for their ability to produce active extracellular laccase in biologically treated wastewater with different carbon sources. Among the Streptomyces strains evaluated, only S. cyaneus produced extracellular laccase with sufficient activity to envisage its potential use in WWTPs. Laccase activity produced by T. versicolor was more than 20 times greater, the highest activity being observed with ash branches as the sole carbon source. The laccase preparation of S. cyaneus (abbreviated LSc) and commercial laccase from T. versicolor (LTv) were further compared in terms of their activity at different pH and temperatures, their stability, their substrate range, and their micropollutant oxidation efficiency. LSc and LTv showed highest activities under acidic conditions (around pH 3 to 5), but LTv was active over wider pH and temperature ranges than LSc, especially at near-neutral pH and between 10 and 25°C (typical conditions found in WWTPs). LTv was also less affected by pH inactivation. Both laccase preparations oxidized the three micropollutants tested, bisphenol A, diclofenac and mefenamic acid, with faster degradation kinetics observed for LTv. Overall, T. versicolor appeared to be the better candidate to remove micropollutants from wastewater in a dedicated post-treatment step. PMID:24152339

  9. Chemical polymorphism and antifungal activity of essential oils from leaves of different provenances of indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Sen-Sung; Liu, Ju-Yun; Hsui, Yen-Ray; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2006-01-01

    The essential oils isolated from nine geographical provenances of indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh.) leaves were examined by GC-MS and their chemical constituents were compared. According to GC-MS and cluster analyses the leaf essential oils of the nine provenances and their relative contents were classified into six chemotypes-cinnamaldehyde type, cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type, cinnamyl acetate type, linalool type, camphor type and mixed type. In addition, the antifungal activities of leaf essential oils and their constituents from six chemotypes of indigenous cinnamon were investigated in this study. Results from the antifungal tests demonstrated that the leaf essential oils of cinnamaldehyde type and cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type had an excellent inhibitory effect against white-rot fungi, Trametes versicolor and Lenzites betulina and brown-rot fungus Laetiporus sulphureus. The antifungal indices of leaf essential oils from these two chemotypes at the level of 200 micro/ml against T. versicolor, L. betulina and L. sulphureus were all 100%. Among them, the IC(50) (50% of inhibitory concentrations) value of the essential oil of cinnamaldehyde type leaf against L. sulphureus was 52-59microg/ml. Cinnamaldehyde possessed the strongest antifungal activities in comparison with other constituents of the essential oils from cinnamaldehyde type leaf, at the level of 100microg/ml its antifungal indices against T. versicolor, L. betulina and L. sulphureus were 100%. The IC50 values of cinnamaldehyde against T. versicolor, L. betulina and L. sulphureus were 73, 74 and 73microg/ml, respectively. PMID:16171686

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) biodegradation by basidiomycetes fungi, Pseudomonas isolate, and their cocultures: comparative in vivo and in silico approach.

    PubMed

    Arun, A; Raja, P Praveen; Arthi, R; Ananthi, M; Kumar, K Sathish; Eyini, M

    2008-12-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) biodegradation potential of the five basidiomycetes' fungal monocultures and their cocultures was compared with that of a Pseudomonas isolate recovered from oil-spilled soil. As utilization of hydrocarbons by the microorganisms is associated with biosurfactant production, the level of biosurfactant production and its composition by the selected microorganisms was also investigated. The Pseudomonas isolate showed higher ability to degrade three of the five PAHs but the isolate did not produce biosurfactant higher than C. versicolor and P. ostreatus. Among the PAHs, the most effective biodegradation of PAH--pyrene (42%)--was obtained with the fungus C. versicolor. Cocultures involving the fungi and Pseudomonas could not significantly degrade the selected PAHs compounds above that degraded by the most efficient monoculture. A slight increase in pyrene degradation was observed in cocultures of C. versicolor and F. palustris (93.7% pyrene). The crude biosurfactant was biochemically characterized as a multicomponent surfactant consisting of protein and polysaccharides. The PAH biodegradation potential of the basidiomycetes fungi positively correlated with their potential to express ligninolytic enzymes such as lignin peroxidase (Lip), manganese peroxidase (Mnp), and laccase. The present study utilized in silico method such as protein-ligand docking using the FRED in Open Eye software as a tool to assess the level of ligninolytic enzymes and PAHs interactions. The in silico analysis using FRED revealed that of the five PAHs, maximum interaction occurred between pyrene and all the three ligninolytic enzymes. The results of the in silico analysis corroborated with our experimental results showing that pyrene was degraded to the maximum extent by species such as C. versicolor and P. ostreatus. PMID:18975143

  11. Fungal DNA in hotel rooms in Europe and Asia--associations with latitude, precipitation, building data, room characteristics and hotel ranking.

    PubMed

    Norbäck, Dan; Cai, Gui-Hong

    2011-10-01

    There is little information on the indoor environment in hotels. Analysis of fungal DNA by quantitative PCR (qPCR) is a new method which can detect general and specific sequences. Dust was collected through swab sampling of door frames in 69 hotel rooms in 20 countries in Europe and Asia (2007-2009). Five sequences were detected by qPCR: total fungal DNA, Aspergillus and Penicillium DNA (Asp/Pen DNA), Aspergillus versicolor (A. versicolor DNA), Stachybotrys chartarum (S. chartarum DNA) and Streptomyces spp. (Streptomyces DNA). Associations were analysed by multiple linear regression. Total fungal DNA (GM = 1.08 × 10(8) cell equivalents m(-2); GSD = 6.36) and Asp/Pen DNA (GM = 1.79 × 10(7) cell equivalents m(-2); GSD = 10.12) were detected in all rooms. A. versicolor DNA, S. chartarum DNA and Streptomyces DNA were detected in 84%, 28% and 47% of the samples. In total, 20% of the rooms had observed dampness/mould, and 30% had odour. Low latitude (range 1.5-64.2 degrees) was a predictor of Asp/Pen DNA. Seaside location, lack of mechanical ventilation, and dampness or mould were other predictors of total fungal DNA and Asp/Pen DNA. Hotel ranking (Trip Advisor) or self-rated quality of the interior of the hotel room was a predictor of total fungal DNA, A. versicolor DNA and Streptomyces DNA. Odour was a predictor of S. chartarum DNA. In conclusion, fungal DNA in swab samples from hotel rooms was related to latitude, seaside location, ventilation, visible dampness and indoor mould growth. Hotels in tropical areas may have 10-100 times higher levels of common moulds such as Aspergillus and Penicillium species, as compared to a temperate climate zone. PMID:21897974

  12. Antifungal and antibacterial activities of Araucaria araucana (Mol.) K. Koch heartwood lignans.

    PubMed

    Céspedes, Carlos L; Avila, J Guillermo; García, Ana M; Becerra, José; Flores, Cristian; Aqueveque, Pedro; Bittner, Magalis; Hoeneisen, Maritza; Martinez, Miguel; Silva, Mario

    2006-01-01

    Five lignans (secoisolariciresinol, pinoresinol, eudesmin, lariciresinol, and lariciresinol-4-methyl ether) were isolated from an MeOH extract from Araucaria araucana (Mol.) K. Koch wood for the first time in this species and their structures determined with spectroscopic methods. The antimicrobial activities of these compounds were determined for the bacteria Citrobacter sp., Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and for the white rooting and staining fungi Mucor miehei, Paecilomyces variotii, Ceratocystis pilifera, Trametes versicolor, and Penicillium notatum, and in addition, the MeOH extract was evaluated against Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Fusarium moniliforme, F. sporotrichum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The most sensitive bacteria against pinoresinol were the Gram-positive. However, secoisolariciresinol exhibited a significant antifungal activity on fungi of white rooting and wood staining and this compound completely inhibited the mycelial growth of T. versicolor and C. pilifera at 300 and 400 microg per disc, respectively, whereas pinoresinol showed a moderate inhibitory activity. On the other hand, the MeOH extract had the highest activity against rooting and staining and pathogenic fungi as well as T. versicolor, Fusarium spp. and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, inhibiting completely the growth at 400 microg per disc. PMID:16610214

  13. Indirect Immunodetection of Fungal Fragments by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Afanou, Komlavi Anani; Straumfors, Anne; Skogstad, Asbjørn; Nayak, Ajay P.; Skaar, Ida; Hjeljord, Linda; Tronsmo, Arne; Green, Brett James

    2015-01-01

    Submicronic fungal fragments have been observed in in vitro aerosolization experiments. The occurrence of these particles has therefore been suggested to contribute to respiratory health problems observed in mold-contaminated indoor environments. However, the role of submicronic fragments in exacerbating adverse health effects has remained unclear due to limitations associated with detection methods. In the present study, we report the development of an indirect immunodetection assay that utilizes chicken polyclonal antibodies developed against spores from Aspergillus versicolor and high-resolution field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Immunolabeling was performed with A. versicolor fragments immobilized and fixed onto poly-l-lysine-coated polycarbonate filters. Ninety percent of submicronic fragments and 1- to 2-μm fragments, compared to 100% of >2-μm fragments generated from pure freeze-dried mycelial fragments of A. versicolor, were positively labeled. In proof-of-concept experiments, air samples collected from moldy indoor environments were evaluated using the immunolabeling technique. Our results indicated that 13% of the total collected particles were derived from fungi. This fraction comprises 79% of the fragments that were detected by immunolabeling and 21% of the spore particles that were morphologically identified. The methods reported in this study enable the enumeration of fungal particles, including submicronic fragments, in a complex heterogeneous environmental sample. PMID:26092450

  14. Antifungal activity of ketoconazole and other azoles against Malassezia furfur in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Strippoli, V; Piacentini, A; D'Auria, F D; Simonetti, N

    1997-01-01

    The in vitro activity of several antifungal agents (ketoconazole, miconazole, econazole, fenticonazole, itraconazole, fluconazole) in routine clinical use against Malassezia furfur infections has been studied with freshly isolated strains of M. furfur from pityriasis versicolor lesions. The results indicate that the drugs tested exert a good activity, and both ketoconazole and itraconazole appear very active (0.8 mg/l respectively). Hair samples from the beards of volunteer patients affected by pityriasis versicolor but otherwise healthy were examined to determine ketoconazole levels during oral therapy (one or two 200 mg tablets daily). It was shown that the drug progressively accumulates in the beard, reaching levels proportional to the dose administered, although blood levels did not increase in parallel. The study of drug concentration profile has evidenced a long ketoconazole persistence in the beard at therapeutic levels. In conclusion, the possibility of reaching high and lasting ketoconazole levels in the keratin layer of the epidermis indicates that systemic ketoconazole therapy could be useful for eradication of M. furfur in patients affected by pityriasis versicolor. PMID:9334866

  15. Indirect Immunodetection of Fungal Fragments by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Afanou, Komlavi Anani; Straumfors, Anne; Skogstad, Asbjørn; Nayak, Ajay P; Skaar, Ida; Hjeljord, Linda; Tronsmo, Arne; Eduard, Wijnand; Green, Brett James

    2015-09-01

    Submicronic fungal fragments have been observed in in vitro aerosolization experiments. The occurrence of these particles has therefore been suggested to contribute to respiratory health problems observed in mold-contaminated indoor environments. However, the role of submicronic fragments in exacerbating adverse health effects has remained unclear due to limitations associated with detection methods. In the present study, we report the development of an indirect immunodetection assay that utilizes chicken polyclonal antibodies developed against spores from Aspergillus versicolor and high-resolution field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Immunolabeling was performed with A. versicolor fragments immobilized and fixed onto poly-l-lysine-coated polycarbonate filters. Ninety percent of submicronic fragments and 1- to 2-μm fragments, compared to 100% of >2-μm fragments generated from pure freeze-dried mycelial fragments of A. versicolor, were positively labeled. In proof-of-concept experiments, air samples collected from moldy indoor environments were evaluated using the immunolabeling technique. Our results indicated that 13% of the total collected particles were derived from fungi. This fraction comprises 79% of the fragments that were detected by immunolabeling and 21% of the spore particles that were morphologically identified. The methods reported in this study enable the enumeration of fungal particles, including submicronic fragments, in a complex heterogeneous environmental sample. PMID:26092450

  16. Identification of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria from three African leguminous trees in Gorongosa National Park.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Helena; Rodríguez-Echeverría, Susana

    2016-07-01

    The symbiosis between leguminous plants and symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria is a key component of terrestrial ecosystems. Woody legumes are well represented in tropical African forests but despite their ecological and socio-economic importance, they have been little studied for this symbiosis. In this study, we examined the identity and diversity of symbiotic-nitrogen fixing bacteria associated with Acacia xanthophloea, Faidherbia albida and Albizia versicolor in the Gorongosa National Park (GNP) in Mozambique. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the identity of symbiotic-nitrogen fixing bacteria in this region. 166 isolates were obtained and subjected to molecular identification. BOX-A1R PCR was used to discriminate different bacterial isolates and PCR-sequencing of 16S rDNA, and two housekeeping genes, glnII and recA, was used to identify the obtained bacteria. The gene nifH was also analyzed to assess the symbiotic capacity of the obtained bacteria. All isolates from F. albida and Al. versicolor belonged to the Bradyrhizobium genus whereas isolates from Ac. xanthophloea clustered with Mesorhizobium, Rhizobium or Ensifer strains. Soil chemical analysis revealed significant differences between the soils occupied by the three studied species. Thus, we found a clear delimitation in the rhizobial communities and soils associated with Ac. xanthophloea, F. albida and Al. versicolor, and higher rhizobial diversity for Ac. xanthophloea than previously reported. PMID:27287843

  17. Utilizing pigment-producing fungi to add commercial value to American beech (Fagus grandifolia).

    PubMed

    Robinson, Sara C; Tudor, Daniela; Cooper, Paul A

    2012-02-01

    American beech (Fagus grandifolia) is an abundant, underutilized tree in certain areas of North America, and methods to increase its market value are of considerable interest. This research utilized pigment-producing fungi to induce color in American beech to potentially establish its use as a decorative wood. Wood samples were inoculated with Trametes versicolor, Xylaria polymorpha, Inonotus hispidus, and Arthrographis cuboidea to induce fungal pigmentation. Black pigmentation (T. versicolor, X. polymorpha, I. hispidus) was sporadic, occurred primarily on the surfaces of the heartwood, but not internally. Pink pigmentation (A. cuboidea) occurred throughout all of the tested beech samples, but was difficult to see in the heartwood due to the darker color of the wood. To increase the visibility of the pink stain, beech blocks were pretreated with T. versicolor for 4 weeks before being inoculated with A. cuboidea. This method significantly increased the saturation of the pink stain on both beech heartwood and sapwood, creating coloration similar to that found on sugar maple. This value-adding process should be particularly effective for small-scale wood pigmentation, and should help establish a market for this currently underutilized wood species. PMID:21931972

  18. Antigenotoxic Effect of Trametes spp. Extracts against DNA Damage on Human Peripheral White Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Knežević, Aleksandar; Živković, Lada; Stajić, Mirjana; Vukojević, Jelena; Milovanović, Ivan; Spremo-Potparević, Biljana

    2015-01-01

    Trametes species have been used for thousands of years in traditional and conventional medicine for the treatment of various types of diseases. The goal was to evaluate possible antigenotoxic effects of mycelium and basidiocarp extracts of selected Trametes species and to assess dependence on their antioxidant potential. Trametes versicolor, T. hirsuta, and T. gibbosa were the species studied. Antigenotoxic potentials of extracts were assessed on human peripheral white blood cells with basidiocarp and mycelium extracts of the species. The alkaline comet test was used for detection of DNA strand breaks and alkali-labile sites, as well as the extent of DNA migration. DPPH assay was used to estimate antioxidative properties of extracts. Fruiting body extracts of T. versicolor and T. gibbosa as well as T. hirsuta extracts, except that at 20.0 mg/mL, were not genotoxic agents. T. versicolor extract had at 5.0 mg/mL the greatest antigenotoxic effect in both pre- and posttreatment of leukocytes. The mycelium extracts of the three species had no genotoxic activity and significant antigenotoxic effect against H2O2-induced DNA damage, both in pre- and posttreatment. The results suggest that extracts of these three species could be considered as strong antigenotoxic agents able to stimulate genoprotective response of cells. PMID:26258163

  19. Disulfide bonds and glycosylation in fungal peroxidases.

    PubMed

    Limongi, P; Kjalke, M; Vind, J; Tams, J W; Johansson, T; Welinder, K G

    1995-01-15

    Four conserved disulfide bonds and N-linked and O-linked glycans of extracellular fungal peroxidases have been identified from studies of a lignin and a manganese peroxidase from Trametes versicolor, and from Coprinus cinereus peroxidase (CIP) and recombinant C. cinereus peroxidase (rCIP) expressed in Aspergillus oryzae. The eight cysteine residues are linked 1-3, 2-7, 4-5 and 6-8, and are located differently from the four conserved disulfide bridges present in the homologous plant peroxidases. CIP and rCIP were identical in their glycosylation pattern, although the extent of glycan chain heterogeneity depended on the fermentation batch. CIP and rCIP have one N-linked glycan composed only of GlcNAc and Man at residue Asn142, and two O-linked glycans near the C-terminus. The major glycoform consists of single Man residues at Thr331 and at Ser338. T. versicolor lignin isoperoxidase TvLP10 contains a single N-linked glycan composed of (GlcNAc)2Man5 bound to Asn103, whereas (GlcNAc)2Man3 was found in T. versicolor manganese isoperoxidase TvMP2 at the same position. In addition, mass spectrometry of the C-terminal peptide of TvMP2 indicated the presence of five Man residues in O-linked glycans. No phosphate was found in these fungal peroxidases. PMID:7851395

  20. Evaluation of Ten Wild Nigerian Mushrooms for Amylase and Cellulase Activities

    PubMed Central

    Adeoyo, Olusegun Richard

    2011-01-01

    Amylases and cellulases are important enzymes that can be utilized for various biological activities. Ten different wild Nigerian mushrooms (Agaricus blazei, Agaricus sp., Corilopsis occidentalis, Coriolus versicolor, Termitomyces clypeatus, Termitomyces globulus, Pleurotus tuber-regium, Podoscypha bolleana, Pogonomyces hydnoides, and Nothopanus hygrophanus) were assayed for production of these secondary metabolites. The results revealed that most of the tested wild fungi demonstrated very good amylase and cellulase activities. With the incorporation of carboxymethyl-cellulose (a carbon source) into the culture medium, Agaricus blazei had the highest amylolytic activity of 0.60 unit/mL (at 25℃, pH 6.8). This was followed in order by P. tuber-regium and Agaricus sp. with 0.42 and 0.39 unit/mL, respectively (p ≤ 0.05). Maltose and sucrose supplementation into the submerged liquid medium made N. hygrophanus and P. hydnoides to exhibit very low amylase activities of 0.09 and 0.11 unit/mL, respectively. Introducing peptone (an organic nitrogen source) into the basal medium enhanced the ability of C. versicolor to produce a cellulase value of 0.74 unit/mL. Other organic nitrogen sources that supported good cellulase activities were yeast extract and urea. Sodium nitrate (inorganic nitrogen source) generally inhibited cellulase production in all mushrooms. The best carbon source was carboxymethyl-cellulose, which promoted very high cellulase activity of 0.67 unit/mL in C. versicolor, which was followed in order by P. tuber-regium, T. chypeatus, and C. occidentalis (p ≤ 0.05). Sucrose was the poorest carbon compound, supporting the lowest values of 0.01, 0.01, and 0.14 unit/mL in P. hydnoides, A. blazei, and Agaricus sp., respectively. PMID:22783085

  1. Regulation of coal polymer degradation by fungi. Tenth Quartery report, October 1996--December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, R.L.; Bumpus, J.A.

    1997-01-28

    It has long been known that low rank coal such as leonardite can be solubilized by strong base (>pH 12). Recent discoveries have also shown that leonardite is solubilized by Lewis bases at considerably lower pH values and by fungi that secrete certain Lewis bases (i.e., oxalate ion). During the current reporting period we have studied the ability of a strong base (sodium hydroxide, pH 12), and two fungi, Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes versicolor, to solubilize Argonne Premium Coals. In general, Argonne Premium Coals were relatively resistant to base mediated solubilization. However, when these coals were preoxidized (150{degrees}C for seven days), substantial amounts of several coals were solubilized. Most affected were the Lewiston-Stockton bituminous coal, the Beulah-Zap lignite, the Wyodak-Anderson subbituminous coal and the Blind Canyon bituminous coal. Argonne Premium Coals were previously shown by us to be relatively resistant to solubilization by sodium oxalate. When preoxidized coals were treated with sodium oxalate, only the Beulah-Zap lignite was substantially solubilized. Although very small amounts of the other preoxidized coals were solubilized by treatment with oxalate, the small amount of solubilization that did take place was generally increased relative to that observed for coals that were not preoxidized. None of the Argonne Premium Coals were solubilized by P. chrysosporium or T. versicolor. Of considerable interest, however, is the observation that P. chrysosporium and T. versicolor mediated extensive solubilization of Lewiston-Stockton bituminous coal, the Beulah-Zap lignite and the Wyodak-Anderson subbituminous coal.

  2. Climatic variation and the distribution of an amphibian polyploid complex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otto, C.R.V.; Snodgrass, J.W.; Forester, D.C.; Mitchell, J.C.; Miller, R.W.

    2007-01-01

    1. The establishment of polyploid populations involves the persistence and growth of the polyploid in the presence of the progenitor species. Although there have been a number of animal polyploid species documented, relatively few inquiries have been made into the large-scale mechanisms of polyploid establishment in animal groups. Herein we investigate the influence of regional climatic conditions on the distributional patterns of a diploid-tetraploid species pair of gray treefrogs, Hyla chrysoscelis and H. versicolor (Anura: Hylidae) in the mid-Atlantic region of eastern North America. 2. Calling surveys at breeding sites were used to document the distribution of each species. Twelve climatic models and one elevation model were generated to predict climatic and elevation values for gray treefrog breeding sites. A canonical analysis of discriminants was used to describe relationships between climatic variables, elevation and the distribution of H. chrysoscelis and H. versicolor. 3. There was a strong correlation between several climatic variables, elevation and the distribution of the gray treefrog complex. Specifically, the tetraploid species almost exclusively occupied areas of higher elevation, where climatic conditions were relatively severe (colder, drier, greater annual variation). In contrast, the diploid species was restricted to lower elevations, where climatic conditions were warmer, wetter and exhibited less annual variation. 4. Clusters of syntopic sites were associated with areas of high variation in annual temperature and precipitation during the breeding season. 5. Our data suggest that large-scale climatic conditions have played a role in the establishment of the polyploid H. versicolor in at least some portions of its range. The occurrence of the polyploid and absence of the progenitor in colder, drier and more varied environments suggests the polyploid may posses a tolerance of severe environmental conditions that is not possessed by the diploid

  3. Trinitrotoluene and mandarin peels selectively affect lignin-modifying enzyme production in white-rot basidiomycetes.

    PubMed

    Kachlishvili, Eva; Asatiani, Mikheil; Kobakhidze, Aza; Elisashvili, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Five white-rot basidiomycetes (WRB) species have been evaluated for their potential to tolerate and to degrade 0.2 mM 2, 4, 6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) as well as to produce laccase and manganese peroxidase (MnP) in presence of this xenobiotic. The tested fungal strains produced laccase in both glycerol and mandarin peels-containing media, whereas in the glycerol-containing medium only Cerrena unicolor strains and Trametes versicolor BCC 775 secreted MnP. Replacement of glycerol by milled mandarin peels 3- to 45-fold increased laccase activity, promoted C. unicolor strains and T. versicolor MnP secretion and induced this enzyme production by Fomes fomentarius BCC 38 and Funalia trogii BCC 146. Differential response of the WRB strains to the TNT addition was observed. In particular, laccase activity of C. unicolor increased 2- to 3-fold in both media whereas no stimulation of the laccase production was revealed in cultivation of F. fomentarius. TNT practically did not affect the MnP activity. Two strains of C. unicolor followed by T. versicolor producing laccase and MnP almost completely removed 0.2 mM TNT from the synthetic medium. Increase of TNT concentration from 0 to 0.4 mM in the mandarin peels-based medium and from 0 to 0.3 mM in the glycerol-containing medium stimulated C. unicolor BCC 300 laccase production from 92.4 to 240.7 U/ml and from 17.1 to 48.6 U/ml, respectively. This strain has been resistant to the TNT high concentration and has ability to remove 85 % of initial 0.3 mM TNT content during 6 days of the submerged cultivation. PMID:27026944

  4. Confluent and Reticulated Papillomatosis of Gougerot-Carteaud on Black Skin: Two Observations.

    PubMed

    Ahogo, Kouadio Celestin; Gbery, Patrice Ildevert; Bamba, Vagamon; Kouassi, Yao Isidore; Ecra, Elidje Joseph; Kouassi, Kouame Alesandre; Allou, Ange Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Confluent and reticulated papillomatosis of Goujerot-Carteaud is a rare and benign skin disease characterized by flat papules taking a reticulated appearance. It is a skin disease of unknown etiology and nosology that is always discussed. This disease preferentially involves the chest and interscapular regions. It is a condition probably underdiagnosed in black skin because it generally simulates a pigmented tinea versicolor. This pathology withstands antifungal treatment but has a particular sensitivity to cyclines thus constituting a distinguishing criterion, useful for diagnosis which should be evoked in front of these reticulated confluent papules. PMID:27127662

  5. Confluent and Reticulated Papillomatosis of Gougerot-Carteaud on Black Skin: Two Observations

    PubMed Central

    Ahogo, Kouadio Celestin; Gbery, Patrice Ildevert; Bamba, Vagamon; Kouassi, Yao Isidore; Ecra, Elidje Joseph; Kouassi, Kouame Alesandre; Allou, Ange Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Confluent and reticulated papillomatosis of Goujerot-Carteaud is a rare and benign skin disease characterized by flat papules taking a reticulated appearance. It is a skin disease of unknown etiology and nosology that is always discussed. This disease preferentially involves the chest and interscapular regions. It is a condition probably underdiagnosed in black skin because it generally simulates a pigmented tinea versicolor. This pathology withstands antifungal treatment but has a particular sensitivity to cyclines thus constituting a distinguishing criterion, useful for diagnosis which should be evoked in front of these reticulated confluent papules. PMID:27127662

  6. Clinicopathological correlation of acquired hypopigmentary disorders.

    PubMed

    Patel, Anisha B; Kubba, Raj; Kubba, Asha

    2013-01-01

    Acquired hypopigmentary disorders comprise a significant group of disorders that affect Indians and Asians. The pigment disturbance in darker skin individuals can be very distressing to the patient and the family. These disorders cover a wide array of pathologies including infections, autoimmune processes, lymphoproliferative disorders, and sclerosing diseases. Histological diagnosis is particularly important because treatments for these diseases are varied and specific. This review will focus on histopathological diagnosis based on clinicopathological correlation for commonly encountered disorders such as leprosy, vitiligo, lichen sclerosus, pityriasis alba (PA), and pityriasis versicolor (PV). Atypical or uncommon clinical presentation of classic diseases such as hypopigmented mycosis fungoides (HMF) and hypopigmented sarcoidosis are also included. PMID:23619442

  7. Biochar effects on soil-resident ligninolytic fungi: in vitro growth response and its pH dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taskin, Eren; Loffredo, Elisabetta

    2016-04-01

    Ligninolytic fungi play an essential role on soil fertility because of their decomposing activity that allows nutrients inside biomasses to be released back into the soil. Their enzymes are able to degrade lignin which is otherwise recalcitrant to microbial and chemical degradation. Biochar (BC) has been recently proposed as a soil amendment that may contribute to climate change mitigation via carbon sequestration in soil. Pyrolysis conditions, feedstock and several other factors affect BC characteristics which in turn may influence BC impact on soil microorganisms and terrestrial ecosystems. However, limited information is available in the literature about BC's impact on ligninolytic fungi. The objective of this in vitro study was to assess the impact of BC and pH change caused by BC addition on three soil-resident ligninolytic fungi, Pleurotus ostreatus, Trametes versicolor and Bjerkandera adusta. The BC sample used in this study was obtained from 100% red spruce pellets pyrolysed at a temperature of 550 °C, and it was added to PDA medium directly as solid BC at the doses of 2 g L-1 (BC-LD) and 10 g L-1 (BC-HD). pH values were determined and the experiments were conducted either adjusting the pH of the controls either without pH adjustment. The fungi were inoculated separately in Petri dishes filled with the various media and the radial mycelial growth was measured at several sampling times. Results obtained showed a fungal growth response clearly dependent on the species and the BC dose. BC-LD stimulated the growth of P. ostreatus and T. versicolor, whereas it inhibited that of B. adusta. BC-HD stimulated the growth of P. ostreatus and inhibited that of T. versicolor and B. adusta. Similar responses were obtained with or without pH adjustment for P. ostreatus and T. versicolor, whereas a pH dependency was found for B. adusta. The effects of these and other pertinent treatments on fungal enzymes of the fungi are currently under investigation.

  8. Polyphasic Identification and Susceptibility to Seven Antifungals of 102 Aspergillus Isolates Recovered from Immunocompromised Hosts in Greece▿

    PubMed Central

    Arabatzis, Michael; Kambouris, Manousos; Kyprianou, Miltiades; Chrysaki, Aikaterini; Foustoukou, Maria; Kanellopoulou, Maria; Kondyli, Lydia; Kouppari, Georgia; Koutsia-Karouzou, Chrysa; Lebessi, Evangelia; Pangalis, Anastasia; Petinaki, Efthimia; Stathi, Ageliki; Trikka-Graphakos, Eleftheria; Vartzioti, Erriketi; Vogiatzi, Aliki; Vyzantiadis, Timoleon-Achilleas; Zerva, Loukia; Velegraki, Aristea

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the first such study in Greece, we used polyphasic identification combined with antifungal susceptibility study to analyze Aspergillus clinical isolates comprising 102 common and rare members of sections Fumigati, Flavi, Terrei, Nidulantes, Nigri, Circumdati, Versicolores, and Usti. High amphotericin B MICs (>2 μg/ml) were found for 17.6% of strains. Itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole MICs of >4 μg/ml were shown in 1%, 5%, and 0% of the isolates, respectively. Anidulafungin, micafungin, and caspofungin minimum effective concentrations (MECs) of ≥2 μg/ml were correspondingly recorded for 4%, 9%, and 33%, respectively, of the strains. PMID:21444701

  9. [Farmer's lung antigens in Germany].

    PubMed

    Sennekamp, J; Joest, M; Sander, I; Engelhart, S; Raulf-Heimsoth, M

    2012-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that besides the long-known farmer's lung antigen sources Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula (Micropolyspora faeni), Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, and Aspergillus fumigatus, additionally the mold Absidia (Lichtheimia) corymbifera as well as the bacteria Erwinia herbicola (Pantoea agglomerans) and Streptomyces albus may cause farmer's lung in Germany. In this study the sera of 64 farmers with a suspicion of farmer's lung were examined for the following further antigens: Wallemia sebi, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus versicolor, and Eurotium amstelodami. Our results indicate that these molds are not frequent causes of farmer's lung in Germany. PMID:22477566

  10. Efficient direct oxygen reduction by laccases attached and oriented on pyrene-functionalized polypyrrole/carbon nanotube electrodes.

    PubMed

    Lalaoui, Noémie; Elouarzaki, Kamal; Le Goff, Alan; Holzinger, Michael; Cosnier, Serge

    2013-10-18

    We report the functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) electrodes by oxidative electropolymerization of pyrrole monomers bearing pyrene and N-hydroxysuccinimide groups. Both polymers were applied to the immobilization and electrical wiring of Trametes versicolor laccase via chemical grafting or non-covalent binding. A "pseudo" host-guest interaction of polymerized pyrene with a hydrophobic cavity of laccase was used for the oriented enzyme immobilization on MWCNT electrodes. The latter leads to higher catalytic current for oxygen reduction (1.85 mA cm(-2)) and higher electroenzymatic stability (50% after one month). PMID:23994955

  11. Effect of vapor phase corrosion inhibitor on microbial corrosion of aluminum alloys.

    PubMed

    Yang, S S; Ku, C H; Bor, H J; Lin, Y T

    1996-02-01

    Vapor phase corrosion inhibitors were used to investigate the antimicrobial activities and anticorrosion of aluminum alloy. Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. versicolor, Chaetomium globosum and Penicillium funiculosum had moderate to abundant growth on the aluminum alloy AA 1100 at Aw 0.901, while there was less growth at Aw 0.842. High humidity stimulated microbial growth and induced microbial corrosion. Dicyclohexylammonium carbonate had a high inhibitory effect on the growth of test fungi and the microbial corrosion of aluminum alloy, dicyclohexylammonium caprate and dicyclohexylammonium stearate were the next. Aluminum alloy coating with vapor phase corrosion inhibitor could prevent microbial growth and retard microbial corrosion. PMID:10592784

  12. Epidermodysplasia verruciformis: an unusual malignant transformation.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Prachi G; Mahajan, Sunanda A; Khopkar, Uday S; Kharkar, Vidya D

    2013-01-01

    Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is a rare, life-long heritable disease caused due to a unique susceptibility to human papilloma virus. The disseminated verrucous lesions and pityriasis versicolor-like lesions persist from early childhood and can transform into a cutaneous malignancy in a fourth of patients. Malignant transformation into syringoid eccrine carcinoma (SEC) has been reported only once so far. SEC is an extremely invasive, rare, locally destructive, slowly growing adnexal tumor. We hereby report the association of EV with SEC in a 29-year-old male. PMID:23254737

  13. Inhibitory effects of spices on growth and toxin production of toxigenic fungi.

    PubMed Central

    Hitokoto, H; Morozumi, S; Wauke, T; Sakai, S; Kurata, H

    1980-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of 29 commercial powdered spices on the growth and toxin production of three species of toxigenic Aspergillus were observed by introducing these materials into culture media for mycotoxin production. Of the 29 samples tested, cloves, star anise seeds, and allspice completely inhibited the fungal growth, whereas most of the others inhibited only the toxin production. Eugenol extracted from cloves and thymol from thyme caused complete inhibition of the growth of both Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus versicolor at 0.4 mg/ml or less. At a concentration of 2 mg/ml, anethol extracted from star anise seeds inhibited the growth of all the strains. PMID:6769391

  14. Production of ligninolytic enzymes by cultures of white rot fungi.

    PubMed

    Górska, Ewa B; Jankiewicz, Urszula; Dobrzyński, Jakub; Agnieszka Gałązka; Sitarek, Monika; Gozdowski, Dariusz; Russel, Stefan; Kowalczyk, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    Some Basidiomycota were chosen for studies of key ligninases synthesis (25°C, 30 days) in modified medium (shaken or not cultures) with added wheat straw. Liquid Czapek medium with straw yielded a higher amount of laccase than peroxidase, ground straw induced enzyme worse than chopped straw. With peroxidase the reverse dependencies were observed. Laccase of Lentinus edodes synthesized two enzyme isoforms (ca 30 and 16 kDa). In T. versicolor culture active laccase protein with highest molecular mass ca 65 kDa was found. P. sajor-caju yielded three different peroxidase isoforms. Ligninase biosynthesis depended on strain, straw fragmentation extent, culture method and growth medium. PMID:25804067

  15. Fungal infections and parasitic infestations in sports: expedient identification and treatment.

    PubMed

    Winokur, Rebecca C; Dexter, William W

    2004-10-01

    Common fungal infections include tinea corporis, capitis, cruris, versicolor, and pedis, as well as onychomycosis. Prevention of spread is important and involves frequent skin surveillance, avoidance of shared equipment, and regular equipment cleaning. The NCAA recommends treatment of tinea corporis and capitis infections and covering any exposed infection before return to play. Parasitic infestations occur because of the close physical contact of team members and athletes in contact sports. Both scabies and pediculosis should be treated before return to play, according to NCAA guidelines. Cutaneous larva migrans, a chronic parasitic infection caused by a hookworm, may be seen in beach volleyball players. PMID:20086381

  16. Regulation of coal polymer degradation by fungi. Eighth quarterly report, [April--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, R.L.; Bumpus, J.A.

    1996-07-28

    This project addresses the solubilization of low-rank coal (leonardite) by lignin degrading fungi. During this reporting period efforts were focused on determining the effect of pH on coal solubilization by oxalate ion and other biologically important compounds that might function as metal chelators, on the role of laccase in coal solubilization and metabolism, on decolorization of soluble coal macromolecule by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and T. versicolor in solid agar media, and on solubilization of coal in slurry cultures and solid phase reactors.

  17. [Recent advances in research on Malassezia microbiota in humans].

    PubMed

    Sugita, Takashi; Zhang, Enshi; Tanaka, Takafumi; Nishikawa, Akemi; Tajima, Mami; Tsuboi, Ryoji

    2013-01-01

    Malassezia species of lipophilic yeasts account for most fungal microbiota. Although they colonize healthy skin, they are also associated with several skin diseases, including pityriasis versicolor, seborrheic dermatitis, Malassezia folliculitis, and atopic dermatitis. To date, 14 members of the Malassezia genus have been identified. Of these, both M. globosa and M. restricta predominate, regardless of skin-disease type. Comprehensive analysis of fungal microbiota in the skin of patients with atopic dermatitis using an rRNA clone library method revealed that fungal microbiota cluster according to disease severity. The external ear canal and sole of the foot are colonized by specific Malassezia microbiota. PMID:23470953

  18. Butenafine: an update of its use in superficial mycoses.

    PubMed

    Gupta, A K

    2002-09-01

    Butenafine is a synthetic benzylamine antifungal agent that may be fungicidal against susceptible organisms, e.g., dermatophytes. Butenafine may be effective and safe in the treatment of interdigital tinea pedis (apply twice daily for 1 week or once daily for 4 weeks), tinea corporis/tinea cruris (apply twice daily for 2 weeks), and pityriasis versicolor (apply once daily for 2 weeks). The effectiveness of the drug persists for at least 4 weeks following the discontinuation of therapy suggesting that there is some retention of the drug in the skin following termination of active therapy. PMID:12432425

  19. [Malassezia infections].

    PubMed

    Sei, Yoshihiro

    2012-01-01

    Although Malassezia yeasts are a part of the normal microflora, under certain conditions they can cause superficial skin infection Pityriasis versicolor, Malassezia folliculitis. Lipophilic yeasts are being considered as major opportunistic pathogens for a very long time. Most of the yeasts show an absolute requirement for long fatty acid chains and specific procedures are required for their isolation, conservation and identification. To date, the genus is composed of one non lipid-dependent species M. pachydermatis and lipid-dependent species M. furfur, M. sympodialis, M. globosa, M. obtusa, M. restricta, M. slooffiae, M. dermatis, M. yamatoensis, M. japonica, M. nana, M. caprae, M. equina, M. cuniculi. PMID:22467125

  20. Differential identification of mushrooms sclerotia by IR macro-fingerprint method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choong, Yew Keong; Lan, Jin; Lee, Han Lim; Chen, Xiang-dong; Wang, Xiao-guang; Yang, Yu-ping

    2016-01-01

    Many macrofungus sclerotia are well-known medicinal herbs, health food and nutritional supplements. However, the prevalent adulterant commercial products are major hindrances to their incorporation into mainstream medical use in many countries. The mushroom sclerotia of Lignosus rhinocerotis, Poria cocos, Polyporus umbellatus, Pleurotus tuber-regium and Omphalia lapidescens are commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, IR macro-fingerprint method was used in the identification of these sclerotia. The results showed that the spectrum of L. rhinocerotis (LR) was comparable with P. cocos with 94.4% correlation, except that the peak at 1543 cm-1 of LR appeared in lower intensity. The spectrum of P. umbellatus and P. tuber-regium was also correlated (91.5%), as both spectra could be clearly discriminated in that P. umbellatus spectrum has small base peaks located at the range of 1680-1500 cm-1. O. lapidescens was not comparable with all the other sclerotia as its spectrum was totally different. Its base peak was broad and derivated equally along the range. The first IR has revealed the dissimilarity among five mushrooms sclerotia. The second derivative and 2DIR further enhanced the identification in detail.

  1. Single chain morphology and nanofiber-like aggregates of branched β-(1 → 3)-D-glucan in water/dimethylsulfoxide solution.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cong; Meng, Yan; Li, Sheng; Wu, Wenhua; Liu, Chuanjun; Xu, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Lina

    2016-02-10

    A polysaccharide coded as PR-CA was extracted from Polyporus rhinoceros and determined to be a β-(1 → 3)-D-glucan with multiple branches. The weight-average molecular weights (Mw) of PR-CA in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and in water were determined with static light scattering (SLS) to be 3.57 × 10(5) and 1.79 × 10(7), indicating existence of the single chains in DMSO and co-existence of single chains and aggregates in water. Moreover, the stiffness of single chains of PR-CA in water was directly visualized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The hollow structure of PR-CA nanofibers with width of 30-40 nm and length of ∼ 350 nm formed in the water/DMSO (9:1, v:v) was demonstrated by a fluorescent probe tetraphenylethylene (TPE) via aggregation-induced emission (AIE). The formation of PR-CA nanofibers was ascribed to the parallel aggregation of the extended PR-CA chains due to the hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interaction. This work offered valuable results for promising applications of natural branched β-glucans in the biological fields of drug inclusion, delivery and disease diagnosis. PMID:26686132

  2. Genomic and transcriptomic analyses of the medicinal fungus Antrodia cinnamomea for its metabolite biosynthesis and sexual development

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Mei-Yeh Jade; Fan, Wen-Lang; Wang, Woei-Fuh; Chen, Tingchun; Tang, Yi-Ching; Chu, Fang-Hua; Chang, Tun-Tschu; Wang, Sheng-Yang; Li, Meng-yun; Chen, Yi-Hua; Lin, Ze-Shiang; Yang, Kai-Jung; Chen, Shih-May; Teng, Yu-Chuan; Lin, Yan-Liang; Shaw, Jei-Fu; Wang, Ting-Fang; Li, Wen-Hsiung

    2014-01-01

    Antrodia cinnamomea, a polyporus mushroom of Taiwan, has long been used as a remedy for cancer, hypertension, and hangover, with an annual market of over $100 million (US) in Taiwan. We obtained a 32.15-Mb genome draft containing 9,254 genes. Genome ontology enrichment and pathway analyses shed light on sexual development and the biosynthesis of sesquiterpenoids, triterpenoids, ergostanes, antroquinonol, and antrocamphin. We identified genes differentially expressed between mycelium and fruiting body and 242 proteins in the mevalonate pathway, terpenoid pathways, cytochrome P450s, and polyketide synthases, which may contribute to the production of medicinal secondary metabolites. Genes of secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways showed expression enrichment for tissue-specific compounds, including 14-α-demethylase (CYP51F1) in fruiting body for converting lanostane to ergostane triterpenoids, coenzymes Q (COQ) for antroquinonol biosynthesis in mycelium, and polyketide synthase for antrocamphin biosynthesis in fruiting body. Our data will be useful for developing a strategy to increase the production of useful metabolites. PMID:25336756

  3. Genomic and transcriptomic analyses of the medicinal fungus Antrodia cinnamomea for its metabolite biosynthesis and sexual development.

