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Sample records for pomatoschistus minutus pallas

  1. Effects of prolonged exposure to 4-tert-octylphenol on toxicity and indices of oestrogenic exposure in the sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus, Pallas).

    PubMed

    Robinson, Craig D; Brown, Elaine; Craft, John A; Davies, Ian M; Moffat, Colin F

    2004-07-01

    Alkylphenolic compounds are present in estuarine and marine environments. They are moderately bioaccumulative, and oestrogenic to fish following three week, in vivo, exposures. The effects of prolonged exposure are, as yet, unclear. Sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus) were exposed to measured concentrations of 4-tert-octylphenol (OP) in a 28-day, dose-ranging study, and a six month temporal response study. Following 28-days exposure to measured 31+/-6 or 101+/-47 microg l(-1) OP (mean+/-SD), immature male sand goby showed elevated vitellogenin (VTG) mRNA expression. Plasma alkali-labile phosphate concentrations were elevated in both sexes and were higher in females than males. Although measured OP concentrations were variable, they were significantly different for each treatment and a range of concentration-dependent effects were observed. The LC(50) for chronic OP exposure (8 weeks) was 29+/-6 microg l(-1), and both sexes demonstrated concentration and duration dependent increases in VTG mRNA expression. Exposure to 28+/-20 microg l(-1) OP (median+/-95% CI) for 6 months inhibited development of male nuptial colouration and sperm duct glands. These findings are discussed in relation to environmental concentrations of alkylphenols and ecological concerns. PMID:15046944

  2. Effects of sewage effluent and ethynyl oestradiol upon molecular markers of oestrogenic exposure, maturation and reproductive success in the sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus, Pallas).

    PubMed

    Robinson, Craig D; Brown, Elaine; Craft, John A; Davies, Ian M; Moffat, Colin F; Pirie, David; Robertson, Fiona; Stagg, Ronald M; Struthers, Susan

    2003-01-24

    Male fish in several UK estuaries are known to be exposed to oestrogenic contamination, and whilst a limited number of studies have shown that exposure to oestrogens can reduce the reproductive success of fish, the impact of environmentally relevant exposures is less clear. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate the effects of exposure to environmentally realistic concentrations of a sewage effluent and the synthetic oestrogen 17alpha-ethynyl oestradiol (EE(2)) upon the reproductive success of a marine fish. Sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus) were exposed for 7 months to EE(2) or a sewage effluent containing known xeno-oestrogens (alkylphenol polyethoxylates) and bred using within treatment crosses. Nominal exposure concentrations were 6 ng l(-1) EE(2), 0.3 or 0.03% v/v sewage effluent. At the end of the breeding trials, expression of hepatic zona radiata protein (Zrp) and vitellogenin (Vtg) mRNA were determined using two recently developed cDNA probes. Exposure to 6 ng l(-1) EE(2) induced Zrp and Vtg mRNA expression in male and female sand goby, impaired male maturation and reproductive behaviour, reduced female fecundity and reduced egg fertility. As a consequence, fertile egg production of the EE(2)-exposed population was reduced by 90%. Exposure to sewage effluent (0.3% v/v) increased adult mortality and female Zrp and Vtg mRNA expression, but did not induce male vitellogenesis. Exposure to EE(2) and 0.3% v/v sewage effluent impaired development of the male urogenital papilla. Fish exposed to 0.03% v/v sewage effluent produced more fertile eggs than those exposed to 0.3% effluent, or those receiving no effluent. It is concluded that male vitellogenesis in an oestrogenically exposed population may be accompanied by reduced reproductive success, but that it may not be indicative of altered reproductive output in a population exposed to an industrial sewage effluent. PMID:12505380

  3. Prey selection of the shallow water fish Pomatoschistus minutus (Gobiidae, Teleostei) in the SW Baltic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zander, C. Dieter

    1990-06-01

    The aim of this investigation is to demonstrate the reasons of an opportunist feeder to select some components of the available food supply and to avoid others. Object of this test is the eurytopic and euryhaline sand goby, Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas), from the Luebeck Bight. It inhabits both sand habitats as well as bottoms mixed with pebbles or continuous hard substrates. Therefore, it is often in close contact with Mytilus-belts which present a very rich food supply of small crustaceans. The selectivity behaviour of sand gobies from a sand/clay ecotone was compared with that of populations from a stony pier and a sand bottom during the reproduction period. Regarding the numbers of prey organisms, crustaceans of the periphyton were generally preferred at the pier but avoided in the ecotone. The same is valid for prey organisms of the psammal which were preferred by gobies of the sand bottom but mostly avoided by populations of mixed bottoms. Analyses of size selections revealed that the preferred gammarids or Jaera isopods were between 2 and 5 mm length. A balanced relation of goby biomass and utilizable food supply (predatory impact index) seems to effect positive selectivity of gammarids in the Mytilus-belts or of harpacticoids in the sand bottom.

  4. Effects of local and large-scale climate patterns on estuarine resident fishes: The example of Pomatoschistus microps and Pomatoschistus minutus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyitrai, Daniel; Martinho, Filipe; Dolbeth, Marina; Rito, João; Pardal, Miguel A.

    2013-12-01

    Large-scale and local climate patterns are known to influence several aspects of the life cycle of marine fish. In this paper, we used a 9-year database (2003-2011) to analyse the populations of two estuarine resident fishes, Pomatoschistus microps and Pomatoschistus minutus, in order to determine their relationships with varying environmental stressors operating over local and large scales. This study was performed in the Mondego estuary, Portugal. Firstly, the variations in abundance, growth, population structure and secondary production were evaluated. These species appeared in high densities in the beginning of the study period, with subsequent occasional high annual density peaks, while their secondary production was lower in dry years. The relationships between yearly fish abundance and the environmental variables were evaluated separately for both species using Spearman correlation analysis, considering the yearly abundance peaks for the whole population, juveniles and adults. Among the local climate patterns, precipitation, river runoff, salinity and temperature were used in the analyses, and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index and sea surface temperature (SST) were tested as large-scale factors. For P. microps, precipitation and NAO were the significant factors explaining abundance of the whole population, the adults and the juveniles as well. Regarding P. minutus, for the whole population, juveniles and adults river runoff was the significant predictor. The results for both species suggest a differential influence of climate patterns on the various life cycle stages, confirming also the importance of estuarine resident fishes as indicators of changes in local and large-scale climate patterns, related to global climate change.

  5. Bioindicators and reproductive effects of prolonged 17beta-oestradiol exposure in a marine fish, the sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus).

    PubMed

    Robinson, Craig D; Brown, Elaine; Craft, John A; Davies, Ian M; Megginson, Colin; Miller, Colin; Moffat, Colin F

    2007-03-30

    The effects of 17beta-oestradiol (E2) on mortality, growth rates, sexual maturation, hepatic vitellogenin (VTG) mRNA expression and reproductive success were investigated during an 8-month, water-borne exposure of a marine fish, the sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus). Indicators of oestrogenic exposure were investigated as predictors of population-level reproductive success. E2 exposure concentrations were <5 (below limit of detection), 16+/-3, 97+/-20 and 669+/-151 ng l(-1) (bootstrap means and standard errors). The carrier solvent (<20 microl l(-1) propan-2-ol) significantly reduced the rate of egg production compared to untreated fish, but did not significantly affect male VTG mRNA expression, brood size, or the other studied parameters. Fish exposed to 16 ng l(-1) E2 showed few adverse effects compared with solvent only-exposed fish. Exposure to 97 ng l(-1) E2 significantly inhibited male sexual maturation, induced male VTG mRNA expression and delayed spawning. The 97 ng l(-1) E2 exposed population also produced fertile eggs at a significantly slower rate than solvent controls; however, brood size, fertility and overall reproductive success were not significantly affected. Exposure to 669 ng l(-1) E2 significantly increased mortality, adversely affected haematological parameters and caused an almost total lack of reproductive activity, with both sexes failing to mature. Reproductive failure following exposure to 669 ng l(-1) E2 was evident in both sexes when crossed with untreated animals. This work indicates that marine fish are similarly as sensitive to oestrogenic exposure as freshwater fish, that exposure biomarkers such as VTG are more sensitive to exposure than are reproductive effects, and that the use of carrier solvents in long-term reproductive studies should be avoided. PMID:17289167

  6. Courtship Sounds Advertise Species Identity and Male Quality in Sympatric Pomatoschistus spp. Gobies

    PubMed Central

    Pedroso, Silvia S.; Barber, Iain; Svensson, Ola; Fonseca, Paulo J.; Amorim, Maria Clara P.

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic signals can encode crucial information about species identity and individual quality. We recorded and compared male courtship drum sounds of the sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus and the painted goby P. pictus and examined if they can function in species recognition within sympatric populations. We also examined which acoustic features are related to male quality and the factors that affect female courtship in the sand goby, to determine whether vocalisations potentially play a role in mate assessment. Drums produced by the painted goby showed significantly higher dominant frequencies, higher sound pulse repetition rates and longer intervals between sounds than those of the sand goby. In the sand goby, male quality was predicted by visual and acoustic courtship signals. Regression analyses showed that sound amplitude was a good predictor of male length, whereas the duration of nest behaviour and active calling rate (i.e. excluding silent periods) were good predictors of male condition factor and fat reserves respectively. In addition, the level of female courtship was predicted by male nest behaviour. The results suggest that the frequency and temporal patterns of sounds can encode species identity, whereas sound amplitude and calling activity reflects male size and fat reserves. Visual courtship duration (nest-related behaviour) also seems relevant to mate choice, since it reflects male condition and is related to female courtship. Our work suggests that acoustic communication can contribute to mate choice in the sand goby group, and invites further study. PMID:23755129

  7. Courtship sounds advertise species identity and male quality in sympatric Pomatoschistus spp. gobies.

    PubMed

    Pedroso, Silvia S; Barber, Iain; Svensson, Ola; Fonseca, Paulo J; Amorim, Maria Clara P

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic signals can encode crucial information about species identity and individual quality. We recorded and compared male courtship drum sounds of the sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus and the painted goby P. pictus and examined if they can function in species recognition within sympatric populations. We also examined which acoustic features are related to male quality and the factors that affect female courtship in the sand goby, to determine whether vocalisations potentially play a role in mate assessment. Drums produced by the painted goby showed significantly higher dominant frequencies, higher sound pulse repetition rates and longer intervals between sounds than those of the sand goby. In the sand goby, male quality was predicted by visual and acoustic courtship signals. Regression analyses showed that sound amplitude was a good predictor of male length, whereas the duration of nest behaviour and active calling rate (i.e. excluding silent periods) were good predictors of male condition factor and fat reserves respectively. In addition, the level of female courtship was predicted by male nest behaviour. The results suggest that the frequency and temporal patterns of sounds can encode species identity, whereas sound amplitude and calling activity reflects male size and fat reserves. Visual courtship duration (nest-related behaviour) also seems relevant to mate choice, since it reflects male condition and is related to female courtship. Our work suggests that acoustic communication can contribute to mate choice in the sand goby group, and invites further study. PMID:23755129

  8. Polymorphus minutus affects antitoxic responses of Gammarus roeseli exposed to cadmium.

    PubMed

    Gismondi, Eric; Beisel, Jean-Nicolas; Cossu-Leguille, Carole

    2012-01-01

    The acanthocephalan parasite Polymorphus minutus is a manipulator of its intermediate host Gammarus roeseli, which favours its transmission to the final host, a water bird. In contaminated environments, G. roeseli have to cope with two stresses, i.e. P. minutus infection and pollutants. As P. minutus survival relies on its host's survival, we investigated the influence of P. minutus on the antitoxic defence capacities and the energy reserves of G. roeseli females after cadmium exposure. In parallel, malondialdehyde, a toxic effect biomarker, was measured in G. roeseli females and in P. minutus. The results revealed that infected females displayed higher cell damage than uninfected ones, despite an apparent increase in reduced glutathione and metallothionein production. In fact, the increase of these antitoxic systems could be counterbalanced by carotenoid intake by the parasite, so that the overall defence system seemed less efficient in infected females than in uninfected ones. In addition, we demonstrated that cadmium induced cell damage in P. minutus, probably linked with cadmium accumulation in the parasite. Altogether, we observed a paradoxical pattern of responses suggesting that P. minutus increases cadmium toxicity in G. roeseli females although (i) it tends to increase several host antitoxic defence capacities and (ii) it bears part of the pollutant, as reflected by cell damage in the parasite. PMID:22911795

  9. Polymorphus Minutus Affects Antitoxic Responses of Gammarus Roeseli Exposed to Cadmium

    PubMed Central

    Gismondi, Eric; Beisel, Jean-Nicolas; Cossu-Leguille, Carole

    2012-01-01

    The acanthocephalan parasite Polymorphus minutus is a manipulator of its intermediate host Gammarus roeseli, which favours its transmission to the final host, a water bird. In contaminated environments, G. roeseli have to cope with two stresses, i.e. P. minutus infection and pollutants. As P. minutus survival relies on its host's survival, we investigated the influence of P. minutus on the antitoxic defence capacities and the energy reserves of G. roeseli females after cadmium exposure. In parallel, malondialdehyde, a toxic effect biomarker, was measured in G. roeseli females and in P. minutus. The results revealed that infected females displayed higher cell damage than uninfected ones, despite an apparent increase in reduced glutathione and metallothionein production. In fact, the increase of these antitoxic systems could be counterbalanced by carotenoid intake by the parasite, so that the overall defence system seemed less efficient in infected females than in uninfected ones. In addition, we demonstrated that cadmium induced cell damage in P. minutus, probably linked with cadmium accumulation in the parasite. Altogether, we observed a paradoxical pattern of responses suggesting that P. minutus increases cadmium toxicity in G. roeseli females although (i) it tends to increase several host antitoxic defence capacities and (ii) it bears part of the pollutant, as reflected by cell damage in the parasite. PMID:22911795

  10. Trombiculidae larvae (Neotrombicula autumnalis) infestation in a Little Bittern (Ixobrychus minutus) in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cakiroglu, Duygu; Pekmezci, Didem; Meral, Yücel; Gokalp, Güvenç; Acici, Mustafa

    2008-04-01

    With this case report, we describe Trombiculidae larvae (Neotrombicula autumnalis) infestation in a Little Bittern (Ixobrychus minutus) which was brought to our clinics by the Directorship of Environmental and Forestry authorities of Samsun, Turkey in April, 2007. The male Little Bittern (I. minutus), with a black back and crown, and black wings with a large white patch on each wing, had thick Trombiculidae larvae infestation both on its legs. There were neither dermatological nor general conditional changes observed, except its superficial larval attachments to the skin. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Trombiculidae larvae (N. autumnalis) infestation in a Little Bittern (I. minutus) in Turkey. PMID:18266010

  11. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in wild Pallas' cats.

    PubMed

    Brown, Meredith A; Munkhtsog, Bariushaa; Troyer, Jennifer L; Ross, Steve; Sellers, Rani; Fine, Amanda E; Swanson, William F; Roelke, Melody E; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2010-03-15

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a feline lentivirus related to HIV, causes immune dysfunction in domestic and wild cats. The Pallas' cat is the only species from Asia known to harbor a species-specific strain of FIV designated FIV(Oma) in natural populations. Here, a 25% seroprevalence of FIV is reported from 28 wild Mongolian Pallas' cats sampled from 2000 to 2008. Phylogenetic analysis of proviral RT-Pol from eight FIV(Oma) isolates from Mongolia, Russia, China and Kazakhstan reveals a unique monophyletic lineage of the virus within the Pallas' cat population, most closely related to the African cheetah and leopard FIV strains. Histopathological examination of lymph node and spleen from infected and uninfected Pallas' cats suggests that FIV(Oma) causes immune depletion in its' native host. PMID:19926144

  12. Visceral urate deposition in a little bittern (Ixobrychus minutus)

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Morad; Minoosh, Zahra; Haghighi, Siavosh

    2015-01-01

    Visceral urate deposition (visceral gout) is a common finding during post-mortem examination of poultry. Rare cases of visceral gout may occur in wild birds. A rare case of visceral urate deposition in a little bittern (Ixobrychus minutus) is reported here. In May 2013, carcass of a little bittern was submitted for necropsy to the Clinic of Poultry Diseases (Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Razi University) by local authorities of Iran Department of Environment. At necropsy, white chalky deposits were observed on the heart and thoracic air sacs of the bird. To confirm the presence of urates, chalky deposits were collected from pericardium and tested by muerxide test. Heart and kidneys were sampled, preserved in 10% neutral-buffered formalin solution and submitted to laboratory for histopathology. Murexide test was positive for presence of uric acid in chalky deposits collected from pericardium. Light microscopy of affected organs confirmed the condition as visceral urate deposition. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the occurrence of visceral urate deposition in a little bittern. PMID:26261716

  13. Female Sex Pheromone in Trails of the Minute Pirate Bug, Orius minutus (L).

    PubMed

    Maeda, Taro; Fujiwara-Tsujii, Nao; Yasui, Hiroe; Matsuyama, Shigeru

    2016-05-01

    Orius minutus (L.) (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) is a natural enemy of agricultural pests such as thrips, aphids, and various newly hatched insect juveniles. In this study, we conducted 1) behavioral assays for evidence of contact sex pheromone activity in trails of O. minutus, and 2) chemical analysis to identify the essential chemical components of the trails. Males showed arrestment to trails of mature virgin females but not to trails from either conspecific nymphs or immature females. Females also showed arrestment to trails from conspecific males, although the response was weaker than that exhibited by males. The activity of female trails lasted for at least 46 h after deposition. Males showed a response irrespective of mating experience. Following confirmation that a contact sex pheromone was present in the trails of female O. minutus, we used a bioassay-driven approach to isolate the active chemicals. After fractionation on silica gel, the n-hexane fraction was found to be biologically active to males. A major compound in the active fraction was (Z)-9-nonacosene; this compound was found only in trail extracts of mature virgin females. Synthetic (Z)-9-nonacosene arrested O. minutus males, indicating that it is the major active component of the contact sex pheromone in the trails of female O. minutus. PMID:27184908

  14. New records of Orussus minutus Middlekauff, 1983 (Hymenoptera: Orussidae) represent a significant western range expansion

    PubMed Central

    Tripodi, Amber; Szalanski, Allen; Dowling, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Orussus minutus is an uncommonly collected parasitoid sawfly known from the eastern United States. New information We report specimens Orussus minutus Middlekauff, 1983, from Arkansas, Iowa, Minnesota, and Manitoba, which represent new state and province records and significantly expand the known range of the species west from previous records; provide collection information for unpublished specimens housed in the United States National Museum collection, which includes new state records for West Virginia and Michigan; and report two specimens housed in the Biological Museum at Lund University that represent new state records for Connecticut. PMID:26379466

  15. ZOOSPOROGENESIS, MORPHOLOGY, ULTRASTRUCTURE, PIGMENT COMPOSITION, AND PHYLOGENETIC POSITION OF TRACHYDISCUS MINUTUS (EUSTIGMATOPHYCEAE, HETEROKONTOPHYTA)(1).

    PubMed

    Přibyl, Pavel; Eliáš, Marek; Cepák, Vladislav; Lukavský, Jaromír; Kaštánek, Petr

    2012-02-01

    The traditional order Mischococcales (Xanthophyceae) is polyphyletic with some original members now classified in a separate class, Eustigmatophyceae. However, most mischococcalean species have not yet been studied in detail, raising the possibility that many of them still remain misplaced. We established an algal culture (strain CCALA 838) determined as one such species, Trachydiscus minutus (Bourr.) H. Ettl, and studied the morphology, ultrastructure, life cycle, pigment composition, and phylogeny using the 18S rRNA gene. We discovered a zoosporic part of the life cycle of this alga. Zoospore production was induced by darkness, suppressed by light, and was temperature dependent. The zoospores possessed one flagellum covered with mastigonemes and exhibited a basal swelling, but a stigma was missing. Ultrastructural investigations of vegetative cells revealed plastids lacking both a connection to the nuclear envelope and a girdle lamella. Moreover, we described biogenesis of oil bodies on the ultrastructural level. Photosynthetic pigments of T. minutus included as the major carotenoids violaxanthin and vaucheriaxanthin (ester); we detected no chl c. An 18S rRNA gene-based phylogenetic analysis placed T. minutus in a clade with species of the genus Pseudostaurastrum and with Goniochloris sculpta Geitler, which form a sister branch to initially studied Eustigmatophyceae. In summary, our results are inconsistent with classifying T. minutus as a xanthophycean and indicate that it is a member of a novel deep lineage of the class Eustigmatophyceae. PMID:27009667

  16. Morphological responses of mitochondria-rich cells to hypersaline environment in the Australian mudskipper, Periophthalmus minutus.

    PubMed

    Itoki, Naoko; Sakamoto, Tatsuya; Hayashi, Masahiro; Takeda, Tatsusuke; Ishimatsu, Atsushi

    2012-07-01

    A population of the Australian mudskipper, Periophthalmus minutus, was found to inhabit mudflat that remained uncovered by tide for more than 20 days in some neap tides. During these prolonged emersion periods, P. minutus retreated into burrows containing little water, with a highest recorded salinity of 84 ± 7.4 psu (practical salinity unit). To explore the mechanical basis for this salinity tolerance in P. minutus, we determined the densities of mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs) in the inner and outer opercula and the pectoral fin skin, in comparison with P. takita, [corrected] from an adjacent lower intertidal habitat, and studied morphological responses of MRCs to exposure to freshwater (FW), and 100% (34-35 psu) and 200% seawater (SW). Periophthalmus minutus showed a higher density of MRCs in the inner operculum (3365 ± 821 cells mm(-2)) than in the pectoral fin skin (1428 ± 161) or the outer operculum (1100 ± 986), all of which were higher than the MRC densities in p. takita. [corrected]. No mortality occurred in 100% or 200% SW, but half of the fish died within four days in FW. Neither 200% SW nor FW exposure affected MRC density. Transfer to 200% SW doubled MRC size after 9-14 days with no change in the proportion of MRCs with apical pits or plasma sodium concentration. In contrast, transfer to FW resulted in a rapid closing of pits and a significant reduction in plasma sodium concentration. These results suggest that P. minutus has evolved morphological and physiological mechanisms to withstand hypersaline conditions that they may encounter in their habitat. PMID:22775253

  17. Cantharimide dimers from the Chinese blister beetle, Mylabris phalerate PALLAS.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Takafumi; Jinpo, Katsuaki; Noda, Naoki

    2007-01-01

    Five cantharidin-related compounds were isolated from the Chinese blister beetle, Mylabris phalerate PALLAS (Meloidae). Their structures were determined based on spectroscopic and chemical evidence. Three of them were identified as cantharimide dimers, which consist of two units of cantharimide combined with a tri-, tetra-, or penta-methylene group. PMID:17202708

  18. Molecular characterization and distribution of Haemoproteus minutus (Haemosporida, Haemoproteidae): a pathogenic avian parasite.

    PubMed

    Palinauskas, Vaidas; Iezhova, Tatjana A; Križanauskienė, Asta; Markovets, Mikhail Yu; Bensch, Staffan; Valkiūnas, Gediminas

    2013-08-01

    Recently, the lineage hTURDUS2 of Haemoproteus minutus (Haemosporida, Haemoproteidae) was reported to cause mortality in captive parrots. This parasite lineage is widespread and prevalent in the blackbird Turdus merula throughout its entire distribution range. Species identity of other closely related lineages recently reported in dead parrots remains unclear, but will be important to determine for a better understanding of the epidemiology of haemoproteosis. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based and microscopic methods, we analyzed 265 blood samples collected from 52 species of wild birds in Eurasia (23 samples from Kamchatka Peninsula, 73 from Sakhalin Island, 150 from Ekaterinburg and 19 from Irkutsk regions of Russia). Single infections of the lineages hTURDUS2 (hosts are redwing Turdus iliacus and fieldfare Turdus pilaris), hTUPHI1 (song thrush Turdus philomelos) and hTUCHR01 (fieldfare, redwing, song thrush and brown-headed thrush Turdus chysolaus) were detected. We identified species of these haemoproteids based on morphology of their blood stages and conclude that these lineages belong to H. minutus, a widespread parasite of different species of thrushes (genus Turdus), which serve as reservoir hosts of this haemoproteid infection. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the lineages hTURDUS2, hTUCHR01 and hTUPHI1 of H. minutus are closely related to Haemoproteus pallidus (lineages hPFC1 and hCOLL2), Haemoproteus pallidulus (hSYAT03), and Haemoproteus sp. (hMEUND3); genetic distance among their mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) lineages is small (<1% or<4 nucleotides). All these blood parasites are different in many morphological characters, but are similar due to one feature, which is the pale staining of their macrogametocytes' cytoplasm with Giemsa. Because of the recent publications about mortality caused by the lineages hTUPHI1 and hTURDUS2 of H. minutus in captive parrots in Europe, H. minutus and the closely related H. pallidus and H. pallidulus are

  19. High levels of diversity uncovered in a widespread nominal taxon: continental phylogeography of the neotropical tree frog Dendropsophus minutus.

    PubMed

    Gehara, Marcelo; Crawford, Andrew J; Orrico, Victor G D; Rodríguez, Ariel; Lötters, Stefan; Fouquet, Antoine; Barrientos, Lucas S; Brusquetti, Francisco; De la Riva, Ignacio; Ernst, Raffael; Urrutia, Giuseppe Gagliardi; Glaw, Frank; Guayasamin, Juan M; Hölting, Monique; Jansen, Martin; Kok, Philippe J R; Kwet, Axel; Lingnau, Rodrigo; Lyra, Mariana; Moravec, Jiří; Pombal, José P; Rojas-Runjaic, Fernando J M; Schulze, Arne; Señaris, J Celsa; Solé, Mirco; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut; Twomey, Evan; Haddad, Celio F B; Vences, Miguel; Köhler, Jörn

    2014-01-01

    Species distributed across vast continental areas and across major biomes provide unique model systems for studies of biotic diversification, yet also constitute daunting financial, logistic and political challenges for data collection across such regions. The tree frog Dendropsophus minutus (Anura: Hylidae) is a nominal species, continentally distributed in South America, that may represent a complex of multiple species, each with a more limited distribution. To understand the spatial pattern of molecular diversity throughout the range of this species complex, we obtained DNA sequence data from two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and the 16S rhibosomal gene (16S) for 407 samples of D. minutus and closely related species distributed across eleven countries, effectively comprising the entire range of the group. We performed phylogenetic and spatially explicit phylogeographic analyses to assess the genetic structure of lineages and infer ancestral areas. We found 43 statistically supported, deep mitochondrial lineages, several of which may represent currently unrecognized distinct species. One major clade, containing 25 divergent lineages, includes samples from the type locality of D. minutus. We defined that clade as the D. minutus complex. The remaining lineages together with the D. minutus complex constitute the D. minutus species group. Historical analyses support an Amazonian origin for the D. minutus species group with a subsequent dispersal to eastern Brazil where the D. minutus complex originated. According to our dataset, a total of eight mtDNA lineages have ranges >100,000 km2. One of them occupies an area of almost one million km2 encompassing multiple biomes. Our results, at a spatial scale and resolution unprecedented for a Neotropical vertebrate, confirm that widespread amphibian species occur in lowland South America, yet at the same time a large proportion of cryptic diversity still remains to be discovered. PMID:25208078

  20. High Levels of Diversity Uncovered in a Widespread Nominal Taxon: Continental Phylogeography of the Neotropical Tree Frog Dendropsophus minutus

    PubMed Central

    Gehara, Marcelo; Crawford, Andrew J.; Orrico, Victor G. D.; Rodríguez, Ariel; Lötters, Stefan; Fouquet, Antoine; Barrientos, Lucas S.; Brusquetti, Francisco; De la Riva, Ignacio; Ernst, Raffael; Urrutia, Giuseppe Gagliardi; Glaw, Frank; Guayasamin, Juan M.; Hölting, Monique; Jansen, Martin; Kok, Philippe J. R.; Kwet, Axel; Lingnau, Rodrigo; Lyra, Mariana; Moravec, Jiří; Pombal, José P.; Rojas-Runjaic, Fernando J. M.; Schulze, Arne; Señaris, J. Celsa; Solé, Mirco; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut; Twomey, Evan; Haddad, Celio F. B.; Vences, Miguel; Köhler, Jörn

    2014-01-01

    Species distributed across vast continental areas and across major biomes provide unique model systems for studies of biotic diversification, yet also constitute daunting financial, logistic and political challenges for data collection across such regions. The tree frog Dendropsophus minutus (Anura: Hylidae) is a nominal species, continentally distributed in South America, that may represent a complex of multiple species, each with a more limited distribution. To understand the spatial pattern of molecular diversity throughout the range of this species complex, we obtained DNA sequence data from two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and the 16S rhibosomal gene (16S) for 407 samples of D. minutus and closely related species distributed across eleven countries, effectively comprising the entire range of the group. We performed phylogenetic and spatially explicit phylogeographic analyses to assess the genetic structure of lineages and infer ancestral areas. We found 43 statistically supported, deep mitochondrial lineages, several of which may represent currently unrecognized distinct species. One major clade, containing 25 divergent lineages, includes samples from the type locality of D. minutus. We defined that clade as the D. minutus complex. The remaining lineages together with the D. minutus complex constitute the D. minutus species group. Historical analyses support an Amazonian origin for the D. minutus species group with a subsequent dispersal to eastern Brazil where the D. minutus complex originated. According to our dataset, a total of eight mtDNA lineages have ranges >100,000 km2. One of them occupies an area of almost one million km2 encompassing multiple biomes. Our results, at a spatial scale and resolution unprecedented for a Neotropical vertebrate, confirm that widespread amphibian species occur in lowland South America, yet at the same time a large proportion of cryptic diversity still remains to be discovered. PMID:25208078

  1. The shape and surface variation of 2 Pallas from the Hubble Space Telescope.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, B E; Thomas, P C; Bauer, J M; Li, J-Y; McFadden, L A; Mutchler, M J; Radcliffe, S C; Rivkin, A S; Russell, C T; Parker, J Wm; Stern, S A

    2009-10-01

    We obtained Hubble Space Telescope images of 2 Pallas in September 2007 that reveal distinct color and albedo variations across the surface of this large asteroid. Pallas's shape is an ellipsoid with radii of 291 (+/-9), 278 (+/-9), and 250 (+/-9) kilometers, implying a density of 2400 (+/-250) kilograms per cubic meter-a value consistent with a body that formed from water-rich material. Our observations are consistent with the presence of an impact feature, 240 (+/-25) kilometers in diameter, within Pallas's ultraviolet-dark terrain. Our observations imply that Pallas is an intact protoplanet that has undergone impact excavation and probable internal alteration. PMID:19815773

  2. Dronedarone-digoxin interaction in PALLAS: A foxglove connection?

    PubMed Central

    ElMaghawry, Mohamed; Farouk, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    In the Permanent Atrial Fibrillation Outcome Study Using Dronedarone on Top of Standard Therapy (PALLAS) study, dronedarone use was associated with an excess risk of stroke, cardiovascular death and hospitalizations. However, an increased level in the serum digoxin level was observed in the dronedarone arm, as it is a potent inhibitor of the P-glycoprotein transport system. The PALLAS subanalysis suggests that digoxin-dronedarone interaction was responsible for the higher arrhythmic death rate observed in the trial. These data are consistent with several other studies that demonstrate the potential hazard of the use of digoxin in heart failure and/or atrial fibrillation. One must consider other safer alternatives before prescribing digoxin in atrial fibrillation patients. PMID:25830148

  3. Environmental variables, habitat discontinuity and life history shaping the genetic structure of Pomatoschistus marmoratus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Wangüemert, Mercedes; Vergara-Chen, Carlos

    2014-06-01

    Coastal lagoons are semi-isolated ecosystems exposed to wide fluctuations of environmental conditions and showing habitat fragmentation. These features may play an important role in separating species into different populations, even at small spatial scales. In this study, we evaluate the concordance between mitochondrial (previous published data) and nuclear data analyzing the genetic variability of Pomatoschistus marmoratus in five localities, inside and outside the Mar Menor coastal lagoon (SE Spain) using eight microsatellites. High genetic diversity and similar levels of allele richness were observed across all loci and localities, although significant genic and genotypic differentiation was found between populations inside and outside the lagoon. In contrast to the F ST values obtained from previous mitochondrial DNA analyses (control region), the microsatellite data exhibited significant differentiation among samples inside the Mar Menor and between lagoonal and marine samples. This pattern was corroborated using Cavalli-Sforza genetic distances. The habitat fragmentation inside the coastal lagoon and among lagoon and marine localities could be acting as a barrier to gene flow and contributing to the observed genetic structure. Our results from generalized additive models point a significant link between extreme lagoonal environmental conditions (mainly maximum salinity) and P. marmoratus genetic composition. Thereby, these environmental features could be also acting on genetic structure of coastal lagoon populations of P. marmoratus favoring their genetic divergence. The mating strategy of P. marmoratus could be also influencing our results obtained from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. Therefore, a special consideration must be done in the selection of the DNA markers depending on the reproductive strategy of the species.

  4. Acute effects of copper and mercury on the estuarine fish Pomatoschistus microps: linking biomarkers to behaviour.

    PubMed

    Vieira, L R; Gravato, C; Soares, A M V M; Morgado, F; Guilhermino, L

    2009-09-01

    The main objective of the present study was to investigate possible links between biomarkers and swimming performance in the estuarine fish Pomatoschistus microps acutely exposed to metals (copper and mercury). In independent bioassays, P. microps juveniles were individually exposed for 96 h to sub-lethal concentrations of copper or mercury. At the end of the assays, swimming performance of fish was measured using a device specially developed for epibenthic fish (SPEDE). Furthermore, the following biomarkers were measured: lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the activity of the enzymes acetylcholinesterase (AChE), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glutathione S-transferases (GST), 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). LC(50)s of copper and mercury (dissolved throughout metal concentrations) at 96h were 568 microg L(-1), and 62 microg L(-1), respectively. Significant and concentration-dependent effects of both metals on swimming resistance and covered distance against water flow were found at concentrations equal or higher than 50 microg L(-1) for copper and 3 microg L(-1) for mercury (dissolved throughout metal concentrations). These results indicate that SPEDE was efficacious to quantify behavioural alterations in the epibenthic fish P. microps at ecologically relevant concentrations. Significant alterations by both metals on biomarkers were found including: inhibition of AChE and EROD activities, induction of LDH, GST and anti-oxidant enzymes, and increased LPO levels, with LOEC values ranging from 25 to 200 microg L(-1), for copper and from 3 to 25 microg L(-1) for mercury (dissolved throughout metal concentrations). Furthermore, significant and positive correlations were found between some biomarkers (AChE and EROD) and behavioural parameters, while negative correlations were found for others (LPO, anti-oxidant enzymes and LDH) suggesting that disruption of cholinergic

  5. The microwave spectra of the asteroids Pallas, Vesta, and Hygiea

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, K.J.; Lamphear, E.J.; Webster, W.J. Jr.; Lowman, P.D. Jr.; Seidelmann, P.K.; NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD; Naval Observatory, Washington, DC )

    1989-07-01

    Microwave observations of Pallas, Vesta, and Hygiea at 2 and 6 cm wavelength yield brightness temperatures that are much lower than would be expected for a rapidly rotating blackbody. An analysis of the wavelength dependence of the observed brightness temperatures shows that, as was found for Ceres, these asteroids may be covered by a layer of material with the physical properties of finely divided dust. Models with layer depths of greater than 6 cm (Pallas), 6 cm (Vesta), and 8 cm (Hygiea) were found to represent well the variation in emissivity at radio wavelengths. The properties of the underlying layer are not well constrained by the microwave observations. It does appear that the real part of the dielectric vector for the substrate is similar to that of basaltic rock. Major compositional changes, if any, must take place at depths greater than about 10 cm. No evidence for water ice was found. Disk-resolved observations of the 2-cm emission of Vesta yield physical dimensions consistent with the recently published speckle-interferometry results. 21 refs.

  6. The microwave spectra of the asteroids Pallas, Vesta, and Hygiea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, K. J.; Lamphear, E. J.; Webster, W. J., Jr.; Lowman, P. D., Jr.; Seidelmann, P. K.

    1989-01-01

    Microwave observations of Pallas, Vesta, and Hygiea at 2 and 6 cm wavelength yield brightness temperatures that are much lower than would be expected for a rapidly rotating blackbody. An analysis of the wavelength dependence of the observed brightness temperatures shows that, as was found for Ceres, these asteroids may be covered by a layer of material with the physical properties of finely divided dust. Models with layer depths of greater than 6 cm (Pallas), 6 cm (Vesta), and 8 cm (Hygiea) were found to represent well the variation in emissivity at radio wavelengths. The properties of the underlying layer are not well constrained by the microwave observations. It does appear that the real part of the dielectric vector for the substrate is similar to that of basaltic rock. Major compositional changes, if any, must take place at depths greater than about 10 cm. No evidence for water ice was found. Disk-resolved observations of the 2-cm emission of Vesta yield physical dimensions consistent with the recently published speckle-interferometry results.

  7. Ellipsomyxa gobii (Myxozoa: Ceratomyxidae) in the common goby Pomatoschistus microps (Teleostei: Gobiidae) uses Nereis spp. (Annelida: Polychaeta) as invertebrate hosts.

    PubMed

    Køie, Marianne; Whipps, Christopher M; Kent, Michael L

    2004-03-01

    Nereis diversicolor O.F. Müller and N. succinea Frey et Leuckart (Polychaeta, Nereidae) living in brackish shallow areas in Denmark are naturally infected with tetractinomyxon actinospores. Infected Nereis spp. were experimentally fed to various potential fish hosts, and the actinosporean stages developed into myxosporean stages of Ellipsomyxa gobii Køie, 2003 (Ceratomyxidae) in the gallbladder of the common goby Pomatoschistus microps (Krøyer) (Gobiidae). The European eel Anguilla anguilla (L.), three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus L., small sand eel Ammodytes tobianus L., flounder Platichthys flesus (L.), European plaice Pleuronectes platessa L. and common sole Solea solea (L.) did not become experimentally infected. In Danish shallow brackish areas P. microps is naturally infected with E. gobii, in some areas with a prevalence >90%. We compared small subunit ribosomal DNA sequences of the actinosporean with E. gobii from P. microps. Sequences were identical, which further verifies that both forms belong to the same organism. This is the first myxozoan two-host life cycle in the marine environment. PMID:15139372

  8. Uroptychus minutus Benedict, 1902 and a closely related new species (Crustacea: Anomura: Chirostylidae) from the western Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Baba, Keiji; Wicksten, Mary

    2015-01-01

    A new squat lobster, Uroptychus marissae, is described based upon two specimens taken associated with the antipatharian Tanacetipathes sp. from the northern Gulf of Mexico, at a depth of about 90 m. It closely resembles U. minutus Benedict, 1902, known only from the type material from off Trinidad. The original description is so brief that an opportunity is taken here to redescribe it to help discriminate between the two species. PMID:26249067

  9. The complete mitochondrial genome of Angaracris barabensis Pallas (Orthoptera: Acridoidea).

    PubMed

    Han, Haibin; Zhou, Xiaorong; Pang, Baoping

    2016-05-01

    Angaracris barabensis Pallas (Orthoptera: Acridoidea) is one of important pests in the grasslands in northern China. The complete mitochondrial genome of this insect was sequenced. This genome is 15,930 bp long, with an AT content of 75.5%, containing 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes and a AT-rich region. All genes were arranged in the same order as most of other Acridoidea. All 13 mitochondrial PCGs share the start codon ATN, and the usual termination codons (TAA) are found from 13 protein-coding genes, except for ND2, COII, ND3 (T). All of the 22 typical animal tRNA genes were found in A. barabensis mt-genome, and most of the tRNAs could be folded into the classic cloverleaf secondary structure except for tRNA-Ser (AGN), which lacks the dihydrouracil (DHU) stem. The sizes of the large and small ribosomal RNA genes are 1319 and 830 bp, respectively. The AT content of the AT-rich region is 85.6%. PMID:25317639

  10. Water, heat, bombardment: The evolution and current state of (2) Pallas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Britney Elyce; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.

    2012-03-01

    Using recent constraints on the shape and density of (2) Pallas, we model the thermal evolution of the body as a function of possible formation scenarios that differ in the time of formation and composition assumed for the protoplanet. We develop possible evolution scenarios for Pallas and compare these to available observations. Our models imply two distinct types of end states: those with a hydrosphere and silicate core, and those where the body is dominated by hydrated silicates. We show that for an initial ice-rock mixture with density 2400 kg/m3, Pallas is likely to differentiate and form a rocky core and icy shell. If Pallas accreted from material with lower initial ice content, our models indicate that Pallas’s interior is dominated by hydrated silicates, possibly with a core of anhydrous silicates. We also investigate the possibility that Pallas’s initial density was similar to Ceres’, i.e., that it formed from an ice-rock mixture of density 2100 kg/m3. This implies that the object lost a significant fraction of its hydrosphere as a consequence of thermal oscillations and impacts, a distinct possibility given its density, evidence for impact excavation and current orbital parameters. Its blue spectral slope and observed surface variation may also be evidence for such a process (e.g. Jewitt, D.C. [2002]. Astron. J. 123, 1039-1049; Schmidt, B.E. et al. [2009]. Science 326, 275-279; Yang, B., Jewitt, D. [2010]. Astron. J. 140, 692-698). If Pallas still contains a thin layer of water ice, then that layer corresponds to the bottom of a former icy shell, and as such, could be enriched in non-ice materials such as organics. We evaluate the likeliness of each scenario and show the general magnitude of water loss processes for Pallas. Given a balance of observational and theoretical constraints, we favor a water-rich accretion for Pallas that implies that Pallas has lost a significant fraction of its initial water content through exogenic processes since its

  11. Non-specific manipulation of gammarid behaviour by P. minutus parasite enhances their predation by definitive bird hosts.

    PubMed

    Jacquin, Lisa; Mori, Quentin; Pause, Mickaël; Steffen, Mélanie; Medoc, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Trophically-transmitted parasites often change the phenotype of their intermediate hosts in ways that increase their vulnerability to definitive hosts, hence favouring transmission. As a "collateral damage", manipulated hosts can also become easy prey for non-host predators that are dead ends for the parasite, and which are supposed to play no role in transmission strategies. Interestingly, infection with the acanthocephalan parasite Polymorphus minutus has been shown to reduce the vulnerability of its gammarid intermediate hosts to non-host predators, whose presence triggered the behavioural alterations expected to favour trophic transmission to bird definitive hosts. Whilst the behavioural response of infected gammarids to the presence of definitive hosts remains to be investigated, this suggests that trophic transmission might be promoted by non-host predation risk. We conducted microcosm experiments to test whether the behaviour of P. minutus-infected gammarids was specific to the type of predator (i.e. mallard as definitive host and fish as non-host), and mesocosm experiments to test whether trophic transmission to bird hosts was influenced by non-host predation risk. Based on the behaviours we investigated (predator avoidance, activity, geotaxis, conspecific attraction), we found no evidence for a specific fine-tuned response in infected gammarids, which behaved similarly whatever the type of predator (mallard or fish). During predation tests, fish predation risk did not influence the differential predation of mallards that over-consumed infected gammarids compared to uninfected individuals. Overall, our results bring support for a less sophisticated scenario of manipulation than previously expected, combining chronic behavioural alterations with phasic behavioural alterations triggered by the chemical and physical cues coming from any type of predator. Given the wide dispersal range of waterbirds (the definitive hosts of P. minutus), such a manipulation

  12. Non-Specific Manipulation of Gammarid Behaviour by P. minutus Parasite Enhances Their Predation by Definitive Bird Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Jacquin, Lisa; Mori, Quentin; Pause, Mickaël; Steffen, Mélanie; Medoc, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Trophically-transmitted parasites often change the phenotype of their intermediate hosts in ways that increase their vulnerability to definitive hosts, hence favouring transmission. As a “collateral damage”, manipulated hosts can also become easy prey for non-host predators that are dead ends for the parasite, and which are supposed to play no role in transmission strategies. Interestingly, infection with the acanthocephalan parasite Polymorphus minutus has been shown to reduce the vulnerability of its gammarid intermediate hosts to non-host predators, whose presence triggered the behavioural alterations expected to favour trophic transmission to bird definitive hosts. Whilst the behavioural response of infected gammarids to the presence of definitive hosts remains to be investigated, this suggests that trophic transmission might be promoted by non-host predation risk. We conducted microcosm experiments to test whether the behaviour of P. minutus-infected gammarids was specific to the type of predator (i.e. mallard as definitive host and fish as non-host), and mesocosm experiments to test whether trophic transmission to bird hosts was influenced by non-host predation risk. Based on the behaviours we investigated (predator avoidance, activity, geotaxis, conspecific attraction), we found no evidence for a specific fine-tuned response in infected gammarids, which behaved similarly whatever the type of predator (mallard or fish). During predation tests, fish predation risk did not influence the differential predation of mallards that over-consumed infected gammarids compared to uninfected individuals. Overall, our results bring support for a less sophisticated scenario of manipulation than previously expected, combining chronic behavioural alterations with phasic behavioural alterations triggered by the chemical and physical cues coming from any type of predator. Given the wide dispersal range of waterbirds (the definitive hosts of P. minutus), such a manipulation

  13. Haemoproteus minutus and Haemoproteus belopolskyi (Haemoproteidae): complete sporogony in the biting midge Culicoides impunctatus (Ceratopogonidae), with implications on epidemiology of haemoproteosis.

    PubMed

    Ziegytė, Rita; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Bernotienė, Rasa; Iezhova, Tatjana A; Valkiūnas, Gediminas

    2014-10-01

    Species of Haemoproteus (Haemoproteidae) are cosmopolitan haemosporidian parasites, some of which cause severe diseases in birds. Numerous recent studies address molecular characterization, distribution and genetic diversity of haemoproteids. However, the information about their vectors is scarce. We investigated sporogonic development of two widespread species of Haemoproteus (Haemoproteus minutus and Haemoproteus belopolskyi) in the experimentally infected biting midge Culicoides impunctatus. Wild-caught flies were allowed to take blood meals on naturally infected common blackbirds Turdus merula and icterine warblers Hippolais icterina harboring mature gametocytes of H. minutus (lineage hTURDUS2) and H. belopolskyi (hHIICT1), respectively. The engorged flies were collected, transported to the laboratory, held at 15-18°C, and dissected daily in order to obtain ookinetes, oocysts and sporozoites. Mature ookinetes of H. minutus developed blisteringly rapidly; they were numerous in the midgut content between 1 and 4 h post exposure. Ookinetes of H. belopolskyi developed slower and were reported 1 day post exposure (dpe). Oocysts of both parasites were seen in the midgut wall 3-4 dpe. Sporozoites of H. minutus and H. belopolskyi were first observed in the salivary glands preparations 7 dpe. The percentage of experimentally infected flies with sporozoites of H. minutus was 82.1% and 91.7% with H. belopolskyi. In accordance with microscopy data, polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing confirmed presence of the corresponding parasite lineages in experimentally infected biting midges. Sporogonic stages of these parasites were described and illustrated. This study indicates that C. impunctatus is involved in the transmission of deadly H. minutus, which kills captive parrots in Europe. This biting midge is an important vector of avian haemoproteids and worth more attention in epidemiology research of avian haemoproteosis. PMID:25102434

  14. Effects of multi-stressors on juveniles of the marine fish Pomatoschistus microps: Gold nanoparticles, microplastics and temperature.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Pedro; Fonte, Elsa; Soares, M Elisa; Carvalho, Felix; Guilhermino, Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge on multi-stressors effects required for environmental and human risk assessments is still limited. This study investigated the combined effects of gold nanoparticles (Au-NP), microplastics (MP) and temperature increase on Pomatoschistus microps, an important prey for several higher level predators, including some species edible to humans. Four null hypotheses were tested: H01: P. microps juveniles do not take up Au-NP through the water; H02: Au-NP (ppb range) are not toxic to juveniles; H03: the presence of MP do not influence the effects of Au-NP on juveniles; H04: temperature increase (20-25°C) does not change the effects of the tested chemicals on juveniles. Wild juveniles were acclimated to laboratory conditions. Then, they were exposed to Au-NP (≈5nm diameter) and MP (polyethylene spheres, 1-5μm diameter), alone and in mixture, at 20°C and 25°C, in semi-static conditions. After 96h of exposure to Au-NP, fish had gold in their body (0.129-0.546μg/g w.w.) leading to H01 refusal. Exposure to Au-NP alone caused a predatory performance decrease (≈-39%, p<0.05) leading to H02 refusal. MP did not change the Au-NP toxicity leading to H03 acceptance. Temperature rise significantly increased the concentration of gold in fish exposed to Au-NP (≈2.3 fold), and interacted with chemical effects (e.g. glutathione S-transferases activity) leading to H04 refusal. Thus, the results of this study highlight the importance of further investigating the effects of multi-stressors on marine fish, particularly the effects of temperature on the uptake, biotransformation, elimination and effects of nanoparticles and microplastics, either alone or in mixture. This knowledge is most important to improve the basis for environmental and human risk assessments of these environmental contaminants of high concern. PMID:26642093

  15. Long-term monitoring on the occurrence of a myxosporean parasite Kudoa camarguensis (Myxosporean) on the common goby (Teleostei, pisces) Pomatoschistus microps.

    PubMed

    Pampoulie, C; Marques, A; Rosecchi, E; Bouchereau, J L; Crivelli, A J

    2001-05-01

    The evolution of a host-parasite system composed of Pomatoschistus microps-Kudoa camarguensis was investigated in the Vaccarès lagoon (Rhĵne river Delta, France) from 1993 to 1997. During this long-term monitoring, centennial flooding of the Rhĵne river occurred, leading to an inrush of about 110 million m3 of freshwater in the Vaccarès lagoon. The salinity drastically dropped from 14 to 5 g l(-1) in 1 wk. We observed that the annual prevalence and abundance of the myxosporean parasite decreased from 12.18 in 1993 to 3.7% in 1997 and from 1.10 in 1993 to 0.27 in 1997, respectively. Here, we discuss the possible reasons for the rapid decline of this host-parasite system following the flood. PMID:11411646

  16. Effects of microplastics on juveniles of the common goby (Pomatoschistus microps): confusion with prey, reduction of the predatory performance and efficiency, and possible influence of developmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Carlos de Sá, Luís; Luís, Luís G; Guilhermino, Lúcia

    2015-01-01

    Microplastics (MP) are ubiquitous contaminants able to cause adverse effects on organisms. Three hypotheses were tested here: early Pomatoschistus microps juveniles can ingest MP; the presence of MP may reduce fish predatory performance and efficiency; developmental conditions may influence the preyselection capability of fish. Predatory bioassays were carried out with juveniles from two estuaries with differences in environmental conditions: Minho (M-est) and Lima (L-est) Rivers (NW Iberian coast). Polyethylene MP spheres (3 types) alone and in combination with Artemia nauplii were offered as prey.All the MP types were ingested, suggesting confusion with food. Under simultaneous exposure to MP and Artemia, L-est fish showed a significant reduction of the predatory performance (65%) and efficiency (upto 50%), while M-est fish did not, suggesting that developmental conditions may influence the preyselection capability of fish. The MP-induced reduction of food intake may decrease individual and population fitness. PMID:25463733

  17. New Light on the Evolutionary History of the Common Goby (Pomatoschistus microps) with an Emphasis on Colonization Processes in the Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Tougard, Christelle; Folly, Joy; Berrebi, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Through the study of the phylogeographic structure and demographic history of the common goby, Pomatoschistus microps, the influence of Quaternary climatic changes on the evolutionary history of coastal and marine fishes is investigated. Because of its sedentary life cycle in Mediterranean lagoons, it is also a good model to study more specifically if the formation of lagoons during the Holocene had an impact on population structure and demography. Mitochondrial sequences of Northeastern Atlantic and Western Mediterranean specimens were used for phylogenetic reconstructions as well as divergence time estimates, demographic history and population structure analyses. Pomatoschistus microps was a highly supported monophyletic clade including four lineages. It may have appeared 77,000 yr ago, and the divergence of its lineages likely occured shortly thereafter (between 61,000 and 54,000 yr). Most lineages had polytomic topologies, low nucleotide diversity and demographic analyses providing evidence of population expansion. Each lineage was characterized by a large number of private haplotypes. Most haplotypes found in Mediterranean localities were endemic, and one was dominant. Complex reticulated relationships connecting North European, Atlantic and Mediterranean haplotypes were observed. Moderate to high population structure was underlined. Contrary to previous published studies, no significant differentiation was observed between Atlantic and Mediterranean populations, indicating that the Gibraltar Strait is not a phylogeographic break for P. microps. Indeed, molecular dating combined with the tree topologies, phylogeographic and demographic analyses as well as high haplotype diversity underline a recent and rapid population divergence during the last glacial. However, population structure indicates that differentiation is an ongoing process. From an ancestral population trapped in the Atlantic, this goby colonized first northern Europe and later the Mediterranean

  18. Detection of seasonal weight loss and a serologic survey of potential pathogens in wild Pallas' cats (Felis [Otocolobus] manul) of the Daurian Steppe, Russia.

    PubMed

    Naidenko, Sergey V; Pavlova, Ekaterina V; Kirilyuk, Vadim E

    2014-04-01

    We measured seasonal changes in body mass and pathogen exposure in wild Pallas' cats (Felis [Otocolobus] manul) in the Daurian Steppe of Russia in 2010-11. Pallas' cats lost about 30% of body mass over winter. Tests for antibodies to 15 potential pathogens showed that Pallas' cats were exposed to four pathogens. Two of 16 cats had antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii. Two had antibodies to Mycoplasma sp., and one each had antibodies to Influenza A virus and Feline leukemia virus. The percentage of antibody-positive wild Pallas' cats was lower than results reported for other wild felids in the Russian Far East. PMID:24484481

  19. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Pallas's squirrel Callosciurus erythraeus (Rodentia: Sciuridae).

    PubMed

    Hu, Lanlin; Peng, Rui; Zou, Fangdong

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Pallas's squirrel (Callosciurus erythraeus) from Sichuan Province was sequenced and characterized in detail. It was 16,550 bp in length and composed of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs and 1 control region. The mitochondrial genome of C. erythraeus presented in this report will be useful for species identification, genetic variability and clarifying the controversial taxonomic status of genus Callosciurus. PMID:25319295

  20. The late Neopleistocene dhole (Carnivora, Canidae, Cuon alpinus Pallas, 1811) from the Urals.

    PubMed

    Gimranov, D O; Kosintsev, P A; Smirnov, N G

    2015-01-01

    Morphotypic and morphometric analyses of the M2 tooth found in the Late Pleistocene deposits of the Ignatievskaya Cave (southern Urals) demonstrate that this tooth belongs to the dhole (Cuon alpinus Pallas, 1811). This is the first reliable evidence for the presence of the dhole in the Urals. Radiocarbon dating and associated theriofauna allow the tooth to be dated to the first half of the late Neopleistocene or, more precisely, to marine isotope stages (MISs) 3 and 4. PMID:26530068

  1. [Research progress on biology and ecology of Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)].

    PubMed

    Wang, Su; Zhang, Run-Zhi; Zhang, Fan

    2007-09-01

    Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) with its native in Asia is one of the most important predatory ladybird beetles, and used worldwide as a biological control agent. This paper summarized the recent decades research progress at home and abroad on its life history, reproductive strategies, and predatory and cannibalism behaviors, and analysed the prospects of its utilization. Based on the review of its artificial reproduction, insecticide interaction, and impact as an invasive species, some useful measures were suggested to prevent the beetle from its potential risk to ecological banlance. PMID:18062323

  2. Does the acanthocephalan parasite Polymorphus minutus modify the energy reserves and antitoxic defences of its intermediate host Gammarus roeseli?

    PubMed

    Gismondi, E; Cossu-Leguille, C; Beisel, J-N

    2012-07-01

    In disturbed environments, infected organisms have to face both parasitic and chemical stresses. Although this situation is common, few studies have been devoted to the effects of infection on hosts' energy reserves and antitoxic defence capacities, while parasite survival depends on host survival. In this study, we tested the consequences of an infection by Polymorphus minutus on the energy reserves (protein, lipid and glycogen) and antioxidant defence capacities (reduced glutathione, γ-glutamylcysteine ligase activity) of Gammarus roeseli males and females, in the absence of chemical stress. Moreover, malondialdehyde concentration was used as a toxicity biomarker. The results revealed that in infected G. roeseli, whatever their gender and the sampling month, protein and lipid contents were lower, but glycogen contents were higher. This could be explained by the fact that the parasite diverts part of the host's energy for its own development. Moreover, glutathione concentrations and γ-glutamylcysteine ligase activity were both lower, which could lead to lower antitoxic defence in the host. These results suggest negative effects on individuals in the case of additional stress (e.g. pollutant exposure). In the absence of chemical stress, the lower malondialdehyde level in infected gammarids could imply a probable protective effect of the parasite. PMID:22405348

  3. Testing the FLI in the region of the Pallas asteroid family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todorović, N.; Novaković, B.

    2015-08-01

    Computation of the fast Lyapunov indicator (FLI) is one of the most efficient numerical ways to characterize dynamical nature of motion and to detect phase-space structures in a large variety of dynamical models. Despite its effectiveness, FLI was mainly used for symplectic maps or simple Hamiltonians, but it has never been used to study dynamics of asteroids to a greater extent. This research shows that FLI could also be successfully applied to real (Solar system) dynamics. For this purpose, we focus on the main belt region where the Pallas asteroid family is located. By using the full Solar system model, different sets of initial conditions and different integration times, we managed not only to visualize a large multiplet of resonances located in the region, but also their structures, chaotic boundaries, stability islands therein and the positions of their mutual interaction. In the end, we have identified some of the most dominant resonances present in the region and established a link between these resonances and chaotic areas visible in our maps. We have illustrated that FLI once again has shown its efficiency to detect dynamical structures in the main belt, e.g. in the Pallas asteroid family, with a surprisingly good clarity.

  4. An abundant small sized fish as keystone species? The effect of Pomatoschistus microps on food webs and its trophic role in two intertidal benthic communities: A modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pockberger, Moritz; Kellnreitner, Florian; Ahnelt, Harald; Asmus, Ragnhild; Asmus, Harald

    2014-02-01

    Ecological network analysis (ENA) was used to study the effects of Pomatoschistus microps on energy transport through the food web, its impact on other compartments and its possible role as a keystone species in the trophic webs of an Arenicola tidal flat ecosystem and a sparse Zostera noltii bed ecosystem. Three ENA models were constructed: (a) model 1 contains data of the original food web from prior research in the investigated area by Baird et al. (2007), (b) an updated model 2 which included biomass and diet data of P. microps from recent sampling, and (c) model 3 simulating a food web without P. microps. A comparison of energy transport between the different models revealed that more energy is transported from lower trophic levels up the food chain, in the presence of P. microps (models 1 and 2) than in its absence (model 3). Calculations of the keystone index (KSi) revealed the high overall impact (measured as εi) of this fish species on food webs. In model 1, P. microps was assigned a low KSi in the Arenicola flat and in the sparse Z. noltii bed. Calculations in model 2 ranked P. microps first for keystoneness and εi in both communities, the Arenicola flat and the sparse Z. noltii bed. Taken together, our results give insight into the role of P. microps when considering a whole food web and reveal direct and indirect trophic interactions of this small-sized fish species. These results might illustrate the impact and importance of abundant, widespread species in food webs and facilitate further investigations.

  5. [Offspring Sex Ratio in the Captive Population of Siberian Crane (Grus leucogeranus Pallas)].

    PubMed

    Mudrik, E A; Kashentseva, T A; Postelnykh, K A; Nosachenko, G V; Politov, D V

    2015-12-01

    The sex ratio of Siberian crane chicks (Grus leucogeranus Pallas) from the captive population ofthe Oka Crane Breeding Center was analyzed with the use of molecular sex marker EE0.6 in 2009-2014. We determined the sex of 84 birds bred from 12 dams by means of artificial insemination and natural breeding. The total primary sex ratio was 40:44, and the secondary sex ratio was 36:39 with a minor predominance of females. The mortality rate of embryos was the same for both sexes. The primary and secondary sex ratio among the first eggs in clutches showed the same trends as those observed in general analysis. The relatedness of parents by microsatellite DNA has no effect on offspring sex in both natural breeding and artificial insemination. PMID:27055304

  6. [Genetic passportization and identification of Siberian cranes (Grus leucogeranus Pallas) in captivity].

    PubMed

    Mudrik, E A; Kashentseva, T A; Gamburg, E A; Politov, D V

    2014-01-01

    The genetic diversity of the founders of an artificial population of the Siberian crane Grus leucogeranus Pallas (rare species of cranes) was characterized using 10 microsatellite loci. It was established that the allelic diversity (on average, 5.9 alleles per locus) and genic (H(o) = 0.739) diversity of the Siberian crane is rather high and comparable with the estimations for natural populations of different crane species. Genetic passportization of the birds (119 individuals) from the register of the Siberian crane International Studbook was carried out at the initial stage. The efficiency of genetic passportization for individual identification, identification of the origin, paternity analysis, and exclusion of inbreeding was demonstrated in Siberian cranes under natural mating and artificial insemination. Cases of natural reproduction in pairs of Siberian cranes imprinted to the human and continuous storage of spermatozoa in the female reproductive ducts were registered. PMID:25731031

  7. Does Manila clam cultivation affect habitats of the engineer species Lanice conchilega (Pallas, 1766)?

    PubMed

    Toupoint, Nicolas; Godet, Laurent; Fournier, Jérôme; Retière, Christian; Olivier, Frédéric

    2008-08-01

    The major French site of Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum (Adams and Reeves, 1850) cultivation is located in the Chausey Archipelago where the associated practices are highly mechanized: every steps of production are made with tractor-driven machinery. The Manila clam concessions are concentrated on Lanice conchilega (Pallas, 1766) bioherms, which are known to increase alpha-diversity and to locally modify sediment dynamics. This study focus on the impacts of Manila clam cultivation on (i) the natural populations of L. conchilega and on (ii) the structure of the associated benthic assemblages during the different steps of the farming production cycle. We found that the L. conchilega populations are significantly affected within the concessions where their total abundances drastically decrease, their spatial patterns are modified and the associated benthic assemblages are significantly altered. Our results are discussed in a context of a sustainable management of the Manila clam cultivation in coastal areas. PMID:18561956

  8. [Genetic structure of the populations of Pallas pine (Pinus pallasiana D. Don) reforested in extreme conditions].

    PubMed

    Korshikov, I I; Krasnoshtan, O V

    2010-01-01

    The paper reports on an intensive reforestation of Pallas pine (Pinus pallasiana D. Don) in post-fire sites in the native Mountainous Crimean populations and around the previously planted seed-producing trees in ore-mining dumps of the Krivoy Rog region. Self-sown progeny growing in the dump is characterized by a better growth and comes to the reproductive development phase earlier compared to that one growing in post-fire forest. Allele variability at 20 allozyme loci is less in self-sown progeny than in the native populations whereas its heterozygosity level is similar. Genetic distance (D(N)) among self-sown progenies in post-fire sites and ore-mining dump is comparable to that of the natural populations. PMID:20608157

  9. Molecular Phylogeny and Ultrastructure of Caliculium glossobalani n. gen. et sp. (Apicomplexa) from a Pacific Glossobalanus minutus (Hemichordata) Confounds the Relationships Between Marine and Terrestrial Gregarines.

    PubMed

    Wakeman, Kevin C; Reimer, James D; Jenke-Kodama, Holger; Leander, Brian S

    2014-01-01

    Gregarines are a diverse group of apicomplexan parasites with a conspicuous extracellular feeding stage, called a "trophozoite", that infects the intestines and other body cavities of invertebrate hosts. Although the morphology of trophozoites is very diverse in gregarines as a whole, high degrees of intraspecific variation combined with relatively low degrees of interspecific variation make the delimitation of different species based on trophozoite morphology observed with light microscopy difficult. The coupling of molecular phylogenetic data with comparative morphology has shed considerable light onto the boundaries and interrelationships of different gregarine species. In this study, we isolated a novel marine gregarine from the hepatic region of a Pacific representative of the hemichordate Glossobalanus minutus, and report the first ultrastructural and molecular data from any gregarine infecting this distinctive group of hosts. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of an SSU rDNA sequence derived from two single-cell isolates of this marine gregarine demonstrated a strong and unexpected affiliation with a clade of terrestrial gregarines (e.g. Gregarina). This molecular phylogenetic data combined with a comparison of the morphological features in previous reports of gregarines collected from Atlantic representatives of G. minutus justified the establishment of a new binomial for the new isolate, namely Caliculium glossobalani n. gen. et sp. The molecular phylogenetic analyses demonstrated a clade of terrestrial gregarines associated with a sequence acquired from a marine species, which suggest that different groups of terrestrial/freshwater gregarines evolved independently from marine ancestors. PMID:24702818

  10. Genomic analyses of the Formosan harvest mouse (Micromys minutus) and comparisons to the brown Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) and the house mouse (Mus musculus).

    PubMed

    Lin, Liang-Kong; Ma, Gwo-Chin; Chen, Tze-Ho; Lin, Wen-Hsiang; Lee, Dong-Jay; Wen, Pao-Ying; Wu, Sheng-Hai; Chen, Ming

    2013-10-01

    The harvest mouse, Micromys minutus (MMIN), has a very wide range of distribution (from the British Isles across the Euroasian continent to Japan and Taiwan). We studied an isolated population of MMIN in Taiwan, which is at the southeastern margin of the species' geographic distribution, and compared its genetic complement with those of the same species previously reported from other geographic locations and with two model rodent species, the house mouse (Mus musculus) and the brown Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus). The diploid number (2N) of MMIN was 68, consistent with that reported for other populations. However, variations were noted in the fundamental number (FN) and the shape and banding patterns of the individual chromosomes among populations. The FN of MMIN was estimated to be 72, including 2 bi-armed autosomes, 31 one-armed autosomes, and one pair of one-armed sex chromosomes. Here, we propose the first ideogram for MMIN. C-banding, Ag-NOR, and the locations of 18S rRNA gene sequences (MMIN chromosomes no. 10, 14, 19, 29, 31, 33, and X) mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) are also reported. Additionally, we compared the 18S rDNA sequences and performed cross-species X chromosome painting (FISH) for M. minutus, M. musculus, and R. norvegicus. The results indicate that both genetic elements are rather conserved across species. Thus, implications for the phylogenetic position of Micromys were limited. PMID:24028897

  11. The valid generic name for red-backed voles (Muroidea: Cricetidae: Arvicolinae): restatement of the case for Myodes Pallas, 1811

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carleton, Michael D.; Gardner, Alfred L.; Pavlinov, Igor Ya.; Musser, Guy G.

    2014-01-01

    In view of contradictions in the recent literature, the valid genus-group name to be applied to northern red-backed voles—Myodes Pallas, 1811, or Clethrionomys Tilesius, 1850—is reviewed. To develop the thesis that Myodes (type species, Mus rutilus Pallas, 1779) is the correct name, our discussion explores the 19th-century taxonomic works that bear on the relevant taxa, the transition in zoological codes apropos the identification of type species, and past nomenclatural habits in cases where no type species was originally indicated. We conclude that Myodes is the senior name to use for the genus-group taxon that includes the Holarctic species rutilus and frame this conclusion within a synonymy of the genus.

  12. The stable archipelago in the region of the Pallas and Hansa dynamical families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carruba, V.

    2010-10-01

    Among highly inclined asteroids, the region of the central main belt between the 3J:-1A and 5J:-2A mean-motion resonances has long been known to host the Pallas and Hansa dynamical families. This region is characterized by the presence of the ν6,ν5 and ν16 secular resonances, which in conjunction with the 8J:-3A mean-motion resonance divide the area into eight regions, the stable islands of the archipelago. Using a set of proper elements available at the Asteroids Dynamic Site (AstDyS) at the time, Gil-Hutton identified a family around (686) Gersuind and two more minor clumps around (945) Barcelona and (148) Gallia in the space of synthetic proper elements. In this work I compute a new set of synthetic proper elements for 2310 numbered and 2142 multi-opposition objects in this region. The use of the frequency-modified Fourier transform method allowed me to obtain non-negative estimates of the proper frequency of argument of pericentre precession g for members of the Hansa families characterized by values of eforced larger than efree, and to solve the problem of the non-linear dependence of g versus n observed by Carruba & Michtchenko. My analysis shows that the two minor clumps of Gil-Hutton should now be considered dynamical families. Also, a new family in the domains of both proper elements (a, e, sini) and frequencies (n, g, g + s) around (1222) Tina is discovered in this work, as well as a new frequency family around (4203) Brucato. Nine minor clumps, one of which is visible in both domains, are also observed. The taxonomical analysis of family members suggests that the Pallas family is compatible with a B-type composition (but two members are classified as C interlopers), while the Hansa family is possibly an S-type one. Sloan Digital Sky Survey Moving Object Catalog (SDSS-MOC3) data suggest that the Barcelona family might be an Sq group, and the Gersuind, Gallia and Tina ones should belong to the S complex. Geometric albedo data seem to confirm the

  13. Effects of the acanthocephalan Polymorphus minutus and the microsporidian Dictyocoela duebenum on energy reserves and stress response of cadmium exposed Gammarus fossarum

    PubMed Central

    Nachev, Milen; Shih, Hsiu-Hui; Sures, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Amphipods are commonly parasitized by acanthocephalans and microsporidians and co-infections are found frequently. Both groups of parasites are known to have severe effects on their host. For example, microsporidians can modify host sex ratio and acanthocephalans can manipulate the behavior of the amphipod to promote transmission to the final host. These effects influence host metabolism in general and will also affect the ability of amphipods to cope with additional stressors such as environmental pollution, e.g., by toxic metals. Here we tested the effects of sub-lethal concentrations of cadmium on glycogen and lipid levels, as well as on the 70kDa heat shock protein (hsp70) response of field collected Gammarus fossarum, which were naturally infected with microsporidians and the acanthocephalan Polymorphus minutus. Infected and uninfected G. fossarum were exposed to a nominal Cd concentration of 4 µg/L, which resembled measured aqueous Cd concentration of 2.9 µg/L in reconstituted water for 7 d at 15 °C in parallel to an unexposed control. After exposure gammarids were snap frozen, weighed, sexed and tested for microsporidian infection by PCR. Only individuals containing the microsporidian Dictyocoela duebenum were used for the further biochemical and metal analyses. P. minutus infected amphipods were significantly smaller than their uninfected conspecifics. Mortality was insignificantly increased due to cadmium exposure, but not due to parasite infection. Microsporidian infection in combination with cadmium exposure led to increased glycogen levels in female gammarids. An increase of glycogen was also found due to interaction of acanthocephalan and microsporidian infection. Elevated lipid levels were observed in all groups infected with microsporidians, while acanthocephalans had the opposite effect. A positive correlation of lipid and glycogen levels was observed. The general stress response measured in form of hsp70 was significantly increased in

  14. Effects of the acanthocephalan Polymorphus minutus and the microsporidian Dictyocoela duebenum on energy reserves and stress response of cadmium exposed Gammarus fossarum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui-Yu; Grabner, Daniel S; Nachev, Milen; Shih, Hsiu-Hui; Sures, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Amphipods are commonly parasitized by acanthocephalans and microsporidians and co-infections are found frequently. Both groups of parasites are known to have severe effects on their host. For example, microsporidians can modify host sex ratio and acanthocephalans can manipulate the behavior of the amphipod to promote transmission to the final host. These effects influence host metabolism in general and will also affect the ability of amphipods to cope with additional stressors such as environmental pollution, e.g., by toxic metals. Here we tested the effects of sub-lethal concentrations of cadmium on glycogen and lipid levels, as well as on the 70kDa heat shock protein (hsp70) response of field collected Gammarus fossarum, which were naturally infected with microsporidians and the acanthocephalan Polymorphus minutus. Infected and uninfected G. fossarum were exposed to a nominal Cd concentration of 4 µg/L, which resembled measured aqueous Cd concentration of 2.9 µg/L in reconstituted water for 7 d at 15 °C in parallel to an unexposed control. After exposure gammarids were snap frozen, weighed, sexed and tested for microsporidian infection by PCR. Only individuals containing the microsporidian Dictyocoela duebenum were used for the further biochemical and metal analyses. P. minutus infected amphipods were significantly smaller than their uninfected conspecifics. Mortality was insignificantly increased due to cadmium exposure, but not due to parasite infection. Microsporidian infection in combination with cadmium exposure led to increased glycogen levels in female gammarids. An increase of glycogen was also found due to interaction of acanthocephalan and microsporidian infection. Elevated lipid levels were observed in all groups infected with microsporidians, while acanthocephalans had the opposite effect. A positive correlation of lipid and glycogen levels was observed. The general stress response measured in form of hsp70 was significantly increased in

  15. The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771), in North America: impact on raw water users

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffiths, Ronald W.; Kovalak, William P.; Schloesser, Donald W.

    1989-01-01

    The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas), is a small mollusc native to the Black, Caspian, and Azov Seas that was discovered in Lake Erie of the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America in 1988. Its presence there raises immediate concerns for users of raw water because it can become abundant enough to obstruct the flow of water through pipes, hoses, screens, and condensers. Biofouling attributed to this mussel was observed at several power plants, water treatment plants, and food processing and industrial facilities along Lake Erie in 1989. Estimated densities at one power plant intake canal were as high as 700,000 per m2. In addition, large numbers were found in main steam condensors and in the service water system, threatening the water supply for cooling, fire protection, and dust suppression systems. Municipal water intakes along the Canadian and United States shorelines have also been impaired. In one southeast Michigan city, drinking water withdrawal from Lake Erie was reduced 45% by the mussel. Routine checks of raw water supplies for free-floating zebra mussel veligers are reommended to determine if reproducing adult populations are present in local water bodies. After an early alert, raw water intakes could be protected to alleviate damage from the biofouling zebra mussel.

  16. Genetic variability and phylogeography of the invasive zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas).

    PubMed

    Astanei, Iulian; Gosling, Elizabeth; Wilson, Jim; Powell, Eithne

    2005-05-01

    The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas), a bivalve species originally native to the Black and Caspian seas, has invaded Ireland in the last decade. Five microsatellite loci were used to investigate genetic diversity and population structure in 10 populations across Europe (Ireland, UK, the Netherlands and Romania) and the Great Lakes (Lake Ontario and Lake St Clair). Levels of allelic diversity and mean expected heterozygosity were high for all populations (mean number of alleles/locus and H(E) were 10-15.2 and 0.79-0.89, respectively). High levels of polymorphism observed in Irish populations suggest that the Irish founder population(s) were large and/or several introductions took place after foundation. Significant deficits of heterozygotes were recorded for all populations, and null alleles were the most probable factor contributing to these deficits. Pairwise comparisons using Fisher exact tests and F(ST) values revealed little genetic differentiation between Irish populations. The UK sample was not significantly differentiated from the Irish samples, most probably reflecting an English origin for Irish zebra mussels. No significant differentiation was detected between the two Great Lakes populations. Our data support a northwest rather than a central or east European source for North American zebra mussels. PMID:15836640

  17. Phytoremediation of cadmium by the facultative halophyte plant Bolboschoenus maritimus (L.) Palla, at different salinities.

    PubMed

    Santos, Márcia S S; Pedro, Carmen A; Gonçalves, Sílvia C; Ferreira, Susana M F

    2015-10-01

    The cadmium phytoremediation capacity of the halophyte plant Bolboschoenus maritimus (L.) Palla and the influence of water salinity were assessed in a greenhouse experiment, in order to better understand the bioremediation capacity of this plant. Three concentrations of cadmium (0, 50 and 100 μg l(-1)) and four salinity conditions (0, 5, 10 and 20) were chosen to evaluate the cadmium accumulation, in order to test these plants as a potential phytoremediation tool in brackish environments. The cadmium content in water and plants (underground organs, stems and leaves) was analysed with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. All the plants submitted to salinity 20 and in the three cadmium treatments died. The plants' survival was highest in the lowest salinities, where highest growth and biomasses were also obtained. The plants presented more cadmium content in the rhizomes, followed by stems and even less in leaves. The salt stress of the plants interfered with their cadmium accumulation capacity. The highest cadmium accumulation in the rhizomes occurred at salinity 0, while the salinities 0 and 5 were the most adequate for stems and leaves. The experiment pointed out that B. maritimus represents a good possible intervenient for cadmium bioremediation in freshwater and low salinity brackish water environments, but its use is limited in the habitats of higher salinity. PMID:26013743

  18. Viper metalloproteinase (Agkistrodon halys pallas) with antimicrobial activity against multi-drug resistant human pathogens.

    PubMed

    Samy, Ramar Perumal; Gopalakrishnakone, Ponnampalam; Chow, Vincent T K; Ho, Bow

    2008-07-01

    Metalloproteinases are abundant enzymes in crotalidae and viperidae snake venoms. Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) comprise a family of zinc-dependent enzymes, which display many different biological activities. A 23.1 kDa protein was isolated from Agkistrodon halys (pallas, Chinese viper) snake venom. The toxin is a single chain polypeptide with a molecular weight of 23146.61 and an N-terminal sequence (MIQVLLVTICLAVFPYQGSSIILES) relatively similar to that of other metalloprotein-like proteases isolated from the snake venoms of the Viperidae family. The antibacterial effect of Agkistrodon halys metalloproteinase (AHM) on Burkholderia pseudomallei (strains TES and KHW), Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram-negative bacteria) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive bacterium) was studied at a concentration 120 microM. Interestingly, we found that the metalloproteinase exhibited antibacterial properties and was more active against S. aureus, P. vulgaris, P. mirabilis and multi-drug resistant B. pseudomallei (strain KHW) bacteria. AHM variants with high bacteriostatic activity (MIC 1.875-60 microM) also tended to be less cytotoxic against U-937 human monocytic cells up to 1 mM concentrations. These results suggest that this metalloprotein exerts its antimicrobial effect by altering membrane packing and inhibiting mechanosensitive targets. PMID:18297685

  19. Hirudinella ventricosa (Pallas, 1774) Baird, 1853 represents a species complex based on ribosomal DNA.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, Dana M; Curran, Stephen S; Pulis, Eric E; Provaznik, Jennifer M; Franks, James S

    2013-10-01

    Digeneans in the genus Hirudinella de Blainville, 1828 (Hirudinellidae) from three species of pelagic fishes, Acanthocybium solandri (Cuvier), Makaira nigricans Lacépède and Thunnus albacares (Bonnaterre), and one benthic fish, Mulloidichthys martinicus (Cuvier), from the Gulf of Mexico are investigated using comparison of ribosomal DNA. Four species are identified based on molecular differences: Hirudinella ventricosa (Pallas, 1774) Baird, 1853 from A. solandri, Hirudinella ahi Yamaguti, 1970 from T. albacares, and two unidentified but distinct species of Hirudinella, herein referred to as Hirudinella sp. A (from both M. nigricans and M. martinicus) and Hirudinella sp. B from M. nigricans. Additionally, H. ahi, based tentatively on morphological identification, is reported from Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus). This represents the first record of a hirudinellid from M. martinicus and the first record of H. ahi from T. thynnus. A phylogeny of some Hemiurata Skrjabin & Guschanskaja, 1954 using partial fragments of the 28S rDNA sequences is consistent with earlier phylogenies and the position of the Hirudinellidae Dollfus, 1932 is well-supported as a derived group most closely related to the Syncoeliidae Looss, 1899. PMID:24048751

  20. [Genetic diversity and relatedness in different generations of the Siberian crane (Grus leucogeranus Pallas) captive population].

    PubMed

    Mudrik, E A; Kashentseva, T A; Postel'nykh, K A; Nosachenko, G V; Politov, D V

    2014-11-01

    Eight variable microsatellite loci were analyzed in terms of studying the genetic structure of different generations of a captive population of a rare endemic Russian species, the Siberian crane (Grus leucogeranus Pallas). It was shown that the founding population of natural origin (15 birds) is characterized by high genetic diversity (N(A) = 6.625, H(O) = 0.767, H(E) = 0.731) and a lack of relatedness (R = -0.079). In the total sample of descendents of the founders (122 individuals from generations F1, F1/F2, F,/F3, F2, F2/F3), this characteristic level of genetic variation was retained; however, we observed a decrease in allelic richness in some generations (F1/F2, F1/F3, F2). We found a low level of relatedness inthe sample of descendents of the founders (F1, F1/F2, F1/F3), while the relatedness was maximal (R = 0.302) in the first-generation descendents of the breeders. A small sample of breeders related to each other of generations F1 and F2 (eight birds) does not represent the entire gene pool of the founders of the Siberian Crane captive population. In view of this, we discuss the need to form a new genetically heterogeneous generation of breeders that would also include Siberian Cranes from the virtually extinct Western Siberian population. PMID:25739288

  1. Biogeographic variation of foliar n-alkanes of Juniperus communis var. saxatilis Pallas from the Balkans.

    PubMed

    Rajčević, Nemanja; Janaćković, Pedja; Dodoš, Tanja; Tešević, Vele; Marin, Petar D

    2014-12-01

    The composition of the epicuticular n-alkanes isolated from the leaves of ten populations of Juniperus communis L. var. saxatilis Pallas from central (continental) and western (coastal) areas of the Balkan Peninsula was characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In the leaf waxes, 14 n-alkane homologues with chain-lengths ranging from C22 to C35 were identified. All samples were dominated by n-tritriacontane (C33 ), but differences in two other dominant n-alkanes allowed separating the coastal from the continental populations. Several statistical methods (ANOVA, principal component, discriminant, and cluster analyses as well as the Mantel test) were deployed to analyze the diversity and variability of the epicuticular-leaf-n-alkane patterns of the ten natural populations of J. communis var. saxatilis and their relation to different geographic and bioclimatic parameters. Cluster analysis showed a high correlation of the leaf-n-alkane patterns with the geographical distribution of the investigated samples, differentiating the coastal from the continental populations of this taxon. Several bioclimatic parameters related to aridity were highly correlated with this differentiation. PMID:25491336

  2. Expression and antimicrobial activity of c-type lysozyme in taimen (Hucho taimen, Pallas).

    PubMed

    Li, Shaowu; Wang, Di; Liu, Hongbai; Yin, Jiasheng; Lu, Tongyan

    2016-10-01

    Lysozymes are important defense proteins of the innate immune system and possess high antibacterial activities. In the present study, a full-length c-type lysozyme cDNA (HtLysC) was cloned and characterized from taimen (Hucho taimen, Pallas). The cDNA contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 432 bp encoding 143 amino acid (aa), with 97% identity to LysC of Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The amino acid sequence possessed a LYZ1 domain (16-140 aa) which contained two conserved residues (Glu 50 and Asp 67), eight conserved cysteine residues and a calcium binding site. RT-PCR analysis showed that HtLysC transcripts were most abundant in liver and less in muscle. The expression of HtLysC was up-regulated in the liver when challenged with Yersinia ruckeri. The recombinant HtLysC (rHtLysC) had lytic activities against Micrococcus lysodeikticus, Aeromonas salmonicida and Y. ruckeri. Enzyme assay showed that the optimal temperature and pH of rHtLysC were 55 °C and 6.0, respectively. Taken together, these results indicated that HtLysC might play an important role in innate immune defense against bacterial pathogens as a functional lysozyme. PMID:27267655

  3. Ultrastructure of the oocyst wall formation in Eimeria? beauchampi Leger and Duboscq, 1917, a coccidian parasite of Glossobalanus minutus (Kow.) (Enteropneusta, Hemichordata).

    PubMed

    Fernandez, I; Benito, J; Pardos, F

    1988-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the developing oocyst of Eimeria? beauchampi Leger and Duboscq, 1917 was studied from the ventral digestive epithelium of the hepatic region of Glossobalanus minutus (Enteropneusta). A possible building mechanism of the oocyst wall is deduced and discussed from the present data and the available literature. During oocyst wall formation a total of 5 membranes were observed at or near the surface of the parasite among which some wall-forming materials will be stored. The origin and fate of such wall-forming materials are discussed and compared with data from other coccidians. The apparently full-formed wall is made up of an outer, dense layer, a median layer showing a labyrinthic-tubular lattice substructure, and an inner, homogeneous and osmiophilic layer. A micropyle measuring 0.35 micron in diameter is also described. PMID:3059952

  4. [Hybridization of two mussel species Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771) and Dreissena bugensis (Andrusov, 1897) in natural environment].

