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Sample records for pombe cell wall

  1. Chromatin and Cell Wall Staining of Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Iain M

    2016-01-01

    Fission yeasts grow by tip extension, maintaining a constant width until they reach a critical size threshold and divide. Division by medial fission-which gives these yeast their name-generates a new end that arises from the site of cytokinesis. The old end, which was produced during the previous cell cycle, initiates progression of the new cell cycle, and in G2, the new end is activated in a process termed new-end takeoff (NETO). In this protocol, the fluorescent stains calcofluor and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) are used to give a rapid and informative assessment of morphogenesis and cell-cycle progression in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe Calcofluor reveals the timing of NETO because it stains the birth scars that are generated at new ends by cytokinesis less efficiently than the rest of the cell wall. Intense calcofluor staining of the septum and measurement of cell length are also widely used to identify dividing cells and to gauge the timing of mitotic commitment. Staining nuclei with DAPI identifies mono- and binucleated cells and complements the calcofluor staining procedure to evaluate the stages of the cell cycle and identify mitotic errors. Equally simple DAPI staining procedures reveal chromatin structure in higher resolution, facilitating more accurate staging of mitotic progression and characterization of mitotic errors. PMID:27250942

  2. The occurrence of glucosaminoglycan in the wall of Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Sietsma, J H; Wessels, J G

    1990-11-01

    The major part of the wall of Schizosaccharomyces pombe consists of (1----3)-alpha-glucan and (1----3)-beta-glucan with some (1----6)-beta-linkages. Although in hydrolysed samples only a minute amount of glucosamine could be detected, this amino sugar may play an essential role as an integral part of a glucosaminoglycan/glucan complex. Treatment of the wall with either nitrous acid or chitinase changed the solubility properties of the beta-glucan, which suggests that the glucosaminoglycan/glucan complex is essentially similar to that found in walls of other fungi. An enzyme with properties similar to that of chitin synthase of other fungi, and probably responsible for the synthesis of the glucosaminoglycan, was detected in a mixed-membrane fraction. PMID:2079623

  3. Analysis of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe Cell Cycle.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Iain M; Grallert, Agnes; Simanis, Viesturs

    2016-01-01

    Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells are rod shaped, and they grow by tip elongation. Growth ceases during mitosis and cell division; therefore, the length of a septated cell is a direct measure of the timing of mitotic commitment, and the length of a wild-type cell is an indicator of its position in the cell cycle. A large number of documented stage-specific changes can be used as landmarks to characterize cell cycle progression under specific experimental conditions. Conditional mutations can permanently or transiently block the cell cycle at almost any stage. Large, synchronously dividing cell populations, essential for the biochemical analysis of cell cycle events, can be generated by induction synchrony (arrest-release of a cell cycle mutant) or selection synchrony (centrifugal elutriation or lactose-gradient centrifugation). Schizosaccharomyces pombe cell cycle studies routinely combine particular markers, mutants, and synchronization procedures to manipulate the cycle. We describe these techniques and list key landmarks in the fission yeast mitotic cell division cycle. PMID:27587785

  4. Buoyant density constancy of Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kubitschek, H.E.; Ward, R.A.

    1985-06-01

    Buoyant densities of cells from exponentially growing cultures of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe 972h/sup -/ with division rates from 0.14 to 0.5 per h were determined by equilibrium centrifugation in Percoll gradients. Buoyant densities were independent of growth rate, with an average value (+/- standard error) of 1.0945 (+/- 0.00037) g/ml. When cells from these cultures were separated by size, mean cell volumes were independent of buoyant density, indicating that buoyant densities also were independent of cell age during the division cycle. These results support the suggestion that most or all kinds of cells that divide by equatorial fission may have similar, evolutionarily conserved mechanisms for regulation of buoyant density.

  5. Cell Surface Galactosylation Is Essential for Nonsexual Flocculation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Naotaka; Awai, Atsuro; Bhuiyan, M. Shah Alam; Fujita, Kiyotaka; Fukui, Hiroshi; Takegawa, Kaoru

    1999-01-01

    We have isolated fission yeast mutants that constitutively flocculate upon growth in liquid media. One of these mutants, the gsf1 mutant, was found to cause dominant, nonsexual, and calcium-dependent aggregation of cells into flocs. Its flocculation was inhibited by the addition of galactose but was not affected by the addition of mannose or glucose, unlike Saccharomyces cerevisiae FLO mutants. The gsf1 mutant coflocculated with Schizosaccharomyces pombe wild-type cells, while no coflocculation was found with galactose-deficient (gms1Δ) cells. Moreover, flocculation of the gsf1 mutant was also inhibited by addition of cell wall galactomannan from wild-type cells but not from gms1Δ cells. These results suggested that galactose residues in the cell wall glycoproteins may be receptors of gsf1-mediated flocculation, and therefore cell surface galactosylation is required for nonsexual flocculation in S. pombe. PMID:9973368

  6. POMB/ACE chemotherapy for mediastinal germ cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Bower, M; Brock, C; Holden, L; Nelstrop, A; Makey, A R; Rustin, G J; Newlands, E S

    1997-05-01

    Mediastinal germ cell tumours (MGCT) are rare and most published series reflect the experiences of individual institutions over many years. Since 1979, we have treated 16 men (12 non-seminomatous germ cell tumours and 4 seminomas) with newly diagnosed primary MGCT with POMB/ACE chemotherapy and elective surgical resection of residual masses. This approach yielded complete remissions in 15/16 (94%) patients. The median follow-up was 6.0 years and no relapses occurred more than 2 years after treatment. The 5 year overall survival in the non-seminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCT) is 73% (95% confidence interval 43-90%). One patient with NSGCT developed drug-resistant disease and died without achieving remission and 2 patients died of relapsed disease. In addition, 4 patients with bulky and/or metastatic seminoma were treated with POMB/ACE. One died of treatment-related neutropenic sepsis in complete remission and one died of relapsed disease. Finally, 4 patients (2 NSGCT and 2 seminomas) referred at relapse were treated with POMB/ACE and one was successfully salvaged. The combination of POMB/ACE chemotherapy and surgery is effective management for MGCT producing high long-term survival rates. PMID:9291802

  7. Fixed-Cell Imaging of Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Iain M; Bagley, Steven

    2016-01-01

    The acknowledged genetic malleability of fission yeast has been matched by impressive cytology to drive major advances in our understanding of basic molecular cell biological processes. In many of the more recent studies, traditional approaches of fixation followed by processing to accommodate classical staining procedures have been superseded by live-cell imaging approaches that monitor the distribution of fusion proteins between a molecule of interest and a fluorescent protein. Although such live-cell imaging is uniquely informative for many questions, fixed-cell imaging remains the better option for others and is an important-sometimes critical-complement to the analysis of fluorescent fusion proteins by live-cell imaging. Here, we discuss the merits of fixed- and live-cell imaging as well as specific issues for fluorescence microscopy imaging of fission yeast. PMID:27371603

  8. Interplanetary Migration of Eucaryotic Cell, Spore of Schizosaccharomyces Pombe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, N.; Nosaka, J.; Ando, R.; Hashimoto, H.; Yokobori, S.; Narumi, I.; Nakagawa, K.; Yamagishi, A.; Tohda, H.

    2013-11-01

    The Tanpopo mission to examine possible interplanetary migration of microbes is progressing. Spore of Schizosaccharomyces pombe are considered as the exposed samples. In this paper, results of preliminary experiments for the exposure are shown.

  9. Time-lapse electrical impedance spectroscopy for monitoring the cell cycle of single immobilized S. pombe cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhen; Frey, Olivier; Haandbaek, Niels; Franke, Felix; Rudolf, Fabian; Hierlemann, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    As a complement and alternative to optical methods, wide-band electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) enables multi-parameter, label-free and real-time detection of cellular and subcellular features. We report on a microfluidics-based system designed to reliably capture single rod-shaped Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells by applying suction through orifices in a channel wall. The system enables subsequent culturing of immobilized cells in an upright position, while dynamic changes in cell-cycle state and morphology were continuously monitored through EIS over a broad frequency range. Besides measuring cell growth, clear impedance signals for nuclear division have been obtained. The EIS system has been characterized with respect to sensitivity and detection limits. The spatial resolution in measuring cell length was 0.25 μm, which corresponds to approximately a 5-min interval of cell growth under standard conditions. The comprehensive impedance data sets were also used to determine the occurrence of nuclear division and cytokinesis. The obtained results have been validated through concurrent confocal imaging and plausibilized through comparison with finite-element modeling data. The possibility to monitor cellular and intracellular features of single S. pombe cells during the cell cycle at high spatiotemporal resolution renders the presented microfluidics-based EIS system a suitable tool for dynamic single-cell investigations.

  10. Time-lapse electrical impedance spectroscopy for monitoring the cell cycle of single immobilized S. pombe cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhen; Frey, Olivier; Haandbaek, Niels; Franke, Felix; Rudolf, Fabian; Hierlemann, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    As a complement and alternative to optical methods, wide-band electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) enables multi-parameter, label-free and real-time detection of cellular and subcellular features. We report on a microfluidics-based system designed to reliably capture single rod-shaped Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells by applying suction through orifices in a channel wall. The system enables subsequent culturing of immobilized cells in an upright position, while dynamic changes in cell-cycle state and morphology were continuously monitored through EIS over a broad frequency range. Besides measuring cell growth, clear impedance signals for nuclear division have been obtained. The EIS system has been characterized with respect to sensitivity and detection limits. The spatial resolution in measuring cell length was 0.25 μm, which corresponds to approximately a 5-min interval of cell growth under standard conditions. The comprehensive impedance data sets were also used to determine the occurrence of nuclear division and cytokinesis. The obtained results have been validated through concurrent confocal imaging and plausibilized through comparison with finite-element modeling data. The possibility to monitor cellular and intracellular features of single S. pombe cells during the cell cycle at high spatiotemporal resolution renders the presented microfluidics-based EIS system a suitable tool for dynamic single-cell investigations. PMID:26608589

  11. Cell Cycle Synchronization of Schizosaccharomyces pombe by Lactose Gradient Centrifugation to Isolate Small Cells.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Iain M; Grallert, Agnes; Simanis, Viesturs

    2016-01-01

    Size selection of small cells from an asynchronous Schizosaccharomyces pombe culture offers a simple way to generate cultures in which progression through the mitotic cell division cycle is synchronized throughout the population. Here, we describe how density centrifugation of cells from asynchronous cultures through lactose gradients selects small G2 cells to generate synchronized cultures as large as 500 mL. The ease and simplicity of this approach makes it an accessible and attractive method for generating synchronous cultures. PMID:27250945

  12. [Comparing Cell Toxicity of Schizosaccharomyces pombe Exposure to Airborne PM2.5 from Beijing and Inert Particle SiO2].

    PubMed

    Liu, Meng-jiao; Huang, Yi; Wen, Hang; Qiu, Guo-yu

    2015-11-01

    To figure out the main factor of PM2.5 toxicity to cell, this study compared the cell toxicity of Schizosaccharomyces pombe (S. pombe), a model organism, exposed to inert ultrafine SiO2 particles, a model particle, and airborne PM2.5 collected from campus of Peking University Beijing China. Using ultraviolet spectrophotometry to measure cell proliferation ratio, and environmental scanning microscope to observe the particle adhesion on the cell surface, and detecting cellular ROS generation with DHE fluorescent dye chromogenic method, and using single cell gel electrophoresis to test cell DNA damage, the experiment results indicated that the ultrafine SiO2 particles (< 60 nm) could inhibit the cell proliferation of S. pombe, mainly through adsorbing onto the cell surface to change the permeability of the cell wall; but it could not induce cells to generate ROS to cause the oxidative damage. PM2.5, the average particle size of which was larger than that of SiO2 particles, could cause oxidative damages to cells mainly by inducing cells to generate ROS, and damage DNA simultaneously. It might illustrate that there was no direct relationship between the toxicity of PM2.5 and its physical properties such as the particle size. PMID:26910977

  13. PombeX: robust cell segmentation for fission yeast transillumination images.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jyh-Ying; Chen, Yen-Jen; Green, Marc D; Sabatinos, Sarah A; Forsburg, Susan L; Hsu, Chun-Nan

    2013-01-01

    Schizosaccharomyces pombe shares many genes and proteins with humans and is a good model for chromosome behavior and DNA dynamics, which can be analyzed by visualizing the behavior of fluorescently tagged proteins in vivo. Performing a genome-wide screen for changes in such proteins requires developing methods that automate analysis of a large amount of images, the first step of which requires robust segmentation of the cell. We developed a segmentation system, PombeX, that can segment cells from transmitted illumination images with focus gradient and varying contrast. Corrections for focus gradient are applied to the image to aid in accurate detection of cell membrane and cytoplasm pixels, which is used to generate initial contours for cells. Gradient vector flow snake evolution is used to obtain the final cell contours. Finally, a machine learning-based validation of cell contours removes most incorrect or spurious contours. Quantitative evaluations show overall good segmentation performance on a large set of images, regardless of differences in image quality, lighting condition, focus condition and phenotypic profile. Comparisons with recent related methods for yeast cells show that PombeX outperforms current methods, both in terms of segmentation accuracy and computational speed. PMID:24353754

  14. Aging and Cell Death in the Other Yeasts, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Su-Ju; Austriaco, Nicanor

    2013-01-01

    How do cells age and die? For the past twenty years, the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been used as a model organism to uncover the genes that regulate lifespan and cell death. More recently, investigators have begun to interrogate the other yeasts, the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and the human fungal pathogen, Candida albicans, to determine if similar longevity and cell death pathways exist in these organisms. After summarizing the longevity and cell death phenotypes in S. cerevisiae, this mini-review surveys the progress made in the study of both aging and programmed cell death (PCD) in the yeast models, with a focus on the biology of S. pombe and C. albicans. Particular emphasis is placed on the similarities and differences between the two types of aging, replicative aging and chronological aging, and between the three types of cell death, intrinsic apoptosis, autophagic cell death, and regulated necrosis, found in these yeasts. The development of the additional microbial models for aging and PCD in the other yeasts may help further elucidate the mechanisms of longevity and cell death regulation in eukaryotes. PMID:24205865

  15. Cell Cycle Synchronization of Schizosaccharomyces pombe by Centrifugal Elutriation of Small Cells.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Iain M; Grallert, Agnes; Simanis, Viesturs

    2016-01-01

    Division of Schizosaccharomyces pombe by medial fission produces identically sized daughter cells that grow by tip extension until their own division is prompted by reaching the same critical size for division as the parental cell. The fidelity of this size control in the absence of perturbation means that cells of the same size are at the same point in the cell cycle. Size selection of small cells from an asynchronous culture by centrifugal elutriation permits generation of synchronous cultures large enough for biochemical analysis. The changes observed in the synchronized cell cycle progression of such cultures are representative of those that accompany cell cycle progression of individual cells. Here, we describe how size selection with the Beckman Coulter JE-5.0 rotor can be used to generate synchronized cultures. Because of the continuous passage of medium through the rotor throughout the procedure, elutriation is considered to have less impact on the integrity of the cell cycle than other approaches. Two protocols are presented here: The first generates a 2-L culture ideal for detailed biochemical analysis, whereas the second allows rapid generation and simultaneous analysis of three smaller (200-mL) cultures. PMID:27250944

  16. Orientation of Schizosaccharomyces POMBE Nonliving Cells under Alternating Uniform and Nonuniform Electric Fields

    PubMed Central

    Iglesias, F. J.; López, M. C.; Santamaría, C.; Domínguez, A.

    1985-01-01

    When nonliving cells of Schizosaccharomyces pombe were subjected to the action of alternating uniform and nonuniform electric fields, two types of orientation were produced. The first one, with its longest axis parallel to the field lines, is similar to that obtained with living cells. The second, perpendicular to the direction of the field, is produced for relatively high frequencies and low conductivities; this probably takes place when the conductivities of the external and internal media (cell cytoplasm) become equal. A mixed cell population is produced in a discrete interval of the parameters used. Our results provide direct evidence that cell alignment does not depend on the physiological state of the cells. ImagesFIGURE 1FIGURE 3 PMID:19431597

  17. Relationships between cell cycle regulator gene copy numbers and protein expression levels in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Chino, Ayako; Makanae, Koji; Moriya, Hisao

    2013-01-01

    We previously determined the copy number limits of overexpression for cell division cycle (cdc) regulatory genes in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe using the "genetic tug-of-war" (gTOW) method. In this study, we measured the levels of tandem affinity purification (TAP)-tagged target proteins when their copy numbers are increased in gTOW. Twenty analyzed genes showed roughly linear correlations between increased protein levels and gene copy numbers, which suggested a general lack of compensation for gene dosage in S. pombe. Cdc16 and Sid2 protein levels but not their mRNA levels were much lower than that expected by their copy numbers, which suggested the existence of a post-transcriptional down regulation of these genes. The cyclin Cig1 protein level and its mRNA level were much higher than that expected by its copy numbers, which suggested a positive feedback mechanism for its expression. A higher Cdc10 protein level and its mRNA level, probably due to cloning its gene into a plasmid, indicated that Cdc10 regulation was more robust than that previously predicted. PMID:24019917

  18. Linear increase in cell volume during the growth cycle of Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    SciTech Connect

    Kubitschek, H.E.; Clay, K.

    1985-01-01

    Classical observations on the growth of cells of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe indicate that cell length and volume increase to a maximum value, which is reached about three-quarters of the way through the growth cycle, followed by a constant volume plateau. The authors have reexamined the growth of these cells by phase microscopy. When growth conditions were perturbed by inoculating cells at high density, in the presence of contaminant, or upon agar slips containing the growth medium in 4% agar, all cells grew in the classical pattern. But, at smaller agar concentrations and lower cell densities, many cells grew at a constant rate throughout the entire cell cycle. Also, the frequency of this linear pattern of cell growth increased as growth perturbations were reduced. They interpret these results as evidence for a sensitivity of this microorganism to perturbations of steady-state growth. The constant rate of volume increase throughout the cell cycle in unperturbed cells, when considered along with Mitchison's earlier results for constant dry mass increase, suggests that the buoyant densities of these cells remain constant during the entire cell cycle.

  19. Stress-induced response, localization, and regulation of the Pmk1 cell integrity pathway in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Madrid, Marisa; Soto, Teresa; Khong, Hou Keat; Franco, Alejandro; Vicente, Jero; Pérez, Pilar; Gacto, Mariano; Cansado, José

    2006-01-27

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways are critical for the sensing and response of eukaryotic cells to extracellular changes. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, MAPK Pmk1/Spm1 has been involved in cell wall construction, morphogenesis, cytokinesis, and ion homeostasis, as part of the so-called cell integrity pathway together with MAPK kinase kinase Mkh1 and MAPK kinase Pek1. We show that Pmk1 is activated in multiple stress situations, including hyper- or hypotonic stress, glucose deprivation, presence of cell wall-damaging compounds, and oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide or pro-oxidants. The stress-induced activation of Pmk1 was completely dependent on Mkh1 and Pek1 function, supporting a nonbranched pathway in the regulation of MAPK activation. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that Mkh1, Pek1, and Pmp1 (a protein phosphatase that inactivates Pmk1) are cytoplasmic proteins. Mkh1 and Pek1 were also found at the septum, whereas Pmk1 localized in both cytoplasm and nucleus as well as in the mitotic spindle and septum during cytokinesis. Interestingly, Pmk1 subcellular localization was unaffected by stress or the absence of Mkh1 and Pek1, suggesting that its activation by the Mkh1-Pek1 cascade takes place at the cytoplasm and/or septum and that the active and inactive forms of this kinase cross the nuclear membrane. Cdc42 GTPase and its effectors, p21-activated kinases Pak2 and Pak1, are not upstream elements controlling the basal level or the stress-induced activation of Pmk1. However, Sty1 MAPK was essential for proper Pmk1 deactivation after hypertonic stress in a process regulated by Atf1 transcription factor. These results provide the first evidence for the existence of cross-talk between two MAPK cascades during the stress response in fission yeast. PMID:16291757

  20. Preparation and performance of immobilized yeast cells in columns containing no inert carrier. [Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiao, H.Y.; Chiang, L.C.; Yang, C.M.; Chen, L.F.; Tsao, G.T.

    1983-02-01

    Schizosaccharomyes pombe was cultivated in a medium of glucose (10 g/l), malt extract (3 g/l), yeast extract (3 g/l), and bactopeptone (5 g/l) to form flocs. More than 95% of the cell population were flocculated. Variation in glucose concentration (from 10 to 11 g/l) did not affect flocculation. Yeast extract helped induce flocculation. Application of the immobilized yeast for the continuous production of ethanol was tested in a column reactor. Soft yeast flocs (50-200 mesh) underwent morphological changes to heavy particles (0.1-9.3 cm diameter) after continuously being fed with fresh substrates in the column. Productivity as high as 87 g EtOH/l/hour was obtained when a 150 g/l glucose medium was fed. The performance of this yeast reactor was stable over a two-month period. The ethanol yield was 97% of the theoretical maximum based upon glucose consumed. (Refs. 16).

  1. Cell wall integrity

    PubMed Central

    Pogorelko, Gennady; Lionetti, Vincenzo; Bellincampi, Daniela; Zabotina, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The plant cell wall, a dynamic network of polysaccharides and glycoproteins of significant compositional and structural complexity, functions in plant growth, development and stress responses. In recent years, the existence of plant cell wall integrity (CWI) maintenance mechanisms has been demonstrated, but little is known about the signaling pathways involved, or their components. Examination of key mutants has shed light on the relationships between cell wall remodeling and plant cell responses, indicating a central role for the regulatory network that monitors and controls cell wall performance and integrity. In this review, we present a short overview of cell wall composition and discuss post-synthetic cell wall modification as a valuable approach for studying CWI perception and signaling pathways. PMID:23857352

  2. The Lamportian cell wall

    SciTech Connect

    Keiliszewski, M.; Lamport, D. )

    1991-05-01

    The Lamportian Warp-Weft hypothesis suggests a cellulose-extensin interpenetrating network where extensin mechanically couples the load-bearing cellulose microfibrils in a wall matrix that is best described as a microcomposite. This model is based on data gathered from the extensin-rich walls of tomato and sycamore cell suspension culture, wherein extensin precursors are insolubilized into the wall by undefined crosslinks. The authors recent work with cell walls isolated from intact tissue as well as walls from suspension cultured cells of the graminaceous monocots maize and rice, the non-graminaceous monocot asparagus, the primitive herbaceous dicot sugar beet, and the gymnosperm Douglas Fir indicate that although extensins are ubiquitous to all plant species examined, they are not the major structural protein component of most walls examined. Amino acid analyses of intact and HF-treated walls shows a major component neither an HRGP, nor directly comparable to the glycine-rich wall proteins such as those associated with seed coat walls or the 67 mole% glycine-rich proteins cloned from petunia and soybean. Clearly, structural wall protein alternatives to extensin exist and any cell wall model must take that into account. If we assume that extracellular matrices are a priori network structures, then new Hypless' structural proteins in the maize cell wall raise questions about the sort of network these proteins create: the kinds of crosslinks involved; how they are formed; and the roles played by the small amounts of HRGPs.

  3. Lipid Droplets Form from Distinct Regions of the Cell in the Fission Yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Meyers, Alex; Del Rio, Zuania P; Beaver, Rachael A; Morris, Ryan M; Weiskittel, Taylor M; Alshibli, Amany K; Mannik, Jaana; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer; Dalhaimer, Paul

    2016-06-01

    Eukaryotic cells store cholesterol/sterol esters (SEs) and triacylglycerols (TAGs) in lipid droplets, which form from the contiguous endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network. However, it is not known if droplets preferentially form from certain regions of the ER over others. Here, we used fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells where the nuclear and cortical/peripheral ER domains are distinguishable by light microscopy to show that SE-enriched lipid droplets form away from the nucleus at the cell tips, whereas TAG-enriched lipid droplets form around the nucleus. Sterols localize to the regions of the cells where droplets enriched in SEs are observed. TAG droplet formation around the nucleus appears to be a strong function of diacylglycerol (DAG) homeostasis with Cpt1p, which coverts DAG into phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine localized exclusively to the nuclear ER. Also, Dgk1p, which converts DAG into phosphatidic acid localized strongly to the nuclear ER over the cortical/peripheral ER. We also show that TAG more readily translocates from the ER to lipid droplets than do SEs. The results augment the standard lipid droplet formation model, which has SEs and TAGs flowing into the same nascent lipid droplet regardless of its biogenesis point in the cell. PMID:26990381

  4. A microPIXE investigation of the interaction of cells of Schizosaccharomyces pombe with the culture medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rombouts, P. M. M.; Gomez-Morilla, I.; Grime, G. W.; Webb, R. P.; Cuenca, L.; Rodriguez, R.; Browton, M.; Wardell, N.; Underwood, B.; Kirkby, N. F.; Kirkby, K. J.

    2007-07-01

    Schizosaccharomyces pombe ( S. pombe) is a eucaryotic cell type similar to mammalian cells but much more simple. As it also executes its cell cycle rapidly it is very useful for investigating basic processes in cells. In this paper we report a feasibility study of the applicability of microPIXE to investigate the interaction between S. pombe cells and the surrounding culture medium. Cells were cultured in various growth medium prior to preparation for analysis. 1 μl drops of medium and cells were spotted onto polypropylene foils held in contact with a polished copper block previously cooled in liquid nitrogen. The samples were dehydrated by freeze-drying. Micro PIXE analysis was carried out with the IBC microbeam facility using a beam of 2.5 MeV protons focused to 1-2 μm diameter. Initially no elemental contrast was observed between the cells and the medium, but by modifying the dilution of the cell suspension, the cells could be distinguished from the surrounding medium through an increased concentration of P and reduced concentration of Cl. The distribution of Na in the medium around the cells showed evidence of the action of the Na pump. Sporulation appears to be induced in the cells by adding Cu to the growth medium and the uptake of Cu by the cells could be clearly observed. This study shows that it is possible to analyse the mass transport of elements in and out of cells In the future this will enable concentration gradients to be analysed and allow the rate of production or consumption of individual cells to be calculated. By observing these patterns for individual cells (not populations) at various known points in the cell cycle, fundamental data can be derived.

  5. Relationship between extracellular enzymes and cell growth during the cell cycle of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe: acid phosphatase.

    PubMed Central

    Miyata, M; Miyata, H

    1978-01-01

    By using the intact cells of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the activity of acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2) was compared through the cell cycle with the growth in cell length as a measure of cell growth. The cells of a growing asynchronous culture increased exponentially in number and in total enzyme activity, but remained constant in average length and in specific activity, In a synchronous culture prepared by selection or by induction, the specific activity was periodic in parallel with the increase in average cell length. When hydroxyurea was added to an asynchronous or a synchronous culture by selection, both specific and total activity followed the same continuous pattern as the growth in cell length after the stoppage of cell division. When oversized cells produced by a hydroxyurea pulse treatment to the culture previously syndronized by selection were transferred to a poor medium, they divided synchronously but could hardly grow in the total cell length. In this experimental situation, the total enzyme activity also scarcely increased through three division cycles. These results suggested that the increase in acid phosphatase in dependent on cell elongation. PMID:711673

  6. Bacterial Cell Wall Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginsberg, Cynthia; Brown, Stephanie; Walker, Suzanne

    Bacterial cell-surface polysaccharides cells are surrounded by a variety of cell-surface structures that allow them to thrive in extreme environments. Components of the cell envelope and extracellular matrix are responsible for providing the cells with structural support, mediating intercellular communication, allowing the cells to move or to adhere to surfaces, protecting the cells from attack by antibiotics or the immune system, and facilitating the uptake of nutrients. Some of the most important cell wall components are polysaccharide structures. This review discusses the occurrence, structure, function, and biosynthesis of the most prevalent bacterial cell surface polysaccharides: peptidoglycan, lipopolysaccharide, arabinogalactan, and lipoarabinomannan, and capsular and extracellular polysaccharides. The roles of these polysaccharides in medicine, both as drug targets and as therapeutic agents, are also described.

  7. Dual functions for the Schizosaccharomyces pombe inositol kinase Ipk1 in nuclear mRNA export and polarized cell growth.

    PubMed

    Sarmah, Bhaskarjyoti; Wente, Susan R

    2009-02-01

    The inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate (IP(5)) 2-kinase (Ipk1) catalyzes the production of inositol hexakisphosphate (IP(6)) in eukaryotic cells. Previous studies have shown that IP(6) is required for efficient nuclear mRNA export in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we report the first functional analysis of ipk1(+) in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. S. pombe Ipk1 (SpIpk1) is unique among Ipk1 orthologues in that it harbors a novel amino (N)-terminal domain with coiled-coil structural motifs similar to those of BAR (Bin-amphiphysin-Rvs) domain proteins. Mutants with ipk1(+) deleted (ipk1Delta) had mRNA export defects as well as pleiotropic defects in polarized growth, cell morphology, endocytosis, and cell separation. The SpIpk1 catalytic carboxy-terminal domain was required to rescue these defects, and the mRNA export block was genetically linked to SpDbp5 function and, likely, IP(6) production. However, the overexpression of the N-terminal domain alone also inhibited these functions in wild-type cells. This revealed a distinct noncatalytic function for the N-terminal domain. To test for connections with other inositol polyphosphates, we also analyzed whether the loss of asp1(+) function, encoding an IP(6) kinase downstream of Ipk1, had an effect on ipk1Delta cells. The asp1Delta mutant alone did not block mRNA export, and its cell morphology, polarized growth, and endocytosis defects were less severe than those of ipk1Delta cells. Moreover, ipk1Delta asp1Delta double mutants had altered inositol polyphosphate levels distinct from those of the ipk1Delta mutant. This suggested novel roles for asp1(+) upstream of ipk1(+). We propose that IP(6) production is a key signaling linchpin for regulating multiple essential cellular processes. PMID:19047361

  8. Dielectric energy of orientation in dead and living cells of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Fitting of experimental results to a theoretical model.

    PubMed Central

    Asencor, F J; Santamaría, C; Iglesias, F J; Domínguez, A

    1993-01-01

    Using the experimental data obtained with killed cells of Schizosaccharomyces pombe (1), we have formulated a theoretical model that is able to predict cell orientation for microorganisms with ellipsoidal or cylindrical shapes as a function of the frequency of the electric field and of the conductivity of the external medium. In this model, comparison of the difference in potential energy for both orientations parallel-perpendicular with the thermal agitation energy allows one to interpret the intervals where these orientations occur. The model implies that the conductivity of the cytoplasm is slightly higher than that of the external medium. This assumption is easy to understand taking into account that not all the intracytoplasmic material is released to the exterior during cell death. PMID:8324197

  9. Extraction of Chromosomal DNA from Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Murray, Johanne M; Watson, Adam T; Carr, Antony M

    2016-01-01

    Extraction of DNA from Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells is required for various uses, including templating polymerase chain reactions (PCRs), Southern blotting, library construction, and high-throughput sequencing. To purify high-quality DNA, the cell wall is removed by digestion with Zymolyase or Lyticase and the resulting spheroplasts lysed using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Cell debris, SDS, and SDS-protein complexes are subsequently precipitated by the addition of potassium acetate and removed by centrifugation. Finally, DNA is precipitated using isopropanol. At this stage, purity is usually sufficient for PCR. However, for more sensitive procedures, such as restriction enzyme digestion, additional purification steps, including proteinase K digestion and phenol-chloroform extraction, are recommended. All of these steps are described in detail here. PMID:27140918

  10. Colony Polymerase Chain Reaction with Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Murray, Johanne M; Watson, Adam T; Carr, Antony M

    2016-01-01

    When screening a large number of individual Schizosaccharomyces pombe strains by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a rapid "colony PCR" approach may be used. Numerous colony PCR protocols are available, and fundamental to them all is that the colony must be fresh (grown overnight) and that as few cells as possible are used. In this protocol, we present three reliable methods for preparing S. pombe cells for colony PCR. PMID:27140919

  11. Production of D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) of Trigonopsis variabilis in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and the characterization of biocatalysts prepared with recombinant cells.

    PubMed

    Isoai, Atsushi; Kimura, Hidetoshi; Reichert, Arno; Schörgendorfer, Kurt; Nikaido, Kiyokazu; Tohda, Hideki; Giga-Hama, Yuko; Mutoh, Norihiro; Kumagai, Hiromichi

    2002-10-01

    The cDNA of D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) gene isolated from Trigonopsis variabilis was expressed in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. A clone, ASP327-10, transformed with plasmid vector, pTL2M5DAO, expressed catalytically active DAO in the presence of G418, and converted Cephalosprin C to alpha-ketoadipyl-7-cephalosporanic acid (KA-7-ACA) and glutaryl-7-aminocephalosporanic acid (GL-7-ACA). Biocatalysts were prepared using ASP327-10 and T. variabilis, and evaluated to demonstrate the feasibility of recombinant S. pombe for industrial application. The cells were immobilized by crosslinking polyethylene imine after glutardialdehyde (GDA) fixation and permeabilization by alkaline treatment. Although the biocatalyst prepared from ASP327-10 exhibited DAO activity, catalase activity still remained fully even after permeabilization, under which condition, the catalase activity of T. variabilis decreased to 20-30%. Heat treatment was required before cell fixation by GDA to inactivate the catalase in S. pombe. This improved the efficiency of bioconversion to GL-7-ACA, but caused poor mechanical strength in the biocatalyst of S. pombe. To overcome this weakness, a catalase-deficient host strain was obtained by ethylmethansulfate mutagenesis. Moreover, taking economics into consideration, the integrative vector, pTL2M5DAO-8XL, with multi-copies of expression cassette was constructed to express DAO in S. pombe even in the absence of G418. The newly established integrant, ASP417-7, did not exhibit any catalase activity so that heat treatment was not required. The obtained integrant and its biocatalyst were significantly improved in GL-7ACA conversion ability and mechanical strength. This study demonstrates that the established integrant is a potential candidate as an alternative source of DAO enzyme. PMID:12209783

  12. Isolation and characterization of Schizosaccharomyces pombe fragile mutants.

    PubMed

    Belda, F; Zárate, V

    1996-05-01

    Three Schizosaccharomyces pombe fragile mutants requiring the presence of an osmotic stabilizer to grow, that lyse when transferred into hypotonic solutions and that secrete to the extracellular medium more protein than the parental strain were isolated. In the three mutants, the fragile phenotype segregated in a Mendelian fashion, indicating a single chromosomal gene mutation, and behaved as a recessive character. By complementation analysis, the three fragile mutants fell in a single complementation group, defining the same gene (SRB1). Mutations of this gene are responsible for alterations in the cells such as fragile character, increase in the cell wall porosity, changes in the cell morphology and floc-forming ability. The study of the three srb1 alleles indicated that the degree of these alterations is proportional to a significant decrease in the galactomannan fraction of the mutants cell wall. The data presented in this report suggest that the product of the SRB1 gene is critical for the maintenance of the integrity and structure of Sz. pombe cell wall. PMID:8771710

  13. Regulation of the antioxidant system in cells of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe after combined treatment with patulin and citrinin.