    PubMed

    Lu, Mei-Yeh Jade; Fan, Wen-Lang; Wang, Woei-Fuh; Chen, Tingchun; Tang, Yi-Ching; Chu, Fang-Hua; Chang, Tun-Tschu; Wang, Sheng-Yang; Li, Meng-yun; Chen, Yi-Hua; Lin, Ze-Shiang; Yang, Kai-Jung; Chen, Shih-May; Teng, Yu-Chuan; Lin, Yan-Liang; Shaw, Jei-Fu; Wang, Ting-Fang; Li, Wen-Hsiung

    2014-11-01

    Antrodia cinnamomea, a polyporus mushroom of Taiwan, has long been used as a remedy for cancer, hypertension, and hangover, with an annual market of over $100 million (US) in Taiwan. We obtained a 32.15-Mb genome draft containing 9,254 genes. Genome ontology enrichment and pathway analyses shed light on sexual development and the biosynthesis of sesquiterpenoids, triterpenoids, ergostanes, antroquinonol, and antrocamphin. We identified genes differentially expressed between mycelium and fruiting body and 242 proteins in the mevalonate pathway, terpenoid pathways, cytochrome P450s, and polyketide synthases, which may contribute to the production of medicinal secondary metabolites. Genes of secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways showed expression enrichment for tissue-specific compounds, including 14-α-demethylase (CYP51F1) in fruiting body for converting lanostane to ergostane triterpenoids, coenzymes Q (COQ) for antroquinonol biosynthesis in mycelium, and polyketide synthase for antrocamphin biosynthesis in fruiting body. Our data will be useful for developing a strategy to increase the production of useful metabolites. PMID:25336756

  4. Halotolerance, ligninase production and herbicide degradation ability of basidiomycetes strains

    PubMed Central

    Arakaki, R.L.; Monteiro, D.A.; Boscolo, M.; Dasilva, R.; Gomes, E.

    2013-01-01

    Fungi have been recently recognized as organisms able to grow in presence of high salt concentration with halophilic and halotolerance properties and their ligninolytic enzyme complex have an unspecific action enabling their use to degradation of a number of xenobiotic compounds. In this work, both the effect of salt and polyols on growth of the basidiomycetes strains, on their ability to produce ligninolytic enzyme and diuron degradation were evaluated. Results showed that the presence of NaCl in the culture medium affected fungal specimens in different ways. Seven out of ten tested strains had growth inhibited by salt while Dacryopinax elegans SXS323, Polyporus sp MCA128 and Datronia stereoides MCA167 fungi exhibited higher biomass production in medium containing 0.5 and 0.6 mol.L−1 of NaCl, suggesting to be halotolerant. Polyols such as glycerol and mannitol added into the culture media improved the biomass and ligninases production by D. elegans but the fungus did not reveal consumption of these polyols from media. This fungus degraded diuron in medium control, in presence of NaCl as well as polyols, produced MnP, LiP and laccase. PMID:24688513

  5. Inhibitory effects of Korean indigenous plants on tyrosinase and melanogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hun Son, Kyung; Young Heo, Moon

    2013-01-01

    To search for new depigmenting cosmetic ingredients from Korean herbal extracts of traditional Korean medicines (TKMs), we screened about 17 TKM extracts collected in the Republic of Korea. Samples were prepared from the natural plants, including medicinal plants such as Chrysanthemum indicum (flower), using methanol, methylene chloride, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), n-butyl alcohol, and water as the extraction and/or the partitioning solvents. We then tested their inhibitory effects on melanogenesis by using in vitro tyrosinase inhibition assay, in vitro l-3,4-dihydroxy-indole-2-carboxylic acid (l-DOPA) auto-oxidation assay, and B16 melanoma cells. In addition, cytotoxicity testing (NR50 and MTT50) was conducted to evaluate safety. From the results of these assays, four fractions with good efficacy and low toxicity were selected among them, including EtOAc fraction of Smilax china (rhizome), Paeonia lactiflora (root), and Polyporus umbellatus (sclerotium), and BuOH fraction of Evodia officinalis (fruit). In the inhibition assay of intracellular tyrosinase activity and melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cell line, the four plant fractions showed dose-dependent inhibitory effects, and the EtOAc fraction of P. lactiflora showed the highest activity among the four fractions. The EtOAc fraction of P. lactiflora was found to be the most effective substrate. PMID:23578837

  6. Selection of newly isolated mushroom strains for tolerance and biosorption of zinc in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gonen Tasdemir, F; Yamac, M; Cabuk, A; Yildiz, Z

    2008-03-01

    Nine newly isolated mushroom strains were tested to assess both their zinc tolerance and potential for zinc removal from an aqueous solution. Four strains of ectomycorrhizal fungi, namely Clavariadelphus truncatus (T 192), Rhizopogon roseolus (T 21), Lepista nuda (T 373), and Tricholoma equestre (T 174), along with five strains of white rot fungi, Lenzites betulina (S 2), Trametes hirsuta (T 587), Ganoderma spp. (T 99), Polyporus arcularius (T 438), and Ganoderma carnosum (M 88), were investigated using zinc-amended solid and liquid media. Their biosorption properties were also determined. The colony diameter and dry weight were used as tolerance indices for fungal growth. C. truncatus and T. equestre were not strongly inhibited at the highest concentrations of (225 mg/l) zinc in solid media. The most tolerant four strains with solid media, C. truncatus, G. carnosum, T. hirsuta, and T. equestre, were then chosen for tolerance tests in liquid media. An ectomycorrhizal strain, C. truncatus, was also detected as the most tolerant strain in liquid media. However, the metal-tolerant strains demonstrated weak activity in the biosorption studies. In contrast, the highest biosorption activity was presented by a more sensitive strain, G. carnosum. In addition, seven different biosorbent types from G. carnosum (M 88) were compared for their Zn (II) biosorption in batch experiments. PMID:18388466

  7. Differential identification of mushrooms sclerotia by IR macro-fingerprint method.

    PubMed

    Choong, Yew Keong; Lan, Jin; Lee, Han Lim; Chen, Xiang-Dong; Wang, Xiao-Guang; Yang, Yu-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Many macrofungus sclerotia are well-known medicinal herbs, health food and nutritional supplements. However, the prevalent adulterant commercial products are major hindrances to their incorporation into mainstream medical use in many countries. The mushroom sclerotia of Lignosus rhinocerotis, Poria cocos, Polyporus umbellatus, Pleurotus tuber-regium and Omphalia lapidescens are commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, IR macro-fingerprint method was used in the identification of these sclerotia. The results showed that the spectrum of L. rhinocerotis (LR) was comparable with P. cocos with 94.4% correlation, except that the peak at 1543cm(-1) of LR appeared in lower intensity. The spectrum of P. umbellatus and P. tuber-regium was also correlated (91.5%), as both spectra could be clearly discriminated in that P. umbellatus spectrum has small base peaks located at the range of 1680-1500cm(-1). O. lapidescens was not comparable with all the other sclerotia as its spectrum was totally different. Its base peak was broad and derivated equally along the range. The first IR has revealed the dissimilarity among five mushrooms sclerotia. The second derivative and 2DIR further enhanced the identification in detail. PMID:26186395

  8. Hymenochaetaceae from the Guineo-Congolian rainforest: three new species of Phylloporia based on morphological, DNA sequences and ecological data.

    PubMed

    Yombiyeni, Prudence; Balezi, Alphonse; Amalfi, Mario; Decock, Cony

    2015-01-01

    Four species are added to Phylloporia. Three species, originating from the western edge of the Guineo-Congolian rainforest in Gabon (central Africa), are described as new. Phylloporia afrospathulata sp. nov. forms seasonal, stipitate, solitary basidiomata emerging from soil, more likely connected to buried roots, and has broadly ellipsoid basidiospores. Phylloporia inonotoides sp. nov. forms seasonal sessile, soft basidiomata, solitary at the base of small-stemmed trees including Crotonogyne manniana (Euphorbiaceae) and Garcinia cf. smeathmannii (Clusiaceae). It has a homogeneous context, large pores (2-3 mm), and oblong-ellipsoid to suballantoid basidiospores. Phylloporia fulva sp. nov. forms sessile, conchate, mostly pendant, gregarious basidiomata emerging from the trunk of an unidentified small-stemmed tree and has small, subglobose basidiospores. This species is compared to Polyporus pullus and Phylloporia pulla comb. nov. and proposed based on the study of the type specimen. Phylogenetic inferences using partial nuc 28S DNA sequence data (region including the D1/D2/D3 domains) and the most exhaustive dataset available to date resolved these new morphospecies as three distinct terminal lineages. No sequence data of P. pulla currently is available. The 28S-based phylogenic inferences poorly resolved the interspecific relationships within the Phylloporia clade. PMID:26240304

  9. Dietary fibers from mushroom sclerotia. 4. In vivo mineral absorption using ovariectomized rat model.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ka-Hing; Katsumata, Shin-Ichi; Masuyama, Ritsuko; Uehara, Mariko; Suzuki, Kazuharu; Cheung, Peter C K

    2006-03-01

    The effect of three novel dietary fibers (DFs) prepared from mushroom sclerotia, namely, Pleurotus tuber-regium, Polyporus rhinocerus, and Wolfiporia cocos, on calcium and magnesium absorption was evaluated in ovariectomized (OVX) rats fed with sclerotial DF based and low Ca (0.3%) diets for 14 days. The animals in the W. cocos DF diet group possessed significantly (p < 0.05) higher levels of cecal total short-chain fatty acids (204 mumol/g of cecal content) and had an acidic pH (5.88) in their cecum when compared with those of the cellulose control group. Such an acidic environment was found to promote the ionization of the unabsorbed Ca and Mg in their cecum, which in turn significantly (p < 0.05) increased the concentrations of cecal soluble Ca (2.56-fold) and Mg (1.22-fold). Besides, the apparent Ca and Mg absorptions of the W. cocos DF group were also significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced (Ca, 16.5%; Mg, 15.3%) together with significantly (p < 0.05) higher serum Ca (3.61 mmol/L) and Mg (1.07 mmol/L) levels when compared with those of the cellulose control group. These data suggest that ingestion of W. cocos DF could improve the overall Ca and Mg absorptions of the OVX rats fed a low Ca diet. The potential use of sclerotial DFs as a functional food ingredient for enhancing mineral absorption is also discussed. PMID:16506854

  10. Insecticidal activity of cerrado plant extracts on Rhodnius milesi Carcavallo, Rocha, Galvão & Jurberg (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Coelho, André A M; de Paula, José E; Espíndola, Laila S

    2006-01-01

    Chagas' disease is chiefly transmitted by feces of haematophagous bugs (Triatominae) that ingested Trypanosoma cruzi from blood of infected people or animals. Pyrethroids have been the main insecticides used against these insects. However, some populations of insects have shown significant levels of resistance to several pyrethroids, indicating the need of new insecticides for the control of triatomines. Insecticidal activity of 24 Cerrado plant extracts belonging to five species of four families were assayed on fourth instar nymphs of Rhodnius milesi Carcavallo, Rocha, Galvão & Jurberg (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), under laboratory conditions. For the extract application on triatomines, 50 microg of the extract were topically applied in duplicate on dorsal tergites of ten insects. Insects topically treated with acetone, ethanol, as well as insects with no treatment were used as controls. Triatomines were observed over a 28-day period. Hexanic and ethanolic extracts of Simarouba versicolor, Guarea kunthiana, Guarea guidonia and Talauma ovata caused mortality between 20% and 95% of R. milesi in comparison with the controls, which showed no insect mortality. These preliminary data suggest that the ethanolic extract of the root bark of S. versicolor and the hexanic extract of the root of G. guidonia, responsible for a 95% and 75% insect mortality, respectively, should be chemically investigated and monitored through biological assays in order to determine their insecticidal components, that could be used as a molecular model or as biorational compounds for use in insect control programmes. PMID:17352079

  11. Trametes meyenii possesses elevated dye degradation abilities under normal nutritional conditions compared to other white rot fungi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Several species of white-rot fungi were investigated for their utility in prolonged decolouration of the recalcitrant sulfonated azo dye, amaranth. Trametes pubescens, T. multicolor, T. meyenii and T. versicolor decoloured amaranth azo-dye best on low-nitrogen agar-solidified media whereas Bjerkandera adusta and Phlebia radiata were most effective in low nitrogen medium supplemented with manganese. Trametes cotonea did not decolour effectively under any condition. The decolouring Trametes species were also effective in liquid culture whereas B. adusta and P. radiata were not. Trametes meyenii, T. pubescens and T. multicolor were equal to or better than commonly employed T. versicolor at decolouring amaranth. This is the first study to show the dye decolouration potential of T. meyenii, T. pubescens, and T. multicolor. Supplementing with Mn(II) increased assayable manganese peroxidase activity, but not long-term decolouration, indicating that laccase is the main decolourizing enzyme in these Trametes species. This appears to be because of inadequate Mn3+ chelation required by manganese peroxidase because adding relatively low amounts of malonate enhanced decolouration rates. The ability of Trametes meyenii to simultaneously decolour dye over prolonged periods of time while growing in relatively nutrient-rich medium appears to be unique amongst white-rot fungi, indicating its potential in wastewater bioremediation. PMID:25401075

  12. Regulation of coal polymer degradation by fungi. Fourth quarterly progress report, May 1995--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, R.L.

    1995-07-24

    To test the hypothesis that coal (leonardite) Solubilization and the subsequent depolymerization of the solubilized coal macromolecules are distinct events in lignin degrading fungi. In addition to T versicolor, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, another lignin degrading fungus that also has the ability to solubilize coal, will be studied. To test the hypothesis that the processes of coal (leonardite) solubilization and coal macro molecule depolymerization in lignin degrading fungi can be regulated by altering the nutritional status of the microorganism. Coal solubilization is expected to occur in nutrient rich media whereas depolymerization of solubilized coal macromolecules is expected to occur in nutrient limited media. To determine the role of extracellular enzymes (laccases, lignin peroxidases and Mn peroxidases) that are secreted by lignin degrading fungi during coal solubilization or coal macro molecule depolymerization. To assess the role of enzymatically generated oxygen radicals, non-radical active oxygen species, veratryl alcohol radicals and Mn{sup +++} complexes in coal macro molecule depolymerization. To characterize products of coal solubilization and coal macro molecule depolymerization that are formed by T. versicolor and P. chrysosporium and their respective extracellular enzymes. Solubilization products formed using oxalic acid and other metal chelators will also be characterized and compared.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of the pygidial gland secretion of three ground beetle species (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nenadić, Marija; Soković, Marina; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Perić-Mataruga, Vesna; Ilijin, Larisa; Tešević, Vele; Vujisić, Ljubodrag; Todosijević, Marina; Vesović, Nikola; Ćurčić, Srećko

    2016-04-01

    The antimicrobial properties of the pygidial gland secretions released by the adults of the three ground beetle species, Carabus ullrichii, C. coriaceus, and Abax parallelepipedus, have been tested. Microdilution method was applied for detection of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFCs). Additionally, morpho-histology of the pygidial glands is investigated. We have tested 16 laboratory and clinical strains of human pathogens—eight bacterial both gram-positive and gram-negative species and eight fungal species. The pygidial secretion samples of C. ullrichii have showed the strongest antimicrobial effect against all strains of treated bacteria and fungi. Staphylococcus aureus, Lysteria monocytogenes, and Salmonella typhimurium proved to be the most sensitive bacterial strains. Penicillium funiculosum proved to be the most sensitive micromycete, while P. ochrochloron and P. verrucosum var . cyclopium the most resistant micromycetes. The pygidial secretion of C. coriaceus has showed antibacterial potential solely against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. ochraceus, and P. ochrochloron. Antibacterial properties of pygidial gland secretion of A. parallelepipedus were achieved against P. aeruginosa, while antifungal activity was detected against five of the eight tested micromycetes (A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. ochraceus, Trichoderma viride, and P. verrucosum var . cyclopium). Commercial antibiotics Streptomycin and Ampicillin and mycotics Ketoconazole and Bifonazole, applied as the positive controls, showed higher antibacterial/antifungal properties for all bacterial and fungal strains. The results of this observation might have a significant impact on the environmental aspects and possible medical purpose in the future.

  14. Rapid Differentiation of Aspergillus Species from Other Medically Important Opportunistic Molds and Yeasts by PCR-Enzyme Immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    de Aguirre, Liliana; Hurst, Steven F.; Choi, Jong Soo; Shin, Jong Hee; Hinrikson, Hans Peter; Morrison, Christine J.

    2004-01-01

    We developed a PCR-based assay to differentiate medically important species of Aspergillus from one another and from other opportunistic molds and yeasts by employing universal, fungus-specific primers and DNA probes in an enzyme immunoassay format (PCR-EIA). Oligonucleotide probes, directed to the internal transcribed spacer 2 region of ribosomal DNA from Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus ustus, and Aspergillus versicolor, differentiated 41 isolates (3 to 9 each of the respective species; P < 0.001) in a PCR-EIA detection matrix and gave no false-positive reactions with 33 species of Acremonium, Exophiala, Candida, Fusarium, Mucor, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Scedosporium, Sporothrix, or other aspergilli tested. A single DNA probe to detect all seven of the most medically important Aspergillus species (A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. nidulans, A. niger, A. terreus, A. ustus, and A. versicolor) was also designed. Identification of Aspergillus species was accomplished within a single day by the PCR-EIA, and as little as 0.5 pg of fungal DNA could be detected by this system. In addition, fungal DNA extracted from tissues of experimentally infected rabbits was successfully amplified and identified using the PCR-EIA system. This method is simple, rapid, and sensitive for the identification of medically important Aspergillus species and for their differentiation from other opportunistic fungi. PMID:15297489

  15. Antiviral activity of Basidiomycete mycelia against influenza type A (serotype H1N1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Krupodorova, Tetiana; Rybalko, Svetlana; Barshteyn, Victor

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the in vitro antiviral activity of the mycelia of higher mushrooms against influenza virus type A (serotype H1N1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), strain BH. All 10 investigated mushroom species inhibited the reproduction of influenza virus strain A/FM/1/47 (H1N1) in MDCK cells reducing the infectious titer by 2.0-6.0 lg ID50. Four species, Pleurotus ostreatus, Fomes fomentarius, Auriporia aurea, and Trametes versicolor, were also determined to be effective against HSV-2 strain BH in RK-13 cells, with similar levels of inhibition as for influenza. For some of the investigated mushroom species-Pleurotus eryngii, Lyophyllum shimeji, and Flammulina velutipes-this is the first report of an anti-influenza effect. This study also reports the first data on the medicinal properties of A. aurea, including anti-influenza and antiherpetic activities. T. versicolor 353 mycelium was found to have a high therapeutic index (324.67), and may be a promising material for the pharmaceutical industry as an anti-influenza and antiherpetic agent with low toxicity. Mycelia with antiviral activity were obtained in our investigation by bioconversion of agricultural wastes (amaranth flour after CO2 extraction), which would reduce the cost of the final product and solve some ecological problems. PMID:25358999

  16. Screening of ligninolytic fungi for biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chunyan; Singh, Deepak; Dorgan, Kathleen M; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Chen, Shulin

    2015-10-01

    To identify white rot fungi with high potential in biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass, preliminary screening was carried out on plates by testing different strains for their ability to oxidize guaiacol and decolorize the dyes azure B and Poly R-478. Of the 86 strains screened, 16 were selected for secondary screening for their ligninolytic ability; however, low manganese peroxidase activity and no lignin peroxidase activity were detected. Strain BBEL0970 proved to be the most efficient in laccase production and was subsequently identified as Trametes versicolor by analysis of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer gene sequence. In combining laccase production with biological pretreatment, the replacement of glucose with barley straw significantly improved the laccase activity by up to 10.3 U/mL, which provided evidence toward potential utilization of barley straw in laccase production by BBEL0970. Simultaneously, comparison by thermogravimetric analysis of the untreated and pretreated barley straw in liquid fermentation of laccase also demonstrated the high potential of BBEL0970 in biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. This work sheds light on further exploration on the integrated process of low-cost laccase production and efficient biological pretreatment of barley straw by T. versicolor BBEL0970. PMID:26286682

  17. Continuous fungal treatment of non-sterile veterinary hospital effluent: pharmaceuticals removal and microbial community assessment.

    PubMed

    Badia-Fabregat, Marina; Lucas, Daniel; Pereira, Maria Alcina; Alves, Madalena; Pennanen, Taina; Fritze, Hannu; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara; Barceló, Damià; Vicent, Teresa; Caminal, Glòria

    2016-03-01

    Source point treatment of effluents with a high load of pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs), such as hospital wastewater, is a matter of discussion among the scientific community. Fungal treatments have been reported to be successful in degrading this type of pollutants and, therefore, the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor was applied for the removal of PhACs from veterinary hospital wastewater. Sixty-six percent removal was achieved in a non-sterile batch bioreactor inoculated with T. versicolor pellets. On the other hand, the study of microbial communities by means of DGGE and phylogenetic analyses led us to identify some microbial interactions and helped us moving to a continuous process. PhAC removal efficiency achieved in the fungal treatment operated in non-sterile continuous mode was 44 % after adjusting the C/N ratio with respect to the previously calculated one for sterile treatments. Fungal and bacterial communities in the continuous bioreactors were monitored as well. PMID:26541333

  18. Re-inoculation strategies enhance the degradation of emerging pollutants in fungal bioaugmentation of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E; Lucas, Daniel; Barón, Enrique; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Molins-Delgado, Daniel; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara; Eljarrat, Ethel; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià; Caminal, Glòria; Vicent, Teresa

    2014-09-01

    The use of Trametes versicolor has been partially successful in the removal of some pharmaceuticals from sewage sludge in laboratory-scale biopile systems. The application of two strategies for the re-inoculation of biomass was assessed during the fungal bioaugmentation of non-sterile sludge (42-d treatment) as an approach to improve the elimination of pharmaceuticals and other groups of emerging pollutants. Globally, the re-inoculation of biopiles with blended mycelium exerted a major effect on the removal of pharmaceuticals (86%), brominated-flame-retardants (81%) and UV filters (80%) with respect to the re-inoculation with additional lignocellulosic substrate colonized by the fungus (69-67-22%). The performance was better than that of the analogous non-re-inoculated systems that were assayed previously for the removal of pharmaceuticals. The results demonstrate the ability of T. versicolor to remove a wide spectrum of emerging micropollutants under non-sterile conditions, while re-inoculation appears to be a useful step to improve the fungal treatment of sludge. PMID:24582425

  19. Degradation of C60 Fullerol by White-Rot Basidiomycete Fungi: Implications for Environmental Release of Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiner, K. M.; Filley, T. R.; Bolskar, R. D.; Blanchette, R. A.

    2008-12-01

    Industrially produced carbon-based nanomaterials, including fullerenes and fullerols, will be introduced into the environment in increasing amounts over the next century. Oxygenated fullerenes are likely to be produced in the environment through both biotic and abiotic weathering, and yet the environmental fate of compounds like hydroxylated fullerenes are almost unknown. This study examines the ability of two white rot basidiomycete fungi (Phlebia tremellosa and Trametes versicolor) to metabolize and degrade 13C-labeled C60 fullerol. Both of these fungi were shown to degrade fullerol to CO2 both in the presence of wood tissue and without, and incorporate trace amounts of the carbon into fungal biomass. Absorbance data also indicate that a significant portion of the original fullerol was broken down into small molecular weight metabolites. Phlebia tremellosa proved to be, in general, more aggressive towards fullerol degradation than Trametes versicolor. These findings represent the report of fungal degradation of this important nanomaterial and also provide valuable information about the possible environmental fates of this compound.

  20. Previous exposure of predatory fish to a pesticide alters palatability of larval amphibian prey.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, Shane M; Parris, Matthew J

    2013-12-01

    Habitat preferences of organisms are reliant on a variety of factors. For amphibians specifically, preferences can depend on factors such as food availability, water quality, and the presence of potential predators. Because some amphibians breed in permanent bodies of water (e.g., ponds), the threat of predation (e.g., from fish) is constant. Thus, some amphibians are unpalatable to many predators, allowing them to coexist in the same habitats. However, the addition of anthropogenic stressors (i.e., pesticides) may alter the perceived palatability of prey items to predators. The authors tested the hypothesis that bluegill fish (Lepomis macrochirus), previously exposed to the pesticide carbaryl, would consume more unpalatable prey (Fowler's toad [Anaxyrus fowleri] tadpoles) than unexposed predators. Carbaryl is a pesticide that attacks the nervous system and is linked to taste sense in organisms. Moreover, the authors conducted an identical test using palatable prey (gray treefrog [Hyla versicolor] tadpoles) and predicted that no change in preference would be observed. In support of the primary hypothesis, bluegill exposed to the highest concentration of carbaryl consumed more A. fowleri tadpoles compared with those exposed to carbaryl at the lowest concentration or water control. Moreover, an effect of carbaryl on predation success on H. versicolor tadpoles was not observed. The present study shows that an anthropogenic stressor (carbaryl) can alter the perceived palatability of noxious prey to fish predators, potentially altering predator-prey relationships in natural settings. PMID:24383102

  1. Previous exposure of predatory fish to a pesticide alters palatability of larval amphibian prey.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, Shane M; Parris, Matthew J

    2013-09-01

    Habitat preferences of organisms are reliant upon a variety of factors. Specifically with amphibians, preferences can depend on factors such as food availability, water quality, or the presence of potential predators. Because some amphibians breed in permanent bodies of water (e.g., ponds), the threat of predation (e.g., from fish) is constant. Thus, some amphibians are unpalatable to many predators, allowing them to coexist in the same habitats. However, the addition of anthropogenic stressors (i.e., pesticides) may alter the perceived palatability of prey items to predators. We tested the hypothesis that bluegill fish (Lepomis macrochirus), previously exposed to the pesticide carbaryl, would consume more unpalatable prey (Fowler's toad [Anaxyrus fowleri] tadpoles) than unexposed predators. Carbaryl is a pesticide that attacks the nervous system and is linked to taste sense in organisms. Moreover, we conducted an identical test using palatable prey (gray treefrog [Hyla versicolor] tadpoles) and predicted that no change in preference would be observed. In support of our primary hypothesis, bluegill exposed to the highest concentration of carbaryl consumed more A. folweri tadpoles compared to those exposed to carbaryl at the lowest concentration or water control. Moreover, an effect of carbaryl on predation success on H. versicolor tadpoles was not observed. Our study shows that an anthropogenic stressor (carbaryl) can alter the perceived palatability of noxious prey to fish predators, potentially altering predator-prey relationships in natural settings. Environ Toxicol Chem © 2013 SETAC. PMID:23996644

  2. Development of Fungal Inocula for Bioaugmentation of Contaminated Soils

    PubMed Central

    Lestan, D.; Lamar, R. T.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes novel fungal inocula for bioaugmentation of soils contaminated with hazardous organic compounds. The inocula are in the form of pelleted solid substrates coated with a sodium alginate suspension of fungal spores or mycelial fragments and incubated until overgrown with the mycelium of selected lignin-degrading fungi. The organisms evaluated were Phanerochaete chrysosporium (BKM F-1767, ATCC 42725), P. sordida (HHB-8922-Sp), Irpex lacteus (Mad-517, ATCC 11245), Bjerkandera adusta (FP-135160-Sp, ATCC 62023), and Trametes versicolor (MD-277). The pelleted fungal inocula resisted competition and proliferation from indigenous soil microbes, were lower in moisture content than current fungal inocula, and had sufficient mechanical strength to allow handling and introduction into the soil without a change in the mechanical consistency of the pellets. Inoculated at a rate of 3% in artificially contaminated nonsterile soil, I. lacteus, B. adusta, and T. versicolor removed 86, 82, and 90%, respectively, of the pentachlorophenol in 4 weeks. A mathematical model was developed to explain moisture distribution in a hydrogel-coated pelleted substrate. PMID:16535337

  3. Degradation of lindane and endosulfan by fungi, fungal and bacterial laccases.

    PubMed

    Ulčnik, A; Kralj Cigić, I; Pohleven, F

    2013-12-01

    The ability of two white-rot fungi (Trametes versicolor and Pleurotus ostreatus) and one brown-rot fungus (Gloeophyllum trabeum) to degrade two organochlorine insecticides, lindane and endosulfan, in liquid cultures was studied and dead fungal biomass was examined for adsorption of both insecticides from liquid medium. Lindane and endosulfan were also treated with fungal laccase and bacterial protein CotA, which has laccase activities. The amount of degraded lindane and endosulfan increased with their exposure period in the liquid cultures of both examined white-rot fungi. Endosulfan was transformed to endosulfan sulphate by T. versicolor and P. ostreatus. A small amount of endosulfan ether was also detected and its origin was examined. Degradation of lindane and endosulfan by a brown rot G. trabeum did not occur. Mycelial biomasses of all examined fungi have been found to adsorb lindane and endosulfan and adsorption onto fungal biomass should therefore be considered as a possible mechanism of pollutant removal when fungal degradation potentials are studied. Bacterial protein CotA performed more efficient degradation of lindane and endosulfan than fungal laccase and has shown potential for bioremediation of organic pollutants. PMID:23736895

  4. Detection of Lignin Peroxidase and Xylanase by Immunocytochemical Labeling in Wood Decayed by Basidiomycetes †

    PubMed Central

    Blanchette, R. A.; Abad, A. R.; Farrell, R. L.; Leathers, T. D.

    1989-01-01

    The white rot fungi used in this study caused two different forms of degradation. Phanerochaete chrysosporium, strain BKM-F-1767, and Phellinus pini caused a preferential removal of lignin from birch wood, whereas Trametes (Coriolus) versicolor caused a nonselective attack of all cell wall components. Use of polyclonal antisera to H8 lignin peroxidase and monoclonal antisera to H2 lignin peroxidase followed by immunogold labeling with protein A-gold or protein G-gold, respectively, showed lignin peroxidase extra-and intracellularly to fungal hyphae and within the delignified cell walls after 12 weeks of laboratory decay. Lignin peroxidase was localized at sites within the cell wall where electron-dense areas of the lignified cell wall layers remained. In wood decayed by Trametes versicolor, lignin peroxidase was located primarily along the surface of eroded cell walls. No lignin peroxidase was evident in brown-rotted wood, but slight labeling occurred within hyphal cells. Use of polyclonal antisera to xylanase followed by immunogold labeling showed intense labeling on fungal hyphae and surrounding slime layers and within the woody cell wall, where evidence of degradation was apparent. Colloidal-gold-labeled xylanase was prevalent in wood decayed by all fungi used in this study. Areas of the wood with early stages of cell wall decay had the greatest concentration of gold particles, while little labeling occurred in cells in advanced stages of decay by brown or white rot fungi. Images PMID:16347939

  5. An improved method of gene synthesis based on DNA works software and overlap extension PCR.

    PubMed

    Dong, Bingxue; Mao, Runqian; Li, Baojian; Liu, Qiuyun; Xu, Peilin; Li, Gang

    2007-11-01

    A bottleneck in recent gene synthesis technologies is the high cost of oligonucleotide synthesis and post-synthesis sequencing. In this article, a simple and rapid method for low-cost gene synthesis technology was developed based on DNAWorks program and an improved single-step overlap extension PCR (OE-PCR). This method enables any DNA sequence to be synthesized with few errors, then any mutated sites could be corrected by site-specific mutagenesis technology or PCR amplification-assembly method, which can amplify different DNA fragments of target gene followed by assembly into an entire gene through their overlapped region. Eventually, full-length DNA sequence without error was obtained via this novel method. Our method is simple, rapid and low-cost, and also easily amenable to automation based on a DNAWorks design program and defined set of OE-PCR reaction conditions suitable for different genes. Using this method, several genes including Manganese peroxidase gene (Mnp) of Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P. chrysosporium), Laccase gene (Lac) of Trametes versicolor (T. versicolor) and Cip1 peroxidase gene (cip 1) of Coprinus cinereus (C. cinereus) with sizes ranging from 1.0 kb to 1.5 kb have been synthesized successfully. PMID:17952664

  6. Comparison of DNA extraction methodologies used for assessing fungal diversity via ITS sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Rittenour, William R.; Park, Ju-Hyeong; Cox-Ganser, Jean M.; Beezhold, Donald H.; Green, Brett J.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional methods of assessing fungal exposure have been confounded by a number of limiting variables. The recent utilization of molecular methods such as internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing of ribosomal RNA genes has provided improved insight into the diversity of fungal bioaerosols in indoor, outdoor and occupational environments. However, ITS analyses may also be confounded by a number of methodological limitations. In this study, we have optimized this technology for use in occupational or environmental studies. Three commonly used DNA extraction methodologies (UltraClean Soil kit, High Pure PCR Template kit, and EluQuik/DNeasy kit) were compared in terms of sensitivity and susceptibility to PCR inhibitors in dust for three common fungal bioaerosols, Aspergillus versicolor, Rhizopus microsporus and Wallemia sebi. Environmental dust samples were then studied using each extraction methodology and results were compared to viable culture data. The extraction methods differed in terms of their ability to efficiently extract DNA from particular species of fungi (e.g. Aspergillus versicolor). In addition, the ability to remove PCR inhibitors from dust samples was most effective using the soil DNA extraction kit. The species composition varied greatly between ITS clone libraries generated with the different DNA extraction kits. However, compared to viable culture data, ITS clone libraries included additional fungal species that are incapable of growth on solid culture medium. Collectively, our data indicated that DNA extraction methodologies used in ITS sequencing studies of occupational or environmental dust samples can greatly influence the fungal species that are detected. PMID:22230933

  7. Microfungal contamination of damp buildings--examples of risk constructions and risk materials.

    PubMed Central

    Gravesen, S; Nielsen, P A; Iversen, R; Nielsen, K F

    1999-01-01

    To elucidate problems with microfungal infestation in indoor environments, a multidisciplinary collaborative pilot study, supported by a grant from the Danish Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs, was performed on 72 mold-infected building materials from 23 buildings. Water leakage through roofs, rising damp, and defective plumbing installations were the main reasons for water damage with subsequent infestation of molds. From a score system assessing the bioavailability of the building materials, products most vulnerable to mold attacks were water damaged, aged organic materials containing cellulose, such as wooden materials, jute, wallpaper, and cardboard. The microfungal genera most frequently encountered were Penicillium (68%), Aspergillus (56%), Chaetomium (22%), Ulocladium, (21%), Stachybotrys (19%) and Cladosporium (15%). Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus versicolor, and Stachybotrys chartarum were the most frequently occurring species. Under field conditions, several trichothecenes were detected in each of three commonly used building materials, heavily contaminated with S. chartarum. Under experimental conditions, four out of five isolates of S. chartarum produced satratoxin H and G when growing on new and old, very humid gypsum boards. A. versicolor produced the carcinogenic mycotoxin sterigmatocystin and 5-methoxysterigmatocystin under the same conditions. PMID:10347000

  8. Microfungal contamination of damp buildings--examples of risk constructions and risk materials.

    PubMed

    Gravesen, S; Nielsen, P A; Iversen, R; Nielsen, K F

    1999-06-01

    To elucidate problems with microfungal infestation in indoor environments, a multidisciplinary collaborative pilot study, supported by a grant from the Danish Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs, was performed on 72 mold-infected building materials from 23 buildings. Water leakage through roofs, rising damp, and defective plumbing installations were the main reasons for water damage with subsequent infestation of molds. From a score system assessing the bioavailability of the building materials, products most vulnerable to mold attacks were water damaged, aged organic materials containing cellulose, such as wooden materials, jute, wallpaper, and cardboard. The microfungal genera most frequently encountered were Penicillium (68%), Aspergillus (56%), Chaetomium (22%), Ulocladium, (21%), Stachybotrys (19%) and Cladosporium (15%). Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus versicolor, and Stachybotrys chartarum were the most frequently occurring species. Under field conditions, several trichothecenes were detected in each of three commonly used building materials, heavily contaminated with S. chartarum. Under experimental conditions, four out of five isolates of S. chartarum produced satratoxin H and G when growing on new and old, very humid gypsum boards. A. versicolor produced the carcinogenic mycotoxin sterigmatocystin and 5-methoxysterigmatocystin under the same conditions. PMID:10347000

  9. Overproduction of laccase and pectinase by microbial associations in solid substrate fermentation.

    PubMed

    Stoilova, Ivanka; Krastanov, Albert

    2008-04-01

    The growth and the enzymatic production of two microbial fungal associations were studied: Aspergillus niger and Fusarium moniliforme and Trametes versicolor and Aspergillus niger. The synergistic interrelations between the species of the first mixed culture increased the biosynthesis of alpha-amylase and pectinase. T. versicolor and A. niger proved to be compatible partners in the overproduction of the enzyme laccase, whose synthesis surpassed 8.4 times the enzymatic level in the monoculture, with both of the mixed microbial populations cocultivation facilitating the amplified synthesis of enzymes rather than their growth acceleration. A further proof of the presence of synergism established by the cultures was the enzyme volumetric productivities in both of the mixed microbial cultures, which increased parallel to the rise in the combined biomass synthesis. The competent selection of compatible partners can adjust the desired enzymatic levels and compositions in mixed fungal systems aimed at a number of specified designations. Thus, a very high level of laccase production (97,600 IU/g dry weight) was achieved. The chosen fungal strains produce a variety of different enzymes, but first microbial association produces mainly amylase and pectinase, necessary for their growth, and second association produces mainly laccase and pectinase. PMID:18350386

  10. Comparative ultrastructure of ant spermatozoa (Formicidae: Hymenoptera).

    PubMed

    Wheeler, D E; Crichton, E G; Krutzsch, P H

    1990-12-01

    Mature spermatozoa from spermathecae of founding queens were obtained from 5 species of ants, representing the major subfamilies Myrmicinae (Acromyrmex versicolor, Crematogaster sp.) and Dolichoderinae (Tapinoma sessile, Conomyrma insana, Conomyrma wheeleri). The ultrastructure of ant spermatozoa has many features in common with that of higher insects and is similar to that of other Hymenoptera. Structural similarities to spermatozoa of other Hymenoptera include an acrosome containing an internal rod that extends into the nucleus, two elongate mitochondrial derivatives, a centriolar adjunct, and an axonemal arrangement of 9 + 9 + 2 that includes well-developed coarse, or accessory, tubules. Spermatozoa obtained from A. versicolor, a species that is known to store and utilize viable sperm from this supply for over 10 years, show greater development of the mitochondrial derivatives than do the other species. The most distinctive feature of ant spermatozoa in comparison to other Hymenoptera is the large size of the centriolar adjunct relative to the other organelles. The centriolar adjunct is located posterior to the nucleus, anterior to the mitochondrial derivatives, and opposite the axoneme. PMID:2280410

  11. Microbial conversion of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Bean, R.M. )

    1989-10-01

    The objectives of this project were to describe in detail the degradation of coals by fungi and microbes, to expand the range of applicability of the process to include new microbes and other coal types, to identify the means by which biosolubilization of coal is accomplished, and to explore means to enhance the rates and extent of coal bioconversion. The project was initiated in a response to the discovery by Dr. Martin Cohen at the University of Hartford, of a fungal strain of Coriolus versicolor that would render a solid coal substance, leonardite, into a liquid product. The project has identified the principal agent of leonardite solubilization as a powerful metal chelator, most likely a fungal-produced siderophore. Another nonlaccase enzyme has also been identified as a unique biosolubilizing agent produced by C. versicolor. Assays were developed for the quantitative determination of biological coal conversion, and for the determination of potency of biosolubilizing agent. Screening studies uncovered several microbial organisms capable of coal biodegradation, and led to the discovery that prolonged heating in air at the moderate temperature of 150{degree}C allowed the biodegradation of Illinois {number sign}6 coal to material soluble in dilute base. Chemical studies showed that leonardite biosolubilization was accompanied by relatively small change in composition, while solubilization of Illinois {number sign}6 coal involves considerable oxidation of the coal. 24 refs., 32 figs., 27 tabs.

  12. Microbial solubilization of coals

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.A.; Fredrickson, J.K.; Stewart, D.L.; Thomas, B.L.; McCulloch, M.; Wilson, B.W.; Bean, R.M.