    PubMed

    Voroshilova, I S; Artamonova, V S; Makhrov, A A; Slyn'ko, Iu V

    2010-01-01

    Dreissenids display a high diversity of shell morphology, and it is frequently difficult to ascribe some individuals from mixed populations to one of the two species, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771) or D. bugensis (Andrusov, 1897). Presumably, such individuals may be interspecific hybrids. We have analyzed species-specific allozyme loci of the typical representatives of these two mussel species and putative interspecific hybrids. A natural interspecific hybrid between D. polymorpha and D. bugensis was discovered for the first time by genetic methods. It has been demonstrated that D. bugensis was a maternal parent. PMID:21077373

  5. Mosquito density forecast from flooding: population dynamics model for Aedes caspius (Pallas).

    PubMed

    Balenghien, T; Carron, A; Sinègre, G; Bicout, D J

    2010-06-01

    Insect population dynamics depend strongly on environmental factors. For floodwater mosquitoes, meteorological conditions are crucial in the rhythm of mosquito abundances. Indeed, rainfall triggers the egg hatching after flooding breeding sites, and temperature controls the duration of the aquatic immature development up to adult emergence. According to this, we have developed a simple mechanistic and tractable model that describes the population dynamics of floodwater mosquitoes as a function only of the most accessible meteorological variables, rainfall and temperature. The model involves three parameters: development duration tdev of the immature aquatic stages, the adult emergence rate function f(t) (characterized by the emergence time scale tau and shaping the profile of adult population abundance), and the depletion rate, alpha, of adult disappearance. The developed model was subsequently applied to fit experimental field data of the dynamics of Aedes caspius (Pallas), the main pest mosquito in southern France. First, it was found that the emergence rate function of adult mosquitoes very well reproduce experimental data of the dynamics of immature development for all sampled temperatures. The estimated values of tdev and tau both exhibit Arrhenius behaviour as a function of temperature. Second, using the meteorological records of rainfall and temperature as inputs, the model correctly fit data from a two-site CO2 trapping survey conducted in 2004 and 2005. The estimated depletion rates (summation of the mortality and the emigration rates) were found to be a concave quadratic function of temperature with a maximum of 0.5 per days at about 22 degrees C. PMID:20170592

  6. In vitro shoot proliferation and in vitro and ex vitro root formation of Pyrus elaeagrifolia Pallas

    PubMed Central

    Aygun, Ahmet; Dumanoglu, Hatice

    2015-01-01

    Shoot-tip cultures of Pyrus elaeagrifolia Pallas, an important gene source for drought and chlorosis resistance in pear rootstock breeding, were established from a wild mature tree originated from seed. Murashige and Skoog basal medium supplemented with different concentrations of benzyladenine (BA) singly or in combination with auxin was used in the study. In the initial culture, the highest percentages (>80%) of shoot proliferation were obtained in the mediums supplemented with 9.0 μM BA and 0.5 μM indole-3-acetic acid. In the subcultures, the highest shoot proliferation rates were obtained in the medium containing 4.5 and 9.0 μM BA. The shoot proliferation rates ranged from 91.1 ± 2.4 to 96.4 ± 2.0% in the second subculture and from 76.7 ± 7.8 to 89.4 ± 3.3% in the third subculture. In the second subculture, the shoots grown on 9.0 μM BA without auxin produced the best proliferation (10.6 ± 1.6). For the in vitro rooting experiments, the highest rooting rate (54.2 ± 10.4%), root length (10.5 ± 2.4 mm), and root number (2.5 ± 0.6) were obtained from 10 days dark treatment on the medium containing half strength of macronutrients supplemented with 5 μM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). For the ex vitro rooting experiments, shoot rooting was significantly influenced by 10 mM IBA applied as quick-dip method. The percentage of rooting was 55 ± 9.6% and root number was 1.8 ± 0.3 at this concentration. PMID:25873926

  7. EVALUATION OF THYROID HORMONES AND AS INFLUENCED BY TREATMENT WITH DESLORELIN IN PALLAS' CATS (OTOCOLOBUS (FELIS) MANUL).

    PubMed

    Delaski, Kristina M; Gamble, Kathryn C

    2015-12-01

    Thyroid hormones regulate a variety of physiologic functions including metabolism, growth, and reproductive cycling, and these other hormones can impact the thyroid function via the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. For instance, the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, deslorelin, used in nondomestic carnivores for contraception and behavioral control, down-regulates reproductive hormones through this mechanism and so may impact thyroid function. Due to clinical concerns of hypothyroidism in a bachelor group of adult male Pallas' cats (Otocolobus (Felis) manul) which also had deslorelin implants, serum samples from treated captive (n = 8) individuals, untreated captive (n = 25), and free-ranging (n = 9) individuals were analyzed for thyroid hormone concentrations. Total and free thyroxine (TT4 and FT4), total and free tri-iodothyronine (TT3 and FT3), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured although, due to sample volume limitations, not every hormone could be analyzed for every sample. Of these hormones, only FT4 was found statistically different between the deslorelin-treated and untreated groups. As samples were unevenly distributed across season, true comparison between seasons could not be made. The values reported for the untreated captive and free-ranging group, while representing a small sample size, can serve as a baseline assessment when evaluating the thyroid status of captive Pallas' cats. PMID:26667522

  8. Morphological and molecular data for three species of the Microphallidae (Trematoda: Digenea) in Australia, including the first descriptions of the cercariae of Maritrema brevisacciferum Shimazu et Pearson, 1991 and Microphallus minutus Johnston, 1948.

    PubMed

    Kudlai, Olena; Cutmore, Scott C; Cribb, Thomas H

    2015-01-01

    Cercariae and metacercariae of three species of the Microphallidae Travassos, 1920 were found in snails and crustaceans from tributaries of the Brisbane River, Queensland, Australia. Specimens of Maritrema brevisacciferum Shimazu et Pearson, 1991 and Microphallus minutus Johnston, 1948, which have previously been reported in Queensland, were found as cercariae in the tateid gastropod Posticobia brazieri (Smith) and as metacercariae of M. brevisacciferum in the atyid shrimp Caridina indistincta Calman and of M. minutus in the parastacid crayfish Cherax dispar Reik. Combined analysis of morphological and molecular data, based on newly generated ITS2 and partial 28S rDNA data, linked cercariae and metacercariae for both species. This is the first report of the first intermediate hosts of M. brevisacciferum and M. minutus. Infections of another unidentified microphallid metacercariae, Microphallidae gen. sp., were found in P. brazieri and C. indistincta. The sequences of metacercarial isolates from both hosts were identical. The data on the Microphallidae from Australia and species that develop in freshwater invertebrates were examined in detail. PMID:26447840

  9. Genomic organization, expression and antimicrobial activity of a hepcidin from taimen (Hucho taimen, Pallas).

    PubMed

    Wang, Di; Li, Shaowu; Zhao, Jingzhuang; Liu, Hongbai; Lu, Tongyan; Yin, Jiasheng

    2016-09-01

    Hepcidin, an antimicrobial peptide, plays a crucial role in innate immune system of teleost fish. As a cysteine-rich peptide, hepcidin possesses a dual function including iron regulation and innate immunity. In the present study, a full-length hepcidin cDNA (HtHep) was cloned and characterized by RT-PCR and RACE techniques from taimen (Hucho taimen, Pallas), which is a type of rare, precious and cold-water fish species in China. The cDNA contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 267 bp encoding 88 amino acid (aa), with 170 bp located in the 5(') untranslated region (UTR) and 151 bp in the 3' UTR. The genomic sequences analysis showed that the HtHep gene consisted of three exons and two introns (with the length 94 and 251 bp, respectively). With a predicted molecular mass of 2881.4 Da and a theoretical pI of 8.53, the deduced amino acid encodes a signal peptide of 24 aa, prodomain of 39 aa and mature peptide of 25 aa. The signal peptidase (SA-VP) and the motif RX (K/R)R of propeptide convertase suggested the cleavage site of signal and mature peptide. Eight conserved cysteine residues were also identified and formed four disulfide bonds. Pair-wise alignments showed that HtHep clustered together with two fish species of Salmonidae family (Salmo salar and Oncorhynchus mykiss) in HAMP1 branch. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that the mRNA levels of HtHep were detected in a wide range of tissues and the highest level was detected in the liver. Its expression was also detected early during embryonic stage and could be up-regulated in the liver when challenged with pathogenic bacteria (Yersinia ruckeri). The recombinant HtHep (rHtHep) had antimicrobial activity against both gram-positive (Micrococcus lysodeikticus and Staphylococcus aureus) and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli). Our results suggested that HtHep might be involved in the innate immune defense against bacterial pathogens in taimen. PMID:27452973

  10. Differences between the Pallas collisional family and similarly sized B-type asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alí-Lagoa, V.; Licandro, J.; Gil-Hutton, R.; Cañada-Assandri, M.; Delbo', M.; de León, J.; Campins, H.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Kelley, M. S. P.; Hanuš, J.

    2016-06-01

    Context. B-type asteroids constitute a peculiar spectral class within the C-complex. Previous work has pointed out the difference between the visible geometric albedos of B-types and those of the Pallas collisional family (PCF), whose few members with observed spectra are B-types (one exception out of eight objects). This has been interpreted as being due to compositional differences. However, the PCF members are typically smaller than the spectroscopically classified B-types, and the following possibilities have not been ruled out: the albedo differences might be related to a size-albedo dependence and/or to the generally larger errors of the WISE data and best-fitting values of the derived parameters expected for smaller objects. Aims: We compare albedos and beaming parameters of PCF members and B-types of similar sizes and re-examine our conclusion on the different composition of the PCF. Methods: By modelling their WISE/NEOWISE data, we derived sizes and albedos of all objects whose Sloan Digital Sky Survey reflectances are similar to the typical B-type reflectance spectra. In particular, we derived the so-called infrared beaming parameters (η), effective diameters (D), and corresponding visible geometric albedos (pV), and studied their value distributions. Results: We obtained the effective diameter and geometric visible albedo for ~600 B-type asteroids whose sizes range between 2 and 100 km, approximately half of which have fitted η-values that are inversely correlated to size. We found that the albedo distributions of the PCF is significantly different from that of other B-types in the same size range (2-20 km), and we rule out any size-albedo dependency or biases related to the lower quality of the pV-values of smaller objects. In addition, we also found differences between the η-value distribution of the PCF and the other similarly-sized B-types. Conclusions: The differences in the visible albedos of PCF members and the other B-types of similar sizes is

  11. Effects of irradiation and pH on fluorescence properties and flocculation of extracellular polymeric substances from the cyanobacterium Chroococcus minutus.

    PubMed

    Song, Wenjuan; Zhao, Chenxi; Mu, Shuyong; Pan, Xiangliang; Zhang, Daoyong; Al-Misned, Fahad A; Mortuza, M Golam

    2015-04-01

    Microbial extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) may flocculate or be decomposed when environmental factors change, which significantly influences nutrient cycling and transport of heavy metals. However, little information is available on the stability of EPS in natural environments. Fluorescence and flocculation properties of EPS from Chroococcus minutus under different irradiation and pH conditions were studied. Two aromatic protein-like fluorescence peaks and one tyrosine protein-like peak were identified from the excitation-emission-matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectra of EPS. UVB (ultraviolet B) and solar irradiation increased the fluorescence intensity of all the three peaks while UVC (ultraviolet C) irradiation had little effect. EPS formed unstable flocs after exposure to UV (ultraviolet) irradiation and formed stable flocs under solar irradiation. EPS were prone to flocculation under highly acidic conditions and minimal fluorescence of peaks was observed. The fluorophores in EPS were relatively stable under neutral and alkaline conditions. These findings are helpful for understanding the behavior of EPS in aquatic environments and their role in biogeochemical cycles of the elements. PMID:25731101

  12. [APPLICATION OF FLOW CYTOMETRY FOR THE ANALYSIS OF CIRCULATING HEMOCYTE POPULATIONS IN THE ASCIDIAN HALOCYNTHIA AURANTIUM (PALLAS, 1787)].

    PubMed

    Sukhachev, A N; Dyachkov, I S; Kudryavtsev, I V; Kumeiko, V V; Tsybulskiy, A V; Polevshchikov, A V

    2015-01-01

    This study addresses the potentialities of flow cytometry in analyzing the composition of circulating hemocyte populations in the ascidian Halocynthia aurantium (Pallas, 1787) both using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against some human leukocyte conservative adhesion molecules and without mAbs. Flow cytometry, based on the assessment of forward and side scattering revealed five hemocyte populations. From the wide panel of antibodies against human leukocyte adhesion molecules (CD15, CD29, CD34, CD54, CD62L, CD62P, CD90, CD94, CD117, CD 166), only two mAbs (against CD54, CD90) displayed cross-reactivity with the H. aurantium hemocyte surface antigens. Distribution patterns of these antigens across the hemocyte populations have been analyzed. PMID:26281224

  13. Accumulated Metals and Metallothionein Expression in Organs of Hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas) Within Natural Gas Fields of Podravina, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Tota, Marin; Jakovac, Hrvoje; Špirić, Zdravko; Srebočan, Emil; Milin, Čedomila

    2015-01-01

    Environmental impact of natural gas facility near Molve (Podravina, Croatia) was assessed using hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas) as biomonitors. Elevated levels of heavy metals in the environment lead to their accumulation in different tissues of hares. The authors have tested accumulation and distribution of several metals in hare liver, kidney, and muscle tissues. The accumulation of copper in hare liver and kidneys with concomitant decrease of zinc was observed in animals from Podravina region as opposed to the control group of animals (Island Krk, Croatia). Secondly, the expression of metallothioneins was assessed because of their crucial role in metal homeostasis. Observed elevation of metallothionein expression in tested organs emphasizes the possible prolonged negative effects of heavy metals in the surroundings as well as a state of oxidative stress in animals. Further monitoring of the area is necessary for better control of hydrocarbon processing to diminish the possible negative environmental effects. PMID:24965325

  14. Habitat engineering by the invasive zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) in a boreal coastal lagoon: impact on biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaiko, Anastasija; Daunys, Darius; Olenin, Sergej

    2009-03-01

    Habitat engineering role of the invasive zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) was studied in the Curonian lagoon, a shallow water body in the SE Baltic. Impacts of live zebra mussel clumps and its shell deposits on benthic biodiversity were differentiated and referred to unmodified (bare) sediments. Zebra mussel bed was distinguished from other habitat types by higher benthic invertebrate biomass, abundance, and species richness. The impact of live mussels on biodiversity was more pronounced than the effect of shell deposits. The structure of macrofaunal community in the habitats with >103 g/m2 of shell deposits devoid of live mussels was similar to that found within the zebra mussel bed. There was a continuous shift in species composition and abundance along the gradient ‘bare sediments—shell deposits—zebra mussel bed’. The engineering impact of zebra mussel on the benthic community became apparent both in individual patches and landscape-level analyses.

  15. Physical factors affecting the abundance and species richness of fishes in the shallow waters of the southern Bothnian Sea (Sweden)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorman, Staffan

    1986-03-01

    The relationship between the composition of the fish assemblages and the abiotic environment in seven shallow areas within the same geographical range in the southern Bothnian Sea were studied in May, July, September and November 1982. Eighteen species were found in the areas and the major species were Pungitius pungitius (L.), Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas), Gasterosteus aculeatus (L.), Phoxinus phoxinus (L.), Pomatoschistus microps (Krøyer) and Gobius niger L. The main purpose of the study was to examine the possible effects of exposure, organic contents in sediments and habitat heterogeneity on species richness and abundance of the assemblages. There was a negative correlation between the organic contents of the sediment and exposure. There were no significant correlations between exposure, organic contents, size of the areas and species numbers but habitat heterogeneity was positively correlated with species number. There were no correlations between fish abundance and heterogeneity of the areas. Negative correlations occurred between the exposure of the areas and fish abundance. The amounts of the pooled benthic fauna were negatively correlated to the exposure. The species/area hypothesis finds no support in the results, because there was no correlation between habitat heterogeneity of an area and its size. The effective fetch combined with the heterogeneity measurement of the areas seemed to be useful indicators of the species composition and fish abundance. Habitat heterogeneity and exposure were the most important structuring factors of these shallow water fish assemblages during the ice-free period and within the local geographical range. The assemblages consist of a mixture of species with marine or limnic origin and they have probably not evolved in the Bothnian Sea or together. They are most likely regulated by their physiological plasticity and not by interactions with other species.

  16. Observations of atmospheric methane concentrations and sources at two supersites Tiksi, northern Siberia and Pallas-Sodankylä, northern Finland (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurila, T. J.; Aurela, M.; Hatakka, J.; Aalto, T.; Lohila, A.; Asmi, E.; Kondratyev, V.; Ivakhov, V.; Reshetnikov, A.; Makshtas, A. P.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Uttal, T.

    2013-12-01

    Arctic and Boreal regions are important in the global methane budget mainly because emissions are large from the extensive wetlands. Recently the potential for increased emissions from methane hydrates under sediments at the bottom of the Arctic Ocean has been recognized. Resource exploitation in the Arctic is expanding and includes gas and oil drilling. Together with climate warming, we may expect changes in methane emissions from high northern latitudes. The main tools to probe the effect of this development on atmospheric methane are atmospheric methane observations and local emission measurements by micrometeorological and chamber methods. To better understand emissions at small and large scales, so called supersites have been introduced. At these sites, both atmospheric concentrations and emissions from representative ecosystems, together with suite of other environmental information, are measured continuously. We are running two of these supersites: Pallas-Sodankylä in northern Finland and Tiksi in Siberia on the coast of the Laptev Sea. In spite of the fact that both sites are north of the Arctic Circle, environmental conditions differ very much. In northern Scandinavia, climate is relatively marine, and wetland methane emissions are active throughout the year. In continental Tiksi the active layer is 30-80 cm and methane emissions cease during the coldest months when soil temperature is close to -20°C. Air mass advection is either from continental Siberia or from the Siberian seas. Forest and tundra fires are relatively common. At Pallas, advection is from the forested boreal and industrialized areas of Europe or the Norwegian or Barents Sea. In this presentation, we show seasonal variations of atmospheric methane concentrations at World Meteorological Organization - Global Atmosphere Watch sites: Pallas-Sodankylä and Tiksi. Source areas have been analyzed by trajectories. The main sources of methane in Tiksi were wetlands and the Laptev Sea, which is

  17. Myxobolus ictiobus n. sp. and Myxobolus minutus n. sp. (Cnidaria: Myxobolidae) from the gills of the smallmouth buffalo Ictiobus bubalus Rafinesque (Cypriniformes: Catostomidae).

    PubMed

    Rosser, Thomas G; Griffin, Matt J; Quiniou, Sylvie M A; Alberson, Neely R; Woodyard, Ethan T; Mischke, Charles C; Greenway, Terrence E; Wise, David J; Pote, Linda M

    2016-07-01

    The smallmouth buffalo Ictiobus bubalus Rafinesque (Catostomidae) is native to North American waterways and occasionally grown in pond aquaculture. Species of Myxobolus Bütschli, 1882 have been reported from the gills, integument, and intestinal tract of buffalo fish, although there is ambiguity in some host records. In the summer of 2013, thirteen adult smallmouth buffalo were seined from a 0.1-acre (0.04-hectare) experimental research pond at the Thad Cochran National Warmwater Aquaculture Center in Stoneville, Mississippi, USA, and examined for the presence of parasitic infection. Two previously unknown species of Myxobolus were observed parasitising the gills. Plasmodia of the two species differed from each other in both size and shape. Morphologically the two species were distinct from one another and from other Myxobolus spp. previously reported from buffalo fish. Myxospores of Myxobolus ictiobus n. sp. were spherical and measured 12.7-14.5 (13.9 ± 0.4) µm in length and 10.7-13.6 (12.5 ± 0.7) µm in width with a thickness of 10.3-14.8 (12.6 ± 2.3) µm. Polar capsules measured 5.6-7.4 (6.6 ± 0.4) µm in length and 3.7-4.9 (4.5 ± 0.8) µm in width and each contained a coiled polar filament with 5-6 turns. Myxospores of Myxobolus minutus n. sp. were circular in shape and measured 7.4-9.6 (8.6 ± 0.7) µm in length and 7.5-9.9 (8.8 ± 0.7) µm in width with a thickness of 6.5-7.3 (6.7 ± 0.3) µm. Polar capsules measured 3.6-4.9 (4.3 ± 0.3) µm in length and 2.8-3.8 (3.3 ± 0.3) µm and each contained a coiled polar filament with 5-6 turns. Supplemental 18S rRNA gene sequencing identified unique sequences for each isolate. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA sequences demonstrated a strong clustering of both isolates with other species of Myxobolus from cypriniform fish. PMID:27307169

  18. Accumulation of Cd by the marine sponge Halichondria panicea pallas: Effects upon filtration rate and its relevance for biomonitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Olesen, T.M.E.; Weeks, J.M. )

    1994-05-01

    The marine demosponge Halichondria panicea Pallas, is a cosmopolitan species occurring in coastal waters with varied conditions of light, current, salinity and turbidity. H. panicea has a leuconoid structure and is composed of siliceous spicules and spongin fibers. Sponges are important members of many shallow water marine benthic communities, but comparatively little is known of their trace metal biology. Sponge architecture is constructed around a system of water canals and the physiology of the sponge is largely dependent on the currents of water flowing through their bodies. The volume of water pumped by a sponge is remarkable, ca. 100-1200 ml h[sup [minus]1] g[sup [minus]1]. This large volume of water passing through the body of a sponge means that most cells are in direct contact with the external medium. Many sponges are able to accumulate trace metals and are highly tolerant of such pollutants. This has led to the proposal that a [open quotes]sponge watch[close quotes] program be initiated supplementary to the existing [open quotes]mussel watch[close quotes] program. In view of the large volume of water passing through the bodies of sponges such as H. panicea, the suitability of this species as a biomonitoring organism was further investigated. This study describes the accumulation strategy of the demosponge H. panicea exposed to dissolved cadmium (Cd) and the effect of Cd upon sponge filtration rate.

  19. Inhibitory effect of Paeonia lactiflora Pallas extract (PE) on poly (I:C)-induced immune response of epidermal keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mi-Ra; Choi, Dae-Kyoung; Sohn, Kyung-Cheol; Lim, Seul Ki; Kim, Dong-Il; Lee, Young Ho; Im, Myung; Lee, Young; Seo, Young-Joon; Kim, Chang Deok; Lee, Jeung-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal keratinocytes provide protective role against external stimuli by barrier formation. In addition, kertinocytes exerts their role as the defense cells via activation of innate immunity. Disturbance of keratinocyte functions is related with skin disorders. Psoriasis is a common skin disease related with inflammatory reaction in epidermal cells. We attempted to find therapeutics for psoriasis, and found that Paeonia lactiflora Pallas extract (PE) has an inhibitory potential on poly (I:C)-induced inflammation of keratinocytes. PE significantly inhibited poly (I:C)-induced expression of crucial psoriatic cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-8, CCL20 and TNF-α, via down-regulation of NF-κB signaling pathway in human keratinocytes. In addition, PE significantly inhibited poly (I:C)-induced inflammasome activation, in terms of IL-1β and caspase-1 secretion. Finally, PE markedly inhibited poly (I:C)-increased NLRP3, an important component of inflammasome. These results indicate that PE has an inhibitory effect on poly (I:C)-induced inflammatory reaction of keratinocytes, suggesting that PE can be developed for the treatment of psoriasis. PMID:26191223

  20. Repellent activities of some Labiatae plant essential oils against the saltmarsh mosquito Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas, 1771) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Koc, Samed; Oz, Emre; Cetin, Huseyin

    2012-06-01

    The repellent activities of the essential oils of two Thymus (Thymus sipyleus Boiss. subsp. sipyleus and Thymus revolutus Celak) and two Mentha (Mentha spicata L. subsp. spicata and Mentha longifolia L.) species against Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas, 1771) (Diptera: Culicidae) are presented. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation of the aerial parts of the plants in flowering period and repellency tests were done with a Y-tube olfactometer. All essential oils showed repellency in varying degrees and exhibited no significant time-dependent repellent activities. When all test oils compared for repellent activities there was no significant activity detected within 15 min exposure period. Mentha essential oils had better activity than Thymus essential oils, producing high repellency (73.8-84.2%) at 30th min on Oc. caspius. Mentha longifolia has the best mosquito repellent activity among the plants tested at the 25th min. Th. sipyleus subsp. sipyleus essential oil produced >85% repellent activity at the 15th min, but the effect decreased noticeably to 63.1% and 68% at 25th and 30th min, respectively. PMID:22179264

  1. Learning where to feed: the use of social information in flower-visiting Pallas' long-tongued bats (Glossophaga soricina).

    PubMed

    Rose, Andreas; Kolar, Miriam; Tschapka, Marco; Knörnschild, Mirjam

    2016-03-01

    Social learning is a widespread phenomenon among vertebrates that influences various patterns of behaviour and is often reported with respect to foraging behaviour. The use of social information by foraging bats was documented in insectivorous, carnivorous and frugivorous species, but there are little data whether flower-visiting nectarivorous bats (Phyllostomidae: Glossophaginae) can acquire information about food from other individuals. In this study, we conducted an experiment with a demonstrator-observer paradigm to investigate whether flower-visiting Pallas' long-tongued bats (Glossophaga soricina) are able to socially learn novel flower positions via observation of, or interaction with, knowledgeable conspecifics. The results demonstrate that flower-visiting G. soricina are able to use social information for the location of novel flower positions and can thereby reduce energy-costly search efforts. This social transmission is explainable as a result of local enhancement; learning bats might rely on both visual and echo-acoustical perception and are likely to eavesdrop on auditory cues that are emitted by feeding conspecifics. We additionally tested the spatial memory capacity of former demonstrator bats when retrieving a learned flower position, and the results indicate that flower-visiting bats remember a learned flower position after several weeks. PMID:26497984

  2. The Role of Dronedarone in the Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation/Flutter in the Aftermath of PALLAS

    PubMed Central

    Naccarelli, Gerald V; Kowey, Peter R

    2014-01-01

    Dronedarone is an amiodarone analog that differs structurally from amiodarone in that the iodine moiety was removed and a methane-sulfonyl group was added. These modifications reduce thyroid and other end-organ adverse effects and makes dronedarone less lipophilic, with a shorter half-life. Dronedarone has been shown to prevent atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF/AFl) recurrences in several multi-center trials. In addition to its rhythm control properties, dronedarone has rate control properties. In patients with decompensated heart failure, dronedarone treatment increased mortality and cardiovascular hospitalizations. When dronedarone was used in elderly high risk AF/AFl patients, excluding those with advanced heart failure, cardiovascular hospitalizations were significantly reduced. The results of the PALLAS trial suggest that dronedarone should not be used in the long-term treatment of patients with permanent AF. Post-marketing data have demonstrated rare hepatic toxicity to be associated with dronedarone use. Updated practice and regulatory guidelines have positioned dronedarone as a front-line antiarrhythmic in many patients with AF/Fl. However, the drug should not be used in patients with advanced heart failure and in patients who develop permanent AF. PMID:24821656

  3. Acute toxic effects of cadmium in larvae of the green toad, pseudepidalea variabilis (pallas, 1769) (amphibia: anura).

    PubMed

    Gürkan, Mert; Cetin, Ayşe; Hayretdaĝ, Sibel

    2014-09-01

    The environmental impact of cadmium use and its accumulation in nature have increased to alarming levels. This study aimed to morphologically and histologically investigate the acute toxic effects of cadmium on green toad, Pseudepidalea variabilis (Pallas, 1769) larvae. Embryos were obtained from specimens collected in amplexus from nature and kept under laboratory conditions until stage 26, when they were exposed to cadmium (0, 1, 5, 10, 25, and 50 Lig L⁻¹) for 96 h. The LC₁₀ LC₅₀, and LC₉₀ values of cadmium were calculated to be 26.98, 35.35, and 46.31 Lig L⁻¹, respectively. Our results showed that cadmium had a negative effect on the body size of P. variabilis larvae (over 1 ng L⁻¹). Histological examination detected a fusion of gill lamellae, liver haemorrhage, oedema in the abdominal cavity, and deformations of pronephric tubules (over 10 ng L⁻¹). Our findings suggest that the green toad was sensitive to the cadmium treatment, with LC₅₀ values lower than those reported by other studies. Thus, this species could be considered a reliable indicator species of environmental stress in aquatic ecosystem. PMID:25222576

  4. Morphological polymorphism in tapeworms: redescription of Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781) (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea) and characterisation of its morphotypes from different fish hosts.

    PubMed

    Hanzelová, Vladimíra; Oros, Mikuláš; Barčák, Daniel; Miklisová, Dana; Kirin, Diana; Scholz, Tomáš

    2015-02-01

    Recent morphological and molecular data have shown that one of the most common parasites of freshwater fish in the Palaearctic Region, the cestode Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781) (Eucestoda: Caryophyllidea), is highly polymorphic. Five distinct morphotypes of C. laticeps, largely corresponding to different fish hosts and representing separate, yet closely related genetic lineages, have been recognised and they are characterised in the present paper. Morphotype 1 from breams, Abramis brama (L.) (type-host) and Ballerus spp., corresponds to the original Taenia laticeps Pallas, 1781 and its neotype (paragenophore ex A. brama in Russia) is designated. This morphotype is characterised by a slender body and flabellate scolex. Morphotype 2 was found in the Macedonian vimba Vimba melanops (Heckel) and the vimba bream V. vimba (L.); it is typified by a more robust body, with most anterior extent of the vitelline follicles near the scolex and the cirrus-sac situated more anteriorly than in other morphotypes. Morphotype 3 is represented by worms from the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. that possess a cuneicrispitate scolex (having the form of a wedge with shallow indentations on anterior margin). Morphotype 4 from the common nase Chondrostoma nasus (L.) has a large, robust body and a wide scolex with numerous superficial grooves (wrinkles) in its anterior part. Morphotype 5 is represented by worms from the white-eye bream Ballerus sapa (Pallas); its typical characteristics are a festoon-like anterior margin of the scolex, the absence of vitelline follicles posterior to the cirrus-sac and the absence of a well-developed internal seminal vesicle. Discriminant analysis of 15 morphometric variables readily separated Morphotypes 3, 4 and 5 and confirmed the key discriminating power of traits related to the reproductive system, especially the terminal reproductive organs. Morphological polymorphism and the genetic divergence of different morphotypes of C. laticeps correspond

  5. Population dynamics of zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771) during the initial invasion of the Upper Mississippi River, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cope, W.G.; Bartsch, M.R.; Hightower, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to document and model the population dynamics of zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771) in Pool 8 of the Upper Mississippi River (UMR), USA, for five consecutive years (1992-1996) following their initial discovery in September 1991. Artificial substrates (concrete blocks, 0.49 m2 surface area) were deployed on or around the first of May at two sites within each of two habitat types (main channel border and contiguous backwater). Blocks were removed monthly (30 ?? 10 d) from the end of May to the end of October to obtain density and growth information. Some blocks deployed in May 1995 were retrieved in April 1996 to obtain information about overwinter growth and survival. The annual density of zebra mussels in Pool 8 of the UMR increased from 3.5/m2 in 1992 to 14,956/m 2 in 1996. The average May-October growth rate of newly recruited individuals, based on a von Bertalanffy growth model fitted to monthly shell-length composition data, was 0.11 mm/d. Model estimates of the average survival rate varied from 21 to 100% per month. Estimated recruitment varied substantially among months, with highest levels occurring in September-October of 1994 and 1996, and in July of 1995. Recruitment and density in both habitat types increased by two orders of magnitude in 1996. Follow-up studies will be necessary to assess the long-term stability of zebra mussel populations in the UMR; this study provides the critical baseline information needed for those future comparisons. ?? Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Malacological Society of London 2006.

  6. Revisiting caryophyllidean type of spermiogenesis in the Eucestoda based on spermatozoon differentiation and ultrastructure of Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781).

    PubMed

    Bruňanská, Magdaléna; Kostič, Borislav

    2012-01-01

    Spermiogenesis of the monozoic cestode Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781) (Caryophyllidea: Caryophyllaeidae), a parasite of Abramis brama (Pisces: Cyprinidae), has been investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy and cytochemical staining with periodic acid-thiosemicarbazide-silver proteinate for glycogen. The process of spermatozoon formation corresponds in the basic pattern to that of Khawia armeniaca as described by Bruňanská and Poddubnaya (Parasitol Res 99:449-454, 2006). The dense material at the early stages of spermiogenesis, an intercentriolar body, the formation of a free flagellum and flagellar bud, the penetration of the nucleus into the spermatid body when the fusion of the free flagellum with the median cytoplasmic process has started, and a complete proximodistal fusion have been determined. In contrast to previous data on the caryophyllidean type spermiogenesis, the latter more recent observations show the presence and the rotation of a free flagellum and a flagellar bud. This pattern indicates clearly a derived stage of spermiogenesis in the Caryophyllidea, when the second shorter flagellum is greatly reduced comparing with that in the Spathebothriidea, Diphyllobothriidea, or Bothriocephalidea, thus forming a flagellar bud. The flagellar bud occurs in all stages of spermiogenesis and represents an evolved character in the Caryophyllidea. The mature spermatozoon of C. laticeps consists of one axoneme of the 9 + "1" trepaxonematan structure, parallel cortical microtubules, and a nucleus. Cell components are situated in a moderately electrondense cytoplasm, containing glycogen in the principal regions (II, III, and IV) of the spermatozoon. A crested body is absent. Similarities and differences between spermatozoa of caryophyllideans as well as other Eucestoda are discussed. PMID:21607690

  7. Does the presence of microplastics influence the acute toxicity of chromium(VI) to early juveniles of the common goby (Pomatoschistus microps)? A study with juveniles from two wild estuarine populations.

    PubMed

    Luís, Luís G; Ferreira, Pedro; Fonte, Elsa; Oliveira, Miguel; Guilhermino, Lúcia

    2015-07-01

    Toxicological interactions between microplastics (MP) and other environmental contaminants are of grave concern. Here, the potential influence of MP in the short-term toxicity of chromium to early juveniles of Pomatoschistus microps was investigated. Three null hypotheses were tested: (1) exposure to Cr(VI) concentrations in the low ppm range does not induce toxic effects on juveniles; (2) the presence of microplastics in the water does not influence the acute toxicity of Cr(VI) to juveniles; (3) the environmental conditions of the natural habitat where fish developed do not influence their sensitivity to Cr(VI)-induced acute stress. Fish were collected in the estuaries of Minho (M-est) and Lima (L-est) Rivers (NW Iberian Peninsula) that have several abiotic differences, including in the water and sediment concentrations of various environmental contaminants. After acclimatization to laboratory conditions, two 96h acute bioassays were carried out with juveniles from both estuaries to: (i) investigate the effects of Cr(VI) alone; (ii) investigate the effects of Cr(VI) in the presence of MP (polyethylene spheres 1-5μm ∅). Cr(VI) alone induced mortality (96h-LC50s: 14.4-30.5mg/l) and significantly decreased fish predatory performance (≤74%). Thus, in the range of concentrations tested (5.6-28.4mg/l) Cr(VI) was found to be toxic to P. microps early juveniles, therefore, we rejected hypothesis 1. Under simultaneous exposure to Cr(VI) and MP, a significant decrease of the predatory performance (≤67%) and a significant inhibition of AChE activity (≤31%) were found. AChE inhibition was not observed in the test with Cr(VI) alone and MP alone caused an AChE inhibition ≤21%. Mixture treatments containing Cr(VI) concentration ≥3.9mg/l significantly increased LPO levels in L-est fish, an effect that was not observed under Cr(VI) or MP single exposures. Thus, toxicological interactions between Cr(VI) and MP occurred, therefore, we rejected hypothesis 2. In the

  8. Morphological and molecular characterization of Oestromyia leporina (Pallas, 1778) (Diptera: Hypodermatinae) from wild plateau pikas(Ochotona curzoniae) in Qinghai province, China.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yong; Li, Wei; Duo, Hong; Guo, Zhihong; Dang, Zhisheng; Shen, Xiuying; Peng, Mao; Zhang, Yanming

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this article was to investigate the morphological and molecular characterization of Oestromyia leporina (Pallas, 1778) from wild plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae) in Qinghai province, China. The third-stage larvae of O. leporina were examined by scanning electron microscopy revealing morphology characteristics of the spines on the cephalic, the thoracic segments, the abdominal segments and the spiracular plates. The coding regions of 25 cytochrome oxidase I (COI) genes of O. leporina were investigated. Eighty-one variable sites and 21 haplotypes were identified and the nucleotide and haplotype diversities were 0.04456 and 0.9767, respectively, indicating a rich genetic diversity in O. leporina. Phylogenetic analysis utilizing sequences of COI revealed two distinct lineages. These findings revealed ultrastructure and molecular characterization among the O. leporina from plateau pikas in Qinghai province, China and had implications for studying morphological identification, molecular epidemiology and population genetics of O. leporina. PMID:26708934

  9. Purification of glutathione S-transferase from Van Lake fish (Chalcalburnus tarichii Pallas) muscle and investigation of some metal ions effect on enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, Mine; Ozaslan, M Serhat; Kufrevioglu, O Irfan

    2016-08-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are an important enzyme family which play a critical role in detoxification system. In our study, GST was purified from muscle tissue of Chalcalburnus tarichii Pallas with 301.5-fold purification and 19.07% recovery by glutathione agarose affinity chromatography. The purity of enzyme was checked by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, showing a two band, because of having heterodimer structure. KM values were 1.59 and 0.53 mM for 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and glutathione (GSH), respectively. Vmax values for CDNB and GSH were also determined as 5.58 and 1.88 EU/mL, respectively. In addition, inhibition effects of Ag(+), Cu(2+), Cd(2+), Fe(3+), Pb(2+), Cr(2+), Co(2+) and Zn(2+) metal ions were investigated on the enzyme activity and IC50, Ki values were calculated for these metal ions. PMID:26018419

  10. Parasites of South African wildlife. V. A. description of the males of Oesophagostomum mocambiquei Ortlepp, 1964 from warthogs, Phacochoerus aethiopicus (Pallas, 1766).

    PubMed

    Boomker, J

    1990-09-01

    Oesophagostomum mocambiquei Ortlepp, 1964 was described from 9 females recovered from a warthog, Phacochoerus aethiopicus (Pallas, 1766), from northern Mozambique. Large numbers of O. mocambiquei were recovered during subsequent surveys of the parasites of warthogs from the Kruger National Park and the Hoedspruit Nature Reserve. The males, which have not yet been described, resemble those of Oesophagostomum santosdiasi Ortlepp, 1964 in the principal measurements. They can, however, be differentiated by the shape of the mouth capsule, which is round in O. mocambiquei and oval in O. santosdiasi. A simplified key for the identification of the Oesophagostomum species that occur in warthogs in South Africa and Namibia is provided and the differences between them tabulated. The names Oesophagostomum moçambiquei and Oesophagostomum santos-diasi are corrected to O. mocambiquei and O. santosdiasi respectively, since diacritic marks are not allowed under the Code of International Zoological Nomenclature. PMID:2234863

  11. A synopsis of records of myxozoan parasites (Cnidaria: Myxozoa) from shrews, with additional data on Soricimyxum fegati from common shrew Sorex araneus in Hungary and pygmy shrew Sorex minutus in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Szekely, Csaba; Atkinson, Stephen D; Molnar, Kalman; Egyed, Laszlo; Gubanyi, Andras; Cech, Gabor

    2016-01-01

    Myxozoans (Cnidaria: Myxozoa) are almost exclusively endoparasites of aquatic vertebrates and invertebrates, with the notable exception being two species of Soricimyxum Prunescu, Prunescu, Pucek et Lom, 2007 described from terrestrial shrews (Soricidae) in central Europe. Myxospores of the two parasites are morphologically indistinguishable, but have SSU rDNA sequences that differ by about 4%. Herein, we report additional molecular and histology data from Soricimyxum fegati Prunescu, Prunescu, Pucek et Lom, 2007 from common shrew (Sorex araneus Linnaeus) from Hungary, and add a new geographic record for S. fegati in pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus Linnaeus) from Slovakia. A limited survey of shrews from the northern United States, Blarina brevicauda Say and Sorex sp. from New York, and Sorex spp. from Oregon, did not discover any infections, which is in stark contrast to the relatively high infection rates (up to 66%) in European shrew populations. We also provide a summary and discussion of literature records of species of Soricimyxum and a host survey. Given the lack of distinguishing morphological or morphometric characters between Soricimyxum spp., and the overlap in vertebrate hosts and geographic ranges, unambiguous identification of these closely related shrew parasites can presently only be achieved through sequence comparison of one or more variable SSU rDNA regions. PMID:27312127

  12. Physical studies of asteroids. XIV: Phase relations of the asteroids 1 Ceres, 2 Pallas, 6 Hebe, 7 Iris, 8 Flora, 10 Hygiea, 15 Eunomia, 16 Psyche, 18 Melpomene and 40 Harmonia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagerkvist, C.-I.; Williams, I. P.

    Multiple scattering factors and absolute magnitudes have been derived for ten asteroids, six of type S, two of type C and one M asteroid. The mean multiple-scattering factors Q were found to be 0.136 and 0.043 for the S and C asteroids, respectively. For the asteroids 2 Pallas, 7 Iris, 15 Eunomia, 16 Psyche and 18 Melpomene composite lightcurves are presented.

  13. The mitochondrial genome of the multicolored Asian lady beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) and a phylogenetic analysis of the Polyphaga (Insecta: Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Niu, Fang-Fang; Zhu, Liang; Wang, Su; Wei, Shu-Jun

    2016-07-01

    Here, we report the mitochondrial genome sequence of the multicolored Asian lady beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) (GenBank accession No. KR108208). This is the first species with sequenced mitochondrial genome from the genus Harmonia. The current length with partitial A + T-rich region of this mitochondrial genome is 16,387 bp. All the typical genes were sequenced except the trnI and trnQ. As in most other sequenced mitochondrial genomes of Coleoptera, there is no re-arrangement in the sequenced region compared with the pupative ancestral arrangement of insects. All protein-coding genes start with ATN codons. Five, five and three protein-coding genes stop with termination codon TAA, TA and T, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis using Bayesian method based on the first and second codon positions of the protein-coding genes supported that the Scirtidae is a basal lineage of Polyphaga. The Harmonia and the Coccinella form a sister lineage. The monophyly of Staphyliniformia, Scarabaeiformia and Cucujiformia was supported. The Buprestidae was found to be a sister group to the Bostrichiformia. PMID:26057015

  14. The impact of nature-based tourism on bird communities: a case study in Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park.

    PubMed

    Huhta, Esa; Sulkava, Pekka

    2014-05-01

    Nature-based tourism and recreation within and close to protected areas may have negative environmental impacts on biodiversity due to urban development, landscape fragmentation, and increased disturbance. We conducted a 3-year study of disturbances of birds induced by nature-based tourism over a recreational gradient in the Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park and its surroundings in northern Finland. Bird assemblages were studied in highly disturbed areas close to the park (a ski resort, villages, and accommodation areas) and in campfire sites, along hiking routes (recreational areas) and in a forest (control area) within the park. Compared with the forest, the disturbed urbanized areas had higher abundances of human-associated species, corvid species, cavity and building nesters, and edge species. The abundances of managed forest species were higher in campfire sites than in the forest. Hiking trails and campfire sites did not have a negative impact on open-nesting bird species. The most likely reason for this outcome is that most campfire sites were situated at forest edges; this species group prefers managed forests and forest edge as a breeding habitat. The abundances of virgin forest species did not differ among the areas studied. The results of the study suggest that the current recreation pressure has not caused substantial changes in the forest bird communities within the National Park. We suggest that the abundances of urban exploiter species could be used as indicators to monitor the level and changes of urbanization and recreational pressure at tourist destinations. PMID:24556796

  15. The Impact of Nature-Based Tourism on Bird Communities: A Case Study in Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huhta, Esa; Sulkava, Pekka

    2014-05-01

    Nature-based tourism and recreation within and close to protected areas may have negative environmental impacts on biodiversity due to urban development, landscape fragmentation, and increased disturbance. We conducted a 3-year study of disturbances of birds induced by nature-based tourism over a recreational gradient in the Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park and its surroundings in northern Finland. Bird assemblages were studied in highly disturbed areas close to the park (a ski resort, villages, and accommodation areas) and in campfire sites, along hiking routes (recreational areas) and in a forest (control area) within the park. Compared with the forest, the disturbed urbanized areas had higher abundances of human-associated species, corvid species, cavity and building nesters, and edge species. The abundances of managed forest species were higher in campfire sites than in the forest. Hiking trails and campfire sites did not have a negative impact on open-nesting bird species. The most likely reason for this outcome is that most campfire sites were situated at forest edges; this species group prefers managed forests and forest edge as a breeding habitat. The abundances of virgin forest species did not differ among the areas studied. The results of the study suggest that the current recreation pressure has not caused substantial changes in the forest bird communities within the National Park. We suggest that the abundances of urban exploiter species could be used as indicators to monitor the level and changes of urbanization and recreational pressure at tourist destinations.

  16. Black bear (Ursus americanus Pallas) feeding damage across timber harvest edges in northern California coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens[D. Don] Endl.) forests, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Russell, W.H.; Carnell, K.; McBride, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    Feeding damage to trees by black bears (Ursus americanus Pallas) was recorded in proximity to timber harvest edges in harvested and old-growth stands of coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens [D. Don] Endl.) in northern California, USA. Bears exhibited distinct preference in their feeding patterns related to stand structure and composition and to distance from the timber-harvest edge. Most damage was recorded within regenerating stands. Regression analysis indicated that density of damaged trees was negatively correlated with distance from timber harvest edges within old-growth stands. A significant negative correlation was also found between the density of trees damaged by bears and habitat diversity (H') as measured by the Shannon diversity index. In addition, bears exhibited preference for pole-size trees (dbh = 10-50 cm) over all other size classes, and coast redwood over other species. In general, damage by bears appeared to act as a natural thinning agent in even-aged stands. No damage was recorded in old-growth stands except in close proximity to the timber-harvest edge where subcanopy recruitment was high.

  17. The occurrence of the common European fish cestode Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781) in the River Irtysh, China: a morphological characterization and molecular data.

    PubMed

    Xi, Bing Wen; Barčák, Daniel; Oros, Mikuláš; Chen, Kai; Xie, Jun

    2016-09-01

    The cestode Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781) is a highly polymorphic species with several morphotypes, and belongs to the most widespread species of monozoic tapeworm (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea) found in the Palaearctic zoogeographic region with a wide range of cyprinid fish hosts. This paper provides the first reliable evidence about the occurrence of C. laticeps in northern China that is based on detailed morphological characteristics and mitochondrial cox1 sequences. C. laticeps was found in freshwater bream Abramis brama (L.), in the River Irtysh, with the prevalence of 40% and mean intensity of infection 8. The tapeworms were rather similar in their morphological characters to the morphotype 1 of C. laticeps which is typified by the possession of a slender body with a flabellate wide scolex, narrow neck, robust, long and clearly visible vas deferens, large, and almost spherical cirrus-sac containing well-developed internal seminal vesicle and the first vitelline follicles and first testes beginning far from anterior margin of the body. Subsequent molecular analysis confirmed the morphological identification of the species. Our results show that the studied specimens were firmly clustered into the C. laticeps clade and formed a monophyletic group with C. laticeps morphotype 1 and 2 from Europe and Russia. In China, C. laticeps is a non-indigenous fish parasite, which has the most probably been introduced into the Irtysh River basin with its typical host inhabiting Russia. PMID:27447211

  18. [Genetic diversity of the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius Pallas, 1771) in the Russian Far East as assessed by RAPD-PCR].

    PubMed

    Dokuchaev, N E; Lapinskiĭ, A G; Solovenchuk, L L

    2008-01-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with ten-nucleotide primers of arbitrary sequences (RAPID-PCR) was used to study the genetic characteristics of five samples of the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius Pallas, 1771) from the Russian Far East (Primorye, Khabarovsk krai, and Magadan oblast). Highly significant differentiation of the samples was demonstrated, the genetic diversity of each sample was estimated, and non-neutral loci were found. The genetic diversity was the highest in a population from the outskirts of Magadan and the lowest in populations from an island on the Amur River island near Khabarovsk and from the village of Talon (Magadan oblast). These two last populations were found to be genetically close to each other. These results indicate that striped field mice have been repeatedly introduced to Magadan oblast. The Talon population is likely to have originated from the left bank of the Amur; the outskirts of Magadan are inhabited with a mixed population formed by mice from Primorye and other regions. PMID:18771025

  19. Active osmoregulatory ion uptake across the pleopods of the isopod Idotea baltica (Pallas): electrophysiological measurements on isolated split endo- and exopodites mounted in a micro-ussing chamber.

    PubMed

    Postel, U; Becker, W; Brandt, A; Luck-Kopp, S; Riestenpatt, S; Weihrauch, D; Siebers, D

    2000-04-01

    The mechanism of active, osmoregulatory ion uptake was investigated in the pleopods of the marine isopod Idotea baltica (Pallas). Using isolated split half-podites of isopods acclimated to brackish water (20 salinity) mounted in a micro-Ussing chamber and symmetrically superfused with identical haemolymph-like salines, a mean short-circuit current I(sc) of -445 microA cm(-)(2) was measured in endopodites 3-5, corresponding to an inwardly directed transcellular movement of negative charge. Application of ouabain (5 mmol l(-)(1)) to the basolateral superfusate resulted in the almost total abolition of the I(sc) (reduced from -531 to -47 microA cm(-)(2)), suggesting that the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase is the driving force for active, electrogenic uptake of NaCl. In contrast, mean I(sc) values close to zero were found in preparations of all exopodites and in endopodites 1 and 2. The specific activities of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase corresponded with these results. Specific activities were highest in posterior endopodites 3-5 and depended on ambient salinity. In all other rami, the activities were much lower and independent of ambient salinity. Activities in posterior endopodites 3-5 were lowest in isopods acclimated to 30 salinity (2-4 micromol P(i )mg(-)(1 )protein h(-)(1)), increased in individuals kept in 20 salinity (8.4 micromol P(i )mg(-)(1 )protein h(-)(1)) and were highest in isopods acclimated to 15 salinity (18.2 micromol P(i )mg(-)(1 )protein h(-)(1)). When specimens were transferred from 30 to 40 salinity, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity increased in the posterior endopodites. The electrophysiological and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity measurements show that active electrogenic ion transport in this species occurs almost exclusively in posterior endopodites 3-5. The endopodite of the fifth pleopod of I. baltica exhibited a microscopic structure remarkably similar to that described for the lamellae of the phyllobranchiae of brachyurans. It is composed of two opposed epithelial

  20. Gyrodactylus salinae n. sp. (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea) infecting the south European toothcarp Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes) (Teleostei, Cyprinodontidae) from a hypersaline environment in Italy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Historically, non-native species of Gambusia (Poeciliidae) have been used to control larval stages of the Asian tiger mosquito, Stegomyia albopicta Reinert, Harbach et Kitching, 2004 throughout Italy. The potential utility of indigenous populations of Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes) (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae) as an appropriate alternative biological control is currently being explored. A sub-sample of ten fish collected from Cervia Saline, Italy (salinity 65 ppt; 30°C) to assess their reproductive capability in captivity, harboured a moderate infection of Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832 (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea). A subsequent morphological and molecular study identified this as being a new species. Results Gyrodactylus salinae n. sp. is described from the skin, fins and gills of A. fasciatus. Light and scanning electron microscopical (SEM) examination of the opisthaptoral armature and their comparison with all other recorded species suggested morphological similarities to Gyrodactylus rugiensoides Huyse et Volckaert, 2002 from Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas). Features of the ventral bar, however, permit its discrimination from G. rugiensoides. Sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 and the 5.8S rRNA gene and a comparison with all species listed in GenBank confirmed they are unique and represent a new species (most similar to Gyrodactylus anguillae Ergens, 1960, 8.3% pair-wise distance based on 5.8S+ITS2). This represents the first species of Gyrodactylus to be described from Aphanius and, to date, has the longest ITS1 (774 bp) sequenced from any Gyrodactylus. Additional sampling of Cervia Saline throughout the year, found G. salinae n. sp. to persist in conditions ranging from 35 ppt and 5°C in December to 65 ppt and 30°C in July, while in captivity a low level of infection was present, even in freshwater conditions (0 ppt). Conclusions The ability of G. salinae n. sp. to tolerate a wide range of salinities

  1. Alcataenia fraterculae sp. n. from the horned puffin, Fratercula corniculata (Naumann), Alcataenia cerorhincae sp. n. from the rhinoceros auklet, Cerorhinca monocerata (Pallas), and Alcataenia larina pacifica ssp. n. (Cestoda: Dilepididae) in the North Pacific basin.

    PubMed

    Hoberg, E P

    1984-01-01

    Three Cestodes representing two species of the genus Alcataenia Spasskaia, 1971 and a subspecies of Alcataenia larina (Krabbe, 1869) are described. Alcataenia fraterculae sp. n. (Cestoda: Dilepididae) was found in horned puffins, Fratercula corniculata (Naumann), and other species of seabirds from localities in the western Aleutian Islands, Gulf of Alaska, Bering Sea, and Chukchi Sea. Alcataenia cerorhincae sp. n. is described from the rhinoceros auklet, Cerorhinca monocerata (Pallas) in the eastern North Pacific Ocean and western Aleutian Islands. Alcataenia larina pacifica ssp. n. is recognized from species of Laridae and other seabirds in the North Pacific Ocean, Sea of Okhotsk, Bering Sea and the region of the Arctic Ocean near Bering Strait. It is distinguished from A. larina larina (Krabbe, 1869) by a greater number of testes, a longer cirrus sac, and variation in the position of the genital ducts which may be either dorsal to or between the osmoregulatory canals. A fraterculae and A. cerorhincae are most similar to A. larina and particularly to the North Pacific form A. l. pacifica. Generally specimens of A. fraterculae can be distinguished from the other taxa by larger rostellar hooks, a longer cirrus sac, and a combination of other characters. A. fraterculae, A. cerorhincae, and A. l. pacifica however represent a complex of cryptic species in which there is extensive overlap in some morphological characters. Results of a discriminant analysis among these nominal taxa were significant and, in combination with data about other morphological characters and host and geographic distribution, clearly indicated that these represent three species in the North Pacific basin. PMID:6486621

  2. Trophic niche partitioning of littoral fish species from the rocky intertidal of Helgoland, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hielscher, N. N.; Malzahn, A. M.; Diekmann, R.; Aberle, N.

    2015-12-01

    During a 3-year field study, interspecific and interannual differences in the trophic ecology of littoral fish species were investigated in the rocky intertidal of Helgoland island (North Sea). We investigated trophic niche partitioning of common coexisting littoral fish species based on a multi-tracer approach using stable isotope and fatty acids in order to show differences and similarities in resource use and feeding modes. The results of the dual-tracer approach showed clear trophic niche partitioning of the five target fish species, the goldsinny wrasse Ctenolabrus rupestris, the sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus, the painted goby Pomatoschistus pictus, the short-spined sea scorpion Myoxocephalus scorpius and the long-spined sea scorpion Taurulus bubalis. Both stable isotopes and fatty acids showed distinct differences in the trophic ecology of the studied fish species. However, the combined use of the two techniques added an additional resolution on the interannual scale. The sand goby P. minutus showed the largest trophic plasticity with a pronounced variability between years. The present data analysis provides valuable information on trophic niche partitioning of fish species in the littoral zones of Helgoland and on complex benthic food webs in general.

  3. Paleoclimatic history and vicariant speciation in the "sand goby" group (Gobiidae, Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Huyse, Tine; Houdt, Jeroen Van; Volckaert, Filip A M

    2004-07-01

    Vicariant and climatic cycling speciation hypotheses of the 'sand gobies' belonging to the genera Pomatoschistus, Gobiusculus, Knipowitschia, and Economidichthys are tested using molecular phylogenies constructed of nuclear DNA (ITS1 locus) and mitochondrial DNA (12S and 16S fragments). These gobies are among the most abundant in the Eastern Atlantic-Mediterranean region, and play an important role in the ecosystem. Considerable ITS1 length differences, primarily due to the presence of several tandem repeats, were found between species and even within individuals. Therefore, phylogenetic analyses focused on fragments of the 12S and 16S mtDNA region that have been sequenced for 16 goby taxa. The 'sand gobies' clustered as a monophyletic group as proposed on morphological grounds. However, G. flavescens, E. pygmaeus, and K. punctatissima clustered within the Pomatoschistus species, pointing to a paraphyletic origin of these genera. Furthermore, the genetic divergence between P. minutus from the Adriatic Sea versus the Atlantic-Mediterranean region was as high as the divergence within the P. minutus complex, suggesting that P. minutus from the Adriatic Sea should be considered as a distinct species. The "star" phylogeny might suggest that these gobies evolved in a very short time period, possibly linked to the drastic alterations in the Mediterranean Sea during and immediately after the Messinian salinity crisis at the end of the Miocene. The freshwater life-style appeared monophyletic; equating its origin with the salinity crisis resulted in a molecular clock estimate of 1.4% divergence per million years. The last common ancestor probably occupied sandy bottoms and a coastal niche while several species subsequently adapted to new habitats (pelagic, freshwater or stenohaline). The origin of the shallowest clades dated back to the glacial cycling during the Pleistocene epoch. PMID:15186817

  4. Risk-sensitive mating decisions in a visually compromised environment

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Bob B. M.; Järvenpää, Marja; Lindström, Kai

    2009-01-01

    Reproductive activities are often conspicuous and can increase the risk of predation. Evidence suggests that individuals are capable of responding to predators in a risk-sensitive manner. However, most studies tend to consider only the predator-mediated responses of males and females in isolation and with little regard to differences in local environmental conditions. Here, we experimentally investigate the effects of environmental visibility (turbidity) and predation risk on reproductive decisions in the sand goby, Pomatoschistus minutus, when exposed to a visually oriented predator, the European perch, Perca fluviatilis. We found that gobies were more reluctant to spawn in the predator's presence, although larger males spawned sooner than smaller males. Interestingly, latency to spawning was unaffected by the visual environment, suggesting that gobies may be relying on non-visual cues under turbid conditions. PMID:19535368

  5. Small-sized euryhaline fish as intermediate hosts of the digenetic trematode Cryptocotyle concavum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zander, C. D.; Kollra, H.-G.; Antholz, B.; Meyer, W.; Westphal, D.

    1984-03-01

    Cercariae of the trematode Cryptocotyle concavum, which encyst in skin and/or kidney of sticklebacks and gobies, were studied in the Schlei Fjord (western Baltic Sea). Mean incidence of dermal cysts was 48 % in Gasterosteus aculeatus and 37 % in Pungitius pungitius. No cysts were found in the kidneys of sticklebacks. While 97 % of Pomatoschistus microps had encysted metacercariae in the kidneys, only 2 % had cysts in the skin. Pomatoschistus minutus, however, showed hardly any cyst infestation of either skin or kidney. In P. microps the intensity of infestation by metacercariae was frequently more than 50 cysts; in contrast, sticklebacks rarely exhibited more than 5 dermal cysts. Infested fish were larger than 10 mm in total length, the incidence rate increasing with growth. Parasitic infestation depends on ambient salinity: C. concavum was not found at salinities below 4 ‰. In contrast to the high incidence in fish, the first hosts — the snails Hydrobia stagnalis and H. neglecta — showed remarkably low infection rates (3 to 5 %). The findings reported are related to the distribution of C. concavum, the mode of life of infested fish, the feeding habits of the final hosts and the infestation of P. microps by other parasites. Evidently, P. microps represents an optimal second host for C. concavum.

  6. PCBs in the fish assemblage of a southern European estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, Joana; Pato, Pedro; Pereira, Eduarda; Duarte, Armando C.; Pardal, Miguel A.

    2013-02-01

    The Mondego estuary fish assemblage was studied for the accumulation of PCBs. Three sampling stations were visited along an estuarine salinity gradient, and, in total, 15 species were collected. Analysis of PCBs revealed no significant differences among the sampling stations, although differences were observed among the fish assemblages. Fish assemblages could be divided into three groups. The first group comprised those with higher concentration (more than 10 ng g- 1, dw), included the species Gobius niger, Sardina pilchardus, Anguilla anguilla, Pomatoschistus microps, Chelidonichthys lucerna and Liza ramada; the second group with medium concentration (5-10 ng g- 1, dw), included the species Pomatoschistus minutus, Dicentrarchus labrax, Atherina presbyter, Chelon labrosus, Diplodus vulgaris, Platichthys flesus and Cilata mustela; and a third group with low concentration (less than 5 ng g- 1, dw), included the species Solea solea and Callionymus lyra. A positive correlation was found between lipid content and PCB concentrations. To evaluate the influence of the residence time of species on the accumulation of PCBs, species were divided into two groups: species that spend more than 3 years in the estuary, and species that spend less than 3 years in the estuary. Species that spend more than 3 years in the estuary presented higher concentrations than species that spend less than 3 years in the estuary. CBs 138 and 153 had higher concentration, and tended to increase with time spent in the estuary.

  7. The importance of gobies (Gobiidae, Teleostei) as hosts and transmitters of parasites in the SW Baltic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zander, C. D.; Strohbach, U.; Groenewold, S.

    1993-02-01

    The parasite fauna of five goby species (Gobiidae, Teleostei) was investigated in the Baltic Sea during the period 1987 to 1990. 13 parasite species were found in samples from the Lübeck Bight: Bothriocephalus scorpii, Schistocephalus sp. (Cestoda); Cryptocotyle concavum, Cryptocotyle lingua, Podocotyle atomon, Derogenes varicus (Digenea); Hysterothylacium sp. (cf. auctum), Contracaecum sp., Anisakis simplex (Nematoda); Corynosoma sp., Echinorhynchus gadi, Neoechinorhynchus rutili, Pomphorhynchus laevis (Acanthocephala). The number of parasite species were: 10 in the sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus, 8 in the black goby Gobius niger, 7 in the two-spotted goby Gobiusculus flavescens, 6 in the common goby Pomatoschistus microps, and 5 in the painted goby Pomatoschistus pictus. Neoechinorhynchus rutili occurred only in P. minutus, and Corynosoma sp. only in G. niger. The extent to which the gobies were parasitized clearly depended on the respective ways of life and, moreover, on the kind of prey ingested by the hosts. Additionally, the age of the hosts might be important. The highest rate of parasitism, more than 60%, was reached by Hysterothylacium sp. in G. niger and by Cryptocotyle concavum in P. microps. Infestation incidence lay mostly below 40% which means a satellite species status (Holmes, 1991). The number of parasite species was highest in summer; the highest intensities of single parasites occurred in spring ( Podocotyle atomon) or autumn ( Crytocotyle concavum). Bothriocephalus scorpii, Hysterothylacium sp. and Podocotyle infested their juvenile hosts very early, but only Hysterothylacium was accumulated by G. niger during its whole life span, whereas Bothriocephalus persisted also in older gobies in low intensities. The cercariae of Cryptocotyle spp. penetrate actively into their hosts; all the other parasites named were transmitted in larval form by prey organisms which consisted mainly of planktonic and benthic crustaceans. The gobies were final hosts

  8. Possible causes for growth variability and summer growth reduction in juvenile plaice Pleuronectes platessa L. in the western Dutch Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Veer, Henk W.; Jung, Alexa Sarina; Freitas, Vânia; Philippart, Catharina J. M.; Witte, Johannes IJ.

    2016-05-01

    Growth variability within individuals and among groups and locations and the phenomenon of summer growth reduction has been described for juvenile flatfish in a variety of European coastal areas whereby the underlying causes still remain elusive. Potential mechanisms were tested for juvenile plaice Pleuronectes platessa L. in the western Dutch Wadden Sea, by analysing published and unpublished information from long-term investigations (1986-present). Growth variability did occur and could be explained by differences induced by environmental variability (water temperature), and by non-genetic irreversible adaptation and sex. Dynamic Energy Budget analysis indicated that especially sexually-dimorphic growth in combination with variability in sex ratio could explain most of the variability in growth and the increase in the range of the size of individuals within the population over time. Summer growth reduction was not only observed among 0-group plaice in the intertidal, but also in the subtidal and tidal gullies as well as among I- and II-group plaice. Intraspecific competition for food was not detected but some support for interspecific competition with other predators was found. Also resource competition (due to crowding) with the other abundant epibenthic species (0-, I- and II-group flounder Platichthys flesus; the brown shrimp Crangon crangon; the shore crab Carcinus maenas; the goby species Pomatoschistus minutus and Pomatoschistus microps) could not explain the summer growth reduction. The observed growth reduction coincided with a decrease in stomach content, especially of regenerating body parts of benthic prey items. It is hypothesised that macrozoobenthos becomes less active after the spring phytoplankton bloom, reducing prey availability for juvenile plaice in summer, causing a reduction in food intake and hence in growth.

  9. Seasonal variation of assemblage and feeding guild structure of fish species in a boreal tidal basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellnreitner, Florian; Pockberger, Moritz; Asmus, Harald

    2012-08-01

    Species composition, abundance, feeding relationships and guild structure of the fish assemblage in the Sylt-Rømø bight, a tidal basin in the northern Wadden Sea, were investigated to show seasonal differences and the importance of functional groups in this area. The tidal flats and in shallow subtidal areas were sampled using a beach seine and a bottom trawl net was used for deeper subtidal areas and tidal gullies. Species richness of fish was highest in summer where 26 species were caught, while the lowest richness was recorded in winter (17 species). Clear differences in species richness and abundance were found between shallow areas and deeper parts of the bight. Clupea harengus and Ammodytes tobianus were the most abundant species in deeper areas, while Pomatoschistus microps and Pomatoschistus minutus dominated shallower waters. Gut contents of 27 fish species were identified and the guild structure analyzed by UPGMA clustering of niche overlaps. Calanoid copepods (19.9%), Crangon crangon (18.2%) and mysid shrimps (8.4%) were the most abundant prey items of all fish species combined. Seven feeding guilds were present in the fall and winter, and eight and six in spring and summer, respectively. Fish feeding on calanoid copepods and C. crangon were present year round, whereas the occurrence of other guilds varied between seasons. Species composition of prey changed through seasons and, for some fish species, even the feeding mode itself varied with season. Most noticeable, 11 fish species changed guilds between seasons. We found a convergence in summer towards abundant prey items, whereas in winter diet overlap was lower. This is the first investigation of guild structure of almost all fish species present in a Wadden Sea area, and shows that consideration of seasonal differences is essential when determining feeding relationships of fish in temperate areas.

  10. Larinus minutus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Urophora quadrifasciata (Diptera: Tephritidae), evidence for interaction and impact on spotted knapweed in Arkansas.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Competition between seed-feeding insects is well noted in the literature, with many of these interactions being asymmetrical and causing a disadvantage for one of the species involved. While often effective, the use of the “cumulative stress” approach to biological control (where multiple natural e...

  11. Larinus minutus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Urophora quadrifasciata (Diptera: Tephritidae), evidence for interaction and impact on spotted knapweed in Arkansas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Competition between seed-feeding insects is well noted in the literature, with many of these interactions being asymmetrical and causing a disadvantage for one of the species involved. While often effective, the use of the “cumulative stress” approach to biological control (where multiple natural e...

  12. Odour cues from suitors' nests determine mating success in a fish.

    PubMed

    Lehtonen, Topi K; Kvarnemo, Charlotta

    2015-05-01

    Animals use a range of sensory cues for finding food, avoiding predators and choosing mates. In this regard, the aquatic environment is particularly suitable for the use of olfactory and other chemical cues. Nevertheless, mate choice research, even on aquatic organisms, has focused on visual signals, while chemical cues relevant in sexual selection have been assumed to be 'intrinsic' excretions of mate candidates. Here, using the sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus, a small fish with paternal egg care, we investigated the possibility that 'extrinsic' chemical cues in the males' nests could also have a significant contribution to mating success. We found that females strongly avoided laying eggs into nests subject to the odour of Saprolegnia water moulds (an egg infection) and that this effect was independent of the females' initial, visually based preference for males. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that chemical cues related to parental failure can play a large role in sexual selection. PMID:25948566

  13. Odour cues from suitors’ nests determine mating success in a fish

    PubMed Central

    Lehtonen, Topi K.; Kvarnemo, Charlotta

    2015-01-01

    Animals use a range of sensory cues for finding food, avoiding predators and choosing mates. In this regard, the aquatic environment is particularly suitable for the use of olfactory and other chemical cues. Nevertheless, mate choice research, even on aquatic organisms, has focused on visual signals, while chemical cues relevant in sexual selection have been assumed to be ‘intrinsic’ excretions of mate candidates. Here, using the sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus, a small fish with paternal egg care, we investigated the possibility that ‘extrinsic’ chemical cues in the males’ nests could also have a significant contribution to mating success. We found that females strongly avoided laying eggs into nests subject to the odour of Saprolegnia water moulds (an egg infection) and that this effect was independent of the females’ initial, visually based preference for males. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that chemical cues related to parental failure can play a large role in sexual selection. PMID:25948566

  14. Oestrogenic markers and reduced population fertile egg production in a sand goby partial life-cycle test.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Craig D; Craft, John A; Moffat, Colin F; Davies, Ian M; Brown, Elaine S; Megginson, Colin

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the ecological significance of oestrogenic biomarker responses, seen in field surveys of some UK estuarine fish, requires a suitable model to link biochemical and reproductive effects. The sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus) is a common inshore fish that has been successfully bred in laboratory aquaria. Juvenile sand goby were continuously exposed to 17beta-oestradiol (E2) during gonadal maturation, and their subsequent reproductive success investigated. Exposure endpoints included hepatic vitellogenin (VTG) mRNA expression and maturation (male nuptial colouration, sperm duct gland- and gonado-somatic indices (SDGSI, GSI)). Reproductive endpoints included spawning behaviour, brood size, fertility and population-level fertile egg production. Measured E2 exposure concentrations were <5 (controls), 17, 71 and 530 ngl(-1). Male maturation decreased with increasing E2 concentration. VTG mRNA expression increased with E2 concentration, but not with duration of exposure. Reproductive endpoints showed progressive impairment with increasing E2 concentration. For most endpoints, the lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) was 71 ngl(-1), and EC50s were in the range 87-165 ngl(-1). Pre-breeding male colouration, VTG expression and SDGSI were good predictors of subsequent population-level fertile egg production, but GSI was not. The sensitivity of oestrogenic markers in sand goby are comparable to those used in other species, and feral fish populations exhibiting such oestrogenic responses at molecular and organ levels are likely to have reduced fertile egg production. PMID:15178026

  15. Parasite transfer from crustacean to fish hosts in the Lübeck Bight, SW Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zander, C. D.; Groenewold, S.; Strohbach, U.

    1994-03-01

    Four helminth parasites out of 19 species found in the Lübeck Bight, Baltic Sea, were chosen for investigations on the transfer from invertebrate to small-sized fish hosts: larvae of the tapeworms Schistocephalus sp. and Bothriocephalus sp. (Cestoda) living in planktonic copepods as primary hosts; Podocotyle atomon (Digenea) and Hysterothylacium sp. (Nematoda) were found in benthic crustaceans, especially Gammarus spp. These hosts were the prey of 3 gobiid fishes, Gobiusculus flavescens (feeding mainly on plankton), Pomatoschistus minutus (preferring benthos), and P. pictus (feeding more on plankton than benthos). Because the fishes selected smaller sizes of crustaceans, they ingested all stages of the copepods but only the smaller-sized groups of gammarids which were often less infested by parasites. In order to evaluate the probability for a fish to be parasitized by a helminth, an infestation potential index (IP) was calculated. Podocotyle atomon and Hysterothylacium sp. revealed an IP which was far lower in gobies than expected when the prevalences of the previous hosts were taken into consideration. The IP of tapeworm larvae was mainly influenced by the feeding pressure of the gobiid predators, which might change with developmental stage and season. It is concluded that parasite transfer to the next host decreases when sizes of prey and predator differ only moderately. This mechanism can reduce the numbers of parasites transferred to less suitable or wrong hosts.

  16. Parasite communities of four fish species in the Wadden Sea and the role of fish discarded by the shrimp fisheries in parasite transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groenewold, S.; Berghahn, R.; Zander, C.-D.

    1996-03-01

    Parasites were observed in medium- and small-sized fish taken from the discards of a commercial shrimper during seven different cruises in the tidal channels of the North Frisian Wadden Sea (Süderaue, North Sea) from April to September 1991. In total, 442 fish comprising four species ( Sprattus sprattus, Hyperoplus lanceolatus, Ammodytes tobianus, Pomatoschistus minutus) were investigated. The parasite fauna consisted of 22 species. The parasite community structure of the 4 hosts was compared. The diet of the hosts seemed to be the main factor determining the structure of the parasite community. Other factors could not be assessed. Eight species of parasites occurred as larval stages. This indicated that fish were intermediate or paratenic hosts in their life cycle. The nematode Hysterothylacium sp. (Anisakidae) and the digenean Cryptocotyle lingua (Heterophyidea) were the dominant parasites, reaching their highest prevalence and density in sprat and sand eel. Sprat and sand eel play a very important role in parasite transmission to predacious fish and seabirds.

  17. Infections may select for filial cannibalism by impacting egg survival in interactions with water salinity and egg density.

    PubMed

    Lehtonen, Topi K; Kvarnemo, Charlotta

    2015-07-01

    In aquatic environments, externally developing eggs are in constant contact with the surrounding water, highlighting the significance of water parameters and pathogens for egg survival. In this study we tested the impact of water salinity, egg density and infection potential of the environment on egg viability in the sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus), a small fish that exhibits paternal egg care and has a marine origin, but which in the Baltic Sea lives in brackish water. To manipulate the infection potential of the environment, we added either a Saprolegnia infection vector into UV-filtered water or a fungicide into natural Baltic Sea water. Saprolegnia are widely spread water moulds that are a key cause of egg mortality in aquatic organisms in fresh- and brackish water. We found that increased water salinity indeed decreased the egg infection rate and had a positive effect on egg viability, while high egg density tended to have the opposite effect. However, the different factors influenced egg viability interactively, with a higher egg density having negative effects at low, but not in high, salinity. Thus, the challenges facing marine organisms adapting to lower salinity levels can be amplified by Saprolegnia infections that reduce egg survival in interaction with other environmental factors. Our results support the hypothesis that suppressing egg infections is an important aspect of parental care that can select for filial cannibalism, a common but poorly understood behaviour, especially in fish with parental care. PMID:25676104

  18. Genetic variability between complete mitochondrion genomes of the sablefish, Anoplopoma fimbria (Pallas, 1814).

    PubMed

    Galván-Tirado, Carolina; Del Río-Portilla, Miguel Angel; Delgado-Vega, Rigoberto; García-De León, Francisco J

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the sablefish, Anoplopoma fimbria (Genbank accession KP777542) is 16,507 bp in size and contains the typical 37 genes (13 protein-coding, 2 ribosomal RNA, and 22 transfer RNA) found in teleosts mitogenomes. The genome varies in 118 positions with respect to another mitogenome sablefish specimen. PMID:26065847

  19. Characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers and genetic diversity in wild bronze featherback, Notopterus notopterus (Pallas, 1769).

    PubMed

    Gupta, Arti; Lal, Kuldeep K; Punia, Peyush; Singh, Rajeev K; Mohindra, Vindhya; Sah, Rama S; Kumar, Rajesh; Luhariya, Rupesh K; Dwivedi, Arvind K; Masih, Prachi; Mishra, R M; Jena, J K

    2013-12-01

    Six polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci were identified in the primitive fish, bronze featherback, Notopterus notopterus for the first time and demonstrated significant population genetic structure. Out of the six primers, one primer (NN90) was specific to N. notopterus (microsatellite sequence within the RAG1 gene) and five primers were product of successful cross-species amplification. Sixty-four primers available from 3 fish species of order Osteoglossiformes and families Notopteridae and Osteoglossidae were tested to amplify homologous microsatellite loci in N. notopterus. Fifteen primer pairs exhibited successful cross-priming PCR product. However, polymorphism was detected only at five loci. To assess the significance of these six loci (including NN90) in population genetic study, 215 samples of N. notopterus from five rivers, viz Satluj, Gomti, Yamuna, Brahmaputra and Mahanadi were analyzed. The five sample sets displayed different diversity levels and observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.6036 to 0.7373. Significant genotype heterogeneity (P < 0.0001) and high FST (0.2205) over all loci indicated that the samples are not drawn from the same genepool. The identified microsatellite loci are promising for use in fine-scale population structure analysis of N. notopterus. PMID:24072656

  20. Distribution and ecology of Dreissena polymorpha (pallas) and Dreissena bugensis (andrusov) in the upper Volga basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shcherbina, G. Kh; Buckler, D.R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents data on contemporary distribution patterns of two species of Dreissenidae, the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) and the Quagga mussel (Dreissena bugensis), and their role in ecosystem processes in the Ivan'kovo, Uglich, Rybinsk, and Gorky Reservoirs of the Upper Volga River basin. The role of zebra mussel was also studied in experimental mesocosms of 15 m3. Maximum abundance and species diversity of macroinvertebrates, especially of leeches, polychaetes, crustaceans, and heterotopic insects, were attained in the portions of reservoirs where Dreissenidae were present and in experimental mesocosms where zebra mussel biomass was the highest. In the mesocosm studies, the presence of zebra mussel druses (colonies) provided shelter for macroinvertebrates, reducing their vulnerability to predation by perch (Perca fluviatills) larvae and yearlings, thereby increasing macroinvertebrate species diversity. It was shown that in addition to its role in aquatic biocenosis (ecological community) formation and water purification, Dreissenidae are important food objects for benthophagous fishes, especially roach (Rutilus rutilus). Examination of intestines of benthophagous fishes showed that the length of Dreissenidae ranged from 5 to 20 mm in roach; from 4 to 14 mm in silver bream (Blicca bjoerkna), and from 2 to 10 mm in bream (Abramis brama). The largest mussels consumed were Quagga mussels up to 30 mm, noted in the predatory cyprinid, ide (Leuciscus idus). Copyright ?? 2006 by ASTM International.

  1. Diplectanids (Monogenea) on the archerfish Toxotes jaculatrix (Pallas) (Toxotidae) off Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lim, L H S

    2006-05-01

    Two new and two previously described species of diplectanid monogeneans (Heteroplectanum flabelliforme n. sp., Diplectanum sumpit n. sp., D. jaculator Mizelle & Kritsky, 1969 and D. toxotes Mizelle & Kritsky, 1969) were collected from archerfish Toxotes jaculatrix off the Island of Langkawi, Kedah and off Perak, Malaysia. The reproductive systems and squamodiscs of D. jaculator and D. toxotes are described for the first time. D. sumpit n. sp. differs from D. toxotes and D. jaculator in a having a small curved copulatory tube with a distinct accessory piece, compared to the long, tubular copulatory tube of D. jaculator and the slender tube of D. toxotes. D. sumpit n. sp. also differs from D. toxotes in having a larger ventral bar and larger squamodiscs. H. flabelliforme n. sp. differs from all known Heteroplectanum species in the shape and size of the squamodiscs, the arrangement of the sclerites in the squamodiscs, the extremely large ventral bar and the short, curved, non-spinous copulatory tube. PMID:16773472

  2. The complete mitogenome of the ghost crab Ocypode ceratophthalmus (Pallas, 1772) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Ocypodidae).

    PubMed

    Tan, Mun Hua; Gan, Han Ming; Lee, Yin Peng; Austin, Christopher M

    2016-05-01

    The mitochondrial genome sequence of the ghost crab, Ocypode ceratophthalmus, is documented (GenBank accession number: LN611669) in this article. This is the first mitogenome for the family Ocypodidae and the second for the order Ocypodoidea. Ocypode ceratophthalmus has a mitogenome of 15,564 base pairs consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs and a non-coding AT-rich region. The base composition of the O. ceratophthalmus mitogenome is 35.78% for T, 19.36% for C, 33.73% for A and 11.13% for G, with an AT bias of 69.51% and the gene order is the typical arrangement for brachyuran crabs. PMID:25423512

  3. Haplosporidium raabei n. sp. (Haplosporidia): a parasite of zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771).

    PubMed

    Molloy, D P; Giambérini, L; Stokes, N A; Burreson, E M; Ovcharenko, M A

    2012-04-01

    Extensive connective tissue lysis is a common outcome of haplosporidian infection. Although such infections in marine invertebrates are well documented, they are relatively rarely observed in freshwater invertebrates. Herein, we report a field study using a comprehensive series of methodologies (histology, dissection, electron microscopy, gene sequence analysis, and molecular phylogenetics) to investigate the morphology, taxonomy, systematics, geographical distribution, pathogenicity, and seasonal and annual prevalence of a haplosporidian observed in zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha. Based on its genetic sequence, morphology, and host, we describe Haplosporidium raabei n. sp. from D. polymorpha - the first haplosporidian species from a freshwater bivalve. Haplosporidium raabei is rare as we observed it in histological sections in only 0·7% of the zebra mussels collected from 43 water bodies across 11 European countries and in none that were collected from 10 water bodies in the United States. In contrast to its low prevalences, disease intensities were quite high with 79·5% of infections advanced to sporogenesis. PMID:22216754

  4. Ten years of invasion: Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Britain

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Helen E; Brown, Peter M J

    2015-01-01

    1. Harmonia axyridis was first recorded in Britain in 2004. Two subsequent earlier records were received from 2003. 2. The UK Ladybird Survey, a citizen science initiative involving online recording, was launched in 2005 to encourage people across Britain to track the spread of H. axyridis. Tens of thousands of people have provided records of H. axyridis and other species of ladybirds, creating an invaluable dataset for large-scale and long-term research. Declines in the distribution of seven (of eight assessed) native species of ladybird have been demonstrated, and correlated with the arrival of H. axyridis, using the records collated through the UK Ladybird Survey. 3. Experimental research and field surveys have also contributed to our understanding of the ecology of H. axyridis and particularly the process of invasion. Harmonia axyridis arrived in Britain through dispersal and introduction events from regions in which it was deliberately released as a biological control agent. The rapid spread of this species has been attributed to its high natural dispersal capability by means of both flight and anthropogenic transport. A number of factors have contributed to the successful establishment and indeed dominance of this polymorphic species within aphidophagous guilds, including high reproductive capacity, intra-guild predation, eurytopic nature, high resistance to natural enemies within the invaded range, and potentially phenotypic plasticity. 4. The global invasion by H. axyridis and subsequent research on this species has contributed to the general understanding of biological invasions. PMID:26435571

  5. Determination of normal values of some blood serum enzymes in Acipenser stellatus Pallas.

    PubMed

    Shahsavani, D; Mohri, M; Gholipour Kanani, H

    2010-03-01

    Hematological studies on fishes have assumed greater significance due to the increasing emphasis on pisciculture and greater awareness of the pollution of natural water resources. Such studies have generally been used as an effective and sensitive index to monitor physiological and pathological changes in fishes, especially in the management of endangered species. This study was undertaken to establish a reference range for six important blood serum enzymes. Serum samples of 40 Acipenser stellatus (20 female and 20 male) were analyzed, and serum enzyme values were determined. The reference ranges for the total samples and also for each sex were determined. The activities of measured enzymes in serum were: aspartate aminotransferase (AST) 265.60 +/- 56.55 IU/l, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) 5.65 +/- 1.18 IU/l, acid phosphatase (ACP) 15.63 +/- 2.59 IU/l, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) 2007.15 +/- 521.97 IU/l, creatine kinase (CK) 6,596.05 +/- 1,807.19 IU/l, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) 69.05 +/- 13.04 IU/l. There were significant differences between male and female fish in terms of AST and CK activity (P < 0.05). These may be related to the season of sampling and changing physiological cycles during spawning during which period the sexual hormones and stress are more obvious. However, there were no differences in the activity of ALP, ACP, LDH, and ALT between sexes. The correlations between measured enzymes were also determined. PMID:18982419

  6. Isolation and characterization of 10 microsatellite loci for Pallas' long-tongued bat Glossophaga soricina (Phyllostomidae).

