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Sample records for pontoon gata choogata

  1. 29 CFR 1918.42 - Hatch beam and pontoon bridles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hatch beam and pontoon bridles. 1918.42 Section 1918.42... § 1918.42 Hatch beam and pontoon bridles. (a) Hatch beam and pontoon bridles shall be: (1) Long enough to reach the holes, rings, or other lifting attachments on the hatch beams and pontoons easily; (2)...

  2. 29 CFR 1918.42 - Hatch beam and pontoon bridles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hatch beam and pontoon bridles. 1918.42 Section 1918.42... § 1918.42 Hatch beam and pontoon bridles. (a) Hatch beam and pontoon bridles shall be: (1) Long enough to reach the holes, rings, or other lifting attachments on the hatch beams and pontoons easily; (2)...

  3. 29 CFR 1918.42 - Hatch beam and pontoon bridles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hatch beam and pontoon bridles. 1918.42 Section 1918.42... § 1918.42 Hatch beam and pontoon bridles. (a) Hatch beam and pontoon bridles shall be: (1) Long enough to reach the holes, rings, or other lifting attachments on the hatch beams and pontoons easily; (2)...

  4. 29 CFR 1918.42 - Hatch beam and pontoon bridles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hatch beam and pontoon bridles. 1918.42 Section 1918.42... § 1918.42 Hatch beam and pontoon bridles. (a) Hatch beam and pontoon bridles shall be: (1) Long enough to reach the holes, rings, or other lifting attachments on the hatch beams and pontoons easily; (2)...

  5. 46 CFR 178.340 - Stability standards for pontoon vessels on protected waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Intact Stability Standards § 178... the initial position of the load, the top of the pontoon must not be submerged at any location,...

  6. GATA-related hematologic disorders.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Ritsuko; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2016-08-01

    The transcription factors GATA1 and GATA2 are fundamental regulators of hematopoiesis and have overlapping expression profiles. GATA2 is expressed in hematopoietic stem cells and early erythroid-megakaryocytic progenitors and activates a certain set of early-phase genes, including the GATA2 gene itself. GATA2 also initiates GATA1 gene expression. In contrast, GATA1 is expressed in relatively mature erythroid progenitors and facilitates the expression of genes associated with differentiation, including the GATA1 gene itself; however, GATA1 represses the expression of GATA2. Switching the GATA factors from GATA2 to GATA1 appears to be one of the key regulatory mechanisms underlying erythroid differentiation. Loss-of-function analyses using mice in vivo have indicated that GATA2 and GATA1 are functionally nonredundant and that neither can compensate for the absence of the other. However, transgenic expression of GATA2 under the transcriptional regulation of the Gata1 gene rescues lethal dyserythropoiesis in GATA1-deficient mice, illustrating that the dynamic expression profiles of these GATA factors are critically important for the maintenance of hematopoietic homeostasis. Analysis of naturally occurring leukemias in GATA1-knockdown mice revealed that leukemic stem cells undergo functional alterations in response to exposure to chemotherapeutic agents. This mechanism may also underlie the aggravating features of relapsing leukemias. Recent hematologic analyses have suggested that disturbances in the balance of the GATA factors are associated with specific types of hematopoietic disorders. Here, we describe GATA1- and GATA2-related hematologic diseases, focusing on the regulation of GATA factor gene expression. PMID:27235756

  7. GATA factor transgenes under GATA-1 locus control rescue germline GATA-1 mutant deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, S; Shimizu, R; Suwabe, N; Kuroha, T; Yoh, K; Ohta, J; Nishimura, S; Lim, K C; Engel, J D; Yamamoto, M

    2000-08-01

    GATA-1 germline mutation in mice results in embryonic lethality due to defective erythroid cell maturation, and thus other hematopoietic GATA factors do not compensate for the loss of GATA-1. To determine whether the obligate presence of GATA-1 in erythroid cells is due to its distinct biochemical properties or spatiotemporal patterning, we attempted to rescue GATA-1 mutant mice with hematopoietic GATA factor complementary DNAs (cDNAs) placed under the transcriptional control of the GATA-1 gene. We found that transgenic expression of a GATA-1 cDNA fully abrogated the GATA-1-deficient phenotype. Surprisingly, GATA-2 and GATA-3 factors expressed from the same regulatory cassette also rescued the embryonic lethal phenotype of the GATA-1 mutation. However, adult mice rescued with the latter transgenes developed anemia, while GATA-1 transgenic mice did not. These results demonstrate that the transcriptional control dictating proper GATA-1 accumulation is the most critical determinant of GATA-1 activity during erythropoiesis. The results also show that there are biochemical distinctions among the hematopoietic GATA proteins and that during adult hematopoiesis the hematopoietic GATA factors are not functionally equivalent. PMID:10910904

  8. GATA4 and GATA6 control mouse pancreas organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, Manuel; Delgado, Irene; Soria, Bernat; Martín, Francisco; Rojas, Anabel

    2012-01-01

    Recently, heterozygous mutations in GATA6 have been found in neonatal diabetic patients with failed pancreatic organogenesis. To investigate the roles of GATA4 and GATA6 in mouse pancreas organogenesis, we conditionally inactivated these genes within the pancreas. Single inactivation of either gene did not have a major impact on pancreas formation, indicating functional redundancy. However, double Gata4/Gata6 mutant mice failed to develop pancreata, died shortly after birth, and displayed hyperglycemia. Morphological defects in Gata4/Gata6 mutant pancreata were apparent during embryonic development, and the epithelium failed to expand as a result of defects in cell proliferation and differentiation. The number of multipotent pancreatic progenitors, including PDX1+ cells, was reduced in the Gata4/Gata6 mutant pancreatic epithelium. Remarkably, deletion of only 1 Gata6 allele on a Gata4 conditional knockout background severely reduced pancreatic mass. In contrast, a single WT allele of Gata4 in Gata6 conditional knockout mice was sufficient for normal pancreatic development, indicating differential contributions of GATA factors to pancreas formation. Our results place GATA factors at the top of the transcriptional network hierarchy controlling pancreas organogenesis. PMID:23006330

  9. 46 CFR 178.340 - Stability standards for pontoon vessels on protected waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Intact Stability Standards § 178... filled to 100 percent capacity, whichever is more conservative. (b) A pontoon vessel must not exceed the... determine whether trimming moments will submerge the bow or stern of the buoyant hull. The top of...

  10. 46 CFR 178.340 - Stability standards for pontoon vessels on protected waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Intact Stability Standards § 178... filled to 100 percent capacity, whichever is more conservative. (b) A pontoon vessel must not exceed the... determine whether trimming moments will submerge the bow or stern of the buoyant hull. The top of...

  11. 46 CFR 178.340 - Stability standards for pontoon vessels on protected waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Intact Stability Standards § 178... filled to 100 percent capacity, whichever is more conservative. (b) A pontoon vessel must not exceed the... determine whether trimming moments will submerge the bow or stern of the buoyant hull. The top of...

  12. 46 CFR 178.340 - Stability standards for pontoon vessels on protected waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Intact Stability Standards § 178... filled to 100 percent capacity, whichever is more conservative. (b) A pontoon vessel must not exceed the... determine whether trimming moments will submerge the bow or stern of the buoyant hull. The top of...

  13. GATA Transcription Factors and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Rena; Blobel, Gerd A.

    2010-01-01

    It has been almost a quarter century since it was first appreciated that a class of oncogenes contained in rapidly transforming avian retroviruses encoded DNA-binding transcription factors. As with other oncogenes, genetic recombination with the viral genome led to their overexpression or functional alteration. In the years that followed, alterations of numerous transcription factors were shown to be causatively involved in various cancers in human patients and model organisms. Depending on their normal cellular functions, these factors were subsequently categorized as proto-oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. This review focuses on the role of GATA transcription factors in carcinogenesis. GATA factors are zinc finger DNA binding proteins that control the development of diverse tissues by activating or repressing transcription. GATA factors thus coordinate cellular maturation with proliferation arrest and cell survival. Therefore, a role of this family of genes in human cancers is not surprising. Prominent examples include structural mutations in GATA1 that are found in almost all megakaryoblastic leukemias in patients with Down syndrome; loss of GATA3 expression in aggressive, dedifferentiated breast cancers; and silencing of GATA4 and GATA5 expression in colorectal and lung cancers. Here, we discuss possible mechanisms of carcinogenesis vis-à-vis the normal functions of GATA factors as they pertain to human patients and mouse models of cancer. PMID:21779441

  14. Long term measurement of lake evaporation using a pontoon mounted Eddy Covariance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGowan, H. A.; McGloin, R.; McJannet, D.; Burn, S.

    2011-12-01

    Accurate quantification of evaporation from water storages is essential for design of water management and allocation policy that aims to balance demands for water without compromising the sustainability of future water resources, particularly during periods of prolonged and severe drought. Precise measurement of evaporation from lakes and dams however, presents significant research challenges. These include design and installation of measurement platforms that can withstand a range of wind and wave conditions; accurate determination of the evaporation measurement footprint and the influence of changing water levels. In this paper we present results from a two year long deployment of a pontoon mounted Eddy Covariance (EC) system on a 17.2ha irrigation reservoir in southeast Queensland, Australia. The EC unit included a CSAT-3 sonic anemometer (Campbell Scientific, Utah, United States) and a Li-Cor CS7500 open-path H2O/CO2 infrared gas analyzer (LiCor, Nebraska, United States) at a height of 2.2m, a net radiometer (CNR1, Kipp & Zonen, Netherlands) at a height of 1.2m and a humidity and temperature probe (HMP45C,Vaisala, Finland) at 2.3m. The EC unit was controlled by a Campbell Scientific CR3000 data logger with flux measurements made at 10 Hz and block averaged values logged every 15 minutes. Power to the EC system was from mounted solar panels that charged deep cycle lead-acid batteries while communication was via a cellphone data link. The pontoon was fitted with a weighted central beam and gimbal ring system that allowed self-levelling of the instrumentation and minimized dynamic influences on measurements (McGowan et al 2010; Wiebe et al 2011). EC measurements were corrected for tilt errors using the double rotation method for coordinate rotation described by Wilczak et al. (2001). High and low frequency attenuation of the measured co-spectrum was corrected using Massman's (2000) method for estimating frequency response corrections, while measurements were

  15. GATA2 regulates dendritic cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Onodera, Koichi; Fujiwara, Tohru; Onishi, Yasushi; Itoh-Nakadai, Ari; Okitsu, Yoko; Fukuhara, Noriko; Ishizawa, Kenichi; Shimizu, Ritsuko; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Harigae, Hideo

    2016-07-28

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are critical immune response regulators; however, the mechanism of DC differentiation is not fully understood. Heterozygous germ line GATA2 mutations induce GATA2-deficiency syndrome, characterized by monocytopenia, a predisposition to myelodysplasia/acute myeloid leukemia, and a profoundly reduced DC population, which is associated with increased susceptibility to viral infections, impaired phagocytosis, and decreased cytokine production. To define the role of GATA2 in DC differentiation and function, we studied Gata2 conditional knockout and haploinsufficient mice. Gata2 conditional deficiency significantly reduced the DC count, whereas Gata2 haploinsufficiency did not affect this population. GATA2 was required for the in vitro generation of DCs from Lin(-)Sca-1(+)Kit(+) cells, common myeloid-restricted progenitors, and common dendritic cell precursors, but not common lymphoid-restricted progenitors or granulocyte-macrophage progenitors, suggesting that GATA2 functions in the myeloid pathway of DC differentiation. Moreover, expression profiling demonstrated reduced expression of myeloid-related genes, including mafb, and increased expression of T-lymphocyte-related genes, including Gata3 and Tcf7, in Gata2-deficient DC progenitors. In addition, GATA2 was found to bind an enhancer element 190-kb downstream region of Gata3, and a reporter assay exhibited significantly reduced luciferase activity after adding this enhancer region to the Gata3 promoter, which was recovered by GATA sequence deletion within Gata3 +190. These results suggest that GATA2 plays an important role in cell-fate specification toward the myeloid vs T-lymphocyte lineage by regulating lineage-specific transcription factors in DC progenitors, thereby contributing to DC differentiation. PMID:27259979

  16. Performance evaluation of sea water heat exchanger installed in concrete structure of pontoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Kwang-Il; Sim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Yun-Hae

    2015-03-01

    At the viewpoint of energy saving and the increasing needs of seaside leisure activities in Korea, floating architecture is recently to be focused on, but it is in the early stage of technological development. Considering the features of floating structures that can float and move on sea and/or river, this study proposes Single-U type Sea Water Heat Exchanger (SWHEx) and Spring type SWHEx that installed into or outside the submerged concrete structure of pontoon, respectively. As the results from CFD and mock-up tests, it is found out that the mean temperature difference is 3°C between the inlet and outlet temperatures of working fluid which flows inside the Single-U type SWHEx and 1.5°C for Spring type SWHEx. Also it is clear that the heat exchange performance of Single-U type SWHEx is better than Spring type.

  17. GATA4 and GATA6 regulate intestinal epithelial cytodifferentiation during development.

    PubMed

    Walker, Emily M; Thompson, Cayla A; Battle, Michele A

    2014-08-15

    The intestinal epithelium performs vital roles in organ function by absorbing nutrients and providing a protective barrier. The zinc-finger containing transcription factors GATA4 and GATA6 regulate enterocyte gene expression and control regional epithelial cell identity in the adult intestinal epithelium. Although GATA4 and GATA6 are expressed in the developing intestine, loss of either factor alone during the period of epithelial morphogenesis and cytodifferentiation fails to disrupt these processes. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that GATA4 and GATA6 function redundantly to control these aspects of intestinal development. We used Villin-Cre, which deletes specifically in the intestinal epithelium during the period of villus development and epithelial cytodifferentiation, to generate Gata4Gata6 double conditional knockout embryos. Mice lacking GATA4 and GATA6 in the intestinal epithelium died within 24h of birth. At E18.5, intestinal villus architecture and epithelial cell populations were altered. Enterocytes were lost, and goblet cells were increased. Proliferation was also increased in GATA4-GATA6 deficient intestinal epithelium. Although villus morphology appeared normal at E16.5, the first time at which both Gata4 and Gata6 were efficiently reduced, changes in expression of markers of enterocytes, goblet cells, and proliferative cells were detected. Moreover, goblet cell number was increased at E16.5. Expression of the Notch ligand Dll1 and the Notch target Olfm4 were reduced in mutant tissue indicating decreased Notch signaling. Finally, we found that GATA4 occupies chromatin near the Dll1 transcription start site suggesting direct regulation of Dll1 by GATA4. We demonstrate that GATA4 and GATA6 play an essential role in maintaining proper intestinal epithelial structure and in regulating intestinal epithelial cytodifferentiation. Our data highlight a novel role for GATA factors in fine tuning Notch signaling during intestinal epithelial development to

  18. GATA4 and GATA6 regulate intestinal epithelial cytodifferentiation during development

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Emily M.; Thompson, Cayla A.; Battle, Michele A.

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium performs vital roles in organ function by absorbing nutrients and providing a protective barrier. The zinc-finger containing transcription factors GATA4 and GATA6 regulate enterocyte gene expression and control regional epithelial cell identity in the adult intestinal epithelium. Although GATA4 and GATA6 are expressed in the developing intestine, loss of either factor alone during the period of epithelial morphogenesis and cytodifferentiation fails to disrupt these processes. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that GATA4 and GATA6 function redundantly to control these aspects of intestinal development. We used Villin-Cre, which deletes specifically in the intestinal epithelium during the developmental period of villus development and epithelial cytodifferentiation, to generate Gata4Gata6 double conditional knockout embryos. Mice lacking GATA4 and GATA6 in the intestinal epithelium died within 24 hours of birth. At E18.5, intestinal villus architecture and epithelial cell populations were altered. Enterocytes were lost, and goblet cells were increased. Proliferation was also increased in GATA4-GATA6 deficient intestinal epithelium. Although villus morphology appeared normal at E16.5, the first time at which both Gata4 and Gata6 were efficiently reduced, changes in expression of markers of enterocytes, goblet cells, and proliferative cells were detected. Moreover, goblet cell number was increased at E16.5. Expression of the Notch ligand Dll1 and the Notch target Olfm4 were reduced in mutant tissue indicating decreased Notch signaling. Finally, we demonstrated that GATA4 occupies chromatin near the Dll1 transcription start site suggesting direct regulation of Dll1 by GATA4. We demonstrate that GATA4 and GATA6 play an essential role in maintaining proper intestinal epithelial structure and in regulating intestinal epithelial cytodifferentiation. Our data highlight a novel role for GATA factors in fine tuning Notch signaling during intestinal

  19. Context-dependent function of regulatory elements and a switch in chromatin occupancy between GATA3 and GATA2 regulate Gata2 transcription during trophoblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ray, Soma; Dutta, Debasree; Rumi, M A Karim; Kent, Lindsey N; Soares, Michael J; Paul, Soumen

    2009-02-20

    GATA transcription factors are important regulators of tissue-specific gene expression during development. GATA2 and GATA3 have been implicated in the regulation of trophoblast-specific genes. However, the regulatory mechanisms of GATA2 expression in trophoblast cells are poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that Gata2 is transcriptionally induced during trophoblast giant cell-specific differentiation. Transcriptional induction is associated with displacement of GATA3-dependent nucleoprotein complexes by GATA2-dependent nucleoprotein complexes at two regulatory regions, the -3.9- and +9.5-kb regions, of the mouse Gata2 locus. Analyses with reporter genes showed that, in trophoblast cells, -3.9- and +9.5-kb regions function as transcriptional enhancers in GATA motif independent and dependent fashions, respectively. We also found that knockdown of GATA3 by RNA interference induces GATA2 in undifferentiated trophoblast cells. Interestingly, three other known GATA motif-dependent Gata2 regulatory elements, the -1.8-, -2.8-, and -77-kb regions, which are important to regulate Gata2 in hematopoietic cells are not occupied by GATA factors in trophoblast cells. These elements do not show any enhancer activity and also possess inaccessible chromatin structure in trophoblast cells indicating a context-dependent function. Our results indicate that GATA3 directly represses Gata2 in undifferentiated trophoblast cells, and a switch in chromatin occupancy between GATA3 and GATA2 (GATA3/GATA2 switch) induces transcription during trophoblast differentiation. We predict that this GATA3/GATA2 switch is an important mechanism for the transcriptional regulation of other trophoblast-specific genes. PMID:19106099

  20. GATA2 regulates GATA1 expression through LSD1-mediated histone modification.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yidi; Fu, Xueqi; Huo, Bo; Wang, Yongsen; Sun, Jing; Meng, Lingyuan; Hao, Tian; Zhao, Zhizhuang Joe; Hu, Xin

    2016-01-01

    The dynamic and reversed expression of GATA1 and GATA2 are essential for proper erythroid differentiation. Our previous work demonstrates that LSD1, a histone H3K4 demethylase, represses GATA2 expression at late stage of erythroid differentiation. K562 and MEL cells were used and cultured in Roswell Park Memorial Institute-1640 medium (RPMI) and Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM), respectively. Western blot assay was used to examine the GATA1, GATA2, TAL1, HDAC1, HDAC2, CoREST and β-actin protein. The immunoprecipitation assay and GST pull-down assay were employed to detect the precipitated protein complexes and investigate the interaction between the proteins. The small interfering RNA (siRNA) and nonspecific control siRNA were synthesized to silence the target genes. Double fluorescence immunostaining was used to observe the association of LSD1 with GATA2 in K562 cells. The results indicated that knockdown of LSD1 in K562 cell causes increased H3K4 di-methylation at GATA1 locus and activates GATA1 expression, demonstrating that LSD1 represses GATA1 expression through LSD1-mediated histone demethylation. Upon induced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells, the interaction between GATA2 and LSD1 is decreased, consistent with a de-repression of GATA1 expression. Meanwhile, the interaction between TAL1 and LSD1 is increased, which forms a complex that efficiently suppresses GATA2 expression. In conclusion, these observations reveal an elegant mechanism to modulate GATA1 and GATA2 expression during erythroid differentiation. While LSD1 mainly forms complex with GATA2 to repress GATA1 expression in hematopoietic progenitor cells, it mostly forms complex with TAL1 to repress GATA2 expression in differentiated cells. PMID:27347333

  1. GATA2 regulates GATA1 expression through LSD1-mediated histone modification

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yidi; Fu, Xueqi; Huo, Bo; Wang, Yongsen; Sun, Jing; Meng, Lingyuan; Hao, Tian; Zhao, Zhizhuang Joe; Hu, Xin

    2016-01-01

    The dynamic and reversed expression of GATA1 and GATA2 are essential for proper erythroid differentiation. Our previous work demonstrates that LSD1, a histone H3K4 demethylase, represses GATA2 expression at late stage of erythroid differentiation. K562 and MEL cells were used and cultured in Roswell Park Memorial Institute-1640 medium (RPMI) and Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM), respectively. Western blot assay was used to examine the GATA1, GATA2, TAL1, HDAC1, HDAC2, CoREST and β-actin protein. The immunoprecipitation assay and GST pull-down assay were employed to detect the precipitated protein complexes and investigate the interaction between the proteins. The small interfering RNA (siRNA) and nonspecific control siRNA were synthesized to silence the target genes. Double fluorescence immunostaining was used to observe the association of LSD1 with GATA2 in K562 cells. The results indicated that knockdown of LSD1 in K562 cell causes increased H3K4 di-methylation at GATA1 locus and activates GATA1 expression, demonstrating that LSD1 represses GATA1 expression through LSD1-mediated histone demethylation. Upon induced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells, the interaction between GATA2 and LSD1 is decreased, consistent with a de-repression of GATA1 expression. Meanwhile, the interaction between TAL1 and LSD1 is increased, which forms a complex that efficiently suppresses GATA2 expression. In conclusion, these observations reveal an elegant mechanism to modulate GATA1 and GATA2 expression during erythroid differentiation. While LSD1 mainly forms complex with GATA2 to repress GATA1 expression in hematopoietic progenitor cells, it mostly forms complex with TAL1 to repress GATA2 expression in differentiated cells. PMID:27347333

  2. GATA4 and GATA6 regulate pancreatic endoderm identity through inhibition of hedgehog signaling.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Shouhong; Sussel, Lori

    2016-03-01

    GATA4 and GATA6 are zinc finger transcription factors that have important functions in several mesodermal and endodermal organs, including heart, liver and pancreas. In humans, heterozygous mutations of either factor are associated with pancreatic agenesis; however, homozygous deletion of both Gata4 and Gata6 is necessary to disrupt pancreas development in mice. In this study, we demonstrate that arrested pancreatic development in Gata4(fl/fl); Gata6(fl/fl); Pdx1:Cre (pDKO) embryos is accompanied by the transition of ventral and dorsal pancreatic fates into intestinal or stomach lineages, respectively. These results indicate that GATA4 and GATA6 play essential roles in maintaining pancreas identity by regulating foregut endodermal fates. Remarkably, pancreatic anlagen derived from pDKO embryos also display a dramatic upregulation of hedgehog pathway components, which are normally absent from the presumptive pancreatic endoderm. Consistent with the erroneous activation of hedgehog signaling, we demonstrate that GATA4 and GATA6 are able to repress transcription through the sonic hedgehog (Shh) endoderm-specific enhancer MACS1 and that GATA-binding sites within this enhancer are necessary for this repressive activity. These studies establish the importance of GATA4/6-mediated inhibition of hedgehog signaling as a major mechanism regulating pancreatic endoderm specification during patterning of the gut tube. PMID:26932670

  3. Adrenal Development in Mice Requires GATA4 and GATA6 Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Elizabeth; Hatch, Heather M.; Jiang, Tianyu; Morse, Deborah A.; Fox, Shawna C.

    2015-01-01

    The adrenal glands consist of an outer cortex and an inner medulla, and their primary purposes include hormone synthesis and secretion. The adrenal cortex produces a complex array of steroid hormones, whereas the medulla is part of the sympathetic nervous system and produces the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine. In the mouse, GATA binding protein (GATA) 4 and GATA6 transcription factors are coexpressed in several embryonic tissues, including the adrenal cortex. To explore the roles of GATA4 and GATA6 in mouse adrenal development, we conditionally deleted these genes in adrenocortical cells using the Sf1Cre strain of animals. We report here that mice with Sf1Cre-mediated double deletion of Gata4 and Gata6 genes lack identifiable adrenal glands, steroidogenic factor 1-positive cortical cells and steroidogenic gene expression in the adrenal location. The inactivation of the Gata6 gene alone (Sf1Cre;Gata6flox/flox) drastically reduced the adrenal size and corticosterone production in the adult animals. Adrenocortical aplasia is expected to result in the demise of the animal within 2 weeks after birth unless glucocorticoids are provided. In accordance, Sf1Cre;Gata4flox/floxGata6flox/flox females depend on steroid supplementation to survive after weaning. Surprisingly, Sf1Cre;Gata4flox/floxGata6flox/flox males appear to live normal lifespans as vital steroidogenic synthesis shifts to their testes. Our results reveal a requirement for GATA factors in adrenal development and provide a novel tool to characterize the transcriptional network controlling adrenocortical cell fates. PMID:25933105

  4. Function of GATA Factors in the Adult Mouse Liver

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Rena; Rebolledo-Jaramillo, Boris; Zong, Yiwei; Wang, Liqing; Russo, Pierre; Hancock, Wayne; Stanger, Ben Z.; Hardison, Ross C.; Blobel, Gerd A.

    2013-01-01

    GATA transcription factors and their Friend of Gata (FOG) cofactors control the development of diverse tissues. GATA4 and GATA6 are essential for the expansion of the embryonic liver bud, but their expression patterns and functions in the adult liver are unclear. We characterized the expression of GATA and FOG factors in whole mouse liver and purified hepatocytes. GATA4, GATA6, and FOG1 are the most prominently expressed family members in whole liver and hepatocytes. GATA4 chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) identified 4409 occupied sites, associated with genes enriched in ontologies related to liver function, including lipid and glucose metabolism. However, hepatocyte-specific excision of Gata4 had little impact on gross liver architecture and function, even under conditions of regenerative stress, and, despite the large number of GATA4 occupied genes, resulted in relatively few changes in gene expression. To address possible redundancy between GATA4 and GATA6, both factors were conditionally excised. Surprisingly, combined Gata4,6 loss did not exacerbate the phenotype resulting from Gata4 loss alone. This points to the presence of an unusually robust transcriptional network in adult hepatocytes that ensures the maintenance of liver function. PMID:24367609

  5. Investigation on bragg reflection of surface water waves induced by a train of fixed floating pontoon breakwaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Huei-Tau; Chen, Kue-Hong; Tsai, Chi-Ming

    2015-11-01

    The water wave characteristics of Bragg reflections from a train of fixed floating pontoon breakwaters was studied numerically. A numerical model of boundary discretization type was developed to calculate the wave field. The model was verified by comparing to analytical data in literature and good agreements were achieved. Series of parametric studies were conducted systematically to investigate the dependence of the reflected coefficients by the Bragg scattering on the design variables, including the spacing between the breakwaters, the total number of installed breakwaters, the draft and width do the breakwater, and wave length. Certain wave characteristics of the Bragg reflections were observed and discussed in details which might be of help for practical engineering applications in shoreline protection from incident waves.

  6. Zinc fingers as protein recognition motifs: Structural basis for the GATA-1/Friend of GATA interaction

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Chu Kong; Simpson, Raina J. Y.; Kwan, Ann H. Y.; Crofts, Linda A.; Loughlin, Fionna E.; Matthews, Jacqueline M.; Crossley, Merlin; Mackay, Joel P.

    2005-01-01

    GATA-1 and friend of GATA (FOG) are zinc-finger transcription factors that physically interact to play essential roles in erythroid and megakaryocytic development. Several naturally occurring mutations in the GATA-1 gene that alter the FOG-binding domain have been reported. The mutations are associated with familial anemias and thrombocytopenias of differing severity. To elucidate the molecular basis for the GATA-1/FOG interaction, we have determined the three-dimensional structure of a complex comprising the interaction domains of these proteins. The structure reveals how zinc fingers can act as protein recognition motifs. Details of the architecture of the contact domains and their physical properties provide a molecular explanation for how the GATA-1 mutations contribute to distinct but related genetic diseases. PMID:15644435

  7. GATA4 mediates gene repression in the mature mouse small intestine through interactions with Friend of GATA (FOG) cofactors

    PubMed Central

    Beuling, Eva; Bosse, Tjalling; aan de Kerk, Daniel J.; Piaseckyj, Christina M.; Fujiwara, Yuko; Katz, Samuel G.; Orkin, Stuart H.; Grand, Richard J.; Krasinski, Stephen D.

    2008-01-01

    GATA4, a transcription factor expressed in the proximal small intestine but not in the distal ileum, maintains proximal-distal distinctions by multiple processes involving gene repression, gene activation, and cell fate determination. Friend of GATA (FOG) is an evolutionarily conserved family of cofactors whose members physically associate with GATA factors and mediate GATA-regulated repression in multiple tissues. Using a novel, inducible, intestine-specific Gata4 knock-in model in mice, in which wild-type GATA4 is specifically inactivated in the small intestine, but a GATA4 mutant that does not bind FOG cofactors (GATA4ki) continues to be expressed, we found that ileal-specific genes were significantly induced in the proximal small intestine (P<0.01); in contrast, genes restricted to proximal small intestine and cell lineage markers were unaffected, indicating that GATA4-FOG interactions contribute specifically to the repression function of GATA4 within this organ. Fog1 mRNA displayed a proximal-distal pattern that parallels that of Gata4, and FOG1 protein was co-expressed with GATA4 in intestinal epithelial cells, implicating FOG1 as the likely mediator of GATA4 function in the small intestine. Our data are the first to indicate FOG function and expression in the mammalian small intestine. PMID:18692040

  8. Epicardial GATA factors regulate early coronary vascular plexus formation

    PubMed Central

    Kolander, Kurt D.; Holtz, Mary L.; Cossette, Stephanie M.; Duncan, Stephen A.; Misra, Ravi P.

    2014-01-01

    During early development, GATA factors have been shown to be important for key events of coronary vasculogenesis, including formation of the epicardium. Myocardial GATA factors are required for coronary vascular (CV) formation; however, the role of epicardial localized GATAs in this process has not been addressed. The current study was conducted to investigate the molecular mechanisms by which the epicardium controls coronary vasculogenesis, focusing on the role of epicardial GATAs in establishing the endothelial plexus during early coronary vasculogenesis. To address the role of epicardial GATAs, we ablated GATA4 and GATA6 transcription factors specifically from the mouse epicardium and found that the number of endothelial cells in the sub-epicardium was drastically reduced, and concomitant coronary vascular plexus formation was significantly compromised. Here we present evidence for a novel role for epicardial GATA factors in controlling plexus formation by recruiting endothelial cells to the sub-epicardium. PMID:24380800

  9. GATA factors efficiently direct cardiac fate from embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Turbendian, Harma K; Gordillo, Miriam; Tsai, Su-Yi; Lu, Jia; Kang, Guoxin; Liu, Ting-Chun; Tang, Alice; Liu, Susanna; Fishman, Glenn I; Evans, Todd

    2013-04-01

    The GATA4 transcription factor is implicated in promoting cardiogenesis in combination with other factors, including TBX5, MEF2C and BAF60C. However, when expressed in embryonic stem cells (ESCs), GATA4 was shown to promote endoderm, not cardiac mesoderm. The capacity of related GATA factors to promote cardiogenesis is untested. We found that expression of the highly related gene, Gata5, very efficiently promotes cardiomyocyte fate from murine ESCs. Gata5 directs development of beating sheets of cells that express cardiac troponin T and show a full range of action potential morphologies that are responsive to pharmacological stimulation. We discovered that by removing serum from the culture conditions, GATA4 and GATA6 are each also able to efficiently promote cardiogenesis in ESC derivatives, with some distinctions. Thus, GATA factors can function in ESC derivatives upstream of other cardiac transcription factors to direct the efficient generation of cardiomyocytes. PMID:23487308

  10. The transcription factor GATA-6 regulates pathological cardiac hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    van Berlo, Jop H.; Elrod, John W.; van den Hoogenhof, Maarten M.G.; York, Allen J.; Aronow, Bruce J.; Duncan, Stephen A.; Molkentin, Jeffery D.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale The transcriptional code that programs maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy involves the zinc finger-containing DNA binding factor GATA-4. The highly related transcription factor GATA-6 is also expressed in the adult heart, although its role in controlling the hypertrophic program is unknown. Objective To determine the role of GATA-6 in cardiac hypertrophy and homeostasis. Methods and Results Here we performed a cardiomyocyte-specific conditional gene targeting approach for Gata6, as well as a transgenic approach to overexpress GATA-6 in the mouse heart. Deletion of Gata6-loxP with Nkx2.5-cre produced late embryonic lethality with heart defects, while deletion with β-myosin heavy chain-cre (βMHC-cre) produced viable adults with greater than 95% loss of GATA-6 protein in the heart. These later mice were subjected to pressure overload induced hypertrophy for 2 and 6 weeks, which showed a significant reduction in cardiac hypertrophy similar to that observed Gata4 heart-specific deleted mice. Gata6-deleted mice subjected to pressure overload also developed heart failure while control mice maintained proper cardiac function. Gata6-deleted mice also developed less cardiac hypertrophy following 2 weeks of angiotensin II/phenylephrine infusion. Controlled GATA-6 overexpression in the heart induced hypertrophy with aging and predisposed to greater hypertrophy with pressure overload stimulation. Combinatorial deletion of Gata4 and Gata6 from the adult heart resulted in dilated cardiomyopathy and lethality by 16 weeks of age. Mechanistically, deletion of Gata6 from the heart resulted in fundamental changes in the levels of key regulatory genes and myocyte differentiation-specific genes. Conclusions These results indicate that GATA-6 is both necessary and sufficient for regulating the cardiac hypertrophic response and differentiated gene expression, both alone and in coordination with GATA-4. PMID:20705924

  11. GATA Factor-G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Circuit Suppresses Hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xin; Wu, Tongyu; Johnson, Kirby D.; Lahvic, Jamie L.; Ranheim, Erik A.; Zon, Leonard I.; Bresnick, Emery H.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) originate from hemogenic endothelium within the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region of the mammalian embryo. The relationship between genetic circuits controlling stem cell genesis and multi-potency is not understood. A Gata2 cis element (+9.5) enhances Gata2 expression in the AGM and induces the endothelial to HSC transition. We demonstrated that GATA-2 rescued hematopoiesis in +9.5−/− AGMs. As G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the most common targets for FDA-approved drugs, we analyzed the GPCR gene ensemble to identify GATA-2-regulated GPCRs. Of the 20 GATA-2-activated GPCR genes, four were GATA-1-activated, and only Gpr65 expression resembled Gata2. Contrasting with the paradigm in which GATA-2-activated genes promote hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell genesis/function, our mouse and zebrafish studies indicated that GPR65 suppressed hematopoiesis. GPR65 established repressive chromatin at the +9.5 site, restricted occupancy by the activator Scl/TAL1, and repressed Gata2 transcription. Thus, a Gata2 cis element creates a GATA-2-GPCR circuit that limits positive regulators that promote hematopoiesis. PMID:26905203

  12. GATA Factor-G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Circuit Suppresses Hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xin; Wu, Tongyu; Johnson, Kirby D; Lahvic, Jamie L; Ranheim, Erik A; Zon, Leonard I; Bresnick, Emery H

    2016-03-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) originate from hemogenic endothelium within the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region of the mammalian embryo. The relationship between genetic circuits controlling stem cell genesis and multi-potency is not understood. A Gata2 cis element (+9.5) enhances Gata2 expression in the AGM and induces the endothelial to HSC transition. We demonstrated that GATA-2 rescued hematopoiesis in +9.5(-/-) AGMs. As G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the most common targets for FDA-approved drugs, we analyzed the GPCR gene ensemble to identify GATA-2-regulated GPCRs. Of the 20 GATA-2-activated GPCR genes, four were GATA-1-activated, and only Gpr65 expression resembled Gata2. Contrasting with the paradigm in which GATA-2-activated genes promote hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell genesis/function, our mouse and zebrafish studies indicated that GPR65 suppressed hematopoiesis. GPR65 established repressive chromatin at the +9.5 site, restricted occupancy by the activator Scl/TAL1, and repressed Gata2 transcription. Thus, a Gata2 cis element creates a GATA-2-GPCR circuit that limits positive regulators that promote hematopoiesis. PMID:26905203

  13. Unique functions of Gata4 in mouse liver induction and heart development.

    PubMed

    Borok, Matthew J; Papaioannou, Virginia E; Sussel, Lori

    2016-02-15

    Gata4 and Gata6 are closely related transcription factors that are essential for the development of a number of embryonic tissues. While they have nearly identical DNA-binding domains and similar patterns of expression, Gata4 and Gata6 null embryos have strikingly different embryonic lethal phenotypes. To determine whether the lack of redundancy is due to differences in protein function or Gata4 and Gata6 expression domains, we generated mice that contained the Gata6 cDNA in place of the Gata4 genomic locus. Gata4(Gata6/Gata6) embryos survived through embryonic day (E)12.5 and successfully underwent ventral folding morphogenesis, demonstrating that Gata6 is able to replace Gata4 function in extraembryonic tissues. Surprisingly, Gata6 is unable to replace Gata4 function in the septum transversum mesenchyme or the epicardium, leading to liver agenesis and lethal heart defects in Gata4(Gata6/Gata6) embryos. These studies suggest that Gata4 has evolved distinct functions in the development of these tissues that cannot be performed by Gata6, even when it is provided in the identical expression domain. Our work has important implications for the respective mechanisms of Gata function during development, as well as the functional evolution of these essential transcription factors. PMID:26687508

  14. GATA-1 directly regulates Nanog in mouse embryonic stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wen-Zhong; Ai, Zhi-Ying; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Chen, Lin-Lin; Guo, Ze-Kun; Zhang, Yong

    2015-09-25

    Nanog safeguards pluripotency in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). Insight into the regulation of Nanog is important for a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that control pluripotency of mESCs. In a silico analysis, we identify four GATA-1 putative binding sites in Nanog proximal promoter. The Nanog promoter activity can be significantly repressed by ectopic expression of GATA-1 evidenced by a promoter reporter assay. Mutation studies reveal that one of the four putative binding sites counts for GATA-1 repressing Nanog promoter activity. Direct binding of GATA-1 on Nanog proximal promoter is confirmed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation. Our data provide new insights into the expanded regulatory circuitry that coordinates Nanog expression. - Highlights: • The Nanog proximal promoter conceives functional element for GATA-1. • GATA-1 occupies the Nanog proximal promoter in vitro and in vivo. • GATA-1 transcriptionally suppresses Nanog.

  15. Mouse GATA-4: a retinoic acid-inducible GATA-binding transcription factor expressed in endodermally derived tissues and heart.

    PubMed Central

    Arceci, R J; King, A A; Simon, M C; Orkin, S H; Wilson, D B

    1993-01-01

    We report the cDNA cloning and characterization of mouse GATA-4, a new member of the family of zinc finger transcription factors that bind a core GATA motif. GATA-4 cDNA was identified by screening a 6.5-day mouse embryo library with oligonucleotide probes corresponding to a highly conserved region of the finger domains. Like other proteins of the family, GATA-4 is approximately 50 kDa in size and contains two zinc finger domains of the form C-X-N-C-(X17)-C-N-X-C. Cotransfection assays in heterologous cells demonstrate that GATA-4 trans activates reporter constructs containing GATA promoter elements. Northern (RNA) analysis and in situ hybridization show that GATA-4 mRNA is expressed in the heart, intestinal epithelium, primitive endoderm, and gonads. Retinoic acid-induced differentiation of mouse F9 cells into visceral or parietal endoderm is accompanied by increased expression of GATA-4 mRNA and protein. In vitro differentiation of embryonic stem cells into embryoid bodies is also associated with increased GATA-4 expression. We conclude that GATA-4 is a tissue-specific, retinoic acid-inducible, and developmentally regulated transcription factor. On the basis of its tissue distribution, we speculate that GATA-4 plays a role in gene expression in the heart, intestinal epithelium, primitive endoderm, and gonads. Images PMID:8455608

  16. Dynamics of dual pontoon floating structure for cage aquaculture in a two-dimensional numerical wave tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Hung-Jie; Huang, Chai-Cheng; Chen, Wei-Ming

    2011-10-01

    The trend of using floating structures with cage aquaculture is becoming more popular in the open sea. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the dynamic properties of a dual pontoon floating structure (DPFS) when attached to a fish net by using physical and numerical models. A two-dimensional (2-D) fully nonlinear numerical wave tank (NWT), based on the boundary element method (BEM), is developed to calculate the wave forces on the DPFS. The wave forces on a fish net system are then evaluated using a modified Morison equation. The comparisons of dynamic behaviors between numerical simulations and experimental measurements on the DPFS show good agreement. Results also display that a fish net system causes the resonant response of body motions and mooring forces to be slightly lower due to the net's damping effect. Finally, for designing the rearing space of cage aquaculture, the influences which net depth and net width have on the DPFS dynamic responses are also presented in this paper.

  17. Endothelial Gata5 transcription factor regulates blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Messaoudi, Smail; He, Ying; Gutsol, Alex; Wight, Andrew; Hébert, Richard L.; Vilmundarson, Ragnar O.; Makrigiannis, Andrew P.; Chalmers, John; Hamet, Pavel; Tremblay, Johanne; McPherson, Ruth; Stewart, Alexandre F. R.; Touyz, Rhian M.; Nemer, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Despite its high prevalence and economic burden, the aetiology of human hypertension remains incompletely understood. Here we identify the transcription factor GATA5, as a new regulator of blood pressure (BP). GATA5 is expressed in microvascular endothelial cells and its genetic inactivation in mice (Gata5-null) leads to vascular endothelial dysfunction and hypertension. Endothelial-specific inactivation of Gata5 mimics the hypertensive phenotype of the Gata5-null mice, suggestive of an important role for GATA5 in endothelial homeostasis. Transcriptomic analysis of human microvascular endothelial cells with GATA5 knockdown reveals that GATA5 affects several genes and pathways critical for proper endothelial function, such as PKA and nitric oxide pathways. Consistent with a role in human hypertension, we report genetic association of variants at the GATA5 locus with hypertension traits in two large independent cohorts. Our results unveil an unsuspected link between GATA5 and a prominent human condition, and provide a new animal model for hypertension. PMID:26617239

  18. GATA1 Binding Kinetics on Conformation-Specific Binding Sites Elicit Differential Transcriptional Regulation.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Atsushi; Kaneko, Hiroshi; Ishihara, Daishi; Nakamura, Masahiro; Watanabe, Akira; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Trainor, Cecelia D; Shimizu, Ritsuko

    2016-08-15

    GATA1 organizes erythroid and megakaryocytic differentiation by orchestrating the expression of multiple genes that show diversified expression profiles. Here, we demonstrate that GATA1 monovalently binds to a single GATA motif (Single-GATA) while a monomeric GATA1 and a homodimeric GATA1 bivalently bind to two GATA motifs in palindromic (Pal-GATA) and direct-repeat (Tandem-GATA) arrangements, respectively, and form higher stoichiometric complexes on respective elements. The amino-terminal zinc (N) finger of GATA1 critically contributes to high occupancy of GATA1 on Pal-GATA. GATA1 lacking the N finger-DNA association fails to trigger a rate of target gene expression comparable to that seen with the wild-type GATA1, especially when expressed at low level. This study revealed that Pal-GATA and Tandem-GATA generate transcriptional responses from GATA1 target genes distinct from the response of Single-GATA. Our results support the notion that the distinct alignments in binding motifs are part of a critical regulatory strategy that diversifies and modulates transcriptional regulation by GATA1. PMID:27215385

  19. Essential role of Gata transcription factors in sympathetic neuron development.

    PubMed

    Tsarovina, Konstantina; Pattyn, Alexandre; Stubbusch, Jutta; Müller, Frank; van der Wees, Jacqueline; Schneider, Carolin; Brunet, Jean-Francois; Rohrer, Hermann

    2004-10-01

    Sympathetic neurons are specified during their development from neural crest precursors by a network of crossregulatory transcription factors, which includes Mash1, Phox2b, Hand2 and Phox2a. Here, we have studied the function of Gata2 and Gata3 zinc-finger transcription factors in autonomic neuron development. In the chick, Gata2 but not Gata3 is expressed in developing sympathetic precursor cells. Gata2 expression starts after Mash1, Phox2b, Hand2 and Phox2a expression, but before the onset of the noradrenergic marker genes Th and Dbh, and is maintained throughout development. Gata2 expression is affected in the chick embryo by Bmp gain- and loss-of-function experiments, and by overexpression of Phox2b, Phox2a, Hand2 and Mash1. Together with the lack of Gata2/3 expression in Phox2b knockout mice, these results characterize Gata2 as member of the Bmp-induced cluster of transcription factors. Loss-of-function experiments resulted in a strong reduction in the size of the sympathetic chain and in decreased Th expression. Ectopic expression of Gata2 in chick neural crest precursors elicited the generation of neurons with a non-autonomic, Th-negative phenotype. This implies a function for Gata factors in autonomic neuron differentiation, which, however, depends on co-regulators present in the sympathetic lineage. The present data establish Gata2 and Gata3 in the chick and mouse, respectively, as essential members of the transcription factor network controlling sympathetic neuron development. PMID:15329349

  20. PKG-1α mediates GATA4 transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yanlin; Wang, Jun; Yu, Yanhong; Schwartz, Robert J

    2016-06-01

    GATA4, a zinc-finger transcription factor, is central for cardiac development and diseases. Here we show that GATA4 transcriptional activity is mediated by cell signaling via cGMP dependent PKG-1α activity. Protein kinase G (PKG), a serine/tyrosine specific kinase is the major effector of cGMP signaling. We observed enhanced transcriptional activity elicited by co-expressed GATA4 and PKG-1α. Phosphorylation of GATA4 by PKG-1α was detected on serine 261 (S261), while the C-terminal activation domain of GATA4 associated with PKG-1α. GATA4's DNA binding activity was enhanced by PKG-1α via by both phosphorylation and physical association. More importantly, a number of human disease-linked GATA4 mutants exhibited impaired S261 phosphorylation, pointing to defective S261 phosphorylation in the elaboration of human heart diseases. We showed S261 phosphorylation was favored by PKG-1α but not by PKA, and several other kinase signaling pathways such as MAPK and PKC. Our observations demonstrate that cGMP-PKG signaling mediates transcriptional activity of GATA4 and links defective GATA4 and PKG-1α mutations to the development of human heart disease. PMID:26946174

  1. Combinatorial regulation of tissue specification by GATA and FOG factors

    PubMed Central

    Chlon, Timothy M.; Crispino, John D.

    2012-01-01

    The development of complex organisms requires the formation of diverse cell types from common stem and progenitor cells. GATA family transcriptional regulators and their dedicated co-factors, termed Friend of GATA (FOG) proteins, control cell fate and differentiation in multiple tissue types from Drosophila to man. FOGs can both facilitate and antagonize GATA factor transcriptional regulation depending on the factor, cell, and even the specific gene target. In this review, we highlight recent studies that have elucidated mechanisms by which FOGs regulate GATA factor function and discuss how these factors use these diverse modes of gene regulation to control cell lineage specification throughout metazoans. PMID:23048181

  2. GATA-1 associates with and inhibits p53

    PubMed Central

    Mas, Caroline; Archambault, Patrick; Di Lello, Paola

    2009-01-01

    In addition to orchestrating the expression of all erythroid-specific genes, GATA-1 controls the growth, differentiation, and survival of the erythroid lineage through the regulation of genes that manipulate the cell cycle and apoptosis. The stages of mammalian erythropoiesis include global gene inactivation, nuclear condensation, and enucleation to yield circulating erythrocytes, and some of the genes whose expression are altered by GATA-1 during this process are members of the p53 pathway. In this study, we demonstrate a specific in vitro interaction between the transactivation domain of p53 (p53TAD) and a segment of the GATA-1 DNA-binding domain that includes the carboxyl-terminal zinc-finger domain. We also show by immunoprecipitation that the native GATA-1 and p53 interact in erythroid cells and that activation of p53-responsive promoters in an erythroid cell line can be inhibited by the overexpression of GATA-1. Mutational analysis reveals that GATA-1 inhibition of p53 minimally requires the segment of the GATA-1 DNA-binding domain that interacts with p53TAD. This inhibition is reciprocal, as the activation of a GATA-1–responsive promoter can be inhibited by p53. Based on these findings, we conclude that inhibition of the p53 pathway by GATA-1 may be essential for erythroid cell development and survival. PMID:19411634

  3. GATA-1 associates with and inhibits p53.

    PubMed

    Trainor, Cecelia D; Mas, Caroline; Archambault, Patrick; Di Lello, Paola; Omichinski, James G

    2009-07-01

    In addition to orchestrating the expression of all erythroid-specific genes, GATA-1 controls the growth, differentiation, and survival of the erythroid lineage through the regulation of genes that manipulate the cell cycle and apoptosis. The stages of mammalian erythropoiesis include global gene inactivation, nuclear condensation, and enucleation to yield circulating erythrocytes, and some of the genes whose expression are altered by GATA-1 during this process are members of the p53 pathway. In this study, we demonstrate a specific in vitro interaction between the transactivation domain of p53 (p53TAD) and a segment of the GATA-1 DNA-binding domain that includes the carboxyl-terminal zinc-finger domain. We also show by immunoprecipitation that the native GATA-1 and p53 interact in erythroid cells and that activation of p53-responsive promoters in an erythroid cell line can be inhibited by the overexpression of GATA-1. Mutational analysis reveals that GATA-1 inhibition of p53 minimally requires the segment of the GATA-1 DNA-binding domain that interacts with p53TAD. This inhibition is reciprocal, as the activation of a GATA-1-responsive promoter can be inhibited by p53. Based on these findings, we conclude that inhibition of the p53 pathway by GATA-1 may be essential for erythroid cell development and survival. PMID:19411634

  4. The role of GATA3 in breast carcinomas: a review.

    PubMed

    Asch-Kendrick, Rebecca; Cimino-Mathews, Ashley

    2016-02-01

    GATA3 is a zinc-binding transcription factor that regulates the differentiation of many human tissue types, including the mammary gland. In surgical pathology, immunohistochemistry for GATA3 is largely used to support urothelial or breast origin in a carcinoma of unknown origin. GATA3 is sensitive but not entirely specific in this setting. Although GATA3 labeling is highest in estrogen receptor-positive carcinomas, it also labels estrogen receptor-negative carcinomas and thus has particular diagnostic utility in the setting of triple-negative breast carcinomas, which are typically negative for other mammary-specific markers. PMID:26772397

  5. Characterization of megakaryocyte GATA1-interacting proteins: the corepressor ETO2 and GATA1 interact to regulate terminal megakaryocyte maturation.

    PubMed

    Hamlett, Isla; Draper, Julia; Strouboulis, John; Iborra, Francisco; Porcher, Catherine; Vyas, Paresh

    2008-10-01

    The transcription factor GATA1 coordinates timely activation and repression of megakaryocyte gene expression. Loss of GATA1 function results in excessive megakaryocyte proliferation and disordered terminal platelet maturation, leading to thrombocytopenia and leukemia in patients. The mechanisms by which GATA1 does this are unclear. We have used in vivo biotinylated GATA1 to isolate megakaryocyte GATA1-partner proteins. Here, several independent approaches show that GATA1 interacts with several proteins in the megakaryocyte cell line L8057 and in primary megakaryocytes. They include FOG1, the NURD complex, the pentameric complex containing SCL/TAL-1, the zinc-finger regulators GFI1B and ZFP143, and the corepressor ETO2. Knockdown of ETO2 expression promotes megakaryocyte differentiation and enhances expression of select genes expressed in terminal megakaryocyte maturation, eg, platelet factor 4 (Pf4). ETO2-dependent direct repression of the Pf4 proximal promoter is mediated by GATA-binding sites and an E-Box motif. Consistent with this, endogenous ETO2, GATA1, and the SCL pentameric complex all specifically bind the promoter in vivo. Finally, as ETO2 expression is restricted to immature megakaryocytes, these data suggest that ETO2 directly represses inappropriate early expression of a subset of terminally expressed megakaryocyte genes by binding to GATA1 and SCL. PMID:18625887

  6. The N-terminal fingers of chicken GATA-2 and GATA-3 are independent sequence-specific DNA binding domains.

    PubMed

    Pedone, P V; Omichinski, J G; Nony, P; Trainor, C; Gronenborn, A M; Clore, G M; Felsenfeld, G

    1997-05-15

    The GATA family of vertebrate DNA binding regulatory proteins are expressed in diverse tissues and at different times of development. However, the DNA binding regions of these proteins possess considerable homology and recognize a rather similar range of DNA sequence motifs. DNA binding is mediated through two domains, each containing a zinc finger. Previous results have led to the conclusion that although in some cases the N-terminal finger can contribute to specificity and strength of binding, it does not bind independently, whereas the C-terminal finger is both necessary and sufficient for binding. Here we show that although this is true for the N-terminal finger of GATA-1, those of GATA-2 and GATA-3 are capable of strong independent binding with a preference for the motif GATC. Binding requires the presence of two basic regions located on either side of the N-terminal finger. The absence of one of these near the GATA-1 N-terminal finger probably accounts for its inability to bind. The combination of a single finger and two basic regions is a new variant of a motif that has been previously found in the binding domains of other finger proteins. Our results suggest that the DNA binding properties of the N-terminal finger may help distinguish GATA-2 and GATA-3 from GATA-1 and the other GATA family members in their selective regulatory roles in vivo. PMID:9184231

  7. Regulation of GATA factor expression is distinct between erythroid and mast cell lineages.

    PubMed

    Ohmori, Shin'ya; Takai, Jun; Ishijima, Yasushi; Suzuki, Mikiko; Moriguchi, Takashi; Philipsen, Sjaak; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Ohneda, Kinuko

    2012-12-01

    The zinc finger transcription factors GATA1 and GATA2 participate in mast cell development. Although the expression of these factors is regulated in a cell lineage-specific and differentiation stage-specific manner, their regulation during mast cell development has not been clarified. Here, we show that the GATA2 mRNA level was significantly increased while GATA1 was maintained at low levels during the differentiation of mast cells derived from mouse bone marrow (BMMCs). Unlike in erythroid cells, forced expression or small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of GATA1 rarely affected GATA2 expression, and vice versa, in mast cells, indicating the absence of cross-regulation between Gata1 and Gata2 genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that both GATA factors bound to most of the conserved GATA sites of Gata1 and Gata2 loci in BMMCs. However, the GATA1 hematopoietic enhancer (G1HE) of the Gata1 gene, which is essential for GATA1 expression in erythroid and megakaryocytic lineages, was bound only weakly by both GATA factors in BMMCs. Furthermore, transgenic-mouse reporter assays revealed that the G1HE is not essential for reporter expression in BMMCs and peritoneal mast cells. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the expression of GATA factors in mast cells is regulated in a manner quite distinct from that in erythroid cells. PMID:22988301

  8. GATA3 inhibits GCM1 activity and trophoblast cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Yueh Ho; Chen, Hungwen

    2016-01-01

    Development of human placenta involves the invasion of trophoblast cells from anchoring villi into the maternal decidua. Placental transcription factor GCM1 regulates trophoblast cell invasion via transcriptional activation of HtrA4 gene, which encodes a serine protease enzyme. The GATA3 transcription factor regulates trophoblast cell differentiation and is highly expressed in invasive murine trophoblast giant cells. The regulation of trophoblastic invasion by GCM1 may involve novel cellular factors. Here we show that GATA3 interacts with GCM1 and inhibits its activity to suppress trophoblastic invasion. Immunohistochemistry demonstrates that GATA3 and GCM1 are coexpressed in villous cytotrophoblast cells, syncytiotrophoblast layer, and extravillous trophoblast cells of human placenta. Interestingly, GATA3 interacts with GCM1, but not the GCM2 homologue, through the DNA-binding domain and first transcriptional activation domain in GCM1 and the transcriptional activation domains and zinc finger 1 domain in GATA3. While GATA3 did not affect DNA-binding activity of GCM1, it suppressed transcriptional activity of GCM1 and therefore HtrA4 promoter activity. Correspondingly, GATA3 knockdown elevated HtrA4 expression in BeWo and JEG-3 trophoblast cell lines and enhanced the invasion activities of both lines. This study uncovered a new GATA3 function in placenta as a negative regulator of GCM1 activity and trophoblastic invasion. PMID:26899996

  9. GATA3 inhibits GCM1 activity and trophoblast cell invasion

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Yueh Ho; Chen, Hungwen

    2016-01-01

    Development of human placenta involves the invasion of trophoblast cells from anchoring villi into the maternal decidua. Placental transcription factor GCM1 regulates trophoblast cell invasion via transcriptional activation of HtrA4 gene, which encodes a serine protease enzyme. The GATA3 transcription factor regulates trophoblast cell differentiation and is highly expressed in invasive murine trophoblast giant cells. The regulation of trophoblastic invasion by GCM1 may involve novel cellular factors. Here we show that GATA3 interacts with GCM1 and inhibits its activity to suppress trophoblastic invasion. Immunohistochemistry demonstrates that GATA3 and GCM1 are coexpressed in villous cytotrophoblast cells, syncytiotrophoblast layer, and extravillous trophoblast cells of human placenta. Interestingly, GATA3 interacts with GCM1, but not the GCM2 homologue, through the DNA-binding domain and first transcriptional activation domain in GCM1 and the transcriptional activation domains and zinc finger 1 domain in GATA3. While GATA3 did not affect DNA-binding activity of GCM1, it suppressed transcriptional activity of GCM1 and therefore HtrA4 promoter activity. Correspondingly, GATA3 knockdown elevated HtrA4 expression in BeWo and JEG-3 trophoblast cell lines and enhanced the invasion activities of both lines. This study uncovered a new GATA3 function in placenta as a negative regulator of GCM1 activity and trophoblastic invasion. PMID:26899996

  10. Origin and evolution of GATA2a and GATA2b in teleosts: insights from tongue sole, Cynoglossus semilaevis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinxiang; Jiang, Jiajun; Wang, Zhongkai; He, Yan; Zhang, Quanqi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Following the two rounds of whole-genome duplication that occurred during deuterostome evolution, a third genome duplication occurred in the lineage of teleost fish and is considered to be responsible for much of the biological diversification within the lineage. GATA2, a member of GATA family of transcription factors, is an important regulator of gene expression in hematopoietic cell in mammals, yet the role of this gene or its putative paralogs in ray-finned fishes remains relatively unknown. Methods. In this study, we attempted to identify GATA2 sequences from the transcriptomes and genomes of multiple teleosts using the bioinformatic tools MrBayes, MEME, and PAML. Following identification, comparative analysis of genome structure, molecular evolution rate, and expression by real-time qPCR were used to predict functional divergence of GATA2 paralogs and their relative transcription in organs of female and male tongue soles (Cynoglossus semilaevis). Results. Two teleost GATA2 genes were identified in the transcriptomes of tongue sole and Japanese flounder (Paralichthysolivaceus). Synteny and phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the two genes likely originated from the teleost-specific genome duplication . Additionally, selection pressure analysis predicted these gene duplicates to have undergone purifying selection and possible divergent new functions. This was supported by differential expression pattern of GATA2a and GATA2b observed in organs of female and male tongue soles. Discussion. Our results indicate that two GATA2 genes originating from the first teleost-specific genome duplication have remained transcriptionally active in some fish species and have likely undergone neofunctionalization. This knowledge provides novel insights into the evolution of the teleost GATA2 genes and constituted important groundwork for further research on the GATA gene family. PMID:27019782

  11. Origin and evolution of GATA2a and GATA2b in teleosts: insights from tongue sole, Cynoglossus semilaevis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinxiang; Jiang, Jiajun; Wang, Zhongkai; He, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Background. Following the two rounds of whole-genome duplication that occurred during deuterostome evolution, a third genome duplication occurred in the lineage of teleost fish and is considered to be responsible for much of the biological diversification within the lineage. GATA2, a member of GATA family of transcription factors, is an important regulator of gene expression in hematopoietic cell in mammals, yet the role of this gene or its putative paralogs in ray-finned fishes remains relatively unknown. Methods. In this study, we attempted to identify GATA2 sequences from the transcriptomes and genomes of multiple teleosts using the bioinformatic tools MrBayes, MEME, and PAML. Following identification, comparative analysis of genome structure, molecular evolution rate, and expression by real-time qPCR were used to predict functional divergence of GATA2 paralogs and their relative transcription in organs of female and male tongue soles (Cynoglossus semilaevis). Results. Two teleost GATA2 genes were identified in the transcriptomes of tongue sole and Japanese flounder (Paralichthysolivaceus). Synteny and phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the two genes likely originated from the teleost-specific genome duplication . Additionally, selection pressure analysis predicted these gene duplicates to have undergone purifying selection and possible divergent new functions. This was supported by differential expression pattern of GATA2a and GATA2b observed in organs of female and male tongue soles. Discussion. Our results indicate that two GATA2 genes originating from the first teleost-specific genome duplication have remained transcriptionally active in some fish species and have likely undergone neofunctionalization. This knowledge provides novel insights into the evolution of the teleost GATA2 genes and constituted important groundwork for further research on the GATA gene family. PMID:27019782

  12. Gata2 Is a Rheostat for Mesenchymal Stem Cell Fate in Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoxiao; Huynh, HoangDinh; Zuo, Hao; Salminen, Marjo; Wan, Yihong

    2016-03-01

    Gata2 is a zinc finger transcription factor that is important in hematopoiesis and neuronal development. However, the roles of Gata2 in the mesenchymal lineages are poorly understood. In vitro studies suggest that Gata2 modulates adipocyte differentiation and mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) proliferation. To systematically determine the in vivo functions of Gata2 in the MSC lineage commitment and development, we have generated three mouse models in which Gata2 is specifically deleted in MSCs, adipocytes, or osteoblasts. During the MSC expansion stage, Gata2 promotes proliferation and attenuates differentiation; thereby Gata2 loss in MSCs results in enhanced differentiation of both adipocytes and osteoblasts. During the differentiation stage, Gata2 also plays MSC-independent roles to impede lineage commitment; hence, Gata2 loss in adipocyte or osteoblast lineages also augments adipogenesis and osteoblastogenesis, respectively. These findings reveal Gata2 as a crucial rheostat of MSC fate to control osteoblast and adipocyte lineage development. PMID:26812161

  13. Altered translation of GATA1 in Diamond-Blackfan anemia.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Leif S; Gazda, Hanna T; Eng, Jennifer C; Eichhorn, Stephen W; Thiru, Prathapan; Ghazvinian, Roxanne; George, Tracy I; Gotlib, Jason R; Beggs, Alan H; Sieff, Colin A; Lodish, Harvey F; Lander, Eric S; Sankaran, Vijay G

    2014-07-01

    Ribosomal protein haploinsufficiency occurs in diverse human diseases including Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA), congenital asplenia and T cell leukemia. Yet, how mutations in genes encoding ubiquitously expressed proteins such as these result in cell-type- and tissue-specific defects remains unknown. Here, we identify mutations in GATA1, encoding the critical hematopoietic transcription factor GATA-binding protein-1, that reduce levels of full-length GATA1 protein and cause DBA in rare instances. We show that ribosomal protein haploinsufficiency, the more common cause of DBA, can lead to decreased GATA1 mRNA translation, possibly resulting from a higher threshold for initiation of translation of this mRNA in comparison with other mRNAs. In primary hematopoietic cells from patients with mutations in RPS19, encoding ribosomal protein S19, the amplitude of a transcriptional signature of GATA1 target genes was globally and specifically reduced, indicating that the activity, but not the mRNA level, of GATA1 is decreased in patients with DBA associated with mutations affecting ribosomal proteins. Moreover, the defective hematopoiesis observed in patients with DBA associated with ribosomal protein haploinsufficiency could be partially overcome by increasing GATA1 protein levels. Our results provide a paradigm by which selective defects in translation due to mutations affecting ubiquitous ribosomal proteins can result in human disease. PMID:24952648

  14. Dynamic regulation of Gata factor levels is more important than their identity.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Rita; Wai, Albert; Shimizu, Ritsuko; Gillemans, Nynke; Rottier, Robbert; von Lindern, Marieke; Ohneda, Kinuko; Grosveld, Frank; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Philipsen, Sjaak

    2007-06-15

    Three Gata transcription factors (Gata1, -2, and -3) are essential for hematopoiesis. These factors are thought to play distinct roles because they do not functionally replace each other. For instance, Gata2 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression is highly elevated in Gata1-null erythroid cells, yet this does not rescue the defect. Here, we test whether Gata2 and -3 transgenes rescue the erythroid defect of Gata1-null mice, if expressed in the appropriate spatiotemporal pattern. Gata1, -2, and -3 transgenes driven by beta-globin regulatory elements, directing expression to late stages of differentiation, fail to rescue erythropoiesis in Gata1-null mutants. In contrast, when controlled by Gata1 regulatory elements, directing expression to the early stages of differentiation, Gata1, -2, and -3 do rescue the Gata1-null phenotype. The dramatic increase of endogenous Gata2 mRNA in Gata1-null progenitors is not reflected in Gata2 protein levels, invoking translational regulation. Our data show that the dynamic spatiotemporal regulation of Gata factor levels is more important than their identity and provide a paradigm for developmental control mechanisms that are hard-wired in cis-regulatory elements. PMID:17327407

  15. Mature erythrocyte membrane homeostasis is compromised by loss of the GATA1-FOG1 interaction.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Atsushi; Shimizu, Ritsuko; Mohandas, Narla; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2012-03-15

    GATA1 plays essential roles in erythroid gene expression. The N-terminal finger of GATA1 (GATA1-Nf) is important for association with FOG1. Substitution mutations in GATA1-Nf, such as GATA1(V205M) that diminish the GATA1-FOG1 association, have been identified in human thrombocytopenia and anemia cases. A mouse model of human thrombocytopenia has been established using a transgenic complementation rescue approach; GATA1-deficient mice were successfully rescued from embryonic lethality by excess expression of GATA1(V205G), but rescued adult mice suffered from severe thrombocytopenia. In this study, we examined GATA1-deficient mice rescued with GATA1(V205G) at a comparable level to endogenous GATA1. Mice rescued with this level of GATA1(V205G) rarely survive to adulthood. Rescued newborns suffered from severe anemia and jaundice accompanied with anisocytosis and spherocytosis. Expression of Slc4a1, Spna1, and Aqp1 genes (encoding the membrane proteins band-3, α-spectrin, and aquaporin-1, respectively) were strikingly diminished, whereas expression of other canonical GATA1-target genes, such as Alas2, were little affected. Lack of these membrane proteins provoked perturbation of membrane skeleton. Importantly, the red cells exhibited increased reactive oxygen species accumulation. These results thus demonstrate that the loss of the GATA1-FOG1 interaction causes a unique combination of membrane protein deficiency and disturbs the function of GATA1 in maintaining erythroid homeostasis. PMID:22279059

  16. Diagnostic utility and sensitivities of GATA3 antibodies in triple-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Krings, Gregor; Nystrom, Michael; Mehdi, Irum; Vohra, Poonam; Chen, Yunn-Yi

    2014-11-01

    GATA3 is implicated in mammary epithelial development and breast cancer progression and is an evolving immunohistochemical marker in breast cancer. Often associated with estrogen receptor (ER) signaling, GATA3 expression has been reported in ER-negative breast cancers, but systematic evaluation of GATA3 expression in a large set of triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) is lacking. Given low sensitivities of mammaglobin (MGB) and GCDFP15 in metastatic TNBC, additional markers for site of origin identification would be useful in this context. We examined immunohistochemical expression of GATA3 in a large group of treatment-naive TNBC (n = 111) and ER-positive (n = 39) and HER2-positive (n = 31) breast cancers with commonly used antibody clones, HG3-31 (GATA3-H) and L50-823 (GATA3-L), and compared GATA3, MGB, and GCDFP15. Respectively, GATA3-L and GATA3-H were positive in 66% and 44% of TNBC (P = .002), 93% and 79% of ER-/HER2+ tumors (P = .596), and 100% of ER+/HER2- and ER+/HER2+ tumors (P = 1.00 each). GATA3-L was technically and diagnostically more sensitive than GATA3-H in TNBC and was technically more sensitive in other subtypes. MGB (26%) and GCDFP15 (16%) were less sensitive for TNBC than other subtypes (P < .001). Notably, 56% and 36% of MGB-/GCDFP15- TNBC were positive with GATA3-L and GATA3-H, respectively (P = .027). Seventy percent of TNBC were positive for GATA3-L, MGB, or GCDFP15 compared with 49% using GATA3-H in the panel. GATA3 is a diagnostically useful marker for TNBC and is more sensitive than MGB and GCDFP15 combined. GATA3-L is more sensitive for TNBC than GATA3-H, and an immunopanel of GATA3-L, MGB, and GCDFP15 provides optimal diagnostic sensitivity for TNBC. PMID:25150746

  17. Gata4 expression in lateral mesoderm is downstream of BMP4 and isactivated directly by Forkhead and GATA transcription factors through adistal enhancer element

    SciTech Connect

    Rojas, Anabel; De Val, Sarah; Heidt, Analeah B.; Xu, Shan-Mei; Bristow, James; Black, Brian L.

    2005-05-20

    The GATA family of zinc-finger transcription factors plays key roles in the specification and differentiation of multiple cell types during development. GATA4 is an early regulator of gene expression during the development of endoderm and mesoderm, and genetic studies in mice have demonstrated that GATA4 is required for embryonic development.Despite the importance of GATA4 in tissue specification and differentiation, the mechanisms by which Gata4 expression is activated and the transcription factor pathways upstream of GATA4 remain largely undefined. To identify transcriptional regulators of Gata4 in the mouse,we screened conserved noncoding sequences from the mouse Gata4 gene for enhancer activity in transgenic embryos. Here, we define the regulation of a distal enhancer element from Gata4 that is sufficient to direct expression throughout the lateral mesoderm, beginning at 7.5 days of mouse embryonic development. The activity of this enhancer is initially broad but eventually becomes restricted to the mesenchyme surrounding the liver. We demonstrate that the function of this enhancer in transgenic embryos is dependent upon highly conserved Forkhead and GATA transcription factor binding sites, which are bound by FOXF1 and GATA4,respectively. Furthermore, the activity of the Gata4 lateral mesoderm enhancer is attenuated by the BMP antagonist Noggin, and the enhancer is not activated in Bmp4-null embryos. Thus, these studies establish that Gata4 is a direct transcriptional target of Forkhead and GATA transcription factors in the lateral mesoderm, and demonstrate that Gata4lateral mesoderm enhancer activation requires BMP4, supporting a model in which GATA4 serves as a downstream effector of BMP signaling in the lateral mesoderm.