    1988-11-01

    Microbial solubilization of coal may serve as a first step in a process to convert low-rank coals or coal-derived products to other fuels or products. For solubilization of coal to be an economically viable technology, a mechanistic understanding of the process is essential. Leonardite, a highly oxidized, low-rank coal, has been solubilized by the intact microorganism, cell-free filtrate, and cell-free enzyme of /ital Coriolus versicolor/. A spectrophotometric conversion assay was developed to quantify the amount of biosolubilized coal. In addition, a bituminous coal, Illinois No. 6, was solubilized by a species of /ital Penicillium/, but only after the coal had been preoxidized in air. Model compounds containing coal-related functionalities have been incubated with the leonardite-degrading fungus, its cell-free filtrate, and purified enzyme. The amount of degradation was determined by gas chromatography and the degradation products were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. We have also separated the cell-free filtrate of /ital C. versicolor/ into a <10,000 MW and >10,000 MW fraction by ultrafiltration techniques. Most of the coal biosolubilization activity is contained in the <10,000 MW fraction while the model compound degradation occurs in the >10,000 MW fraction. The >10,000 MW fraction appears to contain an enzyme with laccase-like activity. 10 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Effect of growth substrate, method of fermentation, and nitrogen source on lignocellulose-degrading enzymes production by white-rot basidiomycetes.

    PubMed

    Elisashvili, Vladimir; Kachlishvili, Eva; Penninckx, Michel

    2008-11-01

    The exploration of seven physiologically different white rot fungi potential to produce cellulase, xylanase, laccase, and manganese peroxidase (MnP) showed that the enzyme yield and their ratio in enzyme preparations significantly depends on the fungus species, lignocellulosic growth substrate, and cultivation method. The fruit residues were appropriate growth substrates for the production of hydrolytic enzymes and laccase. The highest endoglucanase (111 U ml(-1)) and xylanase (135 U ml(-1)) activities were revealed in submerged fermentation (SF) of banana peels by Pycnoporus coccineus. In the same cultivation conditions Cerrena maxima accumulated the highest level of laccase activity (7,620 U l(-1)). The lignified materials (wheat straw and tree leaves) appeared to be appropriate for the MnP secretion by majority basidiomycetes. With few exceptions, SF favored to hydrolases and laccase production by fungi tested whereas SSF was appropriate for the MnP accumulation. Thus, the Coriolopsis polyzona hydrolases activity increased more than threefold, while laccase yield increased 15-fold when tree leaves were undergone to SF instead SSF. The supplementation of nitrogen to the control medium seemed to have a negative effect on all enzyme production in SSF of wheat straw and tree leaves by Pleurotus ostreatus. In SF peptone and ammonium containing salts significantly increased C. polyzona and Trametes versicolor hydrolases and laccase yields. However, in most cases the supplementation of media with additional nitrogen lowered the fungi specific enzyme activities. Especially strong repression of T. versicolor MnP production was revealed. PMID:18716810

  14. Synthetic dye decolorization by three sources of fungal laccase

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Decolorization of six synthetic dyes using three sources of fungal laccase with the origin of Aspergillus oryzae, Trametes versicolor, and Paraconiothyrium variabile was investigated. Among them, the enzyme from P. variabile was the most efficient which decolorized bromophenol blue (100%), commassie brilliant blue (91%), panseu-S (56%), Rimazol brilliant blue R (RBBR; 47%), Congo red (18.5%), and methylene blue (21.3%) after 3 h incubation in presence of hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT; 5 mM) as the laccase mediator. It was also observed that decolorization efficiency of all dyes was enhanced by increasing of HBT concentration from 0.1 mM to 5 mM. Laccase from A. oryzae was able to remove 53% of methylene blue and 26% of RBBR after 30 min incubation in absence of HBT, but the enzyme could not efficiently decolorize other dyes even in presence of 5 mM of HBT. In the case of laccase from T. versicolor, only RBBR was decolorized (93%) in absence of HBT after 3 h incubation. PMID:23369690

  15. “Gharikon”/”Agharikon” a Valuable Medicinal Mushroom in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Vazirian, Mehdi; Faridfar, Shabnam; Eftekhari, Mahdieh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gharikon is a well-known medicinal mushroom in Iranian traditional medicine and mentioned several times in different kinds of authentic literature. Considering both traditional and modern literature, the aim of this study is to present a review of its biological activities. Methods: Using online databases (e.g. PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar) as well as reviewing traditional medicinal literature (e.g. Makhzan-ul-Adwiah, Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb); we reviewed the published literature on the pharmacological effects of Laricifomes officinalis (the most common species considered as “Gharikon”). Results: Laricifomes officinalis (Polyporus officinalis) is a wood-rotting fungus that grows on different hosts such as conifers. The mushroom is native to Europe, Asia, and North America. According to the judgment of traditional medicine, its temperament is warm and dry. It has been used since the ancient times to treat sciatica, weakness of muscles, bronchitis, constipation, stomach and uterus pain, jaundice, fever and insect bites. It also has diuretic and emmenagogue effects. In recent decades, several research studies have been performed on L. officinalis. The results showed that the biological effects of L. officinalis are anti-viral (especially against smallpox, H5N1 influenza, and hepatitis C virus), anti-tuberculosis, boosting the immune system, treating dysmenorrhea, hemorrhoids, cough, rheumatoid arthritis and anticoagulant activity. A survey revealed that L. officinalis is a well-known medicinal mushroom with some formulations as dietary supplements on the market. Conclusion: Considering traditional literature and recent findings on biological activities that in most cases corroborate each other, it seems that Laricifomes officinalis needs more attention in new investigations, including more pharmacologic assays and clinical trials, which may lead to the development of new natural products. PMID:27516667

  16. Efficacy of fungal decolorization of a mixture of dyes belonging to different classes.

    PubMed

    Przystas, Wioletta; Zablocka-Godlewska, Ewa; Grabinska-Sota, Elzbieta

    2015-06-01

    Dyes are the most difficult constituents to remove by conventional biological wastewater treatment. Colored wastewater is mainly eliminated by physical and chemical procedures, which are very expensive and have drawbacks. Therefore, the advantage of using biological processes, such as the biotransformation of dyes, is that they may lead to complete mineralization or formation of less toxic products. To prove the possibility of using fungal processes for decolorization and other applications, the analysis of the toxicity of the processes' products is required. The decolorization of the mixture of two dyes from different classes - triphenylmethane brilliant green and azo Evans blue (GB - total concentration 0.08 g/L, proportion 1:1 w/w) - by Pleurotus ostreatus (BWPH and MB), Gloeophyllum odoratum (DCa), RWP17 (Polyporus picipes) and Fusarium oxysporum (G1) was studied. Zootoxicity (Daphnia magna) and phytotoxicity (Lemna minor) changes were estimated at the end of the experiment. The mixture of dyes was significantly removed by all the strains that were tested with 96 h of experimental time. However, differences among strains from the same species (P. ostreatus) were noted. Shaking improved the efficacy and rate of the dye removal. In static samples, the removal of the mixture reached more than 51.9% and in shaken samples, more than 79.2%. Tests using the dead biomass of the fungi only adsorbed up to 37% of the dye mixture (strain BWPH), which suggests that the process with the living biomass involves the biotransformation of the dyes. The best results were reached for the MB strain, which removed 90% of the tested mixture under shaking conditions. Regardless of the efficacy of the dye removal, toxicity decreased from class V to class III in tests with D. magna. Tests with L. minor control samples were classified as class IV, and samples with certain strains were non-toxic. The highest phytotoxicity decrease was noted in shaken samples where the elimination of dye

  17. Microbial liquefaction of peat for the production of synthetic fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Gunasekaran, M.

    1988-01-01

    Objectives of this study were: to evaluate the potential of using various microorganisms to hydrolyse and liquify peat; to determine the optimal conditions for peat hydrolysis and liquefaction; to study the co-metabolizable substances; to separate the compounds present in liquified peat by alumina and silica acid chromatography and capillary gas chromatography; and to identify the compounds in liquified peat by capillary GC-Mass spectrometry. Organisms used in the study include: Coprinus comatus, Coriolus hirsutus, Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinus edodes, Lenzites trabea, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus ostreatus, P. sapidus, Polyporus adjustus, Neurospora sitophila, Rhizophus arrhizus, Bacillus subtilis, Acinetobacter sp. and Alcaligenes sp. The fungi were maintained and cultivated in potato dextrose agar at 30 C. The bacteria were maintained in nutrient agar at 30 C. We have also initiated work on coal solubilization in addition to the studies on peat liquefaction. A relatively new substratum or semi-solid base for culture media called Pluronic F-127, or Polyol (BASF, New Jersey). Objectives of this study were: (1) to study the growth patterns of Candida ML 13 on pluronic as substratum; (2) to determine the rate of microbial coal solubilization on pluronic F-127 amended in different growth media; (3) to separate the mycelial mat of Candida ML 13 from unsolubilized coal particles and solubilized coal products from pluronic F-127; (4) to determine the effects of pH on microbial coal solubilization in pluronic F-127 media; (5) the effect of concentration of pluronic F-127 in media on coal solubilization; and, (6) to study the role of extracellular factors secreted by Candida ML 13 on coal solubilization in pluronic F-127 media. Results are discussed. 4 refs.

  18. Efficacy of fungal decolorization of a mixture of dyes belonging to different classes

    PubMed Central

    Przystas, Wioletta; Zablocka-Godlewska, Ewa; Grabinska-Sota, Elzbieta

    2015-01-01

    Dyes are the most difficult constituents to remove by conventional biological wastewater treatment. Colored wastewater is mainly eliminated by physical and chemical procedures, which are very expensive and have drawbacks. Therefore, the advantage of using biological processes, such as the biotransformation of dyes, is that they may lead to complete mineralization or formation of less toxic products. To prove the possibility of using fungal processes for decolorization and other applications, the analysis of the toxicity of the processes' products is required. The decolorization of the mixture of two dyes from different classes - triphenylmethane brilliant green and azo Evans blue (GB - total concentration 0.08 g/L, proportion 1:1 w/w) - by Pleurotus ostreatus (BWPH and MB), Gloeophyllum odoratum (DCa), RWP17 (Polyporus picipes) and Fusarium oxysporum (G1) was studied. Zootoxicity (Daphnia magna) and phytotoxicity (Lemna minor) changes were estimated at the end of the experiment. The mixture of dyes was significantly removed by all the strains that were tested with 96 h of experimental time. However, differences among strains from the same species (P. ostreatus) were noted. Shaking improved the efficacy and rate of the dye removal. In static samples, the removal of the mixture reached more than 51.9% and in shaken samples, more than 79.2%. Tests using the dead biomass of the fungi only adsorbed up to 37% of the dye mixture (strain BWPH), which suggests that the process with the living biomass involves the biotransformation of the dyes. The best results were reached for the MB strain, which removed 90% of the tested mixture under shaking conditions. Regardless of the efficacy of the dye removal, toxicity decreased from class V to class III in tests with D. magna. Tests with L. minor control samples were classified as class IV, and samples with certain strains were non-toxic. The highest phytotoxicity decrease was noted in shaken samples where the elimination of dye

  19. Purification, characterization, molecular cloning, and expression of two laccase genes from the white rot basidiomycete Trametes villosa.

    PubMed Central

    Yaver, D S; Xu, F; Golightly, E J; Brown, K M; Brown, S H; Rey, M W; Schneider, P; Halkier, T; Mondorf, K; Dalboge, H

    1996-01-01

    Two laccases have been purified to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity from the extracellular medium of a 2,5-xylidine-induced culture of the white rot basidiomycete Trametes villosa (Polyporus pinsitus or Coriolus pinsitus). These proteins are dimeric, consisting of two subunits of 63 kDa as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and have typical blue laccase spectral properties. Under nondenaturing conditions, the two purified laccases have different pIs; purified laccase forms 1 and 3 have pIs of 3.5 and 6 to 6.5, respectively. A third purified laccase form 2 has the same N terminus as that of laccase form 3, but its pI is in the range of 5 to 6. The laccases have optimal activity at pH 5 to 5.5 and pH < or = 2.7 with syringaldazine and ABTS [2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] as substrates, respectively. The genes lcc1 and lcc2 coding for the two purified laccases (forms 1 and 3) have been cloned, and their nucleotide sequences have been determined. The genes for lcc1 and lcc2 have 8 and 10 introns, respectively. The predicted proteins are 79% identical at the amino acid level. From Northern (RNA) blots containing total RNA from both induced and uninduced cultures, expression of lcc1 is highly induced, while the expression of lcc2 appears to be constitutive. Lcc1 has been expressed in Aspergillus oryzae, and the purified recombinant protein has the same pI, spectral properties, stability, and pH profiles as the purified native protein. PMID:8975613

  20. The GSTome Reflects the Chemical Environment of White-Rot Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Deroy, Aurélie; Saiag, Fanny; Kebbi-Benkeder, Zineb; Touahri, Nassim; Hecker, Arnaud; Morel-Rouhier, Mélanie; Colin, Francis; Dumarcay, Stephane; Gérardin, Philippe; Gelhaye, Eric

    2015-01-01

    White-rot fungi possess the unique ability to degrade and mineralize all the different components of wood. In other respects, wood durability, among other factors, is due to the presence of extractives that are potential antimicrobial molecules. To cope with these molecules, wood decay fungi have developed a complex detoxification network including glutathione transferases (GST). The interactions between GSTs from two white-rot fungi, Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and an environmental library of wood extracts have been studied. The results demonstrate that the specificity of these interactions is closely related to the chemical composition of the extracts in accordance with the tree species and their localization inside the wood (sapwood vs heartwood vs knotwood). These data suggest that the fungal GSTome could reflect the chemical environment encountered by these fungi during wood degradation and could be a way to study their adaptation to their way of life. PMID:26426695

  1. Screening for ligninolytic enzymes from autochthonous fungi and applications for decolorization of Remazole Marine Blue

    PubMed Central

    Erden, Emre; Ucar, M. Cigdem; Gezer, Tekin; Pazarlioglu, Nurdan Kasikara

    2009-01-01

    This study presents new and alternative fungal strains for the production of ligninolytic enzymes which have great potential to use in industrial and biotechnological processes. Thirty autochthonous fungal strains were harvested from Bornova-Izmir in Turkiye. In the fresh fruitbody extracts laccase, manganese peroxidase and lignin peroxidase activities, which are the principal enzymes responsible for ligninocellulose degradation by Basidiomycetes, were screened. Spores of some of the basidiomycetes species such as Cortinarius sp., Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Abortiporus biennis, Lyophyllum subglobisporium, Ramaria stricta, Ganoderma carnosum, Lactarius delicious ve Lepista nuda were isolated and investigated optimum cultivation conditions in submerged fermentation for high yields of ligninolytic enzyme production. In addition, isolated fungal strains were monitored on agar plates whether having the capability of decolorization of a textile dye Remazol Marine Blue. PMID:24031371

  2. Malassezia furfur: a fungus belonging to the physiological skin flora and its relevance in skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, A

    1997-01-01

    Malassezia furfur is an anthropophilic fungus that belongs to the physiological skin flora. The fungus can grow in a yeast phase as well as in a mycelial phase; on nonaffected skin the fungus is mainly prevalent in the yeast phase. The organism has complex lipid requirements for growth, which also explains its occurrence on the skin. This also leads to the requirement for specially supplemented media for in vitro cultivation. Malassezia furfur is the causative agent of pityriasis versicolor. It also seems to be associated with seborrheic dermatitis and dandruff formation, folliculitis, confluent and reticulate papillomatosis, and the provocation of psoriatic lesions. Many substances for topical application, such as azole antimycotics, ciclopirox olamine, piroctone-olamine, zinc pyrithione, or sulfur-containing substances are effective in the treatment of these diseases. In recent years rare cases of systemic infections and fungemias caused by Malassezia have been reported. PMID:9013067

  3. Removal of antibiotics in wastewater by enzymatic treatment with fungal laccase - Degradation of compounds does not always eliminate toxicity.

    PubMed

    Becker, Dennis; Varela Della Giustina, Saulo; Rodriguez-Mozaz, Sara; Schoevaart, Rob; Barceló, Damià; de Cazes, Matthias; Belleville, Marie-Pierre; Sanchez-Marcano, José; de Gunzburg, Jean; Couillerot, Olivier; Völker, Johannes; Oehlmann, Jörg; Wagner, Martin

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the performance of immobilised laccase (Trametes versicolor) was investigated in combination with the mediator syringaldehyde (SYR) in removing a mixture of 38 antibiotics in an enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR). Antibiotics were spiked in osmosed water at concentrations of 10μg·L(-1) each. Laccase without mediator did not reduce the load of antibiotics significantly. The addition of SYR enhanced the removal: out of the 38 antibiotics, 32 were degraded by >50% after 24h. In addition to chemical analysis, the samples' toxicity was evaluated in two bioassays (a growth inhibition assay and the Microtox assay). Here, the addition of SYR resulted in a time-dependent increase of toxicity in both bioassays. In cooperation with SYR, laccase effectively removes a broad range of antibiotics. However, this enhanced degradation induces unspecific toxicity. If this issue is resolved, enzymatic treatment may be a valuable addition to existing water treatment technologies. PMID:27521787

  4. Northeast regional and state trends in anuran occupancy from calling survey data (2001-2011) from the North American Amphibian Monitoring Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weir, Linda A.; Royle, Andy; Gazenski, Kimberly D.; Villena Carpio, Oswaldo

    2014-01-01

    We present the first regional trends in anuran occupancy from North American Amphibian Monitoring Program (NAAMP) data from 11 northeastern states using an 11 years of data. NAAMP is a long-term monitoring program where observers collect data at assigned random roadside routes using a calling survey technique. We assessed occupancy trends for 17 species. Eight species had statistically significant regional trends, of these seven were negative (Anaxyrus fowleri, Acris crepitans, Pseudacris brachyphona, Pseudacris feriarum-kalmi complex, Lithobates palustris, Lithobates pipiens, and Lithobates sphenocephalus) and one was positive (Hyla versicolor-chrysoscelis complex). We also assessed state level trends for 101 species/state combinations, of these 29 showed a significant decline and nine showed a significant increase in occupancy.

  5. Genome Sequencing and Evolutionary Analysis of Marine Gut Fungus Aspergillus sp. Z5 from Ligia oceanica.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue; Xu, Jin-Zhong; Wang, Wen-Jie; Chen, Yi-Wang; Zheng, Dao-Qiong; Di, Ya-Nan; Li, Ping; Wang, Pin-Mei; Li, Yu-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus sp. Z5, isolated from the gut of marine isopods, produces prolific secondary metabolites with new structure and bioactivity. Here, we report the draft sequence of the approximately 33.8-Mbp genome of this strain. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first genome sequence of Aspergillus strain isolated from marine isopod Ligia oceanica. The phylogenetic analysis supported that this strain was closely related to A. versicolor, and genomic analysis revealed that Aspergillus sp. Z5 shared a high degree of colinearity with the genome of A. sydowii. Our results may facilitate studies on discovering the biosynthetic pathways of secondary metabolites and elucidating their evolution in this species. PMID:27081303

  6. Genome Sequencing and Evolutionary Analysis of Marine Gut Fungus Aspergillus sp. Z5 from Ligia oceanica

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xue; Xu, Jin-Zhong; Wang, Wen-Jie; Chen, Yi-Wang; Zheng, Dao-Qiong; Di, Ya-Nan; Li, Ping; Wang, Pin-Mei; Li, Yu-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus sp. Z5, isolated from the gut of marine isopods, produces prolific secondary metabolites with new structure and bioactivity. Here, we report the draft sequence of the approximately 33.8-Mbp genome of this strain. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first genome sequence of Aspergillus strain isolated from marine isopod Ligia oceanica. The phylogenetic analysis supported that this strain was closely related to A. versicolor, and genomic analysis revealed that Aspergillus sp. Z5 shared a high degree of colinearity with the genome of A. sydowii. Our results may facilitate studies on discovering the biosynthetic pathways of secondary metabolites and elucidating their evolution in this species. PMID:27081303

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of Grumgzimailo's toad-headed agama, Phrynocephalus grumgrizimailoi (Reptilia, Squamata, Agamidae).

    PubMed

    Shuang, Luo; Liu, Li-Jun; Song, Sen

    2016-05-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), long-and-accurate PCR and directly sequencing by primer walking was used to sequenced he complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Grumgzimailo's toad- headed agama, Phrynocephalus grumgrizimailoi. The Genbank accession was KM093859. There was 16,301 bp in length of the entire mitochondrial genome of P. grumgrizimailoi and the content of A, T, C, and G were 36.4%, 26.5%, 25.0% and 12.1%, respectively, that was similar to most vertebrate. The complete mitochondrial genome of P. grumgrizimailoi contain 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, plus 2 control regions and was similar to those of other Phrynocephalus sand lizards in gene arrangement and composition, except P. przewalskii and P. versicolor. The complete mitochondrial genome of P. grumgrizimailoi provided fundamental data for resolving phylogenetic relationship problems related to Agaimidae and genus Phrynocephalus. PMID:25208174

  8. Environmental isolates of fungi from aquarium pools housing killer whales (Orcinus orca).

    PubMed

    Kohata, Erina; Kano, Rui; Akune, Yuichiro; Ohno, Yoshito; Soichi, Makoto; Yanai, Tokuma; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Kamata, Hiroshi

    2013-12-01

    Systemic mycoses in killer whales (Orcinus orca) are rare diseases, but have been reported. Two killer whales died by fungal infections at the Port of Nagoya Public Aquarium in Japan. In this study, the fungal flora of the pool environment at the aquarium was characterized. Alternaria spp., Aspergillus spp. (A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. versicolor), Fusarium spp. and Penicillium spp. were isolated from the air and the pool surroundings. The other isolates were identified as fungal species non-pathogenic for mammals. However, the species of fungi isolated from the environmental samples in this study were not the same as those isolated from the cases of disease in killer whales previously reported. PMID:24045935

  9. Identification of some factors affecting pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs) removal in real wastewater. Case study of fungal treatment of reverse osmosis concentrate.

    PubMed

    Badia-Fabregat, Marina; Lucas, Daniel; Gros, Meritxell; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara; Barceló, Damià; Caminal, Glòria; Vicent, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Many technologies are being developed for the efficient removal of micropollutants from wastewater and, among them, fungal degradation is one of the possible alternative biological treatments. In this article, some factors that might affect pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) removal in a fungal treatment of real wastewater were identified in batch bioreactor treating reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) from urban wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). We found that degradation of PhACs by Trametes versicolor was enhanced by addition of external nutrients (global removal of 44%). Moreover, our results point out that high aeration might be involved in the increase in the concentration of some PhACs. In fact, conjugation and deconjugation processes (among others) affect the removal assessment of emerging contaminants when working with real concentrations in comparison to experiments with spiked samples. Moreover, factors that could affect the quantification of micropollutants at lab-scale experiments were studied. PMID:25464308

  10. Potentialities of a Membrane Reactor with Laccase Grafted Membranes for the Enzymatic Degradation of Phenolic Compounds in Water

    PubMed Central

    Chea, Vorleak; Paolucci-Jeanjean, Delphine; Sanchez, José; Belleville, Marie-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the degradation of phenolic compounds by laccases from Trametes versicolor in an enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR). The enzymatic membranes were prepared by grafting laccase on a gelatine layer previously deposited onto α-alumina tubular membranes. The 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (DMP) was selected  from among the three different phenolic compounds tested (guaiacol, 4-chlorophenol and DMP) to study the performance of the EMR in dead end configuration. At the lowest feed substrate concentration tested (100 mg·L−1), consumption increased with flux (up to 7.9 × 103 mg·h−1·m−2 at 128 L·h−1·m−2), whereas at the highest substrate concentration (500 mg·L−1), it was shown that the reaction was limited by the oxygen content. PMID:25295628

  11. Removal of pharmaceuticals from wastewater by fungal treatment and reduction of hazard quotients.

    PubMed

    Lucas, D; Barceló, D; Rodriguez-Mozaz, S

    2016-11-15

    The elimination of 81 pharmaceuticals (PhACs) by means of a biological treatment based on the fungus Trametes versicolor was evaluated in this work. PhAC removal studied in different types of wastewaters (urban, reverse osmosis concentrate, hospital, and veterinary hospital wastewaters) were reviewed and compared with conventional activated sludge (CAS) treatment. In addition, hazard indexes were calculated based on the exposure levels and ecotoxicity for each compound and used for the evaluation of the contaminants removal. PhAC elimination achieved with the fungal treatment (mean value 76%) was similar or slightly worse than the elimination achieved in the CAS treatment (85%). However, the fungal reactor was superior in removing more hazardous compounds (antibiotics and psychiatric drugs) than the conventional activated sludge in terms of environmental risk reduction (93% and 53% of reduction respectively). Fungal treatment can thus be considered as a good alternative to conventional treatment technologies for the elimination of PhACs from wastewaters. PMID:27436780

  12. Immune Modulation From Five Major Mushrooms: Application to Integrative Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Guggenheim, Alena G.; Wright, Kirsten M.; Zwickey, Heather L.

    2014-01-01

    This review discusses the immunological roles of 5 major mushrooms in oncology: Agaricus blazei, Cordyceps sinensis, Grifola frondosa, Ganoderma lucidum, and Trametes versicolor. These mushrooms were selected based on the body of research performed on mushroom immunology in an oncology model. First, this article focuses on how mushrooms modify cytokines within specific cancer models and on how those cytokines affect the disease process. Second, this article examines the direct effect of mushrooms on cancer. Finally, this article presents an analysis of how mushrooms interact with chemotherapeutic agents, including their effects on its efficacy and on the myelosuppression that results from it. For these 5 mushrooms, an abundance of in vitro evidence exists that elucidates the anticancer immunological mechanisms. Preliminary research in humans is also available and is promising for treatment. PMID:26770080

  13. The transmembrane channel-like protein family and human papillomaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Jaime S; Stokes, Alexander J

    2014-01-01

    Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is a rare genodermatosis characterized by increased sensitivity to infection by the β-subtype of human papillomaviruses (β-HPVs), causing persistent, tinea versicolor-like dermal lesions. In a majority of affected individuals, these macular lesions progress to invasive cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) in sun-exposed areas. While mutations in transmembrane channel-like 6 (TMC6 / EVER1) and 8 (TMC8 / EVER2) have been causally linked to EV, their molecular functions are unclear. It is likely that their protective effects involve regulation of the β-HPV life cycle, host keratinocyte apoptosis vs. survival balance and/or T-cell interaction with infected host cells. PMID:24800179

  14. The transmembrane channel-like protein family and human papillomaviruses: Insights into epidermodysplasia verruciformis and progression to squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Horton, Jaime S; Stokes, Alexander J

    2014-01-01

    Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is a rare genodermatosis characterized by increased sensitivity to infection by the β-subtype of human papillomaviruses (β-HPVs), causing persistent, tinea versicolor-like dermal lesions. In a majority of affected individuals, these macular lesions progress to invasive cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) in sun-exposed areas. While mutations in transmembrane channel-like 6 (TMC6 / EVER1) and 8 (TMC8 / EVER2) have been causally linked to EV, their molecular functions are unclear. It is likely that their protective effects involve regulation of the β-HPV life cycle, host keratinocyte apoptosis vs. survival balance and/or T-cell interaction with infected host cells. PMID:24800179

  15. Dibenzyl Sulfide Metabolism by White Rot Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Van Hamme, Jonathan D.; Wong, Eddie T.; Dettman, Heather; Gray, Murray R.; Pickard, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    Microbial metabolism of organosulfur compounds is of interest in the petroleum industry for in-field viscosity reduction and desulfurization. Here, dibenzyl sulfide (DBS) metabolism in white rot fungi was studied. Trametes trogii UAMH 8156, Trametes hirsuta UAMH 8165, Phanerochaete chrysosporium ATCC 24725, Trametes versicolor IFO 30340 (formerly Coriolus sp.), and Tyromyces palustris IFO 30339 all oxidized DBS to dibenzyl sulfoxide prior to oxidation to dibenzyl sulfone. The cytochrome P-450 inhibitor 1-aminobenzotriazole eliminated dibenzyl sulfoxide oxidation. Laccase activity (0.15 U/ml) was detected in the Trametes cultures, and concentrated culture supernatant and pure laccase catalyzed DBS oxidation to dibenzyl sulfoxide more efficiently in the presence of 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) than in its absence. These data suggest that the first oxidation step is catalyzed by extracellular enzymes but that subsequent metabolism is cytochrome P-450 mediated. PMID:12571066

  16. Biochemical Characterization and Antimicrobial and Antifungal Activity of Two Endemic Varieties of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) of the Campania Region, Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Fratianni, Florinda; Riccardi, Riccardo; Spigno, Patrizia; Ombra, Maria Neve; Cozzolino, Autilia; Tremonte, Patrizio; Coppola, Raffaele; Nazzaro, Filomena

    2016-07-01

    Extracts of the bulbs of the two endemic varieties "Rosato" and "Caposele" of Allium sativum of the Campania region, Southern Italy, were analyzed. The phenolic content, ascorbic acid, allicin content, and in vitro antimicrobial and antifungal activity were determined. Ultra performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector performed polyphenol profile. The polyphenolic extracts showed antioxidant activity (EC50) lower than 120 mg. The amount of ascorbic acid and allicin in the two extracts was similar. Polyphenol extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and (only by the extract of Rosato) against Bacillus cereus. The extract of Caposele was more effective in inhibiting the growth of Aspergillus versicolor and Penicillum citrinum. On the other hand, the extract of Rosato was effective against Penicillium expansum. PMID:27259073

  17. Isolation, purification, and antibiotic activity of o-methoxycinnamaldehyde from cinnamon.

    PubMed Central

    Morozumi, S

    1978-01-01

    o-Methoxycinnamaldehyde has been isolated and purified from powdered cinnamon. The compound inhibits the growth and toxin production of mycotoxin-producing fungi. The substance completely inhibited the growth of Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus at 100 microgram/ml and A. ochraceus and A. versicolor at 200 microgram/ml. It inhibited the production of aflatoxin B1 by over 90% at 6.25 microgram/ml, ochratoxin A at 25 microgram/ml, and sterigmatocystin at 50 microgram/ml. The substance also displayed a strong inhibitory effect on the growth of five dermatophytoses species, e.g., Microsporum canis (minimum inhibitory concentration, 3.12 to 6.25 microgram/ml). However, no antibacterial effect was observed at concentrations as high as 50 microgram/ml. PMID:708030

  18. Bacterial-fungal interactions enhance power generation in microbial fuel cells and drive dye decolourisation by an ex situ and in situ electro-Fenton process.

    PubMed

    Fernández de Dios, María Ángeles; del Campo, Araceli González; Fernández, Francisco Jesús; Rodrigo, Manuel; Pazos, Marta; Sanromán, María Ángeles

    2013-11-01

    In this work, the potential for sustainable energy production from wastes has been exploited using a combination fungus-bacterium in microbial fuel cell (MFC) and electro-Fenton technology. The fungus Trametes versicolor was grown with Shewanella oneidensis so that the bacterium would use the networks of the fungus to transport the electrons to the anode. This system generated stable electricity that was enhanced when the electro-Fenton reactions occurred in the cathode chamber. This configuration reached a stable voltage of approximately 1000 mV. Thus, the dual benefits of the in situ-designed MFC electro-Fenton, the simultaneous dye decolourisation and the electricity generation, were demonstrated. Moreover, the generated power was effectively used to drive an ex situ electro-Fenton process in batch and continuous mode. This newly developed MFC fungus-bacterium with an in situ electro-Fenton system can ensure a high power output and a continuous degradation of organic pollutants. PMID:24035817

  19. Preparation of starch-sodium lignosulfonate graft copolymers via laccase catalysis and characterization of antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Shogren, Randal L; Biswas, Atanu

    2013-01-16

    Graft copolymers of waxy maize starch and sodium lignosulfonate (SLS) were prepared by Trametes versicolor laccase catalysis in aqueous solution. Amount of SLS grafted based on phenol analysis was 0.5% and 1.0% in the absence and presence of 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT), respectively. Starch-SLS graft copolymers were effective antioxidants as judged by 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. The presence of laccase caused a reduction in starch molecular weight although a cross-linked gel fraction was also observed when HBT was present. This new method for preparing starch chemically modified with phenolic compounds is simple and the resulting antioxidant polymers have potential in food, cosmetic and packaging applications. PMID:23121948

  20. Determination of the antimicrobial properties of oligo-2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Yapici, Binnur Meriçli; Kaya, Ismet; Senol, Dilek

    2005-01-01

    Oligo-2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde (OHNA) was synthesized by oxidative polycondensation using H2O2 (35%, aqueous solution), air O2 and NaOCl (34%, aqueous solution) by Kaya and Senol and the products were characterized by spectral techniques. Antimicrobial activities of the first and second fractions of OHNA were tested against Corynobacterium xerosis CCM 2824, Proteus vulgaris ATCC 6897, Staphylococcus epidermidis NRRL B-4877, S. aureus ATCC 6538, Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 13048, Salmonella thyphimurium CCM 5445, Pseudomonas aeroginosa ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli ATCC 11230, E. coli ATCC 23998, Bacillus cereus ATCC 7064, B. cereus ATCC 99, B. subtilis ATCC 6633, Yersinia spp., Neisseria canis, Rhodotorula rubra, Kluyveromyces fragilis NRRL 2415, Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 9763, S. ovarum, Debaryomyces hensenii, Hansenula anamola, Candida albicans, C. utilis, Aspergillus niger, A. fumigates, A. versicolor, A. flavus, A. parasiticus, Penicillium granulatum, P. chrysogenum, and P. herque. OHNA demonstrated antimicrobial activity against various bacteria and yeast, but did not affect filamentous fungi. PMID:16355978

  1. Immune Modulation From Five Major Mushrooms: Application to Integrative Oncology.

    PubMed

    Guggenheim, Alena G; Wright, Kirsten M; Zwickey, Heather L

    2014-02-01

    This review discusses the immunological roles of 5 major mushrooms in oncology: Agaricus blazei, Cordyceps sinensis, Grifola frondosa, Ganoderma lucidum, and Trametes versicolor. These mushrooms were selected based on the body of research performed on mushroom immunology in an oncology model. First, this article focuses on how mushrooms modify cytokines within specific cancer models and on how those cytokines affect the disease process. Second, this article examines the direct effect of mushrooms on cancer. Finally, this article presents an analysis of how mushrooms interact with chemotherapeutic agents, including their effects on its efficacy and on the myelosuppression that results from it. For these 5 mushrooms, an abundance of in vitro evidence exists that elucidates the anticancer immunological mechanisms. Preliminary research in humans is also available and is promising for treatment. PMID:26770080

  2. Regulation of Coal Polymer Degradation by Fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Irvin, R.L.; Bumpus, J.A.

    1997-04-30

    Previous studies in our laboratory used a spectrophotometric assay to study biomimetic solubilization of leonardite by sodium oxalate. It was found, however, that in extended incubations of several days, this assay resulted in overestimation of the percent of leonardite that was solubilized. This problem did not appear to be significant for short term incubations (ie., up to -24 h) and was circumvented in long term incubations by using a gravimetric assay to assay for solubilization. In other studies during this reporting period we examined oxalate production by P. chrysosporium and T. versicolor grown in Fahreus-Reinhammar medium in agitated pelleted culture. It was found that in this system concentrations of oxalate are produced that are much lower than those that would be optimal for leonardite solubilization.

  3. Immobilization of laccase on a novel ZnO/SiO2 nano-composited support for dye decolorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei-Xun; Sun, Huai-Yan; Zhang, Rui-Feng

    2015-07-01

    ZnO nanowires were introduced into macroporous SiO2 by means of in situ hydrothermal growth. The obtained nano-composite was then used to immobilize laccase (secured from Trametes versicolor) through the process of static adsorption. The average loading amount was as high as 193.4 μmol-g-1. The immobilized laccase was proven to be an effective biocatalyst in the decolorization of two dyes: Remazol Brilliant Blue B, and Acid Blue 25. The decolorization percentage of Remazol Brilliant Blue B and Acid Blue 25 reached 93% and 82% respectively. The immobilized laccase exhibited enhanced thermal stability and pH adaptability compared to free laccase. After ten recycles, the immobilized laccase retained 42% decolorization catalytic activity.

  4. Distribution and mycotoxin-producing ability of some fungal isolates from the air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetnić, Zdenka; Pepeljnjak, S.

    Research was carried out on presence and prevalence of common fungal air spores at locations in Croatia. The sampling method employed in the study was by exposure 350 of Petri agar plates to the air for 10 min. Approximately 3400 colonies were found and mould spores belonging to 22 fungal genera were identified. Cladosporium (44.7%), Penicillium (34.4%), Alternaria (26.3%), Aspergillus (21.6%) and Absidia (12.2%) were the most prevalent fungi encountered. Investigation of toxigenic potential of airborne fungi isolates of genera Aspergillus, Fusarium and Trichoderma showed 16.9% mycotoxin-producing strains. The production of aflatoxin B 1 by A. flavus sterigmatocystin by A. versicolor zearalenon and T-2 toxin by F. graminearum and diacetoscirpenol by strains of T. viride were obtained.

  5. Solubilization of Australian lignites by microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Catcheside, D.E.A.; Mallett, K.J.; Cox, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Australia has substantial lignite deposits, particularly in the Latrobe Valley in Victoria where 4.10/sup 10/ tons are accessible with available technologies. The authors have investigated the susceptibility of these coal to solubilization by microorganisms, including species additional to those already identified as active on North American lignites. The data presented here show that acid oxidized lignites from the Latrobe Valley are solubilized by each of seven species of microorganisms previously found to be active on Leonardite and oxidized North American lignites. These are the wood rot fungi: Trametes versicolor, Poria placenta and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, the lignin degrading prokaryote Streptomyces viridosporus and three fungi isolated from lignite in Mississippi: Candida ML-13, Cunninghamelia YML-1 and Penicillium waksmanii.

  6. Environmental Factors and Bioremediation of Xenobiotics Using White Rot Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Fragoeiro, Silvia; Bastos, Catarina

    2010-01-01

    This review provides background information on the importance of bioremediation approaches. It describes the roles of fungi, specifically white rot fungi, and their extracellular enzymes, laccases, ligninases, and peroxidises, in the degradation of xenobiotic compounds such as single and mixtures of pesticides. We discuss the importance of abiotic factors such as water potential, temperature, and pH stress when considering an environmental screening approach, and examples are provided of the differential effect of white rot fungi on the degradation of single and mixtures of pesticides using fungi such as Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium. We also explore the formulation and delivery of fungal bioremedial inoculants to terrestrial ecosystems as well as the use of spent mushroom compost as an approach. Future areas for research and potential exploitation of new techniques are also considered. PMID:23956663

  7. [Taxonomy of Malassezia furfur: state of the art].

    PubMed

    Aspíroz, M C; Moreno, L A; Rubio, M C

    1997-12-01

    Malassezia furfur is a lipophilic yeast considered as a normal component of the human skin flora. Apart from pityriasis versicolor, M. furfur has been linked to several skin diseases such as seborrheic dermatitis, folliculitis or atopic dermatitis. Moreover, these yeasts have been reported as agent of invasive human diseases including pneumonia, catheter-associated sepsis and peritonitis. The existence of morphological, serological, metabolical, biochemical and karyotipical differences has been described among isolates of these yeasts. These observations gave arguments for a possible intraspecific division, and this hypothesis has been confirmed by the existence of six species within the formerly called M. furfur (lipid-dependent Malassezia strains): M. furfur, Malassezia sympodialis, Malassezia globosa, Malassezia obtusa, Malassezia restricta and Malassezia slooffiae. PMID:15538815

  8. Developing fungal pigments for "painting" vascular plants.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Sara C

    2012-02-01

    The use of fungal pigments as color additives to wood as a method to increase forest revenue is a relatively new, but quickly developing field. Sugar maple (Acer saccharum) is currently the primary utilized hardwood for spalting and appears to be the best suited North American hardwood for such purposes. The combination of Trametes versicolor and Bjerkandera adusta has been identified in several instances as a strong fungal pairing for zone line production; however, Xylaria polymorpha is capable of creating zone lines without the antagonism of a secondary fungus. Few fungal pigments have been developed for reliable use; Scytalidium cuboideum is capable of producing a penetrating pink/red stain, as well as a blue pigment after extended incubation, and Chlorociboria sp. produces a blue/green pigment if grown on aspen (Populus tremuloides). Several opportunities exist for stimulation of fungal pigments including the use of copper sulfate and changes in wood pH. PMID:22237673

  9. Spiders that decorate their webs at higher frequency intercept more prey and grow faster

    PubMed Central

    Li, Daiqin

    2005-01-01

    Many orb-weaving spiders decorate their webs with extra, bright white, ultraviolet light reflecting silk. Previous studies suggest that these decorations increase a spider's foraging efficiency by improving web attractiveness, which is known as the prey-attraction hypothesis. One assumption of this hypothesis is that individuals which decorate their webs at a higher frequency are expected to have a higher growth rate. Using a decoration-building orb-weaving spider, Argiope versicolor, I show a strong positive relationship between the growth rate in terms of weight gain and the frequency of decoration-building, as well as the rate of insect interception. This is the first study to reveal a fitness consequence of decorating behaviour in spiders. PMID:16096085

  10. Complete mitochondrial genome of the ring-necked pheasant, Phasianus colchicus (Galliformes: Phasianidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Xifeng; Ren, Qiongqiong; Kan, Xianzhao; Qian, Chaoju; Li, Xixi; Qian, Min

    2013-04-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Phasianus colchicus is 16,692 bp in length and composed of 13 typical protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, and 1 putative control region. One extra nucleotide "C" is present in nad3 of P. colchicus, which is found in many other birds and is thought not to be translated. All protein-coding, rRNA, and tRNA genes have more than 99.0% nucleotide sequence similarity with the previously reported individual, except for cox3 and tRNA (Pro) genes which has more similarity with Phasianus versicolor. PMID:22950703

  11. Fungal endophytes characterization from four species of Diplazium Swartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Affina-Eliya, A. A.; Noraini, T.; Nazlina, I.; Ruzi, A. R.