    PubMed

    Oprea, M; Peixoto, F P; Resende, L V; Collevatti, R G; Telles, M P C

    2012-01-01

    Glossophaga soricina is a widespread Neotropical nectarivorous bat. We characterized 10 microsatellite loci isolated from a shotgun genomic library. We analyzed tissues from wing membrane of 67 individuals collected from two populations of Central Brazil (Brasília and Alto Paraíso). The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 20, and the observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.015 to 0.666 and from 0.016 to 0.915, respectively. The high combined probability of genetic identity (4.369 x 10(-8)) and probability of paternity exclusion (0.996) showed that these microsatellite loci would be useful for population genetic structure and parentage studies in natural populations of G. soricina. PMID:23079846

  7. The distribution, abundance and ecology of the blue coral Heliopora coerulea (Pallas) in the Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zann, Leon P.; Bolton, Lesley

    1985-09-01

    Heliopora coerulea (Alcyonaria, Coenothecalia), widespread since the Cretaceous, is today found in the Indo-Western Pacific between 25° N and 25° S but is uncommon throughout most of its range. Studies around its reported southern and eastern limits of distribution (Great Barrier Reef, Vanuatu, Fiji, Tonga, Western Samoa, Tuvalu, Gilbert Group) suggest that ocean temperature (a lower marginal isotherm of 22°C), duration of larval life-span, prevailing currents, and the geological and climatic history of isolated archipelagoes determine distribution. Heliopora was found to be far more abundant in the equatorial Central Pacific sites (Tuvalu and Gilbert growps) than in the Western Pacific (Great Barrier Reef, New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Ponape, Palau). Heliopora comprised up to 16% of beach sediments in Tuvalu atolls, and was the dominant coral (averaging 40% of substrate between 6 m and 10 m on reef slopes) in coral assemblages on Tarawa Atoll. From ecological studies in Tarawa it is suggested that competition from the more specialized and “aggressive” Scleractinia (particularly Acroporidae and Faviidae) is the major factor limiting abundance in the equatorial Western Pacific.

  8. Interval timing behavior in Pallas's long-tongued bat (Glossophaga soricina).

    PubMed

    Toelch, Ulf; Winter, York

    2013-11-01

    Timing behavior in animals and its underlying mechanisms have been investigated extensively in the peak procedure, a variant of fixed interval procedures. In such experiments, individuals typically start responding with high frequency after an initial inactive time interval and continue their responses after peak time if rewards are omitted. This begs the so far unexplored question as to how timing behavior is influenced when such continuous responses are suppressed. Here, we present results from a nectar-feeding bat species, Glossophaga soricina, that was tested in a modified version of the peak procedure at three fixed time intervals (5 s, 11 s, 20 s). In contrast to standard peak procedures we imposed metabolic costs on individual responses which effectively suppressed trains of rapid responses during trials. Under this manipulation, bats' aggregated responses showed clear peaks around the peak time in the 5-s and 11-s schedules. Bats' responses in the 20-s schedule, however, did not peak around the fixed interval time. Crucially, an analysis of time intervals between successive revisits in all schedules revealed that bats revisited feeders at accurately timed intervals in all three conditions. The individual within trial behavioral responses showed clear oscillatory patterns throughout nonrewarded trials. These findings follow predictions from mechanistic timing models, like the striatal beat frequency model, and are discussed with regard to these models. PMID:23875922

  9. The Arteries of the Brain in Hare (Lepus europaeus Pallas, 1778).

    PubMed

    Brudnicki, Witold; Kirkiłło-Stacewicz, Krzysztof; Skoczylas, Benedykt; Nowicki, Włodzimierz; Jabłoński, Ryszard; Brudnicki, Adam; Wach, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Research into course and variability of brain arteries in hare were performed on 38 adult hares of both sexes (males 23 and females 15). The arteries were filled with a synthetic latex at a constant pressure introduced with a medical syringe to the left ventricle. The source of blood supply to the brain was internal carotid arteries, whose branches formed an arterial circle of the brain, vertebral arteries, and basilar artery as the result of its anastomosis. Variability focused on a method of departure of middle cerebral arteries, which were multiple vessels in 39.5% of cases and rostral cerebellar arteries. Caudal communicating arteries in hare comprised bilateral anastomosis of internal carotid arteries and final branches of the basilar artery. It stabilized the steady flow of blood to all parts of the brain. Caudal cerebral arteries comprised final branches of the basilar artery. The largest capacity of all the arteries of the brain was observed in the main trunk of the basilar artery. The capacity of these vessels was 4.53 mm(3) on average. The factor of capacity of cerebral arteries in relation to weight of the brain reaches a high value in hare. PMID:25988288

  10. Assessment of environmental stress in Parablennius sanguinolentus (Pallas, 1814) of the Sicilian Ionian coast.

    PubMed

    Tigano, Concetta; Tomasello, Barbara; Pulvirenti, Valentina; Ferrito, Venera; Copat, Chiara; Carpinteri, Guido; Mollica, Emanuele; Sciacca, Salvatore; Renis, Marcella

    2009-05-01

    The blenny Parablennius sanguinolentus was selected as a useful bioindicator of environmental pollution. Chemical parameters in water and sediments from three different sampling sites along the Sicilian Ionian coast were determined and metal concentrations in fish muscle were measured. DNA fragmentation and oxidation in erythrocytes and hepatocytes was determined by the Comet assay and HSP70 expression levels were evaluated in the liver. The results show an increased level of chromium in sediments and high polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in water at one site. The bioaccumulation of metals in muscle tissue shows high concentrations of lead in some samples. A high percentage of DNA damage in blood and liver cells, as well as high hepatic levels of HSP70, were found in all the sites. The results demonstrate the usefulness of an integrated chemical and biological approach for the determination of environmental stress. PMID:19217660

  11. Identification of Hepatozoon erhardovae Krampitz, 1964 from bank voles (Myodes glareolus) and fleas in Southern Hungary.

    PubMed

    Rigó, Krisztina; Majoros, Gábor; Szekeres, Sándor; Molnár, Imola; Jablonszky, Mónika; Majláthová, Viktória; Majláth, Igor; Földvári, Gábor

    2016-06-01

    In order to investigate the prevalence and life cycle of apicomplexan parasites, small mammals were live-trapped with modified Sherman traps in Southern Hungary between 2010 and 2012. Altogether, 528 rodents (Apodemus flavicollis Melchior, 1834, Apodemus agrarius Pallas, 1771, Myodes glareolus Schreber, 1780, Microtus agrestis Linnaeus, 1761, Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758 and Micromys minutus Pallas, 1771) were collected and four shrews (Sorex spp.) were by-catched. Captured animals belonging to non-protected species were euthanized, and spleen samples were preserved for histological and molecular analyses. During the examination of spleen smears, Hepatozoon parasites were observed in eight out of 48 bank voles (M. glareolus). DNA was isolated from altogether 221 spleen samples, and 18S rDNA was amplified using two different PCR protocols. The eight bank vole samples were positive with PCR, but none of the other M. glareolus spleen samples or any of the tissue samples from other species were found to be infected. Sequenced amplicons were very similar to Hepatozoon spp. detected in M. glareolus in Spain and Poland. Ectoparasites were collected from the small mammal carcasses and from the vegetation. Hepatozoon DNA was not found in the 181 ticks removed from the small mammals or in the 162 ticks collected with flagging, but was detected in all three flea species (4/43 Megabothris turbidus Rothschild, 1909, 3/10 Ctenophthalmus assimilis Taschenberg, 1880 and 7/78 Ctenophthalmus agyrtes Heller, 1896). Based on gamont morphology, vertebrate and arthropod host species and DNA sequences, the parasites in our study can be identified as Hepatozoon erhardovae. PMID:27003406

  12. Loricophrya bosporica n. sp. (Ciliophora, Suctorea) epibiont of Desmoscolex minutus (Nematoda, Desmoscolecida) from oxic/anoxic boundary of the Black Sea Istanbul Strait's outlet area.

    PubMed

    Sergeeva, Nelli; Dovgal, Igor

    2016-01-01

    A suctorian ciliate Loricophrya bosporica sp. nov. is described from the body surface of nematodes of genus Desmoscolex collected in oxic/anoxic boundary of the Bosporus outlet area of the Black Sea. The new species differs from relative species L. sivertseni by development of its body, which takes no more than half, or a third of the lorica length, absence of crown-like projections at the lorica edge as for adhesive disk. From L. tuba new species differs by considerably shorter stylotheca and prevalence to nematode host instead of echinoderms. PMID:27395522

  13. Structure, histochemistry and seasonal variations of the male reproductive accessory glands in the Pallas's mastiff bat, Molossus molossus (Chiroptera: Molossidae).

    PubMed

    Christante, Caroline M; Beguelini, Mateus R; Puga, Cintia C I; Negrin, Ana C; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Vilamaior, Patrícia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2015-01-01

    Due to their wide geographical distribution, bats suffer considerable influence from abiotic factors on their reproductive strategies, detected through behavioural or functional assessment of the gonads and accessory glands. The present study aimed to characterise anatomically and morphologically the reproductive accessory glands (RAGs) of Molossus molossus (Molossidae) and evaluate their seasonal variations. The RAGs were removed, fixed, sectioned after histological processing and submitted to the following stains: haematoxylin-eosin, periodic acid--Schiff (PAS) and Gömöri's reticulin. Our data demonstrated that the RAGs of M. molossus are composed of a semi-lobed prostatic complex associated with the urethra and a pair of inguinal bulbourethral glands. Histology and three-dimensional reconstruction of the prostatic complex demonstrated the existence of two regions: ventral and dorsal (named according to the position around the urethra). The two regions had distinctive morphological and histological differences, with the ventral region being the most prominent and the dorsal formed by four lobes. Considering the seasonal evaluation, we can infer that the prostatic complex of M. molossus is active throughout the seasons in São Paulo State (Brazil) and, although each of the prostatic regions has inherent characteristics, they synchronise to establish the main reproductive peak in spring (early rainy season). PMID:25482215

  14. Heterozygosity and fitness: No strong association in Great Lakes populations of the zebra mussel, Dreissena Polymorpha (Pallas)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, K.M.; Feder, J.L.; Horvath, T.G.; Lamberti, G.A.

    2000-01-01

    A number of studies have found positive associations between allozyme heterozygosity and fitness surrogates (e.g., body size and growth rate) for marine molluscs. We investigated whether similar relationships exist for freshwater populations of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha. Only one significant correlation between multi-locus heterozygosity and shell length was observed for a total of 22 D. polymorpha populations surveyed from midwestern U.S.A. lakes and streams, and the result was not significant on a table-wide basis. Meta-analysis revealed a significant common correlation coefficient (effect magnitude) between multi-locus heterozygosity and shell length across all 22 sites (rc = 0.052, P = 0.019, 1557 df). However, the variance in shell length explained by multi-locus heterozygosity was small (rc2 = 0.0027), implying a weak causal relationship if any. Also, we saw no relationship between heterozygosity and growth rate in a one-year field enclosure experiment. A significant heterozygosity-shell length correlation previously reported for a zebra mussel population at Put-in-Bay, Lake Erie, Ohio, may have been the product of unique population dynamics, rather than natural selection. Similar demographic considerations may contribute to inconsistencies in heterozygosity-fitness correlations seen for other molluscs.

  15. Morphological alterations in the freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus Pallas 1766 (Rotifera: Monogononta) caused by vinclozolin chronic exposure.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Flores, Jesús; Rico-Martínez, Roberto; Adabache-Ortíz, Araceli; Silva-Briano, Marcelo

    2015-05-01

    Vinclozolin (VZ) is a dicarboximide fungicide widely used on fruits, vegetables and wines, effective against fungi plagues. In this study we characterized the effects of VZ using a 4-day reproductive chronic assay with the freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus. The assay included observations of several features of asexual and sexual reproduction. Our results indicate that VZ: (a) increased asexual and sexual reproduction, (b) caused severe abnormality in females and (c) these abnormalities were inherited by sexual and asexual reproduction. At 1.2 mg/L three abnormal females were found out of 457 total females (0.66 %). This low percentage is consistent and reproducible according to further analysis, where we increased the number of replicates and total females exposed to 1.2 mg/L of VZ, and found 18 abnormal females out of 2868 total females (0.63 % abnormality). Interestingly, abnormal females found at 5.6 mg/L VZ exposure, were able to show mating behavior. Our results suggest that VZ behaves as a strong endocrine disruptor whose effects show the characteristic inverted-U-shape exposure concentration response curve regarding the intrinsic population increase and the percentage of abnormalities as endpoints. PMID:25725815

  16. [Comparative sequence analysis of the LEA gene fragment in Pinus sibirica du tour and Pinus pumila (Pallas) regel].

    PubMed

    Mglinets, A V; Sokolov, V A; Petrova, E A; Goroshkevich, S N

    2014-02-01

    A comparative sequence analysis of the LEA (Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA)-like gene) intron fragment was performed in Pinus sibirica and P. pumila differing in geographic origin. It was demonstrated that in P. sibirica this fragment was represented by two types of PCR products, 224 and 202 bp in size. Similarly, in accessions of P. pumila, two PCR products of 224 and 159 bp in size were identified. Comparison of 224 bp fragments in P. sibirica and P. pumila showed that they differed in single nucleotide substitutions. Analysis of the intron fragment in a plant, which was characterized as an interspecific hybrid based on morphological characters, showed that it had fragments of 224 and 159 bp in size. The sequence of 224 bp fragment was similar to that of the corresponding fragment in P. sibirica. The structure of the short fragment was the same as the structure of the corresponding fragment in P. pumila. The data obtained are discussed in terms of the use of the sequences examined for species taxonomic classification and of an analysis of species hybridization. PMID:25711024

  17. DNA adduct measurements in zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, Pallas. Potential use for genotoxicant biomonitoring of fresh water ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Le Goff, J; Gallois, J; Pelhuet, L; Devier, M H; Budzinski, H; Pottier, D; André, V; Cachot, J

    2006-08-12

    The purpose of this study was to examine PAH accumulation and bulky DNA adduct formation in the digestive gland of zebra mussels exposed in their habitat or in controlled laboratory conditions to complex mixture of PAH. DNA adducts were measured using a 32P-postlabelling protocol with nuclease P1 enrichment adapted from Reddy and Randerath [Reddy, M.V., Randerath, K., 1986. Nuclease P1-mediated enhancement of sensitivity of 32P-postlabelling test for structurally diverse DNA adducts. Carcinogenesis 7, 1543-1551]. Specimens collected in the upper part of the Seine estuary were shown to accumulate higher levels of PAH (up to 1.6 microg g(-1) dry weight) in comparison to individuals from the reference site (0.053 microg g(-1) dry weight). The former exhibited elevated levels of DNA adducts (up to 4.0/10(8) nucleotides) and higher diversity of individual adducts with five distinct spots being specifically detected in individuals originating from the Seine estuary. Zebra mussels exposed for 5 days to 0.01% (v/v) of organic extract of sediment from the Seine estuary were shown to accumulate high amounts of PAH (up to 138 microg g(-1) dry weight) but exhibited relatively low levels of DNA adducts. Exposure to benzo[a]pyrene led to a dose-dependent accumulation of B[a]P (up to 7063 microg g(-1) dry weight) and a clear induction of DNA adduct formation in the digestive gland of mussels (up to 1.13/10(8) nucleotides). Comparisons with other bivalves exposed to the same model PAH, revealed similar levels of adducts and comparable adduct profiles with a main adduct spot and a second faint one. This study clearly demonstrated that zebra mussels are able to biotransform B[a]P and probably other PAH into reactive metabolites with DNA-binding activity. This work also demonstrated the applicability of the nuclease P1 enhanced 32P-postlabelling method for bulky adduct detection in the digestive gland of zebra mussels. DNA adduct measurement in zebra mussels could be a suitable biomarker to monitor PAH-exposure and evaluate genotoxicity in fresh water ecosystems. PMID:16780971

  18. Purification, characterization and bactericidal activities of basic phospholipase A2 from the venom of Agkistrodon halys (Chinese pallas).

    PubMed

    Perumal Samy, R; Gopalakrishnakone, P; Ho, Bow; Chow, Vincent T K

    2008-09-01

    Agkistrodon snake venoms contain a variety of phospholipases (PLA2), some of which are myotoxic. In this study, we used reverse-phase HPLC to purify PLA2 from the venom of Agkistrodon halys. The enzyme named as AgkTx-II, a basic Asp49 PLA2, has a molecular masses of 13,869.05. The amino acid sequence and molecular mass of AgkTx-II was identical to those of an Asp49 basic myotoxic PLA2 previously isolated from this venom. Antibacterial activities were tested by susceptibility and broth-dilution assays. AgkTx-II exerted a potent antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, and Burkholderia pseudomallei. The MIC values of AgkTx-II ranged between 85 and 2.76microM and was most effective against S. aureus, P. vulgaris, P. mirabilis (MIC of 21.25microM) and B. pseudomallei (MIC of 10.25microM). This AgkTx-II rapidly killed S. aureus, P. vulgaris and B. pseudomallei in a dose-dependent manner. The effect of the AgkTx-II on bacterial membranes was evaluated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. AgkTx-II caused morphological alterations apparent on their cellular surfaces, suggesting a killing mechanism based on membrane permeabilization and damage. Cytotoxicity was measured by XTT tetrazolium (2,3-bis[2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays using U-937 cells (monocytes). The AgkTx-II did not affect cell viability up to 500microM concentrations but cell death was evident at 1000microM concentration after 24 and 48h. Furthermore, the repeated exposure of AgkTx-II (2-14microM) treated mice showed different tissue alterations, mainly at the brain and kidney; the toxicological potential of AgkTx-II remains to be elucidated. The AgkTx-II exhibits no hemolytic action even at high doses (10-100microM) in human erythrocytes. However, the AgkTx-II is believed to exert its bactericidal effect by permeabilizing the bacterial membrane by forming pores. In addition, the basic PLA2 AgkTx-II displays a bactericidal effect, which may be either dependent or independent of catalysis. PMID:18472013

  19. EXPLORATORY PLASMA BIOCHEMISTRY REFERENCE INTERVALS FOR URAL OWLS (STRIX URALENSIS, PALLAS 1771) FROM THE AUSTRIAN REINTRODUCTION PROJECT.

    PubMed

    Scope, Alexandra; Schwendenwein, Ilse; Stanclova, Gabriela; Vobornik, Angela; Zink, Richard

    2016-06-01

    The Ural owl (Strix uralensis) is the biggest forest-living owl in Austria; however, it became extinct in Austria through poaching and habitat loss more than half a century ago. The birds examined in the present study were breeding pairs from the reintroduction project with the aim of determining exploratory plasma biochemistry reference intervals in Ural owls and evaluating the amount of biological variation between seasons, sexes, and ages. A total of 45 birds were sampled, including 13 adult males, 14 adult females, and 18 juvenile birds. Remarkably, almost all of the analytes showed significant differences between the subgroups, primarily between seasons, followed by age and sex. Only creatinkinase, glucose, lactatdehydrogenase, and triglycerides did not show any significant variations. Despite partitioning of reference values into subgroups according to biological variation diminishing the number of reference individuals in the respective groups, the resulting smaller reference intervals will improve medical assessment. The results of the present study once again demonstrate that significant seasonal fluctuations must be expected and considered in the interpretation. It can be assumed that these differences are probably even greater in free-range birds with considerable changes in food quantity and quality during and between years. PMID:27468020

  20. The highly specialized vocal tract of the male Mongolian gazelle (Procapra gutturosa Pallas, 1777 – Mammalia, Bovidae)

    PubMed Central

    Frey, R; Gebler, A

    2003-01-01

    The entire head and neck of a wild adult male Mongolian gazelle (Procapra gutturosa) was dissected with special reference to its enlarged larynx. Two additional adult male specimens taken from the wild were analysed by computer tomography. The sternomandibularis, omohyoideus, thyrohyoideus and hyoepiglotticus muscles are particularly enlarged and improve laryngeal suspension and stabilization. The epiglottis is exceptionally large. A permanent laryngeal descent is associated with the evolution of an unpaired palatinal pharyngeal pouch. A certain momentary descent seems to occur during vocalization. The high lateral walls of the thyroid cartilage are ventrally connected by a broad keel. The large thyroarytenoid muscle is divided into two portions: a rostral ventricularis and a caudal vocalis muscle. A paired lateral laryngeal ventricle projects between these two muscles. The massive vocal fold is large and lacks any rostrally directed flexible structures. It is supported by a large cymbal-like fibroelastic pad. Vocal tract length was measured in the course of dissection and in computer tomographic images. Two representative spectrograms, one of an adult male and one of a juvenile, recorded in the natural habitat of the Mongolian gazelle are presented. In the spectrograms, the centre frequency of the lowest band is about 500 Hz in the adult male and about 790 Hz in the juvenile. The low pitch of the adult male's call is ascribed to the evolutionary mass increase and elongation of the vocal folds. In the habitat of P. gutturosa a call with a low pitch and, thus, with an almost homogeneous directivity around the head of the vocalizing animal may be optimally suited for multidirectional advertisement calls during the rut. The signal range of an adult male's call in its natural habitat can therefore be expected to be larger than the high-pitched call of a juvenile. PMID:14635800

  1. Spectral Irradiance Calibration in the Infrared. 7. 5-14 microns Spectroscopy of the Asteroids Ceres, Vesta, and Pallas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Martin; Witteborn, Fred C.; Roush, Ted; Bregman, Jesse; Wooden, Diane

    1996-01-01

    We describe our efforts to seek "closure" in our infrared absolute calibration scheme by comparing spectra of asteroids, absolutely calibrated through reference stars, with "Standard Thermal Models" and "Thermophysical Models" for these bodies. Our use of continuous 5-14 microns airborne spectra provides complete sampling of the rise to, and peak, of the infrared spectral energy distribution and constrains these models. Such models currently support the absolute calibration of ISO-PHOT at far-infrared wave- lengths (as far as 300 microns), and contribute to that of the Mid-Infrared Spectrometer on the "Infrared Telescope in Space" in the 6-12 microns region. The best match to our observed spectra of Ceres and Vesta is a, standard thermal model using a beaming factor of unity. We also report the presence of three emissivity features in Ceres which may complicate the traditional model extrapolation to the far-infrared from contemporaneous ground-based N-band photometry that is used to support calibration of, for example, ISO-PHOT. While identification of specific materials that cause these features is not made, we discuss families of minerals that may be responsible.

  2. [Genetic Diversity of the Cytochrome b Gene Fragment Haplotypes in Red-Backed Vole Myodes (Clethrionomys) rutilus Pallas, 1779].

    PubMed

    Pereverzeva, V V; Primak, A A

    2016-02-01

    For the first time, genetic analysis of the cytochrome b gene fragment haplotypes encoding the identical and the most common cytochrome b polypeptide (F1) in M. rutilus from Eastern and Beringian mateml lineages was carried out. The F1 frequencies for the vole populations from Northern Priokhotye and the Kolyma basin were calculated. Considerable polymorphism of the cytochrome b F1 haplotypes within two major phylo- groups of red-backed vole was supported by high molecular diversity indices for these clades. The proportion of genetic variation between the maternal lineages of F1 red-backed vole individuals (60.71%) was considerably higher than inter-(24.44%) and intrapopulation (14.85%) components. The data obtained make it possible to advance a hypothesis on the convergence of the cytochrome b polypeptide structure upon sequence divergence of the corresponding gene. PMID:27215033

  3. The behavioural ecology of two sympatric talitrid species, Talitrus saltator (Montagu) and Orchestia gammarellus (Pallas) on a Tyrrhenian sandy beach dune system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombini, Isabella; Fallaci, Mario; Gagnarli, Elena; Rossano, Claudia; Scapini, Felicita; Chelazzi, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    The behavioural ecology of a sub-population of Talitrus saltator living on the sandy shore of the Maremma Regional Park (Italy) was compared with that of Orchestia gammarellus inhabiting the retrodunal dune slack area. Monthly monitoring over a year determined the mean distribution patterns, their changes and whether these overlapped. Standard pitfall traps were placed along transects across the beach-dune-dune slack area. Experiments analysed the diel activity rhythms during spring and the activity patterns of the different age classes and the two sexes were compared within and between species. Local environmental conditions were registered with a microclimatic station. During May and September, plant hummocks were monitored to see whether surface movements of O. gammarellus could be restricted to certain periods of the year and to estimate densities within the vegetation. The plant biomass and moisture conditions within the hummocks were also recorded and substratum samples were collected at the base of the shrubs for laboratory analysis. To test for visual cues, orientation experiments with and without landscape view were carried out on the beach during morning and afternoon hours and contemporaneously for each species. Experiments to test the diel variation of scototaxis to a black shape were also performed over a 24 h period of time under controlled conditions. There was a spatial partitioning of the two species, with T. saltator moving along a sea-land axis according to diel and seasonal changes and with some individuals reaching the back of the dune in particular environmental conditions. No spatial overlap with the zonation patterns of O. gammarellus was observed, which was restricted to the dune slack area. Nocturnal surface activity was observed for both species with juveniles peaking at dawn and with O. gammarellus being strictly more nocturnal than T. saltator. Orientation experiments showed a higher ability of T. saltator to orient towards the shoreline using solar and local cues, whereas O. gammarellus seemed to have a stronger scototaxis. Differences in the behavioural responses are discussed in terms of the species ecological adaptations to their particular habitats.

  4. Ichthyophonus-infected walleye pollock Theragra chalcogramma (Pallas) in the eastern Bering Sea: a potential reservoir of infections in the North Pacific.

    PubMed

    White, V C; Morado, J F; Friedman, C S

    2014-07-01

    In 2003, the Alaska walleye pollock industry reported product quality issues attributed to an unspecified parasite in fish muscle. Using molecular and histological methods, we identified the parasite in Bering Sea pollock as Ichthyophonus. Infected pollock were identified throughout the study area, and prevalence was greater in adults than in juveniles. This study not only provides the first documented report of Ichthyophonus in any fish species captured in the Bering Sea, but also reveals that the parasite has been present in this region for nearly 20 years and is not a recent introduction. Sequence analysis of 18S rDNA from Ichthyophonus in pollock revealed that consensus sequences were identical to published parasite sequences from Pacific herring and Yukon River Chinook salmon. Results from this study suggest potential for Ichthyophonus exposures from infected pollock via two trophic pathways; feeding on whole fish as prey and scavenging on industry-discharged offal. Considering the notable Ichthyophonus levels in pollock, the low host specificity of the parasite and the role of this host as a central prey item in the Bering Sea, pollock likely serve as a key Ichthyophonus reservoir for other susceptible hosts in the North Pacific. PMID:23941303

  5. Population growth, trophic level, and reproductive biology of two congeneric archer fishes (Toxotes chatareus, Hamilton 1822 and Toxotes jaculatrix, Pallas 1767) inhabiting Malaysian coastal waters*

    PubMed Central

    Simon, K. D.; Bakar, Y.; Samat, A.; Zaidi, C. C.; Aziz, A.; Mazlan, A. G.

    2009-01-01

    Population growth, trophic level, and some aspects of reproductive biology of two congeneric archer fish species, Toxotes chatareus and Toxotes jaculatrix, collected from Johor coastal waters, Malaysia, were studied. Growth pattern by length-weight relationship (W=aLb) for the sexes differed, and exhibited positive allometric growth (male, female and combined sexes of T. chatareus; female and combined sexes of T. jaculatrix) and isometric growth (male samples of T. jaculatrix only). Trophic levels of both species were analyzed based on 128 specimens. The results show that, in both species, crustaceans and insects were the most abundant prey items, and among crustaceans the red clawed crab Sesarma bidens and Formicidae family insects were the most represented taxa. The estimated mean trophic levels for T. chatareus and T. jaculatrix were 3.422±0.009 and 3.420±0.020, respectively, indicating that they are largely carnivores. Fecundity of T. chatareus ranged from 38 354 to 147 185 eggs for females with total length ranging from 14.5 to 22.5 cm and total body weight from 48.7 to 270.2 g, and T. jaculatrix 25 251 to 150 456 eggs for females with total length ranging from 12.2 to 23.0 cm and total body weight from 25.7 to 275.0 g. Differences in values of gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indexes calculated for both species in this study may have resulted from uneven sample size ranges. PMID:19946954

  6. Expression of carbonic anhydrase, cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) and V-H(+)-ATPase in the lancelet Branchiostoma lanceolatum (Pallas, 1774).

    PubMed

    Pederzoli, Aurora; Mandrioli, Mauro; Mola, Lucrezia

    2014-04-01

    Sequencing of the amphioxus genome revealed that it contains a basic set of chordate genes involved in development and cell signaling. Despite the availability of genomic data, up till now no studies have been addressed on the comprehension of the amphioxus osmoregulation. Using primers designed on Branchiostoma floridae carbonic anhydrase (CA) II, cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) and V-H(+)-ATPase, a 100bp long region, containing the protein region recognized by the respective antibodies, has been amplified and sequenced in B. lanceolatum indicating the presence of hortologous V-ATPase, CFTR and carbonic anhydrase II genes in Branchiostoma lanceolatum. Immunohistochemical results showed that all three transporting proteins are expressed in almost 90% of epithelial cells of the skin in B. lanceolatum adults with a different degree of positivity in different regions of body wall and with a different localization in the cells. The comparison of results between young and adult lancelets showed that the distribution of these transporters is quite different. Indeed, in the young specimens the expression pattern of all tested molecules appears concentrated at the gut level, whereas in adult the gut loses its key role that is mostly supported by skin. PMID:24220283

  7. The mitochondrial phylogeography and intraspecific taxonomy of the Steppe Racerunner, Eremias arguta (Pallas) (Lacertidae: Sauria, Reptilia), reflects biogeographic patterns in Middle Asia.

    PubMed

    Poyarkov, Nikolay A; Orlova, Valentina F; Chirikova, Marina A

    2014-01-01

    Steppe racerunner, Eremias (Eremias) arguta, is one of the most widespread species of the Asian racerunners (genus Eremias). Several subspecies were traditionally recognized however, morphological variability is so high that delimitation of these subspecies was always problematic. Here we present a phylogenetic hypothesis for this species based on cytochrome b sequences (55 samples from 35 populations, 900 bp partial sequences), infer it biogeography and the revise its subspecific structure. Six major phylogenetic lineages were revealed. The southernmost populations (E. a. uzbekistanica) from Uzbekistan form a clade together with the Issyk-Kul Lake subspecies (E. a. darevskii) based on both molecular and morphological evidence. Within more northern populations, there is a split between populations from Northern Caucasus, Europe and Western Kazakhstan (E. a. deserti) and Central and Eastern Kazakhstan populations (E. a. arguta). Transcaucasian (E. a. transcaucasica) steppe racerunners are grouped with Middle Asian populations. Finally, the easternmost samples, assigned to "E. a. potanini" are nested within the E. a. arguta clade. Populations from the Ili River Valley form a separate lineage sister to the clade joining all other E. arguta lineages and might represent a yet undescribed taxon. Species distribution in relation to historical biogeography of Middle Asia is discussed.  PMID:25543565

  8. [The ontogeny of additional saccules in the orifice of the cheek pouches in hamsters (Phodopus campbelli Thomas, 1905 and Phodopus sungorus Pallas, 1773): a morphometric analysis].

    PubMed

    Sokolov, V E; Feoktistova, N Iu; Vasil'eva, N Iu

    1993-01-01

    Time changes in functional activity of the recently described additional sacs in the orifice of cheek pouches (AS) has been studied in one-month-old and adult Phodopus sungorus and P. campbelli. The most intense AS growth and increase in their secretory activity falls on the second decade of the first month. It coincide with transition to their own feeding by coarse crust. Although there is no sexual dimorphism in the AS mass or the amount of their secret, time pattern of growth is different in males and females. Stabilization of the main indices of AS functional activity, their relative mass and amount of secret, at the adult level occurs in females earlier than in males. Adults of both species do not show sexual dimorphism by the both studied indices, but breeding females have both absolute and relative mass of AS and its secret significantly increased. As a whole the obtained data agree well with the previous studies (Vasil'eva, Feoktistova, 1993) that have demonstrated the importance of AS secret in survival, normal growth and development during the first month of P. campbelli. The described time pattern of the AS activity in ontogenesis seem to reflect the real need in the secret at the early age in small hamsters, and the increased AS activity in lactating females can be considered as a functional adaptation that compensate the secret deficit. PMID:8260886

  9. Ontogenetic variations in the diet of two invasive gobies, Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas, 1814) and Ponticola kessleri (Günther, 1861), from the middle Danube (Slovakia) with notice on their potential impact on benthic invertebrate communities.

    PubMed

    Števove, Barbora; Kováč, Vladimír

    2016-07-01

    In this study, ontogenetic variations in diet of invasive bighead goby Ponticola kessleri and round goby Neogobius melanostomus from the middle Danube were analysed. Index of stomach fullness, Fulton's condition factor, index of food importance, frequency of occurrence, biomass, electivity, and proportions of invasive organisms in their diet were examined. Changes in the diet during ontogeny of both species emphasise the differences in their trophic niches. Our results combined with literary data suggest that bighead goby may threaten small native benthic fish species as a predator (especially in the invasion front), whereas round goby can potentially impact native fish species of all ontogenetic phases by competing for food. Round goby appear to have strong impact on bivalves, especially in the invasion front. High consumption of invasive organisms by bighead goby may help the native macroinvertebrate community. Thus, in contrast to round goby, bighead goby does not seem to be a hot candidate for being a nuisance invader. PMID:27031302

  10. DNA metabarcoding diet analysis for species with parapatric vs sympatric distribution: a case study on subterranean rodents

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, C M; De Barba, M; Boyer, F; Mercier, C; da Silva Filho, P J S; Heidtmann, L M; Galiano, D; Kubiak, B B; Langone, P; Garcias, F M; Gielly, L; Coissac, E; de Freitas, T R O; Taberlet, P

    2015-01-01

    Closely related sympatric species commonly develop different ecological strategies to avoid competition. Ctenomys minutus and C. flamarioni are subterranean rodents parapatrically distributed in the southern Brazilian coastal plain, showing a narrow sympatric zone. To gain understanding on food preferences and possible competition for food resources, we evaluated their diet composition performing DNA metabarcoding analyzes of 67 C. minutus and 100 C. flamarioni scat samples, collected along the species geographical ranges. Thirteen plant families, mainly represented by Poaceae, Araliaceae, Asteraceae and Fabaceae, were identified in the diet of C. minutus. For C. flamarioni, 10 families were recovered, with a predominance of Poaceae, Araliaceae and Asteraceae. A significant correlation between diet composition and geographical distance was detected in C. minutus, whereas the diet of C. flamarioni was quite homogeneous throughout its geographical distribution. No significant differences were observed between males and females of each species. However, differences in diet composition between species were evident according to multivariate analysis. Our results suggest some level of diet partitioning between C. flamarioni and C. minutus in the sympatric region. While the first species is more specialized on few plant items, the second showed a more varied and heterogeneous diet pattern among individuals. These differences might have been developed to avoid competition in the region of co-occurrence. Resource availability in the environment also seems to influence food choices. Our data indicate that C. minutus and C. flamarioni are generalist species, but that some preference for Poaceae, Asteraceae and Araliaceae families can be suggested for both rodents. PMID:25649502

  11. Different Resistance to UV-B Radiation of Extracellular Polymeric Substances of Two Cyanobacteria from Contrasting Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Song, Wenjuan; Zhao, Chenxi; Zhang, Daoyong; Mu, Shuyong; Pan, Xiangliang

    2016-01-01

    The effects of UV-B radiation (UVBR) on photosynthetic activity (Fv/Fm) of aquatic Synechocystis sp. and desert Chroococcus minutus and effects on composition and fluorescence property of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) from Synechocystis sp. and C. minutus were comparatively investigated. The desert cyanobacterium species C. minutus showed higher tolerance of PSII activity (Fv/Fm) to UVBR than the aquatic Synechocystis sp., and the inhibited PSII activity of C. minutus could be fully recovered while that of Synechocystis sp. could be partly recovered. UVBR had significant effect on the yield and biochemical composition of EPS of both species. Protein-like and humic acid-like substances were detected in EPS from Synechocystis sp., and protein-like and phenol-like fluorescent compounds were detected in EPS from C. minutus. Proteins in EPS of desert and aquatic species were significantly decomposed under UVBR, and the latter was more easily decomposed. The polysaccharides were much more resistant to UVBR than the proteins for both species. Polysaccharides of Synechocystis sp. was degraded slightly but those of C. minutus was little decomposed. The higher tolerance to UVBR of the desert cyanobacterium can be attributed to the higher resistance of its EPS to photodegradation induced by UVBR in comparison with the aquatic species. PMID:27597841

  12. Different Resistance to UV-B Radiation of Extracellular Polymeric Substances of Two Cyanobacteria from Contrasting Habitats.

    PubMed

    Song, Wenjuan; Zhao, Chenxi; Zhang, Daoyong; Mu, Shuyong; Pan, Xiangliang

    2016-01-01

    The effects of UV-B radiation (UVBR) on photosynthetic activity (Fv/Fm) of aquatic Synechocystis sp. and desert Chroococcus minutus and effects on composition and fluorescence property of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) from Synechocystis sp. and C. minutus were comparatively investigated. The desert cyanobacterium species C. minutus showed higher tolerance of PSII activity (Fv/Fm) to UVBR than the aquatic Synechocystis sp., and the inhibited PSII activity of C. minutus could be fully recovered while that of Synechocystis sp. could be partly recovered. UVBR had significant effect on the yield and biochemical composition of EPS of both species. Protein-like and humic acid-like substances were detected in EPS from Synechocystis sp., and protein-like and phenol-like fluorescent compounds were detected in EPS from C. minutus. Proteins in EPS of desert and aquatic species were significantly decomposed under UVBR, and the latter was more easily decomposed. The polysaccharides were much more resistant to UVBR than the proteins for both species. Polysaccharides of Synechocystis sp. was degraded slightly but those of C. minutus was little decomposed. The higher tolerance to UVBR of the desert cyanobacterium can be attributed to the higher resistance of its EPS to photodegradation induced by UVBR in comparison with the aquatic species. PMID:27597841

  13. Acanthocephalan parasites: help or burden in gammarid amphipods exposed to cadmium?

    PubMed

    Gismondi, E; Cossu-Leguille, C; Beisel, J-N

    2012-05-01

    We investigated the influence of the acanthocephalan parasite Polymorphus minutus on the mortality of its intermediate host, Gammarus roeseli, exposed to cadmium, by the measure of LC(50-96h) values as well as the bioaccumulation of cadmium both in the host and in its parasite. LC(50) results revealed that infected G. roeseli males died less under cadmium stress than uninfected ones; while the converse has been observed in females. Cadmium resistance of infected males could be explained by a weaker bioconcentration factor (BCF) than in females. The lower BCF in infected individuals was closely related with an uptake of cadmium by P. minutus in its host. Nevertheless, although infected females had both weaker BCF and cadmium concentration in their body, the presence of P. minutus did not induce lower mortality than uninfected females. On the contrary, their sensitivity to cadmium was increased by the presence of P. minutus. We discuss the hypothesis that differences of mortality between uninfected and infected gammarids could be explained by a difference of cadmium bioconcentration in host, and by the cadmium bioaccumulation in the parasite. Indeed, results suggested that P. minutus could help G. roeseli to face with stress, what contributed to keep the host alive and favour the parasite transmission. PMID:22461071

  14. Minerva/Athene.

    PubMed

    Fara, Patricia

    2010-03-01

    Minerva was the goddess of wisdom and war, the Roman equivalent of the Greek Pallas Athene. Like all mythical figures, she was repeatedly reinterpreted to carry different rhetorical messages. PMID:20096932

  15. The Use of "Ability" Measures as Controls for Concurrent or Subsequent Achievement (Comment on Alexander et al., ASR, October 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, James S.

    1982-01-01

    Comments upon a 1981 article by Alexander, Pallas, and Cook. Discusses whether particular standardized tests measure achievement or ability and the implications of this issue for school effects research. (GC)

  16. Harmonia Axyridis Adults Avoid Catnip and Grapefruit-derived Terpenoids in Laboratory Bioassays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We observed the avoidance behavior of the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), when adults were exposed to volatiles derived from catnip oil and grapefruit seed. In replicated laboratory bioassays, beetles avoided contact with volatiles emanating f...

  17. Limited transmission of the ectoparasitic fungus Hesperomyces virescens between lady beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ectoparasitic fungus Hesperomyces virescens Thaxter (Ascomycota: Laboulbeniales) commonly infects the invasive lady beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) and several other aphidophagous lady beetles in North America and Europe. We tested the hypothesis that bodily contact between adults of differen...

  18. Orius (Heterorius) vicinus (Ribaut)(Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) in western North America, a Correction of the Past

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Collection records for the Palearctic flower bug Orius (Heterorius) minutus (Linnaeus) (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) in western North America date back to 1930. This species can be very similar in appearance to another Palearctic species, Orius (Heterorius) vicinus (Ribaut), and mistakes in identifica...

  19. Field evidence for non-host predator avoidance in a manipulated amphipod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Médoc, Vincent; Beisel, Jean-Nicolas

    2009-04-01

    Manipulative parasites are known to alter the spatial distribution of their intermediate hosts in a way that enables trophic transmission to definitive hosts. However, field data on the ecological implications of such changes are lacking. In particular, little is known about the spatial coexistence between infected prey and dead-end predators after a parasite-induced habitat shift. Here, we used an Amphipoda ( Gammarus roeseli)-Acanthocephala ( Polymorphus minutus) association to investigate how infection with a manipulative parasite affects the predation risk by non-hosts within the invertebrate community. First, we collected invertebrates by sampling various natural habitats and calculated the distribution amplitude of amphipods according to their infection status. Infection with P. minutus significantly reduced the habitat breadth in G. roeseli, parasitised individuals being mainly found in floating materials whereas uninfected ones were widespread throughout the sampled habitats. Second, to test if these changes also affect the risk for P. minutus to be ingested by non-hosts, we estimated the predation risk experienced by G. roeseli within the macro-invertebrate community. The habitat overlap between potential invertebrate predators and G. roeseli showed that the spatial probability of encounter was lower for P. minutus-infected amphipods than for uninfected conspecifics. For the first time, to our knowledge, a study used ecological tools to bring field evidence for the spatial avoidance of dead-end predators in a manipulated amphipod.

  20. Influence of Seed Head-attacking Biological Control Agents on Spotted Knapweed Reproductive Potential in Western Montana over a 30-year Period

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field experiments were conducted in 2006 to measure the direct impact of seed-feeding insects that were previously introduced as classical biological control agents. The results indicate that Larinus minutus, L. obtusus, Urophora affinis and U. quadrifasciata reduced seed production by 84%. Additi...

  1. Further report of the occurrence of tetrodotoxin in Atelopus species (family: Bufonidae).

    PubMed

    Mebs, D; Yotsu-Yamashita, M; Yasumoto, T; Lötters, S; Schlüter, A

    1995-02-01

    In alcoholic extracts from museum samples of the toads Atelopus subornatus and A. peruensis tetrodotoxin and its analogues, 4-epitetrodotoxin and 4,9-anhydrotetrodotoxin were detected by fluorometric HPLC analysis, extending the list of amphibians containing this toxin. However, the toxin was not detected in samples of Melanophryniscus stelzneri, Dendrophryniscus minutus and Oreophrynella sp. PMID:7597728

  2. Field evidence for non-host predator avoidance in a manipulated amphipod.

    PubMed

    Médoc, Vincent; Beisel, Jean-Nicolas

    2009-04-01

    Manipulative parasites are known to alter the spatial distribution of their intermediate hosts in a way that enables trophic transmission to definitive hosts. However, field data on the ecological implications of such changes are lacking. In particular, little is known about the spatial coexistence between infected prey and dead-end predators after a parasite-induced habitat shift. Here, we used an Amphipoda (Gammarus roeseli)-Acanthocephala (Polymorphus minutus) association to investigate how infection with a manipulative parasite affects the predation risk by non-hosts within the invertebrate community. First, we collected invertebrates by sampling various natural habitats and calculated the distribution amplitude of amphipods according to their infection status. Infection with P. minutus significantly reduced the habitat breadth in G. roeseli, parasitised individuals being mainly found in floating materials whereas uninfected ones were widespread throughout the sampled habitats. Second, to test if these changes also affect the risk for P. minutus to be ingested by non-hosts, we estimated the predation risk experienced by G. roeseli within the macro-invertebrate community. The habitat overlap between potential invertebrate predators and G. roeseli showed that the spatial probability of encounter was lower for P. minutus-infected amphipods than for uninfected conspecifics. For the first time, to our knowledge, a study used ecological tools to bring field evidence for the spatial avoidance of dead-end predators in a manipulated amphipod. PMID:19139837

  3. Invading and Expanding: Range Dynamics and Ecological Consequences of the Greater White-Toothed Shrew (Crocidura russula) Invasion in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    McDevitt, Allan D.; Montgomery, W. Ian; Tosh, David G.; Lusby, John; Reid, Neil; White, Thomas A.; McDevitt, C. Damien; O'Halloran, John; Searle, Jeremy B.; Yearsley, Jon M.

    2014-01-01

    Establishing how invasive species impact upon pre-existing species is a fundamental question in ecology and conservation biology. The greater white-toothed shrew (Crocidura russula) is an invasive species in Ireland that was first recorded in 2007 and which, according to initial data, may be limiting the abundance/distribution of the pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus), previously Ireland's only shrew species. Because of these concerns, we undertook an intensive live-trapping survey (and used other data from live-trapping, sightings and bird of prey pellets/nest inspections collected between 2006 and 2013) to model the distribution and expansion of C. russula in Ireland and its impacts on Ireland's small mammal community. The main distribution range of C. russula was found to be approximately 7,600 km2 in 2013, with established outlier populations suggesting that the species is dispersing with human assistance within the island. The species is expanding rapidly for a small mammal, with a radial expansion rate of 5.5 km/yr overall (2008–2013), and independent estimates from live-trapping in 2012–2013 showing rates of 2.4–14.1 km/yr, 0.5–7.1 km/yr and 0–5.6 km/yr depending on the landscape features present. S. minutus is negatively associated with C. russula. S. minutus is completely absent at sites where C. russula is established and is only present at sites at the edge of and beyond the invasion range of C. russula. The speed of this invasion and the homogenous nature of the Irish landscape may mean that S. minutus has not had sufficient time to adapt to the sudden appearance of C. russula. This may mean the continued decline/disappearance of S. minutus as C. russula spreads throughout the island. PMID:24955824

  4. Feeding behaviour of Black Sea bottom fishes: Did it change over time?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bănaru, Daniela; Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille

    2009-11-01

    This study was designed to improve knowledge in feeding behaviour of the round goby ( Apollonia melanostomus (Pallas, 1814)), the red mullet ( Mullus barbatus ponticus Essipov, 1927), the whiting ( Merlangius merlangus (Linnaeus, 1758)), the flounder ( Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758)), the sole ( Solea solea (Linnaeus, 1758)), the turbot ( Psetta maeotica (Pallas, 1814)) and the starry sturgeon ( Acipenser stellatus Pallas, 1771) from the north-western Black Sea. Gut content coupled with stable isotope analysis allowed describing food web variations according to species, in two seasons and at two areas located seawards the Danube River. Present results showed that most fishes have likely changed their feeding behaviour compared to past studies from the same area. Trophic niches were reduced and dietary overlap was common, as different fish species consumed the same dominant prey types. Fishes probably adapted their feeding behaviour to the increasingly low biodiversity of the Black Sea communities.

  5. Correcting the "correct" name for the Asian Brown Flycatcher (Aves: Passeriformes, Muscicapidae, Muscicapa).

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Edward C; Schodde, Richard; Kullander, Sven; Crochet, Pierre André; Elliott, Andy; Kirwan, Guy M

    2014-01-01

    Mlíkovský (2012) claimed that Muscicapa latirostris Raffles, 1822 was the correct name for the Asian Brown Flycatcher, and rejected its senior synonym, Muscicapa dauurica Pallas, 1811. Muscicapa dauurica is in equal or greater use today for this flycatcher, to which the references to it in Mlíkovský (2012) testify even though they are far from comprehensive. Other major references using dauurica Pallas are Sibley & Monroe (1990), Inskipp et al. (1996), Kennedy et al. (2000), Dickinson (2003), Rasmussen & Anderton (2005), Clement (2006), Wells (2007) and Mann (2008). PMID:25283921

  6. Parasites of the recently established round goby (Negobius melanostomus) and tubenose goby (Proterorhinus marmoratus) (Gobiidae) from the St. Clair River and Lake St. Clair, Michigan, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pronin, Nikolai M.; Fleischer, Guy W.; Baldanova, Darima R.; Pronina, Svetlana V.

    1997-01-01

    Specimens of the recently established European round goby (Negobius melanostomus Pallas, 1811) and tubenose goby (Proterorhinus marmoratus Pallas, 1811) were collected from different locations in the St. Clair River and Lake St. Clair, USA and were examined for parasites. Parasites were observed in 76% of the round gobies and 35% of the tubenose gobies. Four species of parasites in the gobies occur in the Black Sea watershed. Two of them have been reported in North America for the first time: Sphaeromyxa sevastopoli Naidenova, 1970 and Ichthyocotylurus pileatus (Rudolphi, 1802). Three parasite species found in the gobies are endemic to North America and were most likely obtained locally.

  7. Parasites of the recently established round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) and tubenose goby (Proterorhinus marmoratus) (Cottidae) from the St. Clair River and Lake St. Clair, Michigan, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pronin, N.M.; Fleischer, G.W.; Baldanova, D.R.; Pronina, S.V.

    1997-01-01

    Specimens of the recently established European round goby (Neogobius melanostomus Pallas, 1811) and tubenose goby (Proterorhinus marmoratus Pallas, 1811) were collected from different locations in the St. Clair River and Lake St. Clair, USA and were examined for parasites. Parasites were observed in 76% of the round gobies and 35% of the tubenose gobies. Four species of parasites in the gobies occur in the Black Sea watershed. Two of them have been reported in North America for the first time: Sphaeromyxa sevastopoli Naidenova, 1970 and Ichthyocotylurus pileatus (Rudolphi, 1802). Three parasite species found in the gobies are endemic to North America and were most likely obtained locally.

  8. [Sex determination in ten crane species by DNA marker EE0.6].

    PubMed

    Mudrik, E A; Kashentseva, T A; Gamburg, E A; Politov, D V

    2013-12-01

    Using a unique DNA sequence of W-chromosome EE0.6, we carried out molecular sex determination in 383 individuals often species of cranes (Grusgrus L., G. leucogeranus Pallas, G. japonensis Muller, G. vipio Pallas, G. Canadensis L., G. antigone L., G. monacha Temminck, Anthropoides virgo L., Balearica regulorum Bennett, and B. pavonia L.) kept in zoos and other centers of captive propagation. In 211 birds, sex was determined or verified for the first time. The efficiency of using the sex marker EE0.6 for chicks and immature and adult cranes of different species, as well as for interspecific hybrids was shown. PMID:25438606

  9. [Sex determination in ten crane species by DNA marker EE0.6].

    PubMed

    2013-12-01

    Using a unique DNA sequence of W-chromosome EE0.6, we carried out molecular sex determination in 383 individuals often species of cranes (Grusgrus L., G. leucogeranus Pallas, G. japonensis Muller, G. vipio Pallas, G. Canadensis L., G. antigone L., G. monacha Temminck, Anthropoides virgo L., Balearica regulorum Bennett, and B. pavonia L.) kept in zoos and other centers of captive propagation. In 211 birds, sex was determined or verified for the first time. The efficiency of using the sex marker EE0.6 for chicks and immature and adult cranes of different species, as well as for interspecific hybrids was shown. PMID:25508137

  10. Life histories and abundance of crustacean zooplankton in the outlet of Lake Superior, 1971-72

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selgeby, James H.

    1975-01-01

    In sampling throughout a year, at about 3-wk intervals, of the crustacean zooplankton discharged from Lake Superior through the St. Marys River, 30 species were collected, including three not previously recorded for the lake: the copepod Cyclops strenuus, and the cladocerans Alona costata and Alonella acutirostris. Five copepods, Cyclops bicuspidatus thomasi, Diaptomus ashlandi, D. sicilis, Limnocalanus macrurus, and Senecella calanoides were present in the plankton throughout the year while three other copepods, Diaptomus minutus, Epischura lacustris, and Mesocyclops edax, along with all cladocerans, were present only during summer and fall. Five species of copepods, Diaptomus sicilis, D. minutus, Limnocalanus macrurus, Senecella calanoides, and Epischura lacustris produced a single generation annually; three other copepods and all cladocerans produced two or more generations. All species breed 1-3 mo later in Lake Superior than in lakes Michigan and Erie.

  11. Systematics and biogeography of Hemidactylus homoeolepis Blanford, 1881 (Squamata: Gekkonidae), with the description of a new species from Arabia.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Raquel; Carranza, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    A new species of gecko of the genus Hemidactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) is described from Oman and extreme eastern Yemen. Hemidactylus minutus sp. nov. is characterized morphologically by its very small size, being the smallest Hemidactylus in mainland Arabia, absence of enlarged tubercles anywhere on the body, expanded subcaudal scales beginning some way from tail base, number of preanal pores, number of lamellae under the first and fourth toes, and weakly contrasted black and white banded pattern on the ventral part of tail. It is also genetically distinct from H. homoeolepis to which it has previously been referred, and from all other closely related Hemidactylus from the arid clade in DNA sequence data for mitochondrial (12S, cyt b, ND4) and three nuclear (RAG1, MC1R, c‑mos) markers. An adult female from southern Yemen and a badly preserved juvenile from southwestern Saudi Arabia previously assigned to H. homoeolepis are morphologically differentiated from this species and from H. minutus sp. nov. and temporarily referred to as Hemidactylus sp. 12 and Hemidactylus sp. 13, respectively until more specimens are collected and analyzed.        Up to now, H. homoeolepis was the only non-endemic native species of the Socotra Archipelago. With the description of H. minutus sp. nov., all native reptile species of Socotra are now endemic, such that this archipelago has one with the highest number of endemic reptiles in relation to its small size. In addition, as a result of our taxonomic change, the area of occupancy and extent of occurrence of H. homoeolepis have changed dramatically and thus its conservation status should be updated. Although H. minutus sp. nov. seems widely distributed and relatively abundant, its conservation status should also be re-evaluated.  PMID:25081467

  12. A review of myrmecophilous mites of the family Microdispidae (Acari, Heterostigmatina) of Western Siberia

    PubMed Central

    Khaustov, Alexander A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Five species of myrmecophilous microdispid mites (Acari: Microdispidae) are recorded from Western Siberia, Russia. Unguidispus lasii Kurosa, 1979, Unguidispus japonicus Kurosa, 1979, Caesarodispus minutus (Sevastianov, 1981), and Caesarodispus samsinaki (Mahunka, 1967), comb. n. are reported from Russia for the first time. Unguidispus polyctenus (Sevastianov, 1969) and Caesarodispus samsinaki are redescribed. The keys to species of the genera Unguidispus Mahunka, 1970 and Caesarodispus Mahunka, 1977 are provided. PMID:25493064

  13. A new epigean harvestman of the genus Guerrobunus (Laniatores: Phalangodidae), from Hidalgo, Mexico, with taxonomic notes about the genus.

    PubMed

    Cruz-López, Jesús A; Ubick, Darrell

    2015-01-01

    The fifth species of the genus Guerrobunus, Guerrobunus barralesi sp. nov. is described from specimens collected in Hidalgo, Mexico. This species represents the first eastern record from the country and unlike other species of the genus, is completely epigean. Guerrobunus barralesi sp. nov. is compared with the most similar species, Guerrobunus minutus, which also has well developed and pigmented eyes. Finally, external morphology, including male genitalia, taxonomy of the genus, and familial assignment into the family Phalangodidae are discussed. PMID:26249947

  14. School Resources and the Academic Achievement of Canadian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Yichun; Clifton, Rodney A.; Roberts, Lance W.

    2011-01-01

    This study estimates the impact of schools' physical resources and teachers' academic press on students' academic achievement in mathematics and reading when a number of important student variables are controlled. Academic press is defined as teachers' emphasis on academic excellence and upholding academic standards (McDill, Natriello, & Pallas,…

  15. Overcoming Risk: An Annotated Bibliography of Publications Developed by ERIC Clearinghouses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Wendy, Ed.; Howley, Craig, Ed.

    This publication contains two essays and an annotated bibliography of publications about risk. The entries in the bibliography were produced by the various clearinghouses in the ERIC system. The first essay, "Who Is at Risk? Definitions, Demographics, and Decisions," by Aaron M. Pallas, categorizes personal, family, and environmental factors that…

  16. Speckle interferometry applied to asteroids and other solar system objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, J. D.; Hege, E. K.

    1985-01-01

    The application of speckle interferometry to asteroids and other solar system objects is discussed. The assumption of a triaxial ellipsoid rotating about its shortest axis is the standard model. Binary asteroids, 433 Eros, 532 Herculina, 511 Davida, and Pallas are discussed.

  17. Variation in wing pattern and palatability in a female-limited polymorphic mimicry system

    PubMed Central

    Long, Elizabeth C; Hahn, Thomas P; Shapiro, Arthur M

    2014-01-01

    Checkerspot butterflies in the genera Euphydryas and Chlosyne exhibit phenotypic polymorphisms along a well-defined latitudinal and elevational gradient in California. The patterns of phenotypic variation in Euphydryas chalcedona, Chlosyne palla, and Chlosyne hoffmanni suggest a mimetic relationship; in addition, the specific patterns of variation in C. palla suggest a female-limited polymorphic mimicry system (FPM). However, the existence of polymorphic models runs counter to predictions of mimicry theory. Palatability trials were undertaken to assess whether or not the different color morphs of each species were distasteful or toxic to a generalized avian predator, the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris). Results indicate that the black morph of E. chalcedona is distasteful, but not toxic, to predators, while the red morph is palatable. C . hoffmanni and both color morphs of C. palla are palatable to predators. Predators that learn to reject black E. chalcedona also reject black C. palla, suggesting that the latter is a FPM of the former. C. hoffmanni does not appear to be involved in this mimetic relationship. PMID:25512850

  18. Determination of positions of solar system bodies at Repsold meridian circle from 1992 till 1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maigurova, N. V.; Pogoniy, A. D.; Pyshnenko, V. N.; Sibilev, V. P.

    2002-04-01

    Position of the Solar system bodies: Uran, Neptune, Galilean satellites of Jupiter, satellite of Saturn Titan, Ceres, Pallas, Juno, Vesta, Hebe, Iris, and Melpomene were obtained from observations at Repsold Meridian Circle of Nikolaev Astronomical Observatory made in 1992-1999.

  19. Research in Sociology of Education and Socialization. Volume 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallas, Aaron M., Ed.

    This volume is a mixture of research reviews, theoretical syntheses, and empirical analyses addressing issues in the sociology of education. Following an introduction by Aaron M. Pallas, the book is divided into eight chapters: (1) "The Sociology of Education: Its Development in the United States" (Robert Dreeben); (2) "In Comparative Isolation:…

  20. Spotlight on the positive effects of the ladybird Harmonia axyridis on agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the midst of considerable negativity surrounding the ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), this paper sheds some light on the positive effects that this predator has had on agriculture. Using resources available at the USDA, National Agricultural Library (DigiTop literature database, Navigator pla...

  1. Multigroup Time-Independent Neutron Transport Code System for Plane or Spherical Geometry.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1986-12-01

    Version 00 PALLAS-PL/SP solves multigroup time-independent one-dimensional neutron transport problems in plane or spherical geometry. The problems solved are subject to a variety of boundary conditions or a distributed source. General anisotropic scattering problems are treated for solving deep-penetration problems in which angle-dependent neutron spectra are calculated in detail.

  2. Spread of Cuban Club-rush [Oxycaryum cubense]in the Southeastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxycaryum cubense (Poepp. & Kunth) Palla, Cuban club-rush, is an invasive aquatic weed that is spreading northward in the southeastern United States. It is reported for the first time from Mississippi and from significantly farther northward in Alabama than previously known. Oxycaryum cubense dis...

  3. Sharing the Space: Distribution, Habitat Segregation and Delimitation of a New Sympatric Area of Subterranean Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Kubiak, Bruno Busnello; Galiano, Daniel; de Freitas, Thales Renato Ochotorena

    2015-01-01

    Subterranean rodents of the genus Ctenomys usually present an allopatric or parapatric distribution. Currently, two cases of sympatry have been recognized for the genus in the coastal dunes of southern Argentina and southern Brazil. In this context, they are ideal models to test hypotheses about the factors that delimit the patterns of space use and to understand interspecific interactions in small mammals. We investigated the vegetation structure, plant biomass and soil hardness selected by two species of subterranean rodents (Ctenomys flamarioni and C. minutus) when distributed in sympatry and allopatry from nine different areas along the line of coastal dunes in southern Brazil. In addition, our work presents a new record of a third area of sympatry for the genus Ctenomys. Ctenomys flamarioni and C. minutus show habitat segregation in the area where they occur in sympatry. These species show segregation in their selection of microhabitats, differing in relation to soil hardness, plant biomass, and plant cover. Ctenomys flamarioni showed a distinction in habitat selection when occurring in allopatry and sympatry, whereas C. minutus selected the same habitat characteristics under both conditions. A possible explanation to the observed pattern is that these species have acquired different adaptations over time which allows them the ability to exploit different resources and thus avoid competitive interactions all together. PMID:25856399

  4. Genetic Pool Information Reflects Highly Suitable Areas: The Case of Two Parapatric Endangered Species of Tuco-tucos (Rodentia: Ctenomiydae)

    PubMed Central

    Galiano, Daniel; Bernardo-Silva, Jorge; de Freitas, Thales R. O.

    2014-01-01

    Conservation of small mammals requires knowledge of the genetically and ecologically meaningful spatial scales at which species respond to habitat modifications. Conservation strategies can be improved through the use of ecological niche models and genetic data to classify areas of high environmental suitability. In this study, we applied a Maxent model integrated with genetic information (nucleotide diversity, haplotype diversity and Fu's Fs neutrality tests) to evaluate potential genetic pool populations with highly suitable areas for two parapatric endangered species of tuco-tucos (Ctenomys minutus and C. lami). Our results demonstrated that both species were largely influenced by vegetation and soil variables at a landscape scale and inhabit a highly specific niche. Ctenomys minutus was also influenced by the variable altitude; the species was associated with low altitudes (sea level). Our model of genetic data associated with environmental suitability indicate that the genetic pool data were associated with highly suitable areas for C. minutus. This pattern was not evident for C. lami, but this outcome could be a consequence of the restricted range of the species. The preservation of species requires not only detailed knowledge of their natural history and genetic structure but also information on the availability of suitable areas where species can survive, and such knowledge can aid significantly in conservation planning. This finding reinforces the use of these two techniques for planning conservation actions. PMID:24819251

  5. Radar investigation of asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1982-01-01

    The dual polarization CW radar system which permits simultaneous reception in the same rotational sense of circular polarization as transmitted (i.e., the "SC" sense) and in the opposite ("OC") sense, was used to observe five previously unobserved asteroids: 2 Pallas, 8 Flora, 22 Kalliope, 132 Aethra, and 471 Papagena. Echoes from Pallas and Flora were easily detected in the OC sense on each of several nights. Weighted mean echo power spectra also show marginally significant responses in the SC sense. An approximately 4.5 standard deviation signal was obtained for Aethra. The Doppler shift of the peak is about 10 Hz higher than that predicted from the a priori trial ephemeris. Calculations are performed to determine whether this frequency offset can be reconciled dynamically with optical positions reported for Aethra.

  6. 211-YEAR-OLD MYSTERY SOLVED: CREATOR OF THE WORD “ASTEROID” REVEALED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Clifford J.

    2013-10-01

    In 1802, William Herschel famously declared that the newly discovered celestial objects Ceres and Pallas were asteroids, not planets. The term asteroid was rejected by nearly every astronomer in the early nineteenth century, but is now the most widely-used word to describe the small planetary bodies of the solar system. Even so, its origin has remained a mystery. By default, its creation has always been attributed to Herschel himself, but he lacked the knowledge of Greek and Latin to coin a new word to describe Ceres and Pallas. Herschel instead turned to a network of colleagues for advice. A study of contemporary manuscript evidence has now identified the name of the scholar who created the word asteroid.

  7. Identification of three morphologically indistinguishable Epicauta species (Coleoptera, Meloidae, Epicautini) through DNA barcodes and morphological comparisons.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shao-Pan; Pan, Zhao; Ren, Guo-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Three species that belong to the genus Epicauta (Coleopera: Meloidae), E. chinensis, E. dubia, and E. sibirica, appear morphologically indistinguishable. The present study aims to resolve the taxonomic status and the relationships among these three species. Identifying adult morphological characters among the three species were compared and illustrated and partial fragments of the mitochondrial gene (COI) for 77 samples, representing seven meloid species, were obtained and analyzed. Analyses of nucleotide composition, genetic distances and phylogenetics were performed. The results of the morphological studies and molecular analyses showed concordance, indicating that the three species are closely related and indistinguishable from one another. Consequently, two new synonyms are proposed: E. chinensis (Laporte, 1840) syn. n. = E. sibirica (Pallas, 1773) and E. dubia (Fabricius, 1781) syn. n. = E. sibirica (Pallas, 1773). PMID:27394741

  8. Origin Of The Near-earth Asteroid Phaethon And The Geminids Meteor Shower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Leon, Julia; Campins, H.; Tsiganis, K.; Morbidelli, A.; Licandro, J.

    2010-10-01

    Asteroid (3200) Phaethon is a remarkable Near Earth Asteroid (NEA). It was the first asteroid associated with a meteor shower, namely the Geminid stream1. Phaethon's unusual orbit has a high inclination and a very low perihelion distance (0.14 AU). Its reflectance spectrum suggests a connection with primitive meteorites, best fitting with CI/CM carbonaceous chondrites2, aqueously altered and rich in hydrated silicates. However, its origin is not well determined. Recent studies suggest a connection with the population of main-belt comets3, classifying Phaethon as an activated asteroid. Here we show that the most likely source of Phaethon and the Geminids is the asteroid (2) Pallas, one of the largest asteroids in the main belt, which is surrounded by a collisional family, containing several Phaethon-sized objects. Pallas’ highly inclined orbit and surface composition, also primitive and with evidence of hydration4, support this connection. Our analysis reveals a striking similarity between Phaethon's visual spectrum and those of Pallas family members. Moreover, our numerical simulations show the existence of a robust dynamical pathway, connecting the orbital neighborhood of Pallas with that of Phaethon. In this respect, the Pallas family may constitute a source of primitive NEAs. (The author gratefully acknowledges support from the Spanish "Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación" projects AYA2005-07808-C03-02 and AYA2008-06202-C03-02.) References 1. Whipple, F. L. 1983, IAU Circular, 3881 2. Licandro, J., Campins, H., Mothe-Diniz, T., Pinilla-Alonso, N. & de Leon, J. 2007, Astron. Astrophys. 461, 751-757 3. Hsieh, H. H., & Jewitt, D. 2006, Science, 312, 561-563 4. Rivkin, A. S., Howell, E. S., Vilas, F. & Lebofsky, L. A. in Asteroids III (eds Bottke, W. F., Cellino, A., Paolicchi, P. & Binzel, R. P.) 235-253 (Univ. Arizona Press, 2002).

  9. Observations of asteroids in the 3- to 4-micron region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, N.; Green, S. F.; Mccheyne, R. S.; Meadows, A. J.; Veeder, G. J.

    1983-01-01

    Spectra of eleven asteroids (1, 2, 8, 10, 15, 16, 22, 83, 386, 433, 471) have been obtained in the 3- to 4-micron region. Of these, only 1 Ceres and 2 Pallas have previously been observed in this wavelength region. Spectra of the S- and M-type asteroids are generally featureless, but 8 Flora may be an exception. None of the three new C-type spectra show significant absorption.

  10. A new species of Parichoronyssus (Acari: Dermanyssoidea: Macronyssidae) from bats of the genus Phyllostomus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) in Peru and Venezuela, with keys to the species of Parichoronyssus.

    PubMed

    Morales-Malacara, Juan B; Guerrero, Ricardo

    2007-01-01

    Parichoronyssus bakeri new species was found on two phyllostomid bats species, the greater spear-nosed bat, Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas), and the lesser spear-nosed bat, Phyllostomus elongatus (E. Geoffroy), in Pakitza, National Park Manu, Madre de Dios, Peru, including additional material examined from Venezuela. The female, male, deutonymph, and protonymph are described and illustrated. A key to the seven species of Parichoronyssus is provided. PMID:17294915

  11. Multigroup Neutron/Gamma-Ray Direct Integration Transport Code System for Two-Dimensional Cylindrical Geometry.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1980-10-15

    Version 00 PALLAS-2DCY-FX is a code for direct integration of the transport equation in two-dimensional (r,z) geometry. It solves the energy and angular-dependent Boltzmann transport equation with general anisotropic scattering in cylindrical geometry. Its principal applications are to neutron or gamma-ray transport problems in the forward mode. The code is particularly designed for and suited to the solution of deep penetration radiation transport problems with an external (fixed) source.

  12. Lithostratigraphy, microlithofacies, and conodont biostratigraphy and biofacies of the Wahoo Limestone (Carboniferous), eastern Sadlerochit Mountains, Northeast Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Krumhardt, A.P.; Harris, A.G.; Watts, K.F.

    1996-12-31

    The Lisburne Group (chiefly Carboniferous) is a wide-spread succession of platform carbonate rocks that apparently developed along a south-facing passive continental margin in northern Alaska. Marine transgressions onlapped northward across northeast Alaska allowing the Lisburne platform to extend over terrigenous deposits of the Endicott Group and local pre-Mississippian paleotopographic highs. The Wahoo Limestone is the youngest formation of the Lisburne Group in northeasternmost Alaska, ranging from latest Mississippian (latest Chesterian) to Middle Pennsylvanian (at least early Atokan) in age. The Wahoo Limestone was systematically sampled for lithostratigraphy and conodont biostratigraphy and biofacies at a relatively continuous section (about 262 m in thickness) in the eastern Sadlerochit Mountains. Existing Carboniferous conodont zonations could not be readily applied to the study section because most zonal indicators are absent. Species diversity is low for a section that spans at least 10 million years. Twenty-four species, distributed among 14 genera, were identified in 72 productive samples; no new species were distinguished. The following biostratigraphic zones and faunal intervals were recognized: Upper muricatus Subzone (latest Chesterian); noduliferus-primus Zone (earliest Morrowan); minutus Fauna (Morrowan) containing a lower subdivision (lower minutus Fauna of early to middle? Morrowan age); and an Idiognathodus Fauna (Morrowan? to early Atokan). The presence of Idiognathodus incurvus? and Rhachistognathus minutus subspp. above the first occurrence of the foraminifer Pseudostaffella sp. in the uppermost part of the Wahoo Limestone indicates that the youngest beds are early Atokan in age. The Mississippian-Pennsylvanian boundary is placed at 56 m above the base of the lower member of the Wahoo Limestone on the basis of the lowest occurrence of Declinognathodus noduliferus japonicus above forms transitional from Gnathodus girtyl simplex.

  13. Late Cenozoic History of the Genus Micromys (Mammalia, Rodentia) in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Horáček, Ivan; Knitlová, Markéta; Wagner, Jan; Kordos, László; Nadachowski, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Molecular phylogeography suggests that Micromys minutus, the sole extant species of the genus, colonized its extensive range quite recently, during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene period. Rich Pliocene and Pleistocene fossil records both from Europe and China suggest rather continuous and gradual in situ phenotype rearrangements from the Pliocene to the Recent periods. To elucidate the discrepancy we reexamined a considerable part of the European fossil record of the genus (14 sites from MN15 to Q3, 0.4–4.2 Ma, including the type series of M. preaminutus from MN15 Csarnóta 2), analyzed them with the aid of detailed morphometric comparisons, and concluded that: (a) The European Pliocene form, M. praeminutus, differs significantly from the extant species; (b) it exhibits a broad phenotypic variation covering the presumptive diagnostic characters of MN16 M. caesaris; (c) despite having smaller dimensions, the Early and Middle Pleistocene forms (MN17-Q3, 2.6–0.4 Ma) seem to be closer to M. praeminutus than to the extant species; (d) the extinction of M. praeminutus during Q3 and the re-occupation of its niche by the recent expansion of M. minutus from E-European – C Asiatic sources (suggested by phylogeographic hypotheses) cannot be excluded. Discussing interpretations of the phylogenetic past of the genus we emphasize the distinct history of the West Palearctic clade (Late Miocene-Early Pleistocene) terminating with M. praeminutus and the East Asiatic clade (chalceus, tedfordi, minutus), and the possible identity of the Western clade with the Late Miocene genus Parapodemus. PMID:23671605

  14. Electromagnetic heating of minor planets in the early solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbert, F.; Sonett, C. P.

    1979-01-01

    Electromagnetic processes occurring in the primordial solar system are likely to have significantly affected planetary evolution. In particular, electrical coupling of the kinetic energy of a dense T-Tauri-like solar wind into the interior of the smaller planets could have been a major driver of thermal metamorphism. Accordingly a grid of asteroid models of various sizes and solar distances was constructed using dc transverse magnetic induction theory. Plausible parameterizations with no requirement for a high environmental temperature led to complete melting for Vesta with no melting for Pallas and Ceres. High temperatures were reached in the Pallas model, perhaps implying nonmelting thermal metamorphosis as a cause of its anomalous spectrum. A reversal of this temperature sequence seems implausible, suggesting that the Ceres-Pallas-Vesta dichotomy is a natural outcome of the induction mechanism. Highly localized heating is expected to arise due to an instability in the temperature-controlled current distribution. Localized metamorphosis resulting from this effect may be relevant to the production and evolution of pallasites, the large presumed metal component of S object spectra, and the formation of the lunar magma ocean.

  15. Who Invented the Word Asteroid: William Herschel or Stephen Weston?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Clifford J.

    2011-01-01

    William Herschel made the first serious study of 1 Ceres and 2 Pallas in the year 1802. He was moved by their dissimilarities to the other planets to coin a new term to distinguish them. For this purpose he enlisted the aid of his good friends William Watson and Sir Joseph Banks. Watson gave him a long list of possible names, most of which sound quite ludicrous. With a lifetime of experience classifying and naming newly found objects in nature, Banks became the man both Erasmus Darwin (in 1781) and William Herschel (in 1802) turned to for sage advice in developing a new descriptive language. In the case of Ceres and Pallas, Banks turned the task over to his friend, the noted philologist Stephen Weston FRS. It has recently been stated by a noted British historian that it was Weston- not Herschel- who coined the term "asteroid" to collectively describe Ceres and Pallas. This claim is investigated, and parallels are drawn in the use of neologism in astronomy and botany.

  16. Who Invented the Word Asteroid: William Herschel or Stephen Weston?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Clifford J.; Orchiston, Wayne

    2011-11-01

    William Herschel made the first serious study of 1 Ceres and 2 Pallas in the year 1802. He was moved by their dissimilarities to the other planets to coin a new term to distinguish them. For this purpose he enlisted the aid of his good friends William Watson and Sir Joseph Banks. Watson gave him a long list of possible names, which Herschel rejected. With a lifetime of experience classifying and naming newly found objects in nature, Banks became the man both Erasmus Darwin (in 1781) and William Herschel (in 1802) turned to for sage advice in developing a new descriptive language. In the case of Ceres and Pallas, Banks turned the task over to his friend, the noted philologist Stephen Weston, FRS. It has recently been stated by a noted British historian that it was Weston - not Herschel - who coined the term 'asteroid' to collectively describe Ceres and Pallas. This claim is investigated, and parallels are drawn in the use of neologism in astronomy and botany.

  17. The Ch asteroids: Connecting a Visible Taxonomic Class to a 3-µm spectral shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivkin, Andrew S.; Howell, E. S.; Emery, J. P.; Volquardsen, E. L.

    2013-10-01

    The Ch-class asteroids in the Bus and Bus-DeMeo classifications are characterized by an absorption near 0.7-µm, first described in a series of papers by Vilas and her co-workers, and associated with phyllosilicates. We have known for some time that the presence of this band is correlated with the presence of the 3-µm absorption band diagnostic for OH/H2O in asteroids and meteorites (Howell, Vilas et al.). In the meteorite collection, the 0.7-µm band seems to be limited to a particular subset of carbonaceous chondrites, the CM group (Cloutis et al.). The difference in 3-µm band shape between Ceres and Pallas has been recognized since the 1980s from work by Lebofsky, Feierberg et al.. Several surveys in this spectral region have established that on the order of 3-4 different spectral shapes exist in the asteroid population (Takir et al., Rivkin et al.). One group, the largest member of which is Pallas, has spectral shapes similar to what is seen in the carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. At this writing, the L-band Mainbelt/NEO Observing Program (LMNOP) has obtained spectra for 25 asteroids classified as Ch by the SMASS surveys. Of the 20 objects that can be unambiguously assigned a 3-µm spectral type, all 20 have a Pallas-type spectral shape. An additional 6 objects in the LMNOP without SMASS classifications are classified as Ch by the S3OS2 survey. Only one of these 6 objects is not obviously Pallas-like, 791 Ani, and inspection of the S3OS2 spectrum leads to doubt that it is actually a Ch-class object. The assignment of at least 80% and perhaps 100% of Ch-class asteroids to the Pallas 3-µm type (depending on how ambiguous objects are treated) serves as evidence for a specific tie between the visible-region and infrared spectral regions, and that the 0.7-µm band can be used not only as a proxy for the presence of a 3-µm band but for a specific band shape and mineralogy. We will present our spectral results and analysis.

  18. Altered host behaviour and brain serotonergic activity caused by acanthocephalans: evidence for specificity

    PubMed Central

    Tain, Luke; Perrot-Minnot, Marie-Jeanne; Cézilly, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Manipulative parasites can alter the phenotype of intermediate hosts in various ways. However, it is unclear whether such changes are just by-products of infection or adaptive and enhance transmission to the final host. Here, we show that the alteration of serotonergic activity is functionally linked to the alteration of specific behaviour in the amphipod Gammarus pulex infected with acanthocephalan parasites. Pomphorhynchus laevis and, to a lesser extent, Pomphorhynchus tereticollis altered phototactism, but not geotactism, in G. pulex, whereas the reverse was true for Polymorphus minutus. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) injected to uninfected G. pulex mimicked the altered phototactism, but had no effect on geotactism. Photophilic G. pulex infected with P. laevis or P. tereticollis showed a 40% increase in brain 5-HT immunoreactivity compared to photophobic, uninfected individuals. In contrast, brain 5-HT immunoreactivity did not differ between P. minutus-infected and uninfected G. pulex. Finally, brain 5-HT immunoreactivity differed significantly among P. tereticollis-infected individuals in accordance with their degree of manipulation. Our results demonstrate that altered 5-HT activity is not the mere consequence of infection by acanthocephalans but is specifically linked to the disruption of host photophobic behaviour, whereas the alteration of other behaviours such as geotactism may rely on distinct physiological routes. PMID:17015346

  19. Diversity and Karyotypic Evolution in the Genus Neacomys (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae).

    PubMed

    da Silva, Willam O; Pieczarka, Julio C; Rossi, Rogério V; Schneider, Horacio; Sampaio, Iracilda; Miranda, Cleuton L; da Silva, Cláudia R; Cardoso, Elizandra M; Nagamachi, Cleusa Y

    2015-01-01

    Neacomys (Sigmodontinae) comprises 8 species mainly found in the Amazonian region. We describe 5 new karyotypes from Brazilian Amazonia: 2 cytotypes for N. paracou (2n = 56/FNa = 62-66), 1 for N. dubosti (2n = 64/FNa = 68), and 2 for Neacomys sp. (2n = 58/FNa = 64-70), with differences in the 18S rDNA. Telomeric probes did not show ITS. We provide a phylogeny using Cytb, and the analysis suggests that 2n = 56 with a high FNa is ancestral for the genus, as found in N. paracou, being retained by the ancestral forms of the other species, with an increase in 2n occurring independently in N. spinosus and N. dubosti. Alternatively, an increase in 2n may have occurred in the ancestral taxon of the other species, followed by independent 2n-reduction events in Neacomys sp. and in the ancestral species of N. tenuipes, N. guianae, N. musseri, and N. minutus. Finally, a drastic reduction event in the diploid number occurred in the ancestral species of N. musseri and N. minutus which exhibit the lowest 2n of the genus. The karyotypic variations found in both intra- and interspecific samples, associated with the molecular phylogeny, suggest a chromosomal evolution with amplification/deletion of constitutive heterochromatin and rearrangements including fusions, fissions, and pericentric inversions. PMID:26587770

  20. An acanthocephalan parasite increases the salinity tolerance of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus roeseli (Crustacea: Gammaridae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piscart, Christophe; Webb, Dennis; Beisel, Jean Nicolas

    2007-09-01

    Studies of the influence of parasites on host fitness generally conclude that parasites have a strong negative effect on their hosts. In this study, we have investigated experimentally the role of Polymorphus minutus, an acanthocephalan parasite, on the salinity tolerance of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus roeseli, one of its intermediate hosts. Unexpectedly, P. minutus-infected gammarids were more tolerant to salinity stress than uninfected ones. The mean lethal salt concentrations for 50% mortality of hosts tested were 17.3 (infected) and 9.7 g/L (uninfected). The parasitic load (one or two parasites per host) did not affect the result. The size of hosts had no significant influence on the salinity tolerance of either infected or uninfected gammarids. The mobility of all types of gammarid decreased when the salinity exceeded 9.0 g/L, but there was no significant difference between infected and uninfected gammarids. We discuss the higher salinity tolerance of infected amphipods in relation to O2 consumption and osmoregulation. Finally, we demonstrate that the salinity tolerance is enhanced in the parasitized amphipod but without a significant change in behavior or an osmoregulatory adjustment.

  1. Serological surveillance of scrub typhus, murine typhus, and leptospirosis in small mammals captured at Twin Bridges Training Area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, 2005-2007.