    PubMed

    Papp, Gábor; Máté, Gábor; Mike, Nóra; Gazdag, Zoltán; Pesti, Miklós

    2016-03-01

    The effects of combined treatment with patulin (PAT) and citrinin (CTN) on Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells were investigated in acute toxicity tests. In comparison with the controls the exposure of fission yeast cells (10(7) cells ml(-1)) to PAT + CTN (250 μM each) for 1 h at a survival rate of 66.6% significantly elevated the concentration of total reactive oxygen species (ROS) via increased levels of peroxides without affecting the concentrations of superoxides or the hydroxyl radical. This treatment induced a 3.08-fold increase in the specific concentration of glutathione and elevated specific activities of catalase and glutathione S-transferase, while at the same time the activity of glutathione reductase decreased. The pattern of the ROS was the same as that induced by CTN (Máté et al., 2014), while the presence of PAT in the PAT + CTN combination treatment modified the activities of the antioxidant system (Papp et al., 2012) in comparison with the individual PAT or CTN treatment, suggesting toxin-specific regulation of glutathione and the enzymes of the antioxidant system and the possibility that the transcription factor (pap1 and atf1) -regulated processes might be influenced directly by ROS. PMID:26752674

  14. S. pombe CLASP needs dynein, not EB1 or CLIP170, to induce microtubule instability and slows polymerization rates at cell tips in a dynein-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Grallert, Agnes; Beuter, Christoph; Craven, Rachel A.; Bagley, Steve; Wilks, Deepti; Fleig, Ursula; Hagan, Iain M.

    2006-01-01

    The Schizosaccharomyces pombe CLIP170-associated protein (CLASP) Peg1 was identified in a screen for mutants with spindle formation defects and a screen for molecules that antagonized EB1 function. The conditional peg1.1 mutant enabled us to identify key features of Peg1 function. First, Peg1 was required to form a spindle and astral microtubules, yet destabilized interphase microtubules. Second, Peg1 was required to slow the polymerization rate of interphase microtubules that establish end-on contact with the cortex at cell tips. Third, Peg1 antagonized the action of S. pombe CLIP170 (Tip1) and EB1 (Mal3). Fourth, although Peg1 resembled higher eukaryotic CLASPs by physically associating with both Mal3 and Tip1, neither Tip1 nor Mal3 was required for Peg1 to destabilize interphase microtubules or for it to associate with microtubules. Conversely, neither Mal3 nor Tip1 required Peg1 to associate with microtubules or cell tips. Consistently, while mal3.Δ and tip1.Δ disrupted linear growth, corrupting peg1 + did not. Fifth, peg1.1 phenotypes resembled those arising from deletion of the single heavy or both light chains of fission yeast dynein. Furthermore, all interphase phenotypes arising from peg1 + manipulation relied on dynein function. Thus, the impact of S. pombe CLASP on interphase microtubule behavior is more closely aligned to dynein than EB1 or CLIP170. PMID:16951255

  15. Cell wall proteomics of crops

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, Setsuko; Yanagawa, Yuki

    2012-01-01

    Cell wall proteins play key roles in cell structure and metabolism, cell enlargement, signal transduction, responses to environmental stress, and many other physiological events. Agricultural crops are often used for investigating stress tolerance because cultivars with differing degrees of tolerance are available. Abiotic and biotic stress factors markedly influence the geographical distribution and yields of many crop species. Crop cell wall proteomics is of particular importance for improving crop productivity, particularly under unfavorable environmental conditions. To better understand the mechanisms underlying stress response in crops, cell wall proteomic analyses are being increasingly utilized. In this review, the methods of purification and purity assays of cell wall protein fractions from crops are described, and the results of protein identification using gel-based and gel-free proteomic techniques are presented. Furthermore, protein composition of the cell walls of rice, wheat, maize, and soybean are compared, and the role of cell wall proteins in crops under flooding and drought stress is discussed. This review will be useful for clarifying the role of the cell wall of crops in response to environmental stresses. PMID:23403621

  16. Rho 1 GTPase activates the (1-3)beta-D-glucan synthase and is involved in Schizosaccharomyces pombe morphogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Arellano, M; Durán, A; Pérez, P

    1996-01-01

    The Schizosaccharomyces pombe Cdc42 and Rho1 GTPases were tested for their ability to complement the cwg2-1 mutant phenotype of a decrease in (1-3)beta-D-glucan synthase activity when grown at the non-permissive temperature. Only Rho1 is able to partly complement the defect in glucan synthase associated with the cwg2-1 mutation. Moreover, overexpression of the rho1 gene in wild-type S.pombe cells causes aberrant morphology with loss of polarity and cells with several septa. Under this condition (1-3)beta-D-glucan synthase activity is increased four times, but is still dependent on GTP. When S.pombe is transformed with constitutively active rho1 mutant alleles (rho1-G15V or rho1-Q64L), cells stop growing and show a very thick cell wall with hardly any septum. Under this condition the level of (1-3)beta-D-glucan synthase activity is at least 20 times higher than wild-type and is independent of GTP. Neither cdc42+ nor the cdc42-V12G or cdc42-Q61L constitutively active mutant alleles affect (1-3)beta-D-glucan synthase activity when overexpressed in S.pombe. Cells overproducing Rho1 are hypersensitive to inhibitors of cell wall biosynthesis or to cell wall degrading enzymes. We conclude that Rho1 GTPase directly activates (1-3)beta-D-glucan synthase and regulates S.pombe morphogenesis. Images PMID:8887550

  17. Cell Lysis in S. pombe ura4 Mutants Is Suppressed by Loss of Functional Pub1, Which Regulates the Uracil Transporter Fur4

    PubMed Central

    Nishino, Kohei; Kushima, Misaki; Matsuo, Yuzy; Matsuo, Yasuhiro; Kawamukai, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Schizosaccharomyces pombe Δura4 cells lyse when grown on YPD medium. A S. pombe non-essential gene deletion library was screened to determine suppressors of the lysis phenotype. Deletion of the pub1 gene, which encoded E3 ubiquitin ligase, strongly suppressed cell lysis in Δura4 cells. The Δpub1 cells displayed high sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil, a toxic analog of uracil, and this sensitivity was suppressed by deletion of fur4, which encoded a uracil transporter. Fur4 localized primarily to the Golgi apparatus and vacuoles in wild-type cells, but localization was predominantly at the plasma membrane in Δpub1 cells. Fur4 was necessary for the utilization of extracellular uracil, cytosine, or UMP. Uracil uptake activity increased in the Δpub1 strain in a Fur4-dependent manner. In addition, uracil starvation was critical for induction of cell lysis of Δura4 strains and uracil supplementation suppressed lysis. In summary, the increased uracil uptake ability of Δpub1 cells, where Fur4 was predominantly localized to the plasma membrane, resulted in suppression of cell lysis in the Δura4 background. PMID:26536126

  18. Plant cell walls to ethanol.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conversion of plant cell walls to ethanol constitutes generation 2 bioethanol production. The process consists of several steps: biomass selection/genetic modification, physiochemical pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, fermentation, and separation. Ultimately, it is desired to combine as man...

  19. The effect of the cwf14 gene of fission yeast on cell wall integrity is associated with rho1.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Uk; Maeng, Shinae; Lee, Hyemi; Nam, Miyoung; Lee, Sook-Jeong; Hoe, Kwang-Lae

    2016-02-01

    In all eukaryotic organisms, a wide range of morphologies are responsible for critical cellular function and development. In particular, the Rho GTPases, which are highly conserved from yeast to mammals, are key molecules in signaling pathways that control cell polarity processes and cell wall biosynthesis, which are fundamental aspects of morphogenesis. Therefore, using haploinsufficiency deletion mutants of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we screened the slow-growing mutants and their morphogenesis, specifically focusing on regulation of their Rho GTPases. Based on this screening, we found that the cwf14 mutant of S. pombe exhibited the slow growth and abnormal phenotypes with an elongated cell shape and thicker cell wall when compared with wild-type cells. In particular, cells with the cwf14 deletion showed excessive Rho1 expression. However, the wildtype strain with ectopically expressed Rho1 did not exhibited any significant change in the level of cwf14, suggesting that cwf14 may act on the upstream of Rho1. Furthermore, the cells with a cwf14 deletion also have increased sensitivity to β-glucanase, a cell wall-digesting enzyme, which is also seen in Rho1-overexpressing cells. Overall, our results suggest that the cwf14 plays a key role in fission yeast morphogenesis and cell wall biosynthesis and/or degradation possibly via the regulation of Rho1 expression. PMID:26832665

  20. Back wall solar cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, H. W., Jr. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A solar cell is disclosed which comprises a first semiconductor material of one conductivity type with one face having the same conductivity type but more heavily doped to form a field region arranged to receive the radiant energy to be converted to electrical energy, and a layer of a second semiconductor material, preferably highly doped, of opposite conductivity type on the first semiconductor material adjacent the first semiconductor material at an interface remote from the heavily doped field region. Instead of the opposite conductivity layer, a metallic Schottky diode layer may be used, in which case no additional back contact is needed. A contact such as a gridded contact, previous to the radiant energy may be applied to the heavily doped field region of the more heavily doped, same conductivity material for its contact.

  1. Dual Functions for the Schizosaccharomyces pombe Inositol Kinase Ipk1 in Nuclear mRNA Export and Polarized Cell Growth▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Sarmah, Bhaskarjyoti; Wente, Susan R.

    2009-01-01

    The inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate (IP5) 2-kinase (Ipk1) catalyzes the production of inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) in eukaryotic cells. Previous studies have shown that IP6 is required for efficient nuclear mRNA export in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we report the first functional analysis of ipk1+ in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. S. pombe Ipk1 (SpIpk1) is unique among Ipk1 orthologues in that it harbors a novel amino (N)-terminal domain with coiled-coil structural motifs similar to those of BAR (Bin-amphiphysin-Rvs) domain proteins. Mutants with ipk1+ deleted (ipk1Δ) had mRNA export defects as well as pleiotropic defects in polarized growth, cell morphology, endocytosis, and cell separation. The SpIpk1 catalytic carboxy-terminal domain was required to rescue these defects, and the mRNA export block was genetically linked to SpDbp5 function and, likely, IP6 production. However, the overexpression of the N-terminal domain alone also inhibited these functions in wild-type cells. This revealed a distinct noncatalytic function for the N-terminal domain. To test for connections with other inositol polyphosphates, we also analyzed whether the loss of asp1+ function, encoding an IP6 kinase downstream of Ipk1, had an effect on ipk1Δ cells. The asp1Δ mutant alone did not block mRNA export, and its cell morphology, polarized growth, and endocytosis defects were less severe than those of ipk1Δ cells. Moreover, ipk1Δ asp1Δ double mutants had altered inositol polyphosphate levels distinct from those of the ipk1Δ mutant. This suggested novel roles for asp1+ upstream of ipk1+. We propose that IP6 production is a key signaling linchpin for regulating multiple essential cellular processes. PMID:19047361

  2. Catalysts of plant cell wall loosening

    PubMed Central

    Cosgrove, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    The growing cell wall in plants has conflicting requirements to be strong enough to withstand the high tensile forces generated by cell turgor pressure while selectively yielding to those forces to induce wall stress relaxation, leading to water uptake and polymer movements underlying cell wall expansion. In this article, I review emerging concepts of plant primary cell wall structure, the nature of wall extensibility and the action of expansins, family-9 and -12 endoglucanases, family-16 xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase (XTH), and pectin methylesterases, and offer a critical assessment of their wall-loosening activity PMID:26918182

  3. Unique aspects of the grass cell wall

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grasses are amongst the most important crops worldwide, and the composition of their cell walls is critical for uses as food, feed, and energy crops. Grass cell walls differ dramatically from dicot cell walls in terms of the major structural polysaccharides present, how those polysaccharides are lin...

  4. Spm1, a stress-activated MAP kinase that regulates morphogenesis in S.pombe.

    PubMed Central

    Zaitsevskaya-Carter, T; Cooper, J A

    1997-01-01

    A gene encoding a novel MAP kinase family member, Spm1, was isolated from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Overproduction of Spm1 inhibits proliferation. Disruption of the spm1+ gene interferes with cell separation and morphogenesis. Under conditions of nutrient limitation, hypertonic stress or elevated temperature, spm1 delta cells grow as short branched filaments in which the cell walls and septa are thickened, suggesting defects in polarized growth and cell wall remodeling. At high osmolarity, spm1 delta cells fail to form colonies. The Spm1 protein is tyrosine phosphorylated and activated in response to osmotic and heat stress, consistent with a role for Spm1 in adaptation to these conditions. Two other S.pombe MAP kinases are known, Spk1, required for sexual differentiation and sporulation, and Spc1/Sty1/Phh1, which is activated in hypertonic conditions. However, the distinctive features of the spm1 delta mutant phenotype and direct biochemical assays suggest that Spm1 does not lie on other known MAP kinase pathways. Our results demonstrate the existence of a new MAP kinase pathway that regulates cell wall remodeling and cytokinesis in response to environmental stresses. PMID:9135147

  5. Transformation of Schizosaccharomyces pombe: Protoplast Procedure.

    PubMed

    Murray, Johanne M; Watson, Adam T; Carr, Antony M

    2016-04-01

    Transformation of Schizosaccharomyces pombe with DNA requires the conditioning of cells to promote DNA uptake followed by cell growth under conditions that select and maintain the plasmid or integration event. The three main methodologies are electroporation, treatment with lithium cations, and transformation of protoplasts. The protocol for protoplast transformation, which is described here, is more complicated than those for electroporation or lithium acetate and thus less often used. However, for some strains, it remains the only reliable protocol. PMID:27037076

  6. The structure of cell wall alpha-glucan from fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Grün, Christian H; Hochstenbach, Frans; Humbel, Bruno M; Verkleij, Arie J; Sietsma, J Hans; Klis, Frans M; Kamerling, Johannis P; Vliegenthart, Johannes F G

    2005-03-01

    Morphology and structural integrity of fungal cells depend on cell wall polysaccharides. The chemical structure and biosynthesis of two types of these polysaccharides, chitin and (1-->3)-beta-glucan, have been studied extensively, whereas little is known about alpha-glucan. Here we describe the chemical structure of alpha-glucan isolated from wild-type and mutant cell walls of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Wild-type alpha-glucan was found to consist of a single population of linear glucose polymers, approximately 260 residues in length. These glucose polymers were composed of two interconnected linear chains, each consisting of approximately 120 (1-->3)-linked alpha-d-glucose residues and some (1-->4)-linked alpha-D-glucose residues at the reducing end. By contrast, alpha-glucan of an alpha-glucan synthase mutant with an aberrant cell morphology and reduced alpha-glucan levels consisted of a single chain only. We propose that alpha-glucan biosynthesis involves an ordered series of events, whereby two alpha-glucan chains are coupled to create mature cell wall alpha-glucan. This mature form of cell wall alpha-glucan is essential for fission-yeast morphogenesis. PMID:15470229

  7. The cell wall of Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Schoffelmeer, E A; Klis, F M; Sietsma, J H; Cornelissen, B J

    1999-01-01

    Sugar analysis of isolated cell walls from three formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum showed that they contained not only glucose and (N-acetyl)-glucosamine, but also mannose, galactose, and uronic acids, presumably originating from cell wall glycoproteins. Cell wall glycoproteins accounted for 50-60% of the total mass of the wall. X-ray diffraction studies showed the presence of alpha-1, 3-glucan in the alkali-soluble cell wall fraction and of beta-1, 3-glucan and chitin in the alkali-insoluble fraction. Electron microscopy and lectin binding studies indicated that glycoproteins form an external layer covering an inner layer composed of chitin and glucan. PMID:10441453

  8. Modifying crops to increase cell wall digestibility.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hans-Joachim G; Samac, Deborah A; Sarath, Gautam

    2012-04-01

    Improving digestibility of roughage cell walls will improve ruminant animal performance and reduce loss of nutrients to the environment. The main digestibility impediment for dicotyledonous plants is highly lignified secondary cell walls, notably in stem secondary xylem, which become almost non-digestible. Digestibility of grasses is slowed severely by lignification of most tissues, but these cell walls remain largely digestible. Cell wall lignification creates an access barrier to potentially digestible wall material by rumen bacteria if cells have not been physically ruptured. Traditional breeding has focused on increasing total dry matter digestibility rather than cell wall digestibility, which has resulted in minimal reductions in cell wall lignification. Brown midrib mutants in some annual grasses exhibit small reductions in lignin concentration and improved cell wall digestibility. Similarly, transgenic approaches down-regulating genes in monolignol synthesis have produced plants with reduced lignin content and improved cell wall digestibility. While major reductions in lignin concentration have been associated with poor plant fitness, smaller reductions in lignin provided measurable improvements in digestibility without significantly impacting agronomic fitness. Additional targets for genetic modification to enhance digestibility and improve roughages for use as biofuel feedstocks are discussed; including manipulating cell wall polysaccharide composition, novel lignin structures, reduced lignin/polysaccharide cross-linking, smaller lignin polymers, enhanced development of non-lignified tissues, and targeting specific cell types. Greater tissue specificity of transgene expression will be needed to maximize benefits while avoiding negative impacts on plant fitness.cauliflower mosiac virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. PMID:22325867

  9. The roles of SPBC409.08 and SPAC9.02c hypothetical genes in cell cycle and stress response, in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Güngör, I; Örs Gevrekci, A

    2016-01-01

    Polyamine molecules are known to have important roles in the cell cycle control and fighting against stress in the cell. The mechanism and modification of polyamines are regulated by the cooperation of many proteins such as polyamine transporter proteins and polyamine acetyltransferases. In this study, our aim is to characterize two hypothetical Schizosaccharomyces pombe genes, SPBC409.08 and SPAC9.02c, which show sequence similarity to spermine family transporters and polyamine N-acetyltransferases, respectively. To this end, we generated deletion mutants of SPBC409.08 and SPAC9.02c genes using Bahler method and checked the cell cycle progression and stress responses of these mutants. Our results showed that SPBC409.08Δ cells showed some defects in the cell size, while SPAC9.02cΔ cells showed some sensitivity to UV irradiation. These data support their potential roles in the cell cycle and stress response. To our knowledge our results are the first experimental characterization of these genes. PMID:27188733

  10. Moss cell walls: structure and biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Alison W.; Roberts, Eric M.; Haigler, Candace H.

    2012-01-01

    The genome sequence of the moss Physcomitrella patens has stimulated new research examining the cell wall polysaccharides of mosses and the glycosyl transferases that synthesize them as a means to understand fundamental processes of cell wall biosynthesis and plant cell wall evolution. The cell walls of mosses and vascular plants are composed of the same classes of polysaccharides, but with differences in side chain composition and structure. Similarly, the genomes of P. patens and angiosperms encode the same families of cell wall glycosyl transferases, yet, in many cases these families have diversified independently in each lineage. Our understanding of land plant evolution could be enhanced by more complete knowledge of the relationships among glycosyl transferase functional diversification, cell wall structural and biochemical specialization, and the roles of cell walls in plant adaptation. As a foundation for these studies, we review the features of P. patens as an experimental system, analyses of cell wall composition in various moss species, recent studies that elucidate the structure and biosynthesis of cell wall polysaccharides in P. patens, and phylogenetic analysis of P. patens genes potentially involved in cell wall biosynthesis. PMID:22833752

  11. Architecture of dermatophyte cell Walls: Electron microscopic and biochemical analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nozawa, Y.; Kitajima, Y.

    1984-01-01

    A review with 83 references on the cell wall structure of dermatophytes is presented. Topics discussed include separation and preparation of cell walls; microstructure of cell walls by electron microscopy; chemical composition of cell walls; structural model of cell walls; and morphological structure of cell walls.

  12. Natural Paradigms of Plant Cell Wall Degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, H.; Xu, Q.; Taylor, L. E.; Baker, J. O.; Tucker, M. P.; Ding, S. Y.

    2009-01-01

    Natural processes of recycling carbon from plant cell walls are slow but very efficient, generally involving microbial communities and their secreted enzymes. Efficient combinations of microbial communities and enzymes act in a sequential and synergistic manner to degrade plant cell walls. Recent understanding of plant cell wall ultra-structure, as well as the carbon metabolism, ATP production, and ecology of participating microbial communities, and the biochemical properties of their cellulolytic enzymes have led to new perspectives on saccharification of biomass. Microbial communities are dynamic functions of the chemical and structural compositions of plant cell wall components. The primitive 'multicellularity' exhibited by certain cellulolytic microorganisms may play a role in facilitating cell-cell communication and cell-plant cell wall-substrate interaction.

  13. How do plant cell walls extend?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    This article briefly summarizes recent work that identifies the biophysical and biochemical processes that give rise to the extension of plant cell walls. I begin with the biophysical notion of stress relaxation of the wall and follow with recent studies of wall enzymes thought to catalyze wall extension and relaxation. Readers should refer to detailed reviews for more comprehensive discussion of earlier literature (Taiz, 1984; Carpita and Gibeaut, 1993; Cosgrove, 1993).

  14. Functional expression of the Chlorella hexose transporter in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed Central

    Sauer, N; Caspari, T; Klebl, F; Tanner, W

    1990-01-01

    Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells were transformed with an S. pombe expression vector containing a full-length cDNA of the Chlorella hexose transporter. The transformed cells accumulated 3-O-methylglucose up to 10-fold, whereas wild-type S. pombe and control transformants could only equilibrate this sugar analogue. In a pH-jump experiment, in which extracellular pH was lowered by 1.9 units, the accumulation ratio was increased in transformed cells but not in control cells. This result indicates that the gene product, Chlorella H+/glucose-symporter protein, and a pH gradient suffice for active sugar uptake. Km values for glucose, 6-deoxyglucose, and 3-O-methylglucose of 1.5 x 10(-5) M, 2.7 x 10(-4) M, and 1.0 x 10(-3) M, respectively, were identical in Chlorella and in S. pombe cells transformed with Chlorella cDNA and approximately 100-fold lower than those of the endogenous transport system of S. pombe. Images PMID:11607110

  15. Fluorescent Labeling of Yeast Cell Wall Components.

    PubMed

    Okada, Hiroki; Ohya, Yoshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Yeast cells stained with a fluorescent dye that specifically binds to one of the cell wall components can be observed under a fluorescent microscope. Visualization of the components 1,3-β-glucan, mannoproteins, and/or chitin not only provides information concerning the cell wall, but also reveals clues about various cellular activities such as cell polarity, vesicular transport, establishment of budding pattern, apical and isotropic bud growth, and replicative cell age. This protocol describes a standard method for visualizing different components of the yeast cell wall. PMID:27480714

  16. Cell Wall Remodeling Enzymes Modulate Fungal Cell Wall Elasticity and Osmotic Stress Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Ene, Iuliana V.; Walker, Louise A.; Schiavone, Marion; Lee, Keunsook K.; Martin-Yken, Hélène; Dague, Etienne; Gow, Neil A. R.; Munro, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The fungal cell wall confers cell morphology and protection against environmental insults. For fungal pathogens, the cell wall is a key immunological modulator and an ideal therapeutic target. Yeast cell walls possess an inner matrix of interlinked β-glucan and chitin that is thought to provide tensile strength and rigidity. Yeast cells remodel their walls over time in response to environmental change, a process controlled by evolutionarily conserved stress (Hog1) and cell integrity (Mkc1, Cek1) signaling pathways. These mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways modulate cell wall gene expression, leading to the construction of a new, modified cell wall. We show that the cell wall is not rigid but elastic, displaying rapid structural realignments that impact survival following osmotic shock. Lactate-grown Candida albicans cells are more resistant to hyperosmotic shock than glucose-grown cells. We show that this elevated resistance is not dependent on Hog1 or Mkc1 signaling and that most cell death occurs within 10 min of osmotic shock. Sudden decreases in cell volume drive rapid increases in cell wall thickness. The elevated stress resistance of lactate-grown cells correlates with reduced cell wall elasticity, reflected in slower changes in cell volume following hyperosmotic shock. The cell wall elasticity of lactate-grown cells is increased by a triple mutation that inactivates the Crh family of cell wall cross-linking enzymes, leading to increased sensitivity to hyperosmotic shock. Overexpressing Crh family members in glucose-grown cells reduces cell wall elasticity, providing partial protection against hyperosmotic shock. These changes correlate with structural realignment of the cell wall and with the ability of cells to withstand osmotic shock. PMID:26220968

  17. Modifying crops to increase cell wall digestibility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improving digestibility of roughage cell walls will improve ruminant animal performance and reduce loss of nutrients to the environment. The main digestibility impediment for dicotyledonous plants are highly lignified secondary cell walls, notably in stem secondary xylem, which become almost non-dig...

  18. Safranine fluorescent staining of wood cell walls.

    PubMed

    Bond, J; Donaldson, L; Hill, S; Hitchcock, K

    2008-06-01

    Safranine is an azo dye commonly used for plant microscopy, especially as a stain for lignified tissues such as xylem. Safranine fluorescently labels the wood cell wall, producing green/yellow fluorescence in the secondary cell wall and red/orange fluorescence in the middle lamella (ML) region. We examined the fluorescence behavior of safranine under blue light excitation using a variety of wood- and fiber-based samples of known composition to interpret the observed color differentiation of different cell wall types. We also examined the basis for the differences in fluorescence emission using spectral confocal microscopy to examine lignin-rich and cellulose-rich cell walls including reaction wood and decayed wood compared to normal wood. Our results indicate that lignin-rich cell walls, such as the ML of tracheids, the secondary wall of compression wood tracheids, and wood decayed by brown rot, tend to fluoresce red or orange, while cellulose-rich cell walls such as resin canals, wood decayed by white rot, cotton fibers and the G-layer of tension wood fibers, tend to fluoresce green/yellow. This variation in fluorescence emission seems to be due to factors including an emission shift toward red wavelengths combined with dye quenching at shorter wavelengths in regions with high lignin content. Safranine fluorescence provides a useful way to differentiate lignin-rich and cellulose-rich cell walls without counterstaining as required for bright field microscopy. PMID:18802812

  19. Shape dynamics of growing cell walls.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Shiladitya; Scherer, Norbert F; Dinner, Aaron R

    2016-04-14

    We introduce a general theoretical framework to study the shape dynamics of actively growing and remodeling surfaces. Using this framework we develop a physical model for growing bacterial cell walls and study the interplay of cell shape with the dynamics of growth and constriction. The model allows us to derive constraints on cell wall mechanical energy based on the observed dynamics of cell shape. We predict that exponential growth in cell size requires a constant amount of cell wall energy to be dissipated per unit volume. We use the model to understand and contrast growth in bacteria with different shapes such as spherical, ellipsoidal, cylindrical and toroidal morphologies. Coupling growth to cell wall constriction, we predict a discontinuous shape transformation, from partial constriction to cell division, as a function of the chemical potential driving cell wall synthesis. Our model for cell wall energy and shape dynamics relates growth kinetics with cell geometry, and provides a unified framework to describe the interplay between shape, growth and division in bacterial cells. PMID:26953519

  20. Molecular regulation of plant cell wall extensibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    Gravity responses in plants often involve spatial and temporal changes in cell growth, which is regulated primarily by controlling the ability of the cell wall to extend. The wall is thought to be a cellulose-hemicellulose network embedded in a hydrated matrix of complex polysaccharides and a small amount of structural protein. The wall extends by a form of polymer creep, which is mediated by expansins, a novel group of wall-loosening proteins. Expansins were discovered during a molecular dissection of the "acid growth" behavior of cell walls. Expansin alters the rheology of plant walls in profound ways, yet its molecular mechanism of action is still uncertain. It lacks detectable hydrolytic activity against the major components of the wall, but it is able to disrupt noncovalent adhesion between wall polysaccharides. The discovery of a second family of expansins (beta-expansins) sheds light on the biological role of a major group of pollen allergens and implies that expansins have evolved for diverse developmental functions. Finally, the contribution of other processes to wall extensibility is briefly summarized.

  1. 2003 Plant Cell Walls Gordon Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel J. Cosgrove

    2004-09-21

    This conference will address recent progress in many aspects of cell wall biology. Molecular, genetic, and genomic approaches are yielding major advances in our understanding of the composition, synthesis, and architecture of plant cell walls and their dynamics during growth, and are identifying the genes that encode the machinery needed to make their biogenesis possible. This meeting will bring together international scientists from academia, industry and government labs to share the latest breakthroughs and perspectives on polysaccharide biosynthesis, wood formation, wall modification, expansion and interaction with other organisms, and genomic & evolutionary analyses of wall-related genes, as well as to discuss recent ''nanotechnological'' advances that take wall analysis to the level of a single cell.

  2. Refractive index of plant cell walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gausman, H. W.; Allen, W. A.; Escobar, D. E.

    1974-01-01

    Air was replaced with media of higher refractive indices by vacuum infiltration in leaves of cucumber, blackeye pea, tomato, and string bean plants, and reflectance of noninfiltrated and infiltrated leaves was spectrophotometrically measured. Infiltrated leaves reflected less light than noninfiltrated leaves over the 500-2500-nm wavelength interval because cell wall-air interfaces were partly eliminated. Minimal reflectance should occur when the average refractive index of plant cell walls was matched by the infiltrating fluid. Although refractive indices that resulted in minimal reflectance differed among the four plant genera, an average value of 1.425 approximates the refractive index of plant cell walls for the four plant genera.

  3. Tensile Strength of Cell Walls of Living Cells 1

    PubMed Central

    Carpita, Nicholas C.

    1985-01-01

    A gas decompression technique was used to determine the breaking strength of cell walls of single cells. Breaking strengths of the bacterium Salmonella typhimurium and the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas eugametos were 100 and 95 atmospheres, respectively, while those of sporophytes of the water mold Blastocladiella emersonii were 65 atmospheres, and those of suspension cultured cells of carrot were only 30 atmospheres. Estimation of wall tensile stress based on breaking pressures, cell radii, and estimation of wall thickness, indicates that microfibrillar walls are not necessarily stronger than walls of primitive organisms. Hence, alternative hypotheses for their evolution must be considered. PMID:16664436

  4. Secondary cell walls: biosynthesis and manipulation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manoj; Campbell, Liam; Turner, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Secondary cell walls (SCWs) are produced by specialized plant cell types, and are particularly important in those cells providing mechanical support or involved in water transport. As the main constituent of plant biomass, secondary cell walls are central to attempts to generate second-generation biofuels. Partly as a consequence of this renewed economic importance, excellent progress has been made in understanding how cell wall components are synthesized. SCWs are largely composed of three main polymers: cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. In this review, we will attempt to highlight the most recent progress in understanding the biosynthetic pathways for secondary cell wall components, how these pathways are regulated, and how this knowledge may be exploited to improve cell wall properties that facilitate breakdown without compromising plant growth and productivity. While knowledge of individual components in the pathway has improved dramatically, how they function together to make the final polymers and how these individual polymers are incorporated into the wall remain less well understood. PMID:26663392

  5. Cell wall remodeling under abiotic stress

    PubMed Central

    Tenhaken, Raimund

    2015-01-01

    Plants exposed to abiotic stress respond to unfavorable conditions on multiple levels. One challenge under drought stress is to reduce shoot growth while maintaining root growth, a process requiring differential cell wall synthesis and remodeling. Key players in this process are the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and peroxidases, which initially cross-link phenolic compounds and glycoproteins of the cell walls causing stiffening. The function of ROS shifts after having converted all the peroxidase substrates in the cell wall. If ROS-levels remain high during prolonged stress, OH°-radicals are formed which lead to polymer cleavage. In concert with xyloglucan modifying enzymes and expansins, the resulting cell wall loosening allows further growth of stressed organs. PMID:25709610

  6. Differential scanning calorimetry of plant cell walls

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Liangshiou; Varner, J.E. ); Yuen, H.K. )

    1991-03-15

    High-sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry has been used to study the phase transition of cell wall preparations of the elongating and mature regions of soybean hypocotyls and of celery epidermis and collenchyma strands. A step-like transition believed to be glass transition was observed in walls isolated from the elongating region of soybean hypocotyls at 52.9C. Addition of 1 mM CaCl{sub 2} to the cell wall preparation increased the transition temperature to 60.8C and greatly reduced the transition magnitude. In walls from the mature region, the transition was small and occurred at a higher temperature (60.1C). Addition of calcium to the mature region cell wall had little effect on the transition. Based on the known interactions between calcium and pectin, the authors propose that calcium affects the glass transition by binding to the polygalacturonate backbone of wall pectin, resulting in a more rigid wall with a smaller transition at a higher temperature. The mature region either has more calcium in the wall or has more methyl-esterified pectin, making it less responsive to added calcium.

  7. Fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe in continuous culture

    SciTech Connect

    Vrana, D.

    1983-08-01

    The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe was cultivated in a chemostat at dilution rates of D = 0.03, 0.05, 0.10, and 0.20/h. After steady state has been reached, the amount of dry matter, number of cells, concentration of residual sugar, yield coefficient (Y), and some morphological properties of the cells were estimated. Curves reflecting the dry mass, number of cells, and cell mean volume show a changing coordination between the growth rate and the rate of cell division, with respect of D. In addition, it could be concluded that in dividing cells the cell septum is localized asymmetrically; two nonidentical cells differing both in length and volume result. The degree of asymmetry is a function of the dilution rate. (25 Refs.)

  8. Role of cell wall deconstructing enzymes in the proanthocyanidin-cell wall adsorption-desorption phenomena.

    PubMed

    Castro-López, Liliana del Rocío; Gómez-Plaza, Encarna; Ortega-Regules, Ana; Lozada, Daniel; Bautista-Ortín, Ana Belén

    2016-04-01

    The transference of proanthocyanidins from grapes to wine is quite low. This could be due, among other causes, to proanthocyanidins being bound to grape cell wall polysaccharides, which are present in high concentrations in the must. Therefore, the effective extraction of proanthocyanidins from grapes will depend on the ability to disrupt these associations, and, in this respect, enzymes that degrade these polysaccharides could play an important role. The main objective of this work was to test the behavior of proanthocyanidin-cell wall interactions when commercial maceration enzymes are present in the solution. The results showed that cell wall polysaccharides adsorbed a high amount of proanthocyanidins and only a limited quantity of proanthocyanidins could be desorbed from the cell walls after washing with a model solution. The presence of enzymes in the solution reduced the proanthocyanidin-cell wall interaction, probably through the elimination of pectins from the cell wall network. PMID:26593523

  9. Cell-wall dynamics in growing bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furchtgott, Leon; Wingreen, Ned; Huang, Kerwyn Casey

    2010-03-01

    Bacterial cells come in a large variety of shapes, and cell shape plays an important role in the regulation of many biological functions. Cell shape in bacterial cells is dictated by a cell wall composed of peptidoglycan, a polymer made up of long, stiff glycan strands and flexible peptide crosslinks. Although much is understood about the structural properties of peptidoglycan, little is known about the dynamics of cell wall organization in bacterial cells. In particular, during cell growth, how does the bacterial cell wall continuously expand and reorganize while maintaining cell shape? In order to investigate this question quantitatively, we model the cell wall of the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli using a simple elastic model, in which glycan and peptide subunits are treated as springs with different spring constants and relaxed lengths. We consider the peptidoglycan network as a single-layered network of these springs under tension due to an internal osmotic pressure. Within this model, we simulate possible hypotheses for cell growth as different combinations of addition of new springs and breakage of old springs.