    2014-09-01

    Four species on genus Diplazium namely Diplazium tomentosum, D. sorzogonense, D. asperum and D. accedens of Peninsular Malaysia were studied for presence of fungal endophyte. The objective of this study is to characterize fungal endophytes in the rhizome of four Diplazium species. The rhizome was surface sterilized and incubated to isolate fungal endophytes. Characterization of the colonies was performed by macroscopic morphological, microscopic identification, types of hyphae and mycelium, and spore structure. For isolation that produces spores, the structure of conidiophores and conidia were identified. From this study, four fungal have been isolated and determined as Aspergillus sp. (isolates AE 1), Aspergillus fumigatus (isolates AE 2), Aspergillus versicolor (isolates AE 3) and Verticillium sp. (isolates AE 4). The fungal isolates from this study were classified from the same family Moniliaceae.

  12. A new species of Pristimantis from southern Ecuador (Anura, Craugastoridae).

    PubMed

    Székely, Paul; Cogălniceanu, Dan; Székely, Diana; Páez, Nadia; Ron, Santiago R

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Pristimantis is described from Reserva Buenaventura, southern Ecuador, at elevations between 878 and 1082 m. A molecular phylogeny based on nuclear and mitochondrial genes shows that the new species is closely related to Pristimantis phoxocephalus, Pristimantis riveti, and Pristimantis versicolor. The new species differs from them and other morphologically similar congeners in having a low W-shaped dermal ridge in the scapular region, a large conical tubercle on the upper eyelid and on the heel, a thin mid dorsal fold, and a longitudinal lateral fold starting behind the tympanic fold and extending along the anterior two thirds of the flank. The new species inhabits cloud forests in the Pacific slopes of the Andes. PMID:27551223

  13. The comparative study of a laccase-natural clinoptilolite-based catalyst activity and free laccase activity on model compounds.

    PubMed

    Donati, Enrica; Polcaro, Chiara M; Ciccioli, Piero; Galli, Emanuela

    2015-05-30

    For the first time a laccase from Trametes versicolor was immobilized on a natural clinoptilolite with Si/Al=5 to obtain a biocatalyst for environmental applications. Immobilization procedures exploiting adsorption and covalent binding were both tested, and only the last provided enough activity for practical applications. The optimal conditions for the immobilization of the enzyme on the support and the kinetic parameters for the free and covalent bonded laccase were determined. The laccase bonded to the zeolitic support showed a lower activity than the free laccase, but the pH and thermal stability were greater. 20 mg of dry biocatalyst containing 1 U of laccase were able to remove in 50h 73-78% of 2-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol in relatively concentrated aqueous solutions (100 μmol L(-1)). PMID:25710818

  14. A new species of Pristimantis from southern Ecuador (Anura, Craugastoridae)

    PubMed Central

    Székely, Paul; Cogălniceanu, Dan; Székely, Diana; Páez, Nadia; Ron, Santiago R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Pristimantis is described from Reserva Buenaventura, southern Ecuador, at elevations between 878 and 1082 m. A molecular phylogeny based on nuclear and mitochondrial genes shows that the new species is closely related to Pristimantis phoxocephalus, Pristimantis riveti, and Pristimantis versicolor. The new species differs from them and other morphologically similar congeners in having a low W-shaped dermal ridge in the scapular region, a large conical tubercle on the upper eyelid and on the heel, a thin mid dorsal fold, and a longitudinal lateral fold starting behind the tympanic fold and extending along the anterior two thirds of the flank. The new species inhabits cloud forests in the Pacific slopes of the Andes. PMID:27551223

  15. Bioactivity, proximate, mineral and volatile profiles along the flowering stages of Opuntia microdasys (Lehm.): defining potential applications.

    PubMed

    Chahdoura, Hassiba; Barreira, João C M; Fernández-Ruiz, Virginia; Morales, Patricia; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Flamini, Guido; Soković, Marina; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Achour, Lotfi

    2016-03-01

    Opuntia spp. flowers have been traditionally used for medical purposes, mostly because of their diversity in bioactive molecules with health promoting properties. The proximate, mineral and volatile compound profiles, together with the cytotoxic and antimicrobial properties were characterized in O. microdasys flowers at different maturity stages, revealing several statistically significant differences. O. microdasys stood out mainly for its high contents of dietary fiber, potassium and camphor, and its high activities against HCT15 cells, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus versicolor and Penicillium funiculosum. The vegetative stage showed the highest cytotoxic and antifungal activities, whilst the full flowering stage was particularly active against bacterial species. The complete dataset has been classified by principal component analysis, achieving clearly identifiable groups for each flowering stage, elucidating also the most distinctive features, and comprehensively profiling each of the assayed stages. The results might be useful to define the best flowering stage considering practical application purposes. PMID:26876160

  16. A study of overproduction and enhanced secretion of enzymes. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Dashek, W.V.

    1993-09-01

    Wood decay within forests, a significant renewable photosynthetic energy resource, is caused primarily by Basidiomycetous fungi, e.g., white rot fungi. These organisms possess the ability to degrade lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose, the main organic polymers of wood. In the case of the white rot fungi, e.g., Coriolus versicolor, the capacity results from the fungus` ability to elaborate extracellular cellulolytic and ligninolytic enzymes. With regard to the latter, at least one of the enzymes, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) appears within a defined growth medium. This proposal focuses on the over-production and enhanced secretion of PPO, cellulase and lignin peroxidase. There are two major sections to the proposal: (1) overproduction of lignocellulolytic enzymes by genetic engineering methodologies and hyper-production and enhanced secretion of these enzymes by biochemical/electro microscopical techniques and (2) the biochemical/electron microscopical method involves substrate induction and the time-dependent addition of respiration and PPO enzymes.

  17. Degradation of lignin in pulp mill wastewaters by white-rot fungi on biofilm.

    PubMed

    Wu, Juan; Xiao, Ya-Zhong; Yu, Han-Qing

    2005-08-01

    An investigation was conducted to explore the lignin-degrading capacity of attached-growth white-rot fungi. Five white-rot fungi, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus ostreatus, Lentinus edodes, Trametes versicolor and S22, grown on a porous plastic media, were individually used to treat black liquor from a pulp and paper mill. Over 71% of lignin and 48% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) were removed from the wastewater. Several factors, including pH, concentrations of carbon, nitrogen and trace elements in wastewater, all had significant effects on the degradation of lignin and the removal of COD. Three white-rot fungi, P. chrysosporium, P. ostreatus and S22, showed high capacity for lignin degradation at pH 9.0-11.0. The addition of 1 g l-1 glucose and 0.2 g l-1 ammonium tartrate was beneficial for the degradation of lignin by the white-rot fungi studied. PMID:15792583

  18. Mycotoxin-producing potential of fungi isolated from amaranth seeds in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Bresler, G; Brizzio, S B; Vaamonde, G

    1995-03-01

    To evaluate the potential for mycotoxin production by molds in amaranth grains, the mycoflora was determined both before and after surface disinfection on dichloran-chloramphenicol-peptone agar (DCPA) and dichloran-18% glycerol agar (DG18). On both media Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium and Alternaria were the predominant genera. A flaus and A. parasiticus were the Aspergillus species most frequently isolated. P. chrysogenum was the species most common among the penicillia. F. equiseti was the predominant Fusarium species. Isolates of Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium were screened for mycotoxin production on sterile rice substrate and also using a simple screening method. Toxinogenic strains of A. flavus and A. parasiticus (aflatoxins), A. versicolor (sterigmatocystin), P. citrinum (citrinin), P. viridicatum (penicillic acid), F. moniliforme, F. equiseti and F. semitectum (zearalenone), were encountered. The simple screening method for toxinogenic molds showed good performance for the detection of molds producing aflatoxins and zearalenone compared with mycotoxins production on the natural substrate. PMID:7599026

  19. Antifungal activity of 10 Guadeloupean plants.

    PubMed

    Biabiany, Murielle; Roumy, Vincent; Hennebelle, Thierry; François, Nadine; Sendid, Boualem; Pottier, Muriel; Aliouat, El Moukhtar; Rouaud, Isabelle; Lohézic-Le Dévéhat, Françoise; Joseph, Henry; Bourgeois, Paul; Sahpaz, Sevser; Bailleul, François

    2013-11-01

    Screening of the antifungal activities of ten Guadeloupean plants was undertaken to find new extracts and formulations against superficial mycoses such as onychomycosis, athlete's foot, Pityriasis versicolor, as well as the deep fungal infection Pneumocystis pneumonia. For the first time, the CMI of these plant extracts [cyclohexane, ethanol and ethanol/water (1:1, v/v)] was determined against five dermatophytes, five Candida species, Scytalidium dimidiatum, a Malassezia sp. strain and Pneumocystis carinii. Cytotoxicity tests of the most active extracts were also performed on an HaCat keratinocyte cell line. Results suggest that the extracts of Bursera simaruba, Cedrela odorata, Enterolobium cyclocarpum and Pluchea carolinensis have interesting activities and could be good candidates for developing antifungal formulations. PMID:23280633

  20. Suspect screening of emerging pollutants and their major transformation products in wastewaters treated with fungi by liquid chromatography coupled to a high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Llorca, Marta; Lucas, Daniel; Ferrando-Climent, Laura; Badia-Fabregat, Marina; Cruz-Morató, Carles; Barceló, Damià; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara

    2016-03-25

    A new approach for the screening of 33 pharmaceuticals and 113 of their known transformation products in wastewaters was developed. The methodology is based on the analysis of samples by liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) followed by data processing using specific software and manual confirmation. A home-made library was built with the transformation products reported in literature for the target pharmaceuticals after treatment with various fungi. The method was applied to the search of these contaminants in 67 samples generated along treatment of wastewaters with white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor. The screening methodology allowed the detection of different transformation products (TPs) generated from degradation of parent compounds after fungal treatment. This approach can be a useful tool for the rapid screening and tentative detection of emerging contaminants during water treatment in both full and batch-scale studies when pure standards are not available. PMID:26553957

  1. Profile of dermatophytic and other fungal infections in jaipur.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Meenakshi; Sharma, Richa

    2012-06-01

    The common cause of skin infections are dermatophytes and opportunistic fungi. Aim of present study is to find predominant etiological agent of dermatophytoses and to isolate various fungal agents from clinical samples of patients with different mycoses and Clinical samples from 260 patients were subjected to potassium hydroxide (KOH) examination and culture isolation; causative agents were identified macroscopically and microscopically. One hundred sixty three (62.7%) were found to be positive by KOH examination while 132 (50.8%) were culture positive. Dermatophytes were isolated in 90/140 (64.3%) specimens. Trichophyton rubrum (75.5%) was the commonest isolate among the patients suffering from dermatophytoses. Candida spp. and Malassezia furfur were isolated from patient suffering from candidiasis and pityriasis versicolor. PMID:23729893

  2. Differential Expression of Extracellular Lipase and Protease Activities of Mycelial and Yeast Forms in Malassezia furfur.

    PubMed

    Juntachai, Weerapong; Kajiwara, Susumu

    2015-10-01

    Malassezia furfur is a dimorphic yeast that is part of the human skin microflora. This fungus is a pathogen of a certain skin diseases, such as pityriasis versicolor, and in rare cases causes systemic infection in neonates. However, the role of dimorphism in the pathogenicity remains unclear. A modified induction medium (IM) was successfully able to induce mycelial growth of M. furfur under both solid and liquid condition. Filamentous elements with branching hyphae were observed when cultured in the IM. Furthermore, addition of bovine fetus serum into the liquid IM did not promote hyphal formation; on the contrary, it retrograded hyphae to the yeast form. Plate-washing assay showed that M. furfur hyphae did not possess the ability of invasive growth. Secretory proteins from both yeast and hyphal forms were isolated, and lipase and protease activities were analyzed. Intriguingly, the hyphal form showed higher activities than those of the yeast form, particularly the protease activity. PMID:26173769

  3. Management of cosmetic embarrassment caused by Malassezia spp. with fruticose lichen Cladia using phylogenetic approach.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Anand; Mishra, Rohit K; Tiwari, Amit K; Kumar, Awadhesh; Bajaj, A K; Dikshit, Anupam

    2013-01-01

    During anti-Malassezia screening of plants by CLSI broth microdilution method, Cladia aggregata (Swartz) Nyl. (family Cladoniaceae), a fruticose lichen from Sikkim (northeast Himalayan region), has been found effective at minimum inhibitory concentrations (mg/mL) of 2.72, 0.63, and 1.28 against yeast-like fungi namely, M. furfur, M. globosa and M. sympodialis, respectively. These test pathogens are responsible for pityriasis versicolor (PV) and seborrheic dermatitis (SD) in humans. We tried to establish the reason for variable MICs against various Malassezia spp. using bioinformatical tools, thereby reducing the cost of the experimentation. This is the first report on anti-Malassezia activity of C. aggregata and thus can serve as a potential source for the development of cosmaceuticals. PMID:24069589

  4. [A study of culture-based easy identification system for Malassezia].

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Takamasa

    2011-01-01

    Most species of this genus are lipid-dependent yeasts, which colonize the seborrheic part of the skin, and they have been reported to be associated with pityriasis versicolor, Malassezia folliculitis, seborrheic dermatitis, and atopic dermatitis. Malassezia have been re-classified into 7 species based on molecular biological analysis of nuclear ribosomal DNA/RNA and new Malassezia species were reported. As members of the genus Malassezia share similar morphological and biochemical characteristics, it was thought to be difficult to differentiate between them based on phenotypic features. While molecular biological techniques are the most reliable methods for identification of Malassezia, they are not available in most clinical laboratories. We studied ( i ) development of an efficient isolation media and culture based easy identification system, ( ii ) the incidence of atypical biochemical features in Malassezia species and propose a culture-based easy identification system for clinically important Malassezia species, M. globosa, M. restricta, and M. furfur. PMID:22123328

  5. Laccase-Functionalized Graphene Oxide Assemblies as Efficient Nanobiocatalysts for Oxidation Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Patila, Michaela; Kouloumpis, Antonios; Gournis, Dimitrios; Rudolf, Petra; Stamatis, Haralambos

    2016-01-01

    Multi-layer graphene oxide-enzyme nanoassemblies were prepared through the multi-point covalent immobilization of laccase from Trametes versicolor (TvL) on functionalized graphene oxide (fGO). The catalytic properties of the fGO-TvL nanoassemblies were found to depend on the number of the graphene oxide-enzyme layers present in the nanostructure. The fGO-TvL nanoassemblies exhibit an enhanced thermal stability at 60 °C, as demonstrated by a 4.7-fold higher activity as compared to the free enzyme. The multi-layer graphene oxide-enzyme nanoassemblies can efficiently catalyze the oxidation of anthracene, as well as the decolorization of an industrial dye, pinacyanol chloride. These materials retained almost completely their decolorization activity after five reaction cycles, proving their potential as efficient nano- biocatalysts for various applications. PMID:26927109

  6. Dermatophytes and other associated fungi in patients attending to some hospitals in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Abd Elmegeed, Al Shimaa M.; Ouf, S.A.; Moussa, Tarek A.A.; Eltahlawi, S.M.R.

    2015-01-01

    Dermatophytes are keratinophilic fungi that infect keratinized tissues causing diseases known as dermatophytoses. Dermatophytes are classified in three genera, Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton. This investigation was performed to study the prevalence of dermatomycosis among 640 patients being evaluated at the dermatology clinics at Kasr elainy, El-Husein and Said Galal hospitals in Cairo and Giza between January 2005 and December 2006. The patients were checked for various diseases. Tinea capitis was the most common clinical disease followed by tinea pedis and tinea corporis. Tinea cruris and tinea unguium were the least in occurrence. Tinea versicolor also was detected. The most susceptible persons were children below 10 years followed by those aged 31–40 years. Unicellular yeast was the most common etiological agent and T. tonsuranswas the second most frequent causative agent followed by M. canis. PMID:26413063

  7. Fungal degradation of calcium-, lead- and silicon-bearing minerals.

    PubMed

    Adeyemi, Ademola O; Gadd, Geoffrey M

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine nutritional influence on the ability of selected filamentous fungi to mediate biogenic weathering of the minerals, apatite, galena and obsidian in order to provide further understanding of the roles of fungi as biogeochemical agents, particularly in relation to the cycling of metals and associated elements found in minerals. The impact of three organic acid producing fungi (Aspergillus niger, Serpula himantioides and Trametes versicolor) on apatite, galena and obsidian was examined in the absence and presence of a carbon and energy source (glucose). Manifestation of fungal weathering included corrosion of mineral surfaces, modification of the mineral substrate through transformation into secondary minerals (i.e. crystal formation) and hyphal penetration of the mineral substrate. Physicochemical interactions of fungal metabolites, e.g. H+ and organic acids, with the minerals are thought to be the primary driving forces responsible. All experimental fungi were capable of mineral surface colonization in the absence and presence of glucose but corrosion of the mineral surface and secondary mineral formation were affected by glucose availability. Only S. himantioides and T. versicolor were able to corrode apatite in the absence of glucose but none of the fungi were capable of doing so with the other minerals. In addition, crystal formation with galena was entirely dependent on the availability of glucose. Penetration of the mineral substrates by fungal hyphae occurred but this did not follow any particular pattern. Although the presence of glucose in the media appeared to influence positively the mineral penetrating abilities of the fungi, the results obtained also showed that some geochemical change(s) might occur under nutrient-limited conditions. It was, however, unclear whether the hyphae actively penetrated the minerals or were growing into pre-existing pores or cracks. PMID:15984571

  8. Rhinitis, Ocular, Throat and Dermal Symptoms, Headache and Tiredness among Students in Schools from Johor Bahru, Malaysia: Associations with Fungal DNA and Mycotoxins in Classroom Dust.

    PubMed

    Norbäck, Dan; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Cai, Gui-Hong; Hashim, Zailina; Ali, Faridah; Bloom, Erica; Larsson, Lennart

    2016-01-01

    There are few studies on rhinitis and sick building syndrome (SBS) among students in tropical countries. We studied associations between levels of five fungal DNA sequences, two mycotoxins (sterigmatocystin and verrucarol) and cat allergen (Fel d 1) levels in schools and rhinitis and other weekly SBS symptoms in the students. Fungal DNA was measured by quantitative PCR and cat allergen by ELISA. Pupils (N = 462) from eight randomly selected schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia participated (96%). Dust samples were collected by cotton swabs and Petri dishes exposed for one week. None of the schools had a mechanical ventilation system, but all classrooms had openable windows that were kept open during lectures and indoor CO2 levels were low (mean 492 ppm; range 380-690 ppm). Weekly nasal symptoms (rhinitis) (18.8%), ocular (11.6%), throat (11.1%), dermal symptoms, headache (20.6%) and tiredness (22.1%) were common. Total fungal DNA in swab samples was associated with rhinitis (p = 0.02), ocular symptoms (p = 0.009) and tiredness (p = 0.001). There were positive associations between Aspergillus versicolor DNA in Petri dish samples, ocular symptoms (p = 0.02) and tiredness (p = 0.001). The level of the mycotoxin verrucarol (produced by Stachybotrys chartarum) in swab samples was positively associated with tiredness (p = 0.04). Streptomyces DNA in swab samples (p = 0.03) and Petri dish samples (p = 0.03) were negatively associated with tiredness. In conclusion, total fungal contamination, measured as total fungal DNA) in the classrooms, Aspergillus versicolor and verrucarol can be risk factors for rhinitis and SBS symptoms among students in the tropical country Malaysia. PMID:26829324

  9. Parallel female preferences for call duration in a diploid ancestor of an allotetraploid treefrog

    PubMed Central

    Bee, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    The gray treefrog species complex (Hyla chrysoscelis and H. versicolor) comprises a single allotetraploid species (H. versicolor) that arose multiple times from hybrid matings between an extant diploid species (H. chrysoscelis) and at least two other extinct diploid treefrogs. While previous studies have investigated female preferences for call duration in the tetraploid, we know little about these preferences in its putative diploid anscestors. Here, I report results from two-choice phonotaxis experiments investigating call duration preferences in H. chrysoscelis. Females preferred an average-length call over shorter-than-average calls (0.5–2.0 standard deviations [SD] below average), and they preferred longer-than-average calls over average or shorter-than-average calls if the difference in pulse number was at least 2.0 SD. When the amplitude of the longer alternative was attenuated by 6 dB, females still preferred an average-length call over a shorter-than-average call, but there was no preference for longer-than-average calls over an average call. In the presence of chorus noise, female preferences for both average and longer-than-average calls over shorter alternatives were weakened or reversed. Together, the results from this study reveal patterns of female preferences for call duration that are strikingly similar among two members of a species complex with a novel evolutionary history. In both species, female preferences are directional, nonlinear, and limited by environmental noise. Furthermore, these results also highlight the need for caution in studies of sexual selection when extrapolating from patterns of female preference obtained under ideal laboratory conditions to conclusions about how those preferences are expressed in the real world. PMID:19727325

  10. Landscape associations of frog and toad species in Iowa and Wisconsin, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knutson, M.G.; Sauer, J.R.; Olsen, D.A.; Mossman, M.J.; Hemesath, L.M.; Lannoo, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Landscape habitat associations of frogs and toads in Iowa and Wisconsin were tested to determine whether they support or refute previous general habitat classifications. We examined which Midwestern species shared similar habitats to see if these associations were consistent across large geographic areas (states). Rana sylvatica (wood frog), Hyla versicolor (eastern gray treefrog), Pseudacris crucifer (spring peeper), and Acris crepitans (cricket frog) were identified as forest species, P. triseriata (chorus frog), H. chrysoscelis (Cope's gray treefrog), R. pipiens (leopard frog), and Bufo americanus (American toad) as grassland species, and R. catesbeiana (bullfrog), R. clamitans (green frog), R. palustris (pickerel frog), and R. septentrionalis (mink frog) as lake or stream species. The best candidates to serve as bioindicators of habitat quality were the forest species R. sylvatica, H. versicolor, and P. crucifer, the grassland species R. pipiens and P. triseriata, and a cold water wetland species, R. palustris. Declines of P. crucifer, R. pipiens, and R. palustris populations in one or both states may reflect changes in habitat quality. Habitat and community associations of some species differed between states, indicating that these relationships may change across the range of a species. Acris crepitans may have shifted its habitat affinities from open habitats, recorded historically, to the more forested habitat associations we recorded. We suggest contaminants deserve more investigation regarding the abrupt and widespread declines of this species. Interspersion of different habitat types was positively associated with several species. A larger number of wetland patches may increase breeding opportunities and increase the probability of at least one site being suitable. We noted consistently negative associations between anuran species and urban development. Given the current trend of urban growth and increasing density of the human population, declines of

  11. Exploring the Antibacterial and Antifungal Potential of Jellyfish-Associated Marine Fungi by Cultivation-Dependent Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Yang; Yu, Huahua; Li, Rongfeng; Xing, Ronge; Liu, Song; Li, Pengcheng

    2015-01-01

    Fungi isolated from marine invertebrates are of considerable importance as new promising sources of unique secondary metabolites with significant biomedical potential. However, the cultivable fungal community harbored in jellyfish was less investigated. In this work, we seek to recover symbiotic fungi from different tissues of jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai. A total of seven morphotypes were isolated, which were assigned into four genera (Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Purpureocillium, and Tilletiopsis) from two phyla (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) by comparing the rDNA-ITS sequences with the reference sequences in GenBank. The most fungi were found in the inner tissues of subumbrella. Two of the cultivation-independent procedures, changing media type and co-cultivation, were employed to maximize the complexity of metabolites. Thus, thirteen EtOAc gum were obtained and fingerprinted by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a photodiode array (PDA) detector. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of these complex mixtures were tested against a panel of bacterial and fungal pathogens. The antimicrobial results showed that all of the 13 EtOAc extracts displayed different levels of antibacterial activity, three of which exhibited strong to significant antibacterial activity to the bacterial pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella entrica. Antifungal activity indicated that the EtOAc extracts from pure culture of Aspergillus versicolor and co-culture of A. versicolor and Tilletiopsis sp. in rice media were promising for searching new compounds, with the maximal mycelial growth inhibition of 82.32% ± 0.61% for Rhizoctonia solani and 48.41% ± 11.02% for Botrytis cinerea at 200 μg/ml, respectively. This study is the first report on the antibacterial and antifungal activity of jellyfish-associated fungi and allows the first sight into cultivable fungal community residing in jellyfish. Induced metabolites by cultivation-dependent approaches

  12. Production of proinflammatory mediators by indoor air bacteria and fungal spores in mouse and human cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Huttunen, Kati; Hyvärinen, Anne; Nevalainen, Aino; Komulainen, Hannu; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta

    2003-01-01

    We compared the inflammatory and cytotoxic responses caused by household mold and bacteria in human and mouse cell lines. We studied the fungi Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium spinulosum, and Stachybotrys chartarum and the bacteria Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Streptomyces californicus for their cytotoxicity and ability to stimulate the production of inflammatory mediators in mouse RAW264.7 and human 28SC macrophage cell lines and in the human A549 lung epithelial cell line in 24-hr exposure to 10(5), 10(6), and 10(7) microbes/mL. We studied time dependency by terminating the exposure to 10(6) microbes/mL after 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hr. We analyzed production of the cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukins 6 and 1ss (TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-1ss, respectively) and measured nitric oxide production using the Griess method, expression of inducible NO-synthase with Western Blot analysis, and cytotoxicity with the MTT-test. All bacteria strongly induced the production of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and, to a lesser extent, the formation of IL-1ss in mouse macrophages. Only the spores of Str. californicus induced the production of NO and IL-6 in both human and mouse cells. In contrast, exposure to fungal strains did not markedly increase the production of NO or any cytokine in the studied cell lines except for Sta. chartarum, which increased IL-6 production somewhat in human lung epithelial cells. These microbes were less cytotoxic to human cells than to mouse cells. On the basis of equivalent numbers of bacteria and spores of fungi added to cell cultures, the overall potency to stimulate the production of proinflammatory mediators decreased in the order Ps. fluorescens > Str. californicus > B. cereus > Sta. chartarum > A. versicolor > P. spinulosum. These data suggest that bacteria in water-damaged buildings should also be considered as causative agents of adverse inflammatory effects. PMID:12515684

  13. Endotoxin, Ergosterol, Fungal DNA and Allergens in Dust from Schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia- Associations with Asthma and Respiratory Infections in Pupils

    PubMed Central

    Norbäck, Dan; Markowicz, Pawel; Cai, Gui-Hong; Hashim, Zailina; Ali, Faridah; Zheng, Yi-Wu; Lai, Xu-Xin; Spangfort, Michael Dho; Larsson, Lennart; Hashim, Jamal Hisham

    2014-01-01

    There are few studies on associations between respiratory health and allergens, fungal and bacterial compounds in schools in tropical countries. The aim was to study associations between respiratory symptoms in pupils and ethnicity, chemical microbial markers, allergens and fungal DNA in settled dust in schools in Malaysia. Totally 462 pupils (96%) from 8 randomly selected secondary schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia, participated. Dust was vacuumed from 32 classrooms and analysed for levels of different types of endotoxin as 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH), muramic acid, ergosterol, allergens and five fungal DNA sequences. Multiple logistic regression was applied. Totally 13.1% pupils reported doctor’s diagnosed asthma, 10.3% wheeze and 21.1% pollen or pet allergy. Indian and Chinese children had less atopy and asthma than Malay. Carbon dioxide levels were low (380–690 ppm). No cat (Fel d1), dog (Can f 1) or horse allergens (Ecu cx) were detected. The levels of Bloomia tropicalis (Blo t), house dust mite allergens (Der p 1, Der f 1, Der m 1) and cockroach allergens (Per a 1 and Bla g 1) were low. There were positive associations between levels of Aspergillus versicolor DNA and daytime breathlessness, between C14 3-OH and respiratory infections and between ergosterol and doctors diagnosed asthma. There were negative (protective) associations between levels of C10 3-OH and wheeze, between C16 3-OH and day time and night time breathlessness, between cockroach allergens and doctors diagnosed asthma. Moreover there were negative associations between amount of fine dust, total endotoxin (LPS) and respiratory infections. In conclusion, endotoxin at school seems to be mainly protective for respiratory illness but different types of endotoxin could have different effects. Fungal contamination measured as ergosterol and Aspergillus versicolor DNA can be risk factors for respiratory illness. The ethnical differences for atopy and asthma deserve further attention. PMID

  14. Rhinitis, Ocular, Throat and Dermal Symptoms, Headache and Tiredness among Students in Schools from Johor Bahru, Malaysia: Associations with Fungal DNA and Mycotoxins in Classroom Dust

    PubMed Central

    Norbäck, Dan; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Cai, Gui-Hong; Hashim, Zailina; Ali, Faridah; Bloom, Erica; Larsson, Lennart

    2016-01-01

    There are few studies on rhinitis and sick building syndrome (SBS) among students in tropical countries. We studied associations between levels of five fungal DNA sequences, two mycotoxins (sterigmatocystin and verrucarol) and cat allergen (Fel d 1) levels in schools and rhinitis and other weekly SBS symptoms in the students. Fungal DNA was measured by quantitative PCR and cat allergen by ELISA. Pupils (N = 462) from eight randomly selected schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia participated (96%). Dust samples were collected by cotton swabs and Petri dishes exposed for one week. None of the schools had a mechanical ventilation system, but all classrooms had openable windows that were kept open during lectures and indoor CO2 levels were low (mean 492 ppm; range 380–690 ppm). Weekly nasal symptoms (rhinitis) (18.8%), ocular (11.6%), throat (11.1%), dermal symptoms, headache (20.6%) and tiredness (22.1%) were common. Total fungal DNA in swab samples was associated with rhinitis (p = 0.02), ocular symptoms (p = 0.009) and tiredness (p = 0.001). There were positive associations between Aspergillus versicolor DNA in Petri dish samples, ocular symptoms (p = 0.02) and tiredness (p = 0.001). The level of the mycotoxin verrucarol (produced by Stachybotrys chartarum) in swab samples was positively associated with tiredness (p = 0.04). Streptomyces DNA in swab samples (p = 0.03) and Petri dish samples (p = 0.03) were negatively associated with tiredness. In conclusion, total fungal contamination, measured as total fungal DNA) in the classrooms, Aspergillus versicolor and verrucarol can be risk factors for rhinitis and SBS symptoms among students in the tropical country Malaysia. PMID:26829324

  15. Ex Vivo Cytokine Release and Pattern Recognition Receptor Expression of Subjects Exposed to Dampness: Pilot Study to Assess the Outcome of Mould Exposure to the Innate Immune System

    PubMed Central

    Punsmann, Stefanie; Liebers, Verena; Lotz, Anne; Brüning, Thomas; Raulf, Monika

    2013-01-01

    In rooms with moisture damage, the indoor air can be enriched with microorganisms causing a variety of symptoms. Due to the highly diverse composition of bioaerosols and the multiple effects on humans, an assessment of the health risk is not sufficiently possible. The aim of this study was to characterize the features of innate immunity using blood from subjects exposed to moisture damage compared to control subjects living in houses without visible moisture damage. We investigated the expression of TLR-2, TLR-4 and dectin-1 on the surface of monocytes from both fresh blood and after in vitro stimulation with the model substances E. coli endotoxin, zymosan A, Pam3Cys and Aspergillus versicolor in 25 exposed subjects and 25 control subjects. In vitro stimulation of whole blood with the same components was performed for 20 h and the release of inflammatory mediators IL-8 and IL-1β were quantified. In addition to an enhanced number of blood leucocytes, the expression of the receptors TLR-2, TLR-4 and dectin-1 on blood monocytes was significantly enhanced in exposed subjects. In contrast, no different alteration in expression was detected between exposed and control group after in vitro stimulation with the model substances. The release of IL-8 and IL-1β after stimulation of whole blood with A. versicolor was increased in subjects exposed to moisture damage. Furthermore, in the exposed subjects the IL-1β release was significantly enhanced after in vitro stimulation with E. coli endotoxin (1000 pg/mL). In conclusion, features of the innate immune system (receptor expression and mediator release of monocytes) are altered in subjects exposed to moisture damage which may be a potential explanation for the increased incidence of respiratory health diseases observed in these populations. PMID:24340055

  16. Endotoxin, ergosterol, fungal DNA and allergens in dust from schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia- associations with asthma and respiratory infections in pupils.

    PubMed

    Norbäck, Dan; Markowicz, Pawel; Cai, Gui-Hong; Hashim, Zailina; Ali, Faridah; Zheng, Yi-Wu; Lai, Xu-Xin; Spangfort, Michael Dho; Larsson, Lennart; Hashim, Jamal Hisham

    2014-01-01

    There are few studies on associations between respiratory health and allergens, fungal and bacterial compounds in schools in tropical countries. The aim was to study associations between respiratory symptoms in pupils and ethnicity, chemical microbial markers, allergens and fungal DNA in settled dust in schools in Malaysia. Totally 462 pupils (96%) from 8 randomly selected secondary schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia, participated. Dust was vacuumed from 32 classrooms and analysed for levels of different types of endotoxin as 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH), muramic acid, ergosterol, allergens and five fungal DNA sequences. Multiple logistic regression was applied. Totally 13.1% pupils reported doctor's diagnosed asthma, 10.3% wheeze and 21.1% pollen or pet allergy. Indian and Chinese children had less atopy and asthma than Malay. Carbon dioxide levels were low (380-690 ppm). No cat (Fel d1), dog (Can f 1) or horse allergens (Ecu cx) were detected. The levels of Bloomia tropicalis (Blo t), house dust mite allergens (Der p 1, Der f 1, Der m 1) and cockroach allergens (Per a 1 and Bla g 1) were low. There were positive associations between levels of Aspergillus versicolor DNA and daytime breathlessness, between C14 3-OH and respiratory infections and between ergosterol and doctors diagnosed asthma. There were negative (protective) associations between levels of C10 3-OH and wheeze, between C16 3-OH and day time and night time breathlessness, between cockroach allergens and doctors diagnosed asthma. Moreover there were negative associations between amount of fine dust, total endotoxin (LPS) and respiratory infections. In conclusion, endotoxin at school seems to be mainly protective for respiratory illness but different types of endotoxin could have different effects. Fungal contamination measured as ergosterol and Aspergillus versicolor DNA can be risk factors for respiratory illness. The ethnical differences for atopy and asthma deserve further attention. PMID:24523884

  17. Visualization of aerocolloidal biological particles using 2D particle image velocimetry (PIV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Carsie A., III; Masabattula, Sree; Akyuzlu, Kazim M.; Russo, Edwin P.; Klich, Maren A.

    2003-11-01

    Recent concerns over the possible use of airborne biological particles as weapons of mass destruction have significantly increased the attention that researchers are giving to this threat. The size of these particles, ranging from a fraction of a micrometer to several tens of micrometers, allows them to travel over long distances before settling out of the airstreams carrying these particles. Furthermore, the odd shapes of many of these particles along with uncertainties about their light scattering characteristics make detection and tracking quite a challenge. In the present paper, results are reported on the visualization of airborne biological particles using two-dimensional particle image velocimetry (PIV). These initial results show the utility of PIV in illuminating and tracking airborne biological particles. A compressed air nebulizer is used to aerosolize the biological particles inside a Plexiglas test section. The biological particles prepared for the nebulizer are first inoculated and cultured onto agar media, gypsum board, and acoustic ceiling tile to achieve an abundant growth of spores. A colloidal suspension of biological particles is then made using sterilized, de-ionized water and a mild surfactant to de-agglomerate the biological particles in the suspension. The concentration of biological particles in the colloidal suspension is determined using a hemacytometer. In the visualization experiments, images are captured for polystyrene latex (PSL) test particles, liquid water droplets, and spores of the fungal species Aspergillus versicolor. During the PIV system operation, two successive images are captured with a time delay of 50 μm to develop flow field velocities of the PSL test particles, liquid water droplets, and the A. versicolor spores.

  18. Antioxidant Capacity and Total Phenolics Content of the Fruiting Bodies and Submerged Cultured Mycelia of Sixteen Higher Basidiomycetes Mushrooms from India.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Rajendra; Varshney, Vinay K; Harsh, N S K; Kumar, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    The fruiting bodies and the submerged cultured mycelia of 16 higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms- Agaricus bisporus, Armillaria mellea, Auricularia auricula-judae, Ganoderma applanatum, G. lucidum, Laetiporus sulphureus, Lentinus tigrinus, Lycoperdon pyriforme, Phellinus linteus, Pleurotus ostreatus, P. sajor-caju, Polyporus arcularius, Russula brevipes, Schizophyllum commune, Sparassis crispa, and Spongipellis unicolor-from different taxonomic groups were examined for their antioxidant capacity (AOXC) and total phenolics content (TPC). Extraction of the freeze-dried and pulverized fruiting bodies and mycelia with methanol and water (8:2, v/v), followed by evaporation of the solvent under a vacuum, created their extracts, which were analyzed for their AOXC and TPC using a DPPH· scavenging assay and the Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively. The fruiting bodies and the culture mycelia of all the mushroom species exhibited varied antioxidant capacity; however, the fruiting bodies had more potent DPPH· scavenging than the corresponding mycelia irrespective of the mushroom species, as evident by the effective concentrations of extract that scavenges 50% of DPPH· (EC50) of the former (0.56-1.24 mg mL-1) being lower than those of the latter (2.51-8.39 mg mL-1). TPC in the fruiting bodies (6.08-24.85 mg gallic acid equivalent [GAE] g-1) were higher than those in the mycelia (4.17-13.34 mg GAE g-1). AOXC of the fruiting bodies (r = -0.755) and the culture mycelia (r = -0.903) also was correlated to their TPC. Among the cultured mycelia, A. bisporus, A. mellea, L. tigrinus, P. ostreatus, and S. crispa were highly promising in terms of their highest TPC (10.55, 13.34, 11.00, 10.37, and 10.19 mg GAE g-1, respectively) and the lowest EC50 values (3.33, 2.85, 2.51, 3.65, and 3.17 mg mL-1, respectively) as they relate to the development of antioxidants. PMID:26756185

  19. Mineral-microorganism interactions in Acid Mine Drainage environments: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, Cristina; Zotti, Mirca; Pozzolini, Marina; Giovine, Marco; Di Piazza, Simone; Mariotti, Mauro; Lucchetti, Gabriella

    2014-05-01

    Minerals play a key role in controlling the mobility and distribution of metals and metalloids of environmental concern in supergenic environments. These are involved in a variety of processes, spanning the alteration of primary minerals to the formation of secondary authigenic phases and can represent a source or a trap for Potentially Ecotoxic Elements (PTEs). Soil, sediments, and waters heavily polluted with PTEs through AMD processes are a reservoir of a unusual bacteria and fungi well adapted to these toxic environments. Classical studies of biotic weathering have mainly focused on water-mineral interaction and on the ability of microorganism to influence the soil solution chemical composition. In this work, we analyzed two different representative ochreous and greenish-blue AMD colloidal precipitates in order to i) characterize the biota population present in these colloidal minerals and ii) verify the bioaccumulation of PTEs into the fungi and the potential impact of bacteria in the geochemistry of the system. The samples are composed by nanocrystalline goethite which contains high amounts of Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ni and woodwardite that is characterized by Cu, Zn, Ni, Y, and Ce. These precipitates were examined in order to evaluate the presence of fungal strains and to extract bacteria DNA. The preliminary results of fungi characterization show an interesting and selected mycobiota able to survive under unfavourable environmental conditions. A significant number of fungal strains was isolated in pure culture. Most of them belong to the genus Mucor and Penicillium. It is worth noting the presence of Trametes versicolor, a macrofungal lignicolous species already known for heavy metal biosorption capability from aqueous solution (Gülay et al 2003). The same colloidal precipitates have been processed to extract bacteria DNA, using a specific procedure developed for DNA extraction from sediments. The results gave a good yield of nucleic acids and the positive PCR

  20. The spectrum of dermatological disorders among primary school children in Dar es Salaam

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Dermatologic disorders are common in many countries but the spectrum varies greatly. Many studies have reported a significant burden of skin diseases in school children. The objective of this study was to determine the current spectrum of dermatological disorders in primary school children in Dar es Salaam city. Methods Primary school children were recruited by multistage sampling. Detailed interview, dermatological examination and appropriate laboratory investigations were performed. Data was analyzed using the 'Statistical Package for Social Sciences' (SPSS) program version 10.0 and EPI6. A p-value of < 0.5 was significant. Results A total of 420 children were recruited (51% males; mean age 11.4 ± 2.8 years; range 6-19 years). The overall point prevalence of any skin disorder was 57.3% and it was 61.9% and 52.6% in males and females respectively (p = 0.05). Infectious dermatoses accounted for 30.4% with superficial fungal infections (dermatophytoses and pityriasis versicolor) being the commonest (20%). Dermatophytoses were diagnosed in 11.4% (48/420); the prevalence in males and females being 12.6% and 10.1% respectively (p = 0.41) and higher (21.8%) in the age-group 6-10 years (p = 0.045). Fungal cultures were positive in 42/48 children (88%). All three dermatophyte genera were isolated. Tinea capitis was the commonest disease among culture-positive dermatophytoses (30/42; 71.4%) with an overall prevalence of 7.1% (30/420) followed by tinea pedis (11/42; 26.1%) whose overall prevalence was 2.6%. Microsporum canis was common in tinea capitis (14/30; 46.7%) followed by Trichophyton violaceum (6/30; 20%). Trichophyton rubrum was common in tinea pedis (5/11; 45.5%). Thirty six children (8.6%) had pityriasis versicolor which was more prevalent (6/27; 22.l2%) in the age group 16-19 years (p = 0.0004). The other common infectious dermatoses were pyodermas (4%) and pediculosis capitis (3.6%). Common non-infectious dermatoses were: acne vulgaris (36.4%), non

  1. Fungi and bacteria in mould-damaged and non-damaged office environments in a subarctic climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salonen, Heidi; Lappalainen, Sanna; Lindroos, Outi; Harju, Riitta; Reijula, Kari

    The fungi and bacterial levels of the indoor air environments of 77 office buildings were measured in winter and a comparison was made between the buildings with microbe sources in their structures and those without such sources. Penicillium, yeasts, Cladosporium and non-sporing isolates were the commonest fungi detected in the indoor air and in settled dust, in both the mould-damaged and control buildings. Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus glaucus and Stachybotrys chartarium were found only in environmental samples from the mould-damaged buildings. Some other fungi, with growth requiring of water activity, aw, above 0.85, occurred in both the reference and mould-damaged buildings, but such fungi were commoner in the latter type of buildings. The airborne concentrations of Penicillium, Aspergillus versicolor and yeasts were the best indicators of mould damage in the buildings studied. Penicillium species and A. versicolor were also the most abundant fungi in the material samples. This study showed that the fungi concentrations were very low (2-45 cfu m -3 90% of the concentrations being <15 cfu m -3) in the indoor air of the normal office buildings. Although the concentration range of airborne fungi was wider for the mould-damaged buildings (2-2470 cfu m -3), only about 20% of the samples exceeded 100 cfu m -3. The concentrations of airborne bacteria ranged from 12 to 540 cfu m -3 in the control buildings and from 14 to 1550 cfu m -3 in the mould-damaged buildings. A statistical analysis of the results indicated that bacteria levels are generally <600 cfu m -3 in office buildings in winter and fungi levels are <50 cfu m -3. These normal levels are applicable to subarctic climates for urban, modern office buildings when measurements are made using a six-stage impactor. These levels should not be used in evaluations of health risks, but elevated levels may indicate the presence of abnormal microbe sources in indoor air and a need for additional environmental

  2. Mycoflora and ochratoxin A producing strains of Aspergillus in Algerian wheat.

    PubMed

    Riba, A; Mokrane, S; Mathieu, F; Lebrihi, A; Sabaou, N

    2008-02-29

    Wheat is a basic staple food for very large segments of the population of Algeria. The aim of this study is to analyse ochratoxin A (OTA)-producing mould and OTA-contaminated wheat. To evaluate the mycoflora and the potential for OTA production by Aspergillus strains, a total of 85 samples of wheat destined for human consumption were collected from two regions in Algeria (Tizi Ouzou and Setif) during the following phases: preharvest, storage in silos, and after processing. The mean value counts of fungi ranged from 275 to 1277 CFU g(-1). The dominant genus was Aspergillus, predominantly A. flavus, A. niger and A. versicolor. The other isolated species were A. ochraceus, A. alliaceus, A. carbonarius, A. terreus, A. fumigatus, A. candidus and Aspergillus spp. The occurrence and the levels of the genus Penicillium, Fusarium, Alternaria and Mucor were substantially lower than those of Aspergillus. The storage in silos shows high levels of Aspergillus (66 to 84%), especially A. flavus, but A. niger and other fungi were isolated at relatively low percentages. Equal distribution of the fungal contamination into the bran, flour and semolina fractions was observed from Flour Mill and Semolina Mill. The genus Aspergillus remained present at high levels at several phases of the production process. In addition, the ability to produce OTA by 135 isolates belonging to eleven species of Aspergillus and 23 isolates of Penicillium spp. was analyzed using fluorescent detection-based HPLC. Thus, it was found that 51 isolates (32.3%) were ochratoxigenic. All isolated strains of A. ochraceus (12) and A. alliaceus (6) produced OTA at concentrations ranging from 0.23 to 11.50 microg g(-1). Most of the A. carbonarius strains (80%) were OTA producers (0.01 to 9.35 microg g(-1)), whereas A. terreus (50%), A. niger (28%), A. fumigatus (40%), A. versicolor (18%) and Penicillium spp. (21.7%) were low level producers (0.01 to 0.07 microg g(-1)). The concentration of OTA was determined in 30

  3. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray study of the fungal laccase from Cerrena maxima

    SciTech Connect

    Lyashenko, Andrey V.; Zhukhlistova, Nadegda E.; Gabdoulkhakov, Azat G.; Zhukova, Yuliya N.; Voelter, Wolfang; Zaitsev, Viatcheslav N.; Bento, Isabel; Stepanova, Elena V.; Kachalova, Galina S.; Koroleva, Ol’ga V.; Cherkashyn, Evgeniy A.; Tishkov, Vladimir I.; Lamzin, Victor S.; Schirwitz, Katja; Betzel, Christian; Mikhailov, Al’bert M.