    PubMed

    Sames, William J; Klein, Terry A; Kim, Heung-Chul; Gu, Se Hun; Kang, Hae-Ji; Shim, So-Hee; Ha, Si-Jung; Chong, Sung-Tae; Lee, In-Yong; Richards, Allen L; Yi, Suk-Hee; Song, Jin-Won

    2010-01-01

    Soldiers from the Republic of Korea and the United States conduct armistice military operations at Twin Bridges Training Area (TBTA) located near the demilitarized zone (DMZ) and are exposed to zoonotic disease pathogens that small mammals and their potentially disease-carrying ectoparasites transmit. TBTA is a 36 km2 rural training site with small villages and various forms of agriculture along its boundary. At TBTA, rodents, insectivores, and their ectoparasites are commonly found in association with unmanaged habitats of various densities of tall grasses, herbaceous plants, shrubs, briars, and crawling vegetation. Rodents and insectivores were collected during the winter (November-December 2005 and December 2006) and early spring (March 2007), and serologically tested for the presence of scrub typhus, murine typhus, and leptospirosis antibodies. Of the six species of small mammals collected, Apodemus agrarius, the common striped field mouse and known reservoir of scrub typhus, was the most frequently collected (96.1%), followed by Crocidura lasiura (2.5%), Micromys minutus (0.5%), Myodes regulus (0.5%), Mus musculus (0.3%), and Rattus rattus (0.1%). A. agrarius (56.1%), M. musculus (66.7%), M. minutus (25%), and R. rattus (100%) were positive for scrub typhus antibodies. Only A. agrarius (14.7%) and C. lasiura (4.5%) were positive for murine typhus antibodies, whereas only A. agrarius (1.5%) was seropositive for leptospirosis. Seroprevalence rates of scrub typhus and murine typhus based on weight and sex of A. agrarius are presented. PMID:20108842

  2. A new species of Andinobates (Amphibia: Anura: Dendrobatidae) from west central Panama.

    PubMed

    Batista, Abel; Jaramillo, César A; Ponce, Marcos; Crawford, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Dendrobatid frogs are among the best known anurans in the world, mainly due to their toxicity and associated bright colors. A recently described dendrobatid genus, Andinobates, comprises frogs distributed among the Colombian Andes and Panama. During field work in the Distrito de Donoso, Colón province, Panama, we found a poison frog that we here describe as a new species. The new species belongs to the A. minutus species group and is described herein as Andinobates geminisae sp. nov. This new species differs from all other members of the group by having uniformly orange smooth skin over the entire body and a distinctive male advertisement call. The new species is smaller than other colorful dendrobatids present in the area, such as Oophaga pumilio and O. vicentei. We also provide molecular phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences of dendrobatids and summarize genetic distances among Andinobates species. Andinobates geminisae occurs in Caribbean versant rainforest on the westernmost edge of the known distribution of A. minutus, and represents the fourth species within this genus in Panama. This is vulnerable to habitat loss and excessive harvesting and requires immediate conservation plans to preserve this species with a restricted geographic range. PMID:25283663

  3. Composition, structure and pattern of helminth assemblages associated with central European herons (Ardeidae).

    PubMed

    Sitko, Jiljí; Heneberg, Petr

    2015-02-01

    Helminths parasitizing the ardeid birds are poorly understood, and the majority of studies are limited to checklists and records of novel host-parasite interactions. Here we analyzed the prevalence, intensity and diversity of the helminth component communities associated with an extensive cohort of the five most common Czech herons (Ardea cinerea, Ardea alba, Nycticorax nycticorax, Botaurus stellaris and Ixobrychus minutus) collected in the years 1962-2013. Comparison with Ukrainian datasets supports the existence of local helminth component communities, subject to strong geographic variation. The diversity of the component communities ranged between 37.3±9.6 (A. cinerea) and 2.5±1.1 (I. minutus) species. Similarly, the frequency of particular helminths differed by over one order of magnitude, whereas the helminth load differed by over two orders of magnitude. Typically, the dominant species (Echinochasmus beleocephalus, Uroproctepisthmium bursicola, Posthodiplostomum cuticola, Apharyngostrigea cornu, Desmidocercella numidica and Neogryporhynchus cheilancristrotus) were considered local, with intermediate host species available onsite, as represented by freshwater mollusks. Of the digeneans, 52% of the species likely infected their definitive hosts outside the study area, frequently utilizing invertebrates of salt or brackish waters. For A. cinerea, the largest number of species was in adult males; however the helminth load of the adults was lower than in their juvenile counterparts. This study provides the first systematically collected evidence for the intra-annual changes of the helminth assemblages in herons. PMID:25449288

  4. Acanthopria and Mimopriella parasitoid wasps (Diapriidae) attack Cyphomyrmex fungus-growing ants (Formicidae, Attini)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Zimmerman, Jess K.; Wcislo, William T.

    2006-01-01

    New World diapriine wasps are abundant and diverse, but the biology of most species is unknown. We provide the first description of the biology of diapriine wasps, Acanthopria spp. and Mimopriella sp., which attack the larvae of Cyphomyrmex fungus-growing ants. In Puerto Rico, the koinobiont parasitoids Acanthopria attack Cyphomyrmex minutus, while in Panama at least four morphospecies of Acanthopria and one of Mimopriella attack Cyphomyrmex rimosus. Of the total larvae per colony, 0 100% were parasitized, and 27 70% of the colonies per population were parasitized. Parasitism rate and colony size were negatively correlated for C. rimosus but not for C. minutus. Worker ants grasped at, bit, and in some cases, killed adult wasps that emerged in artificial nests or tried to enter natural nests. Parasitoid secondary sex ratios were female-biased for eclosing wasps, while field collections showed a male-biased sex ratio. Based on their abundance and success in attacking host ants, these minute wasps present excellent opportunities to explore how natural enemies impact ant colony demography and population biology.

  5. An acanthocephalan parasite boosts the escape performance of its intermediate host facing non-host predators.

    PubMed

    Medoc, V; Beisel, J-N

    2008-07-01

    Among the potential effects of parasitism on host condition, the 'increased host abilities' hypothesis is a counterintuitive pattern which might be predicted in complex-life-cycle parasites. In the case of trophic transmission, a parasite increasing its intermediate host's performance facing non-host predators improves its probability of transmission to an adequate, definitive host. In the present study, we investigated the cost of infection with the acanthocephalan Polymorphus minutus on the locomotor/escape performance of its intermediate host, the crustacean Gammarus roeseli. This parasite alters the behaviour of its intermediate host making it more vulnerable to predation by avian definitive hosts. We assessed the swimming speeds of gammarids using a stressful treatment and their escape abilities under predation pressure. Despite the encystment of P. minutus in the abdomen of its intermediate host, infected amphipods had significantly higher swimming speeds than uninfected ones (increases of up to 35%). Furthermore, when interacting with the non-host crustacean predator Dikerogammarus villosus, the highest escape speeds and greatest distances covered by invertebrates were observed for parasitized animals. The altered behaviour observed among the manipulated invertebrates supported the 'increased host abilities' hypothesis, which has until now remained untested experimentally. The tactic of increasing the ability of infected intermediate hosts to evade potential predation attempts by non-host species is discussed. PMID:18477417

  6. Parasite-induced changes in the diet of a freshwater amphipod: field and laboratory evidence.

    PubMed

    Médoc, V; Piscart, C; Maazouzi, C; Simon, L; Beisel, J-N

    2011-04-01

    Trophically transmitted parasites are likely to strongly influence food web-structure. The extent to which they change the trophic ecology of their host remains nevertheless poorly investigated and field evidence is lacking. This is particularly true for acanthocephalan parasites whose invertebrate hosts can prey on other invertebrates and contribute to leaf-litter breakdown. We used a multiple approach combining feeding experiments, neutral lipids and stable isotopes to investigate the trophic ecology of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus roeseli parasitized by the bird acanthocephalan Polymorphus minutus. Infected compared to uninfected amphipods consumed as many dead isopods, but fewer live isopods and less leaf material. Infection had no influence on the total concentration of neutral lipids. Contrary to what we expected based on laboratory findings, the nitrogen isotope signature, which allows for the estimation of consumer's trophic position, was not influenced by infection status. Conversely, the carbon isotope signature, which is used to identify food sources, changed with infection and suggested that the diet of infected G. roeseli includes less perilithon (i.e. fixed algae on rocks, stones) but more terrestrial inputs (e.g. leaf material) than that of uninfected conspecifics. This study shows evidence of changes in the trophic ecology of P. minutus-infected G. roeseli and we stress the need to complement feeding experiments with field data when investigating top-down effects of infection in an opportunistic feeder which adapts its diet to the available food sources. PMID:21232173

  7. An acanthocephalan parasite increases the salinity tolerance of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus roeseli (Crustacea: Gammaridae).

    PubMed

    Piscart, Christophe; Webb, Dennis; Beisel, Jean Nicolas

    2007-09-01

    Studies of the influence of parasites on host fitness generally conclude that parasites have a strong negative effect on their hosts. In this study, we have investigated experimentally the role of Polymorphus minutus, an acanthocephalan parasite, on the salinity tolerance of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus roeseli, one of its intermediate hosts. Unexpectedly, P. minutus-infected gammarids were more tolerant to salinity stress than uninfected ones. The mean lethal salt concentrations for 50% mortality of hosts tested were 17.3 (infected) and 9.7 g/L (uninfected). The parasitic load (one or two parasites per host) did not affect the result. The size of hosts had no significant influence on the salinity tolerance of either infected or uninfected gammarids. The mobility of all types of gammarid decreased when the salinity exceeded 9.0 g/L, but there was no significant difference between infected and uninfected gammarids. We discuss the higher salinity tolerance of infected amphipods in relation to O(2) consumption and osmoregulation. Finally, we demonstrate that the salinity tolerance is enhanced in the parasitized amphipod but without a significant change in behavior or an osmoregulatory adjustment. PMID:17487466

  8. A new monorchiid cercaria (Digenea) parasitising the purple clam Amiantis purpurata (Bivalvia: Veneridae) in the Southwest Atlantic Ocean, with notes on its gonadal effect.

    PubMed

    Cremont, F; Kroeck, M A; Martorelli, S R

    2001-01-01

    An unnamed microcercous cercaria (Digenea: Monorchiidae), a parasite of Amiantis purpurata (Lamarck, 1818) (Bivalvia: Veneridae) and its corresponding metacercaria from the province of Buenos Aires and the Patagonian coast of the Southwest Atlantic Ocean, are described. The cercaria described in this paper differs from the three other monorchiid microcercous cercariae, i.e., Lasiotocus minutus (Manter, 1931), Lasiotocus elongatus (Manter, 1931), and Cercaria caribbea XXXVI Cable, 1956, mainly because of the extension of the excretory vesicle and the location of the ventral sucker. Cercariae artificially extracted from sporocysts encyst in a dish and form metacercariae enveloped by a gelatinous sac with two prolongations, which are used to adhere to the substratum. The monorchiid described in this paper has a life cycle similar to those of L. minutus and L. elongatus, although the adult stage of the present species is still unknown. Their larvae are similar in morphology and have venerid clams as their first hosts. The presence of a monorchiid larva is reported for the first time in the Southern Hemisphere. Its monthly prevalence rates, ranging from 0 to 25% (mean: 8.3%), are given from the Patagonian coast. The infection seems to cause castration as it was observed that during March through to May, when most gametes were produced in uninfected individuals, 81% of the infected individuals did not produce gametes. PMID:11699657

  9. Late Pleistocene voles (Arvicolinae, Rodentia) from the Baranica Cave (Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogićević, Katarina; Nenadić, Draženko; Mihailović, Dušan

    2012-02-01

    Baranica is a cave system situated in the south-eastern part of Serbia, four kilometers south to Knjaževac, on the right bank of the Trgovi\\vski Timok. The investigations in Baranica were conducted from 1994 to 1997 by the Faculty of Philosophy from Belgrade and the National Museum of Knjaževac. Four geological layers of Quaternary age were recovered. The abundance of remains of both large and small mammals was noticed in the early phase of the research. In this paper, the remains of eight vole species are described: Arvicola terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758), Chionomys nivalis (Martins, 1842), Microtus (Microtus) arvalis (Pallas, 1778) and Microtus (Microtus) agrestis (Linnaeus, 1761), Microtus (Stenocranius) gregalis (Pallas, 1779), Microtus (Terricola) subterraneus (de Sélys-Longchamps, 1836), Clethrionomys glareolus (Schreber, 1780) and Lagurus lagurus (Pallas, 1773). Among them, steppe and open area inhabitants prevail. Based on the evolutionary level and dimensions of the Arvicola terrestris molars, as well as the overall characteristics of the fauna, it was concluded that the deposits were formed in the last glacial period of the Late Pleistocene. These conclusions are rather consistent with the absolute dating of large mammal bones (23.520 ± 110 B.P. for Layer 2 and 35.780 ± 320 B.P. for Layer 4).

  10. Exploring the Solar System with Stellar Occultations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliot, J. L.; Dunham, E. W.

    1984-01-01

    By recording the light intensity as a function of time when a planet occults a relatively bright star, the thermal structure of the upper atmosphere of the planet can be probed. The main feature of stellar occultation observations is their high spatial resolution, typically several thousand times better than the resolution achievable with ground-based imaging. Five stellar occultations have been observed. The main results of these observations are summarized. Stellar occultations have been observed on Uranus, Mars, Pallas, Neptune and the Jovian Ring.

  11. Seasonal and spatial variation of Yamuna River water quality in Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Papiya; Upadhyay, Rahul; Hasan, Aziz

    2010-11-01

    Yamuna river pollution has been extensively studied with regard to some selected parameters in five locations at Palla, Nizamuddin Midstream, Nizamuddin Quarter Stream, Agra Canal Midstream, and Agra Canal Quarter Stream in Delhi, India. Seasonal and location-wise variation of pollutants namely dissolve oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), ammonia (AMM), total coliform and fecal coliform were studied for 6 years during the period of 2000-2005. The study results revealed the lowest level of pollution during monsoon. The statistical analysis revealed a positive correlation between DO, BOD, COD, TKN, and AMM. PMID:20039203

  12. Radii and albedos of asteroids 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 15, 51, 433, and 511

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruikshank, D. P.; Morrison, D.

    1973-01-01

    The following radii (in kilometers) and visual geometric albedos are derived for nine asteroids from 10- and 20-micron radiometry: 1 Ceres (540, .06); 2 Pallas (275, .08); 3 Juno (125, .14); 4 Vesta (270, .21); 6 Hebe (110, .16); 15 Eunomia (135, .15); 51 Nemausa (80, .05); 433 Eros (12, .07); and 511 Davida (180, .04). Vesta has the highest albedo measured for an asteroid, while Davida, the lowest-albedo object in the sample, is one of the darkest known objects in the solar system. The median of all asteroid albedos measured to date is 0.1.-

  13. Calibration of the radiometric asteroid scale using occultation diameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Telesco, C. M.; Brunk, W. E.; Brown, R. H.; Morrison, D.

    1982-01-01

    The paper describes a new approach to the calibration of the radiometric asteroid scale, which relies on recent accurate occultation measurements of the diameters of 2 Pallas (Wasserman et al., 1979) and 3 Juno (Millis et al., 1981), and the Voyager diameter of J4 Callisto, as well as IR photometry of these objects obtained with the NASA 3-m Infrared Telescope Facility. It is shown that this calibration is internally consistent to better than 5%, and probably has an absolute accuracy of + or - 5%. It is noted that a revision of the TRIAD radiometric diameters downward is required to bring them into agreement with the new calibration.

  14. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mauritania: First Report on the Presence of the Arbovirus Mosquito Vector in Nouakchott.

    PubMed

    Mint Lekweiry, Khadijetou; Ould Ahmedou Salem, Mohamed Salem; Ould Brahim, Khyarhoum; Ould Lemrabott, Mohamed Aly; Brengues, Cécile; Faye, Ousmane; Simard, Frédéric; Ould Mohamed Salem Boukhary, Ali

    2015-07-01

    Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is a major vector of yellow fever, dengue, and chikungunya viruses throughout tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Although the southernmost part of Mauritania along the Senegal river has long been recognized at risk of yellow fever transmission, Aedes spp. mosquitoes had never been reported northwards in Mauritania. Here, we report the first observation of Aedes aegypti aegypti (L.) and Aedes (Ochlerotatus) caspius (Pallas, 1771) in the capital city, Nouakchott. We describe the development sites in which larvae of the two species were found, drawing attention to the risk for emergence of arbovirus transmission in the city. PMID:26335483

  15. Biochemical key to eight species of adult Egyptian mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Farid, H A; Gad, A M; Salem, A M; Kashef, A H

    1991-04-01

    1. An electrophoretic key is described, based on enzyme relative mobility, to distinguish eight species of Egyptian mosquito adults. 2. Using horizontal starch gel electrophoresis, five different enzyme assays unambiguously separated Culex pipiens L., Cx antennatus (Becker), Cx pusillus Macquart, Aedes caspius (Pallas), Culiseta longiareolata (Macquart), Uranotaenia unguiculata Edwards, Anopheles multicolor Cambouliu and An.pharoensis Theobald. 3. Diagnostic loci between species were: Ak-2, G6pd, alpha-Gpd, Gpi and 6-Pgd; the probability of correct diagnosis in each case was at least 0.989. PMID:1685104

  16. Meteor Beliefs Project: The Palladium in ancient and early Medieval sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBeath, A. Alistair; Gheorghe, A. D.

    2004-08-01

    An examination of the, apparently meteoritic, object, anciently called the Palladium after the Greek goddess Pallas Athene, is presented, as discussed in various ancient and early medieval sources. Although made of wood, the Palladium was believed to have fallen from the sky. In myths, it was a powerful totemic object, first at the legendary city of Troy, then later at Rome, and had magically protective properties associated with it. Despite its implausibly meteoritic nature, the Palladium can be suggested as supporting the case for ancient meteorite worship.

  17. Detection of Israel turkey meningo-encephalitis virus from mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) and Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) species and its survival in Culex pipiens and Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Phlebotomidae).

    PubMed

    Braverman, Y; Davidson, I; Chizov-Ginzburg, A; Chastel, C

    2003-07-01

    Israel turkey meningo-encephalitis (ITME) virus was detected in pools of Ochlerotatus caspius Pallas and Culicoides imicola Kieffer trapped at a turkey run at Nir David during an outbreak in August 1995. Experimental membrane feeding on a blood ITME suspension showed that Culex pipiens L. became harbored virus for at least 14 d. When Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli were fed on an infected turkey, they became infected and harbored the virus for at least 7 d. Because Phlebotomines are trapped frequently at turkey runs in Israel, they should be suspected as potential vectors of ITME. PMID:14680120

  18. Internal parasites of horses on mixed grassveld and bushveld in Transvaal, Republic of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Krecek, R C; Reinecke, R K; Horak, I G

    1989-11-01

    Between 1980 and 1982, the gastrointestinal tracts of 17 horses which had been grazing on mixed grassveld at Potchefstroom and bushveld at Onderstepoort in the province of Transvaal, Republic of South Africa, were examined at necropsy and processed for parasite recovery. The large strongyles and their prevalences were as follows: Strongylus vulgaris and associated lesions (88-94%), Strongylus edentatus (24%), Strongylus equinus (30%), Triodontophorus nipponicus (35%) and Craterostomum acuticaudatum (18%). The seven most prevalent and abundant cyathostomes collected were Cylicostephanus longibursatus, Cylicostephanus goldi, Cylicostephanus calicatus, Cylicocyclus nassatus, Cyathostomum catinatum, Cylicostephanus minutus and Cyathostomum coronatum. Gasterophilus intestinalis was the most prevalent and abundant botfly larva recovered. Most of the cyathostome larvae and adults were present during all seasons except winter. The distribution of cyathostome species in the large intestine of the host is discussed. PMID:2588465

  19. Fossil birds from the Late Cretaceous Los Alamitos Formation, Río Negro Province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnolin, Federico L.; Martinelli, Agustín G.

    2009-02-01

    In this note we report new avian remains from the Late Cretaceous Los Alamitos Formation (Campanian-Maastrichtian) at the Los Alamitos locality, Río Negro Province, Argentina. Isolated remains referable to indeterminate Aves, ?Patagopterygiformes, indeterminate Ornithurae, cf. Hesperornithes and cf. Neornithes are described and discussed. The new genus and species Alamitornis minutus is erected to include a minute-sized and gracile bird, probably related to the non-volant ratite-like bird Patagopteryx. If correctly identified, the record of Hesperornithes may be the first for this group in the Southern Hemisphere. The Los Alamitos paleoavifauna represents one of the most diverse fossil bird assemblage from the Mesozoic of Gondwana known to date.

  20. A review of Cunaxidae (Acariformes, Trombidiformes): Histories and diagnoses of subfamilies and genera, keys to world species, and some new locality records

    PubMed Central

    Skvarla, Michael J.; Fisher, J. Ray; Dowling, Ashley P. G.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Cunaxidae are predaceous mites found in a variety of habitats. This work provides comprehensive keys to world subfamilies, genera, and species. Diagnoses and historical reviews are provided for subfamilies and genera. Cunaxa boneti, C. denmarki, C. exoterica, C. floridanus, C. lehmanae, C. lukoschusi, C. metzi, C. myabunderensis, C newyorkensis, C. rackae, C. reevesi, and C. reticulatus are moved to Rubroscirus and C. otiosus, C. valentis, and C. rasile are returned to Rubroscirus. Cunaxoides neopectinatus is moved to Pulaeus. Neocunaxoides pradhani and N. gilbertoi are transferred to Scutopalus. Pulaeus minutus and P. subterraneus are moved to Lupaeus. Pseudobonzia bakari, P. malookensis, and P. shamshadi are transferred to Neobonzia. Dactyloscirus bifidus is transferred to Armascirus. Scirula papillata is reported from the Western Hemisphere for the first time. Armascirus ozarkensis, A. primigenius, and Dactyloscirus dolichosetosus are reported from new localities. PMID:25061358

  1. New Coleoptera records from New Brunswick, Canada: Dermestidae, Endecatomidae, Bostrichidae, and Ptinidae

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Reginald P.; Sweeney, Jon D.; DeMerchant, Ian; Turgeon, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We report ten new species records for the Coleoptera fauna of New Brunswick, Canada from the families Dermestidae, Endecatomidae, Bostrichidae, and Ptinidae. Anthrenus fuscus Olivier and Anthrenus museorum (Linnaeus) of the family Dermestidae are newly recorded for New Brunswick. Endecatomus rugosus (Randall) and the family Endecatomidae are recorded for the first time for New Brunswick and the Maritime provinces. Two Bostrichidae, the adventive Dinoderus minutus (Fabricius) and the native Stephanopachys substriatus (Paykull), are newly recorded for the province. Five species of Ptinidae, the adventive Anobium punctatum (DeGeer) and Microbregma emarginatum emarginatum (Duftschmid), and the native Hadrobregmus notatus (Say), Ptilinus lobatus Casey, and Ptilinus ruficornis Say are added to the faunal list of New Brunswick. Collection data, habitat data, and distribution maps are presented for all these species. PMID:22539890

  2. Revision of the termite family Rhinotermitidae (Isoptera) in New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Bourguignon, Thomas; Roisin, Yves

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Recently, we completed a revision of the Termitidae from New Guinea and neighboring islands, recording a total of 45 species. Here, we revise a second family, the Rhinotermitidae, to progress towards a full picture of the termite diversity in New Guinea. Altogether, 6 genera and 15 species are recorded, among which two species, Coptotermes gambrinus and Parrhinotermes barbatus, are new to science. The genus Heterotermes is reported from New Guinea for the first time, with two species restricted to the southern part of the island. We also provide the first New Guinea records for six species of the genera Coptotermes and Schedorhinotermes. We briefly describe soldiers and imagoes of each species and provide a key based on soldier characters. Finally, we discuss the taxonomic and biogeographical implication of our results. A replacement name, Schedolimulus minutides Bourguignon, is proposed for the termitophilous staphylinid Schedolimulus minutus Bourguignon, to solve a question of secondary homonymy. PMID:22287891

  3. The prevalence and abundance of internal parasites in working horses autopsied in Poland.

    PubMed

    Gawor, J J

    1995-05-01

    The digestive tracts of 50 working horses from private farms in Poland were examined. Thirty-seven nematode species, two tapeworm species and one species of botfly were recovered. The most prevalent small strongyle species were Cyathostomum catinatum, Cylicocyclus nassatus, Cylicostephanus goldi, Cylicostephanus longibursatus, Cyathostomum coronatum, Cylicostephanus calicatus, Cylicocyclus leptostomus and Cylicostephanus minutus. Thirteen cyathostome species showed a site preference in the ventral colon, five in the dorsal colon and three in the caecum. One species, Cylicocyclus triramosus, was new for Poland. Delafondia vulgaris was the most common large strongyle, with 74% prevalence, but low abundance. Parascaris equorum (26%) and Oxyuris equi (36%) were common. Strongyloides westeri (4%), Habronema majus (16%) and Habronema muscae (8%) were less prevalent. Both Habronema species were new for Poland. Tapeworm infection were not prevalent (Anoplocephala magna (4%) and Anoplocephala perfoliata (4%)). Botfly larvae were found in 40% of the horses examined. It was stated that no anthelmintics had been used on the farms. PMID:7676606

  4. Comparative cytogenetic analysis of four species of Dendropsophus (Hylinae) from the Brazilian Atlantic forest.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, Igor Soares; Noleto, Rafael Bueno; Oliveira, Adriele Karlokoski Cunha De; Toled, Luís Felipe; Cestari, Marta Margarete

    2016-06-01

    We conducted a cytogenetic study of four hyline frog species (Dendropsophus elegans, D. microps, D. minutus and D. werneri) from southern Brazil. All species had 2n = 30 chromosomes, with interspecific and intraspecific variation in the numbers of metacentric, submetacentric, subtelocentric and telocentric chromosomes. C-banding and fluorochrome staining revealed conservative GC-rich heterochromatin localized in the pericentromeric regions of all species. The location of the nucleolus organizer regions, as confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization, differed between species. Telomeric probes detected sites that were restricted to the terminal regions of all chromosomes and no interstitial or centromeric signals were observed. Our study corroborates the generic synapomorphy of 2n = 30 chromosomes for Dendropsophus and adds data that may become useful for future taxonomic revisions and a broader understanding of chromosomal evolution among hylids. PMID:27350679

  5. Helminth communities of herons (Aves: Ardeidae) in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Mario; D'Alessio, Nicola; Di Prisco, Francesca; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Galiero, Giorgio; Cerrone, Anna; Barca, Lorella; Kinsella, John M; Aznar, Francisco J

    2016-08-01

    The helminth communities of nine species of herons from southern Italy were studied and compared. Of 24 taxa found including seven digeneans, seven nematodes, six cestodes and four acanthocephalans, only five taxa were found in more than one heron species, and five of the 21 taxa that could be identified to species level were classified as 'heron specialists'. The total number of helminth species per heron species ranged from 1 in Botaurus stellaris to 9 in Ixobrychus minutus with infection levels generally low. A statistical comparison was carried out for herons with a sample size >5. At the infracommunity level, only I. minutus clearly differed from other heron species. Diversity parameters of heminth infracommunities did not significantly differ among heron species. Species richness ranged from just 0.3 to 2.3 helminth taxa per individual host, and the Brillouin index, from 0 to 0.3. Total helminth abundance did not exceed 40 worms per host except in a single case of Ardeola ralloides. Infracommunities clearly were dominated by single helminth species. The present study confirms a depauperate helminth community in herons from southern Italy. Comparison with data from Spain and the Czech Republic showed strong quantitative similarities with values obtained in the present study. Results also suggest that the composition of local helminth communities are strongly variable depending on geographical location as is demonstrated by comparison with data from other European areas. However, whether herons in Europe naturally host depauperate helminth communities or these communities are depauperate because of other factors is unknown. PMID:27091547

  6. Multiple colonizations lead to cryptic biodiversity in an island ecosystem: comparative phylogeography of anchialine shrimp species in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan.

    PubMed

    Weese, David A; Fujita, Yoshihisa; Santos, Scott R

    2013-09-01

    Archipelagos of the Indo-West Pacific are considered to be among the richest in the world in biodiversity, and phylogeographic studies generally support either the center of origin or the center of accumulation hypothesis to explain this pattern. To differentiate between these competing hypotheses for organisms from the Indo-West Pacific anchialine ecosystem, defined as coastal bodies of mixohaline water fluctuating with the tides but having no direct oceanic connections, we investigated the genetic variation, population structure, and evolutionary history of three caridean shrimp species (Antecaridina lauensis, Halocaridinides trigonophthalma, and Metabetaeus minutus) in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. We used two mitochondrial genes--cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and large ribosomal subunit (16S-rDNA)--complemented with genetic examination of available specimens from the same or closely related species from the Indian and Pacific Oceans. In the Ryukyus, each species encompassed 2-3 divergent (9.52%-19.2% COI p-distance) lineages, each having significant population structure and varying geographic distributions. Phylogenetically, the A. lauensis and M. minutus lineages in the Ryukyus were more closely related to ones from outside the archipelago than to one another. These results, when interpreted in the context of Pacific oceanographic currents and geologic history of the Ryukyus, imply multiple colonizations of the archipelago by the three species, consistent with the center of accumulation hypothesis. While this study contributes toward understanding the biodiversity, ecology, and evolution of organisms in the Ryukyus and the Indo-West Pacific, it also has potential utility in establishing conservation strategies for anchialine fauna of the Pacific Basin in general. PMID:24088794

  7. A Comparative Analysis of Mitochondrial Genomes in Eustigmatophyte Algae

    PubMed Central

    Ševčíková, Tereza; Klimeš, Vladimír; Zbránková, Veronika; Strnad, Hynek; Hroudová, Miluše; Vlček, Čestmír; Eliáš, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Eustigmatophyceae (Ochrophyta, Stramenopiles) is a small algal group with species of the genus Nannochloropsis being its best studied representatives. Nuclear and organellar genomes have been recently sequenced for several Nannochloropsis spp., but phylogenetically wider genomic studies are missing for eustigmatophytes. We sequenced mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) of three species representing most major eustigmatophyte lineages, Monodopsis sp. MarTras21, Vischeria sp. CAUP Q 202 and Trachydiscus minutus, and carried out their comparative analysis in the context of available data from Nannochloropsis and other stramenopiles, revealing a number of noticeable findings. First, mitogenomes of most eustigmatophytes are highly collinear and similar in the gene content, but extensive rearrangements and loss of three otherwise ubiquitous genes happened in the Vischeria lineage; this correlates with an accelerated evolution of mitochondrial gene sequences in this lineage. Second, eustigmatophytes appear to be the only ochrophyte group with the Atp1 protein encoded by the mitogenome. Third, eustigmatophyte mitogenomes uniquely share a truncated nad11 gene encoding only the C-terminal part of the Nad11 protein, while the N-terminal part is encoded by a separate gene in the nuclear genome. Fourth, UGA as a termination codon and the cognate release factor mRF2 were lost from mitochondria independently by the Nannochloropsis and T. minutus lineages. Finally, the rps3 gene in the mitogenome of Vischeria sp. is interrupted by the UAG codon, but the genome includes a gene for an unusual tRNA with an extended anticodon loop that we speculate may serve as a suppressor tRNA to properly decode the rps3 gene. PMID:26872774

  8. A Comparative Analysis of Mitochondrial Genomes in Eustigmatophyte Algae.

    PubMed

    Ševčíková, Tereza; Klimeš, Vladimír; Zbránková, Veronika; Strnad, Hynek; Hroudová, Miluše; Vlček, Čestmír; Eliáš, Marek

    2016-03-01

    Eustigmatophyceae (Ochrophyta, Stramenopiles) is a small algal group with species of the genus Nannochloropsis being its best studied representatives. Nuclear and organellar genomes have been recently sequenced for several Nannochloropsis spp., but phylogenetically wider genomic studies are missing for eustigmatophytes. We sequenced mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) of three species representing most major eustigmatophyte lineages, Monodopsis sp. MarTras21, Vischeria sp. CAUP Q 202 and Trachydiscus minutus, and carried out their comparative analysis in the context of available data from Nannochloropsis and other stramenopiles, revealing a number of noticeable findings. First, mitogenomes of most eustigmatophytes are highly collinear and similar in the gene content, but extensive rearrangements and loss of three otherwise ubiquitous genes happened in the Vischeria lineage; this correlates with an accelerated evolution of mitochondrial gene sequences in this lineage. Second, eustigmatophytes appear to be the only ochrophyte group with the Atp1 protein encoded by the mitogenome. Third, eustigmatophyte mitogenomes uniquely share a truncated nad11 gene encoding only the C-terminal part of the Nad11 protein, while the N-terminal part is encoded by a separate gene in the nuclear genome. Fourth, UGA as a termination codon and the cognate release factor mRF2 were lost from mitochondria independently by the Nannochloropsis and T. minutus lineages. Finally, the rps3 gene in the mitogenome of Vischeria sp. is interrupted by the UAG codon, but the genome includes a gene for an unusual tRNA with an extended anticodon loop that we speculate may serve as a suppressor tRNA to properly decode the rps3 gene. PMID:26872774

  9. Predatory aquatic beetles, suitable trace elements bioindicators.

    PubMed

    Burghelea, Carmen I; Zaharescu, Dragos G; Hooda, Peter S; Palanca-Soler, Antonio

    2011-05-01

    Predatory aquatic beetles are common colonizers of natural and managed aquatic environments. While as important components of the aquatic food webs they are prone to accumulate trace elements, they have been largely neglected from metal uptake studies. We aim to test the suitability of three dytiscid species, i.e.Hydroglyphus pusillus, Laccophilus minutus and Rhantus suturalis, as trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn) bioindicators. The work was carried out in a case area representing rice paddies and control sites (reservoirs) from an arid region known for its land degradation (Monegros, NE Spain). Categorical principal component analysis (CATPCA) was tested as a nonlinear approach to identify significant relationships between metals, species and habitat conditions so as to examine the ability of these species to reflect differences in metal uptake. Except Se and As, the average concentrations of all other elements in the beetles were higher in the rice fields than in the control habitats. The CATPCA determined that H. pusillus had high capacity to accumulate Fe, Ni and Mn regardless of the habitat type, and hence may not be capable of distinguishing habitat conditions with regards to these metals. On the other hand, L. minutus was found less sensitive for Se in non-managed habitats (i.e. reservoirs), while R. suturalis was good in accumulating Al, Mo and Pb in rice fields. The latter seems to be a promising bioindicator of metal enrichment in rice fields. We conclude that predatory aquatic beetles are good candidates for trace elements bioindication in impacted and non-impacted environments and can be used in environmental monitoring studies. CATPCA proved to be a reliable approach to unveil trends in metal accumulation in aquatic invertebrates according to their habitat status. PMID:21468408

  10. Distribution patterns of Wolbachia endosymbionts in the closely related flower bugs of the genus Orius: implications for coevolution and horizontal transfer.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masaya; Tagami, Yohsuke; Miura, Kazuki; Kageyama, Daisuke; Stouthamer, Richard

    2012-08-01

    Vertical transmission is the primary route of the endosymbiont Wolbachia for its own spread among invertebrate hosts, but horizontal transmission between different hosts is believed to have occurred multiple times. However, it is not well known how Wolbachia commonly spread among closely related hosts. We focused on the closely related species of the minute pirate bugs belonging to the genus Orius, which are important biological control agents in agricultural crops because they are the most useful natural enemy of various tiny pests, such as thrips. Here, we examined five Orius species (Orius sauteri, Orius nagaii, Orius minutus, Orius strigicollis, and Orius tantillus) from eight geographic localities in Japan for Wolbachia infection. Two distinct strains, wOus1 and wOus2, were detected based on Wolbachia surface protein (wsp) gene sequencing. Furthermore, multilocus sequence typing revealed that each of the strains comprised two variants that differed in a single nucleotide. The overall distribution patterns of the two Wolbachia strains were found to differ among host species: prevalent double infection with wOus1 and wOus2 in O. strigicollis; fixation of single infection with wOus2 in O. nagaii; occurrence of single infection with wOus1 in O. sauteri; prevalence of single infection with wOus1 in O. minutus with an exception in a single population; and lack of Wolbachia infection in O. tantillus. Such differences in the distribution patterns of Wolbachia may reflect the evolutionary history of Wolbachia infection among Orius species and/or ecological and physiological differences among the Orius species that determine the invasiveness and maintenance of the two Wolbachia strains. PMID:22450512

  11. Bioprospecting of microalgae: Proper extraction followed by high performance liquid chromatographic-high resolution mass spectrometric fingerprinting as key tools for successful metabolom characterization.

    PubMed

    Stranska-Zachariasova, Milena; Kastanek, Petr; Dzuman, Zbynek; Rubert, Josep; Godula, Michal; Hajslova, Jana

    2016-03-15

    Currently, the interest in microalgae as a source of biologically active components exploitable as supplementary ingredients to food/feed or in cosmetics continues to increase. Existing research mainly aims to focus on revealing and recovering the rare, cost competitive components of the algae metabolom. Because these components could be of very different physicochemical character, a universal approach for their isolation and characterization should be developed. This study demonstrates the systematic development of the extraction strategy that represents one of the key challenges in effective algae bioprospecting, which predefines their further industrial application. By using of Trachydiscus minutus as a model microalgae biomass, following procedures were tested and critically evaluated in order to develop the generic procedure for microalgae bioprospecting: (i) various ways of mechanical disintegration of algae cells enabling maximum extraction efficiency, (ii) the use of a wide range of extraction solvents/solvent mixtures suitable for optimal extraction yields of polar, medium-polar, and non-polar compounds, (iii) the use of consecutive extractions as a fractionation approach. Within the study, targeted screening of selected compounds representing broad range of polarities was realized by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution tandem mass spectrometric detection (UHPLC-HRMS/MS), to assess the effectiveness of undertaken isolation steps. As a result, simple and high-throughput extraction-fractionation strategy based on consecutive extraction with water-aqueous methanol-hexane/isopropanol was developed. Moreover, to demonstrate the potential of the UHPLC-HRMS/MS for the retrospective non-target screening and compounds identification, the collected mass spectra have been evaluated to characterize the pattern of extracted metabolites. Attention was focused on medium-/non-polar extracts and characterization of lipid species

  12. Asteroid encounters suitable for mass determinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galád, A.; Gray, B.

    2002-09-01

    As in a previous paper (Galád \\cite{gal}), the search for effective perturbers among asteroids is done using the same method and during the same time period. The only difference is in the number of asteroids that were processed - 24 599 instead of 9511. Special attention is paid to comparison between perturbations due to (2) Pallas and (10) Hygiea. It is confirmed that the latter has a larger effect on the motion of main belt asteroids, perhaps by a factor of three. This is a reason to include its mass in asteroid orbit determinations. In addition to the Big Four main belt asteroids - (1) Ceres, (2) Pallas, (4) Vesta, (10) Hygiea - the masses of many other large asteroids, such as (11) Parthenope, (13) Egeria, (15) Eunomia, (16) Psyche, (24) Themis, (29) Amphitrite, (39) Laetitia, (45) Eugenia, (52) Europa, (65) Cybele, (121) Hermione, (451) Patientia, and (511) Davida, could be achieved by the end of this decade using astrometric data. In general, over the next decade small asteroids (with much higher numbers than above) will be used more thoroughly for mass determination of large asteroids.

  13. The thermodynamic dissociation constants of four non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs by the least-squares nonlinear regression of multiwavelength spectrophotometric pH-titration data.

    PubMed

    Meloun, Milan; Bordovská, Sylva; Galla, Lubomír

    2007-11-30

    The mixed dissociation constants of four non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) ibuprofen, diclofenac sodium, flurbiprofen and ketoprofen at various ionic strengths I of range 0.003-0.155, and at temperatures of 25 degrees C and 37 degrees C, were determined with the use of two different multiwavelength and multivariate treatments of spectral data, SPECFIT/32 and SQUAD(84) nonlinear regression analyses and INDICES factor analysis. The factor analysis in the INDICES program predicts the correct number of components, and even the presence of minor ones, when the data quality is high and the instrumental error is known. The thermodynamic dissociation constant pK(a)(T) was estimated by nonlinear regression of (pK(a), I) data at 25 degrees C and 37 degrees C. Goodness-of-fit tests for various regression diagnostics enabled the reliability of the parameter estimates found to be proven. PALLAS, MARVIN, SPARC, ACD/pK(a) and Pharma Algorithms predict pK(a) being based on the structural formulae of drug compounds in agreement with the experimental value. The best agreement seems to be between the ACD/pK(a) program and experimentally found values and with SPARC. PALLAS and MARVIN predicted pK(a,pred) values with larger bias errors in comparison with the experimental value for all four drugs. PMID:17825517

  14. Water quality analysis of River Yamuna using water quality index in the national capital territory, India (2000-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Deepshikha; Kansal, Arun

    2011-12-01

    River Yamuna, in the national capital territory (NCT), commonly called Delhi (India), has been subjected to immense degradation and pollution due to the huge amount of domestic wastewater entering the river. Despite the persistent efforts in the form of the Yamuna Action Plan phase I and II (YAP) (since 1993 to date), the river quality in NCT has not improved. The restoration of river water quality has been a major challenge to the environmental managers. In the present paper, water quality index (WQI) was estimated for the River Yamuna within the NCT to study the aftereffects of the projects implemented during YAP I and II. The study was directed toward the use of WQI to describe the level of pollution in the river for a period of 10 years (2000-2009). The study also identifies the critical pollutants affecting the river water quality during its course through the city. The indices have been computed for pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon season at four locations, namely Palla, ODRB, Nizamuddin and Okhla in the river. It was found that the water quality ranged from good to marginal category at Palla and fell under poor category at all other locations. BOD, DO, total and fecal coliforms and free ammonia were found to be critical parameters for the stretch.

  15. On the infant weight loss of low- to intermediate-mass star clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidner, C.; Kroupa, P.; Nürnberger, D. E. A.; Sterzik, M. F.

    2007-04-01

    Star clusters are born in a highly compact configuration, typically with radii of less than about 1 pc roughly independently of mass. Since the star formation efficiency is less than 50 per cent by observation and because the residual gas is removed from the embedded cluster, the cluster must expand. In the process of doing so it only retains a fraction fst of its stars. To date there are no observational constraints for fst, although N-body calculations by Kroupa, Aarseth & Hurley suggest it to be about 20-30 per cent for Orion-type clusters. Here we use the data compiled by Testi et al., Testi, Palla & Natta and Testi, Palla & Natta for clusters around young Ae/Be stars and by de Wit et al. and de Wit et al. around young O stars and the study of de Zeeuw et al. of OB associations and combine these measurements with the expected number of stars in clusters with primary Ae/Be and O stars, respectively, using the empirical correlation between maximal stellar mass and star cluster mass of Weidner & Kroupa. We find that fst < 50 per cent with a decrease to higher cluster masses/more massive primaries. The interpretation would be that cluster formation is very disruptive. It appears that clusters with a birth stellar mass in the range 10-103Msolar keep at most 50 per cent of their stars.

  16. Epibenthic colonization of concrete and steel pilings in a cold-temperate embayment: a field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Mathias H.; Berggren, Matz; Wilhelmsson, Dan; Öhman, Marcus C.

    2009-09-01

    With large-scale development of offshore wind farms, vertical structures are becoming more common in open water areas. To examine how vertical structures of different materials may be colonized by epibenthic organisms, an experiment was carried out using steel and concrete pilings constructed to resemble those commonly used in wind farm constructions as well as in bridges, jetties and oil platforms. The early recruitment and succession of the epibenthic communities were sampled once a month for the first 5 months and then again after 1 year. Further, the fish assemblages associated with the pillars were sampled and compared to natural areas. The main epibenthic species groups, in terms of coverage, differed between the two materials at five out of six sampling occasions. Dominant organisms on steel pillars were the barnacle Balanus improvisus, the calcareous tubeworm Pomatoceros triqueter and the tunicate Ciona intestinalis. On the concrete pillars, the hydroid Laomedea sp. and the tunicates Corella parallelogramma and Ascidiella spp. dominated. However, there was no different in coverage at different heights on the pillars or in biomass and species abundance at different directions (north-east or south-west) 5 months after submergence. Fish showed overall higher abundances and species numbers on the pillars (but no difference between steel and concrete) compared to the surrounding soft bottom habitats but not compared to natural vertical rock walls. Two species were attracted to the pillars, indicating a reef effect; Gobiusculus flavescens and Ctenolabrus rupestris. The bottom-dwelling gobies, Pomatoschistus spp., did not show such preferences.

  17. Effects of current exposure on habitat preference of mobile 0-group epibenthos for intertidal seagrass beds ( Zostera noltii) in the northern Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polte, Patrick; Schanz, Anja; Asmus, Harald

    2005-03-01

    In the northern Wadden Sea, the extent of intertidal seagrass beds, their plant biomass and shoot density highly depends on local current regimes. This study deals with the role of intertidal Zostera noltii beds as nursery for mobile epibenthic macrofauna and the impact of seagrass bed characteristics on their abundance and distribution patterns. According to their exposure to the main tidal gullies, sampling sites were separated into exposed, semi-exposed and sheltered. Dominant species of crustaceans and demersal fish were studied in respect of their abundances within seagrass beds and adjacent unvegetated areas. Quantitative sampling was performed at day and night high tide using a portable drop trap. In general, species composition varied little between seagrass beds and bare sand. However, the presence of vegetation had a quantitative effect increasing individual numbers of common epifaunal species. Abundances of 0-group shore crabs ( Carcinus maenas), common gobies ( Pomatoschistus microps) and brown shrimps ( Crangon crangon) were highest within sheltered seagrass beds. With decreasing plant density habitat preference of epibenthos changed on species level. By regulating the habitat complexity the currents regime is profoundly influencing the nursery function of intertidal seagrass beds in the Wadden Sea.

  18. Food intake of young cod and flounder in a shallow bay on the Swedish west coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pihl, L.

    The importance of shallow soft bottom areas as nursery grounds for I-ground cod, Gadus morhua, and I- to IV-group flounder, Platichthys flesus, was investigated in a 20 000 m 2 bay, 0 to 1 m deep, on the Swedish west coast. To estimate the amount of visiting fish and their food intake the bay was enclosed with a net once a month from July to November 1979 and from April to November 1980. At each occasion about 60 cods and 8 to 50 flounders were caught. The total biomass of the cod and flounder was 1 to 14 kg and 2 to 13 kg wet weight, respectively. The cod preyed on mobile epifauna such as Carcinus maenas, Crangon crangon and Pomatoschistus spp., whereas the flounder was eating infauna mainly Mya arenaria, Cardium spp. and Nereis spp. The food intake within the area was calculated to approximate 35 and 10 kg wet weight from April to November for cod and flounder, respectively.

  19. Tidal, diel and semi-lunar changes in the faunal assemblage of an intertidal salt marsh creek

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampel, Henrietta; Cattrijsse, Andre; Vincx, Magda

    2003-03-01

    The utilisation of a brackish estuarine marsh by nekton was investigated over a semi-lunar cycle in August 1994. Nekton migrating in and out of the intertidal creeks of the marsh 'Het Verdronken Land van Saeftinghe' in the Westerschelde estuary, SW Netherlands, was sampled passively during seven complete tidal cycles. Sampling one tidal cycle yielded three consecutive flood samples and four consecutive ebb samples. Sampling occurred every 2-3 days, covering diel, tidal and semi-lunar situations, thus allowing comparison of tidal, diel and semi-lunar influences on the composition of the intertidal fauna. Two different tidal-migration modes were observed. The mysid shrimp, Mesopodopsis slabberi, showed maximum abundance around high tide. For the remaining common species, the mysid ( Neomysis integer), the shrimp ( Palaemonetes varians), the crab ( Carcinus maenas) and the goby ( Pomatoschistus microps) and the amphipod ( Corophium volutator), highest densities were recorded during lower water heights. The faunal assemblage shifts between the different tidal stages. On two occasions, consecutive day and night samples were taken. Total densities were higher during the night samples. During spring tide, difference in community composition was noticed between the night and the day samples. During neap tide, day-night differences were less clear. Recorded total densities were highest during spring tide and lowest during neap tide. At maximum water levels, a drop in total density was observed. A shift in community composition occurred between spring and neap tides.

  20. You eat what you are: personality-dependent filial cannibalism in a fish with paternal care.

    PubMed

    Vallon, Martin; Grom, Christina; Kalb, Nadine; Sprenger, Dennis; Anthes, Nils; Lindström, Kai; Heubel, Katja U

    2016-03-01

    Many animal parents invest heavily to ensure offspring survival, yet some eventually consume some or all of their very own young. This so-called filial cannibalism is known from a wide range of taxa, but its adaptive benefit remains largely unclear. The extent to which parents cannibalize their broods varies substantially not only between species, but also between individuals, indicating that intrinsic behavioral differences, or animal personalities, might constitute a relevant proximate trigger for filial cannibalism. Using a marine fish with extensive paternal care, the common goby (Pomatoschistus microps), we investigated the influence of animal personality on filial cannibalism by assessing (1) behavioral consistency across a breeding and a nonbreeding context; (2) correlations between different breeding (egg fanning; filial cannibalism) and nonbreeding (activity) behaviors, and, in a separate experiment; (3) whether previously established personality scores affect filial cannibalism levels. We found consistent individual differences in activity across contexts. Partial filial cannibalism was independent of egg fanning but correlated strongly with activity, where active males cannibalized more eggs than less active males. This pattern was strong initially but vanished as the breeding season progressed. The incidence of whole clutch filial cannibalism increased with activity and clutch size. Our findings indicate that filial cannibalism cannot generally be adjusted independently of male personality and is thus phenotypically less plastic than typically assumed. The present work stresses the multidimensional interaction between animal personality, individual plasticity and the environment in shaping filial cannibalism. PMID:27087921

  1. Hormonal regulation of colour change in eyes of a cryptic fish

    PubMed Central

    Sköld, Helen Nilsson; Yngsell, Daniel; Mubashishir, Muhmd; Wallin, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Colour change of the skin in lower vertebrates such as fish has been a subject of great scientific and public interest. However, colour change also takes place in eyes of fish and while an increasing amount of data indicates its importance in behaviour, very little is known about its regulation. Here, we report that both eye and skin coloration change in response to white to black background adaptation in live sand goby Pomatoschistus minutes, a bentic marine fish. Through in vitro experiments, we show that noradrenaline and melanocyte concentrating hormone (MCH) treatments cause aggregation of pigment organelles in the eye chromatophores. Daylight had no aggregating effect. Combining forskolin to elevate intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) with MCH resulted in complete pigment dispersal and darkening of the eyes, whereas combining prolactin, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) or melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) with MCH resulted in more yellow and red eyes. ACTH and MSH also induced dispersal in the melanophores, resulting in overall darker eyes. By comparing analysis of eyes, skin and peritoneum, we conclude that the regulation pattern is similar between these different tissues in this species which is relevant for the cryptic life strategy of this species. With the exception of ACTH which resulted in most prominent melanophore pigment dispersal in the eyes, all other treatments provided similar results between tissue types. To our knowledge, this is the first study that has directly analysed hormonal regulation of physiological colour change in eyes of fish. PMID:25596278

  2. Use of different intertidal habitats by faunal communities in a temperate coastal lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Cheila; Coelho, Rui; Silva, Marco; Bentes, Luís; Monteiro, Pedro; Ribeiro, Joaquim; Erzini, Karim; Gonçalves, Jorge M. S.

    2008-11-01

    The faunal communities of four intertidal habitats namely sand, mud, seagrass ( Zostera noltii) and seagrass patches (mixSM) of a temperate coastal lagoon, Ria Formosa (southern Portugal), were sampled. A total of 47 species were taken in 428 bottomless drop sampler samples, with the highest number of species and the more commonly occurring species belonging to the Mollusca phylum. The dominance of these gastropod species underlines the importance of the grazing food chain in these habitats. Bittium reticulatum was the most abundant species, being especially abundant in the seagrass habitat. The most frequent and highest biomass species in the community was Carcinus maenas, a predator that makes use of the available resources and that is adapted to the highly variable intertidal environment. Pomatoschistus microps was the most abundant fish species, with highest densities in the mud habitat, which demonstrates an ability to occupy a low depth area. The seagrass habitat had the highest diversity, abundance and biomass, followed by the mixSM habitat and was different from all the others. Assemblages were highly influenced by the presence of vegetation, providing forage and refuge from predation. A well defined summer group was identified in all habitats. These results highlight the importance of seagrass beds and the idea that their decrease implies the decrease of lagoon production through the impoverishment of the trophic structure of the lagoon.

  3. Dual impact of temperature on growth and mortality of marine fish larvae in a shallow estuarine habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arula, Timo; Laur, Kerli; Simm, Mart; Ojaveer, Henn

    2015-12-01

    High individual growth and mortality rates of herring Clupea harengus membras and goby Pomatoschistus spp. larvae were observed in the estuarine habitat of the Gulf of Riga, Baltic Sea. Both instantaneous mortality (0.76-1.05) as well as growth rate (0.41-0.82 mm day-1) of larval herring were amongst highest observed elsewhere previously. Mortality rates of goby larvae were also high (0.57-1.05), while first ever data on growth rates were provided in this study (0.23-0.35 mm day-1). Our study also evidenced that higher growth rate of marine fish larvae did not result in lower mortalities. We suggest that high growth and mortality rates primarily resulted from a rapidly increasing and high (>18 °C) water temperature that masked potential food-web effects. The explanation for observed patterns lies in the interactive manner temperature contributed: i) facilitating prey production, which supported high growth rate and decreased mortalities; ii) exceeding physiological thermal optimum of larvae, which resulted in decreased growth rate and generally high mortalities. Our investigation suggests that the projected climate warming may have significant effect on early life history stages of the dominating marine fish species inhabiting shallow estuaries.

  4. Twelve invertebrate and eight fish species new to the marine fauna of Madeira, and a discussion of the zoogeography of the area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirtz, Peter

    1998-06-01

    The benthic ctenophore Vallicula multiformis, a large undescribed flatworm species of the genus Pseudoceros, the prosobranch gastropod Tonna maculosa, the opisthobranch gastropods Placida cf. dendritica, Caloria elegans, Aeolidiella sanguinea, Janolus cristatus, the decapod Balssia gasti, the sea urchin Schizaster canaliferus and the tunicates Clavelina lepadiformis, Clavelina dellavallei and Pycnoclavella taureanensis are recorded from Madeira for the first time. This is the first record of a platyctenid ctenophore in the eastern Atlantic. The teleost fishes Pomatoschistus pictus, Vaneaugobius canariensis, Chromogobius sp., Nerophis ophidion, Hippocampus hippocampus, Acanthocybium solandri, Sphyraena viridensis and Sphyraena barracuda are recorded from Madeira for the first time. The presence of the sea-hare Aplysia dactylomela at Madeira is confirmed; the species has increased tremendously in abundance in the last four years. The crocodile fish Grammoplites gruveli can occasionally be found in the mantle cavity of cuttlefish ( Sepia officinalis) sold at the fish market of Funchal, but does not originate from Madeiran waters. An analysis of 100 new records from the coastal fauna of Madeira shows that, while predominantly of lusitanian, mediterranean and mauritanian affinity, Madeira’s shallow water fauna contains a large component of tropical species.

  5. Toxic effects of decomposing red algae on littoral organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eklund, Britta; Svensson, Andreas P.; Jonsson, Conny; Malm, Torleif

    2005-03-01

    Large masses of filamentous red algae of the genera Polysiphonia, Rhodomela, and Ceramium are regularly washed up on beaches of the central Baltic Sea. As the algal masses start to decay, red coloured effluents leak into the water, and this tinge may be traced several hundred meters off shore. In this study, possible toxic effects of these effluents were tested on littoral organisms from different trophic levels. Effects on fertilisation, germination and juvenile survival of the brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus were investigated, and mortality tests were performed on the crustaceans Artemia salina and Idotea baltica, as well as on larvae and adults of the fish Pomatoschistus microps. Fucus vesiculosus was the most sensitive species of the tested organisms to the red algal extract. The survival of F. vesiculosus recruits was reduced with 50% (LC50) when exposed to a concentration corresponding to 1.7 g l -1 dw red algae. The lethal concentration for I. baltica, A. salina and P. microps were approximately ten times higher. The toxicity to A. salina was reduced if the algal extract was left to decompose during two weeks but the decline in toxicity was not affected by different light or temperature conditions. This study indicates that the filamentous red algae in the central Baltic Sea may produce and release compounds with negative effects on the littoral ecosystem. The effects may be particularly serious for the key species F. vesiculosus, which reproduce in autumn when filamentous red algal blooms are most severe.

  6. Isotopes reveal fluctuation in trophic levels of estuarine organisms, in space and time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinagre, C.; Salgado, J. P.; Mendonça, V.; Cabral, H.; Costa, M. J.

    2012-08-01

    The estimation of the trophic level (TL) occupied by organisms in estuarine food webs, based on isotopic analysis, is generally done only for one season or averaged among seasons and sites. This does not allow the observation of possible alterations of TL in time and space. As estuaries are highly dynamic environments, it is plausible that the TLs of many of its organisms are not static, like usually portrayed in food web diagrams, but fluctuate in space and time. The TLs of marine juvenile fish, resident fish, shrimp, polychaetes, bivalves and amphipods were determined isotopically, in the Tagus estuary. Sampling was carried out in two nursery areas at each season. Significant changes in TL were observed, in space and time, for the vast majority of the organisms. A drop in TL in summer was observed for various species. The high availability of microalgae and macroalgae in summer may be the cause for this drop, which mainly affects low TL omnivores. These omnivores may opportunistically increase the proportion of primary producers in their diet, thus lowering their mean TL. Such an effect seems to cascade to secondary consumers, like Solea senegalensis and Pomatoschistus microps, which also presented a drop in TL in summer. This study also revealed that organisms that have been considered to be mainly primary consumers, like Liza ramada, and Scrobicularia plana, can actually assume considerably higher TLs seasonally, placing them as secondary consumers.

  7. Seasonal changes in community composition and trophic structure of fish populations of five salt marshes along the Essex coastline, United Kingdom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Benjamin C.; Smith, David J.; Earley, Sarah E.; Hepburn, Leanne J.; Underwood, Graham J. C.

    2009-11-01

    European intertidal salt marshes are important nursery sites for juvenile fish and crustaceans. Due to the increasing threat of habitat loss, the seasonal changes of salt marsh fish communities need to be understood in order to appreciate the ecological and economic importance of the saltmarsh habitat. This study was the first in Great Britain to investigate the seasonal changes of salt marsh fish communities and the variation in community structure between closely located marsh habitats. Between February 2007 and March 2008, five marshes on three estuaries of the Essex coastline were sampled using flume nets to block off intertidal creeks at high tide. Fourteen fish species were caught. The community overall was dominated by three species that made up 91.6% of the total catch: the common goby Pomatoschistus microps (46.2% of the total catch), juvenile herring Clupea harengus (24.3%), and juvenile and larval sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax (21.2%). Cluster analysis demonstrated clear seasonal patterns, with some community structures unique to specific marshes or estuaries. The marsh fish community shifts from a highly diverse community during spring, to a community dominated by D. labrax and P. microps in autumn, and low diversity during winter months. Gravimetric stomach content analysis of fish community identified three main trophic guilds; macroinvertivores, planktivores and omnivores. The macroinvertivore feeding guild contained D. labrax and P. microps, the two most frequently occurring species. This investigation demonstrates the importance of British salt marshes as nursery habitats for commercial fish species.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Physical parameters of pre-main sequence stars in open clusters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, A. J.; Alfaro, E. J.; Yun, J. L.

    Photometric colors in the UBVRI system for 27040 stars, in the fields of 11 Young Open Clusters. The membership and physical parameters are listed. For MS and post MS candidate members, only the mass value is listed. It is calculated from comparison to ZAMS and isochrones by Girardi et al. (2002A&A...391..195G). For PMS candidate members, the age, mass, luminosity, and effective temperature are listed as obtained from comparison to four PMS model isochrones: D'Antona and Mazzitelli (1997MmSAI..68..807D), Palla and Stahler (1999ApJ...525..772P), Siess et al. (2000A&A...358..593S), and Yi et al. (2001ApJS..136..417Y). (2 data files).

  9. A Dynamical Mass and Distance for a PMS Star: The Binary NTT 045251+3016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, A. T.; Mathieu, R. D.; Lattanzi, M. G.; Latham, D. W.; Mazeh, T.; Prato, L.; Simon, M.; Zinnecker, H.

    2000-05-01

    We present spectroscopic and astrometric orbital solutions for the pre-main-sequence binary NTT 045251+ 3016. Combination of these data allow the dynamical masses and the distance of the stars to be calculated. Our derived values for the primary and secondary masses are 1.4 +/- 0.3 Msun and 0.8 +/- 0.2 Msun, respectively, at a distance of 139 +/- 10 pc. The independently derived distance is consistent with prior distance estimates for the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region. The primary star is compared with evolutionary tracks of D'Antona and Mazzitelli (1997), Baraffe et al. (1998), and Palla and Stahler (1999) as a preliminary test of PMS evolutionary models. The Baraffe et al. (1998) tracks provide the best fit with our data. The tracks of D'Antona and Mazzitelli (1997) deviate by more than two standard deviations from our result.

  10. A Dynamical Mass and Distance for a PMS Star: The Binary NTT 045251+3016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, Aaron; Mathieu, Robert D.; Lattanzi, Mario G.; Latham, David W.; Mazeh, Tsevi; Prato, Lisa; Simon, Michal; Zinnecker, Hans

    We present spectroscopic and astrometric orbital solutions for the pre-main-sequence binary NTT 045251+ 3016. Combination of these data allow the dynamical masses and the distance of the stars to be calculated. Our derived values for the primary and secondary masses are 1.4 +/- 0.3 Modot and 0.8 +/- 0.2 Modot, respectively, at a distance of 139 +/- 10 pc. The independently derived distance is consistent with prior distance estimates for the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region. The primary star is compared with evolutionary tracks of D'Antona and Mazzitelli (1997), Baraffe et al. (1998), and Palla and Stahler (1999) as a preliminary test of PMS evolutionary models.

  11. [Study on preferred food of adult Mylabris phalerata in different geographical populations].

    PubMed

    Mo, Rang-yu; Sun, Nian-xi; Peng, Rui

    2014-11-01

    With the deterioration of environment, and the excessive collection of wild resources, the wild populations of Myla- bris phalerata Pallas are less and less, almost extincted in many traditional distribution areas. It is necessary to breed M. phalerata artificially for sustainable utilization. Food preference of adult M. phalerata is the key to its provenance screening and domestication in the artificial breeding. In this paper, the food preference of 3 geographical populations of M. phalerata was studied. The results showed that the food preferences of adult M. phalerata in different geographical populations were different. The adult M. phalerata in Wuming preferred cucumber flowers, gourd flowers and melon flowers. The adult M. phalerata in Tianlin preferred cowpea flowers. And the adult M. phalerata in Guangzhou preferred cowpea flowers and gourd flowers. Gourd flowers were the most attractive food for the adult M. phalerata of 3 geographical populations of M. phalerata. PMID:25850255

  12. The multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis: A review of its biology, uses in biological control, and non-target impacts

    PubMed Central

    Koch, R L

    2003-01-01

    Throughout the last century, the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) has been studied quite extensively, with topics ranging from genetics and evolution to population dynamics and applied biological control being covered. Much of the early work on H. axyridis was conducted in the native Asian range. From the 1980's to the present, numerous European and North American studies have added to the body of literature on H. axyridis. H. axyridis has recently gained attention in North America both as a biological control agent and as a pest. This literature review was compiled for two reasons. First, to assist other researchers as a reference, summarizing most of the voluminous body of literature on H. axyridis pertaining to its biology, life history, uses in biological control, and potential non-target impacts. Secondly, to be a case study on the impacts of an exotic generalist predator. PMID:15841248

  13. The application of computer image analysis in life sciences and environmental engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazur, R.; Lewicki, A.; Przybył, K.; Zaborowicz, M.; Koszela, K.; Boniecki, P.; Mueller, W.; Raba, B.

    2014-04-01

    The main aim of the article was to present research on the application of computer image analysis in Life Science and Environmental Engineering. The authors used different methods of computer image analysis in developing of an innovative biotest in modern biomonitoring of water quality. Created tools were based on live organisms such as bioindicators Lemna minor L. and Hydra vulgaris Pallas as well as computer image analysis method in the assessment of negatives reactions during the exposition of the organisms to selected water toxicants. All of these methods belong to acute toxicity tests and are particularly essential in ecotoxicological assessment of water pollutants. Developed bioassays can be used not only in scientific research but are also applicable in environmental engineering and agriculture in the study of adverse effects on water quality of various compounds used in agriculture and industry.

  14. From the History of telecommunications in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perciun, Nicolae

    1999-06-01

    The book concerns first telegraphic lines in Transilvania (Ardeal) , Tara Romaneasca (Muntenia) and Moldova till the unification of last 2. The telegraph during the years of reign of Alexandru Ioan Cuza. Cezar Librecht. The telegraph line of the first railway Bucuresti-Giurgiu. The introduction of Telephon. The Multiple Telephony by an important contribution by Professor Augustin Maior, later a rector of the Cluj-Napoca University. Carol Ioan Vidic and the first International Congress of Telegraphy and Telephony. The Telegraphs and Post Pallas. The first Multiple Telephone. The Museum of Post, Telegraphy and Telephony. Dimitrie Bratescu. The book is illustrated. Bibliography at the finish of every article. The article concerning the contribution to multiple telephony by Augustin Maior include also the publications by A. Maior. A number of publication by Maior in the area of Gravity is included also.

  15. [Mass maritime casualty incidents in German waters: structures and resources].

    PubMed

    Castan, J; Paschen, H-R; Wirtz, S; Dörges, V; Wenderoth, S; Peters, J; Blunk, Y; Bielstein, A; Kerner, T

    2012-07-01

    The Central Command for Maritime Emergencies was founded in Germany in 2003 triggered by the fire on board of the cargo ship "Pallas" in 1998. Its mission is to coordinate and direct measures at or above state level in maritime emergency situations in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. A special task in this case is to provide firefighting and medical care. To face these challenges at sea emergency doctors and firemen have been specially trained. This form of organization provides a concept to counter mass casualty incidents and peril situations at sea. Since the foundation of the Central Command for Maritime Emergencies there have been 5 operations for firefighting units and 4 for medical response teams. Assignments and structure of the Central Command for Maritime Emergencies are unique in Europe. PMID:22699223

  16. Genetic relationships among some hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) species and genotypes.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Kadir Ugurtan; Yanar, Makbule; Ercisli, Sezai; Sahiner, Hatice; Taskin, Tuncer; Zengin, Yasar

    2010-10-01

    The genus Crataegus is well distributed in Turkey as a wild plant, with numerous, inherently variable species and genotypes. RAPD markers were used to study 17 hawthorn genotypes belonging to Crataegus monogyna ssp. monogyna Jacq (2 genotypes), C. monogyna ssp. azarella Jacq (1), Crataegus pontica K.Koch (3), Crataegus orientalis var. orientalis Pallas Ex Bieb (3), Crataegus pseudoheterophylla Pojark (1), Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz (1), C. aronia var. aronia Browicz (4), and Crateagus x bornmuelleri Zabel (2). The 10 RAPD primers produced 72 polymorphic bands (88% polymorphism). A dendrogram based on Jaccard's index included four major groups and one outgroup according to taxa. The lowest genetic variability was observed within C. aronia var. aronia genotypes. The study demonstrated that RAPD analysis is efficient for genotyping wild-grown hawthorns. PMID:20640884

  17. Observations of Hydrated Minerals on Asteroids: Pushing Back the Frontiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The three accomplishments during this grant include: 1) Travel to 2004 Division of Planetary Science (of American Astronomical Society) Conference in Louisville, KY and presentation of Rotationally resolved spectroscopy of Vesta in the 1-4 micron region, abstract 28.07. 2) Remote observations using the IRTF on 20-21 June 2004 and 28-3 1 August 2004, and reduction of data as described in the grant proposal and descoping document. These observations confirm the presence of two different band shapes among C-class asteroid spectra in the 3-micron region. This allowed a revision of the known distribution of Ceres- and Pallas-type objects. 3) Remote observations using the IRTF on 7-10 August 2004. These observations of Vesta were presented, and the manuscript will be submitted to Icarus in June.

  18. Monoterpene derivatives with anti-allergic activity from red peony root, the root of Paeonia lactiflora.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan-Hong; Zhu, Shu; Ge, Yue-Wei; He, Yu-Min; Kazuma, Kohei; Wang, Zhengtao; Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Komatsu, Katsuko

    2016-01-01

    The methanolic extract and its subfractions from red peony root, the dried roots of Paeonia lactiflora Pallas showed potent antiallergic effects, as inhibition of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated degranulation in rat basophil leukemia (RBL)-2H3 cells. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of 16 monoterpene derivatives, including 3 new compounds, paeoniflorol (1), 4'-hydroxypaeoniflorigenone (2) and 4-epi-albiflorin (3), together with 13 known ones (4-16). The chemical structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical evidences. Among the isolated monoterpene derivatives, nine compounds showed potent anti-allergic effects and compound 1 was the most effective. A primary structure-activity relationship of monoterpene derivatives was discussed. PMID:26598138

  19. 80/20 projects: introduction.

    PubMed

    2012-03-01

    Nurses work a disproportionate amount of paid and unpaid overtime, are threatened by assault and injury, are overworked and have high rates of illness and injury (see, for example, Lasota 2009; Shields and Wilkins 2006; O'Brien-Pallas et al. 2004; Aiken et al. 2002). These factors hamper retention and recruitment efforts, adding to Canada's growing nursing shortage, which could reach as high as 60,000 full-time equivalents by 2022 (Tomblin Murphy et al. 2009). The lack of available nurses and the poor working conditions are mutually reinforcing. What is more, these conditions impede nurses from providing patient-centred care (Curtin 2003; Aiken et al. 2002; Baumann et al. 2001). PMID:22398475

  20. Detection of DNA damage in haemocytes of zebra mussel using comet assay.

    PubMed

    Pavlica, M; Klobucar, G I; Mojas, N; Erben, R; Papes, D

    2001-02-20

    The aim of the study was to use the comet assay on haemocytes of freshwater mussel, Dreissena polymorpha Pallas, for detection of possible DNA damage after exposure to pentachlorophenol (PCP) and to evaluate the potential application of the comet assay on mussel haemocytes for genotoxicity monitoring of freshwater environment. Zebra mussels were exposed for seven days to different concentrations (10, 80, 100, 150 microg/l) of PCP and in the river Sava downstream from Zagreb municipal wastewater outlet. Significant increase in DNA damage was observed after exposure to PCP at doses of 80 microg/l and higher and after in situ exposure in the river Sava as well. This study confirmed that the comet assay applied on zebra mussel haemocytes may be a useful tool in determining the potential genotoxicity of water pollutants. PMID:11342246

  1. The absence of satellites of asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, T.; Drummond, J. D.; Levenson, N. A.

    1987-05-01

    A CCD-imaging survey was made for satellites of minor planets at distances of about 0.1 to 7 arcmin from 1 Ceres, 2 Pallas, 4 Vesta, 6 Hebe, 7 Iris, 8 Flora, 15 Eunomia, 29 Amphitrite, 41 Daphne, and 44 Nysa, with cursory inspection of 192 Nausikaa. Satellites larger than 3 km were not found in this work, nor in previous photographic surveys. Not finding them appears to be consistent with theoretical studies of collisions in the asteroid belt by several authors. The satellites would have to be larger than at least 30 km to be collisionally stable. Taking tidal stability into account, it is concluded that the only possible satellites for main-belt asteroids are near-contact binaries. The only other rare possibility for a satellite might be a piece of debris from a recent collision.

  2. Photocentre displacement of minor planets: analysis of HIPPARCOS astrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hestroffer, D.

    1998-08-01

    We present a study of the phase effect (or photocentre offset) on the astrometry of minor planets. Analysis of the high precision Hipparcos observations of the largest asteroids shows the validity of the model. Minor planets Ceres, Pallas, Vesta and Iris show a brightness distribution close to the lunar scattering properties, while Juno and Hebe are found to be more uniformly bright objects. For general purposes, the observed astrometric positions of asteroids could be corrected for the systematic photocentre offset by assuming in a first approximation a spherical body with a brightness distribution following the law of Buratti & Veverka (1983). Based on data from the Hipparcos astrometry satellite\\hfill\\break Present address: Osservatorio Astronomico di Torino, Str. Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy (e-mail: hestro@to.astro.it)

  3. Properties of herbal extracts against Propionibacterium acnes for biomedical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Youn-Mook; Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Yong Soo; Shin, Young Min; Jeong, Sung In; Jo, Sun-Young; Gwon, Hui-Jeong; Park, Jong-seok; Nho, Young-Chang; Kim, Jong-Cheol; Kim, Seong-Jang; Shin, HeungSoo

    2012-10-01

    Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), one of the anaerobic bacterium, causes inflammatory acne. To find a novel medication for treating the inflammation caused by P. acnes, we investigated the anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of several herbal extracts against P. acnes. The aqueous extracts from five dried herbs, Phellodendron amurense Rupr., Paeonia lactiflora Pallas., Houttuynia cordata Thunb., Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., were prepared and mixed. In this experiment, 1 mg/ml of the herbal extract mixture caused a decrease in the growth of P. acnes and reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-8, IL-1β and IL-6, in human monocytic THP-1 cells treated with heat-killed P. acnes. Therefore, this herbal extract mixture may possess both anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities against P. acnes and can be a novel therapeutic agent for treating inflammatory acne.

  4. [Original procreation or generational change? The investigation of cysticercus and tapeworms].

    PubMed

    Geus, A

    2007-01-01

    The doctrine of the abiogenesis postulated the origin of human and animal intestinal worms from "not complete digested ingesta". Indeed Peter Simon Pallas (1741-1811) defined already 1760 in his dissertation that endoparasitic worms reproduce themselves by eggs. But he characterised the nature of cysticercus as "pathologically degenerated tail bladder". In 1856 Rudolf Leuckart (1822-1898) paraphrased the alternation of generation with "marvellous metamorphoses and peculiar form of development". The Dane Johannes Japetus Smith Steenstrup (1813-1897) recognised finally the principle of the alternation of generation and Gottlob Friedrich Heinrich Küchenmeister (1821-1890), a physician at the Saxon city Zittau realised the special correlation between the alternate and end host of tapeworms. Both, Leuckart and Küchenmeister proved their insights by animal and human experimentations. PMID:17243446

  5. Aerosol optical depth measuring network - project description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaltonen, A.; Koskela, K.; Lihavainen, L.

    2003-04-01

    The Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), in collaboration with Servicio Meteorológico Nacional (SMN), Argentina, is constructing a network for aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements. Measurements are to be started in the summer 2003 with three sunphotometers, model PFR, Davos. One of them will be sited in Marambio (64°S), Antarctica, and the rest two in the Observatory of Jokioinen (61°N) and Sodankylä GAW station (67°N), Finland. Each instrument consists of a precision filter radiometer and a suntracker. Due to the harsh climate conditions special solutions had to be introduced to keep the instrument warm and free from snow. Aerosol optical depth measured at Pallas-Sodankylä GAW station can be compared with estimated aerosol extinction, which is calculated from ground base aerosol scattering and absorption coefficient measurements.

  6. Biology and fertility life table of Eriopis connexa, Harmonia axyridis and Olla v-nigrum (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Zazycki, L C F; Semedo, R E S; Silva, A; Bisognin, A Z; Bernardi, O; Garcia, M S; Nava, D E

    2015-11-01

    The coccinellids Eriopis connexa (Germar), Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) and Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant) are important natural biological control agents. The purpose of this paper was to study the biology and create a fertility life table of these three coccinellid species. For the biology study, 50 insects/species were used and kept in groups of 10 in glass vials (2300 cm3). For the three species studied, the viability of the total cycle varied from 45 to 50%. O. v-nigrum was the species which presented the longest oviposition period. However, H. axiridis demonstrated the best reproductive performance and ability of population growth in each generation. In conclusion, the use of commercially obtained pollen and A. kuenhiella eggs enables the development of coccinellids E. connexa, H. axyridis and O. v-nigrum under laboratory conditions, since the insects completed their biological cycle and originated adults with good reproductive performance. PMID:26675915

  7. Biology and morphology of immature stages of Adosomus roridus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Lixinae).

    PubMed

    Trnka, Filip; Stejskal, Robert; Skuhrovec, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Mature larva and pupa of Adosomus (s. str.) roridus (Pallas, 1781) (Curculionidae: Lixinae: Cleonini) are described and compared with ten other taxa of Cleonini with known larvae. This weevil is an oligophagous species on the Asteraceae family. From our observations in Slovakia, we found active adults from April to September in dry sunny places within extensively used or fallow vineyards and in ruderal vegetation with host plants. The weevil is a root borer--larvae, pupae and fresh adults were collected from the root necks and roots of Common Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.) and rarely from Mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris L.). Each plant was usually occupied by one larva, or more rarely with two or three larvae. The new generation of adult individuals appeared from early summer to autumn. Both larvae and some of the adults overwinter, which is quite unique within Cleonini. PMID:26624140

  8. [A NATURAL PLAGUE FOCUS. IN GORNYI ALTAI: FORMATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND FUNCTIONING].

    PubMed

    Korzun, V M; Balakhoiov, S V; Chpanin, E V; Denisov, A V; Mikhailov, E P; Mischenko, A J; Yarygina, M B; Rozhdestvensky, E N; Fomina, L A

    2016-01-01

    The paper gives the results of analyzing the data of long-term studies of the natural focal pattern of plague in the Gornyi Altai natural focus. It describes a wide range of biological processes occurring in the focus and shows the most important patterns of its functioning as a complex multilevel ecological system. The key features of the formation of the focus have been revealed. The plague focus in South-Western Altai has formed relatively, recently, about half a century ago, then it has intensively developed and its enzootic area and the activity of epizootic manifestations have considerably increased. This process is due to the space-time transformations of the basic ecological and population characteristics of Pallas' pika (Ochotoma pallasi), the principal vector of the pathogen of plague and fleas parasitizing the mammal, which is in turn related to the aridization of mountain steppes in South-Western Altai. PMID:27029141

  9. Psidium guajava and Piper betle Leaf Extracts Prolong Vase Life of Cut Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) Flowers

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M. M.; Ahmad, S. H.; Lgu, K. S.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. “Carola” and “Pallas Orange” carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a “germicide” (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin). Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and higher rate of water uptake compared to control (tap water). The leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the other treatments. Both showed similar effects on flower quality as the synthetic germicide, 8-HQC. Therefore, these extracts are likely natural germicides to prolong vase life of cut flowers. PMID:22619568

  10. Effects of biorational pesticides on four coccinellid species (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) having potential as biological control agents in interiorscapes.

    PubMed

    Smith, S F; Krischik, V A

    2000-06-01

    The direct toxicity of insecticidal soap, horticultural oil, Azatin, an extract from the Neem tree containing azadiractin, and BotainiGard, a commercial formulation of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana, was assessed on adults of four species of coccinellids--Hippodamia convergens (Guérin-Ménéville), Coleomegilla maculata (DeGeer), Harmonia axyridis Pallas, and Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant. All biorationals caused less mortality than a conventional pesticide, carbaryl (Sevin). Horticultural oil (Sunspray ultrafine oil) consistently had no effect on beetle survivorship. Insecticidal soap (M-Pede) significantly reduced survival in all replicates for C. maculata and in at least one of the three replicates for the other three coccinellid species. Beauveria bassiana (BotaniGard) significantly reduced survival of C. montrouzieri at 72 h after spray in all three replicates. Azatin reduced survivorship in only one species, C. maculata, in only one of the three replicates. PMID:10902323

  11. Homology and Evolution of the Chaetae in Echiura (Annelida)

    PubMed Central

    Tilic, Ekin; Lehrke, Janina; Bartolomaeus, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Echiura is traditionally regarded as a small phylum of unsegmented spiralian worms. Molecular analyses, however, provide unquestionable evidence that Echiura are derived annelids that lost segmentation. Like annelids, echiurans possess chaetae, a single ventral pair in all species and one or two additional caudal hemi-circles of chaetae in two subgroups, but their evolutionary origin and affiliation to annelid chaetae are unresolved. Since annelids possess segmental pairs of dorsal (notopodial) and ventral (neuropodial) chaetae that are arranged in a row, the ventral chaetae in Echiura either represent a single or a paired neuropodial group of chaetae, while the caudal circle may represent fused rows of chaetae. In annelids, chaetogenesis is generally restricted to the ventral part of the notopodial chaetal sac and to the dorsal part of the neuropodial chaetal sac. We used the exact position of the chaetal formation site in the echiuran species, Thalassema thalassemum (Pallas, 1766) and Echiurus echiurus (Pallas, 1767), to test different hypotheses of the evolution of echiurid chaetae. As in annelids, a single chaetoblast is responsible for chaetogenesis in both species. Each chaeta of the ventral pair arises from its own chaetal sac and possesses a lateral formation site, evidencing that the pair of ventral chaetae in Echiura is homologous to a pair of neuropodia that fused on the ventral side, while the notopodia were reduced. Both caudal hemi-circles of chaetae in Echiurus echiurus are composed of several individual chaetal sacs, each with its own formative site. This finding argues against a homology of these hemi-circles of chaetae and annelids’ rows of chaetae and leads to the hypothesis that the caudal chaetal rings evolved once within the Echiura by multiplication of ventral chaetae. PMID:25734664

  12. Piscivorous birds on the saline lake Grevelingen, The Netherlands: Abundance, prey selection and annual food consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doornbos, G.

    Since 1971, when the Grevelingen estuary was turned into a 108 km 2 saline lake, the number of foraging piscivorous birds has increased significantly. Up to 7000 to 10 000 Great Crested Grebes may be present on the lake, representing about half of the northwestern European breeding population. In the winter 1000 to 3000 Red-breasted Mergansers also forage here, while in summer and early autumn 500 to 800 Cormorants can be found on the lake. From December 1981 through March 1982 the food habits of the grebes and mergansers were studied by means of stomach analyses. Total annual consumption of the two fish-eating birds was estimated at 46.6 and 39.2 tons fresh weight, respectively. Gobiidae proved to be the main food source, accounting for 60% of the total intake (by weight). In addition, the grebes consumed 9.9 tons of Clupea harengus and the mergansers 11.0 tons of brown shrimps Crangon crangon. The birds tended to select the larger specimens of Gobiidae and C. crangon. The estimated amount of food consumed by these two bird species represents about 28 to 36% of the standing stocks of Gobiidae, C. harengus and Sprattus sprattus present at the arrival of the birds in September/October. Total annual consumption by all major piscivorous birds, including the populations of Cormorant and Grey Heron, was estimated at 115 tons (1.1 g FW·m -2·a -1). Over the last 10-year period the number of wintering grebes showed a positive correlation ( p < 0.01) with the density of Pomatoschistus microps during the preceding (summer) season ( i.e. the most abundant gobiid species in the lake).

  13. Inter-season and interannual variations in fish and macrocrustacean community structure on a eastern English Channel sandy beach: Influence of environmental factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selleslagh, Jonathan; Amara, Rachid

    2008-05-01

    The intertidal zone of an exposed sandy beach on the French coast of the English Channel was sampled with a 1.5 m beam-trawl over five years (2000 and 2003-2006) at weekly intervals. The fish and macrocrustacean catches were analysed to determine the inter-season and interannual variation in community structure and relate these variations to changes in the major environmental variables. Only six species (plaice Pleuronectes platessa, common goby Pomatoschistus microps, sprat Sprattus sprattus, sand eel Ammodytes tobianus, brown shrimp Crangon crangon and shore crab Carcinus maenas) from the 27 species captured can be considered as dominant species of the intertidal zone, and they accounted for >90% of total numbers. Most individuals caught were young-of-the-year or juvenile. Analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) and similarities percentage (SIMPER) indicated that inter-season variability of community structure (mean average similarity = 47%) was more pronounced than interannual variability (mean average similarity = 65%). Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicates that a substantial component (32.2%) of the measured inter-season variation in community structure can be explained by environmental factors (mainly water temperature). The main inter-season changes in the abundance and community structure were due to the variation of the six key species and reflect the different times of their recruitment. During the five years of the study, the structure of the fish and macrocrustacean spring community persisted from year to year, with the dominant species reappearing consistently even though their abundances fluctuated from year to year. This interannual variation probably reflects variable recruitment success influenced by physico-chemical conditions. In spite of the considerable interannual variation (40 times) in the spring bloom of the prymnesiophyte alga Phaeocystis globosa we found no effect of this bloom on either fish and macrocrustacean species densities or

  14. Auswirkungen einer Pipeline-Verlegung auf das marine Benthos im Tidebecken von Baltrum-Langeoog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Bernem, K. H.