  18. GATA3 Expression Is a Poor Prognostic Factor in Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Haraguchi, Toshiaki; Miyoshi, Hiroaki; Hiraoka, Koji; Yokoyama, Shintaro; Ishibashi, Yukinao; Hashiguchi, Toshihiro; Matsuda, Koutaro; Hamada, Tetsuya; Okawa, Takahiro; Shiba, Naoto; Ohshima, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Objective Recent studies have investigated the significance of GATA3 expression in patients with various malignant tumors. However, no previous studies have evaluated the clinicopathological importance of GATA3 expression in soft tissue sarcomas (STS) patients. Methods We evaluated GATA3 expression in 76 STS cases using immunohistochemical analysis, and statistically compared clinicopathological characteristics between GATA3-positive and GATA3-negative cases. Result GATA3-positive expression was significantly associated with a higher mitotic count (P < 0.0001). Disease-free survival (DFS) of GATA3-positive cases was significantly shorter than that of cases without GATA3 expression (P = 0.0104). Overall survival (OS) of GATA3-positive cases was significantly shorter than that of cases without GATA3 expression (P = 0.0006). GATA3-positive expression was significantly associated with shorter DFS in both univariate analysis (hazard ratio [HR], 2.719; P = 0.012) and multivariate analysis (HR, 2.711; P = 0.014). GATA3-positive expression was also significantly associated with worse OS in both univariate analysis (HR, 5.730; P = 0.0007) and multivariate analysis (HR, 5.789; P = 0.0008). Conclusion These results indicate that GATA3 is an independent prognostic factor and suggest that evaluation of GATA3 expression might enable more effective clinical follow-up using prognostic stratification of STS patients. PMID:27249072

  19. N- and C-terminal Transactivation Domains of GATA1 Protein Coordinate Hematopoietic Program*

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Eri; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Shimizu, Ritsuko

    2012-01-01

    Transcription factor GATA1 regulates the expression of a cluster of genes important for hematopoietic cell differentiation toward erythroid and megakaryocytic lineages. Three functional domains have been identified in GATA1, a transactivation domain located in the N terminus (N-TAD) and two zinc finger domains located in the middle of the molecule. Although N-TAD is known as a solitary transactivation domain for GATA1, clinical observations in Down syndrome leukemia suggest that there may be additional transactivation domains. In this study, we found in reporter co-transfection assays that transactivation activity of GATA1 was markedly reduced by deletion of the C-terminal 95 amino acids without significant attenuation of the DNA binding activity or self-association potential. We therefore generated transgenic mouse lines that expressed GATA1 lacking the C-terminal region (GATA1-ΔCT). When we crossed these transgenic mouse lines to the Gata1-deficient mouse, we found that the GATA1-ΔCT transgene rescued Gata1-deficient mice from embryonic lethality. The embryos rescued with an almost similar level of GATA1-ΔCT to endogenous GATA1 developed beyond embryonic 13.5 days, showing severe anemia with accumulation of immature erythroid cells, as was the case for the embryos rescued by endogenous levels of GATA1 lacking N-TAD (GATA1-ΔNT). Distinct sets of target genes were affected in the embryos rescued by GATA1-ΔCT and GATA1-ΔNT. We also found attenuated GATA1 function in cell cycle control of immature megakaryocytes in both lines of rescued embryos. These results thus demonstrate that GATA1 has two independent transactivation domains, N-TAD and C-TAD. Both N-TAD and C-TAD retain redundant as well as specific activities for proper hematopoiesis in vivo. PMID:22556427

  20. Differential expression and functional role of GATA-2, NF-E2, and GATA-1 in normal adult hematopoiesis.

    PubMed Central

    Labbaye, C; Valtieri, M; Barberi, T; Meccia, E; Masella, B; Pelosi, E; Condorelli, G L; Testa, U; Peschle, C

    1995-01-01

    We have explored the expression of the transcription factors GATA-1, GATA-2, and NF-E2 in purified early hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) induced to gradual unilineage erythroid or granulocytic differentiation by growth factor stimulus. GATA-2 mRNA and protein, already expressed in quiescent HPCs, is rapidly induced as early as 3 h after growth factor stimulus, but then declines in advanced erythroid and granulocytic differentiation and maturation. NF-E2 and GATA-1 mRNAs and proteins, though not detected in quiescent HPCs, are gradually induced at 24-48 h in both erythroid and granulocytic culture. Beginning at late differentiation/early maturation stage, both transcription factors are further accumulated in the erythroid pathway, whereas they are suppressed in the granulopoietic series. Similarly, the erythropoietin receptor (EpR) is induced and sustainedly expressed during erythroid differentiation, although beginning at later times (i.e., day 5), whereas it is barely expressed in the granulopoietic pathway. In the first series of functional studies, HPCs were treated with antisense oligomers targeted to transcription factor mRNA: inhibition of GATA-2 expression caused a decreased number of both erythroid and granulocyte-monocytic clones, whereas inhibition of NF-E2 or GATA-1 expression induced a selective impairment of erythroid colony formation. In a second series of functional studies, HPCs treated with retinoic acid were induced to shift from erythroid to granulocytic differentiation (Labbaye et al. 1994. Blood. 83:651-656); this was coupled with abrogation of GATA-1, NF-E2, and EpR expression and conversely enhanced GATA-2 levels. These results indicate the expression and key role of GATA-2 in the early stages of HPC proliferation/differentiation. Conversely, NF-E2 and GATA-1 expression and function are apparently restricted to erythroid differentiation and maturation: their expression precedes that of the EpR, and their function may be in part mediated

  1. The evolution of cellular deficiency in GATA2 mutation

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Rachel E.; Milne, Paul; Jardine, Laura; Zandi, Sasan; Swierczek, Sabina I.; McGovern, Naomi; Cookson, Sharon; Ferozepurwalla, Zaveyna; Langridge, Alexander; Pagan, Sarah; Gennery, Andrew; Heiskanen-Kosma, Tarja; Hämäläinen, Sari; Seppänen, Mikko; Helbert, Matthew; Tholouli, Eleni; Gambineri, Eleonora; Reykdal, Sigrún; Gottfreðsson, Magnús; Thaventhiran, James E.; Morris, Emma; Hirschfield, Gideon; Richter, Alex G.; Jolles, Stephen; Bacon, Chris M.; Hambleton, Sophie; Haniffa, Muzlifah; Bryceson, Yenan; Allen, Carl; Prchal, Josef T.; Dick, John E.; Bigley, Venetia

    2014-01-01

    Constitutive heterozygous GATA2 mutation is associated with deafness, lymphedema, mononuclear cytopenias, infection, myelodysplasia (MDS), and acute myeloid leukemia. In this study, we describe a cross-sectional analysis of 24 patients and 6 relatives with 14 different frameshift or substitution mutations of GATA2. A pattern of dendritic cell, monocyte, B, and natural killer (NK) lymphoid deficiency (DCML deficiency) with elevated Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L) was observed in all 20 patients phenotyped, including patients with Emberger syndrome, monocytopenia with Mycobacterium avium complex (MonoMAC), and MDS. Four unaffected relatives had a normal phenotype indicating that cellular deficiency may evolve over time or is incompletely penetrant, while 2 developed subclinical cytopenias or elevated Flt3L. Patients with GATA2 mutation maintained higher hemoglobin, neutrophils, and platelets and were younger than controls with acquired MDS and wild-type GATA2. Frameshift mutations were associated with earlier age of clinical presentation than substitution mutations. Elevated Flt3L, loss of bone marrow progenitors, and clonal myelopoiesis were early signs of disease evolution. Clinical progression was associated with increasingly elevated Flt3L, depletion of transitional B cells, CD56bright NK cells, naïve T cells, and accumulation of terminally differentiated NK and CD8+ memory T cells. These studies provide a framework for clinical and laboratory monitoring of patients with GATA2 mutation and may inform therapeutic decision-making. PMID:24345756

  2. Functional and molecular characterization of mouse Gata2-independent hematopoietic progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Kaimakis, Polynikis; de Pater, Emma; Eich, Christina; Solaimani Kartalaei, Parham; Kauts, Mari-Liis; Vink, Chris S.; van der Linden, Reinier; Jaegle, Martine; Yokomizo, Tomomasa; Meijer, Dies

    2016-01-01

    The Gata2 transcription factor is a pivotal regulator of hematopoietic cell development and maintenance, highlighted by the fact that Gata2 haploinsufficiency has been identified as the cause of some familial cases of acute myelogenous leukemia/myelodysplastic syndrome and in MonoMac syndrome. Genetic deletion in mice has shown that Gata2 is pivotal to the embryonic generation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs). It functions in the embryo during endothelial cell to hematopoietic cell transition to affect hematopoietic cluster, HPC, and HSC formation. Gata2 conditional deletion and overexpression studies show the importance of Gata2 levels in hematopoiesis, during all developmental stages. Although previous studies of cell populations phenotypically enriched in HPCs and HSCs show expression of Gata2, there has been no direct study of Gata2 expressing cells during normal hematopoiesis. In this study, we generate a Gata2Venus reporter mouse model with unperturbed Gata2 expression to examine the hematopoietic function and transcriptome of Gata2 expressing and nonexpressing cells. We show that all the HSCs are Gata2 expressing. However, not all HPCs in the aorta, vitelline and umbilical arteries, and fetal liver require or express Gata2. These Gata2-independent HPCs exhibit a different functional output and genetic program, including Ras and cyclic AMP response element-binding protein pathways and other Gata factors, compared with Gata2-dependent HPCs. Our results, indicating that Gata2 is of major importance in programming toward HSC fate but not in all cells with HPC fate, have implications for current reprogramming strategies. PMID:26834239

  3. GATA2 is required for lymphatic vessel valve development and maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Kazenwadel, Jan; Betterman, Kelly L.; Chong, Chan-Eng; Stokes, Philippa H.; Lee, Young K.; Secker, Genevieve A.; Agalarov, Yan; Demir, Cansaran Saygili; Lawrence, David M.; Sutton, Drew L.; Tabruyn, Sebastien P.; Miura, Naoyuki; Salminen, Marjo; Petrova, Tatiana V.; Matthews, Jacqueline M.; Hahn, Christopher N.; Scott, Hamish S.; Harvey, Natasha L.

    2015-01-01

    Heterozygous germline mutations in the zinc finger transcription factor GATA2 have recently been shown to underlie a range of clinical phenotypes, including Emberger syndrome, a disorder characterized by lymphedema and predisposition to myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia (MDS/AML). Despite well-defined roles in hematopoiesis, the functions of GATA2 in the lymphatic vasculature and the mechanisms by which GATA2 mutations result in lymphedema have not been characterized. Here, we have provided a molecular explanation for lymphedema predisposition in a subset of patients with germline GATA2 mutations. Specifically, we demonstrated that Emberger-associated GATA2 missense mutations result in complete loss of GATA2 function, with respect to the capacity to regulate the transcription of genes that are important for lymphatic vessel valve development. We identified a putative enhancer element upstream of the key lymphatic transcriptional regulator PROX1 that is bound by GATA2, and the transcription factors FOXC2 and NFATC1. Emberger GATA2 missense mutants had a profoundly reduced capacity to bind this element. Conditional Gata2 deletion in mice revealed that GATA2 is required for both development and maintenance of lymphovenous and lymphatic vessel valves. Together, our data unveil essential roles for GATA2 in the lymphatic vasculature and explain why a select catalogue of human GATA2 mutations results in lymphedema. PMID:26214525

  4. GATA Factor-Dependent Positive-Feedback Circuit in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells.

    PubMed

    Katsumura, Koichi R; Ong, Irene M; DeVilbiss, Andrew W; Sanalkumar, Rajendran; Bresnick, Emery H

    2016-08-30

    The master regulatory transcription factor GATA-2 triggers hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell generation. GATA2 haploinsufficiency is implicated in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and GATA2 overexpression portends a poor prognosis for AML. However, the constituents of the GATA-2-dependent genetic network mediating pathogenesis are unknown. We described a p38-dependent mechanism that phosphorylates GATA-2 and increases GATA-2 target gene activation. We demonstrate that this mechanism establishes a growth-promoting chemokine/cytokine circuit in AML cells. p38/ERK-dependent GATA-2 phosphorylation facilitated positive autoregulation of GATA2 transcription and expression of target genes, including IL1B and CXCL2. IL-1β and CXCL2 enhanced GATA-2 phosphorylation, which increased GATA-2-mediated transcriptional activation. p38/ERK-GATA-2 stimulated AML cell proliferation via CXCL2 induction. As GATA2 mRNA correlated with IL1B and CXCL2 mRNAs in AML-M5 and high expression of these genes predicted poor prognosis of cytogenetically normal AML, we propose that the circuit is functionally important in specific AML contexts. PMID:27545880

  5. Haematopoietic and immune defects associated with GATA2 mutation

    PubMed Central

    Collin, Matthew; Dickinson, Rachel; Bigley, Venetia

    2015-01-01

    Heterozygous familial or sporadic GATA2 mutations cause a multifaceted disorder, encompassing susceptibility to infection, pulmonary dysfunction, autoimmunity, lymphoedema and malignancy. Although often healthy in childhood, carriers of defective GATA2 alleles develop progressive loss of mononuclear cells (dendritic cells, monocytes, B and Natural Killer lymphocytes), elevated FLT3 ligand, and a 90% risk of clinical complications, including progression to myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) by 60 years of age. Premature death may occur from childhood due to infection, pulmonary dysfunction, solid malignancy and MDS/acute myeloid leukaemia. GATA2 mutations include frameshifts, amino acid substitutions, insertions and deletions scattered throughout the gene but concentrated in the region encoding the two zinc finger domains. Mutations appear to cause haplo-insufficiency, which is known to impair haematopoietic stem cell survival in animal models. Management includes genetic counselling, prevention of infection, cancer surveillance, haematopoietic monitoring and, ultimately, stem cell transplantation upon the development of MDS or another life-threatening complication. PMID:25707267

  6. GATA6 is a crucial regulator of Shh in the limb bud.

    PubMed

    Kozhemyakina, Elena; Ionescu, Andreia; Lassar, Andrew B

    2014-01-01

    In the limb bud, patterning along the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis is controlled by Sonic Hedgehog (Shh), a signaling molecule secreted by the "Zone of Polarizing Activity", an organizer tissue located in the posterior margin of the limb bud. We have found that the transcription factors GATA4 and GATA6, which are key regulators of cell identity, are expressed in an anterior to posterior gradient in the early limb bud, raising the possibility that GATA transcription factors may play an additional role in patterning this tissue. While both GATA4 and GATA6 are expressed in an A-P gradient in the forelimb buds, the hindlimb buds principally express GATA6 in an A-P gradient. Thus, to specifically examine the role of GATA6 in limb patterning we generated Prx1-Cre; GATA6(fl/fl) mice, which conditionally delete GATA6 from their developing limb buds. We found that these animals display ectopic expression of both Shh and its transcriptional targets specifically in the anterior mesenchyme of the hindlimb buds. Loss of GATA6 in the developing limbs results in the formation of preaxial polydactyly in the hindlimbs. Conversely, forced expression of GATA6 throughout the limb bud represses expression of Shh and results in hypomorphic limbs. We have found that GATA6 can bind to chromatin (isolated from limb buds) encoding either Shh or Gli1 regulatory elements that drive expression of these genes in this tissue, and demonstrated that GATA6 works synergistically with FOG co-factors to repress expression of luciferase reporters driven by these sequences. Most significantly, we have found that conditional loss of Shh in limb buds lacking GATA6 prevents development of hindlimb polydactyly in these compound mutant embryos, indicating that GATA6 expression in the anterior region of the limb bud blocks hindlimb polydactyly by repressing ectopic expression of Shh. PMID:24415953

  7. Involvement of GATA transcription factors in the regulation of endogenous bovine interferon-tau gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Bai, Hanako; Sakurai, Toshihiro; Kim, Min-Su; Muroi, Yoshikage; Ideta, Atsushi; Aoyagi, Yoshito; Nakajima, Hiromi; Takahashi, Masashi; Nagaoka, Kentaro; Imakawa, Kazuhiko

    2009-12-01

    Expression of interferon-tau (IFNT), necessary for pregnancy establishment in ruminant ungulates, is regulated in a temporal and spatial manner. However, molecular mechanisms by which IFNT gene transcription is regulated in this manner have not been firmly established. In this study, DNA microarray/RT-PCR analysis between bovine trophoblast CT-1 and Mardin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells was initially performed, finding that transcription factors GATA2, GATA3, and GATA6 mRNAs were specific to CT-1 cells. These mRNAs were also found in Days 17, 20, and 22 (Day 0 = day of estrus) bovine conceptuses. In examining other bovine cell lines, ovary cumulus granulosa (oCG) and ear fibroblast (EF) cells, GATA2 and GATA3, but not GATA6, were found specific to the bovine trophoblast cells. In transient transfection analyses using the upstream region (-631 to +59 bp) of bovine IFNT gene (bIFNT, IFN-tau-c1), over-expression of GATA2/GATA3 did not affect the transcription of bIFNT-reporter construct in human choriocarcinoma JEG3 cells. Transfection of GATA2, GATA3, ETS2, and/or CDX2, however, was effective in the up-regulation of the bIFNT construct transfected into bovine oCG and EF cells. One Point mutation studies revealed that among six potential GATA binding sites located on the upstream region of the bIFNT gene, the one next to ETS2 site exhibited reduced luciferase activity. In CT-1 cells, endogenous bIFNT gene transcription was up-regulated by over-expression of GATA2 or GATA3, but down-regulated by siRNA specific to GATA2 mRNA. These data suggest that GATA2/3 is involved in trophoblast-specific regulation of bIFNT gene transcription. PMID:19598245

  8. GATA6 Is a Crucial Regulator of Shh in the Limb Bud

    PubMed Central

    Kozhemyakina, Elena; Ionescu, Andreia; Lassar, Andrew B.

    2014-01-01

    In the limb bud, patterning along the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis is controlled by Sonic Hedgehog (Shh), a signaling molecule secreted by the “Zone of Polarizing Activity”, an organizer tissue located in the posterior margin of the limb bud. We have found that the transcription factors GATA4 and GATA6, which are key regulators of cell identity, are expressed in an anterior to posterior gradient in the early limb bud, raising the possibility that GATA transcription factors may play an additional role in patterning this tissue. While both GATA4 and GATA6 are expressed in an A-P gradient in the forelimb buds, the hindlimb buds principally express GATA6 in an A-P gradient. Thus, to specifically examine the role of GATA6 in limb patterning we generated Prx1-Cre; GATA6fl/fl mice, which conditionally delete GATA6 from their developing limb buds. We found that these animals display ectopic expression of both Shh and its transcriptional targets specifically in the anterior mesenchyme of the hindlimb buds. Loss of GATA6 in the developing limbs results in the formation of preaxial polydactyly in the hindlimbs. Conversely, forced expression of GATA6 throughout the limb bud represses expression of Shh and results in hypomorphic limbs. We have found that GATA6 can bind to chromatin (isolated from limb buds) encoding either Shh or Gli1 regulatory elements that drive expression of these genes in this tissue, and demonstrated that GATA6 works synergistically with FOG co-factors to repress expression of luciferase reporters driven by these sequences. Most significantly, we have found that conditional loss of Shh in limb buds lacking GATA6 prevents development of hindlimb polydactyly in these compound mutant embryos, indicating that GATA6 expression in the anterior region of the limb bud blocks hindlimb polydactyly by repressing ectopic expression of Shh. PMID:24415953

  9. Transcriptional cofactors of the FOG family interact with GATA proteins by means of multiple zinc fingers.

    PubMed Central

    Fox, A H; Liew, C; Holmes, M; Kowalski, K; Mackay, J; Crossley, M

    1999-01-01

    Friend of GATA-1 (FOG-1) is a zinc finger protein that has been shown to interact physically with the erythroid DNA-binding protein GATA-1 and modulate its transcriptional activity. Recently, two new members of the FOG family have been identified: a mammalian protein, FOG-2, that also associates with GATA-1 and other mammalian GATA factors; and U-shaped, a Drosophila protein that interacts with the Drosophila GATA protein Pannier. FOG proteins contain multiple zinc fingers and it has been shown previously that the sixth finger of FOG-1 interacts specifically with the N-finger but not the C-finger of GATA-1. Here we show that fingers 1, 5 and 9 of FOG-1 also interact with the N-finger of GATA-1 and that FOG-2 and U-shaped also contain multiple GATA-interacting fingers. We define the key contact residues and show that these residues are highly conserved in GATA-interacting fingers. We examine the effect of selectively mutating the four interacting fingers of FOG-1 and show that each contributes to FOG-1's ability to modulate GATA-1 activity. Finally, we show that FOG-1 can repress GATA-1-mediated activation and present evidence that this ability involves the recently described CtBP co-repressor proteins that recognize all known FOG proteins. PMID:10329627

  10. Molecular characterization and expression profiles of GATA6 in tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis).

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinxiang; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Yan; Wang, Zhigang; Zhang, Quanqi; Wang, Xubo

    2016-08-01

    GATA-binding protein 6 (GATA6), a transcription factor of the GATA family, plays an important role in gonadal cell proliferation, differentiation, and endoderm development. In this study, the full-length coding sequence of tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) GATA6 was identified. The sequence consisted of 1494 nucleotides encoding a peptide of 497 amino acids, which included two conserved zinc finger domains. Phylogenetic, gene structure, and synteny analysis showed that C. semilaevis GATA6 was homologous to teleost and tetrapod GATA6. C. semilaevis GATA6 mRNA exhibited high expression in heart, intestine, liver, kidney, and gonad. Embryonic development expression profiles revealed that GATA6 is involved in morphogenesis because its expression increased at the blastula stage. The in situ hybridization results showed strong GATA6 signals in spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and Sertoli cells of the testis. The signals were also detected in the oogonia and oocytes of the ovary. The expression of C. semilaevis GATA6 was sexually dimorphic, and the methylation pattern in the promoter region varied among males, females, and pseudomales. These results suggested that GATA6 might influence the gonad development and reproduction of C. semilaevis. This study provides the groundwork for further development of breeding techniques in C. semilaevis. PMID:27040526

  11. GATA Proteins Work Together with Friend of GATA (FOG) and C-terminal Binding Protein (CTBP) Co-regulators to Control Adipogenesis*

    PubMed Central

    Jack, Briony H. A.; Crossley, Merlin

    2010-01-01

    GATA transcription factors have been implicated in controlling adipogenesis in Drosophila and in mammals. In mammals, both GATA2 and GATA3 have been shown to be present in preadipocytes, and their silencing allows the onset of adipogenesis. Overexpression of GATA proteins blocks adipogenesis in cellular assays. GATA factors have been found to operate through recruiting cofactors of the Friend of GATA (FOG) family. FOG proteins, in turn, recruit co-regulators, including C-terminal binding proteins (CTBPs). We have investigated whether FOGs and CTBPs influence adipogenesis. We found that both FOG1 and FOG2 are expressed in cells prior to adipogenesis but are down-regulated as adipogenesis proceeds. Overexpression of FOG1 or FOG2 interferes with adipogenesis. Mutant versions of FOG2 unable to bind CTBP or GATA proteins are impaired in their inability to inhibit adipogenesis. Finally, a mutant version of GATA2, unable to associate with FOGs, also displays abnormal activity and causes enhanced cell proliferation. These results implicate FOGs and CTBPs as partners of GATA proteins in the control of adipocyte proliferation and differentiation. PMID:20705609

  12. A palindromic regulatory site within vertebrate GATA-1 promoters requires both zinc fingers of the GATA-1 DNA-binding domain for high-affinity interaction.

    PubMed

    Trainor, C D; Omichinski, J G; Vandergon, T L; Gronenborn, A M; Clore, G M; Felsenfeld, G

    1996-05-01

    GATA-1, a transcription factor essential for the development of the erythroid lineage, contains two adjacent highly conserved zinc finger motifs. The carboxy-terminal finger is necessary and sufficient for specific binding to the consensus GATA recognition sequence: mutant proteins containing only the amino-terminal finger do not bind. Here we identify a DNA sequence (GATApal) for which the GATA-1 amino-terminal finger makes a critical contribution to the strength of binding. The site occurs in the GATA-1 gene promoters of chickens, mice, and humans but occurs very infrequently in other vertebrate genes known to be regulated by GATA proteins. GATApal is a palindromic site composed of one complete [(A/T)GATA(A/G)] and one partial (GAT) canonical motif. Deletion of the partial motif changes the site to a normal GATA site and also reduces by as much as eightfold the activity of the GATA-1 promoter in an erythroid precursor cell. We propose that GATApal is important for positive regulation of GATA-1 expression in erythroid cells. PMID:8628290

  13. GATA6 levels modulate primitive endoderm cell fate choice and timing in the mouse blastocyst.

    PubMed

    Schrode, Nadine; Saiz, Néstor; Di Talia, Stefano; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina

    2014-05-27

    Cells of the inner cell mass (ICM) of the mouse blastocyst differentiate into the pluripotent epiblast or the primitive endoderm (PrE), marked by the transcription factors NANOG and GATA6, respectively. To investigate the mechanistic regulation of this process, we applied an unbiased, quantitative, single-cell-resolution image analysis pipeline to analyze embryos lacking or exhibiting reduced levels of GATA6. We find that Gata6 mutants exhibit a complete absence of PrE and demonstrate that GATA6 levels regulate the timing and speed of lineage commitment within the ICM. Furthermore, we show that GATA6 is necessary for PrE specification by FGF signaling and propose a model where interactions between NANOG, GATA6, and the FGF/ERK pathway determine ICM cell fate. This study provides a framework for quantitative analyses of mammalian embryos and establishes GATA6 as a nodal point in the gene regulatory network driving ICM lineage specification. PMID:24835466

  14. GATA-3 dose-dependent checkpoints in early T cell commitment1

    PubMed Central

    Scripture-Adams, Deirdre D.; Damle, Sagar S.; Li, Long; Elihu, Koorosh J.; Qin, Shuyang; Arias, Alexandra M.; Butler, Robert R.; Champhekar, Ameya; Zhang, Jingli A.; Rothenberg, Ellen V.

    2014-01-01

    GATA-3 expression is crucial for T cell development and peaks during commitment to the T-cell lineage, midway through the CD4−CD8− (DN) 1-3 stages. We used RNA interference and conditional deletion to reduce GATA-3 protein acutely at specific points during T-cell differentiation in vitro. Even moderate GATA-3 reduction killed DN1 cells, delayed progression to DN2 stage, skewed DN2 gene regulation, and blocked appearance of DN3 phenotype. Although a Bcl-2 transgene rescued DN1 survival and improved DN2 cell generation, it did not restore DN3 differentiation. Gene expression analyses (qPCR, RNA-seq) showed that GATA-3-deficient DN2 cells quickly upregulated genes including Spi1 (PU.1) and Bcl11a and downregulated genes including Cpa3, Ets1, Zfpm1, Bcl11b, Il9r and Il17rb, with gene-specific kinetics and dose-dependencies. These targets could mediate two distinct roles played by GATA-3 in lineage commitment, as revealed by removing wildtype or GATA-3-deficient early T-lineage cells from environmental Notch signals. GATA-3 worked as a potent repressor of B-cell potential even at low expression levels, so that only full deletion of GATA-3 enabled pro-T cells to reveal B-cell potential. The ability of GATA-3 to block B-cell development did not require T-lineage commitment factor Bcl11b. In prethymic multipotent precursors, however, titration of GATA-3 activity using tamoxifen-inducible GATA-3 showed that GATA-3 inhibits B and myeloid developmental alternatives at different threshold doses. Furthermore, differential impacts of a GATA-3 obligate repressor construct imply that B and myeloid development are inhibited through distinct transcriptional mechanisms. Thus, the pattern of GATA-3 expression sequentially produces B-lineage exclusion, T-lineage progression, and myeloid-lineage exclusion for commitment. PMID:25172496

  15. B-GATA transcription factors – insights into their structure, regulation, and role in plant development

    PubMed Central

    Behringer, Carina; Schwechheimer, Claus

    2015-01-01

    GATA transcription factors are evolutionarily conserved transcriptional regulators that recognize promoter elements with a G-A-T-A core sequence. In comparison to animal genomes, the GATA transcription factor family in plants is comparatively large with approximately 30 members. Here, we review the current knowledge on B-GATAs, one of four GATA factor subfamilies from Arabidopsis thaliana. We show that B-GATAs can be subdivided based on structural features and their biological function into family members with a C-terminal LLM- (leucine–leucine–methionine) domain or an N-terminal HAN- (HANABA TARANU) domain. The paralogous GNC (GATA, NITRATE-INDUCIBLE, CARBON-METABOLISM INVOLVED) and CGA1/GNL (CYTOKININ-INDUCED GATA1/GNC-LIKE) are introduced as LLM-domain containing B-GATAs from Arabidopsis that control germination, greening, senescence, and flowering time downstream from several growth regulatory signals. Arabidopsis HAN and its monocot-specific paralogs from rice (NECK LEAF1), maize (TASSEL SHEATH1), and barley (THIRD OUTER GLUME) are HAN-domain-containing B-GATAs with a predominant role in embryo development and floral development. We also review GATA23, a regulator of lateral root initiation from Arabidopsis that is closely related to GNC and GNL but has a degenerate LLM-domain that is seemingly specific for the Brassicaceae family. The Brassicaceae-specific GATA23 and the monocot-specific HAN-domain GATAs provide evidence that neofunctionalization of B-GATAs was used during plant evolution to expand the functional repertoire of these transcription factors. PMID:25755661

  16. THE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR GATA2 REGULATES DIFFERENTIATION OF BROWN ADIPOCYTES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brown fat tissue is functionally different than the white fat, since brown fat burns lipid to generate heat for body temperature maintenance. However, brown fat cells share with white fat cells a similar molecular mechanism for fat cell formation. We have demonstrated previously that the GATA family...

  17. Differential requirements for the activation domain and FOG-interaction surface of GATA-1 in megakaryocyte gene expression and development

    PubMed Central

    Muntean, Andrew G.; Crispino, John D.

    2005-01-01

    GATA1 is mutated in patients with 2 different disorders. First, individuals with a GATA1 mutation that blocks the interaction between GATA-1 and its cofactor Friend of GATA-1 (FOG-1) suffer from dyserythropoietic anemia and thrombocytopenia. Second, children with Down syndrome who develop acute megakaryoblastic leukemia harbor mutations in GATA1 that lead to the exclusive expression of a shorter isoform named GATA-1s. To determine the effect of these patient-specific mutations on GATA-1 function, we first compared the gene expression profile between wild-type and GATA-1–deficient megakaryocytes. Next, we introduced either GATA-1s or a FOG-binding mutant (V205G) into GATA-1–deficient megakaryocytes and assessed the effect on differentiation and gene expression. Whereas GATA-1–deficient megakaryocytes failed to undergo terminal differentiation and proliferated excessively in vitro, GATA-1s–expressing cells displayed proplatelet formation and other features of terminal maturation, but continued to proliferate aberrantly. In contrast, megakaryocytes that expressed V205G GATA-1 exhibited reduced proliferation, but failed to undergo maturation. Examination of the expression of megakaryocyte-specific genes in the various rescued cells correlated with the observed phenotypic differences. These studies show that GATA-1 is required for both normal regulation of proliferation and terminal maturation of megakaryocytes, and further, that these functions can be uncoupled by mutations in GATA1. PMID:15860665

  18. Accentuated response to phenylhydrazine and erythropoietin in mice genetically impaired for their GATA-1 expression (GATA-1(low) mice).

    PubMed

    Vannucchi, A M; Bianchi, L; Cellai, C; Paoletti, F; Carrai, V; Calzolari, A; Centurione, L; Lorenzini, R; Carta, C; Alfani, E; Sanchez, M; Migliaccio, G; Migliaccio, A R

    2001-05-15

    The response of mice genetically unable to up-regulate GATA-1 expression (GATA-1(low) mice) to acute (phenylhydrazine [PHZ]-induced anemia) and chronic (in vivo treatment for 5 days with 10 U erythropoietin [EPO] per mouse) erythroid stimuli was investigated. Adult GATA-1(low) mice are profoundly thrombocytopenic (platelet counts [x 10(9)/L] 82.0 +/- 28.0 vs 840 +/- 170.0 of their control littermates, P <.001) but have a normal hematocrit (Hct) (approximately.47 proportion of 1.0 [47%]). The spleens of these mutants are 2.5-fold larger than normal and contain 5-fold more megakaryocytic (4A5(+)), erythroid (TER-119(+)), and bipotent (erythroid/megakaryocytic, TER-119(+)/4A5(+)) precursor cells. Both the marrow and the spleen of these animals contain higher frequencies of burst-forming units-erythroid (BFU-E)- and colony-forming units-erythroid (CFU-E)-derived colonies (2-fold and 6-fold, respectively) than their normal littermates. The GATA-1(low) mice recover 2 days faster from the PHZ-induced anemia than their normal littermates (P <.01). In response to EPO, the Hct of the GATA-1(low) mice raised to.68 proportion of 1.0 (68%) vs the.55 proportion of 1.0 (55%) reached by the controls (P <.01). Both the GATA-1(low) and the normal mice respond to PHZ and EPO with similar (2- to 3-fold) increases in size and cellularity of the spleen (increases are limited mostly to cells, both progenitor and precursor, of the erythroid lineage). However, in spite of the similar relative cellular increases, the increases of all these cell populations are significantly higher, in absolute cell numbers, in the mutant than in the wild-type mice. In conclusion, the GATA-1(low) mutation increases the magnitude of the response to erythroid stimuli as a consequence of the expansion of the erythroid progenitor cells in their spleen. PMID:11342429

  19. GATA2 deficiency-associated bone marrow disorder differs from idiopathic aplastic anemia

    PubMed Central

    Ganapathi, Karthik A.; Townsley, Danielle M.; Hsu, Amy P.; Arthur, Diane C.; Zerbe, Christa S.; Cuellar-Rodriguez, Jennifer; Hickstein, Dennis D.; Rosenzweig, Sergio D.; Braylan, Raul C.; Young, Neal S.; Holland, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Germ-line GATA2 gene mutations, leading to haploinsufficiency, have been identified in patients with familial myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia, monocytopenia and mycobacterial infections, Emberger syndrome, and dendritic cell, monocyte, B-, and NK-cell deficiency. GATA2 mutations have also been reported in a minority of patients with congenital neutropenia and aplastic anemia (AA). The bone marrow (BM) from patients with GATA2 deficiency is typically hypocellular, with varying degrees of dysplasia. Distinguishing GATA2 patients from those with AA is critical for selecting appropriate therapy. We compared the BM flow cytometric, morphologic, and cytogenetic features of 28 GATA2 patients with those of 32 patients being evaluated for idiopathic AA. The marrow of GATA2 patients had severely reduced monocytes, B cells, and NK cells; absent hematogones; and inverted CD4:CD8 ratios. Atypical megakaryocytes and abnormal cytogenetics were more common in GATA2 marrows. CD34+ cells were comparably reduced in GATA2 and AA. Using these criteria, we prospectively identified 4 of 32 patients with suspected AA who had features suspicious for GATA2 mutations, later confirmed by DNA sequencing. Our results show that routine BM flow cytometry, morphology, and cytogenetics in patients who present with cytopenia(s) can identify patients for whom GATA2 sequencing is indicated. PMID:25359990

  20. GATA2 and Lmo2 control angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis via direct transcriptional regulation of neuropilin-2.

    PubMed

    Coma, Silvia; Allard-Ratick, Marc; Akino, Tomoshige; van Meeteren, Laurens A; Mammoto, Akiko; Klagsbrun, Michael

    2013-10-01

    GATA-binding protein 2 (GATA2) and LIM domain only 2 (Lmo2) form common transcription complexes during hematopoietic differentiation. Here we show that these two transcription factors also play a key role in endothelial cells (EC) and lymphatic EC (LEC) function. Primary EC and tumor-associated blood vessels expressed GATA2 and Lmo2. VEGF-induced sprouting angiogenesis in both differentiating embryonic stem cells (embryoid bodies) and primary EC increased GATA2 and Lmo2 levels. Conversely, silencing of GATA2 and Lmo2 expression in primary EC inhibited VEGF-induced angiogenic activity, including EC migration and sprouting in vitro, two key steps of angiogenesis in vivo. This inhibition of EC function was associated with downregulated expression of neuropilin-2 (NRP2), a co-receptor of VEGFRs for VEGF, at the protein, mRNA and promoter levels. NRP2 overexpression partially rescued the impaired angiogenic sprouting in the GATA2/Lmo2 knockdown EC, confirming that GATA2 and Lmo2 mediated EC function, at least in part, by directly regulating NRP2 gene expression. Furthermore, it was found that primary LEC expressed GATA2 and Lmo2 as well. Silencing of GATA2 and Lmo2 expression in LEC inhibited VEGF-induced LEC sprouting, also in a NRP2-dependent manner. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that GATA2 and Lmo2 cooperatively regulate VEGF-induced angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis via NRP2. PMID:23892628

  1. Direct analysis of native and chimeric GATA specific DNA binding proteins from Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed Central

    Peters, D G; Caddick, M X

    1994-01-01

    In Aspergillus nidulans the regulatory gene areA is responsible for mediating nitrogen metabolite repression. The areA product (AREA) represents an example of the GATA family of DNA binding proteins, which are characterised by the presence of a GATA domain consisting of a zinc finger within a highly conserved region of 52 amino acids. Among the other transcription factors included in this family is the principal erythroid transcription factor, GATA-1, which contains two GATA domains. In order to demonstrate high specificity binding of native AREA to DNA containing the sequence -GATA-, and investigate the presence in A.nidulans of other proteins with related specificities, we have used gel mobility shift assays. Both AREA-dependent and independent complexes have been identified. Two strains bearing chimeric genes were also characterised. In these, the region encoding the native GATA domain of AREA was replaced by sequences from murine GATA-1 cDNA encoding either the equivalent C-terminal domain or both the N and C-terminal domains. Strains bearing the areA::NC-GATA construct, which includes the sequence encoding both the N and C-terminal domains of GATA-1, leads to a pronounced increase in one of two AREA-dependent complexes and implicates the N-terminal domain of GATA-1 in mediating protein-protein interactions. Images PMID:7816601

  2. Cyclin D2 rescues size and function of GATA4 haplo-insufficient hearts

    PubMed Central

    Yamak, Abir; Temsah, Rana; Maharsy, Wael; Caron, Sophie; Paradis, Pierre; Aries, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Transcription factor GATA4 is a key regulator of cardiomyocyte growth, and differentiation and 50% reduction in GATA4 levels results in hypoplastic hearts. Search for GATA4 targets/effectors revealed cyclin D2 (CD2), a member of the D-type cyclins (D1, D2, and D3) that play a vital role in cell growth and differentiation as a direct transcriptional target and a mediator of GATA4 growth in postnatal cardiomyocytes. GATA4 associates with the CD2 promoter in cardiomyocytes and is sufficient to induce endogenous CD2 transcription and to dose-dependently activate the CD2 promoter in heterologous cells. Cardiomyocyte-specific overexpression of CD2 results in enhanced postnatal cardiac growth because of increased cardiomyocyte proliferation. When these transgenic mice are crossed with Gata4 heterozygote mice, they rescue the hypoplastic cardiac phenotype of Gata4+/− mice and enhance cardiomyocyte survival and heart function. The data uncover a role for CD2 in the postnatal heart as an effector of GATA4 in myocyte growth and survival. The finding that postnatal upregulation of a cell-cycle gene in GATA4 haplo-insufficient hearts may be protective opens new avenues for maintaining or restoring cardiac function in GATA4-dependent cardiac disease. PMID:22923619

  3. Repercussion of Megakaryocyte-Specific Gata1 Loss on Megakaryopoiesis and the Hematopoietic Precursor Compartment

    PubMed Central

    Meinders, Marjolein; Hoogenboezem, Mark; Scheenstra, Maaike R.; De Cuyper, Iris M.; Papadopoulos, Petros; Németh, Tamás; Mócsai, Attila; van den Berg, Timo K.; Kuijpers, Taco W.

    2016-01-01

    During hematopoiesis, transcriptional programs are essential for the commitment and differentiation of progenitors into the different blood lineages. GATA1 is a transcription factor expressed in several hematopoietic lineages and essential for proper erythropoiesis and megakaryopoiesis. Megakaryocyte-specific genes, such as GP1BA, are known to be directly regulated by GATA1. Mutations in GATA1 can lead to dyserythropoietic anemia and pseudo gray-platelet syndrome. Selective loss of Gata1 expression in adult mice results in macrothrombocytopenia with platelet dysfunction, characterized by an excess of immature megakaryocytes. To specifically analyze the impact of Gata1 loss in mature committed megakaryocytes, we generated Gata1-Lox|Pf4-Cre mice (Gata1cKOMK). Consistent with previous findings, Gata1cKOMK mice are macrothrombocytopenic with platelet dysfunction. Supporting this notion we demonstrate that Gata1 regulates directly the transcription of Syk, a tyrosine kinase that functions downstream of Clec2 and GPVI receptors in megakaryocytes and platelets. Furthermore, we show that Gata1cKOMK mice display an additional aberrant megakaryocyte differentiation stage. Interestingly, these mice present a misbalance of the multipotent progenitor compartment and the erythroid lineage, which translates into compensatory stress erythropoiesis and splenomegaly. Despite the severe thrombocytopenia, Gata1cKOMK mice display a mild reduction of TPO plasma levels, and Gata1cKOMK megakaryocytes show a mild increase in Pf4 mRNA levels; such a misbalance might be behind the general hematopoietic defects observed, affecting locally normal TPO and Pf4 levels at hematopoietic stem cell niches. PMID:27152938

  4. Repercussion of Megakaryocyte-Specific Gata1 Loss on Megakaryopoiesis and the Hematopoietic Precursor Compartment.

    PubMed

    Meinders, Marjolein; Hoogenboezem, Mark; Scheenstra, Maaike R; De Cuyper, Iris M; Papadopoulos, Petros; Németh, Tamás; Mócsai, Attila; van den Berg, Timo K; Kuijpers, Taco W; Gutiérrez, Laura

    2016-01-01

    During hematopoiesis, transcriptional programs are essential for the commitment and differentiation of progenitors into the different blood lineages. GATA1 is a transcription factor expressed in several hematopoietic lineages and essential for proper erythropoiesis and megakaryopoiesis. Megakaryocyte-specific genes, such as GP1BA, are known to be directly regulated by GATA1. Mutations in GATA1 can lead to dyserythropoietic anemia and pseudo gray-platelet syndrome. Selective loss of Gata1 expression in adult mice results in macrothrombocytopenia with platelet dysfunction, characterized by an excess of immature megakaryocytes. To specifically analyze the impact of Gata1 loss in mature committed megakaryocytes, we generated Gata1-Lox|Pf4-Cre mice (Gata1cKOMK). Consistent with previous findings, Gata1cKOMK mice are macrothrombocytopenic with platelet dysfunction. Supporting this notion we demonstrate that Gata1 regulates directly the transcription of Syk, a tyrosine kinase that functions downstream of Clec2 and GPVI receptors in megakaryocytes and platelets. Furthermore, we show that Gata1cKOMK mice display an additional aberrant megakaryocyte differentiation stage. Interestingly, these mice present a misbalance of the multipotent progenitor compartment and the erythroid lineage, which translates into compensatory stress erythropoiesis and splenomegaly. Despite the severe thrombocytopenia, Gata1cKOMK mice display a mild reduction of TPO plasma levels, and Gata1cKOMK megakaryocytes show a mild increase in Pf4 mRNA levels; such a misbalance might be behind the general hematopoietic defects observed, affecting locally normal TPO and Pf4 levels at hematopoietic stem cell niches. PMID:27152938

  5. GATA3 immunohistochemistry expression in histologic subtypes of primary breast carcinoma and metastatic breast carcinoma cytology.

    PubMed

    Deftereos, Georgios; Sanguino Ramirez, Angela M; Silverman, Jan F; Krishnamurti, Uma

    2015-09-01

    GATA3 plays a role in cell proliferation and differentiation in many tissues, including breast, and it has been suggested that GATA3 expression correlates with ER expression. However, little is known on GATA3 expression in various subtypes of breast carcinoma, its utilization in cytology, and on how GATA3 performs in comparison with GCDFP-15 and mammaglobin. Eighty-four histology cases of breast carcinoma of various subtypes, including 28 triple-negative breast carcinomas, along with 20 cytology cases of metastatic breast carcinoma and 12 cytology cases of ER-positive metastatic gynecologic malignancies, were stained for GATA3, GCDFP-15, and mammaglobin. In non-triple-negative breast carcinomas (n=56), GATA3 showed 100% sensitivity, higher than GCDFP-15 (42.8%; P<0.0001) and mammaglobin (58.9%; P<0.0001), whereas staining patterns were similar for all the histologic subtypes examined. Staining scores were determined by multiplying the percentage of cancer cells staining with an intensity score of 1+, 2+, or 3+ (range, 0 to 300). In non-triple-negative carcinomas, GATA3 showed a mean score of 273.7, higher than GCDFP-15 (107.5; P<0.0001) and mammaglobin (147.7; P<0.0001). In triple-negative breast carcinomas (n=28), GATA3 showed a sensitivity of 60.7%, greater than GCDFP-15 (17.9%; P=0.0022) and mammaglobin (7.1%; P<0.0001). These results were consistent irrespective of the subtype examined. In breast carcinoma cytology cases, 100% stained with GATA3, higher than GCDFP-15 (20%; P<0.0001) and mammaglobin (45%; P<0.0001). None of the metastatic endometrial or ovarian carcinomas were positive for GATA3. Although GATA3 expression correlates with ER expression in breast, no correlation is observed in gynecologic malignancies. Thus, in working up ER-positive metastatic malignancies GATA3 demonstrates specificity for breast. PMID:26274030

  6. The STAT5-GATA2 Pathway Is Critical in Basophil and Mast Cell Differentiation and Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yapeng; Qi, Xiaopeng; Liu, Bing; Huang, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factor GATA2 plays critical roles in hematopoietic stem cell survival and proliferation, GMP differentiation, and basophil and mast cell differentiation. However, precise roles of GATA2 in basophil and mast cell differentiation and maintenance have not been delineated. We have identified GATA2 as an essential transcription factor in differentiation of newly identified common basophil and mast cell progenitors into basophils and mast cells. We observed Gata2 haploinsufficiency for mast cell differentiation but not for basophil differentiation. We examined the precise role of GATA2 in maintaining the expression of a wide range of genes that are important for performing basophil or mast cell functions. The effects of GATA2 on gene expression were broadly based. We demonstrated that GATA2 was required for maintaining Fcer1a mRNA and FcεRIα protein expression on both basophils and mast cells as well as for maintaining Kit mRNA and c-Kit protein expression on mast cells. GATA2 was required for histamine synthesis and was also critical for Il4 mRNA expression in basophils and Il13 mRNA expression in mast cells. We demonstrate a STAT5-GATA2 connection, showing that the STAT5 transcription factor directly bound to the promoter and an intronic region of the Gata2 gene. Overexpression of the Gata2 gene was sufficient to direct basophil and mast cell differentiation in the absence of the Stat5 gene. Our study reveals that the STAT5-GATA2 pathway is critical for basophil and mast cell differentiation and maintenance. PMID:25801432

  7. Insights into GATA-1 Mediated Gene Activation versus Repression via Genome-wide Chromatin Occupancy Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ming; Riva, Laura; Xie, Huafeng; Schindler, Yocheved; Moran, Tyler B.; Cheng, Yong; Yu, Duonan; Hardison, Ross; Weiss, Mitchell J; Orkin, Stuart H.; Bernstein, Bradley E.; Fraenkel, Ernest; Cantor, Alan B.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The transcription factor GATA-1 is required for terminal erythroid maturation and functions as an activator or repressor depending on gene context. Yet its in vivo site selectivity and ability to distinguish between activated versus repressed genes remain incompletely understood. In this study, we performed GATA-1 ChIP-seq in erythroid cells and compared it to GATA-1 induced gene expression changes. Bound and differentially expressed genes contain a greater number of GATA binding motifs, a higher frequency of palindromic GATA sites, and closer occupancy to the transcriptional start site versus non-differentially expressed genes. Moreover, we show that the transcription factor Zbtb7a occupies GATA-1 bound regions of some direct GATA-1 target genes, that the presence of SCL/TAL1 helps distinguish transcriptional activation versus repression, and that Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) is involved in epigenetic silencing of a subset of GATA-1 repressed genes. These data provide insights into GATA-1 mediated gene regulation in vivo. PMID:19941827

  8. GATA-factor dependence of the multitype zinc-finger protein FOG-1 for its essential role in megakaryopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Aaron N.; Cantor, Alan B.; Fujiwara, Yuko; Lodish, Maya B.; Droho, Steven; Crispino, John D.; Orkin, Stuart H.

    2002-01-01

    The function of GATA transcription factors in diverse developmental contexts depends in part on physical interaction with cofactors of the Friend of GATA (FOG) family. However, previous studies indicate that FOG-1 may play a GATA-1-independent role in early megakaryopoiesis, suggesting that FOG proteins might act in a GATA factor-independent manner. Here, we have generated mouse knock-in (KI) mutants harboring a critical valine-to-glycine substitution in the amino-terminal zinc fingers of GATA-1 and GATA-2 to ablate FOG interaction. In contrast to male GATA-1KI (GATA-1 is located on the X-chromosome) or GATA-2KI/KI mice, compound GATA-1KI GATA-2KI/KI mutant mice display complete megakaryopoietic failure, a phenocopy of FOG-1−/− mice. We conclude that FOG-1 requires an interaction with either GATA-1 or -2 as part of its essential role in early megakaryopoiesis. On the basis of these and previous reports, we infer that GATA factor dependence is a critical aspect of FOG protein function. PMID:12077323

  9. Loss of GATA-6 and GATA-4 in Granulosa Cells Blocks Folliculogenesis, Ovulation, and Follicle Stimulating Hormone Receptor Expression Leading to Female Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Jill; Wu, Yan-Guang; Gossen, Jan; Zhou, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Single GATA-6 (G6gcko), GATA-4 (G4gcko), and double GATA-4/6 (G4/6gcko) granulosa cell-specific knockout mice were generated to further investigate the role of GATA transcription factors in ovarian function in vivo. No reproductive defects were found in G6gcko animals. G4gcko animals were subfertile as indicated by the reduced number of pups per litter and the release of significantly fewer oocytes at ovulation. In marked contrast, G4/6gcko females fail to ovulate and are infertile. Furthermore, G4/6gcko females had irregular estrous cycles, which correlate with the abnormal ovarian histology found in unstimulated adult G4/6gcko females showing lack of follicular development and increased follicular atresia. Moreover, treatment with exogenous gonadotropins did not rescue folliculogenesis or ovulation in double-knockout G4/6gcko mice. In addition, ovary weight and estradiol levels were significantly reduced in G4gcko and G4/6gcko animals when compared with control and G6gcko mice. Aromatase, P450scc, and LH receptor expression was significantly lower in G4gcko and G4/6gcko mice when compared with control animals. Most prominently, FSH receptor (FSHR) protein was undetectable in granulosa cells of G4gcko and G4/6gcko. Accordingly, gel shift and reporter assays revealed that GATA-4 binds and stimulates the activity of the FSHR promoter. These results demonstrate that GATA-4 and GATA-6 are needed for normal ovarian function. Our data are consistent with a role for GATA-4 in the regulation of the FSHR gene and provide a possible molecular mechanism to explain the fertility defects observed in animals with deficient GATA expression in the ovary. PMID:22434075

  10. A Unique Role of GATA1s in Down Syndrome Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia Biology and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dombkowski, Alan A.; Balci, Tugce B.; Berman, Jason N.; Dellaire, Graham; Xie, Chengzhi; Buck, Steven A.; Matherly, Larry H.; Ge, Yubin; Taub, Jeffrey W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Acute megakaryocytic leukemia (AMkL) in Down syndrome (DS) children is uniformly associated with somatic GATA1 mutations, which result in the synthesis of a shorter protein (GATA1s) with altered transactivation activity compared to the wild-type GATA1. It is not fully established whether leukemogenesis and therapeutic responses in DS AMkL patients are due to loss of the wild-type GATA1 or due to a unique function of GATA1s. Methodology Stable clones of CMK cells with decreased GATA1s or Bcl-2 levels were generated by using GATA1- or BCL-2-specific lentivirus shRNAs. In vitro ara-C, daunorubicin, and VP-16 cytotoxicities of the shRNA stable clones were determined by using the Cell Titer-blue reagent. Apoptosis and cell cycle distribution were determined by flow cytometry analysis. Changes in gene transcript levels were determined by gene expression microarray and/or real-time RT-PCR. Changes in protein levels were measured by Western blotting. In vivo binding of GATA1s to IL1A promoter was determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Results Lentivirus shRNA knockdown of the GATA1 gene in the DS AMkL cell line, CMK (harbors a mutated GATA1 gene and only expresses GATA1s), resulting in lower GATA1s protein levels, promoted cell differentiation towards the megakaryocytic lineage and repressed cell proliferation. Increased basal apoptosis and sensitivities to ara-C, daunorubicin, and VP-16 accompanied by down-regulated Bcl-2 were also detected in the CMK GATA1 shRNA knockdown clones. Essentially the same results were obtained when Bcl-2 was knocked down with lentivirus shRNA in CMK cells. Besides Bcl-2, down-regulation of GATA1s also resulted in altered expression of genes (e.g., IL1A, PF4, and TUBB1) related to cell death, proliferation, and differentiation. Conclusion Our results suggest that GATA1s may facilitate leukemogenesis and potentially impact therapeutic responses in DS AMkL by promoting proliferation and survival, and by repressing

  11. GATA2 facilitates steroid receptor coactivator recruitment to the androgen receptor complex

    PubMed Central

    He, Bin; Lanz, Rainer B.; Fiskus, Warren; Geng, Chuandong; Yi, Ping; Hartig, Sean M.; Rajapakshe, Kimal; Shou, John; Wei, Liping; Shah, Shrijal S.; Foley, Christopher; Chew, Sue Anne; Eedunuri, Vijay K.; Bedoya, Diego J.; Feng, Qin; Minami, Takashi; Mitsiades, Constantine S.; Frolov, Anna; Weigel, Nancy L.; Hilsenbeck, Susan G.; Rosen, Daniel G.; Palzkill, Timothy; Ittmann, Michael M.; Song, Yongcheng; Coarfa, Cristian; O’Malley, Bert W.; Mitsiades, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) is a key driver of prostate cancer (PC), even in the state of castration-resistant PC (CRPC) and frequently even after treatment with second-line hormonal therapies such as abiraterone and enzalutamide. The persistence of AR activity via both ligand-dependent and ligand-independent mechanisms (including constitutively active AR splice variants) highlights the unmet need for alternative approaches to block AR signaling in CRPC. We investigated the transcription factor GATA-binding protein 2 (GATA2) as a regulator of AR signaling and an actionable therapeutic target in PC. We demonstrate that GATA2 directly promotes expression of both full-length and splice-variant AR, resulting in a strong positive correlation between GATA2 and AR expression in both PC cell lines and patient specimens. Conversely, GATA2 expression is repressed by androgen and AR, suggesting a negative feedback regulatory loop that, upon androgen deprivation, derepresses GATA2 to contribute to AR overexpression in CRPC. Simultaneously, GATA2 is necessary for optimal transcriptional activity of both full-length and splice-variant AR. GATA2 colocalizes with AR and Forkhead box protein A1 on chromatin to enhance recruitment of steroid receptor coactivators and formation of the transcriptional holocomplex. In agreement with these important functions, high GATA2 expression and transcriptional activity predicted worse clinical outcome in PC patients. A GATA2 small molecule inhibitor suppressed the expression and transcriptional function of both full-length and splice-variant AR and exerted potent anticancer activity against PC cell lines. We propose pharmacological inhibition of GATA2 as a first-in-field approach to target AR expression and function and improve outcomes in CRPC. PMID:25489091

  12. cAMP-dependent proteolysis of GATA-6 is linked to JNK-signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Ushijima, Hironori; Maeda, Masatomo

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A JNK inhibitor SP600125 inhibited cAMP-dependent proteolysis of GATA-6. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of a JNK activator anisomycin on the proteolysis was examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anisomycin stimulated the export of nuclear GATA-6 into the cytoplasm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer JNK activated the CRM1 mediated nuclear export of GATA-6. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer JNK further stimulated slowly the degradation of GATA-6 by cytoplasmic proteasomes. -- Abstract: A JNK inhibitor SP600125 inhibited cAMP-dependent proteolysis of GATA-6 by proteasomes around its IC50. We further examined the effects of SP600125 on the degradation of GATA-6 in detail, since an activator of JNK (anisomycin) is available. Interestingly, anisomycin immediately stimulated the export of nuclear GATA-6 into the cytoplasm, and then the cytoplasmic content of GATA-6 decreased slowly through degradation by proteasomes. Such an effect of anisomycin was inhibited by SP600125, indicating that the observed phenomenon might be linked to the JNK signaling pathway. The inhibitory effect of SP600125 could not be ascribed to the inhibition of PKA, since phosphorylation of CREB occurred in the presence of dbcAMP and SP600125. The nuclear export of GATA-6 was inhibited by leptomycin B, suggesting that CRM1-mediated export could be activated by anisomycin. Furthermore, it seems likely that the JNK activated by anisomycin may stimulate not only the nuclear export of GATA-6 through CRM1 but also the degradation of GATA-6 by cytoplasmic proteasomes. In contrast, A-kinase might activate only the latter process through JNK.

  13. Lack of Gata3 results in conotruncal heart anomalies in mouse.

    PubMed

    Raid, Raivo; Krinka, Dagni; Bakhoff, Lairi; Abdelwahid, Eltyeb; Jokinen, Eero; Kärner, Martin; Malva, Merly; Meier, Riho; Pelliniemi, Lauri J; Ploom, Merlin; Sizarov, Aleksander; Pooga, Margus; Karis, Alar

    2009-01-01

    The transcription factor Gata3 is an important regulator of the development of thymus, the nervous system, ear, kidney, and adrenal glands. This study analyzes the role of Gata3 in the developing heart using a mouse strain containing an nlsLacZ reporter gene fused in frame to the Gata3 gene by homologous recombination. Using in situ hybridization, RT-PCR and Gata3-LacZ histochemistry, Gata3 expression was shown in various cardiac structures up to newborn stage. During looping stages (E9.5-E11.5) Gata3-LacZ activity recapitulated endogenous Gata3 and was abundantly expressed in the endocardial ridges and endothelium of distal outflow tract. Strong reporter gene expression was also noted in the mesenchyme of ventral branchial arches, and in the epithelium. In the atrioventricular canal expression was relatively lower. In the four-chambered heart stages (E13.5-E17.5) the LacZ-staining did not recapitulate the endogenous Gata3 transcript and showed rather lineage tracing of formerly Gata3-expressing cells in the hearts. beta-Galactosidase activity was detected in the cusps of semilunar valves, aorta, pulmonary trunk, innominate and common carotid arteries, and faintly in the atrioventricular valves. Gata3-null embryos die normally between E11 and E12. Pharmacological treatment with sympathomimetic beta-adrenergic receptor agonist lengthens the survival up to E18 when malformations of the heart such as ventricular septal defect (VSD), double-outlet of right ventricle (DORV), anomalies of the aortic arch (AAA) and persistent truncus arteriosus (PTA) were detected. The specified malformations correlate with the normal developmental pattern of Gata3-LacZ expression. The short outflow tract and insufficient rotation of truncus arteriosus during looping stages might be the main reasons underlying these malformations. PMID:18955134

  14. LLM-Domain Containing B-GATA Factors Control Different Aspects of Cytokinin-Regulated Development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Ranftl, Quirin L; Bastakis, Emmanouil; Klermund, Carina; Schwechheimer, Claus

    2016-04-01

    Leu-Leu-Met (LLM)-domain B-GATAs are a subfamily of the 30-membered GATA transcription factor family from Arabidopsis. Only two of the six Arabidopsis LLM-domain B-GATAs, i.e. GATA, NITRATE-INDUCIBLE, CARBON METABOLISM-INVOLVED (GNC) and its paralog GNC-LIKE/CYTOKININ-RESPONSIVE GATA FACTOR1 (GNL), have already been analyzed with regard to their biological function. Together, GNC and GNL control germination, greening, flowering time, and senescence downstream from auxin, cytokinin (CK), gibberellin (GA), and light signaling. Whereas overexpression and complementation analyses suggest a redundant biochemical function between GNC and GNL, nothing is known about the biological role of the four other LLM-domain B-GATAs, GATA15, GATA16, GATA17, and GATA17L (GATA17-LIKE), based on loss-of-function mutant phenotypes. Here, we examine insertion mutants of the six Arabidopsis B-GATA genes and reveal the role of these genes in the control of greening, hypocotyl elongation, phyllotaxy, floral organ initiation, accessory meristem formation, flowering time, and senescence. Several of these phenotypes had previously not been described for the gnc and gnl mutants or were enhanced in the more complex mutants when compared to gnc gnl mutants. Some of the respective responses may be mediated by CK signaling, which activates the expression of all six GATA genes. CK-induced gene expression is partially compromised in LLM-domain B-GATA mutants, suggesting that B-GATA genes play a role in CK responses. We furthermore provide evidence for a transcriptional cross regulation between these GATAs that may, in at least some cases, be at the basis of their apparent functional redundancy. PMID:26829982

  15. Negative association between GATA3 and fascin could predict relapse-free and overall survival in patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyueng-Whan; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Do, Sung-Im; Chae, Seoung Wan; Kim, Kyungeun; Sohn, Jin Hee; Pyo, Jung-Soo; Lee, Hyun Joo; Kim, Dong Hyun; Oh, Sukjoong; Choi, Seon Hyeong; Park, Yong Lai; Park, Chan Heun; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kwon, Mi Jung; Seo, Jinwon; Moon, Kyoung Min

    2016-04-01

    GATA3 and fascin proteins are known prognostic markers in several cancers. GATA3 is a key regulator of mammary gland morphogenesis and luminal cell differentiation, whereas fascin is a pro-metastatic actin-bundling protein. In this study, we analyzed and compared the predictive abilities of GATA3 and fascin for clinical outcomes of patients with breast cancer. The combined expression pattern based on GATA3-/+ and fascin-/+ was evaluated by immunostaining using a tissue microarray, and relationships between protein expression and several clinicopathological parameters were analyzed. GATA3 expression was associated with good prognostic parameters, but fascin was correlated with poor prognostic parameters. On comparing GATA3 and fascin, we found an inverse relationship between fascin and GATA3 expressions. On analysis of combined markers, GATA3+/fascin- was correlated with improved clinical outcomes compared to GATA3-/fascin+. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed significant differences in relapse-free and overall survival between GATA3+/fascin- and GATA3-/fascin+. Combined marker analysis of GATA3/fascin showed an inverse association and improved prognostic information for patients with breast cancer. PMID:26719157

  16. Functionally distinct Gata3/Chd4 complexes coordinately establish T helper 2 (Th2) cell identity

    PubMed Central

    Hosokawa, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Tomoaki; Suzuki, Yutaka; Iwamura, Chiaki; Ohkubo, Shuichi; Endoh, Kanji; Kato, Miki; Endo, Yusuke; Onodera, Atsushi; Tumes, Damon John; Kanai, Akinori; Sugano, Sumio; Nakayama, Toshinori

    2013-01-01

    GATA binding protein 3 (Gata3) is a GATA family transcription factor that controls differentiation of naïve CD4 T cells into T helper 2 (Th2) cells. However, it is unknown how Gata3 simultaneously activates Th2-specific genes while repressing those of other Th lineages. Here we show that chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 4 (Chd4) forms a complex with Gata3 in Th2 cells that both activates Th2 cytokine transcription and represses the Th1 cytokine IFN-γ. We define a Gata3/Chd4/p300 transcriptional activation complex at the Th2 cytokine loci and a Gata3/Chd4–nucleosome remodeling histone deacetylase repression complex at the Tbx21 locus in Th2 cells. We also demonstrate a physiological role for Chd4 in Th2-dependent inflammation in an in vivo model of asthmatic inflammation. Thus, Gata3/Chd4 forms functionally distinct complexes, which mediate both positive and negative gene regulation to facilitate Th2 cell differentiation. PMID:23471993

  17. GATA-3 and FOXA1 expression is useful to differentiate breast carcinoma from other carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Davis, Drew G; Siddiqui, Momin T; Oprea-Ilies, Gabriela; Stevens, Keith; Osunkoya, Adeboye O; Cohen, Cynthia; Li, Xiaoxian Bill

    2016-01-01

    GATA-3, a member of the GATA family of zinc-finger DNA binding proteins, and FOXA1, a member of the forkhead transcription factor family, are both associated with estrogen receptor expression. Both GATA-3 and FOXA1 are useful markers for breast carcinoma, but their expression in the different breast cancer subtypes and other neoplasms has not been thoroughly evaluated. We examined the expression of GATA-3 and FOXA1 in estrogen receptor-positive, Her2/neu-positive, and triple-negative breast carcinomas as well as in 10 other common carcinomas, including hepatocellular, colonic, pancreatic, gastric, endometrial (endometrioid), lung, prostatic, renal cell, urothelial, and ovarian serous carcinomas. Primary and metastatic melanomas and mesotheliomas were also evaluated. GATA-3 and FOXA1 staining of estrogen receptor-positive breast carcinomas was seen in 96.6% and 96.2%, respectively. In triple-negative breast carcinomas, GATA-3 and FOXA1 staining was seen in 21.6% and 15.9%, respectively. Among the other tumors, GATA-3 staining was only seen in urothelial carcinoma (70.9%) and FOXA1 staining was only seen in prostatic (87.5%), urothelial (5.1%) carcinomas, and mesotheliomas (40.0%). In conclusion, GATA-3 and FOXA1 are excellent breast carcinoma markers; however, their utility is limited in the triple-negative subtype. The utility of FOXA1 in diagnosing prostatic carcinoma and mesothelioma warrants further investigation. PMID:26527523

  18. Cardiac tissue enriched factors serum response factor and GATA-4 are mutual coregulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belaguli, N. S.; Sepulveda, J. L.; Nigam, V.; Charron, F.; Nemer, M.; Schwartz, R. J.

    2000-01-01

    Combinatorial interaction among cardiac tissue-restricted enriched transcription factors may facilitate the expression of cardiac tissue-restricted genes. Here we show that the MADS box factor serum response factor (SRF) cooperates with the zinc finger protein GATA-4 to synergistically activate numerous myogenic and nonmyogenic serum response element (SRE)-dependent promoters in CV1 fibroblasts. In the absence of GATA binding sites, synergistic activation depends on binding of SRF to the proximal CArG box sequence in the cardiac and skeletal alpha-actin promoter. GATA-4's C-terminal activation domain is obligatory for synergistic coactivation with SRF, and its N-terminal domain and first zinc finger are inhibitory. SRF and GATA-4 physically associate both in vivo and in vitro through their MADS box and the second zinc finger domains as determined by protein A pullout assays and by in vivo one-hybrid transfection assays using Gal4 fusion proteins. Other cardiovascular tissue-restricted GATA factors, such as GATA-5 and GATA-6, were equivalent to GATA-4 in coactivating SRE-dependent targets. Thus, interaction between the MADS box and C4 zinc finger proteins, a novel regulatory paradigm, mediates activation of SRF-dependent gene expression.

  19. Antagonism of FOG-1 and GATA factors in fate choice for the mast cell lineage

    PubMed Central

    Cantor, Alan B.; Iwasaki, Hiromi; Arinobu, Yojiro; Moran, Tyler B.; Shigematsu, Hirokazu; Sullivan, Matthew R.; Akashi, Koichi; Orkin, Stuart H.

    2008-01-01

    The zinc finger transcription factor GATA-1 requires direct physical interaction with the cofactor friend of GATA-1 (FOG-1) for its essential role in erythroid and megakaryocytic development. We show that in the mast cell lineage, GATA-1 functions completely independent of FOG proteins. Moreover, we demonstrate that FOG-1 antagonizes the fate choice of multipotential progenitor cells for the mast cell lineage, and that its down-regulation is a prerequisite for mast cell development. Remarkably, ectopic expression of FOG-1 in committed mast cell progenitors redirects them into the erythroid, megakaryocytic, and granulocytic lineages. These lineage switches correlate with transcriptional down-regulation of GATA-2, an essential mast cell GATA factor, via switching of GATA-1 for GATA-2 at a key enhancer element upstream of the GATA-2 gene. These findings illustrate combinatorial control of cell fate identity by a transcription factor and its cofactor, and highlight the role of transcriptional networks in lineage determination. They also provide evidence for lineage instability during early stages of hematopoietic lineage commitment. PMID:18299398

  20. GATAe regulates intestinal stem cell maintenance and differentiation in Drosophila adult midgut.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Takashi; Takeda, Koji; Kuchiki, Megumi; Akaishi, Marie; Taniguchi, Kiichiro; Adachi-Yamada, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    Adult intestinal tissues, exposed to the external environment, play important roles including barrier and nutrient-absorption functions. These functions are ensured by adequately controlled rapid-cell metabolism. GATA transcription factors play essential roles in the development and maintenance of adult intestinal tissues both in vertebrates and invertebrates. We investigated the roles of GATAe, the Drosophila intestinal GATA factor, in adult midgut homeostasis with its first-generated knock-out mutant as well as cell type-specific RNAi and overexpression experiments. Our results indicate that GATAe is essential for proliferation and maintenance of intestinal stem cells (ISCs). Also, GATAe is involved in the differentiation of enterocyte (EC) and enteroendocrine (ee) cells in both Notch (N)-dependent and -independent manner. The results also indicate that GATAe has pivotal roles in maintaining normal epithelial homeostasis of the Drosophila adult midgut through interaction of N signaling. Since recent reports showed that mammalian GATA-6 regulates normal and cancer stem cells in the adult intestinal tract, our data also provide information on the evolutionally conserved roles of GATA factors in stem-cell regulation. PMID:26719127

  1. The Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cell Cistrome: GATA Factor-Dependent cis-Regulatory Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, K J; Johnson, K D; Gao, X; Keles, S; Bresnick, E H

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional regulators mediate the genesis and function of the hematopoietic system by binding complex ensembles of cis-regulatory elements to establish genetic networks. While thousands to millions of any given cis-element resides in a genome, how transcriptional regulators select these sites and how site attributes dictate functional output is not well understood. An instructive system to address this problem involves the GATA family of transcription factors that control vital developmental and physiological processes and are linked to multiple human pathologies. Although GATA factors bind DNA motifs harboring the sequence GATA, only a very small subset of these abundant motifs are occupied in genomes. Mechanistic studies revealed a unique configuration of a GATA factor-regulated cis-element consisting of an E-box and a downstream GATA motif separated by a short DNA spacer. GATA-1- or GATA-2-containing multiprotein complexes at these composite elements control transcription of genes critical for hematopoietic stem cell emergence in the mammalian embryo, hematopoietic progenitor cell regulation, and erythroid cell maturation. Other constituents of the complex include the basic helix-loop-loop transcription factor Scl/TAL1, its heterodimeric partner E2A, and the Lim domain proteins LMO2 and LDB1. This chapter reviews the structure/function of E-box-GATA composite cis-elements, which collectively constitute an important sector of the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell cistrome. PMID:27137654

  2. MAPK-mediated phosphorylation of GATA-1 promotes Bcl-XL expression and cell survival.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yung-Luen; Chiang, Yun-Jung; Chen, Yu-Chun; Papetti, Michael; Juo, Chiun-Gung; Skoultchi, Arthur I; Yen, Jeffrey J Y

    2005-08-19

    In the interleukin 3-dependent hematopoietic cell line Ba/F3, inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase, a member of the MAPK/c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase kinase family that plays an important role in cell growth and death control, rapidly leads to severe apoptosis. However, most of the antiapoptotic substrates of MAPK remain to be identified. Here we report that, upon interleukin-3 stimulation of Ba/F3 cells, the transcription factor GATA-1 is strongly phosphorylated at residue serine 26 by a MAPK-dependent pathway. Phosphorylation of GATA-1 increases GATA-1-mediated transcription of the E4bp4 survival gene without significantly changing the DNA-binding affinity of GATA-1. Further characterization of GATA-1 phosphorylation site mutants revealed that the antiapoptotic function of GATA-1 is strongly dependent upon its phosphorylation at the Ser-26 position and is probably mediated through its up-regulation of Bcl-X(L) expression. Taken together, our data demonstrate that MAPK-dependent GATA-1 phosphorylation is important for its transactivation of the E4bp4 gene, Bcl-X(L) expression and cell survival. Therefore, GATA-1 may represent a novel MAPK substrate that plays an essential role in a cytokine-mediated antiapoptotic response. PMID:15967790

  3. Combined Loss of the GATA4 and GATA6 Transcription Factors in Male Mice Disrupts Testicular Development and Confers Adrenal-Like Function in the Testes

    PubMed Central

    Padua, Maria B.; Jiang, Tianyu; Morse, Deborah A.; Fox, Shawna C.; Hatch, Heather M.