  10. Vesicular transport across the fungal cell wall

    PubMed Central

    Casadevall, Arturo; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Williamson, Peter; Rodrigues, Marcio L.

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings indicate that fungi use vesicular transport to deliver substances across their cell walls. Fungal vesicles are similar to mammalian exosomes and could originate from cytoplasmic multivesicular bodies. Vesicular transport enables the export of large molecules across the cell wall, and vesicles contain lipids, proteins and polysaccharides, many of which are associated with virulence. Concentration of fungal products in vesicles could increase their efficiency in food acquisition and/or delivering potentially noxious substances to other cells, such as amoebae or phagocytes. The discovery of vesicular transport in fungi opens many new avenues for investigation in basic cell biology and pathogenesis. PMID:19299133

  11. Structure of Plant Cell Walls 1

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Tadashi; Thomas, Jerry; Darvill, Alan; Albersheim, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Considerable information has been obtained about the primary structures of suspension-cultured sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) cell-wall pectic polysaccharides, i.e. rhamnogalacturonan I, rhamnogalacturonan II, and homogalacturonan. However, these polysaccharides, which are solubilized from the walls by endo-α-1,4-polygalacturonase, account for only about half of the pectic polysaccharides known to be present in sycamore cell walls. We now report that, after exhaustive treatment with endo-α-1,4-polygalacturonase, additional pectic polysaccharides were extracted from sycamore cell walls by treatment with Na2CO3 at 1 and 22°C. These previously uncharacterized polysaccharides accounted for ∼4% of the cell wall. Based on the glycosyl and glycosyl-linkage compositions and the nature of the products obtained by treating the quantitatively predominant NaCO3-extracted polysaccharides with lithium metal dissolved in ethylenediamine, the polysaccharides were found to strongly resemble rhamnogalacturonan I. However, unlike rhamnogalacturonan I that characteristically had equal amounts of 2- and 2,4-linked rhamnosyl residues in its backbone, the polysaccharides extracted in Na2CO3 at 1°C had markedly disparate ratios of 2- to 2,4-linked rhamnosyl residues. We concluded that polysaccharides similar to rhamnogalacturonan I but with different degrees of branching are present in the walls of suspension-cultured sycamore cells. PMID:16666559

  12. Regulation of Cell Wall Biogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: The Cell Wall Integrity Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Levin, David E.

    2011-01-01

    The yeast cell wall is a strong, but elastic, structure that is essential not only for the maintenance of cell shape and integrity, but also for progression through the cell cycle. During growth and morphogenesis, and in response to environmental challenges, the cell wall is remodeled in a highly regulated and polarized manner, a process that is principally under the control of the cell wall integrity (CWI) signaling pathway. This pathway transmits wall stress signals from the cell surface to the Rho1 GTPase, which mobilizes a physiologic response through a variety of effectors. Activation of CWI signaling regulates the production of various carbohydrate polymers of the cell wall, as well as their polarized delivery to the site of cell wall remodeling. This review article centers on CWI signaling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through the cell cycle and in response to cell wall stress. The interface of this signaling pathway with other pathways that contribute to the maintenance of cell wall integrity is also discussed. PMID:22174182

  13. Identification of Novel Cell Wall Components

    SciTech Connect

    Michelle Momany

    2009-10-26

    Our DOE Biosciences-funded work focused on the fungal cell wall and morphogenesis. We are especially interested in how new cell wall material is targeted to appropriate areas for polar (asymmetric) growth. Polar growth is the only way that filamentous fungi explore the environment to find suitable substrates to degrade. Work funded by this grant has resulted in a total of twenty peer-reviewed publications. In work funded by this grant, we identified nine Aspergillus nidulans temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants that fail to send out a germ tube and show a swollen cell phenotype at restrictive temperature, the swo mutants. In other organisms, a swollen cell phenotype is often associated with misdirected growth or weakened cell walls. Our work shows that several of the A. nidulans swo mutants have defects in the establishment and maintenance of polarity. Cloning of several swo genes by complementation also showed that secondary modification of proteins seems is important in polarity. We also investigated cell wall biosynthesis and branching based on leads in literature from other organisms and found that branching and nuclear division are tied and that the cell wall reorganizes during development. In our most recent work we have focused on gene expression during the shift from isotropic to polar growth. Surprisingly we found that genes previously thought to be involved only in spore formation are important in early vegetative growth as well.

  14. Modes of deformation of walled cells.

    PubMed

    Dumais, Jacques

    2013-11-01

    The bewildering morphological diversity found in cells is one of the starkest illustrations of life's ability to self-organize. Yet the morphogenetic mechanisms that produce the multifarious shapes of cells are still poorly understood. The shared similarities between the walled cells of prokaryotes, many protists, fungi, and plants make these groups particularly appealing to begin investigating how morphological diversity is generated at the cell level. In this review, I attempt a first classification of the different modes of surface deformation used by walled cells. Five modes of deformation were identified: inextensional bending, equi-area shear, elastic stretching, processive intussusception, and chemorheological growth. The two most restrictive modes-inextensional and equi-area deformations-are embodied in the exine of pollen grains and the wall-like pellicle of euglenoids, respectively. For these modes, it is possible to express the deformed geometry of the cell explicitly in terms of the undeformed geometry and other easily observable geometrical parameters. The greatest morphogenetic power is reached with the processive intussusception and chemorheological growth mechanisms that underlie the expansive growth of walled cells. A comparison of these two growth mechanisms suggests a possible way to tackle the complexity behind wall growth. PMID:24014868

  15. Planctomycetes do possess a peptidoglycan cell wall

    PubMed Central

    Jeske, Olga; Schüler, Margarete; Schumann, Peter; Schneider, Alexander; Boedeker, Christian; Jogler, Mareike; Bollschweiler, Daniel; Rohde, Manfred; Mayer, Christoph; Engelhardt, Harald; Spring, Stefan; Jogler, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Most bacteria contain a peptidoglycan (PG) cell wall, which is critical for maintenance of shape and important for cell division. In contrast, Planctomycetes have been proposed to produce a proteinaceous cell wall devoid of PG. The apparent absence of PG has been used as an argument for the putative planctomycetal ancestry of all bacterial lineages. Here we show, employing multiple bioinformatic methods, that planctomycetal genomes encode proteins required for PG synthesis. Furthermore, we biochemically demonstrate the presence of the sugar and the peptide components of PG in Planctomycetes. In addition, light and electron microscopic experiments reveal planctomycetal PG sacculi that are susceptible to lysozyme treatment. Finally, cryo-electron tomography demonstrates that Planctomycetes possess a typical PG cell wall and that their cellular architecture is thus more similar to that of other Gram-negative bacteria. Our findings shed new light on the cellular architecture and cell division of the maverick Planctomycetes. PMID:25964217

  16. Genetic resources for maize cell wall biology.

    PubMed

    Penning, Bryan W; Hunter, Charles T; Tayengwa, Reuben; Eveland, Andrea L; Dugard, Christopher K; Olek, Anna T; Vermerris, Wilfred; Koch, Karen E; McCarty, Donald R; Davis, Mark F; Thomas, Steven R; McCann, Maureen C; Carpita, Nicholas C

    2009-12-01

    Grass species represent a major source of food, feed, and fiber crops and potential feedstocks for biofuel production. Most of the biomass is contributed by cell walls that are distinct in composition from all other flowering plants. Identifying cell wall-related genes and their functions underpins a fundamental understanding of growth and development in these species. Toward this goal, we are building a knowledge base of the maize (Zea mays) genes involved in cell wall biology, their expression profiles, and the phenotypic consequences of mutation. Over 750 maize genes were annotated and assembled into gene families predicted to function in cell wall biogenesis. Comparative genomics of maize, rice (Oryza sativa), and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) sequences reveal differences in gene family structure between grass species and a reference eudicot species. Analysis of transcript profile data for cell wall genes in developing maize ovaries revealed that expression within families differed by up to 100-fold. When transcriptional analyses of developing ovaries before pollination from Arabidopsis, rice, and maize were contrasted, distinct sets of cell wall genes were expressed in grasses. These differences in gene family structure and expression between Arabidopsis and the grasses underscore the requirement for a grass-specific genetic model for functional analyses. A UniformMu population proved to be an important resource in both forward- and reverse-genetics approaches to identify hundreds of mutants in cell wall genes. A forward screen of field-grown lines by near-infrared spectroscopic screen of mature leaves yielded several dozen lines with heritable spectroscopic phenotypes. Pyrolysis-molecular beam mass spectrometry confirmed that several nir mutants had altered carbohydrate-lignin compositions. PMID:19926802

  17. Cell Wall Development in Maize Coleoptiles 1

    PubMed Central

    Carpita, Nicholas C.

    1984-01-01

    The physical bases for enhancement of growth rates induced by auxin involve changes in cell wall structure. Changes in the chemical composition of the primary walls during maize (Zea mays L. cv WF9 × Bear 38) coleoptile development were examined to provide a framework to study the nature of auxin action. This report documents that the primary walls of maize cells vary markedly depending on developmental state; polymers synthesized and deposited in the primary wall during cell division are substantially different from those formed during cell elongation. The embryonal coleoptile wall is comprised of mostly glucuronoarabinoxylan (GAX), xyloglucan, and polymers enriched in 5-arabinosyl linkages. During development, both GAX and xyloglucan are synthesized, but the 5-arabinosyls are not. Rapid coleoptile elongation is accompanied by synthesis of a mixed-linked glucan that is nearly absent from the embryonal wall. A GAX highly substituted with mostly terminal arabinofuranosyl units is also synthesized during elongation and, based on pulse-chase studies, exhibits turnover possibly to xylans with less substitution via loss of the arabinosyl and glucuronosyl linkages. Images Fig. 2 PMID:16663799

  18. Mitochondrial adenosine triphosphatase of the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe 972h-. Changes in activity and oligomycin-sensitivity during the cell cycle of catabolite-repressed and -de-repressed cells.

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, S W; Lloyd, D

    1977-01-01

    1. Changes in activity of ATPase (adenosine triphosphatase) during the cell cycle of Schizosaccharomyces pombe were analysed in cell-free extracts of cells harvested from different stages of growth of synchronous cultures and also after cell-cycle fractionation. 2. Oligomycin-sensitive ATPase oscillates in both glucose-repressed synchronous cultures and shows four maxima of activity approximately equally spaced through the cell cycle. The amplitude of the oscillations accounts for between 13 and 80% of the total activity at different times in the cell cycle. 3. Oligomycin sensitivity varies over a fourfold range at different stages of the cell cycle. 4. The periodicity of maximum oligomycin sensitivity is one-quarter of a cell cycle. 5. These results were confirmed for the first three-quarters of the cell cycle by cell-cycle fractionation. 6. In cells growing synchronously with glycerol, ATPase activity increases in a stepwise pattern, with two steps per cell cycle; the first of these occurs at 0.54 of the cell cycle and the second at 0.95. 7. These results are discussed in relation to previously obtained data on the development of mitochondrial activities during the cell cycle. PMID:139890

  19. The Structure of Plant Cell Walls

    PubMed Central

    McNeil, Michael; Albersheim, Peter; Taiz, Lincoln; Jones, Russell L.

    1975-01-01

    The walls of barley (Hordeum vulgare var. Himalaya) aleurone cells are composed of two major polysaccharides, arabinoxylan (85%) and cellulose (8%). The cell wall preparations contain 6% protein, but this protein does not contain detectable amounts of hydroxyproline. The arabinoxylan has a linear 1,4-xylan backbone; 33% of the xylosyl residues are substituted at the 2 and/or 3 position with single arabinofuranosyl residues. The results of in vitro cellulose binding experiments support the hypothesis that noncovalent bonds between the arabinoxylan chains and cellulose fibers play a part in maintaining wall structure. It is suggested that bonding between the arabinoxylan chains themselves is also utilized in forming the walls. PMID:16659029

  20. Cell Wall Metabolism in Ripening Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Ahmed Elrayah; Labavitch, John M.

    1980-01-01

    Mature `Bartlett' pear (Pyrus communis) fruits were ripened at 20 C. Fruits at different stages of ripeness were homogenized, and extracts of the low speed pellet (crude cell wall) were prepared. These extracts contained polygalacturonase, pectin esterase, and activity against seven p-nitrophenyl glycoside substrates. Polygalacturonase, α-galactosidase, and α-mannosidase increased in activity as the fruit ripened. Cellulase and activities against pear wall xylan and arabinan were absent from the extracts. PMID:16661276

  1. Roles of membrane trafficking in plant cell wall dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Ebine, Kazuo; Ueda, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The cell wall is one of the characteristic components of plant cells. The cell wall composition differs among cell types and is modified in response to various environmental conditions. To properly generate and modify the cell wall, many proteins are transported to the plasma membrane or extracellular space through membrane trafficking, which is one of the key protein transport mechanisms in eukaryotic cells. Given the diverse composition and functions of the cell wall in plants, the transport of the cell wall components and proteins that are involved in cell wall-related events could be specialized for each cell type, i.e., the machinery for cell wall biogenesis, modification, and maintenance could be transported via different trafficking pathways. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in the current understanding of the roles and mechanisms of membrane trafficking in plant cells and focus on the biogenesis and regulation of the cell wall. PMID:26539200

  2. Metabolism of the phospholipid precursor inositol and its relationship to growth and viability in the natural auxotroph Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, S; Homann, M J; Henry, S A; Carman, G M

    1986-01-01

    Phospholipid metabolism in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe was examined. Three enzymes of phospholipid biosynthesis, cytidine diphosphate diacylglycerol synthase (CDP-DG), phosphatidylinositol (PI) synthase, and phosphatidylserine (PS) synthase, were characterized in extracts of S. pombe cells. Contrary to an earlier report, we were able to demonstrate that CDP-DG served as a precursor for PI and PS biosynthesis in S. pombe. S. pombe is naturally auxotrophic for the phospholipid precursor inositol. We found that S. pombe was much more resistant to loss of viability during inositol starvation than artificially generated inositol auxotrophs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The phospholipid composition of S. pombe cells grown in inositol-rich medium (50 microM) was similar to that of S. cerevisiae cells grown under similar conditions. However, growth of S. pombe at low inositol concentrations (below 30 microM) affected the ratio of the anionic phospholipids PI and PS, while the relative proportions of other glycerophospholipids remained unchanged. During inositol starvation, the rate of PI synthesis decreased rapidly, and there was a concomitant increase in the rate of PS synthesis. Phosphatidic acid and CDP-DG, which are precursors to these phospholipids, also increased when PI synthesis was blocked by lack of exogenous inositol. The major product of turnover of inositol-containing phospholipids in S. pombe was found to be free inositol, which accumulated in the medium and could be reused by the cell. Images PMID:3011744

  3. Cell wall peptidoglycan architecture in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Hayhurst, Emma J.; Kailas, Lekshmi; Hobbs, Jamie K.; Foster, Simon J.

    2008-01-01

    The bacterial cell wall is essential for viability and shape determination. Cell wall structural dynamics allowing growth and division, while maintaining integrity is a basic problem governing the life of bacteria. The polymer peptidoglycan is the main structural component for most bacteria and is made up of glycan strands that are cross-linked by peptide side chains. Despite study and speculation over many years, peptidoglycan architecture has remained largely elusive. Here, we show that the model rod-shaped bacterium Bacillus subtilis has glycan strands up to 5 μm, longer than the cell itself and 50 times longer than previously proposed. Atomic force microscopy revealed the glycan strands to be part of a peptidoglycan architecture allowing cell growth and division. The inner surface of the cell wall has a regular macrostructure with ≈50 nm-wide peptidoglycan cables [average 53 ± 12 nm (n = 91)] running basically across the short axis of the cell. Cross striations with an average periodicity of 25 ± 9 nm (n = 96) along each cable are also present. The fundamental cabling architecture is also maintained during septal development as part of cell division. We propose a coiled-coil model for peptidoglycan architecture encompassing our data and recent evidence concerning the biosynthetic machinery for this essential polymer. PMID:18784364

  4. Cell wall peptidoglycan architecture in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Hayhurst, Emma J; Kailas, Lekshmi; Hobbs, Jamie K; Foster, Simon J

    2008-09-23

    The bacterial cell wall is essential for viability and shape determination. Cell wall structural dynamics allowing growth and division, while maintaining integrity is a basic problem governing the life of bacteria. The polymer peptidoglycan is the main structural component for most bacteria and is made up of glycan strands that are cross-linked by peptide side chains. Despite study and speculation over many years, peptidoglycan architecture has remained largely elusive. Here, we show that the model rod-shaped bacterium Bacillus subtilis has glycan strands up to 5 microm, longer than the cell itself and 50 times longer than previously proposed. Atomic force microscopy revealed the glycan strands to be part of a peptidoglycan architecture allowing cell growth and division. The inner surface of the cell wall has a regular macrostructure with approximately 50 nm-wide peptidoglycan cables [average 53 +/- 12 nm (n = 91)] running basically across the short axis of the cell. Cross striations with an average periodicity of 25 +/- 9 nm (n = 96) along each cable are also present. The fundamental cabling architecture is also maintained during septal development as part of cell division. We propose a coiled-coil model for peptidoglycan architecture encompassing our data and recent evidence concerning the biosynthetic machinery for this essential polymer. PMID:18784364

  5. Characterization of the Sclerotinia sclerotiorum cell wall proteome.

    PubMed

    Liu, Longzhou; Free, Stephen J

    2016-08-01

    We used a proteomic analysis to identify cell wall proteins released from Sclerotinia sclerotiorum hyphal and sclerotial cell walls via a trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (TFMS) digestion. Cell walls from hyphae grown in Vogel's glucose medium (a synthetic medium lacking plant materials), from hyphae grown in potato dextrose broth and from sclerotia produced on potato dextrose agar were used in the analysis. Under the conditions used, TFMS digests the glycosidic linkages in the cell walls to release intact cell wall proteins. The analysis identified 24 glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored cell wall proteins and 30 non-GPI-anchored cell wall proteins. We found that the cell walls contained an array of cell wall biosynthetic enzymes similar to those found in the cell walls of other fungi. When comparing the proteins in hyphal cell walls grown in potato dextrose broth with those in hyphal cell walls grown in the absence of plant material, it was found that a core group of cell wall biosynthetic proteins and some proteins associated with pathogenicity (secreted cellulases, pectin lyases, glucosidases and proteases) were expressed in both types of hyphae. The hyphae grown in potato dextrose broth contained a number of additional proteins (laccases, oxalate decarboxylase, peroxidase, polysaccharide deacetylase and several proteins unique to Sclerotinia and Botrytis) that might facilitate growth on a plant host. A comparison of the proteins in the sclerotial cell wall with the proteins in the hyphal cell wall demonstrated that sclerotia formation is not marked by a major shift in the composition of cell wall protein. We found that the S. sclerotiorum cell walls contained 11 cell wall proteins that were encoded only in Sclerotinia and Botrytis genomes. PMID:26661933

  6. Cell Wall Heterogeneity in Root Development of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Somssich, Marc; Khan, Ghazanfar Abbas; Persson, Staffan

    2016-01-01

    Plant cell walls provide stability and protection to plant cells. During growth and development the composition of cell walls changes, but provides enough strength to withstand the turgor of the cells. Hence, cell walls are highly flexible and diverse in nature. These characteristics are important during root growth, as plant roots consist of radial patterns of cells that have diverse functions and that are at different developmental stages along the growth axis. Young stem cell daughters undergo a series of rapid cell divisions, during which new cell walls are formed that are highly dynamic, and that support rapid anisotropic cell expansion. Once the cells have differentiated, the walls of specific cell types need to comply with and support different cell functions. For example, a newly formed root hair needs to be able to break through the surrounding soil, while endodermal cells modify their walls at distinct positions to form Casparian strips between them. Hence, the cell walls are modified and rebuilt while cells transit through different developmental stages. In addition, the cell walls of roots readjust to their environment to support growth and to maximize nutrient uptake. Many of these modifications are likely driven by different developmental and stress signaling pathways. However, our understanding of how such pathways affect cell wall modifications and what enzymes are involved remain largely unknown. In this review we aim to compile data linking cell wall content and re-modeling to developmental stages of root cells, and dissect how root cell walls respond to certain environmental changes. PMID:27582757

  7. Cell Wall Heterogeneity in Root Development of Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Somssich, Marc; Khan, Ghazanfar Abbas; Persson, Staffan

    2016-01-01

    Plant cell walls provide stability and protection to plant cells. During growth and development the composition of cell walls changes, but provides enough strength to withstand the turgor of the cells. Hence, cell walls are highly flexible and diverse in nature. These characteristics are important during root growth, as plant roots consist of radial patterns of cells that have diverse functions and that are at different developmental stages along the growth axis. Young stem cell daughters undergo a series of rapid cell divisions, during which new cell walls are formed that are highly dynamic, and that support rapid anisotropic cell expansion. Once the cells have differentiated, the walls of specific cell types need to comply with and support different cell functions. For example, a newly formed root hair needs to be able to break through the surrounding soil, while endodermal cells modify their walls at distinct positions to form Casparian strips between them. Hence, the cell walls are modified and rebuilt while cells transit through different developmental stages. In addition, the cell walls of roots readjust to their environment to support growth and to maximize nutrient uptake. Many of these modifications are likely driven by different developmental and stress signaling pathways. However, our understanding of how such pathways affect cell wall modifications and what enzymes are involved remain largely unknown. In this review we aim to compile data linking cell wall content and re-modeling to developmental stages of root cells, and dissect how root cell walls respond to certain environmental changes. PMID:27582757

  8. Fluorescent tags to explore cell wall structure and dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Gonneau, Martine; Höfte, Herman; Vernhettes, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    Plant cell walls are highly dynamic and heterogeneous structures, which vary between cell types, growth stages but also between microdomains within a single cell wall. In this review, we summarize the imaging techniques using fluorescent tags that are currently being used and which should in the coming years revolutionize our understanding of the dynamics of cell wall architecture and the cellular processes involved in the synthesis of cell wall components. PMID:22783266

  9. An Ancient Yeast for Young Geneticists: A Primer on the Schizosaccharomyces pombe Model System

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Charles S.; Wood, Valerie; Fantes, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is an important model organism for the study of eukaryotic molecular and cellular biology. Studies of S. pombe, together with studies of its distant cousin, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, have led to the discovery of genes involved in fundamental mechanisms of transcription, translation, DNA replication, cell cycle control, and signal transduction, to name but a few processes. However, since the divergence of the two species approximately 350 million years ago, S. pombe appears to have evolved less rapidly than S. cerevisiae so that it retains more characteristics of the common ancient yeast ancestor, causing it to share more features with metazoan cells. This Primer introduces S. pombe by describing the yeast itself, providing a brief description of the origins of fission yeast research, and illustrating some genetic and bioinformatics tools used to study protein function in fission yeast. In addition, a section on some key differences between S. pombe and S. cerevisiae is included for readers with some familiarity with budding yeast research but who may have an interest in developing research projects using S. pombe. PMID:26447128

  10. STREAMLINED METHOD FOR BIOMASS WHOLE-CELL-WALL STRUCTURAL PROFILING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In wide-ranging research aimed at altering plant cell wall characteristics by conventional breeding or modern genetic methods, one of the biggest problems is in delineating the effects on the cell wall. Plant cell walls are a complex conglomerate of a variety of polysaccharides and lignin. Each comp...

  11. Wall relaxation and the driving forces for cell expansive growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    When water uptake by growing cells is prevented, the turgor pressure and the tensile stress in the cell wall are reduced by continued wall loosening. This process, termed in vivo stress relaxation, provides a new way to study the dynamics of wall loosening and to measure the wall yield threshold and the physiological wall extensibility. Stress relaxation experiments indicate that wall stress supplies the mechanical driving force for wall yielding. Cell expansion also requires water absorption. The driving force for water uptake during growth is created by wall relaxation, which lowers the water potential of the expanding cells. New techniques for measuring this driving force show that it is smaller than believed previously; in elongating stems it is only 0.3 to 0.5 bar. This means that the hydraulic resistance of the water transport pathway is small and that rate of cell expansion is controlled primarily by wall loosening and yielding.

  12. Monoclonal antibodies against plant cell wall polysaccharides

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, M.G.; Bucheli, E.; Darvill, A.; Albersheim, P. )

    1989-04-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) are useful tools to probe the structure of plant cell wall polysaccharides and to localize these polysaccharides in plant cells and tissues. Murine McAbs were generated against the pectic polysaccharide, rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I), isolated from suspension-cultured sycamore cells. The McAbs that were obtained were grouped into three classes based upon their reactivities with a variety of plant polysaccharides and membrane glycoproteins. Eleven McAbs (Class I) recognize epitope(s) that appear to be immunodominant and are found in RG-I from sycamore and maize, citrus pectin, polygalacturonic acid, and membrane glycoproteins from suspension-cultured cells of sycamore, maize, tobacco, parsley, and soybean. A second group of five McAbs (Class II) recognize epitope(s) present in sycamore RG-I, but do not bind to any of the other polysaccharides or glycoproteins recognized by Class I. Lastly, one McAb (Class III) reacts with sycamore RG-I, sycamore and tamarind xyloglucan, and sycamore and rice glucuronoarabinoxylan, but does not bind to maize RG-I, polygalacturonic acid or the plant membrane glycoproteins recognized by Class I. McAbs in Classes II and III are likely to be useful in studies of the structure, biosynthesis and localization of plant cell wall polysaccharides.

  13. Calnexin Is Essential for Survival under Nitrogen Starvation and Stationary Phase in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    PubMed Central

    Rokeach, Luis A.

    2015-01-01

    Cell fate is determined by the balance of conserved molecular mechanisms regulating death (apoptosis) and survival (autophagy). Autophagy is a process by which cells recycle their organelles and macromolecules through degradation within the vacuole in yeast and plants, and lysosome in metazoa. In the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, autophagy is strongly induced under nitrogen starvation and in aging cells. Previously, we demonstrated that calnexin (Cnx1p), a highly conserved transmembrane chaperone of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), regulates apoptosis under ER stress or inositol starvation. Moreover, we showed that in stationary phase, Cnx1p is cleaved into two moieties, L_Cnx1p and S_Cnx1p. Here, we show that the processing of Cnx1p is regulated by autophagy, induced by nitrogen starvation or cell aging. The cleavage of Cnx1p involves two vacuolar proteases: Isp6, which is essential for autophagy, and its paralogue Psp3. Blocking autophagy through the knockout of autophagy-related genes (atg) results in inhibition of both, the cleavage and the trafficking of Cnx1p from the ER to the vacuole. We demonstrate that Cnx1p is required for cell survival under nitrogen-starvation and in chronological aging cultures. The death of the mini_cnx1 mutant (overlapping S_cnx1p) cells is accompanied by accumulation of high levels of reactive-oxygen species (ROS), a slowdown in endocytosis and severe cell-wall defects. Moreover, mutant cells expressing only S_Cnx1p showed cell wall defects. Co-expressing mutant overlapping the L_Cnx1p and S_Cnx1p cleavage products reverses the death, ROS phenotype and cell wall defect to wild-type levels. As it is involved in both apoptosis and autophagy, Cnx1p could be a nexus for the crosstalk between these pro-death and pro-survival mechanisms. Ours, and observations in mammalian systems, suggest that the multiple roles of calnexin depend on its sub-cellular localization and on its cleavage. The use of S. pombe should assist in further

  14. Plant cell wall proteomics: the leadership of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Albenne, Cécile; Canut, Hervé; Jamet, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Plant cell wall proteins (CWPs) progressively emerged as crucial components of cell walls although present in minor amounts. Cell wall polysaccharides such as pectins, hemicelluloses, and cellulose represent more than 90% of primary cell wall mass, whereas hemicelluloses, cellulose, and lignins are the main components of lignified secondary walls. All these polymers provide mechanical properties to cell walls, participate in cell shape and prevent water loss in aerial organs. However, cell walls need to be modified and customized during plant development and in response to environmental cues, thus contributing to plant adaptation. CWPs play essential roles in all these physiological processes and particularly in the dynamics of cell walls, which requires organization and rearrangements of polysaccharides as well as cell-to-cell communication. In the last 10 years, plant cell wall proteomics has greatly contributed to a wider knowledge of CWPs. This update will deal with (i) a survey of plant cell wall proteomics studies with a focus on Arabidopsis thaliana; (ii) the main protein families identified and the still missing peptides; (iii) the persistent issue of the non-canonical CWPs; (iv) the present challenges to overcome technological bottlenecks; and (v) the perspectives beyond cell wall proteomics to understand CWP functions. PMID:23641247

  15. Plant cell wall lignification and monolignol metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yin; Chantreau, Maxime; Sibout, Richard; Hawkins, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Plants are built of various specialized cell types that differ in their cell wall composition and structure. The cell walls of certain tissues (xylem, sclerenchyma) are characterized by the presence of the heterogeneous lignin polymer that plays an essential role in their physiology. This phenolic polymer is composed of different monomeric units – the monolignols – that are linked together by several covalent bonds. Numerous studies have shown that monolignol biosynthesis and polymerization to form lignin are tightly controlled in different cell types and tissues. However, our understanding of the genetic control of monolignol transport and polymerization remains incomplete, despite some recent promising results. This situation is made more complex since we know that monolignols or related compounds are sometimes produced in non-lignified tissues. In this review, we focus on some key steps of monolignol metabolism including polymerization, transport, and compartmentation. As well as being of fundamental interest, the quantity of lignin and its nature are also known to have a negative effect on the industrial processing of plant lignocellulose biomass. A more complete view of monolignol metabolism and the relationship that exists between lignin and other monolignol-derived compounds thereby appears essential if we wish to improve biomass quality. PMID:23847630

  16. Cell wall sorting of lipoproteins in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed Central

    Navarre, W W; Daefler, S; Schneewind, O

    1996-01-01

    Many surface proteins are thought to be anchored to the cell wall of gram-positive organisms via their C termini, while the N-terminal domains of these molecules are displayed on the bacterial surface. Cell wall anchoring of surface proteins in Staphylococcus aureus requires both an N-terminal leader peptide and a C-terminal cell wall sorting signal. By fusing the cell wall sorting of protein A to the C terminus of staphylococcal beta-lactamase, we demonstrate here that lipoproteins can also be anchored to the cell wall of S. aureus. The topology of cell wall-anchored beta-lactamase is reminiscent of that described for Braun's murein lipoprotein in that the N terminus of the polypeptide chain is membrane anchored whereas the C-terminal end is tethered to the bacterial cell wall. PMID:8550464

  17. Exploiting fungal cell wall components in vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Levitz, Stuart M.; Huang, Haibin; Ostroff, Gary R.; Specht, Charles A.

    2014-01-01

    Innate recognition of fungi leads to strong adaptive immunity. Investigators are trying to exploit this observation in vaccine development by combining antigens with evolutionarily conserved fungal cell wall carbohydrates to induce protective responses. Best studied is β-1,3-glucan, a glycan that activates complement and is recognized by Dectin-1. Administration of antigens in association with β-1,3-glucan, either by direct conjugation or complexed in glucan particles, results in robust humoral and cellular immune responses. While the host has a host of mannose receptors, responses to fungal mannoproteins generally are amplified if cells are cooperatively stimulated with an additional danger signal such as a toll-like receptor agonist. Chitosan, a polycationic homopolymer of glucosamine manufactured by the deacetylation of chitin, is being studied as an adjuvant in DNA and protein-based vaccines. It appears particularly promising in mucosal vaccines. Finally, universal and organism-specific fungal vaccines have been formulated by conjugating fungal cell wall glycans to carrier proteins. A major challenge will be to advance these experimental findings so that at risk patients can be protected. PMID:25404118

  18. Hormonal regulation of secondary cell wall formation.

    PubMed

    Didi, Vojtěch; Jackson, Phil; Hejátko, Jan

    2015-08-01

    Secondary cell walls (SCWs) have critical functional importance but also constitute a high proportion of the plant biomass and have high application potential. This is true mainly for the lignocellulosic constituents of the SCWs in xylem vessels and fibres, which form a structured layer between the plasma membrane and the primary cell wall (PCW). Specific patterning of the SCW thickenings contributes to the mechanical properties of the different xylem cell types, providing the plant with mechanical support and facilitating the transport of solutes via vessels. In the last decade, our knowledge of the basic molecular mechanisms controlling SCW formation has increased substantially. Several members of the multi-layered regulatory cascade participating in the initiation and transcriptional regulation of SCW formation have been described, and the first cellular components determining the pattern of SCW at the subcellular resolution are being uncovered. The essential regulatory role of phytohormones in xylem development is well known and the molecular mechanisms that link hormonal signals to SCW formation are emerging. Here, we review recent knowledge about the role of individual plant hormones and hormonal crosstalk in the control over the regulatory cascades guiding SCW formation and patterning. Based on the analogy between many of the mechanisms operating during PCW and SCW formation, recently identified mechanisms underlying the hormonal control of PCW remodelling are discussed as potentially novel mechanisms mediating hormonal regulatory inputs in SCW formation. PMID:26002972

  19. Exploiting fungal cell wall components in vaccines.

    PubMed

    Levitz, Stuart M; Huang, Haibin; Ostroff, Gary R; Specht, Charles A

    2015-03-01

    Innate recognition of fungi leads to strong adaptive immunity. Investigators are trying to exploit this observation in vaccine development by combining antigens with evolutionarily conserved fungal cell wall carbohydrates to induce protective responses. Best studied is β-1,3-glucan, a glycan that activates complement and is recognized by dectin-1. Administration of antigens in association with β-1,3-glucan, either by direct conjugation or complexed in glucan particles, results in robust humoral and cellular immune responses. While the host has a host of mannose receptors, responses to fungal mannoproteins generally are amplified if cells are cooperatively stimulated with an additional danger signal such as a toll-like receptor agonist. Chitosan, a polycationic homopolymer of glucosamine manufactured by the deacetylation of chitin, is being studied as an adjuvant in DNA and protein-based vaccines. It appears particularly promising in mucosal vaccines. Finally, universal and organism-specific fungal vaccines have been formulated by conjugating fungal cell wall glycans to carrier proteins. A major challenge will be to advance these experimental findings so that at risk patients can be protected. PMID:25404118

  20. [The different effects of CaM inhibitors of phenothiazines on the proliferation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe].