    2006-10-01

    The crystallization and preliminary X-ray structure at 1.9 Å resolution of the fungal laccase from C. maxima are presented. Laccases are members of the blue multi-copper oxidase family that oxidize substrate molecules by accepting electrons at a mononuclear copper centre and transferring them to a trinuclear centre. Dioxygen binds to the trinuclear centre and, following the transfer of four electrons, is reduced to two molecules of water. Crystals of the laccase from Cerrena maxima have been obtained and X-ray data were collected to 1.9 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. A preliminary analysis shows that the enzyme has the typical laccase structure and several carbohydrate sites have been identified. The carbohydrate chains appear to be involved in stabilization of the intermolecular contacts in the crystal structure, thus promoting the formation of well ordered crystals of the enzyme. Here, the results of an X-ray crystallographic study on the laccase from the fungus Cerrena maxima are reported. Crystals that diffract well to a resolution of at least 1.9 Å (R factor = 18.953%; R{sub free} = 23.835; r.m.s.d. bond lengths, 0.06 Å; r.m.s.d. bond angles, 1.07°) have been obtained despite the presence of glycan moieties. The overall spatial organization of C. maxima laccase and the structure of its copper-containing active centre have been determined by the molecular-replacement method using the laccase from Trametes versicolor (Piontek et al., 2002 ▶) as a structural template. In addition, four glycan-binding sites were identified and the 1.9 Å X-ray data were used to determine the previously unknown primary structure of this protein. The identity (calculated from sequence alignment) between the C. maxima laccase and the T. versicolor laccase is about 87%. Tyr196 and Tyr372 show significant extra density at the ortho positions and this has been interpreted in terms of NO{sub 2} substituents.

  4. Perception and response to gravity in higher fungi--a critical appraisal.

    PubMed

    Moore, D

    1991-01-01

    hymenophore (gill, tube or tooth) is positively gravitropic and responds independently of the stem. Bracket polypores do not show tropisms but exhibit gravimorphogenetic responses such that gross disturbance leads to renewal of growth to produce and entirely new fruiting structure suitably reoriented to the new spatial position. One experiment performed on an orbiting space station suggests that, in the absence of a light stimulus, gravity may be required for initiation of fruiting in Polyporus brumalis. Otherwise, the indications from both clinostat and space-borne experiments are that the basic form of the mushroom (overall tissue arrangement of stem, cap, gills, hymenium, veil) in agaric and polypore alike is established independently of the gravity vector. Abnormal stem growth has been observed in clinostat cultures of Panus (= Lentinus) tigrinus and Polyporus brumalis, but the morphogenetic event which seems most dependent on gravity is sporulation (in the broadest sense). Cultures of P. brumalis on orbiting space craft fail to produce the poroid hymenophore and in clinostat experiments on the ground even karyogamy was rare in similar cultures. Coprinus cinereus grown on the clinostat was able to produce apparently normal fruit body primordia which failed to produce spores and then aborted, forming a new flush of primordia on the old. Taken together with the clear association between observation of gravitropism and the onset of sporulation, the implication is that commitment to the meiosis-sporulation pathway both requires the gravity vector and couples it in some way to fruit-body growth. There is no convincing evidence for a graviperception mechanism in fungi. There is no evidence for any organised means of communicating the gravitropic stimulus once it has been perceived. Reports of three different experimental studies reveal the authors' conviction that the apparently coordinated expression of gravitropic response is in truth a common, but independent, response by

  5. Photoenhanced toxicity of a carbamate insecticide to early life stage anuran amphibians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zaga, A.; Little, E.E.; Rabeni, C.F.; Ellersieck, Mark R.

    1998-01-01

    African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) and gray tree frog (Hyla versicolor) embryos and tadpoles were exposed to sublethal levels of carbaryl, a broad-spectrum insecticide, and ultraviolet radiation to determine interactive and sublethal effects. Ultraviolet intensity (UV-B [285-320 nm] plus LIV-A [321-400 nm]) was controlled with various types of plastic filters and quantified with a scanning spectroradiometer. Significant differences in swimming activity and mortality of both species were evident during the 96-h experiments. Ultraviolet-B radiation alone and carbaryl in the presence of UV-B significantly decreased swimming activity of both species. As little as 1.5% intensity of ambient solar UV-B radiation photoactivated carbaryl. Toxicity of 7.5 mg/L earbaryl increased by 10-fold in the presence of UV-B in all species and life stages tested. Our results indicate that photoenhancement by solar UV-B radiation should be considered when evaluating the toxicity of contaminants to amphibians and other organisms.

  6. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants from the cerrado of the centralwestern region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Violante, Ivana Maria Póvoa; Hamerski, Lidilhone; Garcez, Walmir Silva; Batista, Ana Lucia; Chang, Marilene Rodrigues; Pott, Vali Joana; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues

    2012-10-01

    Ethanol extracts from six selected species from the Cerrado of the Central-Western region of Brazil, which are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases and other medical conditions, namely Erythroxylum suberosum St. Hil. (Erythroxylaceae), Hyptis crenata Pohl. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae), Roupala brasiliensis Klotz. (Proteaceae), Simarouba versicolor St. Hil. (Simaroubaceae), Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae) and Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl.) March. (Burseraceae), as well as fractions resulting from partition of these crude extracts, were screened in vitro for their antifungal and antibacterial properties. The antimicrobial activities were assessed by the broth microdilution assay against six control fungal strains, Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis and Cryptococcus neoformans, and five control Gram-positive and negative bacterial strains, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Toxicity of the extracts and fractions against Artemia salina was also evaluated in this work. All plants investigated showed antimicrobial properties against at least one microorganism and two species were also significantly toxic to brine shrimp larvae. The results tend to support the traditional use of these plants for the treatment of respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders and/or skin diseases, opening the possibility of finding new antimicrobial agents from these natural sources. Among the species investigated, Hyptis crenata, Erythroxylum suberosum and Roupala brasiliensis were considered the most promising candidates for developing of future bioactivity-guided phytochemical investigations. PMID:24031956

  7. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants from the cerrado of the centralwestern region of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Violante, Ivana Maria Póvoa; Hamerski, Lidilhone; Garcez, Walmir Silva; Batista, Ana Lucia; Chang, Marilene Rodrigues; Pott, Vali Joana; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol extracts from six selected species from the Cerrado of the Central-Western region of Brazil, which are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases and other medical conditions, namely Erythroxylum suberosum St. Hil. (Erythroxylaceae), Hyptis crenata Pohl. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae), Roupala brasiliensis Klotz. (Proteaceae), Simarouba versicolor St. Hil. (Simaroubaceae), Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae) and Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl.) March. (Burseraceae), as well as fractions resulting from partition of these crude extracts, were screened in vitro for their antifungal and antibacterial properties. The antimicrobial activities were assessed by the broth microdilution assay against six control fungal strains, Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis and Cryptococcus neoformans, and five control Gram-positive and negative bacterial strains, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Toxicity of the extracts and fractions against Artemia salina was also evaluated in this work. All plants investigated showed antimicrobial properties against at least one microorganism and two species were also significantly toxic to brine shrimp larvae. The results tend to support the traditional use of these plants for the treatment of respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders and/or skin diseases, opening the possibility of finding new antimicrobial agents from these natural sources. Among the species investigated, Hyptis crenata, Erythroxylum suberosum and Roupala brasiliensis were considered the most promising candidates for developing of future bioactivity-guided phytochemical investigations. PMID:24031956

  8. In vitro acaricidal efficacy of plant extracts from Brazilian flora and isolated substances against Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Valente, Paula Pimentel; Amorim, Juliana Mendes; Castilho, Rachel Oliveira; Leite, Romário Cerqueira; Ribeiro, Múcio Flávio Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    The tick Rhipicephalus microplus causes significant losses in livestock cattle and has developed increasing resistance to the primary acaricides that are used to treat these infections. The objective of this study was to identify new biomolecules or isolated substances showing acaricidal activity from plants. Larval packet tests were conducted to evaluate the effects of 11 species of plants and three isolated substances (betulinic acid, eugenol, and nerolidol) on R. microplus. An adult female immersion test was performed with the substance that showed the highest larvicidal activity, which was evaluated for inhibition of reproduction. Tests using Licania tomentosa, Hymenaea stigonocarpa, Hymenaea courbaril, Stryphnodendron obovatum, Jacaranda cuspidifolia, Jacaranda ulei, Struthanthus polyrhizus, Chrysobalanus icaco, Vernonia phosphorea, Duguetia furfuracea, and Simarouba versicolor extracts as well as the isolated substance betulinic acid indicated lower acaricidal effects on R. microplus larvae. The extract displaying the best larvicidal activity was the ethanolic extract from L. tomentosa at a concentration of 60%, resulting in a mortality rate of 40.3%. However, nerolidol and eugenol showed larvicidal activity, which was highest for eugenol. Nerolidol caused a 96.5% mortality rate in the R. microplus larvae at a high concentration of 30%, and eugenol caused 100% mortality at a concentration of 0.3%. In the adult immersion test, 5% eugenol was identified as a good biomolecule for controlling R. microplus, as demonstrated by its high acaricidal activity and inhibition of oviposition. PMID:24221889

  9. Toxigenic fungi associated with processed (green) coffee beans (Coffea arabica L.).

    PubMed

    Batista, Luis Roberto; Chalfoun, Sára Maria; Prado, Guilherme; Schwan, Rosane Freitas; Wheals, Alan E

    2003-08-25

    Processed (green) coffee beans from Coffea arabica in Brazil were assessed for the presence of Aspergillus and Penicillium species both before and after surface sterilisation, the aflatoxigenic and ochratoxigenic potential of the isolates and ochratoxin A levels. Contamination by Aspergillus and Penicillium species was found on 96% and 42%, respectively, of 45 samples from 11 localities. After disinfection with 1% sodium hypochlorite, the levels fell to 47% and 24%, respectively. One hundred and eighty isolates were identified to species level and comprised Aspergillus sections Circumdati (10 species), Flavi (3), Nigri (3), Versicolores (4), while two were teleomorphic species. Eight species of Penicillium were isolated. Within section Circumdati, 75% of the isolates produced ochratoxin A and all except Aspergillus elegans and Aspergillus insulicola have previously been reported to produce ochratoxin A. One-third of the 18 isolates of Aspergillus flavus produced aflatoxin B1 and B2. None of the isolates belonging to Aspergillus section Nigri or Penicillium produced ochratoxin A. Of the 40 bean samples analysed, 58% were infected with potentially ochratoxigenic fungi but only 22% of these were contaminated with ochratoxin A at levels that varied from 0.47 to 4.82 ng/g, with an average contamination level of 2.45 ng/g. PMID:12878387

  10. Detection of volatile metabolites of moulds isolated from a contaminated library.

    PubMed

    Micheluz, Anna; Manente, Sabrina; Rovea, Manuela; Slanzi, Debora; Varese, Giovanna Cristina; Ravagnan, Giampietro; Formenton, Gianmaria

    2016-09-01

    The principal fungal species isolated from a contaminated library environment were tested for their microbial volatile organic compound (MVOC) production ability. Aspergillus creber, A. penicillioides, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Eurotium chevalieri, E. halophilicum, Penicillium brevicompactum and P. chrysogenum were cultivated on suitable culture media inside sample bottles specifically designed and created for direct MVOC injection to a GC-MS instrument. The fungal emissions were monitored over several weeks to detect changes with the aging of the colonies, monitored also by respirometric tests. A total of 55 different MVOCs were detected and isopropyl alcohol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-butanone were the principal compounds in common between the selected fungal species. Moreover, 2,4-dimethylheptane, 1,4-pentadiene, styrene, ethanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, acetone, furan and 2-methylfuran were the most detected compounds. For the first time, the MVOC production for particular fungal species was detected. The species A. creber, which belongs to the recently revised group Aspergillus section Versicolores, was characterized by the production of ethanol, furan and 1,4-pentadiene. For the xerophilic fungus E. halophilicum, specific production of acetone, 2-butanone and 1,4-pentadiene was detected, supported also by respirometric data. The results demonstrated the potential use of this method for the detection of fungal contamination phenomena inside Cultural Heritage's preservation environments. PMID:27392938

  11. Dermatologic conditions in teenage adolescents in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Henshaw, Eshan B; Olasode, Olayinka A; Ogedegbe, Evelyn E; Etuk, Imaobong

    2014-01-01

    Background Skin disorders are common in adolescents, and the impact on quality of life can be enormous, particularly when viewed against the backdrop of the visibility of skin diseases and the psychologically vulnerable period of adolescence. However, few studies have documented the magnitude of skin disorders in this subset of individuals. We therefore estimated the point prevalence and pattern of dermatologic conditions in adolescents attending various secondary schools in Calabar, Southern Nigeria. Methods Using a structured questionnaire, relevant sociodemographic information was obtained from 1,447 teenage adolescents from eight secondary schools. Thereafter, a whole body examination was conducted to determine the presence and types of skin disorders seen. Results Skin diseases were seen in 929 students. The point prevalence was higher in males (72.1%) than in females (58.3%). Private schools had a higher prevalence than public schools. The six most common dermatoses were acne vulgaris, pityriasis versicolor, nevi, tinea, miliaria, and keloid/hypertrophic scars, and accounted for over 80% of the dermatoses seen. Conclusion The point prevalence of dermatoses in senior secondary school adolescents was 64.2%. Although a large number of skin disorders were observed, only a handful accounted for a significant proportion of the diseases seen. This increases the ease of training community health workers in the recognition and treatment of common skin diseases. Age, race, and climatic factors are important determinants of skin diseases in adolescents in Nigeria. PMID:24966708

  12. Development of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain with Enhanced Resistance to Phenolic Fermentation Inhibitors in Lignocellulose Hydrolysates by Heterologous Expression of Laccase

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Simona; Cassland, Pierre; Jönsson, Leif J.

    2001-01-01

    To improve production of fuel ethanol from renewable raw materials, laccase from the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor was expressed under control of the PGK1 promoter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to increase its resistance to phenolic inhibitors in lignocellulose hydrolysates. It was found that the laccase activity could be enhanced twofold by simultaneous overexpression of the homologous t-SNARE Sso2p. The factors affecting the level of active laccase obtained, besides the cultivation temperature, included pH and aeration. Laccase-expressing and Sso2p-overexpressing S. cerevisiae was cultivated in the presence of coniferyl aldehyde to examine resistance to lignocellulose-derived phenolic fermentation inhibitors. The laccase-producing transformant had the ability to convert coniferyl aldehyde at a faster rate than a control transformant not expressing laccase, which enabled faster growth and ethanol formation. The laccase-producing transformant was also able to ferment a dilute acid spruce hydrolysate at a faster rate than the control transformant. A decrease in the content of low-molecular-mass aromatic compounds, accompanied by an increase in the content of high-molecular-mass compounds, was observed during fermentation with the laccase-expressing strain, illustrating that laccase was active even at the very low levels of oxygen supplied. Our results demonstrate the importance of phenolic compounds as fermentation inhibitors and the advantage of using laccase-expressing yeast strains for producing ethanol from lignocellulose. PMID:11229906

  13. Polysaccharide production by submerged and solid-state cultures from several medicinal higher Basidiomycetes.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Sandra; Sanchez, Oscar Julian; Levin, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Polysaccharides produced by microorganisms represent an industrially unexploited market. An important number of polysaccharides have been isolated from fungi, especially mushrooms, with many interesting biological functions, such as antitumor, hypoglycemic, and immunostimulating activities. In the search of new sources of fungal polysaccharides, the main goal of this research was to test the ability of several species of basidiomycetes, among them various edible mushrooms, to produce both extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs) and intracellular polysaccharides (IPSs). Among 10 species screened for production of EPSs in submerged cultures with glucose, soy oil, and yeast extract, the best results were obtained with Ganoderma lucidum (0.79 g/L EPS) and Pleurotus ostreatus (0.75 g/L EPS). Agitation strongly improved EPS production in most of the studied strains. Eight of 10 species assayed successfully developed basidiomes during synthetic "bag-log" cultivation on a substrate consisting of oak sawdust and corn bran. This work describes for the first time the environmental factors required for fruiting of 4 species under such conditions: Schizophyllum commune, Ganoderma applanatum, Trametes versicolor, and T. trogii. IPSs were extracted from the carpophores. The IPS content of the carpophores varied from 1.4% (G. applanatum) up to 5.5% and 6% in G. lucidum and Grifola frondosa, respectively. PMID:23510286

  14. Filamentous fungi as a source of natural antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Smith, Helen; Doyle, Sean; Murphy, Richard

    2015-10-15

    Ten species of filamentous fungi grown in submerged flask cultures were investigated for antioxidant capacity. Effective antioxidant activity was demonstrated in terms of β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching, radical scavenging, reduction of metal ions and chelating abilities against ferrous ions. Different extraction methods affected antioxidant activities through their effect on biologically active compounds produced in fungal mycelia. The methanolic extract of each fungus was typically more effective in antioxidant properties. Phenolic content was established in the range of 0.44-9.33 mg/g, flavonoid contents were in the range of 0.02-3.90 mg/g and condensed tannin contents were in the range of 1.77-18.83 mg/g. Total phenol content of each extract was attributed to overall antioxidant capacity (r ⩾ 0.883-1.000). Submerged cultivation of Grifola frondosa, Monascus purpureus, Pleurotus spp., Lentinula edodes and Trametes versicolor proved to be an effective method for the production of natural antioxidants. PMID:25952884

  15. Inhibitory effects of medicinal mushrooms on α-amylase and α-glucosidase - enzymes related to hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Su, Chun-Han; Lai, Min-Nan; Ng, Lean-Teik

    2013-04-25

    In Asia, medicinal mushrooms have been popularly used as folk medicine and functional foods. In this study, our aim was to examine the inhibitory effects of six medicinal mushrooms on key enzymes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) related to hyperglycemia; chemical profiles of bioactive extracts were also examined. The results showed that the n-hexane extract of Coriolus versicolor had the strongest anti-α-amylase activity, while the n-hexane extract of Grifola frondosa showed the most potent anti-α-glucosidase activity. Compared with acarbose, the anti-α-amylase activity of all mushroom extracts was weaker, however a stronger anti-α-glucosidase activity was noted. GC-MS analysis showed that the magnitude of potency of inhibiting α-glucosidase activity varied with the levels of oleic acid and linoleic acid present in the extracts. These findings were consistent with the IC50 values of these free fatty acids on inhibiting α-glucosidase activity. Taken together, this study suggests that oleic acid and linoleic acid could have contributed to the potent anti-α-glucosidase activity of selected medicinal mushrooms. PMID:23396484

  16. Polysaccharide-K augments docetaxel-induced tumor suppression and antitumor immune response in an immunocompetent murine model of human prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    WENNER, CYNTHIA A.; MARTZEN, MARK R.; LU, HAILING; VERNERIS, MICHAEL R.; WANG, HONGBO; SLATON, JOEL W.

    2012-01-01

    Advanced castration-resistant prostate cancer has high mortality rates and limited treatment options. Novel therapies are needed to better contend with this disease. Polysaccharide-K® (PSK), an extract of the mushroom Trametes versicolor, has immunomodulatory and tumor suppressive activities. PSK is used in Asia as a cancer immunotherapy. However, its benefit in combination with taxanes for prostate cancer is unknown. We examined whether PSK would enhance docetaxel-induced apoptosis and augment anti-tumor immune responses in orthotopic tumors using transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP)-C2-bearing mice. Combining PSK with docetaxel induced significantly higher tumor suppression than either treatment alone (p<0.05), including a reduction in tumor proliferation and enhanced apoptosis. Combined PSK and docetaxel treatment led to a lower decrease in number of white blood cells than docetaxel alone, an effect accompanied by increased numbers of tumor-infiltrating CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. PSK with or without docetaxel significantly enhanced mRNA expression of IFN-γ compared to control, but did not significantly alter T-regulatory FoxP3 mRNA expression in tumors. PSK also augmented docetaxel-induced splenic natural killer cell cytolytic activity against YAC-1 target cells (p=0.045). This study is the first to show that PSK enhances docetaxel-induced prostate cancer tumor suppression, apoptosis and antitumor responses. PMID:22159900

  17. The use of mushroom glucans and proteoglycans in cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Kidd, P M

    2000-02-01

    Immunoceuticals can be considered as substances having immunotherapeutic efficacy when taken orally. More than 50 mushroom species have yielded potential immunoceuticals that exhibit anticancer activity in vitro or in animal models and of these, six have been investigated in human cancers. All are non-toxic and very well tolerated. Lentinan and schizophyllan have little oral activity. Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC) is poorly defined but has shown early clinical promise. Maitake D-Fraction has limited proof of clinical efficacy to date, but controlled research is underway. Two proteoglycans from Coriolus versicolor - PSK (Polysaccharide-K) and PSP (Polysaccharide-Peptide - have demonstrated the most promise. In Japanese trials since 1970, PSK significantly extended survival at five years or beyond in cancers of the stomach, colon-rectum, esophagus, nasopharynx, and lung (non-small cell types), and in a HLA B40-positive breast cancer subset. PSP was subjected to Phase II and Phase III trials in China. In double-blind trials, PSP significantly extended five-year survival in esophageal cancer. PSP significantly improved quality of life, provided substantial pain relief, and enhanced immune status in 70-97 percent of patients with cancers of the stomach, esophagus, lung, ovary, and cervix. PSK and PSP boosted immune cell production, ameliorated chemotherapy symptoms, and enhanced tumor infiltration by dendritic and cytotoxic T-cells. Their extremely high tolerability, proven benefits to survival and quality of life, and compatibility with chemotherapy and radiation therapy makes them well suited for cancer management regimens. PMID:10696116

  18. Degradation of Three Aromatic Dyes by White Rot Fungi and the Production of Ligninolytic Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Jayasinghe, Chandana; Imtiaj, Ahmed; Lee, Geon Woo; Im, Kyung Hoan; Hur, Hyun; Lee, Min Woong; Yang, Hee-Sun

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the degradation of aromatic dyes and the production of ligninolytic enzymes by 10 white rot fungi. The results of this study revealed that Pycnoporus cinnabarinus, Pleurotus pulmonarius, Ganoderma lucidum, Trametes suaveolens, Stereum ostrea and Fomes fomentarius have the ability to efficiently degrade congo red on solid media. However, malachite green inhibited the mycelial growth of these organisms. Therefore, they did not effectively decolorize malachite green on solid media. However, P. cinnabarinus and P. pulmonarius were able to effectively decolorize malachite green on solid media. T. suaveolens and F. rosea decolorized methylene blue more effectively than any of the other fungi evaluated in this study. In liquid culture, G. lucidum, P. cinnabarinus, Naematoloma fasciculare and Pycnoporus coccineus were found to have a greater ability to decolorize congo red. In addition, P. cinnabarinus, G. lucidum and T. suaveolens decolorized methylene blue in liquid media more effectively than any of the other organisms evaluated in this study. Only F. fomentarius was able to decolorize malachite green in liquid media, and its ability to do so was limited. To investigate the production of ligninolytic enzymes in media containing aromatic compounds, fungi were cultured in naphthalene supplemented liquid media. P. coccineus, Coriolus versicolor and P. cinnabarinus were found to produce a large amount of laccase when grown in medium that contained napthalene. PMID:23990745

  19. The application of dermal papillary rings in dermatology by in vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, W. Z.; Xu, A. E.; Xu, J.; Bi, Z. G.; Shang, Y. B.; Ren, Q. S.

    2010-08-01

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) allows noninvasive visualization of human skin in vivo, without needing to fix or section the tissue. Melanocytes and pigmented keratinocytes at the level of the basal layer form bright dermal papillary rings which are readily amenable to identify in confocal images. Our purpose was to explore the role of dermal papillary rings in assessment of lesion location, the diagnosis, differential diagnosis of lesions and assessment of therapeutic efficacy by in vivo CLSM. Seventy-one patients were imaged with the VivaScope 1500 reflectance confocal microscope provided by Lucid, Inc. The results indicate that dermal papillary rings can assess the location of lesion; the application of dermal papillary rings can provide diagnostic support and differential diagnosis for vitiligo, nevus depigmentosus, tinea versicolor, halo nevus, common nevi, and assess the therapeutic efficacy of NBUVB phototherapy plus topical 0.1 percent tacrolimus ointment for vitiligo. In conclusion, our findings indicate that the dermal papillary rings play an important role in the assessment the location of lesion, diagnosis, differential diagnosis of lesions and assessment of therapeutic efficacy by in vivo CLSM. CLSM may be a promising tool for noninvasive examination in dermatology. However, larger studies are needed to expand the application of dermal papillary rings in dermatology.

  20. Electrochemical studies of a truncated laccase produced in Pichia pastoris

    SciTech Connect

    Gelo-Pujic, M.; Kim, H.H.; Butlin, N.G.; Palmore, G.T.R.

    1999-12-01

    The cDNA that encodes an isoform is laccase from Trametes versicolor (LCCI), as well as a truncated version (LCCIa), was subcloned and expressed by using the yeast Pichia pastoris as the heterologous host. The amino acid sequence of LCCIa is identical to that of LCCI except that the final 11 amino acids at the C terminus of LCCI are replaced with a single cysteine residue. This modification was introduced for the purpose of improving the kinetics of electron transfer between an electrode and the copper-containing active site of laccase. The two laccases (LCCI and LCCIa) are compared in terms of their relative activity with two substrates that have different redox potentials. Results from electrochemical studies on solutions containing LCCI and LCCIa indicate that the redox potential of the active site of LCCIa is shifted to more negative values (411 mV versus normal hydrogen electrode voltage) than that found in other fungal laccases. In addition, replacing the 11 codons at the C terminus of the laccase gene with a single cysteine codon influences the rate of heterogeneous electron transfer between and electrode and the copper-containing active site. These results demonstrate for the first time that the rate of electron transfer between an oxidoreductase and an electrode can be enhanced by changes to the primary structure of a protein via site-directed mutagenesis.

  1. Purification and characterization of an extracellular laccase from the edible mushroom Lentinula edodes, and decolorization of chemically different dyes.

    PubMed

    Nagai, M; Sato, T; Watanabe, H; Saito, K; Kawata, M; Enei, H

    2002-11-01

    A laccase (EC 1.10.3.2) was isolated from the culture filtrate of Lentinula edodes. The enzyme was purified to a homogeneous preparation using hydrophobic, anion-exchange, and size-exclusion chromatographies. SDS-PAGE analysis showed the purified laccase, Lcc 1, to be a monomeric protein of 72.2 kDa. The enzyme had an isoelectric point of around pH 3.0. The optimum pH for enzyme activity was around 4.0, and it was most active at 40 degrees C and stable up to 35 degrees C. The enzyme contained 23.8% carbohydrate and some copper atoms. The enzyme oxidized 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt, p-phenylendiamine, pyrogallol, guaiacol, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, catechol, and ferulic acid, but not veratryl alcohol, tyrosine, and beta-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) alanine. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of Lcc 1 showed close homology to the N-terminal sequences determined for laccases from Phlebia radiata, Trametes villosa, and Trametes versicolor, but only low similarity was observed to a previously reported laccase from L. edodes. Lcc 1 was effective in the decolorization of chemically different dyes - Remazole Brilliant Blue R, Bromophenol Blue, methyl red, and Naphtol Blue Black - without any mediators, but the decolorization of two dyes - red poly(vinylamine)sulfonate-anthrapyridone dye and Reactive Orange 16 - did require some redox mediators. PMID:12436315

  2. Preliminary amphibian health survey in the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area.

    PubMed

    Glenney, Gavin W; Julian, James T; Quartz, William M

    2010-06-01

    To detect aquatic animal diseases of national concern, 111 individual amphibians, including wood frogs Rana sylvatica (28), spring peepers Pseudacris crucifer (35), red-spotted newts Notophthalmus viridescens (41), and gray tree frogs Hyla versicolor (7), were sampled at seven different sites in the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area (DGNRA), Pennsylvania, from June 14 to July 19, 2007. These samples were screened for Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and viral pathogens at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Fish Health Center in Lamar, Pennsylvania. Cell culture revealed cytopathic effect (CPE) in two cell lines (epithelioma papillosum cyprini and fathead minnow) inoculated with liver, kidney, and spleen samples from one sample pool of Notophthalmus viridescens (4 individuals). Polymerase chain reaction was conducted on cell culture supernatant exhibiting CPE. Sequencing revealed the resulting product to be identical to frog virus 3, a ranavirus in the family Iridoviridae. Upon gross examination, two Notophthalmus viridescens were found to exhibit dermal swelling and lethargy. Histological examination of these lesions revealed involvement by an Ichthyophonus sp. In summary, two pathogens of concern were found in amphibians in the DGNRA: a ranavirus with a major capsid protein sequence identical to that of frog virus 3 and a mesomycetozoan, Ichthyophonus sp. Although no epizootic die-offs were observed during this health survey, the results warrant further research into the distribution of these pathogens throughout the DGNRA because they have the potential to cause mass mortalities in amphibians. PMID:20848885

  3. Echinostome-induced mortality varies across amphibian species in the field.

    PubMed

    Holland, Manja P

    2010-10-01

    Echinostomes are receiving increased attention because of their emerging parasite status in landscapes associated with human development and their ability to infect and kill many North American larval amphibians. While laboratory experiments have shown that echinostomes can cause extensive mortality in their amphibian hosts, their effect on tadpoles in the field is less clear. I conducted a controlled-infection field-enclosure experiment in 4 ponds to compare the effects of echinostomes on green frog (Rana clamitans) and gray tree frog (Hyla versicolor) tadpoles in the field. I measured tadpole growth, development, mortality, and infection intensity. Echinostome infection resulted in high mortality in green frog tadpoles and less mortality in gray tree frogs. However, metacercariae encystment rates were higher in gray tree frog tadpoles than in green frog tadpoles. The effect of echinostomes on mortality varies across amphibian species, with the result that some species may experience more extensive echinostome-induced mortality than others. Mortality as a result of echinostome infection in green frog tadpoles was similar to mortality observed in predation experiments. PMID:20469948

  4. Oral Antifungal Drugs in the Treatment of Dermatomycosis.

    PubMed

    Tsunemi, Yuichiro

    2016-01-01

    Oral antifungal drugs are used primarily to treat tinea unguium; however, they are also useful for other types of tinea. For example, a combination of topical and oral antifungal drugs is effective in hyperkeratotic tinea pedis that is unresponsive to topical monotherapy. In cases of tinea facialis adjacent to the eyes, ears, or mouth, or widespread tinea corporis, or tinea cruris involving the complex skin folds of the external genitalia, it is difficult to apply topical drugs to all the lesions; therefore, oral antifungal drugs are necessary. Oral antifungal drugs are also useful not only for tinea but for widespread pityriasis versicolor and Malassezia folliculitis, candidal onychomycosis, and candidal paronychia and onychia. Topical antifungal drugs are in fact unsuitable for some mycoses. In tinea capitis, for example, irritation by topical drugs is likely to enhance inflammation; therefore, oral antifungal drug monotherapy is preferable. In interdigital tinea pedis with erosion or contact dermatitis, topical drugs are difficult to use because they tend to cause irritant dermatitis, resulting in exacerbation of the condition. In such cases, treatment should begin with a combination of topical corticosteroid therapy and oral antifungal drugs active against dermatophytes. Topical antifungal drugs are used after the complications resolve. A combination of topical and oral antifungal drugs can shorten the treatment period, thus improving patient adherence to topical treatment. Oral antifungal drugs are useful because of their wide range of applications in the treatment of dermatomycosis. PMID:27251319

  5. Ontogenic Caste Differences in the Van der Vecht Organ of Primitively Eusocial Neotropical Paper Wasps.

    PubMed

    de Souza, André Rodrigues; Petrocelli, Iacopo; Lino-Neto, José; Santos, Eduardo Fernando; Noll, Fernando Barbosa; Turillazzi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have reported incipient morphological caste dimorphism in the Van der Vecht organ size of some temperate Polistes paper wasps. Whether species other than the temperate ones show a similar pattern remains elusive. Here, we have studied some Neotropical Polistes species. By comparing females collected through the year, we showed caste related differences in the size of the Van der Vecht organ in P. ferreri (body size corrected Van der Vech organ size of queens = 0.45 ± 0.06, workers = 0.38 ± 0.07 mm2, p = 0.0021), P. versicolor (body size corrected Van der Vech organ size of queens = 0.54 ± 0.11, workers = 0.46 ± 0.09 mm2, p = 0.010), but not P. simillimus (body size corrected Van der Vech organ size of queens = 0.52 ± 0.05, workers = 0.49 ± 0.06 mm2, p = 0.238). Therefore, it seems that queens and workers of some Neotropical Polistes have diverged in their ontogenic trajectory of the Van der Vecht organ size, providing clear evidence for incipient morphological caste dimorphism. As Polistes are distributed mostly in the tropics, we propose that physical caste differences may be widespread in the genus. Also, we highlight that morphological divergence in the queen-worker phenotypes may have started through differential selection of body structures, like the Van der Vecht organ. PMID:27167514

  6. Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activities and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Property from Mycelium Culture Extracts.

    PubMed

    Park, Ki Moon; Kwon, Kyung Min; Lee, Seung Ho

    2015-01-01

    Since mushrooms have many bioactive components, they have been used as components in folk medicine. Because mycelium has an advantage when it comes to large-scale production, this study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant properties and anti-tyrosinase activity from 55 mycelia in culture media. Relatively high 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging capacity was detected from the ethanol extract of culture media including mycelium (EECiM) of Morchella esculenta var. esculenta (MEVE), Auricularia polytricha (APO), Tremella aurantia (TAU), Volvariella bombycina (VBO), and Oudemansiella sp. (Osp), which also showed strong reducing power and inhibitory activity in relation to the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value. On the other hand, relatively high tyrosinase inhibitory activity was detected in Inonotus mikadoi (IMI), Coriolus versicolor (CVE), Volvariella volvacea (VVO), Panellus serotinus (PSE), Auricularia auricula (AAU), and Fomitopsis sp. (Fsp). Interestingly, the APO EECiM exhibited the highest DPPH radical scavenging rate (77.5 ± 4.3%) and reducing power (1.18 ± 0.041), while the highest inhibitory power of the TBA value and antityrosinase activity were detected in that of TAU (64.5 ± 4.1%) and IMI (46.0 ± 7.5%), respectively. Overall, our study suggested potential candidates for EECiMs that exhibited powerful antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory properties and might be used as natural antioxidant tyrosinase inhibitor. PMID:26345142

  7. Epidermodysplasia verruciformis: response to therapy with dialyzable leukocyte extract (transfer factor) derived from household contacts.