    1999-12-01

    In order to investigate possible effects on benthic communities resulting from the landfall of the “EU-ROPIPE” gas pipeline in areas of the Wadden Sea National Park of Lower Saxony the following seasonal surveys were carried out by the GKSS-Research-Centre during 1993 1997: a) Assessment of species number and abundance of subtidal and intertidal macrofauna, b) Intertidal documentation of demersal fish and decapod crab stocks, c) Intertidal assessment of species composition and abundance of microalgae. Sublittoral sampling was mainly carried out by bottom-grabs and box-dredges at about 120 locations recorded by GPS. Sediment cores of intertidal benthic communities at 6 locations were processed for macrofauna and microalgae. Species numbers and abundances of sublittoral benthic macrofauna decreased during 1994 as well in those areas directly affected as well as in areas 500 to 1000m removed from the construction activities. Most notably, the relatively high species richness of a hard-bottom community, rare in Wadden Sea areas, was strongly disturbed. During the same period the spatial distribution and abundance of intertidal filter feeders decreased as well as the abundance of vagile predating polychaetes and amphipods at locations situated near low tide level. A local stock of the low dispersive Goby ( Pomatoschistus microps) was nearly totally destroyed. Decreases in the abundances of juvenile Plaice ( Pleuronectes platessa) and decapod crabs ( Crangon crangon, Carcinus maenas) could only be shown during July/October 1994 in those areas of working activities which were directly connected to the tidal migration paths of these species. During 1994/95 numbers and abundances of diatom species prefering fine grained sediments with a high amount of organic material increased significantly. A recovery started immediately after conclusion of the refilling measures in 1995. A complete documentation of the community-resilience, however, was masked by fluctuations

  15. Field experiments on the role of epibenthic predators in determining prey densities in an estuarine mudflat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gee, J. M.; Warwick, R. M.; Davey, J. T.; George, C. L.

    1985-09-01

    A series of caging experiments was performed on an estuarine mudflat at three seasons of the year, in which Carcinus maenas L. and Pomatoschistus microps (Kroyer) were either excluded from, or allowed to prey upon, the benthos in order to determine to what extent infaunal abundance and mortality was a result of predation by epibenthic predators. The difficulties of conducting and interpreting the results of such experiments are recognized. The benthic macrofauna of this mudflat is dominated numerically by small annelids and there is evidence that adult C. maenas can cause significant increases in the oligochaete component of this assemblage, probably as a result of disturbance caused by its burrowing activity. Juvenile C. maenas on the other hand significantly reduced the abundance of small annelids, particularly the dominant polychaete Manayunkia aestuarina (Bourne) and could be responsible for year-to-year variations in abundance of this species. The role of fish predators (in this case P. microps) is more problematical but it is suggested that in the densities at which they occur naturally on the mudflat they have little direct effect on the abundance of prey species. There is no evidence that seasonal mortality of small annelids is reduced in the absence of predation and this is taken to indicate that not all mortality is due to epibenthic predation. Certain changes in relative abundance of the component species of the harpacticoid copepod community were discerned but it is suggested that the plasticity of their reproductive potential is such that the effect of predation on the group as a whole is usually masked.

  16. Influence of trophic position on organochlorine concentrations and compositional patterns in a marine food web.

    PubMed

    Ruus, Anders; Ugland, Karl Inne; Skaare, Janneche Utne

    2002-11-01

    The accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDTs (p,p'-DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane], o,p'-DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethane], p,p'-DDD [1,1,-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane], o.p'-DDD [1,1-dichloro-2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethane], and p,p'-DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethene]), chlordanes (trans-chlordane, cis-chlordane, trans-nonachlor, cis-nonachlor and oxychlordane), hexachlorocyclohexanes (alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers), hexachlorobenzene, and mirex was investigated in a marine food web from southeastern Norway. The food web consisted of the polychaete Nereis diversicolor, lesser sandeel (Ammodytes tobianus), three species of gobys (Gobiusculus flavescens, Pomatoschistus sp., and Gobius niger), bullrout (Myoxocephalus scorpius), cod (Gadus morhua), herring gull (Larus argentatus), and harbor seal (Phoca vitulina). The results show that interspecies differences in organochlorine (OC) compositional patterns in the food web depend on several factors (allometric, biochemical, physical, and physicochemical) specific to both the chemicals and the organisms. The importance of dietary accumulation and metabolic capacity increases toward higher trophic levels, while the OC patterns are to a larger extent determined by the lipophilicity and water solubility of the compounds at lower trophic levels. Furthermore, stable nitrogen isotopes provided a continuous measure of trophic position, rendering us capable of quantifying the increases in the concentrations of sigma PCB, sigma dichorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and sigma chlordane (CHL) and the percentages of highly chlorinated PCBs through the food web. The information provided may be important for future modeling of the fate of organochlorine contaminants in marine food webs. PMID:12389914

  17. Influence of the invasive Asian clam Corbicula fluminea (Bivalvia: Corbiculidae) on estuarine epibenthic assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilarri, M. I.; Souza, A. T.; Antunes, C.; Guilhermino, L.; Sousa, R.

    2014-04-01

    One of the most widespread invasive alien species (IAS) in aquatic ecosystems is the Asian clam Corbicula fluminea. Several studies have shown that C. fluminea can cause large-scale changes in macrozoobenthic assemblages; however, very few attempted to investigate the effects of this IAS on mobile epibenthic species, such as fishes and crustaceans. In this context, the influence of C. fluminea on epibenthic species was investigated during one year by comparing the associated epibenthic fauna in three nearby sites of the Minho estuary (NW of the Iberian Peninsula), wherein the abiotic conditions are similar but the density of the Asian clam is highly different. From a total of 13 species, six were significantly influenced by C. fluminea; five responded positively, namely the brown shrimp Crangon crangon, the European eel Anguilla anguilla, the common goby Pomatoschistus microps, the brown trout Salmo trutta fario and the great pipefish Syngnathus acus, whereas the shore crab Carcinus maenas was negatively influenced. However, stomach contents analysis revealed that fish and crustacean species do not feed on C. fluminea, suggesting that this IAS is still not a large component of the diet of higher trophic levels in this estuarine ecosystem. Our results suggest that the structure provided by C. fluminea shells is likely to be one of the main factors responsible for the differences observed. C. fluminea physical structure seems to influence the epibenthic associated fauna, when found in densities higher than 1000 ind./m2, with sedentary small-bodied crustaceans and fishes being mainly attracted by the increasing in habitat complexity and consequent enhancement of heterogeneity and shelter availability.

  18. [PATTERNS IN CIRCULATION AND TRANSMISSION OF MARINE BIRD PARASITES IN HIGH ARCTIC: A CASE OF ACANTHOCEPHALAN POLYMORPHUS PHIPPSI (PALAEACANTHOCEPHALA, POLYMORPHIDAE)].

    PubMed

    Galaktionov, K V; Atrashkevich, G I

    2015-01-01

    This study, based on the materials on parasitic infection of marine birds and invertebrates in Frantz Josef Land (FJL) collected in 1991-1993, focussed on the acanthocephalan Polymorphus phippsi. We identified this parasite, confirmed its species status and analysed its circulation and transmission patterns in high Arctic. The causes of its erroneous identification as P. minutus in several studies were also examined. In contrast to P. minutus, the transmission of P. phippsi is realized in marine coastal ecosystems. Its' main intermediate host in the Arctic is the amphipod Gammarus (Lagunogammarus) setosus, commonin coastal. areas of the shelf zone throughout the Arctic basin. P. phippsi population in FJL and the entire European Arctic is on the whole maintained by a single obligate final host, the common eider Somateria mollissima. Prevalence (P) of P. phippsi in this bird reached 100 %, with the maximal infection intensity (IImax) of 1188 and the mean abundance (MA) of 492.1. Other species of birds found to be infected with P. phippsi (Arctic turn, black guillemot, purple sandpiper and several gulls) are facultative and/or eliminative hosts. The most heavily infected birds were Arctic terns (P = 72.7%, IImax = 227, MA = = 47.1), which contained single mature acanthocephalans. For one of the FJL regions, infections flows of P. phippsi through various host categories were calculated. Involvement of birds unrelated to the common eider into the circulation of P. phippsi is facilitated by their feeding character in the Arctic. While coastal crustaceans are abundant, fish food is relatively scarce (polar cod, snailfishes), and so amphipods make up a considerable part of the diet of marine birds in FJL, if not most of it, as for instance in case of Arctic tern. This promotes an easy entry of the larvae of crustaceans-parasitizing helminthes (cestodes and acanthocephalans, including cystacanths P. phippsi) into non-specific hosts and opens broad colonization possibilities

  19. Hantaan Virus Surveillance Targeting Small Mammals at Nightmare Range, a High Elevation Military Training Area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Terry A.; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Won-Keun; Nunn, Peter V.; Song, Jin-Won

    2015-01-01

    Rodent-borne disease surveillance was conducted at Nightmare Range (NM-R), near the demilitarized zone in northeast Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, to identify hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) risks for a mountainous high-elevation (500 m) military training site. Monthly surveys were conducted from January 2008-December 2009. A total of 1,720 small mammals were captured belonging to the Orders Rodentia [Families, Sciuridae (1 species) and Muridae (7 species)] and Soricomorpha [Family, Soricidae (1species)]. Apodemus agrarius, the primary reservoir for Hantaan virus (HTNV), accounted for 89.9% (1,546) of all small mammals captured, followed by Myodes regulus (4.0%), Crocidura lasiura (3.9%), Micromys minutus (1.4%), Mus musculus (0.3%), Microtus fortis (0.2%), Apodemus peninsulae (0.2%), Tamias sibiricus (0.1%), and Rattus norvegicus (<0.1%). Three species were antibody-positive (Ab+) for hantaviruses: A. agrarius (8.2%), M. minutus (4.2%), and C. lasiura (1.5%). HTNV specific RNA was detected in 93/127 Ab+ A. agrarius, while Imjin virus specific RNA was detected in 1/1 Ab+ C. lasiura. Overall, hantavirus Ab+ rates for A. agrarius increased with weight (age) and were significantly higher among males (10.9%) than females (5.1%) (P<0.0001). High A. agrarius gravid rates during the fall (August-September) were associated with peak numbers of HFRS cases in Korea that followed high gravid rates. From 79 RT-PCR positive A. agrarius, 12 HTNV RNA samples were sequenced and compared phylogenetically based on a 320 nt sequence from the GC glycoprotein-encoding M segment. These results demonstrate that the HTNV isolates from NM-R are distinctly separated from HTNV isolated from the People’s Republic of China. These studies provide for improved disease risk assessments that identify military activities, rodent HTNV rates, and other factors associated with the transmission of hantaviruses during field training exercises. PMID:25874643

  20. ATHENA, the Desktop Human "Body"

    SciTech Connect

    Iyer, Rashi; Harris, Jennifer

    2014-09-29

    Creating surrogate human organs, coupled with insights from highly sensitive mass spectrometry technologies, a new project is on the brink of revolutionizing the way we screen new drugs and toxic agents. ATHENA, the Advanced Tissue-engineered Human Ectypal Network Analyzer project team, is developing four human organ constructs - liver, heart, lung and kidney - that are based on a significantly miniaturized platform. Each organ component will be about the size of a smartphone screen, and the whole ATHENA "body" of interconnected organs would fit neatly on a desk. "By developing this 'homo minutus,' we are stepping beyond the need for animal or Petri dish testing: There are huge benefits in developing drug and toxicity analysis systems that can mimic the response of actual human organs," said Rashi Iyer, a senior scientist at Los Alamos National Laboratory, the lead laboratory on the five-year, $19 million multi-institutional effort. The project is supported by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). Some 40 percent of pharmaceuticals fail their clinical trials, Iyer noted, and there are thousands of chemicals whose effects on humans are simply unknown. Providing a realistic, cost-effective and rapid screening system such as ATHENA with high-throughput capabilities could provide major benefits to the medical field, screening more accurately and offering a greater chance of clinical trial success.

  1. ATHENA, the Desktop Human "Body"

    ScienceCinema

    Iyer, Rashi; Harris, Jennifer

    2015-01-05

    Creating surrogate human organs, coupled with insights from highly sensitive mass spectrometry technologies, a new project is on the brink of revolutionizing the way we screen new drugs and toxic agents. ATHENA, the Advanced Tissue-engineered Human Ectypal Network Analyzer project team, is developing four human organ constructs - liver, heart, lung and kidney - that are based on a significantly miniaturized platform. Each organ component will be about the size of a smartphone screen, and the whole ATHENA "body" of interconnected organs would fit neatly on a desk. "By developing this 'homo minutus,' we are stepping beyond the need for animal or Petri dish testing: There are huge benefits in developing drug and toxicity analysis systems that can mimic the response of actual human organs," said Rashi Iyer, a senior scientist at Los Alamos National Laboratory, the lead laboratory on the five-year, $19 million multi-institutional effort. The project is supported by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). Some 40 percent of pharmaceuticals fail their clinical trials, Iyer noted, and there are thousands of chemicals whose effects on humans are simply unknown. Providing a realistic, cost-effective and rapid screening system such as ATHENA with high-throughput capabilities could provide major benefits to the medical field, screening more accurately and offering a greater chance of clinical trial success.

  2. Relation of the insular claustrum to the neocortex in Insectivora.

    PubMed

    Narkiewicz, O; Mamos, L

    1990-01-01

    The claustra of 9 species of Insectivora (Sorex araneus, Sorex minutus, Tenrec ecaudatus, Solenodon paradoxus, Neomys fodiens, Erinaceus europaeus, Talpa europaea, Desmana moschata, Potamogale velox) were investigated. In all examined animals we found two parts of the insular claustrum: the main part called by us the pars principalis and more medially situated lamina profunda claustri. In the "basal" Insectivora the main part is in close contact with the layer VIa of the neocortex. In some more developed "basal" and in all "progressive" Insectivora the area capsularis appears. Dorsolaterally it separates the main part of the insular claustrum from the neocortex and possesses, besides neurons, also numerous fibers of the extreme capsule. The above data strongly suggest that in the phylogenesis the insular claustrum originates from the cortex from which it gets separated by the extreme capsule. Lamina profunda claustri is rather a narrow band of neurons situated on the medial side of the pars principalis and mostly separated from it by a thin lamina of white substance. Lamina profunda is continuous with the layer VIb of the neocortex. PMID:1707077

  3. The Celtic fringe of Britain: insights from small mammal phylogeography.

    PubMed

    Searle, Jeremy B; Kotlík, Petr; Rambau, Ramugondo V; Marková, Silvia; Herman, Jeremy S; McDevitt, Allan D

    2009-12-22

    Recent genetic studies have challenged the traditional view that the ancestors of British Celtic people spread from central Europe during the Iron Age and have suggested a much earlier origin for them as part of the human recolonization of Britain at the end of the last glaciation. Here we propose that small mammals provide an analogue to help resolve this controversy. Previous studies have shown that common shrews (Sorex araneus) with particular chromosomal characteristics and water voles (Arvicola terrestris) of a specific mitochondrial (mt) DNA lineage have peripheral western/northern distributions with striking similarities to that of Celtic people. We show that mtDNA lineages of three other small mammal species (bank vole Myodes glareolus, field vole Microtus agrestis and pygmy shrew Sorex minutus) also form a 'Celtic fringe'. We argue that these small mammals most reasonably colonized Britain in a two-phase process following the last glacial maximum (LGM), with climatically driven partial replacement of the first colonists by the second colonists, leaving a peripheral geographical distribution for the first colonists. We suggest that these natural Celtic fringes provide insight into the same phenomenon in humans and support its origin in processes following the end of the LGM. PMID:19793757

  4. A seasonal comparison of zooplankton communities in the Kara Sea - With special emphasis on overwintering traits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosobokova, Ksenia Nikolaevna; Hirche, Hans-Juergen

    2016-06-01

    Siberian marginal seas cover large parts of the marine Arctic and host unique zooplankton communities. Detailed knowledge of their community structure and life history traits is a prerequisite to predict their response to ongoing and future climate and anthropogenic changes although winter data is extremely rare. Here data are presented from winter samples (February and April) in four biogeographic regions of the Kara Sea. Comparison of community composition and zooplankton abundance/biomass with data collected during summer showed lower diversity in winter, mainly due to the absence of freshwater species. In contrast to many other northern regions, seasonal biomass differences were relatively small. Year-round high biomass is maintained through a large share of small copepod species and constantly high share of the chaetognath Parasagitta elegans. An advanced state of gonad maturation and reproduction was observed in winter in herbivorous, omnivorous, and carnivorous species, e.g. the copepods Calanus glacialis, Drepanopus bungei, Limnocalanus macrurus, Oithona similis, Pseudocalanus major, Pseudocalanus minutus/acuspes, Paraeuchaeta glacialis, Microcalanus pygmaeus, and euphausiids, hydromedusae, and pteropods. Meroplanktonic larvae of nudibranchia, polychaeta and bivalvia were also registered. Close to the Yenisei mouth, abundance of eggs and larvae of various taxa exceeded older stages. Our data show that the brackish-water zone of the Kara Sea hosts specific communities with omnivorous species efficiently exploiting local resources during the winter and utilizing them for winter reproduction.

  5. Physiological responses of Brazilian amphibians to an enzootic infection of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    PubMed

    Bovo, Rafael P; Andrade, Denis V; Toledo, Luís Felipe; Longo, Ana V; Rodriguez, David; Haddad, Célio F B; Zamudio, Kelly R; Becker, C Guilherme

    2016-01-13

    Pathophysiological effects of clinical chytridiomycosis in amphibians include disorders of cutaneous osmoregulation and disruption of the ability to rehydrate, which can lead to decreased host fitness or mortality. Less attention has been given to physiological responses of hosts where enzootic infections of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) do not cause apparent population declines in the wild. Here, we experimentally tested whether an enzootic strain of Bd causes significant mortality and alters host water balance (evaporative water loss, EWL; skin resistance, R(s); and water uptake, WU) in individuals of 3 Brazilian amphibian species (Dendropsophus minutus, n = 19; Ischnocnema parva, n = 17; Brachycephalus pitanga, n = 15). Infections with enzootic Bd caused no significant mortality, but we found an increase in R(s) in 1 host species concomitant with a reduction in EWL. These results suggest that enzootic Bd infections can indeed cause sub-lethal effects that could lead to reduction of host fitness in Brazilian frogs and that these effects vary among species. Thus, our findings underscore the need for further assessment of physiological responses to Bd infections in different host species, even in cases of sub-clinical chytridiomycosis and long-term enzootic infections in natural populations. PMID:26758658

  6. [Environmental impacts on periphyton assemblage in Shanghai's main urban rivers, China].

    PubMed

    Liang, Xia; Li, Xiao-Ping; Gu, Yong-Jie

    2007-08-01

    A monthly monitoring program of periphyton was conducted on two main urban rivers of Shanghai from April 2005 to March 2006. Parameters of periphyton assemblage and main environmental variations, including physical habitation and hydrological factors, were analyzed by multivariate analyses (cluster analysis, indicator species analysis and canonical correspondence analysis). It showed that a remarkable spatial-temporal variation pattern was observed for periphyton assemblage: taxa numbers and density were abundant at upstream in warm weathers, while diversity decreased significantly at downstream in cold seasons (p < 0.05). The results also indicated that water quality, watershed function zone and nutrients (i.e. nitrogen and phosphorus) were the main environmental factors influencing periphyton species composition. The findings further suggested 12 periphyton species, including Navicula cincta, Chroococcus minutus and Fragilaria capucina, had significant indicator values for water quality and were highly sensitive to the concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus, and these species could serve as a good bio-indicator of urban watersheds. PMID:17926390

  7. Three new genera of Neotropical Mimallonidae (Lepidoptera, Mimallonoidea, Mimallonidae) with descriptions of three new species.

    PubMed

    St Laurent, Ryan A; Mielke, Carlos G C

    2016-01-01

    Three new genera of Mimallonidae are described. The monotypic genus Tostallo gen. n. is erected to contain "Perophora" albescens Jones, 1912, which was previously placed in the preoccupied genus Perophora Harris, 1841 and was never formally moved to a valid genus. Perophora is a junior homonym of Cicinnus Blanchard, 1852, but the name albescens is not appropriately placed in Cicinnus due to external and genitalia characteristics entirely unique to the species albescens. The female of Tostallo albescens comb. n. is described and both sexes are figured for the first time. Auroriana gen. n. is erected to contain Auroriana florianensis (Herbin, 2012), comb. n. previously described as Cicinnus florianensis, and two new species: Auroriana colombiana sp. n. from Colombia and Auroriana gemma sp. n. from southeastern and southern Brazil. The female of Auroriana florianensis is described and figured for the first time. Finally, the monotypic genus Micrallo gen. n. is erected to include a new species, Micrallo minutus sp. n. described from northeastern Brazil. PMID:27047246

  8. How did pygmy shrews colonize Ireland? Clues from a phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Mascheretti, Silvia; Rogatcheva, Margarita B; Gündüz, Islam; Fredga, Karl; Searle, Jeremy B

    2003-01-01

    There is a long-standing debate as to how Ireland attained its present fauna; we help to inform this debate with a molecular study of one species. A 1110 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene was sequenced in 74 specimens of the pygmy shrew, Sorex minutus, collected from throughout its western Palaearctic range. Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences revealed several well-supported lineages. Most of the 65 haplotypes belonged to a northern lineage, which ranged from Britain in the west to Lake Baikal in the east. The other lineages were largely limited to Iberia, Italy and the Balkans. One exception, however, was a lineage found in both Ireland and Andorra. This affinity, and the large difference between the mitochondrial sequences of Irish and British individuals, suggest that pygmy shrews did not colonize Ireland via a land connection from Britain, as has been previously supposed, but instead were introduced by boat from southwest continental Europe. All the Irish pygmy shrews analysed were identical or very similar in cytochrome b sequence, suggesting an extreme founding event. PMID:12908980

  9. Neogene diatom and silicoflagellate biostratigraphy of Naples Beach, California

    SciTech Connect

    Navarrette, R.J.; Marolt, R.E.; Finger, K.L.

    1986-04-01

    Diatoms and silicoflagellates recovered from Monterey Formation outcrops along Naples Beach, California, provide detailed biostratigraphy in the middle Miocene to upper Pliocene strata. Thirty-eight diatom and six silicoflagellate index species are identified among the 178 selected taxa documented in this section. Seven diatom zones and subzones of J. Barron's northeastern Pacific diatom zonation are recognized in this section. These zones range from the Denticulopsis lauta subzone a (+15.0 m.y.) to the base of the Thalasiosira oestrupii zone (approx. 5.0 m.y.). In addition, several diatom occurrences provide direction correlation between the Naples Beach section and DSDP Sites 173 and 469 off the northern and southern California coasts, respectively. A new silicoflagellate zonation is proposed for the Naples Beach section of the Monterey Formation, which consists of two range zones, the Corbisema triacantha and the Distephanus speculum minutus, and four subzones. These four subzones are characterized by Distephanus crux parvus, Mesocena diodon, Distephanus pseudofibula, and Distephanus frugalis, respectively. This zonation provides greater precision than previous biostratigraphic divisions of the DSDP sites. A new silicoflagellate species of the genus Dictyocha Ehrenberg is also described.

  10. Review of Dolichostyrax Aurivillius (Cerambycidae, Lamiinae) in Borneo, with descriptions of three new genera and the first case of (ovo)viviparity in the long-horned beetles

    PubMed Central

    Gabriš, Radim; Kundrata, Robin; Trnka, Filip

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We reviewed the species of genus Dolichostyrax Aurivillius (Cerambycidae: Morimopsini) from Borneo, which included the redescriptions of two species – Dolichostyrax moultoni Aurivillius, 1911 and Dolichostyrax longipes Aurivillius, 1913, with the first female description for the latter. After the examination of the additional material previously identified as Dolichostyrax, we described three new genera – Borneostyrax gen. n., Microdolichostyrax gen. n., and Eurystyrax gen. n. Borneostyrax cristatus sp. n. was described based on the male and female specimens, whilst Microdolichostyrax hefferni sp. n., Microdolichostyrax minutus sp. n. and Eurystyrax nemethi sp. n. are known only from females. All studied species are distributed in the mountain regions of Sabah, with the exception of Dolichostyrax moultoni from Sarawak. An identification key to the genera of Bornean Morimopsini and species of Dolichostyrax, Borneostyrax gen. n., Microdolichostyrax gen. n. and Eurystyrax gen. n. is provided and their distributions and intraspecific morphological variability are discussed. The short and wide ovipositor, loss of spermatheca, and presence of large larvae without apparent eggbursters inside the female abdomens indicate the presence of (ovo)viviparity in Borneostyrax gen. n. This is the first case of this rare phenomenon within Cerambycidae. PMID:27408527

  11. Use of Hyperspectral Imagery to Assess Cryptic Color Matching in Sargassum Associated Crabs

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Mats of the pelagic macroalgae Sargassum represent a complex environment for the study of marine camouflage at the air-sea interface. Endemic organisms have convergently evolved similar colors and patterns, but quantitative assessments of camouflage strategies are lacking. Here, spectral camouflage of two crab species (Portunus sayi and Planes minutus) was assessed using hyperspectral imagery (HSI). Crabs matched Sargassum reflectance across blue and green wavelengths (400–550 nm) and diverged at longer wavelengths. Maximum discrepancy was observed in the far-red (i.e., 675 nm) where Chlorophyll a absorption occurred in Sargassum and not the crabs. In a quantum catch color model, both crabs showed effective color matching against blue/green sensitive dichromat fish, but were still discernible to tetrachromat bird predators that have visual sensitivity to far red wavelengths. The two species showed opposing trends in background matching with relation to body size. Variation in model parameters revealed that discrimination of crab and background was impacted by distance from the predator, and the ratio of cone cell types for bird predators. This is one of the first studies to detail background color matching in this unique, challenging ecosystem at the air-sea interface. PMID:26352667

  12. Lessons with Living Harvest Mice: An empirical study of their effects on intrinsic motivation and knowledge acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilde, Matthias; Hußmann, Jona Samuel; Lorenzen, Simone; Meyer, Annika; Randler, Christoph

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of living animals on pupils' intrinsic motivation and knowledge. Various studies from the late 1970s and 1980s stress the high effectiveness of authentic learning experiences in pupils' knowledge acquisition. However, there are only few current empirical studies on this topic. The research question of our study is to assess whether the use of living animals in the biology classroom supports intrinsic motivation and knowledge acquisition. In a pre-/post-test design, 185 fifth graders received two different treatments: the experimental group (N = 74) was taught with living harvest mice (Micromys minutus) and the control group (N = 111) received lessons with the same content which was presented in short film clips on laptop computers. Knowledge acquisition was assessed with open-ended and closed questions, while intrinsic motivation was tested with an adapted version of the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI). There were no differences in knowledge acquisition between the treatments. However, the results of the IMI showed significant differences in favour of the experimental group in interest/enjoyment, perceived competence, and perceived autonomy. Thus, living animals exert a positive influence on motivation.

  13. Three new genera of Neotropical Mimallonidae (Lepidoptera, Mimallonoidea, Mimallonidae) with descriptions of three new species

    PubMed Central

    St. Laurent, Ryan A.; Mielke, Carlos G. C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Three new genera of Mimallonidae are described. The monotypic genus Tostallo gen. n. is erected to contain “Perophora” albescens Jones, 1912, which was previously placed in the preoccupied genus Perophora Harris, 1841 and was never formally moved to a valid genus. Perophora is a junior homonym of Cicinnus Blanchard, 1852, but the name albescens is not appropriately placed in Cicinnus due to external and genitalia characteristics entirely unique to the species albescens. The female of Tostallo albescens comb. n. is described and both sexes are figured for the first time. Auroriana gen. n. is erected to contain Auroriana florianensis (Herbin, 2012), comb. n. previously described as Cicinnus florianensis, and two new species: Auroriana colombiana sp. n. from Colombia and Auroriana gemma sp. n. from southeastern and southern Brazil. The female of Auroriana florianensis is described and figured for the first time. Finally, the monotypic genus Micrallo gen. n. is erected to include a new species, Micrallo minutus sp. n. described from northeastern Brazil. PMID:27047246

  14. Revision of the genus Campylaimus (Diplopeltidae, Nematoda) with description of four new species from the Sea of Japan.

    PubMed

    Fadeeva, Natalia; Mordukhovich, Vladimir; Zograf, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Four new Campylaimus species are described from the deep-sea sediments of the Sea of Japan at depths of about 500‒3400 m. Campylaimus orientalis sp. nov. is characterized by having a body of moderate length, clearly annulated cuticle, a small rhomboid mouth opening which is displaced on the dorsal side of body, a gap between the unequal limbs of the amphid, prominent narrow longitudinal alae and cephalated spicules. Campylaimus minutus sp. nov. is characterized by having a cylindrical body, very weak annulations, amphids with a short dorsal limb (25-44% of pharynx length) and a ventral limb completely fused with lateral alae of equal width; and lateral alae extending from the base of the amphid to the tail tip. Campylaimus amphidialis sp. nov. is characterized by having the combination of a very long amphidial fovea occupying nearly the entire length of the pharynx; and a well defined boundary between the ventral amphid limb and lateral alae. The distinctive feature of Campylaimus pulcher sp. nov. is the elongated loop-shaped amphid with nearly equal parallel limbs and prominent narrow longitudinal alae; and cephalated spicules without a gubernaculum. The diagnosis of the genus Campylaimus is emended and an identification key to species, based mainly on form and length of amphidial fovea, width of lateral alae, and copulatory apparatus is given. The genus Campylaimus now includes nineteen valid species. Two species are considered as species inquirendae, mainly because of incomplete descriptions. PMID:27394815

  15. Pinworm diversity in free-ranging howler monkeys (Alouatta spp.) in Mexico: Morphological and molecular evidence for two new Trypanoxyuris species (Nematoda: Oxyuridae).

    PubMed

    Solórzano-García, Brenda; Nadler, Steven A; Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo

    2016-10-01

    Two new species of Trypanoxyuris are described from the intestine of free-ranging howler monkeys in Mexico, Trypanoxyuris multilabiatus n. sp. from the mantled howler Alouatta palliata, and Trypanoxyuris pigrae n. sp. from the black howler Alouatta pigra. An integrative taxonomic approach is followed, where conspicuous morphological traits and phylogenetic trees based on DNA sequences are used to test the validity of the two new species. The mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene, and the nuclear ribosomal 18S and 28S rRNA genes were used for evolutionary analyses, with the concatenated dataset of all three genes used for maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses. The two new species of pinworms from howler monkeys were morphologically distinct and formed reciprocally monophyletic lineages in molecular phylogenetic trees. The three species from howler monkeys, T. multilabiatus n. sp., T. pigrae n. sp., and Trypanoxyuris minutus, formed a monophyletic group with high bootstrap and posterior probability support values. Phylogenetic patterns inferred from sequence data support the hypothesis of a close evolutionary association between these primate hosts and their pinworm parasites. The results suggest that the diversity of pinworm parasites from Neotropical primates might be underestimated. PMID:27262522

  16. A chromosomal analysis of eleven species of Gyrinidae (Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Angus, Robert B.; Holloway, Teresa C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Karyotypes are presented for 10 species of Gyrinus Geoffroy, 1762: Gyrinus minutus Fabricius, 1798, Gyrinus caspius Ménétriés, 1832, Gyrinus paykulli Ochs, 1927, Gyrinus distinctus Aubé, 1836 var. fairmairei Régimbart, 1883, Gyrinus marinus Gyllenhal, 1808, Gyrinus natator (Linnaeus, 1758), Gyrinus opacus Sahlberg, 1819, Gyrinus substriatus Stephens, 1869, Gyrinus suffriani Scriba, 1855, Gyrinus urinator Illiger, 1807 and for Orectochilus villosus (Müller, 1776) (Coleoptera: Gyrinidae). The 10 Gyrinus species have karyotypes comprising 13 pairs of autosomes plus sex chromosomes which are X0 (♂), XX (♀), with the X chromosomes the longest in the nucleus. Orectochilus villosus has 16 pairs of autosomes plus X0, XX sex chromosomes. The data obtained by Saxod and Tetart (1967) and Tetart and Saxod (1968) for five of the Gyrinus species are compared with our results. Saxod and Tetart considered the X chromosome to be the smallest in the nucleus in all cases, and this is considered to result from confusion arising from uneven condensation of some of the chromosomes. Small differences between the chromosomes of different Gyrinus species have been detected, but not between Greenland and Swedish populations of Gyrinus opacus, nor between typical Gyrinus distinctus from France and Gyrinus distinctus var. fairmairei from Kuwait. PMID:27186347

  17. Five new extinct species of rails (Aves: Gruiformes: Rallidae) from the Macaronesian Islands (North Atlantic Ocean).

    PubMed

    Alcover, Josep Antoni; Pieper, Harald; Pereira, Fernando; Rando, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Five new species of recently extinct rails from two Macaronesian archipelagoes (Madeira and Azores) are described. All the species are smaller in size than their presumed ancestor, the European rail Rallus aquaticus. Two species inhabited the Madeira archipelago: (1) Rallus lowei n. sp., the stouter of the species described herein, was a flightless rail with a robust tarsometatarsus and reduced wings that lived on Madeira Island; (2) Rallus adolfocaesaris n. sp., a flightless and more gracile species than its Madeiran counterpart, inhabited Porto Santo. So far, six Azorean islands have been paleontologically explored, and the remains of fossil rails have been found on all of them. Here we formally describe the best-preserved remains from three islands (Pico, São Miguel and São Jorge): (1) Rallus montivagorum n. sp., a rail smaller than R. aquaticus with a somewhat reduced flying capability, inhabited Pico; (2) Rallus carvaoensis n. sp., a small flightless rail with short and stout legs and a bill apparently more curved than in R. aquaticus, was restricted to São Miguel; (3) Rallus minutus n. sp., a very small (approaching Atlantisia rogersi in size) flightless rail with a shortened robust tarsometatarsus, lived in São Jorge. We note also the presence of rail fossils on three other Azorean islands (Terceira, Graciosa and Santa Maria). In addition, we describe an extraordinarily complete fossil of an unnamed Rallus preserved in silica from the locality of Algar do Carvão on Terceira. PMID:26701473

  18. Use of Hyperspectral Imagery to Assess Cryptic Color Matching in Sargassum Associated Crabs.

    PubMed

    Russell, Brandon J; Dierssen, Heidi M

    2015-01-01

    Mats of the pelagic macroalgae Sargassum represent a complex environment for the study of marine camouflage at the air-sea interface. Endemic organisms have convergently evolved similar colors and patterns, but quantitative assessments of camouflage strategies are lacking. Here, spectral camouflage of two crab species (Portunus sayi and Planes minutus) was assessed using hyperspectral imagery (HSI). Crabs matched Sargassum reflectance across blue and green wavelengths (400-550 nm) and diverged at longer wavelengths. Maximum discrepancy was observed in the far-red (i.e., 675 nm) where Chlorophyll a absorption occurred in Sargassum and not the crabs. In a quantum catch color model, both crabs showed effective color matching against blue/green sensitive dichromat fish, but were still discernible to tetrachromat bird predators that have visual sensitivity to far red wavelengths. The two species showed opposing trends in background matching with relation to body size. Variation in model parameters revealed that discrimination of crab and background was impacted by distance from the predator, and the ratio of cone cell types for bird predators. This is one of the first studies to detail background color matching in this unique, challenging ecosystem at the air-sea interface. PMID:26352667

  19. The Relationship between Phytoplankton Evenness and Copepod Abundance in Lake Nansihu, China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Wang; Zhang, Huayong; Zhao, Lei; Xu, Xiang; Huang, Hai

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning is a central issue in ecology. Previous studies have shown that producer diversity can impact the consumer community via predator-prey interactions. However, direct observations of this relationship remain rare, in particular for aquatic ecosystems. In this research, the relationship between phytoplankton diversity (species richness and evenness) and the abundance of copepods was analyzed in Lake Nansihu, a meso-eutrophic lake in China. The results showed that copepods abundance was significantly decreased with increasing phytoplankton evenness throughout the year. However, both species richness and phytoplankton biomass showed no significant relationship with the abundance of copepods. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that phytoplankton evenness was negatively correlated with Thermocyclops kawamurai, Cyclops vicinus, Eucyclops serrulatus, Mesocyclops leuckarti, Sinocalanus tenellus, Sinocalanus dorrii, Copepods nauplius, but positively correlated with many Cyanophyta species (Chroococcus minutus, Dactylococcopsis acicularis, Microcystis incerta, Merismopedia tenuissima, Merismopedia sinica and Lyngbya limnetica). Based on our results, phytoplankton evenness was a better predictor of copepods abundance in meso-eutrophic lakes. These results provide new insights into the relationship between diversity and ecosystem functioning in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:27589782

  20. Effect of multiple parasitic infections on the tolerance to pollutant contamination.

    PubMed

    Gismondi, Eric; Rigaud, Thierry; Beisel, Jean-Nicolas; Cossu-Leguille, Carole

    2012-01-01

    The horizontally-transmitted acanthocephalan parasite Polymorphus minutus and the vertically-transmitted microsporidian parasite Dictyocoela roeselum have both been shown to influence on the antitoxic responses of mono-infected Gammarus roeseli exposed to cadmium. The present study investigates the effect of this co-infection on the antitoxic defence responses of naturally infected females exposed to cadmium stress. Our results revealed that, depending on the cadmium dose, bi-infection induced only slight, significant increased cell damage in G. roeseli as compared to non-infection. In addition, the antitoxic defence pattern of cadmium-exposed bi-infected hosts was similar to the pattern of cadmium-exposed D. roeselum-infected hosts. Reduced glutathione concentrations, carotenoid levels and γ-glutamylcystein ligase activity decreased, while metallothionein concentrations increased. This similar pattern indicates that host physiology can be controlled to some extent by microsporidia under stress conditions. It supports the hypothesis of a disruption of acanthocephalan effects in the presence of microsporidia. However, the global negative effects of bi-infection on host condition should be tested on more biological models, since competition between parasites depends on life history trade-off. PMID:22844535

  1. Effect of Multiple Parasitic Infections on the Tolerance to Pollutant Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Gismondi, Eric; Rigaud, Thierry; Beisel, Jean-Nicolas; Cossu-Leguille, Carole

    2012-01-01

    The horizontally-transmitted acanthocephalan parasite Polymorphus minutus and the vertically-transmitted microsporidian parasite Dictyocoela roeselum have both been shown to influence on the antitoxic responses of mono-infected Gammarus roeseli exposed to cadmium. The present study investigates the effect of this co-infection on the antitoxic defence responses of naturally infected females exposed to cadmium stress. Our results revealed that, depending on the cadmium dose, bi-infection induced only slight, significant increased cell damage in G. roeseli as compared to non-infection. In addition, the antitoxic defence pattern of cadmium-exposed bi-infected hosts was similar to the pattern of cadmium-exposed D. roeselum-infected hosts. Reduced glutathione concentrations, carotenoid levels and γ-glutamylcystein ligase activity decreased, while metallothionein concentrations increased. This similar pattern indicates that host physiology can be controlled to some extent by microsporidia under stress conditions. It supports the hypothesis of a disruption of acanthocephalan effects in the presence of microsporidia. However, the global negative effects of bi-infection on host condition should be tested on more biological models, since competition between parasites depends on life history trade-off. PMID:22844535

  2. Distribution and coexistence of shrews in patchy landscapes: A field test of multiple hypotheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortelliti, Alessio; Boitani, Luigi

    2009-11-01

    Despite the important role of shrews (Soricomorpha: Soricidae) in the functioning of ecosystems, as predators and prey, the effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on this guild of mammals are still unclear. We studied the distribution of 5 species (the greater white toothed shrew Crocidura leucodon; the lesser white toothed shrew Crocidura suaveolens; the pigmy shrew Sorex minutus; the Appennine shrew Sorex samniticus and the Etruscan shrew Suncus etruscus) in a fragmented landscape in central Italy. Shrews were trapped with pitfall traps made from plastic water bottles, the number of traps increased with patch size. A total of 170 individuals, of 5 species of shrews were captured. Shrews were widely distributed in our study area, however patch occupancy was determined mainly by vegetation and geometrical characteristics of the patches. Our data supports the hypotheses that patterns of habitat selection and the dynamics of seasonal abundance (habitat and temporal partitioning between similarly sized species) reduce competitive pressure, thus allowing coexistence of shrews in relatively species-rich assemblages, for such small amounts of habitat. The most important outcome of our results is the crucial role played by vegetation structure in determining distribution patterns. These results strongly suggest that measurements of the vegetation structure of habitat patches should always be included as explanatory variables when studying the distribution of shrews in fragmented landscapes.

  3. Re-evaluation of ivermectin efficacy against equine gastrointestinal parasites.

    PubMed

    Klei, T R; Rehbein, S; Visser, M; Langholff, W K; Chapman, M R; French, D D; Hanson, P

    2001-07-27

    Two trials were conducted to confirm the efficacy of ivermectin paste against endoparasites of horses. In these trials, 20 ponies were treated with ivermectin oral paste at 200 mcg x kg body weight once on Day 0, and 20 ponies served as unmedicated controls. The animals carried naturally acquired parasite infections as confirmed by pretrial fecal examination. The animals were necropsied for worm recovery on Days 14, 15 or 16. Parasites recovered were identified to species. Horses treated with ivermectin had significantly (P<0.05) fewer (>99.0% reduction) adult small strongyles (Coronocyclus spp including C. coronatus, C. labiatus, C. labratus; Cyathostomum spp including C. catinatum, C. pateratum; Cylicocyclus spp including C. ashworthi, C. elongatus, C. insigne, C. leptostomum, C. nassatus, C. radiatus; Cylicodontophorus bicoronatus; Cylicostephanus spp including C. asymetricus, C. bidentatus, C. calicatus, C. goldi, C. longibursatus, C. minutus; Gyalocephalus capitatus; Parapoteriostomum spp including P. euproctus, P. mettami; Petrovinema poculatum; Poteriostomum spp including P. imparidentatum, P. ratzii) and adult large strongyles (Strongylus edentatus, S. vulgaris; Triodontophorus spp including T. brevicauda, T. serratus; Craterostomum acuticaudatum) than the controls. Ivermectin was also highly effective (94% to >99%, P<0.05-0.01) against Gasterophilus intestinalis larvae, Habronema spp., Oxyuris equi, Parascaris equorum. The data from these two trials confirm that ivermectin paste administered to horses orally at 200mcg x kg(-1) continues to be highly effective for treatment and control of a broad range of small and large strongyle species as well as other species of gastrointestinal parasites. PMID:11423189

  4. Description and phylogenetic affinities of two new species of Nomadolepis (Eucestoda, Hymenolepididae) from Eastern Palearctic.

    PubMed

    Makarikov, Arseny A; Mel'nikova, Yulia A; Tkach, Vasyl V

    2015-10-01

    Two new species of hymenolepidid cestodes belonging to the genus Nomadolepis are described from small mammals in western Siberia and the Far East, Russian Federation. Nomadolepis fareasta n. sp. is described from the striped dwarf hamster Cricetulus barabensis in Amurskaya Oblast' and Nomadolepis shiloi n. sp. is described from the Eurasian harvest mouse Micromys minutus from Novosibirskaya Oblast' and Amurskaya Oblast'. Nomadolepis fareasta n. sp. differs from Nomadolepis merionis, Nomadolepis ellobii and N. shiloi n. sp. in having a substantially longer strobila, longer cirrus-sac and wider ovary. Furthermore, N. fareasta n. sp. can be readily distinguished from its congeners by the arrangement of the testes and the number and size of rostellar hooks. Nomadolepis shiloi n. sp. differs from N. merionis, N. ellobii and N. fareasta n. sp. by the number and length of the rostellar hooks, the presence of irregular transverse anastomoses as well as the length of the cirrus-sac and position of the cirrus-sac in relation to the poral ventral osmoregulatory canal. Morphological differentiation of the two new species from morphologically similar Palearctic species of the related genus Rodentolepis (sensu lato) from rodents is also provided. Phylogenetic affinities of Nomadolepis were studied for the first time using partial sequences of the nuclear ribosomal 28S DNA gene. Phylogenetic analysis strongly supported the status of Nomadolepis as a separate genus closest to Pararodentolepis. PMID:26123997

  5. Updating algal evolutionary relationships through plastid genome sequencing: did alveolate plastids emerge through endosymbiosis of an ochrophyte?

    PubMed Central

    Ševčíková, Tereza; Horák, Aleš; Klimeš, Vladimír; Zbránková, Veronika; Demir-Hilton, Elif; Sudek, Sebastian; Jenkins, Jerry; Schmutz, Jeremy; Přibyl, Pavel; Fousek, Jan; Vlček, Čestmír; Lang, B. Franz; Oborník, Miroslav; Worden, Alexandra Z.; Eliáš, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Algae with secondary plastids of a red algal origin, such as ochrophytes (photosynthetic stramenopiles), are diverse and ecologically important, yet their evolutionary history remains controversial. We sequenced plastid genomes of two ochrophytes, Ochromonas sp. CCMP1393 (Chrysophyceae) and Trachydiscus minutus (Eustigmatophyceae). A shared split of the clpC gene as well as phylogenomic analyses of concatenated protein sequences demonstrated that chrysophytes and eustigmatophytes form a clade, the Limnista, exhibiting an unexpectedly elevated rate of plastid gene evolution. Our analyses also indicate that the root of the ochrophyte phylogeny falls between the recently redefined Khakista and Phaeista assemblages. Taking advantage of the expanded sampling of plastid genome sequences, we revisited the phylogenetic position of the plastid of Vitrella brassicaformis, a member of Alveolata with the least derived plastid genome known for the whole group. The results varied depending on the dataset and phylogenetic method employed, but suggested that the Vitrella plastids emerged from a deep ochrophyte lineage rather than being derived vertically from a hypothetical plastid-bearing common ancestor of alveolates and stramenopiles. Thus, we hypothesize that the plastid in Vitrella, and potentially in other alveolates, may have been acquired by an endosymbiosis of an early ochrophyte. PMID:26017773

  6. New distributional data on aquatic and semiaquatic bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Gerromorpha & Nepomorpha) from South America

    PubMed Central

    Cordeiro, Isabelle R S

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Water bugs in general play an important role in freshwater ecosystems, and knowledge about them is essential for the study of water biology and the proper management of aquatic habitats. The Neotropical fauna is relatively well known, but the existence of large under-collected areas makes taxonomic and faunistic studies concerning the aquatic and semiaquatic bugs from tropical America urgent. New information Distributional information is presented for thirty-eight species of Gerromorpha and five Nepomorpha, including first records from the Brazilian states of Bahia (Mesovelia amoena), Ceará (Limnogonus profugus and Rhagovelia whitei), Espírito Santo (R. lucida), Goiás (Halobatopsis platensis and R. zela), Mato Grosso (Rheumatobates bonariensis), Pará (Nerthra terrestris), Paraná (H. spiniventris, Hydrometra fruhstorferi and R. janeira), Piauí (Microvelia ayacuchana, M. pulchella, Neogerris lubricus and Platyvelia brachialis), Rio de Janeiro (Martarega bentoi) and São Paulo (Rheumatobates minutus flavidus); and the Peruvian region of Madre de Dios (Rhagovelia fontanalis). PMID:25892925

  7. Novel strain of Spiroplasma found in flower bugs of the genus Orius (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae): transovarial transmission, coexistence with Wolbachia and varied population density.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masaya; Yukuhiro, Fumiko; Maeda, Taro; Miura, Kazuki; Kageyama, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    Spiroplasma, a group of small, wall-less, helical, and motile bacteria belonging to the Mollicutes, contains species with diverse life histories. To date, all the Spiroplasma strains that are known to be transmitted vertically in arthropod lineages belong to either the Spiroplasma ixodetis group or the Spiroplasma poulsonii group. Here, we found that a unique strain of Spiroplasma vertically transmitted in predatory flower bugs of the genus Orius belongs to the Spiroplasma insolitum group, which is a group of bacteria phylogenetically closely related to S. insolitum derived from the tickseed sunflower, Bidens sp. (Asterales: Asteraceae). The infection frequencies in natural populations were16.0% in Orius sauteri (n = 75), 40.5% in Orius nagaii (n = 37), and 8.0% in Orius minutus (n = 87). Orius strigicollis was not infected with Spiroplasma (n = 147). In the early stage of oogenesis (i.e., within the germarium), a large number of bacteria with the typical morphology of Spiroplasma existed, keeping a distance from Wolbachia bacteria. The Spiroplasma population seemed to increase during host development but Wolbachia population did not. PMID:24337178

  8. Ecological surveillance of small mammals at Firing Points 10 and 60, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, 2001-2005.

    PubMed

    O'Guinn, Monica L; Klein, Terry A; Lee, John S; Kim, Heung-Chul; Baek, Luck-Ju; Chong, Sung-Tae; Turell, Michael J; Burkett, Douglas A; Schuster, Anthony; Lee, In-Yong; Yi, Suk-Hee; Sames, William J; Song, Ki-Joon; Song, Jin-Won

    2008-12-01

    Throughout Korea, small mammals are hosts to a number of disease-causing agents that pose a health threat to U.S. and Korean military forces while they conduct field-training exercises. A seasonal rodent-borne disease surveillance program was established at two firing points (FP), FP-10, and FP-60, and conducted over five years from 2001 through 2005 in response to hantavirus cases among U.S. soldiers. The ecology of these sites consisted primarily of tall grasses associated with semi-permanent and temporary water sources (drainage ditches and a small stream) and dry-land agriculture farming. Eight species of rodents and one species of insectivore were collected, including Apodemus agrarius, Micromys minutus, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Tscherskia triton, Microtus fortis, Myodes regulus, and Crocidura lasiura. The striped field mouse, A. agrarius, (primary reservoir for Hantaan virus, the causative agent of Korean hemorrhagic fever), was the most frequently collected, representing 90.6% of the 1,288 small mammals captured at both sites. Reported herein are the ecological parameters, seasonal population densities, and seasonal population characteristics associated with small mammals collected at two military training sites in the Republic of Korea. PMID:19263858

  9. Blood parasites in noddies and boobies from Brazilian offshore islands - differences between species and influence of nesting habitat.

    PubMed

    Quillfeldt, Petra; Martínez, Javier; Bugoni, Leandro; Mancini, Patrícia L; Merino, Santiago

    2014-03-01

    Seabirds are often free from blood parasites, and a recent review suggested that phylogenetic, ecological and life-history parameters can determine the prevalence of blood parasites in seabirds. However, there is a lack of data available from many seabird groups, and a larger database is needed to understand prevalence patterns of blood parasites. We used a molecular screening approach to detect parasites of the genera Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon and Babesia in five species of two genera of seabirds that breed on Atlantic Ocean islands off Brazil. The observed patterns differed between the two bird genera. Like other Laridae, brown noddy, Anous stolidus adults were infected with Haemoproteus with low prevalence. Masked boobies, Sula dactylatra and brown boobies, Sula leucogaster were infected with Babesia. Of the latter, mainly juveniles were infected. In all species, intensity of infection (i.e. number of infected erythrocytes) was so low that parasites remained undetected in blood smears. This may explain the absence of major effects on the body condition of birds, although infected juvenile masked boobies were lighter than juveniles that were not infected with Babesia. Two tree-nesting species; black noddy, Anous minutus and red-footed booby, Sula sula did not have blood parasites, suggesting that tree-nesting may reduce the exposure to arthropod vectors compared with ground nesting in these species. PMID:24229724

  10. Eight new species, a new record, and redescription of the genus Discoxenus Wasmann, 1904: The first record of termitophilous rove beetles in Cambodia (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae).

    PubMed

    Kanao, Taisuke; Maruyama, Munetoshi

    2015-01-01

    As the first record of the Cambodian termitophilous rove beetles, eight new species of the genus Discoxenus Wasmann, 1904 (Aleocharini: Compactopediina) are described, along with a redescription of the genus. Discoxenus katayamai Kanao & Maruyama, 2010, which was originally known from Thailand, is newly recorded from Cambodia and redescribed. Discoxenus species are morphologically divided into two species groups, namely the latiabdominalis and the assmuthi. The latiabdominalis species group includes D. latiabdominalis n. sp. and D. cambodiensis n. sp., and both species are associated with Odontotermes maesodensis Ahmad, 1965. The assmuthi species group comprises 11 species: D. assmuthi Wasmann, 1904, D. lepisma Wasmann, 1904, D. indicus Kistner, 1982, D. malaysiensis Kistner, 1982, D. phourini n. sp., D. kohkongensis n. sp., D. hirsutus n. sp., D. minutus n. sp., D. lucidus n. sp., D. kakizoei n. sp., and D. katayamai. The members in the assmuthi species group are associated with Odontotermes or Hypotermes termites. One of the unique morphological features of the assmuthi species group is the strongly developed distal crest of the male aedeagal median lobe while that observed in the latiabdominalis species group is not produced, which is general character state in the tribe Aleocharini. The character state of distal crest and several other morphological features such as mouthparts are considered to support the monophyly of respective species groups in Discoxenus. PMID:26624709

  11. Nutritional studies on East African herbivores. 2. Losses of nitrogen in the faeces.

    PubMed

    Arman, P; Hopcraft, D; McDonald, I

    1975-03-01

    1. A series of nitrogen-balance trials was done using groups of four animals of various species of wild and domesticated ruminants using pelleted diets (Arman & Hopcraft, 1975). 2. Various herbivores were given grass or grass hays, legumes, herbs and shrubs. Food and faecal samples were analysed for N. 3. With the pelleted diets, the N content of the faecal dry matter (DM) was low for eland (Taurotragus oryx Pallas), high for sheep and cattle (Bos taurus and Bos indicus) and intermediate for the three small antelope species (hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus cokei Günther), Thomson's gazelle (Gazella thomsonii Günther) and duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia L.)). With the natural doffers, similar relationships were found, together with variations associated with the type of diet. 4. Three forms of equation were used to express the relationship between faecal N and food N. One of the forms, the linear regression of g faecal N/kg DM intake v. g food N/kg DM intake, fitted the results less well than did the other two and was not used to estimate metabolic faecal N(MFN) losses9 5. MFN was calculated by extrapolation of linear regressions of g faecal N/kg faecal DM v. g N intake/kg faecal DM for the pelleted diets. The range of values was (g N/kg faecal DM): Friesians 7-6, eland 8-1, zebu cattle 11-0 and small antelope and sheep 11-5-12-69 There were significant differences (P smaller than 0-001) between species in slopes and intercepts. 6. MFN was calculated from linear regressions of g faecal N/kg faecal DM v. g food N/kg food DM for all diets. This method gave the best fit for the pelleted diets. Values for these diets were (g N/kg faecal DM): eland 8-3, cattle and sheep 9-3-11-0 and small antelope 11-6-12-3. Species differences were significant (P smaller than 0-001). With grasses, values ranged from 5-9 for non-ruminants (rabbit (domesticated), warthog (Phacohoerus aethiopicus Pallas) and hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius L.)) plus eland and wildebeest (Connochaetes

  12. A Dynamical Mass Constraint for Pre-Main-Sequence Evolutionary Tracks: The Binary NTT 045251+3016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, Aaron T.; Mathieu, Robert D.; Lattanzi, Mario G.; Latham, David W.; Mazeh, Tsevi; Prato, L.; Simon, Michal; Zinnecker, Hans; Loreggia, Davide

    2001-08-01

    We present an astrometric-spectroscopic orbital solution for the pre-main-sequence binary NTT 045251+3016. Interferometric observations with the HST Fine Guidance Sensor No. 3 allowed stellar separations as small as 14 mas to be measured. Optical spectra provided 58 radial velocity measurements of the primary star, and near-infrared spectra provided two radial velocity measurements of both the primary and secondary, giving a mass ratio for the binary system. The combination of these data allows the dynamical masses and the distance of the stars to be derived. Our measurements for the primary and secondary masses are 1.45+/-0.19 and 0.81+/-0.09 Msolar, respectively, and 145+/-8 pc for the distance of the system, consistent with prior estimates for the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region. The evolutionary tracks of D'Antona & Mazzitelli, published in 1997, Baraffe et al., published in 1998, and Palla & Stahler, published in 1999, are tested against these dynamical mass measurements. Because of the intrinsic color-Teff variation within the K5 spectral class, each pre-main-sequence model provides a mass range for the primary. The theoretical mass range derived from the Baraffe et al. tracks that use a mixing-length parameter of α=1.0 is closest to our measured primary mass, deviating between 1.3 and 1.6 σ. The set of Baraffe et al. tracks that use α=1.9 deviates between 1.6 and 2.1 σ from our measured primary mass. The mass range given by the Palla & Stahler tracks for the primary star deviate between 1.6 and 2.9 σ. The D'Antona & Mazzitelli tracks give a mass range that deviates by at least 3.0 σ from our derived primary mass, strongly suggesting that these tracks are inconsistent with our observation. Observations of the secondary are less constraining than those of the primary, but the deviations between the dynamical mass of the secondary and the mass inferred for the secondary from the various pre-main-sequence tracks mirror the deviations of the primary star

  13. Analysis of variability in atmospheric methane in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Rona; Stohl, Andreas; Lund-Myhre, Cathrine; Fisher, Rebecca; Lowry, Dave; Nisbet, Euan; Aalto, Tuula; Dlugokencky, Edward; Crotwell, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas and contributes 0.5 Wm-2 to radiative forcing. Globally, atmospheric CH4 concentrations have increased since direct measurements began in the early 1980s but then stabilized between 1999 and 2006. However, since 2007, the atmospheric CH4 growth rate has become positive again. This recent change has caused concerns that it may be the response to climate feedbacks in the Arctic, where there is a potential for a large release of CH4 to the atmosphere under warmer conditions. Such feedbacks include high latitude wetlands (and their expansion by melting permafrost) and methane hydrates. Conversely, recent studies, suggest that this change is the result of a rise in wetland emissions of CH4 in the tropics and subtropics, driven by climate variation such as ENSO, combined with a rise in fossil fuel emissions. We examined the in-situ records of CH4 mole fractions in the Arctic from Zeppelin in Svalbard, Pallas in Finland, and Barrow in Alaska, as well as discrete samples from Alert in Canada and Summit in Greenland. These sites were chosen as they all have measurements at least since the early 2000s. We found marked variability in the atmospheric growth rate of CH4 in the Arctic, in particular, at Zeppelin and Pallas, which was not explained by variability in the global growth rate. Causes of the Arctic variability were investigated using the Lagrangian transport model, FLEXPART, and ECMWF meteorological reanalysis data. We found that the observed variability could also not be explained by changes in atmospheric transport. Measurements of the methane isotope (δ13CH4) at Zeppelin, together with atmospheric transport analyses, point to an important influence of high latitude wetland emissions at this site, especially from Northern Eurasia. Variability in the CH4 growth rate at Zeppelin was found to be correlated with anomalies in soil temperature in Northern Eurasia, suggesting that climate driven changes in high latitude wetland

  14. The solar system's invariable plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souami, D.; Souchay, J.

    2012-07-01

    Context. The dynamics of solar system objects, such as dwarf planets and asteroids, has become a well-established field of celestial mechanics in the past thirty years, owing to the improvements that have been made in observational techniques and numerical studies. In general, the ecliptic is taken as the reference plane in these studies, although there is no dynamical reason for doing so. In contrast, the invariable plane as originally defined by Laplace, seems to be a far more natural choice. In this context, the latest study of this plane dates back to Burkhardt. Aims: We define and determine the orientation of the invariable plane of the solar system with respect to both the ICRF and the equinox-ecliptic of J2000.0, and evaluate the accuracy of our determination. Methods: Using the long-term numerical ephemerides DE405, DE406, and INPOP10a over their entire available time span, we computed the total angular momentum of the solar system, as well as the individual contribution to it made by each of the planets, the dwarf planets Pluto and Ceres, and the two asteroids Pallas and Vesta. We then deduced the orientation of the invariable plane from these ephemerides. Results: We update the previous results on the determination of the orientation of the invariable plane with more accurate data, and a more complete analysis of the problem, taking into account the effect of the dwarf planet (1) Ceres as well as two of the biggest asteroids, (4) Vesta and (2) Pallas. We show that the inclusion of these last three bodies significantly improves the accuracy of determination of the invariable plane, whose orientation over a 100 y interval does not vary more than 0.1 mas in inclination, and 0.3 mas in longitude of the ascending node. Moreover, we determine the individual contributions of each body to the total angular momentum of the solar system, as well as the inclination and longitude of the node with respect to this latter plane. Conclusions: Owing to the high accuracy

  15. Karyotypic variation in Rhinophylla pumilio Peters, 1865 and comparative analysis with representatives of two subfamilies of Phyllostomidae (Chiroptera)

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Anderson José Baia; Nagamachi, Cleusa Yoshiko; Rodrigues, Luís Reginaldo Ribeiro; Farias, Solange Gomes; Rissino, Jorge Dores; Pieczarka, Julio Cesar

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The family Phyllostomidae belongs to the most abundant and diverse group of bats in the Neotropics with more morphological traits variation at the family level than any other group within mammals. In this work, we present data of chromosome banding (G, C and Ag-NOR) and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) for representatives of Rhinophylla pumilio Peters, 1865 collected in four states of Brazil (Amazonas, Bahia, Mato Grosso and Pará). Two karyomorphs were found in this species: 2n=34, FN=64 in populations from western Pará and Mato Grosso states and 2n=34, FN=62 from Amazonas, Bahia, and northeastern Pará and Marajó Island (northern). Difference in the Fundamental Number is determined by variation in the size of the Nucleolar Organizer Region (NOR) accompanied with heterochromatin on chromosomes of pair 16 or, alternatively, a pericentric inversion. The C-banding technique detected constitutive heterochromatin in the centromeric regions of all chromosomes and on the distal part of the long arm of pair 15 of specimens from all localities. FISH with a DNA telomeric probe did not show any interstitial sequence, and an 18S rDNA probe and silver staining revealed the presence of NOR in the long arm of the pair 15, associated with heterochromatin, and in the short arm of the pair 16 for all specimens. The intra-specific analysis using chromosome banding did not show any significant difference between the samples. The comparative analyses using G-banding have shown that nearly all chromosomes of Rhinophylla pumilio were conserved in the chromosome complements of Glossophaga soricina Pallas, 1766, Phyllostomus hastatus Pallas, 1767, Phyllostomus discolor Wagner, 1843 and Mimon crenulatum Geoffroy, 1801, with a single chromosomal pair unique to Rhinophylla pumilio (pair 15). However, two chromosomes of Mimon crenulatum are polymorphic for two independent pericentric inversions. The karyotype with 2n=34, NF=62 is probably the ancestral one for the other

  16. Mercury depletion events over Antarctic and Arctic oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nerentorp Mastromonaco, M. G.; Gardfeldt, K.; Wangberg, I.; Jourdain, B.; Dommergue, A.; Kuronen, P.; Pirrone, N.; Jacobi, H.

    2013-12-01

    Mercury is a global pollutant and in its elemental form it is spread by air to remote areas far away from point sources. In Antarctic and Arctic regions the airborne mercury may be oxidized, followed by deposition of the metal on land and sea surfaces. It is previously known that during early spring in these regions, processes involving halogen radical photochemistry induce an oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) in air. This phenomenon is known as an atmospheric mercury depletion event (AMDE) and is characterized by sudden and remarkable decreases in GEM that occurs within hours or days. All or most part of the GEM in air is transformed into gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) and particulate mercury (HgP). Equivalent ozone depletion events (ODE) do also occur in Antarctic and Arctic regions and the halogen radical photolytic processes involved for AMDEs and ODEs are interrelated. During two oceanographic campaigns at the Weddell Sea onboard RV Polarstern, ANTXXIX/6 (130608-130812) and ANTXXIX/7 (130814-131016), continuous measurements of GEM, GOM and HgP in air were performed using the Tekran mercury speciation system 1130/35. This is the first time such long time series of GEM-, GOM- and HgP data has been achieved over water in the Antarctic during winter and spring. Several mercury depletion events were detected as early as in the middle of July and are correlated and verified with ozone measurements onboard the ship. The observed depletion events were characterised by sudden major decreases in both GEM and ozone concentrations and highly elevated values of HgP. A depletion event is a local phenomenon but evidences show that traces of such events can be detected far away from its origin. During a spring campaign at the Pallas-Matorova station in northern Finland (68o00'N, 24o14'E), GEM, GOM and HgP were measured during three weeks in April 2012 using the Tekran mercury speciation system 1130/35. Traces of remote AMDEs were observed by sudden decreases of GEM

  17. Rainfall influences on ungulate population abundance in the Mara-Serengeti ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Ogutu, J O; Piepho, H-P; Dublin, H T; Bhola, N; Reid, R S

    2008-07-01

    1. Rainfall is the prime climatic factor underpinning the dynamics of African savanna ungulates, but no study has analysed its influence on the abundance of these ungulates at monthly to multiannual time scales. 2. We report relationships between rainfall and changes in age- and sex-structured abundances of seven ungulate species monitored monthly for 15 years using vehicle ground counts in the Maasai Mara National Reserve, Kenya. 3. Abundance showed strong and curvilinear relationships with current and cumulative rainfall, with older topi, Damaliscus korrigum (Ogilby); warthog, Phacochoerus aethiopicus (Pallas); waterbuck, Kobus ellipsyprimnus (Ogilby); and impala, Aepyceros melampus (Lichtenstein) responding to longer lags than younger animals, portraying carryover effects of prior habitat conditions. 4. The abundances of newborn calves were best correlated with monthly rainfall averaged over the preceding 5-6 months for topi, waterbuck, warthog, and 2 months for the migratory zebra Equus burchelli (Gray), but with seasonal rainfall averaged over 2-5 years for giraffe, Giraffa camelopardalis (L.); impala; and kongoni, Alcelaphus busephalus (Pallas). The cumulative late wet-season rainfall was the best predictor of abundance for quarter- to full-grown animals for most species. Monthly rainfall exerted both negative and positive effects on the abundances of zebra, impala and waterbuck. Ignoring age, both sexes responded similarly to rainfall. 5. Births were strongly seasonal only for warthog and topi, but peaked between August and December for most species. Hence abundance was strongly seasonal for young topi and warthog and the migratory zebra. Pronounced seasonality in births for warthog and topi obliterated otherwise strong relationships between abundance and rainfall when both month and rainfall were included in the same model. Aggregated density produced relationships with rainfall similar to those for fully grown animals, emphasizing the necessity of

  18. Project ATHENA Creates Surrogate Human Organ Systems

    SciTech Connect

    MacQueen, Luke; Knospel, Fanny; Sherrod, Stacy; Iyer, Rashi

    2015-06-15

    The development of miniature surrogate human organs, coupled with highly sensitive mass spectrometry technologies, could one day revolutionize the way new drugs and toxic agents are studied. “By developing this ‘homo minutus,’ we are stepping beyond the need for animal or Petri dish testing: There are huge benefits in developing drug and toxicity analysis systems that can mimic the response of actual human organs,” said Rashi Iyer, a senior scientist at Los Alamos National Laboratory. ATHENA, the Advanced Tissue-engineered Human Ectypal Network Analyzer project team, is nearing the full integration of four human organ constructs — liver, heart, lung and kidney — each organ component is about the size of a smartphone screen, and the whole ATHENA “body” of interconnected organs will fit neatly on a desk. A new video available on the Los Alamos National Laboratory YouTube channel updates the ATHENA project as it begins to integrate the various organ systems into a single system (link to video here). Some 40 percent of pharmaceuticals fail their clinical trials and there are thousands of chemicals whose effects on humans are simply unknown. Providing a realistic, cost-effective and rapid screening system such as ATHENA with high-throughput capabilities could provide major benefits to the medical field, screening more accurately and offering a greater chance of clinical trial success. ATHENA is funded by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) and is a collaboration of Los Alamos National Laboratory, Harvard University, Vanderbilt University, Charité Universitätsmedizin, Berlin, Germany, CFD Research Corporation, and the University of California San Francisco.

  19. Plasticity of Noddy Parents and Offspring to Sea-Surface Temperature Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Devney, Carol A.; Caley, M. Julian; Congdon, Bradley C.

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral and/or developmental plasticity is crucial for resisting the impacts of environmental stressors. We investigated the plasticity of adult foraging behavior and chick development in an offshore foraging seabird, the black noddy (Anous minutus), during two breeding seasons. The first season had anomalously high sea-surface temperatures and ‘low’ prey availability, while the second was a season of below average sea-surface temperatures and ‘normal’ food availability. During the second season, supplementary feeding of chicks was used to manipulate offspring nutritional status in order to mimic conditions of high prey availability. When sea-surface temperatures were hotter than average, provisioning rates were significantly and negatively impacted at the day-to-day scale. Adults fed chicks during this low-food season smaller meals but at the same rate as chicks in the unfed treatment the following season. Supplementary feeding of chicks during the second season also resulted in delivery of smaller meals by adults, but did not influence feeding rate. Chick begging and parental responses to cessation of food supplementation suggested smaller meals fed to artificially supplemented chicks resulted from a decrease in chick demands associated with satiation, rather than adult behavioral responses to chick condition. During periods of low prey abundance, chicks maintained structural growth while sacrificing body condition and were unable to take advantage of periods of high prey abundance by increasing growth rates. These results suggest that this species expresses limited plasticity in provisioning behavior and offspring development. Consequently, responses to future changes in sea-surface temperature and other environmental variation may be limited. PMID:20686693

  20. Braarudosphaera-rich sediments on the Exmouth Plateau, eastern Indian Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Siesser, W.G. ); Bralower, T.J. ); Carlo, E.H. de )

    1991-03-01

    Calcareous nannofossil assemblages enriched in Braarudosphaera occur in lower Oligocene to lower Miocene sediments at Ocean Drilling Program Sites 762 and 763 on the central Exmouth Plateau. Although beds of Braarudosphaera-rich sediments are well known in the Oligocene of the South Atlantic (the Braarudosphaera Chalk), this is the first published report of this phenomenon in the easter Indian Ocean. Braarudosphaerids appear rather abruptly in the lower Oligocene (in Zone NP 21) on the Exmouth Plateau. They reach their greatest numbers in the lower Oligocene (in Zones NP 22 and NP 23), where they comprise up to 10% of some samples. Braarudosphaera bigelowii is the overwhelmingly dominant species, occurring together with rare specimens of B. discula and Micrantholithus pinguis. The holococcoliths Peritrachelina joidesa and Lanternithus minutus are also associated with the Braarudosphaera enrichment. There are two populations of B. bigelowii: one of normal size (10-14 {mu}m) and one of large specimens (20-22 {mu}m). The larger braarudosphaerids are more common than the smaller forms. Braarudosphaera-rich sediments are absent at the nearby Wombat Plateau sites during the same time interval. The authors attribute this to latitudinal control, since the Wombat sites are about 4{degree} north of the Central Exmout Plateau sites. The occurrence of braarudosphaerids on the Exmouth Plateau is related to an Oligocene to early Miocene oceanographic event. Stable-isotope and trace-element analyses suggest that upwelling of cool, low-salinity, nutrient-rich water along a Divergent Zone created the Braarudosphaera-rich sediments in the Indian Ocean.

  1. Metazoan parasites in intertidal cockles Cerastoderma edule from the northern Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieltges, David W.; Reise, Karsten

    2006-11-01

    At four intertidal sites near the island of Sylt (eastern North Sea), 13 metazoan parasite taxa were found in 1400 cockles investigated, with digenean trematodes being dominant. Almost all cockles were infected by parasites and most individuals harboured more than one parasite species. We observed four conspicuous patterns: (1) Adult cockles harboured a two times higher species richness (2003: 6.1 ± 0.7 species/host; 2004: 7.1 ± 0.7) than juveniles (2003: 2.9 ± 0.8; 2004: 3.4 ± 0.8) and total parasite community composition significantly differed between age groups. (2) Infection levels were 2-52 times higher in adult cockles than in juveniles both in trematode species and in non-trematode species. In the dominant trematodes, species utilising cockles as first intermediate host ( Gymnophallus choledochus, Labratrema minimus, Monorchis parvus) only occurred in adult cockles, and prevalences were low (2-12%). Prevalences of up to 100% were reached by trematodes using cockles as second intermediate host ( Himasthla elongata, H. continua, H. interrupta, Renicola roscovita, Psilostomum brevicolle, Meiogymnophallus minutus, Gymnophallus gibberosus). Metacercariae of these species were segregated between body parts within cockles. (3) High spatial heterogeneity in parasite community composition and infection levels occurred between sampling sites. However, communities in juveniles were more similar than communities in adults. (4) Temporal variation in parasite community composition was low between two consecutive years, especially for adult cockles. The omnipresence of parasites in this dominant bivalve species has important implications for sampling designs and as a potentially confounding variable in e.g. physiological studies. It suggests strong and cumulative negative effects on the cockle hosts.

  2. [Parasitic helminths of the cecum and colon of equidae in Italy].

    PubMed

    Ricci, M; Sabatini, A

    1992-12-01

    Intestinal helminths from coecum and colon were studied in 93 equidae including 40 horses, 36 donkeys and 17 mules. A total of 38 species, 36 nematodes and 2 cestodes, were identified as follows: 1) Triodontophorus serratus, 2) Triodontophorus brevicauda, 3) Strongylus equinus, 4) Strongylus edentatus, 5) Strongylus vulgaris, 6) Cyathostomum tetracanthum, 7) Cyathostomum coronatum, 8) Cyathostomum labiatum, 9) Cyathostomum labratum, 10) Cyathostomum alveatum, 11) Cyathostomum pateratum, 12) Cyathostomum catinatum, 13) Cyathostomum sagittatum, 14) Cylicodontophorus bicoronatus, 15) Cylicocyclus radiatus, 16) Cylicocyclus auriculatus, 17) Cylicocyclus elongatus, 18) Cylicocyclus nassatus, 19) Cylicocyclus insigne, 20) Cylicocyclus leptostomus, 21) Cylicostephanus calicatus, 22) Cylicostephanus poculatus, 23) Cylicostephanus minutus, 24) Cylicostephanus longibursatus, 25) Cylicostephanus hybridus, 26) Cylicostephanus goldi, 27) Cylicostephanus ornatus, 28) Cylicostephanus skrjabini, 29) Poteriostomum ratzii, 30) Gyalocephalus capitatus, 31) Parascaris equorum*, 32) Probstmayria vivipara, 33) Draschia megastoma*, 34) Habronema muscae*, 35) Habronema majus*, 36) Setaria equina*, 37) Anoplocephala perfoliata, 38) Paranoplocephala mamillana. The asterisked species are those not usually localized in the examined material. The most frequent parasites were found in all three hosts. Species 1, 4, 6, 9, 10, 12, 21, 22, 30 and 35 showed significant differences in prevalence between horses and donkeys, the mule generally having intermediate values. Multiple infections and total worm burden appear to decrease in older animals (> 15 years). Parasite associations occur mostly at random as expected from the values of the respective total prevalences. Some significant excesses on expected values were recorded but not significant deficits. The total worm burden increases with the number of parasite species and the increase appears to follow an exponential pattern. PMID:1339978

  3. Prevalence and abundance of equine strongyles (Nematoda: Strongyloidea) in tropical Australia.

    PubMed

    Mfitilodze, M W; Hutchinson, G W

    1990-08-01

    A postmortem survey of 57 horses in tropical northern Queensland revealed 41 (89%) infected with intestinal strongyles. Thirty-five strongyle species (8 large strongyles and 27 small strongyles [Cyathostominae]) were recorded of which 9 species are reported from Australia for the first time. The 14 most prevalent small strongyles were Cyathostomum catinatum (in 76% of horses), Cyathostomum coronatum (65%), Cyathostomum pateratum (33%), Cyathostomum labiatum (30%), Cylicostephanus calicatus (70%), Cylicostephanus longibursatus (67%), Cylicostephanus goldi (43%), Cylicostephanus minutus (26%), Cylicocylus nassatus (67%), Cylicocyclus leptostomus (41%), Cylicocylus insigne (41%), Cylicocyclus radiatus (33%), Cylicocyclus brevicapsulates (22%), and Poteriostomum imperidentum (24%). The remaining cyathostomes were each found in less than 15% of horses. The 4 most common large strongyles were Triodontophorus serratus (30%), Strongylus vulgaris (28%), Strongylus equinus, and Strongylus edentatus (both 22%). The number of species of small strongyles per horse showed a marked variation (mean 10.3, range 2-21) but bore no relationship to either the total number of strongyles per horse, age, sex, and breed of horse, or season. Total number of strongyles per horse (mean 15,890, range 20-165,000) was less than in recent surveys in Europe and the U.S.A. Most horses had low worm burdens, whereas a very small number were heavily infected. Ninety-seven per cent of the total strongyle counts were small strongyles. Strongylus species contributed just over 1%. Small numbers of large strongyles per horse were usual with T. serratus (mean 570), S. vulgaris (mean 330), and S. equinus (mean 330) the most numerous.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2380857

  4. Petrology, geochemistry, and palynology of Joggins Formation (Westphalian A) coals, Cumberland basin, Nova Scotia

    SciTech Connect

    Hower, J.C.; Calder, J.H.; Cortland, F.E.

    1996-09-01

    Five Westphalian A coals were collected from the Joggins Formation section exposed along Chignecto Bay at Joggins, Nova Scotia. Several of the coal beds along the bay were mined beginning in the early 17th century. There has been little detailed investigation of the coal beds of this classic section. The lowermost coal, the Upper Coal 29 (Fundy), is a high-vitrinite coal with a spore assemblage dominated by arboreous lycopod spores with tree ferns subdominant. The upper portions of the coal bed have the highest ratio of well-preserved to poorly-preserved telinite of any of the coals investigated. Coal 19 (Forty Brine) has 88% total vitrinite but, unlike the Fundy coal bed, the telinite has a poor preservation ratio and half of the total vitrinite population comprises gelocollinite and vitrodetrinite. The latter coal bed is directly overlain by a basin-wide limestone bed. The Lower Kimberly (Coal 15) shows good preservation of vitrinite with relatively abundant telinite among the total vitrinite. The Upper Kimberly, which underlies the tetrapod-bearing lycopsid trees found by Lyell and Dawson in 1852, exhibits an upward decrease in arboreous lycopod spores and an increase in the tree fern spore Punctatisporites minutus. The megaspore record is similarly dominated by Lagenicularugosa paralycopodites and tree fern spores. Telinite preservation increases upwards in the Upper Kimberly but overall is well below the preservation ratio of the Fundy coal bed. The coals are all high sulfur, up to 13.7% total sulfur for the lower lithotype of the Fundy coal bed. The Kimberly coals are not only high in total and pyritic sulfur, but also have high concentrations of chalcophile elements.

  5. The ecology of Echinococcus multilocularis (Cestoda: Taeniidae) on St. Lawrence Island, Alaska. II. Helminth populations in the definitive host.

    PubMed

    Rausch, R L; Fay, F H; Williamson, F S

    1990-01-01

    The helminths of 1,579 arctic foxes from St. Lawrence Island were investigated by standard methods. The foxes, obtained mainly during the winter from fur trappers, harbored 22 species of helminths. Four of those were trematodes, viz., Maritrema afanassjewi Belopol'skaia, 1952, Orthosplanchnus pygmaeus Iurakhno, 1967, Plagiorchis elegans (Rudolphi, 1802) and Alaria marcianae (LaRue, 1917), each of which occurred in a single host. Two species of cestodes, Diphyllobothrium dendriticum (Nitzsch, 1824) and Mesocestoides kirbyi Chandler, 1940, were uncommon (in 2.7 and 1.3% of the foxes, respectively). Taenia polyacantha Leuckart, 1856 and Echinococcus multilocularis Leuckart, 1863 were present in about 80% of the foxes, and Taenia crassiceps (Zeder, 1800) in less than 10%. The specimens of Taenia spp. from the autumn-winter sample were usually destrobilate. In about 2% of the foxes, acanthocephalans of six species occurred. Four of those, of the genus Corynosoma Lühe, 1904, were common in marine mammals of the region; a fifth, Corynosoma clavatum Goss, 1940, has been reported previously only from marine birds of the Southern Hemisphere; and the sixth, Polymorphus cf. minutus (Goeze, 1782), has been found widely in waterfowl of the Northern Hemisphere. Of the nematodes, Sobolophyme baturini Petrov, 1930, Cylicospirura felineus (Chandler, 1925), and Physaloptera sp. were rare (with each in only one to three foxes). Trichinella nativa Boev et Britov, 1972 and Crenosoma vulpis (Dujardin, 1844) were uncommon (1.5 and 4%, respectively). The nematodes most often present were Toxascaris leonina (von Linstow, 1902) (89%) and Uncinaria stenocephala (Railliet, 1884) (40%). Several of the rare to uncommon helminths probably were transported to the island by foxes immigrating from the adjacent continents via the pack ice. PMID:2080830

  6. Conodont biostratigraphy and biofacies of the Wahoo Limestone (Carboniferous), Sadlerochit Mountains, northeast Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Krumhardt, A.P. ); Harris, A.G. )

    1990-05-01

    The Wahoo Limestone forms the upper part of the Lisburne Group (Carboniferous) in the Sadlerochit Mountains. The Lisburne Group is a thick (> 600 m) sequence of platform carbonate rocks that extends across the Brooks Range of northern Alaska and beneath the North Slope. At Prudhoe Bay, the Lisburne Group forms a major hydrocarbon reservoir. In the easternmost Sadlerochit Mountains, the Wahool Limestone is divisible into informal lower (64 m) and upper (192 m) members. The basal 46 m is chiefly bryozoan and pelmatozoan packstone that formed on a relatively shallow platform during the latest Mississippian lower muricatus subzone (as shown by the occurrence of the zonal index with representatives of Cavusgnathus). Cavusgnathus is dominant in this part of the section and occurs with representatives of Kladognathus, Ghathodus, Adetognathus, Hindeodus, and Rhachistognathus (in order of decreasing abundance). Declinognathodus noduliferus, the index for the base of the Pennsylvanian, first occurs at 49 m above the base of the Wahoo and 1 m above a discontinuity surface that marks the Mississippian-Pennsylvanian boundary. The unconformity represents the highest conodont subzone of the Mississippian and probably part of the earliest Pennsylvanian. Previously, the Mississippian-Pennsylvanian boundary was placed t the lower-upper Wahoo contact based on endothyroids; conodont data now indicate that this boundary is 15 m lower. The remaining lower Wahoo is possibly of noduliferus-primus zone age and chiefly yields, in order of decreasing abundance, species of Adetognathus, Declinognathodus, and Rhachistognathus, as well as redeposited Mississipian conodonts. The lower 15 m of the upper member of the Wahoo contains silty (5-40%) carbonate rock types that yield very few conodonts. Conodonts no older than the minutus-sinuatus zone are relatively abundant from 15 to 106 m above the base of the upper Wahoo.

  7. Surveillance of Charadriiformes in northern Australia shows species variations in exposure to avian influenza virus and suggests negligible virus prevalence.

    PubMed

    Curran, John M; Ellis, Trevor M; Robertson, Ian D

    2014-06-01

    The virologic surveillance of 4248 Charadriiformes since 1992 primarily from coastal northwest Australia did not detect any evidence of avian influenza virus (AIV) excretion (test prevalence = 0%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0%-0.09%). Past exposure to AIV was evident from serologic testing using nucleoprotein (NP) competitive-ELISA (c-ELISA) with an overall seroprevalence of 8.8% (95% CI: 8%-9.7%). The c-ELISA seroprevalence of family Scolopacidae and genus Numenius was significantly higher when compared with other families and genera, respectively. Exposure risk profiles, based on c-ELISA seroprevalence, were compiled for 40 species with the following species having significantly higher values when compared with the combined value of all other species: eastern curlew (Numenius madagascariensis), whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus), ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres), grey plover (Pluvialis squatarola), little curlew (Numenius minutus), red knot (Calidris canutus), sharp-tailed sandpiper (Calidris acuminata), and red-necked stint (Calidris ruficollis). From hemagglutination inhibition (HI) testing, the more prevalent HI reactions were against H2, H5, H6, and H9 subtypes, with no reactions against subtypes H11, H14, H15, and H16. Serologic testing using c-ELISA provided species risk profiles for optimizing a surveillance strategy for AIV in diverse populations of wild birds. The paucity of knowledge about the role of waders in the ecology of AIV and the overall very low to negligible virus prevalence reported globally, and in this study, suggests that waders are spillover hosts in shared ecosystems with a lesser role than previously considered. PMID:25055621

  8. Biodiversity and distribution of helminths and protozoa in naturally infected horses from the biosphere reserve La Sierra Madre de Chiapas", México.