    PubMed

    Lu, L; Jiang, A Q; Yuan, S; Yin, L H; Huang, W Y; Fan, W S

    2000-06-01

    Low concentration of phenothiazines apparently stimulated the proliferation of S. pombe, the cell density incubated for 54 hours by preincubating the cells with 20 mumol/L trifluoperazine (TFP) in the EMM-Ca medium was two times more than the control. The stimulation was more obvious with lowing the concentration of calcium in the culture medium, TFP cooperated and complemented with calcium in stimulating the proliferation of S. pombe. When the original inoculated cell density was 5 x 10(6) cells/ml or during the logarithm period of growth curve, the proliferation of S. pombe wasn't affected by the low concentration of TFP. While when the concentration of TFP was increased to 100 mumol/L, the promotion effect of TFP on proliferation of S. pombe declined obviously and the proliferation of S. pombe was inhibited completely when TFP up to 200 mumol/L. The cell proliferation also could be inhibited by CaM antagonist W7 and W7-agarose, the inhibition was increased with increasing the concentration of antagonist. On the other hand, 20 mumol/L TFP used by the same method as above arrested the cell division cycle of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at a single G2 + M nuclei stage, the cells was penetrated easily by TFP, the fluorescence in cells was very obvious when TFP was 20 mumol/L, but it was difficult to penetrat by TFP in the cells of S. pombe and the Ca2+ influx of S. pombe could be induced rapidly by 20 mumol/L TFP. In this article, the cause of different effects of TFP on cell proliferation of S. pombe and S. cerevisiae was discussed, it was due to the difference of penetration of TFP and stimulation by calcium in the two kinds of cells. PMID:12548977

  1. Plant and algal cell walls: diversity and functionality

    PubMed Central

    Popper, Zoë A.; Ralet, Marie-Christine; Domozych, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although plants and many algae (e.g. the Phaeophyceae, brown, and Rhodophyceae, red) are only very distantly related they are united in their possession of carbohydrate-rich cell walls, which are of integral importance being involved in many physiological processes. Furthermore, wall components have applications within food, fuel, pharmaceuticals, fibres (e.g. for textiles and paper) and building materials and have long been an active topic of research. As shown in the 27 papers in this Special Issue, as the major deposit of photosynthetically fixed carbon, and therefore energy investment, cell walls are of undisputed importance to the organisms that possess them, the photosynthetic eukaryotes (plants and algae). The complexities of cell wall components along with their interactions with the biotic and abiotic environment are becoming increasingly revealed. Scope The importance of plant and algal cell walls and their individual components to the function and survival of the organism, and for a number of industrial applications, are illustrated by the breadth of topics covered in this issue, which includes papers concentrating on various plants and algae, developmental stages, organs, cell wall components, and techniques. Although we acknowledge that there are many alternative ways in which the papers could be categorized (and many would fit within several topics), we have organized them as follows: (1) cell wall biosynthesis and remodelling, (2) cell wall diversity, and (3) application of new technologies to cell walls. Finally, we will consider future directions within plant cell wall research. Expansion of the industrial uses of cell walls and potentially novel uses of cell wall components are both avenues likely to direct future research activities. Fundamentally, it is the continued progression from characterization (structure, metabolism, properties and localization) of individual cell wall components through to defining their roles in almost every

  2. Genes encoding farnesyl cysteine carboxyl methyltransferase in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed Central

    Imai, Y; Davey, J; Kawagishi-Kobayashi, M; Yamamoto, M

    1997-01-01

    The mam4 mutation of Schizosaccharomyces pombe causes mating deficiency in h- cells but not in h+ cells. h- cells defective in mam4 do not secrete active mating pheromone M-factor. We cloned mam4 by complementation. The mam4 gene encodes a protein of 236 amino acids, with several potential membrane-spanning domains, which is 44% identical with farnesyl cysteine carboxyl methyltransferase encoded by STE14 and required for the modification of a-factor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Analysis of membrane fractions revealed that mam4 is responsible for the methyltransferase activity in S. pombe. Cells defective in mam4 produced farnesylated but unmethylated cysteine and small peptides but no intact M-factor. These observations strongly suggest that the mam4 gene product is farnesyl cysteine carboxyl methyltransferase that modifies M-factor. Furthermore, transcomplementation of S. pombe mam4 allowed us to isolate an apparent homolog of mam4 from Xenopus laevis (Xmam4). In addition to its sequence similarity to S. pombe mam4, the product of Xmam4 was shown to have a farnesyl cysteine carboxyl methyltransferase activity in S. pombe cells. The isolation of a vertebrate gene encoding farnesyl cysteine carboxyl methyltransferase opens the way to in-depth studies of the role of methylation in a large body of proteins, including Ras superfamily proteins. PMID:9032282

  3. Enzymes and other agents that enhance cell wall extensibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1999-01-01

    Polysaccharides and proteins are secreted to the inner surface of the growing cell wall, where they assemble into a network that is mechanically strong, yet remains extensible until the cells cease growth. This review focuses on the agents that directly or indirectly enhance the extensibility properties of growing walls. The properties of expansins, endoglucanases, and xyloglucan transglycosylases are reviewed and their postulated roles in modulating wall extensibility are evaluated. A summary model for wall extension is presented, in which expansin is a primary agent of wall extension, whereas endoglucanases, xyloglucan endotransglycosylase, and other enzymes that alter wall structure act secondarily to modulate expansin action.

  4. Anthocyanins influence tannin-cell wall interactions.

    PubMed

    Bautista-Ortín, Ana Belén; Martínez-Hernández, Alejandro; Ruiz-García, Yolanda; Gil-Muñoz, Rocío; Gómez-Plaza, Encarna

    2016-09-01

    The rate of tannin extraction was studied in a vinification of red grapes and the results compared with another vinification made with white grapes fermented as for typical red wine, in the presence of skins and seeds. Even though the grapes presented a quite similar skin and seed tannin content, the differences in tannin concentration between both vinifications was very large, despite the fact that the only apparent difference between the phenolic composition of both wines was the anthocyanin content. This suggests that anthocyanins play an important role in tannin extractability, perhaps because they affect the extent of the tannin-cell wall interaction, a factor that largely controls the resulting quantity of tannins in wines. To confirm this observation, the effect of anthocyanins on the tannin extractability from grape seeds and skin and on the interaction between tannins and grape cell walls suspended in model solutions were studied. The results indicated that anthocyanins favored skin and seed tannin extraction and that there is a competition for the adsorption sites between anthocyanins and tannins that increases the tannin content when anthocyanins are present. PMID:27041322

  5. Disruption of cell walls for enhanced lipid recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Knoshaug, Eric P; Donohoe, Bryon S; Gerken, Henri; Laurens, Lieve; Van Wychen, Stefanie Rose

    2015-03-24

    Presented herein are methods of using cell wall degrading enzymes for recovery of internal lipid bodies from biomass sources such as algae. Also provided are algal cells that express at least one exogenous gene encoding a cell wall degrading enzyme and methods for recovering lipids from the cells.

  6. Plant cell wall dynamics and wall-related susceptibility in plant–pathogen interactions

    PubMed Central

    Bellincampi, Daniela; Cervone, Felice; Lionetti, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    The cell wall is a dynamic structure that often determines the outcome of the interactions between plants and pathogens. It is a barrier that pathogens need to breach to colonize the plant tissue. While fungal necrotrophs extensively destroy the integrity of the cell wall through the combined action of degrading enzymes, biotrophic fungi require a more localized and controlled degradation of the cell wall in order to keep the host cells alive and utilize their feeding structures. Also bacteria and nematodes need to degrade the plant cell wall at a certain stage of their infection process, to obtain nutrients for their growth. Plants have developed a system for sensing pathogens and monitoring the cell wall integrity, upon which they activate defense responses that lead to a dynamic cell wall remodeling required to prevent the disease. Pathogens, on the other hand, may exploit the host cell wall metabolism to support the infection. We review here the strategies utilized by both plants and pathogens to prevail in the cell wall battleground. PMID:24904623

  7. Growth and the Environment of Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Janni; Russell, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Here, we summarize the composition and uses of Schizosaccharomyces pombe media and discuss key issues for consideration in the generation of S. pombe cultures. We discuss the concept of "culture memory," in which the growth state and stress experienced by a strain during storage, propagation, and starter culture preparation can alter experimental outcomes at later stages. We also describe the triggers that are widely used to manipulate signaling through the environment sensing pathways. PMID:26933253

  8. Shifting foundations: the mechanical cell wall and development.

    PubMed

    Braybrook, Siobhan A; Jönsson, Henrik

    2016-02-01

    The cell wall has long been acknowledged as an important physical mediator of growth in plants. Recent experimental and modelling work has brought the importance of cell wall mechanics into the forefront again. These data have challenged existing dogmas that relate cell wall structure to cell/organ growth, that uncouple elasticity from extensibility, and those which treat the cell wall as a passive and non-stressed material. Within this review we describe experiments and models which have changed the ways in which we view the mechanical cell wall, leading to new hypotheses and research avenues. It has become increasingly apparent that while we often wish to simplify our systems, we now require more complex multi-scale experiments and models in order to gain further insight into growth mechanics. We are currently experiencing an exciting and challenging shift in the foundations of our understanding of cell wall mechanics in growth and development. PMID:26799133

  9. Plant cell wall extensibility: connecting plant cell growth with cell wall structure, mechanics, and the action of wall-modifying enzymes.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    The advent of user-friendly instruments for measuring force/deflection curves of plant surfaces at high spatial resolution has resulted in a recent outpouring of reports of the 'Young's modulus' of plant cell walls. The stimulus for these mechanical measurements comes from biomechanical models of morphogenesis of meristems and other tissues, as well as single cells, in which cell wall stress feeds back to regulate microtubule organization, auxin transport, cellulose deposition, and future growth directionality. In this article I review the differences between elastic modulus and wall extensibility in the context of cell growth. Some of the inherent complexities, assumptions, and potential pitfalls in the interpretation of indentation force/deflection curves are discussed. Reported values of elastic moduli from surface indentation measurements appear to be 10- to >1000-fold smaller than realistic tensile elastic moduli in the plane of plant cell walls. Potential reasons for this disparity are discussed, but further work is needed to make sense of the huge range in reported values. The significance of wall stress relaxation for growth is reviewed and connected to recent advances and remaining enigmas in our concepts of how cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectins are assembled to make an extensible cell wall. A comparison of the loosening action of α-expansin and Cel12A endoglucanase is used to illustrate two different ways in which cell walls may be made more extensible and the divergent effects on wall mechanics. PMID:26608646

  10. Two endogenous proteins that induce cell wall extension in plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McQueen-Mason, S.; Durachko, D. M.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    Plant cell enlargement is regulated by wall relaxation and yielding, which is thought to be catalyzed by elusive "wall-loosening" enzymes. By employing a reconstitution approach, we found that a crude protein extract from the cell walls of growing cucumber seedlings possessed the ability to induce the extension of isolated cell walls. This activity was restricted to the growing region of the stem and could induce the extension of isolated cell walls from various dicot stems and the leaves of amaryllidaceous monocots, but was less effective on grass coleoptile walls. Endogenous and reconstituted wall extension activities showed similar sensitivities to pH, metal ions, thiol reducing agents, proteases, and boiling in methanol or water. Sequential HPLC fractionation of the active wall extract revealed two proteins with molecular masses of 29 and 30 kD associated with the activity. Each protein, by itself, could induce wall extension without detectable hydrolytic breakdown of the wall. These proteins appear to mediate "acid growth" responses of isolated walls and may catalyze plant cell wall extension by a novel biochemical mechanism.

  11. The Hermes transposon of Musca domestica and its use as a mutagen of Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung M.; Evertts, Adam G.; Levin, Henry L.

    2009-01-01

    Transposon mutagenesis allows for the discovery and characterization of genes by creating mutations that can be easily mapped and sequenced. Moreover, this method allows for a relatively unbiased approach to isolating genes of interest. Recently, a system of transposon based mutagenesis for Schizosaccharomyces pombe became available. This mutagenesis relies on Hermes, a DNA transposon from the house fly that readily integrates into the chromosomes of S. pombe. The Hermes system is distinct from the retrotransposons of S. pombe because it efficiently integrates into open reading frames. To mutagenize S. pombe, cells are transformed with a plasmid that contains a drug resistance marker flanked by the terminal inverted repeats of Hermes. The Hermes transposase expressed from a second plasmid excises the resistance marker with the inverted repeats and inserts this DNA into chromosomal sites. After S. pombe with these two plasmids grow 25 generations, approximately 2% of the cells contain insertions. Of the cells with insertions, 68% contain single integration events. The protocols listed here provide the detailed information necessary to mutagenize a strain of interest, screen for specific phenotypes, and sequence the positions of insertion. PMID:19450689

  12. The Hermes transposon of Musca domestica and its use as a mutagen of Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung M; Evertts, Adam G; Levin, Henry L

    2009-11-01

    Transposon mutagenesis allows for the discovery and characterization of genes by creating mutations that can be easily mapped and sequenced. Moreover, this method allows for a relatively unbiased approach to isolating genes of interest. Recently, a system of transposon based mutagenesis for Schizosaccharomyces pombe became available. This mutagenesis relies on Hermes, a DNA transposon from the house fly that readily integrates into the chromosomes of S. pombe. The Hermes system is distinct from the retrotransposons of S. pombe because it efficiently integrates into open reading frames. To mutagenize S. pombe, cells are transformed with a plasmid that contains a drug resistance marker flanked by the terminal inverted repeats of Hermes. The Hermes transposase expressed from a second plasmid excises the resistance marker with the inverted repeats and inserts this DNA into chromosomal sites. After S. pombe with these two plasmids grow 25 generations, approximately 2% of the cells contain insertions. Of the cells with insertions, 68% contain single integration events. The protocols listed here provide the detailed information necessary to mutagenize a strain of interest, screen for specific phenotypes, and sequence the positions of insertion. PMID:19450689

  13. (The structure of pectins from cotton suspension culture cell walls)

    SciTech Connect

    Mort, A.

    1990-01-01

    We have made progress on several projects to do with determining the structure of pectins. These include: (1) Devising a new sensitive method to determine the degree of methyl esterification (DOM) of pectins; (2) solubilization of all of RGI from cotton cell walls; (3) solubilization of RGII from cotton cell walls; (4) characterization of xyloglucan from cotton cell walls; and (5) investigation giving an indication of a cross-link between extension and pectin.

  14. Lignin Formation in Wheat Coleoptile Cell Walls

    PubMed Central

    Whitmore, F. W.

    1971-01-01

    Four growth-influencing compounds—hydroxyproline, 2,2′-dipyridyl, 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid, and indoleacetic acid—were used to examine the relationship between lignin formation and growth of wheat coleoptile sections. Hydroxyproline and 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid, at low concentrations, inhibited growth and increased lignin content. Dipyridyl, which promoted coleoptile elongation, decreased lignin content. Indoleacetic acid caused a 300% increase in growth at 0.1 mm but resulted in lignin content no different from controls with no auxin. Chemical and anatomical evidence is given which indicates that lignin is present in the epidermal cell walls of the wheat coleoptile. It is thus possible that bonding between lignin and hemicellulose may have some influence on coleoptile growth. Images PMID:16657843

  15. An arabidopsis gene regulatory network for secondary cell wall synthesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The plant cell wall is an important factor for determining cell shape, function and response to the environment. Secondary cell walls, such as those found in xylem, are composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin and account for the bulk of plant biomass. The coordination between transcriptiona...

  16. The plant cell wall integrity maintenance mechanism--a case study of a cell wall plasma membrane signaling network.

    PubMed

    Hamann, Thorsten

    2015-04-01

    Some of the most important functions of plant cell walls are protection against biotic/abiotic stress and structural support during growth and development. A prerequisite for plant cell walls to perform these functions is the ability to perceive different types of stimuli in both qualitative and quantitative manners and initiate appropriate responses. The responses in turn involve adaptive changes in cellular and cell wall metabolism leading to modifications in the structures originally required for perception. While our knowledge about the underlying plant mechanisms is limited, results from Saccharomyces cerevisiae suggest the cell wall integrity maintenance mechanism represents an excellent example to illustrate how the molecular mechanisms responsible for stimulus perception, signal transduction and integration can function. Here I will review the available knowledge about the yeast cell wall integrity maintenance system for illustration purposes, summarize the limited knowledge available about the corresponding plant mechanism and discuss the relevance of the plant cell wall integrity maintenance mechanism in biotic stress responses. PMID:25446233

  17. Cell wall structure and biogenesis in Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Yoshimi, Akira; Miyazawa, Ken; Abe, Keietsu

    2016-09-01

    Aspergillus species are among the most important filamentous fungi from the viewpoints of industry, pathogenesis, and mycotoxin production. Fungal cells are exposed to a variety of environmental stimuli, including changes in osmolality, temperature, and pH, which create stresses that primarily act on fungal cell walls. In addition, fungal cell walls are the first interactions with host cells in either human or plants. Thus, understanding cell wall structure and the mechanism of their biogenesis is important for the industrial, medical, and agricultural fields. Here, we provide a systematic review of fungal cell wall structure and recent findings regarding the cell wall integrity signaling pathways in aspergilli. This accumulated knowledge will be useful for understanding and improving the use of industrial aspergilli fermentation processes as well as treatments for some fungal infections. PMID:27140698

  18. Visualization of cellulose synthases in Arabidopsis secondary cell walls.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Y; Meents, M J; McDonnell, L M; Barkwill, S; Sampathkumar, A; Cartwright, H N; Demura, T; Ehrhardt, D W; Samuels, A L; Mansfield, S D

    2015-10-01

    Cellulose biosynthesis in plant secondary cell walls forms the basis of vascular development in land plants, with xylem tissues constituting the vast majority of terrestrial biomass. We used plant lines that contained an inducible master transcription factor controlling xylem cell fate to quantitatively image fluorescently tagged cellulose synthase enzymes during cellulose deposition in living protoxylem cells. The formation of secondary cell wall thickenings was associated with a redistribution and enrichment of CESA7-containing cellulose synthase complexes (CSCs) into narrow membrane domains. The velocities of secondary cell wall-specific CSCs were faster than those of primary cell wall CSCs during abundant cellulose production. Dynamic intracellular of endomembranes, in combination with increased velocity and high density of CSCs, enables cellulose to be synthesized rapidly in secondary cell walls. PMID:26450210

  19. Increased Cell-Wall Extensibility in Elevated CO2 and O3 Indicates Modification of Leaf Cell-Wall Structure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean leaf size is increased by growth in elevated [CO2] and decreased in elevated [O3]. The mechanism likely involves changes in cell biophysical properties. Cell growth rate is a function of cell-wall extensibility, a measure of how easily the wall expands in response to turgor. Modification of...

  20. cps1+, a Schizosaccharomyces pombe gene homolog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae FKS genes whose mutation confers hypersensitivity to cyclosporin A and papulacandin B.

    PubMed Central

    Ishiguro, J; Saitou, A; Durán, A; Ribas, J C

    1997-01-01

    The Schizosaccharomyces pombe cps1-12 (for chlorpropham supersensitive) mutant strain was originally isolated as hypersensitive to the spindle poison isopropyl N-3-chlorophenyl carbamate (chlorpropham) (J. Ishiguro and Y. Uhara, Jpn. J. Genet. 67:97-109, 1992). We have found that the cps1-12 mutation also confers (i) hypersensitivity to the immunosuppressant cyclosporin A (CsA), (ii) hypersensitivity to the drug papulacandin B, which specifically inhibits 1,3-beta-D-glucan synthesis both in vivo and in vitro, and (iii) thermosensitive growth at 37 degrees C. Under any of these restrictive treatments, cells swell up and finally lyse. With an osmotic stabilizer, cells do not lyse, but at 37 degrees C they become multiseptated and multibranched. The cps1-12 mutant, grown at a restrictive temperature, showed an increase in sensitivity to lysis by enzymatic cell wall degradation, in in vitro 1,3-beta-D-glucan synthase activity (173% in the absence of GTP in the reaction), and in cell wall biosynthesis (130% of the wild-type amount). Addition of Ca2+ suppresses hypersensitivity to papulacandin B and septation and branching phenotypes. All of these data suggest a relationship between the cps1+ gene and cell wall synthesis. A DNA fragment containing the cps1+ gene was cloned, and sequence analysis indicated that it encodes a predicted membrane protein of 1,729 amino acids with 15 to 16 transmembrane domains. S. pombe cps1p has overall 55% sequence identity with Fks1p or Fks2p, proposed to be catalytic or associated subunits of Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1,3-beta-D-glucan synthase. Thus, the cps1+ product might be a catalytic or an associated copurifying subunit of the fission yeast 1,3-beta-D-glucan synthase that plays an essential role in cell wall synthesis. PMID:9401022

  1. Influence of polyethylene glycol on the size of Schizosaccharomyces pombe electropores

    SciTech Connect

    Hood, M.T.; Stachow, C. )

    1992-04-01

    The role of polyethylene glycol (PEG) in the transformation of Schizosaccharomyces pombe by electroporation is investigated by fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran uptake and transformation studies. It is shown that when S. pombe cells are electroporated in the presence of PEG, the permeability state created is sustained until removal of PEG. In addition, the permeability of electroporated S. pombe envelopes is further increased with longer incubation times in PEG. The increased permeability is apparently a result of enlarged pores (electropores) due to the presence of PEG. Comparison of a heat pulse transformation protocol with electroporation suggests a second role for PEG in the uptake of macromolecules. Since pores are not thought to be created during a heat pulse, the PEG may be facilitating the uptake of plasmid DNA. This facilitation of uptake would also be expected to affect DNA uptake by electroporated cells.

  2. Essential Role for Schizosaccharomyces pombe pik1 in Septation

    PubMed Central

    Desautels, Michel; Hemmingsen, Sean M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Schizosaccharomyces pombe pik1 encodes a phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase, reported to bind Cdc4, but not Cdc4G107S. Principal Findings Gene deletion revealed that pik1 is essential. In cells with pik1 deleted, ectopic expression of a loss-of-function allele, created by fusion to a temperature-sensitive dihydrofolate reductase, allowed normal cell proliferation at 25°C. At 36°C, cells arrested with abnormally thick, misplaced or supernumerary septa, indicating a defect late in septation. In addition to being Golgi associated, ectopically expressed GFP-tagged Pik1 was observed at the medial cell plane late in cytokinesis. New alleles, created by site-directed mutagenesis, were expressed ectopically. Lipid kinase and Cdc4-binding activity assays were performed. Pik1D709A was kinase-dead, but bound Cdc4. Pik1R838A did not bind Cdc4, but was an active kinase. Genomic integration of these substitutions in S. pombe and complementation studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae pik1-101 cells revealed that D709 is essential in both cases while R838 is dispensable. In S. pombe, ectopic expression of pik1 was dominantly lethal; while, pik1D709A,R838A was innocuous, pik1R838A was almost innocuous, and pik1D709A produced partial lethality and septation defects. The pik1 ectopic expression lethal phenotype was suppressed in cdc4G107S. Thus, D709 is essential for kinase activity and septation. Conclusions Pik1 kinase activity is required for septation. The Pik1 R838 residue is required for important protein-protein interactions, possibly with Cdc4. PMID:19587793

  3. Preparation of Cell Wall Antigens of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, J. J.; Tipper, Donald J.; Berman, David T.

    1970-01-01

    Cell walls were prepared from Staphylococcus aureus strains Copenhagen and 263 by high-speed mixing in the presence of glass beads followed by differential centrifugation. Insoluble peptidoglycan complexes were derived from cell walls by extraction of teichoic acid with 10% trichloroacetic acid. Intact teichoic acid was prepared from each strain by digestion of cell walls with lysostaphin and isolated by column chromatography. Soluble glycopeptide (peptidoglycan in which only the glycan has been fragmented) and the stable complex of teichoic acid with glycopeptide were prepared by digestion of cell walls with Chalaropsis B endo-N-acetylmuramidase and were separated by column chromatography. Amino acid and amino sugar contents of walls and subunits of walls were comparable to those reported by others. Images PMID:16557799

  4. Characterisation of Schizosaccharomyces pombe α-actinin

    PubMed Central

    Addario, Barbara; Sandblad, Linda; Persson, Karina

    2016-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton plays a fundamental role in eukaryotic cells. Its reorganization is regulated by a plethora of actin-modulating proteins, such as a-actinin. In higher organisms, α-actinin is characterized by the presence of three distinct structural domains: an N-terminal actin-binding domain and a C-terminal region with EF-hand motif separated by a central rod domain with four spectrin repeats. Sequence analysis has revealed that the central rod domain of α-actinin from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe consists of only two spectrin repeats. To obtain a firmer understanding of the structure and function of this unconventional α-actinin, we have cloned and characterized each structural domain. Our results show that this a-actinin isoform is capable of forming dimers and that the rod domain is required for this. However, its actin-binding and cross-linking activity appears less efficient compared to conventional α-actinins. The solved crystal structure of the actin-binding domain indicates that the closed state is stabilised by hydrogen bonds and a salt bridge not present in other α-actinins, which may reduce the affinity for actin. PMID:27069798

  5. Assembly and enlargement of the primary cell wall in plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1997-01-01

    Growing plant cells are shaped by an extensible wall that is a complex amalgam of cellulose microfibrils bonded noncovalently to a matrix of hemicelluloses, pectins, and structural proteins. Cellulose is synthesized by complexes in the plasma membrane and is extruded as a self-assembling microfibril, whereas the matrix polymers are secreted by the Golgi apparatus and become integrated into the wall network by poorly understood mechanisms. The growing wall is under high tensile stress from cell turgor and is able to enlarge by a combination of stress relaxation and polymer creep. A pH-dependent mechanism of wall loosening, known as acid growth, is characteristic of growing walls and is mediated by a group of unusual wall proteins called expansins. Expansins appear to disrupt the noncovalent bonding of matrix hemicelluloses to the microfibril, thereby allowing the wall to yield to the mechanical forces generated by cell turgor. Other wall enzymes, such as (1-->4) beta-glucanases and pectinases, may make the wall more responsive to expansin-mediated wall creep whereas pectin methylesterases and peroxidases may alter the wall so as to make it resistant to expansin-mediated creep.

  6. Structural Studies of Complex Carbohydrates of Plant Cell Walls

    SciTech Connect

    Darvill, Alan; Hahn, Michael G.; O'Neill, Malcolm A.; York, William S.

    2015-02-17

    Most of the solar energy captured by land plants is converted into the polysaccharides (cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin) that are the predominant components of the cell wall. These walls, which account for the bulk of plant biomass, have numerous roles in the growth and development of plants. Moreover, these walls have a major impact on human life as they are a renewable source of biomass, a source of diverse commercially useful polymers, a major component of wood, and a source of nutrition for humans and livestock. Thus, understanding the molecular mechanisms that lead to wall assembly and how cell walls and their component polysaccharides contribute to plant growth and development is essential to improve and extend the productivity and value of plant materials. The proposed research will develop and apply advanced analytical and immunological techniques to study specific changes in the structures and interactions of the hemicellulosic and pectic polysaccharides that occur during differentiation and in response to genetic modification and chemical treatments that affect wall biosynthesis. These new techniques will make it possible to accurately characterize minute amounts of cell wall polysaccharides so that subtle changes in structure that occur in individual cell types can be identified and correlated to the physiological or developmental state of the plant. Successful implementation of this research will reveal fundamental relationships between polysaccharide structure, cell wall architecture, and cell wall functions.

  7. Engineering the Oryza sativa cell wall with rice NAC transcription factors regulating secondary wall formation

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Kouki; Sakamoto, Shingo; Kawai, Tetsushi; Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Sato, Kazuhito; Ichinose, Yasunori; Yaoi, Katsuro; Akiyoshi-Endo, Miho; Sato, Hiroko; Takamizo, Tadashi; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru; Mitsuda, Nobutaka

    2013-01-01

    Plant tissues that require structural rigidity synthesize a thick, strong secondary cell wall of lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses in a complicated bridged structure. Master regulators of secondary wall synthesis were identified in dicots, and orthologs of these regulators have been identified in monocots, but regulation of secondary cell wall formation in monocots has not been extensively studied. Here we demonstrate that the rice transcription factors SECONDARY WALL NAC DOMAIN PROTEINs (SWNs) can regulate secondary wall formation in rice (Oryza sativa) and are potentially useful for engineering the monocot cell wall. The OsSWN1 promoter is highly active in sclerenchymatous cells of the leaf blade and less active in xylem cells. By contrast, the OsSWN2 promoter is highly active in xylem cells and less active in sclerenchymatous cells. OsSWN2 splicing variants encode two proteins; the shorter protein (OsSWN2S) has very low transcriptional activation ability, but the longer protein (OsSWN2L) and OsSWN1 have strong transcriptional activation ability. In rice, expression of an OsSWN2S chimeric repressor, driven by the OsSWN2 promoter, resulted in stunted growth and para-wilting (leaf rolling and browning under normal water conditions) due to impaired vascular vessels. The same OsSWN2S chimeric repressor, driven by the OsSWN1 promoter, caused a reduction of cell wall thickening in sclerenchymatous cells, a drooping leaf phenotype, reduced lignin and xylose contents and increased digestibility as forage. These data suggest that OsSWNs regulate secondary wall formation in rice and manipulation of OsSWNs may enable improvements in monocotyledonous crops for forage or biofuel applications. PMID:24098302

  8. Engineering the Oryza sativa cell wall with rice NAC transcription factors regulating secondary wall formation.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kouki; Sakamoto, Shingo; Kawai, Tetsushi; Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Sato, Kazuhito; Ichinose, Yasunori; Yaoi, Katsuro; Akiyoshi-Endo, Miho; Sato, Hiroko; Takamizo, Tadashi; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru; Mitsuda, Nobutaka

    2013-01-01

    Plant tissues that require structural rigidity synthesize a thick, strong secondary cell wall of lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses in a complicated bridged structure. Master regulators of secondary wall synthesis were identified in dicots, and orthologs of these regulators have been identified in monocots, but regulation of secondary cell wall formation in monocots has not been extensively studied. Here we demonstrate that the rice transcription factors SECONDARY WALL NAC DOMAIN PROTEINs (SWNs) can regulate secondary wall formation in rice (Oryza sativa) and are potentially useful for engineering the monocot cell wall. The OsSWN1 promoter is highly active in sclerenchymatous cells of the leaf blade and less active in xylem cells. By contrast, the OsSWN2 promoter is highly active in xylem cells and less active in sclerenchymatous cells. OsSWN2 splicing variants encode two proteins; the shorter protein (OsSWN2S) has very low transcriptional activation ability, but the longer protein (OsSWN2L) and OsSWN1 have strong transcriptional activation ability. In rice, expression of an OsSWN2S chimeric repressor, driven by the OsSWN2 promoter, resulted in stunted growth and para-wilting (leaf rolling and browning under normal water conditions) due to impaired vascular vessels. The same OsSWN2S chimeric repressor, driven by the OsSWN1 promoter, caused a reduction of cell wall thickening in sclerenchymatous cells, a drooping leaf phenotype, reduced lignin and xylose contents and increased digestibility as forage. These data suggest that OsSWNs regulate secondary wall formation in rice and manipulation of OsSWNs may enable improvements in monocotyledonous crops for forage or biofuel applications. PMID:24098302

  9. Methods for degrading or converting plant cell wall polysaccharides

    DOEpatents

    Berka, Randy; Cherry, Joel

    2008-08-19

    The present invention relates to methods for converting plant cell wall polysaccharides into one or more products, comprising: treating the plant cell wall polysaccharides with an effective amount of a spent whole fermentation broth of a recombinant microorganism, wherein the recombinant microorganism expresses one or more heterologous genes encoding enzymes which degrade or convert the plant cell wall polysaccharides into the one or more products. The present invention also relates to methods for producing an organic substance, comprising: (a) saccharifying plant cell wall polysaccharides with an effective amount of a spent whole fermentation broth of a recombinant microorganism, wherein the recombinant microorganism expresses one or more heterologous genes encoding enzymes which degrade or convert the plant cell wall polysaccharides into saccharified material; (b) fermenting the saccharified material of step (a) with one or more fermenting microoganisms; and (c) recovering the organic substance from the fermentation.

  10. Tissue-specific cell wall hydration in sugarcane stalks.

    PubMed

    Maziero, Priscila; Jong, Jennifer; Mendes, Fernanda M; Gonçalves, Adilson R; Eder, Michaela; Driemeier, Carlos

    2013-06-19

    Plant cell walls contain water, especially under biological and wet processing conditions. The present work characterizes this water in tissues of sugarcane stalks. Environmental scanning electron microscopy shows tissue deformation upon drying. Dynamic vapor sorption determines the equilibrium and kinetics of moisture uptake. Thermoporometry by differential scanning calorimetry quantifies water in nanoscale pores. Results show that cell walls from top internodes of stalks are more deformable, slightly more sorptive to moisture, and substantially more porous. These differences of top internode are attributed to less lignified walls, which is confirmed by lower infrared spectral signal from aromatics. Furthermore, cell wall nanoscale porosity, an architectural and not directly compositional characteristic, is shown to be tissue-specific. Nanoscale porosities are ranked as follows: pith parenchyma > pith vascular bundles > rind. This ranking coincides with wall reactivity and digestibility in grasses, suggesting that nanoscale porosity is a major determinant of wall recalcitrance. PMID:23738592

  11. The role of wall calcium in the extension of cell walls of soybean hypocotyls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Virk, S. S.; Cleland, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    Calcium crosslinks are load-bearing bonds in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) hypocotyl cell walls, but they are not the same load-bearing bonds that are broken during acid-mediated cell elongation. This conclusion is reached by studying the relationship between wall calcium, pH and the facilitated creep of frozen-thawed soybean hypocotyl sections. Supporting data include the following observations: 1) 2-[(2-bis-[carboxymethyl]amino-5-methylphenoxy)methyl]-6-methoxy-8-bis[car boxymethyl]aminoquinoline (Quin 2) and ethylene glycol-bis(2-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) caused only limited facilitated creep as compared with acid, despite removal of comparable or larger amounts of wall calcium; 2) the pH-response curves for calcium removal and acid-facilitated creep were different; 3) reversible acid-extension occurred even after removal of almost all wall calcium with Quin 2; and 4) growth of abraded sections did not involve a proportional loss of wall calcium. Removal of wall calcium, however, increased the capacity of the walls to undergo acid-facilitated creep. These data indicate that breakage of calcium crosslinks is not a major mechanism of cell-wall loosening in soybean hypocotyl tissues.

  12. The Interplay between Cell Wall Mechanical Properties and the Cell Cycle in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Richard G.; Turner, Robert D.; Mullin, Nic; Clarke, Nigel; Foster, Simon J.; Hobbs, Jamie K.