    PubMed

    Vasily, D B; Miller, O F; Fudenberg, H H; Goust, J M; Wilson, G B

    1984-05-01

    Dialyzable leukocyte extracts (DLE) have been used to treat a variety of antigen selective, and broad spectrum immunodeficiency diseases with sometimes encouraging results. We describe here the clinical and laboratory responses to DLE therapy of 2 patients with epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV), a chronic cutaneous infection with a variety of human papilloma viruses. One patient with longstanding (30 yr) disease and no improvement to previous therapy showed gradual yet definite resolution of extensive verrucae planae, plaque, tinea-versicolor-like, and tumor lesions scattered over his entire integument. Cessation of DLE therapy for a short time resulted in recurrence of partially regressed lesions and also in the development of new tumors in this patient. The second patient, a grandson of the first patient, with minimal disease showed no progression of the disease during DLE prophylaxis. A third subject (brother of patient number 2) received no DLE and served as a control. All 3 subjects demonstrated severely depressed levels of suppressor T cells, a defect in cell-mediated immunity that has not been hitherto reported in patients with EV. Finally, evidence is presented for a possible X-linked recessive mode of inheritance for susceptibility to EV. PMID:6086930

  8. Bioactivity of Trifoliate Orange (Poncirus trifoliate) Seed Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong Yeong; Shin, Kwang-Soon

    2012-01-01

    Trifoliate orange seed extracts (TSEs) were made using either distilled water (TW), ethanol (TE), or n-hexane (TH), to measure total polyphenol contents, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities, and anti-complementary activity. The results showed that the total polyphenol content showed higher value at TE (235.24 μg/mL, p<0.05) than those of TW (132.65 μg/mL) and TH (165.44 μg/mL) at 10 mg/mL and TE exerted the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity (61.77%, p<0.05), which occurred in the following order: TE>TW (56.87%)>TH (39.78%). The results of ABTS radical scavenging activity showed that TW (34.26%) and TE (31.81%) showed similar activities, which were higher than TH (12.74%, p<0.05). Anti-complementary activity of TE (61% at 500 μg/mL) showed a higher activity when compared with the positive control (60% at 1,000 μg/mL) polysaccharide-K (PSK), a known immuno-active polysaccharide from Coriolus versicolor. Consequently, among TSEs, TE is a byproduct from trifoliate orange and could be an important source of dietary polyphenolic antioxidant compounds and immunopotentiating activity, including complement activation. PMID:24471075

  9. Microbiological consequences of indoor composting.

    PubMed

    Naegele, A; Reboux, G; Vacheyrou, M; Valot, B; Millon, L; Roussel, S

    2016-08-01

    Recycling of organic waste appeals to more and more people. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological contamination around organic waste bins at three distances over a 12-month period. Contamination near the customary trash of control households was evaluated at the beginning to ensure that there is no recruitment bias. Air samples using the MAS 100 impactor were carried out in 38 dwellings that do household waste composting and in 10 dwellings of controls. Collection of particles by CIP 10 rotating cup sampler and dust samples collected by electrostatic dust collector cloths were acquired in dwellings that do household waste composting. Samples were analyzed by culture and by real-time quantitative PCR. Information about dwelling characteristics and inhabitant practices was obtained by a standardized questionnaire. The genera most often isolated were Penicillium, Aspergillus, Cladosporium and Streptomyces. Near the organic waste bins, bioaerosol samples showed an increase of Acarus siro (P = 0.001). Sedimented dust analyses highlighted an increase of A. siro, Wallemia sebi, Aspergillus versicolor, and Cladosporium sphaerospermum concentrations after a 12-month survey compared to the beginning. Composting favors microorganism development over time, but does not seem to have an effect on the bioaerosol levels and the surface microbiota beyond 0.5 m from the waste bin. PMID:26299932

  10. Study of dermatoses in kidney transplant patients*

    PubMed Central

    de Lima, Alexandre Moretti; da Rocha, Sheila Pereira; Reis Filho, Eugênio Galdino de Mendonça; Eid, Danglades Resende Macedo; Reis, Carmelia Matos Santiago

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The increasing in the number of kidney transplant recipients has favored, more frequently than before, the emergence of dermatoses and warranted their study through subsequent publications. OBJECTIVES to evaluate the frequency of dermatoses in kidney transplant recipients. METHODS kidney transplant recipients with suspected dermatoses between March 1st 2009 and June 30th 2010. RESULTS 53 patients (28 males and 25 females), aged between 22 and 69 (mean age = 45 years) were evaluated. Most of them came from the cities of Ceilândia, Samambaia and São Sebastião/DF, and had already been transplanted for 5 to 10 years before (37.7%); 62.3% were recipients of living donors and 83% were prednisone-treated. The most prevalent dermatoses were of fungal (45.3%) and viral (39.6%) etiologies. Among the non-melanoma malignant neoplasms, the basal cell carcinoma prevailed (six cases), in spite of the low incidence. Concerning fungal dermatoses, 12 cases of onychomycosis, five of pityriasis versicolor and four of pityrosporum folliculitis were reported. For diagnosis, in most cases (64.2%), laboratory examinations (mycological and histopathological) were performed. CONCLUSION cutaneous manifestations in kidney transplant recipients are generally secondary to immunosuppression. The infectious dermatoses, especially those of fungal origin, are frequently found in kidney transplant recipients and their occurrence increases progressively according to the time elapsed from the transplantation, which makes follow-up important. PMID:23793196

  11. Common environmental allergens causing respiratory allergy in India.

    PubMed

    Singh, A B; Kumar, Pawan

    2002-03-01

    Respiratory allergy affects all age groups but the children are the worst affected by the respiratory allergy. Bioparticles from different biological sources are the main cause of allergy. Pollen grains, fungal spores, insect and other materials of biological origin form the most important allergen load in the air. For the efficient diagnosis of the allergy and its effective treatment it is very important to know about the prevalence, seasonal and annual variations of aeroallergens of the area. India being the climatically diversed country, there is diversity in the flora and fauna of different parts of the country. Atmospheric surveys carried out in different parts of India reveal that, Alanus nitida, Amarantus spinosus, Argemone mexicana Cocos nucifera, Betula utilis, Borasus flabellifer, Caraica papaya, Cedrus deodara, Cassia fistula, Parthenium, Chenopodium album, Dodonaea viscosa, Malotus phillipensis, Plantago ovata, Prosopis juliflora, Ricinus communis, Holoptelea intergifolia are the allergenically important pollens of the country. Among the fungal aeroallergens, Alternaria, Candida aibieans, Aspergillus versicolor, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus japonicus, Cladosporium cladosporoides, Fusarium roseum, Ganoderma lucidum,Neurospora sitophila Helminthosporium, Ustilago trtici, Uromyses are important allergens. Dust mites D. farinae, D.pteronyssinus are also important source of inhalant allergens particularly in the coastal areas of the country. Cockroaches, beetles, weevils, mosquitoes, house flies also contribute towards the aeroallergen load and are allergenically implicated. Avoidance of the indoor and outdoor aeroallergens is recommended for better management of respiratory allergy. PMID:12003301

  12. Protection of Wood from Microorganisms by Laccase-Catalyzed Iodination

    PubMed Central

    Engel, J.; Thöny-Meyer, L.; Schwarze, F. W. M. R.; Ihssen, J.

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, Norway spruce wood (Picea abies L.) was reacted with a commercial Trametes versicolor laccase in the presence of potassium iodide salt or the phenolic compounds thymol and isoeugenol to impart an antimicrobial property to the wood surface. In order to assess the efficacy of the wood treatment, a leaching of the iodinated and polymerized wood and two biotests including bacteria, a yeast, blue stain fungi, and wood decay fungi were performed. After laccase-catalyzed oxidation of the phenols, the antimicrobial effect was significantly reduced. In contrast, the enzymatic oxidation of iodide (I−) to iodine (I2) in the presence of wood led to an enhanced resistance of the wood surface against all microorganisms, even after exposure to leaching. The efficiency of the enzymatic wood iodination was comparable to that of a chemical wood preservative, VP 7/260a. The modification of the lignocellulose by the laccase-catalyzed iodination was assessed by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) technique. The intensities of the selected lignin-associated bands and carbohydrate reference bands were analyzed, and the results indicated a structural change in the lignin matrix. The results suggest that the laccase-catalyzed iodination of the wood surface presents an efficient and ecofriendly method for wood protection. PMID:22865075

  13. Evaluation of the antifungal effects of bio-oil prepared with lignocellulosic biomass using fast pyrolysis technology.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang Ho; Jeong, Han Seob; Kim, Jae-Young; Han, Gyu Seong; Choi, In-Gyu; Choi, Joon Weon

    2012-10-01

    This study was performed to investigate the utility of bio-oil, produced via a fast pyrolysis process, as an antifungal agent against wood-rot fungi. Bio-oil solutions (25-100 wt.%) were prepared by diluting the bio-oil with EtOH. Wood block samples (yellow poplar and pitch pine) were treated with diluted bio-oil solutions and then subjected to a leaching process under hot water (70°C) for 72 h. After the wood block samples were thoroughly dried, they were subjected to a soil block test using Tyromyces palustris and Trametes versicolor. The antifungal effect of the 75% and 100% bio-oil solutions was the highest for both wood blocks. Scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated that some chemical components in the bio-oil solution could agglomerate together to form clusters in the inner part of the wood during the drying process, which could act as a wood preservative against fungal growth. According to GC/MS analysis, the components of the agglomerate were mainly phenolic compounds derived from lignin polymers. PMID:22784866

  14. Printing of polymer microcapsules for enzyme immobilization on paper substrate.

    PubMed

    Savolainen, Anne; Zhang, Yufen; Rochefort, Dominic; Holopainen, Ulla; Erho, Tomi; Virtanen, Jouko; Smolander, Maria

    2011-06-13

    Poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) microcapsules containing laccase from Trametes hirsuta (ThL) and Trametes versicolor (TvL) were printed onto paper substrate by three different methods: screen printing, rod coating, and flexo printing. Microcapsules were fabricated via interfacial polycondensation of PEI with the cross-linker sebacoyl chloride, incorporated into an ink, and printed or coated on the paper substrate. The same ink components were used for three printing methods, and it was found that laccase microcapsules were compatible with the ink. Enzymatic activity of microencapsulated TvL was maintained constant in polymer-based ink for at least eight weeks. Thick layers with high enzymatic activity were obtained when laccase-containing microcapsules were screen printed on paper substrate. Flexo printed bioactive paper showed very low activity, since by using this printing method the paper surface was not fully covered by enzyme microcapsules. Finally, screen printing provided a bioactive paper with high water-resistance and the highest enzyme lifetime. PMID:21568314

  15. Fungal populations and mycotoxins in silage in Assiut and Sohag governorates in Egypt, with a special reference to characteristic Aspergilli toxins.

    PubMed

    El-Shanawany, A A; Mostafa, M Eman; Barakat, A

    2005-02-01

    Forty silage samples were collected from Assiut and Sohag governorates in Egypt to measure the presence of fungal population in silage. Forty-three species and 2 species varieties belonging to 17 genera were isolated using glucose Czapek's and Sabouraud's dextrose agar media at 28 degrees C. The most prevalent genera were Aspergillus (57.5 and 100 of the samples), Penicillium (100 and 55%) on the two mentioned media, respectively. Also, Fusarium oxysporum and Gibberella fujikurori were recovered in moderate incidences. Mycotoxin profiles were also determined in these samples: Aflatoxins showed the highest incidence rates of occurrence, it occurred in 22.5% of all samples analyzed. Other mycotoxins were detected from all samples (T2 toxins and sterigmatocystin at incidence of 7.5 and 5%, respectively). The screening of the characteristics mycotoxins of different isolates of Aspergillus isolated from silage samples was tested. The results clarified that some mycotoxins (aflatoxins-aspergillic acid-beta nitro propionic acid-cyclopiazonic acid-kojic acid and sterigmatocystin) were produced by some isolates of A. flavus. Some isolates of A.fumigatus could produce gliotoxin and verrucologen. All of A. niger isolates tested were able to produce kojic acid. One isolate of A. ochraceous formed ochratoxin A and other isolate produced penicillic acid. Concerning A. terreus isolates, the results showed that 5 isolates were able to produce citrinin and 4 isolates had ability to produce patulin. A. versicolor isolates showed the ability to produce ochratoxin A. PMID:15770455

  16. Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activities and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Property from Mycelium Culture Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ki Moon; Kwon, Kyung Min; Lee, Seung Ho

    2015-01-01

    Since mushrooms have many bioactive components, they have been used as components in folk medicine. Because mycelium has an advantage when it comes to large-scale production, this study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant properties and anti-tyrosinase activity from 55 mycelia in culture media. Relatively high 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging capacity was detected from the ethanol extract of culture media including mycelium (EECiM) of Morchella esculenta var. esculenta (MEVE), Auricularia polytricha (APO), Tremella aurantia (TAU), Volvariella bombycina (VBO), and Oudemansiella sp. (Osp), which also showed strong reducing power and inhibitory activity in relation to the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value. On the other hand, relatively high tyrosinase inhibitory activity was detected in Inonotus mikadoi (IMI), Coriolus versicolor (CVE), Volvariella volvacea (VVO), Panellus serotinus (PSE), Auricularia auricula (AAU), and Fomitopsis sp. (Fsp). Interestingly, the APO EECiM exhibited the highest DPPH radical scavenging rate (77.5 ± 4.3%) and reducing power (1.18 ± 0.041), while the highest inhibitory power of the TBA value and antityrosinase activity were detected in that of TAU (64.5 ± 4.1%) and IMI (46.0 ± 7.5%), respectively. Overall, our study suggested potential candidates for EECiMs that exhibited powerful antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory properties and might be used as natural antioxidant tyrosinase inhibitor. PMID:26345142

  17. A chloroplast DNA deletion located in RNA polymerase gene rpoC2 in CMS lines of sorghum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Z; Muthukrishnan, S; Liang, G H; Schertz, K F; Hart, G E

    1993-01-01

    Fertile lines of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) were shown to differ from cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines by the presence of a 3.8 kb HindIII chloroplast DNA fragment in the former and a smaller (3.7 kb) fragment in the latter. DNA/DNA hybridization studies showed that these two fragments are homologous. Fertile plants from S. versicolor, S. almum, S. halepense, and Sorghastrum nutans (Yellow Indiangrass) also have the 3.8 kb fragment, and CMS lines studied containing A1, A2 and A3 cytoplasms have the 3.7 kb fragment. The size difference between the two fragments was localized to a 1.0 kb SacI-HindIII fragment by restriction mapping. A 165 bp deletion, which is flanked by a 51 bp tandem repeat, was identified in the CMS lines by sequencing the clones. Comparison of the two sequences with those from maize, rice, tobacco, spinach, pea, and liverwort revealed that the deleted sequence is located in the middle of the RNA polymerase beta" subunit encoded by the gene rpoC2. The amino acid sequence deleted in the CMS lines is in a monocot-specific region which contains two protein motifs that are characteristic of several transcriptional activation factors, namely, a leucine zipper motif and an acidic domain capable of forming an amphipathic alpha-helix. Further studies designed to determine whether or not the deletion is involved in CMS of sorghum are underway. PMID:8437572

  18. Fungal permeable reactive barrier to remediate groundwater in an artificial aquifer.

    PubMed

    Folch, Albert; Vilaplana, Marcel; Amado, Leila; Vicent, Teresa; Caminal, Glòria

    2013-11-15

    Biobarriers, as permeable reactive barriers (PRBs), are a common technology that mainly uses bacteria to remediate groundwater in polluted aquifers. In this study, we propose to use Trametes versicolor, a white-rot fungus, as the reactive element because of its capacity to degrade a wide variety of highly recalcitrant and xenobiotic compounds. A laboratory-scale artificial aquifer was constructed to simulate groundwater flow under real conditions in shallow aquifers. Orange G dye was chosen as a contaminant to visually monitor the hydrodynamic behaviour of the system and any degradation of the dye by the fungus. Batch experiments at different pH values (6 and 7) and several temperatures (15 °C, 18 °C, 20 °C and 25 °C) were performed to select the appropriate residence time and glucose consumption rate required for continuous treatment. The maximum Orange G degradation was 97%. Continuous degradation over 85% was achieved for more than 8 days. Experimental results indicate for the first time that this fungus can potentially be used as a permeable reactive barrier in real aquifers. PMID:24095995

  19. Enhanced reduction of phenol content and toxicity in olive mill wastewaters by a newly isolated strain of Coriolopsis gallica.

    PubMed

    Daâssi, Dalel; Belbahri, Lassaad; Vallat, Armelle; Woodward, Steve; Nasri, Moncef; Mechichi, Tahar

    2014-02-01

    The search for novel microorganisms able to degrade olive mill wastewaters (OMW) and withstand the toxic effects of the initially high phenolic concentrations is of great scientific and industrial interest. In this work, the possibility of reducing the phenolic content of OMW using new isolates of fungal strains (Coriolopsis gallica, Bjerkandera adusta, Trametes versicolor, Trichoderma citrinoviride, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Gloeophyllum trabeum, Trametes trogii, and Fusarium solani) was investigated. In vitro, all fungal isolates tested caused an outstanding decolorization of OMW. However, C. gallica gave the highest decolorization and dephenolization rates at 30 % v/v OMW dilution in water. Fungal growth in OMW medium was affected by several parameters including phenolic compound concentration, nitrogen source, and inoculum size. The optimal OMW medium for the removal of phenolics and color was with the OMW concentration (in percent)/[(NH4)2SO4]/inoculum ratio of 30:6:3. Under these conditions, 90 and 85 % of the initial phenolic compounds and color were removed, respectively. High-pressure liquid chromatography analysis of extracts from treated and untreated OMW showed a clear and substantial reduction in phenolic compound concentrations. Phytotoxicity, assessed using radish (Raphanus sativus) seeds, indicated an increase in germination index of 23-92 % when a 30 % OMW concentration was treated with C. gallica in different dilutions (1/2, 1/4, and 1/8). PMID:23979847

  20. Recent progress of research on medicinal mushrooms, foods, and other herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan L; Yang, Xiaoming; Huang, Rong; Zhou, Ting; Wu, Shou-Fang; Shi, Qian; Itokawa, Hideji

    2012-04-01

    This article will review selected herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine, including medicinal mushrooms ( bā xī mó gū; Agaricus blazei, yún zhī; Coriolus versicolor, líng zhī; Ganoderma lucidum, xiāng xùn; shiitake, Lentinus edodes, niú zhāng zhī; Taiwanofungus camphoratus), Cordyceps ( dōng chóng xià cǎo), pomegranate ( shí liú; Granati Fructus), green tea ( lǜ chá; Theae Folium Non Fermentatum), garlic ( dà suàn; Allii Sativi Bulbus), turmeric ( jiāng huáng; Curcumae Longae Rhizoma), and Artemisiae Annuae Herba ( qīng hāo; sweet wormwood). Many of the discussed herbal products have gained popularity in their uses as dietary supplements for health benefits. The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011. PMID:24716120

  1. Dihydrobenzofuran Neolignanamides: Laccase-Mediated Biomimetic Synthesis and Antiproliferative Activity.

    PubMed

    Cardullo, Nunzio; Pulvirenti, Luana; Spatafora, Carmela; Musso, Nicolò; Barresi, Vincenza; Condorelli, Daniele Filippo; Tringali, Corrado

    2016-08-26

    The biomimetic synthesis of a small library of dihydrobenzofuran neolignanamides (the natural trans-grossamide (4) and the related compounds 21-28) has been carried out through an eco-friendly oxidative coupling reaction mediated by Trametes versicolor laccase. These products, after complete spectroscopic characterization, were evaluated for their antiproliferative activity against Caco-2 (colon carcinoma), MCF-7 (mammary adenocarcinoma), and PC-3 (prostate cancer) human cells, using an MTT bioassay. The racemic neolignamides (±)-21 and (±)-27, in being the most lipophilic in the series, were potently active, with GI50 values comparable to or even lower than that of the positive control 5-FU. The racemates were resolved through chiral HPLC, and the pure enantiomers were subjected to ECD measurements to establish their absolute configurations at C-2 and C-3. All enantiomers showed potent antiproliferative activity, with, in particular, a GI50 value of 1.1 μM obtained for (2R,3R)-21. The effect of (±)-21 on the Caco-2 cell cycle was evaluated by flow cytometry, and it was demonstrated that (±)-21 exerts its antiproliferative activity by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. PMID:27504537

  2. Female túngara frogs do not experience the continuity illusion.

    PubMed

    Baugh, Alexander T; Ryan, Michael J; Bernal, Ximena E; Rand, A Stanley; Bee, Mark A

    2016-02-01

    In humans and some nonhuman vertebrates, a sound containing brief silent gaps can be rendered perceptually continuous by inserting noise into the gaps. This so-called "continuity illusion" arises from a phenomenon known as "auditory induction" and results in the perception of complete auditory objects despite fragmentary or incomplete acoustic information. Previous studies of auditory induction in gray treefrogs (Hyla versicolor and H. chrysoscelis) have demonstrated an absence of this phenomenon. These treefrog species produce pulsatile (noncontinuous) vocalizations, whereas studies of auditory induction in other taxa, including humans, often present continuous sounds (e.g., frequency-modulated sweeps). This study investigated the continuity illusion in a frog (Physalaemus pustulosus) with an advertisement vocalization that is naturally continuous and thus similar to the tonal sweeps used in human psychophysical studies of auditory induction. In a series of playback experiments, female subjects were presented with sets of stimuli that included complete calls, calls with silent gaps, and calls with silent gaps filled with noise. The results failed to provide evidence of auditory induction. Current evidence, therefore, suggests that mammals and birds experience auditory induction, but frogs may not. This emerging pattern of taxonomic differences is considered in light of potential methodological, neurophysiological, and functional explanations. PMID:26692450

  3. Nanostructured enzymatic biosensor based on fullerene and gold nanoparticles: preparation, characterization and analytical applications.

    PubMed

    Lanzellotto, C; Favero, G; Antonelli, M L; Tortolini, C; Cannistraro, S; Coppari, E; Mazzei, F

    2014-05-15

    In this work a novel electrochemical biosensing platform based on the coupling of two different nanostructured materials (gold nanoparticles and fullerenols) displaying interesting electrochemical features, has been developed and characterized. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) exhibit attractive electrocatalytic behavior stimulating in the last years, several sensing applications; on the other hand, fullerene and its derivatives are a very promising family of electroactive compounds although they have not yet been fully employed in biosensing. The methodology proposed in this work was finalized to the setup of a laccase biosensor based on a multilayer material consisting in AuNPs, fullerenols and Trametes versicolor Laccase (TvL) assembled layer by layer onto a gold (Au) electrode surface. The influence of different modification step procedures on the electroanalytical performance of biosensors has been evaluated. Cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) were used to characterize the modification of surface and to investigate the bioelectrocatalytic biosensor response. This biosensor showed fast amperometric response to gallic acid, which is usually considered a standard for polyphenols analysis of wines, with a linear range 0.03-0.30 mmol L(-1) (r(2)=0.9998), with a LOD of 0.006 mmol L(-1) or expressed as polyphenol index 5.0-50 mg L(-1) and LOD 1.1 mg L(-1). A tentative application of the developed nanostructured enzyme-based biosensor was performed evaluating the detection of polyphenols either in buffer solution or in real wine samples. PMID:24441023

  4. Recombinant expression of four oxidoreductases in Phanerochaete chrysosporium improves degradation of phenolic and non-phenolic substrates.

    PubMed

    Coconi-Linares, Nancy; Ortiz-Vázquez, Elizabeth; Fernández, Francisco; Loske, Achim M; Gómez-Lim, Miguel A

    2015-09-10

    Phanerochaete chrysosporium belongs to a group of lignin-degrading fungi that secretes various oxidoreductive enzymes, including lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP). Previously, we demonstrated that the heterologous expression of a versatile peroxidase (VP) in P. chrysosporium recombinant strains is possible. However, the production of laccases (Lac) in this fungus has not been completely demonstrated and remains controversial. In order to investigate if the co-expression of Lac and VP in P. chrysosporium would improve the degradation of phenolic and non-phenolic substrates, we tested the constitutive co-expression of the lacIIIb gene from Trametes versicolor and the vpl2 gene from Pleurotus eryngii, and also the endogenous genes mnp1 and lipH8 by shock wave mediated transformation. The co-overexpression of peroxidases and laccases was improved up to five-fold as compared with wild type species. Transformant strains showed a broad spectrum in phenolic/non-phenolic biotransformation and a high percentage in synthetic dye decolorization in comparison with the parental strain. Our results show that the four enzymes can be constitutively expressed in a single transformant of P. chrysosporium in minimal medium. These data offer new possibilities for an easy and efficient co-expression of laccases and peroxidases in suitable basidiomycete species. PMID:26113215

  5. Parallel changes in mate-attracting calls and female preferences in autotriploid tree frogs

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Mitch A.; Gerhardt, H. C.

    2012-01-01

    For polyploid species to persist, they must be reproductively isolated from their diploid parental species, which coexist at the same time and place at least initially. In a complex of biparentally reproducing tetraploid and diploid tree frogs in North America, selective phonotaxis—mediated by differences in the pulse-repetition (pulse rate) of their mate-attracting vocalizations—ensures assortative mating. We show that artificially produced autotriploid females of the diploid species (Hyla chrysoscelis) show a shift in pulse-rate preference in the direction of the pulse rate produced by males of the tetraploid species (Hyla versicolor). The estimated preference function is centred near the mean pulse rate of the calls of artificially produced male autotriploids. Such a parallel shift, which is caused by polyploidy per se and whose magnitude is expected to be greater in autotetraploids, may have facilitated sympatric speciation by promoting reproductive isolation of the initially formed polyploids from their diploid parental forms. This process also helps to explain why tetraploid lineages with different origins have similar advertisement calls and freely interbreed. PMID:22113033

  6. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry fingerprinting: A diagnostic tool to differentiate dematiaceous fungi Stachybotrys chartarum and Stachybotrys chlorohalonata.

    PubMed

    Gruenwald, Maike; Rabenstein, Andreas; Remesch, Markko; Kuever, Jan

    2015-08-01

    Stachybotrys chartarum and Stachybotrys chlorohalonata are two closely related species. Unambiguous identification of these two species is a challenging task if relying solely on morphological criteria and therefore smarter and less labor-intensive approaches are needed. Here we show that even such closely related species of fungi as S. chartarum and S. chlorohalonata are unequivocally discriminated by their highly reproducible MALDI-TOF-MS fingerprints (matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry fingerprints). We examined 19 Stachybotrys and one Aspergillus isolate by MALDI-TOF-MS. All but one isolate produced melanin containing conidia on malt extract agar. Mass spectra were obtained in good quality from the analysis of hyaline and darkly pigmented conidia by circumventing the property of melanin which causes signal suppression. MALDI-TOF fingerprint analysis clearly discriminated not only the two morphologically similar species S. chartarum and S. chlorohalonata from each other but separated them precisely from Stachybotrys bisbyi and Aspergillus versicolor isolates. Furthermore, even S. chartarum chemotypes A and S could be differentiated into two distinct groups by their MALDI-TOF fingerprints. The chemotypes of S. chartarum isolates were identified by trichodiene synthase 5 (tri5) sequences prior to mass spectra analysis. Additionally, species identities of all isolates were verified by their 18S rRNA and tri5 gene sequences. PMID:26036596

  7. Removal of the insect repellent N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) by laccase-mediated systems.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ngoc Han; Hu, Jiangyong; Urase, Taro

    2013-11-01

    Numerous efforts have been made to remove emerging trace organic contaminants, such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). This study examined the removal of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) by Trametes versicolor laccase and its laccase-mediator systems. Experimental results showed that DEET was poorly removed by laccase alone. The poor removal efficiency of DEET by laccase may be attributed to the presence of strong withdrawing electron group (-CO-N [CH2-CH3]2) in the chemical structure of DEET. Experimental results also indicated that DEET might be indirectly oxidized by laccase-mediator systems. More than 50% initial DEET amount was removed by laccase in the presence of a redox mediator, such as 2,2'-azino-bis[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid] (ABTS) or 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT). However, laccase activity was considerably decreased in the presence of a redox mediator (ABTS or HBT). Further studies on identification of degradation byproducts and degradation pathways are recommended. PMID:24034986

  8. Fungal biodegradation of lignopolystyrene graft copolymers.

    PubMed Central

    Milstein, O; Gersonde, R; Huttermann, A; Chen, M J; Meister, J J

    1992-01-01

    White rot basidiomycetes were able to biodegrade styrene (1-phenylethene) graft copolymers of lignin containing different proportions of lignin and polystyrene [poly(1-phenylethylene)]. The biodegradation tests were run on lignin-styrene copolymerization products which contained 10.3, 32.2, and 50.4% (wt/wt) lignin. The polymer samples were incubated with the white rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and Trametes versicolor and the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum. White rot fungi degraded the plastic samples at a rate which increased with increasing lignin content in the copolymer sample. Both polystyrene and lignin components of the copolymer were readily degraded. Polystyrene pellets were not degradable in these tests. Degradation was verified for both incubated and control samples by weight loss, quantitative UV spectrophotometric analysis of both lignin and styrene residues, scanning electron microscopy of the plastic surface, and the presence of enzymes active in degradation during incubation. Brown rot fungus did not affect any of the plastics. White rot fungi produced and secreted oxidative enzymes associated with lignin degradation in liquid media during incubation with lignin-polystyrene copolymer. Images PMID:1444360

  9. Mycoflora and mycotoxins in Brazilian black pepper, white pepper and Brazil nuts.

    PubMed

    Freire, F C; Kozakiewicz, Z; Paterson, R R

    2000-01-01

    A wide range of field and storage fungi were isolated from black pepper, white pepper and Brazil nut kernels from Amazonia. A total of 42 species were isolated from both peppers. Aspergillus flavus and A. niger were isolated more frequently from black than from white pepper. Other potential mycotoxigenic species isolated included: A. ochraceus, A. tamarii, A. versicolor, Emericella nidulans and Chaetomium globosum, Penicillium brevicompactum, P. citrinum, P. islandicum and P. glabrum. Species isolated from pepper for the first time were Acrogenospora sphaerocephala, Cylindrocarpon lichenicola, Lacellinopsis sacchari, Microascus cinereus, Petriella setifera and Sporormiella minima. Seventeen species were isolated from Brazil nut kernels. A. flavus was the dominant species followed by A. niger. P. citrinum and P. glabrum were the only penicillia isolated. Species isolated for the first time included Acremonium curvulum, Cunninghamella elegans, Exophiala sp., Fusarium oxysporum, Pseudoallescheria boydii, Rhizopus oryzae, Scopulariopsis sp., Thielavia terricola and Trichoderma citrinoviride. Considerably more metabolites were detected from black than white pepper in qualitative analyses. Chaetocin, penitrem A, and xanthocillin were identified only from black pepper, and tenuazonic acid was identified from both black and white pepper. Aflatoxin G2, chaetoglobosin C, and spinulosin were identified from poor quality brazil nuts. Aflatoxin B1 and B2 were also only detected in poor quality brazil nuts at concentrations of 27.1 micrograms kg-1 and 2.1 micrograms kg-1 respectively (total 29.2 micrograms kg-1). PMID:11229375

  10. Biodegradation of coal-related model compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.A.; Stewart, D.L.; McCulloch, M.; Lucke, R.B.; Bean, R.M.

    1988-06-01

    We have studied the reactions of model compounds having coal-related functionalities (ester linkages, ether linkages, PAH) with the intact organism, cell-free filtrate, and cell-free enzyme of C. versicolor to better understand the process of biosolubilization. Many of the degradation products have been identified by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Results indicate that the two compounds tested with the intact fungal organism were completely degraded. Complete degradation refers to no recovery of model compound. We can probably assume that the other two would also be totally degraded, since we have not yet found a simple compound that will survive long-term exposure to the intact fungus. The ease of degradation with the cell-free filtrate appears to be in the order: phenylbenzoate > benzylbenzoate > benzyl ether > methoxybenzophenone. Esters and ethers that are activated by aromatic rings appear to be susceptible to the fungal extract; however, aromatic ketones are not affected by the extract. From the limited results we have obtained from the isolated enzyme, it appears that the activity may parallel the cell-free filtrate. When the cell-free extract was tested with the model compounds indole, dibenzothiophene, and bibenzyl, no degradation with the enzyme was noted: however, exposure of these compounds to the intact organism resulted in complete degradation. Analysis of the controls indicated no degradation. 8 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  11. Microbial screening test for lignite degradation: Quarterly progress report No. 9 for the period January-March 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, Teh Fu

    1987-03-01

    Anaerobic fermentation of water soluble fraction of modified lignite was attempted. Solubilized lignite formed bioprecipitate after biodegradation. Fermentation of water solubilized lignite in enrichment media produced gases and organic acids. FT-IR spectra of solubilized lignite after biodegradation showed that the concentration of organic oxygen have decreased and that the concentration of -CH/sub 3/ terminal group have increased. Solubilized lignite may serve as sole carbon source by using selective media. Bacteria was suspected of being able to utilize fulvic-like materials from solubilized lignite. Isolation of anaerobic bacteria was achieved by surface culture, and it indicated morphological differences among isolated colonies. Alginate gel entrapment, an immobilization method, was applied to T. versicolor fungal cells. Active fungal growth was observed from the immobilized spheres on sodium-alginate gel. It seems that the immobilized biocatalysts may be used to enhance the production of bioextract from lignite in a reactor system. Hydroxylation of lignite was accomplished through Fenton reaction at pH 7.5. FT-IR analysis showed that lignite treated with Fenton's reagent exhibits weaker aromatic bending and ether linkage than untreated lignite. 13 refs., 8 figs.

  12. Protection of wood from microorganisms by laccase-catalyzed iodination.

    PubMed

    Schubert, M; Engel, J; Thöny-Meyer, L; Schwarze, F W M R; Ihssen, J

    2012-10-01

    In the present work, Norway spruce wood (Picea abies L.) was reacted with a commercial Trametes versicolor laccase in the presence of potassium iodide salt or the phenolic compounds thymol and isoeugenol to impart an antimicrobial property to the wood surface. In order to assess the efficacy of the wood treatment, a leaching of the iodinated and polymerized wood and two biotests including bacteria, a yeast, blue stain fungi, and wood decay fungi were performed. After laccase-catalyzed oxidation of the phenols, the antimicrobial effect was significantly reduced. In contrast, the enzymatic oxidation of iodide (I(-)) to iodine (I(2)) in the presence of wood led to an enhanced resistance of the wood surface against all microorganisms, even after exposure to leaching. The efficiency of the enzymatic wood iodination was comparable to that of a chemical wood preservative, VP 7/260a. The modification of the lignocellulose by the laccase-catalyzed iodination was assessed by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) technique. The intensities of the selected lignin-associated bands and carbohydrate reference bands were analyzed, and the results indicated a structural change in the lignin matrix. The results suggest that the laccase-catalyzed iodination of the wood surface presents an efficient and ecofriendly method for wood protection. PMID:22865075

  13. Ontogenic Caste Differences in the Van der Vecht Organ of Primitively Eusocial Neotropical Paper Wasps

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, André Rodrigues; Petrocelli, Iacopo; Lino-Neto, José; Santos, Eduardo Fernando; Noll, Fernando Barbosa; Turillazzi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have reported incipient morphological caste dimorphism in the Van der Vecht organ size of some temperate Polistes paper wasps. Whether species other than the temperate ones show a similar pattern remains elusive. Here, we have studied some Neotropical Polistes species. By comparing females collected through the year, we showed caste related differences in the size of the Van der Vecht organ in P. ferreri (body size corrected Van der Vech organ size of queens = 0.45 ± 0.06, workers = 0.38 ± 0.07 mm2, p = 0.0021), P. versicolor (body size corrected Van der Vech organ size of queens = 0.54 ± 0.11, workers = 0.46 ± 0.09 mm2, p = 0.010), but not P. simillimus (body size corrected Van der Vech organ size of queens = 0.52 ± 0.05, workers = 0.49 ± 0.06 mm2, p = 0.238). Therefore, it seems that queens and workers of some Neotropical Polistes have diverged in their ontogenic trajectory of the Van der Vecht organ size, providing clear evidence for incipient morphological caste dimorphism. As Polistes are distributed mostly in the tropics, we propose that physical caste differences may be widespread in the genus. Also, we highlight that morphological divergence in the queen–worker phenotypes may have started through differential selection of body structures, like the Van der Vecht organ. PMID:27167514

  14. Eco-morphological studies on pleopodal lungs and cuticle in Armadillidium species (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea).

    PubMed

    Csonka, Diána; Halasy, Katalin; Szabó, Péter; Mrak, Polona; Strus, Jasna; Hornung, Elisabeth

    2013-05-01

    Terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) have adapted to land life by diverse morphological, physiological and behavioral changes. Woodlice species exhibit a large variety in this respect, their preferences ranging from moist to dry habitats. These moisture preference values are related to various morphological adaptations, rendering terrestrial isopods amenable to studying morphological adaptations to terrestrial life. We performed a comparison of four Armadillidium species (Armadillidium zenckeri, Armadillidium nasatum, Armadillidium versicolor, Armadillidium vulgare), by quantifying two morphological traits: the extent of the interfacial endothelium between the respiratory space and the hemolymph within pleopodal lungs and the thickness of tergite cuticle, which are 'key factors' in determining protection from desiccation. These values were measured from light micrographs of cross-sectioned lungs. The cosmopolitan A. vulgare, as a habitat generalist, seems to be the most resistant against desiccation and other environmental conditions, while A. zenckeri is the most sensitive one. Light microscopic studies revealed that the four species can be ordered similarly, if we compare them by the extension of the endothelial interface and cuticle thickness, suggesting that these morphological traits are important determinants of their distribution on habitat, microhabitat scales and through the existence of suitable habitats - together with many other factors - the geographical pattern of species occurence. PMID:23376766

  15. [Immunomodulatory and antitumor properties of polysaccharide peptide (PSP)].

    PubMed

    Piotrowski, Jakub; Jędrzejewski, Tomasz; Kozak, Wiesław

    2015-01-01

    Modern medicine successfully uses multiple immunomodulators of natural origin, that can affect biological reactions and support body's natural defense mechanisms including antitumor activities. Among them is a group of products derived from fungi, including schizophyllan, lentinan, polysaccharide Krestin (PSK), and polysaccharidepeptide (PSP). Present paper is focused on polysaccharidepeptide, which due to the negligible toxicity and numerous benefits for health, is increasingly used in China and Japan as an adjuvant in the treatment of cancer. PSP is a protein-polisaccharide complex with a molecular weight 100 kDa derived from Coriolus versicolor mushroom. The results of numerous studies and clinical trials confirm that it inhibits the growth of cancer cells in in vitro and in vivo settings as well as decreases cancer treatment-related adverse side effects such as fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, and pain. PSP is able to restore weakened immune response observed in patients with cancer during chemotherapy. Its anti-tumor effects seemed to be mediated through immunomodulatory regulation. PSP stimulates cells of the immune system, induces synthesis of cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), eicosanoids including prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), histamine, reactive oxygen species and nitrogen mediators. There is a growing interest in understanding the mechanisms of PSP action. Because of its unique properties and safety, PSP may become a widely used therapeutic agent in the near future. PMID:25614677

  16. Fungi in Ontario maple syrup & some factors that determine the presence of mold damage.

    PubMed

    Frasz, Samantha L; Miller, J David

    2015-08-17

    Maple syrup is a high value artisanal product produced mainly in Canada and a number of States primarily in the northeast USA. Mold growth (Wallemia sebi) on commercial product was first reported in syrup in 1908. Since then, few data have been published. We conducted a systematic examination for fungi in maple syrup from 68 producers from all of the syrup-producing areas of Ontario, Canada. The mean pH of the samples was pH 6.82, sugar content averaged 68.0±0.89 °Brix and aw averaged 0.841±0.011. Some 23 species of fungi were isolated based on morphology and molecular techniques. The most common fungus in the maple syrup samples was Eurotium herbariorum, followed by Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus penicillioides, Aspergillus restrictus, Aspergillus versicolor and two species of Wallemia. Cladosporium cladosporioides was also common but only recovered when fungi known from high sugar substrates were also present in the mold damaged sample. The rarely reported yeast Citeromyces matrinsis was found in samples from three producers. There appear to be three potential causes for mold damage observed. High aw was associated with about one third of the mold damage. Independently, cold packing (bottling at ~25 °C) was a risk factor. However, syrup of good quality and quite low aw values was contaminated. We hypothesize that sanitation in the bottling line and other aspects of the bottling process may be partial explanations. Clarifying this requires further study. PMID:26001061

  17. Selection of enhanced antimicrobial activity posing lactic acid bacteria characterised by (GTG)5-PCR fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Šalomskienė, Joana; Abraitienė, Asta; Jonkuvienė, Dovilė; Mačionienė, Irena; Repečkienė, Jūratė

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was a detail evaluation of genetic diversity among the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains having an advantage of a starter culture in order to select genotypically diverse strains with enhanced antimicrobial effect on some harmfull and pathogenic microorganisms. Antimicrobial activity of LAB was performed by the agar well diffusion method and was examined against the reference strains and foodborne isolates of Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella Typhimurium. Antifungal activity was tested against the foodborne isolates of Candida parapsilosis, Debaromyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Pichia guilliermondii, Yarowia lipolytica, Aspergillus brasiliensis, Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium herbarum, Penicillium chrysogenum and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. A total 40 LAB strains representing Lactobacillus (23 strains), Lactococcus (13 strains) and Streptococcus spp. (4 strains) were characterised by repetitive sequence based polymerase chain reaction fingerprinting which generated highly discriminatory profiles, confirmed the identity and revealed high genotypic heterogeneity among the strains. Many of tested LAB demonstrated strong antimicrobial activity specialised against one or few indicator strains. Twelve LAB strains were superior in suppressing growth of the whole complex of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. These results demonstrated that separate taxonomic units offered different possibilities of selection for novel LAB strains could be used as starter cultures enhancing food preservation. PMID:26139877

  18. Chaetochromones A and B, two new polyketides from the fungus Chaetomium indicum (CBS.860.68).

    PubMed

    Lu, Keyang; Zhang, Yisheng; Li, Li; Wang, Xuewei; Ding, Gang

    2013-01-01

    Chaetochromones A (1) and B (2), two novel polyketides, were isolated from the crude extract of fungus Chaetomium indicum (CBS.860.68) together with three known analogues PI-3(3), PI-4 (4) and SB236050 (5). The structures of these compounds were determined by HRESI-MS and NMR experiments. Chaetochromones A (1) and B (2) are a member of the polyketides family, which might originate from a similar biogenetic pathway as the known compounds PI-3 (3), PI-4 (4) and SB236050 (5). The biological activities of these secondary metabolites were evaluated against eight plant pathogens, including Alternaria alternata, Ilyonectria radicicola, Trichoderma viride pers, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium verticillioide, Irpex lacteus (Fr.), Poria placenta (Fr.) Cooke and Coriolus versicolor (L.) Quél. Compound 1 displayed moderate inhibitory rate (>60%) against the brown rot fungus Poria placenta (Fr.) Cooke, which causes significant wood decay. In addition, the cytotoxic activities against three cancer cell lines A549, MDA-MB-231, PANC-1 were also tested, without any inhibitory activities being detected. PMID:24013408

  19. Characterization and structural analysis of the laccase I gene from the newly isolated ligninolytic basidiomycete PM1 (CECT 2971).