    PubMed

    Güiris, A D M; Rojas, H N M; Berovides, A V; Sosa, P J; Pérez, E M E; Cruz, A E; Chávez, H C; Moguel, A J A; Jimenez-Coello, M; Ortega-Pacheco, A

    2010-06-24

    A cross sectional survey was performed to identify gastrointestinal helminths and protozoans in naturally infected horses from the biosphere reserve known as "La Sierra Madre de Chiapas", Mexico (El Triunfo and La Sepultura). During a three-year survey, fecal samples from 90 horses and parasites from 2 necropsied animals were collected. Five families from the Nematoda class: Ascaridae, Kathlanidae, Oxyuridae, Strongylidae and Trichostrongylidae were found, whereas, only one family from the class Cestoda, was observed: Anoplocephalidae. One family from the class Insecta, was observed: Gasterophiilidae. The number of species of parasites ranged from 13 to 18 with an average of 15 per animal. Adult parasites were recovered from the large intestine luminal contents at necropsy. Species recovered included: Strongylus vulgaris, S. equinus, S. edentatus, Oxyuris equi, Parascaris equorum, Coronocyclus coronatum, C. labiatus, C. labratus, Cyathostomum tetracanthum, Cylicocyclus insigne, C. leptostomus, Cylicodontophorus bicoronatus, Cylicostephanus asymetricus, C. bidentatus, C. minutus, C. longibursatus, Petrovinema poculatum, Poteriostomum imparidentatum, Cylicostephanus goldi, Tridentoinfundibulum gobi, Triodontophorus serratus and T. tenuicollis. One species of Diptera were recovered from stomach and identified: Gasterophilus intestinalis. Furthermore, different species of protozoa were recovered from fresh horse-dung and identified in four classes: Sporozoa, Litostomatea, Ciliasida and Suctoria. Nine families: Cryptosporidiidae, Eimeriidae, Balantidiidae, Buetschliidae, Blepharocorythidae, Cycloposthiidae, Spirodiniididae, Ditoxidae, Acinetidae; and 31 ciliates species were recorded: Allantosoma dicorniger, A. intestinalis, Alloiozona trizona, Blepharosphaera intestinalis, Blepharoprosthium pireum, Blepharoconus benbrooki, Bundleia postciliata, Didesmis ovalis, D. quadrata, Sulcoarcus pellucidulus, Blepharocorys angusta, B. cardionucleata, B. curvigula, B. juvata, B

  9. Impacts of zooplankton composition and algal enrichment on the accumulation of mercury in an experimental freshwater food web.

    PubMed

    Pickhardt, Paul C; Folt, Carol L; Chen, Celia Y; Klaue, Bjoern; Blum, Joel D

    2005-03-01

    There is a well documented accumulation of mercury in fish to concentrations of concern for human consumption. Variation in fish Hg burden between lakes is often high and may result from differences in Hg transfer through lower levels of the food web where mercury is bioconcentrated to phytoplankton and transferred to herbivorous zooplankton. Prior research derived patterns of mercury accumulation in freshwater invertebrates from field collected animals. This study provides results from controlled mesocosm experiments comparing the effects of zooplankton composition, algal abundance, and the chemical speciation of mercury on the ability of zooplankton to accumulate mercury from phytoplankton and transfer that mercury to planktivores. Experiments were conducted in 550-L mesocosms across a gradient of algal densities manipulated by inorganic nutrient additions. Enriched, stable isotopes of organic (CH3(200HgCl)) and inorganic (201HgCl2) mercury were added to mesocosms and their concentrations measured in water, seston, and three common zooplankton species. After 2 weeks, monomethylmercury (MMHg) concentrations were two to three times lower in the two copepod species, Leptodiaptomus minutus and Mesocyclops edax than in the cladoceran, Daphnia mendotae. All three zooplankton species had higher MMHg concentrations in mesocosms with low versus high initial algal abundance. However, despite higher concentrations of inorganic mercury (HgI) in seston from low nutrient mesocosms, there were no significant differences in the HgI accumulated by zooplankton across nutrient treatments. Bioaccumulation factors for MMHg in the plankton were similar to those calculated for plankton in natural lakes and a four-compartment (aqueous, seston, macrozooplankton, and periphyton/sediments) mass balance model after 21 days accounted for approximately 18% of the CH3(200Hg) and approximately 33% of the 201Hg added. Results from our experiments corroborate results from field studies and

  10. Climate alters intraspecific variation in copepod effect traits through pond food webs.

    PubMed

    Charette, Cristina; Derry, Alison M

    2016-05-01

    Essential fatty acids (EFAs) are primarily generated by phytoplankton in aquatic ecosystems, and can limit the growth, development, and reproduction of higher consumers. Among the most critical of the EFAs are highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs), which are only produced by certain groups of phytoplankton. Changing environmental conditions can alter phytoplankton community and fatty acid composition and affect the HUFA content of higher trophic levels. Almost no research has addressed intraspecific variation in HUFAs in zooplankton, nor intraspecific relationships of HUFAs with body size and fecundity. This is despite that intraspecific variation in HUFAs can exceed interspecific variation and that intraspecific trait variation in body size and fecundity is increasingly recognized to have an important role in food web ecology (effect traits). Our study addressed the relative influences of abiotic selection and food web effects associated with climate change on intraspecific differences and interrelationships between HUFA content, body size, and fecundity of freshwater copepods. We applied structural equation modeling and regression analyses to intraspecific variation in a dominant calanoid copepod, Leptodiatomus minutus, among a series of shallow north-temperate ponds. Climate-driven diurnal temperature fluctuations favored the coexistence of diversity of phytoplankton groups with different temperature optima and nutritive quality. This resulted in unexpected positive relationships between temperature, copepod DHA content and body size. Temperature correlated positively with diatom biovolume, and mediated relationships between copepod HUFA content and body size, and between copepod body size and fecundity. The presence of brook trout further accentuated these positive effects in warm ponds, likely through nutrient cycling and stimulation of phytoplankton resources. Climate change may have previously unrecognized positive effects on freshwater copepod DHA content

  11. Susceptibility of muridae cell lines to ecotropic murine leukemia virus and the cationic amino acid transporter 1 viral receptor sequences: implications for evolution of the viral receptor.

    PubMed

    Kakoki, Katsura; Shinohara, Akio; Izumida, Mai; Koizumi, Yosuke; Honda, Eri; Kato, Goro; Igawa, Tsukasa; Sakai, Hideki; Hayashi, Hideki; Matsuyama, Toshifumi; Morita, Tetsuo; Koshimoto, Chihiro; Kubo, Yoshinao

    2014-06-01

    Ecotropic murine leukemia viruses (Eco-MLVs) infect mouse and rat, but not other mammalian cells, and gain access for infection through binding the cationic amino acid transporter 1 (CAT1). Glycosylation of the rat and hamster CAT1s inhibits Eco-MLV infection, and treatment of rat and hamster cells with a glycosylation inhibitor, tunicamycin, enhances Eco-MLV infection. Although the mouse CAT1 is also glycosylated, it does not inhibit Eco-MLV infection. Comparison of amino acid sequences between the rat and mouse CAT1s shows amino acid insertions in the rat protein near the Eco-MLV-binding motif. In addition to the insertion present in the rat CAT1, the hamster CAT1 has additional amino acid insertions. In contrast, tunicamycin treatment of mink and human cells does not elevate the infection, because their CAT1s do not have the Eco-MLV-binding motif. To define the evolutionary pathway of the Eco-MLV receptor, we analyzed CAT1 sequences and susceptibility to Eco-MLV infection of other several murinae animals, including the southern vole (Microtus rossiaemeridionalis), large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus), and Eurasian harvest mouse (Micromys minutus). Eco-MLV infection was enhanced by tunicamycin in these cells, and their CAT1 sequences have the insertions like the hamster CAT1. Phylogenetic analysis of mammalian CAT1s suggested that the ancestral CAT1 does not have the Eco-MLV-binding motif, like the human CAT1, and the mouse CAT1 is thought to be generated by the amino acid deletions in the third extracellular loop of CAT1. PMID:24469466

  12. Co-circulation of Soricid- and Talpid-borne Hantaviruses in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Se Hun; Hejduk, Janusz; Markowski, Janusz; Kang, Hae Ji; Markowski, Marcin; Połatyńska, Małgorzata; Sikorska, Beata; Liberski, Paweł P.; Yanagihara, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we reported the discovery of a genetically distinct hantavirus, designated Boginia virus (BOGV), in the Eurasian water shrew (Neomys fodiens), as well as the detection of Seewis virus (SWSV) in the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), in central Poland. In this expanded study of 133 shrews and 69 moles captured during 2010–2013 in central and southeastern Poland, we demonstrate the co-circulation of BOGV in the Eurasian water shrew and SWSV in the Eurasian common shrew, Eurasian pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus) and Mediterranean water shrew (Neomys anomalus). In addition, we found high prevalence of Nova virus (NVAV) infection in the European mole (Talpa europaea), with evidence of NVAV RNA in heart, lung, liver, kidney, spleen and intestine. The nucleotide and amino acid sequence variation of the L segment among the SWSV strains was 0–18.8% and 0–5.4%, respectively. And for the 38 NVAV strains from European moles captured in Huta Dłutowska, the L-segment genetic similarity ranged from 94.1–100% at the nucleotide level and 96.3–100% at the amino acid level. Phylogenetic analyses showed geographic-specific lineages of SWSV and NVAV in Poland, not unlike that of rodent-borne hantaviruses, suggesting long-standing host-specific adaptation. The co-circulation and distribution of BOGV, SWSV and NVAV in Poland parallels findings of multiple hantavirus species coexisting in their respective rodent reservoir species elsewhere in Europe. Also, the detection of SWSV in three syntopic shrew species resembles spill over events observed among some rodent-borne hantaviruses. PMID:25445646

  13. Observations on development of natural infection and species composition of small strongyles in young equids in Kentucky.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Eugene T; Kuzmina, Tetiana A; Tolliver, Sharon C; Collins, Sandra S

    2011-12-01

    Early development and maturation of species of small strongyles have not been studied extensively. Most information is on the first appearance of strongyle eggs in feces of foals. However, species cannot be determined in this manner because of similarity of the morphological features of the eggs. To determine more definitive knowledge on development and species composition of natural infections of small strongyles, eight equid foals were necropsied and examined at various ages (31 to 92 days of age). The entire contents of the large intestine were examined, and all worms (6,671) recovered were identified. This was done to recover small strongyle specimens in an effort to find the stage of development of the worms for different time periods. The primary interest was to obtain data on the potential prepatent period. A total of 17 species of small strongyles were recovered. The earliest gravid female was Cylicostephanus longibursatus in a 57-day-old foal; then Cylicostephanus goldi was positive at 64 days, Cyathostomum catinatum at 68 days, Coronocyclus coronatus and Cylicostephanus calicatus at 70 days, Coronocyclus labiatus, Cylicocyclus leptostomus, Cylicocyclus nassatus, Cylicostephanus hybridus, and Cylicostephanus minutus at 74 days, and Cylicostephanus bidentatus at 92 days. While it is not known exactly when the foals began eating pasture vegetation (typically they begin to graze a short time after birth) and first ate infective free-living third-stage larvae, the results give an indication of the natural prepatent period of several species of small strongyles. Additional data are presented on the number of worms per foal, distribution of the worms in the parts (cecum, ventral colon, and dorsal colon) of the large intestine, and proportion of species found. PMID:21614543

  14. The prevalence, abundance and distribution of cyathostomins (small stongyles) in horses from Western Romania.

    PubMed

    Morariu, Sorin; Mederle, Narcisa; Badea, Corina; Dărăbuş, Gheorghe; Ferrari, Nicola; Genchi, Claudio

    2016-06-15

    Forty seven working horses from Romania were post-mortem examined for small strongyles (Cyathostominae) infections. All horses were found infected. The overall cyathostomins intensity ranged from 390 to 13,010 and horses were infected by 8-24 species. The intensity was higher in ventral colon (1531) and dorsal colon (824), the lowest in the caecum (524). Twenty four species were identified. Cyathostomum catinatum, Cylicocyclus insigne, and C. Nassatus had 100% of prevalence. Over 50% of horses were infected by Coronocyclus coronatus, Cylicostephanus calicatus, C. goldi, and C. longibursatus. Other prevalent species (34%-45%) were Cyathostomum tetracanthum, Cylicostephanus minutus and Gyalocephalus capitatus. Coronocyclus labiatus, Parapoteriostomum mettami, Poteriostomum imparidentatum and P. ratzii had the lowest prevalence. Most species showed high organ preference with a niche breadth value between 1 and 1.96 while only 7 species (Coronocyclus labiatus, Cyathostomum tetracanthum, C. brevicapsulatus, Cylicocyclus elongatus, C. insigne, C. leptostomum and C. radiatus) showed a more generalist selection. The niche breadth of 10 species was significantly (p<0.05) influenced by itself intensity (Coronocyclus labratus, Cyathostomum pateratum, C. tetracanthum, Cylicocyclus elongatus, C. radiatus, C. ultrajectinus, C. leptostomum, Cylicodontophorus euproctus, Poteriostomum imparidentatum, P. ratzii). The niche breadth of Cylicocyclus nassatus was positively (p<0.05) influenced by the summed intensity of the other species while that of Cylicocyclus elongatus was negatively (p<0.05) influenced by the intensity of the other species. The cluster analysis of the Cyathostominae community composition showed a major cluster composed by the three dominant species, followed by a cluster composed by Coronocyclus coronatus, while all the other species presented a tree like structure. PMID:27198801

  15. How does landscape use influence small mammal diversity, abundance and biomass in hedgerow networks of farming landscapes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Nadia; Burel, Françoise; Butet, Alain

    2006-07-01

    Over the last decades, profound changes in agricultural practices in the world have led to modifications of land-use as well as landscape structure and composition. Major changes resulted in enlargement of parcel size, increase of cultivated areas and drastic reduction of permanent elements such as woods, hedges or natural meadows. In this context we chose to investigate the composition and structure of small mammal communities in the hedgerow networks of three landscape units of Western France (Brittany) differing by their level of agricultural land-use intensity and hedgerow network density: a slightly intensified dense hedgerow network landscape unit (BOC1), a moderately intensified and fragmented hedgerow network landscape unit (BOC2) and a highly intensified landscape unit on an area reclaimed from the sea (POL). Characterization of small mammal communities was performed using live trapping on permanent habitats (eight hedges per landscape unit). In each of the 24 trapping units, a standardized method was used consisting of a baited 100-m trap-line. Diversity indices were used to compare the three communities. Species richness didn't vary across landscapes whereas Shannon's index of diversity underlined a clear difference between, on the one hand, the most intensified landscape unit (POL) which displayed the lowest diversity and, on the other hand, the two other less intensified units. The abundance of small mammals differed between the three sites: they were significantly more numerous in the hedges of the most intensified site than in hedges of the two other sites. Differences between species also appeared: for example, the Bank vole ( Clethrionomys glareolus) was very characteristic of POL, whereas the Pygmy shrew ( Sorex minutus) was much more associated with BOC sites. Within hedges, like for abundance, small mammal biomass was the highest in the most intensified site (POL > BOC2 = BOC1). On the contrary, at the landscape scale, biomass was the lowest in

  16. Species-specific patterns of aggregation of wild fish around fish farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempster, T.; Sanchez-Jerez, P.; Uglem, I.; Bjørn, P.-A.

    2010-01-01

    Fish-farming structures are widespread in coastal waters and are highly attractive to wild fish. Several studies have estimated that tons to tens of tons of wild fish aggregate around fish farms. These estimates assumed that the majority of wild fish are concentrated immediately beneath farms, although this assumption has never been explicitly tested. We tested the hypothesis that abundances of wild fish would be greatest immediately beneath farms and progressively diminish with distance at 4 full-scale coastal salmon ( Salmo salar) farms in Norway. At each farm, fish were counted with a video-camera system at 5 different distances from the cages (farm = 0 m, 25, 50, 100 and 200 m) throughout the water column on three separate days. Combined across all locations and times, the total abundance of wild fish was 20 times greater at the farm than at the 200 m sampling distance. Saithe ( Pollachius virens) dominated assemblages at all 4 farms and were consistently significantly more abundant at the farm than at the 25-200 m distances. This 'tight aggregation' around farms corresponds to the reliance of saithe on waste feed when they school near farms. In contrast, patterns of distribution of both cod ( Gadus morhua) and poor cod ( Trisopterus minutus) varied among farms, with either highest abundances at the farm or a more even distribution of abundance across all 5 distances sampled. No specific pattern of aggregation was evident for the bottom-dwelling haddock ( Melanogrammus aeglefinus). Our results suggest that the present 100 m no-fishing zone around salmon farms protects the greatest proportion of farm-aggregated saithe and cod from fishing during the daytime. However, whether this reduces their overall susceptibility to fishing requires further research regarding nighttime distribution and movements.

  17. Community of chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Amblycera and Ischnocera) parasites of resident birds at the Archipelago of São Pedro and São Paulo in northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, H M; Valim, M P; Gama, R A

    2014-09-01

    The current study describes the chewing lice community associated with seabird populations resident at the São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean in Pernambuco State, Brazil. Adults of three species of seabirds were captured using hand-nets for the collection of biometric data and specimens of ectoparasites. In total, 320 birds were examined (120 Sula leucogaster (Boddaert), Brown Booby; 120 Anous stolidus (L.), --Brown Noddy; and 80 Anous minutus Boie, Black Noddy) of which 95% were infested with 8,625 chewing lice, representing eight species of the genera Actornithophilus, Austromenopon, Eidmanniella, Pectinopygus, Quadraceps, and Saemundssonia. On S. leucogaster, Pectinopygus garbei (Pessôa & Guimarães) was more prevalent and had a mean and median intensity of infestation significantly greater than those recorded for Eidmanniella albescens (Piaget). On the two Noddies, the species of Actornithophilus and Quadraceps were significantly more prevalent and abundant than Austromenopon atrofulvum (Piaget) and Saemundssonia remota Timmermann Most of the louse species had a highly aggregated distribution, with k exponent of the negative binomial distribution ranging from 0.04 to 3.06. A weak but significant correlation was found between the abundance of chewing lice and morphometric variables (body weight, wing, beak, tail, and tarsus lengths). It is possible that high rates of infestation have a negative effect on the morphological characteristics of the hosts, including the health of the plumage. All the lice species collected--except for P. garbei (ex S. leucogaster)--were reported for the first time from Brazilian populations of these seabird species. PMID:25276921

  18. Effect of γ-irradiation on the volatile compounds of medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Sung-Lye; Hwang, In-Min; Ryu, Keun-Young; Jung, Min-Seok; Seo, Hye-young; Kim, Hee-Yeon; Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Kim, Kyong-Su

    2009-07-01

    A study was carried out to find the effect of γ-irradiation on contents of volatile compounds from medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix ( Paenia albiflora Pallas var. trichocarpa Bunge). The volatile compounds of control, 1, 3, 5 and 10 kGy irradiated samples were extracted by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) method and analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The major volatile compounds were paeonol, ( E)-carveol, ( E, E)-2,4-octadienal, methyl salicylate, myrtanol and eugenol acetate. Volatile compounds belonging to chemical classes of acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and miscellaneous were identified in all experimental samples. The types of volatile compounds in irradiated samples were similar to those of non-irradiated sample and the concentrations of these compounds differed between treatments. 1,3-Bis (1,1-dimethylethyl)-benzene was identified by using the selected ion monitoring (GC/MS-SIM) mode. The concentration of this compound increased with the increase of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that it could be used as the base data for the effect of γ-irradiation on medicinal herb.

  19. Innate Cellular Immune Responses in Aedes caspius (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Soliman, D E; Farid, H A; Hammad, R E; Gad, A M; Bartholomay, L C

    2016-03-01

    Mosquitoes transmit a variety of pathogens that have devastating consequences for global public and veterinary health. Despite their capacity to serve as vectors, these insects have a robust capacity to respond to invading organisms with strong cellular and humoral immune responses. In Egypt, Aedes caspius (Pallas, 1771) has been suspected to act as a bridge vector of Rift Valley Fever virus between animals and humans. Microscopic analysis of Ae. caspius hemolymph revealed the presence of phagocytic cells called granulocytes. We further evaluated cellular immune responses produced by Ae. caspius as a result of exposure to a Gram-negative, and Gram-positive bacterium, and to latex beads. After challenge, a rapid and strong phagocytic response against either a natural or synthetic invader was evident. Hemocyte integrity in bacteria-inoculated mosquitoes was not morphologically affected. The number of circulating granulocytes decreased with age, reducing the overall phagocytic capacity of mosquitoes over time. The magnitude and speed of the phagocytic response suggested that granulocytes act as an important force in the battle against foreign invaders, as has been characterized in other important mosquito vector species. PMID:26792848

  20. The Star Formation History of TR 14 and TR 16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degioia-Eastwood, K.; Throop, H.; Walker, G.; Cudworth, K.

    1997-05-01

    H-R diagrams are presented for the very young galactic clusters Trumpler 14 and Trumpler 16, which are the two most populous clusters in the region of vigorous star formation surrounding eta Carinae. Point-spread function photometry of UBV CCD images is presented to a limiting magnitude of V ~ 19 for over 560 stars in Tr 16 and 290 stars in Tr 14. We have also obtained similar data for local background fields. Existing proper motions (Cudworth et al. 1993) have allowed us to analyze the reddening of both cluster members and the local background stars, thus providing an excellent determination of the cluster membership far deeper than the original proper motions. This work has revealed a significant population of protostars in both clusters. The location of the protostars in the diagram indicates that the theoretical "stellar birthline" of Palla and Stahler (1993) is much closer to the observations than that of Beech and Mitalas (1986). We also use the protostars and most massive stars to put limits on the coevality of the cluster.

  1. The Star Formation History of Trumpler 14 and Trumpler 16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeGioia-Eastwood, K.; Throop, H.; Walker, G.; Cudworth, K. M.

    2001-03-01

    H-R diagrams are presented for the very young galactic clusters Trumpler 14 and Trumpler 16, which are the two most populous clusters in the region of vigorous star formation surrounding η Carinae. Point spread function photometry of UBV CCD images is presented down to V~19 for over 560 stars in Tr 16 and 290 stars in Tr 14. We have also obtained similar data for a local background field. After determining cluster membership through proper motions from a previous work, we find that the reddening of cluster members is significantly lower than that of the local background stars. Thus, we are able to use individual reddenings to identify likely members at far deeper levels than possible with proper motions. This work has revealed a significant population of pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars in both clusters. The location of the PMS stars in the H-R diagram indicates that the theoretical ``stellar birthline'' of Palla & Stahler follows the locus of stars far better than that of Beech & Mitalas. Comparison with both pre- and post-main-sequence isochrones also reveals that although intermediate-mass stars have been forming continuously over the last 10 Myr, the high-mass stars formed within the last 3 Myr. There is no evidence that the formation of the intermediate-mass stars was truncated by the formation of the high-mass stars.

  2. Transpiration as landfill leachate phytotoxicity indicator.

    PubMed

    Białowiec, Andrzej

    2015-05-01

    An important aspect of constructed wetlands design for landfill leachate treatment is the assessment of landfill leachate phytotoxicity. Intravital methods of plants response observation are required both for lab scale toxicity testing and field examination of plants state. The study examined the toxic influence of two types of landfill leachate from landfill in Zakurzewo (L1) and landfill in Wola Pawłowska (L2) on five plant species: reed Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud, manna grass Glyceria maxima (Hartm.) Holmb., bulrush Schoenoplectus lacustris (L.) Palla, sweet flag Acorus calamus L., and miscanthus Miscanthus floridulus (Labill) Warb. Transpiration measurement was used as indicator of plants response. The lowest effective concentration causing the toxic effect (LOEC) for each leachate type and plant species was estimated. Plants with the highest resistance to toxic factors found in landfill leachate were: sweet flag, bulrush, and reed. The LOEC values for these plants were, respectively, 17%, 16%, 9% in case of leachate L1 and 21%, 18%, 14% in case of L2. Leachate L1 was more toxic than L2 due to a higher pH value under similar ammonia nitrogen content, i.e. pH 8.74 vs. pH 8.00. PMID:25708408

  3. Determination of the dissociation constants of the cephalosporins cefepime and cefpirome using UV spectrometry and pH potentiometry.

    PubMed

    Evagelou, Vassilis; Tsantili-Kakoulidou, Anna; Koupparis, Michael

    2003-04-10

    UV spectrometry and pH potentiometry were used for the determination and direct characterization of the dissociation constants of cefepime (Cef) and cefpirome. The absorbance/pH profiles at two analytical wavelengths and different conditions were assessed and found to conform to those of diprotic acids. The titration curves indicated a triprotic acid profile with two overlapping dissociation constants. The comparison of the results of both techniques permitted the direct attribution of the three dissociation constants to the carboxylic group at position 4 of the Delta-3 cephem nucleus, the aminothiazole group and the amide group at position 7 of the Delta-3 cephem nucleus. Stability studies of Cef in alkaline solutions were also performed in order to evaluate the accuracy of the measurements carried out for the determination of the third pK(a) value. The experimental pK(a) values were compared to the corresponding predicted values derived by PALLAS/PKALC and Advanced Chemical Development (ACD) software packages. PMID:12667928

  4. Ensemble forecasting of potential habitat for three invasive fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poulos, Helen M.; Chernoff, Barry; Fuller, Pam L.; Butman, David

    2012-01-01

    Aquatic invasive species pose major ecological and economic threats to aquatic ecosystems worldwide via displacement, predation, or hybridization with native species and the alteration of aquatic habitats and hydrologic cycles. Modeling the habitat suitability of alien aquatic species through spatially explicit mapping is an increasingly important risk assessment tool. Habitat modeling also facilitates identification of key environmental variables influencing invasive species distributions. We compared four modeling methods to predict the potential continental United States distributions of northern snakehead Channa argus (Cantor, 1842), round goby Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas, 1814), and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes, 1844) using maximum entropy (Maxent), the genetic algorithm for rule set production (GARP), DOMAIN, and support vector machines (SVM). We used inventory records from the USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database and a geographic information system of 20 climatic and environmental variables to generate individual and ensemble distribution maps for each species. The ensemble maps from our study performed as well as or better than all of the individual models except Maxent. The ensemble and Maxent models produced significantly higher accuracy individual maps than GARP, one-class SVMs, or DOMAIN. The key environmental predictor variables in the individual models were consistent with the tolerances of each species. Results from this study provide insights into which locations and environmental conditions may promote the future spread of invasive fish in the US.

  5. Gregarious pupation act as a defensive mechanism against cannibalism and intraguild predation.

    PubMed

    Roberge, Claudia; Fréchette, Bruno; Labrie, Geneviève; Dumont, François; Lucas, Eric

    2016-08-01

    Coccinellid pupae use an array of defensive strategies against their natural enemies. This study aims to assess the efficiency of gregarious pupation as a defensive mechanism against intraguild predators and cannibals in coccinellid. The study was designed specifically (i) to determine the natural occurrence of gregarious pupation in the field for different coccinellid species, and (ii) to evaluate the adaptive value of gregarious pupation as a defensive mechanism against 2 types of predators (i.e., cannibals and intraguild predators). In the field, gregarious pupation consisted of a group of 2-5 pupae. The proportion of gregarious pupation observed varied according to species, the highest rate being observed with Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coccinellidae; 14.17%). Gregarious pupation had no impact on the probability that intraguild predators and cannibals locate pupae. Intraguild predation occurred more often in site with gregarious pupation, while cannibalism occurred as often in site with gregarious pupation as in site with isolated pupa. However, for a specific pupa, the mortality rate was higher for isolated pupae than for pupae located in a gregarious pupation site both in the presence of intraguild predators and in the presence of cannibals. The spatial location of pupae within the group had no impact on mortality rate. Since it reduces the risk of predation, it is proposed that gregarious pupation act as a defensive mechanism for H. axyridis pupae. PMID:25684624

  6. Anti-tumor effect of Radix Paeoniae Rubra extract on mice bladder tumors using intravesical therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Mei-Yi; Chiang, Su-Yin; Li, Yi-Zhen; Chen, Mei-Fang; Chen, Yueh-Sheng; Wu, Jin-Yi; Liu, Yi-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Radix Paeoniae Rubra (RPR) is the dried root of Paeonia lactiflora Pallas and Paeonia veitchii Lynch, and is a herbal medicine that is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of blood-heat and blood-stasis syndrome, similarly to Cortex Moutan. The present study identified the same three components in RPR and Cortex Moutan extracts. In addition, it has been reported that RPR has an anti-cancer effect. Bladder cancer is the seventh most common type of cancer worldwide. Due to the high recurrence rate, identifying novel drugs for bladder cancer therapy is essential. In the present study, RPR extract was evaluated as a bladder cancer therapy in vitro and in vivo. The present results revealed that RPR extract reduced the cell viability of bladder cancer cells with a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 1–3 mg/ml, and had an extremely low cytotoxic effect on normal urothelial cells. Additionally, RPR decreased certain cell cycle populations, predominantly cells in the G1 phase, and caused a clear sub-G increase. In a mouse orthotopic bladder tumor model, intravesical application of RPR extract decreased the bladder tumor size without altering the blood biochemical parameters of the mice. In summary, the present results demonstrate the anti-proliferative properties of RPR extract on bladder cancer cells, and its anti-bladder tumor effect in vivo. Compared to Cortex Moutan extract, RPR extract may provide a more effective alternative therapeutic strategy for the intravesical therapy of superficial bladder cancer. PMID:27446367

  7. A Simple Method for In-Field Sex Determination of the Multicolored Asian Lady Beetle Harmonia axyridis

    PubMed Central

    McCornack, B. P.; Koch, R. L.; Ragsdale, D. W.

    2007-01-01

    The multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), has become a popular study organism due to its promise as a biological control agent and its potential adverse, non-target impacts. Behavioral and ecological research on H. axyridis, including examinations of its impacts, could benefit from non-destructive or non-disruptive sexing techniques for this coccinellid. External morphological characters were evaluated for H. axyridis (succinea color form) sex determination in laboratory and field studies. The shape of the distal margin of the fifth visible abdominal sternite accurately predicted H. axyridis sex for all beetles examined. Males consistently had a concave distal margin, while females had a convex distal margin. In addition, pigmentation of the labrum and prosternum were both significantly associated with H. axyridis sex; males had light pigmentation and females had dark pigmentation. Labrum and prosternum pigmentation increased from light to dark with decreasing rearing temperature and increasing time after adult eclosion for females. Male pigmentation was only affected by a decrease in rearing temperature. Validation through in-field collections indicated that these predictors were accurate. However, labrum pigmentation is a more desirable character to use to determine sex, because it is more accurate and easily accessible. Therefore, we recommend using labrum pigmentation for in-field sex determination of H. axyridis. Implications of this diagnostic technique for applied and basic research on this natural enemy are discussed. PMID:20331402

  8. Assessment of Yamuna and associated drains used for irrigation in rural and peri-urban settings of Delhi NCR.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Arghya; Dey, Priyadarshini; Gola, Deepak; Mishra, Abhishek; Malik, Anushree; Patel, Neelam

    2015-01-01

    The present study assessed the quality of Yamuna River and the Najafgarh drain water for irrigational purposes in the Delhi region in terms of spatial variations in the physicochemical characteristics as well as heavy metal concentrations. The monitoring was done for the period July 2012-August 2013 representing pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post-monsoon sessions and considering six physicochemical parameters. Heavy metals such as cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, zinc, and lead have been found in the river due to rampant discharge of industrial effluents into the river. The mean metal concentrations in the 15 sampling sites were in the range of (mg L(-1)) 0.02-0.64 (Cu), 0-0.42 (Cr), 0.13-2.22(Zn), 0.03-0.27 (Pb), 0-0.07 (Cd), and 0.01-0.13 (Ni). Multivariate statistics (PCA and HCA) were used to identify the possible sources of metal contamination and to examine the spatial changes in the Yamuna River as well as in the Najafgarh drain. This study reveals the occurrence of mean Cd concentration above the safe limit at Palla, Christian Ashram and Jagatpur of the Yamuna river while Punjabi Bagh of the Najafgarh drain necessitate treatment in terms of heavy metals such as Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn before it could be rendered useful for irrigation. PMID:25410949

  9. Water quality modeling for urban reach of Yamuna river, India (1999-2009), using QUAL2Kw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Deepshikha; Kansal, Arun; Pelletier, Greg

    2015-08-01

    The study was to characterize and understand the water quality of the river Yamuna in Delhi (India) prior to an efficient restoration plan. A combination of collection of monitored data, mathematical modeling, sensitivity, and uncertainty analysis has been done using the QUAL2Kw, a river quality model. The model was applied to simulate DO, BOD, total coliform, and total nitrogen at four monitoring stations, namely Palla, Old Delhi Railway Bridge, Nizamuddin, and Okhla for 10 years (October 1999-June 2009) excluding the monsoon seasons (July-September). The study period was divided into two parts: monthly average data from October 1999-June 2004 (45 months) were used to calibrate the model and monthly average data from October 2005-June 2009 (45 months) were used to validate the model. The R2 for CBODf and TN lies within the range of 0.53-0.75 and 0.68-0.83, respectively. This shows that the model has given satisfactory results in terms of R2 for CBODf, TN, and TC. Sensitivity analysis showed that DO, CBODf, TN, and TC predictions are highly sensitive toward headwater flow and point source flow and quality. Uncertainty analysis using Monte Carlo showed that the input data have been simulated in accordance with the prevalent river conditions.

  10. Distribution and dispersal of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) in the Great Lakes region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffiths, Ronald W.; Schloesser, Donald W.; Leach, Joseph H.; Kovalak, William P.

    1991-01-01

    Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas), a small mussel common throughout most of Europe, was discovered in June of 1988 in the southern part of Lake St. Clair. Length–frequency analyses of populations from the Great Lakes and review of historical benthic studies suggest that the mussel was introduced into Lake St. Clair in late 1986, probably as a result of the discharge of ballast water from an ocean-crossing vessel. Following the 1990 reproductive season, Dreissenapopulations ranged from the head of the St. Clair River, through Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Welland Canal, and the Niagara River to the western basin and southern shoreline of Lake Ontario. Isolated populations were found in the St. Lawrence River and in harbours in Lakes Huron, Michigan, and Superior. The rapid dispersal of this organism has resulted from its high fecundity, pelagic larval stage, bysso-pelagic drifting ability of juveniles, and human activities associated with commercial shipping, fishing, and boating (research and pleasure). Virtually any waterbody that can be reached by boaters and fisherman within a few days travel of the lower Great Lakes, particularly Lake Erie, seems to be at risk of being invaded by this nuisance species.

  11. Differential consumption of four aphid species by four lady beetle species.

    PubMed

    Finlayson, Christy; Alyokhin, Andrei; Gross, Serena; Porter, Erin

    2010-01-01

    The acceptability of four different aphid species Macrosiphum albifrons (Essig), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), Macrosiphum pseudorosae Patch, and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), as prey for four lady beetle species, one native species Coccinella trifasciata L, and three non-native Coccinella septempunctata L, Harmonia axyridis Pallas, Propylea quatuordecimpunctata L (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were tested in the laboratory. The relative field abundance of adults of the same lady beetle species on host vegetation, Lupinus polyphyllus Lindley (Fabales: Fabaceae), Solanum tuberosum L (Solanales: Solanaceae), and Rosa multiflora Thunberg (Rosales: Rosaceae), both with and without aphids present was also observed. In the laboratory, H. axyridis generally consumed the most aphids, while P. quatuordecimpunctata consumed the fewest. The exception was P. quatuordecimpunctata, which consumed a greater number of M. albifrons nymphs, and C. trifasciata, which consumed a greater number of M. albifrons nymphs and adults, compared with the other two beetle species. Lady beetles consumed fewer M. albifrons compared with the other three aphid species, likely because of deterrent compounds sequestered by this species from its host plant. In the field, P. quatuordecimpunctata was the most abundant species found on L. polyphyllus and S. tuberosum. PMID:20578952

  12. On whose shoulders we stand - the pioneering entomological discoveries of Károly Sajó.

    PubMed

    Vig, Károly

    2011-01-01

    The excellence of Károly Sajó as a researcher into Hungary's natural history has been undeservedly neglected. Yet he did lasting work, especially in entomology, and a number of his discoveries and initiatives were before their time.Born in 1851 in Győr, he received his secondary education there and went to Pest University. He taught in a grammar school in 1877-88 before spending seven years as an entomologist at the National Phylloxera Experimental Station, later the Royal Hungarian State Entomological Station. Pensioned off at his own request in 1895, he moved to Őrszentmiklós, where he continued making entomological observations on his own farm and wrote the bulk of his published materials: almost 500 longer or shorter notes, articles and books, mainly on entomological subjects.Sajó was among the first in the world to publish in 1896 a study of how the weather affects living organisms, entitled Living Barometers. His Sleep in Insects, which appeared in the same year, described his discovery, from 1895 observations of the red turnip beetle, Entomoscelis adonidis (Pallas, 1771), of aestivation in insects - in present-day terms diapause.It was a great loss to universal entomology when Sajó ceased publishing about 25 years before his death. His unpublished notes, with his library and correspondence, were destroyed in the World War II. His surviving insect collection is now kept in the Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest. PMID:22303108

  13. Preventing species invasion: A role for integrative taxonomy?

    PubMed

    Mazzamuto, Maria V; Galimberti, Andrea; Cremonesi, Giacomo; Pisanu, Benoît; Chapuis, Jean-Louis; Stuyck, Jan; Amori, Giovanni; Su, Haijun; Aloise, Gaetano; Preatoni, Damiano G; Wauters, Lucas A; Casiraghi, Maurizio; Martinoli, Adriano

    2016-05-01

    Integrative taxonomy, a multi-disciplinary approach adding modern techniques to traditional morphology-based methods (e.g. molecular and morphological criteria), can play an important role in bioinvasion research to identify introduced taxa, discover pathways of introduction and inform authorities to control and prevent future introductions. The present study is the first on introduced populations of Callosciurus, Asiatic tree squirrels, known as potentially invasive species in Europe (Italy, Belgium and France). We combined molecular (mitochondrial DNA markers: CoxI, D-loop) and morphometric analysis on skulls, comparing them to the widest morphological and molecular datasets ever assembled for Callosciurus. Squirrels collected in Italy and Belgium share the same haplotypes and skull characteristics, but are conspicuously different from the French population in Antibes. Genetic data revealed close similarity between French squirrels and Pallas's squirrels, Callosciurus erythraeus, from Taiwan, China. Italian and Belgian squirrels formed an independent taxonomic lineage in genetic analyses, whose taxonomic rank needs further investigation. The morphological and morphometric characteristics of these 2 populations are, however, similar to known specimens assigned to Callosciurus erythraeus. These results may indicate a common origin for the populations found in Belgium and Italy. In contrast, French specimens suggest an independent introduction event of squirrels originating from Asia. PMID:26748591

  14. Safety and Efficacy of Dronedarone in the Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation/Flutter

    PubMed Central

    Naccarelli, Gerald V.; Wolbrette, Deborah L.; Levin, Vadim; Samii, Soraya; Banchs, Javier E.; Penny-Peterson, Erica; Gonzalez, Mario D.

    2011-01-01

    Dronedarone is an amiodarone analog but differs structurally from amiodarone in that the iodine moiety was removed and a methane-sulfonyl group was added. These modifications reduced thyroid and other end-organ adverse effects and makes dronedarone less lipophilic, shortening its half-life. Dronedarone has been shown to prevent atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF/AFl) recurrences in several multi-center trials. In addition to its rhythm control properties, dronedarone has rate control properties and slows the ventricular response during AF. Dronedarone is approved in Europe for rhythm and rate control indications. In patients with decompensated heart failure, dronedarone treatment increased mortality and cardiovascular hospitalizations. However, when dronedarone was used in elderly high risk AF/AFl patients excluding such high risk heart failure, cardiovascular hospitalizations were significantly reduced and the drug was approved in the USA for this indication in 2009 by the Food and Drug Administration. Updated guidelines suggest dronedarone as a front-line antiarrhythmic in many patients with AF/Fl but caution that the drug should not be used in patients with advanced heart failure. In addition, the recent results of the PALLAS trial suggest that dronedarone should not be used in the long-term treatment of patients with permanent AF. PMID:22084608

  15. Prevalence and intensity of Streblidae in bats from a Neotropical savanna region in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Ludmilla M S; Antonini, Yasmine

    2016-01-01

    Bats of the family Phyllostomidae are common hosts to streblids known as bat flies. Here, we discuss the component community, prevalence and intensity of infection with species of Streblidae on an assemblage of phyllostomid bats in the Cafuringa Environmental Protection Area (APA Cafuringa) in the core area of the Cerrado in Central Brazil. A total of 1 841 streblid individuals of 24 species occurred on 752 bats of 14 species. Ten species of streblids infected Glossophaga soricina (Pallas), whereas seven or fewer streblid species infected the other bat species. Nine bat fly species presented a prevalence of more than 50%, whereas some differences in the abundance of bat flies among hosts were observed. Strebla wiedemanni Kolenati, 1856 and Trichobius furmani Wenzel, 1966 were more host-specific compared to the other streblids, and they occurred in greater abundance on their preferred hosts. Trichobius uniformis Curran, 1935 and Strebla mirabilis (Waterhouse, 1879) were the least host-specific, occurring on five and six hosts, respectively. PMID:27507561

  16. Using Massive Parallel Sequencing for the Development, Validation, and Application of Population Genetics Markers in the Invasive Bivalve Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha)

    PubMed Central

    Peñarrubia, Luis; Sanz, Nuria; Pla, Carles; Vidal, Oriol; Viñas, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha, Pallas, 1771) is one of the most invasive species of freshwater bivalves, due to a combination of biological and anthropogenic factors. Once this species has been introduced to a new area, individuals form dense aggregations that are very difficult to remove, leading to many adverse socioeconomic and ecological consequences. In this study, we identified, tested, and validated a new set of polymorphic microsatellite loci (also known as SSRs, Single Sequence Repeats) using a Massive Parallel Sequencing (MPS) platform. After several pruning steps, 93 SSRs could potentially be amplified. Out of these SSRs, 14 were polymorphic, producing a polymorphic yield of 15.05%. These 14 polymorphic microsatellites were fully validated in a first approximation of the genetic population structure of D. polymorpha in the Iberian Peninsula. Based on this polymorphic yield, we propose a criterion for establishing the number of SSRs that require validation in similar species, depending on the final use of the markers. These results could be used to optimize MPS approaches in the development of microsatellites as genetic markers, which would reduce the cost of this process. PMID:25780924

  17. Postoncospheral development and cycle of Taenia polyacantha Leuckart, 1856 (Cestoda: Taeniidae). First part.

    PubMed

    Rausch, R L; Fay, F H

    1988-01-01

    The postoncospheral development and cycle of Taenia polyacantha Leuckart, 1856, an holarctic species of cestode, were investigated in the laboratory as well as in the tundra of northern Alaska. Foxes, Alopex lapogus (L.) and Vulpes vulpes (L.), serve as final host of T. polyacantha; the northern vole, Microtus oeconomus (Pallas), and the brown lemming, Lemmus sibiricus (Kerr), are important as the intermediate host. As determined in experimentally infected voles and lemmings, the oncosphere of T. polyacantha transformed to a primary vesicle in the liver. On the 6th day postexposure, coinciding with its migration to the peritoneal cavity, the larval cestode consisted of a minute aggregation of secondary vesicles. By 9-10 days postexposure, the secondary vesicles dissociated, thereafter developing independently to infective cysticerci by 30-40 days postexposure. At an age of about 60 days, the infective larvae began to undergo further growth and morphological modification, which led to acquisition of some strobilar characteristics by the forebody. Such late transformation of a cysticercus to a more advanced form of larva is known otherwise only in Taenia martis (Zeder, 1803). Differences in numbers and sizes of rostellar hooks provided the basis for recognition of two taxa at the infraspecific level: Taenia p. polyacantha Leuckart, 1856, distributed in Eurasia to the south of the zone of tundra, and T. p. arctica ssp. nov., present throughout the holarctic tundra. Observations concerning interactions of T. polyacantha and its hosts are discussed. PMID:3059953

  18. An interactive survey panel regarding the effects of mice (Microtus spec.) on a young ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaplata, Markus; Maurer, Thomas; Boldt-Burisch, Katja; Schaaf, Wolfgang; Hinz, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Apparent disturbance caused by soil megafauna took place for the very first time in 2014, after nine years of spontaneous vegetative succession of the constructed watershed Chicken Creek catchment (6 ha). This watershed was designed to investigate the initial phase of soil and ecosystem development under natural conditions including the detailed study of hydrologic processes and water-substrate-plant-atmosphere interactions. In autumn 2014, we recorded the primarily common vole (Microtus arvalis Pallas) activities (calamity), which altered the microtopography of the substrate surface: We counted mouse holes and diggings (for storage organs) at the same spatial units (permanent plots, >100 # of 5 m × 5 m) where we monitor the vegetation since the onset of the catchment. We are hence capable of analysing the effect of abundant vegetarian mice and biogenic macropores, e.g. on the occurrence and performance of the more than 150 vascular plant species present by comparing the respective coverage in 2013 (the pre-mice year) versus 2014, with or without accounting for the confounding effect of succession. Additionally elaborated insight on the 3-D architecture of the mice underground corridors and the nesting places (in situ) enables to extrapolate mass and volume of the moved substrate and the number of the nests of mice for the whole catchment. We report these results, anticipating a return service: Here, we ask for your expectation regarding the significance of the mice-made disturbance on the vegetation of the young ecosystem.

  19. Spiculogenesis in the siliceous sponge Lubomirskia baicalensis studied with fluorescent staining.

    PubMed

    Annenkov, Vadim V; Danilovtseva, Elena N

    2016-04-01

    Siliceous sponges are the most primitive multicellular animals whose skeleton consists of spicules - needle-like constructions from silicon dioxide surrounding organic axial filaments. Mechanisms of spicule formation have been intensively studied due to the high ecological importance of sponges and their interest to materials science. Light and electron microscopy are not appropriate enough to display the process from silicon-enriched cells to mature spicules because of composite structure of the sponge tissues. In this article, spiculogenesis in the siliceous sponge has been studied for the first time with the use of fluorescent microscopy. Fluorescent vital dye NBD-N2 was applied to stain growing siliceous structures in the sponge and primmorph cell system. The main stages of spicule growth in the fresh-water sponge Lubomirskia baicalensis (Pallas, 1773) were visualized: silicon accumulation in sclerocytes; formation of an organic filament protruding from the cell; further elongation of the filament and growth of the spicule in a spindle-like form with enlargement in the center; merger with new sclerocytes and formation of the mature spicule. Fluorescent microscopy combined with SEM allows us to overcome the virtual differentiation between intra- and extracellular mechanisms of spicule growth. The growing spicule can capture silicic acid from the extracellular space and merge with new silicon-enriched cells. Visualization of the growing spicules with the fluorescent dye allows us to monitor sponge viability in ecological or toxicological experiments and to apply genomic, proteomic and biochemical techniques. PMID:26821342

  20. Effect of Lures and Colors on Capture of Lady Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Tedders Pyramidal Traps.

    PubMed

    Kemp, E A; Cottrell, T E

    2015-10-01

    Purposeful attraction and aggregation of adult Coccinellidae at target sites would be useful for sampling purposes and pest suppression. We field-tested 1) lures in yellow and black pyramidal traps and 2) pyramidal traps that had been painted one or two colors (without lures) to determine if lures or trap color affected capture of adult Coccinellidae. In only one experiment with lures did a single rate of limonene increase trap capture, whereas no other lure ever did. Yellow traps, regardless of using a lure, always captured significantly more lady beetles than black traps. When single-color red, orange, yellow, green, blue, purple, black, and white traps (without lures) were tested, yellow traps captured significantly more lady beetles. Of all species of Coccinellidae captured in these single-color traps, 95% were the exotic species Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) and Coccinella septempunctata L. H. axyridis alone dominated trap capture comprising 74.1% of all lady beetles. Two-color traps (yellow-green, yellow-orange, yellow-white, and yellow-black) never captured more than single-color yellow traps. These results demonstrate that yellow pyramidal traps can be used to purposefully attract, and when used without a collection device, possibly aggregate adult Coccinellidae at targeted field sites. PMID:26314010

  1. Aggregation behavior of Harmonia axyridis under non-wintering conditions.

    PubMed

    Durieux, Delphine; Fassotte, Bérénice; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis; Brostaux, Yves; Vandereycken, Axel; Joie, Emilie; Haubruge, Eric; Verheggen, François J

    2015-10-01

    The invasive multicolored Asian ladybeetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), aggregates inside dwellings during winter to avoid cold weather. This adaptive behavior disturbs homeowners, because of the large numbers of individuals that aggregate, which induces allergic reactions. The migratory flight patterns of this species have been well documented, with individuals preferentially moving toward prominent and high color contrast elements. However, the factors involved in the selection of aggregation sites by this species have yet to be elucidated. Here, we evaluated the influence of (i) the density of individuals and (ii) the type of available shelters on decisions by H. axyridis to settle and aggregate under shelters. A dual choice bioassay conducted in the laboratory demonstrated the presence of mutual attraction to conspecifics. We also found that individuals preferentially settled under red covered shelters compared to transparent shelters, and that the type of shelter outweighed the effect of social interactions among conspecifics. Moreover, this experiment was performed under non-wintering conditions, providing the first evidence that aggregative behavior in this species can also occur under those specific conditions. PMID:24889907

  2. Numerical ephemerides of planets and natural satellites of IAA RAS and their uses for scientific research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitjeva, E.; Kosmodamianskiy, G.; Pavlov, D.; Pitjev, N.; Poroshina, A.; Skripnichenko, V.

    2014-12-01

    The dynamical model of the planetary part of the EPM2013 ephemerides of the IAA RAS has been fitted to about 800000 observations of different types (1913-2013). Their reference frame has been established with 321 ICRF-based VLBI measurements of spacecrafts near planets taken into account. EPM ephemerides serve as the basis for the Russian Astronomical and Nautical Astronomical Yearbooks, are planned to be used in the GLONASS and LUNA-RESOURCE programs, and are used for determination of physical parameters (asteroids masses, planet rotation, topography), GM_Sun and its secular variation, the PPN parameters, the upper limit on mass of the dark matter in the Solar System. Moreover, numerical ephemerides of the 22 main planet satellites have been constructed; they also provide the basis for improving positions of the outer planets. Files containing polynomial approximation for EPM ephemerides (EPM2004, EPM2008, EPM2011) along with TT-TDB and ephemerides of Ceres, Pallas, Vesta, Eris, Haumea, Makemake, and Sedna are available from ftp://quasar.ipa.nw.ru/incoming/ EPM/. The files are provided in IAA's binary and ASCII formats, as well as SPK and PCK formats.

  3. Comparison of the partitioning of pesticides relative to the survival and behaviour of exposed amphipods.

    PubMed

    Hellou, Jocelyne; Leonard, Jim; Cook, Art; Doe, Ken; Dunphy, Kathryn; Jackman, Paula; Tremblay, Laurie; Flemming, Joanna Mills

    2009-01-01

    Pesticides sprayed on farmlands can end up in rivers and be transported into estuaries, where they could affect aquatic organisms in freshwater and marine habitats. A series of experiments were conducted using the amphipod Corophium volutator Pallas (Amphipoda, Corophiidae) and single pesticides, namely atrazine (AT), azinphos-methyl (AZ), carbofuran (CA) and endosulfan (EN) that were added to sediments and covered with seawater. Our goal was to compare the concentrations affecting the survival of the animals relative to potential attractant or repellent properties of sediment-spiked pesticides. The avoidance/preference of contaminated/reference sediments by amphipods was examined after 48 and 96 h of exposure using sediments with different organic carbon content. The octanol-water partition coefficients (log K(ow)) ranked the pesticides binding to sediments as EN > AZ > AT > CA. LC(50) and LC(20) covered a wide range of nominal concentrations and ranked toxicity as CA-AZ > EN > AT. Under the experimental set up, only EN initiated an avoidance response and the organic carbon normalised concentration provided consistent results. Using the present data with wide confidence limits, >20% of a population of C. volutator could perish due to the presence of EN before relocation or detecting CA or AZ in sediments by chemical analysis. PMID:18785007

  4. Toxicity tests based on predator-prey and competitive interactions between freshwater macroinvertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, E.J.; Blockwell, S.J.; Pascoe, D.

    1994-12-31

    Simple multi-species toxicity tests based on the predation of Daphnia magna Straus by Hydra oligactis (Pallas) and competition between Gammarus pulex (L.) and Asellus aquaticus (L.) were used to determine the effects of three reference chemicals. Criteria examined included functional responses; time to first captures; handling times (predator/prey systems) and co-existence and growth. The tests which proved most practicable and sensitive (lowest observed effects 0.1, 21, and 80 {micro}g/l for lindane, copper and 3,4 dichloroaniline, respectively) were: (1) predator-prey tests: determining changes in the size-structure of predated D. magna populations and (2) competition tests: measuring the feeding rate of G. pulex competing with A. aquaticus, using a bioassay based on the time-response analysis of the consumption of Artemia salina eggs. The concentration of a chemical which affected particular response criteria was fond to depend on the test system employed. Results of the tests indicated that effects were often not dose-related and that a given criterion could be variously affected by different test concentrations. The complex pattern of responses may be explained in terms of the differential sensitivity of the interacting species and perhaps subtle alteration in strategies. The sensitivity of the bioassay endpoints is compared to those of a range of single species tests, and their value for predicting the impact pollutants may have upon natural freshwater ecosystems is discussed.

  5. New species and records of mites of the superfamily Sarcoptoidea (Acariformes: Psoroptidia) from mammals in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bochkov, Andre V; Valim, Michel P

    2016-01-01

    Sixteen species of the superfamily Sarcoptoidea (Acariformes: Psoroptidia) belonging to 10 genera of the families Atopomelidae, Listrophoridae, Chirodiscidae, and Listropsoralgidae are recorded in Brazil. Among them, three species, Prolistrophorus hylaeamys sp. nov. from Hylaeamys laticeps (Lund, 1840) (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae) from Minas Gerais, Lynxacarus serrafreirei sp. nov. from Galictis cuja (Molina, 1782) (Carnivora: Mustelidae) from Rio de Janeiro (Listrophoridae), and Didelphoecius micoureus sp. nov. (Atopomelidae) from Micoureus paraguayanus (Tate, 1931) (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) from Minas Gerais are described as new for science. Three species of the family Listrophoridae, Prolistrophorus bidentatus Fain et Lukoschus, 1984 from Akodon cursor (Winge, 1887) (Rodentia: Cricetidae) (new host), Prolistrophorus ctenomys Fain, 1970 from Ctenomys torquatus Lichtenstein, 1830 (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae) (new host), and Leporacarus sylvilagi Fain, Whitaker et Lukoschus, 1981 from Sylvilagus brasiliensis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lagomorpha: Leporidae) (new host) -from Minas Gerais and Rio Grande do Sul, and one species of the family Chirodiscidae, Parakosa tadarida McDaniel and Lawrence, 1962 from Molossus molossus (Pallas, 1766) (Chiroptera: Molossidae) are recorded for the first time in Brazil. The previously unknown female of Didelphoecius validus Fain, Zanatta-Coutinho et Fonseca, 1996 (Atopomelidae) from Metachirus nudicaudatus (Geoffroy, 1803) (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) from Minas Gerais is described. All data on host-parasite associations of sarcoptoids in Brazil are summarized. Totally, 61 sarcoptoid species of 8 families are recorded in Brazil. PMID:26751869

  6. Atmospheric methane time series from Finland and Siberia: source areas and surface flux estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilkki, Juho; Aalto, Tuula; Kouznetsov, Rostislav; Hatakka, Juha; Makelä, Timo; Leskinen, Ari; Laurila, Tuomas

    2016-04-01

    We present atmospheric methane concentrations from a diverse set of Finnish stations and Tiksi, northeastern Siberia, and associate them with source areas and surface fluxes. In Finland, synoptic time scale concentrations are consistent with observations from the WMO/GAW site Pallas, with little difference in mean concentration in well-mixed cases. However, source areas determined with a backward dispersion model show that there is a gradient in sensitivity to both anthropogenic and wetland emissions among the stations. We estimate these flux components in the northern parts of Europe using the available observations. In Tiksi, the concentrations are consistent with nearby micrometeorological measurements and a remote-sensed wetness distribution in the region. Wintertime concentrations are usually close to background concentrations in a global transport model, and overall there are few events attributable to the ocean. In a Bayesian atmospheric inversion with weather-independent emissions, the oceanic source is about a third of wetland emissions in our study area that covers most of northern Yakutia and the East-Siberian Arctic Shelf.

  7. Purification of Alaskan walleye pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus) and New Zealand hoki (Macruronus novaezelandiae) liver oil using short path distillation.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Alex C M; Miller, Matthew R

    2014-05-01

    The beneficial health effects of a diet rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) have been extensively researched in recent years. Marine oils are an important dietary source of n-3 LC-PUFA, being especially rich in two of the most important fatty acids of this class, EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid; 20:5n-3) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid; 22:6n-3). Oils rich in n-3 LC-PUFA are prone to oxidation that leads to loss of product quality. Alaskan pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus Pallas, 1814) and New Zealand's hoki (Macruronus novaezelandiae Hector, 1871) are the highest volume fisheries of their respective countries. Both produce large quantities of fishery byproducts, in particular crude or unrefined n-3 LC-PUFA containing oils. Presently these oils are used as ingredients for animal feed, and only limited quantities are used as human nutritional products. The aim of this research was to investigate the applicability of short path distillation for the purification of pollock and hoki oil to produce purified human-grade fish oil to meet quality specifications. Pollock and hoki oils were subjected to short path distillation and a significant decrease in free fatty acids and lipid oxidation (peroxide and para-anisidine values) products was observed. Purified oils met the Global Organization for EPA and DHA Omega-3 (GOED) standard for edible fish oils. PMID:24858408

  8. Influence of stability and fragmentation of a worm-reef on benthic macrofauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godet, Laurent; Fournier, Jérôme; Jaffré, Mikaël; Desroy, Nicolas

    2011-05-01

    In coastal areas, reef-builder worms often are bio-engineers by structuring their physical and biological environment. Many studies showed that this engineering role is determined by the densities of the engineer species itself, the highest densities approximately corresponding to the most stable areas from a sedimentological point of view, and hosting the richest and the most diverse benthic fauna. Here, we tested the potential influence of the spatio-temporal dynamics and the spatial fragmentation of one of the largest European intertidal reefs generated by the marine worm Lanice conchilega (Pallas, 1766) (Annelida, Polychaeta) on the associated benthic macrofauna. We demonstrated that the worm densities do have a significant positive role on the abundance, biomass, species richness and species diversity of the benthic macrofauna and that the reef stability also significantly influences the biomass and species diversity. Moreover, the reef fragmentation has significant negative effects on the abundance, biomass and species richness. In addition to L. conchilega densities, the stability and the spatial fragmentation of the reef also significantly structure the associated benthic assemblages. This study demonstrates the interest of "benthoscape ecology" in understanding the role played by marine engineer species from a spatial point of view.

  9. How the first dwarf planet became the asteroid Ceres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Clifford J.; Marsden, Brian G.; Orchiston, Wayne

    2009-11-01

    The discovery on 1 January 1801 of an object between Mars and Jupiter was the most remarkable astronomical discovery since the planet Uranus had been found in 1781. Its discoverer, Giuseppe Piazzi at Palermo Observatory in Sicily, was quick to name it Ceres Ferdinandea. But the discovery was considered so important that it sparked national rivalries. In Germany, the much anticipated planet had been dubbed Hera sixteen years previously, and other Germans quickly gave it their own names. Some leading French astronomers soundly rejected Ceres Ferdinandea, preferring to call it Piazzi, while others in Paris accepted the name Ceres, while at the same time objecting to Ferdinandea. Once another ‘planet’ dubbed Pallas was discovered in 1802, William Herschel realised that astronomers were dealing with a new class of object. He was uncertain what name should be employed however, so he canvassed his friends and colleagues for suggestions. Not content with the often ludicrous ideas put forward, he coined the word asteroid. This paper reveals these dual nomenclature issues through previously unpublished private letters, an Italian journal, and the much more sedate language used in printed journals.

  10. A new species of Demodex (Acari: Demodecidae) with data on topical specificity and topography of demodectic mites in the striped field mouse Apodemus agrarius (Rodentia: Muridae).

    PubMed

    Izdebska, Joanna N; Rolbiecki, Leszek

    2013-11-01

    This article describes morphological characteristics and the occurrence of Demodex gracilentus sp. nov., which was found in the striped field mouse Apodemus agrarius (Pallas, 1771) in the skin of vibrissae area. D. gracilentus occurred in 36.7% of the rodents examined. D. gracilentus is a relatively large representative of the genus (adult stages on average 292 microm in length), a slender, elongated body; characteristic feature of these mites are conical supracoxal spines on dorsal side of gnathosoma, palps with asymmetric, forked triple spines on palptarsus, and the presence of rhomboidal opisthosomal organ. So far, the occurrence of three specific representatives of the family Demodecidae has been demonstrated in A. agrarius: Demodex apodemi (Hirst, 1918) (= Demodex arvicolae apodemi Hirst, 1918), Demodex agrarii Bukva, 1994, and Demodex huttereri Mertens, Lukoschus et Nutting, 1983. The first one is related to common hair follicles, especially in the skin of the head, while the next one inhabits the external auditory meatus, and the last one occurs in the meibomian glands of the eyelids. PMID:24843923

  11. Variation in the innate and acquired arms of the immune system among five shorebird species.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Luisa; Piersma, Theunis; Hasselquist, Dennis; Matson, Kevin D; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2006-01-01

    To contribute to an understanding of the evolutionary processes that shape variation in immune responses, we compared several components of the innate and acquired arms of the immune system in five related, but ecologically diverse, migratory shorebirds (ruff Philomachus pugnax L., ruddy turnstone Arenaria interpres L., bar-tailed godwit Limosa lapponica L., sanderling Calidris alba Pallas and red knot C. canutus L.). We used a hemolysis-hemagglutination assay in free-living shorebirds to assess two of the innate components (natural antibodies and complement-mediated lysis), and a modified quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in birds held in captivity to assess the acquired component (humoral antibodies against tetanus and diphtheria toxoid) of immunity. Ruddy turnstones showed the highest levels of both innate and acquired immune responses. We suggest that turnstones could have evolved strong immune responses because they scavenge among rotting organic material on the seashore, where they might be exposed to a particularly broad range of pathogens. Although ruffs stand out among shorebirds in having a high prevalence of avian malaria, they do not exhibit higher immune response levels. Our results indicate that relationships between immune response and infection are not likely to follow a broad general pattern, but instead depend on type of parasite exposure, among other factors. PMID:16391350

  12. Encounters with aphid predators or their residues impede searching and oviposition by the aphid parasitoid Aphidius ervi (Hymenoptera: Aphidiinae).

    PubMed

    Almohamad, Raki; Hance, Thierry

    2014-04-01

    Intraguild predation (IGP) can be an important factor influencing the effectiveness of aphid natural enemies in biological control. In particular, aphid parasitoid foraging could be influenced by the presence of predators. This study investigated the effect of larvae of the predatory hoverfly Episyrphus balteatus DeGeer (Diptera: Syrphidae) and the multicolored Asian ladybird Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on the foraging behavior of the aphid parasitoid, Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) in choice experiments using a leaf disc bioassay. Wasp response to chemical tracks left by those predator larvae was also tested. Parasitoid behavior was recorded using the Observer (Noldus Information Technology, version 5.0, Wageningen, the Netherlands). The experiments were conducted under controlled environmental conditions using leaves of the broad bean plant, Vicia faba L. (Fabaceae) with Myzus persicae Sulzer (Homoptera: Aphididae) as the host complex. A. ervi females avoided aphid patches when larvae of either predator were present. A similar avoidance response was shown by A. ervi to aphid patches with E. balteatus larval tracks, whereas no significant response was observed to tracks left by H. axyridis larvae. It was concluded that IG predator avoidance shown by the aphid parasitoid A. ervi may be a factor affecting their distribution among host patches. PMID:23955963

  13. Uptake, Accumulation and Excretion by Corophium volutator(Crustacea: Amphipoda) of Zinc, Cadmium and Cobalt Added to Sewage Sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgos, M. Galay; Rainbow, P. S.

    1998-11-01

    Zinc, cadmium and cobalt associated with digested sewage sludge are available to the benthic deposit-feeding amphipodCorophium volutator(Pallas). Accumulation by the amphipod of radioactively labelled metals adsorbed onto a 5% sludge-sediment mixture increased with time of exposure up to 15 days, but irregularly so as pulses of labelled metal were excreted into faecal pellets. The three labelled metals were accumulated and excreted apparently almost synchronously by individual amphipods, although great variability between different individuals was found. This intraspecific variability could not be attributed to differences between male and female amphipods. Net accumulation of labelled metals from the sludge increased with increased labelled metal concentration in the sludge, but not with time beyond an initial period of 15-30 days. It is proposed that the metal excretion patterns might reflect the breakdown of epithelial cells of the ventral caeca following a cell cycle, releasing accumulated stores of detoxified metals into the gut lumen and out of the body through faeces.

  14. Foods and nutritional components of diets of black bear in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldwin, R.A.; Bender, L.C.

    2009-01-01

    We used scat analysis to determine diets and relative nutritional values of diets for black bears (Ursus americanus Pallas, 1780) in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, from 2003 to 2006, and compared foods consumed and nutritional components to identify important sources of fecal gross energy (GE), crude fat (CF), and fecal nitrogen (FN) in annual and seasonal diets. Patterns of use of food classes followed typical seasonal patterns for bears, although use of animal matter was among the highest reported (>49% annually). Use of animal matter increased after spring, although crude protein levels in bear diets were always >25%. GE was typically lowest for grasses and other herbaceous plants and highest for ants and ungulates; FN was strongly positively related to most animal sources, but negatively correlated with vegetative matter; and CF showed the strongest positive relationship with ungulates and berries, with the latter likely influenced by the presence of seeds. Compared with historic data (1984-1991), contemporary diets included substantially greater prevalence of anthropogenic foods, which likely contributed to increases in size, condition, and productivity of the contemporary bear population. Management strategies are needed to increase quantity and quality of natural foods while minimizing dependence on anthropogenic sources.

  15. Sponge cell reaggregation: Cellular structure and morphogenetic potencies of multicellular aggregates.

    PubMed

    Lavrov, Andrey I; Kosevich, Igor A

    2016-02-01

    Sponges (phylum Porifera) are one of the most ancient extant multicellular animals and can provide valuable insights into origin and early evolution of Metazoa. High plasticity of cell differentiations and anatomical structure is characteristic feature of sponges. Present study deals with sponge cell reaggregation after dissociation as the most outstanding case of sponge plasticity. Dynamic of cell reaggregation and structure of multicellular aggregates of three demosponge species (Halichondria panicea (Pallas, 1766), Haliclona aquaeductus (Sсhmidt, 1862), and Halisarca dujardinii Johnston, 1842) were studied. Sponge tissue dissociation was performed mechanically. Resulting cell suspensions were cultured at 8-10°C for at least 5 days. Structure of multicellular aggregates was studied by light, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Studied species share common stages of cell reaggregation-primary multicellular aggregates, early-stage primmorphs and primmorphs, but the rate of reaggregation varies considerably among species. Only cells of H. dujardinii are able to reconstruct functional and viable sponge after primmorphs formation. Sponge reconstruction in this species occurs due to active cell locomotion. Development of H. aquaeductus and H. panicea cells ceases at the stages of early primmorphs and primmorphs, respectively. Development of aggregates of these species is most likely arrested due to immobility of the majority of cells inside them. However, the inability of certain sponge species to reconstruct functional and viable individuals during cell reaggregation may be not a permanent species-specific characteristic, but depends on various factors, including the stage of the life cycle and experimental conditions. PMID:26863993

  16. A new Heraclides swallowtail (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae) from North America is recognized by the pattern on its neck

    PubMed Central

    Shiraiwa, Kojiro; Cong, Qian; Grishin, Nick V.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Heraclides rumiko Shiraiwa & Grishin, sp. n. is described from southwestern United States, Mexico, and Central America (type locality: USA, Texas, Duval County). It is closely allied to Heraclides cresphontes (Cramer, 1777) and the two species are sympatric in central Texas. The new species is diagnosed by male genitalia and exhibits a nearly 3% difference from Heraclides cresphontes in the COI DNA barcode sequence of mitochondrial DNA. The two Heraclides species can usually be told apart by the shape and size of yellow spots on the neck, by the wing shape, and the details of wing patterns. “Western Giant Swallowtail” is proposed as the English name for Heraclides rumiko. To stabilize nomenclature, neotype for Papilio cresphontes Cramer, 1777, an eastern United States species, is designated from Brooklyn, New York, USA; and lectotype for Papilio thoas Linnaeus, 1771 is designated from Suriname. We sequenced DNA barcodes and ID tags of nearly 400 Papilionini specimens completing coverage of all Heraclides species. Comparative analyses of DNA barcodes, genitalia, and facies suggest that Heraclides oviedo (Gundlach, 1866), reinstated status, is a species-level taxon rather than a subspecies of Heraclides thoas (Linnaeus, 1771); and Heraclides pallas (G. Gray, [1853]), reinstated status, with its subspecies Heraclides Papilio bajaensis (J. Brown & Faulkner, 1992), comb. n., and Heraclides anchicayaensis Constantino, Le Crom & Salazar, 2002, stat. n., are not conspecific with Heraclides astyalus (Godart, 1819). PMID:25610342

  17. Presence of Native Prey Does Not Divert Predation on Exotic Pests by Harmonia axyridis in Its Indigenous Range

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Gui Fen; Lövei, Gábor L; Wu, Xia; Wan, Fang Hao

    2016-01-01

    In China, two invasive pests, Bemisia tabaci MEAM1 (Gennadius) and Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), often co-occur with the native pest, Aphis gossypii (Glover), on plants of Malvaceae and Cucurbitaceae. All three are preyed on by the native ladybird, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas); however, the native predator might be expected to prefer native prey to the exotic ones due to a shared evolutionary past. In order to clarify whether the presence of native prey affected the consumption of these two invasive species by the native predator, field-cage experiments were conducted. A duplex qPCR was used to simultaneously detect both non-native pests within the gut of the predator. H. axyridis readily accepted both invasive prey species, but preferred B. tabaci. With all three prey species available, H. axyridis consumption of B. tabaci was 39.3±2.2% greater than consumption of F. occidentalis. The presence of A. gossypii reduced (by 59.9% on B. tabaci, and by 60.6% on F. occidentalis), but did not stop predation on the two exotic prey when all three were present. The consumption of B. tabaci was similar whether it was alone or together with A. gossypii. However, the presence of aphids reduced predation on the invasive thrips. Thus, some invasive prey may be incorporated into the prey range of a native generalist predator even in the presence of preferred native prey. PMID:27391468

  18. Lady Beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Communities in Soybean and Maize.

    PubMed

    Prescott, K K; Andow, D A

    2016-02-01

    Coccinellids provide the most effective natural control of soybean aphid, but outbreaks remain common. Previous work suggests that native coccinellids are rare in soybean, potentially limiting soybean aphid control. We compared the coccinellid community in soybean with that of maize to identify differences in how coccinellid species use these habitats. As maize has long been used by coccinellids in the Americas, we hypothesized that coccinellids native to the Americas would use maize habitats, while exotic coccinellids would be more common in soybean. We identified and quantified aphids and all species and stages of coccinellids in a randomized complete block experiment with four blocks of 10 by 10 -m plots of soybean and maize in central Minnesota during 2008 and 2009. Coccinellid egg masses were identified by hatching in the laboratory. We used repeated-measures ANOVA to identify the dominant species in each habitat and compared species richness and Shannon's diversity with a paired t-test. Aphids and coccinellids had a similar phenology across habitats, but the coccinellid species composition differed significantly between soybean and maize. In soybean, the exotic, Harmonia axyridis Pallas, was the dominant species, while in maize, H. axyridis and the native, Coleomegilla maculata De Geer, were co-dominant. Eggs of H. axyridis were abundant in both habitats. In contrast, C. maculata eggs were very rare in soybean, despite being abundant in adjacent plots of maize. Species diversity was higher in maize. These findings were consistent with other published studies of coccinellid communities in these habitats. PMID:26396229

  19. On whose shoulders we stand – the pioneering entomological discoveries of Károly Sajó *

    PubMed Central

    Vig, Károly

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The excellence of Károly Sajó as a researcher into Hungary’s natural history has been undeservedly neglected. Yet he did lasting work, especially in entomology, and a number of his discoveries and initiatives were before their time. Born in 1851 in Győr, he received his secondary education there and went to Pest University. He taught in a grammar school in 1877–88 before spending seven years as an entomologist at the National Phylloxera Experimental Station, later the Royal Hungarian State Entomological Station. Pensioned off at his own request in 1895, he moved to Őrszentmiklós, where he continued making entomological observations on his own farm and wrote the bulk of his published materials: almost 500 longer or shorter notes, articles and books, mainly on entomological subjects. Sajó was among the first in the world to publish in 1896 a study of how the weather affects living organisms, entitled Living Barometers. His Sleep in Insects, which appeared in the same year, described his discovery, from 1895 observations of the red turnip beetle, Entomoscelis adonidis (Pallas, 1771), of aestivation in insects – in present-day terms diapause. It was a great loss to universal entomology when Sajó ceased publishing about 25 years before his death. His unpublished notes, with his library and correspondence, were destroyed in the World War II. His surviving insect collection is now kept in the Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest. PMID:22303108

  20. Bt sweet corn and selective insecticides: impacts on pests and predators.

    PubMed

    Musser, Fred R; Shelton, Anthony M

    2003-02-01

    Sweet corn, Zea mays L., is attacked by a variety of insect pests that can cause severe losses to the producer. Current control practices are largely limited to the application of broad-spectrum insecticides that can have a substantial and deleterious impact on the natural enemy complex. Predators have been shown to provide partial control of sweet corn pests when not killed by broad-spectrum insecticides. New products that specifically target the pest species, while being relatively benign to other insects, could provide more integrated control. In field trials we found that transgenic Bt sweet corn, and the foliar insecticides indoxacarb and spinosad are all less toxic to the most abundant predators in sweet corn (Coleomegilla maculate [DeGeer], Harmonia axyridis [Pallas], and Orius insidiosus [Sav]) than the pyrethroid lambda cyhalothrin. Indoxacarb, however, was moderately toxic to coccinellids and spinosad and indoxacarb were somewhat toxic to O. insidiosus nymphs at field rates. Bt sweet corn and spinosad were able to provide control of the lepidopteran pests better than or equal to lambda cyhalothrin. The choice of insecticide material made a significant impact on survival of the pests and predators, while the frequency of application mainly affected the pests and the rate applied had little effect on either pests or predators. These results demonstrate that some of the new products available in sweet corn allow a truly integrated biological and chemical pest control program in sweet corn, making future advances in conservation, augmentation and classical biological control more feasible. PMID:12650347

  1. Survey of predators and sampling method comparison in sweet corn.

    PubMed

    Musser, Fred R; Nyrop, Jan P; Shelton, Anthony M

    2004-02-01

    Natural predation is an important component of integrated pest management that is often overlooked because it is difficult to quantify and perceived to be unreliable. To begin incorporating natural predation into sweet corn, Zea mays L., pest management, a predator survey was conducted and then three sampling methods were compared for their ability to accurately monitor the most abundant predators. A predator survey on sweet corn foliage in New York between 1999 and 2001 identified 13 species. Orius insidiosus (Say), Coleomegilla maculata (De Geer), and Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) were the most numerous predators in all years. To determine the best method for sampling adult and immature stages of these predators, comparisons were made among nondestructive field counts, destructive counts, and yellow sticky cards. Field counts were correlated with destructive counts for all populations, but field counts of small insects were biased. Sticky cards underrepresented immature populations. Yellow sticky cards were more attractive to C. maculata adults than H. axyridis adults, especially before pollen shed, making coccinellid population estimates based on sticky cards unreliable. Field counts were the most precise method for monitoring adult and immature stages of the three major predators. Future research on predicting predation of pests in sweet corn should be based on field counts of predators because these counts are accurate, have no associated supply costs, and can be made quickly. PMID:14998137

  2. Toxicity of commonly used insecticides in sweet corn and soybean to multicolored Asian lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Galvan, T L; Koch, R L; Hutchison, W D

    2005-06-01

    Use of insecticides with low toxicity to natural enemies is an important component of conservation biological control. In this study, we evaluated the toxicity of insecticides used in sweet corn, Zea mays L., and soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., to the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), under laboratory and field conditions. Field experiments conducted in sweet corn in 2003 and 2004 and in soybean in 2003, showed that H. axyridis was the most abundant predator. In sweet corn, densities of H. axyridis larvae in plots treated with spinosad or indoxacarb were generally higher than in plots treated with chlorpyrifos, carbaryl, bifenthrin, and A-cyhalothrin. In soybean, densities of H. axyridis larvae in plots treated with chlorpyrifos were higher than in plots treated with lambda-cyhalothrin. Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the acute toxicity of insecticides to eggs, first and third instars, pupae, and adults. Spinosad, followed by indoxacarb, were the least toxic insecticides for all life stages of H. axyridis. Conventional insecticides showed high toxicity to H. axyridis when applied at field rates under laboratory conditions. Overall, first instars were most susceptible to the insecticides tested, followed by third instars and adults, eggs, and pupae. Our results suggest that spinosad, and to a lesser extent indoxacarb, offer reduced toxicity to H. axyridis and would be beneficial for conservation biological control in agricultural systems where H. axyridis is abundant. PMID:16022306

  3. Global assessment of molecularly identified Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in their teleost intermediate hosts.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Thomas; Hailer, Frank; Palm, Harry W; Klimpel, Sven

    2013-05-01

    Here, we present the ITS ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence data on 330 larvae of nematodes of the genus Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 collected from 26 different bony fish species from 21 sampling locations and different climatic zones. New host records are provided for Anisakis simplex (Rudolphi, 1809) sensu stricto (s.s.) and A. pegreffli Campana-Rouget et Biocca, 1955 from Anoplopoma fimbria (Pallas) (Santa Barbara, East Pacific), A. typica (Diesing, 1860) from Caesio cuning (Bloch), Lepturacanthus savala (Cuvier) and Katsuwonus pelamis (Linnaeus) (Indonesia, West Pacific), A. simplex s.s. from Cololabis saira (Brevoort) (Hawaii, Central Pacific), A. simplex C of Nascetti et al. (1986) from Sebastolobus alascanus Bean (Santa Barbara, East Pacific) and A. physeteris Baylis, 1923 from Synaphobranchus kaupii Johnson (Namibia, East Atlantic). Comparison with host records from 60 previous molecular studies of Anisakis species reveals the teleost host range so far recorded for the genus. Perciform (57 species) and gadiform (21) fishes were the most frequently infected orders, followed by pleuronectiforms (15) and scorpaeniforms (15). Most commonly infected fish families were Scombridae (12), Gadidae (10), Carangidae (8) and Clupeidae (7), with Merluccius merluccius (Linnaeus) alone harbouring eight Anisakis species. Different intermediate host compositions implicate differing life cycles for the so far molecularly identified Anisakis sibling species. PMID:23724731

  4. Sub-lethal effects of a copper sulfate fungicide on development and reproduction in three coccinellid species.

    PubMed Central

    Michaud, J.P.; Angela K., Grant

    2003-01-01

    Copper-based fungicides reliably control various foliar diseases in citrus production, although they are suspected to exacerbate mite problems through various mechanisms. Studies have shown negative effects of various copper formulations on entomopathogenic fungi, nematodes, and parasitoids, but few have sought to measure its impact on the biology of predatory insects. We exposed the larvae of three species of ladybeetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to field rates of copper sulfate in combination with petroleum oil, a formulation commonly applied in Florida citrus. First instar larvae of Curinus coeruleus Mulsant, Harmonia axyridis Pallas, and Olla v-nigrum Mulsant received a 24 h exposure to residues on Petri dishes, and another 24 h exposure in the third instar. Treated larvae of all three species survived to adulthood at the same rate as control larvae, but larvae of O. v-nigrum experienced a significant increase in developmental time. Female adults of C. coeruleus and H. axyridis receiving copper sulfate exposures as larvae did not differ from control adults in pre-reproductive period, fecundity or fertility over ten days of reproduction. Treated O. v-nigrum females had significantly longer pre-reproductive periods than control females and laid significantly fewer eggs, although egg fertility was equivalent. We conclude that copper-sulfate fungicides are unlikely to disrupt biological control processes in citrus groves that are mediated by these coccinellid beetles. PMID:15841232

  5. Geochemical evolution of amino acids in dentine of Pleistocene bears.

    PubMed

    De Torres, T; Ortiz, J E; García, M J; Llamas, J F; Canoira, L; De La Morena, M A; Juliá, R

    2001-08-01

    A linear correlation was established between aspartic acid racemization ratio from cave bear dentine collagen and absolute dating. The high correlation coefficient obtained allowed age calculation through amino acid racemization. Aspartic acid and glutamic acid racemization kinetics have also been explored in dentine from a North American black bear (Ursus americanus Pallas). Three sample sets were prepared for kinetic heating experiments in nitrogen atmosphere: one water soaked, one with a water-saturated nitrogen atmosphere, and one without any moisture. It was possible to show that the presence of water is a factor controlling amino acid racemization rate. The aspartic acid in a heating experiment at 105 degrees C shows an "apparent kinetics reversal" which can be explained by a progressive hydrolysis of amino acid chains (proteins and polypeptides). Because of the low potential of collagen preservation over long periods of time, the apparent kinetics reversal phenomenon will not affect the dating of old material where no traces of collagen remain. An apparent kinetics reversal was not observed in glutamic acid, which racemizates more slowly. PMID:11466777

  6. Identification and phylogenetic analysis of Dirofilaria ursi (Nematoda: Filarioidea) from Wisconsin black bears (Ursus americanus) and its Wolbachia endosymbiont.

    PubMed

    Michalski, Michelle L; Bain, Odile; Fischer, Kerstin; Fischer, Peter U; Kumar, Sanjay; Foster, Jeremy M

    2010-04-01

    Dirofilaria ursi is a filarial nematode of American black bears (Ursus americanus Pallas, 1780) that is vectored by black flies (Simuliidae) in many parts of the United States. In northwestern Wisconsin, the prevalence of microfilaremic bears during the fall hunting season was 21% (n = 47). Unsheathed blood microfilariae from Wisconsin bears possess characters consistent with the original description of D. ursi, as do adult worms observed histologically and grossly. Immunohistochemistry was used to identify the Wolbachia endosymbiont in the hypodermis and lateral cords of an adult female D. ursi. Amplification of wsp, gatB, coxA, fbpA, and ftsZ bacterial sequences from parasite DNA confirmed the presence of Wolbachia, and molecular phylogenetic analysis of the Wolbachia ftsZ gene groups the endosymbiont with Wolbachia from D. immitis and D. repens. Phylogenetic analysis of D. ursi 5s rDNA sequence confirms the morphological observations grouping this parasite as a member of Dirofilaria, and within the Dirofilaria - Onchocerca clade of filarial nematodes. This is the first report of Wolbachia characterization and molecular phylogeny information for D. ursi. PMID:19916630

  7. Equinox and equator determinations from hypothetical minor planet observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branham, R. L.