    2014-01-01

    The nanoscale mechanical properties of live Staphylococcus aureus cells during different phases of growth were studied by atomic force microscopy. Indentation to different depths provided access to both local cell wall mechanical properties and whole-cell properties, including a component related to cell turgor pressure. Local cell wall properties were found to change in a characteristic manner throughout the division cycle. Splitting of the cell into two daughter cells followed a local softening of the cell wall along the division circumference, with the cell wall on either side of the division circumference becoming stiffer. Once exposed, the newly formed septum was found to be stiffer than the surrounding, older cell wall. Deeper indentations, which were affected by cell turgor pressure, did not show a change in stiffness throughout the division cycle, implying that enzymatic cell wall remodeling and local variations in wall properties are responsible for the evolution of cell shape through division. PMID:25468333

  13. Collenchyma: a versatile mechanical tissue with dynamic cell walls

    PubMed Central

    Leroux, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Background Collenchyma has remained in the shadow of commercially exploited mechanical tissues such as wood and fibres, and therefore has received little attention since it was first described. However, collenchyma is highly dynamic, especially compared with sclerenchyma. It is the main supporting tissue of growing organs with walls thickening during and after elongation. In older organs, collenchyma may become more rigid due to changes in cell wall composition or may undergo sclerification through lignification of newly deposited cell wall material. While much is known about the systematic and organographic distribution of collenchyma, there is rather less information regarding the molecular architecture and properties of its cell walls. Scope and conclusions This review summarizes several aspects that have not previously been extensively discussed including the origin of the term ‘collenchyma’ and the history of its typology. As the cell walls of collenchyma largely determine the dynamic characteristics of this tissue, I summarize the current state of knowledge regarding their structure and molecular composition. Unfortunately, to date, detailed studies specifically focusing on collenchyma cell walls have not been undertaken. However, generating a more detailed understanding of the structural and compositional modifications associated with the transition from plastic to elastic collenchyma cell wall properties is likely to provide significant insights into how specific configurations of cell wall polymers result in specific functional properties. This approach, focusing on architecture and functional properties, is likely to provide improved clarity on the controversial definition of collenchyma. PMID:22933416

  14. Characterisation of Eubacterium cell wall: peptidoglycan structure determines arthritogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, X; Rimpilainen, M; Toivanen, P

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To elucidate factors involved in the arthritogenicity of bacterial cell walls.
METHODS—For characterisation of an arthritogenic Eubacterium aerofaciens cell wall, peptidoglycan-polysaccharide (PG-PS) polymers were isolated by removing cell wall associated proteins (CWPs), PG and PS moieties were separated, and an attempt was made to de-O-acetylate PG-PS. The cell wall of E limosum was used as a non-arthritogenic control. The chemical composition of these cell wall preparations was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Also, their ability to resist lysozyme degradation and to sustain experimental chronic arthritis was tested.
RESULTS—The observations made with the cell wall of E aerofaciens, an anaerobic habitant of the human intestine, were compared with those reported from a pathogenic Streptococcus, showing that in both strains a complex consisting of PG-PS is required for the induction of chronic arthritis. The PS moiety most probably protects PG from enzyme degradation, allowing prolonged tissue persistence and leading to the chronic synovial inflammation. CWPs attached to PG-PS are not necessary for this function. O-Acetylation of PG, which is required for arthritogenicity of the streptococcal cell wall, seems not to be present in the arthritogenic E aerofaciens PG or only occurs to a small degree; attempts to de-O-acylate the E aerofaciens cell wall did not affect its arthritogenicity or lysozyme resistance.
CONCLUSION—The results obtained indicate that the source of bacterial cell wall plays no part in the chemical or structural requirements for PG to induce chronic cell wall arthritis in the rats; the chemical structure of the PG moiety is decisive.

 PMID:11171690

  15. Glucuronoarabinoxylan structure in the walls of Aechmea leaf chlorenchyma cells is related to wall strength.

    PubMed

    Ceusters, Johan; Londers, Elsje; Brijs, Kristof; Delcour, Jan A; De Proft, Maurice P

    2008-09-01

    In CAM-plants rising levels of malic acid in the early morning cause elevated turgor pressures in leaf chlorenchyma cells. Under specific conditions this process is lethal for sensitive plants resulting in chlorenchyma cell burst while other species can cope with these high pressures and do not show cell burst under comparable conditions. The non-cellulosic polysaccharide composition of chlorenchyma cell walls was investigated and compared in three cultivars of Aechmea with high sensitivity for chlorenchyma cell burst and three cultivars with low sensitivity. Chlorenchyma layers were cut from the leaf and the non-cellulosic carbohydrate fraction of the cell wall fraction was analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. Glucuronoarabinoxylans (GAXs) were the major non-cellulosic polysaccharides in Aechmea. The fine structure of these GAXs was strongly related to chlorenchyma wall strength. Chlorenchyma cell walls from cultivars with low sensitivity to cell burst were characterized by an A/X ratio of ca. 0.13 while those from cultivars with high sensitivity showed an A/X ratio of ca. 0.23. Xylose chains from cultivars with high cell burst sensitivity were ca. 40% more substituted with arabinose compared to cultivars with low sensitivity for cell burst. The results indicate a relationship in vivo between glucuronoarabinoxylan fine structure and chlorenchyma cell wall strength in Aechmea. The evidence obtained supports the hypothesis that GAXs with low degrees of substitution cross-link cellulose microfibrils, while GAXs with high degrees of substitution do not. A lower degree of arabinose substitution on the xylose backbone implies stronger cell walls and the possibility of withstanding higher internal turgor pressures without cell bursting. PMID:18632122

  16. Structure of plant cell walls: XIX. Isolation and characterization of wall polysaccharides from suspension-cultured Douglas fir cells

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.R.; McNeil, M.; Darvill, A.G.; Albersheim, P.

    1987-03-01

    The partial purification and characterization of cell wall polysaccharides isolated from suspension-cultured Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) cells are described. Extraction of isolated cell walls from 1.0 M LiCl solubilized pectic polysaccharides with glycosyl-linkage compositions similar to those of rhamnogalacturonans I and II, pectic polysaccharides isolated from walls of suspension-cultured sycamore cells. Treatment of LiCl-extracted Douglas fir walls with an endo-..cap alpha..-1,4-polygalacturonase released only small, additional amounts of pectic polysaccharide, which had a glycosyl-linkage composition similar to that of rhamnogalacturonan I. Xyloglucan oligosaccharides were released from the endo-..cap alpha..-1,4-polygalacturonase-treated walls by treatment with an endo-..beta..-1,4-glucanase. These oligosaccharides included hepta- and nonasaccharides similar or identical to those released from sycamore cell walls by the same enzyme, and structurally related octa- and decasaccharides similar to those isolated from various angiosperms. Finally, additional xyloglucan and small amounts of xylan were extracted from the endo-..beta..-1,4-glucanase-treated walls by 0.5 N NaOH. The xylan resembled that extracted by NaOH from dicot cell walls in that it contained 2,4- but not 3,4-linked xylosyl residues. In this study, a total of 15% of the cell wall was isolated as pectic material, 10% as xyloglucan, and less than 1% as xylan. The noncellulosic polysaccharides accounted for 25% of the cell walls, cellulose for 23%, protein for 34%, and ash for 5%, for a total of 88% of the cell wall.

  17. Method for protein tagging in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Petrescu-Dănilă, Elena; Voicu, Pia-Manuela; Poiţelea, M; Stoica, B; Stănescu, Raluca; Rusu, M

    2006-01-01

    Tagging is a useful method for the investigation of proteins. It allows the localization of the proteins in the cell, their purification in order to investigate their function and the determination of their expression. The aim of the present study was to tag the Rad32 protein of fission yeast (which is the homologue of Mre11 protein from humans) at its N-terminus. Rad32p as well as Mre11p are involved in the repair of DNA double strand breaks and in the DNA damage checkpoint. We carried out this tagging using the Cre-loxp recombination system. In a first step, a 2 kb DNA fragment was integrated upstream of the initiating codon of rad32 gene. This fragment encoded the TAP-tag (tandem affinity purification), a loxp site, a selectable marker (sup3-5), an exogenous promoter (nmt1) and a second loxp site, in this sequence. Following transformation of this DNA fragment into S. pombe cells, rad32 was under the control of the artificial promotor, which allows a controlled expression of the gene by thiamine. In a second step, the cells were transformed with a plasmid coding for Cre recombinase, which catalyses the excision of the DNA sequence between the two loxp sites, removing the marker and the artificial promotor. Thus the tag became attached to the rad32 gene upstream of the ATG, placing the gene under the control of its native promotor. The strain thus obtained will be subsequently used for evidencing the tagged protein by Western blotting and then for its purification in order to investigate its function. PMID:17802953

  18. Architecture and Biosynthesis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cell Wall

    PubMed Central

    Orlean, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The wall gives a Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell its osmotic integrity; defines cell shape during budding growth, mating, sporulation, and pseudohypha formation; and presents adhesive glycoproteins to other yeast cells. The wall consists of β1,3- and β1,6-glucans, a small amount of chitin, and many different proteins that may bear N- and O-linked glycans and a glycolipid anchor. These components become cross-linked in various ways to form higher-order complexes. Wall composition and degree of cross-linking vary during growth and development and change in response to cell wall stress. This article reviews wall biogenesis in vegetative cells, covering the structure of wall components and how they are cross-linked; the biosynthesis of N- and O-linked glycans, glycosylphosphatidylinositol membrane anchors, β1,3- and β1,6-linked glucans, and chitin; the reactions that cross-link wall components; and the possible functions of enzymatic and nonenzymatic cell wall proteins. PMID:23135325

  19. How cell wall complexity influences saccharification efficiency in Miscanthus sinensis.

    PubMed

    De Souza, Amanda P; Alvim Kamei, Claire L; Torres, Andres F; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Hahn, Michael G; Trindade, Luisa M; Buckeridge, Marcos S

    2015-07-01

    The production of bioenergy from grasses has been developing quickly during the last decade, with Miscanthus being among the most important choices for production of bioethanol. However, one of the key barriers to producing bioethanol is the lack of information about cell wall structure. Cell walls are thought to display compositional differences that lead to emergence of a very high level of complexity, resulting in great diversity in cell wall architectures. In this work, a set of different techniques was used to access the complexity of cell walls of different genotypes of Miscanthus sinensis in order to understand how they interfere with saccharification efficiency. Three genotypes of M. sinensis displaying different patterns of correlation between lignin content and saccharification efficiency were subjected to cell wall analysis by quantitative/qualitative analytical techniques such as monosaccharide composition, oligosaccharide profiling, and glycome profiling. When saccharification efficiency was correlated negatively with lignin, the structural features of arabinoxylan and xyloglucan were found to contribute positively to hydrolysis. In the absence of such correlation, different types of pectins, and some mannans contributed to saccharification efficiency. Different genotypes of M. sinensis were shown to display distinct interactions among their cell wall components, which seem to influence cell wall hydrolysis. PMID:25908240

  20. How cell wall complexity influences saccharification efficiency in Miscanthus sinensis

    PubMed Central

    De Souza, Amanda P.; Kamei, Claire L. Alvim; Torres, Andres F.; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Hahn, Michael G.; Trindade, Luisa M.; Buckeridge, Marcos S.

    2015-01-01

    The production of bioenergy from grasses has been developing quickly during the last decade, with Miscanthus being among the most important choices for production of bioethanol. However, one of the key barriers to producing bioethanol is the lack of information about cell wall structure. Cell walls are thought to display compositional differences that lead to emergence of a very high level of complexity, resulting in great diversity in cell wall architectures. In this work, a set of different techniques was used to access the complexity of cell walls of different genotypes of Miscanthus sinensis in order to understand how they interfere with saccharification efficiency. Three genotypes of M. sinensis displaying different patterns of correlation between lignin content and saccharification efficiency were subjected to cell wall analysis by quantitative/qualitative analytical techniques such as monosaccharide composition, oligosaccharide profiling, and glycome profiling. When saccharification efficiency was correlated negatively with lignin, the structural features of arabinoxylan and xyloglucan were found to contribute positively to hydrolysis. In the absence of such correlation, different types of pectins, and some mannans contributed to saccharification efficiency. Different genotypes of M. sinensis were shown to display distinct interactions among their cell wall components, which seem to influence cell wall hydrolysis. PMID:25908240

  1. Cell wall remodeling in mycorrhizal symbiosis: a way towards biotrophism

    PubMed Central

    Balestrini, Raffaella; Bonfante, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Cell walls are deeply involved in the molecular talk between partners during plant and microbe interactions, and their role in mycorrhizae, i.e., the widespread symbiotic associations established between plant roots and soil fungi, has been investigated extensively. All mycorrhizal interactions achieve full symbiotic functionality through the development of an extensive contact surface between the plant and fungal cells, where signals and nutrients are exchanged. The exchange of molecules between the fungal and the plant cytoplasm takes place both through their plasma membranes and their cell walls; a functional compartment, known as the symbiotic interface, is thus defined. Among all the symbiotic interfaces, the complex intracellular interface of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis has received a great deal of attention since its first description. Here, in fact, the host plasma membrane invaginates and proliferates around all the developing intracellular fungal structures, and cell wall material is laid down between this membrane and the fungal cell surface. By contrast, in ectomycorrhizae (ECM), where the fungus grows outside and between the root cells, plant and fungal cell walls are always in direct contact and form the interface between the two partners. The organization and composition of cell walls within the interface compartment is a topic that has attracted widespread attention, both in ecto- and endomycorrhizae. The aim of this review is to provide a general overview of the current knowledge on this topic by integrating morphological observations, which have illustrated cell wall features during mycorrhizal interactions, with the current data produced by genomic and transcriptomic approaches. PMID:24926297

  2. A proteomic and genetic analysis of the Neurospora crassa conidia cell wall proteins identifies two glycosyl hydrolases involved in cell wall remodeling.

    PubMed

    Ao, Jie; Aldabbous, Mash'el; Notaro, Marysa J; Lojacono, Mark; Free, Stephen J

    2016-09-01

    A proteomic analysis of the conidial cell wall identified 35 cell wall proteins. A comparison with the proteome of the vegetative hyphae showed that 16 cell wall proteins were shared, and that these shared cell wall proteins were cell wall biosynthetic proteins or cell wall structural proteins. Deletion mutants for 34 of the genes were analyzed for phenotypes indicative of conidial cell wall defects. Mutants for two cell wall glycosyl hydrolases, the CGL-1 β-1,3-glucanase (NCU07523) and the NAG-1 exochitinase (NCU10852), were found to have a conidial separation phenotype. These two enzymes function in remodeling the cell wall between adjacent conidia to facilitate conidia formation and dissemination. Using promoter::RFP and promoter::GFP constructs, we demonstrated that the promoters for 15 of the conidia-specific cell wall genes, including cgl-1 and nag-1, provided for conidia-specific gene expression or for a significant increase in their expression during conidiation. PMID:27381444

  3. Serine 26 in the PomB Subunit of the Flagellar Motor Is Essential for Hypermotility of Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Halang, Petra; Vorburger, Thomas; Steuber, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is motile by means of its single polar flagellum which is driven by the sodium-motive force. In the motor driving rotation of the flagellar filament, a stator complex consisting of subunits PomA and PomB converts the electrochemical sodium ion gradient into torque. Charged or polar residues within the membrane part of PomB could act as ligands for Na+, or stabilize a hydrogen bond network by interacting with water within the putative channel between PomA and PomB. By analyzing a large data set of individual tracks of swimming cells, we show that S26 located within the transmembrane helix of PomB is required to promote very fast swimming of V. cholerae. Loss of hypermotility was observed with the S26T variant of PomB at pH 7.0, but fast swimming was restored by decreasing the H+ concentration of the external medium. Our study identifies S26 as a second important residue besides D23 in the PomB channel. It is proposed that S26, together with D23 located in close proximity, is important to perturb the hydration shell of Na+ before its passage through a constriction within the stator channel. PMID:25874792

  4. A Genomewide Screen in Schizosaccharomyces pombe for Genes Affecting the Sensitivity of Antifungal Drugs That Target Ergosterol Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Lingling; Zhou, Xin; Jaiseng, Wurentuya; Zhang, Ben; Takami, Tomonori; Kuno, Takayoshi

    2012-01-01

    We performed a genomewide screen for altered sensitivity to antifungal drugs, including clotrimazole and terbinafine, that target ergosterol biosynthesis using a Schizosaccharomyces pombe gene deletion library consisting of 3,004 nonessential haploid deletion mutants. We identified 109 mutants that were hypersensitive and 11 mutants that were resistant to these antifungals. Proteins whose absence rendered cells sensitive to these antifungals were classified into various functional categories, including ergosterol biosynthesis, membrane trafficking, histone acetylation and deacetylation, ubiquitination, signal transduction, ribosome biosynthesis and assembly, regulation of transcription and translation, cell wall organization and biogenesis, mitochondrion function, amino acid metabolism, nucleic acid metabolism, lipid metabolism, meiosis, and other functions. Also, proteins whose absence rendered cells resistant to these antifungals were classified into functional categories including mitochondrion function, ubiquitination, membrane trafficking, cell polarity, chromatin remodeling, and some unknown functions. Furthermore, the 109 sensitive mutants were tested for sensitivity to micafungin, another antifungal drug that inhibits (1,3)-β-d-glucan synthase, and 57 hypersensitive mutants were identified, suggesting that these mutants were defective in cell wall integrity. Altogether, our findings in fission yeast have shed light on molecular pathways associated with the cellular response to ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitors and may provide useful information for developing strategies aimed at sensitizing cells to these drugs. PMID:22252817

  5. Plant expansins: diversity and interactions with plant cell walls

    PubMed Central

    Cosgrove, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Expansins were discovered two decades ago as cell wall proteins that mediate acid-induced growth by catalyzing loosening of plant cell walls without lysis of wall polymers. In the interim our understanding of expansins has gotten more complex through bioinformatic analysis of expansin distribution and evolution, as well as through expression analysis, dissection of the upstream transcription factors regulating expression, and identification of additional classes of expansin by sequence and structural similarities. Molecular analyses of expansins from bacteria have identified residues essential for wall loosening activity and clarified the bifunctional nature of expansin binding to complex cell walls. Transgenic modulation of expansin expression modifies growth and stress physiology of plants, but not always in predictable and even understandable ways. PMID:26057089

  6. Measurement of pectin methylation in plant cell walls

    SciTech Connect

    McFeeters, R.F.; Armstrong, S.A.

    1984-01-01

    A procedure was developed to measure the degree of pectin methylation in small samples of isolated cell walls from nonlignified plant tissues or pectin solutions. Galacturonic acid was determined colorimetrically with the 3,5-dimethylphenol reagent. Methylation was measured by base hydrolysis of galacturonic acid methyl esters, followed by gas chromatographic determination of released methanol. Estimates of the precision of analysis of pectin and cell wall samples were made. The coefficient of variation for estimates of the pectin esterification in cell walls isolated from 10-g samples of cucumber tissue ranged from 7.7 to 13.2%.

  7. On the growth of walled cells: From shells to vesicles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudaoud, Arezki

    2003-03-01

    The growth of isolated walled cells is investigated. Examples of such cells range from bacteria to giant algae, and include cochlear hair, plant root hair, fungi and yeast cells. They are modeled as elastic shells inflated by a liquid. Cell growth is driven by fluid pressure and is similar to a plastic deformation of the wall. The requirement of mechanical equilibrium leads to two new scaling laws for cell size that are in quantitative agreement with the compiled biological data. Given these results, possible shapes for growing cells are computed by analogy with those of vesicle membranes.

  8. Growth of Walled Cells: From Shells to Vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudaoud, Arezki

    2003-07-01

    The growth of isolated walled cells is investigated. Examples of such cells range from bacteria to giant algae, and include cochlear hair, plant root hair, fungi, and yeast cells. They are modeled as elastic shells containing a liquid. Cell growth is driven by fluid pressure and is is similar to a plastic deformation of the wall. The requirement of mechanical equilibrium leads to two new scaling laws for cell size that are in quantitative agreement with the compiled biological data. Given these results, possible shapes for growing cells are computed by analogy with those of vesicle membranes.

  9. An Arabidopsis Gene Regulatory Network for Secondary Cell Wall Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Taylor-Teeples, M; Lin, L; de Lucas, M; Turco, G; Toal, TW; Gaudinier, A; Young, NF; Trabucco, GM; Veling, MT; Lamothe, R; Handakumbura, PP; Xiong, G; Wang, C; Corwin, J; Tsoukalas, A; Zhang, L; Ware, D; Pauly, M; Kliebenstein, DJ; Dehesh, K; Tagkopoulos, I; Breton, G; Pruneda-Paz, JL; Ahnert, SE; Kay, SA; Hazen, SP; Brady, SM

    2014-01-01

    Summary The plant cell wall is an important factor for determining cell shape, function and response to the environment. Secondary cell walls, such as those found in xylem, are composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin and account for the bulk of plant biomass. The coordination between transcriptional regulation of synthesis for each polymer is complex and vital to cell function. A regulatory hierarchy of developmental switches has been proposed, although the full complement of regulators remains unknown. Here, we present a protein-DNA network between Arabidopsis transcription factors and secondary cell wall metabolic genes with gene expression regulated by a series of feed-forward loops. This model allowed us to develop and validate new hypotheses about secondary wall gene regulation under abiotic stress. Distinct stresses are able to perturb targeted genes to potentially promote functional adaptation. These interactions will serve as a foundation for understanding the regulation of a complex, integral plant component. PMID:25533953

  10. Characterization of O-mannosyltransferase family in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Naotaka; Fujita, Yasuko; Suzuki, Shotaro; Morishita, Masayo; Giga-Hama, Yuko; Shimoda, Chikashi; Takegawa, Kaoru

    2005-05-13

    Protein O-glycosylation is an essential protein modification in eukaryotic cells. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, O-mannosylation is initiated in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum by O-mannosyltransferase gene products (Pmt1p-7p). A search of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe genome database revealed a total of three O-glycoside mannosyltransferase homologs (ogm1+, ogm2+, and ogm4+), closely related to Saccharomyces cerevisiae PMT1, PMT2, and PMT4. Although individual ogm genes were not found to be essential, ogm1Delta and ogm4Delta mutants exhibited aberrant morphology and failed to agglutinate during mating. The phenotypes of the ogm4Delta mutant were not complemented by overexpression of ogm1+ or ogm2+, suggesting that each of the Ogm proteins does not have overlapping functions. Heterologous expression of a chitinase from S. cerevisiae in the ogm mutants revealed that O-glycosylation of chitinase had decreased in ogm1Delta cells. A GFP-tagged Fus1p from S. cerevisiae was specifically not glycosylated and accumulated in the Golgi in ogm4Delta cells. These results indicate that O-glycosylation initiated by Ogm proteins plays crucial physiological roles and can serve as a sorting determinant for protein transport of membrane glycoproteins in S. pombe. PMID:15809069

  11. Cell Wall Metabolism in Response to Abiotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Gall, Hyacinthe Le; Philippe, Florian; Domon, Jean-Marc; Gillet, Françoise; Pelloux, Jérôme; Rayon, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the responses of the plant cell wall to several abiotic stresses including drought, flooding, heat, cold, salt, heavy metals, light, and air pollutants. The effects of stress on cell wall metabolism are discussed at the physiological (morphogenic), transcriptomic, proteomic and biochemical levels. The analysis of a large set of data shows that the plant response is highly complex. The overall effects of most abiotic stress are often dependent on the plant species, the genotype, the age of the plant, the timing of the stress application, and the intensity of this stress. This shows the difficulty of identifying a common pattern of stress response in cell wall architecture that could enable adaptation and/or resistance to abiotic stress. However, in most cases, two main mechanisms can be highlighted: (i) an increased level in xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) and expansin proteins, associated with an increase in the degree of rhamnogalacturonan I branching that maintains cell wall plasticity and (ii) an increased cell wall thickening by reinforcement of the secondary wall with hemicellulose and lignin deposition. Taken together, these results show the need to undertake large-scale analyses, using multidisciplinary approaches, to unravel the consequences of stress on the cell wall. This will help identify the key components that could be targeted to improve biomass production under stress conditions. PMID:27135320

  12. Cell Wall Metabolism in Response to Abiotic Stress.

    PubMed

    Le Gall, Hyacinthe; Philippe, Florian; Domon, Jean-Marc; Gillet, Françoise; Pelloux, Jérôme; Rayon, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the responses of the plant cell wall to several abiotic stresses including drought, flooding, heat, cold, salt, heavy metals, light, and air pollutants. The effects of stress on cell wall metabolism are discussed at the physiological (morphogenic), transcriptomic, proteomic and biochemical levels. The analysis of a large set of data shows that the plant response is highly complex. The overall effects of most abiotic stress are often dependent on the plant species, the genotype, the age of the plant, the timing of the stress application, and the intensity of this stress. This shows the difficulty of identifying a common pattern of stress response in cell wall architecture that could enable adaptation and/or resistance to abiotic stress. However, in most cases, two main mechanisms can be highlighted: (i) an increased level in xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) and expansin proteins, associated with an increase in the degree of rhamnogalacturonan I branching that maintains cell wall plasticity and (ii) an increased cell wall thickening by reinforcement of the secondary wall with hemicellulose and lignin deposition. Taken together, these results show the need to undertake large-scale analyses, using multidisciplinary approaches, to unravel the consequences of stress on the cell wall. This will help identify the key components that could be targeted to improve biomass production under stress conditions. PMID:27135320

  13. Regulation of Meristem Morphogenesis by Cell Wall Synthases in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weibing; Schuster, Christoph; Beahan, Cherie T; Charoensawan, Varodom; Peaucelle, Alexis; Bacic, Antony; Doblin, Monika S; Wightman, Raymond; Meyerowitz, Elliot M

    2016-06-01

    The cell walls of the shoot apical meristem (SAM), containing the stem cell niche that gives rise to the above-ground tissues, are crucially involved in regulating differentiation. It is currently unknown how these walls are built and refined or their role, if any, in influencing meristem developmental dynamics. We have combined polysaccharide linkage analysis, immuno-labeling, and transcriptome profiling of the SAM to provide a spatiotemporal plan of the walls of this dynamic structure. We find that meristematic cells express only a core subset of 152 genes encoding cell wall glycosyltransferases (GTs). Systemic localization of all these GT mRNAs by in situ hybridization reveals members with either enrichment in or specificity to apical subdomains such as emerging flower primordia, and a large class with high expression in dividing cells. The highly localized and coordinated expression of GTs in the SAM suggests distinct wall properties of meristematic cells and specific differences between newly forming walls and their mature descendants. Functional analysis demonstrates that a subset of CSLD genes is essential for proper meristem maintenance, confirming the key role of walls in developmental pathways. PMID:27212401

  14. Multiple interactions among the components of the recombinational DNA repair system in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsui, Y; Khasanov, F K; Shinagawa, H; Iwasaki, H; Bashkirov, V I

    2001-01-01

    Schizosaccharomyces pombe Rhp55 and Rhp57 are RecA-like proteins involved in double-strand break (DSB) repair. Here we demonstrate that Rhp55 and Rhp57 proteins strongly interact in vivo, similar to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad55p and Rad57p. Mutations in the conserved ATP-binding/hydrolysis folds of both the Rhp55 and Rhp57 proteins impaired their function in DNA repair but not in cell proliferation. However, when combined, ATPase fold mutations in Rhp55p and Rhp57p resulted in severe defects of both functions, characteristic of the deletion mutants. Yeast two-hybrid analysis also revealed other multiple in vivo interactions among S. pombe proteins involved in recombinational DNA repair. Similar to S. cerevisiae Rad51p-Rad54p, S. pombe Rhp51p and Rhp54p were found to interact. Both putative Rad52 homologs in S. pombe, Rad22p and Rti1p, were found to interact with the C-terminal region of Rhp51 protein. Moreover, Rad22p and Rti1p exhibited mutual, as well as self-, interactions. In contrast to the S. cerevisiae interacting pair Rad51p-Rad55p, S. pombe Rhp51 protein strongly interacted with Rhp57 but not with Rhp55 protein. In addition, the Rti1 and Rad22 proteins were found to form a complex with the large subunit of S. pombe RPA. Our data provide compelling evidence that most, but not all, of the protein-protein interactions found in S. cerevisiae DSB repair are evolutionarily conserved. PMID:11560889

  15. Replication of centromere II of Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J G; Caddle, M S; Bulboaca, G H; Wohlgemuth, J G; Baum, M; Clarke, L; Calos, M P

    1995-01-01

    The centromeric DNAs of Schizosaccharomyces pombe chromosomes resemble those of higher eukaryotes in being large and composed predominantly of repeated sequences. To begin a detailed analysis of the mode of replication of a complex centromere, we examined whether any sequences within S. pombe centromere II (cen2) have the ability to mediate autonomous replication. We found a high density of segments with such activity, including at least eight different regions comprising most of the repeated and unique centromeric DNA elements. A physical mapping analysis using two-dimensional gels showed that autonomous replication initiated within the S. pombe sequences in each plasmid. A two-dimensional gel analysis of replication on the chromosomes revealed that the K and L repeat elements, which occur in multiple copies at all three centromeres and comprise approximately 70% of total centromeric DNA mass in S. pombe, are both sites of replication initiation. In contrast, the unique cen2 central core, which contains multiple segments that can support autonomous replication, appears to be repressed for initiation on the chromosome. We discuss the implications of these findings for our understanding of DNA replication and centromere function. PMID:7651433

  16. Cell Wall Composition, Biosynthesis and Remodeling during Pollen Tube Growth

    PubMed Central

    Mollet, Jean-Claude; Leroux, Christelle; Dardelle, Flavien; Lehner, Arnaud

    2013-01-01

    The pollen tube is a fast tip-growing cell carrying the two sperm cells to the ovule allowing the double fertilization process and seed setting. To succeed in this process, the spatial and temporal controls of pollen tube growth within the female organ are critical. It requires a massive cell wall deposition to promote fast pollen tube elongation and a tight control of the cell wall remodeling to modify the mechanical properties. In addition, during its journey, the pollen tube interacts with the pistil, which plays key roles in pollen tube nutrition, guidance and in the rejection of the self-incompatible pollen. This review focuses on our current knowledge in the biochemistry and localization of the main cell wall polymers including pectin, hemicellulose, cellulose and callose from several pollen tube species. Moreover, based on transcriptomic data and functional genomic studies, the possible enzymes involved in the cell wall remodeling during pollen tube growth and their impact on the cell wall mechanics are also described. Finally, mutant analyses have permitted to gain insight in the function of several genes involved in the pollen tube cell wall biosynthesis and their roles in pollen tube growth are further discussed. PMID:27137369

  17. A formin-nucleated actin aster concentrates cell wall hydrolases for cell fusion in fission yeast

    PubMed Central

    Dudin, Omaya; Bendezú, Felipe O.; Groux, Raphael; Laroche, Thierry; Seitz, Arne

    2015-01-01

    Cell–cell fusion is essential for fertilization. For fusion of walled cells, the cell wall must be degraded at a precise location but maintained in surrounding regions to protect against lysis. In fission yeast cells, the formin Fus1, which nucleates linear actin filaments, is essential for this process. In this paper, we show that this formin organizes a specific actin structure—the actin fusion focus. Structured illumination microscopy and live-cell imaging of Fus1, actin, and type V myosins revealed an aster of actin filaments whose barbed ends are focalized near the plasma membrane. Focalization requires Fus1 and type V myosins and happens asynchronously always in the M cell first. Type V myosins are essential for fusion and concentrate cell wall hydrolases, but not cell wall synthases, at the fusion focus. Thus, the fusion focus focalizes cell wall dissolution within a broader cell wall synthesis zone to shift from cell growth to cell fusion. PMID:25825517

  18. Modification of cell wall polysaccharides during retting of cassava roots.

    PubMed

    Ngolong Ngea, Guillaume Legrand; Guillon, Fabienne; Essia Ngang, Jean Justin; Bonnin, Estelle; Bouchet, Brigitte; Saulnier, Luc

    2016-12-15

    Retting is an important step in traditional cassava processing that involves tissue softening of the roots to transform the cassava into flour and various food products. The tissue softening that occurs during retting was attributed to the degradation of cell wall pectins through the action of pectin-methylesterase and pectate-lyase that possibly originated from a microbial source or the cassava plant itself. Changes in cell wall composition were investigated during retting using chemical analysis, specific glycanase degradation and immuno-labelling of cell wall polysaccharides. Pectic 1,4-β-d-galactan was the main cell wall polysaccharide affected during the retting of cassava roots. This result suggested that better control of pectic galactan degradation and a better understanding of the degradation mechanism by endogenous endo-galactanase and/or exogenous microbial enzymes might contribute to improve the texture properties of cassava products. PMID:27451197

  19. Plant cell wall characterization using scanning probe microscopy techniques

    PubMed Central

    Yarbrough, John M; Himmel, Michael E; Ding, Shi-You

    2009-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is today considered a promising renewable resource for bioenergy production. A combined chemical and biological process is currently under consideration for the conversion of polysaccharides from plant cell wall materials, mainly cellulose and hemicelluloses, to simple sugars that can be fermented to biofuels. Native plant cellulose forms nanometer-scale microfibrils that are embedded in a polymeric network of hemicelluloses, pectins, and lignins; this explains, in part, the recalcitrance of biomass to deconstruction. The chemical and structural characteristics of these plant cell wall constituents remain largely unknown today. Scanning probe microscopy techniques, particularly atomic force microscopy and its application in characterizing plant cell wall structure, are reviewed here. We also further discuss future developments based on scanning probe microscopy techniques that combine linear and nonlinear optical techniques to characterize plant cell wall nanometer-scale structures, specifically apertureless near-field scanning optical microscopy and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy. PMID:19703302

  20. Evolution and development of cell walls in cereal grains

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Rachel A.; Fincher, Geoffrey B.