    2015-01-01

    The roles of the GATA4 and GATA6 transcription factors in testis development were examined by simultaneously ablating Gata4 and Gata6 with Sf1Cre (Nr5a1Cre). The deletion of both genes resulted in a striking testicular phenotype. Embryonic Sf1Cre; Gata4flox/flox Gata6flox/flox (conditional double mutant) testes were smaller than control organs and contained irregular testis cords and fewer gonocytes. Gene expression analysis revealed significant down-regulation of Dmrt1 and Mvh. Surprisingly, Amh expression was strongly up-regulated and remained high beyond postnatal day 7, when it is normally extinguished. Neither DMRT1 nor GATA1 was detected in the Sertoli cells of the mutant postnatal testes. Furthermore, the expression of the steroidogenic genes Star, Cyp11a1, Hsd3b1, and Hsd17b3 was low throughout embryogenesis. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a prominent reduction in cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A1)- and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-positive (3βHSD) cells, with few 17α-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase-positive (CYP17A1) cells present. In contrast, in postnatal Sf1Cre; Gata4flox/flox Gata6flox/flox testes, the expression of the steroidogenic markers Star, Cyp11a1, and Hsd3b6 was increased, but a dramatic down-regulation of Hsd17b3, which is required for testosterone synthesis, was observed. The genes encoding adrenal enzymes Cyp21a1, Cyp11b1, Cyp11b2, and Mcr2 were strongly up-regulated, and clusters containing numerous CYP21A2-positive cells were localized in the interstitium. These data suggest a lack of testis functionality, with a loss of normal steroidogenic testis function, concomitant with an expansion of the adrenal-like cell population in postnatal conditional double mutant testes. Sf1Cre; Gata4flox/flox Gata6flox/flox animals of both sexes lack adrenal glands; however, despite this deficiency, males are viable in contrast to the females of the same genotype, which die shortly after birth. PMID:25668066

  4. Loss of GATA-1 full length as a cause of Diamond-Blackfan anemia phenotype.

    PubMed

    Parrella, Sara; Aspesi, Anna; Quarello, Paola; Garelli, Emanuela; Pavesi, Elisa; Carando, Adriana; Nardi, Margherita; Ellis, Steven R; Ramenghi, Ugo; Dianzani, Irma

    2014-07-01

    Mutations in the hematopoietic transcription factor GATA-1 alter the proliferation/differentiation of hemopoietic progenitors. Mutations in exon 2 interfere with the synthesis of the full-length isoform of GATA-1 and lead to the production of a shortened isoform, GATA-1s. These mutations have been found in patients with Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA), a congenital erythroid aplasia typically caused by mutations in genes encoding ribosomal proteins. We sequenced GATA-1 in 23 patients that were negative for mutations in the most frequently mutated DBA genes. One patient showed a c.2T > C mutation in the initiation codon leading to the loss of the full-length GATA-1 isoform. PMID:24453067

  5. GATA4 Is a Key Regulator of Steroidogenesis and Glycolysis in Mouse Leydig Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schrade, Anja; Kyrönlahti, Antti; Akinrinade, Oyediran; Pihlajoki, Marjut; Häkkinen, Merja; Fischer, Simon; Alastalo, Tero-Pekka; Velagapudi, Vidya; Toppari, Jorma; Wilson, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factor GATA4 is expressed in somatic cells of the mammalian testis. Gene targeting studies in mice have shown that GATA4 is essential for proper differentiation and function of Sertoli cells. The role of GATA4 in Leydig cell development, however, remains controversial, because targeted mutagenesis experiments in mice have not shown a consistent phenotype, possibly due to context-dependent effects or compensatory responses. We therefore undertook a reductionist approach to study the function of GATA4 in Leydig cells. Using microarray analysis and quantitative RT-PCR, we identified a set of genes that are down-regulated or up-regulated after small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing of Gata4 in the murine Leydig tumor cell line mLTC-1. These same genes were dysregulated when primary cultures of Gata4flox/flox adult Leydig cells were subjected to adenovirus-mediated cre-lox recombination in vitro. Among the down-regulated genes were enzymes of the androgen biosynthetic pathway (Cyp11a1, Hsd3b1, Cyp17a1, and Srd5a). Silencing of Gata4 expression in mLTC-1 cells was accompanied by reduced production of sex steroid precursors, as documented by mass spectrometric analysis. Comprehensive metabolomic analysis of GATA4-deficient mLTC-1 cells showed alteration of other metabolic pathways, notably glycolysis. GATA4-depleted mLTC-1 cells had reduced expression of glycolytic genes (Hk1, Gpi1, Pfkp, and Pgam1), lower intracellular levels of ATP, and increased extracellular levels of glucose. Our findings suggest that GATA4 plays a pivotal role in Leydig cell function and provide novel insights into metabolic regulation in this cell type. PMID:25668067

  6. The GATA Family of Transcription Factors in Arabidopsis and Rice1

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, José C.; Muro-Pastor, M. Isabel; Florencio, Francisco J.

    2004-01-01

    GATA transcription factors are a group of DNA binding proteins broadly distributed in eukaryotes. The GATA factors DNA binding domain is a class IV zinc finger motif in the form CX2CX17–20CX2C followed by a basic region. In plants, GATA DNA motifs have been implicated in light-dependent and nitrate-dependent control of transcription. Herein, we show that the Arabidopsis and the rice (Oryza sativa) genomes present 29 and 28 loci, respectively, that encode for putative GATA factors. A phylogenetic analysis of the 57 GATA factors encoding genes, as well as the study of their intron-exon structure, indicates the existence of seven subfamilies of GATA genes. Some of these subfamilies are represented in both species but others are exclusive for one of them. In addition to the GATA zinc finger motif, polypeptides of the different subfamilies are characterized by the presence of additional domains such as an acidic domain, a CCT (CONSTANS, CO-like, and TOC1) domain, or a transposase-like domain also found in FAR1 and FHY3. Subfamily VI comprises genes that encode putative bi-zinc finger polypeptides, also found in metazoan and fungi, and a tri-zinc finger protein which has not been previously reported in eukaryotes. The phylogeny of the GATA zinc finger motif, excluding flanking regions, evidenced the existence of four classes of GATA zinc fingers, three of them containing 18 residues in the zinc finger loop and one containing a 20-residue loop. Our results support multiple models of evolution of the GATA gene family in plants including gene duplication and exon shuffling. PMID:15084732

  7. GATA4 knockdown in MA-10 Leydig cells identifies multiple target genes in the steroidogenic pathway.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Francis; Nadeau, Gabriel; Viger, Robert S

    2015-03-01

    GATA4 is an essential transcription factor required for the initiation of genital ridge formation, for normal testicular and ovarian differentiation at the time of sex determination, and for male and female fertility in adulthood. In spite of its crucial roles, the genes and/or gene networks that are ultimately regulated by GATA4 in gonadal tissues remain to be fully understood. This is particularly true for the steroidogenic lineages such as Leydig cells of the testis where many in vitro (promoter) studies have provided good circumstantial evidence that GATA4 is a key regulator of Leydig cell gene expression and steroidogenesis, but formal proof is still lacking. We therefore performed a microarray screening analysis of MA-10 Leydig cells in which Gata4 expression was knocked down using an siRNA strategy. Analysis identified several GATA4-regulated pathways including cholesterol synthesis, cholesterol transport, and especially steroidogenesis. A decrease in GATA4 protein was associated with decreased expression of steroidogenic genes previously suspected to be GATA4 targets such as Cyp11a1 and Star. Gata4 knockdown also led to an important decrease in other novel steroidogenic targets including Srd5a1, Gsta3, Hsd3b1, and Hsd3b6, as well as genes known to participate in cholesterol metabolism such as Scarb1, Ldlr, Soat1, Scap, and Cyp51. Consistent with the decreased expression of these genes, a reduction in GATA4 protein compromised the ability of MA-10 cells to produce steroids both basally and under hormone stimulation. These data therefore provide strong evidence that GATA4 is an essential transcription factor that sits atop of the Leydig cell steroidogenic program. PMID:25504870

  8. Lineage-affiliated transcription factors bind the Gata3 Tce1 enhancer to mediate lineage-specific programs

    PubMed Central

    Ohmura, Sakie; Mizuno, Seiya; Oishi, Hisashi; Ku, Chia-Jui; Hermann, Mary; Hosoya, Tomonori; Takahashi, Satoru; Engel, James Douglas

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor GATA3 is essential for the genesis and maturation of the T cell lineage, and GATA3 dysregulation has pathological consequences. Previous studies have shown that GATA3 function in T cell development is regulated by multiple signaling pathways and that the Notch nuclear effector, RBP-J, binds specifically to the Gata3 promoter. We previously identified a T cell–specific Gata3 enhancer (Tce1) lying 280 kb downstream from the structural gene and demonstrated in transgenic mice that Tce1 promoted T lymphocyte–specific transcription of reporter genes throughout T cell development; however, it was not clear if Tce1 is required for Gata3 transcription in vivo. Here, we determined that the canonical Gata3 promoter is insufficient for Gata3 transcriptional activation in T cells in vivo, precluding the possibility that promoter binding by a host of previously implicated transcription factors alone is responsible for Gata3 expression in T cells. Instead, we demonstrated that multiple lineage-affiliated transcription factors bind to Tce1 and that this enhancer confers T lymphocyte–specific Gata3 activation in vivo, as targeted deletion of Tce1 in a mouse model abrogated critical functions of this T cell–regulatory element. Together, our data show that Tce1 is both necessary and sufficient for critical aspects of Gata3 T cell–specific transcriptional activity. PMID:26808502

  9. Lineage-affiliated transcription factors bind the Gata3 Tce1 enhancer to mediate lineage-specific programs.

    PubMed

    Ohmura, Sakie; Mizuno, Seiya; Oishi, Hisashi; Ku, Chia-Jui; Hermann, Mary; Hosoya, Tomonori; Takahashi, Satoru; Engel, James Douglas

    2016-03-01

    The transcription factor GATA3 is essential for the genesis and maturation of the T cell lineage, and GATA3 dysregulation has pathological consequences. Previous studies have shown that GATA3 function in T cell development is regulated by multiple signaling pathways and that the Notch nuclear effector, RBP-J, binds specifically to the Gata3 promoter. We previously identified a T cell-specific Gata3 enhancer (Tce1) lying 280 kb downstream from the structural gene and demonstrated in transgenic mice that Tce1 promoted T lymphocyte-specific transcription of reporter genes throughout T cell development; however, it was not clear if Tce1 is required for Gata3 transcription in vivo. Here, we determined that the canonical Gata3 promoter is insufficient for Gata3 transcriptional activation in T cells in vivo, precluding the possibility that promoter binding by a host of previously implicated transcription factors alone is responsible for Gata3 expression in T cells. Instead, we demonstrated that multiple lineage-affiliated transcription factors bind to Tce1 and that this enhancer confers T lymphocyte-specific Gata3 activation in vivo, as targeted deletion of Tce1 in a mouse model abrogated critical functions of this T cell-regulatory element. Together, our data show that Tce1 is both necessary and sufficient for critical aspects of Gata3 T cell-specific transcriptional activity. PMID:26808502

  10. DNA binding by GATA transcription factor suggests mechanisms of DNA looping and long-range gene regulation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yongheng; Bates, Darren L.; Dey, Raja; Chen, Po-Han; Machado, Ana Carolina Dantas; Laird-Offringa, Ite A.; Rohs, Remo; Chen, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Summary GATA transcription factors regulate transcription during development and differentiation by recognizing distinct GATA sites with a tandem of two conserved zinc fingers and by mediating long-range DNA looping. However, the molecular basis of these processes is not well understood yet. Here, we determined three crystal structures of the full DNA binding domain (DBD) of human GATA3 protein, which contains both zinc fingers, in complex with different DNA sites. In one structure, both zinc fingers wrap around a palindromic GATA site, cooperatively enhancing the binding affinity and kinetic stability. Strikingly, in the other two structures, the two fingers of GATA DBD bind GATA sites on different DNA molecules, thus bridging two separate DNA fragments, which is confirmed in solution by an in-gel FRET analysis. These findings not only provide new insights into the structure and function of GATA proteins, but also shed light on the molecular basis of long-range gene regulation. PMID:23142663

  11. Group 3 innate lymphoid cells continuously require the transcription factor GATA3 after commitment

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Chao; Cui, Kairong; Wilhelm, Christoph; Hu, Gangqing; Mao, Kairui; Belkaid, Yasmine; Zhao, Keji; Zhu, Jinfang

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor GATA3 is indispensable for the development of all interleukin-7 receptor α (IL-7Rα)-expressing innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). However, the functional role of low GATA3 expression in committed ILC3s has not been identified. We report that GATA3 regulates homeostasis of ILC3s by controlling IL-7Rα expression. In addition, GATA3 is critical for the development of the NKp46+ ILC3 subset by regulating the balance between the transcription factors T-bet and RORγt. Alhough GATA3 positively regulates NKp46+ ILC3 subset-specific genes, it negatively regulates CCR6+ ILC3 subset lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi)-specific genes in NKp46+ ILC3s. Furthermore, GATA3 is required for IL-22 production in both LTi and NKp46+ ILC3s. Thus, despite its low expression, GATA3 is critical for the homeostasis, development and function of ILC3 subsets. PMID:26595886

  12. GATA-3 regulates hematopoietic stem cell maintenance and cell-cycle entry.

    PubMed

    Ku, Chia-Jui; Hosoya, Tomonori; Maillard, Ivan; Engel, James Douglas

    2012-03-01

    Maintaining hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) quiescence is a critical property for the life-long generation of blood cells. Approximately 75% of cells in a highly enriched long-term repopulating HSC (LT-HSC) pool (Lin(-)Sca1(+)c-Kit(hi)CD150(+)CD48(-)) are quiescent, with only a small percentage of the LT-HSCs in cycle. Transcription factor GATA-3 is known to be vital for the development of T cells at multiple stages in the thymus and for Th2 differentiation in the peripheral organs. Although it is well documented that GATA-3 is expressed in HSCs, a role for GATA-3 in any prethymic progenitor cell has not been established. In the present study, we show that Gata3-null mutant mice generate fewer LT-HSCs and that fewer Gata3-null LT-HSCs are in cycle. Furthermore, Gata3 mutant hematopoietic progenitor cells fail to be recruited into an increased cycling state after 5-fluorouracil-induced myelosuppression. Therefore, GATA-3 is required for the maintenance of a normal number of LT-HSCs and for their entry into the cell cycle. PMID:22267605

  13. GATA-3 regulates hematopoietic stem cell maintenance and cell-cycle entry

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Chia-Jui; Hosoya, Tomonori; Maillard, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Maintaining hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) quiescence is a critical property for the life-long generation of blood cells. Approximately 75% of cells in a highly enriched long-term repopulating HSC (LT-HSC) pool (Lin−Sca1+c-KithiCD150+CD48−) are quiescent, with only a small percentage of the LT-HSCs in cycle. Transcription factor GATA-3 is known to be vital for the development of T cells at multiple stages in the thymus and for Th2 differentiation in the peripheral organs. Although it is well documented that GATA-3 is expressed in HSCs, a role for GATA-3 in any prethymic progenitor cell has not been established. In the present study, we show that Gata3-null mutant mice generate fewer LT-HSCs and that fewer Gata3-null LT-HSCs are in cycle. Furthermore, Gata3 mutant hematopoietic progenitor cells fail to be recruited into an increased cycling state after 5-fluorouracil–induced myelosuppression. Therefore, GATA-3 is required for the maintenance of a normal number of LT-HSCs and for their entry into the cell cycle. PMID:22267605

  14. REG4 is a transcriptional target of GATA6 and is essential for colorectal tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Yoshihiro; Matsumura, Kosuke; Miyamoto, Masaya; Tsuji, Shinnosuke; Okuno, Masumi; Suda, Sakiko; Hiyoshi, Masaya; Kitayama, Joji; Akiyama, Tetsu

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor GATA6 is a critical regulator of cell proliferation and development in the gastrointestinal tract. We have recently reported that GATA6 induces the expression of the intestinal stem cell marker LGR5 and enhances the clonogenicity and tumorigenicity of colon cancer cells, but not the growth of these cells cultured under adherent conditions. Here we show that REG4, a member of the regenerating islet-derived (REG) family, is also a target of GATA6. We further demonstrate that REG4 is downregulated by overexpression of miR-363, which suppresses GATA6 expression. Moreover, we show that GATA6-mediated activation of REG4 enhances the growth of colon cancer cells under adherent conditions and is required for their tumorigenicity. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that GATA6 simultaneously induces the expression of genes essential for the growth of colon cancer cells under adherent conditions (REG4) and genes required for their clonogenicity (LGR5), and that the miR-363-GATA6-REG4/LGR5 signaling cascade promotes the tumorigenicity of colon cancer cells. PMID:26387746

  15. SUMOylation Regulates the Transcriptional Repression Activity of FOG-2 and Its Association with GATA-4

    PubMed Central

    Perdomo, José; Jiang, Xing-Mai; Carter, Daniel R.; Khachigian, Levon M.; Chong, Beng H.

    2012-01-01

    Friend of GATA 2 (FOG-2), a co-factor of several GATA transcription factors (GATA-4, -5 and 6), is a critical regulator of coronary vessel formation and heart morphogenesis. Here we demonstrate that FOG-2 is SUMOylated and that this modification modulates its transcriptional activity. FOG-2 SUMOylation occurs at four lysine residues (K312, 471, 915, 955). Three of these residues are part of the characteristic SUMO consensus site (ψKXE), while K955 is found in the less frequent TKXE motif. Absence of SUMOylation did not affect FOG-2′s nuclear localization. However, mutation of the FOG-2 SUMOylation sites, or de-SUMOylation, with SENP-1 or SENP-8 resulted in stronger transcriptional repression activity in both heterologous cells and cardiomyocytes. Conversely, increased FOG-2 SUMOylation by overexpression of SUMO-1 or expression of a SUMO-1-FOG-2 fusion protein rendered FOG-2 incapable of repressing GATA-4-mediated activation of the B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) promoter. Moreover, we demonstrate both increased interaction between a FOG-2 SUMO mutant and GATA-4 and enhanced SUMOylation of wild-type FOG-2 by co-expression of GATA-4. These data suggest a new dynamics in which GATA-4 may alter the activity of FOG-2 by influencing its SUMOylation status. PMID:23226341

  16. Group 3 innate lymphoid cells continuously require the transcription factor GATA-3 after commitment.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Chao; Cui, Kairong; Wilhelm, Christoph; Hu, Gangqing; Mao, Kairui; Belkaid, Yasmine; Zhao, Keji; Zhu, Jinfang

    2016-02-01

    The transcription factor GATA-3 is indispensable for the development of all innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) that express the interleukin 7 receptor α-chain (IL-7Rα). However, the function of low GATA-3 expression in committed group 3 ILCs (ILC3 cells) has not been identified. We found that GATA-3 regulated the homeostasis of ILC3 cells by controlling IL-7Rα expression. In addition, GATA-3 served a critical function in the development of the NKp46(+) ILC3 subset by regulating the balance between the transcription factors T-bet and RORγt. Among NKp46(+) ILC3 cells, although GATA-3 positively regulated genes specific to the NKp46(+) ILC3 subset, it negatively regulated genes specific to lymphoid tissue-inducer (LTi) or LTi-like ILC3 cells. Furthermore, GATA-3 was required for IL-22 production in both ILC3 subsets. Thus, despite its low expression, GATA-3 was critical for the homeostasis, development and function of ILC3 subsets. PMID:26595886

  17. A Novel Missense Mutation of GATA4 in a Chinese Family with Congenital Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bo; Chen, Sun; Fu, Qihua; Sun, Kun

    2016-01-01

    Background Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most prevalent type of birth defect in human, with high morbidity in infant. Several genes essential for heart development have been identified. GATA4 is a pivotal transcription factor that can regulate the cardiac development. Many GATA4 mutations have been identified in patients with different types of CHD. Aims In this study, the NKX2-5, HAND1 and GATA4 coding regions were sequenced in a family spanning three generations in which seven patients had CHD. Disease-causing potential variation in this family was evaluated by bioinformatics programs and the transcriptional activity of mutant protein was analyzed by the dual luciferase reporter assay. Results A novel GATA4 mutation, c.C931T (p.R311W), was identified and co-segregated with the affected patients in this family. The bioinformatics programs predicted this heterozygous mutation to be deleterious and the cross-species alignment of GATA4 sequences showed that the mutation occurred within a highly conserved amino acid. Even though it resided in the nuclear localization signal domain, the mutant protein didn’t alter its intracellular distribution. Nevertheless, further luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that the p.R311W mutation reduced the ability of GATA4 to activate its downstream target gene. Conclusions Our study identified a novel mutation in GATA4 that likely contributed to the CHD in this family. This finding expanded the spectrum of GATA4 mutations and underscored the pathogenic correlation between GATA4 mutations and CHD. PMID:27391137

  18. GATA3 Expression in Normal Skin and in Benign and Malignant Epidermal and Cutaneous Adnexal Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    de Peralta-Venturina, Mariza N.; Balzer, Bonnie L.; Frishberg, David P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Initial investigations reported GATA3 to be a sensitive and relatively specific marker for mammary and urothelial carcinomas. Recently, GATA3 expression has been described in several other epithelial tumors. However, there has been only limited investigation of GATA3 expression in cutaneous epithelial tumors. The objective of this study was to examine the immunohistochemical expression of GATA3 in a wide variety of cutaneous epithelial neoplasms. GATA3 expression was evaluated in 99 benign and 63 malignant cutaneous epithelial tumors. GATA3 was consistently and usually strongly expressed in clear cell acanthoma, trichofolliculoma, trichoepithelioma, trichilemmoma, sebaceous adenoma, sebaceoma, apocrine hidrocystoma, apocrine tubular papillary adenoma, hidradenoma papilliferum, and syringocystadenoma papilliferum. Hidradenomas exhibited variable positive staining. Most poromas, syringomas, chondroid syringomas, cylindromas, and spiradenomas were negative or only focally and weakly positive. Focal staining was present in all pilomatrixomas. Thirteen of 14 basal cell carcinomas, 21 of 24 squamous carcinomas, and all 6 sebaceous carcinomas exhibited positive staining. The 1 apocrine carcinoma, both mucinous carcinomas, and 2 of 3 microcystic adnexal carcinomas also exhibited positive staining, whereas the 1 eccrine porocarcinoma and the 1 adenoid cystic carcinoma were negative. One of 11 Merkel cell carcinomas exhibited focal weak staining. Our findings demonstrate that GATA3 is expressed in a wide variety of benign and malignant cutaneous epithelial neoplasms. In addition to carcinomas of breast and urothelial origin and other more recently described GATA3-positive tumors, the differential diagnosis of a metastatic tumor of unknown primary origin that expresses GATA3 should also include a carcinoma of cutaneous epithelial origin. PMID:26595821

  19. GATA4 Regulates Blood-Testis Barrier Function and Lactate Metabolism in Mouse Sertoli Cells.

    PubMed

    Schrade, Anja; Kyrönlahti, Antti; Akinrinade, Oyediran; Pihlajoki, Marjut; Fischer, Simon; Rodriguez, Verena Martinez; Otte, Kerstin; Velagapudi, Vidya; Toppari, Jorma; Wilson, David B; Heikinheimo, Markku

    2016-06-01

    Conditional deletion of Gata4 in Sertoli cells (SCs) of adult mice has been shown to increase permeability of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) and disrupt spermatogenesis. To gain insight into the molecular underpinnings of these phenotypic abnormalities, we assessed the impact of Gata4 gene silencing in cell culture models. Microarray hybridization identified genes dysregulated by siRNA-mediated inhibition of Gata4 in TM4 cells, an immortalized mouse SC line. Differentially expressed genes were validated by quantitative RT-PCR analysis of primary cultures of Gata4(flox/flox) mouse SCs that had been subjected to cre-mediated recombination in vitro. Depletion of GATA4 in TM4 cells and primary SCs was associated with altered expression of genes involved in key facets of BTB maintenance, including tight/adherens junction formation (Tjp1, Cldn12, Vcl, Tnc, Csk) and extracellular matrix reorganization (Lamc1, Col4a1, Col4a5, Mmp10, Mmp23, Timp2). Western blotting and immunocytochemistry demonstrated reduced levels of tight junction protein-1, a prototypical tight junction protein, in GATA4-depleted cells. These changes were accompanied by a loss of morphologically recognizable junctional complexes and a decline in epithelial membrane resistance. Furthermore, Gata4 gene silencing was associated with altered expression of Hk1, Gpi1, Pfkp, Pgam1, Gls2, Pdk3, Pkd4, and Ldhb, genes regulating the production of lactate, a key nutrient that SCs provide to developing germ cells. Comprehensive metabolomic profiling demonstrated impaired lactate production in GATA4-deficient SCs. We conclude that GATA4 plays a pivotal role in the regulation of BTB function and lactate metabolism in mouse SCs. PMID:26974005

  20. Spectroscopic determination of the thermodynamics of cobalt and zinc binding to GATA proteins.

    PubMed

    Ghering, Amy B; Shokes, Jacob E; Scott, Robert A; Omichinski, James G; Godwin, Hilary A

    2004-07-01

    Vertebrate GATA proteins regulate processes that are vital to development, and each possesses two tandem GATA finger domains: an N-terminal GATA finger and a C-terminal GATA finger. These GATA fingers require Zn(2+) to fold, to bind DNA recognition elements, and to regulate transcription. While the GATA-1 C-terminal finger is necessary and sufficient to bind to single GATA DNA sites, the N-terminal finger interacts with DNA such that the double finger unit (DF domain) has a binding and transactivation profile that is tuned by the DNA-binding site. Co(2+) was used as a spectroscopic probe in a series of competition titrations to determine the affinity of Co(2+) and Zn(2+) for the C-terminal finger from chicken GATA-1 and the double finger from human GATA-1 (referred to in this report as CF and DF). For CF, these experiments yielded K(b)(Co) = 1.0 (+/-1.3) x 10(7) M(-1) and K(b)(Zn) = 2.0 (+/-1.3) x 10(10) M(-1). For DF, these experiments yielded equilibrium constants for the process of two M(2+) binding to form M(2+)(2)-DF of beta(2)(Co) = 2.5 (+/-1.6) x 10(14) M(-2) and beta(2)(Zn) = 6.3 (+/-2.5) x 10(20) M(-2). The ZnS(4) coordination environment of Zn(2+)-bound CF was confirmed with X-ray absorption spectroscopy. A detailed analysis of these data suggests that the N-terminal and C-terminal fingers of DF act as independent and identical Zn(2+)-binding sites and each finger binds Zn(2+) with an affinity equivalent to that of CF. PMID:15222747

  1. GATA2 Mediates Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone-Induced Transcriptional Activation of the Thyrotropin β Gene

    PubMed Central

    Ohba, Kenji; Sasaki, Shigekazu; Matsushita, Akio; Iwaki, Hiroyuki; Matsunaga, Hideyuki; Suzuki, Shingo; Ishizuka, Keiko; Misawa, Hiroko; Oki, Yutaka; Nakamura, Hirotoshi

    2011-01-01

    Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) activates not only the secretion of thyrotropin (TSH) but also the transcription of TSHβ and α-glycoprotein (αGSU) subunit genes. TSHβ expression is maintained by two transcription factors, Pit1 and GATA2, and is negatively regulated by thyroid hormone (T3). Our prior studies suggest that the main activator of the TSHβ gene is GATA2, not Pit1 or unliganded T3 receptor (TR). In previous studies on the mechanism of TRH-induced activation of the TSHβ gene, the involvements of Pit1 and TR have been investigated, but the role of GATA2 has not been clarified. Using kidney-derived CV1 cells and pituitary-derived GH3 and TαT1 cells, we demonstrate here that TRH signaling enhances GATA2-dependent activation of the TSHβ promoter and that TRH-induced activity is abolished by amino acid substitution in the GATA2-Zn finger domain or mutation of GATA-responsive element in the TSHβ gene. In CV1 cells transfected with TRH receptor expression plasmid, GATA2-dependent transactivation of αGSU and endothelin-1 promoters was enhanced by TRH. In the gel shift assay, TRH signal potentiated the DNA-binding capacity of GATA2. While inhibition by T3 is dominant over TRH-induced activation, unliganded TR or the putative negative T3-responsive element are not required for TRH-induced stimulation. Studies using GH3 cells showed that TRH-induced activity of the TSHβ promoter depends on protein kinase C but not the mitogen-activated protein kinase, suggesting that the signaling pathway is different from that in the prolactin gene. These results indicate that GATA2 is the principal mediator of the TRH signaling pathway in TSHβ expression. PMID:21533184

  2. Control of megakaryocyte-specific gene expression by GATA-1 and FOG-1: role of Ets transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xun; Crispino, John D.; Letting, Danielle L.; Nakazawa, Minako; Poncz, Mortimer; Blobel, Gerd A.

    2002-01-01

    The transcription factor GATA-1 and its cofactor FOG-1 are essential for the normal development of erythroid cells and megakaryocytes. FOG-1 can stimulate or inhibit GATA-1 activity depending on cell and promoter context. How the GATA-1–FOG-1 complex controls the expression of distinct sets of gene in megakaryocytes and erythroid cells is not understood. Here, we examine the molecular basis for the megakaryocyte-restricted activation of the αIIb gene. FOG-1 stimulates GATA-1-dependent αIIb gene expression in a manner that requires their direct physical interaction. Transcriptional output by the GATA-1–FOG-1 complex is determined by the hematopoietic Ets protein Fli-1 that binds to an adjacent Ets element. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments show that GATA-1, FOG-1 and Fli-1 co-occupy the αIIb promoter in vivo. Expression of several additional megakaryocyte-specific genes that bear tandem GATA and Ets elements in their promoters also depends on the physical interaction between GATA-1 and FOG-1. Our studies define a molecular context for transcriptional activation by GATA-1 and FOG-1, and may explain the occurrence of tandem GATA and Ets elements in the promoters of numerous megakaryocyte-expressed genes. PMID:12356738

  3. Tyrosine phosphorylation of RACK1 triggers cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by regulating the interaction between p300 and GATA4.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hidetoshi; Katanasaka, Yasufumi; Sunagawa, Yoichi; Miyazaki, Yusuke; Funamoto, Masafumi; Wada, Hiromichi; Hasegawa, Koji; Morimoto, Tatsuya

    2016-09-01

    The zinc finger protein GATA4 is a transcription factor involved in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. It forms a functional complex with the intrinsic histone acetyltransferase (HAT) p300. The HAT activity of p300 is required for the acetylation and transcriptional activity of GATA4, as well as for cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and the development of heart failure. In the present study, we have identified Receptor for Activated Protein Kinase C1 (RACK1) as a novel GATA4-binding protein using tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry analyses. We found that exogenous RACK1 repressed phenylephrine (PE)-induced hypertrophic responses, such as myofibrillar organization, increased cell size, and hypertrophy-associated gene transcription, in cultured cardiomyocytes. RACK1 physically interacted with GATA4 and the overexpression of RACK1 reduced PE-induced formation of the p300/GATA4 complex and the acetylation and DNA binding activity of GATA4. In response to hypertrophic stimulation in cultured cardiomyocytes and in the hearts of hypertensive heart disease model rats, the tyrosine phosphorylation of RACK1 was increased, and the binding between GATA4 and RACK1 was reduced. In addition, the tyrosine phosphorylation of RACK1 was required for the disruption of the RACK1/GATA4 complex and for the formation of the p300/GATA4 complex. These findings demonstrate that RACK1 is involved in p300/GATA4-dependent hypertrophic responses in cardiomyocytes and is a promising therapeutic target for heart failure. PMID:27208796

  4. LLM-Domain B-GATA Transcription Factors Promote Stomatal Development Downstream of Light Signaling Pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana Hypocotyls.

    PubMed

    Klermund, Carina; Ranftl, Quirin L; Diener, Julia; Bastakis, Emmanouil; Richter, René; Schwechheimer, Claus

    2016-03-01

    Stomata are pores that regulate the gas and water exchange between the environment and aboveground plant tissues, including hypocotyls, leaves, and stems. Here, we show that mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana LLM-domain B-GATA genes are defective in stomata formation in hypocotyls. Conversely, stomata formation is strongly promoted by overexpression of various LLM-domain B-class GATA genes, most strikingly in hypocotyls but also in cotyledons. Genetic analyses indicate that these B-GATAs act upstream of the stomata formation regulators SPEECHLESS(SPCH), MUTE, and SCREAM/SCREAM2 and downstream or independent of the patterning regulators TOO MANY MOUTHS and STOMATAL DENSITY AND DISTRIBUTION1 The effects of the GATAs on stomata formation are light dependent but can be induced in dark-grown seedlings by red, far-red, or blue light treatments. PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR(PIF) mutants form stomata in the dark, and in this genetic background, GATA expression is sufficient to induce stomata formation in the dark. Since the expression of the LLM-domain B-GATAs GNC(GATA, NITRATE-INDUCIBLE, CARBON METABOLISM-INVOLVED) and GNC-LIKE/CYTOKININ-RESPONSIVE GATA FACTOR1 as well as that of SPCH is red light induced but the induction of SPCH is compromised in a GATA gene mutant background, we hypothesize that PIF- and light-regulated stomata formation in hypocotyls is critically dependent on LLM-domain B-GATA genes. PMID:26917680

  5. Aberrant JAK/STAT Signaling Suppresses TFF1 and TFF2 through Epigenetic Silencing of GATA6 in Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cheng-Shyong; Wei, Kuo-Liang; Chou, Jian-Liang; Lu, Chung-Kuang; Hsieh, Ching-Chuan; Lin, Jora M J; Deng, Yi-Fang; Hsu, Wan-Ting; Wang, Hui-Min David; Leung, Chung-Hang; Ma, Dik-Lung; Li, Chin; Chan, Michael W Y

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling is crucial to the development of gastric cancer. In this study, we examined the role of STAT3 in the expression and methylation of its targets in gastric cancer patients. Results from RNA sequencing identified an inverse correlation between the expression of STAT3 and GATA6 in 23 pairs of gastric cancer patient samples. We discovered that the expression of GATA6 is epigenetically silenced through promoter methylation in gastric cancer cell lines. Interestingly, the inhibition of STAT3 using a novel STAT3 inhibitor restored the expression of GATA6 and its targets, trefoil factors 1 and 2 (TFF1/2). Moreover, disruption of STAT3 binding to GATA6 promoter by small hairpin RNA restored GATA6 expression in AGS cells. A clinically significant correlation was also observed between the expression of GATA6 and TFF1/2 among tissue samples from 60 gastric cancer patients. Finally, bisulfite pyrosequencing revealed GATA6 methylation in 65% (39/60) of the patients, and those with higher GATA6 methylation tended to have shorter overall survival. In conclusion, we demonstrated that aberrant JAK/STAT signaling suppresses TFF1/2 partially through the epigenetic silencing of GATA6. Therapeutic intervention of STAT3 in reversing the epigenetic status of GATA6 could benefit the treatment of gastric cancer and is worthy of further investigation. PMID:27598141

  6. Characterization of a Functional ZBP-89 Binding Site That Mediates Gata1 Gene Expression during Hematopoietic Development*

    PubMed Central

    Ohneda, Kinuko; Ohmori, Shin'ya; Ishijima, Yasushi; Nakano, Mayu; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2009-01-01

    GATA-1 is a lineage-restricted transcription factor that plays essential roles in hematopoietic development. The Gata1 gene hematopoietic enhancer allowed Gata1 reporter expression in erythroid cells and megakaryocytes of transgenic mice. The Gata1 hematopoietic enhancer activity is strictly dependent on a GATA site located in the 5′ region of the enhancer. However, the importance of the GC-rich region adjacent to the 3′-end of this GATA site has been also suggested. In this study, we show that this GC-rich region contains five contiguous deoxyguanosine residues (G5 string) that are bound by multiple nuclear proteins. Interestingly, deletion of one deoxyguanosine residue from the G5 string (G4 mutant) specifically eliminates binding to ZBP-89, a Krüppel-like transcription factor, but not to Sp3 and other binding factors. We demonstrate that GATA-1 and ZBP-89 occupy chromatin regions of the Gata1 enhancer and physically associate in vitro through zinc finger domains. Gel mobility shift assays and DNA affinity precipitation assays suggest that binding of ZBP-89 to this region is reduced in the absence of GATA-1 binding to the G1HE. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrate that ZBP-89 activates the Gata1 enhancer depending on the G5 string sequence. Finally, transgenic mouse studies reveal that the G4 mutation significantly reduced the reporter activity of the Gata1 hematopoietic regulatory domain encompassing an 8.5-kbp region of the Gata1 gene. These data provide compelling evidence that the G5 string is necessary for Gata1 gene expression in vivo and ZBP-89 is the functional trans-acting factor for this cis-acting region. PMID:19723625

  7. Role of GATA factors in development, differentiation, and homeostasis of the small intestinal epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Aronson, Boaz E.; Stapleton, Kelly A.

    2014-01-01

    The small intestinal epithelium develops from embryonic endoderm into a highly specialized layer of cells perfectly suited for the digestion and absorption of nutrients. The development, differentiation, and regeneration of the small intestinal epithelium require complex gene regulatory networks involving multiple context-specific transcription factors. The evolutionarily conserved GATA family of transcription factors, well known for its role in hematopoiesis, is essential for the development of endoderm during embryogenesis and the renewal of the differentiated epithelium in the mature gut. We review the role of GATA factors in the evolution and development of endoderm and summarize our current understanding of the function of GATA factors in the mature small intestine. We offer perspective on the application of epigenetics approaches to define the mechanisms underlying context-specific GATA gene regulation during intestinal development. PMID:24436352

  8. Distinct Domains of the GATA-1 Cofactor FOG-1 Differentially Influence Erythroid versus Megakaryocytic Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Cantor, Alan B.; Katz, Samuel G.; Orkin, Stuart H.

    2002-01-01

    FOG family zinc finger proteins play essential roles in development through physical interaction with GATA factors. FOG-1, like its interacting partner GATA-1, is required for normal differentiation of erythroid and megakaryocytic cells. Here, we have developed a functional assay for FOG-1 based on its ability to rescue erythroid and megakaryocytic maturation of a genetically engineered FOG-1−/− cell line. We demonstrate that interaction through only one of FOG-1's four GATA-binding zinc fingers is sufficient for rescue, providing evidence against a model in which FOG-1 acts to bridge multiple GATA-binding DNA elements. Importantly, we find that distinct regions of FOG-1 differentially influence erythroid versus megakaryocyte maturation. As such, we propose that FOG-1 may modulate the fate of a bipotential erythroid/megakaryocytic precursor cell. PMID:12024038

  9. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a patient with MonoMAC syndrome/GATA2 haploinsufficiency.

    PubMed

    Koegel, Ashley K; Hofmann, Inga; Moffitt, Kristin; Degar, Barbara; Duncan, Christine; Tubman, Venée N

    2016-10-01

    Patients with GATA2 haploinsufficiency have a significant predisposition to developing cytopenias, unique infectious manifestations, and myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia (MDS/AML). We report a unique case of a patient who presented with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) and was subsequently diagnosed with monocytopenia and mycobacterium avium complex (MonoMAC) syndrome/GATA2 haploinsufficiency. The development of MDS/AML in patients with GATA2 haploinsufficiency is well described, however, the development of ALL has not been reported in the literature. ALL may be associated with GATA2 haploinsufficiency. Clinicians should be attuned to the features of the MonoMAC syndrome in patients with ALL that would prompt additional testing and alter treatment. PMID:27232273

  10. GATA-3 REGULATES THE SELF-RENEWAL OF LONG-TERM HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Frelin, Catherine; Herrington, Robert; Janmohamed, Salima; Barbara, Mary; Tran, Gary; Paige, Christopher J.; Benveniste, Patricia; Zuñiga-Pflücker, Juan-Carlos; Souabni, Abdallah; Busslinger, Meinrad; Iscove, Norman N

    2016-01-01

    Gata3 is expressed and required for differentiation and function throughout the T lymphocyte lineage. Despite evidence it may also be expressed in multipotent hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), any role in these cells has remained unclear. Here we show GATA3 was cytoplasmic in quiescent long-term stem cells from steady state bone marrow, but relocated to the nucleus when HSC cycle. Relocation depended on p38-MAPK signaling and was associated with diminished capacity for long-term reconstitution upon transfer to irradiated mice. Deletion of Gata3 enhanced repopulating capacity and augmented self-renewal of long term HSC in cell-autonomous fashion, without affecting cell cycle. These observations position Gata3 as a regulator of the balance between self-renewal and differentiation in HSC acting downstream of the p38 signaling pathway. PMID:23974957

  11. Genome-Wide Organization of GATA1 and TAL1 Determined at High Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Han, G. Celine; Vinayachandran, Vinesh; Bataille, Alain R.; Park, Bongsoo; Chan-Salis, Ka Yim; Keller, Cheryl A.; Long, Maria; Mahony, Shaun; Hardison, Ross C.

    2015-01-01

    Erythroid development and differentiation from multiprogenitor cells into red blood cells requires precise transcriptional regulation. Key erythroid transcription factors, GATA1 and TAL1, cooperate, along with other proteins, to regulate many aspects of this process. How GATA1 and TAL1 are juxtaposed along the DNA and their cognate DNA binding site across the mouse genome remains unclear. We applied high-resolution ChIP-exo (chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by 5′-to-3′ exonuclease treatment and then massively parallel DNA sequencing) to GATA1 and TAL1 to study their positional organization across the mouse genome during GATA1-dependent maturation. Two complementary methods, MultiGPS and peak pairing, were used to determine high-confidence binding locations by ChIP-exo. We identified ∼10,000 GATA1 and ∼15,000 TAL1 locations, which were essentially confirmed by ChIP-seq (chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by massively parallel DNA sequencing). Of these, ∼4,000 locations were bound by both GATA1 and TAL1. About three-quarters of them were tightly linked to a partial E-box located 7 or 8 bp upstream of a WGATAA motif. Both TAL1 and GATA1 generated distinct characteristic ChIP-exo peaks around WGATAA motifs that reflect their positional arrangement within a complex. We show that TAL1 and GATA1 form a precisely organized complex at a compound motif consisting of a TG 7 or 8 bp upstream of a WGATAA motif across thousands of genomic locations. PMID:26503782

  12. elt-1, an embryonically expressed Caenorhabditis elegans gene homologous to the GATA transcription factor family.

    PubMed Central

    Spieth, J; Shim, Y H; Lea, K; Conrad, R; Blumenthal, T

    1991-01-01

    The short, asymmetrical DNA sequence to which the vertebrate GATA family of transcription factors binds is present in some Caenorhabditis elegans gene regulatory regions: it is required for activation of the vitellogenin genes and is also found just 5' of the TATA boxes of tra-2 and the msp genes. In vertebrates GATA-1 is specific to erythroid lineages, whereas GATA-2 and GATA-3 are present in multiple tissues. In an effort to identify the trans-acting factors that may recognize this sequence element in C. elegans, we used a degenerate oligonucleotide to clone a C. elegans homolog to this gene. We call this gene elt-1 (erythrocytelike transcription factor). It is single copy and specifies a 1.75-kb mRNA that is present predominantly, if not exclusively, in embryos. The region of elt-1 encoding two zinc fingers is remarkably similar to the DNA-binding domain of the vertebrate GATA-binding proteins. However, outside of the DNA-binding domains the amino acid sequences are quite divergent. Nevertheless, introns are located at identical or nearly identical positions in elt-1 and the mouse GATA-1 gene. In addition, elt-1 mRNA is trans-spliced to the 22-base untranslated leader, SL1. The DNA upstream of the elt-1 TATA box contains eight copies of the GATA recognition sequence within the first 300 bp, suggesting that elt-1 may be autogenously regulated. Our results suggest that the specialized role of GATA-1 in erythroid gene expression was derived after separation of the nematodes and the line that led to the vertebrates, since C. elegans lacks an erythroid lineage. Images PMID:1875944

  13. Genome-Wide Organization of GATA1 and TAL1 Determined at High Resolution.

    PubMed

    Han, G Celine; Vinayachandran, Vinesh; Bataille, Alain R; Park, Bongsoo; Chan-Salis, Ka Yim; Keller, Cheryl A; Long, Maria; Mahony, Shaun; Hardison, Ross C; Pugh, B Franklin

    2016-01-01

    Erythroid development and differentiation from multiprogenitor cells into red blood cells requires precise transcriptional regulation. Key erythroid transcription factors, GATA1 and TAL1, cooperate, along with other proteins, to regulate many aspects of this process. How GATA1 and TAL1 are juxtaposed along the DNA and their cognate DNA binding site across the mouse genome remains unclear. We applied high-resolution ChIP-exo (chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by 5'-to-3' exonuclease treatment and then massively parallel DNA sequencing) to GATA1 and TAL1 to study their positional organization across the mouse genome during GATA1-dependent maturation. Two complementary methods, MultiGPS and peak pairing, were used to determine high-confidence binding locations by ChIP-exo. We identified ∼10,000 GATA1 and ∼15,000 TAL1 locations, which were essentially confirmed by ChIP-seq (chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by massively parallel DNA sequencing). Of these, ∼4,000 locations were bound by both GATA1 and TAL1. About three-quarters of them were tightly linked to a partial E-box located 7 or 8 bp upstream of a WGATAA motif. Both TAL1 and GATA1 generated distinct characteristic ChIP-exo peaks around WGATAA motifs that reflect their positional arrangement within a complex. We show that TAL1 and GATA1 form a precisely organized complex at a compound motif consisting of a TG 7 or 8 bp upstream of a WGATAA motif across thousands of genomic locations. PMID:26503782

  14. Spectroscopic and functional determination of the interaction of Pb2+ with GATA proteins.

    PubMed

    Ghering, Amy B; Jenkins, Lisa M Miller; Schenck, Brandy L; Deo, Sandhya; Mayer, R Aeryn; Pikaart, Michael J; Omichinski, James G; Godwin, Hilary A

    2005-03-23

    GATA proteins are transcription factors that bind GATA DNA elements through Cys4 structural zinc-binding domains and play critical regulatory roles in neurological and urogenital development and the development of cardiac disease. To evaluate GATA proteins as potential targets for lead, spectroscopically monitored metal-binding titrations were used to measure the affinity of Pb2+ for the C-terminal zinc-binding domain from chicken GATA-1 (CF) and the double-finger domain from human GATA-1 (DF). Using this method, Pb2+ coordinating to CF and DF was directly observed through the appearance of intense bands in the near-ultraviolet region of the spectrum (250-380 nm). Absorption data collected from these experiments were best fit to a 1:1 Pb2+ -CF model and a 2:1 Pb2+ -DF model. Competition experiments using Zn2+ were used to determine the absolute affinities of Pb2+ for these proteins. These studies reveal that Pb2+ forms tight complexes with cysteine residues in the zinc-binding sites in GATA proteins, beta1Pb = 6.4 (+/- 2.0) x 10(9) M(-1) for CF and beta2 = 6.3 (+/- 6.3) x 10(19) M(-2) for Pb(2+)2-DF, and within an order of magnitude of the affinity of Zn2+ for these proteins. Furthermore, Pb2+ was able to displace bound Zn2+ from CF and DF. Upon addition of Pb2+, GATA shows a decreased ability to bind to DNA and subsequently activate transcription. Therefore, the DNA binding and transcriptional activity of GATA proteins are most likely to be targeted by Pb2+ in cells and tissues that sequester Pb2+ in vivo, which include the brain and the heart. PMID:15771509

  15. Silencing of Aγ-Globin Gene Expression during Adult Definitive Erythropoiesis Mediated by GATA-1-FOG-1-Mi2 Complex Binding at the −566 GATA Site▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Harju-Baker, Susanna; Costa, Flávia C.; Fedosyuk, Halyna; Neades, Renee; Peterson, Kenneth R.

    2008-01-01

    Autonomous silencing of γ-globin transcription is an important developmental regulatory mechanism controlling globin gene switching. An adult stage-specific silencer of the Aγ-globin gene was identified between −730 and −378 relative to the mRNA start site. A marked copy of the Aγ-globin gene inserted between locus control region 5′ DNase I-hypersensitive site 1 and the ɛ-globin gene was transcriptionally silenced in adult β-globin locus yeast artificial chromosome (β-YAC) transgenic mice, but deletion of the 352-bp region restored expression. This fragment reduced reporter gene expression in K562 cells, and GATA-1 was shown to bind within this sequence at the −566 GATA site. Further, the Mi2 protein, a component of the NuRD complex, was observed in erythroid cells with low γ-globin levels, whereas only a weak signal was detected when γ-globin was expressed. Chromatin immunoprecipitation of fetal liver tissue from β-YAC transgenic mice demonstrated that GATA-1, FOG-1, and Mi2 were recruited to the Aγ-globin −566 or Gγ-globin −567 GATA site when γ-globin expression was low (day 18) but not when γ-globin was expressed (day 12). These data suggest that during definitive erythropoiesis, γ-globin gene expression is silenced, in part, by binding a protein complex containing GATA-1, FOG-1, and Mi2 at the −566/−567 GATA sites of the proximal γ-globin promoters. PMID:18347053

  16. GATA2 IS REQUIRED FOR MIGRATION AND DIFFERENTIATION OF RETINORECIPIENT NEURONS IN THE SUPERIOR COLLICULUS

    PubMed Central

    Willett, Ryan T.; Greene, Lloyd A.

    2011-01-01

    The superior colliculus (SC)/optic tectum of the dorsal mesencephalon plays a major role in responses to visual input, yet regulation of neuronal differentiation within this layered structure is only partially understood. Here, we show that the zinc finger transcription factor Gata2 is required for normal SC development. Starting at e15 (corresponding to the times at which neurons of the outer and intermediate layers of the SC are generated), Gata2 is transiently expressed in the rat embryonic dorsal mesencephalon within a restricted region between proliferating cells of the ventricular zone and the deepest neuronal layers of the developing SC. The Gata2 positive cells are post-mitotic and lack markers of differentiated neurons, but express markers for immature neuronal precursors including Ascl1 and Pax3/7. In utero electroporation with Gata2 shRNAs at e16 into cells along the dorsal mesencephalic ventricle interferes with their normal migration into the SC and maintains them in a state characterized by retention of Pax3 expression and the absence of mature neuronal markers. Collectively, these findings indicate that Gata2 plays a required role in the transition of post-mitotic neuronal precursor cells of the retinorecipient layers of the SC into mature neurons and that loss of Gata2 arrests them at an intermediate stage of differentiation. PMID:21430145

  17. Caspase-1 cleavage of transcription factor GATA4 and regulation of cardiac cell fate

    PubMed Central

    Aries, A; Whitcomb, J; Shao, W; Komati, H; Saleh, M; Nemer, M

    2014-01-01

    Caspase-1 or interleukin-1β (IL-1β) converting enzyme is a pro-inflammatory member of the caspase family. An IL-1β-independent role for caspase-1 in cardiomyocyte cell death and heart failure has emerged but the mechanisms underlying these effects are incompletely understood. Here, we report that transcription factor GATA4, a key regulator of cardiomyocyte survival and adaptive stress response is an in vivo and in vitro substrate for caspase-1. Caspase-1 mediated cleavage of GATA4 generates a truncated protein that retains the ability to bind DNA but lacks transcriptional activation domains and acts as a dominant negative regulator of GATA4. We show that caspase-1 is rapidly activated in cardiomyocyte nuclei treated with the cell death inducing drug Doxorubicin. We also find that inhibition of caspase-1 alone is as effective as complete caspase inhibition at rescuing GATA4 degradation and myocyte cell death. Caspase-1 inhibition of GATA4 transcriptional activity is rescued by HSP70, which binds directly to GATA4 and masks the caspase recognition motif. The data identify a caspase-1 nuclear substrate and suggest a direct role for caspase-1 in transcriptional regulation. This mechanism may underlie the inflammation-independent action of caspase-1 in other organs. PMID:25501827

  18. A nonsense mutation in zebrafish gata1 causes the bloodless phenotype in vlad tepes

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Susan E.; Lawson, Nathan D.; Lei, Lin; Bennett, Paul E.; Weinstein, Brant M.; Liu, P. Paul

    2002-01-01

    Vlad tepes (vltm651) is one of only five “bloodless” zebrafish mutants isolated through large-scale chemical mutagenesis screening. It is characterized by a severe reduction in blood cell progenitors and few or no blood cells at the onset of circulation. We now report characterization of the mutant phenotype and the identification of the gene mutated in vltm651. Embryos homozygous for the vltm651 mutation had normal expression of hematopoietic stem cell markers through 24 h postfertilization, as well as normal expression of myeloid and lymphoid markers. Analysis of erythroid development revealed variable expression of erythroid markers. Through positional and candidate gene cloning approaches we identified a nonsense mutation in the gata1 gene, 1015C → T (Arg-339 → Stop), in vltm651. The nonsense mutation was located C-terminal to the two zinc fingers and resulted in a truncated protein that was unable to bind DNA or mediate GATA-specific transactivation. A BAC clone containing the zebrafish gata1 gene was able to rescue the bloodless phenotype in vltm651. These results show that the vltm651 mutation is a previously uncharacterized gata1 allele in the zebrafish. The vltm651 mutation sheds new light on Gata1 structure and function in vivo, demonstrates that Gata1 plays an essential role in zebrafish hematopoiesis with significant conservation of function between mammals and zebrafish, and offers a powerful tool for future studies of the hematopoietic pathway. PMID:11960002

  19. The Utility of GATA3 in the Diagnosis of Urothelial Carcinomas With Variant Morphologic Patterns.

    PubMed

    Verduin, Lindsey; Mentrikoski, Mark J; Heitz, Christopher T; Wick, Mark R

    2016-08-01

    The transcription factor GATA3 is a recently described biomarker that is highly expressed in bladder and breast carcinomas. Although it has shown sensitivity as a marker of primary bladder carcinomas with purely urothelial differentiation, the ability of GATA3 to label primary bladder carcinomas with variant morphologic patterns has been incompletely assessed to date. The current study was designed to determine whether GATA3 staining is retained in "unconventional" bladder carcinomas. Eighty-eight cases of primary bladder cancers were retrieved from the authors' institutional archive, and they included the following histomorphologic types: 6 small cell carcinomas, 12 sarcomatoid carcinomas, 17 adenocarcinomas (both primary and urothelial variants with glandular differentiation), 24 micropapillary carcinomas, and 27 squamous cell carcinomas (both primary and urothelial variants with squamous differentiation). A tissue microarray was constructed and automated immunostaining for GATA3 (Clone L50-823, Biocare Medical, Concord, CA) was performed using standard technique. Among the 5 variants of unconventional bladder carcinoma, only the micropapillary and sarcomatoid forms exhibited consistent and strong immunolabeling for GATA3. Hence, the sensitivity of this determinant is diminished in several histologic forms of primary bladder carcinoma. That fact will affect the interpretation of GATA3 stains in the context of possible metastasis from primary bladder carcinomas with variant morphologic patterns, as well as their distinction from secondary bladder involvement by tumors of nonurothelial origin. PMID:26317312

  20. A monoallelic-to-biallelic T-cell transcriptional switch regulates GATA3 abundance

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Chia-Jui; Lim, Kim-Chew; Kalantry, Sundeep; Maillard, Ivan; Engel, James Douglas; Hosoya, Tomonori

    2015-01-01

    Protein abundance must be precisely regulated throughout life, and nowhere is the stringency of this requirement more evident than during T-cell development: A twofold increase in the abundance of transcription factor GATA3 results in thymic lymphoma, while reduced GATA3 leads to diminished T-cell production. GATA3 haploinsufficiency also causes human HDR (hypoparathyroidism, deafness, and renal dysplasia) syndrome, often accompanied by immunodeficiency. Here we show that loss of one Gata3 allele leads to diminished expansion (and compromised development) of immature T cells as well as aberrant induction of myeloid transcription factor PU.1. This effect is at least in part mediated transcriptionally: We discovered that Gata3 is monoallelically expressed in a parent of origin-independent manner in hematopoietic stem cells and early T-cell progenitors. Curiously, half of the developing cells switch to biallelic Gata3 transcription abruptly at midthymopoiesis. We show that the monoallelic-to-biallelic transcriptional switch is stably maintained and therefore is not a stochastic phenomenon. This unique mechanism, if adopted by other regulatory genes, may provide new biological insights into the rather prevalent phenomenon of monoallelic expression of autosomal genes as well as into the variably penetrant pathophysiological spectrum of phenotypes observed in many human syndromes that are due to haploinsufficiency of the affected gene. PMID:26385963

  1. Prevalence, clinical characteristics, and prognosis of GATA2-related myelodysplastic syndromes in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wlodarski, Marcin W; Hirabayashi, Shinsuke; Pastor, Victor; Starý, Jan; Hasle, Henrik; Masetti, Riccardo; Dworzak, Michael; Schmugge, Markus; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry; Ussowicz, Marek; De Moerloose, Barbara; Catala, Albert; Smith, Owen P; Sedlacek, Petr; Lankester, Arjan C; Zecca, Marco; Bordon, Victoria; Matthes-Martin, Susanne; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Kühl, Jörn Sven; Sykora, Karl-Walter; Albert, Michael H; Przychodzien, Bartlomiej; Maciejewski, Jaroslaw P; Schwarz, Stephan; Göhring, Gudrun; Schlegelberger, Brigitte; Cseh, Annámaria; Noellke, Peter; Yoshimi, Ayami; Locatelli, Franco; Baumann, Irith; Strahm, Brigitte; Niemeyer, Charlotte M

    2016-03-17

    Germline GATA2 mutations cause cellular deficiencies with high propensity for myeloid disease. We investigated 426 children and adolescents with primary myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and 82 cases with secondary MDS enrolled in 2 consecutive prospective studies of the European Working Group of MDS in Childhood (EWOG-MDS) conducted in Germany over a period of 15 years. Germline GATA2 mutations accounted for 15% of advanced and 7% of all primary MDS cases, but were absent in children with MDS secondary to therapy or acquired aplastic anemia. Mutation carriers were older at diagnosis and more likely to present with monosomy 7 and advanced disease compared with wild-type cases. For stratified analysis according to karyotype, 108 additional primary MDS patients registered with EWOG-MDS were studied. Overall, we identified 57 MDS patients with germline GATA2 mutations. GATA2 mutations were highly prevalent among patients with monosomy 7 (37%, all ages) reaching its peak in adolescence (72% of adolescents with monosomy 7). Unexpectedly, monocytosis was more frequent in GATA2-mutated patients. However, when adjusted for the selection bias from monosomy 7, mutational status had no effect on the hematologic phenotype. Finally, overall survival and outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) were not influenced by mutational status. This study identifies GATA2 mutations as the most common germline defect predisposing to pediatric MDS with a very high prevalence in adolescents with monosomy 7. GATA2 mutations do not confer poor prognosis in childhood MDS. However, the high risk for progression to advanced disease must guide decision-making toward timely HSCT. PMID:26702063

  2. GATA-1 reprograms avian myelomonocytic cell lines into eosinophils, thromboblasts, and erythroblasts.

    PubMed

    Kulessa, H; Frampton, J; Graf, T

    1995-05-15

    The transcription factor GATA-1 is expressed in early hematopoietic progenitors and specifically down-regulated in myelomonocytic cells during lineage determination. Our earlier observation that the differentiation of Myb-Ets-transformed chicken hematopoietic progenitors into myeloblasts likewise involves a GATA-1 down-regulation, whereas expression is maintained in erythroid, thrombocytic, and eosinophilic derivatives, prompted us to study the effect of forced GATA-1 expression in Myb-Ets-transformed myeloblasts. We found that the factor rapidly suppresses myelomonocytic markers and induces a reprogramming of myeloblasts into cells resembling either transformed eosinophils or thromboblasts. In addition, we observed a correlation between the level of GATA-1 expression and the phenotype of the cell, intermediate levels of the factor being expressed by eosinophils and high levels by thromboblasts, suggesting a dosage effect of the factor. GATA-1 can also induce the formation of erythroblasts when expressed in a myelomonocytic cell line transformed with a Myb-Ets mutant containing a lesion in Ets. These cells mature into erythrocytes following temperature-inactivation of the Ets protein. Finally, the factor can reprogram a v-Myc-transformed macrophage cell line into myeloblasts, eosinophils, and erythroblasts, showing that the effects of GATA-1 are not limited to Myb-Ets-transformed myeloblasts. Our results suggest that GATA-1 is a lineage-determining transcription factor in transformed hematopoietic cells, which not only activates lineage-specific genetic programs but also suppresses myelomonocytic differentiation. They also point to a high degree of plasticity of transformed hematopoietic cells. PMID:7758949

  3. miR-451 regulates zebrafish erythroid maturation in vivo via its target gata2

    PubMed Central

    Pase, Luke; Layton, Judith E.; Kloosterman, Wigard P.; Carradice, Duncan; Waterhouse, Peter M.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate that in zebrafish, the microRNA miR-451 plays a crucial role in promoting erythroid maturation, in part via its target transcript gata2. Zebrafish miR-144 and miR-451 are processed from a single precursor transcript selectively expressed in erythrocytes. In contrast to other hematopoietic mutants, the zebrafish mutant meunier (mnr) showed intact erythroid specification but diminished miR-144/451 expression. Although erythropoiesis initiated normally in mnr, erythrocyte maturation was morphologically retarded. Morpholino knockdown of miR-451 increased erythrocyte immaturity in wild-type embryos, and miR-451 RNA duplexes partially rescued erythroid maturation in mnr, demonstrating a requirement and role for miR-451 in erythrocyte maturation. mnr provided a selectively miR-144/451-deficient background, facilitating studies to discern miRNA function and validate candidate targets. Among computer-predicted miR-451 targets potentially mediating these biologic effects, the pro-stem cell transcription factor gata2 was an attractive candidate. In vivo reporter assays validated the predicted miR-451/gata2-3′UTR interaction, gata2 down-regulation was delayed in miR-451-knockdown and mnr embryos, and gata2 knockdown partially restored erythroid maturation in mnr, collectively confirming gata2 down-regulation as pivotal for miR-451-driven erythroid maturation. These studies define a new genetic pathway promoting erythroid maturation (mnr/miR-451/gata2) and provide a rare example of partial rescue of a mutant phenotype solely by miRNA overexpression. PMID:18849488

  4. Diagnostic value of GATA-3 in cytological identification of parathyroid tissues.

    PubMed

    Takada, Nami; Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Suzuki, Ayana; Higuchi, Miyoko; Kuma, Seiji; Miyauchi, Akira

    2016-07-30

    Parathyroid and thyroid lesions appear morphologically similar in cytological smears, and their differentiation can be difficult. The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of T-cell-specific transcription factor GATA-3 as a marker of parathyroid differentiation in cytology specimens, and to examine the utility of liquid-based cytology (LBC). Cytology smears obtained from surgically removed parathyroid and thyroid specimens, including 15 normal parathyroid glands, 12 cases of parathyroid hyperplasia, 55 parathyroid adenomas, 2 follicular thyroid adenomas, and 3 papillary thyroid carcinomas, were examined by immunocytochemistry using antibodies against GATA-3, parathyroid hormone (PTH), chromogranin A, and thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1). All normal and hyperplastic parathyroids and 98.2% of parathyroid adenomas were positive for GATA-3, while 33.3%, 66.7%, and 60.0% of them, respectively, were positive for PTH. The positive rates for chromogranin A among normal parathyroids (80.0%) and parathyroid adenomas (87.3%) were lower than those for GATA-3. At the same time, all thyroid-derived tumours were positive for TTF-1 and negative for GATA-3, PTH, and chromogranin A. LBC smears of 35 parathyroid lesions indicated that the positive rates for GATA-3, PTH, and chromogranin A were 97.1 %, 97.1%, and 100%, respectively, while in conventional smears, those for PTH (25.5%) and chromogranin A (78.7%) were significantly lower (p < 0.01). Our results suggest that GATA-3 is a more reliable biomarker than PTH or chromogranin A in differentiating parathyroid from thyroid lesions in cytology smears and that LBC is useful in detecting cytoplasmic antigens such as PTH and chromogranin A. PMID:27097544

  5. Chemical Inhibition of Histone Deacetylases 1 and 2 Induces Fetal Hemoglobin through Activation of GATA2

    PubMed Central

    Golonzhka, Olga; Chonkar, Apurva; Tamang, David; van Duzer, John H.; Jones, Simon S.; Jarpe, Matthew B.

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic intervention aimed at reactivation of fetal hemoglobin protein (HbF) is a promising approach for ameliorating sickle cell disease (SCD) and β-thalassemia. Previous studies showed genetic knockdown of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 1 or 2 is sufficient to induce HbF. Here we show that ACY-957, a selective chemical inhibitor of HDAC1 and 2 (HDAC1/2), elicits a dose and time dependent induction of γ-globin mRNA (HBG) and HbF in cultured primary cells derived from healthy individuals and sickle cell patients. Gene expression profiling of erythroid progenitors treated with ACY-957 identified global changes in gene expression that were significantly enriched in genes previously shown to be affected by HDAC1 or 2 knockdown. These genes included GATA2, which was induced greater than 3-fold. Lentiviral overexpression of GATA2 in primary erythroid progenitors increased HBG, and reduced adult β-globin mRNA (HBB). Furthermore, knockdown of GATA2 attenuated HBG induction by ACY-957. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and sequencing (ChIP-Seq) of primary erythroid progenitors demonstrated that HDAC1 and 2 occupancy was highly correlated throughout the GATA2 locus and that HDAC1/2 inhibition led to elevated histone acetylation at well-known GATA2 autoregulatory regions. The GATA2 protein itself also showed increased binding at these regions in response to ACY-957 treatment. These data show that chemical inhibition of HDAC1/2 induces HBG and suggest that this effect is mediated, at least in part, by histone acetylation-induced activation of the GATA2 gene. PMID:27073918

  6. Genetic analysis of hierarchical regulation for Gata1 and NF-E2 p45 gene expression in megakaryopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Mariko; Fujita, Rie; Suzuki, Mikiko; Okuyama, Ryuhei; Aiba, Setsuya; Motohashi, Hozumi; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2010-06-01

    GATA1 and NF-E2 p45 are two important regulators of megakaryopoiesis. Whereas GATA1 is known to regulate the p45 gene, details of the GATA1 contribution to the spatiotemporal expression of the p45 gene remain to be elucidated. To clarify the relationship between GATA1 and p45, we performed genetic complementation rescue analysis of p45 function in megakaryocytes utilizing the hematopoietic regulatory domain of the Gata1 gene (G1HRD). We established transgenic mouse lines expressing p45 under G1HRD regulation and crossed the mice with p45-null mice. Compound mutant mice displayed normal platelet counts and no sign of hemorrhage, indicating that G1HRD has the ability to express p45 in a spatiotemporally correct manner. However, deletion of 38 amino acids from the N-terminal region of p45 abrogated the p45 rescue function, suggesting the presence of an essential transactivation activity in the region. We then crossed the G1HRD-p45 transgenic mice with megakaryocyte-specific Gata1 gene knockdown (Gata1(Delta)(neo)(Delta)(HS)) mice. The G1HRD-p45 transgene was insufficient for complete rescue of the Gata1(Delta)(neo)(Delta)(HS) megakaryocytes, suggesting that GATA1 or other factors regulated by GATA1 are required to cooperate with p45 for normal megakaryopoiesis. This study thus provides a unique in vivo validation of the hierarchical relationship between GATA1 and p45 in megakaryocytes. PMID:20351175

  7. Lck Mediates Th2 Differentiation through Effects on T-bet and GATA-3

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Kyeorda L.; Levin, Steven D.; Bryce, Paul J.; Stein, Paul L.

    2016-01-01

    The Src family kinase Lck has been shown to be crucial in T cell signaling and development. However, its role in Th effector functions is not well understood. Lck has previously been shown to play a role in the cytokine expression of Th2 cells, but the mechanism by which Lck influences Th2 effector functions is unknown. Using a mouse model, we report that Lck is important in regulating the expression of IL-4 in Th2 skewed cells but is not as necessary for the expression of Th2 cytokines IL-5, IL-10, and IL-13. Furthermore, in the absence of Lck, T-bet and GATA-3 expression is aberrant. Moreover, this atypical expression pattern of T-bet and GATA-3 correlates with increased histone 3 acetylation at the Ifng locus and production of the Th1 cytokine IFN-γ. We find overexpression of GATA-3 restores IL-4 expression in lck−/− Th2 cells; this indicates that the decreased IL-4 expression is due in part to reduced amounts of GATA-3. Taken together, these data imply that Lck mediates Th2 differentiation through effects on T-bet and GATA-3. PMID:20237292

  8. Anisomycin-induced GATA-6 degradation accompanying a decrease of proliferation of colorectal cancer cell.

    PubMed

    Ushijima, Hironori; Horyozaki, Akiko; Maeda, Masatomo

    2016-09-01

    Transcription factor GATA-6 plays a key role in normal cell differentiation of the mesoderm and endoderm. On the other hand, GATA-6 is abnormally overexpressed in many clinical gastrointestinal cancer tissue samples, and accelerates cell proliferation or an anti-apoptotic response in cancerous tissues. We previously showed that activation of the JNK signaling cascade causes proteolysis of GATA-6. In this study, we demonstrated that anisomycin, a JNK activator, stimulates nuclear export of GATA-6 in a colorectal cancer cell line, DLD-1. Concomitantly, anisomycin remarkably inhibits the proliferation of DLD-1 cells via G2/M arrest in a plate culture. However, it did not induce apoptosis under growth arrest conditions. Furthermore, the growth of DLD-1 cells in a spheroid culture was suppressed by anisomycin. Although 5-FU showed only a slight inhibitory effect on 3D spheroid cultures, the same concentration of 5-FU together with a low concentration of anisomycin exhibited strong growth inhibition. These results suggest that the induction of GATA-6 dysfunction may be more effective for chemotherapy for colorectal cancer, although the mechanism underlying the synergistic effect of 5-FU and anisomycin remains unknown. PMID:27404124

  9. Insight into GATA1 transcriptional activity through interrogation of cis elements disrupted in human erythroid disorders.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Aoi; Ulirsch, Jacob C; Ludwig, Leif S; Fiorini, Claudia; Yasuda, Makiko; Choudhuri, Avik; McDonel, Patrick; Zon, Leonard I; Sankaran, Vijay G

    2016-04-19

    Whole-exome sequencing has been incredibly successful in identifying causal genetic variants and has revealed a number of novel genes associated with blood and other diseases. One limitation of this approach is that it overlooks mutations in noncoding regulatory elements. Furthermore, the mechanisms by which mutations in transcriptionalcis-regulatory elements result in disease remain poorly understood. Here we used CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing to interrogate three such elements harboring mutations in human erythroid disorders, which in all cases are predicted to disrupt a canonical binding motif for the hematopoietic transcription factor GATA1. Deletions of as few as two to four nucleotides resulted in a substantial decrease (>80%) in target gene expression. Isolated deletions of the canonical GATA1 binding motif completely abrogated binding of the cofactor TAL1, which binds to a separate motif. Having verified the functionality of these three GATA1 motifs, we demonstrate strong evolutionary conservation of GATA1 motifs in regulatory elements proximal to other genes implicated in erythroid disorders, and show that targeted disruption of such elements results in altered gene expression. By modeling transcription factor binding patterns, we show that multiple transcription factors are associated with erythroid gene expression, and have created predictive maps modeling putative disruptions of their binding sites at key regulatory elements. Our study provides insight into GATA1 transcriptional activity and may prove a useful resource for investigating the pathogenicity of noncoding variants in human erythroid disorders. PMID:27044088

  10. Insight into GATA1 transcriptional activity through interrogation of cis elements disrupted in human erythroid disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wakabayashi, Aoi; Ulirsch, Jacob C.; Ludwig, Leif S.; Fiorini, Claudia; Yasuda, Makiko; Choudhuri, Avik; McDonel, Patrick; Zon, Leonard I.; Sankaran, Vijay G.

    2016-01-01

    Whole-exome sequencing has been incredibly successful in identifying causal genetic variants and has revealed a number of novel genes associated with blood and other diseases. One limitation of this approach is that it overlooks mutations in noncoding regulatory elements. Furthermore, the mechanisms by which mutations in transcriptional cis-regulatory elements result in disease remain poorly understood. Here we used CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing to interrogate three such elements harboring mutations in human erythroid disorders, which in all cases are predicted to disrupt a canonical binding motif for the hematopoietic transcription factor GATA1. Deletions of as few as two to four nucleotides resulted in a substantial decrease (>80%) in target gene expression. Isolated deletions of the canonical GATA1 binding motif completely abrogated binding of the cofactor TAL1, which binds to a separate motif. Having verified the functionality of these three GATA1 motifs, we demonstrate strong evolutionary conservation of GATA1 motifs in regulatory elements proximal to other genes implicated in erythroid disorders, and show that targeted disruption of such elements results in altered gene expression. By modeling transcription factor binding patterns, we show that multiple transcription factors are associated with erythroid gene expression, and have created predictive maps modeling putative disruptions of their binding sites at key regulatory elements. Our study provides insight into GATA1 transcriptional activity and may prove a useful resource for investigating the pathogenicity of noncoding variants in human erythroid disorders. PMID:27044088

  11. Vertebrate heart growth is regulated by functional antagonism between Gridlock and Gata5

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Haibo; King, Isabelle N.; Chopra, Sameer S.; Wan, Haiyan; Ni, Terri T.; Jiang, Charlie; Guan, Xiaoqun; Wells, Sam; Srivastava, Deepak; Zhong, Tao P.