    1980-07-01

    The effects of observation conditions and subjects on the expected mean errors in corrections to the equinox and equator obtained from hypothetical minor planet observations are examined. Hypothetical observations of the right ascensions and declinations of minor planets 1 (Ceres), 2 (Pallas), 3 (Juno), 4 (Vesta), 6 (Hebe), 7 (Iris), 8 (Flora), 9 (Metis) and 15 (Eunomia) were calculated for the period from January 2, 1980 to January 1, 1990, and the mean errors of the unknowns in the equations of condition were determined. Mean errors are found to decrease with increasing proportion of clear nights, length of observing period, and number of minor planets and indicate the optimal conditions for an earth-based observing program to be a location with a minimum of 60% clear nights distributed throughout the year, a duration of four years and using four to nine minor planets, most importantly 1, 4, 7 and 15. For a spaceborne observing program, calculations indicate that observations should be made from opposition to quadrature using those planets of low inclination to the ecliptic and small semimajor axis.

  8. Acoustic alarm signalling facilitates predator protection of treehoppers by mutualist ant bodyguards

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Manuel A; Barone, Jennifer L; Henry, Charles S

    2008-01-01

    Mutualism is a net positive interaction that includes varying degrees of both costs and benefits. Because tension between the costs and benefits of mutualism can lead to evolutionary instability, identifying mechanisms that regulate investment between partners is critical to understanding the evolution and maintenance of mutualism. Recently, studies have highlighted the importance of interspecific signalling as one mechanism for regulating investment between mutualist partners. Here, we provide evidence for interspecific alarm signalling in an insect protection mutualism and we demonstrate a functional link between this acoustic signalling and efficacy of protection. The treehopper Publilia concava Say (Hemiptera: Membracidae) is an insect that provides ants with a carbohydrate-rich excretion called honeydew in return for protection from predators. Adults of this species produce distinct vibrational signals in the context of predator encounters. In laboratory trials, putative alarm signal production significantly increased following initial contact with ladybeetle predators (primarily Harmonia axyridis Pallas, Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), but not following initial contact with ants. In field trials, playback of a recorded treehopper alarm signal resulted in a significant increase in both ant activity and the probability of ladybeetle discovery by ants relative to both silence and treehopper courtship signal controls. Our results show that P. concava treehoppers produce alarm signals in response to predator threat and that this signalling can increase effectiveness of predator protection by ants. PMID:18480015

  9. Extending glacial refugia for a European tree: genetic markers show that Iberian populations of white elm are native relicts and not introductions

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes-Utrilla, P; Venturas, M; Hollingsworth, P M; Squirrell, J; Collada, C; Stone, G N; Gil, L

    2014-01-01

    Conservation policies usually focus on in situ protection of native populations, a priority that requires accurate assessment of population status. Distinction between native and introduced status can be particularly difficult (and at the same time, is most important) for species whose natural habitat has become both rare and highly fragmented. Here, we address the status of the white elm (Ulmus laevis Pallas), a European riparian tree species whose populations have been fragmented by human activity and is protected wherever it is considered native. Small populations of this species are located in Iberia, where they are unprotected because they are considered introductions due to their rarity. However, Iberia and neighbouring regions in southwestern France have been shown to support discrete glacial refuge populations of many European trees, and the possibility remains that Iberian white elms are native relicts. We used chloroplast RFLPs and nuclear microsatellites to establish the relationship between populations in Iberia and the Central European core distribution. Bayesian approaches revealed significant spatial structure across populations. Those in Iberia and southwestern France shared alleles absent from Central Europe, and showed spatial population structure within Iberia common in recognized native taxa. Iberian populations show a demographic signature of ancient population bottlenecks, while those in Central European show a signature of recent population bottlenecks. These patterns are not consistent with historical introduction of white elm to Iberia, and instead strongly support native status, arguing for immediate implementation of conservation measures for white elm populations in Spain and contiguous areas of southern France. PMID:24022495

  10. Zebra mussel control using acoustic energy

    SciTech Connect

    Tiller, G.W.; Gaucher, T.A.; Menezes, J.K.; Dolat, S.W. )

    1992-01-01

    A practical and economical device or method that reduces zebra mussel colonization without detrimental side effects is highly desirable. An ideal method is one that could be installed near, on, or in existing raw water intakes and conduits. It must have a known effect that is limited to a defined area, should have maximum effects on a targeted species, and preferably have a low life cycle cost than the current alternative methods of control and maintenance. Underwater sound could be such a desirable solution, if found to be an effective control measure for zebra mussels. Although sound most often applies specifically to acoustic energy that is audible to humans, 20 Hertz (Hz) to 20 kiloHertz (kHz), in this report we will use the terms sound and acoustic to include acoustic energy between 100 Hz and 100 MegaHertz (MHz). This research on zebra mussel biofouling is designed to effect the early developmental stages in the life cycle of Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas). Vulnerable stages in the development of D. polymorpha that might yield to site-specific acoustic deterrence measures include the free-swimming larval veliger stage, the postveliger pre-attachment demersal stage, and the immediate post-attachment stage. The proposed applications include surface treatment to prevent, reduce or eliminate colonization on underwater structures, and the stream treatment to reduce or eliminate (destroy) mussel larvae entrained in a moving volume of water.

  11. First detection of Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs in a highly endemic area of Poland.

    PubMed

    Karamon, Jacek; Samorek-Pierog, Malgorzata; Kochanowski, Maciej; Dabrowska, Joanna; Sroka, Jacek; Golab, Elzbieta; Umhang, Gerald; Cencek, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to estimate the epizootic situation concerning infection by the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis Leuckart, 1863 in dogs (Canis lupus familiaris Linnaeus) from a Polish region where this parasite is highly prevalent in red foxes. Faecal samples (n = 148) were collected from rural dogs in Podkarpackie Province. Samples were examined through nested PCR (for E. multilocularis), multiplex PCR (E. multilocularis, species of Taenia Linnaeus, 1758) and PCR [E. granulosus (Batsch, 1786)]. Specific products were sequenced. Faeces were also examined coproscopically. In samples from two dogs (1.4%), there were positive PCR results for E. multilocularis. Taenia-specific PCR products were found in nine dogs (6.1%). Sequencing identified Taenia serialis (Gervais, 1847), T. hydatigena Pallas, 1766, T. pisiformis (Bloch, 1780) and Hydatigera taeniaeformis (Batsch, 1786). One sample (0.7%) was identified as Mesocestoides litteratus (Batsch, 1786). All samples were negative for E. granulosus with PCR. Taking into account coproscopic and PCR results, 28% of dogs were infected with helminths (8% with tapeworms). It should be stressed that one of the infected with E. multilocularis dogs shed eggs of the Taenia type and had a habit of preying on rodents. This investigation revealed the presence of E. multilocularis in dogs for the first time in Poland. PMID:27311792

  12. Optical cloud detection from a disposable airborne sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicoll, Keri; Harrison, R. Giles; Brus, David

    2016-04-01

    In-situ measurement of cloud droplet microphysical properties is most commonly made from manned aircraft platforms due to the size and weight of the instrumentation, which is both costly and typically limited to sampling only a few clouds. This work describes the development of a small, lightweight (<200g), disposable, optical cloud sensor which is designed for use on routine radiosonde balloon flights and also small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platforms. The sensor employs the backscatter principle, using an ultra-bright LED as the illumination source, with a photodiode detector. Scattering of the LED light by cloud droplets generates a small optical signal which is separated from background light fluctuations using a lock-in technique. The signal to noise obtained permits cloud detection using the scattered LED light, even in daytime. During recent field tests in Pallas, Finland, the retrieved optical sensor signal has been compared with the DMT Cloud and Aerosol Spectrometer (CAS) which measures cloud droplets in the size range from 0.5 to 50 microns. Both sensors were installed at the hill top observatory of Sammaltunturi during a field campaign in October and November 2015, which experienced long periods of immersion inside cloud. Preliminary analysis shows very good agreement between the CAPS and the disposable cloud sensor for cloud droplets >5micron effective diameter. Such data and calibration of the sensor will be discussed here, as will simultaneous balloon launches of the optical cloud sensor through the same cloud layers.

  13. A New Name for the Hawaiian Antipatharian Coral Formerly Known as Antipathes dichotoma (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Antipatharia)

    SciTech Connect

    Opresko, Dennis M

    2009-04-01

    A Hawaiian species of antipatharian coral previously identified as Antipathes dichotoma Pallas, 1766, is described as Antipathes griggi Opresko, n. sp. The species forms tall, bushy colonies with elongate, upright terminal branches, often arranged uniserially. Spines are conical, mostly 0.20 to 0.26 mm tall, apically bifurcated, multilobed to jagged in appearance, and covered over most of their surface with small roundish to elongate papillae. Minute secondary spines may occur on some of the thicker branches. Polyps are 1 to 1.6 mm in transverse diameter. The species resembles A. fruticosa Gray in branching pattern, size of spines, and presence of secondary spines but differs in morphology and density of the spines (thicker, more crowded primary spines and fewer secondary spines in A. griggi). Other related species differ from A. griggi in having more widely spreading and irregularly arranged branches, no secondary spines, and either smaller spines with fewer apical lobes (A. curvata van Pesch, A. arborea Dana, and A. galapagensis Deichmann) or larger spines with the apical lobes arranged in a somewhat coronate pattern [A. spinulosa (Schultze) and A. lentipinna Brook].

  14. A new rhabditoid nematode species in Asian sciurids, distinct from Strongyloides robustus in North American sciurids.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hiroshi; Torii, Harumi; Une, Yumi; Ooi, Hong-Kean

    2007-12-01

    Strongyloides callosciureus n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabditoidea), from Asian sciurids, is described based on morphology, morphometry, and the small and large subunit (SSU/LSU) ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) sequences. This new species was collected from Pallas's squirrels (Callosciurus erythraeus) in the central part of mainland Japan (Honshu), which were originally introduced from Taiwan some decades ago, and plantain squirrels (Callosciurus notatus) imported from Malaysia as personal pets. For comparison, Strongyloides robustus Chandler, 1942 was collected from American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) and southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) imported from the United States as personal pets. The parasitic females found in North American and Asian sciurids shared some key morphological features such as the ovary running spirally around the gut, and the shapes of the stoma in the apical view and the tail. However, morphometric features of parasitic females in North American and Asian sciurids differed significantly from each other; the former was larger than the latter, and the relative position of the vulva to the whole body length from the mouth was different. The SSU/LSU rDNA sequences supported the division of sciurid Strongyloides isolates by geographical distribution of the host and morphological features, leading us to propose the erection of new species. PMID:18314696

  15. Using Massive Parallel Sequencing for the development, validation, and application of population genetics markers in the invasive bivalve zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha).

    PubMed

    Peñarrubia, Luis; Sanz, Nuria; Pla, Carles; Vidal, Oriol; Viñas, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha, Pallas, 1771) is one of the most invasive species of freshwater bivalves, due to a combination of biological and anthropogenic factors. Once this species has been introduced to a new area, individuals form dense aggregations that are very difficult to remove, leading to many adverse socioeconomic and ecological consequences. In this study, we identified, tested, and validated a new set of polymorphic microsatellite loci (also known as SSRs, Single Sequence Repeats) using a Massive Parallel Sequencing (MPS) platform. After several pruning steps, 93 SSRs could potentially be amplified. Out of these SSRs, 14 were polymorphic, producing a polymorphic yield of 15.05%. These 14 polymorphic microsatellites were fully validated in a first approximation of the genetic population structure of D. polymorpha in the Iberian Peninsula. Based on this polymorphic yield, we propose a criterion for establishing the number of SSRs that require validation in similar species, depending on the final use of the markers. These results could be used to optimize MPS approaches in the development of microsatellites as genetic markers, which would reduce the cost of this process. PMID:25780924

  16. Fleas (Siphonaptera) in the Nests of Dormice (Gliridae: Rodentia) in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Lipatova, I; Stanko, M; Paulauskas, A; Spakovaite, S; Gedminas, V

    2015-05-01

    Negative effects of flea (Siphonaptera) parasitism on the host may be expressed in different ways. The aim of this study was to assess distribution of the flea fauna in nests of dormice in Lithuania. Nests of Glis glis (L.), Dryomys nitedula (Pallas), and Muscardinus avellanarius (L.) were collected from nest boxes in 2012 and 2013. Fleas were collected from nests in the laboratory and put into plastic tubes with 70% ethanol. Flea species were identified using morphological keys. From 400 nest boxes, 112 nests of dormice were collected from eight sites from mixed forests of central Lithuania. Twenty-three nests of G. glis were collected from nest boxes, with 16 of them containing 286 fleas belonging to four species: Ceratophyllus sciurorum (Schrank) (259), C. gallinae (Schrank) (23), Hystrichopsylla talpae (Curtis) (3), and Megabothris turbidus (Rothschild) (1). Fourteen nests of M. avellanarius were collected from nest boxes, 4 of which contained 224 fleas belonging to two species: C. sciurorum (221) and C. gallinae (3). Twenty-four nests of D. nitedula were collected from nest boxes, including 17 containing 207 fleas belonging to two species: C. sciurorum (205) and C. gallinae (2). Fifty-one nests of undetermined dormice species also were collected from nest boxes, 12 of them contained 395 fleas belonging to three species: C. sciurorum (374), Ctenophthalmus agyrtes (Heller) (19), and Ctenophthalmus assimilis (Taschenberg) (2). C. sciurorum was a predominant species in the nests of dormice. The occurrence of C. gallinae was documented in Lithuania for the first time. PMID:26334823

  17. Consensus oriented fuzzified decision support for oil spill contingency management.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Wirtz, Kai W

    2006-06-30

    Studies on multi-group multi-criteria decision-making problems for oil spill contingency management are in their infancy. This paper presents a second-order fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE) model to resolve decision-making problems in the area of contingency management after environmental disasters such as oil spills. To assess the performance of different oil combat strategies, second-order FCE allows for the utilization of lexical information, the consideration of ecological and socio-economic criteria and the involvement of a variety of stakeholders. On the other hand, the new approach can be validated by using internal and external checks, which refer to sensitivity tests regarding its internal setups and comparisons with other methods, respectively. Through a case study, the Pallas oil spill in the German Bight in 1998, it is demonstrated that this approach can help decision makers who search for an optimal strategy in multi-thread contingency problems and has a wider application potential in the field of integrated coastal zone management. PMID:16343765

  18. Compositional Homogeneity of CM Parent Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernazza, P.; Marsset, M.; Beck, P.; Binzel, R. P.; Birlan, M.; Cloutis, E. A.; DeMeo, F. E.; Dumas, C.; Hiroi, T.

    2016-09-01

    CM chondrites are the most common type of hydrated meteorites, making up ∼1.5% of all falls. Whereas most CM chondrites experienced only low-temperature (∼0°C–120°C) aqueous alteration, the existence of a small fraction of CM chondrites that suffered both hydration and heating complicates our understanding of the early thermal evolution of the CM parent body(ies). Here, we provide new constraints on the collisional and thermal history of CM-like bodies from a comparison between newly acquired spectral measurements of main-belt Ch/Cgh-type asteroids (70 objects) and existing laboratory spectral measurements of CM chondrites. It first appears that the spectral variation observed among CM-like bodies is essentially due to variations in the average regolith grain size. Second, the spectral properties of the vast majority (unheated) of CM chondrites resemble both the surfaces and the interiors of CM-like bodies, implying a “low” temperature (<300°C) thermal evolution of the CM parent body(ies). It follows that an impact origin is the likely explanation for the existence of heated CM chondrites. Finally, similarly to S-type asteroids and (2) Pallas, the surfaces of large (D > 100 km)—supposedly primordial—Ch/Cgh-type main-belt asteroids likely expose the interiors of the primordial CM parent bodies, a possible consequence of impacts by small asteroids (D < 10 km) in the early solar system.

  19. A novel method for controlling multicolored Asian lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in vineyards.

    PubMed

    Glemser, Erik J; Dowling, Lisa; Inglis, Debra; Pickering, Gary J; McFadden-Smith, Wendy; Sears, Mark K; Hallett, Rebecca H

    2012-10-01

    The introduced biological control agent Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) has attained pest status in North America as its presence in vineyards during harvest may compromise the quality of the resulting wine. Control of H. axyridis in vineyards is difficult as their populations may fluctuate daily, and there are few products registered to control this pest. Sulfur dioxide, in the form of potassium metabisulfite (KMS), is commonly used in wine as both an antimicrobial and an antioxidant. In this study, the effectiveness of KMS as a repellent against H. axyridis was measured. In a Y-tube olfactometer, H. axyridis spent significantly less time in the treatment arm (KMS 2.5, 5, and 10 g/liter) than in the control arm during a 10-min period. When sprayed in a vineyard, KMS significantly reduced the number of H. axyridis on grape vines. KMS is an effective repellent against H. axyridis and may be suitable for use in vineyards to control this pest. KMS (5 g/liter) applied to Riesling grapes at 2 wk, 1 wk, 3 d, or 1 d before harvest did not affect free sulfur dioxide in either freshly processed or settled juice. This study lays the foundation for the development of a pest management strategy incorporating repellents for H. axyridis in vineyards. PMID:23068174

  20. [Divergence of Chlorophyll Dynamics in the Naroch Lakes].

    PubMed

    Adamovich, B V; Kovalevskaya, R Z; Radchikova, N P; Zhukova, T V; Mikheyeva, T M; Medvinsky, A B; Nuriyeva, N I; Rusakov, A V

    2015-01-01

    We present results of the analysis of long-term chlorophyll a dynamics in the Naroch lakes. It has been shown that an increase in nutrient load in the 1970s resulted in progressive eutrophication of Naroch lakes. Then, starting in the mid-1980s, the increase in water transparency and decreases in concentrations of phosphorus and nitrogen have been occurring due to the environmental improvement program. In the 1980s, the Naroch lakes experienced a strong factor as an invasion by zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha Pallas). Our analysis shows that responses of all three lakes to the intensive nutrient load and further decrease in the nutrient concentration as a result of the environmental protection measures have been correlated. At the same time, different degrees of the influence of the zebra mussel invasion on the lakes are shown to lead to divergence in chlorophyll dynamics. This divergence was observed as a drastic decline in correlations between variations in chlorophyll concentrations in every Naroch lakes. PMID:26394477

  1. A pulsation search among young brown dwarfs and very-low-mass stars

    SciTech Connect

    Cody, Ann Marie; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.

    2014-12-01

    In 2005, Palla and Baraffe proposed that brown dwarfs (BDs) and very-low-mass stars (VLMSs; < 0.1 solar masses) may be unstable to radial oscillations during the pre-main-sequence deuterium burning phase. With associated periods of one to four hours, this potentially new class of pulsation offers unprecedented opportunities to probe the interiors and evolution of low-mass objects in the 1-15 million year age range. Following up on reports of short-period variability in young clusters, we designed a high-cadence photometric monitoring campaign to search for deuterium-burning pulsation among a sample of 348 BDs and VLMSs in the four young clusters σ Orionis, Chamaeleon I, IC 348, and Upper Scorpius. In the resulting light curves we achieved sensitivity to periodic signals of amplitude several millimagnitudes, on timescales from 15 minutes to two weeks. Despite the exquisite data quality, we failed to detect any periodicities below seven hours. We conclude that D-burning pulsations are not able to grow to observable amplitudes in the early pre-main sequence. In spite of the nondetection, we did uncover a rich set of variability behavior—both periodic and aperiodic—on day to week timescales. We present new compilations of variable sources from our sample, as well as three new candidate cluster members in Chamaeleon I.

  2. Similarities in acute phase protein response during hibernation in black bears and major depression in humans: A response to underlying metabolic depression?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tsiouris, J.A.; Chauhan, V.P.S.; Sheikh, A.M.; Chauhan, A.; Malik, M.; Vaughan, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of hibernation with mild hypothermia and the stress of captivity on levels of six acute-phase proteins (APPs) in serial samples of serum from 11 wild and 6 captive black bears (Ursus americanus Pallas, 1780) during active and hibernating states. We hypothesize that during hibernation with mild hypothermia, bears would show an APP response similar to that observed in major depression. Enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay was used to measure alpha2-macroglobulin and C-reactive protein, and a nephelometer to measure alpha1-antitrypsin, haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin, and transferrin. Levels of all other proteins except ceruloplasmin were significantly elevated during hibernation in both wild and captive bears at the p < 0.05 to p < 0.001 level. Alpha 2-macroglobulin and C-reactive-protein levels were increased in captive versus wild bears in both active and hibernating states at the p < 0.01 to p < 0.0001 level. During hibernation with mild hypothermia, black bears do not show immunosuppression, but show an increased APP response similar to that in patients with major depression. This APP response is explained as an adaptive response to the underlying metabolic depression in both conditions. Metabolic depression in hibernating bears is suggested as a natural model for research to explain the neurobiology of depression.

  3. [Anopheles mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) of the Tien Shan: morphological, cytogenetic, and molecular genetic analysis].

    PubMed

    Gordeev, M I; Zvantsov, A B; Goriacheva, I I; Shaĭkevich, E V; Ezhov, M N; Usenbaev, N T; Shapieva, Zh Zh; Zhakhongirov, Sh M

    2008-01-01

    Morphological, cytogenetic, and molecular genetic studies of the Anopheles fauna in the valley and foothills of the Tien Shan identified 5 species of malaria mosquitoes: An. artemievi Gordeev et al., An. messeae Fall, An. claviger Meigen, An. hyrcanus Pallas, An. pulcherrimus Theobald, and superpictus Grassi. An. claviger, An. hyrcanus, and An. messeae were prevalent in the Northern Tien-Shan. An. artemievi, An. claviger, An. hyrcanus, An. messeae, and An. superpictus were detected in the Western Tien Shan. An. artemievi was first recorded in Kazakhstan. An. artemievi, An. claviger, and An. superpictus were noted in the Inferior Tien Shan. An. messeae was first observed in the Issyk Kul hollow. An. artemievi, An. claviger, and An. superpictus were habitants of the foothills of the South-Western Tien Shan. An. artemievi, An. hyrcanus, An. superpictus, and An. pulcherrimus were in the plain. An. pulcherrimus and An. superpicts mosquitoes are regarded as important vectors in the new malaria foci of the Fergana regions. The role of An. artemievi in the transmission of malaria is to be specified. PMID:18822504

  4. Caribbean Shallow-water Black Corals (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Antipatharia)

    SciTech Connect

    Opresko, Dennis M; Sanchez, Juan Armando

    2005-01-01

    Our aim is to provide a complete key and guide to the species of black corals from the Caribbean reefs at depths shallower than about 100 m. The key to the species is mostly based on colonial features that are recognized in the field, although some closely related species can only be differentiated by microscopic skeletal features. Each species is illustrated with one or more photos showing the size and shape of the colony; many photos were taken in the natural environment to facilitate underwater identification. Additionally, a short description is provided of each species and their microscopic diagnostic characters are illustrated with the aid of the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Fifteen black coral species are found in relatively shallow-water in the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and other parts of the tropical western Atlantic; these belong to the families Myriopathidae [Tanacetipathes hirta (Gray), T. tanacetum (Pourtales), T. barbadensis (Brook), T. thamnea (Warner), and Plumapathes pennacea (Pallas)]; Antipathidae [Antipathes lenta Pourtales, A. rubusifonnis Warner and Opresko, A. furcata Gray, A. umbratica Opresko, A. atlantica Gray, A. gracilis Gray, A. caribbeana Opresko, Stichopathes lutkeni Brook, and S. accidentalis (Gray)]; and Aphanipathidae [Rhipidipathes colombiana (Opresko and Sinchez)]. We hope that this guide will facilitate research on black corals on Caribbean reefs, where population surveys are urgently needed to evaluate or modify conservation policies.

  5. The role of intrusions in the formation of Irish-type mineralisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCusker, Jim; Reed, Christopher

    2013-08-01

    The Stonepark Prospect is located in County Limerick, south-central Ireland. Multiple zones of Zn-Pb mineralisation have been identified at Stonepark and these are approximately 5 km west of the Pallas Green Prospect. At Stonepark, the sulphide bodies are hosted within the Waulsortian Limestone and closely resemble other Irish-type deposits. The mineralisation is composed of pyrite-marcasite, sphalerite and galena with gangue Fe-dolomite and calcite cements. A key difference at Stonepark is the presence of Chadian-aged volcanic rocks (Knockroe Volcanics) that intrude into and overlie the Waulsortian Limestone. Subsequent hydrothermal brecciation of the Waulsortian Limestone and Knockroe intrusions resulted in the formation of tabular polymict breccia bodies containing mixed carbonate and clasts of intrusive rocks. These have then been overprinted by massive sulphide mineralisation. Further syn-mineralisation brecciation has overprinted the earlier breccias. Drilling has demonstrated a spatial relationship between the volume of intrusive rocks (dykes and polymict breccias) and Zn-Pb mineralisation. This association suggests that the intrusive rocks provided a mechanism for the introduction of the mineralising fluids into the breccia bodies. This is significant as to date no large controlling fault has been identified, as is seen at other Irish-type deposits. Further work is required to understand the alteration process of the intrusive rocks and how this may relate to the mineralising process.

  6. IDENTIFICATION OF MAGNETITE IN B-TYPE ASTEROIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Bin; Jewitt, David E-mail: jewitt@ucla.ed

    2010-09-15

    Spectrally blue (B-type) asteroids are rare, with the second discovered asteroid, Pallas, being the largest and most famous example. We conducted a focused, infrared spectroscopic survey of B-type asteroids to search for water-related features in these objects. Our results show that the negative optical spectral slope of some B-type asteroids is due to the presence of a broad absorption band centered near 1.0 {mu}m. The 1 {mu}m band can be matched in position and shape using magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}), which is an important indicator of past aqueous alteration in the parent body. Furthermore, our observations of B-type asteroid (335) Roberta in the 3 {mu}m region reveal an absorption feature centered at 2.9 {mu}m, which is consistent with the absorption due to phyllosilicates (another hydration product) observed in CI chondrites. The new observations suggest that at least some B-type asteroids are likely to have incorporated significant amounts of water ice and to have experienced intensive aqueous alteration.

  7. Physical properties of small B-type asteroids from SDSS and WISE data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali-Lagoa, V.; Licandro, J.; Delbo, M.; Gil-Hutton, R.; Cañada-Assandri, M.; de Leon, J.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Campins, H.

    2014-07-01

    In this work, we study the physical properties from WISE data (Wright et al. 2010, Mainzer et al. 2011, Masiero et al. 2011) of a list of asteroids whose Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data are compatible with those of B types in terms of their negative visible slopes (see, for example, de Leon et al. 2012). This allows us to extend to smaller-sized objects the study of spectroscopic B-types carried out by Ali-Lagoa et al. (2013), where we concluded that the members of the Pallas collisional family (PCF) have significantly different geometric albedos than the rest of the B types. Grav et al. (2012) pointed out that, even though the small-end members of the Jupiter Trojans appear to have higher geometric visible albedos than their larger counterparts (see their Figure 3), this is actually an artifact caused by the natural spread of the errors of the smaller objects and that there is no strong trend between size and albedo for the Jupiter Trojans. This motivates us to examine --- in a different context, since we are not proposing an albedo-size dependency --- the possibility that the abovementioned difference between the PCF and the rest of spectroscopic B types may also be caused by the former being smaller than the latter, which would introduce potential biases and/or result from larger relative errors in the values of the geometric albedo, since it is derived from poorer-quality asteroid absolute magnitudes and best-fit radiometric diameters.

  8. Zebra mussel life history

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, J.D.

    1995-06-01

    The success of introduced zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) and Dreissena bugensis Andrusova) can be related in large parttot a life history that is unlike that of the indigenous freshwater fauna and yet is conserved with marine bivalves. Following external fertilization and embryological development, there is a brief trochophore stage. With the development of a velum and the secretion of a D-shaped larval shell, the larva becomes a D-shaped veliger, which is the first recognizable planktonic larva. Later, the secretion of a second larval shell leads to the last obligate free-swimming veliger stage known as the veliconcha. The last larval stage known as the pediveliger, however, can both swim using its velum or crawl using its fully-functional foot. Pediveligers actively select substrates on which they {open_quotes}settle{close_quotes} by secreting byssal threads and undergo metamorphosis to become plantigrade mussels. The secretion of the adult shell and concomitant changes in growth axis leads to the heteromyariant or mussel-like shape, which is convergent with marine mussels. Like a number of other bivalves, zebra mussels produce byssal threads as adults, but these attachments may be broken enabling their translocation to new areas. The recognition and examination of these life history traits will lead to a better understanding of zebra mussel biology.

  9. Occultation studies of the Solar system. Semiannual status report, 1 July-31 December 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Millis, R. L.

    1987-02-01

    The planetary occultation program began at Lowell Observatory in 1973 with a worldwide campaign to observe mutual occultations and eclipses of the Galilean Satellites. Then the temperature profile of the Martian atmosphere was measured from data taken during the occultation of epsilon Geminorum, the Rings of Uranus were discovered as they occulted SAO 158687, and the dimensions of Pallas were measured when that minor planet occulted SAO 85009. In 1979 the present grant was initiated, providing funds for portable photometric instrumentation used to observe occultations by asteroids as well as by Uranus and Neptune. Software for predicting occultations of catalog stars by asteroids, planets, and comets was written in 1983. Lowell currently provides most of the available predictions for asteroid occultations. Realizing in 1983 that the lack of a high-quality astrometric telescope dedicated to occultation work was limiting progress, an 18-inch, F/8 lens was acquired and adapted to an existing mounting at Lowell. Although acquisition of the lens and implementation of the new telescope has been accomplished primarily with non-grant funds, the instrument makes a major contribution to occultation research.

  10. Vitellogenesis and changes in lipid and protein content of oocytes of Trophon geversianus (Neogastropoda: Muricidae) in Golfo San José (Chubut, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Barra, Paula; Giménez, Juliana; Knack de Almeida, Henrique; Arrighetti, Florencia

    2014-03-01

    The reproductive cycle of Trophon geversianus (Pallas 1774) population from Golfo San José (Chubut, Argentina, 42°33'S, 64°33'W) was studied using histochemical methods and digital image analysis. For such purpose, ovary samples were taken monthly between July 2006 and August 2007 and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Sudan black B (to identify lipids) or Schiff's ninhydrin (to identify proteins). Four different gametogenic stages were described: oogonias, previtellogenic oocytes, early vitellogenic oocytes, and late vitellogenic oocytes. Two spawning events were registered; one between September and October 2006, and a second one between February and March 2007. Oocyte quality was determined by the changes in lipid and protein composition during gametogenesis. Through digital image analysis, a lipid and a protein indexes (LI and PI) were calculated. Significant differences were observed in LI over month sampled, contrarily to what PI showed. A significant and positive correlation was found between lipid and protein content and oocytes areas, indicating that these nutrients accumulate during the entire vitellogenesis. Also, when dividing the oocytes into two size groups, analysis indicates a positive correlation between LI and oocyte area for smaller area oocytes. This demonstrates that while proteins accumulate linearly throughout vitellogenesis process, lipids accumulate in two steps: first at a growing rate, secondly at constant rate. This information is essential to determine the nutritional requirements of brood stock individuals at hatcheries in this potential fishery resource that inhabits patagonian waters.

  11. Detection of viral hemorrhagic septicemia in round gobies in New York State (USA) waters of Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Groocock, G.H.; Getchell, R.G.; Wooster, G.A.; Britt, K.L.; Batts, W.N.; Winton, J.R.; Casey, R.N.; Casey, J.W.; Bowser, P.R.

    2007-01-01

    In May 2006 a large mortality of several thousand round gobies Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas, 1814) occurred in New York waters of the St. Lawrence River and Lake Ontario. Necropsies of sampled fish from these areas showed pallor of the liver and gills, and hemorrhagic areas in many organs. Histopathologic examination of affected tissues revealed areas of necrosis and hemorrhage. Inoculations of fathead minnow Pimephales promelas (Rafinesque, 1820) cell cultures with dilutions of tissue samples from the necropsied gobies produced a cytopathic effect within 5 d post-inoculation. Samples of cell culture supernatant were tested using RT-PCR and confirmed the presence of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). Sequence analysis of the VHSV isolate resulted in its assignment to the type-IVb subgroup. The detection of VHSV in a relatively recent invasive fish species in the Great Lakes and the potential impact of VHSV on the ecology and economy of the area will require further investigation and careful management considerations. ?? Inter-Research 2007.

  12. The use of turbidostat culture in investigation of algal heavy-metal toxicity and rotifer population dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, W.N.

    1989-01-01

    Using the green alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa Chick, the heavy metals selenium as selenate, cadmium, cadmium + manganese and cadmium + zinc were investigated to assess their toxicity in terms of changes in {mu}{sub max}. It was shown that increases of sublethal concentrations of Se produced a near linear decrease in {mu}{sub max}. A {mu}{sub max}IC{sub 50} was calculated to be 10.1 {mu}M Se. A concentration of 1.8 {mu}M Cd produced a 62% decrease in {mu}{sub max} after 2 generating lag. A recovery of {mu}{sub max} was observed when MnCl{sub 2} or ZnCl{sub 2} was added to the medium in which populations were experiencing sublethal Cd toxicity. The amelioration responses were incomplete with regard to full recovery of {mu}{sub max} and last 20 generations for the Cd-Mn exposure and 7 generations for the Cd-Zn exposure. Measurement of {mu}{sub max} is turbidostat culture was shown to provide a very sensitive measure of toxicity. For the first time, a metazoan, the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus Pallas, was grown in turbidostat culture and maintained near its {mu}{sub max} for many generations. It was discovered that {mu}{sub max} was subject to selection in this species and increased 51% from 0.053 h{sup {minus}1} to 0.080 h{sup {minus}1} over 8 mo at 25{degree}C.

  13. Insects associated with Jatropha curcas Linn. (Euphorbiaceae) in west Niger.

    PubMed

    Habou, Zakari Abdoul; Adam, Toudou; Haubruge, Eric; Mergeai, Guy; Verheggen, François J

    2014-01-01

    Jatropha curcas has been introduced into Niger since 2004 by International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT). This plant is cultivated for its oil, which can be used as a Biofuel. Through direct and indirect insect collection methods, an inventory of the insect associated with J. curcas has been conducted in Western Niger during two rainy seasons (from June to October) in 2010 and 2011. We have identified insects belonging to the following families: Acrididae (Oedaleus senegalensis Krauss, Oedaleus nigeriensis Uvarov, Heteracris leani Uvarov, Catantops stramineus Walker, Parga cyanoptera Uvarov, and Acanthacris ruficornis citrina Audinet-Serville), Pyrgomorphidae (Poekilocerus bufonius hieroglyphicus Klug), Cetoniidae (Pachnoda interrupta Olivier, Pachnoda marginata aurantia Herbst, Pachnoda sinuata Heinrich and McClain, and Rhabdotis sobrina Gory and Percheron), Meloidae (Decapotoma lunata Pallas), Pentatomidae (Agonoscelis versicoloratus Dallas, Nezara viridula Linn, and Antestia sp. Kirkaldy), Coreidae (Leptoglossus membranaceus Fabricius and Cletus trigonus Thunberg), and Scutelleridae (Calidea panaethiopica Kirkaldy). Origin and potential impact on J. curcas of all these insect species are presented and discussed. The lower insect's diversity indexes are observed in 2010 and 2011 for Niamey, Saga, and Gaya because of semi-arid character of the Sahelian area. PMID:25528746

  14. Chromosomal instability in rodents caused by pollution from Baikonur cosmodrome.

    PubMed

    Kolumbayeva, Saule; Begimbetova, Dinara; Shalakhmetova, Tamara; Saliev, Timur; Lovinskaya, Anna; Zhunusbekova, Benazir

    2014-09-01

    An assessment of the health status of ecosystems exposed to man-made pollution is a vital issue for many countries. Particularly it concerns the consequences of contamination caused by the activity of the space industry. Each rocket launch is accompanied by the introduction of parts of the rocket propellant into the environment. This study aims to scrutinize the effect of the components of rocket fuel on the induction of lipid peroxidation and chromosomal aberrations on rodents inhabiting the area exposed to pollution from Baikonur cosmodrome. The results showed the increase of the level of lipid hydroperoxide and malondialdehyde in the livers of Citellus pygmaeus Pallas and Mus musculus L., which indicates an augmentation of free radical activity and DNA damage. The cytogenetic analysis of bone marrow cells revealed that the frequency of chromosomal aberrations was a few times higher in the rodents from contaminated territory. The signs of oxidative stress and high level of chromosomal aberrations indicate the environmental impact of the cosmodrome, and its possible toxic and mutagenic effects on ecosystems. PMID:24990120

  15. Compositional Homogeneity of CM Parent Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernazza, P.; Marsset, M.; Beck, P.; Binzel, R. P.; Birlan, M.; Cloutis, E. A.; DeMeo, F. E.; Dumas, C.; Hiroi, T.

    2016-09-01

    CM chondrites are the most common type of hydrated meteorites, making up ˜1.5% of all falls. Whereas most CM chondrites experienced only low-temperature (˜0°C–120°C) aqueous alteration, the existence of a small fraction of CM chondrites that suffered both hydration and heating complicates our understanding of the early thermal evolution of the CM parent body(ies). Here, we provide new constraints on the collisional and thermal history of CM-like bodies from a comparison between newly acquired spectral measurements of main-belt Ch/Cgh-type asteroids (70 objects) and existing laboratory spectral measurements of CM chondrites. It first appears that the spectral variation observed among CM-like bodies is essentially due to variations in the average regolith grain size. Second, the spectral properties of the vast majority (unheated) of CM chondrites resemble both the surfaces and the interiors of CM-like bodies, implying a “low” temperature (<300°C) thermal evolution of the CM parent body(ies). It follows that an impact origin is the likely explanation for the existence of heated CM chondrites. Finally, similarly to S-type asteroids and (2) Pallas, the surfaces of large (D > 100 km)—supposedly primordial—Ch/Cgh-type main-belt asteroids likely expose the interiors of the primordial CM parent bodies, a possible consequence of impacts by small asteroids (D < 10 km) in the early solar system.

  16. Factors Affecting the Distribution of the Amphipod Corophium volutatorin Two Estuaries in South-east England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, R. G.; Gerdol, V.

    1997-05-01

    The distribution of Corophium volutator(Pallas) in the estuaries of the Rivers Blackwater and Crouch in South-east England was examined by taking samples of mud from 137 sites at approximately 0·5 m below mean high water of neap tidal level. Corophium volutatorwere approximately twice as abundant in creeks and semi-enclosed bays than on the open mud flats, a difference that was significant statistically. There was no correlation between the abundance of C. volutatorand the median particle size of the sediment nor the mud content. There was a significant but weak negative correlation between the abundance of C. volutatorand the polychaete Nereis diversicolor. The aggregation of C. volutatorin the creeks and bays was attributed to their dispersal behaviour of swimming on the flood tide, which would sweep the amphipods into such areas where the tide rises but does not flow laterally. On the open mud flats, displacement of swimming amphipods by the flood tide further upstream and into semi-enclosed areas would occur. Their dispersal behaviour places C. volutatorin the creeks and bays within the saltmarsh vegetation, where their bioturbatory feeding habits may be responsible, in part, for the significant loss of pioneer zone vegetation that occurs there.

  17. The impact of fish predation on shallow soft bottoms in brackish waters (SW Finland); an experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattila, J.; Bonsdorff, E.

    The impact of fish predation on shallow soft bottoms was studied by field and laboratory experiments. The field manipulations (caging experiments) were carried out in 2 shallow (1.5 m) bays in the northern Baltic Sea. An a priori hypothesis that fish do not structure macrozoobenthic communities in shallow soft-bottom areas was tested. Short-term aquarium experiments clearly showed that perch ( Perca fluviatilis L.), roach ( Rutilus rutilus L.) and ruffe ( Acerina cernua (L.)) are all effective predators on benthic macroinvertebrates ( Corophium volutator) Pallas and Nereis diversicolor O.F. Müller) under laboratory conditions. Thus fish can be considered a potential structuring force on benthic communities in shallow soft-bottom areas. Caging experiments of one to two month's duration (partial and total exclosure of fish and enclosure with perch) induced only minor changes in the benthic community. These results support the a priori hypothesis. One of our main conclusions is, however, that fish predation and other biotic interactions (competition, disturbance, etc.) together with abiotic factors play some role in the structuring processes. Multilevel testing is needed in studies on biotic interactions in the marine environment. Results from a specific environment should not automatically be applied to other kinds of habitats.

  18. Purification of Alaskan Walleye Pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus) and New Zealand Hoki (Macruronus novaezelandiae) Liver Oil Using Short Path Distillation

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Alex C. M.; Miller, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    The beneficial health effects of a diet rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) have been extensively researched in recent years. Marine oils are an important dietary source of n-3 LC-PUFA, being especially rich in two of the most important fatty acids of this class, EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid; 20:5n-3) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid; 22:6n-3). Oils rich in n-3 LC-PUFA are prone to oxidation that leads to loss of product quality. Alaskan pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus Pallas, 1814) and New Zealand’s hoki (Macruronus novaezelandiae Hector, 1871) are the highest volume fisheries of their respective countries. Both produce large quantities of fishery byproducts, in particular crude or unrefined n-3 LC-PUFA containing oils. Presently these oils are used as ingredients for animal feed, and only limited quantities are used as human nutritional products. The aim of this research was to investigate the applicability of short path distillation for the purification of pollock and hoki oil to produce purified human-grade fish oil to meet quality specifications. Pollock and hoki oils were subjected to short path distillation and a significant decrease in free fatty acids and lipid oxidation (peroxide and para-anisidine values) products was observed. Purified oils met the Global Organization for EPA and DHA Omega-3 (GOED) standard for edible fish oils. PMID:24858408

  19. Redescription of two species of cystidicolid nematodes (Spirurina: Cystidicolidae) from Notopterus notopterus (Osteichthyes) in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Pachanawan, Adithepchaikarn; Kamchoo, Kanda

    2016-06-01

    Two nematode species, Pseudoproleptus notopteri (Karve et Naik, 1951) and Spinitectus notopteri Karve et Naik, 1951 (both Cystidicolidae), are redescribed based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies of specimens collected from the digestive tract of the freshwater fish Notopterus notopterus (Pallas) (Notopteridae, Osteoglossiformes) in Thailand. Some new important morphological features, such as a detailed structure of the cephalic end and the presence of bifurcate deirids and a ventral median caudal protuberance in male, are reported for the former species (P. notopteri), which is provisionally assigned to Pseudoproleptus Khera, 1955; Notopteroides notopteri Chakravarty et Majumdar, 1962, Pseudoproleptus satendri Sahay, 1967, P. lamyi Le-Van-Hoa et Bui-Thi Lien-Huong, 1969, P. gomtii Gupta et Bakshi, 1984. P. sprenti Gupta et Masoodi, 1986 and P. thapari Gupta et Naiyer, 1992 are considered its junior synonyms. The first study of S. notopteri by SEM showed its morphological similarity with S. mastacembeli Karve et Naik, 1951, from which it clearly differs by the structure of eggs; Spinitectus alii Kalyankar, 1970, S. bengalensis Chakravarty, Sain et Majumdar, 1961, S. gomalensis Siddiqui et Kattak, 1984 and S. thapari Ali, 1957 are considered to be junior synonyms of S. notopteri. Pseudoproleptus notopteri and Spinitectus notopteri are reported from Thailand for the first time. PMID:27078651

  20. Description of a new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the western Derby eland Taurotragus derbianus derbianus Gray (Artiodactyla: Bovidae) in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Máca, Ondřej

    2012-06-01

    Examination of faecal samples from semi-captive western Derby elands Taurotragus derbianus derbianus Gray, in the Bandia and Fathala Reserves of Senegal, revealed the presence of oöcysts of the genus Eimeria Schneider, 1875 that we considered to represent a new species, Eimeria derbiani n. sp. The new species possesses nearly ellipsoidal oöcysts (length/width ratio 1.3) with a bi-layered wall and an average size of 27.6 × 21.5 μm. E. derbiani possesses a micropyle covered by a micropylar cap and ovoidal, single-layered sporocysts with an average size of 14.9 × 7.7 μm, each with a Stieda body. Sporozoites of E. derbiani possess a large refractile body and a nucleus. Sporulation lasted for 2 days at 23°C. The new species is differentiated from the two species parasitising Taurotragus oryx Pallas, E. canna Triffitt, 1924 and E. triffittae Yakimoff, 1934. PMID:22581248

  1. Presence of Native Prey Does Not Divert Predation on Exotic Pests by Harmonia axyridis in Its Indigenous Range.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gui Fen; Lövei, Gábor L; Wu, Xia; Wan, Fang Hao

    2016-01-01

    In China, two invasive pests, Bemisia tabaci MEAM1 (Gennadius) and Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), often co-occur with the native pest, Aphis gossypii (Glover), on plants of Malvaceae and Cucurbitaceae. All three are preyed on by the native ladybird, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas); however, the native predator might be expected to prefer native prey to the exotic ones due to a shared evolutionary past. In order to clarify whether the presence of native prey affected the consumption of these two invasive species by the native predator, field-cage experiments were conducted. A duplex qPCR was used to simultaneously detect both non-native pests within the gut of the predator. H. axyridis readily accepted both invasive prey species, but preferred B. tabaci. With all three prey species available, H. axyridis consumption of B. tabaci was 39.3±2.2% greater than consumption of F. occidentalis. The presence of A. gossypii reduced (by 59.9% on B. tabaci, and by 60.6% on F. occidentalis), but did not stop predation on the two exotic prey when all three were present. The consumption of B. tabaci was similar whether it was alone or together with A. gossypii. However, the presence of aphids reduced predation on the invasive thrips. Thus, some invasive prey may be incorporated into the prey range of a native generalist predator even in the presence of preferred native prey. PMID:27391468

  2. Occultation studies of the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    The planetary occultation program began at Lowell Observatory in 1973 with a worldwide campaign to observe mutual occultations and eclipses of the Galilean Satellites. Then the temperature profile of the Martian atmosphere was measured from data taken during the occultation of epsilon Geminorum, the Rings of Uranus were discovered as they occulted SAO 158687, and the dimensions of Pallas were measured when that minor planet occulted SAO 85009. In 1979 the present grant was initiated, providing funds for portable photometric instrumentation used to observe occultations by asteroids as well as by Uranus and Neptune. Software for predicting occultations of catalog stars by asteroids, planets, and comets was written in 1983. Lowell currently provides most of the available predictions for asteroid occultations. Realizing in 1983 that the lack of a high-quality astrometric telescope dedicated to occultation work was limiting progress, an 18-inch, F/8 lens was acquired and adapted to an existing mounting at Lowell. Although acquisition of the lens and implementation of the new telescope has been accomplished primarily with non-grant funds, the instrument makes a major contribution to occultation research.

  3. A strategy for exploring the Asteroid belt with ion propulsion: EVE and Dawn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, C. T.; Eve Science Team

    The largest asteroids are survivors from the earliest epoch of the formation of the solar system that have escaped the heavy bombardment period largely intact Moreover these minor planets should have remained closest to their points of origin Thus a strategy of visiting the largest bodies in the main belt could tell us much about the original compositional gradient in the solar system and hence the temperature and pressure gradient that produced it The Dawn mission explores the two most massive main belt asteroids 4 Vesta and 1 Ceres at 2 34 and 2 77 AU respectively These bodies are very different Vesta has an equatorial diameter of about 520 km and is covered with basaltic flows whereas Ceres is close to 1000 km in diameter and has a shape and density consistent with a rocky core covered by a thick ice 100 km shell The third most massive main belt asteroid 2 Pallas lies at the same distance as Ceres with the same size of Vesta but a lower density However since it orbits at a high inclination it is quite inaccessible The fourth most massive asteroid is 10 Hygiea at 3 14 AU Much less is known about Hygiea than the other three asteroids but enough is known that we expect to find a much different body than either Vesta or Ceres including a more primitive composition Further upon completing an orbital exploration of Hygiea using simply a duplicate of the Dawn spacecraft there is an extensive dynamical family that is readily accessible

  4. Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 Study of the Trapezium Cluster: The Influence of Circumstellar Disks on the Initial Mass Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robberto, M.; Song, J.; Mora Carrillo, G.; Beckwith, S. V. W.; Makidon, R. B.; Panagia, N.

    2004-05-01

    We have performed the first measures of mass accretion rates in the core of the Orion Nebula Cluster. Four adjacent fields centered on the Trapezium stars have been imaged in the U and B bands using the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) on board the Hubble Space Telescope. We obtained photometry for 91 stars in the U band (F336W) and 71 stars in the B band (F439W). The WFPC2 archive was also searched to obtain complementary V-band (F547M) and I-band (F791W) photometry. In this paper we focus our attention on a group of 40 stars with known spectral types and complete UBVI WFPC2 photometry. We locate each star on the H-R diagram, considering both the standard ISM reddening law with RV=3.1 and the ``anomalous'' reddening law with RV=5.5 more appropriate for the Orion Nebula. Then we derive the stellar masses and ages by comparing with the evolutionary tracks and isochrones calculated by D'Antona & Mazzitelli and Palla & Stahler. Approximately three-quarters of the sources show excess luminosity in the U band, which we attribute to mass accretion. The known correlation between the U-band excess and the total accretion luminosity, recalibrated for our photometric system, allows us to estimate the accretion rates, which are all found to be in the range 10-8 to 10-12 Msolar yr-1. For stars older than 1 Myr, there is some evidence of a relation between mass accretion rates and stellar age. Overall, mass accretion rates appear lower than those measured by other authors in the Orion flanking fields or in Taurus-Auriga. Mass accretion rates remain low even in the vicinity of the 10-5 Msolar yr-1 birth line of Palla & Stahler, suggesting that in the core of the Trapezium cluster, disk accretion has been recently depressed by an external mechanism. We suggest that the UV radiation generated by the Trapezium OB stars, responsible for the disk evaporation, may also cause the drop of the mass accretion rate. In this scenario, low-mass stars may terminate their pre

  5. Peatland restoration measures may have dramatic consequences - Greenhouse gas exchange and peat properties in a coastal fen in the first year after rewetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurasinski, Gerald; Hahn, Juliane; Köhler, Stefan; Glatzel, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    Rewetting is a common restoration measure for drained peatlands, i.e. to re-establish the natural habitat and biodiversity and to decrease the amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, especially of carbon dioxide (CO2). Every restoration measure, however, is itself disturbance to the ecosystem that may, for instance, lead to partial die-back of vegetation or to increases in CH4 emissions, especially when rewetting is actually achieved by flooding. Here, we examine an ecosystem shift in a coastal brackish fen at the southern Baltic Sea, which was rewetted by flooding. The analyses are based on one year of bi-weekly dynamic closed chamber data gathered in the year after rewetting at measurement spots that were located in different vegetation stands (Carex acutiformis Ehrh., Phragmites australis L., Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani (C.C. Gmel.) Palla and Bolboschoenus maritimus (L.) Palla) and replicated at different inundation heights. During GHG measurement campaigns we recorded data on water levels, peat temperatures, and peat water chemical properties. Peat chemical properties were analysed before and after flooding. Rewetting turned the site from a summer dry fen with mean annual water levels of around -0.08m into a shallow lake with water levels up to 0.60m. In the first year after flooding, we observed a substantial die-back of vegetation, especially in stands of Carex acutiformis. Peat water properties became more heterogeneous. Both TOC and TNb in the peat water significantly increased in the first year after flooding, whilst concentrations of (potentially) seaborne anions Cl- and SO42- dropped. The changes in peat properties after flooding were inconsistent across vegetation stands, inundation heights and peat depths. Only dry bulk density and concentrations of C, N and S increased at (almost) all measurement spots. The average exchange of GHG amounted to 0.26 ± 0.06 kg m-2 CH4 and 2.13 ± 0.34 kg m-2 CO2 from dark soil respiration. This is equivalent to a

  6. Energy density and variability in abundance of pigeon guillemot prey: Support for the quality-variability trade-off hypothesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Litzow, M.A.; Piatt, J.F.; Abookire, A.A.; Robards, M.D.

    2004-01-01

    1. The quality-variability trade-off hypothesis predicts that (i) energy density (kJ g-1) and spatial-temporal variability in abundance are positively correlated in nearshore marine fishes; and (ii) prey selection by a nearshore piscivore, the pigeon guillemot (Cepphus columba Pallas), is negatively affected by variability in abundance. 2. We tested these predictions with data from a 4-year study that measured fish abundance with beach seines and pigeon guillemot prey utilization with visual identification of chick meals. 3. The first prediction was supported. Pearson's correlation showed that fishes with higher energy density were more variable on seasonal (r = 0.71) and annual (r = 0.66) time scales. Higher energy density fishes were also more abundant overall (r = 0.85) and more patchy at a scale of 10s of km (r = 0.77). 4. Prey utilization by pigeon guillemots was strongly non-random. Relative preference, defined as the difference between log-ratio transformed proportions of individual prey taxa in chick diets and beach seine catches, was significantly different from zero for seven of the eight main prey categories. 5. The second prediction was also supported. We used principal component analysis (PCA) to summarize variability in correlated prey characteristics (energy density, availability and variability in abundance). Two PCA scores explained 32% of observed variability in pigeon guillemot prey utilization. Seasonal variability in abundance was negatively weighted by these PCA scores, providing evidence of risk-averse selection. Prey availability, energy density and km-scale variability in abundance were positively weighted. 6. Trophic interactions are known to create variability in resource distribution in other systems. We propose that links between resource quality and the strength of trophic interactions may produce resource quality-variability trade-offs.

  7. Two new species of erect Bryozoa (Gymnolaemata: Cheilostomata) and the application of non-destructive imaging methods for quantitative taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Kei; Titschack, Jürgen; Baum, Daniel; Freiwald, André

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of cheilostome Bryozoa are described from continental-slope habitats off Mauritania, including canyon and cold-water coral (mound) habitats. Internal structures of both species were visualised and quantified using microcomputed tomographic (micro-CT) methods. Cellaria bafouri n. sp. is characterised by the arrangement of zooids in alternating longitudinal rows, a smooth cryptocyst, and the presence of an ooecial plate with denticles. Smittina imragueni n. sp. exhibits many similarities with Smittina cervicornis (Pallas, 1766), but differs especially in the shape and orientation of the suboral avicularium. Observations on Smittina imragueni and material labelled as Smittina cervicornis suggest that the latter represents a species group, members of which have not yet been discriminated, possibly because of high intracolony variation and marked astogenetic changes in surface morphology. Both new species are known only from the habitats where they were collected, probably reflecting the paucity of bryozoan sampling from this geographic area and depth range. Both species are able to tolerate low oxygen concentration, which is assumed to be compensated by the high nutrient supply off Mauritania. The application of micro-CT for the semiautomatic quantification of zooidal skeletal characters was successfully tested. We were able to automatically distinguish individual zooidal cavities and acquire corresponding morphological datasets. Comparing the obtained results with conventional SEM measurements allowed ascertaining the reliability of this new method. The employment of micro-CT allows the observation and quantification of previously unseen characters that can be used in describing and differentiating species that were previously indistinguishable. Furthermore, this method might help elucidate processes of colony growth and the function of individual zooids during this process. PMID:26624090

  8. Stable isotope analysis and satellite tracking reveal interspecific resource partitioning of nonbreeding albatrosses off Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suryan, R.M.; Fischer, K.N.

    2010-01-01

    Albatrosses (Diomedeidae) are the most threatened family of birds globally. The three North Pacific species (Phoebastria Reichenbach, 1853) are listed as either endangered or vulnerable, with the population of Short-tailed Albatross (Phoebastria albatrus (Pallas, 1769)) less than 1% of its historical size. All North Pacific albatross species do not currently breed sympatrically, yet they do co-occur at-sea during the nonbreeding season. We incorporated stable isotope analysis with the first simultaneous satellite-tracking study of all three North Pacific albatross species while sympatric on summer (nonbreeding season) foraging grounds off Alaska. Carbon isotope ratios and tracking data identify differences in primary foraging domains of continental shelf and slope waters for Short-tailed Albatrosses and Black-footed Albatrosses (Phoebastria nigripes (Audubon, 1839)) versus oceanic waters for Laysan Albatrosses (Phoebastria immutabilis (Roths-child, 1893)). Short-tailed and Black-footed albatrosses also fed at higher trophic levels than Laysan Albatrosses. The relative trophic position of Black-footed and Laysan albatrosses, however, appears to differ between nonbreeding and breeding seasons. Spatial segregation also occurred at a broader geographic scale, with Short-tailed Albatrosses ranging more north into the Bering Sea than Black-footed Albatrosses, which ranged more to the southeast, and Laysan Albatrosses more to the southwest. Differences in carbon isotope ratios among North Pacific albatross species during the nonbreeding season likely reflect the relative proportion of neritic (more carbon enriched) versus oceanic (carbon depleted) derived nutrients, and possible differential use of fishery discards, rather than latitudinal differences in distribution.

  9. Zebra mussel induced mortality of unionids in firm substrata of western Lake Erie and a habitat for survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, D.W.; Smithee, R.D.; Longton, G.D.; Kovalak, W.P.

    1997-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine impacts of zebra mussel [Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771); Dreissenidae] infestation on unionids in firm substrata in western Lake Erie. Unionid mollusks were collected at a total of 15 stations on three offshore depth contours (2, 3, and 4 m) in 1983 (before zebra mussel infestation), in 1990 and 1993 (after zebra mussel infestation), and at one station on a nearshore 2-m depth contour and along one transect on a nearshore 1-m depth contour in 1993. Numbers of living unionids on substrata along offshore contours remained similar between 1983 and 1990 and then decreased from 97 individuals in 1990 to only five individuals in 1993. In addition, the number of species decreased from nine to four between 1990 and 1993. In contrast, on nearshore contours 85 living individuals representing nine species were found in 1993. About 48% of the living and 79% of the dead unionids at the two nearshore locations were covered with byssal threads of dreissenid mussels, but were not actively infested by mussels. The presence of living unionids on nearshore contours of western Lake Erie in 1993 indicates that survival of unionids in the presence of abundant zebra mussel populations can be possible in firm substrata and that these habitats can provide natural ''refugia'' for unionid populations. At present, we do not know what allows unionids to survive in the presence of zebra mussel colonization, but believe that water-level fluctuations and waves could contribute to the removal of mussels from unionids. This information could be of major concern in the mitigation of impacts of infestation on unionids in waters throughout North America.

  10. A preliminary study on the insect fauna of Al-Baha Province, Saudi Arabia, with descriptions of two new species.

    PubMed

    El-Hawagry, Magdi S; Khalil, Mohammed W; Sharaf, Mostafa R; Hassan H Fadl; Aldawood, Abdulrahman S

    2013-01-01

    A preliminary study was carried out on the insect fauna of Al-Baha Province, south-western part of Saudi Arabia. A total number of 582 species and subspecies (few identified only to the genus level) belonging to 129 families and representing 17 orders were recorded. Two of these species are described as new, namely: Monomorium sarawatensis Sharaf & Aldawood, sp. n. [Formicidae, Hymenoptera] and Anthrax alruqibi El-Hawagry sp. n. [Bombyliidae, Diptera]. Another eight species are recorded for the first time in Saudi Arabia, namely: Xiphoceriana arabica (Uvarov, 1922) [Pamphagidae, Orthoptera], Pyrgomorpha conica (Olivier, 1791) [Pyrgomorphidae, Orthoptera], Catopsilia florella (Fabricius, 1775) [Pieridae, Lepidoptera], Anthrax chionanthrax (Bezzi, 1926) [Bombyliidae, Diptera], Spogostylum near tripunctatum Pallas in Wiedemann, 1818 [Bombyliidae, Diptera], Cononedys dichromatopa (Bezzi, 1925) [Bombyliidae, Diptera], Mydas sp. [Mydidae, Diptera], and Hippobosca equina Linnaeus, 1758 [Hippoboscidae, Diptera]. Al-Baha Province is divided by huge and steep Rocky Mountains into two main sectors, a lowland coastal plain at the west, known as "Tihama", and a mountainous area with an elevation of 1500 to 2450 m above sea level at the east, known as "Al-Sarat or Al-Sarah" which form a part of Al-Sarawat Mountains range. Insect species richness in the two sectors (Tihama and Al-Sarah) was compared, and the results showed that each of the two sectors of Al-Baha Province has a unique insect community. The study generally concluded that the insect faunal composition in Al-Baha Province has an Afrotropical flavor, with the Afrotropical elements predominant, and a closer affiliation to the Afrotropical region than to the Palearctic region or the Eremic zone. Consequently, we tend to agree with those biogeographers who consider that parts of the Arabian Peninsula, including Al-Baha Province, should be included in the Afrotropical region rather than in the Palaearctic region or the

  11. Climatology and Characteristics of Aerosol Optical Properties in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmeisser, Lauren; Ogren, John; Backman, John; Asmi, Eija; Andrews, Elisabeth; Jefferson, Anne; Bergin, Michael; Tunved, Peter; Sharma, Sangeeta; Starkweather, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    Within the Arctic, climate forcers like atmospheric aerosols are important contributors to the observed warming and environmental changes in the region. Quantifying the forcing by aerosols in the Arctic is especially difficult, given short aerosol lifetimes, annual variability in illumination and surface albedo, stratified atmospheric conditions, complex feedbacks, and long-range aerosol transport. However, in-situ surface measurements of Arctic aerosol optical properties can be used to constrain variability of light scattering and absorption, identify potential particle sources, and help evaluate the resulting forcing. Data from six WMO Global Atmosphere Watch stations are presented: Alert, Canada (ALT); Barrow, Alaska (BRW); Pallas, Finland (PAL); Summit, Greenland (SUM); Tiksi, Russia (TIK); and Zeppelin Mountain, Norway (ZEP). These sites contribute to the International Arctic System for Observing the Atmosphere (IASOA), which facilitates Arctic-wide data collection and analysis. Climatologies of aerosol optical properties from each station show differences in magnitude and variability of observed parameters. For example, most stations (ALT, BRW, SUM, TIK, ZEP) experience maximum scattering in winter/spring, while PAL exhibits maximum scattering in the summer. The observed range in scattering across these sites is large (almost an order of magnitude) - SUM has the lowest annual median scattering at 0.82 Mm-1 while BRW has the highest at 6.9 Mm-1. A closer look at systematic variability between optical properties at each station, as well as site back trajectories, suggest differences in aerosol processes, sources and transport. The development of consistent climatologies and additional analyses like the ones presented here can help provide a better understanding of trans-Arctic aerosol variability, which can be an asset for improving aerosol models in this unique and remote region.

  12. Climatology and Characteristics of In-situ Aerosol Optical Properties in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmeisser, L.; Ogren, J. A.; Sharma, S.; Asmi, E.; Bergin, M. H.; Jefferson, A.; Andrews, E.; Tunved, P.; Backman, J.; Starkweather, S.

    2015-12-01

    Within the Arctic, climate forcers like atmospheric aerosols are important contributors to the observed warming and environmental changes in the region. Quantifying the forcing by aerosols in the Arctic is especially difficult, given short aerosol lifetimes, annual variability in illumination and surface albedo, stratified atmospheric conditions, complex feedbacks, and long-range aerosol transport. However, in-situ surface measurements of Arctic aerosol optical properties can be used to constrain variability of light scattering and absorption, identify potential particle sources, and help evaluate the resulting forcing. Data from six WMO Global Atmosphere Watch stations are presented: Alert, Canada (ALT); Barrow, Alaska (BRW); Pallas, Finland (PAL); Summit, Greenland (SUM); Tiksi, Russia (TIK); and Zeppelin Mountain, Norway (ZEP). These sites contribute to the International Arctic System for Observing the Atmosphere (IASOA), which facilitates Arctic-wide data collection and analysis. Climatologies of aerosol optical properties from each station show differences in magnitude and variability of observed parameters. For example, Figure 1 presents the annual cycle of aerosol light scattering at 550 nm at each site for 2012-2014, with most stations (ALT, BRW, TIK, ZEP) experiencing maximum scattering in winter/spring, while SUM and PAL exhibit minimum scattering in the winter. The observed range in scattering across these sites is large (almost an order of magnitude) - SUM has the lowest annual median scattering at 0.82 Mm-1 while BRW has the highest at 6.9 Mm-1. A closer look at systematic variability between optical properties at each station, as well as site back trajectories, suggest differences in aerosol processes, sources and transport. The development of consistent climatologies and additional analyses like the ones presented here can help provide a better understanding of trans-Arctic aerosol variability, which can be an asset for improving aerosol models in

  13. Stress-associated radiation effects in pygmy wood mouse Apodemus uralensis (Muridae, Rodentia) populations from the East-Urals Radioactive Trace.

    PubMed

    Orekhova, Natal'ya A; Modorov, Makar V

    2016-09-01

    This work is based on the comparative analysis of data obtained in the course of monitoring pygmy wood mouse populations (Apodemus uralensis Pallas, 1811) in the East-Urals Radioactive Trace (EURT) area and background territories. The effect of population size and its interaction with the radioactivity on biochemical parameters in the spleen and adrenal glands was studied. The concentrations of total lipids, proteins, DNA and RNA, activity of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase and catalase as well as the level of lipid peroxidation (LPO) were evaluated. The functional-metabolic shifts seen with large population sizes were characterized by delipidisation of adrenocortical cells, increased LPO as the main mechanism for steroidogenesis, growth of the protein components of the adrenal glands to maintain their hyperfunction, as well as immunosuppression associated with the restriction of carbohydrates providing splenocytes, reduction of DNA synthesis, and the development of a pro-/antioxidant imbalance. Reactivity of the neuroendocrine and hematopoietic systems of animals experiencing a high population density was higher in the EURT zone compared with the reference group. This difference can be explained by the additional stress from the chronic radiation exposure. The level of LPO, catalase activity, and DNA/protein ratio in the spleen and the total protein content in the adrenal glands were the most sensitive to the interaction of population size and radiation exposure. The harmful effect (distress) of the interaction of non-radiation and radiation factors can manifest when there is a population abundance above 30 ind./100 trap-day and a radiation burden which exceeds the lower boundary of the Derived Consideration Reference Levels, which is above 0.1 mGy/day. PMID:27353005

  14. Study on the flying height of Aedes caspius and Culex pipiens females in the Po Delta area, Italy.

    PubMed

    Bellini, R; Veronesi, R; Draghetti, S; Carrieri, M

    1997-12-01

    We have studied the vertical distribution of Culicidae in the "Ancona di Bellocchio" protected area (Regional Park of the Po Delta, Emilia-Romagna, Italy) by means of nonilluminated CDC traps baited with CO2. Traps were placed at heights of 1.5, 3, 4, and 5 m from the ground in open areas and at 1.5, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 m in wooded areas. We calculated the average flying height of the species caught, i.e., in order of decreasing flying height, Culex pipiens Linnaeus s.l., Culex modestus Ficalbi, Coquillettidia richiardii (Ficalbi), Aedes detritus (Haliday), Aedes caspius (Pallas). We also calculated the linear regression lines for both sites and found that 90% of Ae. caspius flew within a height of 1.64 m from the ground level, 95% within 2.68 m, and 99% at a height not exceeding 4 m; whereas 90% of Cx. pipiens moved within 3.45 m from the ground level, 95% within 4.02 m, and 99% within 4.76 m. The vertical distributions of Ae. caspius and Cx. pipiens did not vary significantly over the seasons and were not affected by the presence of trees or variations in temperature and wind velocity within the range of measurements obtained. The data obtained provide useful information for planning Ae. caspius control measures based on a mechanical barrier capable of preventing mosquitoes from moving toward residential settlements and tourist resorts bordering on the protected area as an alternative to aerial treatment with the larvicide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis. PMID:9474562

  15. Survey of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and their rickettsia in an Atlantic rain forest reserve in the State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sabatini, Guilherme S; Pinter, Adriano; Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda A; Marcili, Arlei; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2010-09-01

    The current study investigated the occurrence of ticks and their rickettsiae in the Serra do Mar State Park, which encompasses one of the largest Atlantic rain forest reserves of Brazil. From July 2008 to June 2009, a total of 2439 ticks (2,196 free living and 243 collected on hosts) was collected, encompassing the following 13 species: Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas), Amblyomma brasiliense AragAo, Amblyomma dubitatum Neumann, Amblyomma fuscum Neumann, Amblyomma incisum Neumann, Amblyomma longirostre (Koch), Amblyomma naponense (Packard), Amblyomma nodosum Neumann, Amblyomma ovale Koch, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi Cooley, Ixodes aragaoi Fonseca, Ixodes loricatus Neumann, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille). Ticks were submitted to polymerase chain reaction assays targeting portions of the rickettsial genes gltA and ompA. Polymerase chain reaction products were DNA sequenced and compared with corresponding sequences available in GenBank. Rickettsia bellii, a rickettsia of unknown pathogenicity, was detected in one A. aureolatum, one A. ovale, and three A. incisum specimens. At least 8.8% (3/34) of the free-living A. ovale ticks, 13.6% (8/59) of the A. ovale ticks collected from dogs, and 1.9% (1/54) of the R. sanguineus (Latreille) ticks were found to be infected by Rickettsia sp strain Atlantic rain forest, a novel strain that has been shown to cause an eschar-associated spotted fever in the state of Sho Paulo. Our results suggest that A. ovale is the vector of Rickettsia sp strain Atlantic rain forest in the state of São Paulo. PMID:20939390

  16. Seed germination characteristics of Chrysothamnus nauseosus ssp. viridulus (Astereae, Asteraceae)

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, M.A.; Sankhla, N.; Weber, D.J.; McArthur, E.D.

    1987-04-30

    Rubber rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus nauseosus (Pallas) Britt. ssp. viridulus) may prove to be a source of high-quality cis-isoprene rubber, but its establishment is limited by a lack of information on seed germination. Consequently, seeds were germinated at alternating temperatures (5-15, 5-25, 15-25, and 20-30 C) in light and dark as well as constant temperatures (15-40 C with 5-C increments) to determine temperature response. Seeds were also germinated in solutions of polyethylene glycol 6000, salinity regimes at all the above-mentioned temperatures to determine salinity and temperature interaction. The hormones GA/sub 3/ and kinetin were used to study their effect on overcoming salt- and temperature-induced germination inhibition. Seeds of C. nauseosus ssp. viridulus were very sensitive to low temperature. Best germination was achieved at 25 and 30 C, but these seeds also germinated at a higher temperature (35 C). The seeds of rabbit brush germinated at both constant and alternating temperatures. Light appears to play little or no role in controlling germination of the seeds of rubber rabbitbrush. However, seeds of rabbitbrush were sensitive to salinity, and seed germination was progressively inhibited by increase in salt concentration, although a few seeds still germinated at the highest saline level. Progressively higher concentrations of polyethylene glycol also progressively inhibited germination. Suppression of seed germination induced by high salt concentrations and high temperatures can be partially alleviated by the application of either GA/sub 3/ or kinetin. 34 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

  17. Near Infrared Spectroscopy of B-type Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bin; Jewitt, D.

    2009-09-01

    Most small bodies in the Solar system possess optical colors that are either redder than, or comparable to, the Solar colors in the wavelength region from 0.4 to 0.9 µm. However, a small fraction, about 1 out of every 23 asteroids, is found to be bluer than the Sun. These rare, blue asteroids, of which 2 Pallas is the largest and most famous example, are classified as B-types in the Bus spectral taxonomy. The paucity of B-types already makes these objects interesting. Moreover, several meteor shower-associated asteroids (e.g. 3200 Phaethon, 2005 UD) are found to be blue in the optical. Furthermore, the available optical spectra of the main belt comets 133P and 176P are similar to those of the B-type asteroids. However, B-type asteroids remain largely unexamined as a group and our knowledge of their properties is correspondingly limited. For this reason, we undertook a focused, spectroscopic study of 20 B-type asteroids using the 3-meter IRTF telescope atop Mauna Kea, Hawaii. The spectra show that optically similar B-type asteroids are spectrally diverse in the near infrared. We find that the negative optical spectral slope is due to the presence of a broad absorption band centered near 1.0 µm. Amongst the meteorites, the best spectral analogs are found in the unusual CI and CM carbonaceous chondrites. The 1.0 µm absorption feature in several objects is very well matched by the reflection spectrum of magnetite. We will present our observations of the 20 B-type asteroids and discuss the possible aqueous alteration history of these objects.

  18. Review of anthraquinone applications for pest management and agricultural crop protection.

    PubMed

    DeLiberto, Shelagh T; Werner, Scott J

    2016-10-01

    We have reviewed published anthraquinone applications for international pest management and agricultural crop protection from 1943 to 2016. Anthraquinone (AQ) is commonly found in dyes, pigments and many plants and organisms. Avian repellent research with AQ began in the 1940s. In the context of pest management, AQ is currently used as a chemical repellent, perch deterrent, insecticide and feeding deterrent in many wild birds, and in some mammals, insects and fishes. Criteria for evaluation of effective chemical repellents include efficacy, potential for wildlife hazards, phytotoxicity and environmental persistence. As a biopesticide, AQ often meets these criteria of efficacy for the non-lethal management of agricultural depredation caused by wildlife. We summarize published applications of AQ for the protection of newly planted and maturing crops from pest birds. Conventional applications of AQ-based repellents include preplant seed treatments [e.g. corn (Zea mays L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), wheat (Triticum spp.), millet (Panicum spp.), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), pelletized feed and forest tree species] and foliar applications for rice, sunflower, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), turf, sugar beets (Beta vulgaris L.), soybean (Glycine max L.), sweet corn and nursery, fruit and nut crops. In addition to agricultural repellent applications, AQ has also been used to treat toxicants for the protection of non-target birds. Few studies have demonstrated AQ repellency in mammals, including wild boar (Sus scrofa, L.), thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus, Mitchill), black-tailed prairie dogs (Cyomys ludovicainus, Ord.), common voles (Microtus arvalis, Pallas), house mice (Mus musculus, L.), Tristram's jirds (Meriones tristrami, Thomas) and black rats (Rattus rattus L.). Natural sources of AQ and its derivatives have also been identified as insecticides and insect repellents. As a natural or synthetic biopesticide, AQ

  19. Volcano-Hydrothermal Systems of the Central and Northern Kuril Island Arc - a Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalacheva, E.; Taran, Y.; Voloshina, E.; Ptashinsky, L.

    2015-12-01

    More than 20 active volcanoes with historical eruptions are known on 17 islands composing the Central and Northern part of the Kurilian Arc. Six islands - Paramushir, Shiashkotan, Rasshua, Ushishir, Ketoy and Simushir - are characterized by hydrothermal activity, complementary to the fumarolic activity in their craters. There are several types of volcano-hydrothermal systems on the islands. At Paramushir, Shiashkotan and Ketoy the thermal manifestations are acidic to ultra-acidic water discharges associated with hydrothermal aquifers inside volcano edifices and formed as the result of the absorption of magmatic gases by ground waters. A closest known analogue of such activity is Satsuma-Iwojima volcano-island at the Ryukyu Arc. Another type of hydrothermal activity are wide spread coastal hot springs (Shiashkotan, Rasshua), situated as a rule within tide zones and formed by mixing of the heated seawater with cold groundwater or, in opposite, by mixing of the steam- or conductively heated groundwater with seawater. This type of thermal manifestation is similar to that reported for other volcanic islands of the world (Satsuma Iwojima, Monserrat, Ischia, Socorro). Ushishir volcano-hydrothermal system is formed by the absorption of magmatic gases by seawater. Only Ketoy Island hosts a permanent acidic crater lake. At Ebeko volcano (Paramushir) rapidly disappearing small acidic lakes (formed after phreatic eruptions) have been reported. The main hydrothermal manifestation of Simushir is the Zavaritsky caldera lake with numerous coastal thermal springs and weak steam vents. The last time measured temperatures of fumaroles at the islands are: >500ºC at Pallas Peak (Ketoy), 480ºC at Kuntamintar volcano (Shiashkotan), variable and fast changing temperatures from 120º C to 500ºC at Ebeko volcano (Paramushir), 150ºC in the Rasshua crater, and > 300ºC in the Chirpoy crater (Black Brothers islands). The magmatic and rock-forming solute output by the Kurilian volcano

  20. Development and application of molecular gut-content analysis to detect aphid and coccinellid predation by Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Italy.

    PubMed

    Rondoni, Gabriele; Athey, Kacie J; Harwood, James D; Conti, Eric; Ricci, Carlo; Obrycki, John J

    2015-12-01

    Despite their positive effect in reducing pest populations, exotic generalist predators sometimes become invasive and contribute to the displacement of indigenous species in the same trophic level. Although laboratory experiments have linked intraguild predation (IGP) to these interactions, field evidence and quantification of IGP are still lacking for most systems. The recent establishment of the exotic Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Italy raises concern about the detrimental effect that the ladybird could have on native coccinellids. Here we assessed, under laboratory conditions, the acceptability and suitability of eggs of 2 native ladybirds, Adalia bipunctata L. and Oenopia conglobata (L.), as prey items for H. axyridis larvae. Then we developed primers for molecular gut-content analysis to detect predation by H. axyridis on the 2 ladybirds and on the aphid Eucallipterus tiliae L. Species-specific 16S primers were developed for the 3 species and laboratory feeding trials were conducted to quantify the rate of prey DNA breakdown in the gut of H. axyridis. Moreover, to field evaluate primers, H. axyridis 4th instars (n = 132) were systematically collected from linden trees in northern Italy and screened for the presence of prey DNA. Seventy-three percent and 7% of field collected H. axyridis were positive for aphid and coccinellid DNA, respectively. Predation upon aphid and A. bipunctata was lower than predicted if density dependent consumption was expected, while predation upon O. conglobata was significantly higher. Here, we provided the first evidence of IGP among feral populations of H. axyridis and indigenous ladybird beetles, occurring in Italy. PMID:25164698

  1. Diel Patterns of Colaspis brunnea and Colaspis crinicornis (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Southeastern Nebraska.

    PubMed

    Miwa, Kentaro; Meinke, Lance J

    2015-12-01

    A field study was conducted to increase our understanding of diel activity patterns of Colaspis brunnea (F.) and Colaspis crinicornis Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in key crop habitats. Within 24-h periods, C. brunnea was sampled in clover fields (primarily red clover, Trifolium pretense (L.), with some sweet clover, Melilotus officinalis (L.) Pallas, and downy brome, Bromus tectorum (L.)) and soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, fields, using a sweep-net, while whole-plant-count sampling was used to monitor C. crinicornis densities in field corn, Zea mays (L.). Sweep-net captures of C. brunnea were significantly greater at night than during the day, suggesting possible vertical movement within the canopy during a 24-h period. Colaspis crinicornis densities on corn plants were fairly constant throughout a 24-h period, but beetle activity (e.g., walking, mating) was significantly greater at night than during the day. Results suggest that both Colaspis species may be exhibiting similar increases in activity at night that facilitates movement from more protected to more exposed areas within a habitat. It is unclear what mechanisms drive this diel pattern, but vegetation architecture and associated interactions with environmental conditions may play a role. Sweep-netting in clover or soybean fields and use of whole-plant-counts in cornfields were effective sampling methods for Colaspis adults. However, because activity and behaviors of Colaspis beetles were influenced by time of day in this study, use of a consistent sampling time within a diel period would be recommended for future population studies or integrated pest management decision-making. PMID:26314034

  2. The force model for asteroid (3200) Phaethon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galushina, T. Yu.; Ryabova, G. O.; Skripnichenko, P. V.

    2015-12-01

    Asteroid (3200) Phaethon is an Apollo asteroid having very small (0.14 au) perihelion distance. We analyze the influence of various perturbing factors on the asteroid motion. Most of them were studied on the base of (O-C) residuals and/or the orbital evolution. This set of estimated perturbing accelerations contains: gravitational perturbations from all major planets, Pluto, the Moon, Ceres, Pallas, Vesta; the Earth, the Sun and Jupiter oblateness, the relativistic effects of the Sun and the solar radiation pressure. The perturbation estimation was done by five various methods. The purpose was to classify the perturbing accelerations as powerful, medium or weak ones, and the criteria for classification were built on the value of the mean accuracy of positional observations from the Earth. All five methods showed a good consistency. We found that the solar radiation pressure exerts a weak influence on the Phaethon motion, while the relativistic effects of the Sun and the Sun oblateness could be classified as medium perturbations. For the most complete and correct description of (3200) Phaethon motion we recommend to include gravitational influence from the planets and the Moon, the relativistic effects of the Sun and the Sun oblateness in the force model. Some other factors we considered separately. They are the recoil acceleration from the recurrent mass loss at perihelia, the Yarkovsky acceleration and relativistic effects of planets, Pluto and the Moon. It was obtained that their contributions to the total acceleration are negligible. We analyzed the next close encounter of Phaethon with the Earth in 2017 and found that neglecting gravitational perturbations from Neptune and Pluto, the Earth and Jupiter oblateness give an error less than 100 km in the asteroid position. Gravitational perturbations from the inner planets (including the Moon) and Jupiter are the strongest and neglecting one of them results in the asteroid position error 104-106 km.

  3. Advanced dynamical models for very well observed asteroids : perturbations from small bodies, relativity, non - gravitational effects.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardi, Fabrizio; Farnocchia, Davide; Milani, Andrea

    2012-08-01

    The availability of radar data and high precision optical observations has increased the number of objects with a very well constrained orbit, especially for those objects with a long observed arc. In these cases, the uncertainty of orbital predictions is often dominated by the inaccuracy of the dynamical model. However, the motion of small solar system bodies poses a serious challenge in modeling their dynamics. In particular, for those objects with a chaotic motion small differences in the model are amplified with propagation. Thus, we need to take into account small perturbations too, especially for long - term prediction. An improved dynamical model is relevant in several applications such as assessing the risk of an impact between an asteroid and the Earth. The N - body model describing the motion of a small solar system body includes the Newtonian attraction of the planets. The contribution o f other perturbing bodies has to be taken into account. We propose to include the Moon, two dwarf planets (Ceres and Pluto) and fifteen asteroids (Pallas, Vesta, Juno, Metis, Hygiea, Eunomia, Psyche, Amphitrite, Euphrosyne, Europa, Cybele, Sylvia, Davida, Herculina, Interamnia). The next step is the introduction of the relativity terms due to both the Sun and the planets . Despite their small magnitude, planetary relativistic terms turn out to be relevant for objects experiencing close approaches with a planet. Finally, we discuss non - gravitational effects such as solar radiation pressure and the Yarkovsky effect. In particular, the latter acts as a tiny but secular semimajor axis drift that may decisively drive long - term predictions. These non - gravitational effects are difficult to model as they depend on object ’ s physical properties that are typically unknown. However, a very well observed object can have an orbit precise enough to allow the determination of the parameters defining a non - gravitational perturbation and thus the modeling of the corresponding

  4. A Mineral-Rich Red Algae Extract Inhibits Polyp Formation and Inflammation in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Mice on a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Muhammad Nadeem; Paruchuri, Tejaswi; Bhagavathula, Narasimharao; Varani, James

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a mineral-rich extract derived from the red marine algae, Lithothamnion calcareum (Pallas), could be used as a dietary supplement for chemoprevention against colon polyp formation. Sixty C57bl/6 mice were divided into three groups based on diet. One group received a low-fat, rodent chow diet (AIN76A). The second group received a high-fat “Western style” diet (HFWD). The third group was fed the same HFWD with the mineral-rich extract included as a dietary supplement. Mice were maintained on the respective diets for 15 months. Autopsies were performed at the time of death or at the completion of the study. To summarize, the cumulative mortality rate was higher in mice on the HFWD during the 15 month period (55%) than in mice from the low-fat diet or the extract-supplemented high-fat diet groups (20% and 30%, respectively; p<0.05 with respect to both). Autopsies revealed colon polyps in 20% of the animals on the HFWD and none in animals of the other two groups (p<0.05). In addition to the grossly visible polyps, areas of hyperplasia in the colonic mucosa and inflammatory foci throughout the gastrointestinal tract were observed histologically in animals on the high-fat diet. Both were significantly reduced in animals on the low-fat diet and animals on the extract-supplemented HFWD. These data suggest that the mineral-rich algae extract may provide a novel approach to chemoprevention in the colon. PMID:20150219

  5. Comets, Minor Planets and other developments: Bode's ``Astronomisches Jahrbuch'' as an international archive journal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokott, W.