    2014-01-01

    The composition of cell walls in cereal grains and other grass species differs markedly from walls in seeds of other plants. In the maternal tissues that surround the embryo and endosperm of the grain, walls contain higher levels of cellulose and in many cases are heavily lignified. This may be contrasted with walls of the endosperm, where the amount of cellulose is relatively low, and the walls are generally not lignified. The low cellulose and lignin contents are possible because the walls of the endosperm perform no load-bearing function in the mature grain and indeed the low levels of these relatively intractable wall components are necessary because they allow rapid degradation of the walls following germination of the grain. The major non-cellulosic components of endosperm walls are usually heteroxylans and (1,3;1,4)-β-glucans, with lower levels of xyloglucans, glucomannans, and pectic polysaccharides. Pectic polysaccharides and xyloglucans are the major non-cellulosic wall constituents in most dicot species, in which (1,3;1,4)-β-glucans are usually absent and heteroxylans are found at relatively low levels. Thus, the “core” non-cellulosic wall polysaccharides in grain of the cereals and other grasses are the heteroxylans and, more specifically, arabinoxylans. The (1,3;1,4)-β-glucans appear in the endosperm of some grass species but are essentially absent from others; they may constitute from zero to more than 45% of the cell walls of the endosperm, depending on the species. It is clear that in some cases these (1,3;1,4)-β-glucans function as a major store of metabolizable glucose in the grain. Cereal grains and their constituent cell wall polysaccharides are centrally important as a source of dietary fiber in human societies and breeders have started to select for high levels of non-cellulosic wall polysaccharides in grain. To meet end-user requirements, it is important that we understand cell wall biology in the grain both during development and

  1. Construction, molecular modeling, and simulation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell walls.

    PubMed

    Hong, Xuan; Hopfinger, A J

    2004-01-01

    The mycobacterial cell wall is extraordinarily thick and tight consisting mainly of (1). long chain fatty acids, the mycolic acids, and (2). a unique polysaccharide, arabinogalactan (AG). These two chemical constituents are covalently linked through ester bonds. Minnikin (The Biology of the Mycobacteria; Academic: London, 1982) proposed that the mycobacterial cell wall is composed of an asymmetric lipid bilayer. The inner leaflet of the cell wall contains mycolic acids covalently linked to AG. This inner leaflet is believed to have the lowest permeability to organic compounds of the overall cell wall. Conformational search and molecular dynamics simulation were used to explore the conformational profile of AG and the conformations and structural organization of the mycolic acid-AG complex, and overall, an inner leaflet molecular model of the cell wall was constructed. The terminal arabinose residues of AG that serve as linkers between AG and mycolic acids were found to exist in four major chemical configurations. The mycolate hydrocarbon chains were determined to be tightly packed and perpendicular to the "plane" formed by the oxygen atoms of the 5-hydroxyl groups of the terminal arabinose residues. For Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the average packing distance between mycolic acids is estimated to be approximately 7.3 A. Thus, Minnikin's model is supported by this computational study. Overall, this modeling and simulation approach provides a way to probe the mechanism of low permeability of the cell wall and the intrinsic drug resistance of M. tuberculosis. In addition, monolayer models were built for both dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine and dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine, two common phospholipids in bacterial and animal membranes, respectively. Structural comparisons of these cell wall phospholipid membrane models were made to the M. tuberculosis cell wall model. PMID:15132700

  2. An improved protocol to study the plant cell wall proteome

    PubMed Central

    Printz, Bruno; Dos Santos Morais, Raphaël; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Sergeant, Kjell; Lutts, Stanley; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Renaut, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Cell wall proteins were extracted from alfalfa stems according to a three-steps extraction procedure using sequentially CaCl2, EGTA, and LiCl-complemented buffers. The efficiency of this protocol for extracting cell wall proteins was compared with the two previously published methods optimized for alfalfa stem cell wall protein analysis. Following LC-MS/MS analysis the three-steps extraction procedure resulted in the identification of the highest number of cell wall proteins (242 NCBInr identifiers) and gave the lowest percentage of non-cell wall proteins (about 30%). However, the three protocols are rather complementary than substitutive since 43% of the identified proteins were specific to one protocol. This three-step protocol was therefore selected for a more detailed proteomic characterization using 2D-gel electrophoresis. With this technique, 75% of the identified proteins were shown to be fraction-specific and 72.7% were predicted as belonging to the cell wall compartment. Although, being less sensitive than LC-MS/MS approaches in detecting and identifying low-abundant proteins, gel-based approaches are valuable tools for the differentiation and relative quantification of protein isoforms and/or modified proteins. In particular isoforms, having variations in their amino-acid sequence and/or carrying different N-linked glycan chains were detected and characterized. This study highlights how the extracting protocols as well as the analytical techniques devoted to the study of the plant cell wall proteome are complementary and how they may be combined to elucidate the dynamism of the plant cell wall proteome in biological studies. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001927. PMID:25914713

  3. Cell wall polysaccharides from fern leaves: evidence for a mannan-rich Type III cell wall in Adiantum raddianum.

    PubMed

    Silva, Giovanna B; Ionashiro, Mari; Carrara, Thalita B; Crivellari, Augusto C; Tiné, Marco A S; Prado, Jefferson; Carpita, Nicholas C; Buckeridge, Marcos S

    2011-12-01

    Primary cell walls from plants are composites of cellulose tethered by cross-linking glycans and embedded in a matrix of pectins. Cell wall composition varies between plant species, reflecting in some instances the evolutionary distance between them. In this work the monosaccharide compositions of isolated primary cell walls of nine fern species and one lycophyte were characterized and compared with those from Equisetum and an angiosperm dicot. The relatively high abundance of mannose in these plants suggests that mannans may constitute the major cross-linking glycan in the primary walls of pteridophytes and lycophytes. Pectin-related polysaccharides contained mostly rhamnose and uronic acids, indicating the presence of rhamnogalacturonan I highly substituted with galactose and arabinose. Structural and fine-structural analyses of the hemicellulose fraction of leaves of Adiantum raddianum confirmed this hypothesis. Linkage analysis showed that the mannan contains mostly 4-Man with very little 4,6-Man, indicating a low percentage of branching with galactose. Treatment of the mannan-rich fractions with endo-β-mannanase produced characteristic mannan oligosaccharides. Minor amounts of xyloglucan and xylans were also detected. These data and those of others suggest that all vascular plants contain xyloglucans, arabinoxylans, and (gluco)mannans, but in different proportions that define cell wall types. Whereas xyloglucan and pectin-rich walls define Type I walls of dicots and many monocots, arabinoxylans and lower proportion of pectin define the Type II walls of commelinoid monocots. The mannan-rich primary walls with low pectins of many ferns and a lycopod indicate a fundamentally different wall type among land plants, the Type III wall. PMID:21955619

  4. A Genome-Wide Screen of Genes Involved in Cadmium Tolerance in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Patrick J.; Vashisht, Ajay A.; Hoe, Kwang-Lae; Kim, Dong-Uk; Park, Han-Oh; Hayles, Jacqueline; Russell, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium is a worldwide environmental toxicant responsible for a range of human diseases including cancer. Cellular injury from cadmium is minimized by stress-responsive detoxification mechanisms. We explored the genetic requirements for cadmium tolerance by individually screening mutants from the fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) haploid deletion collection for inhibited growth on agar growth media containing cadmium. Cadmium-sensitive mutants were further tested for sensitivity to oxidative stress (hydrogen peroxide) and osmotic stress (potassium chloride). Of 2649 mutants screened, 237 were sensitive to cadmium, of which 168 were cadmium specific. Most were previously unknown to be involved in cadmium tolerance. The 237 genes represent a number of pathways including sulfate assimilation, phytochelatin synthesis and transport, ubiquinone (Coenzyme Q10) biosynthesis, stress signaling, cell wall biosynthesis and cell morphology, gene expression and chromatin remodeling, vacuole function, and intracellular transport of macromolecules. The ubiquinone biosynthesis mutants are acutely sensitive to cadmium but only mildly sensitive to hydrogen peroxide, indicating that Coenzyme Q10 plays a larger role in cadmium tolerance than just as an antioxidant. These and several other mutants turn yellow when exposed to cadmium, suggesting cadmium sulfide accumulation. This phenotype can potentially be used as a biomarker for cadmium. There is remarkably little overlap with a comparable screen of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae haploid deletion collection, indicating that the two distantly related yeasts utilize significantly different strategies for coping with cadmium stress. These strategies and their relation to cadmium detoxification in humans are discussed. PMID:18684775

  5. Live cell imaging of the cytoskeleton and cell wall enzymes in plant cells.

    PubMed

    Sampathkumar, Arun; Wightman, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    The use of live imaging techniques to visualize the dynamic changes and interactions within plant cells has given us detailed information on the function and organization of the cytoskeleton and cell wall associated proteins. This information has grown with the constant improvement in imaging hardware and molecular tools. In this chapter, we describe the procedure for the preparation and live visualization of fluorescent protein fusions associated with the cytoskeleton and the cell wall in Arabidopsis. PMID:25408450

  6. Characterization and Localization of Insoluble Organic Matrices Associated with Diatom Cell Walls: Insight into Their Roles during Cell Wall Formation

    PubMed Central

    Tesson, Benoit; Hildebrand, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Organic components associated with diatom cell wall silica are important for the formation, integrity, and function of the cell wall. Polysaccharides are associated with the silica, however their localization, structure, and function remain poorly understood. We used imaging and biochemical approaches to describe in detail characteristics of insoluble organic components associated with the cell wall in 5 different diatom species. Results show that an insoluble organic matrix enriched in mannose, likely the diatotepum, is localized on the proximal surface of the silica cell wall. We did not identify any organic matrix embedded within the silica. We also identified a distinct material consisting of glucose polymer with variable localization depending on the species. In some species this component was directly involved in the morphogenesis of silica structure while in others it appeared to be only a structural component of the cell wall. A novel glucose-rich structure located between daughter cells during division was also identified. This work for the first time correlates the structure, composition, and localization of insoluble organic matrices associated with diatom cell walls. Additionally we identified a novel glucose polymer and characterized its role during silica structure formation. PMID:23626714

  7. Ultrastructure and Composition of the Nannochloropsis gaditana Cell Wall

    PubMed Central

    Scholz, Matthew J.; Weiss, Taylor L.; Jinkerson, Robert E.; Jing, Jia; Roth, Robyn; Goodenough, Ursula; Posewitz, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Marine algae of the genus Nannochloropsis are promising producers of biofuel precursors and nutraceuticals and are also harvested commercially for aquaculture feed. We have used quick-freeze, deep-etch electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and carbohydrate analyses to characterize the architecture of the Nannochloropsis gaditana (strain CCMP 526) cell wall, whose recalcitrance presents a significant barrier to biocommodity extraction. The data indicate a bilayer structure consisting of a cellulosic inner wall (∼75% of the mass balance) protected by an outer hydrophobic algaenan layer. Cellulase treatment of walls purified after cell lysis generates highly enriched algaenan preparations without using the harsh chemical treatments typically used in algaenan isolation and characterization. Nannochloropsis algaenan was determined to comprise long, straight-chain, saturated aliphatics with ether cross-links, which closely resembles the cutan of vascular plants. Chemical identification of >85% of the isolated cell wall mass is detailed, and genome analysis is used to identify candidate biosynthetic enzymes. PMID:25239976

  8. Characterizing visible and invisible cell wall mutant phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Carpita, Nicholas C; McCann, Maureen C

    2015-07-01

    About 10% of a plant's genome is devoted to generating the protein machinery to synthesize, remodel, and deconstruct the cell wall. High-throughput genome sequencing technologies have enabled a reasonably complete inventory of wall-related genes that can be assembled into families of common evolutionary origin. Assigning function to each gene family member has been aided immensely by identification of mutants with visible phenotypes or by chemical and spectroscopic analysis of mutants with 'invisible' phenotypes of modified cell wall composition and architecture that do not otherwise affect plant growth or development. This review connects the inference of gene function on the basis of deviation from the wild type in genetic functional analyses to insights provided by modern analytical techniques that have brought us ever closer to elucidating the sequence structures of the major polysaccharide components of the plant cell wall. PMID:25873661

  9. A Model for Cell Wall Dissolution in Mating Yeast Cells: Polarized Secretion and Restricted Diffusion of Cell Wall Remodeling Enzymes Induces Local Dissolution

    PubMed Central

    Huberman, Lori B.; Murray, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    Mating of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, occurs when two haploid cells of opposite mating types signal using reciprocal pheromones and receptors, grow towards each other, and fuse to form a single diploid cell. To fuse, both cells dissolve their cell walls at the point of contact. This event must be carefully controlled because the osmotic pressure differential between the cytoplasm and extracellular environment causes cells with unprotected plasma membranes to lyse. If the cell wall-degrading enzymes diffuse through the cell wall, their concentration would rise when two cells touched each other, such as when two pheromone-stimulated cells adhere to each other via mating agglutinins. At the surfaces that touch, the enzymes must diffuse laterally through the wall before they can escape into the medium, increasing the time the enzymes spend in the cell wall, and thus raising their concentration at the point of attachment and restricting cell wall dissolution to points where cells touch each other. We tested this hypothesis by studying pheromone treated cells confined between two solid, impermeable surfaces. This confinement increases the frequency of pheromone-induced cell death, and this effect is diminished by reducing the osmotic pressure difference across the cell wall or by deleting putative cell wall glucanases and other genes necessary for efficient cell wall fusion. Our results support the model that pheromone-induced cell death is the result of a contact-driven increase in the local concentration of cell wall remodeling enzymes and suggest that this process plays an important role in regulating cell wall dissolution and fusion in mating cells. PMID:25329559

  10. A model for cell wall dissolution in mating yeast cells: polarized secretion and restricted diffusion of cell wall remodeling enzymes induces local dissolution.

    PubMed

    Huberman, Lori B; Murray, Andrew W

    2014-01-01

    Mating of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, occurs when two haploid cells of opposite mating types signal using reciprocal pheromones and receptors, grow towards each other, and fuse to form a single diploid cell. To fuse, both cells dissolve their cell walls at the point of contact. This event must be carefully controlled because the osmotic pressure differential between the cytoplasm and extracellular environment causes cells with unprotected plasma membranes to lyse. If the cell wall-degrading enzymes diffuse through the cell wall, their concentration would rise when two cells touched each other, such as when two pheromone-stimulated cells adhere to each other via mating agglutinins. At the surfaces that touch, the enzymes must diffuse laterally through the wall before they can escape into the medium, increasing the time the enzymes spend in the cell wall, and thus raising their concentration at the point of attachment and restricting cell wall dissolution to points where cells touch each other. We tested this hypothesis by studying pheromone treated cells confined between two solid, impermeable surfaces. This confinement increases the frequency of pheromone-induced cell death, and this effect is diminished by reducing the osmotic pressure difference across the cell wall or by deleting putative cell wall glucanases and other genes necessary for efficient cell wall fusion. Our results support the model that pheromone-induced cell death is the result of a contact-driven increase in the local concentration of cell wall remodeling enzymes and suggest that this process plays an important role in regulating cell wall dissolution and fusion in mating cells. PMID:25329559

  11. Bending forces plastically deform growing bacterial cell walls.

    PubMed

    Amir, Ariel; Babaeipour, Farinaz; McIntosh, Dustin B; Nelson, David R; Jun, Suckjoon

    2014-04-22

    Cell walls define a cell's shape in bacteria. The walls are rigid to resist large internal pressures, but remarkably plastic to adapt to a wide range of external forces and geometric constraints. Currently, it is unknown how bacteria maintain their shape. In this paper, we develop experimental and theoretical approaches and show that mechanical stresses regulate bacterial cell wall growth. By applying a precisely controllable hydrodynamic force to growing rod-shaped Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis cells, we demonstrate that the cells can exhibit two fundamentally different modes of deformation. The cells behave like elastic rods when subjected to transient forces, but deform plastically when significant cell wall synthesis occurs while the force is applied. The deformed cells always recover their shape. The experimental results are in quantitative agreement with the predictions of the theory of dislocation-mediated growth. In particular, we find that a single dimensionless parameter, which depends on a combination of independently measured physical properties of the cell, can describe the cell's responses under various experimental conditions. These findings provide insight into how living cells robustly maintain their shape under varying physical environments. PMID:24711421

  12. Production Model Press for the Preparation of Bacterial Cell Walls

    PubMed Central

    Perrine, T. D.; Ribi, E.; Maki, W.; Miller, B.; Oertli, E.

    1962-01-01

    A modification of the apparatus previously described permits the preparation of cell walls in quantity. This consists of a heavy duty, double-acting hydraulic press with motor-driven pump, and a superstrength alloy steel pressure cell which is corrosion resistant. Liquid cooling of the jet is substituted for the previously used gas cooling to minimize aerosol formation and to facilitate subsequent treatment of the products. The device produces cell walls of excellent quality in good yield. The pressure cell has been used satisfactorily up to about 60,000 psi. Design details are given. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 6 PMID:14485524

  13. Motion of red blood cells near microvessel walls: effects of a porous wall layer

    PubMed Central

    HARIPRASAD, DANIEL S.; SECOMB, TIMOTHY W.

    2013-01-01

    A two-dimensional model is used to simulate the motion and deformation of a single mammalian red blood cell (RBC) flowing close to the wall of a microvessel, taking into account the effects of a porous endothelial surface layer (ESL) lining the vessel wall. Migration of RBCs away from the wall leads to the formation of a cell-depleted layer near the wall, which has a large effect on the resistance to blood flow in microvessels. The objective is to examine the mechanical factors causing this migration, including the effects of the ESL. The vessel is represented as a straight parallel-sided channel. The RBC is represented as a set of interconnected viscoelastic elements, suspended in plasma, a Newtonian fluid. The ESL is represented as a porous medium, and plasma flow in the layer is computed using the Brinkman approximation. It is shown that an initially circular cell positioned close to the ESL in a shear flow is deformed into an asymmetric shape. This breaking of symmetry leads to migration away from the wall. With increasing hydraulic resistivity of the layer, the rate of lateral migration increases. It is concluded that mechanical interactions of RBCs flowing in microvessels with a porous wall layer may reduce the rate of lateral migration and hence reduce the width of the cell-depleted zone external to the ESL, relative to the cell-depleted zone that would be formed if the interface between the ESL and free-flowing plasma were replaced by an impermeable boundary. PMID:23493820

  14. Site Specific Genetic Incorporation of Azidophenylalanine in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Nan; Singh, N. Sadananda; Slade, Susan E.; Jones, Alexandra M. E.; Balasubramanian, Mohan K.

    2015-01-01

    The diversity of protein functions is impacted in significant part by the chemical properties of the twenty amino acids, which are used as building blocks for nearly all proteins. The ability to incorporate unnatural amino acids (UAA) into proteins in a site specific manner can vastly expand the repertoire of protein functions and also allows detailed analysis of protein function. In recent years UAAs have been incorporated in a site-specific manner into proteins in a number of organisms. In nearly all cases, the amber codon is used as a sense codon, and an orthogonal tRNA/aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (RS) pair is used to generate amber suppressing tRNAs charged with the UAA. In this work, we have developed tools to incorporate the cross-linking amino acid azido-phenylalanine (AzF) through the use of bacterial tRNATyr and a modified version of TyrRS, AzFRS, in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, which is an attractive model organism for the study of cell behavior and function. We have incorporated AzF into three different proteins. We show that the majority of AzF is modified to amino-phenyl alanine, but protein cross-linking was still observed. These studies set the stage for exploitation of this new technology for the analysis of S. pombe proteins. PMID:26597962

  15. Kinetochore assembly and heterochromatin formation occur autonomously in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Brown, William R A; Thomas, Geraint; Lee, Nicholas C O; Blythe, Martin; Liti, Gianni; Warringer, Jonas; Loose, Matthew W

    2014-02-01

    Kinetochores in multicellular eukaryotes are usually associated with heterochromatin. Whether this heterochromatin simply promotes the cohesion necessary for accurate chromosome segregation at cell division or whether it also has a role in kinetochore assembly is unclear. Schizosaccharomyces pombe is an important experimental system for investigating centromere function, but all of the previous work with this species has exploited a single strain or its derivatives. The laboratory strain and most other S. pombe strains contain three chromosomes, but one recently discovered strain, CBS 2777, contains four. We show that the genome of CBS 2777 is related to that of the laboratory strain by a complex chromosome rearrangement. As a result, two of the kinetochores in CBS 2777 contain the central core sequences present in the laboratory strain centromeres, but lack adjacent heterochromatin. The closest block of heterochromatin to these rearranged kinetochores is ∼100 kb away at new telomeres. Despite lacking large amounts of adjacent heterochromatin, the rearranged kinetochores bind CENP-A(Cnp1) and CENP-C(Cnp3) in similar quantities and with similar specificities as those of the laboratory strain. The simplest interpretation of this result is that constitutive kinetochore assembly and heterochromatin formation occur autonomously. PMID:24449889

  16. Interaction of Cryptococcus neoformans Extracellular Vesicles with the Cell Wall

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Julie M.; Espadas-Moreno, Javier; Luque-Garcia, Jose L.

    2014-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans produces extracellular vesicles containing a variety of cargo, including virulence factors. To become extracellular, these vesicles not only must be released from the plasma membrane but also must pass through the dense matrix of the cell wall. The greatest unknown in the area of fungal vesicles is the mechanism by which these vesicles are released to the extracellular space given the presence of the fungal cell wall. Here we used electron microscopy techniques to image the interactions of vesicles with the cell wall. Our goal was to define the ultrastructural morphology of the process to gain insights into the mechanisms involved. We describe single and multiple vesicle-leaving events, which we hypothesized were due to plasma membrane and multivesicular body vesicle origins, respectively. We further utilized melanized cells to “trap” vesicles and visualize those passing through the cell wall. Vesicle size differed depending on whether vesicles left the cytoplasm in single versus multiple release events. Furthermore, we analyzed different vesicle populations for vesicle dimensions and protein composition. Proteomic analysis tripled the number of proteins known to be associated with vesicles. Despite separation of vesicles into batches differing in size, we did not identify major differences in protein composition. In summary, our results indicate that vesicles are generated by more than one mechanism, that vesicles exit the cell by traversing the cell wall, and that vesicle populations exist as a continuum with regard to size and protein composition. PMID:24906412

  17. Another brick in the cell wall: biosynthesis dependent growth model.

    PubMed

    Barbacci, Adelin; Lahaye, Marc; Magnenet, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Expansive growth of plant cell is conditioned by the cell wall ability to extend irreversibly. This process is possible if (i) a tensile stress is developed in the cell wall due to the coupling effect between turgor pressure and the modulation of its mechanical properties through enzymatic and physicochemical reactions and if (ii) new cell wall elements can be synthesized and assembled to the existing wall. In other words, expansive growth is the result of coupling effects between mechanical, thermal and chemical energy. To have a better understanding of this process, models must describe the interplay between physical or mechanical variable with biological events. In this paper we propose a general unified and theoretical framework to model growth in function of energy forms and their coupling. This framework is based on irreversible thermodynamics. It is then applied to model growth of the internodal cell of Chara corallina modulated by changes in pressure and temperature. The results describe accurately cell growth in term of length increment but also in term of cell pectate biosynthesis and incorporation to the expanding wall. Moreover, the classical growth model based on Lockhart's equation such as the one proposed by Ortega, appears as a particular and restrictive case of the more general growth equation developed in this paper. PMID:24066142

  18. Another Brick in the Cell Wall: Biosynthesis Dependent Growth Model

    PubMed Central

    Barbacci, Adelin; Lahaye, Marc; Magnenet, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Expansive growth of plant cell is conditioned by the cell wall ability to extend irreversibly. This process is possible if (i) a tensile stress is developed in the cell wall due to the coupling effect between turgor pressure and the modulation of its mechanical properties through enzymatic and physicochemical reactions and if (ii) new cell wall elements can be synthesized and assembled to the existing wall. In other words, expansive growth is the result of coupling effects between mechanical, thermal and chemical energy. To have a better understanding of this process, models must describe the interplay between physical or mechanical variable with biological events. In this paper we propose a general unified and theoretical framework to model growth in function of energy forms and their coupling. This framework is based on irreversible thermodynamics. It is then applied to model growth of the internodal cell of Chara corallina modulated by changes in pressure and temperature. The results describe accurately cell growth in term of length increment but also in term of cell pectate biosynthesis and incorporation to the expanding wall. Moreover, the classical growth model based on Lockhart's equation such as the one proposed by Ortega, appears as a particular and restrictive case of the more general growth equation developed in this paper. PMID:24066142

  19. Glycan Profiling of Plant Cell Wall Polymers using Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Moller, Isabel E.; Pettolino, Filomena A.; Hart, Charlie; Lampugnani, Edwin R.; Willats, William G.T.; Bacic, Antony

    2012-01-01

    Plant cell walls are complex matrixes of heterogeneous glycans which play an important role in the physiology and development of plants and provide the raw materials for human societies (e.g. wood, paper, textile and biofuel industries)1,2. However, understanding the biosynthesis and function of these components remains challenging. Cell wall glycans are chemically and conformationally diverse due to the complexity of their building blocks, the glycosyl residues. These form linkages at multiple positions and differ in ring structure, isomeric or anomeric configuration, and in addition, are substituted with an array of non-sugar residues. Glycan composition varies in different cell and/or tissue types or even sub-domains of a single cell wall3. Furthermore, their composition is also modified during development1, or in response to environmental cues4. In excess of 2,000 genes have Plant cell walls are complex matrixes of heterogeneous glycans been predicted to be involved in cell wall glycan biosynthesis and modification in Arabidopsis5. However, relatively few of the biosynthetic genes have been functionally characterized 4,5. Reverse genetics approaches are difficult because the genes are often differentially expressed, often at low levels, between cell types6. Also, mutant studies are often hindered by gene redundancy or compensatory mechanisms to ensure appropriate cell wall function is maintained7. Thus novel approaches are needed to rapidly characterise the diverse range of glycan structures and to facilitate functional genomics approaches to understanding cell wall biosynthesis and modification. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs)8,9 have emerged as an important tool for determining glycan structure and distribution in plants. These recognise distinct epitopes present within major classes of plant cell wall glycans, including pectins, xyloglucans, xylans, mannans, glucans and arabinogalactans. Recently their use has been extended to large-scale screening experiments

  20. Cell wall proteomics of the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyceae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng-Bing; Hu, Qiang; Sommerfeld, Milton; Chen, Feng

    2004-03-01

    The green microalga Haematococcus pluvialis can synthesize and accumulate large amounts of the ketocarotenoid astaxanthin, and undergo profound changes in cell wall composition and architecture during the cell cycle and in response to environmental stresses. In this study, cell wall proteins (CWPs) of H. pluvialis were systematically analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) coupled with peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) and sequence-database analysis. In total, 163 protein bands were analyzed, which resulted in positive identification of 81 protein orthologues. The highly complex and dynamic composition of CWPs is manifested by the fact that the majority of identified CWPs are differentially expressed at specific stages of the cell cycle along with a number of common wall-associated 'housekeeping' proteins. The detection of cellulose synthase orthologue in the vegetative cells suggested that the biosynthesis of cellulose occurred during primary wall formation, in contrast to earlier observations that cellulose was exclusively present in the secondary wall of the organism. A transient accumulation of a putative cytokinin oxidase at the early stage of encystment pointed to a possible role in cytokinin degradation while facilitating secondary wall formation and/or assisting in cell expansion. This work represents the first attempt to use a proteomic approach to investigate CWPs of microalgae. The reference protein map constructed and the specific protein markers obtained from this study provide a framework for future characterization of the expression and physiological functions of the proteins involved in the biogenesis and modifications in the cell wall of Haematococcus and related organisms. PMID:14997492

  1. The composition of the cell wall of Aspergillus niger

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, I. R.

    1965-01-01

    1. The cell-wall composition of Aspergillus niger has been investigated. Analysis shows the presence of six sugars, glucose, galactose, mannose, arabinose, glucosamine and galactosamine, all in the d-configuration, except that a small amount of l-galactose may be present. Sixteen common amino acids are also present. 2. The wall consists chiefly of neutral carbohydrate (73–83%) and hexosamine (9–13%), with smaller amounts of lipid (2–7%), protein (0·5–2·5%) and phosphorus (less than 0·1%). The acetyl content (3·0–3·4%) corresponds to 1·0mole/mole of hexosamine nitrogen. 3. A fractionation of the cell-wall complex was achieved, with or without a preliminary phenol extraction, by using n-sodium hydroxide. Though this caused some degradation, 30–60% of the wall could be solubilized (depending on the preparation). Analyses on several fractions suggest that fractionation procedures bring about some separation of components although not in a clear-cut fashion. 4. Cell-wall preparations were shown to yield a fraction having [α]D approx. +240° (in n-sodium hydroxide) and consisting largely of glucose. This was separated into two subfractions, one of which had [α]D+281° (in n-sodium hydroxide) and had properties resembling the polysaccharide nigeran; the other had [α]D +231° (in n-sodium hydroxide). It is suggested that nigeran is a cell-wall component. PMID:5862404

  2. Control of cell wall extensibility during pollen tube growth.

    PubMed

    Hepler, Peter K; Rounds, Caleb M; Winship, Lawrence J

    2013-07-01

    In this review, we address the question of how the tip-growing pollen tube achieves its rapid rate of elongation while maintaining an intact cell wall. Although turgor is essential for growth to occur, the local expansion rate is controlled by local changes in the viscosity of the apical wall. We focus on several different structures and underlying processes that are thought to be major participants including exocytosis, the organization and activity of the actin cytoskeleton, calcium and proton physiology, and cellular energetics. We think that the actin cytoskeleton, in particular the apical cortical actin fringe, directs the flow of vesicles to the apical domain, where they fuse with the plasma membrane and contribute their contents to the expanding cell wall. While pH gradients, as generated by a proton-ATPase located on the plasma membrane along the side of the clear zone, may regulate rapid actin turnover and new polymerization in the fringe, the tip-focused calcium gradient biases secretion towards the polar axis. The recent data showing that exocytosis of new wall material precedes and predicts the process of cell elongation provide support for the idea that the intussusception of newly secreted pectin contributes to decreases in apical wall viscosity and to cell expansion. Other prime factors will be the localization and activity of the enzyme pectin methyl-esterase, and the chelation of calcium by pectic acids. Finally, we acknowledge a role for reactive oxygen species in the control of wall viscosity. PMID:23770837

  3. Control of Cell Wall Extensibility during Pollen Tube Growth

    PubMed Central

    Hepler, Peter K.

    2013-01-01

    In this review, we address the question of how the tip-growing pollen tube achieves its rapid rate of elongation while maintaining an intact cell wall. Although turgor is essential for growth to occur, the local expansion rate is controlled by local changes in the viscosity of the apical wall. We focus on several different structures and underlying processes that are thought to be major participants including exocytosis, the organization and activity of the actin cytoskeleton, calcium and proton physiology, and cellular energetics. We think that the actin cytoskeleton, in particular the apical cortical actin fringe, directs the flow of vesicles to the apical domain, where they fuse with the plasma membrane and contribute their contents to the expanding cell wall. While pH gradients, as generated by a proton-ATPase located on the plasma membrane along the side of the clear zone, may regulate rapid actin turnover and new polymerization in the fringe, the tip-focused calcium gradient biases secretion towards the polar axis. The recent data showing that exocytosis of new wall material precedes and predicts the process of cell elongation provide support for the idea that the intussusception of newly secreted pectin contributes to decreases in apical wall viscosity and to cell expansion. Other prime factors will be the localization and activity of the enzyme pectin methyl-esterase, and the chelation of calcium by pectic acids. Finally, we acknowledge a role for reactive oxygen species in the control of wall viscosity. PMID:23770837

  4. Bending forces plastically deform growing bacterial cell walls

    PubMed Central

    Amir, Ariel; Babaeipour, Farinaz; McIntosh, Dustin B.; Nelson, David R.; Jun, Suckjoon

    2014-01-01

    Cell walls define a cell’s shape in bacteria. The walls are rigid to resist large internal pressures, but remarkably plastic to adapt to a wide range of external forces and geometric constraints. Currently, it is unknown how bacteria maintain their shape. In this paper, we develop experimental and theoretical approaches and show that mechanical stresses regulate bacterial cell wall growth. By applying a precisely controllable hydrodynamic force to growing rod-shaped Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis cells, we demonstrate that the cells can exhibit two fundamentally different modes of deformation. The cells behave like elastic rods when subjected to transient forces, but deform plastically when significant cell wall synthesis occurs while the force is applied. The deformed cells always recover their shape. The experimental results are in quantitative agreement with the predictions of the theory of dislocation-mediated growth. In particular, we find that a single dimensionless parameter, which depends on a combination of independently measured physical properties of the cell, can describe the cell’s responses under various experimental conditions. These findings provide insight into how living cells robustly maintain their shape under varying physical environments. PMID:24711421

  5. Microfabricated alkali vapor cell with anti-relaxation wall coating

    SciTech Connect

    Straessle, R.; Pétremand, Y.; Briand, D.; Rooij, N. F. de; Pellaton, M.; Affolderbach, C.; Mileti, G.

    2014-07-28

    We present a microfabricated alkali vapor cell equipped with an anti-relaxation wall coating. The anti-relaxation coating used is octadecyltrichlorosilane and the cell was sealed by thin-film indium-bonding at a low temperature of 140 °C. The cell body is made of silicon and Pyrex and features a double-chamber design. Depolarizing properties due to liquid Rb droplets are avoided by confining the Rb droplets to one chamber only. Optical and microwave spectroscopy performed on this wall-coated cell are used to evaluate the cell's relaxation properties and a potential gas contamination. Double-resonance signals obtained from the cell show an intrinsic linewidth that is significantly lower than the linewidth that would be expected in case the cell had no wall coating but only contained a buffer-gas contamination on the level measured by optical spectroscopy. Combined with further experimental evidence this proves the presence of a working anti-relaxation wall coating in the cell. Such cells are of interest for applications in miniature atomic clocks, magnetometers, and other quantum sensors.

  6. Inhibitors targeting on cell wall biosynthesis pathway of MRSA.

    PubMed

    Hao, Haihong; Cheng, Guyue; Dai, Menghong; Wu, Qinghua; Yuan, Zonghui

    2012-11-01

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), widely known as a type of new superbug, has aroused world-wide concern. Cell wall biosynthesis pathway is an old but good target for the development of antibacterial agents. Peptidoglycan and wall teichoic acids (WTAs) biosynthesis are two main processes of the cell wall biosynthesis pathway (CWBP). Other than penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), some key factors (Mur enzymes, lipid I or II precursor, etc.) in CWBP are becoming attractive molecule targets for the discovery of anti-MRSA compounds. A number of new compounds, with higher affinity for PBPs or with inhibitory activity on such molecule targets in CWBP of MRSA, have been in the pipeline recently. This review concludes recent research achievements and provides a complete picture of CWBP of MRSA, including the peptidoglycan and wall teichoic acids synthesis pathway. The potential inhibitors targeting on CWBP are subsequently presented to improve development of novel therapeutic strategies for MRSA. PMID:22898792

  7. Casein kinase 2 inhibits HomolD-directed transcription by Rrn7 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Moreira-Ramos, Sandra; Rojas, Diego A; Montes, Matías; Urbina, Fabiola; Miralles, Vicente J; Maldonado, Edio

    2015-02-01

    In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, ribosomal protein gene (RPG) promoters contain a TATA analogue element called the HomolD box. The HomolD-binding protein Rrn7 forms a complex with the RNA polymerase II machinery. Despite the importance of ribosome biogenesis to cell survival, the mechanisms involved in the regulation of transcription of eukaryotic RPGs are unknown. In this study, we identified Rrn7 as a new substrate of the pleiotropic casein kinase 2 (CK2), which is a regulator of basal transcription. Recombinant Rrn7 from S. pombe, which is often used as a model organism for studying eukaryotic transcription, interacted with CK2 in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, CK2-mediated phosphorylation of Rrn7 inhibited its HomolD-directed transcriptional activity and ability to bind to an oligonucleotide containing a HomolD box in vitro. Mutation of Rrn7 at Thr67 abolished these effects, indicating that this residue is a critical CK2 phosphorylation site. Finally, Rrn7 interacted with the regulatory subunit of CK2 in vivo, inhibition of CK2 in vivo potentiated ribosomal protein gene transcription, and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses identified that the catalytic subunit of CK2 was associated with the rpk5 gene promoter in S. pombe. Taken together, these data suggest that CK2 inhibits ribosomal protein gene transcription in S. pombe via phosphorylation of Rrn7 at Thr67. PMID:25410910

  8. Co-delivery of cell-wall-forming enzymes in the same vesicle for coordinated fungal cell wall formation.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Martin; Martin-Urdiroz, Magdalena; Higuchi, Yujiro; Hacker, Christian; Kilaru, Sreedhar; Gurr, Sarah J; Steinberg, Gero

    2016-01-01

    Fungal cells are surrounded by an extracellular cell wall. This complex matrix of proteins and polysaccharides protects against adverse stresses and determines the shape of fungal cells. The polysaccharides of the fungal wall include 1,3-β-glucan and chitin, which are synthesized by membrane-bound synthases at the growing cell tip. A hallmark of filamentous fungi is the class V chitin synthase, which carries a myosin-motor domain. In the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis, the myosin-chitin synthase Mcs1 moves to the plasma membrane in secretory vesicles, being delivered by kinesin-1 and myosin-5. The myosin domain of Mcs1 enhances polar secretion by tethering vesicles at the site of exocytosis. It remains elusive, however, how other cell-wall-forming enzymes are delivered and how their activity is coordinated post secretion. Here, we show that the U. maydis class VII chitin synthase and 1,3-β-glucan synthase travel in Mcs1-containing vesicles, and that their apical secretion depends on Mcs1. Once in the plasma membrane, anchorage requires enzyme activity, which suggests co-synthesis of chitin and 1,3-β-glucan polysaccharides at sites of exocytosis. Thus, delivery of cell-wall-forming enzymes in Mcs1 vesicles ensures local foci of fungal cell wall formation. PMID:27563844

  9. Characterization of rhamnogalacturonan I from cotton suspension culture cell walls

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Progress has been made on the project of determining the structure of pectins. From recent progress, a covalent crosslink between rhamnogalacturonan I (RGI) and xyloglucan was hypothesized and a structure for RGI was proposed. The development of a method to determine the distribution of methyl esterification with pectins also progressed. The degree of methyl esterification of cotton cotyledon cell walls was compared to that of cotton suspension cultures. Cotyledon wall were found to have {approximately}55% of the galacturonic acid esterified whereas suspension culture wall were only about 14% methyl esterified. 10 refs. (SM)

  10. Simulated microgravity inhibits cell wall regeneration of Penicillium decumbens protoplasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, C.; Sun, Y.; Yi, Z. C.; Rong, L.; Zhuang, F. Y.; Fan, Y. B.