    2007-01-01

    Embryonic organs attain their final dimensions through the generation of proper cell number and size, but the control mechanisms remain obscure. Here, we establish Gridlock (Grl), a Hairy-related basic helix–loop–helix (bHLH) transcription factor, as a negative regulator of cardiomyocyte proliferative growth in zebrafish embryos. Mutations in grl cause an increase in expression of a group of immediate-early growth genes, myocardial genes, and development of hyperplastic hearts. Conversely, cardiomyocytes with augmented Grl activity have diminished cell volume and fail to divide, resulting in a marked reduction in heart size. Both bHLH domain and carboxyl region are required for Grl negative control of myocardial proliferative growth. These Grl-induced cardiac effects are counterbalanced by the transcriptional activator Gata5 but not Gata4, which promotes cardiomyocyte expansion in the embryo. Biochemical analyses show that Grl forms a complex with Gata5 through the carboxyl region and can repress Gata5-mediated transcription via the bHLH domain. Hence, our studies suggest that Grl regulates embryonic heart growth via opposing Gata5, at least in part through their protein interactions in modulating gene expression. PMID:17715064

  12. Histone Methyltransferase Setd8 Represses Gata2 Expression and Regulates Erythroid Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Jeffrey; Getman, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Setd8 is the sole histone methyltransferase in mammals capable of monomethylating histone H4 lysine 20 (H4K20me1). Setd8 is expressed at significantly higher levels in erythroid cells than any other cell or tissue type, suggesting that Setd8 has an erythroid-cell-specific function. To test this hypothesis, stable Setd8 knockdown was established in extensively self-renewing erythroblasts (ESREs), a well-characterized, nontransformed model of erythroid maturation. Knockdown of Setd8 resulted in impaired erythroid maturation characterized by a delay in hemoglobin accumulation, larger mean cell area, persistent ckit expression, incomplete nuclear condensation, and lower rates of enucleation. Setd8 knockdown did not alter ESRE proliferation or viability or result in accumulation of DNA damage. Global gene expression analyses following Setd8 knockdown demonstrated that in erythroid cells, Setd8 functions primarily as a repressor. Most notably, Gata2 expression was significantly higher in knockdown cells than in control cells and Gata2 knockdown rescued some of the maturation impairments associated with Setd8 disruption. Setd8 occupies critical regulatory elements in the Gata2 locus, and knockdown of Setd8 resulted in loss of H4K20me1 and gain of H4 acetylation at the Gata2 1S promoter. These results suggest that Setd8 is an important regulator of erythroid maturation that works in part through repression of Gata2 expression. PMID:25848090

  13. KLF1 stabilizes GATA-1 and TAL1 occupancy in the human β-globin locus.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yujin; Kim, Yea Woon; Yun, Jangmi; Shin, Jongo; Kim, AeRi

    2015-03-01

    KLF1 is an erythroid specific transcription factor that binds to regulatory regions of erythroid genes. Binding sites of KLF1 are often found near binding sites of GATA-1 and TAL1. In the β-globin locus, KLF1 is required for forming active chromatin structure, although its role is unclear. To explore the role of KLF1 in transcribing the human γ-globin genes, we stably reduced the expression of KLF1 in erythroid K562 cells, compromising its association in the β-globin locus. The γ-globin transcription was reduced with disappearance of active chromatin structure of the locus in the KLF1 knockdown cells. Interestingly, GATA-1 and TAL1 binding was reduced in the β-globin locus, even though their expressions were not affected by KLF1 knockdown. The KLF1-dependent GATA-1 and TAL1 binding was observed in the adult locus transcribing the β-globin gene and in several erythroid genes, where GATA-1 occupancy is independent from TAL1. These results indicate that KLF1 plays a role in facilitating and/or stabilizing GATA-1 and TAL1 occupancy in the erythroid genes, contributing to the generation of active chromatin structure such as histone acetylation and chromatin looping. PMID:25528728

  14. GATA4 regulates Fgf16 to promote heart repair after injury.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wei; Huang, Xiuzhen; Tian, Xueying; Zhang, Hui; He, Lingjuan; Wang, Yue; Nie, Yu; Hu, Shengshou; Lin, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Bin; Pu, William; Lui, Kathy O; Zhou, Bin

    2016-03-15

    Although the mammalian heart can regenerate during the neonatal stage, this endogenous regenerative capacity is lost with age. Importantly, replication of cardiomyocytes has been found to be the key mechanism responsible for neonatal cardiac regeneration. Unraveling the transcriptional regulatory network for inducing cardiomyocyte replication will, therefore, be crucial for the development of novel therapies to drive cardiac repair after injury. Here, we investigated whether the key cardiac transcription factor GATA4 is required for neonatal mouse heart regeneration. Using the neonatal mouse heart cryoinjury and apical resection models with an inducible loss of GATA4 specifically in cardiomyocytes, we found severely depressed ventricular function in the Gata4-ablated mice (mutant) after injury. This was accompanied by reduced cardiomyocyte replication. In addition, the mutant hearts displayed impaired coronary angiogenesis and increased hypertrophy and fibrosis after injury. Mechanistically, we found that the paracrine factor FGF16 was significantly reduced in the mutant hearts after injury compared with littermate controls and was directly regulated by GATA4. Cardiac-specific overexpression of FGF16 via adeno-associated virus subtype 9 (AAV9) in the mutant hearts partially rescued the cryoinjury-induced cardiac hypertrophy, promoted cardiomyocyte replication and improved heart function after injury. Altogether, our data demonstrate that GATA4 is required for neonatal heart regeneration through regulation of Fgf16, suggesting that paracrine factors could be of potential use in promoting myocardial repair. PMID:26893347

  15. GATA2 regulates Wnt signaling to promote primitive red blood cell fate.

    PubMed

    Mimoto, Mizuho S; Kwon, Sunjong; Green, Yangsook Song; Goldman, Devorah; Christian, Jan L

    2015-11-01

    Primitive erythropoiesis is regulated in a non cell-autonomous fashion across evolution from frogs to mammals. In Xenopus laevis, signals from the overlying ectoderm are required to induce the mesoderm to adopt an erythroid fate. Previous studies in our lab identified the transcription factor GATA2 as a key regulator of this ectodermal signal. To identify GATA2 target genes in the ectoderm required for red blood cell formation in the mesoderm, we used microarray analysis to compare gene expression in ectoderm from GATA2 depleted and wild type embryos. Our analysis identified components of the non-canonical and canonical Wnt pathways as being reciprocally up- and down-regulated downstream of GATA2 in both mesoderm and ectoderm. We show that up-regulation of canonical Wnt signaling during gastrulation blocks commitment to a hematopoietic fate while down-regulation of non-canonical Wnt signaling impairs erythroid differentiation. Our results are consistent with a model in which GATA2 contributes to inhibition of canonical Wnt signaling, thereby permitting progenitors to exit the cell cycle and commit to a hematopoietic fate. Subsequently, activation of non-canonical Wnt signaling plays a later role in enabling these progenitors to differentiate as mature red blood cells. PMID:26365900

  16. GATA1 mutations in a cohort of Malaysian children with Down syndrome-associated myeloid disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lum, Su Han; Choong, Soo Sin; Krishnan, Shekhar; Mohamed, Zulqarnain; Ariffin, Hany

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Children with Down syndrome (DS) are at increased risk of developing distinctive clonal myeloid disorders, including transient abnormal myelopoiesis (TAM) and myeloid leukaemia of DS (ML-DS). TAM connotes a spontaneously resolving congenital myeloproliferative state observed in 10%–20% of DS newborns. Following varying intervals of apparent remission, a proportion of children with TAM progress to develop ML-DS in early childhood. Therefore, TAM and ML-DS represent a biological continuum. Both disorders are characterised by recurring truncating somatic mutations of the GATA1 gene, which are considered key pathogenetic events. METHODS We herein report, to our knowledge, the first observation on the frequency and nature of GATA1 gene mutations in a cohort of Malaysian children with DS-associated TAM (n = 9) and ML-DS (n = 24) encountered successively over a period of five years at a national referral centre. RESULTS Of the 29 patients who underwent GATA1 analysis, GATA1 mutations were observed in 15 (51.7%) patients, including 6 (75.0%) out of 8 patients with TAM, and 9 (42.9%) of 21 patients with ML-DS. All identified mutations were located in exon 2 and the majority were sequence-terminating insertions or deletions (66.7%), including several hitherto unreported mutations (12 out of 15). CONCLUSION The low frequency of GATA1 mutations in ML-DS patients is unusual and potentially indicates distinctive genomic events in our patient cohort. PMID:27353457

  17. LLM-Domain Containing B-GATA Factors Control Different Aspects of Cytokinin-Regulated Development in Arabidopsis thaliana1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Ranftl, Quirin L.; Bastakis, Emmanouil; Klermund, Carina

    2016-01-01

    Leu-Leu-Met (LLM)-domain B-GATAs are a subfamily of the 30-membered GATA transcription factor family from Arabidopsis. Only two of the six Arabidopsis LLM-domain B-GATAs, i.e. GATA, NITRATE-INDUCIBLE, CARBON METABOLISM-INVOLVED (GNC) and its paralog GNC-LIKE/CYTOKININ-RESPONSIVE GATA FACTOR1 (GNL), have already been analyzed with regard to their biological function. Together, GNC and GNL control germination, greening, flowering time, and senescence downstream from auxin, cytokinin (CK), gibberellin (GA), and light signaling. Whereas overexpression and complementation analyses suggest a redundant biochemical function between GNC and GNL, nothing is known about the biological role of the four other LLM-domain B-GATAs, GATA15, GATA16, GATA17, and GATA17L (GATA17-LIKE), based on loss-of-function mutant phenotypes. Here, we examine insertion mutants of the six Arabidopsis B-GATA genes and reveal the role of these genes in the control of greening, hypocotyl elongation, phyllotaxy, floral organ initiation, accessory meristem formation, flowering time, and senescence. Several of these phenotypes had previously not been described for the gnc and gnl mutants or were enhanced in the more complex mutants when compared to gnc gnl mutants. Some of the respective responses may be mediated by CK signaling, which activates the expression of all six GATA genes. CK-induced gene expression is partially compromised in LLM-domain B-GATA mutants, suggesting that B-GATA genes play a role in CK responses. We furthermore provide evidence for a transcriptional cross regulation between these GATAs that may, in at least some cases, be at the basis of their apparent functional redundancy. PMID:26829982

  18. Global transcriptome and chromatin occupancy analysis reveal the short isoform of GATA1 is deficient for erythroid specification and gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Chlon, Timothy M.; McNulty, Maureen; Goldenson, Benjamin; Rosinski, Alexander; Crispino, John D.

    2015-01-01

    GATA1 is a master transcriptional regulator of the differentiation of several related myeloid blood cell types, including erythrocytes and megakaryocytes. Germ-line mutations that cause loss of full length GATA1, but allow for expression of the short isoform (GATA1s), are associated with defective erythropoiesis in a subset of patients with Diamond Blackfan Anemia. Despite extensive studies of GATA1s in megakaryopoiesis, the mechanism by which GATA1s fails to support normal erythropoiesis is not understood. In this study, we used global gene expression and chromatin occupancy analysis to compare the transcriptional activity of GATA1s to GATA1. We discovered that compared to GATA1, GATA1s is less able to activate the erythroid gene expression program and terminal differentiation in cells with dual erythroid-megakaryocytic differentiation potential. Moreover, we found that GATA1s bound to many of its erythroid-specific target genes less efficiently than full length GATA1. These results suggest that the impaired ability of GATA1s to promote erythropoiesis in DBA may be caused by failure to occupy erythroid-specific gene regulatory elements. PMID:25682601

  19. Global transcriptome and chromatin occupancy analysis reveal the short isoform of GATA1 is deficient for erythroid specification and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Chlon, Timothy M; McNulty, Maureen; Goldenson, Benjamin; Rosinski, Alexander; Crispino, John D

    2015-05-01

    GATA1 is a master transcriptional regulator of the differentiation of several related myeloid blood cell types, including erythrocytes and megakaryocytes. Germ-line mutations that cause loss of full length GATA1, but allow for expression of the short isoform (GATA1s), are associated with defective erythropoiesis in a subset of patients with Diamond Blackfan Anemia. Despite extensive studies of GATA1s in megakaryopoiesis, the mechanism by which GATA1s fails to support normal erythropoiesis is not understood. In this study, we used global gene expression and chromatin occupancy analysis to compare the transcriptional activity of GATA1s to GATA1. We discovered that compared to GATA1, GATA1s is less able to activate the erythroid gene expression program and terminal differentiation in cells with dual erythroid-megakaryocytic differentiation potential. Moreover, we found that GATA1s bound to many of its erythroid-specific target genes less efficiently than full length GATA1. These results suggest that the impaired ability of GATA1s to promote erythropoiesis in DBA may be caused by failure to occupy erythroid-specific gene regulatory elements. PMID:25682601

  20. Loss of c-Kit and bone marrow failure upon conditional removal of the GATA-2 C-terminal zinc finger domain in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiyan S; Jin, Jin; Liang, Xiaoxuan; Matatall, Katie A; Ma, Ying; Zhang, Huiyuan; Ullrich, Stephen E; King, Katherine Y; Sun, Shao-Cong; Watowich, Stephanie S

    2016-09-01

    Heterozygous mutations in the transcriptional regulator GATA-2 associate with multilineage immunodeficiency, myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The majority of these mutations localize in the zinc finger (ZnF) domains, which mediate GATA-2 DNA binding. Deregulated hematopoiesis with GATA-2 mutation frequently develops in adulthood, yet GATA-2 function in the bone marrow remains unresolved. To investigate this, we conditionally deleted the GATA-2 C-terminal ZnF (C-ZnF) coding sequences in adult mice. Upon Gata2 C-ZnF deletion, we observed rapid peripheral cytopenia, bone marrow failure, and decreased c-Kit expression on hematopoietic progenitors. Transplant studies indicated GATA-2 has a cell-autonomous role in bone marrow hematopoiesis. Moreover, myeloid lineage populations were particularly sensitive to Gata2 hemizygosity, while molecular assays indicated GATA-2 regulates c-Kit expression in multilineage progenitor cells. Enforced c-Kit expression in Gata2 C-ZnF-deficient hematopoietic progenitors enhanced myeloid colony activity, suggesting GATA-2 sustains myelopoiesis via a cell intrinsic role involving maintenance of c-Kit expression. Our results provide insight into mechanisms regulating hematopoiesis in bone marrow and may contribute to a better understanding of immunodeficiency and bone marrow failure associated with GATA-2 mutation. PMID:26660446

  1. Efficient production of platelets from mouse embryonic stem cells by enforced expression of Gata2 in late hemogenic endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Manami; Kitajima, Kenji; Kanokoda, Mai; Suzuki, Hidenori; Miyashita, Kazuya; Nakajima, Marino; Nuriya, Hideko; Kasahara, Kohji; Hara, Takahiko

    2016-06-01

    Platelets are essential for blood circulation and coagulation. Previous study indicated that overexpression of Gata2 in differentiated mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) resulted in robust induction of megakaryocytes (Mks). To evaluate platelet production capacity of the Gata2-induced ESC-derived Mks, we generated iGata2-ESC line carrying the doxycycline-inducible Gata2 expression cassette. When doxycycline was added to day 5 hemogenic endothelial cells in the in vitro differentiation culture of iGata2-ESCs, c-Kit(-)Tie2(-)CD41(+) Mks were predominantly generated. These iGata2-ESC-derived Mks efficiently produced CD41(+)CD42b(+)CD61(+) platelets and adhered to fibrinogen-coated glass coverslips in response to thrombin stimulation. Transmission electron microscopy analysis demonstrated that the iGata2-ESC-derived platelets were discoid-shaped with α-granules and an open canalicular system, but were larger than peripheral blood platelets in size. These results demonstrated that an enforced expression of Gata2 in late HECs of differentiated ESCs efficiently promotes megakaryopoiesis followed by platelet production. This study provides valuable information for ex vivo platelet production from human pluripotent stem cells in future. PMID:27131743

  2. Gata3/Ruvbl2 complex regulates T helper 2 cell proliferation via repression of Cdkn2c expression

    PubMed Central

    Hosokawa, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Tomoaki; Kato, Miki; Shinoda, Kenta; Tohyama, Hiroyuki; Hanazawa, Asami; Tamaki, Yuuki; Hirahara, Kiyoshi; Yagi, Ryoji; Sakikawa, Ikue; Morita, Atsushi; Nagira, Morio; Poyurovsky, Masha V.; Suzuki, Yutaka; Motohashi, Shinichiro; Nakayama, Toshinori

    2013-01-01

    GATA-binding protein 3 (Gata3) controls the differentiation of naive CD4 T cells into T helper 2 (Th2) cells by induction of chromatin remodeling of the Th2 cytokine gene loci, direct transactivation of Il5 and Il13 genes, and inhibition of Ifng. Gata3 also facilitates Th2 cell proliferation via additional mechanisms that are far less well understood. We herein found that Gata3 associates with RuvB-like protein 2 (Ruvbl2) and represses the expression of a CDK inhibitor, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2c (Cdkn2c) to facilitate the proliferation of Th2 cells. Gata3 directly bound to the Cdkn2c locus in an Ruvbl2-dependent manner. The defect in the proliferation of Gata3-deficient Th2 cells is rescued by the knockdown of Cdkn2c, indicating that Cdkn2c is a key molecule involved in the Gata3-mediated induction of Th2 cell proliferation. Ruvbl2-knockdown Th2 cells showed decreased antigen-induced expansion and caused less airway inflammation in vivo. We therefore have identified a functional Gata3/Ruvbl2 complex that regulates the proliferation of differentiating Th2 cells through the repression of a CDK inhibitor, Cdkn2c. PMID:24167278

  3. Gata3 Hypomorphic Mutant Mice Rescued with a Yeast Artificial Chromosome Transgene Suffer a Glomerular Mesangial Cell Defect.

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, Takashi; Yu, Lei; Otsuki, Akihito; Ainoya, Keiko; Lim, Kim-Chew; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Engel, James Douglas

    2016-09-01

    GATA3 is a zinc finger transcription factor that plays a crucial role in embryonic kidney development, while its precise functions in the adult kidney remain largely unexplored. Here, we demonstrate that GATA3 is specifically expressed in glomerular mesangial cells and plays a critical role in the maintenance of renal glomerular function. Newly generated Gata3 hypomorphic mutant mice exhibited neonatal lethality associated with severe renal hypoplasia. Normal kidney size was restored by breeding the hypomorphic mutant with a rescuing transgenic mouse line bearing a 662-kb Gata3 yeast artificial chromosome (YAC), and these animals (termed G3YR mice) survived to adulthood. However, most of the G3YR mice showed degenerative changes in glomerular mesangial cells, which deteriorated progressively during postnatal development. Consequently, the G3YR adult mice suffered severe renal failure. We found that the 662-kb Gata3 YAC transgene recapitulated Gata3 expression in the renal tubules but failed to direct sufficient GATA3 activity to mesangial cells. Renal glomeruli of the G3YR mice had significantly reduced amounts of platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), which is known to participate in the development and maintenance of glomerular mesangial cells. These results demonstrate a critical role for GATA3 in the maintenance of mesangial cells and its absolute requirement for prevention of glomerular disease. PMID:27296697

  4. High-Throughput siRNA Screening to Reveal GATA-2 Upstream Transcriptional Mechanisms in Hematopoietic Cells.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yo; Fujiwara, Tohru; Ohashi, Keiichi; Okitsu, Yoko; Fukuhara, Noriko; Onishi, Yasushi; Ishizawa, Kenichi; Harigae, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells can self-renew and differentiate into all blood cell types. The transcription factor GATA-2 is expressed in both hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and is essential for cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. Recently, evidence from studies of aplastic anemia, MonoMAC syndrome, and lung cancer has demonstrated a mechanistic link between GATA-2 and human pathophysiology. GATA-2-dependent disease processes have been extensively analyzed; however, the transcriptional mechanisms upstream of GATA-2 remain less understood. Here, we conducted high-throughput small-interfering-RNA (siRNA) library screening and showed that YN-1, a human erythroleukemia cell line, expressed high levels of GATA-2 following the activation of the hematopoietic-specific 1S promoter. As transient luciferase reporter assay in YN-1 cells revealed the highest promoter activity in the 1S promoter fused with GATA-2 intronic enhancer (+9.9 kb/1S); therefore, we established a cell line capable of stably expressing +9.9 kb/1S-Luciferase. Subsequently, we screened 995 transcription factor genes and revealed that CITED2 acts as a GATA-2 activator in human hematopoietic cells. These results provide novel insights into and further identify the regulatory mechanism of GATA-2. PMID:26325290

  5. The transcription factor GATA3 actively represses RUNX3 protein-regulated production of interferon-gamma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The transcription factor GATA3 is crucial for the differentiation of naive CD4+ T cells into T helper 2 (Th2) cells. Here, we show that deletion of Gata3 allowed the appearance of interferon-g (IFN-g)-producing cells in the absence of interleukin-12 (IL-12) and IFN-g. Such IFN-g production was tra...

  6. Serine 105 phosphorylation of transcription factor GATA4 is necessary for stress-induced cardiac hypertrophy in vivo

    PubMed Central

    van Berlo, Jop H.; Elrod, John W.; Aronow, Bruce J.; Pu, William T.; Molkentin, Jeffery D.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is an adaptive growth process that occurs in response to stress stimulation or injury wherein multiple signal transduction pathways are induced, culminating in transcription factor activation and the reprogramming of gene expression. GATA4 is a critical transcription factor in the heart that is known to induce/regulate the hypertrophic program, in part, by receiving signals from MAPKs. Here we generated knock-in mice in which a known MAPK phosphorylation site at serine 105 (S105) in Gata4 that augments activity was mutated to alanine. Homozygous Gata4-S105A mutant mice were viable as adults, although they showed a compromised stress response of the myocardium. For example, cardiac hypertrophy in response to phenylephrine agonist infusion for 2 wk was largely blunted in Gata4-S105A mice, as was the hypertrophic response to pressure overload at 1 and 2 wk of applied stimulation. Gata4-S105A mice were also more susceptible to heart failure and cardiac dilation after 2 wk of pressure overload. With respect to the upstream pathway, hearts from Gata4-S105A mice did not efficiently hypertrophy following direct ERK1/2 activation using an activated MEK1 transgene in vivo. Mechanistically, GATA4 mutant protein from these hearts failed to show enhanced DNA binding in response to hypertrophic stimulation. Moreover, hearts from Gata4-S105A mice had significant changes in the expression of hypertrophy-inducible, fetal, and remodeling-related genes. PMID:21746915

  7. High-Throughput siRNA Screening to Reveal GATA-2 Upstream Transcriptional Mechanisms in Hematopoietic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Yo; Fujiwara, Tohru; Ohashi, Keiichi; Okitsu, Yoko; Fukuhara, Noriko; Onishi, Yasushi; Ishizawa, Kenichi; Harigae, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells can self-renew and differentiate into all blood cell types. The transcription factor GATA-2 is expressed in both hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and is essential for cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. Recently, evidence from studies of aplastic anemia, MonoMAC syndrome, and lung cancer has demonstrated a mechanistic link between GATA-2 and human pathophysiology. GATA-2-dependent disease processes have been extensively analyzed; however, the transcriptional mechanisms upstream of GATA-2 remain less understood. Here, we conducted high-throughput small-interfering-RNA (siRNA) library screening and showed that YN-1, a human erythroleukemia cell line, expressed high levels of GATA-2 following the activation of the hematopoietic-specific 1S promoter. As transient luciferase reporter assay in YN-1 cells revealed the highest promoter activity in the 1S promoter fused with GATA-2 intronic enhancer (+9.9 kb/1S); therefore, we established a cell line capable of stably expressing +9.9 kb/1S-Luciferase. Subsequently, we screened 995 transcription factor genes and revealed that CITED2 acts as a GATA-2 activator in human hematopoietic cells. These results provide novel insights into and further identify the regulatory mechanism of GATA-2. PMID:26325290

  8. The GATA3 gene is involved in leprosy susceptibility in Brazilian patients.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Priscila; da Silva, Weber Laurentino; de Oliveira Gimenez, Bruna Beatriz; Vallezi, Keren Bastos; Moraes, Milton Ozório; de Souza, Vânia Niéto Brito; Latini, Ana Carla Pereira

    2016-04-01

    Leprosy outcome is a complex trait and the host-pathogen-environment interaction defines the emergence of the disease. Host genetic risk factors have been successfully associated to leprosy. The 10p13 chromosomal region was linked to leprosy in familial studies and GATA3 gene is a strong candidate to be part of this association. Here, we tested tag single nucleotide polymorphisms at GATA3 in two case-control samples from Brazil comprising a total of 1633 individuals using stepwise strategy. The A allele of rs10905284 marker was associated with leprosy resistance. Then, a functional analysis was conducted and showed that individuals carrying AA genotype express higher levels of GATA-3 protein in lymphocytes. So, we confirmed that the rs10905284 is a locus associated to leprosy and influences the levels of this transcription factor in the Brazilian population. PMID:26807920

  9. A Child With Dyserythropoietic Anemia and Megakaryocyte Dysplasia Due to a Novel 5'UTR GATA1s Splice Mutation.

    PubMed

    Zucker, Jacob; Temm, Constance; Czader, Magdalena; Nalepa, Grzegorz

    2016-05-01

    We describe a child with dyserythropoietic anemia, thrombocytosis, functional platelet defect, and megakaryocyte dysplasia. We show that (i) this constellation of hematopoietic abnormalities was due to a germline mutation within the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) of globin transcription factor 1 (GATA1); (ii) the mutation impaired a 5'UTR GATA1 splicing site, with promoted production of the shortened GATA1 isoform lacking the N-terminus; and (iii) expression of the GATA1 N-terminus is restricted to erythroblasts and megakaryocytes in normal marrow, consistent with the patient's abnormal erythropoiesis and megakaryopoiesis. Our findings provide insights into the clinically relevant in vivo function of the N-terminal domain of GATA1 in human hematopoiesis. PMID:26713410

  10. Expression patterns of GATA3 and the androgen receptor are strongly correlated in patients with triple-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sewha; Moon, Byung-In; Lim, Woosung; Park, Sanghui; Cho, Min Sun; Sung, Sun Hee

    2016-09-01

    GATA-binding protein 3 (GATA3) is a diagnostically useful immunohistochemical marker of breast cancer. Because of its strong association with estrogen receptor expression, GATA3 has markedly reduced sensitivity in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). We constructed a tissue microarray using a large series of TNBCs and evaluated GATA3 expression by TNBC subtype as defined by surrogate immunohistochemical markers. A total of 205 TNBCs were classified into cancers of the molecular apocrine type (n=23, 11.2%), claudin-low type (n=21, 10.2%), basal-like type (n=91, 44.4%), mixed type (n=62, 30.2%), and null type (n=8, 3.9%). The GATA3 scores (staining intensity × proportion) were categorized as negative (0), focally positive (1-10), or positive (11-300). GATA3 staining was negative in 153 cancers (74.6%), focally positive in 11 (5.4%), and positive in 41 (20.0%). The rate of focal positivity or positivity for GATA3 was significantly higher in the molecular apocrine type (73.9%, 17/23) than in other types of TNBCs (P=.001). The mean GATA3 score of molecular apocrine-type TNBC was significantly higher than that of the other types (P=.001) and differed significantly between androgen receptor (AR)-positive and AR-negative TNBCs (P<.001). In conclusion, GATA3 expression was correlated strongly with AR-positive, molecular apocrine-type TNBCs. Co-expression of AR and GATA3 is a specific feature of molecular apocrine-type TNBC, which may serve as a diagnostic aid for cancer of unknown primary. PMID:27184484

  11. NK Cell-Specific Gata3 Ablation Identifies the Maturation Program Required for Bone Marrow Exit and Control of Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Ali, Alaa Kassim; Oh, Jun Seok; Vivier, Eric; Busslinger, Meinrad; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2016-02-15

    NK cells are innate lymphocytes capable of eliciting an innate immune response to pathogens. NK cells develop and become mature in the bone marrow (BM) before they migrate out to peripheral organs. Although the developmental program leading to mature NK cells has been studied in the context of several transcription factors, the stage-specific role of GATA3 in NK cell development has been incompletely understood. Using NKp46-Cre-Gata3(fl/fl) mice in which Gata3 deficiency was induced as early as the immature stage of NK cell differentiation, we demonstrated that GATA3 is required for the NK cell maturation beyond the CD27 single-positive stage and is indispensable for the maintenance of liver-resident NK cells. The frequencies of NK cells from NKp46-Cre-Gata3(fl/fl) mice were found higher in the BM but lower in peripheral organs compared with control littermates, indicating that GATA3 controls the maturation program required for BM egress. Despite the defect in maturation, upon murine CMV infection, NK cells from NKp46-Cre-Gata3(fl/fl) mice expanded vigorously, achieving NK cell frequencies surpassing those in controls and therefore provided comparable protection. The heightened proliferation of NK cells from NKp46-Cre-Gata3(fl/fl) mice was cell intrinsic and associated with enhanced upregulation of CD25 expression. Taken together, our results demonstrate that GATA3 is a critical regulator for NK cell terminal maturation and egress out of the BM and that immature NK cells present in the periphery of NKp46-Cre-Gata3(fl/fl) mice can rapidly expand and provide a reservoir of NK cells capable of mounting an efficient cytotoxic response upon virus infection. PMID:26773150

  12. X-linked thrombocytopenia with thalassemia from a mutation in the amino finger of GATA-1 affecting DNA binding rather than FOG-1 interaction

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Channing; Niakan, Kathy K.; Matsushita, Mark; Stamatoyannopoulos, George; Orkin, Stuart H.; Raskind, Wendy H.

    2010-01-01

    Transcription factor GATA-1 is essential for the development of erythroid cells and megakaryocytes. Each of its 2 zinc fingers is critical for normal function. The C-terminal finger is necessary for DNA binding. The N finger mediates interaction with FOG-1, a cofactor for GATA-1, and also modulates DNA-binding affinity, notably at complex or palindromic GATA sites. Residues of the N finger–mediating interaction with FOG-1 lie on the surface of the N finger facing away from DNA. Strong sequence conservation of residues facing DNA suggests that this other surface may also have an important role. We report here that a syndrome of X-linked thrombocytopenia with thalassemia in humans is caused by a missense mutation (Arg216Gln) in the GATA-1 N finger. To investigate the functional consequences of this substitution, we used site-directed mutagenesis to alter the corresponding residue in GATA-1. Compared with wild-type GATA-1, Arg216Gln GATA-1 shows comparable affinity to single GATA sites but decreased affinity to palindromic sites. Arg216Gln GATA-1 interacts with FOG-1 similarly with wild-type GATA-1. Arg216Gln GATA-1 supports erythroid maturation of GATA-1 erythroid cells, albeit at reduced efficiency compared with wild-type GATA-1. Together, these findings suggest that residues of the N finger of GATA-1–facing DNA contribute to GATA-1 function apart from interaction with the cofactor FOG-1. This is also the first example of β-thalassemia in humans caused by a mutation in an erythroid transcription factor. PMID:12200364

  13. CCAR1/CoCoA pair-mediated recruitment of the Mediator defines a novel pathway for GATA1 function

    PubMed Central

    Mizuta, Shumpei; Minami, Tomoya; Fujita, Haruka; Kaminaga, Chihiro; Matsui, Keiji; Ishino, Ruri; Fujita, Azusa; Oda, Kasumi; Kawai, Asami; Hasegawa, Natsumi; Urahama, Norinaga; Roeder, Robert G.; Ito, Mitsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The MED1 subunit of the Mediator transcriptional coregulator complex coactivates GATA1 and induces erythropoiesis. Here, we show the dual mechanism of GATA1- and MED1-mediated transcription. MED1 expression levels in K562 erythroleukemia cells paralleled the levels of GATA1-targeted gene transcription and erythroid differentiation. An N-terminal fragment of MED1, MED1(1–602), which is incapable of interacting with GATA1, enhanced GATA1-targeted gene transcription and erythroid differentiation, and introduction of MED1(1–602) into Med1−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) partially rescued GATA1-mediated transcription. The C-terminal zinc-finger domain of GATA1 interacts with the MED1(1–602)-interacting coactivator CCAR1, CoCoA, and MED1(681–715). CCAR1 and CoCoA synergistically enhanced GATA1-mediated transcription from the γ-globin promoter in MEFs. Recombinant GATA1, CCAR1, CoCoA, and MED1(1–602) formed a complex in vitro, and GATA1, CCAR1, CoCoA, and MED1 were recruited to the γ-globin promoter in K562 cells during erythroid differentiation. Therefore, in addition to the direct interaction between GATA1 and MED1, CoCoA and CCAR1 appear to relay the GATA1 signal to MED1, and multiple modes of the GATA1-MED1 axis may help to fine-tune GATA1 function during GATA1-mediated homeostasis events. PMID:24245781

  14. The GATA-4 transcription factor transactivates the cardiac muscle-specific troponin C promoter-enhancer in nonmuscle cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ip, H S; Wilson, D B; Heikinheimo, M; Tang, Z; Ting, C N; Simon, M C; Leiden, J M; Parmacek, M S

    1994-01-01

    The unique contractile phenotype of cardiac myocytes is determined by the expression of a set of cardiac muscle-specific genes. By analogy to other mammalian developmental systems, it is likely that the coordinate expression of cardiac genes is controlled by lineage-specific transcription factors that interact with promoter and enhancer elements in the transcriptional regulatory regions of these genes. Although previous reports have identified several cardiac muscle-specific transcriptional elements, relatively little is known about the lineage-specific transcription factors that regulate these elements. In this report, we demonstrate that the slow/cardiac muscle-specific troponin C (cTnC) enhancer contains a specific binding site for the lineage-restricted zinc finger transcription factor GATA-4. This GATA-4-binding site is required for enhancer activity in primary cardiac myocytes. Moreover, the cTnC enhancer can be transactivated by overexpression of GATA-4 in non-cardiac muscle cells such as NIH 3T3 cells. In situ hybridization studies demonstrate that GATA-4 and cTnC have overlapping patterns of expression in the hearts of postimplantation mouse embryos and that GATA-4 gene expression precedes cTnC expression. Indirect immunofluorescence reveals GATA-4 expression in cultured cardiac myocytes from neonatal rats. Taken together, these results are consistent with a model in which GATA-4 functions to direct tissue-specific gene expression during mammalian cardiac development. Images PMID:7935467

  15. Loss of B cells and their precursors is the most constant feature of GATA-2 deficiency in childhood myelodysplastic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Nováková, Michaela; Žaliová, Markéta; Suková, Martina; Wlodarski, Marcin; Janda, Aleš; Froňková, Eva; Campr, Vít; Lejhancová, Kateřina; Zapletal, Ondřej; Pospíšilová, Dagmar; Černá, Zdeňka; Kuhn, Tomáš; Švec, Peter; Pelková, Vendula; Zemanová, Zuzana; Kerndrup, Gitte; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry; van der Velden, Vincent; Niemeyer, Charlotte; Kalina, Tomáš; Trka, Jan; Starý, Jan; Hrušák, Ondřej; Mejstříková, Ester

    2016-01-01

    GATA-2 deficiency was recently described as common cause of overlapping syndromes of immunodeficiency, lymphedema, familiar myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukemia. The aim of our study was to analyze bone marrow and peripheral blood samples of children with myelodysplastic syndrome or aplastic anemia to define prevalence of the GATA2 mutation and to assess whether mutations in GATA-2 transcription factor exhibit specific immunophenotypic features. The prevalence of a GATA2 mutation in a consecutively diagnosed cohort of children was 14% in advanced forms of myelodysplastic syndrome (refractory anemia with excess blasts, refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation, and myelodysplasia-related acute myeloid leukemia), 17% in refractory cytopenia of childhood, and 0% in aplastic anemia. In GATA-2-deficient cases, we found the most profound B-cell lymphopenia, including its progenitors in blood and bone marrow, which correlated with significantly diminished intronRSS-Kde recombination excision circles in comparison to other myelodysplastic syndrome/aplastic anemia cases. The other typical features of GATA-2 deficiency (monocytopenia and natural killer cell lymphopenia) were less discriminative. In conclusion, we suggest screening for GATA2 mutations in pediatric myelodysplastic syndrome, preferentially in patients with impaired B-cell homeostasis in bone marrow and peripheral blood (low number of progenitors, intronRSS-Kde recombination excision circles and naïve cells). PMID:27013649

  16. Loss of B cells and their precursors is the most constant feature of GATA-2 deficiency in childhood myelodysplastic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nováková, Michaela; Žaliová, Markéta; Suková, Martina; Wlodarski, Marcin; Janda, Aleš; Froňková, Eva; Campr, Vít; Lejhancová, Kateřina; Zapletal, Ondřej; Pospíšilová, Dagmar; Černá, Zdeňka; Kuhn, Tomáš; Švec, Peter; Pelková, Vendula; Zemanová, Zuzana; Kerndrup, Gitte; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry; van der Velden, Vincent; Niemeyer, Charlotte; Kalina, Tomáš; Trka, Jan; Starý, Jan; Hrušák, Ondřej; Mejstříková, Ester

    2016-06-01

    GATA-2 deficiency was recently described as common cause of overlapping syndromes of immunodeficiency, lymphedema, familiar myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukemia. The aim of our study was to analyze bone marrow and peripheral blood samples of children with myelodysplastic syndrome or aplastic anemia to define prevalence of the GATA2 mutation and to assess whether mutations in GATA-2 transcription factor exhibit specific immunophenotypic features. The prevalence of a GATA2 mutation in a consecutively diagnosed cohort of children was 14% in advanced forms of myelodysplastic syndrome (refractory anemia with excess blasts, refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation, and myelodysplasia-related acute myeloid leukemia), 17% in refractory cytopenia of childhood, and 0% in aplastic anemia. In GATA-2-deficient cases, we found the most profound B-cell lymphopenia, including its progenitors in blood and bone marrow, which correlated with significantly diminished intronRSS-Kde recombination excision circles in comparison to other myelodysplastic syndrome/aplastic anemia cases. The other typical features of GATA-2 deficiency (monocytopenia and natural killer cell lymphopenia) were less discriminative. In conclusion, we suggest screening for GATA2 mutations in pediatric myelodysplastic syndrome, preferentially in patients with impaired B-cell homeostasis in bone marrow and peripheral blood (low number of progenitors, intronRSS-Kde recombination excision circles and naïve cells). PMID:27013649

  17. Functional erythroid promoters created by interaction of the transcription factor GATA-1 with CACCC and AP-1/NFE-2 elements.

    PubMed Central

    Walters, M; Martin, D I

    1992-01-01

    We have investigated interactions between the erythroid transcription factor GATA-1 and factors binding two cis-acting elements commonly linked to GATA sites in erythroid control elements. GATA-1 is present at all stages of erythroid differentiation, is necessary for erythropoiesis, and binds sites in all erythroid control elements. However, minimal promoters containing GATA-1 sites are inactive when tested in erythroid cells. Based on this observation, two erythroid cis elements, here termed CACCC and AP-1/NFE-2, were linked to GATA sites in minimal promoters. None of the elements linked only to a TATA box created an active promoter, but GATA sites linked to either CACCC or AP-1/NFE-2 elements formed strong erythroid promoters. A mutation of T to C at position -175 in the gamma-globin promoter GATA site, associated with hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH), increased expression of these promoters in both fetal and adult cells. A construct bearing the beta-globin CACCC element was more active in adult and less active in fetal erythroid cells, when compared with the gamma-globin CACCC element. These studies suggest that erythroid control elements are formed by the interactions of at least three transcription factors, none of which functions alone. Images PMID:1438231

  18. Essential Role of GATA2 in the Negative Regulation of Type 2 Deiodinase Gene by Liganded Thyroid Hormone Receptor β2 in Thyrotroph

    PubMed Central

    Matsunaga, Hideyuki; Sasaki, Shigekazu; Suzuki, Shingo; Matsushita, Akio; Nakamura, Hirotoshi; Nakamura, Hiroko Misawa; Hirahara, Naoko; Kuroda, Go; Iwaki, Hiroyuki; Ohba, Kenji; Morita, Hiroshi; Oki, Yutaka; Suda, Takafumi

    2015-01-01

    The inhibition of thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone; TSH) by thyroid hormone (T3) and its receptor (TR) is the central mechanism of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis. Two transcription factors, GATA2 and Pit-1, determine thyrotroph differentiation and maintain the expression of the β subunit of TSH (TSHβ). We previously reported that T3-dependent repression of the TSHβ gene is mediated by GATA2 but not by the reported negative T3-responsive element (nTRE). In thyrotrophs, T3 also represses mRNA of the type-2 deiodinase (D2) gene, where no nTRE has been identified. Here, the human D2 promoter fused to the CAT or modified Renilla luciferase gene was co-transfected with Pit-1 and/or GATA2 expression plasmids into cell lines including CV1 and thyrotroph-derived TαT1. GATA2 but not Pit-1 activated the D2 promoter. Two GATA responsive elements (GATA-REs) were identified close to cAMP responsive element. The protein kinase A activator, forskolin, synergistically enhanced GATA2-dependent activity. Gel-shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays with TαT1 cells indicated that GATA2 binds to these GATA-REs. T3 repressed the GATA2-induced activity of the D2 promoter in the presence of the pituitary-specific TR, TRβ2. The inhibition by T3-bound TRβ2 was dominant over the synergism between GATA2 and forskolin. The D2 promoter is also stimulated by GATA4, the major GATA in cardiomyocytes, and this activity was repressed by T3 in the presence of TRα1. These data indicate that the GATA-induced activity of the D2 promoter is suppressed by T3-bound TRs via a tethering mechanism, as in the case of the TSHβ gene. PMID:26571013

  19. Detection and putative effect of GATA4 gene variants in patients with congenital cardiac septal defects.

    PubMed

    Al-Azzouny, M A; El Ruby, M O; Issa, H A; Behiry, E G; Elsayed, N R; Fayez, A G

    2016-01-01

    The zinc finger transcription factor GATA4, located on chromosome 8p23.1-p22, has been implicated as a critical regulator of cardiac development during embryogenesis. Mutations of GATA4 appear to be responsible for some cardiac septal defects. The aim of this work was to screen for mutations in the GATA4 gene in sample of Egyptian patients affected by isolated and non-isolated cardiac septal defects. We examined 20 patients with atrial septal defect (ASD), ventricle septal defect (VSD), atrioventricular septal defects (AVSD) and A-V canal disturbance defect and compared with examined 10 unaffected individuals as normal control. The patients were referred from Congenital Heart Disease Clinic of the Clinical Genetics department at the National Research Centre. All patients were subjected to clinical evaluation, echocardiography and karyotyping. Genomic DNA was extracted from all cases and subjected to PCR followed by direct sequencing. The predicted effect of variants was done by a variety of proper prediction tools. We detected six variants in GATA4 gene, two of them are novel variants. Predicted functional analysis of the relevant variants was performed by In silico analysis. Further confirmatory studies on familial segregation and in vitro / in vivo functional analysis are recommended to support our results. PMID:27064867

  20. Expression of T-bet, Eomesodermin and GATA-3 in porcine αβ T cells.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gómez, Irene M; Talker, Stephanie C; Käser, Tobias; Stadler, Maria; Hammer, Sabine E; Saalmüller, Armin; Gerner, Wilhelm

    2016-07-01

    The transcription factors GATA-3, T-bet and Eomesodermin play important roles in T-cell development, differentiation and memory formation. However, their expression has not been studied in great detail in porcine T cells. We report on protein expression at the single cell-level of these transcription factors in thymocytes and mature αβ T cells. GATA-3 expression was found in γδ(-) thymocytes, with decreasing expression from the CD4(-)CD8α(-) stage towards single-positive stages. Extra-thymic CD4(+) T cells but not CD8β(+) T cells expressed low levels of GATA-3, which decreased with age. CD4(+) and CD8β(+) T-bet(+) cells mainly displayed a CD8α(+)CD27(-) and perforin(+)CD27(dim/-) phenotype, respectively and had the capacity for IFN-γ production; indicative of an effector/effector memory phenotype. Eomesodermin(+) αβ T cells had mixed phenotypes in regard to CD8α, CD27 and perforin expression. In conclusion, our data so far support the hitherto reported roles for GATA-3 in T-cell development and T-bet for Th1 effector-differentiation, but question the role of Eomesodermin for memory formation of porcine T-cells. PMID:26920461

  1. Mutational spectrum at GATA1 provides insights into mutagenesis and leukemogenesis in Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cabelof, Diane C.; Patel, Hiral V.; Chen, Qing; van Remmen, Holly; Matherly, Larry H.; Ge, Yubin

    2009-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) children have a unique genetic susceptibility to develop leukemia, in particular, acute megakaryocytic leukemia (AMkL) associated with somatic GATA1 mutations. The study of this genetic susceptibility with the use of DS as a model of leukemogenesis has broad applicability to the understanding of leukemia in children overall. On the basis of the role of GATA1 mutations in DS AMkL, we analyzed the mutational spectrum of GATA1 mutations to begin elucidating possible mechanisms by which these sequence alterations arise. Mutational analysis revealed a predominance of small insertion/deletion, duplication, and base substitution mutations, including G:C>T:A, G:C>A:T, and A:T>G:C. This mutational spectrum points to potential oxidative stress and aberrant folate metabolism secondary to genes on chromosome 21 (eg, cystathionine-β-synthase, superoxide dismutase) as potential causes of GATA1 mutations. Furthermore, DNA repair capacity evaluated in DS and non-DS patient samples provided evidence that the base excision repair pathway is compromised in DS tissues, suggesting that inability to repair DNA damage also may play a critical role in the unique susceptibility of DS children to develop leukemia. A model of leukemogenesis in DS is proposed in which mutagenesis is driven by cystathionine-β-synthase overexpression and altered folate homeostasis that becomes fixed as the ability to repair DNA damage is compromised. PMID:19633202

  2. Inducible Gata1 suppression expands megakaryocyte-erythroid progenitors from embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Ji-Yoon; Gandre-Babbe, Shilpa; Wang, Yuhuan; Hayes, Vincent; Yao, Yu; Gadue, Paul; Sullivan, Spencer K.; Chou, Stella T.; Machlus, Kellie R.; Italiano, Joseph E.; Kyba, Michael; Finkelstein, David; Ulirsch, Jacob C.; Sankaran, Vijay G.; French, Deborah L.; Poncz, Mortimer; Weiss, Mitchell J.

    2015-01-01

    Transfusion of donor-derived platelets is commonly used for thrombocytopenia, which results from a variety of clinical conditions and relies on a constant donor supply due to the limited shelf life of these cells. Embryonic stem (ES) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells represent a potential source of megakaryocytes and platelets for transfusion therapies; however, the majority of current ES/iPS cell differentiation protocols are limited by low yields of hematopoietic progeny. In both mice and humans, mutations in the gene-encoding transcription factor GATA1 cause an accumulation of proliferating, developmentally arrested megakaryocytes, suggesting that GATA1 suppression in ES and iPS cell–derived hematopoietic progenitors may enhance megakaryocyte production. Here, we engineered ES cells from WT mice to express a doxycycline-regulated (dox-regulated) shRNA that targets Gata1 transcripts for degradation. Differentiation of these cells in the presence of dox and thrombopoietin (TPO) resulted in an exponential (at least 1013-fold) expansion of immature hematopoietic progenitors. Dox withdrawal in combination with multilineage cytokines restored GATA1 expression, resulting in differentiation into erythroblasts and megakaryocytes. Following transfusion into recipient animals, these dox-deprived mature megakaryocytes generated functional platelets. Our findings provide a readily reproducible strategy to exponentially expand ES cell–derived megakaryocyte-erythroid progenitors that have the capacity to differentiate into functional platelet-producing megakaryocytes. PMID:25961454

  3. Statins activate GATA-6 and induce differentiated vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wada, Hiromichi Abe, Mitsuru; Ono, Koh; Morimoto, Tatsuya; Kawamura, Teruhisa; Takaya, Tomohide; Satoh, Noriko; Fujita, Masatoshi; Kita, Toru; Shimatsu, Akira; Hasegawa, Koji

    2008-10-03

    The beneficial effects of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) beyond cholesterol lowering involve their direct actions on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). However, the effects of statins on phenotypic modulation of VSMCs are unknown. We herein show that simvastatin (Sm) and atorvastatin (At) inhibited DNA synthesis in human aortic VSMCs dose-dependently, while cell toxicity was not observed below the concentration of 1 {mu}M of Sm or 100 nM of At. Stimulating proliferative VSMCs with Sm or At induced the expression of SM-{alpha}-actin and SM-MHC, highly specific markers of differentiated phenotype. Sm up-regulated the binding activity of GATA-6 to SM-MHC GATA site and activated the transfected SM-MHC promoter in proliferative VSMCs, while mutating the GATA-6 binding site abolished this activation. Geranylgeranylpyrophosphate (10 {mu}M), an inhibitor of Rho family proteins, abolished the statin-mediated induction of the differentiated phenotype in VSMCs. These findings suggest that statins activate GATA-6 and induce differentiated VSMCs.

  4. FOG-1 recruits the NuRD repressor complex to mediate transcriptional repression by GATA-1

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Wei; Nakazawa, Minako; Chen, Ying-Yu; Kori, Rajashree; Vakoc, Christopher R; Rakowski, Carrie; Blobel, Gerd A

    2005-01-01

    Transcription factor GATA-1 and its cofactor FOG-1 coordinate erythroid cell maturation by activating erythroid-specific genes and repressing genes associated with the undifferentiated state. Here we show that FOG-1 binds to the NuRD corepressor complex in vitro and in vivo. The interaction is mediated by a small conserved domain at the extreme N-terminus of FOG-1 that is necessary and sufficient for NuRD binding. This domain defines a novel repression module found in diverse transcriptional repressors. NuRD is present at GATA-1/FOG-1-repressed genes in erythroid cells in vivo. Point mutations near the N-terminus of FOG-1 that abrogate NuRD binding block gene repression by FOG-1. Finally, the ability of GATA-1 to repress transcription was impaired in erythroid cells expressing mutant forms of FOG-1 that are defective for NuRD binding. Together, these studies show that FOG-1 and likely other FOG-like proteins are corepressors that link GATA factors to histone deacetylation and nucleosome remodeling. PMID:15920470

  5. iPSCs Offer a New Look at GATA1-Trisomy 21 Cooperation.

    PubMed

    McNulty, Maureen; Crispino, John D

    2016-05-01

    GATA1 mutations and trisomy 21 are inextricably linked in the neonatal leukemia of children with Down syndrome (DS). A recent report by Banno et al. (2016) sheds new light on the mechanism of the synergy between these genetic alterations by modeling hematopoietic abnormalities with patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells. PMID:27152438

  6. ANTHRACYCLINE-INDUCED SUPRESSION OF GATA-4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR: IMPLICATION REGULATION OF CARDIAC MYOCYTE APOPTOSIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthracyclines are effective cancer chemotherapeutic agents but can induce serious cardiotoxicity. Understanding the mechanism of cardiac damage by these agents will help in development of better therapeutic strategies against cancer. The GATA-4 transcription factor is an important regulator of ca...

  7. GATA2 deficiency: a protean disorder of hematopoiesis, lymphatics, and immunity.

    PubMed

    Spinner, Michael A; Sanchez, Lauren A; Hsu, Amy P; Shaw, Pamela A; Zerbe, Christa S; Calvo, Katherine R; Arthur, Diane C; Gu, Wenjuan; Gould, Christine M; Brewer, Carmen C; Cowen, Edward W; Freeman, Alexandra F; Olivier, Kenneth N; Uzel, Gulbu; Zelazny, Adrian M; Daub, Janine R; Spalding, Christine D; Claypool, Reginald J; Giri, Neelam K; Alter, Blanche P; Mace, Emily M; Orange, Jordan S; Cuellar-Rodriguez, Jennifer; Hickstein, Dennis D; Holland, Steven M

    2014-02-01

    Haploinsufficiency of the hematopoietic transcription factor GATA2 underlies monocytopenia and mycobacterial infections; dendritic cell, monocyte, B, and natural killer (NK) lymphoid deficiency; familial myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS)/acute myeloid leukemia (AML); and Emberger syndrome (primary lymphedema with MDS). A comprehensive examination of the clinical features of GATA2 deficiency is currently lacking. We reviewed the medical records of 57 patients with GATA2 deficiency evaluated at the National Institutes of Health from January 1, 1992, to March 1, 2013, and categorized mutations as missense, null, or regulatory to identify genotype-phenotype associations. We identified a broad spectrum of disease: hematologic (MDS 84%, AML 14%, chronic myelomonocytic leukemia 8%), infectious (severe viral 70%, disseminated mycobacterial 53%, and invasive fungal infections 16%), pulmonary (diffusion 79% and ventilatory defects 63%, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis 18%, pulmonary arterial hypertension 9%), dermatologic (warts 53%, panniculitis 30%), neoplastic (human papillomavirus+ tumors 35%, Epstein-Barr virus+ tumors 4%), vascular/lymphatic (venous thrombosis 25%, lymphedema 11%), sensorineural hearing loss 76%, miscarriage 33%, and hypothyroidism 14%. Viral infections and lymphedema were more common in individuals with null mutations (P = .038 and P = .006, respectively). Monocytopenia, B, NK, and CD4 lymphocytopenia correlated with the presence of disease (P < .001). GATA2 deficiency unites susceptibility to MDS/AML, immunodeficiency, pulmonary disease, and vascular/lymphatic dysfunction. Early genetic diagnosis is critical to direct clinical management, preventive care, and family screening. PMID:24227816

  8. GATA3 haploinsufficiency causes a rapid deterioration of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) in mice.

    PubMed

    van Looij, M A J; van der Burg, H; van der Giessen, R S; de Ruiter, M M; van der Wees, J; van Doorninck, J H; De Zeeuw, C I; van Zanten, G A

    2005-12-01

    Human HDR (hypoparathyroidism, deafness and renal dysplasia)-syndrome is caused by haploinsufficiency of zinc-finger transcription factor GATA3. The hearing loss due to GATA3 haploinsufficiency has been shown to be peripheral in origin, but it is unclear to what extent potential aberrations in the outer hair cells (OHCs) contribute to this disorder. To further elucidate the pathophysiological mechanism underlying the hearing defect in HDR-syndrome, we investigated the OHCs in heterozygous Gata3-knockout mice at both the functional and morphological level. While the signal-to-noise ratios of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) in wild type mice did not change significantly during the first half-year of live, those in the heterozygous Gata3 mice decreased dramatically. In addition, both light microscopic and transmission electron microscopic analyses showed that the number of OHCs containing vacuoles was increased in the mutants. Together, these findings indicate that outer hair cell malfunctioning plays a major role in the hearing loss in HDR-syndrome. PMID:15994092

  9. Perturbation of nucleosome structure by the erythroid transcription factor GATA-1.

    PubMed

    Boyes, J; Omichinski, J; Clark, D; Pikaart, M; Felsenfeld, G

    1998-06-12

    The ability of transcription factors to gain access to their sites in chromatin requires the disruption or displacement of nucleosomes covering the promoter, signalled by the generation of a nuclease hypersensitive site. We characterise here the alterations in nucleosome structure caused by binding of the erythroid factor GATA-1 to a nucleosome carrying GATA-1 sites. DNase I and micrococcal nuclease probes show that GATA-1 binding causes extensive, cooperative breakage of the histone/DNA contacts to generate a complex very similar to that formed by the factor with free DNA. The only region which differs is confined to about 50 bp surrounding the nucleosome dyad axis which appears to be the domain of residual contact between the DNA and histone octamer. Despite considerable breakage of the histone/DNA contacts, the complex is completely stable in solution, and disruption of the nucleosome is entirely reversible: it is regenerated quantitatively upon removal of the transcription factor. Moreover, the histone 2A/2B component of the octamer does not exchange to external competitor. We suggest that formation of this complex may be a step in the generation of a fully hypersensitive site in vivo over regulatory elements containing GATA family binding sites. PMID:9641976

  10. Identification of the GATA factor TRPS1 as a repressor of the osteocalcin promoter.

    PubMed

    Piscopo, Denise M; Johansen, Eric B; Derynck, Rik

    2009-11-13

    A proteomic analysis of proteins bound to the osteocalcin OSE2 sequence of the mouse osteocalcin promoter identified TRPS1 as a regulator of osteocalcin transcription. Mutations in the TRPS1 gene are responsible for human tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome, which is characterized by skeletal and craniofacial abnormalities. TRPS1 has been shown to bind regulatory promoter sequences containing GATA consensus binding sites and to repress transcription of genes involved in chondrocyte differentiation. Here we show that TRPS1 can directly bind the osteocalcin promoter in the presence or absence of Runx2. TRPS1 binds through a GATA binding sequence in the proximal promoter of the osteocalcin gene. The GATA binding site is conserved in mice, humans, and rats, although its location and orientation are not. Mutation of the mouse or human GATA binding sequence abrogates binding of TRPS1 to the osteocalcin promoter. We show that TRPS1 is expressed in osteosarcoma cells and upon induction of osteoblast differentiation in primary mouse bone marrow stromal cells and that TRPS1 regulates the expression of osteocalcin in both cell types. The expression of TRPS1 modulates mineralized bone matrix formation in differentiating osteoblast cells. These data suggest a role for TRPS1 in osteoblast differentiation, in addition to its previously described role in chondrogenesis. PMID:19759027

  11. Activation of GATA4 gene expression at the early stage of cardiac specification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilbas, Ayse; Hamilton, Alison; Wang, Yingjian; Mach, Hymn; Lacroix, Natascha; Davis, Darryl; Chen, Jihong; LI, Qiao

    2014-03-01

    Currently, there are no effective treatments to directly repair damaged heart tissue after cardiac injury since existing therapies focus on rescuing or preserving reversibly damaged tissue. Cell-based therapies using cardiomyocytes generated from stem cells present a promising therapeutic approach to directly replace damaged myocardium with new healthy tissue. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the commitment of stem cells into cardiomyocytes are not fully understood and will be critical to guide this new technology into the clinic. Since GATA4 is a critical regulator of cardiac differentiation, we examined the molecular basis underlying the early activation of GATA4 gene expression during cardiac differentiation of pluripotent stem cells. Our studies demonstrate the direct involvement of histone acetylation and transcriptional coactivator p300 in the regulation of GATA4 gene expression. More importantly, we show that histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity is important for GATA4 gene expression with the use of curcumin, a HAT inhibitor. In addition, the widely used histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid enhances both histone acetylation and cardiac specification.

  12. MGMT, GATA6, CD81, DR4, and CASP8 gene promoter methylation in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Methylation of promoter region is the major mechanism affecting gene expression in tumors. Recent methylome studies of brain tumors revealed a list of new epigenetically modified genes. Our aim was to study promoter methylation of newly identified epigenetically silenced genes together with already known epigenetic markers and evaluate its separate and concomitant role in glioblastoma genesis and patient outcome. Methods The methylation status of MGMT, CD81, GATA6, DR4, and CASP8 in 76 patients with primary glioblastomas was investigated. Methylation-specific PCR reaction was performed using bisulfite treated DNA. Evaluating glioblastoma patient survival time after operation, patient data and gene methylation effect on survival was estimated using survival analysis. Results The overwhelming majority (97.3%) of tumors were methylated in at least one of five genes tested. In glioblastoma specimens gene methylation was observed as follows: MGMT in 51.3%, GATA6 in 68.4%, CD81 in 46.1%, DR4 in 41.3% and CASP8 in 56.8% of tumors. Methylation of MGMT was associated with younger patient age (p < 0.05), while CASP8 with older (p < 0.01). MGMT methylation was significantly more frequent event in patient group who survived longer than 36 months after operation (p < 0.05), while methylation of CASP8 was more frequent in patients who survived shorter than 36 months (p < 0.05). Cox regression analysis showed patient age, treatment, MGMT, GATA6 and CASP8 as independent predictors for glioblastoma patient outcome (p < 0.05). MGMT and GATA6 were independent predictors for patient survival in younger patients’ group, while there were no significant associations observed in older patients’ group when adjusted for therapy. Conclusions High methylation frequency of tested genes shows heterogeneity of glioblastoma epigenome and the importance of MGMT, GATA6 and CASP8 genes methylation in glioblastoma patient outcome. PMID:22672670

  13. No evidence that GATA3 rs570613 SNP modifies breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Johnatty, Sharon E.; Couch, Fergus J.; Fredericksen, Zachary; Tarrell, Robert; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Singer, Christian F.; Fuerhauser, Christine; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Domchek, Susan M.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Lindor, Noralane M.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Caligo, Maria A.; Hopper, John; Southey, Melissa C.; Giles, Graham G.; Justenhoven, Christina; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Nevanlinna, Heli; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Liu, Jianjun; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Platte, Radka; Evans, D. Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Eeles, Rosalind; Pichert, Gabriella; Eccles, Diana; Davidson, Rosemarie; Cole, Trevor; Cook, Jackie; Douglas, Fiona; Chu, Carol; Hodgson, Shirley; Paterson, Joan; Hogervorst, Frans B.L.; Rookus, Matti A.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Wijnen, Juul; Vreeswijk, Maaike; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn; Luijt, Rob B. van der; van Os, Theo A.M.; Gille, Hans J.P.; Blok, Marinus J.; Issacs, Claudine; Humphreys, Manjeet K.; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Sinilnikova, Olga; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Easton, Douglas F.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia

    2009-01-01

    GATA-binding protein 3 (GATA3) is a transcription factor that is crucial to mammary gland morphogenesis and differentiation of progenitor cells, and has been suggested to have a tumor suppressor function. The rs570613 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in intron 4 of GATA3 was previously found to be associated with a reduction in breast cancer risk in the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility project and in pooled analysis of two case-control studies from Norway and Poland (Ptrend =0.004), with some evidence for a stronger association with estrogen receptor (ER) negative tumours [1]. We genotyped GATA3 rs570613 in 6,388 cases and 4,995 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) and 5,617 BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). We found no association between this SNP and breast cancer risk in BCAC cases overall (ORper-allele = 1.00, 95% CI 0.94 − 1.05), in ER negative BCAC cases (ORper-allele = 1.02, 95% CI 0.91−1.13), in BRCA1 mutation carriers RRper-allele = 0.99, 95% CI 0.90−1.09) or BRCA2 mutation carriers (RRper-allele = 0.93, 95% CI 0.80−1.07). We conclude that there is no evidence that either GATA3 rs570613, or any variant in strong linkage disequilibrium with it, is associated with breast cancer risk in women. PMID:19082709

  14. Erythroid-specific activity of the glycophorin B promoter requires GATA-1 mediated displacement of a repressor.

    PubMed Central

    Rahuel, C; Vinit, M A; Lemarchandel, V; Cartron, J P; Roméo, P H

    1992-01-01

    We have performed a detailed analysis of the cis-acting sequences involved in the erythroid-specific expression of the human glycophorin B (GPB) promoter and found that this promoter could be divided into two regions. The proximal region, -1 to -60, contains a GATA binding sequence around -37 and an SP1 binding sequence around -50. This region is active in erythroid and non-erythroid cells. The distal region, -60 to -95, contains two overlapping protein binding sites around -75, one for hGATA-1 and one for ubiquitous proteins. This distal region completely represses the activity of the proximal promoter in non-erythroid cells and defines the -95 GPB construct as a GPB promoter that displays erythroid specificity. Using site directed mutagenesis, we show that the -37 GATA and the -50 SP1 binding sites are necessary for efficient activity of the -95 GPB construct. Mutations that impair the -75 GATA-1 binding result in extinction of the -95 GPB construct activity if the -75 ubiquitous binding site is not altered, or in loss of erythroid specificity if the -75 ubiquitous binding site is also mutated. Using a cotransfection assay, we found that hGATA-1 can efficiently activate transcription of the -95 GPB construct in non-erythroid cells. This transactivation is abolished by mutations that impair either the -37 GATA-1 or the -50 SP1 binding. Mutations that impair the -75 GATA-1 binding and still allow the -75 ubiquitous binding also abolish the transactivation of the -95 GPB construct, indicating that hGATA-1 can remove repression of the GPB promoter by displacement of the ubiquitous proteins.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:1396593

  15. Gata6-Dependent GLI3 Repressor Function is Essential in Anterior Limb Progenitor Cells for Proper Limb Development

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Shinichi; Akiyama, Ryutaro; Wong, Julia; Tahara, Naoyuki; Kawakami, Hiroko; Kawakami, Yasuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Gli3 is a major regulator of Hedgehog signaling during limb development. In the anterior mesenchyme, GLI3 is proteolytically processed into GLI3R, a truncated repressor form that inhibits Hedgehog signaling. Although numerous studies have identified mechanisms that regulate Gli3 function in vitro, it is not completely understood how Gli3 function is regulated in vivo. In this study, we show a novel mechanism of regulation of GLI3R activities in limb buds by Gata6, a member of the GATA transcription factor family. We show that conditional inactivation of Gata6 prior to limb outgrowth by the Tcre deleter causes preaxial polydactyly, the formation of an anterior extra digit, in hindlimbs. A recent study suggested that Gata6 represses Shh transcription in hindlimb buds. However, we found that ectopic Hedgehog signaling precedes ectopic Shh expression. In conjunction, we observed Gata6 and Gli3 genetically interact, and compound heterozygous mutants develop preaxial polydactyly without ectopic Shh expression, indicating an additional prior mechanism to prevent polydactyly. These results support the idea that Gata6 possesses dual roles during limb development: enhancement of Gli3 repressor function to repress Hedgehog signaling in the anterior limb bud, and negative regulation of Shh expression. Our in vitro and in vivo studies identified that GATA6 physically interacts with GLI3R to facilitate nuclear localization of GLI3R and repressor activities of GLI3R. Both the genetic and biochemical data elucidates a novel mechanism by Gata6 to regulate GLI3R activities in the anterior limb progenitor cells to prevent polydactyly and attain proper development of the mammalian autopod. PMID:27352137

  16. Identification of GATA-4 as a novel transcriptional regulatory component of regenerating islet-derived family members.

    PubMed

    Lepage, David; Bruneau, Joannie; Brouillard, Geneviève; Jones, Christine; Lussier, Carine R; Rémillard, Anthony; Lemieux, Étienne; Asselin, Claude; Boudreau, François

    2015-12-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells are exposed to luminal bacterial threat and require adequate defense mechanisms to ensure host protection and epithelium regeneration against possible deleterious damage. Differentiated intestinal epithelial cells produce antimicrobial and regenerative components that protect against such challenges. Few intestinal specific transcription factors have been identified to control the switching from repression to activation of this class of gene. Herein, we show that gene transcription of some regenerating islet-derived (REG) family members is dependent on the transcription factor GATA-4. Silencing of GATA-4 expression in cultured intestinal epithelial cells identified Reg3β as a target gene using an unbiased approach of gene expression profiling. Co-transfection and RNA interference assays identified complex GATA-4-interactive transcriptional components required for the activation or repression of Reg3β gene activity. Conditional deletion of Gata4 in the mouse intestinal epithelium supported its regulatory role for Reg1, Reg3α, Reg3β and Reg3γ genes. Reg1 dramatic down-modulation of expression in Gata4 conditional null mice was associated with a significant decrease in intestinal epithelial cell migration. Altogether, these results identify a novel and complex role for GATA-4 in the regulation of REG family members gene expression. PMID:26477491

  17. The role and regulation of friend of GATA-1 (FOG-1) during blood development in the zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Amigo, Julio D.; Ackermann, Gabriele E.; Cope, John J.; Yu, Ming; Cooney, Jeffrey D.; Ma, Dongdong; Langer, Nathaniel B.; Shafizadeh, Ebrahim; Shaw, George C.; Horsely, Wyatt; Trede, Nikolaus S.; Davidson, Alan J.; Barut, Bruce A.; Zhou, Yi; Wojiski, Sarah A.; Traver, David; Moran, Tyler B.; Kourkoulis, George; Hsu, Karl; Kanki, John P.; Shah, Dhvanit I.; Lin, Hui Feng; Handin, Robert I.; Cantor, Alan B.

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear protein FOG-1 binds transcription factor GATA-1 to facilitate erythroid and megakaryocytic maturation. However, little is known about the function of FOG-1 during myeloid and lymphoid development or how FOG-1 expression is regulated in any tissue. We used in situ hybridization, gain- and loss-of-function studies in zebrafish to address these problems. Zebrafish FOG-1 is expressed in early hematopoietic cells, as well as heart, viscera, and paraspinal neurons, suggesting that it has multifaceted functions in organogenesis. We found that FOG-1 is dispensable for endoderm specification but is required for endoderm patterning affecting the expression of late-stage T-cell markers, independent of GATA-1. The suppression of FOG-1, in the presence of normal GATA-1 levels, induces severe anemia and thrombocytopenia and expands myeloid-progenitor cells, indicating that FOG-1 is required during erythroid/myeloid commitment. To functionally interrogate whether GATA-1 regulates FOG-1 in vivo, we used bioinformatics combined with transgenic assays. Thus, we identified 2 cis-regulatory elements that control the tissue-specific gene expression of FOG-1. One of these enhancers contains functional GATA-binding sites, indicating the potential for a regulatory loop in which GATA factors control the expression of their partner protein FOG-1. PMID:19729519

  18. Constitutive Expression of GATA4 Dramatically Increases the Cardiogenic Potential of D3 Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Laemmle, Lillian L.; Cohen, Justus B.; Glorioso, Joseph C.