    Following the example of the Connaissance des tem(p)s, the Astronomisches Jahrbuch founded by the Royal Academy of Sciences at Berlin was to include ``a collection of the most recent observations, news, remarks and contributions''. Established by J. H. Lambert and for four decades edited by J. E. Bode, this publication from the start became a ranking international publication, with Bode's modest Berlin Observatory serving as a clearinghouse of informations When, in 1792, the backlog of manuscripts became a critical factor, a series of ``Supplement'' volumes was established. F. X. von Zach at Gotha, who vigorously supported this effort, founded (in 1798) the monthly Allgemeine Geographische Ephemeriden, which he (with continuing emphasis on astronomy and astronomical geography) two years later replaced by the Monatliche Correspondenz. These journals and its successors (ZfA and Corr. astr.) took the supplementary load off Bode's yearbook and served as speedier means of communication. However, the yearbook retained its original role as a central place of documentation. Only with the publication of Schumacher's Astronomische Nachrichten the center of astronomical communication did shift Practically all European astronomers of his time and age are represented in the pages of Bode's yearbook. Beside the continuous effort of precise mapping the realm of fixed stars, a very important field were the newly discovered planets Uranus, Ceres, Pallas, Juno, and Vesta; observations and orbits of these objects and the growing number of comets were an important part of the ``news and remarks'' recorded in the BAJ. The names of Schröter, Olbers, Piazzi, and Bessel may be regarded as representative for many

  6. Differentiation of European freshwater bucephalids (Digenea: Bucephalidae) based on karyotypes and DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Petkevičiūtė, Romualda; Stunžėnas, Virmantas; Stanevičiūtė, Gražina

    2014-02-01

    Three species of bucephalid digeneans are known in European freshwater habitats. In this study parthenitae of Rhipidocotyle campanula (Dujardin, 1845) and R. fennica Gibson, Taskinen & Valtonen, 1992, infecting unionid bivalves, and adult Bucephalus polymorphus von Baer, 1827 from perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) were investigated using karyological analysis and DNA sequencing. Our previously published data on genetic characteristics of parthenitae of B. polymorphus from Dreissena polymorpha Pallas were used for comparative analysis. Ribosomal DNA sequences (ITS2 and 28S rDNA) were used to estimate the phylogenetic relationships of the three bucephalid species. Very close phylogenetic affinity between investigated species was revealed; the sequence difference between the two species of Rhipidocotyle Diesing, 1858 (3.78% based on 28S) was comparable with intergeneric differences observed in comparisons of B. polymorphus with R. campanula and R. fennica (3.43% and 4.49% based on 28S, respectively). A high degree of similarity was noted in karyotype structure of the two species of Rhipidocotyle. The diploid chromosome sets consist of 14 bi-armed chromosomes with the first pair of metacentric elements markedly larger than the remaining chromosomes. This chromosome set structure is also specific to B. polymorphus. One specimen of Anodonta anatina L. was infected with tetraploid R. fennica (4n = 28). On the basis of karyotype characters and molecular data, species of the genus Rhipidocotyle cannot be recognised as more closely related to each other than to B. polymorphus. Our findings of Lithuanian and Ukrainian populations of unionid mussels infected with R. fennica provide evidence that this species occurs not only in Finland but also in Central and Eastern Europe. Previous reports of B. polymorphus in unionids in these regions are equivocal because of possible confusion with R. fennica. PMID:24474041

  7. Seasonal and interannual effects of hypoxia on fish habitat quality in central Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arend, Kristin K.; Beletsky, Dmitry; DePinto, Joseph; Ludsin, Stuart A.; Roberts, James J.; Rucinski, Daniel K.; Scavia, Donald; Schwab, David J.; Höök, Tomas O.

    2011-01-01

    1. Hypoxia occurs seasonally in many stratified coastal marine and freshwater ecosystems when bottom dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations are depleted below 2–3 mg O2 L-1. 2. We evaluated the effects of hypoxia on fish habitat quality in the central basin of Lake Erie from 1987 to 2005, using bioenergetic growth rate potential (GRP) as a proxy for habitat quality. We compared the effect of hypoxia on habitat quality of (i) rainbow smelt, Osmerus mordax mordax Mitchill (young-of-year, YOY, and adult), a cold-water planktivore, (ii) emerald shiner, Notropis atherinoides Rafinesque (adult), a warm-water planktivore, (iii) yellow perch, Perca flavescens Mitchill (YOY and adult), a cool-water benthopelagic omnivore and (iv) round goby Neogobius melanostomus Pallas (adult) a eurythermal benthivore. Annual thermal and DO profiles were generated from 1D thermal and DO hydrodynamics models developed for Lake Erie’s central basin. 3. Hypoxia occurred annually, typically from mid-July to mid-October, which spatially and temporally overlaps with otherwise high benthic habitat quality. Hypoxia reduced the habitat quality across fish species and life stages, but the magnitude of the reduction varied both among and within species because of the differences in tolerance to low DO levels and warm-water temperatures. 4. Across years, trends in habitat quality mirrored trends in phosphorus concentration and water column oxygen demand in central Lake Erie. The per cent reduction in habitat quality owing to hypoxia was greatest for adult rainbow smelt and round goby (mean: -35%), followed by adult emerald shiner (mean: -12%), YOY rainbow smelt (mean: -10%) and YOY and adult yellow perch (mean: -8.5%). 5. Our results highlight the importance of differential spatiotemporally interactive effects of DO and temperature on relative fish habitat quality and quantity. These effects have the potential to influence the performance of individual fish species as well as population dynamics

  8. The Cornell Mid-Infrared Asteroid Spectroscopy (MIDAS) Survey: Results from 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, L. F.; Bell, J. F.; McConnochie, T. H.; Clark, B. E.; Hayward, T. L.

    2002-09-01

    The minerals thought to be major constituents of asteroid surfaces exhibit diagnostic emissivity features in the thermal infrared. Here we report new results from the Cornell Mid-IR Asteroid Spectroscopy (MIDAS) survey, a long-term program of ground-based observations designed to characterize the 8-14 micron spectral properties of a statistically significant sample of asteroids from a wide variety of visible to near-IR spectral classes. MIDAS is conducted at Palomar Observatory using the Spectrocam-10 (SC-10) spectrograph on the 200-inch Hale telescope. We have measured spectra of varying quality for sixteen asteroids to date: 2 Pallas, 3 Juno, 4 Vesta, 9 Metis, 10 Hygiea, 11 Parthenope, 19 Fortuna, 22 Kalliope, 24 Themis, 40 Harmonia, 54 Alexandra, 89 Julia, 95 Arethusa, 145 Adeona, 498 Tokio, and 704 Interamnia. We derive temperature estimates from our data that are consistent with the predictions of the standard thermal model, and we use the derived temperatures to generate estimated emissivity spectra for our objects. In no case yet do we find emissivity features with spectral contrast greater than 5%, although a few of our spectra suggest emissivity variations at the 2-3% level. Published spectra of the small number of asteroids studied by ISO (4 of which are also included in our survey), which appear to exhibit much stronger emissivity features, are difficult to reconcile with our measurements. Laboratory work on mineral and meteorite samples has shown that the contrast of mid-IR spectral features is greatly reduced at fine grain sizes. Moreover, the NEAR mission found that 433 Eros is covered by a relatively thick fine-grained regolith. If small bodies in general possess such regoliths, their mid-IR spectral features may be quite subtle, and may explain the apparent lack of strong emissivity variations in the MIDAS results so far.

  9. Analysis of particle size distribution changes between three measurement sites in northern Scandinavia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Väänänen, R.; Kyrö, E.-M.; Nieminen, T.; Kivekäs, N.; Junninen, H.; Virkkula, A.; Dal Maso, M.; Lihavainen, H.; Viisanen, Y.; Svenningsson, B.; Holst, T.; Arneth, A.; Aalto, P. P.; Kulmala, M.; Kerminen, V.-M.

    2013-12-01

    We investigated atmospheric aerosol particle dynamics in a boreal forest zone in northern Scandinavia. We used aerosol number size distribution data measured with either a differential mobility particle sizer (DMPS) or scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) at three stations (Värriö, Pallas and Abisko), and combined these data with the HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) air mass trajectory analysis. We compared three approaches: analysis of new particle formation events, investigation of aerosol particle number size distributions during the air mass transport from the ocean to individual stations with different overland transport times, and analysis of changes in aerosol particle number size distributions during the air mass transport from one measurement station to another. Aitken-mode particles were found to have apparent average growth rates of 0.6-0.7 nm h-1 when the air masses traveled over land. Particle growth rates during the new particle formation (NPF) events were 3-6 times higher than the apparent particle growth during the summer period. When comparing aerosol dynamics for different overland transport times between the different stations, no major differences were found, except that in Abisko the NPF events were observed to take place in air masses with shorter overland times than at the other stations. We speculate that this is related to the meteorological differences along the paths of air masses caused by the land surface topology. When comparing air masses traveling in an east-to-west direction with those traveling in a west-to-east direction, clear differences in the aerosol dynamics were seen. Our results suggest that the condensation growth has an important role in aerosol dynamics even when NPF is not evident.

  10. Analysis of particle size distribution changes between three measurement sites in Northern Scandinavia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Väänänen, R.; Kyrö, E.-M.; Nieminen, T.; Kivekäs, N.; Junninen, H.; Virkkula, A.; Dal Maso, M.; Lihavainen, H.; Viisanen, Y.; Svenningsson, B.; Holst, T.; Arneth, A.; Aalto, P. P.; Kulmala, M.; Kerminen, V.-M.

    2013-04-01

    We investigated atmospheric aerosol particle dynamics in a boreal forest zone in Northern Scandinavia. We used aerosol size distribution data measured with either a Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (DMPS) or Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) at three stations (Värriö, Pallas and Abisko), and combined these data with the HYSPLIT air mass trajectory analysis. We compared three approaches: analysis of new particle formation events, investigation of air masses transport from the ocean to individual stations with different over-land transport times, and analysis of changes in aerosol particle size distributions during the air masses transport from one measurement station to another. Aitken mode particles were found to have an apparent average growth rate of 0.6-0.7 nm h-1 when the air masses travelled over land. Particle growth rates during the NPF events were 3-6 times higher than the apparent particle growth. When comparing aerosol dynamics between the different stations for different over-land transport times, no major differences were found except that in Abisko the new particle formation events were observed to take place in air masses having shorter over-land times than at the other stations. We speculate that this is related to the meteorological differences along the paths of air masses caused by the land surface topology. When comparing between air masses travelling the east-to-west direction to those traveling the west-to-east directions, clear differences in the aerosol dynamics were seen. Our results suggest that the condensation growth has an important role in aerosol dynamics also when new particle formation is not evident.

  11. American Black Bears as Hosts of Blacklegged Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in the Northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Zolnik, Christine P; Makkay, Amanda M; Falco, Richard C; Daniels, Thomas J

    2015-09-01

    Ticks and whole blood were collected from American black bears (Ursus americanus Pallas) between October 2011 and October 2012 across four counties in northwestern New Jersey, an area where blacklegged ticks (Ixodes scapularis Say) and their associated tick-borne pathogens are prevalent. Adult American dog ticks (Dermacentor variabilis Say) were the most frequently collected tick species in late spring, whereas adult and nymphal blacklegged ticks were found in both the late spring and fall months. Additionally, for blacklegged ticks, we determined the quality of bloodmeals that females acquired from black bears compared with bloodmeals from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman), the most important host for the adult stage of this tick species. Measures of fecundity after feeding on each host species were not significantly different, suggesting that the bloodmeal a female blacklegged tick acquires from a black bear is of similar quality to that obtained from a white-tailed deer. These results establish the American black bear as both a host and quality bloodmeal source to I. scapularis. Thus, black bears may help support blacklegged tick populations in areas where they are both present. In addition, samples of black bear blood were tested for DNA presence of three tick-borne pathogens. Anaplasma phagocytophilum Foggie and Babesia microti Franca were found in 9.2 and 32.3% of blood samples, respectively. All blood samples were quantitative polymerase chain reaction-negative for Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt, & Brenner. Although circulating pathogens were found in blood, the status of black bears as reservoirs for these pathogens remains unknown. PMID:26336232

  12. Using occupancy models to determine mammalian responses to landscape changes.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Jeremy M; VAN Manen, Frank T

    2009-06-01

    Determining impacts of anthropogenic landscape changes on wildlife populations is difficult. Besides the challenges of designing field studies to document conditions before and after landscape changes occur, assessment of population responses (e.g. changes in population density) often provide poor inference because of sampling limitations. Estimation of occupancy, however, only requires data on detection or non-detection of a species and might provide better inference. To demonstrate the utility of occupancy models, we used data from an American black bear (Ursus americanus Pallas) population in North Carolina, USA to test our research hypothesis that documented declines in site occupancy of black bears would be greater near a new four-lane highway. We used multi-season occupancy models to estimate site occupancy based on bear visitation to survey sites before and after completion of the new highway and as a function of distance to the highway. Site occupancy declined from 0.81 to 0.35 between the two study phases, but was not a function of distance to the highway. Therefore, the impact of the new highway on occupancy extended to the entire study area. Our case study demonstrates that occupancy models can provide powerful inference regarding the potential impacts of landscape changes on species occupancy. As urban areas and transportation infrastructure are rapidly expanding in developing regions of the world, the need to determine how these changes affect mammal populations and how they might be mitigated increases accordingly. Because field sampling for occupancy models only requires detection data, surveys can be conducted for extensive geographic areas, thus making these surveys particularly applicable to studies of large mammals. PMID:21392293

  13. Wound healing during hibernation by black bears (Ursus americanus) in the wild: elicitation of reduced scar formation.

    PubMed

    Iaizzo, Paul A; Laske, Timothy G; Harlow, Henry J; McClay, Carolyn B; Garshelis, David L

    2012-03-01

    Even mildly hypothermic body or limb temperatures can retard healing processes in mammals. Despite this, we observed that hibernating American black bears (Ursus americanus Pallas, 1780) elicit profound abilities in mounting inflammatory responses to infection and/or foreign bodies. In addition, they resolve injuries during hibernation while maintaining mildly hypothermic states (30-35 °C) and without eating, drinking, urinating or defecating. We describe experimental studies on free-ranging bears that document their abilities to completely resolve cutaneous cuts and punctures incurred during or prior to hibernation. We induced small, full-thickness cutaneous wounds (biopsies or incisions) during early denning, and re-biopsied sites 2-3 months later (near the end of denning). Routine histological methods were used to characterize these skin samples. All biopsied sites with respect to secondary intention (open circular biopsies) and primary intention (sutured sites) healed, with evidence of initial eschar (scab) formation, completeness of healed epidermis and dermal layers, dyskeratosis (inclusion cysts), and abilities to produce hair follicles. These healing abilities of hibernating black bears are a clear survival advantage to animals injured before or during denning. Bears are known to have elevated levels of hibernation induction trigger (delta-opioid receptor agonist) and ursodeoxycholic acid (major bile acid within plasma, mostly conjugated with taurine) during hibernation, which may relate to these wound-healing abilities. Further research as to the underlying mechanisms of wound healing during hibernation could have applications in human medicine. Unique approaches may be found to improve healing for malnourished, hypothermic, diabetic and elderly patients or to reduce scarring associated with burns and traumatic injuries. PMID:22405448

  14. Herschel celestial calibration sources. Four large main-belt asteroids as prime flux calibrators for the far-IR/sub-mm range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Thomas; Balog, Zoltán; Nielbock, Markus; Lim, Tanya; Teyssier, David; Olberg, Michael; Klaas, Ulrich; Linz, Hendrik; Altieri, Bruno; Pearson, Chris; Bendo, George; Vilenius, Esa

    2014-07-01

    Celestial standards play a major role in observational astrophysics. They are needed to characterise the performance of instruments and are paramount for photometric calibration. During the Herschel Calibration Asteroid Preparatory Programme approximately 50 asteroids have been established as far-IR/sub-mm/mm calibrators for Herschel. The selected asteroids fill the flux gap between the sub-mm/mm calibrators Mars, Uranus and Neptune, and the mid-IR bright calibration stars. All three Herschel instruments observed asteroids for various calibration purposes, including pointing tests, absolute flux calibration, relative spectral response function, observing mode validation, and cross-calibration aspects. Here we present newly established models for the four large and well characterized main-belt asteroids (1) Ceres, (2) Pallas, (4) Vesta, and (21) Lutetia which can be considered as new prime flux calibrators. The relevant object-specific properties (size, shape, spin-properties, albedo, thermal properties) are well established. The seasonal (distance to Sun, distance to observer, phase angle, aspect angle) and daily variations (rotation) are included in a new thermophysical model setup for these targets. The thermophysical model predictions agree within 5 % with the available (and independently calibrated) Herschel measurements. The four objects cover the flux regime from just below 1,000 Jy (Ceres at mid-IR N-/Q-band) down to fluxes below 0.1 Jy (Lutetia at the longest wavelengths). Based on the comparison with PACS, SPIRE and HIFI measurements and pre-Herschel experience, the validity of these new prime calibrators ranges from mid-infrared to about 700 μm, connecting nicely the absolute stellar reference system in the mid-IR with the planet-based calibration at sub-mm/mm wavelengths.

  15. The Potential of Extreme Adaptive Optics Systems for Asteroid Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchis, F.; Vega, D.

    2014-12-01

    New Adaptive optics (AO) systems, called Extreme AO systemsare becoming available this year on two 8m-class telescopes. Both the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) on the Gemini South Telescope and SPHERE on the Very Large Telescope provide an almost perfect correction of the atmospheric turbulences and are equipped with low-resolution integral field spectrograph and a polarimeter. We will present the analysis of observations of (2) Pallas which was observed with GPI in direct imaging (without coronagraph) on March 22 2014 in Y, J, H, and K1 filters (from 0.95 to 2.19 μm) spectroscopically with a resolution varying from 34 to 70. The 540-km asteroid is well resolved and irregular. An ellipse of 540±9 mas and 470±9 mas fits its silhouette. The surface of the asteroid is mostly featureless but small differences of colors is currently being analyzed. No moons with a diameter larger than 0.5 km and at less than 1.2" were detected on these observations. We will discuss the future contributions of these Extreme AO systems, including SPHERE most recent observations, for the study of large main-belt asteroids addressing the number of targets that can be observed and comparing their on-sky efficiency with previous AO systems. Key scientific questions such as the possible differentiation of the primary of multiple asteroids (e.g. 45 Eugenia by Beauvalet and Marchis, Icarus, 2014 or 87 Sylvia in Berthier et al., Icarus, 2014), and the origin of these systems by comparison of the color of the moons and the primary (e.g. Marchis et al., AGU 2013) could be answered through intensive surveys conducted with these new AO systems.

  16. Is the Multicolored Asian Ladybeetle, Harmonia axyridis, the Most Abundant Natural Enemy to Aphids in Agroecosystems?

    PubMed Central

    Vandereycken, Axel; Durieux, Delphine; Joie, Emilie; Sloggett, John J.; Haubruge, Eric; Verheggen, François J.

    2013-01-01

    The multicolored Asian ladybeetle, Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), was introduced into Western Europe in the late 1990s. Since the late 2000s, this species has been commonly considered one of the most abundant aphid predators in most Western European countries. In spite of the large amount of research on H. axyridis, information concerning its relative abundance in agroecosystems is lacking. This study aims to evaluate the abundance of H. axyridis within the aphidophage community in four crops situated in southern Belgium: wheat, Triticum aestivum L. (Poales: Poaceae), corn, Zea mays, potato, Solanum tuberosum (Solanales: Solanaceae), and broad bean Vicia faba (Fabales: Fabaceae). In order to assess the species diversity, the collected data were analyzed by considering (1) the species richness and (2) the evenness according to the Shannon diversity index. Eleven aphidophages were observed in every inventoried agroecosystem, including five abundant species: three coccinellids, the seven-spotted ladybug, Coccinella septempunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), the 14-spotted Ladybird, Propylea quatuordecimpunctata, and H. axyridis; one hoverfly, the marmalade hoverfly, Episyrphus balteatus De Geer (Diptera: Syrphidae); and one lacewing, the common green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Stephens sensu lato (= s.l.) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). Harmonia axyridis has been observed to thrive, breed, and reproduce on the four studied crops. Harmonia axyridis is the most abundant predator of aphids in corn followed by C. septempunctata, which is the main aphid predator observed in the three other inventoried crops. In wheat and potato fields, H. axyridis occurs in low numbers compared to other aphidophage. These observations suggest that H. axyridis could be considered an invasive species of agrosystems, and that potato and wheat may intermittently act as refuges for other aphidophages vulnerable to intraguild predation by this invader. Harmonia axyridis

  17. Is the multicolored Asian ladybeetle, Harmonia axyridis, the most abundant natural enemy to aphids in agroecosystems?

    PubMed

    Vandereycken, Axel; Durieux, Delphine; Joie, Emilie; Sloggett, John J; Haubruge, Eric; Verheggen, François J

    2013-01-01

    The multicolored Asian ladybeetle, Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), was introduced into Western Europe in the late 1990s. Since the late 2000s, this species has been commonly considered one of the most abundant aphid predators in most Western European countries. In spite of the large amount of research on H. axyridis, information concerning its relative abundance in agroecosystems is lacking. This study aims to evaluate the abundance of H. axyridis within the aphidophage community in four crops situated in southern Belgium: wheat, Triticum aestivum L. (Poales: Poaceae), corn, Zea mays, potato, Solanum tuberosum (Solanales: Solanaceae), and broad bean Vicia faba (Fabales: Fabaceae). In order to assess the species diversity, the collected data were analyzed by considering (1) the species richness and (2) the evenness according to the Shannon diversity index. Eleven aphidophages were observed in every inventoried agroecosystem, including five abundant species: three coccinellids, the seven-spotted ladybug, Coccinella septempunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), the 14-spotted Ladybird, Propylea quatuordecimpunctata, and H. axyridis; one hoverfly, the marmalade hoverfly, Episyrphus balteatus De Geer (Diptera: Syrphidae); and one lacewing, the common green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Stephens sensu lato (= s.l.) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). Harmonia axyridis has been observed to thrive, breed, and reproduce on the four studied crops. Harmonia axyridis is the most abundant predator of aphids in corn followed by C. septempunctata, which is the main aphid predator observed in the three other inventoried crops. In wheat and potato fields, H. axyridis occurs in low numbers compared to other aphidophage. These observations suggest that H. axyridis could be considered an invasive species of agrosystems, and that potato and wheat may intermittently act as refuges for other aphidophages vulnerable to intraguild predation by this invader. Harmonia axyridis

  18. [Antimicrobial activity of organic extracts isolated from Aplysina fistularis (Demospongiae: Aplysinidae)].

    PubMed

    Morales, T; Cubero, J; Lanz, Z; Gómez-Guiñán, Y; Segnini-Bravo, M I

    2000-12-01

    Organic extracts of the sponge Aplysina fistularis (Pallas 1766) were tested for antimicrobial activity against Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and toxic activity of extract were determined. Susceptibility trials of organic fractions obtained by VLC: Hexane, EtOAc and CHCl3 showed that EtOAc fraction has antibacterial activity against E. coli, while CHCl3 fraction inhibited E. coli and S. aureus growth. The later refractioning of EtOAc fraction and the biodirected assays showed that fractions F12 and F13 of EtOAc/Hex and EtOAc F14 were bioactive against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Only EtOAc/MeOH Sf2 from subfractionig of EtOAc F14 produced inhibition for E. coli and S. aureus. In Sf2 EtOAc/MeOH, MIC was moderate for S. aureus (MIC > 256 g/ml). F4 CHCl3/MeOH produced a high inhibition in S. aureus (MIC = 0.125 g/ml) and for E. coli (MIC > 16 g/ml). F10 CHCl3/MeOH showed a moderate activity against S. aureus (MIC > 128 g/ml) and low activity against E. coli (MIC = 512 g/ml). F10 CHCL3/MeOH did no present toxic activity against Artemia salina. The fractiorts F4 CHCL3/MeOH and Sf2 EtOAc/MeOH were toxic for this organism when the concentration was higher than 100 microg/ml. LC50 in both cases was 548.4 and 243.4 microg/ml respectively. Secondary metabolites of medium polarity obtained from A. fistularis have a wide spectrum of anti bacterial activity. Toxicity analysis suggests that only F10 CHCL3/MeOH has potential as an antimicrobial agent for clinical use. PMID:15266809

  19. Genotoxic evaluation of extracts from Aplysina fulva, a Brazilian marine sponge.

    PubMed

    Aiub, Claudia; Giannerini, Ana; Ferreira, Flavia; Mazzei, José; Stankevicins, Luiza; Lobo-Hajdu, Gisele; Guimarães, Pedro; Hajdu, Eduardo; Felzenszwalb, Israel

    2006-12-10

    A range of biologically active secondary metabolites with pharmacological application has been reported to occur in marine sponges. The present study was undertaken to provide a set of data on the safety of a hydro-alcoholic extract (ALE) and an aqueous fraction (AQE) from Aplysina fulva Pallas, 1766 (Aplysinidae, Verongida, Porifera). Salmonella typhimurium strains TA97, TA98, TA100 and TA102, Escherichia coli strains PQ65, OG40, OG100, PQ35 and PQ37 and Balb/c 3T3 mouse fibroblasts were used to detect induction of DNA lesions by ALE and AQE. Assays used for these analyses were a bacterial (reverse) mutation assay (Ames test), the SOS-chromotest and the comet assay. Both extracts presented identical infrared 2-oxazolidone spectra. ALE treatment induced a higher frequency of type-4 comets, indicative of increasing DNA migration, in the alkaline comet assay. ALE also induced a weak genotoxic effect, as expressed by the induction factor (IF) values in the test with E. coli strain PQ35 (IF=1.5) and by cytotoxic effects in strains PQ35, PQ65 and PQ37. Positive SOS induction (IF=1.7) was detected in strain PQ37 treated with diluted AQE. No genotoxic effects were observed in strains PQ35, PQ65, OG40 and OG 100 after treatment with AQE dilutions. Using the bacterial (reverse) mutation test and survival assays with or without S9 mix, after 60min of pre-incubation, we observed for strain TA97 treated with ALE a weak mutagenic response (MI=2.2), while cytotoxic effects were seen for strains TA98, TA100 and TA102. AQE did not show mutagenic activity in any of the strains tested, but a weak cytotoxic effect was noted in strain TA102. Our data suggest that both ALE and AQE from A. fulva induce DNA breaks leading to cytotoxicity and mutagenicity under the conditions used. PMID:16987694

  20. SNP Identification through Transcriptome Analysis of the European Brown Hare (Lepus europaeus): Cellular Energetics and Mother’s Curse

    PubMed Central

    Moutou, Katerina A.; Psarra, Anna-Maria G.; Stamatis, Costas; Tsipourlianos, Andreas; Mamuris, Zissis

    2016-01-01

    The European brown hare (Lepus europaeus, Pallas 1778) is an important small game species in Europe. Due to its size and position in the food chain, as well as its life history, phenotypic variation and the relatively recent speciation events, brown hare plays an important role in the structure of various ecosystems and has emerged as an important species for population management and evolutionary studies. In order to identify informative SNPs for such studies, heart and liver tissues of three samples from the European lineage and a three-sample pool from the Anatolian lineage were subjected to RNA-Sequencing analysis. This effort resulted in 9496 well-assembled protein-coding sequences with close homology to human. After applying very stringent filtering criteria, 66185 polymorphic sites were identified in 7665 genes/cds and 2050 of those polymorphic sites are potentially capable of distinguishing the European from the Anatolian lineage. From these distinguishing mutations we focused on those in genes that are involved in cellular energy production, namely the glycolysis, Krebs cycle and the OXPHOS machinery. A selected set of SNPs was also validated by Sanger sequencing. By simulating the three European individuals as one pool, no substantial informative-SNP identification was lost, making it a cost-efficient approach. To our knowledge this is the first attempt to correlate the differentiation in both nuclear and mitochondrial genome between the two different lineages of L. europaeus with the observed spatial partitioning of the lineages of the species, proposing a possible mechanism that is maintaining the reproductive isolation of the lineages. PMID:27459096

  1. Temporal trends of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in arctic air: 20 years of monitoring under the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP).

    PubMed

    Hung, Hayley; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios A; Brorström-Lundén, Eva; Olafsdottir, Kristin; Aas, Wenche; Breivik, Knut; Bohlin-Nizzetto, Pernilla; Sigurdsson, Arni; Hakola, Hannele; Bossi, Rossana; Skov, Henrik; Sverko, Ed; Barresi, Enzo; Fellin, Phil; Wilson, Simon

    2016-10-01

    Temporal trends of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) measured in Arctic air are essential in understanding long-range transport to remote regions and to evaluate the effectiveness of national and international chemical control initiatives, such as the Stockholm Convention (SC) on POPs. Long-term air monitoring of POPs is conducted under the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) at four Arctic stations: Alert, Canada; Stórhöfði, Iceland; Zeppelin, Svalbard; and Pallas, Finland, since the 1990s using high volume air samplers. Temporal trends observed for POPs in Arctic air are summarized in this study. Most POPs listed for control under the SC, e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and chlordanes, are declining slowly in Arctic air, reflecting the reduction of primary emissions during the last two decades and increasing importance of secondary emissions. Slow declining trends also signifies their persistence and slow degradation under the Arctic environment, such that they are still detectable after being banned for decades in many countries. Some POPs, e.g. hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and lighter PCBs, showed increasing trends at specific locations, which may be attributable to warming in the region and continued primary emissions at source. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) do not decline in air at Canada's Alert station but are declining in European Arctic air, which may be due to influence of local sources at Alert and the much higher historical usage of PBDEs in North America. Arctic air samples are screened for chemicals of emerging concern to provide information regarding their environmental persistence (P) and long-range transport potential (LRTP), which are important criteria for classification as a POP under SC. The AMAP network provides consistent and comparable air monitoring data of POPs for trend development and acts as a bridge between national monitoring programs and SC's Global Monitoring

  2. First Evidence of a Volatile Sex Pheromone in Lady Beetles

    PubMed Central

    Fassotte, Bérénice; Fischer, Christophe; Durieux, Delphine; Lognay, Georges; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frédéric; Verheggen, François J.

    2014-01-01

    To date, volatile sex pheromones have not been identified in the Coccinellidae family; yet, various studies have suggested that such semiochemicals exist. Here, we collected volatile chemicals released by virgin females of the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), which were either allowed or not allowed to feed on aphids. Virgin females in the presence of aphids, exhibited “calling behavior”, which is commonly associated with the emission of a sex pheromone in several Coleoptera species. These calling females were found to release a blend of volatile compounds that is involved in the remote attraction (i.e., from a distance) of males. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses revealed that (–)-β-caryophyllene was the major constituent of the volatile blend (ranging from 80 to 86%), with four other chemical components also being present; β-elemene, methyl-eugenol, α-humulene, and α-bulnesene. In a second set of experiments, the emission of the five constituents identified from the blend was quantified daily over a 9-day period after exposure to aphids. We found that the quantity of all five chemicals significantly increased across the experimental period. Finally, we evaluated the activity of a synthetic blend of these chemicals by performing bioassays which demonstrated the same attractive effect in males only. The results confirm that female H. axyridis produce a volatile sex pheromone. These findings have potential in the development of more specific and efficient biological pest-control management methods aimed at manipulating the behavior of this invasive lady beetle. PMID:25514321

  3. First evidence of a volatile sex pheromone in lady beetles.

    PubMed

    Fassotte, Bérénice; Fischer, Christophe; Durieux, Delphine; Lognay, Georges; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frédéric; Verheggen, François J

    2014-01-01

    To date, volatile sex pheromones have not been identified in the Coccinellidae family; yet, various studies have suggested that such semiochemicals exist. Here, we collected volatile chemicals released by virgin females of the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), which were either allowed or not allowed to feed on aphids. Virgin females in the presence of aphids, exhibited "calling behavior", which is commonly associated with the emission of a sex pheromone in several Coleoptera species. These calling females were found to release a blend of volatile compounds that is involved in the remote attraction (i.e., from a distance) of males. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses revealed that (-)-β-caryophyllene was the major constituent of the volatile blend (ranging from 80 to 86%), with four other chemical components also being present; β-elemene, methyl-eugenol, α-humulene, and α-bulnesene. In a second set of experiments, the emission of the five constituents identified from the blend was quantified daily over a 9-day period after exposure to aphids. We found that the quantity of all five chemicals significantly increased across the experimental period. Finally, we evaluated the activity of a synthetic blend of these chemicals by performing bioassays which demonstrated the same attractive effect in males only. The results confirm that female H. axyridis produce a volatile sex pheromone. These findings have potential in the development of more specific and efficient biological pest-control management methods aimed at manipulating the behavior of this invasive lady beetle. PMID:25514321

  4. Assessment of the spatial and temporal distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Nordic atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anttila, Pia; Brorström-Lundén, Eva; Hansson, Katarina; Hakola, Hannele; Vestenius, Mika

    2016-09-01

    Long-term atmospheric monitoring data (1994-2011) of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were assembled from a rural site in southern Sweden, Råö, and a remote, sub-Arctic site in Finland, Pallas. The concentration levels, congener profiles, seasonal and temporal trends, and projections were evaluated in order to assess the status of POPs in the Scandinavian atmosphere. Our data include atmospheric concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), altogether comprising a selection of 27 different compounds. The atmospheric POP levels were generally higher in the south, closer to the sources (primary emissions) of the pollutants. The levels of low-chlorinated PCBs and chlordanes were equal at the two sites, and one of the studied POPs, α-HCH, showed higher levels in the north than in the south. Declining temporal trends in the atmospheric concentrations for the legacy POPs - PCBs (2-4% per year), HCHs (6-7% per year), chlordanes (3-4% per year) and DTTs (2-5% per year) - were identified both along Sweden's west coast and in the sub-Arctic area of northern Finland. Most of PAHs did not show any significant long-term trends. The future projections for POP concentrations suggest that in Scandinavia, low-chlorinated PCBs and p,p‧-DDE will remain in the atmospheric compartment the longest (beyond 2030). HCH's and PCB180 will be depleted from the Nordic atmosphere first, before 2020, whereas chlordanes and rest of the PCBs will be depleted between the years 2020 and 2025. PCBs tend to deplete sooner and chlordanes later from the sub-Arctic compared to the south of Sweden. This study demonstrates that the international bans on legacy POPs have successfully reduced the concentrations of these particular substances in the Nordic atmosphere. However, the most long-lived compounds may continue in the atmospheric cycle for another couple of decades.

  5. Laboratory Investigations Reveal that Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Is a Poor Host for Dinocampus coccinellae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Castro-Guedes, CamilaFediuk; de Almeida, LúciaMassutti

    2016-01-01

    Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773) is an Asian coccinellid released in several places to act as a biological control agent of aphids. Dinocampus coccinellae (Schrank, 1802) is an endoparasite that uses more than 40 coccinellid species as hosts. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the interactions between D. coccinellae and H. axyridis and to determine the impact of the parasitoid on the establishment capacity of H. axyridis. It was also investigate the influence of host on the development of D. coccinellae using other Coccinellidae species as hosts: Cycloneda sanguinea, (L., 1763) Cycloneda pulchella (Klug, 1829), Eriopis connexa (Germar, 1824), and Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant, 1866). In no-choice tests, pupa was the least attacked stage, and the fourth instar and adults the most attacked. In choice tests, the pupa was less attacked when combined with all the other stages, and the fourth instar and adults the most attacked. There was statistical difference only for fecundity, fertility, and number of eggs/day, with higher values found in the non-parasitized control group. Due to the low rate of parasitism it is believed that D. coccinellae has little impact on the populations of this coccinellid in Brazil. However, it is noteworthy that an increase in H. axyridis coverage areas can affect the populations of D. coccinellae, as in some places of occurrence, H. axyridis has become the predominant species of Coccinellidae. The result can be a decrease in populations of this species of parasitoid or its better adaptation to the new host. PMID:27324582

  6. On the highly inclined vW leptokurtic asteroid families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carruba, V.; Domingos, R. C.; Aljbaae, S.; Huaman, M.

    2016-08-01

    vW leptokurtic asteroid families are families for which the distribution of the normal component of the terminal ejection velocity field vW is characterized by a positive value of the γ2 Pearson kurtosis, i.e., they have a distribution with a more concentrated peak and larger tails than the Gaussian one. Currently, eight families are known to have γ2(vW) > 0.25. Among these, three are highly inclined asteroid families, the Hansa, Barcelona, and Gallia families. As observed for the case of the Astrid family, the leptokurtic inclination distribution seems to be caused by the interaction of these families with node secular resonances. In particular, the Hansa and Gallia family are crossed by the s - sV resonance with Vesta, that significantly alters the inclination of some of their members. In this work we use the time evolution of γ2(vW) for simulated families under the gravitational influence of all planets and the three most massive bodies in the main belt to assess the dynamical importance (or lack of) node secular resonances with Ceres, Vesta, and Pallas for the considered families, and to obtain independent constraints on the family ages. While secular resonances with massive bodies in the main belt do not significantly affect the dynamical evolution of the Barcelona family, they significantly increase the γ2(vW) values of the simulated Hansa and Gallia families. Current values of the γ2(vW) for the Gallia family are reached over the estimated family age only if secular resonances with Vesta are accounted for.

  7. Reproduction in the sea pen Funiculina quadrangularis (Anthozoa: Pennatulacea) from the west coast of Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Daniel C. B.; Moore, Colin G.

    2009-03-01

    The sea pen Funiculina quadrangularis (Pallas, 1766) is a species of conservation concern in Scottish coastal waters, due to its restricted geographical distribution and high sensitivity to demersal fishing activities. Reproduction in F. quadrangularis was investigated in a population located in southern Loch Linnhe, west Scotland. This was accomplished through the analysis of trends in oocyte size-frequency distribution and relative fecundity over a 12-month period. Funiculina quadrangularis is dioecious and the study population exhibited a sex ratio of 1:1. Oogenesis in female F. quadrangularis is characterised by the maintenance of a large pool of asynchronously developing oocytes throughout the year, of which a small proportion (<10%) mature with increasing sychronicity and are spawned in midwinter. The reasons for this distinct pattern of oogenesis and winter spawning remain unclear, although the potential influence of environmental cues and the role of endogenous factors in relation to this sea pen's deep-sea habit are discussed. Whilst the duration of oogenesis is prolonged (>12 months), it is proposed that spawning is a brief and synchronous annual event. Relative fecundity is high and is independent of colony size, varying between approximately 500-2000 oocytes per 1 cm rachial midsection. This measure of fecundity exhibited pronounced seasonality and was significantly lower during the post-spawning winter months. Total fecundity in F. quadrangularis is considered to be high; although a small proportion of the total number of oocytes is spawned annually, this is compensated for by large colony size. Funiculina quadrangularis produces large oocytes (>800 μm), indicative of the production of lecithotrophic larvae.

  8. Paeonol Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced HMGB1 Translocation from the Nucleus to the Cytoplasm in RAW264.7 Cells.

    PubMed

    Lei, Hang; Wen, Quan; Li, Hui; Du, Shaohui; Wu, Jing-Jing; Chen, Jing; Huang, Haiyuan; Chen, Dongfeng; Li, Yiwei; Zhang, Saixia; Zhou, Jianhong; Deng, Rudong; Yang, Qinglin

    2016-06-01

    Transport of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a highly conserved non-histone DNA-binding protein, from the nucleus to the cytoplasm is induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Secretion of HMGB1 appears to be a key lethal factor in sepsis, so it is considered to be a therapeutic target. Previous studies have suggested that paeonol (2'-hydroxy-4'-methoxyacetophenone), an active compound of Paeonia lactiflora Pallas, exerts anti-inflammatory effects. However, the effect of paeonol on HMGB1 is unknown. Here, we investigated the effect of paeonol on the expression, location, and secretion of HMGB1 in LPS-induced murine RAW264.7 cells. ELISA revealed HMGB1 supernatant concentrations of 615 ± 30 ng/mL in the LPS group and 600 ± 45, 560 ± 42, and 452 ± 38 ng/mL in cells treated with 0.2, 0.6, or 1 mM paeonol, respectively, suggesting that paeonol inhibits HMGB1 secretion induced by LPS. Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting revealed that paeonol decreased cytoplasmic HMGB1 and increased nuclear HMGB1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation microarrays suggested that HMGB1 relocation to the nucleus induced by paeonol might depress the action of Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription, chemokine, and mitogen-activated protein kinase pro-inflammatory signaling pathways. Paeonol was also found to inhibit tumor necrosis factor-α promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that paeonol has the potential to be developed as a novel HMGB1-targeting therapeutic drug for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:27106477

  9. Report of the IAU Working Group on cartographic coordinates and rotational elements: 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Archinal, B.A.; A'Hearn, M.F.; Bowell, E.; Conrad, A.; Consolmagno, G.J.; Courtin, R.; Fukushima, T.; Hestroffer, D.; Hilton, J.L.; Krasinsky, G.A.; Neumann, G.; Oberst, J.; Seidelmann, P.K.; Stooke, P.; Tholen, D.J.; Thomas, P.C.; Williams, I.P.

    2010-01-01

    Every three years the IAU Working Group on Cartographic Coordinates and Rotational Elements revises tables giving the directions of the poles of rotation and the prime meridians of the planets, satellites, minor planets, and comets. This report takes into account the IAU Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature (WGPSN) and the IAU Committee on Small Body Nomenclature (CSBN) definition of dwarf planets, introduces improved values for the pole and rotation rate of Mercury, returns the rotation rate of Jupiter to a previous value, introduces improved values for the rotation of five satellites of Saturn, and adds the equatorial radius of the Sun for comparison. It also adds or updates size and shape information for the Earth, Mars’ satellites Deimos and Phobos, the four Galilean satellites of Jupiter, and 22 satellites of Saturn. Pole, rotation, and size information has been added for the asteroids (21) Lutetia, (511) Davida, and (2867) Šteins. Pole and rotation information has been added for (2) Pallas and (21) Lutetia. Pole and rotation and mean radius information has been added for (1) Ceres. Pole information has been updated for (4) Vesta. The high precision realization for the pole and rotation rate of the Moon is updated. Alternative orientation models for Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn are noted. The Working Group also reaffirms that once an observable feature at a defined longitude is chosen, a longitude definition origin should not change except under unusual circumstances. It is also noted that alternative coordinate systems may exist for various (e.g. dynamical) purposes, but specific cartographic coordinate system information continues to be recommended for each body. The Working Group elaborates on its purpose, and also announces its plans to occasionally provide limited updates to its recommendations via its website, in order to address community needs for some updates more often than every 3 years. Brief recommendations are also made to the general

  10. Prolonged herbicide-induced vegetation changes in a regenerating boreal aspen clearcut.

    PubMed

    Strong, W L; Sidhu, S S

    2005-11-01

    A soil-active herbicide (hexazinone) was applied (0, 2, and 4 kg/ha of active ingredient) in a 3-year-old regenerating boreal Populus tremuloides Michx. (aspen) clearcut to determine its effect on the compositional and structural development of the vegetation. Woody stem densities and plant foliar cover were evaluated prior to and 2, 6, and 17 years after treatment. Herbicide treatment at the 2 and 4 kg/ha rates reduced tree and total woody stem densities relative to the 0 kg/ha level. The 4 kg/ha level reduced stem densities by 27% 17 years after treatment. The primary reductions occurred in Amelanchier alnifolia (Nutt.) Nutt. ex M. Roemer (saskatoon) and Rosa acicularis Lindl. (wild rose); whereas Corylus cornuta Marsh. (beaked hazelnut) and Viburnum edule (Michx.) Raf. (low-bush cranberry) stem densities increased. Notable herbicide-caused foliar cover reductions at the 4 kg/ha level occurred in Eurybia conspicua (Lindl.) Nesom. (showy aster), Mertensia paniculata (Ait.) G. Don. (tall mertensia), Rubus pubescens Raf. (dewberry), and Spiraea betulifolia Pallas (spiraea), but Aralia nudicaulis L. (sarsaparilla), Cornus canadensis L. (bunchberry), and Symphyotrichum ciliolatum (Lindl.) A.&D. Lve (Lindley's aster) increased. Less distinctive but similar changes occurred in the 2 kg/ha treatment. Total plant cover, species richness, and species dominance concentration were similar among treatments. Eight distinctive forest understory-types were recognized among treatments in Year 17. Between the 0 and 4 kg/ha treatments, five understory-types differed in their frequency of occurrence. Hexazinone did not improve the survival of silviculturally planted Picea glauca (Moench) Voss (white spruce) seedlings relative to untreated sites, but the 4 kg/ha treatment level did increase Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. (lodgepole pine) survival from 12 to 34%. Surviving seedlings had significantly greater height and basal diameter growth than those at the 0 kg/ha sites

  11. Spatio-temporal patterns of distribution of West Nile virus vectors in eastern Piedmont Region, Italy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background West Nile Virus (WNV) transmission in Italy was first reported in 1998 as an equine outbreak near the swamps of Padule di Fucecchio, Tuscany. No other cases were identified during the following decade until 2008, when horse and human outbreaks were reported in Emilia Romagna, North Italy. Since then, WNV outbreaks have occurred annually, spreading from their initial northern foci throughout the country. Following the outbreak in 1998 the Italian public health authority defined a surveillance plan to detect WNV circulation in birds, horses and mosquitoes. By applying spatial statistical analysis (spatial point pattern analysis) and models (Bayesian GLMM models) to a longitudinal dataset on the abundance of the three putative WNV vectors [Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas 1771), Culex pipiens (Linnaeus 1758) and Culex modestus (Ficalbi 1890)] in eastern Piedmont, we quantified their abundance and distribution in space and time and generated prediction maps outlining the areas with the highest vector productivity and potential for WNV introduction and amplification. Results The highest abundance and significant spatial clusters of Oc. caspius and Cx. modestus were in proximity to rice fields, and for Cx. pipiens, in proximity to highly populated urban areas. The GLMM model showed the importance of weather conditions and environmental factors in predicting mosquito abundance. Distance from the preferential breeding sites and elevation were negatively associated with the number of collected mosquitoes. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was positively correlated with mosquito abundance in rice fields (Oc. caspius and Cx. modestus). Based on the best models, we developed prediction maps for the year 2010 outlining the areas where high abundance of vectors could favour the introduction and amplification of WNV. Conclusions Our findings provide useful information for surveillance activities aiming to identify locations where the potential for WNV

  12. Concentrations of 17 elements in the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha), in different tissues of perch (Perca fluviatilis), and in perch intestinal parasites (Acanthocephalus lucii) from the subalpine lake Mondsee, Austria

    SciTech Connect

    Sures, B.; Steiner, W.; Rydlo, M.; Taraschewski, H.

    1999-11-01

    Concentrations of the elements Al, Ag, Ba, ca, Cd, Co, Cr, cu, Fe, Ga, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Tl, and Zn were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in the acanthocephalan Acanthocephalus lucii (Mueller); in its host, Perca fluviatilis (L.), and in the soft tissue of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas). All animals were collected from the same sampling site in a subalpine lake, Mondsee, in Austria. Most of the elements were found at significantly higher concentrations in the acanthocephalan than in different tissues (muscle, liver, and intestinal wall) of its perch host. Only Co was concentrated in the liver of perch to a level that was significantly higher than that found in the parasite. Most of the analyzed elements were also present at significantly higher concentrations in A. lucii than in D. polymorpha. Barium and Cr were the only elements recorded at higher concentrations in the mussel compared with the acanthocephalan. Thus, when comparing the accumulation of elements, the acanthocephalans appear to be even more suitable than the zebra mussels in terms of their use in the detection of metal contamination within aquatic biotopes. Spearman correlation analysis revealed that the concentrations of several elements within the parasites decreased with increasing infrapopulation. Furthermore, the levels of some elements in the perch liver were negatively correlated with the weight of A. lucii in the intestine. Thus, it emerged that not only is there competition for elements between acanthocephalans inside the gut but there is also competition for these elements between the host and the parasites. The elevated element concentrations demonstrated here in the parasitic worm A. lucii provide support for further investigations of these common helminthes and of their accumulation properties.

  13. ASTEROIDS: Living in the Kingdom of Chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morbidelli, A.

    2000-10-01

    The existence of chaotic regions in the main asteroid belt, related with the lowest-order mean-motion and secular resonances, has long been known. However, only in the last decade have semi-analytic theories allowed a proper understanding of the chaotic behavior observed in numerical simulations which accurately incorporate the entire planetary system. The most spectacular result has been the discovery that the asteroids in some of these resonance may collide with the Sun on typical time scales of a few million year, their eccentricities being pumped to unity during their chaotic evolution. But the asteroid belt is not simply divided into violent chaotic zones and regular regions. It has been shown that the belt is criss-crossed by a large number of high-order mean-motion resonances with Jupiter or Mars, as well as by `three-body resonances' with Jupiter and Saturn. All these weak resonances cause the slow chaotic drift of the `proper' eccentricities and inclinations. The traces left by this evolution are visible, for example, in the structure of the Eos and Themis asteroid families. Weak chaos may also explain the anomalous dispersion of the eccentricities and inclinations observed in the Flora ``clan." Moreover, due to slow increases in their eccentricities, many asteroids start to cross the orbit of Mars, over a wide range of semimajor axes. The improved knowledge of the asteroid belt's chaotic structure provides, for the first time, an opportunity to build detailed quantitative models of the origin and the orbital distribution of Near-Earth Asteroids and meteorites. In turn, these models seem to imply that the semimajor axes of main-belt asteroids must also slowly evolve with time. For asteroids larger than about 20 km this is due mainly to encounters with Ceres, Pallas, and Vesta, while for smaller bodies the so-called Yarkovsky effect should dominate. Everything moves chaotically in the asteroid belt.

  14. Female reproductive cycles of wild female felids.

    PubMed

    Brown, Janine L

    2011-04-01

    Many felid species are endangered because of destructive human activities. As a result, zoos are being tasked with sustaining genetically healthy populations in case of catastrophic extinctions. Unfortunately, with the exception of a few species, most felids do not reproduce well in captivity. The ability to track reproductive activity via hormones is key to developing successful ex situ breeding programs. Through the development of noninvasive fecal hormone monitoring techniques, a high degree of variability in estrous cycle characteristics has been found to exist across the taxon, including the type of ovulation. For example, although all felids have induced ovulations, the occurrence of spontaneous ovulations varies across species, and even between individuals within a species. Clouded leopards, fishing cats and margays frequently have spontaneous ovulations, whereas these are rarely observed in the cheetah, tigrina and ocelot. There are marked species differences in the impact of season on reproductive function, with some being exquisitely sensitive to photoperiod (e.g., Pallas' cat), some moderately affected (tiger, clouded leopard, snow leopard), and others that are not influenced at all (e.g., ocelot, tigrina, margay, lion, leopard, fishing cat). One of the greatest challenges remaining is overcoming the problems associated with highly variable ovarian responses to ovulation induction therapies used with assisted reproductive procedures, like artificial insemination (AI). Success is relatively high in the cheetah and ocelot, but few pregnancies have resulted after AI in clouded leopard, fishing cat and tiger. Current knowledge of the reproductive physiology of nondomestic felids, including aspects of the anatomy, behavior and ovarian cycles will be presented, and how the rapidly growing endocrine database is aiding ex situ management efforts. PMID:20888156

  15. Laparoscopic oviductal embryo transfer and artificial insemination in felids--challenges, strategies and successes.

    PubMed

    Swanson, W F

    2012-12-01

    Embryo transfer (ET) and artificial insemination (AI) are potentially invaluable techniques for the propagation and management of genetically valuable domestic cat and endangered nondomestic cat populations. Many of the challenges that impair the effective application of ET and AI in felids may be overcome by using laparoscopic oviductal (LO) approaches. LO-ET and LO-AI are minimally-invasive procedures, requiring only two small skin incisions for insertion of a laparoscope and grasping forceps into the abdominal cavity to permit visualization and catheterization of the oviduct for embryo or semen deposition. With concurrent improvements in embryo culture systems and ovarian synchronization protocols, LO-ET has proven effective over the past decade for propagation of laboratory cats, cat models of hereditary disease and nondomestic cats. To date, viable offspring have been produced following LO-ET of non-frozen and frozen-thawed IVF-derived embryos in eight cat hereditary disease models and two nondomestic cat species, the ocelot and sand cat. LO-AI with low sperm numbers (c. 2-8 million motile) has shown similar efficacy to LO-ET, resulting in high pregnancy percentages (50-70%) following insemination of gonadotropin-treated domestic cats. Multiple kittens also have been produced in two hereditary disease models following LO-AI with frozen semen, and both ocelot and Pallas' cat kittens have been born after LO-AI with freshly-collected semen. The application of LO-ET and LO-AI to felids has resulted in substantial improvement in the efficiency of assisted reproduction for genetic management of these invaluable domestic cat and wild cat populations. PMID:23279483

  16. Application of assisted reproduction for population management in felids: the potential and reality for conservation of small cats.

    PubMed

    Swanson, William F

    2006-07-01

    Assisted reproductive technology (ART), using the primary applied tools of AI, ET, and sperm and embryo cryopreservation, has been promoted over the past decades for its potential to conserve endangered wildlife, including felids. However, if the goal is efficient, consistent production of viable offspring for population management, then the 'potential' of ART has yet to become 'reality' for any non-domestic cat species. For the five small-sized felids (i.e., Brazilian ocelot, fishing cat, Pallas' cat, Arabian sand cat, black-footed cat) managed by Species Survival Plans (SSPs) in North American zoos, achieving this potential may be an absolute necessity if genetically viable captive populations are to be maintained into the next century. Modeling programs suggest that current SSP populations are not sustainable without periodic introduction of new founders and improved demographic parameters, including longer generation intervals and larger population sizes. ART provides the means to address each of these management challenges. In each small cat SSP species, fecal hormone metabolite assays and seminal analysis have proven useful for characterizing basal reproductive parameters, a necessary prerequisite to developing ART. Of the five SSP species, ART has been used to produce living offspring only in the ocelot, including after AI with frozen-thawed spermatozoa and following transfer of frozen-thawed IVF embryos. The true efficacy of these techniques, however, is still unknown. To improve the applicability of ART for population management, priorities for immediate research include further investigation of ovarian stimulation protocols, sperm and embryo cryopreservation methods, embryo culture systems, and fetal and neonatal viability following ART. PMID:16650889

  17. Simulation of crystalline beams in storage rings using molecular dynamics technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshkov, I.; Katayama, T.; Sidorin, A.; Smirnov, A.; Syresin, E.; Trubnikov, G.; Tsutsui, H.

    2006-03-01

    Achieving very low temperatures in the beam rest frame can present new possibilities in accelerator physics. Increasing luminosity in the collider and in experiments with targets is a very important asset for investigating rare radioactive isotopes. The ordered state of circulating ion beams was observed at several storage rings: NAP-M [Budker, et al., in: Proceedings of the 4th All-Union Conference on Charged-Particle Accelerators [in Russian], vol. 2, Nauka, Moscow, 1975, p. 309; Budker et al., Part. Accel. 7 (1976) 197; Budker et al., At. Energ. 40 (1976) 49. E. Dementev, N. Dykansky, A. Medvedko et al., Prep. CERN/PS/AA 79-41, Geneva, 1979] (Novosibirsk), ESR [M. Steck et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 77 (1996) 3803] and SIS [Hasse and Steck, Ordered ion beams, in: Proceeding of EPAC '2000] (Darmstadt), CRYRING [Danared et al., Observation of ordered ion beams in CRYRING, in: Proceeding of PAC '2001] (Stockholm) and PALLAS [Schramm et al., in: J.L. Duggan (Eds.), Proceedings of the Conference on Appl. of Acc. in Research and Industry AIP Conference Proceedings, p. 576 (to be published)] (Munich). In this report, the simulation of 1D crystalline beams with BETACOOL code is presented. The sudden reduction of momentum spread in the ESR experiment is described with this code. Simulation shows good agreement with experimental results and also with the intrabeam scattering (IBS) theory [Martini, Intrabeam scattering in the ACOOL-AA machines, CERN PS/84-9 AA, Geneva, 1984]. The code was used to calculate characteristics of the ordered state of ion beams for the TARN-II [Katayama, TARN II project, in: Proceedings of the IUCF workshop on nuclear physics with stored cooled beams, Spencer, IN, USA, 1984].

  18. A preliminary study on the insect fauna of Al-Baha Province, Saudi Arabia, with descriptions of two new species

    PubMed Central

    El-Hawagry, Magdi S.; Khalil, Mohammed W.; Sharaf, Mostafa R.; Hassan H. Fadl; Aldawood, Abdulrahman S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A preliminary study was carried out on the insect fauna of Al-Baha Province, south-western part of Saudi Arabia. A total number of 582 species and subspecies (few identified only to the genus level) belonging to 129 families and representing 17 orders were recorded. Two of these species are described as new, namely: Monomorium sarawatensis Sharaf & Aldawood, sp. n. [Formicidae, Hymenoptera] and Anthrax alruqibi El-Hawagry sp. n. [Bombyliidae, Diptera]. Another eight species are recorded for the first time in Saudi Arabia, namely: Xiphoceriana arabica (Uvarov, 1922) [Pamphagidae, Orthoptera], Pyrgomorpha conica (Olivier, 1791) [Pyrgomorphidae, Orthoptera], Catopsilia florella (Fabricius, 1775) [Pieridae, Lepidoptera], Anthrax chionanthrax (Bezzi, 1926) [Bombyliidae, Diptera], Spogostylum near tripunctatum Pallas in Wiedemann, 1818 [Bombyliidae, Diptera], Cononedys dichromatopa (Bezzi, 1925) [Bombyliidae, Diptera], Mydas sp. [Mydidae, Diptera], and Hippobosca equina Linnaeus, 1758 [Hippoboscidae, Diptera]. Al-Baha Province is divided by huge and steep Rocky Mountains into two main sectors, a lowland coastal plain at the west, known as “Tihama”, and a mountainous area with an elevation of 1500 to 2450 m above sea level at the east, known as “Al-Sarat or Al-Sarah” which form a part of Al-Sarawat Mountains range. Insect species richness in the two sectors (Tihama and Al-Sarah) was compared, and the results showed that each of the two sectors of Al-Baha Province has a unique insect community. The study generally concluded that the insect faunal composition in Al-Baha Province has an Afrotropical flavor, with the Afrotropical elements predominant, and a closer affiliation to the Afrotropical region than to the Palearctic region or the Eremic zone. Consequently, we tend to agree with those biogeographers who consider that parts of the Arabian Peninsula, including Al-Baha Province, should be included in the Afrotropical region rather than in the Palaearctic

  19. Report of the IAU Working Group on Cartographic Coordinates and Rotational Elements: 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archinal, B. A.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Bowell, E.; Conrad, A.; Consolmagno, G. J.; Courtin, R.; Fukushima, T.; Hestroffer, D.; Hilton, J. L.; Krasinsky, G. A.; Neumann, G.; Oberst, J.; Seidelmann, P. K.; Stooke, P.; Tholen, D. J.; Thomas, P. C.; Williams, I. P.

    2011-02-01

    Every three years the IAU Working Group on Cartographic Coordinates and Rotational Elements revises tables giving the directions of the poles of rotation and the prime meridians of the planets, satellites, minor planets, and comets. This report takes into account the IAU Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature (WGPSN) and the IAU Committee on Small Body Nomenclature (CSBN) definition of dwarf planets, introduces improved values for the pole and rotation rate of Mercury, returns the rotation rate of Jupiter to a previous value, introduces improved values for the rotation of five satellites of Saturn, and adds the equatorial radius of the Sun for comparison. It also adds or updates size and shape information for the Earth, Mars' satellites Deimos and Phobos, the four Galilean satellites of Jupiter, and 22 satellites of Saturn. Pole, rotation, and size information has been added for the asteroids (21) Lutetia, (511) Davida, and (2867) Šteins. Pole and rotation information has been added for (2) Pallas and (21) Lutetia. Pole and rotation and mean radius information has been added for (1) Ceres. Pole information has been updated for (4) Vesta. The high precision realization for the pole and rotation rate of the Moon is updated. Alternative orientation models for Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn are noted. The Working Group also reaffirms that once an observable feature at a defined longitude is chosen, a longitude definition origin should not change except under unusual circumstances. It is also noted that alternative coordinate systems may exist for various (e.g. dynamical) purposes, but specific cartographic coordinate system information continues to be recommended for each body. The Working Group elaborates on its purpose, and also announces its plans to occasionally provide limited updates to its recommendations via its website, in order to address community needs for some updates more often than every 3 years. Brief recommendations are also made to the general

  20. Metal distribution and stability in constructed wetland sediment.

    PubMed

    Knox, Anna Sophia; Paller, Michael H; Nelson, Eric A; Specht, Winona L; Halverson, Nancy V; Gladden, John B

    2006-01-01

    The A-01 wetland treatment system (WTS) is a surface flow wetland planted with giant bulrush [Schoenoplectus californicus (C.A. Mey.) Palla] that is designed to remove Cu and other metals from the A-01 National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) effluent at the Savannah River Site near Aiken, SC. Copper, Zn, and Pb concentrations in water were usually reduced 60 to 80% by passage through the treatment system. The Cu concentrations in the wetland sediments increased from about 4 to 205 and 796 mg kg(-1), respectively, in the organic and floc sediment layers in cell 4A over a 5-yr period. Metal concentrations were higher in the two top layers of sediment (i.e., the floc and organic layers) than in the deeper inorganic layers. Sequential extraction was used to evaluate remobilization and retention of Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn, and Fe in the wetland sediment. Metal remobilization was determined by the potentially mobile fraction (PMF) and metal retention by the recalcitrant factor (RF). The PMF values were high in the floc layer but comparatively low in the organic and inorganic layers. High RF values for Cu, Zn, and Pb in the organic and inorganic layers indicated that these metals were strongly bound in the sediment. The RF values for Mn were lower than for the other elements especially in the floc layer, indicating low retention or binding capacity. Retention of contaminants was also evaluated by distribution coefficient (Kd) values. Distribution coefficient (Kd) values were lower for Cu and Zn than for Pb, indicating a smaller exchangeable fraction for Pb. PMID:16973636

  1. Nursing Services Delivery Theory: an open system approach

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Raquel M; O’Brien-Pallas, Linda L

    2010-01-01

    meyer r.m. & o’brien-pallas l.l. (2010)Nursing services delivery theory: an open system approach. Journal of Advanced Nursing66(12), 2828–2838. Aim This paper is a discussion of the derivation of the Nursing Services Delivery Theory from the application of open system theory to large-scale organizations. Background The underlying mechanisms by which staffing indicators influence outcomes remain under-theorized and unmeasured, resulting in a ‘black box’ that masks the nature and organization of nursing work. Theory linking nursing work, staffing, work environments, and outcomes in different settings is urgently needed to inform management decisions about the allocation of nurse staffing resources in organizations. Data sources A search of CINAHL and Business Source Premier for the years 1980–2008 was conducted using the following terms: theory, models, organization, organizational structure, management, administration, nursing units, and nursing. Seminal works were included. Discussion The healthcare organization is conceptualized as an open system characterized by energy transformation, a dynamic steady state, negative entropy, event cycles, negative feedback, differentiation, integration and coordination, and equifinality. The Nursing Services Delivery Theory proposes that input, throughput, and output factors interact dynamically to influence the global work demands placed on nursing work groups at the point of care in production subsystems. Implications for nursing The Nursing Services Delivery Theory can be applied to varied settings, cultures, and countries and supports the study of multi-level phenomena and cross-level effects. Conclusion The Nursing Services Delivery Theory gives a relational structure for reconciling disparate streams of research related to nursing work, staffing, and work environments. The theory can guide future research and the management of nursing services in large-scale healthcare organizations. PMID:20831573

  2. Mitochondrial genomics of gadine fishes: implications for taxonomy and biogeographic origins from whole-genome data sets.

    PubMed

    Coulson, Mark W; Marshall, H Dawn; Pepin, Pierre; Carr, Steven M

    2006-09-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of 13 substantially complete mitochondrial DNA genome sequences (14,036 bp) from 10 taxa of gadine codfishes and pollock provides highly corroborated resolution of outstanding questions on their biogeographic evolution. Of 6 resolvable nodes among species, 4 were supported by >95% of bootstrap replications in parsimony, distance, likelihood, and similarly high posterior probabilities in bayesian analyses, one by 85%-95% according to the method of analysis, and one by 99% by one method and a majority of the other two. The endemic Pacific species, walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma), is more closely related to the endemic Atlantic species, Atlantic cod (Gadus macrocephalus), than either is to a second Pacific endemic, Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus). The walleye pollock should thus be referred to the genus Gadus as originally described (Gadus chalcogrammus Pallas 1811). Arcto-Atlantic Greenland cod, previously regarded as a distinct species (G. ogac), are a genomically distinguishable subspecies within pan-Pacific G. macrocephalus. Of the 2 endemic Arctic Ocean genera, Polar cod (Boreogadus) as the outgroup to Arctic cod (Arctogadus) and Gadus sensu lato is more strongly supported than a pairing of Boreogadus and Arctogadus as sister taxa. Taking into consideration historical patterns of hydrogeography, we outline a hypothesis of the origin of the 2 endemic Pacific species as independent but simultaneous invasions through the Bering Strait from an Arcto-Atlantic ancestral lineage. In contrast to the genome data, the complete proteome sequence (3830 amino acids) resolved only 3 nodes with >95% confidence, and placed Alaska pollock outside the Gadus clade owing to reversal mutations in the ND5 locus that restore ancestral, non-Gadus, amino acid residues in that species. PMID:17110992

  3. Laboratory Investigations Reveal that Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Is a Poor Host for Dinocampus coccinellae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Castro-Guedes, CamilaFediuk; de Almeida, LúciaMassutti

    2016-01-01

    Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773) is an Asian coccinellid released in several places to act as a biological control agent of aphids. Dinocampus coccinellae (Schrank, 1802) is an endoparasite that uses more than 40 coccinellid species as hosts. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the interactions between D. coccinellae and H. axyridis and to determine the impact of the parasitoid on the establishment capacity of H. axyridis It was also investigate the influence of host on the development of D. coccinellae using other Coccinellidae species as hosts: Cycloneda sanguinea, (L., 1763) Cycloneda pulchella (Klug, 1829), Eriopis connexa (Germar, 1824), and Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant, 1866) In no-choice tests, pupa was the least attacked stage, and the fourth instar and adults the most attacked. In choice tests, the pupa was less attacked when combined with all the other stages, and the fourth instar and adults the most attacked. There was statistical difference only for fecundity, fertility, and number of eggs/day, with higher values found in the non-parasitized control group. Due to the low rate of parasitism it is believed that D. coccinellae has little impact on the populations of this coccinellid in Brazil. However, it is noteworthy that an increase in H. axyridis coverage areas can affect the populations of D. coccinellae, as in some places of occurrence, H. axyridis has become the predominant species of Coccinellidae. The result can be a decrease in populations of this species of parasitoid or its better adaptation to the new host. PMID:27324582

  4. SNP Identification through Transcriptome Analysis of the European Brown Hare (Lepus europaeus): Cellular Energetics and Mother's Curse.

    PubMed

    Amoutzias, Grigoris D; Giannoulis, Themistoklis; Moutou, Katerina A; Psarra, Anna-Maria G; Stamatis, Costas; Tsipourlianos, Andreas; Mamuris, Zissis

    2016-01-01

    The European brown hare (Lepus europaeus, Pallas 1778) is an important small game species in Europe. Due to its size and position in the food chain, as well as its life history, phenotypic variation and the relatively recent speciation events, brown hare plays an important role in the structure of various ecosystems and has emerged as an important species for population management and evolutionary studies. In order to identify informative SNPs for such studies, heart and liver tissues of three samples from the European lineage and a three-sample pool from the Anatolian lineage were subjected to RNA-Sequencing analysis. This effort resulted in 9496 well-assembled protein-coding sequences with close homology to human. After applying very stringent filtering criteria, 66185 polymorphic sites were identified in 7665 genes/cds and 2050 of those polymorphic sites are potentially capable of distinguishing the European from the Anatolian lineage. From these distinguishing mutations we focused on those in genes that are involved in cellular energy production, namely the glycolysis, Krebs cycle and the OXPHOS machinery. A selected set of SNPs was also validated by Sanger sequencing. By simulating the three European individuals as one pool, no substantial informative-SNP identification was lost, making it a cost-efficient approach. To our knowledge this is the first attempt to correlate the differentiation in both nuclear and mitochondrial genome between the two different lineages of L. europaeus with the observed spatial partitioning of the lineages of the species, proposing a possible mechanism that is maintaining the reproductive isolation of the lineages. PMID:27459096

  5. Metalliferous coals of the Westphalian A Joggins Formation, Cumberland basin, Nova Scotia, Canada: Petrology, geochemistry, and palynology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hower, J.C.; Calder, J.H.; Eble, C.F.; Scott, A.C.; Robertson, J.D.; Blanchard, L.J.

    2000-01-01

    Five coals of Westphalian A (early Middle Pennsylvanian) age were sampled from the Joggins Formation section exposed along Chignecto Bay at Joggins, Nova Scotia. Coal beds along the bay were mined beginning in the early 17th century, yet there have been few detailed published investigation of the coal beds of this classic section. The lowermost coal, the Upper Coal 28 (Upper Fundy), is a high-vitrinite coal with a spore assemblage dominated by arboreous lycopsid spores with tree ferns subdominant. The upper portions of the coal bed have the highest ratio of well-preserved to poorly-preserved telinite of any of the coals investigated. Coal 19 ('clam coal') has 88% total vitrinite but, unlike the Fundy coal bed, the telinite has a poor preservation ratio and half the total vitrinite population comprises gelocollinite and vitrodetrinite. The latter coal bed is directly overlain by a basin-wide limestone bed. The Lower Kimberly coal shows good preservation of vitrinite with relatively abundant telinite among the total vitrinite. The Middle Kimberly coal, which underlies the tetrapod-bearing lycopsid trees found by Lyell and Dawson in 1852, exhibits an upward decrease in arboreous lycopod spores and an upward increase in the tree fern spore Punctatisporites minutus. Telinite preservation increases upwards in the Middle Kimberly but overall is well below the preservation ratio of the Upper Fundy coal bed. The coals all have high sulfur contents, yielding up to 13.7% total sulfur for the lower lithotype of the Upper Fundy coal bed. The Kimberly coals are not only high in total and pyritic sulfur, but also have high concentrations of chalcophile elements. Zinc, ranging up to 15,000 ppm (ash basis), is present as sphalerite in fusain lumens. Arsenic and lead each exceed 6000 ppm (ash basis) in separate lithotypes of the Kimberly coals. Together these data are consistent with elevated pH in planar mires. The source of the elemental enrichment in this presumed continental

  6. Sequence Capture versus Restriction Site Associated DNA Sequencing for Shallow Systematics.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Michael G; Smith, Brian Tilston; Glenn, Travis C; Faircloth, Brant C; Brumfield, Robb T

    2016-09-01

    Sequence capture and restriction site associated DNA sequencing (RAD-Seq) are two genomic enrichment strategies for applying next-generation sequencing technologies to systematics studies. At shallow timescales, such as within species, RAD-Seq has been widely adopted among researchers, although there has been little discussion of the potential limitations and benefits of RAD-Seq and sequence capture. We discuss a series of issues that may impact the utility of sequence capture and RAD-Seq data for shallow systematics in non-model species. We review prior studies that used both methods, and investigate differences between the methods by re-analyzing existing RAD-Seq and sequence capture data sets from a Neotropical bird (Xenops minutus). We suggest that the strengths of RAD-Seq data sets for shallow systematics are the wide dispersion of markers across the genome, the relative ease and cost of laboratory work, the deep coverage and read overlap at recovered loci, and the high overall information that results. Sequence capture's benefits include flexibility and repeatability in the genomic regions targeted, success using low-quality samples, more straightforward read orthology assessment, and higher per-locus information content. The utility of a method in systematics, however, rests not only on its performance within a study, but on the comparability of data sets and inferences with those of prior work. In RAD-Seq data sets, comparability is compromised by low overlap of orthologous markers across species and the sensitivity of genetic diversity in a data set to an interaction between the level of natural heterozygosity in the samples examined and the parameters used for orthology assessment. In contrast, sequence capture of conserved genomic regions permits interrogation of the same loci across divergent species, which is preferable for maintaining comparability among data sets and studies for the purpose of drawing general conclusions about the impact of

  7. Analysis of the strongylid nematodes (Nematoda: Strongylidae) community after deworming of brood horses in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Kuzmina, T A; Kharchenko, V A; Starovir, A I; Dvojnos, G M

    2005-08-10

    Communities of intestinal helminths in horses are commonly studied post mortem. The study objectives were here to examine the species composition of the strongylid community in brood horses in Ukraine after deworming with an aversectin drug Univerm. The site distribution of the strongylid species was analysed according to dynamics of their expulsion in faeces. Forty-four horses of different ages from Poltavska oblast (22 horses), Kyivska oblast (17 horses) and Sumska oblast (5 horses) of Ukraine were included in the study. Horses were treated with Univerm anthelmintic (0.2% aversectin) at a dose rate of 0.5mg aversectin preparation per kg body weight. Faecal sampling (200 g each) was performed at 24, 36, 48 and 60 h post treatment, and all nematodes expelled were collected and identified. The largest numbers of strongylids were expelled at 24--36 h after treatment. Twenty-five nematode species from the subfamilies Strongylinae and Cyathostominae were identified. The number of strongylid species found per horse ranged from 7 to 20, on an average 11+/-3.6 (S.D.). The number of cyathostomin species found per horse ranged from 7 to 16, on an average 10+/-2.3 (S.D.). Cylicocyclus nassatus and Cyathostomum catinatum were the most dominant species were found in 100% of horses, amounting to 36.3% and 17.6% of the total number of strongylids collected, respectively. C. longibursatus, C. ashworthi, Cylicostephanus calicatus, C. leptostomus and C. minutus were identified in more than 80% horses and represented 39.9% of the total number of strongylids collected. The dynamics of the different strongylid species expelled was irregular. Correlation between the time of cyathostomin species expulsion in faeces and their predicted localisation inside the horse intestine was found. Species mainly localised in the caecum were found in faeces later than those species localised in the dorsal and ventral colons. Larvae and adult Parascaris equorum, Oxyuris equi and botfly larvae from the

  8. [Structure and seasonal dynamics of an ectoparasite community on the common shrew (Sorex araneus) in the Il'men'-Volkhov lowland].

    PubMed

    Balashov, Iu S; Bochkov, A V; Vashchenok, V S; Tret'iakov, K A

    2003-01-01

    Species composition, seasonal dynamics, and a load of ectoparasites per individual and population of the common shrew Sorex araneus have been examined in coniferous and mixed forests of the Ilmen'-Volkhov lowland (a neighbourhood of Oskuy village, Chudovo district, Novgorod Province) during the period 1999-2003. Trapping of mammals was carried monthly, with exception of few accidental gaps. The Gero traps were used for catching micromammalian hosts. The lines of trap were checked 2 times a day, places of lines changed each 3-5 day. Total number of micromammalians collected during the period of study is 3215, including 1115 specimens of the common shrew S. araneus and 246 ones of the pigmy shrew S. minutus. Parasite fauna on the common shrew included 23 ectoparasite species: fleas--12, ixodid ticks--2, gamasid mites--7, and myobiid mites--2 species. Among recorded species, 9 fleas species and some gamasid species are accidental parasites. These accidental ectoparasite species are common to the bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus in the territory investigated. Species composition, occurrence and abundance indices of parasites changed during the year. In total, about 55% shrew specimens are infected with ectoparasites. The infracommunity of ectoparasites on the common shrew usually consists of 6 species or less. Mean number of all ectoparasite individuals per one host specimens varies from 4 to 83. The greatest number of parasites (50 and 83) was recorded on the shrews, which carried 5 and 4 parasites species, respectively. Biodiversity of parasite species in the ectoparasite community on the common shrew and the load of parasites per one host specimen are lower than those in the bank vole. In forest biotopes explored, the most part of temporary ectoparasite species found on the common shrew was also recorded on other small mammals, which could have contacts with this host. It is possible to conclude that among the parasite supracommunity in the explored ecosystem, the

  9. Nectar secretion on fern fronds associated with lower levels of herbivore damage: field experiments with a widespread epiphyte of Mexican cloud forest remnants

    PubMed Central

    Koptur, Suzanne; Palacios-Rios, Mónica; Díaz-Castelazo, Cecilia; Mackay, William P.; Rico-Gray, Víctor

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The oldest group of plants in which nectar secretions have been observed are the Polypodiopsida (ferns sensu lato). Nectaries have been reported in a dozen extant genera. The function of these nectaries has been investigated in several fern species, and in some circumstances has been demonstrated to have an antiherbivore role, attracting and maintaining biotic defence (ants and/or other predatory arthropods). This study documents foliar nectaries in Pleopeltis crassinervata, a widespread Central American epiphyte growing on a variety of trees in cloud forest areas of Veracruz, Mexico. This is a new record for this genus and species. Methods As previous experimental work on epiphytic species of Polypodium has demonstrated a protective role of ants for developing fronds, we conducted similar experiments (using nylon nail polish to cover nectaries rather than excluding ants with bands of sticky resin as in earlier work). The fronds of Pl. crassinervata developed over 6 weeks, at which time damage was assessed. The experiment was simultaneously conducted on a sympatric species lacking nectaries, Polypodium furfuraceum. Herbivore placement experiments were conducted with large and small caterpillars on both of these ferns. Key Results Fronds with nectaries covered suffered greater damage from herbivores over the course of their development, compared with fronds that had uncovered nectaries functioning normally. The parallel experiment on Po. furfuraceum showed no difference between manipulated and control fronds. Six species of ants (Brachymyrmex minutus, Crematogaster formosa, Paratrechina longicornis, Solenopsis geminata, S. picea and Wasmannia auropunctata) were observed visiting nectaries of Pl. crassinervata; most were effective in removing herbivore larvae placed on the fronds. Conclusions The long evolutionary history of ferns may explain why some previous studies of fern nectaries have shown little or no benefit to ferns from nectary visitors

  10. Review of Gasteruption Latreille (Hymenoptera, Gasteruptiidae) from Iran and Turkey, with the description of 15 new species

    PubMed Central

    van Achterberg, Cornelis; Talebi, Ali Asghar

    2014-01-01

    Gasteruption palaestinum Pic, 1916, of Gasteruption merceti Kieffer, 1904; Gasteryption foveiceps Semenov, 1892, of Gasteruption nigrescens Schletterer, 1885, and Gasteruption libanense Pic, 1916, of Gasteruption syriacum Szépligeti, 1903. Gasteruption lugubre Schletterer, 1889, is recognised as a valid species. Lectotypes are designated for Ichneumon assectator Linnaeus, 1758; Ichneumon jaculator Linnaeus, 1758; Foenus terrestris Tournier, 1877; Foenus freyi Tournier, 1877; Foenus nigripes Tournier, 1877; Foenus goberti Tournier, 1877; Foenus granulithorax Tournier, 1877; Foenus minutus Tournier, 1877; Foenus borealis Thomson, 1883; Faenus diversipes Abeille de Perrin, 1879; Foenus rugulosus Abeille de Perrin, 1879; Faenus obliteratus Abeille de Perrin, 1879; Faenus undulatum Abeille de Perrin, 1879; Faenus variolosus Abeille de Perrin, 1879; Gasteruption distinguendum Schletterer, 1885; Gasteruption laeviceps Schletterer, 1885; Gasteruption thomsonii Schletterer, 1885; Gasteruption foveolatum Schletterer, 1889; Gasteruption sowae Schletterer, 1901; Gasteruption foveolum Szépligeti, 1903; Gasteruption floreum Szépligeti, 1903; Gasteruption caudatum Szépligeti, 1903; Gasteruption syriacum Szépligeti, 1903; Gasteruption merceti Kieffer, 1904 and Gasteruption ignoratum Kieffer, 1912. A neotype is designated for Gasteruption tournieri Schletterer, 1885. PMID:25561849

  11. Management of atrial fibrillation: focus on the role of dronedarone

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Judy WM

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dronedarone is an amiodarone derivative that was approved in the US in July 2009 to reduce the risk of cardiovascular hospitalization in patients with paroxysmal or persistent atrial fibrillation (AF), who are in sinus rhythm (SR), or who will be cardioverted. Objective: This article reviews the pharmacology, adverse effects, and clinical evidence available to date on the use of dronedarone in the management of AF and its potential role in the emergency department setting. Results: In the EURIDIS and ADONIS studies evaluating the efficacy of dronedarone in maintaining SR, dronedarone significantly reduced the risk of recurrence of AF compared to placebo, by 22% and 27%, respectively. The ERATO study examined the ability of dronedarone to control ventricular rate in permanent AF. The DIONYSOS study demonstrated that recurrences of AF were more frequent with dronedarone. However, discontinuation of therapy due to intolerance was more frequent with amiodarone. Furthermore, the ATHENA study demonstrated that dronedarone reduced mortality and cardiovascular hospitalization by 24% (P < 0.05) in patients in SR but with other associated risks and a history of AF. However, the ANDROMEDA study, evaluating the use of dronedarone in patients with recent decompensated heart failure, and the PALLAS study, evaluating the use of dronedarone in patients with chronic AF, were both terminated prematurely due to a trend toward an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Conclusion: Dronedarone has been demonstrated to be effective in reducing the incidence of AF recurrence. It appears to be less effective but better tolerated than amiodarone. Dronedarone appears to have a low proarrhythmic risk and is the first anti-arrhythmic that has been demonstrated to reduce cardiovascular mortality and cardiovascular hospitalization in clinically stable patients with other risk factors for recurrent AF. Therefore, dronedarone can be recommended as an anti-arrhythmic of choice in

  12. The description and histopathology of Leptorhynchoides polycristatus n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Rhadinorhynchidae) from sturgeons, Acipenser spp. (Actinopterygii: Acipenseridae) in the Caspian Sea, Iran, with emendation of the generic diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Amin, Omar M; Heckmann, Richard A; Halajian, Ali; El-Naggar, Atif M; Tavakol, Sareh

    2013-11-01

    Of the three known species of Leptorhynchoides Kostylew 1924, two are reported from North American fishes: Leptorhynchoides aphredoderi Buckner and Buckner 1976 and Leptorhynchoides thecatus (Linton 1891) Kostylew 1924. The third species, Leptorhynchoides plagicephalus (Westrumb 1821) Kostylew 1924, is commonly found in the Caspian and Black Sea from at least four species of sturgeons including Acipenser stellatus Pallas 1771 and the Acipenser nudiventris Lovetzsky 1828 from which Leptorhynchoides polycristatus n. sp. was found. No taxonomic work has been reported for L. plagicephalus for the last 90 years. L. polycristatus n. sp. can be readily confused with L. plagicephalus because of many superficial similarities. Such similarities include the general shape of the trunk, proboscis, and organ systems. However, L. polycristatus is clearly distinguished from the other three species primarily by having (1) 19-20 proboscis hooks per row; (2) the shortest hooks are anterior and the longest at the middle; the opposite is true in L. plagicephalus; (3) with a cuticular collar enveloping the base of the proboscis hooks; (4) the surface of its proboscis hooks is ribbed; (5) with a broad collar of multiple rectangular cuticular crests encircling the anterior end of the trunk; this is the only member of Leptorhynchoides with such a structure; (6) with many large ovoid uninucleated cells in the subcuticular layer of the trunk; (7) with paired glandular clusters near the male reproductive opening and of suction cup-like sensory structures on the bursa; (8) with dorsoventral ligament across the vagina; (9) cement glands are in a cluster of eight arranged in two horizontal tiers of four glands each; (10) with female gonopore near terminal; (11) with structures interpreted as possible microtriches on the surface of the trunk; (12) and with thinner eggs. L. polycristatus caused extensive histopathological damage to host intestinal layers. The armed proboscis invades and attaches