    2010-09-01

    This work compares cell wall regeneration from protoplasts of the fungus Penicillium decumbens under rotary culture (simulated microgravity) and stationary cultures. Using an optimized lytic enzyme mixture, protoplasts were successfully released with a yield of 5.3 × 10 5 cells/mL. Under simulated microgravity conditions, the protoplast regeneration efficiency was 33.8%, lower than 44.9% under stationary conditions. Laser scanning confocal microscopy gave direct evidence for reduced formation of polysaccharides under simulated conditions. Scanning electron microscopy showed the delayed process of cell wall regeneration by simulated microgravity. The delayed regeneration of P. decumbens cell wall under simulated microgravity was likely caused by the inhibition of polysaccharide synthesis. This research contributes to the understanding of how gravitational loads affect morphological and physiological processes of fungi.

  11. Modification of glass cell walls by rubidium vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, J.; Kishinevski, A.; Jau, Y.-Y.; Reuter, C.; Happer, W.

    2009-04-01

    It has long been known that the inner walls of freshly manufactured glass cells filled with a few droplets of alkali metal undergo a “curing” process, where the properties of the cell wall change over a period of days to weeks. We report quantitative studies of “curing” in Pyrex cells filled with rubidium metal. Our experiment shows that at 94°C , the surface of Pyrex glass adsorbs about 3×1015 rubidium atoms per cm2 , which is equivalent to 6-7 monolayers of liquid rubidium.

  12. Chromosome and cell wall segregation in Streptococcus faecium ATCC 9790

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, M.L.; Glaser, D.; Dicker, D.T.; Zito, E.T.

    1989-01-01

    Segregation was studied by measuring the positions of autoradiographic grain clusters in chains formed from single cells containing on average less than one radiolabeled chromosome strand. The degree to which chromosomal and cell wall material cosegregated was quantified by using the methods of S. Cooper and M. Weinberger, dividing the number of chains labeled at the middle. This analysis indicated that in contrast to chromosomal segregation in Escherichia coli and, in some studies, to that in gram-positive rods, chromosomal segregation in Streptococcus faecium was slightly nonrandom and did not vary with growth rate. Results were not significantly affected by strand exchange. In contrast, labeled cell wall segregated predominantly nonrandomly.

  13. Molecular Rigidity in Dry and Hydrated Onion Cell Walls.

    PubMed Central

    Ha, M. A.; Apperley, D. C.; Jarvis, M. C.

    1997-01-01

    Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation experiments can provide information on the rigidity of individual molecules within a complex structure such as a cell wall, and thus show how each polymer can potentially contribute to the rigidity of the whole structure. We measured the proton magnetic relaxation parameters T2 (spin-spin) and T1p (spin-lattice) through the 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of dry and hydrated cell walls from onion (Allium cepa L.) bulbs. Dry cell walls behaved as rigid solids. The form of their T2 decay curves varied on a continuum between Gaussian, as in crystalline solids, and exponential, as in more mobile materials. The degree of molecular mobility that could be inferred from the T2 and T1p decay patterns was consistent with a crystalline state for cellulose and a glassy state for dry pectins. The theory of composite materials may be applied to explain the rigidity of dry onion cell walls in terms of their components. Hydration made little difference to the rigidity of cellulose and most of the xyloglucan shared this rigidity, but the pectic fraction became much more mobile. Therefore, the cellulose/xyloglucan microfibrils behaved as solid rods, and the most significant physical distinction within the hydrated cell wall was between the microfibrils and the predominantly pectic matrix. A minor xyloglucan fraction was much more mobile than the microfibrils and probably corresponded to cross-links between them. Away from the microfibrils, pectins expanded upon hydration into a nonhomogeneous, but much softer, almost-liquid gel. These data are consistent with a model for the stress-bearing hydrated cell wall in which pectins provide limited stiffness across the thickness of the wall, whereas the cross-linked microfibril network provides much greater rigidity in other directions. PMID:12223827

  14. Molecular Rigidity in Dry and Hydrated Onion Cell Walls.

    PubMed

    Ha, M. A.; Apperley, D. C.; Jarvis, M. C.

    1997-10-01

    Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation experiments can provide information on the rigidity of individual molecules within a complex structure such as a cell wall, and thus show how each polymer can potentially contribute to the rigidity of the whole structure. We measured the proton magnetic relaxation parameters T2 (spin-spin) and T1p (spin-lattice) through the 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of dry and hydrated cell walls from onion (Allium cepa L.) bulbs. Dry cell walls behaved as rigid solids. The form of their T2 decay curves varied on a continuum between Gaussian, as in crystalline solids, and exponential, as in more mobile materials. The degree of molecular mobility that could be inferred from the T2 and T1p decay patterns was consistent with a crystalline state for cellulose and a glassy state for dry pectins. The theory of composite materials may be applied to explain the rigidity of dry onion cell walls in terms of their components. Hydration made little difference to the rigidity of cellulose and most of the xyloglucan shared this rigidity, but the pectic fraction became much more mobile. Therefore, the cellulose/xyloglucan microfibrils behaved as solid rods, and the most significant physical distinction within the hydrated cell wall was between the microfibrils and the predominantly pectic matrix. A minor xyloglucan fraction was much more mobile than the microfibrils and probably corresponded to cross-links between them. Away from the microfibrils, pectins expanded upon hydration into a nonhomogeneous, but much softer, almost-liquid gel. These data are consistent with a model for the stress-bearing hydrated cell wall in which pectins provide limited stiffness across the thickness of the wall, whereas the cross-linked microfibril network provides much greater rigidity in other directions. PMID:12223827

  15. 15. View of interior, north wall of hot cell featuring ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. View of interior, north wall of hot cell featuring radioactive materials containment box, facing east - Nevada Test Site, Reactor Maintenance & Disassembly Complex, Junior Hot Cell, Jackass Flats, Area 25, South of intersection of Roads F & G, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  16. 47. ARAI. Interior view of operating wall of hot cell ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. ARA-I. Interior view of operating wall of hot cell in ARA-626. Note stands for operators at viewing windows. Manipulators with hand grips extend cables and other controls into hot cell through ducts above windows. Ineel photo no. 81-27. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. Alterations in auxin homeostasis suppress defects in cell wall function.

    PubMed

    Steinwand, Blaire J; Xu, Shouling; Polko, Joanna K; Doctor, Stephanie M; Westafer, Mike; Kieber, Joseph J

    2014-01-01

    The plant cell wall is a highly dynamic structure that changes in response to both environmental and developmental cues. It plays important roles throughout plant growth and development in determining the orientation and extent of cell expansion, providing structural support and acting as a barrier to pathogens. Despite the importance of the cell wall, the signaling pathways regulating its function are not well understood. Two partially redundant leucine-rich-repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs), FEI1 and FEI2, regulate cell wall function in Arabidopsis thaliana roots; disruption of the FEIs results in short, swollen roots as a result of decreased cellulose synthesis. We screened for suppressors of this swollen root phenotype and identified two mutations in the putative mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase E1α homolog, IAA-Alanine Resistant 4 (IAR4). Mutations in IAR4 were shown previously to disrupt auxin homeostasis and lead to reduced auxin function. We show that mutations in IAR4 suppress a subset of the fei1 fei2 phenotypes. Consistent with the hypothesis that the suppression of fei1 fei2 by iar4 is the result of reduced auxin function, disruption of the WEI8 and TAR2 genes, which decreases auxin biosynthesis, also suppresses fei1 fei2. In addition, iar4 suppresses the root swelling and accumulation of ectopic lignin phenotypes of other cell wall mutants, including procuste and cobra. Further, iar4 mutants display decreased sensitivity to the cellulose biosynthesis inhibitor isoxaben. These results establish a role for IAR4 in the regulation of cell wall function and provide evidence of crosstalk between the cell wall and auxin during cell expansion in the root. PMID:24859261

  18. Purification and characterization of a soybean cell wall protein

    SciTech Connect

    San Francisco, S.; Tierney, M.L. )

    1989-04-01

    Plant cell wall composition is thought to reflect cellular responses to developmental and environmental signals. We have purified a 33 kDa protein from cell wall extracts of soybean seedlings which is most abundant in extracts from the hook region of the hypocotyl and is rich in proline and hydroxypyroline. In vivo {sup 3}H-proline labelling of hypocotyl tissues indicates that the hook tissue is the predominant site for synthesis of this protein. In unwounded hook, label is incorporated into a 33 kDa protein, while in wounded hook this and additional proteins rich in proline are synthesized. Similarly treated cell wall extracts analyzed by Western blot analysis, using a polyclonal antibody raised against this 33kD protein, showed that the 33 kDa protein is most abundant in cell wall extracts from the hook region of unwounded seedlings and does not increase upon wounding. An immunologically related 35kD protein is also apparent in extracts from wounded hooks and appears to co-migrate with one of the labelled proteins extractable from this tissue. These data indicate that there are two related, proline-rich cell wall proteins in the hook region of soybean seedlings, one of which (33 kDa) is prominent during seedling development and another (35 kDa) which is wound inducible.

  19. The role of the cell wall in plant immunity

    PubMed Central

    Malinovsky, Frederikke G.; Fangel, Jonatan U.; Willats, William G. T.

    2014-01-01

    The battle between plants and microbes is evolutionarily ancient, highly complex, and often co-dependent. A primary challenge for microbes is to breach the physical barrier of host cell walls whilst avoiding detection by the plant’s immune receptors. While some receptors sense conserved microbial features, others monitor physical changes caused by an infection attempt. Detection of microbes leads to activation of appropriate defense responses that then challenge the attack. Plant cell walls are formidable and dynamic barriers. They are constructed primarily of complex carbohydrates joined by numerous distinct connection types, and are subject to extensive post-synthetic modification to suit prevailing local requirements. Multiple changes can be triggered in cell walls in response to microbial attack. Some of these are well described, but many remain obscure. The study of the myriad of subtle processes underlying cell wall modification poses special challenges for plant glycobiology. In this review we describe the major molecular and cellular mechanisms that underlie the roles of cell walls in plant defense against pathogen attack. In so doing, we also highlight some of the challenges inherent in studying these interactions, and briefly describe the analytical potential of molecular probes used in conjunction with carbohydrate microarray technology. PMID:24834069

  20. Effects of spaceflight on polysaccharides of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Zhi; Wang, Qiang; Liu, Xiao-Yong; Tan, Sze-Sze

    2008-12-01

    Freeze-dried samples of four Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, namely, FL01, FL03, 2.0016, and 2.1424, were subjected to spaceflight. After the satellite's landing on Earth, the samples were recovered and changes in yeast cell wall were analyzed. Spaceflight strains of all S. cerevisiae strains showed significant changes in cell wall thickness (P < 0.05). One mutant of S. cerevisiae 2.0016 with increased biomass, cell wall thickness, and cell wall glucan was isolated (P < 0.05). The spaceflight mutant of S. cerevisiae 2.0016 showed 46.7%, 62.6%, and 146.0% increment in biomass, cell wall thickness and beta-glucan content, respectively, when compared to the ground strain. Moreover, growth curve analysis showed spaceflight S. cerevisiae 2.0016 had a faster growth rate, shorter lag phase periods, higher final biomass, and higher content of beta-glucan. Genetic stability analysis showed that prolonged subculturing of spaceflight strain S. cerevisiae 2.0016 did not lead to the appearance of variants, indicating that the genetic stability of S. cerevisiae 2.0016 mutant could be sufficient for its exploitation of beta-glucan production. PMID:18797865

  1. Structure, function, and biosynthesis of plant cell walls: proceedings of the seventh annual symposium in botany

    SciTech Connect

    Dugger, W.M.; Bartnicki-Garcia, S.

    1984-01-01

    Papers in the following areas were included in these symposium proceedings: (1) cell wall chemistry and biosynthesis; (2) cell wall hydrolysis and associated physiology; (3) cellular events associated with cell wall biosynthesis; and (4) interactions of plant cell walls with pathogens and related responses. Papers have been individually abstracted for the data base. (ACR)

  2. TERRA promotes telomerase-mediated telomere elongation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Martin; Wischnewski, Harry; Bah, Amadou; Hu, Yan; Liu, Na; Lafranchi, Lorenzo; King, Megan C; Azzalin, Claus M

    2016-07-01

    Telomerase-mediated telomere elongation provides cell populations with the ability to proliferate indefinitely. Telomerase is capable of recognizing and extending the shortest telomeres in cells; nevertheless, how this mechanism is executed remains unclear. Here, we show that, in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, shortened telomeres are highly transcribed into the evolutionarily conserved long noncoding RNA TERRA A fraction of TERRA produced upon telomere shortening is polyadenylated and largely devoid of telomeric repeats, and furthermore, telomerase physically interacts with this polyadenylated TERRA in vivo We also show that experimentally enhanced transcription of a manipulated telomere promotes its association with telomerase and concomitant elongation. Our data represent the first direct evidence that TERRA stimulates telomerase recruitment and activity at chromosome ends in an organism with human-like telomeres. PMID:27154402

  3. Ultrastructure of organic cell walls in Proterozoic microalgae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moczydlowska-Vidal, M.

    2009-04-01

    The antiquity of life has been well appreciated since the discoveries of microfossils and confirmation of their authenticity, as well as the recognition of geochemical signs of biogenicity in the Archean successions. Resolving the biological affinities of early biota is essential for the unravelling the changes that led to modern biodiversity, but also for the detection of possible biogenic records outside of the terrestrial biosphere. Advanced techniques in microscopy, tomography and spectroscopy applied to examine individual microfossils at the highest attainable spatial resolution have provided unprecedented insights into micro- and nano-scale structure and composition of organic matter. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy studies of the wall ultrastructure of sphaeromorphic and ornamented acritarchs have revealed complex, single to multilayered walls, having a unique texture in sub-layers and an occasionally preserved trilaminar sheath structure (TLS) of the cell wall. A variety of optical characteristics, the electron density and texture of fabrics of discrete layers, and the properties of biopolymers may indicate the polyphyletic affiliations of such microfossils and/or the preservation of various stages (vegetative, resting) in their life cycle. I evaluate the morphological features of organic-walled unicellular microfossils in conjunction with their cell wall ultrastructure to infer their life cycle and to recognize various developmental stages represented among microfossils attributed to a single form-taxon. Several cases of fine wall ultrastructure in microfossils have been documented and have had a conclusive influence on understanding their affinities. Some Proterozoic and Cambrian leiosphaerids are of algal affinities. Certain specimens represent chlorophyceaens, having the multilayered composite wall with TLS structure known from vegetative and resting cells in modern genera of the Chlorococcales and Volvocales. The wall ultrastructure of

  4. Cellulose synthesis in two secondary cell wall processes in a single cell type

    PubMed Central

    Mendu, Venugopal; Stork, Jozsef; Harris, Darby; DeBolt, Seth

    2011-01-01

    Plant cells have a rigid cell wall that constrains internal turgor pressure yet extends in a regulated and organized manner to allow the cell to acquire shape. The primary load-bearing macromolecule of a plant cell wall is cellulose, which forms crystalline microfibrils that are organized with respect to a cell's function and shape requirements. A primary cell wall is deposited during expansion whereas secondary cell wall is synthesized post expansion during differentiation. A complex form of asymmetrical cellular differentiation occurs in Arabidopsis seed coat epidermal cells, where we have recently shown that two secondary cell wall processes occur that utilize different cellulose synthase (CESA) proteins. One process is to produce pectinaceous mucilage that expands upon hydration and the other is a radial wall thickening that reinforced the epidermal cell structure. Our data illustrate polarized specialization of CESA5 in facilitating mucilage attachment to the parent seed and CESA2, CESA5 and CESA9 in radial cell wall thickening and formation of the columella. Herein, we present a model for the complexity of cellulose biosynthesis in this highly differentiated cell type with further evidence supporting each cellulosic secondary cell wall process. PMID:22057330

  5. Cotton fiber: a powerful single-cell model for cell wall and cellulose research

    PubMed Central

    Haigler, Candace H.; Betancur, Lissete; Stiff, Michael R.; Tuttle, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Cotton fibers are single-celled extensions of the seed epidermis. They can be isolated in pure form as they undergo staged differentiation including primary cell wall synthesis during elongation and nearly pure cellulose synthesis during secondary wall thickening. This combination of features supports clear interpretation of data about cell walls and cellulose synthesis in the context of high throughput modern experimental technologies. Prior contributions of cotton fiber to building fundamental knowledge about cell walls will be summarized and the dynamic changes in cell wall polymers throughout cotton fiber differentiation will be described. Recent successes in using stable cotton transformation to alter cotton fiber cell wall properties as well as cotton fiber quality will be discussed. Futurec prospects to perform experiments more rapidly through altering cotton fiberwall properties via virus-induced gene silencing will be evaluated. PMID:22661979

  6. Cell wall integrity signalling in human pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Dichtl, Karl; Samantaray, Sweta; Wagener, Johannes

    2016-09-01

    Fungi are surrounded by a rigid structure, the fungal cell wall. Its plasticity and composition depend on active regulation of the underlying biosynthesis and restructuring processes. This involves specialised signalling pathways that control gene expression and activities of biosynthetic enzymes. The cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway is the central signalling cascade required for the adaptation to a wide spectrum of cell wall perturbing conditions, including heat, oxidative stress and antifungals. In the recent years, great efforts were made to analyse the CWI pathway of diverse fungi. It turned out that the CWI signalling cascade is mostly conserved in the fungal kingdom. In this review, we summarise as well as compare the current knowledge on the canonical CWI pathway in the human pathogenic fungi Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Aspergillus fumigatus and Cryptococcus neoformans. Understanding the differences and similarities in the stress responses of these organisms could become a key to improving existing or developing new antifungal therapies. PMID:27155139

  7. Fluorescent probes for exploring plant cell wall deconstruction: a review.

    PubMed

    Paës, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Plant biomass is a potential resource of chemicals, new materials and biofuels that could reduce our dependency on fossil carbon, thus decreasing the greenhouse effect. However, due to its chemical and structural complexity, plant biomass is recalcitrant to green biological transformation by enzymes, preventing the establishment of integrated bio-refineries. In order to gain more knowledge in the architecture of plant cell wall to facilitate their deconstruction, many fluorescent probes bearing various fluorophores have been devised and used successfully to reveal the changes in structural motifs during plant biomass deconstruction, and the molecular interactions between enzymes and plant cell wall polymers. Fluorescent probes are thus relevant tools to explore plant cell wall deconstruction. PMID:24995923

  8. A new method for extraction of pectin from cell walls

    SciTech Connect

    Maness, N.O.; Mort, A.J. )

    1991-05-01

    Pectin is often extracted from plant tissues using the Ca{sup ++} chelators ethylenediamine tetraacetate (EDTA) or cyclohexane-trans-1,2 diamine tetraacetate (CDTA). While these chelators are effective in solubilizing pectin, even after extensive dialysis against distilled water, EDTA or CDTA remains associated with the pectin. The authors have found that if 500 mM imidazole buffer, pH 7.0 is substituted for 50 mM CDTA, pH 6.5, and for equivalent extraction periods, an equivalent amount of pectin with the same sugar composition is extracted. But, the imidazole buffer can be dialyzed away completely into distilled water. Their alternative procedure for extraction of pectin from cell walls will be presented. Utilization of the procedure for extraction of whole cell walls or cell walls pretreated with liquid hydrogen fluoride is discussed.

  9. Modulation of Alternaria infectoria Cell Wall Chitin and Glucan Synthesis by Cell Wall Synthase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Chantal; Anjos, Jorge; Walker, Louise A.; Silva, Branca M. A.; Cortes, Luísa; Mota, Marta; Munro, Carol A.; Gow, Neil A. R.

    2014-01-01

    The present work reports the effects of caspofungin, a β-1,3-glucan synthase inhibitor, and nikkomycin Z, an inhibitor of chitin synthases, on two strains of Alternaria infectoria, a melanized fungus involved in opportunistic human infections and respiratory allergies. One of the strains tested, IMF006, bore phenotypic traits that conferred advantages in resisting antifungal treatment. First, the resting cell wall chitin content was higher and in response to caspofungin, the chitin level remained constant. In the other strain, IMF001, the chitin content increased upon caspofungin treatment to values similar to basal IMF006 levels. Moreover, upon caspofungin treatment, the FKS1 gene was upregulated in IMF006 and downregulated in IMF001. In addition, the resting β-glucan content was also different in both strains, with higher levels in IMF001 than in IMF006. However, this did not provide any advantage with respect to echinocandin resistance. We identified eight different chitin synthase genes and studied relative gene expression when the fungus was exposed to the antifungals under study. In both strains, exposure to caspofungin and nikkomycin Z led to modulation of the expression of class V and VII chitin synthase genes, suggesting its importance in the robustness of A. infectoria. The pattern of A. infectoria phagocytosis and activation of murine macrophages by spores was not affected by caspofungin. Monotherapy with nikkomycin Z and caspofungin provided only fungistatic inhibition, while a combination of both led to fungal cell lysis, revealing a strong synergistic action between the chitin synthase inhibitor and the β-glucan synthase inhibitor against this fungus. PMID:24614372

  10. Merkel cell carcinoma of the abdominal wall

    PubMed Central

    Gaopande, Vandana L.; Joshi, Avinash R.; Khandeparkar, Siddhi G. S.; Deshmukh, Sanjay D.

    2015-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma also known as neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin is a very rare skin tumor. It commonly presents in the old age and the common sites are head, neck and extremities. The diagnosis requires histopathological examination with immunohistochemical correlation. We report a case of Merkel cell carcinoma stage IIIB with bilateral inguinal lymphadenopathy that on FNAB showed metastatic deposits of the tumor. PMID:26225333

  11. A zoom into the nanoscale texture of secondary cell walls

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Besides classical utilization of wood and paper, lignocellulosic biomass has become increasingly important with regard to biorefinery, biofuel production and novel biomaterials. For these new applications the macromolecular assembly of cell walls is of utmost importance and therefore further insights into the arrangement of the molecules on the nanolevel have to be gained. Cell wall recalcitrance against enzymatic degradation is one of the key issues, since an efficient degradation of lignocellulosic plant material is probably the most crucial step in plant conversion to energy. A limiting factor for in-depth analysis is that high resolution characterization techniques provide structural but hardly chemical information (e.g. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)), while chemical characterization leads to a disassembly of the cell wall components or does not reach the required nanoscale resolution (Fourier Tranform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman Spectroscopy). Results Here we use for the first time Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy (SNOM in reflection mode) on secondary plant cell walls and reveal a segmented circumferential nanostructure. This pattern in the 100 nm range was found in the secondary cell walls of a softwood (spruce), a hardwood (beech) and a grass (bamboo) and is thus concluded to be consistent among various plant species. As the nanostructural pattern is not visible in classical AFM height and phase images it is proven that the contrast is not due to changes in surfaces topography, but due to differences in the molecular structure. Conclusions Comparative analysis of model substances of casted cellulose nanocrystals and spin coated lignin indicate, that the SNOM signal is clearly influenced by changes in lignin distribution or composition. Therefore and based on the known interaction of lignin and visible light (e.g. fluorescence and resonance effects), we assume the elucidated nanoscale

  12. Distribution of cell wall components in Sphagnum hyaline cells and in liverwort and hornwort elaters.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Celeste; Pettolino, Filomena; Bacic, Antony; Drinnan, Andrew

    2004-10-01

    Spiral secondary walls are found in hyaline cells of Sphagnum, in the elaters of most liverworts, and in elaters of the hornwort Megaceros. Recent studies on these cells suggest that cytoskeletal and ultrastructural processes involved in cell differentiation and secondary wall formation are similar in bryophytes and vascular plant tracheary elements. To examine differences in wall structure, primary and secondary wall constituents of the hyaline cells of Sphagnum novo-zelandicum and elaters of the liverwort Radula buccinifera and the hornwort Megaceros gracilis were analyzed by immunohistochemical and chemical methods. Anti-arabinogalactan-protein antibodies, JIM8 and JIM13, labeled the central fibrillar secondary wall layer of Megaceros elaters and the walls of Sphagnum leaf cells, but did not label the walls of Radula elaters. The CCRC-M7 antibody, which detects an arabinosylated (1-->6)-linked beta-galactan epitope, exclusively labeled hyaline cells in Sphagnum leaves and the secondary walls of Radula elaters. Anti-pectin antibodies, LM5 and JIM5, labeled the primary wall in Megaceros elaters. LM5 also labeled the central layer of the secondary wall but only during formation. In Radula elaters, JIM5 and another anti-pectin antibody, JIM7, labeled the primary wall. The distribution of arabinogalactan-proteins and pectic polysaccharides restricted to specific wall types and stages of development provides evidence for the developmental and functional regulation of cell wall composition in bryophytes. Monosaccharide-linkage analysis of Sphagnum leaf cell walls suggests they contain polysaccharides similar to those of higher plants. The most abundant linkage was 4-Glc, typical of cellulose, but there was also evidence for xyloglucans, 4-linked mannans, 4-linked xylans and rhamnogalacturonan-type polysaccharides. PMID:15290291

  13. Particle Trajectories in Rotating Wall Cell Culture Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran N.; Downey, J. P.

    1999-01-01

    Cell cultures are extremely important to the medical community since such cultures provide an opportunity to perform research on human tissue without the concerns inherent in experiments on individual humans. Development of cells in cultures has been found to be greatly influenced by the conditions of the culture. Much work has focused on the effect of the motions of cells in the culture relative to the solution. Recently rotating wall vessels have been used with success in achieving improved cellular cultures. Speculation and limited research have focused on the low shear environment and the ability of rotating vessels to keep cells suspended in solution rather than floating or sedimenting as the primary reasons for the improved cellular cultures using these devices. It is widely believed that the cultures obtained using a rotating wall vessel simulates to some degree the effect of microgravity on cultures. It has also been speculated that the microgravity environment may provide the ideal acceleration environment for culturing of cellular tissues due to the nearly negligible levels of sedimentation and shear possible. This work predicts particle trajectories of cells in rotating wall vessels of cylindrical and annular design consistent with the estimated properties of typical cellular cultures. Estimates of the shear encountered by cells in solution and the interactions with walls are studied. Comparisons of potential experiments in ground and microgravity environments are performed.

  14. Interactions of Condensed Tannins with Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yeast Cells and Cell Walls: Tannin Location by Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Mekoue Nguela, Julie; Vernhet, Aude; Sieczkowski, Nathalie; Brillouet, Jean-Marc

    2015-09-01

    Interactions between grape tannins/red wine polyphenols and yeast cells/cell walls was previously studied within the framework of red wine aging and the use of yeast-derived products as an alternative to aging on lees. Results evidenced a quite different behavior between whole cells (biomass grown to elaborate yeast-derived products, inactivated yeast, and yeast inactivated after autolysis) and yeast cell walls (obtained from mechanical disruption of the biomass). Briefly, whole cells exhibited a high capacity to irreversibly adsorb grape and wine tannins, whereas only weak interactions were observed for cell walls. This last point was quite unexpected considering the literature and called into question the real role of cell walls in yeasts' ability to fix tannins. In the present work, tannin location after interactions between grape and wine tannins and yeast cells and cell walls was studied by means of transmission electron microscopy, light epifluorescence, and confocal microscopy. Microscopy observations evidenced that if tannins interact with cell walls, and especially cell wall mannoproteins, they also diffuse freely through the walls of dead cells to interact with their plasma membrane and cytoplasmic components. PMID:26223789

  15. Xlf1 is required for DNA repair by nonhomologous end joining in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Cavero, Santiago; Chahwan, Charly; Russell, Paul

    2007-02-01

    The accurate repair of DNA double-strand breaks is essential for cell survival and maintenance of genome integrity. Here we describe xlf1+, a gene in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe that is required for repair of double-strand breaks by nonhomologous end joining during G1 phase of the cell cycle. Xlf1 is the ortholog of budding yeast Nej1 and human XLF/Cernunnos proteins. PMID:17151234

  16. The structure of secondary cell wall polymers: how Gram-positive bacteria stick their cell walls together.

    PubMed

    Schäffer, Christina; Messner, Paul

    2005-03-01

    The cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria has been a subject of detailed chemical study over the past five decades. Outside the cytoplasmic membrane of these organisms the fundamental polymer is peptidoglycan (PG), which is responsible for the maintenance of cell shape and osmotic stability. In addition, typical essential cell wall polymers such as teichoic or teichuronic acids are linked to some of the peptidoglycan chains. In this review these compounds are considered as 'classical' cell wall polymers. In the course of recent investigations of bacterial cell surface layers (S-layers) a different class of 'non-classical' secondary cell wall polymers (SCWPs) has been identified, which is involved in anchoring of S-layers to the bacterial cell surface. Comparative analyses have shown considerable differences in chemical composition, overall structure and charge behaviour of these SCWPs. This review discusses the progress that has been made in understanding the structural principles of SCWPs, which may have useful applications in S-layer-based 'supramolecular construction kits' in nanobiotechnology. PMID:15758211

  17. Anammox Planctomycetes have a peptidoglycan cell wall

    PubMed Central

    van Teeseling, Muriel C.F.; Mesman, Rob J.; Kuru, Erkin; Espaillat, Akbar; Cava, Felipe; Brun, Yves V.; VanNieuwenhze, Michael S.; Kartal, Boran; van Niftrik, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Planctomycetes are intriguing microorganisms that apparently lack peptidoglycan, a structure that controls the shape and integrity of almost all bacterial cells. Therefore, the planctomycetal cell envelope is considered exceptional and their cell plan uniquely compartmentalized. Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) Planctomycetes play a key role in the global nitrogen cycle by releasing fixed nitrogen back to the atmosphere as N2. Here using a complementary array of state-of-the-art techniques including continuous culturing, cryo-transmission electron microscopy, peptidoglycan-specific probes and muropeptide analysis, we show that the anammox bacterium Kuenenia stuttgartiensis contains peptidoglycan. On the basis of the thickness, composition and location of peptidoglycan in K. stuttgartiensis, we propose to redefine Planctomycetes as Gram-negative bacteria. Our results demonstrate that Planctomycetes are not an exception to the universal presence of peptidoglycan in bacteria. PMID:25962786

  18. Quantitative Fitness Analysis Identifies exo1∆ and Other Suppressors or Enhancers of Telomere Defects in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Siddharth; Dubarry, Marion; Lawless, Conor; Banks, A. Peter; Wilkinson, Darren J.; Whitehall, Simon K.; Lydall, David

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic genetic array (SGA) has been successfully used to identify genetic interactions in S. cerevisiae and S. pombe. In S. pombe, SGA methods use either cycloheximide (C) or heat shock (HS) to select double mutants before measuring colony size as a surrogate for fitness. Quantitative Fitness Analysis (QFA) is a different method for determining fitness of microbial strains. In QFA, liquid cultures are spotted onto solid agar and growth curves determined for each spot by photography and model fitting. Here, we compared the two S. pombe SGA methods and found that the HS method was more reproducible for us. We also developed a QFA procedure for S. pombe. We used QFA to identify genetic interactions affecting two temperature sensitive, telomere associated query mutations (taz1Δ and pot1-1). We identify exo1∆ and other gene deletions as suppressors or enhancers of S. pombe telomere defects. Our study identifies known and novel gene deletions affecting the fitness of strains with telomere defects. The interactions we identify may be relevant in human cells. PMID:26168240

  19. Effect of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protein R (vpr) gene expression on basic cellular function of fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Y; Cao, J; O'Gorman, M R; Yu, M; Yogev, R

    1996-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpr protein affects cell morphology and prevents proliferation of human cells by induction of cell cycle G2 arrest. In this study, we used the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe as a model system to investigate the cellular effects of HIV-1 vpr gene expression. The vpr gene was cloned into an inducible fission yeast gene expression vector and expressed in wild-type S. pombe cells, and using these cells, we were able to demonstrate the specific Vpr-induced effects by induction and suppression of vpr gene expression. Induction of HIV-1 vpr gene expression affected S. pombe at the colonial, cellular, and molecular levels. Specifically, Vpr induced small-colony formation, polymorphic cells, growth delay, and cell cycle G2 arrest. Additionally, Vpr-induced G2 arrest appeared to be independent of cell size and morphological changes. The cell cycle G2 arrest correlated with increased phosphorylation of p34cdc2, suggesting negative regulation of mitosis by HIV-1 Vpr. Treatment of Vpr-induced cell with a protein phosphatase inhibitor, okadaic acid, transiently suppressed cell cycle arrest and morphological changes. This observation implicates possible involvement of protein phosphatase(s) in the effects of Vpr. Together, these data showed that the HIV-1 Vpr-induced cellular changes in S. pombe are similar to those observed in human cells. Therefore, the S. pombe system is suited for further investigation of the HIV-1 vpr gene functions. PMID:8709199

  20. The Cellulose System in the Cell Wall of Micrasterias

    PubMed

    Kim; Herth; Vuong; Chanzy

    1996-11-01

    The cellulose system of the cell wall of Micrasterias denticulata and Micrasterias rotata was analyzed by diffraction contrast transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction, and X-ray analysis. The studies, achieved on disencrusted cell ghosts, confirmed that the cellulose microfibrils occurred in crisscrossed bands consisting of a number of parallel ribbon-like microfibrils. The individual microfibrils had thicknesses of 5 nm for a width of around 20 nm, but in some instances, two or three microfibrils merged into one another to yield larger monocrystalline domains reaching up to 60 nm in lateral size. The orientation of the cellulose of Micrasterias is very unusual, as it was found that in the cell wall, the equatorial crystallographic planes of cellulose having a d-spacing of 0.60 nm [(11;0) in the Ibeta cellulose unit cell defined by Sugiyama et al., 1991, Macromolecules 24, 4168-4175] were oriented perpendicular to the cell wall surface. Up to now, such orientation has been found only in Spirogyra, another member of the Zygnemataceae group. The unusual structure of the secondary wall cellulose of Micrasterias may be tentatively correlated with the unique organization of the terminal complexes, which in this alga occur as hexagonal arrays of rosettes. PMID:8986649

  1. Sexual reproduction as a response to H sub 2 O sub 2 damage in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, C.; Johns, V. )

    1989-04-01

    Although sexual reproduction is widespread, its adaptive advantage over asexual reproduction is unclear. One major advantage of sex may be its promotion of recombinational repair of DNA damage during meiosis. This idea predicts that treatment of the asexual form of a facultatively sexual-asexual eucaryote with a DNA-damaging agent may cause it to enter the sexual cycle more frequently. Endogenous hydrogen peroxide is a major natural source of DNA damage. Thus, the authors treated vegetative cells of Schizosaccharomyces pombe with hydrogen peroxide to test if sexual reproduction increases. Among untreated stationary-phase S. pombe populations the sexual spores produced by meiosis represented about 1% of the total cells. However, treatment of late-exponential-phase vegetative cells with hydrogen peroxide increased the percentage of meiotic spores in the stationary phase by 4- to 18-fold. Oxidative damage therefore induces sexual reproduction in a facultatively sexual organism, a result expected by the hypothesis that sex promotes DNA repair.