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor GATA binding protein 4 (GATA4) is a vital regulator of cardiac programming that acts by inducing the expression of many different genes involved in cardiomyogenesis. Here we generated a D3 mouse embryonic stem cell line that constitutively expresses high levels of GATA4 and show that these cells have dramatically increased cardiogenic potential compared to an eGFP-expressing control cell line. Embryoid bodies (EB) derived from the D3-GATA4 line displayed increased levels of cardiac gene expression and showed more abundant cardiomyocyte differentiation than control eGFP EB. These cells and two additional lines expressing lower levels of GATA4 provide a platform to screen previously untested cardiac genes and gene combinations for their ability to further increase the efficiency of cardiomyocyte differentiation beyond that achieved by transgenic GATA4 alone. Non-integrative delivery of identified gene combinations will aid in the production of differentiated cells for the treatment of ischemic cardiomyopathy. PMID:27441042

  19. Multiple cis elements and GATA factors regulate a cuticle collagen gene in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jianghua; Madaan, Uday; Park, Amy; Aftab, Neelum; Savage-Dunn, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    The cuticle of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a specialized extracellular matrix whose major component is collagen. Cuticle collagens are encoded by a large multi-gene family consisting of more than 150 members. Cuticle collagen genes are expressed in epidermis (hypodermis) and may be stage-specific or cyclically expressed. We identified cuticle collagen genes as transcriptional targets of the DBL-1 TGF-β-related signaling pathway. These studies prompted us to investigate the cis-regulatory sequences required for transcription of one of the target genes, col-41. We generated reporter constructs that reproduce stage- and tissue-specific expression of fluorescent markers. We identify four conserved sequence elements that are required for transcription of reporters. Finally, we provide evidence that col-41 expression is controlled by a sequence element containing two GATA sites and by the epidermal GATA transcription factors ELT-1 and ELT-3. PMID:25711168

  20. Expression of hematopoietic transcription factors Runt, CBFβ and GATA during ontogenesis of scallop Chlamys farreri.

    PubMed

    Yue, Feng; Wang, Lingling; Wang, Hao; Song, Linsheng

    2016-08-01

    Transcription factors Runx1, CBFβ and GATA1/2/3 play essential roles in regulating hematopoietic development during embryogenesis of vertebrate. In previous study, the orthologous genes of Runt, CBFβ and GATA1/2/3 have been identified from scallop Chlamys farreri and proved to have conserved function in regulating hemocyte production. Here, these three transcription factors were selected as hematopoietic markers to explore potential developmental events of hematopoiesis during ontogenesis of scallop. The transcripts of CfRunt, CfCBFβ and CfGATA were detected abundantly after 32-cell embryo, trochophore and morula stage, and reached to a peak level in 32-cell embryos and D-shaped veligers, pediveligers or gastrula respectively. Further whole-mount immunofluorescence assay showed that the immunoreactivity of CfRunt was firstly observed at 32-cell stage and then its distribution was specialized gradually to the mesoderm during gastrulation. By trochophore, the expression of CfRunt, CfCBFβ and CfGATA proteins occurred coincidently in two specific symmetry cell mass located bilaterally on prototroch, and then disappeared rapidly in D-shaped or umbonal vliger, respectively. However, remarkable expressions of the three transcription factors were observed consistently in a new sinus structure appeared at the dorsal anterior side of D-shaped and umbonal veliger. After bacterial challenge, the mRNA expression levels of the three transcription factors were up-regulated or down-regulated significantly in trochophore, D-shaped veliger and pediveliger, indicating the available hematopoietic regulation in scallop larvae. The results revealed that scallop might experience two waves of hematopoiesis during early development, which occurred in the bilateral symmetry cell mass of trochophore and the sinus structure of veliger. PMID:27012994

  1. Epigenetic and genetic variation in GATA5 is associated with gastric disease risk.

    PubMed

    Sobota, Rafal S; Kodaman, Nuri; Mera, Robertino; Piazuelo, M Blanca; Bravo, Luis E; Pazos, Alvaro; Zabaleta, Jovanny; Delgado, Alberto G; El-Rifai, Wael; Morgan, Douglas R; Wilson, Keith T; Correa, Pelayo; Williams, Scott M; Schneider, Barbara G

    2016-08-01

    Gastric cancer incidence varies considerably among populations, even those with comparable rates of Helicobacter pylori infection. To test the hypothesis that genetic variation plays a role in gastric disease, we assessed the relationship between genotypes and gastric histopathology in a Colombian study population, using a genotyping array of immune-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Two synonymous SNPs (rs6061243 and rs6587239) were associated with progression of premalignant gastric lesions in a dominant-effects model after correction for multiple comparisons (p = 2.63E-07 and p = 7.97E-07, respectively); effect sizes were β = -0.863 and β = -0.815, respectively, where β is an estimate of effect on histopathology scores, which ranged from 1 (normal) to 5 (dysplasia). In our replication cohort, a second Colombian population, both SNPs were associated with histopathology when additively modeled (β = -0.256, 95 % CI = -0.47, -0.039; and β = -0.239, 95 % CI = -0.45, -0.024), and rs6587239 was significantly associated in a dominant-effects model (β = -0.330, 95 % CI = -0.66, 0.00). Because promoter methylation of GATA5 has previously been associated with gastric cancer, we also tested for the association of methylation status with more advanced histopathology scores in our samples and found a significant relationship (p = 0.001). A multivariate regression model revealed that the effects of both the promoter methylation and the exonic SNPs in GATA5 were independent. A SNP-by-methylation interaction term was also significant. This interaction between GATA5 variants and GATA5 promoter methylation indicates that the association of either factor with gastric disease progression is modified by the other. PMID:27225266

  2. The function and regulation of the GATA factor ELT-2 in the C. elegans endoderm.

    PubMed

    Wiesenfahrt, Tobias; Berg, Janette Y; Osborne Nishimura, Erin; Robinson, Adam G; Goszczynski, Barbara; Lieb, Jason D; McGhee, James D

    2016-02-01

    ELT-2 is the major regulator of genes involved in differentiation, maintenance and function of C. elegans intestine from the early embryo to mature adult. elt-2 responds to overexpression of the GATA transcription factors END-1 and END-3, which specify the intestine, as well as to overexpression of the two GATA factors that are normally involved in intestinal differentiation, ELT-7 and ELT-2 itself. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying these interactions, how ELT-2 levels are maintained throughout development or how such systems respond to developmental perturbations. Here, we analyse elt-2 gene regulation through transgenic reporter assays, ELT-2 ChIP and characterisation of in vitro DNA-protein interactions. Our results indicate that elt-2 is controlled by three discrete regulatory regions conserved between C. elegans and C. briggsae that span >4 kb of 5' flanking sequence. These regions are superficially interchangeable but have quantitatively different enhancer properties, and their combined activities indicate inter-region synergies. Their regulatory activity is mediated by a small number of conserved TGATAA sites that are largely interchangeable and interact with different endodermal GATA factors with only modest differences in affinity. The redundant molecular mechanism that forms the elt-2 regulatory network is robust and flexible, as loss of end-3 halves ELT-2 levels in the early embryo but levels fully recover by the time of hatching. When ELT-2 is expressed under the control of end-1 regulatory elements, in addition to its own endogenous promoter, it can replace the complete set of endoderm-specific GATA factors: END-1, END-3, ELT-7 and (the probably non-functional) ELT-4. Thus, in addition to controlling gene expression during differentiation, ELT-2 is capable of specifying the entire C. elegans endoderm. PMID:26700680

  3. The GATA Transcription Factor egl-27 Delays Aging by Promoting Stress Resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiao; Kim, Stuart K.

    2012-01-01

    Stress is a fundamental aspect of aging, as accumulated damage from a lifetime of stress can limit lifespan and protective responses to stress can extend lifespan. In this study, we identify a conserved Caenorhabditis elegans GATA transcription factor, egl-27, that is involved in several stress responses and aging. We found that overexpression of egl-27 extends the lifespan of wild-type animals. Furthermore, egl-27 is required for the pro-longevity effects from impaired insulin/IGF-1 like signaling (IIS), as reduced egl-27 activity fully suppresses the longevity of worms that are mutant for the IIS receptor, daf-2. egl-27 expression is inhibited by daf-2 and activated by pro-longevity factors daf-16/FOXO and elt-3/GATA, suggesting that egl-27 acts at the intersection of IIS and GATA pathways to extend lifespan. Consistent with its role in IIS signaling, we found that egl-27 is involved in stress response pathways. egl-27 expression is induced in the presence of multiple stresses, its targets are significantly enriched for many types of stress genes, and altering levels of egl-27 itself affects survival to heat and oxidative stress. Finally, we found that egl-27 expression increases between young and old animals, suggesting that increased levels of egl-27 in aged animals may act to promote stress resistance. These results identify egl-27 as a novel factor that links stress and aging pathways. PMID:23271974

  4. GATA1 and PU.1 Bind to Ribosomal Protein Genes in Erythroid Cells: Implications for Ribosomopathies

    PubMed Central

    Amanatiadou, Elsa P.; Papadopoulos, Giorgio L.; Strouboulis, John; Vizirianakis, Ioannis S.

    2015-01-01

    The clear connection between ribosome biogenesis dysfunction and specific hematopoiesis-related disorders prompted us to examine the role of critical lineage-specific transcription factors in the transcriptional regulation of ribosomal protein (RP) genes during terminal erythroid differentiation. By applying EMSA and ChIP methodologies in mouse erythroleukemia cells we show that GATA1 and PU.1 bind in vitro and in vivo the proximal promoter region of the RPS19 gene which is frequently mutated in Diamond-Blackfan Anemia. Moreover, ChIPseq data analysis also demonstrates that several RP genes are enriched as potential GATA1 and PU.1 gene targets in mouse and human erythroid cells, with GATA1 binding showing an association with higher ribosomal protein gene expression levels during terminal erythroid differentiation in human and mouse. Our results suggest that RP gene expression and hence balanced ribosome biosynthesis may be specifically and selectively regulated by lineage specific transcription factors during hematopoiesis, a finding which may be clinically relevant to ribosomopathies. PMID:26447946

  5. GATA1 and PU.1 Bind to Ribosomal Protein Genes in Erythroid Cells: Implications for Ribosomopathies.

    PubMed

    Amanatiadou, Elsa P; Papadopoulos, Giorgio L; Strouboulis, John; Vizirianakis, Ioannis S

    2015-01-01

    The clear connection between ribosome biogenesis dysfunction and specific hematopoiesis-related disorders prompted us to examine the role of critical lineage-specific transcription factors in the transcriptional regulation of ribosomal protein (RP) genes during terminal erythroid differentiation. By applying EMSA and ChIP methodologies in mouse erythroleukemia cells we show that GATA1 and PU.1 bind in vitro and in vivo the proximal promoter region of the RPS19 gene which is frequently mutated in Diamond-Blackfan Anemia. Moreover, ChIPseq data analysis also demonstrates that several RP genes are enriched as potential GATA1 and PU.1 gene targets in mouse and human erythroid cells, with GATA1 binding showing an association with higher ribosomal protein gene expression levels during terminal erythroid differentiation in human and mouse. Our results suggest that RP gene expression and hence balanced ribosome biosynthesis may be specifically and selectively regulated by lineage specific transcription factors during hematopoiesis, a finding which may be clinically relevant to ribosomopathies. PMID:26447946

  6. Chromosomal clustering and GATA transcriptional regulation of intestine-expressed genes in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Pauli, Florencia; Liu, Yueyi; Kim, Yoona A; Chen, Pei-Jiun; Kim, Stuart K

    2006-01-01

    We used mRNA tagging to identify genes expressed in the intestine of C. elegans. Animals expressing an epitope-tagged protein that binds the poly-A tail of mRNAs (FLAG::PAB-1) from an intestine-specific promoter (ges-1) were used to immunoprecipitate FLAG::PAB-1/mRNA complexes from the intestine. A total of 1938 intestine-expressed genes (P<0.001) were identified using DNA microarrays. First, we compared the intestine-expressed genes with those expressed in the muscle and germline, and identified 510 genes enriched in all three tissues and 624 intestine-, 230 muscle- and 1135 germ line-enriched genes. Second, we showed that the 1938 intestine-expressed genes were physically clustered on the chromosomes, suggesting that the order of genes in the genome is influenced by the effect of chromatin domains on gene expression. Furthermore, the commonly expressed genes showed more chromosomal clustering than the tissue-enriched genes, suggesting that chromatin domains may influence housekeeping genes more than tissue-specific genes. Third, in order to gain further insight into the regulation of intestinal gene expression, we searched for regulatory motifs. This analysis found that the promoters of the intestine genes were enriched for the GATA transcription factor consensus binding sequence. We experimentally verified these results by showing that the GATA motif is required in cis and that GATA transcription factors are required in trans for expression of these intestinal genes. PMID:16354718

  7. Estrogen-related receptor gamma induces cardiac hypertrophy by activating GATA4.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Duk-Hwa; Eom, Gwang Hyeon; Kee, Hae Jin; Nam, Yoon Seok; Cho, Young Kuk; Kim, Don-Kyu; Koo, Ja Young; Kim, Hyung-Seok; Nam, Kwang-Il; Kim, Kyung Keun; Lee, In-Kyu; Park, Seung Bum; Choi, Hueng-Sik; Kook, Hyun

    2013-12-01

    Estrogen-related receptor gamma (ERRγ) is an orphan nuclear receptor that has biological roles mainly in metabolism and that controls metabolic switching in perinatal heart. In adult heart diseases, however, the functional roles of ERRγ have not yet been elucidated. In the present study, we aimed to characterize the role of ERRγ in cardiac hypertrophy. The functional roles of ERRγ in the development of cardiac hypertrophy were examined in primary cultured cardiomyocytes and in animal models. ERRγ expression was increased in hearts from human hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients and in both cellular and animal models of cardiac hypertrophy. Transgenic overexpression in mouse heart as well as forced expression of ERRγ in cardiomyocytes induced hypertrophic phenotypes. Knock-down of ERRγ blocked agonist-induced hypertrophic phenotypes. ERRγ bound directly to the proximal ERR-responsive element in the GATA4 promoter in a sequence-specific manner and thereby induced transcription. ERRγ-induced hypertrophy was blocked by inhibition of GATA4. GSK-5182, an inverse agonist of ERRγ, completely blocked cardiac hypertrophy in cardiomyocytes. It also prevented aortic banding-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in mouse heart. These findings demonstrate a novel ERRγ/GATA4 signal cascade in the development of cardiac hypertrophy and suggest GSK-5182 as a possible therapeutic. PMID:24083978

  8. FOG-1 and GATA-1 act sequentially to specify definitive megakaryocytic and erythroid progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Elena; Sanjuan-Pla, Alejandra; Luciani, Luisa; Moore, Susan; Grover, Amit; Zay, Agnes; Rasmussen, Kasper D; Luc, Sidinh; Bilbao, Daniel; O'Carroll, Donal; Jacobsen, Sten Eirik; Nerlov, Claus

    2012-01-01

    The transcription factors that control lineage specification of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have been well described for the myeloid and lymphoid lineages, whereas transcriptional control of erythroid (E) and megakaryocytic (Mk) fate is less understood. We here use conditional removal of the GATA-1 and FOG-1 transcription factors to identify FOG-1 as required for the formation of all committed Mk- and E-lineage progenitors, whereas GATA-1 was observed to be specifically required for E-lineage commitment. FOG-1-deficient HSCs and preMegEs, the latter normally bipotent for the Mk and E lineages, underwent myeloid transcriptional reprogramming, and formed myeloid, but not erythroid and megakaryocytic cells in vitro. These results identify FOG-1 and GATA-1 as required for formation of bipotent Mk/E progenitors and their E-lineage commitment, respectively, and show that FOG-1 mediates transcriptional Mk/E programming of HSCs as well as their subsequent Mk/E-lineage commitment. Finally, C/EBPs and FOG-1 exhibited transcriptional cross-regulation in early myelo-erythroid progenitors making their functional antagonism a potential mechanism for separation of the myeloid and Mk/E lineages. PMID:22068055

  9. MicroRNA-720 suppresses M2 macrophage polarization by targeting GATA3

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yan; Yi, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages are highly plastic cells with the ability to differentiate into both M1- and M2-polarized phenotypes. As a distinct M2-polarized population, tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) promote tumorigenesis owing to their pro-angiogenic and immune-suppressive functions in tumour microenvironment. In the present study, we found that the microRNA-720 (miR-720) was down-regulated in TAMs isolated from breast carcinomas and M2-polarization macrophages. Overexpression of miR-720 attenuated M2 phenotype expression and thus inhibited M2 polarization. We further identified GATA binding protein 3 (GATA3), a transcriptional factor that plays an important role in M2 macrophage polarization, was the downstream target of miR-720. Ectopic expression of GATA3 restored the M2 phenotype in miR-720 overexpressed macrophages. Importantly, overexpression of miR-720 inhibited pro-migration behaviour and phagocytic ability of M2-polarized macrophages. Thus, our data suggest that miR-720 plays an important role in regulating M2 macrophage polarization and function. PMID:27354564

  10. Identification of a novel GATA3 mutation in a deaf Taiwanese family by massively parallel sequencing.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yin-Hung; Wu, Chen-Chi; Hsu, Tun-Yen; Chiu, Wei-Yih; Hsu, Chuan-Jen; Chen, Pei-Lung

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have confirmed the utility of massively parallel sequencing (MPS) in addressing genetically heterogeneous hereditary hearing impairment. By applying a MPS diagnostic panel targeting 129 known deafness genes, we identified a novel frameshift GATA3 mutation, c.149delT (p.Phe51LeufsX144), in a hearing-impaired family compatible with autosomal dominant inheritance. The GATA3 haploinsufficiency is thought to be associated with the hypoparathyroidism, sensorineural deafness, and renal dysplasia (HDR) syndrome. The pathogenicity of GATA3 c.149delT was supported by its absence in the 5400 NHLBI exomes, 1000 Genomes, and the 100 normal hearing controls of the present study; the co-segregation of c.149delT heterozygosity with hearing impairment in 9 affected members of the family; as well as the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay of the mutant allele in in vitro functional studies. The phenotypes in this family appeared relatively mild, as most affected members presented no signs of hypoparathyroidism or renal abnormalities, including the proband. To our knowledge, this is the first report of genetic diagnosis of HDR syndrome before the clinical diagnosis. Genetic examination for multiple deafness genes with MPS might be helpful in identifying certain types of syndromic hearing loss such as HDR syndrome, contributing to earlier diagnosis and treatment of the affected individuals. PMID:25771973

  11. A novel E2 box-GATA element modulates Cdc6 transcription during human cells polyploidization.

    PubMed

    Vilaboa, Nuria; Bermejo, Rodrigo; Martinez, Pilar; Bornstein, Rafael; Calés, Carmela

    2004-01-01

    Cdc6 is a key regulator of the strict alternation of S and M phases during the mitotic cell cycle. In mammalian and plant cells that physiologically become polyploid, cdc6 is transcriptionally and post-translationally regulated. We have recently reported that Cdc6 levels are maintained in megakaryoblastic HEL cells, but severely downregulated by ectopic expression of transcriptional repressor Drosophila melanogaster escargot. Here, we show that cdc6 promoter activity is upregulated during megakaryocytic differentiation of HEL endoreplicating cells, and that Escargot interferes with such activation. Transactivation experiments showed that a 1.7 kb region located at 2800 upstream cdc6 transcription initiation site behaved as a potent enhancer in endoreplicating cells only. This activity was mainly dependent on a novel cis-regulatory element composed by an E2 box overlapping a GATA motif. Ectopic Escargot could bind this regulatory element in vitro and endogenous GATA-1 and E2A formed specific complexes in megakaryoblastic cells as well as in primary megakaryocytes. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that both transcription factors were occupying the E2 box/GATA site in vivo. Altogether, these data suggest that cdc6 expression could be actively maintained during megakaryocytic differentiation through transcriptional mechanisms involving specific cis- and trans-regulatory elements. PMID:15590906

  12. p73 Plays a Role in Erythroid Differentiation through GATA1 Induction*

    PubMed Central

    Marqués-García, Fernando; Ferrandiz, Nuria; Fernández-Alonso, Rosalía; González-Cano, Laura; Herreros-Villanueva, Marta; Rosa-Garrido, Manuel; Fernández-García, Belén; Vaque, José P.; Marqués, Margarita M.; Alonso, María Eugenia; Segovia, José Carlos; León, Javier; Marín, María C.

    2009-01-01

    The TP73 gene gives rise to transactivation domain-p73 isoforms (TAp73) as well as ΔNp73 variants with a truncated N terminus. Although TAp73α and -β proteins are capable of inducing cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and differentiation, ΔNp73 acts in many cell types as a dominant-negative repressor of p53 and TAp73. It has been proposed that p73 is involved in myeloid differentiation, and its altered expression is involved in leukemic degeneration. However, there is little evidence as to which p73 variants (TA or ΔN) are expressed during differentiation and whether specific p73 isoforms have the capacity to induce, or hinder, this differentiation in leukemia cells. In this study we identify GATA1 as a direct transcriptional target of TAp73α. Furthermore, TAp73α induces GATA1 activity, and it is required for erythroid differentiation. Additionally, we describe a functional cooperation between TAp73 and ΔNp73 in the context of erythroid differentiation in human myeloid cells, K562 and UT-7. Moreover, the impaired expression of GATA1 and other erythroid genes in the liver of p73KO embryos, together with the moderated anemia observed in p73KO young mice, suggests a physiological role for TP73 in erythropoiesis. PMID:19509292

  13. Predominance of Intraglomerular T-bet or GATA3 May Determine Mechanism of Transplant Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qiquan; Cheng, Dongrui; Zhang, Mingchao; He, Qunpeng; Chen, Zhaohong

    2011-01-01

    The transcription factors T-bet and GATA3 determine the differentiation of helper T cells into Th1 or Th2 cells, respectively. An altered ratio of their relative expression promotes the pathogenesis of certain immunological diseases, but whether this may also contribute to the pathogenesis of antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) versus T cell-mediated rejection (TCMR) is unknown. Here, we characterized the intragraft expression of T-bet and GATA3 and determined the correlation of their levels with the presence of typical lesions of ABMR and TCMR. We found a predominant intraglomerular expression of T-bet in patients with ABMR, which was distinct from that in patients with TCMR. In ABMR, interstitial T-bet expression was typically located in peritubular capillaries, although the overall quantity of interstitial T-bet was less than that observed in TCMR. The expression of intraglomerular T-bet correlated with infiltration of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes, which express T-bet, as well as intraglomerular CD68+ monocyte/macrophages, which do not express T-bet. The predominance of intraglomerular T-bet expression relative to GATA3 expression associated with poor response to treatment with bolus steroid. In summary, predominance of intraglomerular T-bet expression correlates with antibody-mediated rejection and resistance to steroid treatment. PMID:21289214

  14. Inhibition of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 reduces cardiac fibroblast proliferation by suppressing GATA Binding Protein 4.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Liu, Ning-Ning; Liu, Wei-Hua; Zhang, Shuang-Wei; Zhang, Jing-Zhi; Li, Ai-Qun; Liu, Shi-Ming

    2016-07-01

    Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) and GATA Binding Protein 4 (GATA4) are important for the growth of cardiac fibroblasts (CFs). When deregulated, LOX-1 and GATA4 can cause cardiac remodeling. In the present study, we found novel evidence that GATA4 was required for the LOX-1 regulation of CF proliferation. The inhibition of LOX-1 by RNA interference LOX-1 lentivirus resulted in the loss of PI3K/Akt activation and GATA4 protein expression. The overexpression of LOX-1 by lentivirus rescued CF proliferation, PI3K/Akt activation, and GATA4 protein expression. Moreover, GATA4 overexpression enhanced CF proliferation with LOX-1 inhibition. We also found that the inhibition of PI3K/Akt activation by LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, reduced cell proliferation and protein level of GATA4. In summary, GATA4 may play an important role in the LOX-1 and PI3K/Akt regulation of CF proliferation. PMID:27216460

  15. Piceatannol attenuates cardiac hypertrophy in an animal model through regulation of the expression and binding of the transcription factor GATA binding factor 6.

    PubMed

    Kee, Hae Jin; Park, Sangha; Kang, Wanseok; Lim, Kyung Seob; Kim, Jung Ha; Ahn, Youngkeun; Jeong, Myung Ho

    2014-05-01

    Piceatannol is found in grapes, passion fruit, and Japanese knotweed. Piceatannol pretreatment suppresses cardiac hypertrophy induced by isoproterenol as assessed by heart weight/body weight ratio, cross-sectional area, and expression of hypertrophic markers. The anti-hypertrophic effect of piceatannol in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes is the same as that in vivo. Piceatannol inhibits lentiviral-GATA6-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Furthermore, piceatannol reduces the interaction between GATA4 and GATA6 as well as the DNA-binding activity of endogenous GATA6 in the ANP promoter. Our results suggest that piceatannol may be a novel therapeutic agent for the prevention of cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:24662306

  16. Angiotensin II induces apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells through the AT2 receptor, GATA-6 and the Bax pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Lihua; Wang, Wensheng; Xiao, Weidong; Liang, Hongyin; Yang, Yang; Yang, Hua

    2012-08-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ang II-induced apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cell through AT2 receptor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The apoptosis process involves in the Bax/Bcl-2 intrinsic pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GATA-6 short hairpin RNA reduced Bax expression, but not Bcl-2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GATA-6 may play a critical role in apoptosis in response to the Ang II challenge. -- Abstract: Angiotensin II (Ang II) has been shown to play an important role in cell apoptosis. However, the mechanisms of Ang-II-induced apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells are not fully understood. GATA-6 is a zinc finger transcription factor expressed in the colorectal epithelium, which directs cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. In the present study we investigated the underlying mechanism of which GATA-6 affects Ang-II induced apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells. The in vitro intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis model was established by co-culturing Caco-2 cells with Ang II. Pretreatment with Angiotensin type 2 (AT2) receptor antagonist, PD123319, significantly reduced the expression of Bax and prevented the Caco-2 cells apoptosis induced by Ang II. In addition, Ang II up-regulated the expression of GATA-6. Interestingly, GATA-6 short hairpin RNA prevented Ang II-induced intestinal epithelial cells apoptosis and reduced the expression of Bax, but not Bcl-2. Taken together, the present study suggests that Angiotensin II promotes apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells through GATA-6 and the Bax pathway in an AT2 receptor-dependent manner.

  17. Atrial natriuretic peptide suppresses endothelin gene expression and proliferation in cardiac fibroblasts through a GATA4-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, Denis J.; Rahmutula, Dolkun; Nishimoto, Minobu; Liang, Faquan; Gardner, David G.

    2009-01-01

    Aims Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a hormone that has both antihypertrophic and antifibrotic properties in the heart. We hypothesized that myocyte-derived ANP inhibits endothelin (ET) gene expression in fibroblasts. Methods and results We have investigated the mechanism(s) involved in the antiproliferative effect of ANP on cardiac fibroblasts in a cell culture model. We found that cardiac myocytes inhibited DNA synthesis in co-cultured cardiac fibroblasts as did treatment with the ET-1 antagonist BQ610. The effect of co-culture was reversed by antibody directed against ANP or the ANP receptor antagonist HS-142-1. ANP inhibited the expression of the ET-1 gene and ET-1 gene promoter activity in cultured fibroblasts. The site of the inhibition was localized to a GATA-binding site positioned between −132 and −135 upstream from the transcription start site. GATA4 expression was demonstrated in cardiac fibroblasts, GATA4 bound the ET-1 promoter both in vitro and in vivo, and siRNA-mediated knockdown of GATA4 inhibited ET-1 expression. ET-1 treatment resulted in increased levels of phospho-serine105 GATA4 in cardiac fibroblasts and this induction was partially suppressed by co-treatment with ANP. Conclusion Collectively, these findings suggest that locally produced ET-1 serves as an autocrine stimulator of fibroblast proliferation, that ANP produced in neighbouring myocytes serves as a paracrine inhibitor of this proliferation, and that the latter effect operates through a reduction in GATA4 phosphorylation and coincident reduction in GATA4-dependent transcriptional activity. PMID:19546173

  18. Phosphorylation of GATA-6 is required for vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation after mTORC1 inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yi; Jin, Yu; Merenick, Bethany L.; Ding, Min; Fetalvero, Kristina M.; Wagner, Robert J.; Mai, Alice; Gleim, Scott; Tucker, David; Birnbaum, Morris J.; Ballif, Bryan A.; Luciano, Amelia K.; Sessa, William C.; Rzucidlo, Eva M.; Powell, Richard J.; Hou, Lin; Zhao, Hongyu; Hwa, John; Yu, Jun; Martin, Kathleen A.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) undergo transcriptionally regulated reversible differentiation in growing and injured blood vessels. This de-differentiation also contributes to VSMC hyperplasia following vascular injury, including that caused by angioplasty and stenting. Stents provide mechanical support and can contain and release rapamycin, an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Rapamycin suppresses VSMC hyperplasia and promotes VSMC differentiation. We report that rapamycin-induced differentiation of VSMCs required the transcription factor GATA-6. Inhibition of mTORC1 stabilized GATA-6 and promoted the nuclear accumulation of GATA-6, its binding to DNA, and its transactivation of promoters encoding contractile proteins and inhibitors of proliferation. These effects were mediated by phosphorylation of GATA-6 at Ser290, potentially by Akt2, a kinase that is activated in VSMCs when mTORC1 is inhibited. Rapamycin induced phosphorylation of GATA-6 in wild-type mice, but not in Akt2−/− mice. Intimal hyperplasia after arterial injury was greater in Akt2−/− mice than in wild-type mice, and the exacerbated response in Akt2−/− mice was rescued to a greater extent by local overexpression of the wild-type or phosphomimetic (S290D) mutant GATA-6 than by that of the phosphorylation-deficient (S290A) mutant. Our data indicated that GATA-6 and Akt2 are involved in the mTORC1-mediated regulation of VSMC proliferation and differentiation. Identifying the downstream transcriptional targets of mTORC1 may provide cell type-specific drug targets to combat cardiovascular diseases associated with excessive proliferation of VSMCs. PMID:25969542

  19. Phosphorylation of GATA-6 is required for vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation after mTORC1 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yi; Jin, Yu; Merenick, Bethany L; Ding, Min; Fetalvero, Kristina M; Wagner, Robert J; Mai, Alice; Gleim, Scott; Tucker, David F; Birnbaum, Morris J; Ballif, Bryan A; Luciano, Amelia K; Sessa, William C; Rzucidlo, Eva M; Powell, Richard J; Hou, Lin; Zhao, Hongyu; Hwa, John; Yu, Jun; Martin, Kathleen A

    2015-05-12

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) undergo transcriptionally regulated reversible differentiation in growing and injured blood vessels. This dedifferentiation also contributes to VSMC hyperplasia after vascular injury, including that caused by angioplasty and stenting. Stents provide mechanical support and can contain and release rapamycin, an inhibitor of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Rapamycin suppresses VSMC hyperplasia and promotes VSMC differentiation. We report that rapamycin-induced differentiation of VSMCs required the transcription factor GATA-6. Inhibition of mTORC1 stabilized GATA-6 and promoted the nuclear accumulation of GATA-6, its binding to DNA, its transactivation of promoters encoding contractile proteins, and its inhibition of proliferation. These effects were mediated by phosphorylation of GATA-6 at Ser(290), potentially by Akt2, a kinase that is activated in VSMCs when mTORC1 is inhibited. Rapamycin induced phosphorylation of GATA-6 in wild-type mice, but not in Akt2(-/-) mice. Intimal hyperplasia after arterial injury was greater in Akt2(-/-) mice than in wild-type mice, and the exacerbated response in Akt2(-/-) mice was rescued to a greater extent by local overexpression of the wild-type or phosphomimetic (S290D) mutant GATA-6 than by that of the phosphorylation-deficient (S290A) mutant. Our data indicated that GATA-6 and Akt2 are involved in the mTORC1-mediated regulation of VSMC proliferation and differentiation. Identifying the downstream transcriptional targets of mTORC1 may provide cell type-specific drug targets to combat cardiovascular diseases associated with excessive proliferation of VSMCs. PMID:25969542

  20. All-Trans Retinoic Acid Directs Urothelial Specification of Murine Embryonic Stem Cells via GATA4/6 Signaling Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Mauney, Joshua R.; Ramachandran, Aruna; Yu, Richard N.; Daley, George Q.

    2010-01-01

    The urinary bladder and associated tract are lined by the urothelium, a transitional epithelium that acts as a specialized permeability barrier that protects the underlying tissue from urine via expression of a highly specific group of proteins known as the uroplakins (UP). To date, our understanding of the developmental processes responsible for urothelial differentiation has been hampered due to the lack of suitable models. In this study, we describe a novel in vitro cell culture system for derivation of urothelial cells from murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) following cultivation on collagen matrices in the presence all trans retinoic acid (RA). Upon stimulation with micromolar concentrations of RA, ESCs significantly downregulated the pluripotency factor OCT-4 but markedly upregulated UP1A, UP1B, UP2, UP3A, and UP3B mRNA levels in comparison to naïve ESCs and spontaneously differentiating controls. Pan-UP protein expression was associated with both p63- and cytokeratin 20-positive cells in discrete aggregating populations of ESCs following 9 and 14 days of RA stimulation. Analysis of endodermal transcription factors such as GATA4 and GATA6 revealed significant upregulation and nuclear enrichment in RA-treated UP2-GFP+ populations. GATA4−/− and GATA6−/− transgenic ESC lines revealed substantial attenuation of RA-mediated UP expression in comparison to wild type controls. In addition, EMSA analysis revealed that RA treatment induced formation of transcriptional complexes containing GATA4/6 on both UP1B and UP2 promoter fragments containing putative GATA factor binding sites. Collectively, these data suggest that RA mediates ESC specification toward a urothelial lineage via GATA4/6–dependent processes. PMID:20644631

  1. MicroRNA-208b Alleviates Post-Infarction Myocardial Fibrosis in a Rat Model by Inhibiting GATA4

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chaoyuan; Cui, Qintao; Su, Guobao; Guo, Xiaoliang; Liu, Xiaochen; Zhang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Background Myocardial infarction affects the health of many people. Post-infarction myocardial fibrosis has attracted much attention, but details of the mechanism remain elusive. In this study, the role of microRNA-208b (miR-208b) in modulating post-infarction myocardial fibrosis and the related mechanism were investigated. Material/Methods A rat model of myocardial infarction induced by ligating the left anterior descending artery was used to analyze the expression and roles of miR-208b by overexpression with the lentivirus vector of pre-miR-208b. Myocardial function was assessed and the expression of fibrosis-related factors type I collagen (COL1) and ACTA2 (alias αSMA) was detected. Myocardial fibroblasts isolated from newborn rats were transfected with luciferase reporter vectors containing wild-type or mutant Gata4 3′ UTR to verify the relationship between Gata4 and miR-208b. We then transfected the specific small interference RNA of Gata4 to detect changes in COL1 and ACTA2. Results miR-208b was down-regulated in hearts of model rats (P<0.01). Overexpressing miR-208b improved myocardial functions, such as reducing the infarction area (P<0.05) and promoting LVEF and LVFS (P<0.01), and inhibited COL1 and ACTA2 (P<0.01). Luciferase reporter assay proved Gata4 to be the direct target of miR-208b, with the target sequence in the 3′UTR. Inhibiting GATA4 resulted in the down-regulation of COL1 and ACTA2, suggesting that the role of miR-208b was achieved via regulating GATA4. Conclusions This study demonstrates the protective function of miR-208b via GATA4 in post-infarction myocardial fibrosis, providing a potential therapeutic target for treating myocardial fibrosis. PMID:27236543

  2. GATA4 variant interaction with brain limbic structure and relapse risk: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    PubMed

    Zois, Evangelos; Vollstädt-Klein, Sabine; Hoffmann, Sabine; Reinhard, Iris; Bach, Patrick; Charlet, Katrin; Beck, Anne; Treutlein, Jens; Frank, Josef; Jorde, Anne; Kirsch, Martina; Degenhardt, Franziska; Walter, Henrik; Heinz, Andreas; Kiefer, Falk

    2016-09-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) receptors are highly expressed in the amygdala, caudate and hypothalamus. GATA4 gene encodes a transcription factor of ANP associated with the pathophysiology of alcohol dependence. We have previously demonstrated that the GATA4 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs13273672 revealed stronger alcohol-specific amygdala activation associated with lowered relapse risk to heavy drinking at 90 days in the AA-homozygotes. Our understanding however with respect to GATA4 variation on gray matter (GM) regional amygdala, caudate and hypothalamus volume is limited. We investigated GM differences specific to GATA4 and hypothesized that GM alterations will be predictive of heavy relapse. Eighty-three recently detoxified alcohol dependent patients were included. Neuroimaging data was analyzed using Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM). The main effects of GM volume and genotype as well as their interaction effect on time to heavy relapse (60 and 90 days) were analyzed using cox regression. Significant higher GM volume was found for the AA-genotype group compared with AG/GG-genotype in the hypothalamus and caudate. A significant interaction was revealed between caudate and amygdala GM volume and GATA4 genotype on time to heavy relapse. The interaction was expressed by means of higher GM in the AA genotype group to be associated with reduced risk to relapse whereas in the AG/GG group higher GM was associated with increased risk to relapse. This is the first report on GM regional volume alterations specific to GATA4 genotype [(SNP) rs13273672] and its association with relapse in alcohol dependence. Current findings further support the role of GATA4 in alcoholism. PMID:27397865

  3. Action of the Caenorhabditis elegans GATA factor END-1 in Xenopus suggests that similar mechanisms initiate endoderm development in ecdysozoa and vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Shoichet, Sarah A.; Malik, Talat H.; Rothman, Joel H.; Shivdasani, Ramesh A.

    2000-01-01

    In ecdysozoan protostomes, including arthropods and nematodes, transcription factors of the GATA family specify the endoderm: Drosophila dGATAb (ABF/Serpent) and Caenorhabditis elegans END-1 play important roles in generating this primary germ layer. end-1 is the earliest expressed endoderm-specific gene known in C. elegans and appears to initiate the program of gene expression required for endoderm differentiation, including a cascade of GATA factors required for development and maintenance of the intestine. Among vertebrate GATA proteins, the GATA-4/5/6 subfamily regulates aspects of late endoderm development, but a role for GATA factors in establishing the endoderm is unknown. We show here that END-1 binds to the canonical target DNA sequence WGATAR with specificity similar to that of vertebrate GATA-1 and GATA-4, and that it functions as a transcriptional activator. We exploited this activity of END-1 to demonstrate that establishment of the vertebrate endoderm, like that of invertebrate species, also appears to involve GATA transcriptional activity. Like the known vertebrate endoderm regulators Mixer and Sox17, END-1 is a potent activator of endoderm differentiation in isolated Xenopus ectoderm. Moreover, a dominant inhibitory GATA-binding fusion protein abrogates endoderm differentiation in intact embryos. By examining these effects in conjunction with those of Mixer- and Sox17β-activating and dominant inhibitory constructs, we further establish the likely relationships between GATA activity and these regulators in early development of the vertebrate endoderm. These results suggest that GATA factors may function sequentially to regulate endoderm differentiation in both protostomes and deuterostomes. PMID:10760276

  4. Substitution of DNA-Contacting Amino Acids with Functional Variants in the Gata-1 Zinc Finger: A Structurally and Phylogenetically Guided Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Vonderfecht, Tyson R.; Schroyer, Daniel L.; Schenck, Brandy L.; McDonough, Virginia M.; Pikaart, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    DNA binding functionality among transcription factor proteins is afforded by a number of structural motifs, such as the helix-turn-helix, helix-loop-helix, and zinc finger domains. The common thread among these diverse structures is their sequence-specific binding to essential promoter or other genetic regulatory sequences with high selectivity and affinity. One such motif, present in a wide range of organisms from bacteria to vertebrates, is the Gata-type zinc finger. This family of DNA-binding proteins is characterized by the presence of one or two (Cys)4 metal binding sites which recognize the protein’s eponymous binding site, GATA. Unlike other conserved DNA binding domains, Gata proteins appear to be restricted to binding consensus GATA sequences, or near variations, in DNA. Since the architecture of the Gata finger seems built around recognizing this particular sequence, we set out to define the allowable range of amino acid substitutions along the DNA-binding surface of a Gata finger that could continue to support sequence specific DNA binding activity. Accordingly, we set up a one-hybrid screen in yeast based on the chicken Gata-1 C-terminal zinc finger. Mutant libraries were generated at five amino acids identified in the Gata-DNA structure as likely to mediate sequence-specific contacts between the Gata finger and DNA. These libraries were designed to give as exhaustive amino acid coverage as possible such that almost all alternative amino acids were screened at each of the five probed positions. Screening and characterization of these libraries revealed several functional amino acid substitutions at two leucines which contact the DNA at the 3’ and 5’ flanks of the GATA binding site, but no functional substituents for amino acids near the core of the binding site. This pattern is consistent with amino acid sequences of known DNA-binding Gata fingers. PMID:18328814

  5. Indoxyl Sulfate Down-Regulates SLCO4C1 Transporter through Up-Regulation of GATA3

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Takehiro; Takeuchi, Yoichi; Mishima, Eikan; Yamamoto, Yasuaki; Ishida, Ayako; Sugawara, Daiki; Jinno, Daisuke; Shima, Hisato; Toyohara, Takafumi; Suzuki, Chitose; Souma, Tomokazu; Moriguchi, Takashi; Tomioka, Yoshihisa; Ito, Sadayoshi; Abe, Takaaki

    2013-01-01

    The accumulated uremic toxins inhibit the expression of various renal transporters and this inhibition may further reduce renal function and subsequently cause the accumulation of uremic toxins. However, the precise mechanism of the nephrotoxicity of uremic toxins on renal transport has been poorly understood. Here we report that indoxyl sulfate, one of the potent uremic toxins, directly suppresses the renal-specific organic anion transporter SLCO4C1 expression through a transcription factor GATA3. The promoter region of SLCO4C1 gene has several GATA motifs, and indoxyl sulfate up-regulated GATA3 mRNA and subsequently down-regulated SLCO4C1 mRNA. Overexpression of GATA3 significantly reduced SLCO4C1 expression, and silencing of GATA3 increased SLCO4C1 expression vice versa. Administration of indoxyl sulfate in rats reduced renal expression of slco4c1 and under this condition, plasma level of guanidinosuccinate, one of the preferable substrates of slco4c1, was significantly increased without changing plasma creatinine. Furthermore, in 5/6 nephrectomized rats, treatment with oral adsorbent AST-120 significantly decreased plasma indoxyl sulfate level and conversely increased the expression of slco4c1, following the reduction of plasma level of guanidinosuccinate. These data suggest that the removal of indoxyl sulfate and blocking its signal pathway may help to restore the SLCO4C1-mediated renal excretion of uremic toxins in CKD. PMID:23874392

  6. NuRD mediates activating and repressive functions of GATA-1 and FOG-1 during blood development

    PubMed Central

    Miccio, Annarita; Wang, Yuhuan; Hong, Wei; Gregory, Gregory D; Wang, Hongxin; Yu, Xiang; Choi, John K; Shelat, Suresh; Tong, Wei; Poncz, Mortimer; Blobel, Gerd A

    2010-01-01

    GATA transcription factors interact with FOG proteins to regulate tissue development by activating and repressing transcription. FOG-1 (ZFPM1), a co-factor for the haematopoietic factor GATA-1, binds to the NuRD co-repressor complex through a conserved N-terminal motif. Surprisingly, we detected NuRD components at both repressed and active GATA-1/FOG-1 target genes in vivo. In addition, while NuRD is required for transcriptional repression in certain contexts, we show a direct requirement of NuRD also for FOG-1-dependent transcriptional activation. Mice in which the FOG-1/NuRD interaction is disrupted display defects similar to germline mutations in the Gata1 and Fog1 genes, including anaemia and macrothrombocytopaenia. Gene expression analysis in primary mutant erythroid cells and megakaryocytes (MKs) revealed an essential function for NuRD during both the repression and activation of select GATA-1/FOG-1 target genes. These results show that NuRD is a critical co-factor for FOG-1 and underscore the versatile use of NuRD by lineage-specific transcription factors to activate and repress gene transcription in the appropriate cellular and genetic context. PMID:19927129

  7. Serum Response Factor-GATA Ternary Complex Required for Nuclear Signaling by a G-Protein-Coupled Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Morin, Steves; Paradis, Pierre; Aries, Anne; Nemer, Mona

    2001-01-01

    Endothelins are a family of biologically active peptides that are critical for development and function of neural crest-derived and cardiovascular cells. These effects are mediated by two G-protein-coupled receptors and involve transcriptional regulation of growth-responsive and/or tissue-specific genes. We have used the cardiac ANF promoter, which represents the best-studied tissue-specific endothelin target, to elucidate the nuclear pathways responsible for the transcriptional effects of endothelins. We found that cardiac-specific response to endothelin 1 (ET-1) requires the combined action of the serum response factor (SRF) and the tissue-restricted GATA proteins which bind over their adjacent sites, within a 30-bp ET-1 response element. We show that SRF and GATA proteins form a novel ternary complex reminiscent of the well-characterized SRF-ternary complex factor interaction required for transcriptional induction of c-fos in response to growth factors. In transient cotransfections, GATA factors and SRF synergistically activate atrial natriuretic factor and other ET-1-inducible promoters that contain both GATA and SRF binding sites. Thus, GATA factors may represent a new class of tissue-specific SRF accessory factors that account for muscle- and other cell-specific SRF actions. PMID:11158291

  8. Akt1-mediated Gata3 phosphorylation controls the repression of IFNγ in memory-type Th2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Hosokawa, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Tomoaki; Endo, Yusuke; Kato, Miki; Shinoda, Kenta; Suzuki, Akane; Motohashi, Shinichiro; Matsumoto, Masaki; Nakayama, Keiichi I.; Nakayama, Toshinori

    2016-01-01

    Th2 cells produce Th2 cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13, but repress Th1 cytokine IFNγ. Recent studies have revealed various distinct memory-type Th2 cell subsets, one of which produces a substantial amount of IFNγ in addition to Th2 cytokines, however it remains unclear precisely how these Th2 cells produce IFNγ. We herein show that phosphorylation of Gata3 at Ser308, Thr315 and Ser316 induces dissociation of a histone deacetylase Hdac2 from the Gata3/Chd4 repressive complex in Th2 cells. We also identify Akt1 as a Gata3-phosphorylating kinase, and the activation of Akt1 induces derepression of Tbx21 and Ifng expression in Th2 cells. Moreover, T-bet-dependent IFNγ expression in IFNγ-producing memory Th2 cells appears to be controlled by the phosphorylation status of Gata3 in human and murine systems. Thus, this study highlights the molecular basis for posttranslational modifications of Gata3 that control the regulation of IFNγ expression in memory Th2 cells. PMID:27053161

  9. Akt1-mediated Gata3 phosphorylation controls the repression of IFNγ in memory-type Th2 cells.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Tomoaki; Endo, Yusuke; Kato, Miki; Shinoda, Kenta; Suzuki, Akane; Motohashi, Shinichiro; Matsumoto, Masaki; Nakayama, Keiichi I; Nakayama, Toshinori

    2016-01-01

    Th2 cells produce Th2 cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13, but repress Th1 cytokine IFNγ. Recent studies have revealed various distinct memory-type Th2 cell subsets, one of which produces a substantial amount of IFNγ in addition to Th2 cytokines, however it remains unclear precisely how these Th2 cells produce IFNγ. We herein show that phosphorylation of Gata3 at Ser308, Thr315 and Ser316 induces dissociation of a histone deacetylase Hdac2 from the Gata3/Chd4 repressive complex in Th2 cells. We also identify Akt1 as a Gata3-phosphorylating kinase, and the activation of Akt1 induces derepression of Tbx21 and Ifng expression in Th2 cells. Moreover, T-bet-dependent IFNγ expression in IFNγ-producing memory Th2 cells appears to be controlled by the phosphorylation status of Gata3 in human and murine systems. Thus, this study highlights the molecular basis for posttranslational modifications of Gata3 that control the regulation of IFNγ expression in memory Th2 cells. PMID:27053161

  10. Single-gene association between GATA-2 and autoimmune hepatitis: A novel genetic insight highlighting immunologic pathways to disease

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Gwilym; Chen, Yung-Yi; Li, Ka-Kit; Neil, Desley; Oo, Ye Htun; Richter, Alex; Bigley, Venetia; Collin, Matthew; Adams, David H.; Hirschfield, Gideon M.

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), an immune-mediated liver disease, originates as a consequence of interacting genetic and environmental risk factors. Treatment remains non-specific and prone to side effects. Deficiencies in regulatory T cell (Treg) function are hypothesized to contribute to the pathogenesis of AIH. Methods We describe an adult patient who presented with AIH in the context of monocytopenia. The patient was characterized by GATA2 gene sequencing, flow cytometry of peripheral blood for leucocyte subsets, ELISA for serum Flt-3 ligand, and immunohistochemistry of liver biopsy tissue. Results Sequencing confirmed a GATA2 mutation. Peripheral Treg were absent in the context of a preserved total T cell count. Immunostaining for the Treg transcription factor FOXP3 was reduced in liver tissue as compared to a control AIH specimen. There were marked deficiencies in multiple antigen-presenting cell subsets and Flt-3 ligand was elevated. These findings are consistent with previous reports of GATA2 dysfunction. Conclusions The association of a GATA2 mutation with AIH is previously unrecognized. GATA2 encodes a hematopoietic cell transcription factor, and mutations may manifest as monocytopenia, dendritic and B cell deficiencies, myelodysplasia, and immunodeficiency. Tregs may be depleted as in this case. Our findings provide support for the role of Tregs in AIH, complement reports of other deficiencies in T cell regulation causing AIH-like syndromes, and support the rationale of attempting to modulate the Treg axis for the therapeutic benefit of AIH patients. PMID:26812071

  11. A cell cycle-regulated GATA factor promotes centromeric localization of CENP-A in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ee Sin; Saitoh, Shigeaki; Yanagida, Mitsuhiro; Takahashi, Kohta

    2003-01-01

    CENP-A, the centromere-specific histone H3 variant, plays a crucial role in organizing kinetochore chromatin for precise chromosome segregation. We have isolated Ams2, a Daxx-like motif-containing GATA factor, and histone H4, as multicopy suppressors of cnp1-1, an S. pombe CENP-A mutant. While depletion of Ams2 results in the reduction of CENP-A binding to the centromere and chromosome missegregation, increasing its dosage restores association of a CENP-A mutant protein with centromeres. Conversely, overexpression of CENP-A or histone H4 suppresses an ams2 disruptant. The intracellular amount of Ams2 thus affects centromeric nucleosomal constituents. Ams2 is abundant in S phase and associates with chromatin, including the central centromeres through binding to GATA-core sequences. Ams2 is thus a cell cycle-regulated GATA factor that is required for centromere function. PMID:12535531

  12. MicroRNA-363 and GATA-1 are regulated by HIF-1α in K562 cells under hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Xie, Youbang; Li, Wenqian; Feng, Jianming; Wu, Tianyi; Li, Jianping

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate regulatory relationships among hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), microRNA and erythroid transcription factors. K562 cells were transfected with HIF-1α knockout or with overexpression lentivirus of plasmid (MOI 10). The cells were divided into 3 groups: the negative control, overexpressing and interference groups. The cells were cultured under normoxia and hypoxia. Expression of miR-17*, miR-363 and miR-574-5p in the three groups was determined by quantitative PCR. Expression levels of erythroid transcription factor mRNAs such as GATA-1/GATA-2 and nuclear factor‑erythroid 2 (NF-E2) were measured using RT-qPCR while the protein expression was studied using western blot analysis. Under normoxia or hypoxia, the levels of miR-17*, miR-363 and miR‑574-5p in the overexpression group were higher than those in the other groups. Differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). Under hypoxia, the level of miR-363 in the interference group was less than that in the negative control group and difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The level of GATA-1 mRNA in the overexpression group was higher than that in the negative control group, however, in the interference group the level was lower than that in the overexpression group under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. The level of GATA-2 mRNA in the interference group was higher than that in other two groups under normoxic or hypoxic conditions. The NF-E2 mRNA was reversely related to GATA-2. The levels of HIF-1α, GATA-1 and NF-E2 mRNAs in the negative control under hypoxia were higher than those of normoxia. The level of HIF-1α mRNA in the overexpression group in hypoxia was lower than that in normoxia, while the GATA-1 and GATA-2 mRNA showed a reverse association. The levels of HIF-1α and GATA-2 mRNA in the interference group under hypoxia were higher compared to those of normoxia. Differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). Western blot

  13. MicroRNA-363 and GATA-1 are regulated by HIF-1α in K562 cells under hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Youbang; Li, Wenqian; Feng, Jianming; Wu, Tianyi; Li, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate regulatory relationships among hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), microRNA and erythroid transcription factors. K562 cells were transfected with HIF-1α knockout or with overexpression lentivirus of plasmid (MOI 10). The cells were divided into 3 groups: the negative control, overexpressing and interference groups. The cells were cultured under normoxia and hypoxia. Expression of miR-17*, miR-363 and miR-574-5p in the three groups was determined by quantitative PCR. Expression levels of erythroid transcription factor mRNAs such as GATA-1/GATA-2 and nuclear factor-erythroid 2 (NF-E2) were measured using RT-qPCR while the protein expression was studied using western blot analysis. Under normoxia or hypoxia, the levels of miR-17*, miR-363 and miR-574-5p in the overexpression group were higher than those in the other groups. Differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). Under hypoxia, the level of miR-363 in the interference group was less than that in the negative control group and difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The level of GATA-1 mRNA in the overexpression group was higher than that in the negative control group, however, in the interference group the level was lower than that in the overexpression group under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. The level of GATA-2 mRNA in the interference group was higher than that in other two groups under normoxic or hypoxic conditions. The NF-E2 mRNA was reversely related to GATA-2. The levels of HIF-1α, GATA-1 and NF-E2 mRNAs in the negative control under hypoxia were higher than those of normoxia. The level of HIF-1α mRNA in the overexpression group in hypoxia was lower than that in normoxia, while the GATA-1 and GATA-2 mRNA showed a reverse association. The levels of HIF-1α and GATA-2 mRNA in the interference group under hypoxia were higher compared to those of normoxia. Differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). Western blot

  14. GATA2 provides an early anterior bias and uncovers a global positioning system for polarity in the amniote embryo

    PubMed Central

    Bertocchini, Federica; Stern, Claudio D.

    2013-01-01

    The first axis to be specified during vertebrate development is that between the site where gastrulation will begin and the opposite pole of the embryo (dorso-ventral axis in amphibians and fish, anterior-posterior in amniotes). This relies on Nodal activity, but different vertebrates differ in how this activity is positioned. In chick, the earliest known asymmetry is posterior expression of the TGFβ-related factor Vg1, close to the future Nodal expression domain. Here we show that the transcription factor GATA2 is expressed anteriorly before this stage. GATA2 influences the site of primitive streak formation and its role is independent from, and upstream of, Vg1 and Wnt. However while Vg1 is required for streak formation, GATA2 does not act as an absolute anterior specifier, but provides an anterior bias. These findings point to previously unsuspected global determinants of polarity of the early amniote embryo. PMID:23093427

  15. Systematic Cellular Disease Models Reveal Synergistic Interaction of Trisomy 21 and GATA1 Mutations in Hematopoietic Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Banno, Kimihiko; Omori, Sayaka; Hirata, Katsuya; Nawa, Nobutoshi; Nakagawa, Natsuki; Nishimura, Ken; Ohtaka, Manami; Nakanishi, Mahito; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Toki, Tsutomu; Ito, Etsuro; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Kokubu, Chikara; Takeda, Junji; Taniguchi, Hidetoshi; Arahori, Hitomi; Wada, Kazuko; Kitabatake, Yasuji; Ozono, Keiichi

    2016-05-10

    Chromosomal aneuploidy and specific gene mutations are recognized early hallmarks of many oncogenic processes. However, the net effect of these abnormalities has generally not been explored. We focused on transient myeloproliferative disorder (TMD) in Down syndrome, which is characteristically associated with somatic mutations in GATA1. To better understand functional interplay between trisomy 21 and GATA1 mutations in hematopoiesis, we constructed cellular disease models using human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and genome-editing technologies. Comparative analysis of these engineered iPSCs demonstrated that trisomy 21 perturbed hematopoietic development through the enhanced production of early hematopoietic progenitors and the upregulation of mutated GATA1, resulting in the accelerated production of aberrantly differentiated cells. These effects were mediated by dosage alterations of RUNX1, ETS2, and ERG, which are located in a critical 4-Mb region of chromosome 21. Our study provides insight into the genetic synergy that contributes to multi-step leukemogenesis. PMID:27134169

  16. Altered chemotactic response to CXCL12 in patients carrying GATA2 mutations.

    PubMed

    Maciejewski-Duval, Anna; Meuris, Floriane; Bignon, Alexandre; Aknin, Marie-Laure; Balabanian, Karl; Faivre, Laurence; Pasquet, Marlène; Barlogis, Vincent; Fieschi, Claire; Bellanné-Chantelot, Christine; Donadieu, Jean; Schlecht-Louf, Géraldine; Marin-Esteban, Viviana; Bachelerie, Françoise

    2016-06-01

    GATA2 deficiency-formerly described as MonoMAC syndrome; dendritic cells, monocytes, B cells, and natural killer cell deficiency; familial myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia; or Emberger syndrome-encompasses a range of hematologic and nonhematologic anomalies, mainly characterized by monocytopenia, B lymphopenia, natural killer cell cytopenia, neutropenia, immunodeficiency, and a high risk of developing acute myeloid leukemia. Herein, we present 7 patients with GATA2 deficiency recruited into the French Severe Chronic Neutropenia Registry, which enrolls patients with all kinds of congenital neutropenia. We performed extended immunophenotyping of their whole blood lymphocyte populations, together with the analysis of their chemotactic responses. Lymphopenia was recorded for B and CD4(+) T cells in 6 patients. Although only 3 patients displayed natural killer cell cytopenia, the CD56(bright) natural killer subpopulation was nearly absent in all 7 patients. Natural killer cells from 6 patients showed decreased CXCL12/CXCR4-dependent chemotaxis, whereas other lymphocytes, and most significantly B lymphocytes, displayed enhanced CXCL12-induced chemotaxis compared with healthy volunteers. Surface expression of CXCR4 was significantly diminished in the patients' natural killer cells, although the total expression of the receptor was found to be equivalent to that of natural killer cells from healthy individual controls. Together, these data reveal that GATA2 deficiency is associated with impaired membrane expression and chemotactic dysfunctions of CXCR4. These dysfunctions may contribute to the physiopathology of this deficiency by affecting the normal distribution of lymphocytes and thus potentially affecting the susceptibility of patients to associated infections. PMID:26710799

  17. Targeted inhibition of ANKRD1 disrupts sarcomeric ERK-GATA4 signal transduction and abrogates phenylephrine-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Lin; Chiusa, Manuel; Cadar, Adrian G.; Lin, Angel; Samaras, Susan; Davidson, Jeffrey M.; Lim, Chee C.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Accumulating evidence suggest that sarcomere signalling complexes play a pivotal role in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by communicating stress signals to the nucleus to induce gene expression. Ankyrin repeat domain 1 (ANKRD1) is a transcriptional regulatory protein that also associates with sarcomeric titin; however, the exact role of ANKRD1 in the heart remains to be elucidated. We therefore aimed to examine the role of ANKRD1 in cardiomyocyte hypertrophic signalling. Methods and results In neonatal rat ventricular myocytes, we found that ANKRD1 is part of a sarcomeric signalling complex that includes ERK1/2 and cardiac transcription factor GATA4. Treatment with hypertrophic agonist phenylephrine (PE) resulted in phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and GATA4 followed by nuclear translocation of the ANKRD1/ERK/GATA4 complex. Knockdown of Ankrd1 attenuated PE-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and GATA4, inhibited nuclear translocation of the ANKRD1 complex, and prevented cardiomyocyte growth. Mice lacking Ankrd1 are viable with normal cardiac function. Chronic PE infusion in wild-type mice induced significant cardiac hypertrophy with reactivation of the cardiac fetal gene program which was completely abrogated in Ankrd1 null mice. In contrast, ANKRD1 does not play a role in haemodynamic overload as Ankrd1 null mice subjected to transverse aortic constriction developed cardiac hypertrophy comparable to wild-type mice. Conclusion Our study reveals a novel role for ANKRD1 as a selective regulator of PE-induced signalling whereby ANKRD1 recruits and localizes GATA4 and ERK1/2 in a sarcomeric macro-molecular complex to enhance GATA4 phosphorylation with subsequent nuclear translocation of the ANKRD1 complex to induce hypertrophic gene expression. PMID:25770146

  18. Impaired mesenchymal cell function in Gata4 mutant mice leads to diaphragmatic hernias and primary lung defects

    PubMed Central

    Jay, Patrick Y.; Bielinska, Malgorzata; Erlich, Jonathan M.; Mannisto, Susanna; Pu, William T.; Heikinheimo, Markku; Wilson, David B.

    2007-01-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is an often fatal birth defect that is commonly associated with pulmonary hypoplasia and cardiac malformations. Some investigators hypothesize that this constellation of defects results from genetic or environmental triggers that disrupt mesenchymal cell function in not only the primordial diaphragm but also the thoracic organs. The alternative hypothesis is that the displacement of the abdominal viscera in the chest secondarily perturbs the development of the heart and lungs. Recently, loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding FOG-2, a transcriptional co-regulator, have been linked to CDH and pulmonary hypoplasia in humans and mice. Here we show that mutagenesis of the gene for GATA-4, a transcription factor known to functionally interact with FOG-2, predisposes inbred mice to a similar set of birth defects. Analysis of wild-type mouse embryos demonstrated co-expression of Gata4 and Fog2 in mesenchymal cells of the developing diaphragm, lungs, and heart. A significant fraction of C57Bl/6 mice heterozygous for a Gata4 deletion mutation died within one day of birth. Developmental defects in the heterozygotes included midline diaphragmatic hernias, dilated distal airways, and cardiac malformations. Heterozygotes had any combination of these defects or none. In chimeric mice, Gata4−/− cells retained the capacity to contribute to cells in the diaphragmatic central tendon and lung mesenchyme, indicating that GATA-4 is not required for differentiation of these lineages. We conclude that GATA-4, like its co-regulator FOG-2, is required for proper mesenchymal cell function in the developing diaphragm, lungs, and heart. PMID:17069789

  19. Conditional Mutagenesis of Gata6 in SF1-Positive Cells Causes Gonadal-Like Differentiation in the Adrenal Cortex of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pihlajoki, Marjut; Gretzinger, Elisabeth; Cochran, Rebecca; Kyrönlahti, Antti; Schrade, Anja; Hiller, Theresa; Sullivan, Laura; Shoykhet, Michael; Schoeller, Erica L.; Brooks, Michael D.; Heikinheimo, Markku

    2013-01-01

    Transcription factor GATA6 is expressed in the fetal and adult adrenal cortex and has been implicated in steroidogenesis. To characterize the role of transcription factor GATA6 in adrenocortical development and function, we generated mice in which Gata6 was conditionally deleted using Cre-LoxP recombination with Sf1-cre. The adrenal glands of adult Gata6 conditional knockout (cKO) mice were small and had a thin cortex. Cytomegalic changes were evident in fetal and adult cKO adrenal glands, and chromaffin cells were ectopically located at the periphery of the glands. Corticosterone secretion in response to exogenous ACTH was blunted in cKO mice. Spindle-shaped cells expressing Gata4, a marker of gonadal stroma, accumulated in the adrenal subcapsule of Gata6 cKO mice. RNA analysis demonstrated the concomitant upregulation of other gonadal-like markers, including Amhr2, in the cKO adrenal glands, suggesting that GATA6 inhibits the spontaneous differentiation of adrenocortical stem/progenitor cells into gonadal-like cells. Lhcgr and Cyp17 were overexpressed in the adrenal glands of gonadectomized cKO vs control mice, implying that GATA6 also limits sex steroidogenic cell differentiation in response to the hormonal changes that accompany gonadectomy. Nulliparous female and orchiectomized male Gata6 cKO mice lacked an adrenal X-zone. Microarray hybridization identified Pik3c2g as a novel X-zone marker that is downregulated in the adrenal glands of these mice. Our findings offer genetic proof that GATA6 regulates the differentiation of steroidogenic progenitors into adrenocortical cells. PMID:23471215

  20. GATA2 is epigenetically repressed in human and mouse lung tumors and is not requisite for survival of KRAS mutant lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tessema, Mathewos; Yingling, Christin M.; Snider, Amanda M.; Do, Kieu; Juri, Daniel E.; Picchi, Maria A.; Zhang, Xiequn; Liu, Yushi; Leng, Shuguang; Tellez, Carmen S.; Belinsky, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction GATA2 was recently described as a critical survival factor and therapeutic target for KRAS mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, whether this role is affected by epigenetic repression of GATA2 in lung cancer is unclear. Methods GATA2 expression and promoter CpG island methylation were evaluated using human and mouse NSCLC cell lines and tumor-normal pairs. In vitro assays were used to study GATA2 repression on cell survival and during tobacco carcinogen-induced transformation. Results GATA2 expression in KRAS wild-type (n=15) and mutant (n=10) NSCLC cell lines and primary lung tumors (n=24) was significantly lower, 1.3–33.6-fold (p=2.2×10−9), compared to corresponding normal lung. GATA2 promoter was unmethylated in normal lung (0/10) but frequently methylated in lung tumors (96%, 159/165) and NSCLC cell lines (97%, 30/31). This highly prevalent aberrant methylation was independently validated using TCGA data for 369 NSCLC tumor-normal pairs. In vitro studies using an established carcinogen-induced pre-malignancy model revealed that GATA2 expression was initially repressed by chromatin remodeling followed by cytosine methylation during transformation. Similarly, expression of Gata2 in NNK-induced mouse lung tumors (n=6) and cell lines (n=5) was 5-fold and 100-fold lower, respectively, than normal mouse lung. Finally, siRNA-mediated knockdown of GATA2 in KRAS mutant [human (n=4) and murine (n=5)] and wild-type [human (n=4)] NSCLC cell lines showed that further reduction of expression (up to 95%) does not induce cell death. Conclusion GATA2 is epigenetically repressed in human and mouse lung tumors and its further inhibition is not a valid therapeutic strategy for KRAS mutant lung cancer. PMID:24807155

  1. Loss of Gata4 in Sertoli cells impairs the spermatogonial stem cell niche and causes germ cell exhaustion by attenuating chemokine signaling

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Su-Ren; Tang, Ji-Xin; Cheng, Jin-Mei; Li, Jian; Jin, Cheng; Li, Xiao-Yu; Deng, Shou-Long; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Xiu-Xia; Liu, Yi-Xun

    2015-01-01

    Sertoli cells, the primary somatic cell in the seminiferous epithelium, provide the spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) microenvironment (niche) through physical support and the expression of paracrine factors. However, the regulatory mechanisms within the SSC niche, which is primarily controlled by Sertoli cells, remain largely unknown. GATA4 is a Sertoli cell marker, involved in genital ridge initiation, sex determination and differentiation during the embryonic stage. Here, we showed that neonatal mice with a targeted disruption of Gata4 in Sertoli cells (Gata4flox/flox; Amh-Cre; hereafter termed Gata4 cKO) displayed a loss of the establishment and maintenance of the SSC pool and apoptosis of both gonocyte-derived differentiating spermatogonia and meiotic spermatocytes. Thus, progressive germ cell depletion and a Sertoli-cell-only syndrome were observed as early as the first wave of murine spermatogenesis. Transplantation of germ cells from postnatal day 5 (P5) Gata4 cKO mice into KitW/W-v recipient seminiferous tubules restored spermatogenesis. In addition, microarray analyses of P5 Gata4 cKO mouse testes showed alterations in chemokine signaling factors, including Cxcl12, Ccl3, Cxcr4 (CXCL12 receptor), Ccr1 (CCL3 receptor), Ccl9, Xcl1 and Ccrl2. Deletion of Gata4 in Sertoli cells markedly attenuated Sertoli cell chemotaxis, which guides SSCs or prospermatogonia to the stem cell niche. Finally, we showed that GATA4 transcriptionally regulated Cxcl12 and Ccl9, and the addition of CXCL12 and CCL9 to an in vitro testis tissue culture system increased the number of PLZF+ undifferentiated spermatogonia within Gata4 cKO testes. Together, these results reveal a novel role for GATA4 in controlling the SSC niche via the transcriptional regulation of chemokine signaling shortly after birth. PMID:26473289

  2. Gata2 cis-element is required for hematopoietic stem cell generation in the mammalian embryo.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xin; Johnson, Kirby D; Chang, Yuan-I; Boyer, Meghan E; Dewey, Colin N; Zhang, Jing; Bresnick, Emery H

    2013-12-16

    The generation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from hemogenic endothelium within the aorta, gonad, mesonephros (AGM) region of the mammalian embryo is crucial for development of the adult hematopoietic system. We described a deletion of a Gata2 cis-element (+9.5) that depletes fetal liver HSCs, is lethal at E13-14 of embryogenesis, and is mutated in an immunodeficiency that progresses to myelodysplasia/leukemia. Here, we demonstrate that the +9.5 element enhances Gata2 expression and is required to generate long-term repopulating HSCs in the AGM. Deletion of the +9.5 element abrogated the capacity of hemogenic endothelium to generate HSC-containing clusters in the aorta. Genomic analyses indicated that the +9.5 element regulated a rich ensemble of genes that control hemogenic endothelium and HSCs, as well as genes not implicated in hematopoiesis. These results reveal a mechanism that controls stem cell emergence from hemogenic endothelium to establish the adult hematopoietic system. PMID:24297994

  3. Early myeloid lineage choice is not initiated by random PU.1 to GATA1 protein ratios.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Philipp S; Schwarzfischer, Michael; Loeffler, Dirk; Kokkaliaris, Konstantinos D; Hilsenbeck, Oliver; Moritz, Nadine; Endele, Max; Filipczyk, Adam; Gambardella, Adriana; Ahmed, Nouraiz; Etzrodt, Martin; Coutu, Daniel L; Rieger, Michael A; Marr, Carsten; Strasser, Michael K; Schauberger, Bernhard; Burtscher, Ingo; Ermakova, Olga; Bürger, Antje; Lickert, Heiko; Nerlov, Claus; Theis, Fabian J; Schroeder, Timm

    2016-07-14

    The mechanisms underlying haematopoietic lineage decisions remain disputed. Lineage-affiliated transcription factors with the capacity for lineage reprogramming, positive auto-regulation and mutual inhibition have been described as being expressed in uncommitted cell populations. This led to the assumption that lineage choice is cell-intrinsically initiated and determined by stochastic switches of randomly fluctuating cross-antagonistic transcription factors. However, this hypothesis was developed on the basis of RNA expression data from snapshot and/or population-averaged analyses. Alternative models of lineage choice therefore cannot be excluded. Here we use novel reporter mouse lines and live imaging for continuous single-cell long-term quantification of the transcription factors GATA1 and PU.1 (also known as SPI1). We analyse individual haematopoietic stem cells throughout differentiation into megakaryocytic-erythroid and granulocytic-monocytic lineages. The observed expression dynamics are incompatible with the assumption that stochastic switching between PU.1 and GATA1 precedes and initiates megakaryocytic-erythroid versus granulocytic-monocytic lineage decision-making. Rather, our findings suggest that these transcription factors are only executing and reinforcing lineage choice once made. These results challenge the current prevailing model of early myeloid lineage choice. PMID:27411635

  4. Gata2 cis-element is required for hematopoietic stem cell generation in the mammalian embryo

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xin; Johnson, Kirby D.; Chang, Yuan-I; Boyer, Meghan E.; Dewey, Colin N.; Zhang, Jing

    2013-01-01

    The generation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from hemogenic endothelium within the aorta, gonad, mesonephros (AGM) region of the mammalian embryo is crucial for development of the adult hematopoietic system. We described a deletion of a Gata2 cis-element (+9.5) that depletes fetal liver HSCs, is lethal at E13–14 of embryogenesis, and is mutated in an immunodeficiency that progresses to myelodysplasia/leukemia. Here, we demonstrate that the +9.5 element enhances Gata2 expression and is required to generate long-term repopulating HSCs in the AGM. Deletion of the +9.5 element abrogated the capacity of hemogenic endothelium to generate HSC-containing clusters in the aorta. Genomic analyses indicated that the +9.5 element regulated a rich ensemble of genes that control hemogenic endothelium and HSCs, as well as genes not implicated in hematopoiesis. These results reveal a mechanism that controls stem cell emergence from hemogenic endothelium to establish the adult hematopoietic system. PMID:24297994

  5. Notch signaling represses GATA4-induced expression of genes involved in steroid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    George, Rajani M; Hahn, Katherine L; Rawls, Alan; Viger, Robert S; Wilson-Rawls, Jeanne

    2015-10-01

    Notch2 and Notch3 and genes of the Notch signaling network are dynamically expressed in developing follicles, where they are essential for granulosa cell proliferation and meiotic maturation. Notch receptors, ligands, and downstream effector genes are also expressed in testicular Leydig cells, predicting a potential role in regulating steroidogenesis. In this study, we sought to determine if Notch signaling in small follicles regulates the proliferation response of granulosa cells to FSH and represses the up-regulation steroidogenic gene expression that occurs in response to FSH as the follicle grows. Inhibition of Notch signaling in small preantral follicles led to the up-regulation of the expression of genes in the steroid biosynthetic pathway. Similarly, progesterone secretion by MA-10 Leydig cells was significantly inhibited by constitutively active Notch. Together, these data indicated that Notch signaling inhibits steroidogenesis. GATA4 has been shown to be a positive regulator of steroidogenic genes, including STAR protein, P450 aromatase, and 3B-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. We observed that Notch downstream effectors HEY1, HEY2, and HEYL are able to differentially regulate these GATA4-dependent promoters. These data are supported by the presence of HEY/HES binding sites in these promoters. These studies indicate that Notch signaling has a role in the complex regulation of the steroidogenic pathway. PMID:26183893

  6. GATA-1 modulates the chromatin structure and activity of the chicken alpha-globin 3' enhancer.

    PubMed

    Escamilla-Del-Arenal, Martín; Recillas-Targa, Félix

    2008-01-01

    Long-distance regulatory elements and local chromatin structure are critical for proper regulation of gene expression. Here we characterize the chromatin conformation of the chicken alpha-globin silencer-enhancer elements located 3' of the domain. We found a characteristic and erythrocyte-specific structure between the previously defined silencer and the enhancer, defined by two nuclease hypersensitive sites, which appear when the enhancer is active during erythroid differentiation. Fine mapping of these sites demonstrates the absence of a positioned nucleosome and the association of GATA-1. Functional analyses of episomal vectors, as well as stably integrated constructs, revealed that GATA-1 plays a major role in defining both the chromatin structure and the enhancer activity. We detected a progressive enrichment of histone acetylation on critical enhancer nuclear factor binding sites, in correlation with the formation of an apparent nucleosome-free region. On the basis of these results, we propose that the local chromatin structure of the chicken alpha-globin enhancer plays a central role in its capacity to differentially regulate alpha-globin gene expression during erythroid differentiation and development. PMID:17984219

  7. A Gata3-Mafb transcriptional network directs post-synaptic differentiation in synapses specialized for hearing.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wei-Ming; Appler, Jessica M; Kim, Ye-Hyun; Nishitani, Allison M; Holt, Jeffrey R; Goodrich, Lisa V

    2013-01-01

    Information flow through neural circuits is determined by the nature of the synapses linking the subtypes of neurons. How neurons acquire features distinct to each synapse remains unknown. We show that the transcription factor Mafb drives the formation of auditory ribbon synapses, which are specialized for rapid transmission from hair cells to spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). Mafb acts in SGNs to drive differentiation of the large postsynaptic density (PSD) characteristic of the ribbon synapse. In Mafb mutant mice, SGNs fail to develop normal PSDs, leading to reduced synapse number and impaired auditory responses. Conversely, increased Mafb accelerates synaptogenesis. Moreover, Mafb is responsible for executing one branch of the SGN differentiation program orchestrated by the Gata3 transcriptional network. Remarkably, restoration of Mafb rescues the synapse defect in Gata3 mutants. Hence, Mafb is a powerful regulator of cell-type specific features of auditory synaptogenesis that offers a new entry point for treating hearing loss. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01341.001. PMID:24327562

  8. GATA3 mRNA expression, but not mutation, associates with longer progression-free survival in ER-positive breast cancer patients treated with first-line tamoxifen for recurrent disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingjing; Prager-van der Smissen, Wendy J C; Look, Maxime P; Sieuwerts, Anieta M; Smid, Marcel; Meijer-van Gelder, Marion E; Foekens, John A; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Martens, John W M

    2016-06-28

    In breast cancer, GATA3 mutations have been associated with a favorable prognosis and the response to neoadjuvant aromatase inhibitor treatment. Therefore, we investigated whether GATA3 mutations predict the outcome of tamoxifen treatment in the advanced setting. In a retrospective study consisting of 235 hormone-naive patients with ER-positive breast cancer who received tamoxifen as first-line treatment for recurrent disease, GATA3 mutations (in 14.0% of patients) did not significantly associate with either the overall response rate (ORR) or with the length of progression-free survival (PFS) after the start of tamoxifen therapy. Interestingly, among 148 patients for whom both mutation and mRNA expression data were available, GATA3 mutations associated with an increased expression of GATA3. However, only 23.7% of GATA3 high tumors had a mutation. Evaluation of the clinical significance of GATA3 mRNA revealed that it was associated with prolonged PFS, but not with the ORR, also in multivariate analysis. Thus, GATA3 mRNA expression, but not GATA3 mutation, is an independent predictor of prolonged PFS in ER-positive breast cancer patients who received first-line tamoxifen for recurrent disease. Besides GATA3 mutation, other mechanisms must exist that underlie increased GATA3 levels. PMID:27018307

  9. The transcription factor GATA1 and the histone methyltransferase SET7 interact to promote VEGF-mediated angiogenesis and tumor growth and predict clinical outcome of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanan; Liu, Jie; Lin, Jing; Zhou, Lei; Song, Yuhua; Wei, Bo; Luo, Xiaoli; Chen, Zhida; Chen, Yingjie; Xiong, Jiaxiu; Xu, Xiaojie; Ding, Lihua; Ye, Qinong

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis is essential for tumor growth. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is the most important regulator of tumor angiogenesis. However, how transcription factors interact with histone-modifying enzymes to regulate VEGF transcription and tumor angiogenesis remains unclear. Here, we show that transcription factor GATA1 associates with the histone methyltransferase SET7 to promote VEGF transcription and breast tumor angiogenesis. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, we found that GATA1 was required for recruitment of SET7, RNA polymerase II and transcription factor II B to VEGF core promoter. GATA1 enhanced breast cancer cell (MCF7, ZR75-1 and MDA-MB-231)-secreted VEGF via SET7, which promoted vascular endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation, migration and tube formation. SET7 was required for GATA1-induced breast tumor angiogenesis and growth in nude mice. Immunohistochemical staining showed that expression of GATA1 and SET7 was upregulated and positively correlated with VEGF expression and microvessel number in 80 breast cancer patients. GATA1 and SET7 are independent poor prognostic factors in breast cancer. Our data provide novel insights into VEGF transcriptional regulation and suggest GATA1/SET7 as cancer therapeutic targets. PMID:26848522

  10. Multiplex Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification Analysis of GATA4 Gene Copy Number Variations in Patients with Isolated Congenital Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Guida, Valentina; Lepri, Francesca; Vijzelaar, Raymon; De Zorzi, Andrea; Versacci, Paolo; Digilio, Maria Cristina; Marino, Bruno; De Luca, Alessandro; Dallapiccola, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    GATA4 mutations are found in patients with different isolated congenital heart defects (CHDs), mostly cardiac septal defects and tetralogy of Fallot. In addition, GATA4 is supposed to be the responsible gene for the CHDs in the chromosomal 8p23 deletion syndrome, which is recognized as a malformation syndrome with clinical symptoms of facial anomalies, microcephaly, mental retardation, and congenital heart defects. Thus far, no study has been carried out to investigate the role of GATA4 copy number variations (CNVs) in non-syndromic CHDs. To explore the possible occurrence of GATA4 gene CNVs in isolated CHDs, we analyzed by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) a cohort of 161 non-syndromic patients with cardiac anomalies previously associated with GATA4 gene mutations. The patients were mutation-negative for GATA4, NKX2.5, and FOG2 genes after screening with denaturing high performance liquid chromatography. MLPA analysis revealed that normalized MLPA signals were all found within the normal range values for all exons in all patients, excluding a major contribution of GATA4 gene CNVs in CHD pathogenesis. PMID:20592452

  11. RhIL-11 treatment normalized Th1/Th2 and T-bet/GATA-3 imbalance in in human immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP).