    PubMed Central

    Coll, P M; Tabernero, C; Santamaría, R; Pérez, P

    1993-01-01

    We have isolated and characterized the cDNA and genomic DNA coding for a phenoloxidase, laccase I, previously purified from culture supernatant of the newly isolated ligninolytic basidiomycete PM1 (CECT 2971). A cDNA library from basidiomycete PM1 was constructed, and laccase-encoding cDNAs were identified by screening with antiserum raised against the purified enzyme. The lac1 gene coding for the laccase was identified in a partial genomic library by using the isolated cDNA as a probe. Nucleotide sequence determination of the full-length cDNA revealed an open reading frame of 1,551 bp encoding a polypeptide of 517 amino acid residues with a putative signal peptide of 21 amino acid residues. Ten small introns interrupted the genomic DNA. A single 1.8-kb transcript mRNA was detected by Northern (RNA) blot analysis, and its 5' end maps to a position 51 bp upstream from the site of initiation of protein synthesis. Eukaryotic regulatory sequences, CAAT and TATA, were observed in the 5' flanking region, which also contains sequences similar to those of copper-regulated proteins. Comparative analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence showed that basidiomycete PM1 laccase I had great similarity to the laccases from Coriolus versicolor, Coriolus hirsutus, and Phlebia radiata. Images PMID:8285710

  20. Chemical Organization of the Cell Wall Polysaccharide Core of Malassezia restricta

    PubMed Central

    Stalhberger, Thomas; Simenel, Catherine; Clavaud, Cécile; Eijsink, Vincent G. H.; Jourdain, Roland; Delepierre, Muriel; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Breton, Lionel; Fontaine, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Malassezia species are ubiquitous residents of human skin and are associated with several diseases such as seborrheic dermatitis, tinea versicolor, folliculitis, atopic dermatitis, and scalp conditions such as dandruff. Host-Malassezia interactions and mechanisms to evade local immune responses remain largely unknown. Malassezia restricta is one of the most predominant yeasts of the healthy human skin, its cell wall has been investigated in this paper. Polysaccharides in the M. restricta cell wall are almost exclusively alkali-insoluble, showing that they play an essential role in the organization and rigidity of the M. restricta cell wall. Fractionation of cell wall polymers and carbohydrate analyses showed that the polysaccharide core of the cell wall of M. restricta contained an average of 5% chitin, 20% chitosan, 5% β-(1,3)-glucan, and 70% β-(1,6)-glucan. In contrast to other yeasts, chitin and chitosan are relatively abundant, and β-(1,3)-glucans constitute a minor cell wall component. The most abundant polymer is β-(1,6)-glucans, which are large molecules composed of a linear β-(1,6)-glucan chains with β-(1,3)-glucosyl side chain with an average of 1 branch point every 3.8 glucose unit. Both β-glucans are cross-linked, forming a huge alkali-insoluble complex with chitin and chitosan polymers. Data presented here show that M. restricta has a polysaccharide organization very different of all fungal species analyzed to date. PMID:24627479

  1. Role of Ethylene in the Senescence of Isolated Hibiscus Petals 1

    PubMed Central

    Woodson, William R.; Hanchey, Susan H.; Chisholm, Duane N.

    1985-01-01

    Senescence of petals isolated from flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (cv Pink Versicolor) was associated with increased ethylene production. Exposure to ethylene (10 microliters per liter) accelerated the onset of senescence, as indicated by petal in-rolling, and stimulated ethylene production. Senescence was also hastened by basal application of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). Aminooxyacetic acid, an inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis, effectively inhibited ethylene production by petals and delayed petal in-rolling. In marked contrast to these results with mature petals, immature petals isolated from flowers the day before flower opening did not respond to ethylene in terms of an increase in ethylene production or petal in-rolling. Furthermore, treatment with silver thiosulfate the day before flower opening effectively prevented petal senescence, while silver thiosulfate treatment on the morning of flower opening was ineffective. Application of ACC to both immature and mature petals greatly stimulated ethylene production indicating the presence of an active ethylene-forming enzyme in both tissues. Immature petals contained less free ACC than mature, presenescent petals and appeared to possess a more active system for converting ACC into its conjugated form. Thus, while the nature of the lack of responsiveness of immature petals to ethylene is unknown, ethylene production in hibiscus petals appears to be regulated by the control over ACC availability. PMID:16664472

  2. Prediction of Toxigenic Fungal Growth in Buildings by Using a Novel Modelling System

    PubMed Central

    Rowan, Neil J.; Johnstone, Cameron M.; McLean, R. Craig; Anderson, John G.; Clarke, Joe A.

    1999-01-01

    There is growing concern about the adverse effects of fungal bioaerosols on the occupants of damp dwellings. Based on an extensive analysis of previously published data and on experiments carried out within this study, critical limits for the growth of the indoor fungi Eurotium herbariorum, Aspergillus versicolor, and Stachybotrys chartarum were mathematically described in terms of growth limit curves (isopleths) which define the minimum combination of temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) at which growth will occur. Each growth limit curve was generated from a series of data points on a T-RH plot and mathematically fitted by using a third-order polynomial equation of the form RH = a3T3 + a2T2 + a1T + a0. This fungal growth prediction model was incorporated within the ESP-r (Environmental Systems Performance [r stands for “research”]) computer-based program for transient simulation of the energy and environmental performance of buildings. For any specified location, the ESP-r system is able to predict the time series evolution of local surface temperature and relative humidity, taking explicit account of constructional moisture flow, moisture generation sources, and air movement. This allows the predicted local conditions to be superimposed directly onto fungal growth curves. The concentration of plotted points relative to the curves allows an assessment of the risk of fungal growth. The system’s predictive capability was tested via laboratory experiments and by comparison with monitored data from a fungus-contaminated house. PMID:10543791

  3. Molecular docking and dynamics simulation analyses unraveling the differential enzymatic catalysis by plant and fungal laccases with respect to lignin biosynthesis and degradation.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Manika; Jaiswal, Nivedita; Singh, Swati; Pandey, Veda P; Dwivedi, Upendra N

    2015-09-01

    Laccase, widely distributed in bacteria, fungi, and plants, catalyzes the oxidation of wide range of compounds. With regards to one of the important physiological functions, plant laccases are considered to catalyze lignin biosynthesis while fungal laccases are considered for lignin degradation. The present study was undertaken to explain this dual function of laccases using in-silico molecular docking and dynamics simulation approaches. Modeling and superimposition analyses of one each representative of plant and fungal laccases, namely, Populus trichocarpa and Trametes versicolor, respectively, revealed low level of similarity in the folding of two laccases at 3D levels. Docking analyses revealed significantly higher binding efficiency for lignin model compounds, in proportion to their size, for fungal laccase as compared to that of plant laccase. Residues interacting with the model compounds at the respective enzyme active sites were found to be in conformity with their role in lignin biosynthesis and degradation. Molecular dynamics simulation analyses for the stability of docked complexes of plant and fungal laccases with lignin model compounds revealed that tetrameric lignin model compound remains attached to the active site of fungal laccase throughout the simulation period, while it protrudes outwards from the active site of plant laccase. Stability of these complexes was further analyzed on the basis of binding energy which revealed significantly higher stability of fungal laccase with tetrameric compound than that of plant. The overall data suggested a situation favorable for the degradation of lignin polymer by fungal laccase while its synthesis by plant laccase. PMID:25301391

  4. Current trends in trichloroethylene biodegradation: a review.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Awadhesh Kumar; Upadhyay, Siddh Nath; Dubey, Suresh Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Over the past few years biodegradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) using different microorganisms has been investigated by several researchers. In this review article, an attempt has been made to present a critical summary of the recent results related to two major processes--reductive dechlorination and aerobic co-metabolism used for TCE biodegradation. It has been shown that mainly Clostridium sp. DC-1, KYT-1, Dehalobacter, Dehalococcoides, Desulfuromonas, Desulfitobacterium, Propionibacterium sp. HK-1, and Sulfurospirillum bacterial communities are responsible for the reductive dechlorination of TCE. Efficacy of bacterial communities like Nitrosomonas, Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, and Xanthobacter sp. etc. for TCE biodegradation under aerobic conditions has also been examined. Mixed cultures of diazotrophs and methanotrophs have been used for TCE degradation in batch and continuous cultures (biofilter) under aerobic conditions. In addition, some fungi (Trametes versicolor, Phanerochaete chrysosporium ME-446) and Actinomycetes have also been used for aerobic biodegradation of TCE. The available information on kinetics of biofiltration of TCE and its degradation end-products such as CO2 are discussed along with the available results on the diversity of bacterial community obtained using molecular biological approaches. It has emerged that there is a need to use metabolic engineering and molecular biological tools more intensively to improve the robustness of TCE degrading microbial species and assess their diversity. PMID:23057686

  5. Antihyperglycemic effect of crude extracts of some Egyptian plants and algae.

    PubMed

    AbouZid, Sameh Fekry; Ahmed, Osama Mohamed; Ahmed, Rasha Rashad; Mahmoud, Ayman; Abdella, Ehab; Ashour, Mohamed Badr

    2014-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major global health problem. Various plant extracts have proven antidiabetic activity and are considered as promising substitution for antidiabetic drugs. The antihyperglycemic effect of 16 plants and 4 algae, commonly used in Egypt for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, was investigated. A diabetes model was induced by intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide (120 mg/kg body weight [b.wt.]), then streptozotocin (200 mg/kg b.wt.) after 15 min. Hydroethanolic extracts (80%) of the plants and algae under investigation were prepared. The extracts were orally administered to nicotinamide-streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice by a gastric tube at doses 10 or 50 mg/kg b.wt. for 1 week. The antidiabetic activity was assessed by detection of serum glucose concentrations at the fasting state and after 2 h of oral glucose loading (4.2 mg/kg b.wt.). Extracts prepared from Cassia acutifolia, Fraxinus ornus, Salix aegyptiaca, Cichorium intybus, and Eucalyptus globulus showed the highest antihyperglycemic activity among the tested plants. Extracts prepared from Sonchus oleraceus, Bougainvillea spectabilis (leaves), Plantago psyllium (seeds), Morus nigra (leaves), and Serena repens (fruits) were found to have antihyperglycemic potentials. Extracts prepared from Caulerpa lentillifera and Spirulina versicolor showed the most potent antihyperglycemic activity among the tested algae. However, some of the tested plants have insulinotropic effects, all assessed algae have not. Identification of lead compounds from these plants and algae for novel antidiabetic drug development is recommended. PMID:24404976

  6. Kinetic and biochemical properties of high and low redox potential laccases from fungal and plant origin.

    PubMed

    Frasconi, Marco; Favero, Gabriele; Boer, Harry; Koivula, Anu; Mazzei, Franco

    2010-04-01

    The electrochemical studies of laccase-mediator systems are aimed at understanding the mechanism of their redox transformation and their efficiency in both homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions; this topic has paramount application spanning from bleaching of paper pulp and the enzymatic degradation of lignin to the biosensors and biofuel cell development. In this paper four different laccases from Trametes hirsuta (ThL), Trametes versicolor (TvL), Melanocarpus albomyces (r-MaL) and Rhus vernicifera (RvL) were characterized from both biochemical and electrochemical points of view. Two of them (TvL and ThL) are high redox potential and two (RvL and r-MaL) are low redox potential laccases. The outline of this work is focused on the determination of catalytic and bioelectrochemical properties of these four enzymes in homogenous solution as well as immobilized onto electrode surface in the presence of a set of different redox mediators. The results measured in the homogenous reaction system correlated well with those measured with the immobilized enzymes. In addition, they are in good agreement with those reported with reference techniques, suggesting that the electrochemical methods employed in this work can be applied well in place of the traditional techniques commonly used for the kinetic characterization of laccases. These results are also discussed in terms of the known amino acid sequences and three-dimensional (3D) structures of the laccases. PMID:20056172

  7. A 96-well electrochemical method for the screening of enzymatic activities.

    PubMed

    Abdellaoui, Sofiène; Noiriel, Alexandre; Henkens, Robert; Bonaventura, Celia; Blum, Loïc J; Doumèche, Bastien

    2013-04-01

    The rapid electrochemical screening of enzyme activities in bioelectronics is still a challenging issue. In order to solve this problem, we propose to use a 96-well electrochemical assay. This system is composed of 96 screen-printed electrodes on a printed circuit board adapted from a commercial system (carbon is used as the working electrode and silver chloride as the counter/reference electrode). The associated device allows for the measurements on the 96 electrodes to be performed within a few seconds. In this work, we demonstrate the validity of the screening method with the commercial laccase from the fungus Trametes versicolor. The signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) is found to be the best way to analyze the electrochemical signals. The S/N follows a saturation-like mechanism with a dynamic linear range of two decades ranging from 0.5 to 75 ng of laccase (corresponding to enzymatic activities from 62 × 10(-6) to 9.37 × 10(-3) μmol min(-1)) and a sensitivity of 3027 μg(-1) at +100 mV versus Ag/AgCl. Laccase inhibitors (azide and fluoride anions), pH optima, and interfering molecules could also be identified within a few minutes. PMID:23461701

  8. Effects of subsidy quality on reciprocal subsidies: how leaf litter species changes frog biomass export.

    PubMed

    Earl, Julia E; Castello, Paula O; Cohagen, Kara E; Semlitsch, Raymond D

    2014-05-01

    Spatial subsidies are resources transferred from one ecosystem to another and which can greatly affect recipient systems. Increased subsidy quantity is known to increase these effects, but subsidy quality is likely also important. We examined the effects of leaf litter quality (varying in nutrient and tannin content) in pond mesocosms on gray treefrog (Hyla versicolor) biomass export, as well as water quality and ecosystem processes. We used litter from three different tree species native to Missouri [white oak (Quercus alba), northern red oak (Quercus rubra), and sugar maple (Acer saccharum)], one non-native tree [white pine (Pinus strobus)], and a common aquatic grass [prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata)]. We found that leaf litter species affected almost every variable we measured. Gray treefrog biomass export was greatest in mesocosms with grass litter and lowest with white oak litter. Differences in biomass export were affected by high tannin concentrations (or possibly the correlated variable, dissolved oxygen) via their effects on survival, and by primary production, which altered mean body mass. Effects of litter species could often be traced back to the characteristics of the litter itself: leaf nitrogen, phosphorus, and tannin content, which highlights the importance of plant functional traits in affecting aquatic ecosystems. This work and others stress that changes in forest species composition could greatly influence aquatic systems and aquatic-terrestrial linkages. PMID:24399483

  9. Effects of road deicer (NaCl) and amphibian grazers on detritus processing in pond mesocosms.

    PubMed

    Van Meter, Robin J; Swan, Christopher M; Trossen, Carrie A

    2012-10-01

    Road deicers have been identified as potential stressors in aquatic habitats throughout the United States, but we know little regarding associated impacts to ecosystem function. A critical component of ecosystem function that has not previously been evaluated with respect to freshwater salinization is the impact on organic matter breakdown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate cumulative effects of road deicers and tadpole grazers on leaf litter breakdown rate (g d(-1) ) and microbial respiration (mg O(2)  g leaf(-1) h(-1) ). To test this interaction, in May 2008 the authors added dry leaf litter (Quercus spp.) to forty 600-L pond mesocosms and inoculated each with algae and zooplankton. In a full-factorial design, they manipulated a realistic level of road salt (ambient or elevated at 645 mg L(-1) Cl(-) ) and tadpole (Hyla versicolor) presence or absence. The elevated chloride treatment reduced microbial respiration by 24% in the presence of tadpoles. The breakdown of leaf litter by tadpoles occurred 9.7% faster under ambient chloride conditions relative to the elevated chloride treatment. Results of the present study suggest that the microbial community is directly impacted by road deicers and heavy tadpole grazing under ambient conditions limits microbial capacity to process detritus. Road salts and tadpoles interact to limit microbial respiration, but to a lesser extent leaf mass loss rate, thereby potentially restricting energy flow from detrital sources in pond ecosystems. PMID:22821388

  10. Effects of leachate from tree leaves and grass litter on tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Earl, Julia E; Cohagen, Kara E; Semlitsch, Raymond D

    2012-07-01

    Tree species composition can change as a result of succession, climate change, fire suppression, and invasive species. These changes clearly affect forests, but they can also affect aquatic ecosystems based on differences in the input quality of leaf litter, such as plant secondary compounds. These compounds vary in type and concentration depending on species and can be toxic to aquatic organisms. To examine toxic effects on Pseudacris maculata and Pseudacris crucifer tadpoles, we conducted 60-d laboratory experiments to compare leaf litter leachate from a dominant canopy species (red oak) and nonnative species (white pine) with an aquatic grass (prairie cordgrass) and plain water control. An additional experiment examined the effects of white pine on Bufo americanus, Hyla versicolor, and tannin concentrations in natural ponds. Compared with the control and grass, tree leaf extracts resulted in reduced tadpole survival. Leached compounds from pine reduced tadpole survival to 3 d or less. Tadpoles were able to metamorphose in significant numbers only from the two controls. The lowered survival with the red oak treatment might have been caused by lowered dissolved oxygen or high tannin concentrations. However, pine is known to have high concentrations of toxic monoterpenes, which should be investigated further. We found that tannin concentrations in natural ponds were much lower than the test concentrations, indicating that these results may represent worst-case scenarios or unrealistic concentrations. PMID:22488805

  11. The Malassezia Genus in Skin and Systemic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Magiatis, Prokopios; Hantschke, Markus; Bassukas, Ioannis D.; Velegraki, Aristea

    2012-01-01

    Summary: In the last 15 years, the genus Malassezia has been a topic of intense basic research on taxonomy, physiology, biochemistry, ecology, immunology, and metabolomics. Currently, the genus encompasses 14 species. The 1996 revision of the genus resulted in seven accepted taxa: M. furfur, M. pachydermatis, M. sympodialis, M. globosa, M. obtusa, M. restricta, and M. slooffiae. In the last decade, seven new taxa isolated from healthy and lesional human and animal skin have been accepted: M. dermatis, M. japonica, M. yamatoensis, M. nana, M. caprae, M. equina, and M. cuniculi. However, forthcoming multidisciplinary research is expected to show the etiopathological relationships between these new species and skin diseases. Hitherto, basic and clinical research has established etiological links between Malassezia yeasts, pityriasis versicolor, and sepsis of neonates and immunocompromised individuals. Their role in aggravating seborrheic dermatitis, dandruff, folliculitis, and onychomycosis, though often supported by histopathological evidence and favorable antifungal therapeutic outcomes, remains under investigation. A close association between skin and Malassezia IgE binding allergens in atopic eczema has been shown, while laboratory data support a role in psoriasis exacerbations. Finally, metabolomic research resulted in the proposal of a hypothesis on the contribution of Malassezia-synthesized aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands to basal cell carcinoma through UV radiation-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:22232373

  12. Microfungi in cultivated fields in Eskişehir provience (Turkey).

    PubMed

    Demirel, Rasime; Ilhan, Semra; Asan, Ahmet; Kinaci, Engin; Oner, Setenay

    2005-01-01

    The soil microfungi flora was investigated in four locations of Eskişehir (Turkey). 56 soil samples were seasonaly collected from 14 stations in the areas of Karacahöyük, Bahçecik, OGU I, and OGU II. A total of 110 species belonging to 32 genera were encountered including Absidia, Acremonium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Beauveria, Botryoderma, Chaetomium, Chrysosporium, Cladosporium, Eupenicillium, Eurotium, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gliocladium, Gonytrichum, Metarrhizium, Mucor, Myrothecium, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Phoma, Plectosphaerella, Rhizoctania, Rhizopus, Scopulariopsis, Septonema, Stachybotrys, Trichocladium, Trichoderma, Ulocladium, Verticillium, and Wardomyces. Twenty five species were more frequent (all locations) while twenty seven species were rare (only one sample). Mainly, Acremonium kiliense, Aspergillus ochraceus, A. terricola var. americanus, A. versicolor, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, Gliocladium roseum, Penicillium chrysogenum, P. corylophum, P. expansum, P. griseofulvum, P. implicatum, P. restrictum, and Stachybotrys chartarum were the most common and abundant microfungi in all locations. Five species Aspergillus subsessilis, A. terreus var. africanus, Eupenicillium egyptiacum, Paecilomyces ramosus, and Penicillium novae-zeelandiae are likely to be newly recorded for Turkey. The microfungi number in Eskişehir soils was between 25,000-234,000 CFU/g (mean value at 126,375 CFU/g). PMID:16028200

  13. Mycotoxins in Crude Building Materials from Water-Damaged Buildings

    PubMed Central

    Tuomi, Tapani; Reijula, Kari; Johnsson, Tom; Hemminki, Kaisa; Hintikka, Eeva-Liisa; Lindroos, Outi; Kalso, Seija; Koukila-Kähkölä, Pirkko; Mussalo-Rauhamaa, Helena; Haahtela, Tari

    2000-01-01

    We analyzed 79 bulk samples of moldy interior finishes from Finnish buildings with moisture problems for 17 mycotoxins, as well as for fungi that could be isolated using one medium and one set of growth conditions. We found the aflatoxin precursor, sterigmatocystin, in 24% of the samples and trichothecenes in 19% of the samples. Trichothecenes found included satratoxin G or H in five samples; diacetoxyscirpenol in five samples; and 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, deoxynivalenol, verrucarol, or T-2-tetraol in an additional five samples. Citrinine was found in three samples. Aspergillus versicolor was present in most sterigmatocystin-containing samples, and Stachybotrys spp. were present in the samples where satratoxins were found. In many cases, however, the presence of fungi thought to produce the mycotoxins was not correlated with the presence of the expected compounds. However, when mycotoxins were found, some toxigenic fungi usually were present, even if the species originally responsible for producing the mycotoxin was not isolated. We conclude that the identification and enumeration of fungal species present in bulk materials are important to verify the severity of mold damage but that chemical analyses are necessary if the goal is to establish the presence of mycotoxins in moldy materials. PMID:10788357

  14. Quantitative PCR analysis of house dust can reveal abnormal mold conditions†

    PubMed Central

    Meklin, Teija; Haugland, Richard A.; Reponen, Tiina; Varma, Manju; Lummus, Zana; Bernstein, David; Wymer, Larry J.; Vesper, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    Indoor mold concentrations were measured in the dust of moldy homes (MH) and reference homes (RH) by quantitative PCR (QPCR) assays for 82 species or related groups of species (assay groups). About 70% of the species and groups were never or only rarely detected. The ratios (MH geometric mean : RH geometric mean) for 6 commonly detected species (Aspergillus ochraceus, A. penicillioides, A. unguis, A. versicolor, Eurotium group, and Cladosporium sphaerospermum) were > 1 (Group I). Logistic regression analysis of the sum of the logs of the concentrations of Group I species resulted in a 95% probability for separating MH from RH. These results suggest that it may be possible to evaluate whether a home has an abnormal mold condition by quantifying a limited number of mold species in a dust sample. Also, four common species of Aspergillus were quantified by standard culturing procedures and their concentrations compared to QPCR results. Culturing underestimated the concentrations of these four species by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude compared to QPCR. PMID:15237292

  15. Geographical variation of St. Lucia Parrot flight vocalizations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kleeman, P.M.; Gilardi, J.D.

    2005-01-01

    Parrots are vocal learners and many species of parrots are capable of learning new calls, even as adults. This capability gives parrots the potential to develop communication systems that can vary dramatically over space. St. Lucia Parrot (Amazona versicolor) flight vocalizations were examined for geographic variation between four different sites on the island of St. Lucia. Spectrographic cross-correlation analysis of a commonly used flight vocalization, the p-chow call, demonstrated quantitative differences between sites. Additionally, the similarity of p-chows decreased as the distance between sites increased. Flight call repertoires also differed among sites; parrots at the Des Bottes and Quilesse sites each used one flight call unique to those sites, while parrots at the Barre de L'Isle site used a flight call that Quilesse parrots gave only while perched. It is unclear whether the vocal variation changed clinally with distance, or whether there were discrete dialect boundaries as in a congener, the Yellow-naped Parrot (Amazona auropalliata, Wright 1996). The geographical scale over which the St. Lucia Parrot's vocal variation occurred was dramatically smaller than that of the Yellow-naped Parrot. Similar patterns of fine-scale vocal variation may be more widespread among other parrot species in the Caribbean than previously documented.

  16. Context and condition dependent plasticity in sexual signaling in gray treefrogs.

    PubMed

    Kuczynski, Michael C; Gering, Eben; Getty, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    For many species sexual signaling is a very costly activity, both in terms of energetic expenditure and increased conspicuousness to predators. One potential strategy to limit the costs of signaling is to only signal at maximum effort in contexts when signaling is expected to be most effective. Multiple studies have documented extensive plasticity in sexual signaling within a variety of contexts, however fewer experiments have examined individual-level variation in the extent of signaling plasticity and the causes of this variation. In this study we examined the influence of size and physical condition on the magnitude of signaling plasticity using a gray treefrog (Hyla versicolor) study system. We quantified signaling plasticity by recording male calling behavior first in the absence and then in the presence of a sexually receptive female. For one call property, call length, we found that both weight and condition had a significant influence on the magnitude of plasticity. Smaller males, and males in higher condition exhibited the greatest degree of plasticity. We discuss several possible explanations for this pattern and provide suggestions for future work to examine the consequences of this plasticity and the potential interactive effects of multiple biotic and abiotic contexts on signaling plasticity. PMID:26706029

  17. Degradation of Bunker C Fuel Oil by White-Rot Fungi in Sawdust Cultures Suggests Potential Applications in Bioremediation

    PubMed Central

    Young, Darcy; Rice, James; Martin, Rachael; Lindquist, Erika; Lipzen, Anna; Grigoriev, Igor; Hibbett, David

    2015-01-01

    Fungal lignocellulolytic enzymes are promising agents for oxidizing pollutants. This study investigated degradation of Number 6 “Bunker C” fuel oil compounds by the white-rot fungi Irpex lacteus, Trichaptum biforme, Phlebia radiata, Trametes versicolor, and Pleurotus ostreatus (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes). Averaging across all studied species, 98.1%, 48.6%, and 76.4% of the initial Bunker C C10 alkane, C14 alkane, and phenanthrene, respectively were degraded after 180 days of fungal growth on pine media. This study also investigated whether Bunker C oil induces changes in gene expression in the white-rot fungus Punctularia strigosozonata, for which a complete reference genome is available. After 20 days of growth, a monokaryon P. strigosozonata strain degraded 99% of the initial C10 alkane in both pine and aspen media but did not affect the amounts of the C14 alkane or phenanthrene. Differential gene expression analysis identified 119 genes with ≥ log2(2-fold) greater expression in one or more treatment comparisons. Six genes were significantly upregulated in media containing oil; these genes included three enzymes with potential roles in xenobiotic biotransformation. Carbohydrate metabolism genes showing differential expression significantly accumulated transcripts on aspen vs. pine substrates, perhaps reflecting white-rot adaptations to growth on hardwood substrates. The mechanisms by which P. strigosozonata may degrade complex oil compounds remain obscure, but degradation results of the 180-day cultures suggest that diverse white-rot fungi have promise for bioremediation of petroleum fuels. PMID:26111162

  18. A Single-Electron Reducing Quinone Oxidoreductase Is Necessary to Induce Haustorium Development in the Root Parasitic Plant Triphysaria[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Bandaranayake, Pradeepa C.G.; Filappova, Tatiana; Tomilov, Alexey; Tomilova, Natalya B.; Jamison-McClung, Denneal; Ngo, Quy; Inoue, Kentaro; Yoder, John I.

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic plants in the Orobanchaceae develop haustoria in response to contact with host roots or chemical haustoria-inducing factors. Experiments in this manuscript test the hypothesis that quinolic-inducing factors activate haustorium development via a signal mechanism initiated by redox cycling between quinone and hydroquinone states. Two cDNAs were previously isolated from roots of the parasitic plant Triphysaria versicolor that encode distinct quinone oxidoreductases. QR1 encodes a single-electron reducing NADPH quinone oxidoreductase similar to ζ-crystallin. The QR2 enzyme catalyzes two electron reductions typical of xenobiotic detoxification. QR1 and QR2 transcripts are upregulated in a primary response to chemical-inducing factors, but only QR1 was upregulated in response to host roots. RNA interference technology was used to reduce QR1 and QR2 transcripts in Triphysaria roots that were evaluated for their ability to form haustoria. There was a significant decrease in haustorium development in roots silenced for QR1 but not in roots silenced for QR2. The infrequent QR1 transgenic roots that did develop haustoria had levels of QR1 similar to those of nontransgenic roots. These experiments implicate QR1 as one of the earliest genes on the haustorium signal transduction pathway, encoding a quinone oxidoreductase necessary for the redox bioactivation of haustorial inducing factors. PMID:20424175

  19. Bioelectrodes based on pseudocapacitive cellulose/polypyrrole composite improve performance of biofuel cell.

    PubMed

    Kizling, Michal; Stolarczyk, Krzysztof; Tammela, Petter; Wang, Zhaohui; Nyholm, Leif; Golimowski, Jerzy; Bilewicz, Renata

    2016-12-01

    Enzymatic electrodes with high internal capacitance, based on cellulose/polypyrrole composite were optimized and utilized to design improved enzymatic fuel cell. Fructose dehydrogenase Gluconobacter sp. specifically adsorbed on the cellulose/polypyrrole matrix and electrophoretically immobilized and electrochemically entrapped Laccase Trametes versicolor, were used as the anode and cathode bioelectrocatalysts, respectively. The cellulose/polypyrrole composite film exhibited pseudocapacitive properties under mild pH conditions. Following modification with carboxylic groups the composite material enabled highly efficient adsorption of enzyme and provided good electrical contact between the enzymatic active sites and the electrode surface. The modified cellulose/polypyrrole composite based electrode was used for the anode leading to mediatorless fructose oxidation giving large catalytic current density, 12.8mAcm(-2). Laccase and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) as the mediator entrapped in the cellulose/polypyrrole composite film generated dioxygen reduction current density of 2mAcm(-2). Application of pseudocapacitive matrix and decreasing the distance between electrodes to 1mm lead to improvement of the biofuel cell power output and its regeneration ability. The power of the cell was found to increase by introduction of a preconditioning step during which the cell was kept at open circuit voltage under fuel flow. After 24h of preconditioning the matrix was recharged and the device output reached the power, 2.1mWcm(-2) and OCV, 0.59V. PMID:26936112

  20. Determination of fungal activity in modified wood by means of micro-calorimetry and determination of total esterase activity

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Pradeep; Dyckmans, Jens; Militz, Holger

    2008-01-01

    Beech and pine wood blocks were treated with 1,3-dimethylol-4,5-dihydroxyethylen urea (DMDHEU) to increasing weight percent gains (WPG). The resistance of the treated specimens against Trametes versicolor and Coniophora puteana, determined as mass loss, increased with increasing WPG of DMDHEU. Metabolic activity of the fungi in the wood blocks was assessed as total esterase activity (TEA) based on the hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate and as heat or energy production determined by isothermal micro-calorimetry. Both methods revealed that the fungal activity was related with the WPG and the mass loss caused by the fungi. Still, fungal activity was detected even in wood blocks of the highest WPG and showed that the treatment was not toxic to the fungi. Energy production showed a higher consistency with the mass loss after decay than TEA; higher mass loss was more stringently reflected by higher heat production rate. Heat production did not proceed linearly, possibly due to the inhibition of fungal activity by an excess of carbon dioxide. PMID:18542949

  1. Predator-induced defenses in tadpoles confound body stoichiometry predictions of the general stress paradigm.

    PubMed

    Costello, David M; Michel, Matt J

    2013-10-01

    Predation is known to have both direct and indirect effects on nutrient cycling in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and the general stress paradigm (GSP) has been promoted as a theory for describing predator-mediated indirect effects on nutrient cycling. The GSP predicts that prey exposed to predators will produce glucocorticosteroids, which have a host of physiological effects including gluconeogenesis, increased respiration, excretion of N and P, and increases in body C:N. We tested the nutrient predictions of the GSP using anuran larvae, which exhibit morphological defenses in addition to behavioral defenses for which the GSP was conceived. Genetically similar Hyla versicolor tadpoles were placed in mesocosms either in the presence or absence of a fed predator (Dytiscus verticalis), and after two weeks, tadpoles exposed to predators exhibited strong induced defenses with large, tubular bodies, larger tails, and reduced activity. Tadpole body %C and N:P increased with no change in C:N, which is contrary to expectations from the GSP. Statistical models suggested that changes in body morphology (e.g., tail muscle width) rather than behavioral defenses (i.e., reduced activity) were most likely responsible for predator-mediated differences in body stoichiometry. This study suggests that strong morphological defenses may overwhelm or counteract the nutrient predictions of the GSP. PMID:24358709

  2. Source strength of fungal spore aerosolization from moldy building material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Górny, Rafał L.; Reponen, Tiina; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Willeke, Klaus

    The release of Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium cladosporioides, and Penicillium melinii spores from agar and ceiling tile surfaces was tested under different controlled environmental conditions using a newly designed and constructed aerosolization chamber. This study revealed that all the investigated parameters, such as fungal species, air velocity above the surface, texture of the surface, and vibration of contaminated material, affected the fungal spore release. It was found that typical indoor air currents can release up to 200 spores cm -2 from surfaces with fungal spores during 30-min experiments. The release of fungal spores from smooth agar surfaces was found to be inadequate for accurately predicting the emission from rough ceiling tile surfaces because the air turbulence increases the spore release from a rough surface. A vibration at a frequency of 1 Hz at a power level of 14 W resulted in a significant increase in the spore release rate. The release appears to depend on the morphology of the fungal colonies grown on ceiling tile surfaces including the thickness of conidiophores, the length of spore chains, and the shape of spores. The spores were found to be released continuously during each 30-min experiment. However, the release rate was usually highest during the first few minutes of exposure to air currents and mechanical vibration. About 71-88% of the spores released during a 30-min interval became airborne during the first 10 min.

  3. Three-dimensional organization of three-domain copper oxidases: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukhlistova, N. E.; Zhukova, Yu. N.; Lyashenko, A. V.; Zaĭtsev, V. N.; Mikhaĭlov, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    “Blue” copper-containing proteins are multidomain proteins that utilize a unique redox property of copper ions. Among other blue multicopper oxidases, three-domain oxidases belong to the group of proteins that exhibit a wide variety of compositions in amino acid sequences, functions, and occurrences in organisms. This paper presents a review of the data obtained from X-ray diffraction investigations of the three-dimensional structures of three-domain multicopper oxidases, such as the ascorbate oxidase catalyzing oxidation of ascorbate to dehydroascorbate and its three derivatives; the multicopper oxidase CueO (the laccase homologue); the laccases isolated from the basidiomycetes Coprinus cinereus, Trametes versicolor, Coriolus zonatus, Cerrena maxima, and Rigidoporus lignosus and the ascomycete Melanocarpus albomyces; and the bacterial laccases CotA from the endospore coats of Bacillus subtilis. A comparison of the molecular structures of the laccases of different origins demonstrates that, structurally, these objects are highly conservative. This obviously indicates that the catalytic activity of the enzymes under consideration is characterized by similar mechanisms.

  4. The effects of the El Niño Southern Oscillation on skin and skin-related diseases: a message from the International Society of Dermatology Climate Change Task Force.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Louise K; Davis, Mark D P

    2015-12-01

    The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a complex climate phenomenon occurring in the Pacific Ocean at intervals of 2-7 years. The term refers to fluctuations in ocean temperatures in the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean (El Niño [the warm phase of ENSO] and La Niña [the cool phase of ENSO]) and in atmospheric pressure across the Pacific basin (Southern Oscillation). This weather pattern is attributed with causing climate change in certain parts of the world and is associated with disease outbreaks. The question of how ENSO affects skin and skin-related disease is relatively unanswered. We aimed to review the literature describing the effects of this complex weather pattern on skin. El Niño has been associated with increases in the occurrence of actinic keratosis, tinea, pityriasis versicolor, miliaria, folliculitis, rosacea, dermatitis by Paederus irritans and Paederus sabaeus, and certain vector-borne and waterborne diseases, such as dengue fever, leishmaniasis, Chagas' disease, Barmah Forest virus, and leptospirosis, and with decreases in the occurrence of dermatitis, scabies, psoriasis, and papular urticaria. La Niña has been associated with increases in the occurrence of varicella, hand, foot, and mouth disease, and Ross River virus (in certain areas), and decreases in viral warts and leishmaniasis. Reports on the effects of ENSO on skin and skin-related disease are limited, and more studies could be helpful in the future. PMID:26471012

  5. Species-specific profiles of mycotoxins produced in cultures and associated with conidia of airborne fungi derived from biowaste.

    PubMed

    Fischer, G; Müller, T; Schwalbe, R; Ostrowski, R; Dott, W

    2000-10-01

    The potential to produce mycotoxins and non-volatile secondary metabolites was investigated for approximately 250 freshly isolated fungal strains. Among the eleven most relevant species, viz. Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. parasiticus, A. versicolor, Emericella nidulans, Paecilomyces variotii, Penicillium brevicompactum, P. clavigerum, P. crustosum, and P. polonicum, a wide range of metabolites partly of toxicological relevance was identified. Several unknown metabolites were found for the less frequent species, which were primarily investigated for chemotaxonomic delimitation from closely related species. The spectra of metabolites in conidial extracts and culture extracts (containing also mycelium and medium) were compared for a limited number of relevant fungi. Some mycotoxins, such as sterigmatocystin in Emericella nidulans, were not present in the conidial extracts, though produced by most strains. Fumigaclavine C, tryptoquivaline, and trypacidin, characteristic for A. fumigatus, were found in conidial extracts, but highly toxic compounds such as gliotoxin and fumitremorgens were not present. Finally, compounds such as cyclopenol, cyclopenin, and penitrem A being characteristic for certain penicillia, were found in conidial extracts and are therefore assumed to occur in native bioaerosols. PMID:11109562

  6. Pereskia aculeata Muller (Cactaceae) Leaves: Chemical Composition and Biological Activities.

    PubMed

    Souza, Lucèia Fàtima; Caputo, Lucia; Inchausti De Barros, Ingrid Bergman; Fratianni, Florinda; Nazzaro, Filomena; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this work were to study the chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves of Pereskia aculeata and to evaluate some biological activities of three leaf extracts. The phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and in vitro antimicrobial and antifungal activities were determined. The methanol extract showed antioxidant activity (EC50 7.09 mg/mL) and high polyphenols content (15.04 ± 0.31 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g). The petroleum ether extract exhibited potent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, whereas the chloroform extract showed inhibitory activity against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. The petroleum ether and methanol extracts were more effective in inhibiting the growth of Aspergillus versicolor. The possible cytotoxicity of extracts on neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cancer cell line and the influence on adenylate cyclase (ADCY) expression was also studied. P. aculeata chloroform extract showed antiproliferative activity with an IC50 value of 262.83 µg/mL. Treatments of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with 100 µg/mL of methanol extract significantly reduced ADCY1 expression. PMID:27598154

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of Phrynocephalus helioscopus (Reptilia, Squamata, Agamidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Donghai; Guo, Jing; Zhou, Xiumei; Chang, Cheng; Zhang, Shengxiang

    2016-05-01

    The toad-headed lizards of genus Phrynocephalus are one of the most prevalent animals in the central Asian desert. A few studies have investigated molecular phylogenesis of Phrynocephalus, yet yield inconsistent results. Moreover, these studies were only based on a few specific DNA fragments of mitochondrial genome. To facilitate the clarification of molecular phylogenesis of Phrynocephalus, we conducted this study to sequence the entire mitochondrial genome of the Phrynocephalus helioscopus collected from Northwest China. The length of complete mitochondrial DNA is 16,249 nucleotides, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 2 control regions (CR). The gene arrangement and composition of P. helioscopus resemble those of other Phrynocephalus sand lizard, except for P. przewalskii and P. versicolor. The overall A, T, C, G base composition of the heavy-strand was 35.9%, 26.4%, 25.2%, 12.5%, respectively, which is biased toward AT (about 62.3%). The AT-biased base composition was similar to what observed in most vertebrates. The complete mitochondrial genome of P. helioscopus may help to clarify the phylogenetic relationships related to Phrynocephalus oviparity. PMID:25319288

  8. Coprophilous fungi of the horse.

    PubMed

    Pointelli, E; Santa-maria, M A; Caretta, G

    1981-05-01

    A total of 1267 microfungi, including 35 Myxomycetes, were recorded from the fecal samples of the 60 horses; of these 395 were found on 20 saddle-horse feces, 363 on 20 race-horses and 509 on 20 working horses. Eighty two species representing 53 genera were recorded; of these 7 were Zygomycetes, 18 Ascomycetes, 1 Basidiomycetes and 25 Fungi Imperfecti: 2 Myxomycetes. Common coprophilous fungi are in decreasing order Pilobolus kleinii, Saccobolus depauperatus, Mucor hiemalis, Lasiobolus ciliatus, Podospora curvula, Petriella guttulata, M. circinelloides, Coprinus radiatus, Dictyostelium mucoroides, Sordaria fimicola, C. miser, C. stercorariusm, Acremonium sp., Coprotus granuliformis, Graphium putredinis, Iodophanus carneus, Chaetomium murorum, Podospora communis, P. inaequalis, P. setosa, Saccobolus versicolor and Cladosporium cucumerinum. Species of Myrothecium verrucaria, Actinomucor elegans, Kernia nitida, Spiculostilbella dendritica and Mucor parvispora were found exclusively in working-horses feces. Badhamia sp., Anixiopsis stercoraria, Echinobotryum state of D. stemonitis, Geotrichum candidum and Oidiodendron sp. were found only in saddle-horses feces. Chlamidomyces palmarum, Philocopra sp. were found exclusively in race-horses feces. Notes on infrequent or interesting fungi include Thamnostylum piriforme, Phialocephala dimorphospora, Rhopalomyces elegans and Spiculostilbella dendritica. PMID:7242651

  9. Modality interactions alter the shape of acoustic mate preference functions in gray treefrogs.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Michael S; Höbel, Gerlinde

    2015-09-01

    Sexual selection takes place in complex environments where females evaluating male mating signals are confronted with stimuli from multiple sources and modalities. The pattern of expression of female preferences may be influenced by interactions between modalities, changing the shape of female preference functions, and thus ultimately altering the selective landscape acting on male signal evolution. We tested the hypothesis that the responses of female gray treefrogs, Hyla versicolor, to acoustic male advertisement calls are affected by interactions with visual stimuli. We measured preference functions for several call traits under two experimental conditions: unimodal (only acoustic signals presented), and multimodal (acoustic signals presented along with a video-animated calling male). We found that females were more responsive to multimodal stimulus presentations and, compared to unimodal playbacks, had weaker preferences for temporal call characteristics. We compared the preference functions obtained in these two treatments to the distribution of male call characteristics to make inferences on the strength and direction of selection expected to act on male calls. Modality interactions have the potential to influence the course of signal evolution and thus are an important consideration in sexual selection studies. PMID:26282702

  10. Chelating efficiency and thermal, mechanical and decay resistance performances of chitosan copper complex in wood-polymer composites.