  2. A model of cell wall expansion based on thermodynamics of polymer networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veytsman, B. A.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    A theory of cell wall extension is proposed. It is shown that macroscopic properties of cell walls can be explained through the microscopic properties of interpenetrating networks of cellulose and hemicellulose. The qualitative conclusions of the theory agree with the existing experimental data. The dependence of the cell wall yield threshold on the secretion of the wall components is discussed.

  3. Synchronizing Progression of Schizosaccharomyces pombe Cells from G2 through Repeated Rounds of Mitosis and S Phase with cdc25-22 Arrest Release.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Iain M; Grallert, Agnes; Simanis, Viesturs

    2016-01-01

    Transient inactivation of the cdc25(+) gene product by manipulation of the culture temperature for cdc25-22 cells is the most commonly exploited approach to mitotic synchronization in fission yeast. Because Cdc25 removes the inhibitory phosphate placed on Cdk1 by Wee1, inactivation of Cdc25 arrests cells at the G2/M boundary. Incubation at the restrictive temperature of 36°C for just over one generation time forces all cells in the culture to accumulate at the G2/M boundary. Restoration of Cdc25 function via a return to the permissive temperature or chemical inhibition of Wee1 activity at 36°C can then promote a highly synchronous wave of cell division throughout the culture. These approaches can be performed on any scale and thus support simultaneous assessment of numerous events within a single culture. After describing this simple and widely applicable procedure, we discuss frequently overlooked issues that can have a considerable impact on the interpretation of data from cdc25-22 induction-synchronized cultures. PMID:27480720

  4. The yin and yang of cell wall integrity control: brassinosteroid and FERONIA signaling.

    PubMed

    Höfte, Herman

    2015-02-01

    Understanding how developmental and environmental signals control plant cell expansion requires an intimate knowledge of the architecture of the primary cell wall and the chemo-rheological processes that underlie cell wall relaxation. In this review I discuss recent findings that reveal a more prominent role than previously suspected for covalent bonds and pectin cross-links in primary cell wall architecture. In addition, genetic studies have uncovered a role for receptor kinases in the control of cell wall homeostasis in growing cells. The emerging view is that, upon cell wall disruption, compensatory changes are induced in the cell wall through the interplay between the brassinosteroid signaling module, which positively regulates wall extensibility and receptor kinases of the CrRLKL1 family, which may act as negative regulators of cell wall stiffness. These findings lift the tip of the veil of a complex signaling network allowing normal homeostasis in walls of growing cells but also crisis management under stress conditions. PMID:25481004

  5. Influence of the Cell Wall on Intracellular Delivery to Algal Cells by Electroporation and Sonication

    PubMed Central

    Azencott, Harold R.; Peter, Gary F.; Prausnitz, Mark R.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the cell wall’s role as a barrier to intracellular delivery, wild-type Chlamydomonas reinhardtii algal cells and mutant cells lacking a cell wall were exposed to electroporation or sonication. Flow cytometry determined intracellular uptake of calcein and bovine serum albumin (BSA) and loss of cell viability as functions of electroporation transmembrane potential and acoustic energy. Electroporation of wild-type cells increased calcein uptake with increasing transmembrane potential, but delivered much less BSA. Electroporation of wall-deficient cells had similar effects on calcein uptake, but increased BSA uptake as much as 7.5-fold relative to wild-type cells, which indicated that the cell wall was a significant barrier to BSA delivery during electroporation. Sonication of wild-type cells caused calcein and BSA uptake at similar levels. This suggests that the cell wall barrier to BSA delivery can be overcome by sonication. Increased electroporation transmembrane potential or acoustic energy also caused increased loss of cell viability, where wall-deficient cells were especially susceptible to lysis. Overall, we believe this is the first study to compare the effects of electroporation and sonication in a direct fashion in any cell type. Specifically, these findings suggest that electroporation primarily transports molecules across the plasma membrane, because its mechanism is specific to lipid bilayer disruption, whereas sonication transports molecules across both the plasma membrane and cell wall, because it non-specifically disrupts cell-surface barriers. PMID:17602827

  6. Cell wall structure and function in lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Chapot-Chartier, Marie-Pierre; Kulakauskas, Saulius

    2014-08-29

    The cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria is a complex assemblage of glycopolymers and proteins. It consists of a thick peptidoglycan sacculus that surrounds the cytoplasmic membrane and that is decorated with teichoic acids, polysaccharides, and proteins. It plays a major role in bacterial physiology since it maintains cell shape and integrity during growth and division; in addition, it acts as the interface between the bacterium and its environment. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are traditionally and widely used to ferment food, and they are also the subject of more and more research because of their potential health-related benefits. It is now recognized that understanding the composition, structure, and properties of LAB cell walls is a crucial part of developing technological and health applications using these bacteria. In this review, we examine the different components of the Gram-positive cell wall: peptidoglycan, teichoic acids, polysaccharides, and proteins. We present recent findings regarding the structure and function of these complex compounds, results that have emerged thanks to the tandem development of structural analysis and whole genome sequencing. Although general structures and biosynthesis pathways are conserved among Gram-positive bacteria, studies have revealed that LAB cell walls demonstrate unique properties; these studies have yielded some notable, fundamental, and novel findings. Given the potential of this research to contribute to future applied strategies, in our discussion of the role played by cell wall components in LAB physiology, we pay special attention to the mechanisms controlling bacterial autolysis, bacterial sensitivity to bacteriophages and the mechanisms underlying interactions between probiotic bacteria and their hosts. PMID:25186919

  7. Cell wall structure and function in lactic acid bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria is a complex assemblage of glycopolymers and proteins. It consists of a thick peptidoglycan sacculus that surrounds the cytoplasmic membrane and that is decorated with teichoic acids, polysaccharides, and proteins. It plays a major role in bacterial physiology since it maintains cell shape and integrity during growth and division; in addition, it acts as the interface between the bacterium and its environment. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are traditionally and widely used to ferment food, and they are also the subject of more and more research because of their potential health-related benefits. It is now recognized that understanding the composition, structure, and properties of LAB cell walls is a crucial part of developing technological and health applications using these bacteria. In this review, we examine the different components of the Gram-positive cell wall: peptidoglycan, teichoic acids, polysaccharides, and proteins. We present recent findings regarding the structure and function of these complex compounds, results that have emerged thanks to the tandem development of structural analysis and whole genome sequencing. Although general structures and biosynthesis pathways are conserved among Gram-positive bacteria, studies have revealed that LAB cell walls demonstrate unique properties; these studies have yielded some notable, fundamental, and novel findings. Given the potential of this research to contribute to future applied strategies, in our discussion of the role played by cell wall components in LAB physiology, we pay special attention to the mechanisms controlling bacterial autolysis, bacterial sensitivity to bacteriophages and the mechanisms underlying interactions between probiotic bacteria and their hosts. PMID:25186919

  8. Cell wall proteome of Clostridium thermocellum and detection of glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tingting; Xu, Xinping; Peng, Yanfeng; Luo, Yuanming; Yang, Keqian

    2012-06-20

    Clostridium thermocellum, a thermophilic anaerobe, has the unusual capacity to convert cellulosic biomass into ethanol and hydrogen. In this work, the cell wall proteome of C. thermocellum was investigated. The proteins in the cell wall fraction of C. thermocellum prepared by the boiling SDS method were released by mutanolysin digestion and resolved on two-dimensional (2D) gel. One hundred and thirty-two proteins were identified by mass spectrometry, among which the extracellular solute-binding protein (CbpB/cthe_1020), enolase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and translation elongation factor EF-Tu were detected as highly abundant proteins. Besides the known surface localized proteins, including FtsZ, MinD, GroEL, DnaK, many enzymes involved in bioenergetics, such as alcohol dehydrogenases and hydrogenases were also detected. By glycan stain and MS analysis of glycopeptides, we identified CbpB as a glycoprotein, which is the second glycoprotein from C. thermocellum characterized. The fact that CbpB was highly abundant in the cell wall region and glycosylated, reflects its importance in substrate assimilation. Our results indicate cell wall proteins constitute a significant portion of cellular proteins and may play important physiological roles (i.e. bioenergetics) in this bacterium. The insights described are relevant for the development of C. thermocellum as a biofuel producer. PMID:22494898

  9. Titration of Isolated Cell Walls of Lemna minor L 1

    PubMed Central

    Morvan, Claudine; Demarty, Maurice; Thellier, Michel

    1979-01-01

    A theoretical model has been built to bypass the equation of titration of the cell wall. This equation, which is an extension of the Henderson-Hasselbach equation, underlines the importance of the exchange constant, the ionic strength as well as the rate of neutralization. The model is restricted to the case when the ionization degree is equal to the neutralization degree. The shape of the titration curve is shown to be strongly dependent on the valency of the base used. Experimental results have shown that isolated cell walls bear at least two kinds of sites. The first sites which are titrated after a short time of equilibration are attributed to polyuronic acids (capacity: 0.3 milliequivalents per gram fresh cell walls). The second sites, are obtained after a long time of equilibration (capacity: 1.2 to 1.3 milliequivalents per gram, fresh cell walls). Titrations have been performed with different bases [KOH, NaOH, and Ca(OH)2] and under different ionic strengths. The results obtained with NaOH and KOH do not exhibit any difference of selectivity. Conversely, the sites have a much bigger affinity for the Ca2+ ions than for the monovalent ones. The apparent pKa of the uronic acids was estimated to lie between 3.0 and 3.4; this is consistent with the values obtained with polyuronic acid solutions. PMID:16660868

  10. A cytoplasmic peptidoglycan amidase homologue controls mycobacterial cell wall synthesis.

    PubMed

    Boutte, Cara C; Baer, Christina E; Papavinasasundaram, Kadamba; Liu, Weiru; Chase, Michael R; Meniche, Xavier; Fortune, Sarah M; Sassetti, Christopher M; Ioerger, Thomas R; Rubin, Eric J

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of cell wall assembly is essential for bacterial survival and contributes to pathogenesis and antibiotic tolerance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). However, little is known about how the cell wall is regulated in stress. We found that CwlM, a protein homologous to peptidoglycan amidases, coordinates peptidoglycan synthesis with nutrient availability. Surprisingly, CwlM is sequestered from peptidoglycan (PG) by localization in the cytoplasm, and its enzymatic function is not essential. Rather, CwlM is phosphorylated and associates with MurA, the first enzyme in PG precursor synthesis. Phosphorylated CwlM activates MurA ~30 fold. CwlM is dephosphorylated in starvation, resulting in lower MurA activity, decreased cell wall metabolism, and increased tolerance to multiple antibiotics. A phylogenetic analysis of cwlM implies that localization in the cytoplasm drove the evolution of this factor. We describe a system that controls cell wall metabolism in response to starvation, and show that this regulation contributes to antibiotic tolerance. PMID:27304077

  11. A cytoplasmic peptidoglycan amidase homologue controls mycobacterial cell wall synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Boutte, Cara C; Baer, Christina E; Papavinasasundaram, Kadamba; Liu, Weiru; Chase, Michael R; Meniche, Xavier; Fortune, Sarah M; Sassetti, Christopher M; Ioerger, Thomas R; Rubin, Eric J

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of cell wall assembly is essential for bacterial survival and contributes to pathogenesis and antibiotic tolerance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). However, little is known about how the cell wall is regulated in stress. We found that CwlM, a protein homologous to peptidoglycan amidases, coordinates peptidoglycan synthesis with nutrient availability. Surprisingly, CwlM is sequestered from peptidoglycan (PG) by localization in the cytoplasm, and its enzymatic function is not essential. Rather, CwlM is phosphorylated and associates with MurA, the first enzyme in PG precursor synthesis. Phosphorylated CwlM activates MurA ~30 fold. CwlM is dephosphorylated in starvation, resulting in lower MurA activity, decreased cell wall metabolism, and increased tolerance to multiple antibiotics. A phylogenetic analysis of cwlM implies that localization in the cytoplasm drove the evolution of this factor. We describe a system that controls cell wall metabolism in response to starvation, and show that this regulation contributes to antibiotic tolerance. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14590.001 PMID:27304077

  12. Environmental stability of stem cell wall traits in alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The concentration of stem cell wall constituents in alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., herbage can affect dry matter intake and energy availability in dairy and beef production systems and impact energy conversion efficiency when alfalfa is used to produce biofuels. Stem Klason lignin, glucose, xylose, an...

  13. Polymer mobility in cell walls of cucumber hypocotyls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenwick, K. M.; Apperley, D. C.; Cosgrove, D. J.; Jarvis, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    Cell walls were prepared from the growing region of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) hypocotyls and examined by solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy, in both enzymically active and inactivated states. The rigidity of individual polymer segments within the hydrated cell walls was assessed from the proton magnetic relaxation parameter, T2, and from the kinetics of cross-polarisation from 1H to 13C. The microfibrils, including most of the xyloglucan in the cell wall, as well as cellulose, behaved as very rigid solids. A minor xyloglucan fraction, which may correspond to cross-links between microfibrils, shared a lower level of rigidity with some of the pectic galacturonan. Other pectins, including most of the galactan side-chain residues of rhamnogalacturonan I, were much more mobile and behaved in a manner intermediate between the solid and liquid states. The only difference observed between the enzymically active and inactive cell walls, was the loss of a highly mobile, methyl-esterified galacturonan fraction, as the result of pectinesterase activity.

  14. Hetero-oligomeric cell wall channels (porins) of Nocardia farcinica.

    PubMed

    Kläckta, Christian; Knörzer, Philipp; Riess, Franziska; Benz, Roland

    2011-06-01

    The cell wall of Nocardia farcinica contains a cation-selective cell wall channel, which may be responsible for the limited permeability of the cell wall of N. farcinica for negatively charged antibiotics. Based on partial sequencing of the protein responsible for channel formation derived from N. farcinica ATTC 3318 we were able to identify the corresponding genes (nfa15890 and nfa15900) within the known genome of N. farcinica IFM 10152. The corresponding genes of N. farcinica ATTC 3318 were separately expressed in the Escherichia coli BL21DE3Omp8 strain and the N-terminal His10-tagged proteins were purified to homogeneity using immobilized metal affinity chromatography. The pure proteins were designated NfpANHis and NfpBNHis, for N. farcinica porin A and N. farcinica porin B. The two proteins were checked separately for channel formation in lipid bilayers. Our results clearly indicate that the proteins NfpANHis and NfpBNHis expressed in E. coli could only together form a channel in lipid bilayer membranes. This means that the cell wall channel of N. farcinica is formed by a heterooligomer. NfpA and NfpB form together a channel that may structurally be related to MspA of Mycobacterium smegmatis based on amino acid comparison and renaturation procedure. PMID:21092733

  15. Medicago truncatula as a Model for Dicot Cell Wall Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strong interest in renewable energy has promoted an upsurge of research on plant cell wall traits that influence the availability of lignocellulosic-derived sugars for fermentation in production of biofuels. We have initiated a genome-wide transcript profiling study using the model legume Medicago t...

  16. Determination of carbohydrate profile in sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris) cell walls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarbeet germplasms USH20, C869, EL55, EL54 were used, and different tissues at different developmental stages were sampled, including dry seeds, germinating seedlings, developing leaves, mature leaves, petioles, hypocotyls, mature roots, flowering stems and inflorescences. Cell Wall Composition An...

  17. Undressing the fungal cell wall/cell membrane--the antifungal drug targets.

    PubMed

    Tada, Rui; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Aimanianda, Vishukumar

    2013-01-01

    Being external, the fungal cell wall plays a crucial role in the fungal life. By covering the underneath cell, it offers mechanical strength and acts as a barrier, thus protecting the fungus from the hostile environment. Chemically, this cell wall is composed of different polysaccharides. Because of their specific composition, the fungal cell wall and its underlying plasma membrane are unique targets for the development of drugs against pathogenic fungal species. The objective of this review is to consolidate the current knowledge on the antifungal drugs targeting the cell wall and plasma membrane, mainly of Aspergillus and Candida species - the most prevalent fungal pathogens, and also to present challenges and questions conditioning the development of new antifungal drugs targeting the cell wall. PMID:23278542

  18. Synchronizing Progression of Schizosaccharomyces pombe Cells from Prophase through Mitosis and into S Phase with nda3-KM311 Arrest Release.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Iain M; Grallert, Agnes; Simanis, Viesturs

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe how the rapid reversibility of the nda3-KM311 cold-sensitive β-tubulin mutation was optimized by Mitsuhiro Yanagida's laboratory to synchronize mitotic progression in an entire cell population. The inability to form microtubules following the loss of β-tubulin function at 20°C triggers the spindle assembly checkpoint, which arrests mitotic progression. Restoration of β-tubulin function by rewarming to 30°C (or higher) releases the arrest, generating a highly synchronous progression through mitosis. The viability of nda3-KM311 strains at 30°C makes it feasible to generate double mutants between nda3-KM311 and any temperature-sensitive mutant that can also grow at 30°C. These double mutants can be used in reciprocal shift analyses, in which cold-induced early mitotic arrest is relieved by a shift to 36°C, which then inactivates the product of the second mutant gene. The addition of microtubule depolymerizing drugs before the return to 36°C will maintain checkpoint signaling at 36°C transiently, permitting analysis of the impact of temperature-sensitive mutations on checkpoint function. Silencing the checkpoint of nda3-KM311-arrested cells at 20°C through chemical inhibition of aurora kinase is a powerful way to study checkpoint recovery pathways and mitotic exit without anaphase. PMID:27480719

  19. Partial Chemical Characterization of Corn Root Cell Walls 1

    PubMed Central

    Dever, John E.; Bandurski, Robert S.; Kivilaan, A.

    1968-01-01

    The present study reports on chemical changes which occur in the cell wall of Zea mays during early phases of growth. Roots of seedling corn plants were divided into a meristematic zone, the zone of elongation, and the maturation zone, and the cell wall isolated from each of these zones. The wall preparations were then extracted sequentially to obtain pectin, hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin fractions. Each of these, except for the lignin fraction, was hydrolyzed and the resultant sugars isolated, identified, and estimated quantitatively. Quantitative analysis of the products of hydrolysis of these fractions demonstrated that the classical scheme of fractionation is a valuable indicator of the changes in solubility properties which the various polysaccharide components for the wall undergo. It does not however yield definite chemical entities. For example, the “pectin” fraction contains only about 3% galacturonic acid; the bulk of it being composed of glucose, xylose, and galactose. By summation of analysis of these various fractions, it was found that substances yielding glucose and xylose upon hydrolysis increase with advancing age of the tissue. Galactose- and arabinose-yielding compounds decrease and mannose appears during maturation. Anhydrouronic acids first decrease, then increase. Most interestingly, of the total dry weight of the cell wall, only 24, 45, and 50% of the meristematic, elongation, and maturation zones respectively are accounted for as simple sugars in the acid hydrolysates. Oligosaccharides were not encountered in large amounts so that the 50 to 75% of the wall weight unaccounted for would consist of polysaccharides or oligosaccharides not precipitated by ethanol from the extracting solutions employed and by polysaccharides in the hemicellulose fraction which are resistant to acid hydrolysis. PMID:16656735

  20. Cell-Wall Polysaccharides of Developing Flax Plants.

    PubMed Central

    Gorshkova, T. A.; Wyatt, S. E.; Salnikov, V. V.; Gibeaut, D. M.; Ibragimov, M. R.; Lozovaya, V. V.; Carpita, N. C.

    1996-01-01

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) fibers originate from procambial cells of the protophloem and develop in cortical bundles that encircle the vascular cylinder. We determined the polysaccharide composition of the cell walls from various organs of the developing flax plant, from fiber-rich strips peeled from the stem, and from the xylem. Ammonium oxalate-soluble polysaccharides from all tissues contained 5-linked arabinans with low degrees of branching, rhamnogalacturonans, and polygalacturonic acid. The fiber-rich peels contained, in addition, substantial amounts of a buffer-soluble, 4-linked galactan branched at the 0-2 and 0-3 positions with nonreducing terminal-galactosyl units. The cross-linking glycans from all tissues were (fucogalacto)xyloglucan, typical of type-I cell walls, xylans containing (1->)-[beta]-D-xylosyl units branched exclusively at the xylosyl O-2 with t-(4-O-methyl)-glucosyluronic acid units, and (galacto)glucomannans. Tissues containing predominantly primary cell wall contained a larger proportion of xyloglucan. The xylem cells were composed of about 60% 4-xylans, 32% cellulose, and small amounts of pectin and the other cross-linking polysaccharides. The noncellulosic polysaccharides of flax exhibit an uncommonly low degree of branching compared to similar polysaccharides from other flowering plants. Although the relative abundance of the various noncellulosic polysaccharides varies widely among the different cell types, the linkage structure and degree of branching of several of the noncellulosic polysaccharides are invariant. PMID:12226214

  1. Response to Arsenate Treatment in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and the Role of Its Arsenate Reductase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Matia-González, Ana M.; Sotelo, Jael; Zarco-Fernández, Sonia; Muñoz-Olivas, Riansares; Cámara, Carmen; Rodríguez-Gabriel, Miguel A.

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic toxicity has been studied for a long time due to its effects in humans. Although epidemiological studies have demonstrated multiple effects in human physiology, there are many open questions about the cellular targets and the mechanisms of response to arsenic. Using the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe as model system, we have been able to demonstrate a strong activation of the MAPK Spc1/Sty1 in response to arsenate. This activation is dependent on Wis1 activation and Pyp2 phosphatase inactivation. Using arsenic speciation analysis we have also demonstrated the previously unknown capacity of S. pombe cells to reduce As (V) to As (III). Genetic analysis of several fission yeast mutants point towards the cell cycle phosphatase Cdc25 as a possible candidate to carry out this arsenate reductase activity. We propose that arsenate reduction and intracellular accumulation of arsenite are the key mechanisms of arsenate tolerance in fission yeast. PMID:22912829

  2. Uncleavable Nup98–Nup96 is functional in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    PubMed Central

    Asakawa, Haruhiko; Mori, Chie; Ohtsuki, Chizuru; Iwamoto, Masaaki; Hiraoka, Yasushi; Haraguchi, Tokuko

    2015-01-01

    Essential nucleoporins Nup98 and Nup96 are coded by a single open reading frame, and produced by autopeptidase cleavage. The autocleavage site of Nup98–Nup96 is highly conserved in a wide range of organisms. To understand the importance of autocleavage, we examined a mutant that produces the Nup98–Nup96 joint molecule as a sole protein product of the nup189+ gene in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Cells expressing only the joint molecule were found to be viable. This result indicates that autocleavage of Nup98–Nup96 is dispensable for cell growth, at least under normal culture conditions in S. pombe. PMID:26137436

  3. Nucleated assembly of Chlamydomonas and Volvox cell walls.

    PubMed

    Adair, W S; Steinmetz, S A; Mattson, D M; Goodenough, U W; Heuser, J E

    1987-11-01

    The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cell wall is made up of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins, arranged in five distinct layers. The W6 (crystalline) layer contains three major glycoproteins (GP1, GP2, GP3), selectively extractable with chaotropic agents, that self-assemble into crystals in vitro. A system to study W6 assembly in a quantitative fashion was developed that employs perchlorate-extracted Chlamydomonas cells as nucleating agents. Wall reconstitution by biotinylated W6 monomers was monitored by FITC-streptavidin fluorescence and quick-freeze/deep-etch electron microscopy. Optimal reconstitution was obtained at monomer concentrations (0.2-0.3 mg/ml) well below those required for nonnucleated assembly. Assembly occurred from multiple nucleation sites, and faithfully reflected the structure of the intact W6 layer. Specificity of nucleated assembly was demonstrated using two cell-wall mutants (cw-2 and cw-15); neither served as a substrate for assembly of wild-type monomers. In addition, W6 sublayers were assembled from purified components: GP2 and GP3 coassembled to form the inner (W6A) sublayer; this then served as a substrate for self-assembly of GP1 into the outer (W6B) sublayer. Finally, evolutionary relationships between C. reinhardtii and two additional members of the Volvocales (Chlamydomonas eugametos and Volvox carteri) were explored by performing interspecific reconstitutions. Hybrid walls were obtained between C. reinhardtii and Volvox but not with C. eugametos, confirming taxonomic assignments based on structural criteria. PMID:3680387

  4. Crushing Strength of Aluminum Honeycomb with Thinning Cell Wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogasawara, Nagahisa; Chiba, Norimasa; Kobayashi, Eiji; Kikuchi, Yuji

    To evaluate the crash safety of automobiles, various collision tests are performed by the auto industry. In the offset frontal collision test and the side collision test, the target is an aluminum honeycomb material which has thinning cell walls. In this study, based on the analyses of the shock absorption mechanism, a new crushing strength formula is proposed. First, load-displacement curves obtained from compression tests in quasi-static condition showed an almost linear relation between a thinning rate of cell walls and a crushing strength. Second, based on Wierzbicki's theory, a new formula was proposed, which can estimate a crushing strength of a honeycomb material with thinning wall. In addition, a correcting equation which considered an elastic deformation was also proposed. Third, parametric analyses were carried out with a FE model which can simulate a delamination between cell walls. The results obtained from the theory and FEM almost corresponded to each other for a wide range of the thinning rate. Fourth, impact tests were carried out, in which the weight was dropped freely at the speed used for the automobile tests. Those results almost agreed well with the sum of the theoretical crush strength and the inside air pressure.

  5. Cell wall staining with Trypan blue enables quantitative analysis of morphological changes in yeast cells

    PubMed Central

    Liesche, Johannes; Marek, Magdalena; Günther-Pomorski, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Yeast cells are protected by a cell wall that plays an important role in the exchange of substances with the environment. The cell wall structure is dynamic and can adapt to different physiological states or environmental conditions. For the investigation of morphological changes, selective staining with fluorescent dyes is a valuable tool. Furthermore, cell wall staining is used to facilitate sub-cellular localization experiments with fluorescently-labeled proteins and the detection of yeast cells in non-fungal host tissues. Here, we report staining of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall with Trypan Blue, which emits strong red fluorescence upon binding to chitin and yeast glucan; thereby, it facilitates cell wall analysis by confocal and super-resolution microscopy. The staining pattern of Trypan Blue was similar to that of the widely used UV-excitable, blue fluorescent cell wall stain Calcofluor White. Trypan Blue staining facilitated quantification of cell size and cell wall volume when utilizing the optical sectioning capacity of a confocal microscope. This enabled the quantification of morphological changes during growth under anaerobic conditions and in the presence of chemicals, demonstrating the potential of this approach for morphological investigations or screening assays. PMID:25717323

  6. Resistance to antibiotics targeted to the bacterial cell wall

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaidis, I; Favini-Stabile, S; Dessen, A

    2014-01-01

    Peptidoglycan is the main component of the bacterial cell wall. It is a complex, three-dimensional mesh that surrounds the entire cell and is composed of strands of alternating glycan units crosslinked by short peptides. Its biosynthetic machinery has been, for the past five decades, a preferred target for the discovery of antibacterials. Synthesis of the peptidoglycan occurs sequentially within three cellular compartments (cytoplasm, membrane, and periplasm), and inhibitors of proteins that catalyze each stage have been identified, although not all are applicable for clinical use. A number of these antimicrobials, however, have been rendered inactive by resistance mechanisms. The employment of structural biology techniques has been instrumental in the understanding of such processes, as well as the development of strategies to overcome them. This review provides an overview of resistance mechanisms developed toward antibiotics that target bacterial cell wall precursors and its biosynthetic machinery. Strategies toward the development of novel inhibitors that could overcome resistance are also discussed. PMID:24375653

  7. Messenger Functions of the Bacterial Cell Wall-derived Muropeptides

    PubMed Central

    Boudreau, Marc A.; Fisher, Jed. F.; Mobashery, Shahriar

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial muropeptides are soluble peptidoglycan structures central to recycling of the bacterial cell wall, and messengers in diverse cell-signaling events. Bacteria sense muropeptides as signals that antibiotics targeting cell-wall biosynthesis are present, and eukaryotes detect muropeptides during the innate immune response to bacterial infection. This review summarizes the roles of bacterial muropeptides as messengers, with a special emphasis on bacterial muropeptide structures and the relationship of structure to the biochemical events that the muropeptides elicit. Muropeptide sensing and recycling in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria is discussed, followed by muropeptide sensing by eukaryotes as a crucial event to the innate immune response of insects (via peptidoglycan-recognition proteins) and mammals (through Nod-like receptors) to bacterial invasion. PMID:22409164

  8. Identification of Cell Wall Synthesis Regulatory Genes Controlling Biomass Characteristics and Yield in Rice (Oryza Sativa)

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Zhaohua PEng; Ronald, Palmela; Wang, Guo-Liang

    2013-04-26

    This project aims to identify the regulatory genes of rice cell wall synthesis pathways using a cell wall removal and regeneration system. We completed the gene expression profiling studies following the time course from cell wall removal to cell wall regeneration in rice suspension cells. We also completed, total proteome, nuclear subproteome and histone modification studies following the course from cell wall removal and cell wall regeneration process. A large number of differentially expressed regulatory genes and proteins were identified. Meanwhile, we generated RNAi and over-expression transgenic rice for 45 genes with at least 10 independent transgenic lines for each gene. In addition, we ordered T-DNA and transposon insertion mutants for 60 genes from Korea, Japan, and France and characterized the mutants. Overall, we have mutants and transgenic lines for over 90 genes, exceeded our proposed goal of generating mutants for 50 genes. Interesting Discoveries a) Cell wall re-synthesis in protoplasts may involve a novel cell wall synthesis mechanism. The synthesis of the primary cell wall is initiated in late cytokinesis with further modification during cell expansion. Phragmoplast plays an essential role in cell wall synthesis. It services as a scaffold for building the cell plate and formation of a new cell wall. Only one phragmoplast and one new cell wall is produced for each dividing cell. When the cell wall was removed enzymatically, we found that cell wall re-synthesis started from multiple locations simultaneously, suggesting that a novel mechanism is involved in cell wall re-synthesis. This observation raised many interesting questions, such as how the starting sites of cell wall synthesis are determined, whether phragmoplast and cell plate like structures are involved in cell wall re-synthesis, and more importantly whether the same set of enzymes and apparatus are used in cell wall re-synthesis as during cytokinesis. Given that many known cell wall

  9. Ectopic lignification in primary cellulose-deficient cell walls of maize cell suspension cultures.

    PubMed

    Mélida, Hugo; Largo-Gosens, Asier; Novo-Uzal, Esther; Santiago, Rogelio; Pomar, Federico; García, Pedro; García-Angulo, Penélope; Acebes, José Luis; Álvarez, Jesús; Encina, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) suspension-cultured cells with up to 70% less cellulose were obtained by stepwise habituation to dichlobenil (DCB), a cellulose biosynthesis inhibitor. Cellulose deficiency was accompanied by marked changes in cell wall matrix polysaccharides and phenolics as revealed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Cell wall compositional analysis indicated that the cellulose-deficient cell walls showed an enhancement of highly branched and cross-linked arabinoxylans, as well as an increased content in ferulic acid, diferulates and p-coumaric acid, and the presence of a polymer that stained positive for phloroglucinol. In accordance with this, cellulose-deficient cell walls showed a fivefold increase in Klason-type lignin. Thioacidolysis/GC-MS analysis of cellulose-deficient cell walls indicated the presence of a lignin-like polymer with a Syringyl/Guaiacyl ratio of 1.45, which differed from the sensu stricto stress-related lignin that arose in response to short-term DCB-treatments. Gene expression analysis of these cells indicated an overexpression of genes specific for the biosynthesis of monolignol units of lignin. A study of stress signaling pathways revealed an overexpression of some of the jasmonate signaling pathway genes, which might trigger ectopic lignification in response to cell wall integrity disruptions. In summary, the structural plasticity of primary cell walls is proven, since a lignification process is possible in response to cellulose impoverishment. PMID:25735403

  10. Viscoelastic properties of cell walls of single living plant cells determined by dynamic nanoindentation

    PubMed Central

    Hayot, Céline M.; Forouzesh, Elham; Goel, Ashwani; Avramova, Zoya; Turner, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    Plant development results from controlled cell divisions, structural modifications, and reorganizations of the cell wall. Thereby, regulation of cell wall behaviour takes place at multiple length scales involving compositional and architectural aspects in addition to various developmental and/or environmental factors. The physical properties of the primary wall are largely determined by the nature of the complex polymer network, which exhibits time-dependent behaviour representative of viscoelastic materials. Here, a dynamic nanoindentation technique is used to measure the time-dependent response and the viscoelastic behaviour of the cell wall in single living cells at a micron or sub-micron scale. With this approach, significant changes in storage (stiffness) and loss (loss of energy) moduli are captured among the tested cells. The results reveal hitherto unknown differences in the viscoelastic parameters of the walls of same-age similarly positioned cells of the Arabidopsis ecotypes (Col 0 and Ws 2). The technique is also shown to be sensitive enough to detect changes in cell wall properties in cells deficient in the activity of the chromatin modifier ATX1. Extensive computational modelling of the experimental measurements (i.e. modelling the cell as a viscoelastic pressure vessel) is used to analyse the influence of the wall thickness, as well as the turgor pressure, at the positions of our measurements. By combining the nanoDMA technique with finite element simulations quantifiable measurements of the viscoelastic properties of plant cell walls are achieved. Such techniques are expected to find broader applications in quantifying the influence of genetic, biological, and environmental factors on the nanoscale mechanical properties of the cell wall. PMID:22291130