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying; Zhou, Xieming; Guo, Wenjian; Li, Qianqian; Pan, Xiahui; Bao, Yunhua; He, Muqing; Zhu, Baoling; Lin, Xiaoji; Jin, Limin; Yao, Rongxin

    2016-09-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune hemorrhagic disorder characterized by reduction in platelet counts. T helper 1 (Th1) cells polarization with an increased shift of Th1/Th2 ratio has been reported in ITP. This shift is associated with transcription factor T-box expressed in T cells (T-bet) upregulation and GATA-binding protein 3 (GATA-3) downregulation, leading to an increased T-bet/GATA-3 ratio. Our previous in vitro study showed that recombinant human interleukin-11 (rhIL-11) could normalize Th1/Th2 imbalance in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from adult ITP patients, which co-occurred with T-bet/GATA-3 ratio restoration. In this report, we investigated whether rhIL-11 had therapeutic effect in clinical ITP patients and whether rhIL-11 treatment could normalize Th1/Th2 and T-bet/GATA-3 levels in vivo. We found rhIL-11 treatment had a response rate of 67.7% and significantly decreased Th1 and T-bet levels but increased Th2 and GATA-3 levels in ITP patients who showed good response, normalizing Th1/Th2 and T-bet/GATA-3 ratios similar to that in healthy controls. Thus our study suggested rhIL-11 was effective with tolerable adverse effects in ITP. The treatment strategy warrants further clinical investigation. PMID:27235596

  12. Direct Binding of pRb/E2F-2 to GATA-1 Regulates Maturation and Terminal Cell Division during Erythropoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Kadri, Zahra; Shimizu, Ritsuko; Ohneda, Osamu; Maouche-Chretien, Leila; Gisselbrecht, Sylvie; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Romeo, Paul-Henri; Leboulch, Philippe; Chretien, Stany

    2009-01-01

    How cell proliferation subsides as cells terminally differentiate remains largely enigmatic, although this phenomenon is central to the existence of multicellular organisms. Here, we show that GATA-1, the master transcription factor of erythropoiesis, forms a tricomplex with the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and E2F-2. This interaction requires a LXCXE motif that is evolutionary conserved among GATA-1 orthologs yet absent from the other GATA family members. GATA-1/pRb/E2F-2 complex formation stalls cell proliferation and steers erythroid precursors towards terminal differentiation. This process can be disrupted in vitro by FOG-1, which displaces pRb/E2F-2 from GATA-1. A GATA-1 mutant unable to bind pRb fails to inhibit cell proliferation and results in mouse embryonic lethality by anemia. These findings clarify the previously suspected cell-autonomous role of pRb during erythropoiesis and may provide a unifying molecular mechanism for several mouse phenotypes and human diseases associated with GATA-1 mutations. PMID:19513100

  13. The transcription factor GATA1 and the histone methyltransferase SET7 interact to promote VEGF-mediated angiogenesis and tumor growth and predict clinical outcome of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanan; Liu, Jie; Lin, Jing; Zhou, Lei; Song, Yuhua; Wei, Bo; Luo, Xiaoli; Chen, Zhida; Chen, Yingjie; Xiong, Jiaxiu; Xu, Xiaojie; Ding, Lihua; Ye, Qinong

    2016-03-01

    Angiogenesis is essential for tumor growth. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is the most important regulator of tumor angiogenesis. However, how transcription factors interact with histone-modifying enzymes to regulate VEGF transcription and tumor angiogenesis remains unclear. Here, we show that transcription factor GATA1 associates with the histone methyltransferase SET7 to promote VEGF transcription and breast tumor angiogenesis. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, we found that GATA1 was required for recruitment of SET7, RNA polymerase II and transcription factor II B to VEGF core promoter. GATA1 enhanced breast cancer cell (MCF7, ZR75-1 and MDA-MB-231)-secreted VEGF via SET7, which promoted vascular endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation, migration and tube formation. SET7 was required for GATA1-induced breast tumor angiogenesis and growth in nude mice. Immunohistochemical staining showed that expression of GATA1 and SET7 was upregulated and positively correlated with VEGF expression and microvessel number in 80 breast cancer patients. GATA1 and SET7 are independent poor prognostic factors in breast cancer. Our data provide novel insights into VEGF transcriptional regulation and suggest GATA1/SET7 as cancer therapeutic targets. PMID:26848522

  14. GATA3 suppresses metastasis and modulates the tumour microenvironment by regulating microRNA-29b expression

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Jonathan; Lin, Jeffrey H.; Brenot, Audrey; Kim, Jung-whan; Provot, Sylvain; Werb, Zena

    2013-01-01

    Despite advances in our understanding of breast cancer, patients with metastatic disease have poor prognoses. GATA3 is a transcription factor that specifies and maintains mammary luminal epithelial cell fate, and its expression is lost in breast cancer, correlating with a worse prognosis in human patients. Here, we show that GATA3 promotes differentiation, suppresses metastasis and alters the tumour microenvironment in breast cancer by inducing microRNA-29b (miR-29b) expression. Accordingly, miR-29b is enriched in luminal breast cancers and loss of miR-29b, even in GATA3-expressing cells, increases metastasis and promotes a mesenchymal phenotype. Mechanistically, miR-29b inhibits metastasis by targeting a network of pro-metastatic regulators involved in angiogenesis, collagen remodelling and proteolysis, including VEGFA, ANGPTL4, PDGF, LOX and MMP9, and targeting ITGA6, ITGB1 and TGFB, thereby indirectly affecting differentiation and epithelial plasticity. The discovery that a GATA3-miR-29b axis regulates the tumour microenvironment and inhibits metastasis opens up possibilities for therapeutic intervention in breast cancer. PMID:23354167

  15. Steroid sulfotransferase 2A1 gene transcription is regulated by steroidogenic factor 1 and GATA-6 in the human adrenal.

    PubMed

    Saner, Karla J; Suzuki, Takashi; Sasano, Hironobu; Pizzey, John; Ho, Clement; Strauss, Jerome F; Carr, Bruce R; Rainey, William E

    2005-01-01

    Sulfonation is a phase II conjugation reaction responsible for the biotransformation of many compounds including steroids, bile acids, and drugs. Humans are presently known to express at least five cytosolic sulfotransferase (SULT) enzymes, of which only two are hydroxysteroid SULT, SULT2A1, commonly known as steroid sulfotransferase, and the cholesterol sulfotransferase SULT2B1. SULT2A1 is highly expressed in the adrenal where it is responsible for the sulfation of hydroxysteroids including conversion of dehydroepiandrosterone to dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and in the liver where it is responsible for sulfation of bile acids and circulating hydroxysteroids. Little is known concerning the transcriptional regulation of human SULT2A1 in adrenal. Herein we demonstrate the role of two transcription factors, steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1) and GATA-6, in the regulation of SULT2A1 transcription. These transcription factors were quantified by real-time RT-PCR in normal human adrenal tissue. Transient transfection assays with deleted and mutated SULT2A1 promoter constructs allowed for the determination of specific SF1 and GATA binding cis-regulatory elements necessary for transactivation of SULT2A1 promoter, and binding was confirmed by EMSA analysis. Both SF1 and GATA-6 were positive regulators of SULT2A1 promoter constructs. These data support the hypothesis that adrenal SULT2A1 expression is regulated by SF1 and GATA-6. PMID:15388788

  16. Subculture of Germ Cell-Derived Colonies with GATA4-Positive Feeder Cells from Neonatal Pig Testes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung Hoon; Lee, Won Young; Kim, Jin Hoi; Park, Chan Kyu; Do, Jeong Tae; Kim, Jae Hwan; Choi, Young Suk; Kim, Nam Hyung; Song, Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    Enrichment of spermatogonial stem cells is important for studying their self-renewal and differentiation. Although germ cell-derived colonies (GDCs) have been successfully cultured from neonatal pig testicular cells under 31°C conditions, the short period of in vitro maintenance (<2 months) limited their application to further investigations. To develop a culture method that allows for in vitro maintenance of GDCs for long periods, we subcultured the GDCs with freshly prepared somatic cells from neonatal pig testes as feeder cells. The subcultured GDCs were maintained up to passage 13 with the fresh feeder cells (FFCs) and then frozen. Eight months later, the frozen GDCs could again form the colonies on FFCs as shown in passages 1 to 13. Immunocytochemistry data revealed that the FFCs expressed GATA-binding protein 4 (GATA4), which is also detected in the cells of neonatal testes and total testicular cells, and that the expression of GATA4 was decreased in used old feeder cells. The subcultured GDCs in each passage had germ and stem cell characteristics, and flow cytometric analyses revealed that ~60% of these cells were GFRα-1 positive. In conclusion, neonatal pig testes-derived GDCs can be maintained for long periods with GATA4-expressing testicular somatic cells. PMID:26880974

  17. SMAD1 and SMAD5 Expression Is Coordinately Regulated by FLI1 and GATA2 during Endothelial Development.

    PubMed

    Marks-Bluth, Jonathon; Khanna, Anchit; Chandrakanthan, Vashe; Thoms, Julie; Bee, Thomas; Eich, Christina; Kang, Young Chan; Knezevic, Kathy; Qiao, Qiao; Fitch, Simon; Oxburgh, Leif; Ottersbach, Katrin; Dzierzak, Elaine; de Bruijn, Marella F T R; Pimanda, John E

    2015-06-01

    The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)/SMAD signaling pathway is a critical regulator of angiogenic sprouting and is involved in vascular development in the embryo. SMAD1 and SMAD5, the core mediators of BMP signaling, are vital for this activity, yet little is known about their transcriptional regulation in endothelial cells. Here, we have integrated multispecies sequence conservation, tissue-specific chromatin, in vitro reporter assay, and in vivo transgenic data to identify and validate Smad1+63 and the Smad5 promoter as tissue-specific cis-regulatory elements that are active in the developing endothelium. The activity of these elements in the endothelium was dependent on highly conserved ETS, GATA, and E-box motifs, and chromatin immunoprecipitation showed high levels of enrichment of FLI1, GATA2, and SCL at these sites in endothelial cell lines and E11 dorsal aortas in vivo. Knockdown of FLI1 and GATA2 but not SCL reduced the expression of SMAD1 and SMAD5 in endothelial cells in vitro. In contrast, CD31(+) cKit(-) endothelial cells harvested from embryonic day 9 (E9) aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) regions of GATA2 null embryos showed reduced Smad1 but not Smad5 transcript levels. This is suggestive of a degree of in vivo selection where, in the case of reduced SMAD1 levels, endothelial cells with more robust SMAD5 expression have a selective advantage. PMID:25870111

  18. Mutagenesis of GATA motifs controlling the endoderm regulator elt-2 reveals distinct dominant and secondary cis-regulatory elements.

    PubMed

    Du, Lawrence; Tracy, Sharon; Rifkin, Scott A

    2016-04-01

    Cis-regulatory elements (CREs) are crucial links in developmental gene regulatory networks, but in many cases, it can be difficult to discern whether similar CREs are functionally equivalent. We found that despite similar conservation and binding capability to upstream activators, different GATA cis-regulatory motifs within the promoter of the C. elegans endoderm regulator elt-2 play distinctive roles in activating and modulating gene expression throughout development. We fused wild-type and mutant versions of the elt-2 promoter to a gfp reporter and inserted these constructs as single copies into the C. elegans genome. We then counted early embryonic gfp transcripts using single-molecule RNA FISH (smFISH) and quantified gut GFP fluorescence. We determined that a single primary dominant GATA motif located 527bp upstream of the elt-2 start codon was necessary for both embryonic activation and later maintenance of transcription, while nearby secondary GATA motifs played largely subtle roles in modulating postembryonic levels of elt-2. Mutation of the primary activating site increased low-level spatiotemporally ectopic stochastic transcription, indicating that this site acts repressively in non-endoderm cells. Our results reveal that CREs with similar GATA factor binding affinities in close proximity can play very divergent context-dependent roles in regulating the expression of a developmentally critical gene in vivo. PMID:26896592

  19. Characterization of the TGF-β1 signaling abnormalities in the Gata1low mouse model of myelofibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Zingariello, Maria; Martelli, Fabrizio; Ciaffoni, Fiorella; Masiello, Francesca; Ghinassi, Barbara; D’Amore, Emanuela; Massa, Margherita; Barosi, Giovanni; Sancillo, Laura; Li, Xiaochun; Goldberg, Judith D.; Rana, Rosa Alba

    2013-01-01

    Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is characterized by fibrosis, ineffective hematopoiesis in marrow, and hematopoiesis in extramedullary sites and is associated with abnormal megakaryocyte (MK) development and increased transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 release. To clarify the role of TGF-β1 in the pathogenesis of this disease, the TGF-β1 signaling pathway of marrow and spleen of the Gata1low mouse model of myelofibrosis (MF) was profiled and the consequences of inhibition of TGF-β1 signaling on disease manifestations determined. The expression of 20 genes in marrow and 36 genes in spleen of Gata1low mice was altered. David-pathway analyses identified alterations of TGF-β1, Hedgehog, and p53 signaling in marrow and spleen and of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in spleen only and predicted that these alterations would induce consequences consistent with the Gata1low phenotype (increased apoptosis and G1 arrest both in marrow and spleen and increased osteoblast differentiation and reduced ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis in marrow only). Inhibition of TGF-β1 signaling normalized the expression of p53-related genes, restoring hematopoiesis and MK development and reducing fibrosis, neovascularization, and osteogenesis in marrow. It also normalized p53/mTOR/Hedgehog-related genes in spleen, reducing extramedullary hematopoiesis. These data identify altered expression signatures of TGF-β1 signaling that may be responsible for MF in Gata1low mice and may represent additional targets for therapeutic intervention in PMF. PMID:23462118

  20. A Novel De Novo GATA Binding Protein 3 Mutation in a Turkish Boy with Hypoparathyroidism, Deafness, and Renal Dysplasia Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yeşiltepe Mutlu, Gül; Kırmızıbekmez, Heves; Nakamura, Akie; Fukami, Maki; Hatun, Şükrü

    2015-01-01

    Hypoparathyroidism, deafness, and renal dysplasia (HDR; OMIM 146255) syndrome is a rare disease, inherited dominantly and found to be related with GATA3 (GATA binding protein 3) gene mutations. A 13-year and 8-month-old boy who presented with hypocalcemia was diagnosed with hypoparathyroidism. He also had dysmorphic facial features, renal anomaly (pelvic kidney), and mild sensorineural hearing loss. His cranial computed tomography revealed multiple calcifications in bilateral centrum semiovale, corona radiata, and basal ganglions suggesting a persistent hypoparathyroidism. Thus, the presence of triad of HDR syndrome was considered, and genetic analysis using a next-generation sequencer identified a novel de novo missense mutation in exon 4 p.R276Q (c.827G>A) of GATA3 gene. This is the second patient who was reported to have a mutation in GATA3 gene from Turkey. In conclusion, although HDR syndrome is a rare condition, it should be kept in mind in patients with hypoparathyroidism. Classical triad can easily be identified if patients diagnosed with hypoparathyroidism are also evaluated with a urinary tract ultrasound and an audiometer. PMID:26777049

  1. MicroRNA-26a protects against cardiac hypertrophy via inhibiting GATA4 in rat model and cultured cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Wang, Zhiqian; Xiao, Wenliang

    2016-09-01

    Pathological cardiac hypertrophy is characterized by deleterious changes developed in cardiovascular diseases, whereas microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the mediation of cardiac hypertrophy. To investigate the role of microRNA-26a (miR-26a) in regulating cardiac hypertrophy and its functioning mechanisms, overexpression and suppression of miR‑26a via its mimic and inhibitor in a transverse abdominal aortic constriction (TAAC)-induced rat model and in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiomyocytes (CMs) was performed. In the rat model, the heart weight (HW) compared with the body weight (BW), the CM area, and expression of the hypertrophy‑associated factors, atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) and β‑myosin heavy chain (β‑MHC), were assessed. In CMs, the protein synthesis rate was determined using a leucine incorporation assay. Mutation of the GATA‑binding protein 4 (GATA4) 3'‑untranslated region (UTR) and overexpression of GATA4 were performed to confirm whether GATA4 is the target of miR‑26a. The results indicated that miR-26a was significantly downregulated in the heart tissue of the rat model, as well as in Ang II‑induced CMs (P<0.05). The TAAC-induced rat model exhibited a higher HW/BW ratio, a larger CM area, and higher expression levels of ANF and β‑MHC. CMs, upon Ang II treatment, also demonstrated a larger CM area, higher levels of ANF and β‑MHC, as well as accelerated protein synthesis. miR‑26a was not able to regulate GATA4 with mutations in the 3'‑UTR, indicating that GATA4 was the direct target of miR‑26a. Overexpression of GATA4 abrogated the inhibitory functions of miR‑26a in cardiac hypertrophy. Taken together, the present study suggested an anti‑hypertrophic role of miR‑26a in cardiac hypertrophy, possibly via inhibition of GATA4. These findings may be useful in terms of facilitating cardiac treatment, with potential therapeutic targets and strategies. PMID:27485101

  2. GATA-4 and FOG-2 Expression in Pediatric Ovarian Sex Cord-Stromal Tumors Replicates Embryonal Gonadal Phenotype: Results from the TREP Project

    PubMed Central

    Virgone, Calogero; Cecchetto, Giovanni; Ferrari, Andrea; Bisogno, Gianni; Donofrio, Vittoria; Boldrini, Renata; Collini, Paola; Dall’Igna, Patrizia; Alaggio, Rita

    2012-01-01

    Aim GATA proteins are a family of zinc finger transcription factors regulating gene expression, differentiation and proliferation in various tissues. The expression of GATA-4 and FOG-2, one of its modulators, was studied in pediatric Sex Cord-Stromal tumors of the ovary, in order to evaluate their potential role as diagnostic markers and prognostic factors. Materials and Methods Clinical and histological data of 15 patients, enrolled into the TREP Project since 2000 were evaluated. When available, immunostaines for FOG-2, GATA-4, α-Inhibin, Vimentin and Pancytokeratin were also analyzed. Results In our series there were 6 Juvenile Granulosa Cell Tumors (JGCT), 6 Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumors (SLCT), 1 Cellular Fibroma, 1 Theca Cell Tumor and 1 Stromal Sclerosing Tumor (SST). Thirteen patients obtained a complete remission (CR), 1 reached a second CR after the removal of a metachronous tumor and 1 died of disease. Inhibin was detectable in 11/15, Vimentin in 13/15, Pancytokeratin in 6/15, GATA-4 in 5/13 and FOG-2 in 11/15. FOG-2 was highly expressed in 5/6 JGCT, while GATA-4 was weakly detectable only in 1 of the cases. SLCT expressed diffusely FOG-2 (4/6) and GATA-4 (3/5). GATA-4 and FOG-2 were detected in fibroma and thecoma but not in the SST. Conclusions Pediatric granulosa tumors appear to express a FOG-2/GATA-4 phenotype in keeping with primordial ovarian follicles. High expression of GATA-4 does not correlate with aggressive behaviour as seen in adults, but it is probably involved in cell proliferation its absence can be associated with the better outcome of JGCT. SLCTs replicate the phenotype of Sertoli cells during embryogenesis in normal testis. In this group, the lack of expression of FOG-2 in tumors in advanced stages might reveal a hypothetical role in inhibiting GATA-4 cell proliferation pathway. In fibroma/thecoma group GATA-4 and FOG-2 point out the abnormal activation of GATA pathway and might be involved in the onset of these tumors. PMID:23029311

  3. MITF interacts with the SWI/SNF subunit, BRG1, to promote GATA4 expression in cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Gaurav; Kumarasamy, Sivarajan; Wu, Jian; Walsh, Aaron; Liu, Lijun; Williams, Kandace; Joe, Bina; de la Serna, Ivana L

    2015-11-01

    The transcriptional regulation of pathological cardiac hypertrophy involves the interplay of transcription factors and chromatin remodeling enzymes. The Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor (MITF) is highly expressed in cardiomyocytes and is required for cardiac hypertrophy. However, the transcriptional mechanisms by which MITF promotes cardiac hypertrophy have not been elucidated. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that MITF promotes cardiac hypertrophy by activating transcription of pro-hypertrophy genes through interactions with the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. In an in vivo model of cardiac hypertrophy, expression of MITF and the BRG1 subunit of the SWI/SNF complex increased coordinately in response to pressure overload. Expression of MITF and BRG1 also increased in vitro when cardiomyocytes were stimulated with angiotensin II or a β-adrenergic agonist. Both MITF and BRG1 were required to increase cardiomyocyte size and activate expression of hypertrophy markers in response to β-adrenergic stimulation. We detected physical interactions between MITF and BRG1 in cardiomyocytes and found that they cooperate to regulate expression of a pro-hypertrophic transcription factor, GATA4. Our data show that MITF binds to the E box element in the GATA4 promoter and facilitates recruitment of BRG1. This is associated with enhanced expression of the GATA4 gene as evidenced by increased Histone3 lysine4 tri-methylation (H3K4me3) on the GATA4 promoter. Thus, in hypertrophic cardiomyoctes, MITF is a key transcriptional activator of a pro-hypertrophic gene, GATA4, and this regulation is dependent upon the BRG1 component of the SWI/SNF complex. PMID:26388265

  4. Genetic dissection of Gata2 selective functions during specification of V2 interneurons in the developing spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Francius, Cédric; Ravassard, Philippe; Hidalgo-Figueroa, María; Mallet, Jacques; Clotman, Frédéric; Nardelli, Jeannette

    2015-07-01

    Motor activities are controlled by neural networks in the ventral spinal cord and consist in motor neurons and a set of distinct cardinal classes of spinal interneurons. These interneurons arise from distinct progenitor domains (p0-p3) delineated according to a transcriptional code. Neural progenitors of each domain express a unique combination of transcription factors (TFs) that largely contribute to determine the fate of four classes of interneurons (V0-V3) and motor neurons. In p2 domain, at least four subtypes of interneurons namely V2a, V2b, V2c, and Pax6(+) V2 are generated. Although genetic and molecular mechanisms that specify V2a and V2b are dependent on complex interplay between several TFs including Nkx6.1, Irx3, Gata2, Foxn4, and Ascl1, and signaling pathways such as Notch and TGF-β, the sequence order of the activation of these regulators and their respective contribution are not completely elucidated yet. Here, we provide evidence by loss- or gain-of-function experiments that Gata2 is necessary for the normal development of both V2a and V2b neurons. We demonstrate that Nkx6.1 and Dll4 positively regulate the activation of Gata2 and Foxn4 in p2 progenitors. Gata2 also participates in the maintenance of p2 domain by repressing motor neuron differentiation and exerting a feedback control on patterning genes. Finally, Gata2 promotes the selective activation of V2b program at the expense of V2a fate. Thus our results provide new insights on the hierarchy and complex interactions between regulators of V2 genetic program. PMID:25369423

  5. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae GATA Factors Dal80p and Deh1p Can Form Homo- and Heterodimeric Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Svetlov, Vladimir V.; Cooper, Terrance G.

    1998-01-01

    GATA family proteins Gln3p, Gat1p, Dal80p, and Deh1p mediate the regulation of nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR)-sensitive gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Thus far, Gln3p, Dal80p, and Deh1p have been shown to bind to GATA sequences in NCR-sensitive promoters, in some cases to exactly the same GATA sequences. A minimal Gln3p binding site consists of a single GATA sequence, whereas a Dal80p binding site consists of two GATA sequences in specific orientation, 15 to 35 bp apart, suggesting that Dal80p may bind to DNA as a dimer. Additionally, both Dal80p and Deh1p are predicted to contain a leucine zipper motif near their C termini. Therefore, we tested whether they could form homo- and/or heterodimers in two-hybrid assays. We show that Dal80p-Dal80p, Dal80p-Dal80pLZ (leucine zipper), Dal80pLZ-Dal80pLZ, Dal80p-Deh1pLZ, Dal80pLZ-Deh1pLZ, and Deh1pLZ-Deh1pLZ complexes can form. Dal80p-Dal80p and Dal80pLZ-Dal80pLZ complexes yield 5- to 10-fold stronger signals than the other possible dimers. If Dal80p and Deh1p bind to DNA only after dimerization, then the difference in ability to form complexes could significantly affect their affinity for binding DNA and thus the degree of regulation exerted by each of the two factors. PMID:9791119

  6. Spectrum of myeloid neoplasms and immune deficiency associated with germline GATA2 mutations

    PubMed Central

    Mir, Muhammad A; Kochuparambil, Samith T; Abraham, Roshini S; Rodriguez, Vilmarie; Howard, Matthew; Hsu, Amy P; Jackson, Amie E; Holland, Steven M; Patnaik, Mrinal M

    2015-01-01

    Guanine-adenine-thymine-adenine 2 (GATA2) mutated disorders include the recently described MonoMAC syndrome (Monocytopenia and Mycobacterium avium complex infections), DCML (dendritic cell, monocyte, and lymphocyte deficiency), familial MDS/AML (myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia) (myeloid neoplasms), congenital neutropenia, congenital lymphedema (Emberger's syndrome), sensorineural deafness, viral warts, and a spectrum of aggressive infections seen across all age groups. While considerable efforts have been made to identify the mutations that characterize this disorder, pathogenesis remains a work in progress with less than 100 patients described in current literature. Varying clinical presentations offer diagnostic challenges. Allogeneic stem cell transplant remains the treatment of choice. Morbidity, mortality, and social costs due to the familial nature of the disease are considerable. We describe our experience with the disorder in three affected families and a comprehensive review of current literature. PMID:25619630

  7. Two GATA transcription factors are downstream effectors of floral homeotic gene action in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Mara, Chloe D; Irish, Vivian F

    2008-06-01

    Floral organogenesis is dependent on the combinatorial action of MADS-box transcription factors, which in turn control the expression of suites of genes required for growth, patterning, and differentiation. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the specification of petal and stamen identity depends on the action of two MADS-box gene products, APETALA3 (AP3) and PISTILLATA (PI). In a screen for genes whose expression was altered in response to the induction of AP3 activity, we identified GNC (GATA, nitrate-inducible, carbon-metabolism-involved) as being negatively regulated by AP3 and PI. The GNC gene encodes a member of the Arabidopsis GATA transcription factor family and has been implicated in the regulation of chlorophyll biosynthesis as well as carbon and nitrogen metabolism. In addition, we found that the GNC paralog, GNL (GNC-like), is also negatively regulated by AP3 and PI. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we showed that promoter sequences of both GNC and GNL are bound by PI protein, suggesting a direct regulatory interaction. Analyses of single and double gnc and gnl mutants indicated that the two genes share redundant roles in promoting chlorophyll biosynthesis, suggesting that in repressing GNC and GNL, AP3/PI have roles in negatively regulating this biosynthetic pathway in flowers. In addition, coexpression analyses of genes regulated by AP3, PI, GNC, and GNL indicate a complex regulatory interplay between these transcription factors in regulating a variety of light and nutrient responsive genes. Together, these results provide new insights into the transcriptional cascades controlling the specification of floral organ identities. PMID:18417639

  8. Multiple Nuclear Localization Signals Mediate Nuclear Localization of the GATA Transcription Factor AreA

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Cameron C.; Siebert, Kendra S.; Downes, Damien J.; Wong, Koon Ho; Kreutzberger, Sara D.; Fraser, James A.; Clarke, David F.; Hynes, Michael J.; Davis, Meryl A.

    2014-01-01

    The Aspergillus nidulans GATA transcription factor AreA activates transcription of nitrogen metabolic genes in response to nitrogen limitation and is known to accumulate in the nucleus during nitrogen starvation. Sequence analysis of AreA revealed multiple nuclear localization signals (NLSs), five putative classical NLSs conserved in fungal AreA orthologs but not in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae functional orthologs Gln3p and Gat1p, and one putative noncanonical RRX33RXR bipartite NLS within the DNA-binding domain. In order to identify the functional NLSs in AreA, we constructed areA mutants with mutations in individual putative NLSs or combinations of putative NLSs and strains expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-AreA NLS fusion genes. Deletion of all five classical NLSs individually or collectively did not affect utilization of nitrogen sources or AreA-dependent gene expression and did not prevent AreA nuclear localization. Mutation of the bipartite NLS conferred the inability to utilize alternative nitrogen sources and abolished AreA-dependent gene expression likely due to effects on DNA binding but did not prevent AreA nuclear localization. Mutation of all six NLSs simultaneously prevented AreA nuclear accumulation. The bipartite NLS alone strongly directed GFP to the nucleus, whereas the classical NLSs collaborated to direct GFP to the nucleus. Therefore, AreA contains multiple conserved NLSs, which show redundancy and together function to mediate nuclear import. The noncanonical bipartite NLS is conserved in GATA factors from Aspergillus, yeast, and mammals, indicating an ancient origin. PMID:24562911

  9. Evaluation of androgen receptor and GATA binding protein 3 as immunohistochemical markers in the diagnosis of metastatic breast carcinoma to the lung.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Yukinori; Yoshida, Akihiko; Yoshida, Masayuki; Takahashi, Masahide; Tsuta, Koji

    2015-06-01

    Differentiating metastatic breast carcinoma in the lungs from primary lung tumors and mesotheliomas is important for determining prognosis and treatment. We evaluated novel breast specific markers, androgen receptor (AR) and GATA binding protein 3 (GATA3) immunohistostaining, for this differential, and compare to other traditional markers. The specimens comprised 33 metastatic breast carcinomas to the lung, 566 primary lung tumors (170 adenocarcinomas, 157 squamous cell carcinomas, 31 pleomorphic carcinomas, 115 large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, 43 small cell carcinomas, and 49 typical carcinoids) and 42 malignant mesotheliomas. They were analyzed by immunohistochemistry using antibodies to AR, GATA3, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), mammaglobin, gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15). Of the metastatic breast carcinomas, immunohistostaining of AR, GATA3, ER, PgR, mammaglobin, GCDFP-15 were positive in 27 cases (81.8%), 24 cases (72.7%), 26 cases (78.8%), 13 cases (39.4%), 12 cases (36.4%), 9 cases (27.3%), respectively. Of primary lung tumors and mesotheliomas, staining of AR, GATA3, ER, PgR, mammaglobin, GCDFP-15 were positive in 18 cases (3%), 3 cases (0.5%), 4 cases (0.7%), 2 cases (0.3%), 0 case (0%), 2 cases (0.3%), respectively. Immunohistochemistry of AR and GATA3 are reliable for differentiating metastatic breast carcinoma from primary lung tumors and mesotheliomas. PMID:25727644

  10. GATA-6 and NF-κB Activate CPI-17 Gene Transcription and Regulate Ca2+ Sensitization of Smooth Muscle Contraction

    PubMed Central

    Boopathi, Ettickan; Hypolite, Joseph A.; Zderic, Stephen A.; Gomes, Cristiano Mendes; Malkowicz, Bruce; Liou, Hsiou-Chi; Wein, Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC)-potentiated inhibitory protein of 17 kDa (CPI-17) inhibits myosin light chain phosphatase, altering the levels of myosin light chain phosphorylation and Ca2+ sensitivity in smooth muscle. In this study, we characterized the CPI-17 promoter and identified binding sites for GATA-6 and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). GATA-6 and NF-κB upregulated CPI-17 expression in cultured human and mouse bladder smooth muscle (BSM) cells in an additive manner. CPI-17 expression was decreased upon GATA-6 silencing in cultured BSM cells and in BSM from NF-κB knockout (KO) mice. Moreover, force maintenance by BSM strips from KO mice was decreased compared with the force maintenance of BSM strips from wild-type mice. GATA-6 and NF-κB overexpression was associated with CPI-17 overexpression in BSM from men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)-induced bladder hypertrophy and in a mouse model of bladder outlet obstruction. Thus, aberrant expression of NF-κB and GATA-6 deregulates CPI-17 expression and the contractile function of smooth muscle. Our data provide insight into how GATA-6 and NF-κB mediate CPI-17 transcription, PKC-mediated signaling, and BSM remodeling associated with lower urinary tract symptoms in patients with BPH. PMID:23275439

  11. Control of alveolar differentiation by the lineage transcription factors GATA6 and HOPX inhibits lung adenocarcinoma metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, William K.C.; Zhao, Minghui; Liu, Zongzhi; Stevens, Laura E.; Cao, Paul D.; Fang, Justin E.; Westbrook, Thomas F.; Nguyen, Don X.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Molecular programs that mediate normal cell differentiation are required for oncogenesis and tumor cell survival in certain cancers. How cell lineage restricted genes specifically influence metastasis is poorly defined. In lung cancers, we uncovered a transcriptional program that is preferentially associated with distal airway epithelial differentiation and lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) progression. This program is regulated in part by the lineage transcription factors GATA6 and HOPX. These factors can cooperatively limit the metastatic competence of ADC cells, by modulating overlapping alveolar differentiation and invasogenic target genes. Thus, GATA6 and HOPX are critical nodes in a lineage-selective pathway that directly links effectors of airway epithelial specification to the inhibition of metastasis in the lung ADC subtype. PMID:23707782

  12. Effects of nucleoside analog incorporation on DNA binding to the DNA binding domain of the GATA-1 erythroid transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Foti, M; Omichinski, J G; Stahl, S; Maloney, D; West, J; Schweitzer, B I

    1999-02-01

    We investigate here the effects of the incorporation of the nucleoside analogs araC (1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine) and ganciclovir (9-[(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl] guanine) into the DNA binding recognition sequence for the GATA-1 erythroid transcription factor. A 10-fold decrease in binding affinity was observed for the ganciclovir-substituted DNA complex in comparison to an unmodified DNA of the same sequence composition. AraC substitution did not result in any changes in binding affinity. 1H-15N HSQC and NOESY NMR experiments revealed a number of chemical shift changes in both DNA and protein in the ganciclovir-modified DNA-protein complex when compared to the unmodified DNA-protein complex. These changes in chemical shift and binding affinity suggest a change in the binding mode of the complex when ganciclovir is incorporated into the GATA DNA binding site. PMID:10037146

  13. Clusterin/Akt Up-Regulation Is Critical for GATA-4 Mediated Cytoprotection of Mesenchymal Stem Cells against Ischemia Injury

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Bin; Yang, Yueting; Liu, Huan; Gong, Min; Millard, Ronald W.; Wang, Yi-Gang; Ashraf, Muhammad; Xu, Meifeng

    2016-01-01

    Background Clusterin (Clu) is a stress-responding protein with multiple biological functions. Our preliminary microarray studies show that clusterin was prominently upregulated in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) overexpressing GATA-4 (MSCGATA-4). We hypothesized that the upregulation of clusterin is involved in overexpression of GATA-4 mediated cytoprotection. Methods MSCs harvested from bone marrow of rats were transduced with GATA-4. The expression of clusterin in MSCs was further confirmed by real-time PCR and western blotting. Simulation of ischemia was achieved by exposure of MSCs to a hypoxic environment. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) released from MSCs was served as a biomarker of cell injury and MTs uptake was used to estimate cell viability. Mitochondrial function was evaluated by measuring mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and caspase 3/7 activity. Results (1) Clusterin expression was up-regulated in MSCGATA-4 compared to control MSCs transfected with empty-vector (MSCNull). MSCGATA-4 were tolerant to 72 h hypoxia exposure as shown by reduced LDH release and higher MTs uptake. This protection was abrogated by transfecting Clu-siRNA into MSCGATA-4. (2) Exogenous clusterin significantly decreased LDH release and increased MSC survival in hypoxic environment. Moreover, ΔΨm was maintained and caspase 3/7 activity was reduced by clusterin in a concentration-dependent manner. (3) p-Akt expression in MSCs was upregulated following pre-treatment with clusterin, with no change in total Akt. Moreover, cytoprotection mediated by clusterin was partially abrogated by Akt inhibitor LY294002. Conclusions Clusterin/Akt signaling pathway is involved in GATA-4 mediated cytoprotection against hypoxia stress. It is suggested that clusterin may be therapeutically exploited in MSC based therapy for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26962868

  14. Genetically engineering self-organization of human pluripotent stem cells into a liver bud-like tissue using Gata6

    PubMed Central

    Guye, Patrick; Ebrahimkhani, Mohammad R.; Kipniss, Nathan; Velazquez, Jeremy J.; Schoenfeld, Eldi; Kiani, Samira; Griffith, Linda G.; Weiss, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have potential for personalized and regenerative medicine. While most of the methods using these cells have focused on deriving homogenous populations of specialized cells, there has been modest success in producing hiPSC-derived organotypic tissues or organoids. Here we present a novel approach for generating and then co-differentiating hiPSC-derived progenitors. With a genetically engineered pulse of GATA-binding protein 6 (GATA6) expression, we initiate rapid emergence of all three germ layers as a complex function of GATA6 expression levels and tissue context. Within 2 weeks we obtain a complex tissue that recapitulates early developmental processes and exhibits a liver bud-like phenotype, including haematopoietic and stromal cells as well as a neuronal niche. Collectively, our approach demonstrates derivation of complex tissues from hiPSCs using a single autologous hiPSCs as source and generates a range of stromal cells that co-develop with parenchymal cells to form tissues. PMID:26732624

  15. TNF-mediated inflammation represses GATA1 and activates p38 MAP kinase in RPS19-deficient hematopoietic progenitors.

    PubMed

    Bibikova, Elena; Youn, Min-Young; Danilova, Nadia; Ono-Uruga, Yukako; Konto-Ghiorghi, Yoan; Ochoa, Rachel; Narla, Anupama; Glader, Bertil; Lin, Shuo; Sakamoto, Kathleen M

    2014-12-11

    Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is an inherited disorder characterized by defects in erythropoiesis, congenital abnormalities, and predisposition to cancer. Approximately 25% of DBA patients have a mutation in RPS19, which encodes a component of the 40S ribosomal subunit. Upregulation of p53 contributes to the pathogenesis of DBA, but the link between ribosomal protein mutations and erythropoietic defects is not well understood. We found that RPS19 deficiency in hematopoietic progenitor cells leads to decreased GATA1 expression in the erythroid progenitor population and p53-dependent upregulation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in nonerythroid cells. The decrease in GATA1 expression was mediated, at least in part, by activation of p38 MAPK in erythroid cells and rescued by inhibition of TNF-α or p53. The anemia phenotype in rps19-deficient zebrafish was reversed by treatment with the TNF-α inhibitor etanercept. Our data reveal that RPS19 deficiency leads to inflammation, p53-dependent increase in TNF-α, activation of p38 MAPK, and decreased GATA1 expression, suggesting a novel mechanism for the erythroid defects observed in DBA. PMID:25270909

  16. GATA-1 Utilizes Ikaros and Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 To Suppress Hes1 and To Promote Erythropoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Julie; Mavoungou, Lionel; Bresnick, Emery H.

    2012-01-01

    The transcription factor Hairy Enhancer of Split 1 (HES1), a downstream effector of the Notch signaling pathway, is an important regulator of hematopoiesis. Here, we demonstrate that in primary erythroid cells, Hes1 gene expression is transiently repressed around proerythroblast stage of differentiation. Using mouse erythroleukemia cells, we found that the RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated depletion of HES1 enhances erythroid cell differentiation, suggesting that this protein opposes terminal erythroid differentiation. This is also supported by the decreased primary erythroid cell differentiation upon HES1 upregulation in Ikaros-deficient mice. A comprehensive analysis led us to determine that Ikaros favors Hes1 repression in erythroid cells by facilitating recruitment of the master regulator of erythropoiesis GATA-1 alongside FOG-1, which mediates Hes1 repression. GATA-1 is then necessary for the chromatin binding of the NuRD remodeling complex ATPase MI-2, the transcription factor GFI1B, and the histone H3K27 methyltransferase EZH2 along with Polycomb repressive complex 2. We show that EZH2 is required for the transient repression of Hes1 in erythroid cells. In aggregate, our results describe a mechanism whereby GATA-1 utilizes Ikaros and Polycomb repressive complex 2 to promote Hes1 repression as an important step in erythroid cell differentiation. PMID:22778136

  17. GATA3-driven expression of miR-503 inhibits prostate cancer progression by repressing ZNF217 expression.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xingkang; Chen, Yue; Du, E; Yang, Kuo; Zhang, Zhihong; Qi, Shiyong; Xu, Yong

    2016-09-01

    Although increasing evidence demonstrated that deregulation of mircoRNA-503 (miRNA-503) contributes to tumorigenesis, little is known about the biological role and intrinsic regulatory mechanisms of miR-503 in prostate cancer (PCa). In present study, we found that miR-503 was significantly downregulated in advanced PCa tissues and cell lines. Downregulation of miR-503 was strongly associated with aggressive clinical-pathological features and poor prognosis in PCa patients. Ectopic expression of miR-503 significantly inhibited tumor cells growth, cell migration and invasion in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistic studies revealed that ZNF217 was a direct target downstream target of miR-503. Knockdown of ZNF217 mimicked the tumor-suppressive effects of miR-503 overexpression on PCa invasion, whereas ZNF217 overexpression attenuated the tumor-suppressive function of miR-503. Subsequently, miR-503 further modulated the activation of ZNF217-downstream epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) genes. Besides, we also found that GATA3 directly increased miR-503 expression and thus decreased ZNF217 expression, indicating the involvement of GATA3/miR-503/ZNF217 signaling in EMT process. Collectively, our results demonstrated that GATA3-driven expression of miR-503 inhibits PCa progression by repressing ZNF217 expression, and also implicated the potential application of miR-503 in PCa therapy. PMID:27267060

  18. Gain- and Loss-of-Function Mutations in the Breast Cancer Gene GATA3 Result in Differential Drug Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Mair, Barbara; Konopka, Tomasz; Kerzendorfer, Claudia; Sleiman, Katia; Salic, Sejla; Serra, Violeta; Muellner, Markus K; Theodorou, Vasiliki; Nijman, Sebastian M B

    2016-09-01

    Patterns of somatic mutations in cancer genes provide information about their functional role in tumourigenesis, and thus indicate their potential for therapeutic exploitation. Yet, the classical distinction between oncogene and tumour suppressor may not always apply. For instance, TP53 has been simultaneously associated with tumour suppressing and promoting activities. Here, we uncover a similar phenomenon for GATA3, a frequently mutated, yet poorly understood, breast cancer gene. We identify two functional classes of frameshift mutations that are associated with distinct expression profiles in tumours, differential disease-free patient survival and gain- and loss-of-function activities in a cell line model. Furthermore, we find an estrogen receptor-independent synthetic lethal interaction between a GATA3 frameshift mutant with an extended C-terminus and the histone methyltransferases G9A and GLP, indicating perturbed epigenetic regulation. Our findings reveal important insights into mutant GATA3 function and breast cancer, provide the first potential therapeutic strategy and suggest that dual tumour suppressive and oncogenic activities are more widespread than previously appreciated. PMID:27588951

  19. CCAR1 promotes chromatin loading of androgen receptor (AR) transcription complex by stabilizing the association between AR and GATA2

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Woo-Young; Jeong, Byong Chang; Yu, Eun Ji; Kim, Hwa Jin; Kim, Seok-Hyung; Lim, Joung Eun; Kwon, Ghee Young; Lee, Hyun Moo; Kim, Jeong Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Androgen receptor (AR), a ligand-dependent transcription factor, plays a critical role in prostate cancer onset and progression, and its transcriptional function is mediated largely by distinct nuclear receptor co-regulators. Here, we show that cell cycle and apoptosis regulator 1 (CCAR1) functions as an AR co-activator. CCAR1 interacted with and enhanced the transcriptional activity of AR. Depletion of CCAR1 caused reduction in androgen-dependent expression of a subset of AR target genes. We further showed that CCAR1 is required for recruitment of AR, MED1 and RNA polymerase II to the enhancers of AR target genes and for androgen-induced long-range prostate specific antigen enhancer–promoter interaction. The molecular mechanism underlying CCAR1 function in AR-mediated transcription involves CCAR1-mediated enhanced recruitment of GATA2, a pioneer factor for AR, to AR-binding sites. CCAR1 stabilized the interaction between AR and GATA2 by interacting directly with both proteins, thereby facilitating AR and GATA2 occupancy on the enhancers. Furthermore, CCAR1 depletion inhibited the growth, migration, invasion of prostate cancer cells and reduced the tumorigenicity of prostate cancer cells in vivo. Our results firmly established CCAR1 as an AR co-activator that plays a key role in AR transcription complex assembly and has an important physiological role in androgen signaling and prostate tumorigenesis. PMID:23887938

  20. GATA4-mediated cardiac hypertrophy induced by D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Zhiming . E-mail: zhuzming@mail.dph-fsi.com; Zhu Shanjun; Liu Daoyan; Yu Zengping; Yang Yongjian; Giet, Markus van der; Tepel, Martin . E-mail: Martin.Tepel@charite.de

    2005-12-16

    We evaluated the effects of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate on cardiac hypertrophy. D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate augmented cardiac hypertrophy as evidenced by its effects on DNA synthesis, protein synthesis, and expression of immediate-early genes c-myc and c-fos, {beta}-myosin heavy chain, and {alpha}-actin. The administration of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate increased the expression of nuclear factor of activated T-cells and cardiac-restricted zinc finger transcription factor (GATA4). Real-time quantitative RT-PCR showed that D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate-induced GATA4 mRNA was significantly enhanced even in the presence of the calcineurin inhibitor, cyclosporine A. The effect of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate was blocked after inhibition of inositol-trisphosphate receptors but not after inhibition of c-Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK) or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. The study shows that D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate-induced cardiac hypertrophy is mediated by GATA4 but independent from the calcineurin pathway.

  1. Distinct regulation of the anterior and posterior myeloperoxidase expression by Etv2 and Gata1 during primitive Granulopoiesis in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Nicole O; Schumacher, Jennifer A; Kim, Hyon J; Zhao, Emma J; Skerniskyte, Jurate; Sumanas, Saulius

    2014-09-01

    Neutrophilic granulocytes are the most abundant type of myeloid cells and form an essential part of the innate immune system. In vertebrates the first neutrophils are thought to originate during primitive hematopoiesis, which precedes hematopoietic stem cell formation. In zebrafish embryos, it has been suggested that primitive neutrophils may originate in two distinct sites, the anterior (ALPM) and posterior lateral plate mesoderm (PLPM). An ETS-family transcription factor Etsrp/Etv2/ER71 has been implicated in vasculogenesis and hematopoiesis in multiple vertebrates. However, its role during neutrophil development is not well understood. Here we demonstrate using zebrafish embryos that Etv2 has a specific cell-autonomous function during primitive neutropoiesis in the anterior lateral plate mesoderm (ALPM) but has little effect on erythropoiesis or the posterior lateral plate mesoderm (PLPM) expression of neutrophil marker myeloperoxidase mpo/mpx. Our results argue that ALPM-derived neutrophils originate from etv2-expressing cells which downregulate etv2 during neutropoiesis. We further show that Scl functions downstream of Etv2 in anterior neutropoiesis. Additionally, we demonstrate that mpx expression within the PLPM overlaps with gata1 expression, potentially marking the cells with a dual myelo-erythroid potential. Intriguingly, initiation of mpx expression in the PLPM is dependent on gata1 but not etv2 function. Our results demonstrate that mpx expression is controlled differently in the ALPM and PLPM regions and describe novel roles for etv2 and gata1 during primitive neutropoiesis. PMID:24956419

  2. LRF is an essential downstream target of GATA1 in erythroid development and regulates BIM-dependent apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Takahiro; Ito, Keisuke; Merghoub, Taha; Poliseno, Laura; Hobbs, Robin M; Wang, Guocan; Dong, Lin; Maeda, Manami; Dore, Louis C; Zelent, Arthur; Luzzatto, Lucio; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie; Weiss, Mitchell J; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo

    2009-10-01

    GATA-1-dependent transcription is essential for erythroid differentiation and maturation. Suppression of programmed cell death is also thought to be critical for this process; however, the link between these two features of erythropoiesis has remained elusive. Here, we show that the POZ-Krüppel family transcription factor, LRF (also known as Zbtb7a/Pokemon), is a direct target of GATA1 and plays an essential antiapoptotic role during terminal erythroid differentiation. We find that loss of Lrf leads to lethal anemia in embryos, due to increased apoptosis of late-stage erythroblasts. This programmed cell death is Arf and p53 independent and is instead mediated by upregulation of the proapoptotic factor Bim. We identify Lrf as a direct repressor of Bim transcription. In strong support of this mechanism, genetic Bim loss delays the lethality of Lrf-deficient embryos and rescues their anemia phenotype. Thus, our data define a key transcriptional cascade for effective erythropoiesis, whereby GATA-1 suppresses BIM-mediated apoptosis via LRF. PMID:19853566

  3. LRF is an essential downstream target of GATA1 in erythroid development and regulates BIM-dependent apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Takahiro; Ito, Keisuke; Merghoub, Taha; Poliseno, Laura; Hobbs, Robin M.; Wang, Guocan; Dong, Lin; Maeda, Manami; Dore, Louis C.; Zelent, Arthur; Luzzatto, Lucio; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie; Weiss, Mitchell J.; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY GATA-1-dependent transcription is essential for erythroid differentiation and maturation. Suppression of programmed cell death is also thought to be critical for this process; however, the link between these two features of erythropoiesis has remained elusive. Here, we show that the POZ-Krüppel family transcription factor, LRF (also known as Zbtb7a/Pokemon), is a direct target of GATA1 and plays an essential anti-apoptotic role during terminal erythroid differentiation. We find that loss of Lrf leads to lethal anemia in embryos, due to increased apoptosis of late stage erythroblasts. This programmed cell death is Arf- and p53-independent and is instead mediated by up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic factor Bim. We identify Lrf as a direct repressor of Bim transcription. In strong support of this mechanism, genetic Bim-loss delays the lethality of Lrf-deficient embryos and rescues their anemia-phenotype. Thus, our data defines a key transcriptional cascade for effective erythropoiesis, whereby GATA-1 suppresses BIM-mediated apoptosis via LRF. PMID:19853566

  4. Inherited GATA3 variants are associated with Ph-like childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia and risk of relapse

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Andreu, Virginia; Roberts, Kathryn G.; Harvey, Richard C.; Yang, Wenjian; Cheng, Cheng; Pei, Deqing; Xu, Heng; Gastier-Foster, Julie; Shuyu, E; Yew-Suang Lim, Joshua; Chen, I-Ming; Fan, Yiping; Devidsa, Meenakshi; Borowitz, Michael J.; Smith, Colton; Neale, Geoffrey; Burchard, Esteban G.; Torgerson, Dara G.; Klussmann, Federico Antillon; Villagran, Cesar Rolando Najera; Winick, Naomi J.; Camitta, Bruce M.; Raetz, Elizabeth; Wood, Brent; Yue, Feng; Carroll, William L.; Larsen, Eric; Bowman, W. Paul; Loh, Mignon L.; Dean, Michael; Bhojwani, Deepa; Pui, Ching-Hon; Evans, William E.; Relling, Mary V.; Hunger, Stephen P.; Willman, Cheryl L.; Mullighan, Charles G.; Yang, Jun J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent genomic profiling of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) identified a novel high-risk subtype with a gene expression signature resembling Philadelphia chromosome-positive ALL and a poor prognosis (Ph-like ALL). However, the role of inherited genetic variation in Ph-like ALL pathogenesis remains unknown. In a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 511 ALL cases and 6,661 non-ALL controls, we identified a single susceptibility locus for Ph-like ALL (GATA3, rs3824662, P=2.17×10−14, odds ratio [OR]=3.85, for Ph-like ALL vs. non-ALL; P=1.05×10−8, OR=3.25, for Ph-like ALL vs. non-Ph-like ALL) that was independently validated. The rs3824662 risk allele was associated with somatic lesions underlying Ph-like ALL (i.e., CRLF2 rearrangement, JAK mutation, and IKZF1 deletion) and directly influenced GATA3 transcription. Finally, GATA3 SNP genotype was also associated with early treatment response and the risk of ALL relapse. Our results provide insights into interactions between host and tumor genomes and their importance in ALL pathogenesis and prognosis. PMID:24141364

  5. Genetically engineering self-organization of human pluripotent stem cells into a liver bud-like tissue using Gata6.

    PubMed

    Guye, Patrick; Ebrahimkhani, Mohammad R; Kipniss, Nathan; Velazquez, Jeremy J; Schoenfeld, Eldi; Kiani, Samira; Griffith, Linda G; Weiss, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have potential for personalized and regenerative medicine. While most of the methods using these cells have focused on deriving homogenous populations of specialized cells, there has been modest success in producing hiPSC-derived organotypic tissues or organoids. Here we present a novel approach for generating and then co-differentiating hiPSC-derived progenitors. With a genetically engineered pulse of GATA-binding protein 6 (GATA6) expression, we initiate rapid emergence of all three germ layers as a complex function of GATA6 expression levels and tissue context. Within 2 weeks we obtain a complex tissue that recapitulates early developmental processes and exhibits a liver bud-like phenotype, including haematopoietic and stromal cells as well as a neuronal niche. Collectively, our approach demonstrates derivation of complex tissues from hiPSCs using a single autologous hiPSCs as source and generates a range of stromal cells that co-develop with parenchymal cells to form tissues. PMID:26732624

  6. Seafloor mapping of the southeast Iberian margin (from Cabo de Palos to Cabo de Gata)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lastras, Galderic; Leon, César; Elvira, Elena; Pascual, Laura; Muñoz, Araceli; de Cárdenas, Enrique; Acosta, Juan; Canals, Miquel

    2014-05-01

    We present the multibeam bathymetry and derived maps of the southeast Iberian margin from Cabo de Palos to Cabo de Gata, 37º35'N to 35º45'N and 2º10'W to 0º20'E, from the coastline down to the Algero-Balearic abyssal plain at depths exceeding 2600 m. The edition of of the maps is carried out within the Complementary Action VALORPLAT ("Scientific valorisation of multibeam bathymetry data from the Spanish continental shelf and slope"), funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitivity. The multibeam bathymetry data of the slope and abyssal plain were obtained during different surveys in 2004, 2006 and 2007 on board R/V Vizconde de Eza with a Simrad EM300 multibeam echo-sounder as part of the CAPESME Project, a collaboration between the Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO) and General Secretariat of Fisheries (SGP), primarily aiming at creating maps of the fishing grounds of the Mediterranean continental margins of Spain. Multibeam bathymetry data from the continental shelf were obtained within the ESPACE project, also in a cooperative frame between IEO and SGP. The map series is constituted by a general map at 1:400,000 scale and 14 detailed maps at 1:75,000 scale, which include inset maps on slope gradients and seafloor nature (rock or sediment type), the later obtained with rock dredges and Shipeck sediment dredges. Both the detailed maps and the general map are available in paper print, and the whole collection is also distributed in an edited USB. The geological features displayed in the different maps include the continental shelf, with abundant geomorphic features indicative of past sea-level changes, the continental slope carved by the Palos, Tiñoso, Cartagena Este, Cartagena Oeste, Águilas, Almanzora, Alias, Garrucha and Gata submarine canyons, the Mazarrón, Palomares and Al-Mansour escarpments, the Abubácer, Maimonides and Yusuf ridges, the Águilas and Al-Mansour seamounts, and the Algero-Balearic abyssal plain where prominent

  7. FOXL2, GATA4, and SMAD3 Co-Operatively Modulate Gene Expression, Cell Viability and Apoptosis in Ovarian Granulosa Cell Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Anttonen, Mikko; L'Hôte, David; Vattulainen, Sanna; Färkkilä, Anniina; Unkila-Kallio, Leila; Veitia, Reiner A.; Heikinheimo, Markku

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant ovarian granulosa cell proliferation and apoptosis may lead to granulosa cell tumors (GCT), the pathogenesis of which involves transcription factors GATA4, FOXL2, and SMAD3. FOXL2 gene harbors a point mutation (C134W) in a vast majority of GCTs. GATA4 is abundantly expressed in GCTs and its expression correlates with poor prognosis. The TGF-β mediator SMAD3 promotes GCT cell survival through NF-κB activation, and interacts with FOXL2. Here, we find that the expression patterns of these factors overlap in the normal human ovary and 90 GCTs, and positively correlate with each other and with their mutual target gene CCND2, which is a key factor for granulosa cell proliferation. We have explored the molecular interactions of FOXL2, GATA4, and SMAD3 and their roles in the regulation of CCND2 using co-immunoprecipitation, promoter transactivation, and cell viability assays in human GCT cells. We found that not only SMAD3, but also GATA4 physically interact with both wild type and C134W-mutated FOXL2. GATA4 and SMAD3 synergistically induce a 8-fold increase in CCND2 promoter transactivation, which is 50% reduced by both FOXL2 types. We confirmed that wild type FOXL2 significantly decreases cell viability. Interestingly, GATA4 and SMAD3 caused a marked reduction of GCT cell apoptosis induced by wild type FOXL2. Thus, the effects of GATA4 and SMAD3 on both cell viability and apoptosis are distinct from those of wild type FOXL2; a perturbation of this balance due to the oncogenic FOXL2 mutation is likely to contribute to GCT pathogenesis. PMID:24416423

  8. FOXL2, GATA4, and SMAD3 co-operatively modulate gene expression, cell viability and apoptosis in ovarian granulosa cell tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Anttonen, Mikko; Pihlajoki, Marjut; Andersson, Noora; Georges, Adrien; L'hôte, David; Vattulainen, Sanna; Färkkilä, Anniina; Unkila-Kallio, Leila; Veitia, Reiner A; Heikinheimo, Markku

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant ovarian granulosa cell proliferation and apoptosis may lead to granulosa cell tumors (GCT), the pathogenesis of which involves transcription factors GATA4, FOXL2, and SMAD3. FOXL2 gene harbors a point mutation (C134W) in a vast majority of GCTs. GATA4 is abundantly expressed in GCTs and its expression correlates with poor prognosis. The TGF-β mediator SMAD3 promotes GCT cell survival through NF-κB activation, and interacts with FOXL2. Here, we find that the expression patterns of these factors overlap in the normal human ovary and 90 GCTs, and positively correlate with each other and with their mutual target gene CCND2, which is a key factor for granulosa cell proliferation. We have explored the molecular interactions of FOXL2, GATA4, and SMAD3 and their roles in the regulation of CCND2 using co-immunoprecipitation, promoter transactivation, and cell viability assays in human GCT cells. We found that not only SMAD3, but also GATA4 physically interact with both wild type and C134W-mutated FOXL2. GATA4 and SMAD3 synergistically induce a 8-fold increase in CCND2 promoter transactivation, which is 50% reduced by both FOXL2 types. We confirmed that wild type FOXL2 significantly decreases cell viability. Interestingly, GATA4 and SMAD3 caused a marked reduction of GCT cell apoptosis induced by wild type FOXL2. Thus, the effects of GATA4 and SMAD3 on both cell viability and apoptosis are distinct from those of wild type FOXL2; a perturbation of this balance due to the oncogenic FOXL2 mutation is likely to contribute to GCT pathogenesis. PMID:24416423

  9. Nuclear Receptor-Like Structure and Interaction of Congenital Heart Disease-Associated Factors GATA4 and NKX2-5

    PubMed Central

    Tölli, Marja; Wohlfahrt, Gerd; Darwich, Rami; Komati, Hiba; Nemer, Mona; Ruskoaho, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    Aims Transcription factor GATA4 is a dosage sensitive regulator of heart development and alterations in its level or activity lead to congenital heart disease (CHD). GATA4 has also been implicated in cardiac regeneration and repair. GATA4 action involves combinatorial interaction with other cofactors such as NKX2-5, another critical cardiac regulator whose mutations also cause CHD. Despite its critical importance to the heart and its evolutionary conservation across species, the structural basis of the GATA4-NKX2-5 interaction remains incompletely understood. Methods and Results A homology model was constructed and used to identify surface amino acids important for the interaction of GATA4 and NKX2-5. These residues were subjected to site-directed mutagenesis, and the mutant proteins were characterized for their ability to bind DNA and to physically and functionally interact with NKX2-5. The studies identify 5 highly conserved amino acids in the second zinc finger (N272, R283, Q274, K299) and its C-terminal extension (R319) that are critical for physical and functional interaction with the third alpha helix of NKX2-5 homeodomain. Integration of the experimental data with computational modeling suggests that the structural arrangement of the zinc finger-homeodomain resembles the architecture of the conserved DNA binding domain of nuclear receptors. Conclusions The results provide novel insight into the structural basis for protein-protein interactions between two important classes of transcription factors. The model proposed will help to elucidate the molecular basis for disease causing mutations in GATA4 and NKX2-5 and may be relevant to other members of the GATA and NK classes of transcription factors. PMID:26642209

  10. The ELT-2 GATA-factor and the global regulation of transcription in the C. elegans intestine.

    PubMed

    McGhee, James D; Sleumer, Monica C; Bilenky, Mikhail; Wong, Kim; McKay, Sheldon J; Goszczynski, Barbara; Tian, Helen; Krich, Natisha D; Khattra, Jaswinder; Holt, Robert A; Baillie, David L; Kohara, Yuji; Marra, Marco A; Jones, Steven J M; Moerman, Donald G; Robertson, A Gordon

    2007-02-15

    A SAGE library was prepared from hand-dissected intestines from adult Caenorhabditis elegans, allowing the identification of >4000 intestinally-expressed genes; this gene inventory provides fundamental information for understanding intestine function, structure and development. Intestinally-expressed genes fall into two broad classes: widely-expressed "housekeeping" genes and genes that are either intestine-specific or significantly intestine-enriched. Within this latter class of genes, we identified a subset of highly-expressed highly-validated genes that are expressed either exclusively or primarily in the intestine. Over half of the encoded proteins are candidates for secretion into the intestinal lumen to hydrolyze the bacterial food (e.g. lysozymes, amoebapores, lipases and especially proteases). The promoters of this subset of intestine-specific/intestine-enriched genes were analyzed computationally, using both a word-counting method (RSAT oligo-analysis) and a method based on Gibbs sampling (MotifSampler). Both methods returned the same over-represented site, namely an extended GATA-related sequence of the general form AHTGATAARR, which agrees with experimentally determined cis-acting control sequences found in intestine genes over the past 20 years. All promoters in the subset contain such a site, compared to <5% for control promoters; moreover, our analysis suggests that the majority (perhaps all) of genes expressed exclusively or primarily in the worm intestine are likely to contain such a site in their promoters. There are three zinc-finger GATA-type factors that are candidates to bind this extended GATA site in the differentiating C. elegans intestine: ELT-2, ELT-4 and ELT-7. All evidence points to ELT-2 being the most important of the three. We show that worms in which both the elt-4 and the elt-7 genes have been deleted from the genome are essentially wildtype, demonstrating that ELT-2 provides all essential GATA-factor functions in the intestine. The

  11. The GATA transcription factor GtaC regulates early developmental gene expression dynamics in Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Santhanam, Balaji; Cai, Huaqing; Devreotes, Peter N; Shaulsky, Gad; Katoh-Kurasawa, Mariko

    2015-01-01

    In many systems, including the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, development is often marked by dynamic morphological and transcriptional changes orchestrated by key transcription factors. However, efforts to examine sequential genome-wide changes of gene regulation in developmental processes have been fairly limited. Here we report the developmental regulatory dynamics of GtaC, a GATA-type zinc-finger transcription factor, through the analyses of serial ChIP- and RNA-sequencing data. GtaC is essential for developmental progression, decoding extracellular cAMP pulses during early development and may play a role in mediating cell-type differentiation at later stages. We find that GtaC exhibits temporally distinctive DNA-binding patterns concordant with each developmental stage. We identify direct GtaC targets and observe cotemporaneous GtaC-binding and developmental expression regulation. Our results suggest that GtaC regulates multiple physiological processes as Dictyostelium transitions from a group of unicellular amoebae to an integrated multicellular organism. PMID:26144553

  12. MED GATA factors promote robust development of the C. elegans endoderm

    PubMed Central

    Maduro, Morris F.; Broitman-Maduro, Gina; Choi, Hailey; Carranza, Francisco; Wu, Allison Chia-Yi; Rifkin, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    The MED-1,2 GATA factors contribute to specification of E, the progenitor of the C. elegans endoderm, through the genes end-1 and end-3, and in parallel with the maternal factors SKN-1, POP-1 and PAL-1. END-1,3 activate elt-2 and elt-7 to initiate a program of intestinal development, which is maintained by positive autoregulation. Here, we advance the understanding of MED-1,2 in E specification. We find that expression of end-1 and end-3 is greatly reduced in med-1,2(−) embryos. We generated strains in which MED sites have been mutated in end-1 and end-3. Without MED input, gut specification relies primarily on POP-1 and PAL-1. 25% of embryos fail to make intestine, while those that do display abnormal numbers of gut cells due to a delayed and stochastic acquisition of intestine fate. Surviving adults exhibit phenotypes consistent with a primary defect in the intestine. Our results establish that MED-1,2 provide robustness to endoderm specification through end-1 and end-3, and reveal that gut differentiation may be more directly linked to specification than previously appreciated. The results argue against an “all-or-none” description of cell specification, and suggest that activation of tissue-specific master regulators, even when expression of these is maintained by positive autoregulation, does not guarantee proper function of differentiated cells. PMID:25959238

  13. Elucidation of Genetic Interactions in the Yeast GATA-Factor Network Using Bayesian Model Selection

    PubMed Central

    Milias-Argeitis, Andreas; Oliveira, Ana Paula; Gerosa, Luca; Falter, Laura; Sauer, Uwe; Lygeros, John

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the structure and function of complex gene regulatory networks using classical genetic assays is an error-prone procedure that frequently generates ambiguous outcomes. Even some of the best-characterized gene networks contain interactions whose validity is not conclusively proven. Founded on dynamic experimental data, mechanistic mathematical models are able to offer detailed insights that would otherwise require prohibitively large numbers of genetic experiments. Here we attempt mechanistic modeling of the transcriptional network formed by the four GATA-factor proteins, a well-studied system of central importance for nitrogen-source regulation of transcription in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To resolve ambiguities in the network organization, we encoded a set of five interactions hypothesized in the literature into a set of 32 mathematical models, and employed Bayesian model selection to identify the most plausible set of interactions based on dynamic gene expression data. The top-ranking model was validated on newly generated GFP reporter dynamic data and was subsequently used to gain a better understanding of how yeast cells organize their transcriptional response to dynamic changes of nitrogen sources. Our work constitutes a necessary and important step towards obtaining a holistic view of the yeast nitrogen regulation mechanisms; on the computational side, it provides a demonstration of how powerful Monte Carlo techniques can be creatively combined and used to address the great challenges of large-scale dynamical system inference. PMID:26967983

  14. Afzelin attenuates asthma phenotypes by downregulation of GATA3 in a murine model of asthma.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenbo; Nie, Xiuhong

    2015-07-01

    Asthma is a serious health problem causing significant mortality and morbidity globally. Persistent airway inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness, increased immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels and mucus hypersecretion are key characteristics of the condition. Asthma is mediated via a dominant T-helper 2 (Th2) immune response, causing enhanced expression of Th2 cytokines. These cytokines are responsible for the various pathological changes associated with allergic asthma. To investigate the anti-asthmatic potential of afzelin, as well as the underlying mechanisms involved, its anti-asthmatic potential were investigated in a murine model of asthma. In the present study, BALB/c mice were systemically sensitized using ovalbumin (OVA) followed by aerosol allergen challenges. The effect of afzelin on airway hyperresponsiveness, eosinophilic infiltration, Th2 cytokine and OVA‑specific IgE production in a mouse model of asthma were investigated. It was found that afzelin‑treated groups suppressed eosinophil infiltration, allergic airway inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness, OVA-specific IgE and Th2 cytokine secretion. The results of the present study suggested that the therapeutic mechanism by which afzelin effectively treats asthma is based on reduction of Th2 cytokine via inhibition of GATA-binding protein 3 transcription factor, which is the master regulator of Th2 cytokine differentiation and production. PMID:25738969

  15. The GATA transcription factor GtaC regulates early developmental gene expression dynamics in Dictyostelium

    PubMed Central

    Santhanam, Balaji; Cai, Huaqing; Devreotes, Peter N.; Shaulsky, Gad; Katoh-Kurasawa, Mariko

    2015-01-01

    In many systems, including the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, development is often marked by dynamic morphological and transcriptional changes orchestrated by key transcription factors. However, efforts to examine sequential genome-wide changes of gene regulation in developmental processes have been fairly limited. Here we report the developmental regulatory dynamics of GtaC, a GATA-type zinc-finger transcription factor, through the analyses of serial ChIP- and RNA-sequencing data. GtaC is essential for developmental progression, decoding extracellular cAMP pulses during early development and may play a role in mediating cell-type differentiation at later stages. We find that GtaC exhibits temporally distinctive DNA-binding patterns concordant with each developmental stage. We identify direct GtaC targets and observe cotemporaneous GtaC-binding and developmental expression regulation. Our results suggest that GtaC regulates multiple physiological processes as Dictyostelium transitions from a group of unicellular amoebae to an integrated multicellular organism. PMID:26144553

  16. The Friend of GATA proteins U-shaped, FOG-1, and FOG-2 function as negative regulators of blood, heart, and eye development in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Fossett, Nancy; Tevosian, Sergei G.; Gajewski, Kathleen; Zhang, Qian; Orkin, Stuart H.; Schulz, Robert A.