    PubMed

    Lu, John Z; Duan, Xinfang; Wu, Qinglin; Lian, Kun

    2008-09-01

    Wood-polymer composites (WPC) have been extensively used for building products, outdoor decking, automotive, packaging materials, and other applications. WPC is subject to fungal and termite attacks due to wood components enveloped in the thermoplastic matrix. Much effort has been made to improve decay resistance of WPC using zinc borate and other chemicals. In this study, chitosan copper complex (CCC) compounds were used as a potential preservative for wood-HDPE composites. CCC was formulated by reacting chitosan with copper salts under controlled conditions. Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analytical results indicated that chitosan had high chelating efficiency with copper cations. CCC-treated wood-HDPE composites had a thermal behavior similar to untreated and zinc borate-treated wood-HDPE composites. Incorporation of CCC in wood-HDPE composites did not significantly influence board density of the resultant composites, but had a negative effect on tensile strength at high CCC concentration. In comparison with solid wood and the untreated wood-HDPE composites, 3% CCC-treated wood-HDPE composites significantly improved the decay resistance against white rot fungus Trametes versicolor and brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum. Especially, CCC-treated wood-HDPE composites were more effectively against the brown rot than the untreated and chitosan-treated wood-HDPE composites. Moreover, CCC-treated wood-HDPE composites performed well as zinc borate-treated wood-HDPE composites on fungal decay resistance. Accordingly, CCC can be effectively used as a preservative for WPC. PMID:18248812

  11. Selection of plants for optimization of vegetative filter strips treating runoff from turfgrass.

    PubMed

    Smith, Katy E; Putnam, Raymond A; Phaneuf, Clifford; Lanza, Guy R; Dhankher, Om P; Clark, John M

    2008-01-01

    Runoff from turf environments, such as golf courses, is of increasing concern due to the associated chemical contamination of lakes, reservoirs, rivers, and ground water. Pesticide runoff due to fungicides, herbicides, and insecticides used to maintain golf courses in acceptable playing condition is a particular concern. One possible approach to mitigate such contamination is through the implementation of effective vegetative filter strips (VFS) on golf courses and other recreational turf environments. The objective of the current study was to screen ten aesthetically acceptable plant species for their ability to remove four commonly-used and degradable pesticides: chlorpyrifos (CP), chlorothalonil (CT), pendimethalin (PE), and propiconazole (PR) from soil in a greenhouse setting, thus providing invaluable information as to the species composition that would be most efficacious for use in VFS surrounding turf environments. Our results revealed that blue flag iris (Iris versicolor) (76% CP, 94% CT, 48% PE, and 33% PR were lost from soil after 3 mo of plant growth), eastern gama grass (Tripsacum dactyloides) (47% CP, 95% CT, 17% PE, and 22% PR were lost from soil after 3 mo of plant growth), and big blue stem (Andropogon gerardii) (52% CP, 91% CT, 19% PE, and 30% PR were lost from soil after 3 mo of plant growth) were excellent candidates for the optimization of VFS as buffer zones abutting turf environments. Blue flag iris was most effective at removing selected pesticides from soil and had the highest aesthetic value of the plants tested. PMID:18689747

  12. Identification of Aspergillus fumigatus and Related Species by Nested PCR Targeting Ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacer Regions

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jun; Kong, Fanrong; Li, Ruoyu; Wang, Xiaohong; Wan, Zhe; Wang, Duanli

    2001-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the most common species that causes invasive aspergillosis. In order to identify A. fumigatus, partial ribosomal DNA (rDNA) from two to six strains of five different Aspergillus species was sequenced. By comparing sequence data from GenBank, we designed specific primer pairs targeting rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of A. fumigatus. A nested PCR method for identification of other A. fumigatus-related species was established by using the primers. To evaluate the specificities and sensitivities of those primers, 24 isolates of A. fumigatus and variants, 8 isolates of Aspergillus nidulans, 7 isolates of Aspergillus flavus and variants, 8 isolates of Aspergillus terreus, 9 isolates of Aspergillus niger, 1 isolate each of Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus penicilloides, Aspergillus versicolor, Aspergillus wangduanlii, Aspergillus qizutongii, Aspergillus beijingensis, and Exophiala dermatitidis, 4 isolates of Candida, 4 isolates of bacteria, and human DNA were used. The nested PCR method specifically identified the A. fumigatus isolates and closely related species and showed a high degree of sensitivity. Additionally, four A. fumigatus strains that were recently isolated from our clinic were correctly identified by this method. Our results demonstrate that these primers are useful for the identification of A. fumigatus and closely related species in culture and suggest further studies for the identification of Aspergillus fumigatus species in clinical specimens. PMID:11376067

  13. Non-parallel coevolution of sender and receiver in the acoustic communication system of treefrogs.

    PubMed Central

    Schul, Johannes; Bush, Sarah L

    2002-01-01

    Advertisement calls of closely related species often differ in quantitative features such as the repetition rate of signal units. These differences are important in species recognition. Current models of signal-receiver coevolution predict two possible patterns in the evolution of the mechanism used by receivers to recognize the call: (i) classical sexual selection models (Fisher process, good genes/indirect benefits, direct benefits models) predict that close relatives use qualitatively similar signal recognition mechanisms tuned to different values of a call parameter; and (ii) receiver bias models (hidden preference, pre-existing bias models) predict that if different signal recognition mechanisms are used by sibling species, evidence of an ancestral mechanism will persist in the derived species, and evidence of a pre-existing bias will be detectable in the ancestral species. We describe qualitatively different call recognition mechanisms in sibling species of treefrogs. Whereas Hyla chrysoscelis uses pulse rate to recognize male calls, Hyla versicolor uses absolute measurements of pulse duration and interval duration. We found no evidence of either hidden preferences or pre-existing biases. The results are compared with similar data from katydids (Tettigonia sp.). In both taxa, the data are not adequately explained by current models of signal-receiver coevolution. PMID:12350274

  14. Isolation of laccase gene-specific sequences from white rot and brown rot fungi by PCR

    SciTech Connect

    D`Souza, T.M.; Boominathan, K.; Reddy, C.A.

    1996-10-01

    Degenerate primers corresponding to the consensus sequences of the copper-binding regions in the N-terminal domains of known basidiomycete laccases were used to isolate laccase gene-specific sequences from strains representing nine genera of wood rot fungi. All except three gave the expected PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequences of each of the PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequence of each of the PCR products analyzed as a laccase gene sequence, suggesting the specificity of the primers. PCR products of the white rot fungi Ganoderma lucidum, Phlebia brevispora, and Trametes versicolor showed 65 to 74% nucleotide sequence similarity to each other; the similarity in deduced amino acid sequences was 83 to 91%. The PCR products of Lentinula edodes and Lentinus tigrinus, on the other hand, showed relatively low nucleotide and amino acid similarities (58 to 64 and 62 to 81%, respectively); however, these similarities were still much higher than when compared with the corresponding regions in the laccases of the ascomycete fungi Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa. A few of the white rot fungi, as well as Gloeophyllum trabeum, a brown rot fungus, gave a 144-bp PCR fragment which had a nucleotide sequence similarity of 60 to 71%. Demonstration of laccase activity in G. trabeum and several other brown rot fungi was of particular interest because these organisms were not previously shown to produce laccases. 36 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. The effect of anatase and rutile crystallites isolated from titania P25 photocatalyst on growth of selected mould fungi.

    PubMed

    Markowska-Szczupak, Agata; Wang, Kunlei; Rokicka, Paulina; Endo, Maya; Wei, Zhishun; Ohtani, Bunsho; Morawski, Antoni W; Kowalska, Ewa

    2015-10-01

    Antifungal properties of anatase and rutile crystallites isolated from commercial titania P25 photocatalyst were investigated by mycelium growth in the dark and under indoor light. Investigated fungi, i.e., Pseudallescheria boydii, Scedosporium apiospermum, Pseudallescheria ellipsoidea, Scedosporium aurantiacum, Aspergillus versicolor, Aspergillus flavus, Stachybotrys chartarum, Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus melleus, were isolated from air and from moisture condensed on walls. Anatase and rutile were isolated from homogenized P25 (homo-P25) by chemical dissolution, and then purified by washing and thermal treatment. For comparison, homo-P25 was also thermally treated at 200 °C and 500 °C. Titania samples were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). It was found that properties of titania, i.e., band-gap energy, impurities adsorbed on the surface, nanoparticle aggregation, and kind of fungal structure, highly influenced resultant antifungal activities. It is proposed that some fungi could uptake necessary water and nutrient from titania surface. It was also found that even when differences in mycelium growth were not significant, the sporulation and mycotoxin generation were highly inhibited by light and presence of titania. PMID:26177513

  16. Olive mill wastewater biodegradation potential of white-rot fungi--Mode of action of fungal culture extracts and effects of ligninolytic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Ntougias, Spyridon; Baldrian, Petr; Ehaliotis, Constantinos; Nerud, Frantisek; Merhautová, Věra; Zervakis, Georgios I

    2015-01-01

    Forty-nine white-rot strains belonging to 38 species of Basidiomycota were evaluated for olive-mill wastewater (OMW) degradation. Almost all fungi caused high total phenolics (>60%) and color (⩽ 70%) reduction, while COD and phytotoxicity decreased to a lesser extent. Culture extracts from selected Agrocybe cylindracea, Inonotus andersonii, Pleurotus ostreatus and Trametes versicolor strains showed non-altered physicochemical and enzymatic activity profiles when applied to raw OMW in the presence or absence of commercial catalase, indicating no interaction of the latter with fungal enzymes and no competition for H2O2. Hydrogen peroxide's addition resulted in drastic OMW's decolorization, with no effect on phenolic content, suggesting that oxidation affects colored components, but not necessarily phenolics. When fungal extracts were heat-treated, no phenolics decrease was observed demonstrating thus their enzymatic rather than physicochemical oxidation. Laccases added to OMW were reversibly inhibited by the effluent's high phenolic load, while peroxidases were stable and active during the entire process. PMID:25879179

  17. Female Túngara Frogs do not Experience the Continuity Illusion

    PubMed Central

    Baugh, Alexander T.; Ryan, Michael J.; Bernal, Ximena E.; Rand, A. Stanley; Bee, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    In humans and some non-human vertebrates, a sound containing brief silent gaps can be rendered perceptually continuous by inserting noise into the gaps. This so-called ‘continuity illusion’ arises from a phenomenon known as ‘auditory induction’ and results in the perception of complete auditory objects despite fragmentary or incomplete acoustic information. Previous studies of auditory induction in gray treefrogs (Hyla versicolor and H. chrysoscelis) have demonstrated an absence of this phenomenon. These treefrog species produce pulsatile (non-continuous) vocalizations, whereas studies of auditory induction in other taxa, including humans, often present continuous sounds (e.g., frequency-modulated sweeps). This study investigated the continuity illusion in a frog (Physalaemus pustulosus) with an advertisement vocalization that is naturally continuous and thus similar to the tonal sweeps used in human psychophysical studies of auditory induction. In a series of playback experiments, female subjects were presented with sets of stimuli that included complete calls, calls with silent gaps, and calls with silent gaps filled with noise. The results failed to provide evidence of auditory induction. Current evidence, therefore, suggests that mammals and birds experience auditory induction, but frogs may not. This emerging pattern of taxonomic differences is considered in light of potential methodological, neurophysiological, and functional explanations. PMID:26692450

  18. Evaluation of Fungal Laccase Immobilized on Natural Nanostructured Bacterial Cellulose.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Zou, Min; Hong, Feng F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the possibility of using native bacterial nanocellulose (BC) as a carrier for laccase immobilization. BC was synthesized by Gluconacetobacter xylinus, which was statically cultivated in a mannitol-based medium and was freeze-dried to form BC sponge after purification. For the first time, fungal laccase from Trametes versicolor was immobilized on the native nanofibril network-structured BC sponge through physical adsorption and cross-linking with glutaraldehyde. The properties including morphologic and structural features of the BC as well as the immobilized enzyme were thoroughly investigated. It was found that enzyme immobilized by cross-linking exhibited broader pH operation range of high catalytic activity as well as higher running stability compared to free and adsorbed enzyme. Using ABTS as substrate, the optimum pH value was 3.5 for the adsorption-immobilized laccase and 4.0 for the crosslinking-immobilized laccase. The immobilized enzyme retained 69% of the original activity after being recycled seven times. Novel applications of the BC-immobilized enzyme tentatively include active packaging, construction of biosensors, and establishment of bioreactors. PMID:26617585

  19. Evaluation of Fungal Laccase Immobilized on Natural Nanostructured Bacterial Cellulose

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lin; Zou, Min; Hong, Feng F.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the possibility of using native bacterial nanocellulose (BC) as a carrier for laccase immobilization. BC was synthesized by Gluconacetobacter xylinus, which was statically cultivated in a mannitol-based medium and was freeze-dried to form BC sponge after purification. For the first time, fungal laccase from Trametes versicolor was immobilized on the native nanofibril network-structured BC sponge through physical adsorption and cross-linking with glutaraldehyde. The properties including morphologic and structural features of the BC as well as the immobilized enzyme were thoroughly investigated. It was found that enzyme immobilized by cross-linking exhibited broader pH operation range of high catalytic activity as well as higher running stability compared to free and adsorbed enzyme. Using ABTS as substrate, the optimum pH value was 3.5 for the adsorption-immobilized laccase and 4.0 for the crosslinking-immobilized laccase. The immobilized enzyme retained 69% of the original activity after being recycled seven times. Novel applications of the BC-immobilized enzyme tentatively include active packaging, construction of biosensors, and establishment of bioreactors. PMID:26617585

  20. Initial net CO2 uptake responses and root growth for a CAM community placed in a closed environment.

    PubMed

    Nobel, Park S; Bobich, Edward G

    2002-11-01

    To help understand carbon balance between shoots and developing roots, 41 bare-root crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants native to the Sonoran Desert were studied in a glass-panelled sealable room at day/night air temperatures of 25/15 degrees C. Net CO(2) uptake by the community of Agave schottii, Carnegia gigantea, Cylindropuntia versicolor, Ferocactus wislizenii and Opuntia engelmannii occurred 3 weeks after watering. At 4 weeks, the net CO(2) uptake rate measured for south-east-facing younger parts of the shoots averaged 1.94 micro mol m(-2) s(-1) at night, considerably higher than the community-level nocturnal net CO(2) uptake averaged over the total shoot surface, primarily reflecting the influences of surface orientation on radiation interception (predicted net CO(2) uptake is twice as high for south-east-facing surfaces compared with all compass directions). Estimated growth plus maintenance respiration of the roots averaged 0.10 micro mol m(-2) s(-1) over the 13-week period, when the community had a net carbon gain from the atmosphere of 4 mol C while the structural C incorporated into the roots was 23 mol. Thus, these five CAM species diverted all net C uptake over the 13-week period plus some existing shoot C to newly developing roots. Only after sufficient roots develop to support shoot water and nutrient requirements will the plant community have net above-ground biomass gains. PMID:12466099

  1. Production and Degradation of Oxalic Acid by Brown Rot Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Espejo, Eduardo; Agosin, Eduardo

    1991-01-01

    Our results show that all of the brown rot fungi tested produce oxalic acid in liquid as well as in semisolid cultures. Gloeophyllum trabeum, which accumulates the lowest amount of oxalic acid during decay of pine holocellulose, showed the highest polysaccharide-depolymerizing activity. Semisolid cultures inoculated with this fungus rapidly converted 14C-labeled oxalic acid to CO2 during cellulose depolymerization. The other brown rot fungi also oxidized 14C-labeled oxalic acid, although less rapidly. In contrast, semisolid cultures inoculated with the white rot fungus Coriolus versicolor did not significantly catabolize the acid and did not depolymerize the holocellulose during decay. Semisolid cultures of G. trabeum amended with desferrioxamine, a specific iron-chelating agent, were unable to lower the degree of polymerization of cellulose or to oxidize 14C-labeled oxalic acid to the extent or at the rate that control cultures did. These results suggest that both iron and oxalic acid are involved in cellulose depolymerization by brown rot fungi. PMID:16348522

  2. Detection of betanodaviruses in apparently healthy aquarium fishes and invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Dennis Kaw; Lim, Dong Joo; Baeck, Gun Wook; Youn, Hee Jeong; Shin, Nam Shik; Youn, Hwa Young; Hwang, Cheol Yong; Park, Jun Hong

    2006-01-01

    Betanodaviruses are the causative agents of viral nervous necrosis (VNN) in cultured marine fish. A total of 237 apparently healthy aquarium fish, marine (65 species) and freshwater (12 species) fishes and marine invertebrates (4 species), which were stocked in a commercial aquarium in Seoul, South Korea, were collected from November 2005 to February 2006. The brains of the fish and other tissues of the invertebrates were examined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and nested PCR to detect betanodavirus. Positive nested PCR results were obtained from the brains of 8 marine fish species (shrimp fish Aeoliscus strigatus, milkfish Chanos chanos, three spot damsel Dascyllus trimaculatus, Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonicus, pinecone fish Monocentris japonica, blue ribbon eel Rhinomuraena quaesita, look down fish Selene vomer, yellow tang Zebrasoma flavesenes), 1 marine invertebrate species (spiny lobster Pamulirus versicolor), and 2 freshwater fish species (South American leaf fish Monocirrhus polyacanthus and red piranha Pygocentrus nattereri). The detection rate in nested PCR was 11/237 (4.64%). These subclinically infected aquarium fish and invertebrates may constitute an inoculum source of betanodaviruses for cultured fishes in the Korean Peninsula. PMID:17106229

  3. Amperometric catechol biosensor based on laccase immobilized on nitrogen-doped ordered mesoporous carbon (N-OMC)/PVA matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Meiqing; Wang, Hefeng; Huang, Di; Han, Zhijun; Li, Qiang; Wang, Xiaojun; Chen, Jing

    2014-06-01

    A functionalized nitrogen-containing ordered mesoporous carbon (N-OMC), which shows good electrical properties, was synthesized by the carbonization of polyaniline inside a SBA-15 mesoporous silica template. Based on this, through entrapping laccase onto the N-OMC/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) film a facilely fabricated amperometric biosensor was developed. Laccase from Trametes versicolor was assembled on a composite film of a N-OMC/PVA modified Au electrode and the electrochemical behavior was investigated. The results indicated that the N-OMC modified electrode exhibits electrical properties towards catechol. The optimum experimental conditions of a biosensor for the detection of catechol were studied in detail. Under the optimal conditions, the sensitivity of the biosensor was 0.29 A*M-1 with a detection limit of 0.31 μM and a linear detection range from 0.39 μM to 8.98 μM for catechol. The calibration curve followed the Michaelis-Menten kinetics and the apparent Michaelis-Menten \\left( K_{M}^{app} \\right) was 6.28 μM. This work demonstrated that the N-OMC/PVA composite provides a suitable support for laccase immobilization and the construction of a biosensor.

  4. Radiocesium Concentration Change in Game Animals: Use of Food Monitoring Data - 13168

    SciTech Connect

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2013-07-01

    Radionuclides were released into the environment in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. Radiocesium (Cs-134+137) concentrations in most agricultural products became lower than the detection limit (∼10 Bq kg{sup -1}) from June 2011, and the concentrations have remained low. However, some wild food materials such as meat of game animals (e.g., bear and wild boar) caught in Fukushima and surrounding areas some times showed higher values than the detection limits. In this study, monitoring data on game animal meat were summarized to understand the amount of activities found in wild animals and the activity distribution in the contaminated areas. Concentration data are available from monthly reports issued by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Data were collected on wild boar (Sus scrofa), deer (Cervus nippon), Asian black bear (Ursus thibetanus), Japanese pheasant (Phasianus versicolor), and duck (e.g. Anas poecilorhynch). There is a tendency that the concentration decreases with distance from the FDNPP; in order to compare the Cs-137 concentrations among animals, one collection site was selected. The results showed that the concentration was in the following order within one year: Asian black bear>wild boar> deer >duck and Japanese pheasant. Bear and boar are omnivorous animals and their feeding pattern would affect the concentrations in their meats. (authors)

  5. Comparison of superficial mycosis treatment using Butenafine and Bifonazole nitrate clinical efficacy.

    PubMed

    Abdul Bari, Mohammed A

    2013-01-01

    Superficial fungal infections are commonly encountered by the physician. And the continuously changing epidemiology of invasive fungal infections results in the need for an expanded armamentarium of antifungal therapies. This study was designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Butenafine (BTF) versus Bifonazole (BFZ) in the treatment of superficial mycosis in a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group trial. Of 96 patients, 48 applied (BTF) cream and 48 applied (BFZ) cream for 2 weeks to tinea versicolor, corporis and cruris treat, while tinea of feet & hands was treated for 4 weeks duration. Efficacy was assessed after the end of treatment and 2 weeks later. At the end of therapy, we find somewhat more patients using (BTF) than using (BFZ) had a mycologic cure ((BTF), 87.5%; (BFZ) 83.3%) and effective clinical response ((BTF), 91.7%; (BFZ), 83.3%). (BTF) provides rapid and persistent antifungal activity and symptom relief in patients with superficial mycosis during treatment. And patients continued to improve for at least 2 weeks after treatment. The Rates of mycologic cure and effective treatment with (BTF) were higher than with (BFZ) at cessation of treatment and 2 weeks later. However, no significant difference found between the two drugs (p> 0.05). PMID:23283047

  6. Optimizing topical antifungal therapy for superficial cutaneous fungal infections: focus on topical naftifine for cutaneous dermatophytosis.

    PubMed

    Del Rosso, James Q; Kircik, Leon H

    2013-11-01

    Superficial cutaneous fungal infections (SCFIs) are commonly encountered in clinical practice in the United States, and comprise infections of the skin by dermatophytes and yeasts. The most common organisms causing SCFI are dermatophytes, especially Trichophyton spp. With the exception of onchomycosis and tinea capitis, most cases of SCFIs are amenable to properly selected topical antifungal therapy used over an adequate period of time.

    A variety of topical antifungal agents are available for the treatment of SCFIs, and they encompass a few major chemical classes: the polyenes (ie, nystatin), imidazoles (ie, ketoconazole, econazole, oxiconazole, etc), allylamines (ie, naftifine, terbinafine), benzylamines (ie, butenafine), and hydroxypyridones (ie, ciclopirox). The 2 major classes that represent the majority of available topical antifungal agents are the azoles and the allylamines. Overall, the allylamines are superior to the azoles in activity against dermatophytes, although both are clinically effective. The reverse is true against yeasts such as Candida spp and Malassezia spp, although topical allylamines have proven to be efficacious in some cases of tinea versicolor and cutaneous candidiasis.

    Naftifine, a topical allylamine, is fungicidal in vitro against a wide spectrum of dermatophyte fungi and has been shown to be highly effective against a variety of cutaneous dermatophyte infections. Rapid onset of clinical activity and favorable data on sustained clearance of infection have been documented with naftifine. The more recent addition of naftifine 2% cream has expanded the armamentarium, with data supporting a clinically relevant therapeutic reservoir effect after completion of therapy. PMID:24196340

  7. Comparison of Superficial Mycosis Treatment using Butenafine and Bifonazole nitrate Clinical Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Bari, Mohammed A. Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Superficial fungal infections are commonly encountered by the physician. And the continuously changing epidemiology of invasive fungal infections results in the need for an expanded armamentarium of antifungal therapies. This study was designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Butenafine (BTF) versus Bifonazole (BFZ) in the treatment of superficial mycosis in a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group trial. Of 96 patients, 48 applied (BTF) cream and 48 applied (BFZ) cream for 2 weeks to tinea versicolor, corporis and cruris treat, while tinea of feet & hands was treated for 4 weeks duration. Efficacy was assessed after the end of treatment and 2 weeks later. At the end of therapy, we find somewhat more patients using (BTF) than using (BFZ) had a mycologic cure ((BTF), 87.5%; (BFZ) 83.3%) and effective clinical response ((BTF), 91.7%; (BFZ), 83.3%). (BTF) provides rapid and persistent antifungal activity and symptom relief in patients with superficial mycosis during treatment. And patients continued to improve for at least 2 weeks after treatment. The Rates of mycologic cure and effective treatment with (BTF) were higher than with (BFZ) at cessation of treatment and 2 weeks later. However, no significant difference found between the two drugs (p> 0.05). PMID:23283047

  8. Biosupercapacitors for powering oxygen sensing devices.

    PubMed

    Kizling, Michal; Draminska, Sylwia; Stolarczyk, Krzysztof; Tammela, Petter; Wang, Zhaohui; Nyholm, Leif; Bilewicz, Renata

    2015-12-01

    A biofuel cell comprising electrodes based on supercapacitive materials - carbon nanotubes and nanocellulose/polypyrrole composite was utilized to power an oxygen biosensor. Laccase Trametes versicolor, immobilized on naphthylated multi walled carbon nanotubes, and fructose dehydrogenase, adsorbed on a porous polypyrrole matrix, were used as the cathode and anode bioelectrocatalysts, respectively. The nanomaterials employed as the supports for the enzymes increased the surface area of the electrodes and provide direct contact with the active sites of the enzymes. The anode modified with the conducting polymer layer exhibited significant pseudocapacitive properties providing superior performance also in the high energy mode, e.g., when switching on/off the powered device. Three air-fructose biofuel cells connected in a series converted chemical energy into electrical giving 2 mW power and open circuit potential of 2V. The biofuel cell system was tested under various externally applied resistances and used as a powering unit for a laboratory designed two-electrode minipotentiostat and a laccase based sensor for oxygen sensing. Best results in terms of long time measurement of oxygen levels were obtained in the pulse mode -45 s for measurement and 15 min for self-recharging of the powering unit. PMID:25960258

  9. Protection by fungal starters against growth and secondary metabolite production of fungal spoilers of cheese.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, M S; Frisvad, J C; Nielsen, P V

    1998-06-30

    The influence of fungal starter cultures on growth and secondary metabolite production of fungal contaminants associated with cheese was studied on laboratory media and Camembert cheese. Isolates of the species Penicillium nalgiovense, P. camemberti, P. roqueforti and Geotrichum candidum were used as fungal starters. The species P. commune, P. caseifulvum, P. verrucosum, P. discolor, P. solitum, P. coprophilum and Aspergillus versicolor were selected as contaminants. The fungal starters showed different competitive ability on laboratory media and Camembert cheese. The presence of the Penicillium species, especially P. nalgiovense, showed an inhibitory effect on the growth of the fungal contaminants on laboratory media. G. candidum caused a significant inhibition of the fungal contaminants on Camembert cheese. The results indicate that G. candidum plays an important role in competition with undesirable microorganisms in mould fermented cheeses. Among the starters, P. nalgiovense caused the largest reduction in secondary metabolite production of the fungal contaminants on the laboratory medium. On Camembert cheese no significant changes in metabolite production of the fungal contaminants was observed in the presence of the starters. PMID:9706802

  10. Carotenoids and amphibians: effects on life history and susceptibility to the infectious pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    PubMed

    Cothran, Rickey D; Gervasi, Stephanie S; Murray, Cindy; French, Beverly J; Bradley, Paul W; Urbina, Jenny; Blaustein, Andrew R; Relyea, Rick A

    2015-01-01

    Carotenoids are considered beneficial nutrients because they provide increased immune capacity. Although carotenoid research has been conducted in many vertebrates, little research has been done in amphibians, a group that is experiencing global population declines from numerous causes, including disease. We raised two amphibian species through metamorphosis on three carotenoid diets to quantify the effects on life-history traits and post-metamorphic susceptibility to a fungal pathogen (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis; Bd). Increased carotenoids had no effect on survival to metamorphosis in gray treefrogs (Hyla versicolor) but caused lower survival to metamorphosis in wood frogs [Lithobates sylvaticus (Rana sylvatica)]. Increased carotenoids caused both species to experience slower development and growth. When exposed to Bd after metamorphosis, wood frogs experienced high mortality, and the carotenoid diets had no mitigating effects. Gray treefrogs were less susceptible to Bd, which prevented an assessment of whether carotenoids could mitigate the effects of Bd. Moreover, carotenoids had no effect on pathogen load. As one of only a few studies examining the effects of carotenoids on amphibians and the first to examine potential interactions with Bd, our results suggest that carotenoids do not always serve amphibians in the many positive ways that have become the paradigm in other vertebrates. PMID:27293690

  11. [Aspergillus spp. in risk areas of transplant patients in a university hospital].

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, María Ximena; Cortes, Jorge Alberto; Parra, Claudia Marcela

    2008-12-31

    As a consequence of the increase in the number of immunocompromised patients, cases of aspergillosis, due to the opportunist character of this fungus, have increased considerably. Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus niger have been found in air and water samples of the majority of investigated hospitals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of aspergilli in transplant patients areas at the Hospital Universitario of Bogotá, Colombia. Samples of air were collected using the MAS-100 Air Sampler from each of the investigated areas. A sample of 100 ml of water was also recovered from these areas. All samples were taken for triplicate and were cultured in 2% Sabouraud Dextrose Agar. The average of aspergilli in air samples was 2.8 CFU/l corresponding to A. flavus, A. niger, Aspergillus versicolor and Aspergillus terreus. In water samples, the average was 17.1 CFU/l corresponding to A. flavus and Aspergillus clavatus. Because potentially pathogenic Aspergillus species were found in the hospital areas were transplant patients are usually kept, active surveillance and a high clinical suspicion should be considered in those patients. Since Aspergillus infections haven't been found so far, a higher fungal load and other host factors might be needed to facilitate the infection. PMID:19071892

  12. Quantifying Mold Biomass on Gypsum Board: Comparison of Ergosterol and Beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidase as Mold Biomass Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Reeslev, M.; Miller, M.; Nielsen, K. F.

    2003-01-01

    Two mold species, Stachybotrys chartarum and Aspergillus versicolor, were inoculated onto agar overlaid with cellophane, allowing determination of a direct measurement of biomass density by weighing. Biomass density, ergosterol content, and beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase (3.2.1.52) activity were monitored from inoculation to stationary phase. Regression analysis showed a good linear correlation to biomass density for both ergosterol content and beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase activity. The same two mold species were inoculated onto wallpapered gypsum board, from which a direct biomass measurement was not possible. Growth was measured as an increase in ergosterol content and beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase activity. A good linear correlation was seen between ergosterol content and beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase activity. From the experiments performed on agar medium, conversion factors (CFs) for estimating biomass density from ergosterol content and beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase activity were determined. The CFs were used to estimate the biomass density of the molds grown on gypsum board. The biomass densities estimated from ergosterol content and beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase activity data gave similar results, showing significantly slower growth and lower stationary-phase biomass density on gypsum board than on agar. PMID:12839773

  13. Immobilization of laccase in a sponge-like hydrogel for enhanced durability in enzymatic degradation of dye pollutants.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongfei; Yang, Hua; Huang, Wenguang; Zhang, Shujuan

    2015-07-15

    A highly stable and efficient biocatalyst was fabricated by encapsulating Trametes versicolor laccase within a chitosan grafted polyacrylamide hydrogel (denoted as Lac-PAM-CTS). Scanning electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption-desorption tests demonstrated that channels of diameter of 10-20 μm were regularly distributed throughout the sponge-like Lac-PAM-CTS. Besides, there were massive mesopores and macropores in the lamellar walls of the hydrogel. Such a network structure reduced the diffusion resistance of the hydrogel to the target substrates. The recovered activity of the obtained Lac-PAM-CTS was 40.8%. As compared to free laccase, the Lac-PAM-CTS showed enhanced thermal and chemical stability. The positive surface charge of the Lac-PAM-CTS endowed it with a pre-enrichment effect in the treatment of anionic dyes. In a continuous six-cycle batch decoloration of Malachite Green, the Lac-PAM-CTS showed much better durability than the free laccase. The results here suggest that sponge-like hydrogel is a good supporting matrix for laccase. PMID:25841061

  14. Treatment of Fungal Bioaerosols by a High-Temperature, Short-Time Process in a Continuous-Flow System▿

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jae Hee; Lee, Jung Eun; Lee, Chang Ho; Kim, Sang Soo; Lee, Byung Uk

    2009-01-01

    Airborne fungi, termed fungal bioaerosols, have received attention due to the association with public health problems and the effects on living organisms in nature. There are growing concerns that fungal bioaerosols are relevant to the occurrence of allergies, opportunistic diseases in hospitals, and outbreaks of plant diseases. The search for ways of preventing and curing the harmful effects of fungal bioaerosols has created a high demand for the study and development of an efficient method of controlling bioaerosols. However, almost all modern microbiological studies and theories have focused on microorganisms in liquid and solid phases. We investigated the thermal heating effects on fungal bioaerosols in a continuous-flow environment. Although the thermal heating process has long been a traditional method of controlling microorganisms, the effect of a continuous high-temperature, short-time (HTST) process on airborne microorganisms has not been quantitatively investigated in terms of various aerosol properties. Our experimental results show that the geometric mean diameter of the tested fungal bioaerosols decreased when they were exposed to increases in the surrounding temperature. The HTST process produced a significant decline in the (1→3)-β-d-glucan concentration of fungal bioaerosols. More than 99% of the Aspergillus versicolor and Cladosporium cladosporioides bioaerosols lost their culturability in about 0.2 s when the surrounding temperature exceeded 350°C and 400°C, respectively. The instantaneous exposure to high temperature significantly changed the surface morphology of the fungal bioaerosols. PMID:19201954

  15. Three-dimensional organization of three-domain copper oxidases: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Zhukhlistova, N. E. Zhukova, Yu. N.; Lyashenko, A. V.; Zaitsev, V. N.; Mikhailov, A. M.

    2008-01-15

    'Blue' copper-containing proteins are multidomain proteins that utilize a unique redox property of copper ions. Among other blue multicopper oxidases, three-domain oxidases belong to the group of proteins that exhibit a wide variety of compositions in amino acid sequences, functions, and occurrences in organisms. This paper presents a review of the data obtained from X-ray diffraction investigations of the three-dimensional structures of three-domain multicopper oxidases, such as the ascorbate oxidase catalyzing oxidation of ascorbate to dehydroascorbate and its three derivatives; the multicopper oxidase CueO (the laccase homologue); the laccases isolated from the basidiomycetes Coprinus cinereus, Trametes versicolor, Coriolus zonatus, Cerrena maxima, and Rigidoporus lignosus and the ascomycete Melanocarpus albomyces; and the bacterial laccases CotA from the endospore coats of Bacillus subtilis. A comparison of the molecular structures of the laccases of different origins demonstrates that, structurally, these objects are highly conservative. This obviously indicates that the catalytic activity of the enzymes under consideration is characterized by similar mechanisms.

  16. Preliminary evaluation of fungicidal and termiticidal activities of filtrates from biomass slurry fuel production.

    PubMed

    Kartal, S N; Imamura, Y; Tsuchiya, F; Ohsato, K

    2004-10-01

    Biomass slurry fuel (BSF) production has recently been developed as a natural energy for the conversion of solid biomass into fuel. In addition to using fuel, filtrates from BSF production may also serve a chemical source with several organic compounds. There is an increasing interest in the research and application of biomass-based filtrates. In this study, fungicidal and termiticidal properties of filtrates from BSF production using sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) and acacia (Acacia mangium) wood were evaluated in laboratory decay and termite resistance tests. Wood blocks treated with the filtrates showed increased resistance against brown-rot fungus, Fomitopsis palustris. However the filtrates from sugi wood processed at 270 degrees C which contained less phenolic compounds than the other filtrates were effective against white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor. Phenolic compounds of filtrates seemed to play a role in the decay resistance tests however the filtrates did not increase the durability of the wood blocks against subterranean termites Coptotermes formosanus. Despite high acetic and lactic acid content of the filtrates, vanillin content of the filtrates may have served as an additional food source and promoted termite attack. It can be concluded that filtrates with phenolic compounds from lignin degradation during BSF production can be considered for targeted inhibition of brown-rot. PMID:15207293

  17. The Role of L-DOPA on Melanization and Mycelial Production in Malassezia Furfur

    PubMed Central

    Youngchim, Sirida; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Pornsuwan, Soraya; Kajiwara, Susumu; Vanittanakom, Nongnuch

    2013-01-01

    Melanins are synthesized by organisms of all biological kingdoms and comprise a heterogeneous class of natural pigments. Certain of these polymers have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several important human fungal pathogens. This study investigated whether the fungal skin pathogen Malassezia furfur produces melanin or melanin-like compounds. A melanin-binding monoclonal antibody (MAb) labelled in vitro cultivated yeast cells of M. furfur. In addition, melanization of Malassezia yeasts and hyphae was detected by anti-melanin MAb in scrapings from patients with pityriasis versicolor. Treatment of Malassezia yeasts with proteolytic enzymes, denaturant and concentrated hot acid yielded dark particles and electron spin resonance spectroscopy revealed that these particles contained a stable free radical compound, consistent with their identification as melanins. Malassezia yeasts required phenolic compounds, such as L-DOPA, in order to synthesize melanin. L-DOPA also triggered hyphal formation in vitro when combined with kojic acid, a tyrosinase inhibitor, in a dose-dependent manner. In this respect, L-DOPA is thought to be an essential substance that is linked to both melanization and yeast-mycelial transformation in M. furfur. In summary, M. furfur can produce melanin or melanin-like compounds in vitro and in vivo, and the DOPA melanin pathway is involved in cell wall melanization. PMID:23762233

  18. Carotenoids and amphibians: effects on life history and susceptibility to the infectious pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis

    PubMed Central

    Cothran, Rickey D.; Gervasi, Stephanie S.; Murray, Cindy; French, Beverly J.; Bradley, Paul W.; Urbina, Jenny; Blaustein, Andrew R.; Relyea, Rick A.

    2015-01-01

    Carotenoids are considered beneficial nutrients because they provide increased immune capacity. Although carotenoid research has been conducted in many vertebrates, little research has been done in amphibians, a group that is experiencing global population declines from numerous causes, including disease. We raised two amphibian species through metamorphosis on three carotenoid diets to quantify the effects on life-history traits and post-metamorphic susceptibility to a fungal pathogen (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis; Bd). Increased carotenoids had no effect on survival to metamorphosis in gray treefrogs (Hyla versicolor) but caused lower survival to metamorphosis in wood frogs [Lithobates sylvaticus (Rana sylvatica)]. Increased carotenoids caused both species to experience slower development and growth. When exposed to Bd after metamorphosis, wood frogs experienced high mortality, and the carotenoid diets had no mitigating effects. Gray treefrogs were less susceptible to Bd, which prevented an assessment of whether carotenoids could mitigate the effects of Bd. Moreover, carotenoids had no effect on pathogen load. As one of only a few studies examining the effects of carotenoids on amphibians and the first to examine potential interactions with Bd, our results suggest that carotenoids do not always serve amphibians in the many positive ways that have become the paradigm in other vertebrates. PMID:27293690

  19. Transcriptomes of the parasitic plant family Orobanchaceae reveal surprising conservation of chlorophyll synthesis.

    PubMed

    Wickett, Norman J; Honaas, Loren A; Wafula, Eric K; Das, Malay; Huang, Kan; Wu, Biao; Landherr, Lena; Timko, Michael P; Yoder, John; Westwood, James H; dePamphilis, Claude W

    2011-12-20

    Parasitism in flowering plants has evolved at least 11 times [1]. Only one family, Orobanchaceae, comprises all major nutritional types of parasites: facultative, hemiparasitic (partially photosynthetic), and holoparasitic (nonphotosynthetic) [2]. Additionally, the family includes Lindenbergia, a nonparasitic genus sister to all parasitic Orobanchaceae [3-6]. Parasitic Orobanchaceae include species with severe economic impacts: Striga (witchweed), for example, affects over 50 million hectares of crops in sub-Saharan Africa, causing more than $3 billion in damage annually [7]. Although gene losses and increased substitution rates have been characterized for parasitic plant plastid genomes [5, 8-11], the nuclear genome and transcriptome remain largely unexplored. The Parasitic Plant Genome Project (PPGP; http://ppgp.huck.psu.edu/) [2] is leveraging the natural variation in Orobanchaceae to explore the evolution and genomic consequences of parasitism in plants through a massive transcriptome and gene discovery project involving Triphysaria versicolor (facultative hemiparasite), Striga hermonthica (obligate hemiparasite), and Phelipanche aegyptiaca (Orobanche [12]; holoparasite). Here we present the first set of large-scale genomic resources for parasitic plant comparative biology. Transcriptomes of above-ground tissues reveal that, in addition to the predictable loss of photosynthesis-related gene expression in P. aegyptiaca, the nonphotosynthetic parasite retains an intact, expressed, and selectively constrained chlorophyll synthesis pathway. PMID:22169535

  20. The Response of Gray Treefrogs to Anesthesia by Tricaine Methanesulfonate (TMS or MS-222)

    PubMed Central

    Paduano, Mary; Colafrancesco, Kaitlen C.; Wong, Sarah A.; Caldwell, Michael S.; Gridi-Papp, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    The design of anesthetic protocols for frogs is commonly hindered by lack of information. Results from fishes and rodents do not always apply to frogs, and the literature in anurans is concentrated on a few species. We report on the response of treefrogs (Hyla chrysoscelis and H. versicolor) to tricaine methanesulfonate. Body mass did not differ significantly between the species or between sexes. In the first exposure of a frog to TMS, variation in induction time was best explained by species (H. chrysoscelis resisted longer) and body mass (larger animals resisted longer). Multiple exposures revealed a strong effect of individual variation on induction time and a significant increase of induction time with number of previous anesthesia events within the same day. Recovery time was mostly explained by individual variation, but it increased with total time in anesthetic and decreased with induction time. It also increased with number of days since the last series of anesthesias and decreased with number of previous uses of the anesthetic bath. This is one of the first studies of anesthesia in hylids and also one of the first assessments of the factors that influence the variability of the response to anesthesia within a species. PMID:24851186