    2001-01-01

    Friend of GATA (FOG) proteins regulate GATA factor-activated gene transcription. During vertebrate hematopoiesis, FOG and GATA proteins cooperate to promote erythrocyte and megakaryocyte differentiation. The Drosophila FOG homologue U-shaped (Ush) is expressed similarly in the blood cell anlage during embryogenesis. During hematopoiesis, the acute myeloid leukemia 1 homologue Lozenge and Glial cells missing are required for the production of crystal cells and plasmatocytes, respectively. However, additional factors have been predicted to control crystal cell proliferation. In this report, we show that Ush is expressed in hemocyte precursors and plasmatocytes throughout embryogenesis and larval development, and the GATA factor Serpent is essential for Ush embryonic expression. Furthermore, loss of ush function results in an overproduction of crystal cells, whereas forced expression of Ush reduces this cell population. Murine FOG-1 and FOG-2 also can repress crystal cell production, but a mutant version of FOG-2 lacking a conserved motif that binds the corepressor C-terminal binding protein fails to affect the cell lineage. The GATA factor Pannier (Pnr) is required for eye and heart development in Drosophila. When Ush, FOG-1, FOG-2, or mutant FOG-2 is coexpressed with Pnr during these developmental processes, severe eye and heart phenotypes result, consistent with a conserved negative regulation of Pnr function. These results indicate that the fly and mouse FOG proteins function similarly in three distinct cellular contexts in Drosophila, but may use different mechanisms to regulate genetic events in blood vs. cardial or eye cell lineages. PMID:11404479

  17. High frequency of GATA2 mutations in patients with mild chronic neutropenia evolving to MonoMac syndrome, myelodysplasia, and acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Pasquet, Marlène; Bellanné-Chantelot, Christine; Tavitian, Suzanne; Prade, Naïs; Beaupain, Blandine; LaRochelle, Olivier; Petit, Arnaud; Rohrlich, Pierre; Ferrand, Christophe; Van Den Neste, Eric; Poirel, Hélène A.; Lamy, Thierry; Ouachée-Chardin, Marie; Mansat-De Mas, Véronique; Corre, Jill; Récher, Christian; Plat, Geneviève; Bachelerie, Françoise; Donadieu, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Congenital neutropenia is a group of genetic disorders that involve chronic neutropenia and susceptibility to infections. These neutropenias may be isolated or associated with immunologic defects or extra-hematopoietic manifestations. Complications may occur as infectious diseases, but also less frequently as myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Recently, the transcription factor GATA2 has been identified as a new predisposing gene for familial AML/MDS. In the present study, we describe the initial identification by exome sequencing of a GATA2 R396Q mutation in a family with a history of chronic mild neutropenia evolving to AML and/or MDS. The subsequent analysis of the French Severe Chronic Neutropenia Registry allowed the identification of 6 additional pedigrees and 10 patients with 6 different and not previously reported GATA2 mutations (R204X, E224X, R330X, A372T, M388V, and a complete deletion of the GATA2 locus). The frequent evolution to MDS and AML in these patients reveals the importance of screening GATA2 in chronic neutropenia associated with monocytopenia because of the frequent hematopoietic transformation, variable clinical expression at onset, and the need for aggressive therapy in patients with poor clinical outcome. PMID:23223431

  18. The evolutionary duplication and probable demise of an endodermal GATA factor in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed Central

    Fukushige, Tetsunari; Goszczynski, Barbara; Tian, Helen; McGhee, James D

    2003-01-01

    We describe the elt-4 gene from the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. elt-4 is predicted to encode a very small (72 residues, 8.1 kD) GATA-type zinc finger transcription factor. The elt-4 gene is located approximately 5 kb upstream of the C. elegans elt-2 gene, which also encodes a GATA-type transcription factor; the zinc finger DNA-binding domains are highly conserved (24/25 residues) between the two proteins. The elt-2 gene is expressed only in the intestine and is essential for normal intestinal development. This article explores whether elt-4 also has a role in intestinal development. Reporter fusions to the elt-4 promoter or reporter insertions into the elt-4 coding regions show that elt-4 is indeed expressed in the intestine, beginning at the 1.5-fold stage of embryogenesis and continuing into adulthood. elt-4 reporter fusions are also expressed in nine cells of the posterior pharynx. Ectopic expression of elt-4 cDNA within the embryo does not cause detectable ectopic expression of biochemical markers of gut differentiation; furthermore, ectopic elt-4 expression neither inhibits nor enhances the ectopic marker expression caused by ectopic elt-2 expression. A deletion allele of elt-4 was isolated but no obvious phenotype could be detected, either in the gut or elsewhere; brood sizes, hatching efficiencies, and growth rates were indistinguishable from wild type. We found no evidence that elt-4 provided backup functions for elt-2. We used microarray analysis to search for genes that might be differentially expressed between L1 larvae of the elt-4 deletion strain and wild-type worms. Paired hybridizations were repeated seven times, allowing us to conclude, with some confidence, that no candidate target transcript could be identified as significantly up- or downregulated by loss of elt-4 function. In vitro binding experiments could not detect specific binding of ELT-4 protein to candidate binding sites (double-stranded oligonucleotides containing single or multiple

  19. Fungal Morphology, Iron Homeostasis, and Lipid Metabolism Regulated by a GATA Transcription Factor in Blastomyces dermatitidis

    PubMed Central

    Marty, Amber J.; Broman, Aimee T.; Zarnowski, Robert; Dwyer, Teigan G.; Bond, Laura M.; Lounes-Hadj Sahraoui, Anissa; Fontaine, Joël; Ntambi, James M.; Keleş, Sündüz; Kendziorski, Christina; Gauthier, Gregory M.

    2015-01-01

    In response to temperature, Blastomyces dermatitidis converts between yeast and mold forms. Knowledge of the mechanism(s) underlying this response to temperature remains limited. In B. dermatitidis, we identified a GATA transcription factor, SREB, important for the transition to mold. Null mutants (SREBΔ) fail to fully complete the conversion to mold and cannot properly regulate siderophore biosynthesis. To capture the transcriptional response regulated by SREB early in the phase transition (0–48 hours), gene expression microarrays were used to compare SREB∆ to an isogenic wild type isolate. Analysis of the time course microarray data demonstrated SREB functioned as a transcriptional regulator at 37°C and 22°C. Bioinformatic and biochemical analyses indicated SREB was involved in diverse biological processes including iron homeostasis, biosynthesis of triacylglycerol and ergosterol, and lipid droplet formation. Integration of microarray data, bioinformatics, and chromatin immunoprecipitation identified a subset of genes directly bound and regulated by SREB in vivo in yeast (37°C) and during the phase transition to mold (22°C). This included genes involved with siderophore biosynthesis and uptake, iron homeostasis, and genes unrelated to iron assimilation. Functional analysis suggested that lipid droplets were actively metabolized during the phase transition and lipid metabolism may contribute to filamentous growth at 22°C. Chromatin immunoprecipitation, RNA interference, and overexpression analyses suggested that SREB was in a negative regulatory circuit with the bZIP transcription factor encoded by HAPX. Both SREB and HAPX affected morphogenesis at 22°C; however, large changes in transcript abundance by gene deletion for SREB or strong overexpression for HAPX were required to alter the phase transition. PMID:26114571

  20. MEF2 Cooperates With Forskolin/cAMP and GATA4 to Regulate Star Gene Expression in Mouse MA-10 Leydig Cells.

    PubMed

    Daems, Caroline; Di-Luoffo, Mickaël; Paradis, Élise; Tremblay, Jacques J

    2015-07-01

    In Leydig cells, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR) participates in cholesterol shuttling from the outer to the inner mitochondrial membrane, the rate-limiting step in steroidogenesis. Steroid hormone biosynthesis and steroidogenic gene expression are regulated by LH, which activates various signaling pathways and transcription factors, including cAMP/Ca(2+)/CAMK (Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase)-myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2). The 4 MEF2 transcription factors are essential regulators of cell differentiation and organogenesis in numerous tissues. Recently, MEF2 was identified in Sertoli and Leydig cells of the testis. Here, we report that MEF2 regulates steroidogenesis in mouse MA-10 Leydig cells by acting on the Star gene. In MA-10 cells depleted of MEF2 using siRNAs (small interfering RNAs), STAR protein levels, Star mRNA levels, and promoter activity were significantly decreased. On its own, MEF2 did not activate the mouse Star promoter but was found to cooperate with forskolin/cAMP. By chromatin immunoprecipitation and DNA precipitation assays, we confirmed MEF2 binding to a consensus element located at -232 bp of the Star promoter. Mutation or deletion of the MEF2 element reduced but did not abrogate the MEF2/cAMP cooperation, indicating that MEF2 cooperates with other DNA-bound transcription factor(s). We identified GATA4 (GATA binding protein 4) as a partner for MEF2 in Leydig cells, because mutation of the GATA element abrogated the MEF2/cAMP cooperation on a reporter lacking a MEF2 element. MEF2 and GATA4 interact as revealed by coimmunoprecipitation, and MEF2 and GATA4 transcriptionally cooperate on the Star promoter. Altogether, our results define MEF2 as a novel regulator of steroidogenesis and Star transcription in Leydig cells and identify GATA4 as a key partner for MEF2-mediated action. PMID:25860031

  1. GATA1-Mediated Transcriptional Regulation of the γ-Secretase Activating Protein Increases Aβ Formation in Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Jin; Wisniewski, Thomas; Praticò, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Because of an extra copy of the Aβ precursor protein gene on chromosome 21, Down syndrome (DS) individuals develop high levels of Aβ peptides and Alzheimer disease–like brain amyloidosis early in life. Here we show that the γ-secretase activating protein (GSAP), a key enzyme in amyloidogenesis, is increased in DS brains and specifically regulated at the transcriptional level by GATA1 transcription factor. The discovery of this novel pathway has translational implications for DS, because pharmacological inhibition of GSAP is an attractive and viable Aβ-lowering therapeutic strategy for this disorder. PMID:26448035

  2. Conserved POU/OCT- and GATA-binding sites in 5'-flanking promoter region of mammalian WNT8B orthologs.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Masuko; Katoh, Masaru

    2007-05-01

    WNT family members are secreted-type glycoproteins regulating cell fate, planar cell polarity, cell adhesion, and cell movement. WNT signals are context-dependently transduced to the canonical pathway for the transcriptional up-regulation of MYC, CCND1, FGF20, JAG1, WISP1 and DKK1 genes, and also to the non-canonical pathway for the activation of RHOA, JNK, PKC, NFAT and NLK signaling cascades. We cloned and characterized the wild-type human WNT8B, while another group the aberrant human WNT8B with Gly230Ala and Arg284Leu amino-acid substitutions. Although WNT8B is undetectable in normal adult tissues by using Northern blot analyses, WNT8B is expressed in gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, and embryonal tumors. Here, comparative integromics on WNT8B orthologs were investigated by using bioinformatics (Techint) and human intelligence (Humint). Cow Wnt8b gene was identified within NW_001494361.1 genome sequence. Predicted sequence XM_582222.3 was an artificial cow Wnt8b with aberrant prediction for the first exon. Cow Wnt8b complete coding sequence was found to encode a 350-amino-acid protein, which showed 96.9% total-amino-acid identity with human WNT8B. Comparative proteomics revealed that N-terminal signal peptide, 22 Cys residues, two Asn-linked glycosylation sites, Gly230, and Arg284 of human WNT8B were conserved among mammalian WNT8B orthologs. Comparative genomics revealed that POU/OCT- and GATA-binding sites in the 5'-flanking promoter region were conserved among human, chimpanzee, cow, mouse, and rat WNT8B orthologs. In silico expression analyses revealed that human WNT8B was expressed in embryoid body derived from embryonic stem (ES) cells, hepatocyte progenitors derived from ES cells, fetal brain, diffuse-type gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, prostate cancer, and ovarian fibrotheoma. Based on the expression profiles of POU and GATA family transcription factors, it was revealed that WNT8B expression in hepatocyte

  3. Sp and GATA factors are critical for Apolipoprotein AI downstream enhancer activity in human HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Gleb S; Kater, Jessie M; Jha, Shivkumar H; Stutius, Erica A; Sabharwal, Ravleen; Tricarico, Marisa D; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S; Ozer, Josef S

    2003-12-24

    The factors that bind to the hepatic-specific human apolipoprotein AI (apoAI) 48-bp downstream enhancer (DSE) were identified and characterized by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. A significant homology was shown between the histone 4 (H4) promoters and the hepatic-specific human apoAI DSE at Sp1 and H4TF2 binding sites. Human HepG2 nuclear extracts were used to form four specific complexes with the DSE (referred to as apoAI DSE-1, -2, -3, and -4). The apoAI DSE-1 and -2 complexes showed similar binding specificity to the Sp/H4TF1 consensus site within the apoAI DSE. The apoAI DSE-1 complex was predominantly recognized by anti-Sp1 and Sp3 sera in gel shift assays, indicating that the DSE was recognized by multiple Sp family members. Nuclear extracts that were prepared from retinoic acid treated HepG2 cells showed increased levels of Sp factors in gel shift and Western blot assays. The apoAI DSE-2 complex was identified as H4TF1 and formed in the absence of magnesium chloride. The apoAI DSE-3 complex bound to a consensus GATA element within the DSE that was recognized by recombinant human GATA-6 as well. The apoAI DSE-3 complex was completely disrupted by a GATA-4 antibody in EMSA. GATA-4 and -6 were detected in nuclear extracts prepared from retinoic acid treated HepG2 cells using Western blot assays. The highest apoAI DSE-3 levels were observed with retinoic acid treated HepG2 cell nuclear extracts in EMSA. ApoAI DSE-4 is a multi-factor complex that includes an Sp/H4TF1 factor and either H4TF2 or apoAI DSE-3. Because apoAI DSE mutations revealed transcription defects in transient transfection assays, we conclude that the entire DSE sequence is required for full apoAI transcriptional activity in HepG2 cells. PMID:14659877

  4. Inhibition of Histone H3K9 Acetylation by Anacardic Acid Can Correct the Over-Expression of Gata4 in the Hearts of Fetal Mice Exposed to Alcohol during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Chang; Zhu, Jing; Sun, Hui-Chao; Huang, Xu-Pei; Zhao, Wei-An; Zheng, Min; Liu, Ling-Juan; Tian, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular malformations can be caused by abnormalities in Gata4 expression during fetal development. In a previous study, we demonstrated that ethanol exposure could lead to histone hyperacetylation and Gata4 over-expression in fetal mouse hearts. However, the potential mechanisms of histone hyperacetylation and Gata4 over-expression induced by ethanol remain unclear. Methods and Results Pregnant mice were gavaged with ethanol or saline. Fetal mouse hearts were collected for analysis. The results of ethanol fed groups showed that global HAT activity was unusually high in the hearts of fetal mice while global HDAC activity remained unchanged. Binding of P300, CBP, PCAF, SRC1, but not GCN5, were increased on the Gata4 promoter relative to the saline treated group. Increased acetylation of H3K9 and increased mRNA expression of Gata4, α-MHC, cTnT were observed in these hearts. Treatment with the pan-histone acetylase inhibitor, anacardic acid, reduced the binding of P300, PCAF to the Gata4 promoter and reversed H3K9 hyperacetylation in the presence of ethanol. Interestingly, anacardic acid attenuated over-expression of Gata4, α-MHC and cTnT in fetal mouse hearts exposed to ethanol. Conclusions Our results suggest that P300 and PCAF may be critical regulatory factors that mediate Gata4 over-expression induced by ethanol exposure. Alternatively, P300, PCAF and Gata4 may coordinate over-expression of cardiac downstream genes in mouse hearts exposed to ethanol. Anacardic acid may thus protect against ethanol-induced Gata4, α-MHC, cTnT over-expression by inhibiting the binding of P300 and PCAF to the promoter region of these genes. PMID:25101666

  5. GATA-2 anomaly and clinical phenotype of a sporadic case of lymphedema, dendritic cell, monocyte, B- and NK-cell (DCML) deficiency, and myelodysplasia.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Hiroyuki; Imai, Kosuke; Honma, Kenichi; Tamura, Shin-Ichi; Imamura, Toshihiko; Ito, Masafumi; Nonoyama, Shigeaki

    2012-08-01

    A Japanese patient presented with lymphedema, severe Varicella zoster, and Salmonella infection, recurrent respiratory infections, panniculitis, monocytopenia, B- and NK-cell lymphopenia, and myelodysplasia. The phenotype was a mixture of the monocytopenia and mycobacterial infection (MonoMAC) and Emberger syndromes. Sequencing of the GATA-2 cDNA revealed the heterozygous missense mutation 1187 G > A. This mutation resulted in the amino acid mutation Arg396Gln in the zinc fingers-2 domain, which is predicted to cause significant structural change and prevent a critical interaction with DNA. Functional analysis of the patient's GATA-2 mutation is required to understand the relationship between these distinctive syndromes. PMID:22430350

  6. A novel mutation of the GATA site in the erythroid cell-specific regulatory element of the ABO gene in a blood donor with the Am B phenotype.

    PubMed

    Oda, A; Isa, K; Ogasawara, K; Kameyama, K; Okuda, K; Hirashima, M; Ishii, H; Kimura, K; Matsukura, H; Hirayama, F; Kawa, K

    2015-05-01

    The Am and Bm phenotypes are characterized by weak expression of the A or B antigens, respectively, by red blood cells with a normal expression by the saliva of secretors. Deletion of the regulatory element in the first intron of the ABO gene and disruption of the GATA motif in the element were found to be responsible. In this study, we identified a novel mutation within the GATA motif (G>C substitution at position c.28 + 5830) in the regulatory element of the A allele that might diminish transcription activity causing the generation of the Am B phenotype. PMID:25557060

  7. DAF-16/FoxO and EGL-27/GATA promote developmental growth in response to persistent somatic DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Babu, Vipin; Ermolaeva, Maria A.; Müller, Roman-Ulrich; Frommolt, Peter; Williams, Ashley B.; Greiss, Sebastian; Schneider, Jennifer I.; Benzing, Thomas; Schermer, Bernhard; Schumacher, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Genome maintenance defects cause complex disease phenotypes characterized by developmental failure, cancer susceptibility, and premature aging. It remains poorly understood how DNA damage responses function during organismal development and maintain tissue functionality when DNA damage accumulates with aging. Here we show that the FoxO transcription factor DAF-16 is activated in response to DNA damage during development while the DNA damage responsiveness of DAF-16 declines with aging. We find that in contrast to its established role in mediating starvation arrest, DAF-16 alleviates DNA damage-induced developmental arrest and even in the absence of DNA repair promotes developmental growth and enhances somatic tissue functionality. We demonstrate that the GATA transcription factor EGL-27 co-regulates DAF-16 target genes in response to DNA damage and together with DAF-16 promotes developmental growth. We propose that EGL-27/GATA activity specifies DAF-16 mediated DNA damage responses to enable developmental progression and to prolong tissue functioning when DNA damage persists. PMID:25419847

  8. GATA3 induces human T-cell commitment by restraining Notch activity and repressing NK-cell fate.

    PubMed

    Van de Walle, Inge; Dolens, Anne-Catherine; Durinck, Kaat; De Mulder, Katrien; Van Loocke, Wouter; Damle, Sagar; Waegemans, Els; De Medts, Jelle; Velghe, Imke; De Smedt, Magda; Vandekerckhove, Bart; Kerre, Tessa; Plum, Jean; Leclercq, Georges; Rothenberg, Ellen V; Van Vlierberghe, Pieter; Speleman, Frank; Taghon, Tom

    2016-01-01

    The gradual reprogramming of haematopoietic precursors into the T-cell fate is characterized by at least two sequential developmental stages. Following Notch1-dependent T-cell lineage specification during which the first T-cell lineage genes are expressed and myeloid and dendritic cell potential is lost, T-cell specific transcription factors subsequently induce T-cell commitment by repressing residual natural killer (NK)-cell potential. How these processes are regulated in human is poorly understood, especially since efficient T-cell lineage commitment requires a reduction in Notch signalling activity following T-cell specification. Here, we show that GATA3, in contrast to TCF1, controls human T-cell lineage commitment through direct regulation of three distinct processes: repression of NK-cell fate, upregulation of T-cell lineage genes to promote further differentiation and restraint of Notch activity. Repression of the Notch1 target gene DTX1 hereby is essential to prevent NK-cell differentiation. Thus, GATA3-mediated positive and negative feedback mechanisms control human T-cell lineage commitment. PMID:27048872

  9. NMR structure of a specific DNA complex of Zn-containing DNA binding domain of GATA-1.

    PubMed

    Omichinski, J G; Clore, G M; Schaad, O; Felsenfeld, G; Trainor, C; Appella, E; Stahl, S J; Gronenborn, A M

    1993-07-23

    The three-dimensional solution structure of a complex between the DNA binding domain of the chicken erythroid transcription factor GATA-1 and its cognate DNA site has been determined with multidimensional heteronuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The DNA binding domain consists of a core which contains a zinc coordinated by four cysteines and a carboxyl-terminal tail. The core is composed of two irregular antiparallel beta sheets and an alpha helix, followed by a long loop that leads into the carboxyl-terminal tail. The amino-terminal part of the core, including the helix, is similar in structure, although not in sequence, to the amino-terminal zinc module of the glucocorticoid receptor DNA binding domain. In the other regions, the structures of these two DNA binding domains are entirely different. The DNA target site in contact with the protein spans eight base pairs. The helix and the loop connecting the two antiparallel beta sheets interact with the major groove of the DNA. The carboxyl-terminal tail, which is an essential determinant of specific binding, wraps around into the minor groove. The complex resembles a hand holding a rope with the palm and fingers representing the protein core and the thumb, the carboxyl-terminal tail. The specific interactions between GATA-1 and DNA in the major groove are mainly hydrophobic in nature, which accounts for the preponderance of thymines in the target site. A large number of interactions are observed with the phosphate backbone. PMID:8332909

  10. Interplay of Aro80 and GATA activators in regulation of genes for catabolism of aromatic amino acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyusung; Hahn, Ji-Sook

    2013-06-01

    Aro80, a member of the Zn(2)Cys(6) family proteins, activates expression of the ARO9 and ARO10 genes involved in catabolism of aromatic amino acids in response to aromatic amino acids that act as inducers. ARO9 and ARO10 are also under the control of nitrogen catabolite repression, but the direct roles for GATA factors, Gat1 and Gln3, in this regulation have not yet been elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that Aro80 is constitutively bound to its target promoters and activated by inducers at the level of transactivation. Although Aro80 also binds to its own promoter, ARO80 expression is induced only by rapamycin, but not by tryptophan. We show that Aro80 is absolutely required for Gat1 binding to the ARO9, ARO10 and ARO80 promoters upon rapamycin treatment. Gln3 binding to these promoters shows a partial requirement for Aro80. Rapamycin-dependent Gat1 and Gln3 binding to the Aro80 target promoters is not affected by tryptophan availability, suggesting that transactivation activity of Aro80 is not necessary for the recruitment of GATA factors. Rapamycin-dependent induction of Aro80 target genes also requires PP2A phosphatase complex, but not Sit4 phosphatase, acting downstream of TORC1. PMID:23651256

  11. TORC1 Regulates Developmental Responses to Nitrogen Stress via Regulation of the GATA Transcription Factor Gaf1

    PubMed Central

    Laor, Dana; Cohen, Adiel; Kupiec, Martin

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The TOR (target of rapamycin [sirolimus]) is a universally conserved kinase that couples nutrient availability to cell growth. TOR complex 1 (TORC1) in Schizosaccharomyces pombe positively regulates growth in response to nitrogen availability while suppressing cellular responses to nitrogen stress. Here we report the identification of the GATA transcription factor Gaf1 as a positive regulator of the nitrogen stress-induced gene isp7+, via three canonical GATA motifs. We show that under nitrogen-rich conditions, TORC1 positively regulates the phosphorylation and cytoplasmic retention of Gaf1 via the PP2A-like phosphatase Ppe1. Under nitrogen stress conditions when TORC1 is inactivated, Gaf1 becomes dephosphorylated and enters the nucleus. Gaf1 was recently shown to negatively regulate the transcription induction of ste11+, a major regulator of sexual development. Our findings support a model of a two-faceted role of Gaf1 during nitrogen stress. Gaf1 positively regulates genes that are induced early in the response to nitrogen stress, while inhibiting later responses, such as sexual development. Taking these results together, we identify Gaf1 as a novel target for TORC1 signaling and a step-like mechanism to modulate the nitrogen stress response. PMID:26152587

  12. GATA3 induces human T-cell commitment by restraining Notch activity and repressing NK-cell fate

    PubMed Central

    Van de Walle, Inge; Dolens, Anne-Catherine; Durinck, Kaat; De Mulder, Katrien; Van Loocke, Wouter; Damle, Sagar; Waegemans, Els; De Medts, Jelle; Velghe, Imke; De Smedt, Magda; Vandekerckhove, Bart; Kerre, Tessa; Plum, Jean; Leclercq, Georges; Rothenberg, Ellen V.; Van Vlierberghe, Pieter; Speleman, Frank; Taghon, Tom

    2016-01-01

    The gradual reprogramming of haematopoietic precursors into the T-cell fate is characterized by at least two sequential developmental stages. Following Notch1-dependent T-cell lineage specification during which the first T-cell lineage genes are expressed and myeloid and dendritic cell potential is lost, T-cell specific transcription factors subsequently induce T-cell commitment by repressing residual natural killer (NK)-cell potential. How these processes are regulated in human is poorly understood, especially since efficient T-cell lineage commitment requires a reduction in Notch signalling activity following T-cell specification. Here, we show that GATA3, in contrast to TCF1, controls human T-cell lineage commitment through direct regulation of three distinct processes: repression of NK-cell fate, upregulation of T-cell lineage genes to promote further differentiation and restraint of Notch activity. Repression of the Notch1 target gene DTX1 hereby is essential to prevent NK-cell differentiation. Thus, GATA3-mediated positive and negative feedback mechanisms control human T-cell lineage commitment. PMID:27048872

  13. IGF-1 induces skeletal myocyte hypertrophy through calcineurin in association with GATA-2 and NF-ATc1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musaro, A.; McCullagh, K. J.; Naya, F. J.; Olson, E. N.; Rosenthal, N.

    1999-01-01

    Localized synthesis of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) has been broadly implicated in skeletal muscle growth, hypertrophy and regeneration. Virally delivered IGF-1 genes induce local skeletal muscle hypertrophy and attenuate age-related skeletal muscle atrophy, restoring and improving muscle mass and strength in mice. Here we show that the molecular pathways underlying the hypertrophic action of IGF-1 in skeletal muscle are similar to those responsible for cardiac hypertrophy. Transfected IGF-1 gene expression in postmitotic skeletal myocytes activates calcineurin-mediated calcium signalling by inducing calcineurin transcripts and nuclear localization of calcineurin protein. Expression of activated calcineurin mimics the effects of IGF-1, whereas expression of a dominant-negative calcineurin mutant or addition of cyclosporin, a calcineurin inhibitor, represses myocyte differentiation and hypertrophy. Either IGF-1 or activated calcineurin induces expression of the transcription factor GATA-2, which accumulates in a subset of myocyte nuclei, where it associates with calcineurin and a specific dephosphorylated isoform of the transcription factor NF-ATc1. Thus, IGF-1 induces calcineurin-mediated signalling and activation of GATA-2, a marker of skeletal muscle hypertrophy, which cooperates with selected NF-ATc isoforms to activate gene expression programs.

  14. GATA-3 promotes Th2 responses through three different mechanisms: induction of Th2 cytokine production, selective growth of Th2 cells and inhibition of Th1 cell-specific factors.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jinfang; Yamane, Hidehiro; Cote-Sierra, Javier; Guo, Liying; Paul, William E

    2006-01-01

    Naïve CD4 T cells can differentiate into at least two different types of T helpers, Th1 and Th2 cells. Th2 cells, capable of producing IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13, are involved in humoral immunity against extracellular pathogens and in the induction of asthma and other allergic diseases. In this review, we summarize recent reports regarding the transcription factors involved in Th2 differentiation and cell expansion, including Stat5, Gfi-1 and GATA-3. Stat5 activation is necessary and sufficient for IL-2-mediated function in Th2 differentiation. Enhanced Stat5 signaling induces Th2 differentiation independent of IL-4 signaling; although it does not up-regulate GATA-3 expression, it does require the presence of GATA-3 for its action. Gfi-1, induced by IL-4, promotes the expansion of GATA-3-expressing cells. Analysis of conditional Gata3 knockout mice confirmed the critical role of GATA-3 in Th2 cell differentiation (both IL-4 dependent and IL-4 independent) and in Th2 cell proliferation and also showed the importance of basal GATA-3 expression in inhibiting Th1 differentiation. PMID:16467870

  15. A network including TGFβ/Smad4, Gata2, and p57 regulates proliferation of mouse hematopoietic progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Billing, Matilda; Rörby, Emma; May, Gillian; Tipping, Alex J; Soneji, Shamit; Brown, John; Salminen, Marjo; Karlsson, Göran; Enver, Tariq; Karlsson, Stefan

    2016-05-01

    Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) is a potent inhibitor of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell proliferation. However, the precise mechanism for this effect is unknown. Here, we have identified the transcription factor Gata2, previously described as an important regulator of hematopoietic stem cell function, as an early and direct target gene for TGFβ-induced Smad signaling in hematopoietic progenitor cells. We also report that Gata2 is involved in mediating a significant part of the TGFβ response in primitive hematopoietic cells. Interestingly, the cell cycle regulator and TGFβ signaling effector molecule p57 was found to be upregulated as a secondary response to TGFβ. We observed Gata2 binding upstream of the p57 genomic locus, and importantly, loss of Gata2 abolished TGFβ-stimulated induction of p57 as well as the resulting growth arrest of hematopoietic progenitors. Our results connect key molecules involved in hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal and reveal a functionally relevant network, regulating proliferation of primitive hematopoietic cells. PMID:26876150

  16. Thalidomide is more efficient than sodium butyrate in enhancing GATA-1 and EKLF gene expression in erythroid progenitors derived from HSCs with β-globin gene mutation

    PubMed Central

    Jalali Far, Mohammad Ali; Dehghani Fard, Ali; Hajizamani, Saiedeh; Mossahebi-Mohammadi, Majid; Yaghooti, Hamid; Saki, Najmaldin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Efficient induction of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) is considered as an effective therapeutic approach in beta thalassemia. HbF inducer agents can induce the expression of γ-globin gene and produce high levels of HbF via different epigenetic and molecular mechanisms. Thalidomide and sodium butyrate are known as HbF inducer drugs. Material and methods: CD133+ stem cells were isolated from umbilical cord blood of a newborn with minor β-thalassemia in order to evaluate the effects of these two drugs on the in vitro expression of GATA-1 and EKLF genes as erythroid transcription factors. CD133+ stem cells were expanded and differentiated into erythroid lineage and then treated with thalidomide and sodium butyrate and finally analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. Statistical analysis was performed using student’s t-test by SPSS software. Results: Thalidomide and sodium butyrate increased GATA-1 and EKLF gene expression, compared to the non-treated control (P<0.05). Conclusion: Thalidomide was more efficient than sodium butyrate in augmenting expression of GATA-1 and EKLF genes. It seems that GATA-1 and EKLF have crucial roles in the efficient induction of HbF by thalidomide. PMID:27047649

  17. GATA-1 Inhibits PU.1 Gene via DNA and Histone H3K9 Methylation of Its Distal Enhancer in Erythroleukemia.

    PubMed

    Burda, Pavel; Vargova, Jarmila; Curik, Nikola; Salek, Cyril; Papadopoulos, Giorgio Lucio; Strouboulis, John; Stopka, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    GATA-1 and PU.1 are two important hematopoietic transcription factors that mutually inhibit each other in progenitor cells to guide entrance into the erythroid or myeloid lineage, respectively. PU.1 controls its own expression during myelopoiesis by binding to the distal URE enhancer, whose deletion leads to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We herein present evidence that GATA-1 binds to the PU.1 gene and inhibits its expression in human AML-erythroleukemias (EL). Furthermore, GATA-1 together with DNA methyl Transferase I (DNMT1) mediate repression of the PU.1 gene through the URE. Repression of the PU.1 gene involves both DNA methylation at the URE and its histone H3 lysine-K9 methylation and deacetylation as well as the H3K27 methylation at additional DNA elements and the promoter. The GATA-1-mediated inhibition of PU.1 gene transcription in human AML-EL mediated through the URE represents important mechanism that contributes to PU.1 downregulation and leukemogenesis that is sensitive to DNA demethylation therapy. PMID:27010793

  18. Compound A, a Dissociated Glucocorticoid Receptor Modulator, Inhibits T-bet (Th1) and Induces GATA-3 (Th2) Activity in Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ferraz-de-Paula, Viviane; Palermo-Neto, Joao; Castro, Carla N.; Druker, Jimena; Holsboer, Florian; Perone, Marcelo J.; Gerlo, Sarah; De Bosscher, Karolien; Haegeman, Guy; Arzt, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Background Compound A (CpdA) is a dissociating non-steroidal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) ligand which has anti-inflammatory properties exerted by down-modulating proinflammatory gene expression. By favouring GR monomer formation, CpdA does not enhance glucocorticoid (GC) response element-driven gene expression, resulting in a reduced side effect profile as compared to GCs. Considering the importance of Th1/Th2 balance in the final outcome of immune and inflammatory responses, we analyzed how selective GR modulation differentially regulates the activity of T-bet and GATA-3, master drivers of Th1 and Th2 differentiation, respectively. Results Using Western analysis and reporter gene assays, we show in murine T cells that, similar to GCs, CpdA inhibits T-bet activity via a transrepressive mechanism. Different from GCs, CpdA induces GATA-3 activity by p38 MAPK-induction of GATA-3 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. CpdA effects are reversed by the GR antagonist RU38486, proving the involvement of GR in these actions. ELISA assays demonstrate that modulation of T-bet and GATA-3 impacts on cytokine production shown by a decrease in IFN-γ and an increase in IL-5 production, respectively. Conclusions Taken together, through their effect favoring Th2 over Th1 responses, particular dissociated GR ligands, for which CpdA represents a paradigm, hold potential for the application in Th1-mediated immune disorders. PMID:22496903

  19. Identification of GATA2 and AP-1 activator elements within the enhancer VNTR occurring in intron 5 of the human SIRT3 gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human SIRT3 gene contains an intronic VNTR enhancer. A T > C transition occurring in the second repeat of each VNTR allele implies the presence/absence of a putative GATA binding motif. A partially overlapping AP-1 site, not affected by the transition, was also identified. Aims of the present study ...

  20. Transcription Factors Oct-1 and GATA-3 Cooperatively Regulate Th2 Cytokine Gene Expression via the RHS5 within the Th2 Locus Control Region

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kiwan; Kim, Najung; Lee, Gap Ryol

    2016-01-01

    The T helper type 2 (Th2) locus control region (LCR) regulates Th2 cell differentiation. Several transcription factors bind to the LCR to modulate the expression of Th2 cytokine genes, but the molecular mechanisms behind Th2 cytokine gene regulation are incompletely understood. Here, we used database analysis and an oligonucleotide competition/electrophoretic mobility shift assays to search for transcription factors binding to RHS5, a DNase I hypersensitive site (DHS) within the Th2 LCR. Consequently, we demonstrated that GATA-binding protein-3 (GATA-3), E26 transformation-specific protein 1 (Ets-1), octamer transcription factor-1 (Oct-1), and Oct-2 selectively associate with RHS5. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assays showed that Oct-1 and Oct-2 bound within the Il4 promoter region and the Th2 LCR, and that Oct-1 and GATA-3 or Oct-2 synergistically triggered the transactivational activity of the Il4 promoter through RHS5. These results suggest that Oct-1 and GATA-3/Oct-2 direct Th2 cytokine gene expression in a cooperative manner. PMID:26840450

  1. Mutational Analysis of AREA, a Transcriptional Activator Mediating Nitrogen Metabolite Repression in Aspergillus nidulans and a Member of the “Streetwise” GATA Family of Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Richard A.; Arst, Herbert N.

    1998-01-01

    Summary: The transcriptional activator AREA is a member of the GATA family of transcription factors and mediates nitrogen metabolite repression in the fungus Aspergillus nidulans. The nutritional versatility of A. nidulans and its amenability to classical and reverse genetic manipulations make the AREA DNA binding domain (DBD) a useful model for analyzing GATA family DBDs, particularly as structures of two AREA-DNA complexes have been determined. The 109 extant mutant forms of the AREA DBD surveyed here constitute one of the highest totals of eukaryotic transcription factor DBD mutants, are discussed in light of the roles of individual residues, and are compared to corresponding mutant sequence changes in other fungal GATA factor DBDs. Other topics include delineation of the DBD using both homology and mutational truncation, use of frameshift reversion to detect regions of tolerance to mutational change, the finding that duplication of the DBD can apparently enhance AREA function, and use of the AREA system to analyze a vertebrate GATA factor DBD. Some major points to emerge from work on the AREA DBD are (i) tolerance to sequence change (with retention of function) is surprisingly great, (ii) mutational changes in a transcription factor can have widely differing, even opposing, effects on expression of different structural genes so that monitoring expression of one or even several structural genes can be insufficient and possibly misleading, and (iii) a mutational change altering local hydrophobic packing and DNA binding target specificity can markedly influence the behavior of mutational changes elsewhere in the DBD. PMID:9729601

  2. A small single-"finger" peptide from the erythroid transcription factor GATA-1 binds specifically to DNA as a zinc or iron complex.

    PubMed

    Omichinski, J G; Trainor, C; Evans, T; Gronenborn, A M; Clore, G M; Felsenfeld, G

    1993-03-01

    Sequence-specific DNA binding has been demonstrated for a synthetic peptide comprising only one of the two "finger"-like domains of the erythroid transcription factor GATA-1 (also termed Eryf-1, NF-E1, or GF-1). Quantitative analysis of gel-retardation assays yields a specific association constant of 1.2 x 10(8) M, compared with values of about 10(9) M for the full-length natural GATA-1 protein. By the use of peptides of various lengths, it was possible to delineate the smallest region necessary for specific binding. A single C-terminal finger of the double-finger motif is necessary but not sufficient for sequence-specific interaction. Basic amino acids located C-terminal to the finger (some more than 20 amino acids away) are also essential for tight binding. In addition to demonstrating that zinc is important for the formation of an active binding complex, we show that other ions, notably Fe2+, can fulfill this role. Our results make it clear that the GATA-1 metal binding motif is quite distinct from that found in the steroid hormone family and that GATA-1 is a member of a separate class of DNA binding proteins. PMID:8446581

  3. GATA-1 Inhibits PU.1 Gene via DNA and Histone H3K9 Methylation of Its Distal Enhancer in Erythroleukemia

    PubMed Central

    Burda, Pavel; Vargova, Jarmila; Curik, Nikola; Salek, Cyril; Papadopoulos, Giorgio Lucio; Strouboulis, John; Stopka, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    GATA-1 and PU.1 are two important hematopoietic transcription factors that mutually inhibit each other in progenitor cells to guide entrance into the erythroid or myeloid lineage, respectively. PU.1 controls its own expression during myelopoiesis by binding to the distal URE enhancer, whose deletion leads to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We herein present evidence that GATA-1 binds to the PU.1 gene and inhibits its expression in human AML-erythroleukemias (EL). Furthermore, GATA-1 together with DNA methyl Transferase I (DNMT1) mediate repression of the PU.1 gene through the URE. Repression of the PU.1 gene involves both DNA methylation at the URE and its histone H3 lysine-K9 methylation and deacetylation as well as the H3K27 methylation at additional DNA elements and the promoter. The GATA-1-mediated inhibition of PU.1 gene transcription in human AML-EL mediated through the URE represents important mechanism that contributes to PU.1 downregulation and leukemogenesis that is sensitive to DNA demethylation therapy. PMID:27010793

  4. The utility of CDX2, GATA3, and DOG1 in the diagnosis of testicular neoplasms: an immunohistochemical study of 109 cases.

    PubMed

    Osman, Hany; Cheng, Liang; Ulbright, Thomas M; Idrees, Muhammad T

    2016-02-01

    We identified 109 testicular tumors, including pure and mixed germ cell tumors and sex cord-stromal tumors, and conducted immunohistochemical staining for CDX2, DOG1, and GATA3 to address the potential utility of these readily available and commonly used markers in the evaluation of testicular tumors. Their expression has not been previously thoroughly examined in testicular germ cell tumors. The distribution, percentage, and intensity of positivity were assessed. CDX2 was positive in all yolk sac tumors, 25% of choriocarcinomas, 9% of seminomas, and 4% of embryonal carcinomas (sensitivity for yolk sac tumor, 100%; specificity, 89% [teratomas excluded]). CDX2 also stained glandular components within teratomas and identified inconspicuous yolk sac tumor components in 3 cases previously diagnosed as pure embryonal carcinoma. GATA3 was positive in all choriocarcinomas (sensitivity, 100%). Weak GATA3 immunostaining was also seen in 12% of yolk sac tumors and 2 of 2 primitive neuroectodermal tumors. DOG1 was negative in all tumors, but stained spermatocytes and spermatids and the luminal borders of the epididymis and rete testis of nonneoplastic testis. We conclude that CDX2 is a sensitive and relatively specific marker for yolk sac tumor among the nonteratomatous germ cell tumors. It may serve to screen for yolk sac tumor components often overlooked on hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides. GATA3 is helpful in the recognition of trophoblastic cells, especially of intermediate type. DOG1 is a sensitive marker for spermatocytes and needs to be further studied for its significance. PMID:26772394

  5. Dynamic regulation of permissive histone modifications and GATA3 binding underpin acquisition of granzyme A expression by virus-specific CD8(+) T cells.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Michelle L T; Hatton, Lauren; Li, Jasmine; Olshansky, Moshe; Kelso, Anne; Russ, Brendan E; Turner, Stephen J

    2016-02-01

    Numerous studies have focused on the molecular regulation of perforin (PFP) and granzyme B (GZMB) expression by activated cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), but little is known about the molecular factors that underpin granzyme A (GZMA) expression. In vitro activation of naïve CD8(+) T cells, in the presence of IL-4, enhanced STAT6-dependent GZMA expression and was associated with GATA3 binding and enrichment of transcriptionally permissive histone posttranslational modifications (PTMs) across the Gzma gene locus. While GZMA expression by effector influenza A virus specific CTLs was also associated with a similar permissive epigenetic signature, memory CTL lacked enrichment of permissive histone PTMs at the Gzma locus, although this was restored within recalled secondary effector CTLs. Importantly, GZMA expression by virus-specific CTLs was associated with GATA3 binding at the Gzma locus, and independent of STAT6-mediated signaling. This suggests regulation of GZMA expression is underpinned by differentiation-dependent regulation of chromatin composition at the Gzma locus and that, given GATA3 is key for CTL differentiation in response to infection, GATA3 expression is regulated by a distinct, IL-4 independent, signaling pathway. Overall, this study provides insights into the molecular mechanisms that control transcription of Gzma during virus-induced CD8(+) T-cell differentiation. PMID:26519105

  6. Role of GATA-6 and Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 in Dexamethasone-Induced Cleft Palate Formation in Institute of Cancer Research Mice.

    PubMed

    Lan, Shi-Jie; Yang, Xiao-Guang; Chen, Zhe; Yang, Tian-Ye; Xiang, Chen-Hui; Zhang, Duo; Li, Yu-Xin; Rong, Li

    2016-09-01

    The mechanism of cleft palate induction by dexamethasone is not fully known. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) has been associated with dexamethasone-induced osteoporosis. In this study, the authors induced cleft palate models in Institute of Cancer Research mice by dexamethasone to investigate the role of BMP-2 and its transcriptional element GATA-6. The authors injected different doses of dexamethasone into pregnant mice (E13), and assessed the histology of the palatal shelf and the expression levels of BMP-2, GATA-6, and specific apoptosis-related proteins. The results showed that cleft palate formation was dependent on dexamethasone dosage, with high incidence (50.55%) at high concentration (50 mg/kg) compared with the low doses (6 mg/kg, 38.10%). Transmission electron microscopy revealed significant cellular changes of the cleft palate shelf, including loose cell connection, cellular swelling, as well as reduced extracellular matrix and mitochondria. Following exposure to dexamethasone, the apoptotic rate in the palate increased with elevated dosage. Western blotting analysis indicated that the expression levels of GATA-6 and BMP-2 were reduced, while the levels of apoptotic proteins bax and caspase-3 were increased. The results of authors' study suggested that dexamethasone-induced cleft palate formation involved apoptosis occurred in a dose-dependent manner. BMP-2 and GATA-6 mediated dexamethasone-induced cleft palate formation. PMID:27391658

  7. The regulation of troponins I, C and ANP by GATA4 and Nkx2-5 in heart of hibernating thirteen-lined ground squirrels, Ictidomys tridecemlineatus.

    PubMed

    Luu, Bryan E; Tessier, Shannon N; Duford, Dianna L; Storey, Kenneth B

    2015-01-01

    Hibernation is an adaptive strategy used by various mammals to survive the winter under situations of low ambient temperatures and limited or no food availability. The heart of hibernating thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) has the remarkable ability to descend to low, near 0°C temperatures without falling into cardiac arrest. We hypothesized that the transcription factors GATA4 and Nkx2-5 may play a role in cardioprotection by facilitating the expression of key downstream targets such as troponin I, troponin C, and ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide). This study measured relative changes in transcript levels, protein levels, protein post-translational modifications, and transcription factor binding over six stages: euthermic control (EC), entrance into torpor (EN), early torpor (ET), late torpor (LT), early arousal (EA), and interbout arousal (IA). We found differential regulation of GATA4 whereby transcript/protein expression, post-translational modification (phosphorylation of serine 261), and DNA binding were enhanced during the transitory phases (entrance and arousal) of hibernation. Activation of GATA4 was paired with increases in cardiac troponin I, troponin C and ANP protein levels during entrance, while increases in p-GATA4 DNA binding during early arousal was paired with decreases in troponin I and no changes in troponin C and ANP protein levels. Unlike its binding partner, the relative mRNA/protein expression and DNA binding of Nkx2-5 did not change during hibernation. This suggests that either Nkx2-5 does not play a substantial role or other regulatory mechanisms not presently studied (e.g. posttranslational modifications) are important during hibernation. The data suggest a significant role for GATA4-mediated gene transcription in the differential regulation of genes which aid cardiac-specific challenges associated with torpor-arousal. PMID:25679215

  8. The Regulation of Troponins I, C and ANP by GATA4 and Nkx2-5 in Heart of Hibernating Thirteen-Lined Ground Squirrels, Ictidomys tridecemlineatus

    PubMed Central

    Luu, Bryan E.; Tessier, Shannon N.; Duford, Dianna L; Storey, Kenneth B.

    2015-01-01

    Hibernation is an adaptive strategy used by various mammals to survive the winter under situations of low ambient temperatures and limited or no food availability. The heart of hibernating thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) has the remarkable ability to descend to low, near 0°C temperatures without falling into cardiac arrest. We hypothesized that the transcription factors GATA4 and Nkx2-5 may play a role in cardioprotection by facilitating the expression of key downstream targets such as troponin I, troponin C, and ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide). This study measured relative changes in transcript levels, protein levels, protein post-translational modifications, and transcription factor binding over six stages: euthermic control (EC), entrance into torpor (EN), early torpor (ET), late torpor (LT), early arousal (EA), and interbout arousal (IA). We found differential regulation of GATA4 whereby transcript/protein expression, post-translational modification (phosphorylation of serine 261), and DNA binding were enhanced during the transitory phases (entrance and arousal) of hibernation. Activation of GATA4 was paired with increases in cardiac troponin I, troponin C and ANP protein levels during entrance, while increases in p-GATA4 DNA binding during early arousal was paired with decreases in troponin I and no changes in troponin C and ANP protein levels. Unlike its binding partner, the relative mRNA/protein expression and DNA binding of Nkx2-5 did not change during hibernation. This suggests that either Nkx2-5 does not play a substantial role or other regulatory mechanisms not presently studied (e.g. posttranslational modifications) are important during hibernation. The data suggest a significant role for GATA4-mediated gene transcription in the differential regulation of genes which aid cardiac-specific challenges associated with torpor-arousal. PMID:25679215

  9. Mechanical stretch-induced vascular hypertrophy occurs through modulation of leptin synthesis-mediated ROS formation and GATA-4 nuclear translocation

    PubMed Central

    Ghantous, Crystal M.; Kobeissy, Firas H.; Soudani, Nadia; Rahman, Farah A.; Al-Hariri, Mustafa; Itani, Hana A.; Sabra, Ramzi; Zeidan, Asad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity and hypertension are associated with increased leptin production contributing to cardiovascular remodeling. Mechanisms involving mechanical stretch-induced leptin production and the cross talk between signaling pathways leading to vascular remodeling have not been fully elucidated. Methods and Results: Rat portal vein (RPV) organ culture was used to investigate the effect of mechanical stretch on leptin protein expression in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Moreover, the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the RhoA/ROCK pathway, actin cytoskeleton dynamics and the transcriptional factor GATA-4 activation in mechanical stretch-induced vascular remodeling were investigated. Stretching the RPV for 1 or 24 h significantly increased leptin protein level and ROS formation in VSMCs, which was prevented by 1 h pretreatment with the ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 and the actin cytoskeleton depolymerization agent cytochalasin D. Moreover, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry revealed that mechanical stretch or treatment with 3.1 nmol/L leptin for 24 h significantly increased actin polymerization, as reflected by an increase in the F-actin to G-actin ratio. Increases in blood vessels’ wet weight and [3H]-leucine incorporation following a 24 h treatment with conditioned media from cultured stretched RPVs indicated RPV hypertrophy. This effect was prevented by 1 h pretreatment with anti-leptin antibody, indicating leptin’s crucial role in promoting VSMC hypertrophy. As an index of GATA-4 activation, GATA-4 nuclear translocation was assessed by immunohistochemistry method. Pretreating VSMC with leptin for 1 h significantly activated GATA-4 nuclear translocation, which was potently attenuated by the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin, Y-27632, and cytochalasin D. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that ROS formation, RhoA/ROCK pathway, and GATA-4 activation play a pivotal role in mechanical stretch-induced leptin synthesis leading to VSMC

  10. GATA Factor Regulation in Excess Nitrogen Occurs Independently of Gtr-Ego Complex-Dependent TorC1 Activation

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Jennifer J.; Georis, Isabelle; Rai, Rajendra; Vierendeels, Fabienne; Dubois, Evelyne; Cooper, Terrance G.

    2015-01-01

    The TorC1 protein kinase complex is a central component in a eukaryotic cell’s response to varying nitrogen availability, with kinase activity being stimulated in nitrogen excess by increased intracellular leucine. This leucine-dependent TorC1 activation requires functional Gtr1/2 and Ego1/3 complexes. Rapamycin inhibition of TorC1 elicits nuclear localization of Gln3, a GATA-family transcription activator responsible for the expression of genes encoding proteins required to transport and degrade poor nitrogen sources, e.g., proline. In nitrogen-replete conditions, Gln3 is cytoplasmic and Gln3-mediated transcription minimal, whereas in nitrogen limiting or starvation conditions, or after rapamycin treatment, Gln3 is nuclear and transcription greatly increased. Increasing evidence supports the idea that TorC1 activation may not be as central to nitrogen-responsive intracellular Gln3 localization as envisioned previously. To test this idea directly, we determined whether Gtr1/2- and Ego1/3-dependent TorC1 activation also was required for cytoplasmic Gln3 sequestration and repressed GATA factor-mediated transcription by abolishing the Gtr-Ego complex proteins. We show that Gln3 is sequestered in the cytoplasm of gtr1Δ, gtr2Δ, ego1Δ, and ego3Δ strains either long term in logarithmically glutamine-grown cells or short term after refeeding glutamine to nitrogen-limited or -starved cells; GATA factor−dependent transcription also was minimal. However, in all but a gtr1Δ, nuclear Gln3 localization in response to nitrogen limitation or starvation was adversely affected. Our data demonstrate: (i) Gtr-Ego-dependent TorC1 activation is not required for cytoplasmic Gln3 sequestration in nitrogen-rich conditions; (ii) a novel Gtr-Ego-TorC1 activation-independent mechanism sequesters Gln3 in the cytoplasm; (iii) Gtr and Ego complex proteins participate in nuclear Gln3-Myc13 localization, heretofore unrecognized functions for these proteins; and (iv) the importance of

  11. Record of Miocene sea-floor dome volcanism, Cabo de Gata, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riggs, N. R.; Soriano Clemente, C.

    2008-12-01

    The Cabo de Gata volcanic field comprises a 200 km2 succession of andesitic and dacitic dome complexes, together with possibly caldera-related facies and minor . Detailed investigation of exposures in the Vela Blanca to Cala Genoveses area in the southwest of the field, together with new 40Ar/39Ar groundmass ages, reveal a complex succession of andesitic to rhyolitic facies erupted as domes on a relatively shallow sea floor to emergent setting within ~1 m.y. The succession youngs from southwest to northeast. At Vela Blanca, an andesitic complex is represented by strongly columnar jointed lava; other evidence of marine emplacement is weakest in this area, suggesting an at least partially subaerial setting. The andesites are in uncertain stratigraphic relation with rhyolitic pumice breccia: more recent debris avalanches have disrupted original stratigraphy. Andesite is overlain by a dacitic succession that is the oldest well-dated unit in the area (13.36±0.13 Ma). These rocks represent a growing dacitic dome that disrupted ambient, fine-grained shallow-marine sedimentation in the area. The basal flow from the dome has a pseudo-eutaxitic texture that may represent an upper carapace; the non-vesicular nature of "fiamme" suggests a complex attenuation of flow bands. The dacite is overlain by a highly variable, intermixed hyaloclastite and flow unit called the andesite of el Barronal. Vertically flow-banded and columnar-jointed andesite grades into hyaloclastite that comprises brecciated columnar-jointed fragments. Elsewhere, flow banding in lava is sub-horizontal, grading laterally, in the seaward direction, into hyaloclastite and shoreward into dense dome material. We interpret this succession as representing a dome that spread through lava flows on the seafloor, but that may have had a subaerial component as well. Farther east, andesite crops out as radially columnar-jointed lava that represents mega-pillows or lava tubes. The pillowed horizon grades into a zone of

  12. Deactivation of the GATA Transcription Factor ELT-2 Is a Major Driver of Normal Aging in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Frederick G.; Van Nostrand, Eric L.; Friedland, Ari E.; Liu, Xiao; Kim, Stuart K.

    2016-01-01

    To understand the molecular processes underlying aging, we screened modENCODE ChIP-seq data to identify transcription factors that bind to age-regulated genes in C. elegans. The most significant hit was the GATA transcription factor encoded by elt-2, which is responsible for inducing expression of intestinal genes during embryogenesis. Expression of ELT-2 decreases during aging, beginning in middle age. We identified genes regulated by ELT-2 in the intestine during embryogenesis, and then showed that these developmental genes markedly decrease in expression as worms grow old. Overexpression of elt-2 extends lifespan and slows the rate of gene expression changes that occur during normal aging. Thus, our results identify the developmental regulator ELT-2 as a major driver of normal aging in C. elegans. PMID:27070429

  13. Deactivation of the GATA Transcription Factor ELT-2 Is a Major Driver of Normal Aging in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Mann, Frederick G; Van Nostrand, Eric L; Friedland, Ari E; Liu, Xiao; Kim, Stuart K

    2016-04-01

    To understand the molecular processes underlying aging, we screened modENCODE ChIP-seq data to identify transcription factors that bind to age-regulated genes in C. elegans. The most significant hit was the GATA transcription factor encoded by elt-2, which is responsible for inducing expression of intestinal genes during embryogenesis. Expression of ELT-2 decreases during aging, beginning in middle age. We identified genes regulated by ELT-2 in the intestine during embryogenesis, and then showed that these developmental genes markedly decrease in expression as worms grow old. Overexpression of elt-2 extends lifespan and slows the rate of gene expression changes that occur during normal aging. Thus, our results identify the developmental regulator ELT-2 as a major driver of normal aging in C. elegans. PMID:27070429

  14. Promoter activity 5′ of Dbeta2 is coordinated by E47, Runx1, and GATA-3

    PubMed Central

    McMillan, Ruth E.; Sikes, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    V(D)J recombination involves the stepwise assembly of B and T cell receptor genes as lymphocytes progress through the early stages of development. While the mechanisms that restrict each step in recombination to its appropriate developmental stage are largely unknown, they share many of the components that regulate transcription. For example, enhancer-dependent modifications in histone acetylation and methylation are essential for both germline transcription and rearrangement of antigen receptor genes. Promoters positioned proximal to individual D and J gene segments in Tcra, Tcrb, Tcrd, IgH, and Igk also contribute to antigen receptor gene assembly, though their effects appear more localized than those of enhancers. Tcrb assembly initiates with D-to-J joining at each of two D-J-C gene segment clusters in DN1/2 thymocytes. DJ joints are fused with Vβ elements to complete Tcrb recombination in DN3 cells. We have previously shown that Dβ2 is flanked by upstream and downstream promoters, with the 5′ promoter being held inactive until D-to-J recombination deletes the NFκB-dependent 3′ promoter. We now report that activity of the 5′ promoter reflects a complex interplay between Runx1, GATA-3, and E47 transcription factors. In particular, while multiple E47 and Runx1 binding sites clustered near the Dβ2 5′RS and overlapping inr elements define the core 5′PDβ2, they act in concert with an array of upstream GATA-3 sites to overcome the inhibitory effects of a 110 bp distal polypurine·polypyrimidine (R·Y) tract. The dependence of 5′PDβ2 on E47 is consistent with the reported role of E proteins in post-DN1 thymocyte development and V-to-DJβ recombination. PMID:19592096

  15. SREB, a GATA Transcription Factor That Directs Disparate Fates in Blastomyces dermatitidis Including Morphogenesis and Siderophore Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier, Gregory M.; Sullivan, Thomas D.; Gallardo, Sergio S.; Brandhorst, T. Tristan; Vanden Wymelenberg, Amber J.; Cuomo, Christina A.; Suen, Garret; Currie, Cameron R.; Klein, Bruce S.

    2010-01-01

    Blastomyces dermatitidis belongs to a group of human pathogenic fungi that exhibit thermal dimorphism. At 22°C, these fungi grow as mold that produce conidia or infectious particles, whereas at 37°C they convert to budding yeast. The ability to switch between these forms is essential for virulence in mammals and may enable these organisms to survive in the soil. To identify genes that regulate this phase transition, we used Agrobacterium tumefaciens to mutagenize B. dermatitidis conidia and screened transformants for defects in morphogenesis. We found that the GATA transcription factor SREB governs multiple fates in B. dermatitidis: phase transition from yeast to mold, cell growth at 22°C, and biosynthesis of siderophores under iron-replete conditions. Insertional and null mutants fail to convert to mold, do not accumulate significant biomass at 22°C, and are unable to suppress siderophore biosynthesis under iron-replete conditions. The defect in morphogenesis in the SREB mutant was independent of exogenous iron concentration, suggesting that SREB promotes the phase transition by altering the expression of genes that are unrelated to siderophore biosynthesis. Using bioinformatic and gene expression analyses, we identified candidate genes with upstream GATA sites whose expression is altered in the null mutant that may be direct or indirect targets of SREB and promote the phase transition. We conclude that SREB functions as a transcription factor that promotes morphogenesis and regulates siderophore biosynthesis. To our knowledge, this is the first gene identified that promotes the conversion from yeast to mold in the dimorphic fungi, and may shed light on environmental persistence of these pathogens. PMID:20368971

  16. Tor Signaling Regulates Transcription of Amino Acid Permeases through a GATA Transcription Factor Gaf1 in Fission Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qingbin; Qi, Yao; Manabe, Ri-ichiroh; Furuyashiki, Tomoyuki

    2015-01-01

    In the fission yeast, two Tor isoforms, Tor1 and Tor2, oppositely regulate gene expression of amino acid permeases. To elucidate the transcriptional machinery for these regulations, here we have employed the cap analysis of gene expression (CAGE), a method of analyzing expression profiles and identifying transcriptional start sites (TSSs). The loss of Tor1 decreased, and Tor2 inhibition by its temperature sensitive mutation increased, mRNA expression of isp5+, per1+, put4+ and SPBPB2B2.01. In contrast, the loss of Tor1 increased, and Tor2 inhibition decreased, the expression of cat1+. These changes were confirmed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. These opposite effects by the loss of Tor1 and Tor2 inhibition appeared to occur evenly across multiple TSSs for the respective genes. The motif discovery analysis based on the CAGE results identified the GATA motifs as a potential cis-regulatory element for Tor-mediated regulation. In the luciferase reporter assay, the loss of Tor1 reduced, and Tor2 inhibition and nitrogen depletion increased, the activity of isp5+ promoter as well as that of a GATAAG reporter. One of the GATAAG motifs in isp5+ promoter was critical for its transcriptional activity, and a GATA transcription factor Gaf1 was critical for the activities of isp5+ promoter and the GATAAG reporter. Furthermore, Tor2 inhibition and nitrogen depletion induced nuclear localization of Gaf1 from the cytosol and its dephosphorylation. These results suggest that Tor2 inhibition, which is known to be induced by nitrogen depletion, promotes nuclear localization of Gaf1, thereby inducing isp5+ transcription through Gaf1 binding to the GATAAG motif in its promoter. Since Gaf1 was also critical for transcription of per1+ and put4+, Tor-Gaf1 signaling may coordinate transcription of multiple amino acid permeases according to nutrient availability. PMID:26689777

  17. Alterations in the Ure2 αCap domain elicit different GATA factor responses to rapamycin treatment and nitrogen limitation.

    PubMed

    Feller, Andre; Georis, Isabelle; Tate, Jennifer J; Cooper, Terrance G; Dubois, Evelyne

    2013-01-18

    Ure2 is a phosphoprotein and central negative regulator of nitrogen-responsive Gln3/Gat1 localization and their ability to activate transcription. This negative regulation is achieved by the formation of Ure2-Gln3 and -Gat1 complexes that are thought to sequester these GATA factors in the cytoplasm of cells cultured in excess nitrogen. Ure2 itself is a dimer the monomer of which consists of two core domains and a flexible protruding αcap. Here, we show that alterations in this αcap abolish rapamycin-elicited nuclear Gln3 and, to a more limited extent, Gat1 localization. In contrast, these alterations have little demonstrable effect on the Gln3 and Gat1 responses to nitrogen limitation. Using two-dimensional PAGE we resolved eight rather than the two previously reported Ure2 isoforms and demonstrated Ure2 dephosphorylation to be stimulus-specific, occurring after rapamycin treatment but only minimally if at all in nitrogen-limited cells. Alteration of the αcap significantly diminished the response of Ure2 dephosphorylation to the TorC1 inhibitor, rapamycin. Furthermore, in contrast to Gln3, rapamycin-elicited Ure2 dephosphorylation occurred independently of Sit4 and Pph21/22 (PP2A) as well as Siw14, Ptc1, and Ppz1. Together, our data suggest that distinct regions of Ure2 are associated with the receipt and/or implementation of signals calling for cessation of GATA factor sequestration in the cytoplasm. This in turn is more consistent with the existence of distinct pathways for TorC1- and nitrogen limitation-dependent control than it is with these stimuli representing sequential steps in a single regulatory pathway. PMID:23184930

  18. Regulation of cytochrome b5 gene transcription by Sp3, GATA-6, and steroidogenic factor 1 in human adrenal NCI-H295A cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ningwu; Dardis, Andrea; Miller, Walter L

    2005-08-01

    Sex steroid synthesis requires the 17,20 lyase activity of P450c17, which is enhanced by cytochrome b5, acting as an allosteric factor to promote association of P450c17 with its electron donor, P450 oxidoreductase. Cytochrome b5 is preferentially expressed in the fetal adrenal and postadrenarchal adrenal zona reticularis; the basis of this tissue-specific, developmentally regulated transcription of the b5 gene is unknown. We found b5 expression in all cell lines tested, including human adrenal NCI-H295A cells, where its mRNA is reduced by cAMP and phorbol ester. Multiple sites, between -83 and -122 bp upstream from the first ATG, initiate transcription. Deletional mutagenesis localized all detectable promoter activity within -327/+15, and deoxyribonuclease I footprinting identified protein binding at -72/-107 and -157/-197. DNA segments -65/-40, -114/-70 and -270/-245 fused to TK32/Luc yielded significant activity, and mutations in their Sp sites abolished that activity; electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed that Sp3, but not Sp1, binds to these Sp sites. Nuclear factor 1 (NF-1) and GATA-6, but not GATA-4 bind to the NF-1 and GATA sites in -157/-197. In Drosophila S2 cells, Sp3 increased -327/Luc activity 58-fold, but Sp1 and NF-1 isoforms were inactive. Mutating the three Sp sites ablated activity without or with cotransfection of Sp1/Sp3. In NCI-H295A cells, mutating the three Sp sites reduced activity to 39%; mutating the Sp, GATA, and NF-1 sites abolished activity. In JEG-3 cells, GATA-4 was inactive, GATA-6 augmented -327/Luc activity to 231% over the control, and steroidogenic factor 1 augmented activity to 655% over the control; these activities required the Sp and NF-1 sites. Transcription of cytochrome b5 shares many features with the regulation of P450c17, whose activity it enhances. PMID:15831526

  19. Optical conductivity measurements of GaTa4Se8 under high pressure: evidence of a bandwidth-controlled insulator-to-metal Mott transition.

    PubMed

    Ta Phuoc, V; Vaju, C; Corraze, B; Sopracase, R; Perucchi, A; Marini, C; Postorino, P; Chligui, M; Lupi, S; Janod, E; Cario, L

    2013-01-18

    The optical properties of a GaTa(4)Se(8) single crystal are investigated under high pressure. At ambient pressure, the optical conductivity exhibits a charge gap of ≈0.12 eV and a broad midinfrared band at ≈0.55 eV. As pressure is increased, the low energy spectral weight is strongly enhanced and the optical gap is rapidly filled, pointing to an insulator to metal transition around 6 GPa. The overall evolution of the optical conductivity demonstrates that GaTa(4)Se(8) is a Mott insulator which undergoes a bandwidth-controlled Mott metal-insulator transition under pressure, in remarkably good agreement with theory. With the use of our optical data and ab initio band structure calculations, our results were successfully compared to the (U/D, T/D) phase diagram predicted by dynamical mean field theory for strongly correlated systems. PMID:23373949

  20. Downregulation of expression of mater genes SOX9, FOXA2, and GATA4 in pancreatic cancer cells stimulated with TGFβ1 epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Kondratyeva, L G; Sveshnikova, A A; Grankina, E V; Chernov, I P; Kopantseva, M R; Kopantzev, E P; Sverdlov, E D

    2016-07-01

    We show characteristic morphological changes corresponding to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) program fulfillment in PANC1 cell line stimulated with TGFβ1. Our results support downregulation of E-cadherin protein. We show 5- and 28-fold increase in SNAI1 and SNAI2 expression levels and 25- and 15-fold decrease in CDH1 and KRT8 expression levels, respectively, which confirms the EMT-program fulfillment. We demonstrate downregulation of expression of pancreatic master genes SOX9, FOXA2, and GATA4 (2-, 5-, and 4-fold, respectively) and absence of significant changes in HES1, NR5A2, and GATA6 expression levels in the cells stimulated with TGFβ1. Our results indicate the absence of induction of expression of PTF1A, PDX1, HNF1b, NEUROG3, RPBJL, NKX6.1, and ONECUT1 genes, which are inactive in PANC1 cell line after the EMT stimulated by TGFβ1. PMID:27599506

  1. Altered SDF-1/CXCR4 axis in patients with primary myelofibrosis and in the Gata1low mouse model of the disease

    PubMed Central

    Migliaccio, Anna Rita; Martelli, Fabrizio; Verrucci, Maria; Migliaccio, Giovanni; Vannucchi, Alessandro Maria; Ni, Hongyu; Xu, Mingjiang; Jiang, Yi; Nakamoto, Betty; Papayannopoulou, Thalia; Hoffman, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess whether alterations in the SDF-1/CXCR4 occur in patients with primary myelofibrosis (PMF) and in Gata1low mice, an animal model for myelofibrosis, and whether these abnormalities might account for increased stem/progenitor cell trafficking. Materials and Methods In the mouse, SDF-1 mRNA levels were assayed in liver, spleen and marrow. SDF-1 protein levels were quantified in plasma and marrow and CXCR4 mRNA and protein levels were evaluated on stem/progenitor cells and megakaryocytes purified from the marrow. SDF-1 protein levels were also evaluated in plasma and in marrow biopsy specimens obtained from normal donors and PMF patients. Results In Gata1low mice, the plasma SDF-1 protein was 5-times higher than normal in younger animals. Furthermore, SDF-1 immuno-staining of marrow sections progressively increased with age. Similar abnormalities were observed in PMF patients. In fact, the plasma SDF-1 levels in PMF patients were significantly higher (by 2-fold) than normal (p<0.01) and SDF-1 immuno-staining of marrow biopsiy specimens demonstrated increased SDF-1 deposition in specific areas. In two of the patients, SDF-1 deposition was normalized by curative therapy with allogenic stem cell transplantation. Similarly to what already has been reported for PMF patients, the marrow from Gata1low mice contained fewer CXCR4posCD117pos cells and these cells expressed low levels of CXCR4 mRNA and protein. Conclusion Similar abnormalities in the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis are observed in PMF patients and in the Gata1low mice model of myelofibrosis. We suggest that these abnormalities contribute to the increased stem/progenitor cell trafficking observed in this mouse model as well as patients with PMF. PMID:18206727

  2. Cooperation between HNF-1α, Cdx2, and GATA-4 in initiating an enterocytic differentiation program in a normal human intestinal epithelial progenitor cell line

    PubMed Central

    Benoit, Yannick D.; Paré, Fréderic; Francoeur, Caroline; Jean, Dominique; Tremblay, Eric; Boudreau, François; Escaffit, Fabrice

    2010-01-01

    In the intestinal epithelium, the Cdx, GATA, and HNF transcription factor families are responsible for the expression of differentiation markers such as sucrase-isomaltase. Although previous studies have shown that Cdx2 can induce differentiation in rat intestinal IEC-6 cells, no data are available concerning the direct implication of transcription factors on differentiation in human normal intestinal epithelial cell types. We investigated the role of Cdx2, GATA-4, and HNF-1α using the undifferentiated human intestinal epithelial crypt cell line HIEC. These transcription factors were tested on proliferation and expression of polarization and differentiation markers. Ectopic expression of Cdx2 or HNF-1α, alone or in combination, altered cell proliferation abilities through the regulation of cyclin D1 and p27 expression. HNF-1α and GATA-4 together induced morphological modifications of the cells toward polarization, resulting in the appearance of functional features such as microvilli. HNF-1α was also sufficient to induce the expression of cadherins and dipeptidylpeptidase, whereas in combination with Cdx2 it allowed the expression of the late differentiation marker sucrase-isomaltase. Large-scale analysis of gene expression confirmed the cooperative effect of these factors. Finally, although DcamKL1 and Musashi-1 expression were downregulated in differentiated HIEC, other intestinal stem cell markers, such as Bmi1, were unaffected. These observations show that, in cooperation with Cdx2, HNF-1α acts as a key factor on human intestinal cells to trigger the onset of their functional differentiation program whereas GATA-4 appears to promote morphological changes. PMID:20133952

  3. Dynamic shifts in occupancy by TAL1 are guided by GATA factors and drive large-scale reprogramming of gene expression during hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Weisheng; Morrissey, Christapher S; Keller, Cheryl A; Mishra, Tejaswini; Pimkin, Maxim; Blobel, Gerd A; Weiss, Mitchell J; Hardison, Ross C

    2014-12-01

    We used mouse ENCODE data along with complementary data from other laboratories to study the dynamics of occupancy and the role in gene regulation of the transcription factor TAL1, a critical regulator of hematopoiesis, at multiple stages of hematopoietic differentiation. We combined ChIP-seq and RNA-seq data in six mouse cell types representing a progression from multilineage precursors to differentiated erythroblasts and megakaryocytes. We found that sites of occupancy shift dramatically during commitment to the erythroid lineage, vary further during terminal maturation, and are strongly associated with changes in gene expression. In multilineage progenitors, the likely target genes are enriched for hematopoietic growth and functions associated with the mature cells of specific daughter lineages (such as megakaryocytes). In contrast, target genes in erythroblasts are specifically enriched for red cell functions. Furthermore, shifts in TAL1 occupancy during erythroid differentiation are associated with gene repression (dissociation) and induction (co-occupancy with GATA1). Based on both enrichment for transcription factor binding site motifs and co-occupancy determined by ChIP-seq, recruitment by GATA transcription factors appears to be a stronger determinant of TAL1 binding to chromatin than the canonical E-box binding site motif. Studies of additional proteins lead to the model that TAL1 regulates expression after being directed to a distinct subset of genomic binding sites in each cell type via its association with different complexes containing master regulators such as GATA2, ERG, and RUNX1 in multilineage cells and the lineage-specific master regulator GATA1 in erythroblasts. PMID:25319994

  4. Dynamic shifts in occupancy by TAL1 are guided by GATA factors and drive large-scale reprogramming of gene expression during hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Weisheng; Morrissey, Christapher S.; Keller, Cheryl A.; Mishra, Tejaswini; Pimkin, Maxim; Blobel, Gerd A.; Weiss, Mitchell J.

    2014-01-01

    We used mouse ENCODE data along with complementary data from other laboratories to study the dynamics of occupancy and the role in gene regulation of the transcription factor TAL1, a critical regulator of hematopoiesis, at multiple stages of hematopoietic differentiation. We combined ChIP-seq and RNA-seq data in six mouse cell types representing a progression from multilineage precursors to differentiated erythroblasts and megakaryocytes. We found that sites of occupancy shift dramatically during commitment to the erythroid lineage, vary further during terminal maturation, and are strongly associated with changes in gene expression. In multilineage progenitors, the likely target genes are enriched for hematopoietic growth and functions associated with the mature cells of specific daughter lineages (such as megakaryocytes). In contrast, target genes in erythroblasts are specifically enriched for red cell functions. Furthermore, shifts in TAL1 occupancy during erythroid differentiation are associated with gene repression (dissociation) and induction (co-occupancy with GATA1). Based on both enrichment for transcription factor binding site motifs and co-occupancy determined by ChIP-seq, recruitment by GATA transcription factors appears to be a stronger determinant of TAL1 binding to chromatin than the canonical E-box binding site motif. Studies of additional proteins lead to the model that TAL1 regulates expression after being directed to a distinct subset of genomic binding sites in each cell type via its association with different complexes containing master regulators such as GATA2, ERG, and RUNX1 in multilineage cells and the lineage-specific master regulator GATA1 in erythroblasts. PMID:25319994

  5. TNF-insulin crosstalk at the transcription factor GATA6 is revealed by a model that links signaling and transcriptomic data tensors.

    PubMed

    Chitforoushzadeh, Zeinab; Ye, Zi; Sheng, Ziran; LaRue, Silvia; Fry, Rebecca C; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Janes, Kevin A

    2016-01-01

    Signal transduction networks coordinate transcriptional programs activated by diverse extracellular stimuli, such as growth factors and cytokines. Cells receive multiple stimuli simultaneously, and mapping how activation of the integrated signaling network affects gene expression is a challenge. We stimulated colon adenocarcinoma cells with various combinations of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and the growth factors insulin and epidermal growth factor (EGF) to investigate signal integration and transcriptional crosstalk. We quantitatively linked the proteomic and transcriptomic data sets by implementing a structured computational approach called tensor partial least squares regression. This statistical model accurately predicted transcriptional signatures from signaling arising from single and combined stimuli and also predicted time-dependent contributions of signaling events. Specifically, the model predicted that an early-phase, AKT-associated signal downstream of insulin repressed a set of transcripts induced by TNF. Through bioinformatics and cell-based experiments, we identified the AKT-repressed signal as glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3)-catalyzed phosphorylation of Ser(37) on the long form of the transcription factor GATA6. Phosphorylation of GATA6 on Ser(37) promoted its degradation, thereby preventing GATA6 from repressing transcripts that are induced by TNF and attenuated by insulin. Our analysis showed that predictive tensor modeling of proteomic and transcriptomic data sets can uncover pathway crosstalk that produces specific patterns of gene expression in cells receiving multiple stimuli. PMID:27273097

  6. HDR syndrome: a follow-up genotype-phenotype analysis of a de novo missense Thr272Ile mutation in exon 4 of GATA3.

    PubMed

    Gomes, T S; Gortner, L; Dockter, G; Leitner, D; Thakker, R V; Rohrer, T

    2012-11-01

    Hypoparathyroidism, sensorineural deafness and renal dysplasia (HDR) syndrome (MIM 146255) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding GATA3, a dual zinc-finger transcription factor involved in vertebrate embryonic development. In this clinical case study we report on a follow-up of a phenotype associated with a GATA3 mutation. HDR syndrome was clinically diagnosed at age of 1.5 years in a boy with a de novo heterozygous missense (c.815C→T) mutation, Thr272Ile, in exon 4 of the GATA3 gene. Both parents were negative for Thr272Ile.At age of 17 months, the patient had a weight of 10.7, a body length of 78 cm, and a head circumference of 47.5 cm. By the age of 7 years, growth is age-appropriate, severe bilateral hearing loss (dB 60) was corrected by hearing aids. However, cognitive development (auditory sensory me-mory and language abilities) is at the lower ends of the test scores.In conclusion, a mildly impaired clinical course was achieved by the age of 7 years in a patient with HDR syndrome; this report adds to the body of data on genotype-phenotype analysis in HDR syndrome. · PMID:23203342

  7. A Novel GATA Factor Transcriptionally Represses Yolk Protein Precursor Genes in the Mosquito Aedes aegypti via Interaction with the CtBP Corepressor

    PubMed Central

    Martín, David; Piulachs, Maria-Dolors; Raikhel, Alexander S.

    2001-01-01

    In anautogenous mosquitoes, vitellogenesis, the key event in egg maturation, requires a blood meal. Consequently, mosquitoes are vectors of many devastating human diseases. An important adaptation for anautogenicity is the previtellogenic arrest (the state of arrest) preventing the activation of the yolk protein precursor (YPP) genes Vg and VCP prior to blood feeding. A novel GATA factor (AaGATAr) that recognizes GATA binding motifs (WGATAR) in the upstream region of the YPP genes serves as a transcriptional repressor at the state of arrest. Importantly, AaGATAr can override the 20-hydroxyecdysone transactivation of YPP genes, and its transcriptional repression involves the recruitment of CtBP, one of the universal corepressors. AaGATAr transcript is present only in the adult female fat body. Furthermore, in nuclear extracts of previtellogenic fat bodies with transcriptionally repressed YPP genes, there is a GATA binding protein forming a band with mobility similar to that of AaGATAr. The specific repression of YPP genes by AaGATAr in the fat body of the female mosquito during the state of arrest represents an important molecular adaptation for anautogenicity. PMID:11113191

  8. The effects of galectin-1 on the gene expression of the transcription factors TBX21, GATA-3, FOXP3 and RORC.

    PubMed

    Yakushina, V D; Vasil'eva, O A; Ryazantseva, N V; Novitsky, V V; Tashireva, L A

    2015-01-01

    CD4(+) T cells orchestrate the immune response by differentiating into T helper (Th) or regulatory (Treg) cell subsets that secrete distinct sets of cytokines. They also play a critical role in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity, asthma, allergy and, likely, cancer. The mechanisms involved in the regulation of CD4(+) T cell homeostasis by galectin-1 remain poorly characterized. To investigate whether galectin-1 modulates the differentiation of CD4(+) T cells, the effects of galectin-1 on the mRNA expression levels of TBX21, GATA-3, FOXP3 and RORC in activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells were examined. The expression levels of GATA-3 and FOXP3 mRNA were up-regulated after treatment with 1.0 μg/ml galectin-1 and were unchanged (for GATA-3) or slightly elevated (for FOXP3) compared with untreated cells when 2.0 μg/ml galectin-1 was added. At the same time, at both concentrations of galectin-1, we observed reduced TBX21 and RORC mRNA expression levels. These findings support the concept that galectin-1 skews the differentiation of CD4(+) T cells towards Th2 and Treg cells. PMID:25292313

  9. Biodistribution of the GATA-3-specific DNAzyme hgd40 after inhalative exposure in mice, rats and dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Turowska, Agnieszka; Librizzi, Damiano; Baumgartl, Nadja; Kuhlmann, Jens; Dicke, Tanja; Merkel, Olivia; Homburg, Ursula; Höffken, Helmut; Renz, Harald; Garn, Holger

    2013-10-15

    The DNAzyme hgd40 was shown to effectively reduce expression of the transcription factor GATA-3 RNA which plays an important role in the regulation of Th2-mediated immune mechanisms such as in allergic bronchial asthma. However, uptake, biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of hgd40 have not been investigated yet. We examined local and systemic distribution of hgd40 in naive mice and mice suffering from experimental asthma. Furthermore, we evaluated the pharmacokinetics as a function of dose following single and repeated administration in rats and dogs. Using intranasal administration of fluorescently labeled hgd40 we demonstrated that the DNAzyme was evenly distributed in inflamed asthmatic mouse lungs within minutes after single dose application. Systemic distribution was investigated in mice using radioactive labeled hgd40. After intratracheal application, highest amounts of hgd40 were detected in the lungs. High amounts were also detected in the bladder indicating urinary excretion as a major elimination pathway. In serum, low systemic hgd40 levels were detected already at 5 min post application (p.a.), subsequently decreasing over time to non-detectable levels at 2 h p.a. As revealed by Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography, trace amounts of hgd40 were detectable in lungs up to 7 days p.a. Also in the toxicologically relevant rats and dogs, hgd40 was detectable in blood only shortly after inhalative application. The plasma pharmacokinetic profile was dose and time dependent. Repeated administration did not lead to drug accumulation in plasma of dogs and rats. These pharmacokinetic of hgd40 provide guidance for clinical development, and support an infrequent and convenient dose administration regimen. - Highlights: • Local and systemic distribution of GATA-3-specific DNAzyme hgd40 was investigated. • Pharmacokinetics of hgd40 was tested in rats and dogs. • hgd40 dissolved in PBS was easily taken up into the lungs after local application. • No

  10. Reduced Leukocyte Infiltration in Absence of Eosinophils Correlates with Decreased Tissue Damage and Disease Susceptibility in ΔdblGATA Mice during Murine Neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Pramod K.; Li, Qun; Munoz, Luis E.; Mares, Chris A.; Morris, Elizabeth G.; Teale, Judy M.; Cardona, Astrid E.

    2016-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is one of the most common helminth parasitic diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) and the leading cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide. NCC is caused by the presence of the metacestode larvae of the tapeworm Taenia solium within brain tissues. NCC patients exhibit a long asymptomatic phase followed by a phase of symptoms including increased intra-cranial pressure and seizures. While the asymptomatic phase is attributed to the immunosuppressive capabilities of viable T. solium parasites, release of antigens by dying organisms induce strong immune responses and associated symptoms. Previous studies in T. solium-infected pigs have shown that the inflammatory response consists of various leukocyte populations including eosinophils, macrophages, and T cells among others. Because the role of eosinophils within the brain has not been investigated during NCC, we examined parasite burden, disease susceptibility and the composition of the inflammatory reaction in the brains of infected wild type (WT) and eosinophil-deficient mice (ΔdblGATA) using a murine model of NCC in which mice were infected intracranially with Mesocestoides corti, a cestode parasite related to T. solium. In WT mice, we observed a time-dependent induction of eosinophil recruitment in infected mice, contrasting with an overall reduced leukocyte infiltration in ΔdblGATA brains. Although, ΔdblGATA mice exhibited an increased parasite burden, reduced tissue damage and less disease susceptibility was observed when compared to infected WT mice. Cellular infiltrates in infected ΔdblGATA mice were comprised of more mast cells, and αβ T cells, which correlated with an abundant CD8+ T cell response and reduced CD4+ Th1 and Th2 responses. Thus, our data suggest that enhanced inflammatory response in WT mice appears detrimental and associates with increased disease susceptibility, despite the reduced parasite burden in the CNS. Overall reduced leukocyte infiltration due to

  11. Reduced Leukocyte Infiltration in Absence of Eosinophils Correlates with Decreased Tissue Damage and Disease Susceptibility in ΔdblGATA Mice during Murine Neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Pramod K; Li, Qun; Munoz, Luis E; Mares, Chris A; Morris, Elizabeth G; Teale, Judy M; Cardona, Astrid E

    2016-06-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is one of the most common helminth parasitic diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) and the leading cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide. NCC is caused by the presence of the metacestode larvae of the tapeworm Taenia solium within brain tissues. NCC patients exhibit a long asymptomatic phase followed by a phase of symptoms including increased intra-cranial pressure and seizures. While the asymptomatic phase is attributed to the immunosuppressive capabilities of viable T. solium parasites, release of antigens by dying organisms induce strong immune responses and associated symptoms. Previous studies in T. solium-infected pigs have shown that the inflammatory response consists of various leukocyte populations including eosinophils, macrophages, and T cells among others. Because the role of eosinophils within the brain has not been investigated during NCC, we examined parasite burden, disease susceptibility and the composition of the inflammatory reaction in the brains of infected wild type (WT) and eosinophil-deficient mice (ΔdblGATA) using a murine model of NCC in which mice were infected intracranially with Mesocestoides corti, a cestode parasite related to T. solium. In WT mice, we observed a time-dependent induction of eosinophil recruitment in infected mice, contrasting with an overall reduced leukocyte infiltration in ΔdblGATA brains. Although, ΔdblGATA mice exhibited an increased parasite burden, reduced tissue damage and less disease susceptibility was observed when compared to infected WT mice. Cellular infiltrates in infected ΔdblGATA mice were comprised of more mast cells, and αβ T cells, which correlated with an abundant CD8+ T cell response and reduced CD4+ Th1 and Th2 responses. Thus, our data suggest that enhanced inflammatory response in WT mice appears detrimental and associates with increased disease susceptibility, despite the reduced parasite burden in the CNS. Overall reduced leukocyte infiltration due to

  12. Constraining controls on carbonate sequences with high-resolution chronostratigraphy: Upper Miocene, Cabo de Gata region, SE Spain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Montgomery, P.; Farr, M.R.; Franseen, E.K.; Goldstein, R.H.

    2001-01-01

    A high-resolution chronostratigraphy has been developed for Miocene shallow-water carbonate strata in the Cabo de Gata region of SE Spain for evaluation of local, regional and global factors that controlled platform architecture prior to and during the Messinian salinity crisis. Paleomagnetic data were collected from strata at three localities. Mean natural remanent magnetization (NRM) ranges between 1.53 ?? 10-8 and 5.2 ?? 10-3 Am2/kg. Incremental thermal and alternating field demagnetization isolated the characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM). Rock magnetic studies show that the dominant magnetic mineral is magnetite, but mixtures of magnetite and hematite occur. A composite chronostratigraphy was derived from five stratigraphic sections. Regional stratigraphic data, biostratigraphic data, and an 40Ar/39Ar date of 8.5 ?? 0.1 Ma, for an interbedded volcanic flow, place the strata in geomagnetic polarity Chrons C4r to C3r. Sequence-stratigraphic and diagenetic evidence indicate a major unconformity at the base of depositional sequence (DS)3 that contains a prograding reef complex, suggesting that approximately 250 000 yr of record (Subchrons C3Br.2r to 3Br.1r) are missing near the Messinian-Tortonian boundary. Correlation to the GPTS shows that the studied strata represent five third- to fourth-order DSs. Basal units are temperate to subtropical ramps (DS1A, DS1B, DS2); these are overlain by subtropical to tropical reefal platforms (DS3), which are capped by subtropical to tropical cyclic carbonates (Terminal Carbonate Complex, TCC). Correlation of the Cabo de Gata record to the Melilla area of Morocco, and the Sorbas basin of Spain indicate that early - Late Tortonian ramp strata from these areas are partially time-equivalent. Similar strata are extensively developed in the Western Mediterranean and likely were influenced by a cool climate or influx of nutrients during an overall rise in global sea-level. After ramp deposition, a sequence boundary (SB3) in

  13. Mutation of histone H3 serine 86 disrupts GATA factor Ams2 expression and precise chromosome segregation in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kim Kiat; Ong, Terenze Yao Rui; Tan, Yue Rong; Yang, Eugene Guorong; Ren, Bingbing; Seah, Kwi Shan; Yang, Zhe; Tan, Tsu Soo; Dymock, Brian W; Chen, Ee Sin

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic genomes are packed into discrete units, referred to as nucleosomes, by organizing around scaffolding histone proteins. The interplay between these histones and the DNA can dynamically regulate the function of the chromosomal domain. Here, we interrogated the function of a pair of juxtaposing serine residues (S86 and S87) that reside within the histone fold of histone H3. We show that fission yeast cells expressing a mutant histone H3 disrupted at S86 and S87 (hht2-S86AS87A) exhibited unequal chromosome segregation, disrupted transcriptional silencing of centromeric chromatin, and reduced expression of Ams2, a GATA-factor that regulates localization of the centromere-specific histone H3 variant CENP-A. We found that overexpression of ams2(+) could suppress the chromosome missegregation phenotype that arose in the hht2-S86AS87A mutant. We further demonstrate that centromeric localization of SpCENP-A(cnp1-1) was significantly compromised in hht2-S86AS87A, suggesting synergism between histone H3 and the centromere-targeting domain of SpCENP-A. Taken together, our work presents evidence for an uncharacterized serine residue in fission yeast histone H3 that affects centromeric integrity via regulating the expression of the SpCENP-A-localizing Ams2 protein. [173/200 words]. PMID:26369364

  14. Mutation of histone H3 serine 86 disrupts GATA factor Ams2 expression and precise chromosome segregation in fission yeast

    PubMed Central

    Kiat Lim, Kim; Rui Ong, Terenze Yao; Rong Tan, Yue; Guorong Yang, Eugene; Ren, Bingbing; Shan Seah, Kwi; Yang, Zhe; Soo Tan, Tsu; Dymock, Brian W.; Sin Chen, Ee

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic genomes are packed into discrete units, referred to as nucleosomes, by organizing around scaffolding histone proteins. The interplay between these histones and the DNA can dynamically regulate the function of the chromosomal domain. Here, we interrogated the function of a pair of juxtaposing serine residues (S86 and S87) that reside within the histone fold of histone H3. We show that fission yeast cells expressing a mutant histone H3 disrupted at S86 and S87 (hht2-S86AS87A) exhibited unequal chromosome segregation, disrupted transcriptional silencing of centromeric chromatin, and reduced expression of Ams2, a GATA-factor that regulates localization of the centromere-specific histone H3 variant CENP-A. We found that overexpression of ams2+ could suppress the chromosome missegregation phenotype that arose in the hht2-S86AS87A mutant. We further demonstrate that centromeric localization of SpCENP-Acnp1-1 was significantly compromised in hht2-S86AS87A, suggesting synergism between histone H3 and the centromere-targeting domain of SpCENP-A. Taken together, our work presents evidence for an uncharacterized serine residue in fission yeast histone H3 that affects centromeric integrity via regulating the expression of the SpCENP-A-localizing Ams2 protein. [173/200 words] PMID:26369364

  15. The GATA transcription factor/MTA-1 homolog egr-1 promotes longevity and stress resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Stephanie M; Kim, Stuart K

    2014-01-01

    Aging is associated with a large number of both phenotypic and molecular changes, but for most of these, it is not known whether these changes are detrimental, neutral, or protective. We have identified a conserved Caenorhabditis elegans GATA transcription factor/MTA-1 homolog egr-1 (lin-40) that extends lifespan and promotes resistance to heat and UV stress when overexpressed. Expression of egr-1 increases with age, suggesting that it may promote survival during normal aging. This increase in expression is dependent on the presence of the germline, raising the possibility that egr-1 expression is regulated by signals from the germline. In addition, loss of egr-1 suppresses the long lifespan of insulin receptor daf-2 mutants. The DAF-16 FOXO transcription factor is required for the increased stress resistance of egr-1 overexpression mutants, and egr-1 is necessary for the proper regulation of sod-3 (a reporter for DAF-16 activity). These results indicate that egr-1 acts within the insulin signaling pathway. egr-1 can also activate the expression of its paralog egl-27, another factor known to extend lifespan and increase stress resistance, suggesting that the two genes act in a common program to promote survival. These results identify egr-1 as part of a longevity-promoting circuit that changes with age in a manner that is beneficial for the lifespan of the organism. PMID:24304470

  16. Chrysin attenuates allergic airway inflammation by modulating the transcription factors T-bet and GATA-3 in mice.

    PubMed

    Du, Qiang; Gu, Xiaoyan; Cai, Jiankang; Huang, Mao; Su, Mei

    2012-07-01

    Chrysin, a flavonoid obtained from various natural sources, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antioxidant and anti-allergic activities. However, its anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities in asthma animal models are poorly understood. In the present study, we examined the effects of chrysin on airway inflammation and the possible mechanisms through which it acts in a murine model of allergic asthma. BALB/c mice sensitized and challenged to ovalbumin (OVA) were administered intragastrically with chrysin at a dose of 50 mg/kg daily. Chrysin significantly suppressed OVA-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to acetylcholine chloride (Ach). Chrysin administration significantly inhibited the total inflammatory cell and eosinophil counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and total immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels in serum. Histological examination of lung tissue demonstrated that chrysin significantly attenuated allergen-induced lung eosinophilic inflammation and mucus-producing goblet cells in the airway. In addition, chrysin triggered a switch of the immune response to allergens towards a T-helper type 1 (Th1) profile by modulating the transcription factors T-bet and GATA-3 in allergic mice. These data suggest that chrysin exhibits anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory properties and provides new insights into the immunopharmacological role of chrysin in terms of its effects in a murine model of asthma. PMID:22552848

  17. The Novel Marker GATA3 is Significantly More Sensitive Than Traditional Markers Mammaglobin and GCDFP15 for Identifying Breast Cancer in Surgical and Cytology Specimens of Metastatic and Matched Primary Tumors.

    PubMed

    Sangoi, Ankur R; Shrestha, Bijayee; Yang, George; Mego, Ourhay; Beck, Andrew H

    2016-04-01

    Traditional markers mammaglobin and GCDFP15 show good specificity but lack sensitivity and can be difficult to interpret in small tissue samples. We undertook a comparative study of the novel nuclear marker GATA3 (expression typically restricted to breast and urothelial carcinomas) and GCDFP15 and mammaglobin. We first compared quantitative mRNA expression levels of these 3 markers across a diverse set of over 6000 tumors and 500 normal samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas which showed dramatically higher GATA3 expression (>10-fold higher) in breast cancer as compared with GCDFP15 or mammaglobin (both P<2.2e-16), suggesting that GATA3 may represent a more sensitive marker of breast cancer than GCDFP15 or mammaglobin. We next examined protein expression by immunohistochemistry in 166 cases (including surgical and cytology specimens) of metastatic breast carcinoma and 54 cases with available matched primaries. One whole-slide section from each case was stained for monoclonal GATA3 (L50-823), monoclonal mammaglobin (31A5), and monoclonal GCDFP15 (EP1582Y). Staining intensity (0 to 3+) and extent (0% to 100%) were scored with an H-score calculated (range, 0 to 300). Sensitivities by varying H-score cutoffs for a positive result in metastatic breast carcinoma among GATA3/GCDFP15/mammaglobin, respectively, were as follows: any H-score=95%/65%/78%, H-score>50=93%/37%/47%, H-score>100=90%/25%/27%, H-score>150=86%/21%/19%, H-score>200=73%/18%/9%, H-score>250=66%/14%/6%. Significant staining differences by specimen type, tumor subtype/grade, or ER/PR/HER2 status were not identified. Significantly stronger correlation was observed between primary/metastatic GATA3 expression [Pearson's correlation=0.81 (0.68-0.89)] as compared with the primary/metastatic correlations of GCDFP15 [Pearson's correlation=0.57 (0.33-0.74)] and mammaglobin [Pearson's correlation=0.50 (0.24-0.70)] (both P<0.05). In conclusion, the novel marker GATA3 stains a significantly higher proportion of both

  18. A novel interaction between megakaryocytes and activated fibrocytes increases TGF-β bioavailability in the Gata1low mouse model of myelofibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Zingariello, Maria; Ruggeri, Alessandra; Martelli, Fabrizio; Marra, Manuela; Sancillo, Laura; Ceglia, Ilaria; Rana, Rosa Alba; Migliaccio, Anna Rita

    2015-01-01

    Despite numerous circumstantial evidences, the pathogenic role of TGF-β in primary myelofibrosis (PMF), the most severe of the Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms, is still unclear because of the modest (2-fold) increases in its plasma levels observed in PMF patients and in the Gata1low mouse model. Whether myelofibrosis is associated with increased bioavailability of TGF-β bound to fibrotic fibres is unknown. Transmission electron-microscopy (TEM) observations identified that spleen from PMF patients and Gata1low mice contained megakaryocytes with abnormally high levels of TGF-β and collagen fibres embedded in their cytoplasm. Additional immuno-TEM observations of spleen from Gata1low mice revealed the presence of numerous activated fibrocytes establishing with their protrusions a novel cellular interaction, defined as peripolesis, with megakaryocytes. These protrusions infiltrated the megakaryocyte cytoplasm releasing collagen that was eventually detected in its mature polymerized form. Megakaryocytes, engulfed with mature collagen fibres, acquired the morphology of para-apoptotic cells and, in the most advanced cases, were recognized as polylobated heterochromatic nuclei surrounded by collagen fibres strictly associated with TGF-β. These areas contained concentrations of TGF-β-gold particles ~1000-fold greater than normal and numerous myofibroblasts, an indication that TGF-β was bioactive. Loss-of-function studies indicated that peripolesis between megakaryocytes and fibrocytes required both TGF-β, possibly for inducing fibrocyte activation, and P-selectin, possibly for mediating interaction between the two cell types. Loss-of-function of TGF-β and P-selectin also prevented fibrosis. These observations identify that myelofibrosis is associated with pathological increases of TGF-β bioavailability and suggest a novel megakaryocyte-mediated mechanism that may increase TGF-β bioavailability in chronic inflammation. PMID:27069753

  19. GATA-Dependent Glutaminolysis Drives Appressorium Formation in Magnaporthe oryzae by Suppressing TOR Inhibition of cAMP/PKA Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Marroquin-Guzman, Margarita; Wilson, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Fungal plant pathogens are persistent and global food security threats. To invade their hosts they often form highly specialized infection structures, known as appressoria. The cAMP/ PKA- and MAP kinase-signaling cascades have been functionally delineated as positive-acting pathways required for appressorium development. Negative-acting regulatory pathways that block appressorial development are not known. Here, we present the first detailed evidence that the conserved Target of Rapamycin (TOR) signaling pathway is a powerful inhibitor of appressorium formation by the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. We determined TOR signaling was activated in an M. oryzae mutant strain lacking a functional copy of the GATA transcription factor-encoding gene ASD4. Δasd4 mutant strains could not form appressoria and expressed GLN1, a glutamine synthetase-encoding orthologue silenced in wild type. Inappropriate expression of GLN1 increased the intracellular steady-state levels of glutamine in Δasd4 mutant strains during axenic growth when compared to wild type. Deleting GLN1 lowered glutamine levels and promoted appressorium formation by Δasd4 strains. Furthermore, glutamine is an agonist of TOR. Treating Δasd4 mutant strains with the specific TOR kinase inhibitor rapamycin restored appressorium development. Rapamycin was also shown to induce appressorium formation by wild type and Δcpka mutant strains on non-inductive hydrophilic surfaces but had no effect on the MAP kinase mutant Δpmk1. When taken together, we implicate Asd4 in regulating intracellular glutamine levels in order to modulate TOR inhibition of appressorium formation downstream of cPKA. This study thus provides novel insight into the metabolic mechanisms that underpin the highly regulated process of appressorium development. PMID:25901357

  20. Expansion of CD4+CD25+ and CD25- T-Bet, GATA-3, Foxp3 and RORγt Cells in Allergic Inflammation, Local Lung Distribution and Chemokine Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Lu, You; Malmhäll, Carina; Sjöstrand, Margareta; Rådinger, Madeleine; O'Neil, Serena E.; Lötvall, Jan; Bossios, Apostolos

    2011-01-01

    Allergic asthma is associated with airway eosinophilia, which is regulated by different T-effector cells. T cells express transcription factors T-bet, GATA-3, RORγt and Foxp3, representing Th1, Th2, Th17 and Treg cells respectively. No study has directly determined the relative presence of each of these T cell subsets concomitantly in a model of allergic airway inflammation. In this study we determined the degree of expansion of these T cell subsets, in the lungs of allergen challenged mice. Cell proliferation was determined by incorporation of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) together with 7-aminoactnomycin (7-AAD). The immunohistochemical localisation of T cells in the lung microenvironments was also quantified. Local expression of cytokines, chemokines and receptor genes was measured using real-time RT-PCR array analysis in tissue sections isolated by laser microdissection and pressure catapulting technology. Allergen exposure increased the numbers of T-bet+, GATA-3+, RORγt+ and Foxp3+ cells in CD4+CD25+ and CD4+CD25- T cells, with the greatest expansion of GATA-3+ cells. The majority of CD4+CD25+ T-bet+, GATA-3+, RORγt+ and Foxp3+ cells had incorporated BrdU and underwent proliferation during allergen exposure. Allergen exposure led to the accumulation of T-bet+, GATA-3+ and Foxp3+ cells in peribronchial and alveolar tissue, GATA-3+ and Foxp3+ cells in perivascular tissue, and RORγt+ cells in alveolar tissue. A total of 28 cytokines, chemokines and receptor genes were altered more than 3 fold upon allergen exposure, with expression of half of the genes claimed in all three microenvironments. Our study shows that allergen exposure affects all T effector cells in lung, with a dominant of Th2 cells, but with different local cell distribution, probably due to a distinguished local inflammatory milieu. PMID:21625544

  1. Oral contraceptives modify the effect of GATA3 polymorphisms on the risk of asthma at the age of 18 years via DNA methylation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of asthma in girls increases after puberty. Previous studies have detected associations between sex hormones and asthma, as well as between sex hormones and T helper 2 (Th2) asthma-typical immune responses. Therefore, we hypothesized that exogenous or endogenous sex hormone exposure (represented by oral contraceptive pill (OCP) use and early menarche, respectively) are associated with DNA methylation (DNA-M) of the Th2 transcription factor gene, GATA3, in turn affecting the risk of asthma in girls, possibly in interaction with genetic variants. Blood samples were collected from 245 female participants aged 18 years randomly selected for methylation analysis from the Isle of Wight birth cohort, UK. Information on use of OCPs, age at menarche, and concurrent asthma were assessed by questionnaire. Genome-wide DNA-M was determined using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 beadchip. In a first stage, we tested the interaction between sex hormone exposure and genetic variants on DNA-M of specific cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites. In a second stage, we determined whether these CpG sites interact with genetic variants in GATA3 to explain the risk of asthma. Results Interactions between OCP use and seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of GATA3 were analyzed for 14 CpG sites (stage 1). The interaction between OCP use and SNP rs1269486 was found to be associated with the methylation level of cg17124583 (P = 0.002, false discovery rate (FDR) adjusted P = 0.04). DNA-M of this same CpG site was also influenced by the interaction between age at menarche and rs1269486 (P = 0.0017). In stage 2, we found that cg17124583 modified the association of SNP rs422628 with asthma risk at the age of 18 years (P = 0.006, FDR adjusted P = 0.04). Subjects with genotype AG showed an increase in average risk ratio (RR) from 0.31 (95% CI: 0.10 to 0.8) to 11.65 (95% CI: 1.71 to 79.5) when methylation level increased from 0.02 to 0

  2. Up-Regulation of CREG Expression by the Transcription Factor GATA1 Inhibits High Glucose- and High Palmitate-Induced Apoptosis in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Liu, Dan; Liu, Meili; Zhang, Xiaolin; Zhang, Quanyu; Yan, Chenghui; Han, Yaling

    2016-01-01

    Background Endothelial cell (EC) apoptosis plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Cellular repressor of E1A-stimulated genes (CREG) is a novel gene reported to be involved in maintaining the homeostasis of ECs. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the role of CREG in high glucose/high palmitate-induced EC apoptosis and to decipher the upstream regulatory mechanism underlying the transcriptional regulation of CREG. Methods The expression of CREG and the rate of apoptosis were assessed in lower-limb atherosclerotic lesions from patients with type 2 DM (T2DM). Primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were isolated and cultured in a high glucose/high palmitate medium (25 mmol/L D-glucose, 0.4 mmol/L palmitate), and the over-expression and knock-down of CREG were performed in HUVECs to determine the role of CREG in EC apoptosis. The upstream regulatory mechanism of CREG was identified using a promoter-binding transcription-factor profiling array, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay and a mutation analysis. Results Compared with normal arteries from non-diabetic patients, reduced CREG expression and increased apoptosis were found in the endothelium of atherosclerotic lesions from patients with T2DM. In vitro treatment of HUVECs with a high glucose/high palmitate medium also resulted in decreased CREG expression and increased apoptosis. Moreover, high glucose/high palmitate induced-HUVEC apoptosis was increased by the knock-down of CREG and rescued by the over-expression of CREG. We also demonstrated that GATA1 was able to bind to the promoter of the human CREG gene. A deletion mutation at -297/-292 in the CREG promoter disrupted GATA1 binding and reduced the activation of CREG transcription by approximately 83.3%. Finally, the overexpression of GATA1 abrogated the high glucose/high palmitate-induced apoptosis in HUVECs. Conclusions

  3. Wogonoside induces growth inhibition and cell cycle arrest via promoting the expression and binding activity of GATA-1 in chronic myelogenous leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Hui, Hui; Xu, Jingyan; Yang, Hao; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Liu, Xiao; Zhou, Yuxin; Li, Zhiyu; Guo, Qinglong; Lu, Na

    2016-06-01

    GATA-1, a zinc finger transcription factor, has been demonstrated to play a key role in the progression of leukemia. In this study, we investigate the effects of wogonoside, a naturally bioactive flavonoid derived from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, on cell growth and cell cycle in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells, and uncover its underlying mechanisms. The experimental design comprised CML cell lines K562, imatinib-resistant K562 (K562r) cells, and primary CML cells, treated in vitro or in vivo, respectively, with wogonoside; growth and cell cycle were then evaluated. We found that wogonoside could induce growth inhibition and G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in both normal and K562r cells. Wogonoside promotes the expression of GATA-1 and facilitates the binding to methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) and p21 promoter, thus inhibiting MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling and cell cycle checkpoint proteins, including CDK2, CDK4, cyclin A, and cyclin D1, and increasing p21 expression. Furthermore, in vivo studies showed that administration of wogonoside decreased CML cells and prolonged survival in NOD/SCID mice with CML cell xenografts. In conclusion, these results clearly revealed the inhibitory effect of wogonoside on the growth in CML cells and suggested that wogonoside may act as a promising drug for the treatment of imatinib-resistant CML. PMID:26104856

  4. Single-cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells overexpressing Csx/Nkx2.5 and GATA4 undergo the stochastic cardiomyogenic fate and behave like transient amplifying cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Yoji; Sakurada, Kazuhiro; Takeda, Yukiji; Gojo, Satoshi; Umezawa, Akihiro . E-mail: umezawa@1985.jukuin.keio.ac.jp

    2007-02-15

    Bone marrow-derived stromal cells can give rise to cardiomyocytes as well as adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes in vitro. The existence of mesenchymal stem cells has been proposed, but it remains unclear if a single-cell-derived stem cell stochastically commits toward a cardiac lineage. By single-cell marking, we performed a follow-up study of individual cells during the differentiation of 9-15c mesenchymal stromal cells derived from bone marrow cells. Three types of cells, i.e., cardiac myoblasts, cardiac progenitors and multipotent stem cells were differentiated from a single cell, implying that cardiomyocytes are generated stochastically from a single-cell-derived stem cell. We also demonstrated that overexpression of Csx/Nkx2.5 and GATA4, precardiac mesodermal transcription factors, enhanced cardiomyogenic differentiation of 9-15c cells, and the frequency of cardiomyogenic differentiation was increased by co-culturing with fetal cardiomyocytes. Single-cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells overexpressing Csx/Nkx2.5 and GATA4 behaved like cardiac transient amplifying cells, and still retained their plasticity in vivo.

  5. Nephric duct insertion is a crucial step in urinary tract maturation that is regulated by a Gata3-Raldh2-Ret molecular network in mice

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Ian; Grote, David; Marcotte, Michael; Batourina, Ekaterina; Mendelsohn, Cathy; Bouchard, Maxime

    2011-01-01

    Urinary tract development depends on a complex series of events in which the ureter moves from its initial branch point on the nephric duct (ND) to its final insertion site in the cloaca (the primitive bladder and urethra). Defects in this maturation process can result in malpositioned ureters and hydronephrosis, a common cause of renal disease in children. Here, we report that insertion of the ND into the cloaca is an unrecognized but crucial step that is required for proper positioning of the ureter and that depends on Ret signaling. Analysis of Ret mutant mice at birth reveals hydronephrosis and defective ureter maturation, abnormalities that our results suggest are caused, at least in part, by delayed insertion of the ND. We find a similar set of malformations in mutants lacking either Gata3 or Raldh2. We show that these factors act in parallel to regulate ND insertion via Ret. Morphological analysis of ND extension in wild-type embryos reveals elaborate cellular protrusions at ND tips that are not detected in Ret, Gata3 or Raldh2 mutant embryos, suggesting that these protrusions may normally be important for fusion with the cloaca. Together, our studies reveal a novel Ret-dependent event, ND insertion, that, when abnormal, can cause obstruction and hydronephrosis at birth; whether ND defects underlie similar types of urinary tract abnormalities in humans is an interesting possibility. PMID:21521737

  6. A Modular Enhancer Is Differentially Regulated by GATA and NFAT Elements That Direct Different Tissue-Specific Patterns of Nucleosome Positioning and Inducible Chromatin Remodeling▿

    PubMed Central

    Bert, Andrew G.; Johnson, Brett V.; Baxter, Euan W.; Cockerill, Peter N.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated alternate mechanisms employed by enhancers to position and remodel nucleosomes and activate tissue-specific genes in divergent cell types. We demonstrated that the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) gene enhancer is modular and recruits different sets of transcription factors in T cells and myeloid cells. The enhancer recruited distinct inducible tissue-specific enhanceosome-like complexes and directed nucleosomes to different positions in these cell types. In undifferentiated T cells, the enhancer was activated by inducible binding of two NFAT/AP-1 complexes which disrupted two specifically positioned nucleosomes (N1 and N2). In myeloid cells, the enhancer was remodeled by GATA factors which constitutively displaced an upstream nucleosome (N0) and cooperated with inducible AP-1 elements to activate transcription. In mast cells, which express both GATA-2 and NFAT, these two pathways combined to activate the enhancer and generate high-level gene expression. At least 5 kb of the GM-CSF locus was organized as an array of nucleosomes with fixed positions, but the enhancer adopted different nucleosome positions in T cells and mast cells. Furthermore, nucleosomes located between the enhancer and promoter were mobilized upon activation in an enhancer-dependent manner. These studies reveal that distinct tissue-specific mechanisms can be used either alternately or in combination to activate the same enhancer. PMID:17283044

  7. Expression analysis and localization of wt1, ad4bp/sf-1 and gata4 in the testis of catfish, Clarias batrachus: Impact of wt1-esiRNA silencing.

    PubMed

    Murugananthkumar, Raju; Senthilkumaran, Balasubramanian

    2016-08-15

    In teleosts, a comprehensive role or interaction of wt1, ad4bp/sf-1 and gata4 genes in relation to gonadal development and/or recrudescence was never attempted. Present study aimed to identify the involvement of these genes during testicular development of catfish, Clarias batrachus. Dominant expression of wt1 and gata4 was observed in developing and adult testis, while ad4bp/sf-1 showed steady expression. Localization of these genes in adult testis revealed their presence in spermatogonia, spermatocytes and interstitial/Leydig cells. Significant high expression during pre-spawning and spawning phases, and upregulated levels of these genes after hCG induction authenticated gonadotropic regulation. Transient silencing of wt1-esiRNA displayed decrease in wt1 expression, which further downregulated the expression of ad4bp/sf-1 and gata4, and certain steroidogenic enzyme genes related to androgen production. These results suggest that wt1 might target ad4bp/sf-1 and gata4 expression, and also have regulatory influence either indirectly or directly on the steroidogenic enzyme genes of catfish. PMID:27173028

  8. Smad4 mediated BMP2 signal is essential for the regulation of GATA4 and Nkx2.5 by affecting the histone H3 acetylation in H9c2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Si, Lina; Shi, Jin; Gao, Wenqun; Zheng, Min; Liu, Lingjuan; Zhu, Jing; Tian, Jie

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • BMP2 can upregulated cardiac related gene GATA4, Nkx2.5, MEF2c and Tbx5. • Inhibition of Smad4 decreased BMP2-induced hyperacetylation of histone H3. • Inhibition of Smad4 diminished BMP2-induced overexpression of GATA4 and Nkx2.5. • Inhibition of Smad4 decreased hyperacetylated H3 in the promoter of GATA4 and Nkx2.5. • Smad4 is essential for BMP2 induced hyperacetylated histone H3. - Abstract: BMP2 signaling pathway plays critical roles during heart development, Smad4 encodes the only common Smad protein in mammals, which is a pivotal nuclear mediator. Our previous studies showed that BMP2 enhanced the expression of cardiac transcription factors in part by increasing histone H3 acetylation. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that Smad4 mediated BMP2 signaling pathway is essential for the expression of cardiac core transcription factors by affecting the histone H3 acetylation. We successfully constructed a lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA interference vector targeting Smad4 (Lv-Smad4) in rat H9c2 embryonic cardiac myocytes (H9c2 cells) and demonstrated that it suppressed the expression of the Smad4 gene. Cultured H9c2 cells were transfected with recombinant adenoviruses expressing human BMP2 (AdBMP2) with or without Lv-Smad4. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that knocking down of Smad4 substantially inhibited both AdBMP2-induced and basal expression levels of cardiac transcription factors GATA4 and Nkx2.5, but not MEF2c and Tbx5. Similarly, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis showed that knocking down of Smad4 inhibited both AdBMP2-induced and basal histone H3 acetylation levels in the promoter regions of GATA4 and Nkx2.5, but not of Tbx5 and MEF2c. In addition, Lv-Smad4 selectively suppressed AdBMP2-induced expression of HAT p300, but not of HAT GCN5 in H9c2 cells. The data indicated that inhibition of Smad4 diminished both AdBMP2 induced and basal histone acetylation levels in the promoter regions of

  9. Exogenous Nkx2.5- or GATA-4-transfected rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and myocardial cell co-culture on the treatment of myocardial infarction in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    LI, PU; ZHANG, LEI

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of Nkx2.5 or GATA-4 transfection with myocardial extracellular environment co-culture on the transformation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) into differentiated cardiomyocytes. Nkx2.5 or GATA-4 were transfected into myocardial extracellular environment co-cultured BMSCs, and then injected into the periphery of infarcted myocardium of a myocardial infarction rabbit model. The effects of these gene transfections and culture on the infarcted myocardium were observed and the results may provide an experimental basis for the efficient myocardial cell differentiation of BMSCs. The present study also suggested that these cells may provide a source and clinical basis for myocardial injury repair via stem cell transplantation. The present study examined whether Nkx2.5 or GATA-4 exogenous gene transfection with myocardial cell extracellular environment co-culture were able to induce the differentiation of BMSCs into cardiac cells. In addition, the effect of these transfected BMSCs on the repair of the myocardium following myocardial infarction was determined using New Zealand rabbit models. The results demonstrated that myocardial cell differentiation was significantly less effective following exogenous gene transfection of Nkx2.5 or GATA-4 alone compared with that of transfection in combination with extracellular environment co-culture. In addition, the results of the present study showed that exogenous gene transfection of Nkx2.5 or GATA-4 into myocardial cell extracellular environment co-cultured BMSCs was able to significantly enhance the ability to repair, mitigating the death of myocardial cells and activation of the myocardium in rabbits with myocardial infarction compared with those of the rabbits transplanted with untreated BMSCs. In conclusion, the exogenous Nkx2.5 and GATA-4 gene transfection into myocardial extracellular environment co-cultured BMSCs induced increased differentiation into myocardial

  10. Mi2β Is Required for γ-Globin Gene Silencing: Temporal Assembly of a GATA-1-FOG-1-Mi2 Repressor Complex in β-YAC Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Flávia C.; Fedosyuk, Halyna; Chazelle, Allen M.; Neades, Renee Y.; Peterson, Kenneth R.

    2012-01-01

    Activation of γ-globin gene expression in adults is known to be therapeutic for sickle cell disease. Thus, it follows that the converse, alleviation of repression, would be equally effective, since the net result would be the same: an increase in fetal hemoglobin. A GATA-1-FOG-1-Mi2 repressor complex was recently demonstrated to be recruited to the −566 GATA motif of the Aγ-globin gene. We show that Mi2β is essential for γ-globin gene silencing using Mi2β conditional knockout β-YAC transgenic mice. In addition, increased expression of Aγ-globin was detected in adult blood from β-YAC transgenic mice containing a T>G HPFH point mutation at the −566 GATA silencer site. ChIP experiments demonstrated that GATA-1 is recruited to this silencer at day E16, followed by recruitment of FOG-1 and Mi2 at day E17 in wild-type β-YAC transgenic mice. Recruitment of the GATA-1–mediated repressor complex was disrupted by the −566 HPFH mutation at developmental stages when it normally binds. Our data suggest that a temporal repression mechanism is operative in the silencing of γ-globin gene expression and that either a trans-acting Mi2β knockout deletion mutation or the cis-acting −566 Aγ-globin HPFH point mutation disrupts establishment of repression, resulting in continued γ-globin gene transcription during adult definitive erythropoiesis. PMID:23284307

  11. Triple synergism of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1-encoded tax, GATA-binding protein, and AP-1 is required for constitutive expression of the interleukin-5 gene in adult T-cell leukemia cells.

    PubMed Central

    Yamagata, T; Mitani, K; Ueno, H; Kanda, Y; Yazaki, Y; Hirai, H

    1997-01-01

    Accumulated evidence demonstrates that adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is frequently associated with eosinophilia, and human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-infected cells frequently express interleukin-5 (IL-5). However, the molecular mechanism of constitutive IL-5 expression in HTLV-1-infected cells remains unclear. To clarify the mechanism of aberrant IL-5 expression in HTLV-1-infected cells, we investigated the response of the human IL-5 promoter to the HTLV-1-encoded protein Tax. Cotransfection experiments using Jurkat cells revealed that Tax is incapable of activating the IL-5 promoter by itself but that it synergistically transactivates the promoter with GATA-binding protein (GATA-4) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) stimulation. By introducing a series of mutations within the IL-5 promoter, we found that conserved lymphokine element 0 (CLE0) is responsible for mediating the signal induced by Tax-TPA. A deletion construct of the promoter indicated that the -75 GATA element and CLE0 are sufficient to mediate synergistic activation of the IL-5 promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays using Jurkat cell nuclear extracts demonstrated that TPA induces a transcription factor to bind CLE0, and an experiment using JPX-9 cell nuclear extracts showed that Tax enhances this binding activity. An antibody supershift experiment revealed that this band consists of c-Jun and JunD. However, among the Jun family members, only c-Jun is able to cooperate with Tax and GATA-4 to activate the IL-5 promoter. We have determined the minimum factors required for IL-5 gene activation by reconstituting the IL-5 promoter activity in F9 cells. This is the first report to demonstrate the functional involvement of Tax protein in IL-5 gene regulation and to suggest the functional triple synergism among Tax, GATA-4, and AP-1, which disrupts regulated control of the gene and leads to constitutive expression of the IL-5 gene. PMID:9234684

  12. The Cardiac Transcription Network Modulated by Gata4, Mef2a, Nkx2.5, Srf, Histone Modifications, and MicroRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qin; Krueger, Tammo; Lange, Martin; Tönjes, Martje; Dunkel, Ilona; Sperling, Silke R.

    2011-01-01

    The transcriptome, as the pool of all transcribed elements in a given cell, is regulated by the interaction between different molecular levels, involving epigenetic, transcriptional, and post-transcriptional mechanisms. However, many previous studies investigated each of these levels individually, and little is known about their interdependency. We present a systems biology study integrating mRNA profiles with DNA–binding events of key cardiac transcription factors (Gata4, Mef2a, Nkx2.5, and Srf), activating histone modifications (H3ac, H4ac, H3K4me2, and H3K4me3), and microRNA profiles obtained in wild-type and RNAi–mediated knockdown. Finally, we confirmed conclusions primarily obtained in cardiomyocyte cell culture in a time-course of cardiac maturation in mouse around birth. We provide insights into the combinatorial regulation by cardiac transcription factors and show that they can partially compensate each other's function. Genes regulated by multiple transcription factors are less likely differentially expressed in RNAi knockdown of one respective factor. In addition to the analysis of the individual transcription factors, we found that histone 3 acetylation correlates with Srf- and Gata4-dependent gene expression and is complementarily reduced in cardiac Srf knockdown. Further, we found that altered microRNA expression in Srf knockdown potentially explains up to 45% of indirect mRNA targets. Considering all three levels of regulation, we present an Srf-centered transcription network providing on a single-gene level insights into the regulatory circuits establishing respective mRNA profiles. In summary, we show the combinatorial contribution of four DNA–binding transcription factors in regulating the cardiac transcriptome and provide evidence that histone modifications and microRNAs modulate their functional consequence. This opens a new perspective to understand heart development and the complexity cardiovascular disorders. PMID:21379568

  13. The Fission Yeast GATA Factor, Gaf1, Modulates Sexual Development via Direct Down-Regulation of ste11+ Expression in Response to Nitrogen Starvation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yeong Man; Yeon, Ji-Hyun; Maeng, Pil Jae

    2012-01-01

    Gaf1 is the first GATA family zinc-finger transcription factor identified in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Here, we report that Gaf1 functions as a negatively acting transcription factor of ste11+, delaying the entrance of cells exposed to transient nitrogen starvation into the meiotic cycle. gaf1Δ strains exhibited accelerated G1-arrest upon nitrogen starvation. Moreover, gaf1Δ mutation caused increased mating and sporulation frequency under both nitrogen-starved and unstarved conditions, while overexpression of gaf1+ led to a significant impairment of sporulation. By microarray analysis, we found that approximately 63% (116 genes) of the 183 genes up-regulated in unstarved gaf1Δ cells were nitrogen starvation-responsive genes, and furthermore that 25 genes among the genes up-regulated by gaf1Δ mutation are Ste11 targets (e.g., gpa1+, ste4+, spk1+, ste11+, and mei2+). The phenotype caused by gaf1Δ mutation was masked by ste11Δ mutation, indicating that ste11+ is epistatic to gaf1+ with respect to sporulation efficiency, and accordingly that gaf1+ functions upstream of ste11+ in the signaling pathway governing sexual development. gaf1Δ strains showed accelerated ste11+ expression under nitrogen starvation and increased ste11+ expression even under normal conditions. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay analysis demonstrated that Gaf1 specifically binds to the canonical GATA motif (5′-HGATAR-3′) spanning from −371 to −366 in ste11+ promoter. Consequently, Gaf1 provides the prime example for negative regulation of ste11+ transcription through direct binding to a cis-acting motif of its promoter. PMID:22900017

  14. The Expression Levels of Transcription Factors T-bet, GATA-3, RORγt and FOXP3 in Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte (PBL) of Patients with Liver Cancer and their Significance

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ze-Wei; Wu, Li-Xuan; Xie, Yong; Ou, Xi; Tian, Pei-Kai; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Min, Jun; Wang, Jie; Chen, Ru-Fu; Chen, Ya-Jing; Liu, Chao; Ye, Hua; Ou, Qing-Jia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the expression of transcriptional factors (TFs) T-bet, GATA-3, RORγt and FOXP in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to evaluate the correlation between the imbalances of Th1/Th2, Th17/Treg at the expression levels and liver cancer Methods: The peripheral venous blood was drawn from 20 HCC-patients (HCC-group) and 20 health participants (C-group). The expression levels of Th1, Th2 and Th17 and the major Treg-specific TFs T-bet, GATA-3, RORγt and FOXP3 in the PBMC were measured with quantitative real-time PCR(RT-qPCR). Results: The mRNA level of Th1-specific TF T-bet in HCC-group was significantly lower than that of C-group (52.34±34.07 VS 104.01±56.00, P<0.01); the mRNA level of Th2-specifc TF, GATA-3, in HCC group was significantly higher than that in C-group (1.38±1.15 VS 0.58±0.65, P<0.05) and T-bet mRNA/GATA-3 mRNA ratio was significantly lower in HCC-group than in C-group (86.01±116.71 VS 461.88±708.81, P<0.05). The mRNA level of Th17-specific TF RORγt in HCC-group was significantly higher than that of C-group (72.32±32.82 VS 33.07±22.86, P<0.01). Treg-specific TF FOXP3 mRNA level was significant higher in HCC-group than in C-group (3.17±1.59 VS 1.39±1.13, P<0.01) Conclusion: T-bet mRNA level was reduced whereas GATA-3 mRNA level was increased and T-bet/GATA-3 ratio was significantly reduced in PBMC, indicating that Th1/Th2 ratio was of imbalance at TF levels in PBMC of HCC, displaying Th2 thrift phenomena. The mRNA levels of RORγt and FOXP3 in PBMC of HCC were significantly increased, indicating the existence of a predominant phenomenon of Th17- and Treg-expressing PBMC in HCC. PMID:25552913

  15. West Nile virus encodes a microRNA-like small RNA in the 3′ untranslated region which up-regulates GATA4 mRNA and facilitates virus replication in mosquito cells

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Mazhar; Torres, Shessy; Schnettler, Esther; Funk, Anneke; Grundhoff, Adam; Pijlman, Gorben P.; Asgari, Sassan

    2012-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) belongs to a group of medically important single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses causing deadly disease outbreaks around the world. The 3′ untranslated region (3′-UTR) of the flavivirus genome, in particular the terminal 3′ stem–loop (3′SL) fulfils multiple functions in virus replication and virus–host interactions. Using the Kunjin strain of WNV (WNVKUN), we detected a virally encoded small RNA, named KUN-miR-1, derived from 3′SL. Transcription of WNVKUN pre-miRNA (3′SL) in mosquito cells either from plasmid or Semliki Forest virus (SFV) RNA replicon resulted in the production of mature KUN-miR-1. Silencing of Dicer-1 but not Dicer-2 led to a reduction in the miRNA levels. Further, when a synthetic inhibitor of KUN-miR-1 was transfected into mosquito cells, replication of viral RNA was significantly reduced. Using cloning and bioinformatics approaches, we identified the cellular GATA4 mRNA as a target for KUN-miR-1. KUN-miR-1 produced in mosquito cells during virus infection or from plasmid DNA, SFV RNA replicon or mature miRNA duplex increased accumulation of GATA4 mRNA. Depletion of GATA4 mRNA by RNA silencing led to a significant reduction in virus RNA replication while a KUN-miR-1 RNA mimic enhanced replication of a mutant WNVKUN virus producing reduced amounts of KUN-miR-1, suggesting that GATA4-induction via KUN-miR-1 plays an important role in virus replication. PMID:22080551

  16. The +37 kb Cebpa Enhancer Is Critical for Cebpa Myeloid Gene Expression and Contains Functional Sites that Bind SCL, GATA2, C/EBPα, PU.1, and Additional Ets Factors

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Stacy; Guo, Hong; Friedman, Alan D.

    2015-01-01

    The murine Cebpa gene contains an evolutionarily conserved 453 bp enhancer located at +37 kb that, together with its promoter, directs expression to myeloid progenitors and to long-term hematopoietic stem cells in transgenic mice. In human acute myeloid leukemia cases, the enhancer lacks point mutations but binds the RUNX1-ETO oncoprotein. The enhancer contains the H3K4me1 and H3K27Ac histone modifications, denoting an active enhancer, at progressively increasing levels as long-term hematopoietic stem cells transition to granulocyte-monocyte progenitors. We previously identified four enhancer sites that bind RUNX1 and demonstrated that their integrity is required for maximal enhancer activity in 32Dcl3 myeloid cells. The +37 kb Cebpa enhancer also contains C/EBP, Ets factor, Myb, GATA, and E-box consensus sites conserved in the human +42 kb CEBPA enhancer. Mutation of the two C/EBP, seven Ets, one Myb, two GATA, or two E-box sites reduces activity of an enhancer-promoter reporter in 32Dcl3 cells. In 293T gel shift assays, exogenous C/EBPα binds both C/EBP sites, c-Myb binds the Myb site, PU.1 binds the second Ets site, PU.1, Fli-1, ERG, and Ets1 bind the sixth Ets site, GATA2 binds both GATA sites, and SCL binds the second E-box. Endogenous hematopoietic RUNX1, PU.1, Fli-1, ERG, C/EBPα, GATA2, and SCL were previously shown to bind the enhancer, and we find that endogenous PU.1 binds the second Ets site in 32Dcl3 cells. Using CRISPR/Cas9, we developed 32Dcl3 lines in which the wild-type enhancer alleles are replaced with a variant mutant in the seven Ets sites. These lines have 20-fold reduced Cebpa mRNA when cultured in IL-3 or G-CSF, demonstrating a critical requirement for enhancer integrity for optimal Cebpa expression. In addition, these results indicate that the +37 kb Cebpa enhancer is the focus of multiple regulatory transcriptional pathways that impact its expression during normal hematopoiesis and potentially during myeloid transformation. PMID:25938608

  17. Role of the GATA-1/FOG-1/NuRD Pathway in the Expression of Human β-Like Globin Genes▿

    PubMed Central

    Miccio, Annarita; Blobel, Gerd A.

    2010-01-01

    The human β-globin genes are expressed in a developmentally controlled fashion. Studies on the molecular mechanisms underlying the stage-specific regulation of globin genes have been fueled by the clinical benefit of elevated fetal γ-globin expression in patients with sickle cell anemia and thalassemia. Recent reports suggested a role of the hematopoietic transcription factor GATA-1, its cofactor FOG-1, and the associated chromatin remodeling complex NuRD in the developmental silencing of HBG1 and HBG2 gene expression. To examine whether FOG-1 via NuRD controls HBG1 and HBG2 silencing in vivo, we created mice in which the FOG-1/NuRD complex is disrupted (A. Miccio et al., EMBO J. 29:442-456, 2010) and crossed these with animals carrying the entire human β-globin gene locus as a transgene. We found that the FOG-1/NuRD interaction is dispensable for the silencing of human HBG1 and HBG2 expression. In addition, mutant animals displayed normal silencing of the endogenous embryonic globin genes. In contrast, a significant reduction of adult-type human and murine globin gene expression was found in adult bone marrows of mutant animals. These results suggest that, unexpectedly, NuRD is required for FOG-1-dependent activation of adult-type globin gene expression but is dispensable for human γ-globin silencing in vivo. PMID:20439494

  18. Crystal structures, electronic properties, and pressure-induced superconductivity of the tetrahedral cluster compounds GaNb(4)S(8), GaNb(4)Se(8), and GaTa(4)Se(8).

    PubMed

    Pocha, Regina; Johrendt, Dirk; Ni, Bingfang; Abd-Elmeguid, Mohsen M

    2005-06-22

    The crystal structures of the tetrahedral cluster compounds GaNb(4)S(8) and GaTa(4)Se(8) were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. They crystallize in the cubic GaMo(4)S(8) structure type (F3m), which can be derived from the spinel type by shifting the metal atoms off the centers of the chalcogen octahedra along [111]. Electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements show that the electronic conduction originates from hopping of localized unpaired electrons (S = (1)/(2)) among widely separated Nb(4) or Ta(4) clusters, and thus these materials represent a new class of Mott insulators. Under high pressure we find that GaNb(4)S(8) undergoes a transition from the Mott insulating to a superconducting state with T(C) up to 4 K at 23 GPa, similar to GaNb(4)Se(8) and GaTa(4)Se(8). High-pressure single-crystal X-ray studies of GaTa(4)Se(8) reveal that the superconducting transition is connected with a gradual decrease of the octahedral distortion with increasing pressure. DFT band structure calculations show that weakly coupled cluster orbitals are responsible for a high density of states at the Fermi level. The correct insulating magnetic ground state for GaNb(4)S(8) with mu(eff) = 1.73 mu(B) is for the first time achieved by the LDA+U method using U = 6 eV and rhombohedral symmetry. PMID:15954779

  19. Friend of GATA (FOG) Interacts with the Nucleosome Remodeling and Deacetylase Complex (NuRD) to Support Primitive Erythropoiesis in Xenopus laevis

    PubMed Central

    Mimoto, Mizuho S.; Christian, Jan L.

    2012-01-01

    Friend of GATA (FOG) plays many diverse roles in adult and embryonic hematopoiesis, however the mechanisms by which it functions and the roles of potential interaction partners are not completely understood. Previous work has shown that overexpression of FOG in Xenopus laevis causes loss of blood suggesting that in contrast to its role in mammals, FOG might normally function to repress erythropoiesis in this species. Using loss-of-function analysis, we demonstrate that FOG is essential to support primitive red blood cell (RBC) development in Xenopus. Moreover, we show that it is specifically required to prevent excess apoptosis of circulating primitive RBCs and that in the absence of FOG, the pro-apoptotic gene Bim-1 is strongly upregulated. To identify domains of FOG that are essential for blood development and, conversely, to begin to understand the mechanism by which overexpressed FOG represses primitive erythropoiesis, we asked whether FOG mutants that are unable to interact with known co-factors retain their ability to rescue blood formation in FOG morphants and whether they repress erythropoiesis when overexpressed in wild type embryos. We find that interaction of FOG with the Nucleosome Remodeling and Deacetylase complex (NuRD), but not with C-terminal Binding Protein, is essential for normal primitive RBC development. In contrast, overexpression of all mutant and wild type constructs causes a comparable repression of primitive erythropoiesis. Together, our data suggest that a requirement for FOG and its interaction with NuRD during primitive erythropoiesis are conserved in Xenopus and that loss of blood upon FOG overexpression is due to a dominant-interfering effect. PMID:22235346

  20. Synergistic Effects of the GATA-4-Mediated miR-144/451 Cluster in Protection against Simulated Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Cardiomyocyte Death

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Wang, Xiaohong; Zhu, Hongyan; Zhu, Cheng; Wang, Yigang; Pu, William T.; Jegga, Anil G.; Fan, Guo-Chang

    2010-01-01

    Among the identified microRNAs (miRs) thus far, ~50% of mammalian miRs are clustered in the genome and transcribed as polycistronic primary transcripts. However, whether clustered miRs mediate non-redundant and cooperative functions remains poorly understood. In this study, we first identified activation of the promoter of miR-144/451 by GATA-4, a critical transcription factor in the heart. Next, we observed that ectopic expression of miR-144 and -451 individually augmented cardiomyocyte survival, which was further improved by overexpression of miR-144/451, compared to control cells in response to simulated ischemia/reperfusion. In contrast, knockdown of endogenous miR-144 and -451 revealed opposite effects. Using luciferase reporter assay and western blot analysis, we also validated that both miR-144 and miR-451 target CUG triplet repeat-binding protein 2 (CUGBP2), a ubiquitously expressed RNA-binding protein, known to interact with COX-2 3′-UTR and inhibit its translation. Accordingly, protein levels of CUGBP2 were greatly reduced and COX-2 activity was markedly increased in miR-144-, miR-451- and miR-144/451-overexpressing cardiomyocytes, compared to GFP-cells. Furthermore, inhibition of COX-2 activity by either NS-398 or DUP-697 partially offset protective effects of the miR-144/451 cluster. Together, these data indicate that both partners of the miR-144/451 cluster confer protection against simulated I/R-induced cardiomyocyte death via targeting CUGBP2-COX-2 pathway, at least in part. Thus, both miR-144 and miR-451 may represent new therapeutic agents for the treatment of ischemic heart disease. PMID:20708014

  1. The GATA Factor elt-1 Regulates C. elegans Developmental Timing by Promoting Expression of the let-7 Family MicroRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Max L.; Kim, Sunhong; Morita, Kiyokazu; Kim, Seong Heon; Han, Min

    2015-01-01

    Postembryonic development in Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful model for the study of the temporal regulation of development and for the roles of microRNAs in controlling gene expression. Stable switch-like changes in gene expression occur during development as stage-specific microRNAs are expressed and subsequently down-regulate other stage-specific factors, driving developmental progression. Key genes in this regulatory network are phylogenetically conserved and include the post-transcriptional microRNA repressor LIN-28; the nuclear hormone receptor DAF-12; and the microRNAs LIN-4, LET-7, and the three LET-7 family miRNAs (miR-48, miR-84, and miR-241). DAF-12 is known to regulate transcription of miR-48, miR-84 and miR-241, but its contribution is insufficient to account for all of the transcriptional regulation implied by the mutant phenotypes. In this work, the GATA-family transcription factor ELT-1 is identified from a genetic enhancer screen as a regulator of developmental timing in parallel to DAF-12, and is shown to do so by promoting the expression of the LET-7, miR-48, miR-84, and miR-241 microRNAs. The role of ELT-1 in developmental timing is shown to be separate from its role in cell-fate maintenance during post-embryonic development. In addition, analysis of Chromatin Immnoprecipitation (ChIP) data from the modENCODE project and this work suggest that the contribution of ELT-1 to the control of let-7 family microRNA expression is likely through direct transcription regulation. PMID:25816370

  2. Nitrogen-source regulation of yeast gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase synthesis involves the regulatory network including the GATA zinc-finger factors Gln3, Nil1/Gat1 and Gzf3.

    PubMed Central

    Springael, Jean-Yves; Penninckx, Michel J

    2003-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the CIS2 gene encodes gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT; EC 2.3.2.2), the main GSH-degrading enzyme. The promoter region of CIS2 contains one stress-response element (CCCCT) and eight GAT(T/A)A core sequences, probably involved in nitrogen-regulated transcription. We show in the present study that expression of CIS2 is indeed regulated according to the nature of the nitrogen source. Expression is highest in cells growing on a poor nitrogen source such as urea. Under these conditions, the GATA zinc-finger transcription factors Nil1 and Gln3 are both required for CIS2 expression, Nil1 appearing as the more important factor. We further show that Gzf3, another GATA zinc-finger protein, acts as a negative regulator in nitrogen-source control of CIS2 expression. During growth on a preferred nitrogen source like NH(4)(+), CIS2 expression is repressed through a mechanism involving (at least) the Gln3-binding protein Ure2/GdhCR. Induction of CIS2 expression during nitrogen starvation is dependent on Gln3 and Nil1. Furthermore, rapamycin causes similar CIS2 activation, indicating that the target of rapamycin signalling pathway controls CIS2 expression via Gln3 and Nil1 in nitrogen-starved cells. Finally, our results show that CIS2 expression is induced mainly by nitrogen starvation but apparently not by other types of stress. PMID:12529169

  3. Helicase-like transcription factor (Hltf) regulates G2/M transition, Wt1/Gata4/Hif-1a cardiac transcription networks, and collagen biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Helmer, Rebecca A; Martínez-Zaguilán, Raul; Dertien, Janet S; Fulford, Candra; Foreman, Oded; Peiris, Vasum; Chilton, Beverly S

    2013-01-01

    HLTF/Hltf regulates transcription, remodels chromatin, and coordinates DNA damage repair. Hltf is expressed in mouse brain and heart during embryonic and postnatal development. Silencing Hltf is semilethal. Seventy-four percent of congenic C57BL/6J Hltf knockout mice died, 75% within 12-24 hours of birth. Previous studies in neonatal (6-8 hour postpartum) brain revealed silencing Hltf disrupted cell cycle progression, and attenuated DNA damage repair. An RNA-Seq snapshot of neonatal heart transcriptome showed 1,536 of 20,000 total transcripts were altered (p < 0.05) - 10 up- and 1,526 downregulated. Pathway enrichment analysis with MetaCore™ showed Hltf's regulation of the G2/M transition (p=9.726E(-15)) of the cell cycle in heart is nearly identical to its role in brain. In addition, Brca1 and 12 members of the Brca1 associated genome surveillance complex are also downregulated. Activation of caspase 3 coincides with transcriptional repression of Bcl-2. Hltf loss caused downregulation of Wt1/Gata4/Hif-1a signaling cascades as well as Myh7b/miR499 transcription. Hltf-specific binding to promoters and/or regulatory regions of these genes was authenticated by ChIP-PCR. Hif-1a targets for prolyl (P4ha1, P4ha2) and lysyl (Plod2) collagen hydroxylation, PPIase enzymes (Ppid, Ppif, Ppil3) for collagen trimerization, and lysyl oxidase (Loxl2) for collagen-elastin crosslinking were downregulated. However, transcription of genes for collagens, fibronectin, Mmps and their inhibitors (Timps) was unaffected. The collective downregulation of genes whose protein products control collagen biogenesis caused disorganization of the interstitial and perivascular myocardial collagen fibrillar network as viewed with picrosirius red-staining, and authenticated with spectral imaging. Wavy collagen bundles in control hearts contrasted with collagen fibers that were thin, short and disorganized in Hltf null hearts. Collagen bundles in Hltf null hearts were tangled and fragmented. Thus

  4. 46 CFR 171.052 - Passenger heel requirements for pontoon vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... on exposed or partially protected waters— (i) 10 foot-degrees with a crowding density of 5 square feet per person (2.15 persons per square meter); and (ii) 7 foot-degrees with a crowding density of 2... foot-degrees with a crowding density of 5 square feet per person (2.15 persons per square meter);...

  5. 46 CFR 171.052 - Passenger heel requirements for pontoon vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... on exposed or partially protected waters— (i) 10 foot-degrees with a crowding density of 5 square feet per person (2.15 persons per square meter); and (ii) 7 foot-degrees with a crowding density of 2... foot-degrees with a crowding density of 5 square feet per person (2.15 persons per square meter);...

  6. Transcriptional up-regulation of the mouse cytosolic glutathione peroxidase gene in erythroid cells is due to a tissue-specific 3' enhancer containing functionally important CACC/GT motifs and binding sites for GATA and Ets transcription factors.

    PubMed Central

    O'Prey, J; Ramsay, S; Chambers, I; Harrison, P R

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear run-on experiments have shown that the high level of expression of the mouse cytosolic glutathione peroxidase mRNA in erythroid cells is due to up-regulation of the gene at the transcriptional level. Studies of the chromatin structure around the cytosolic glutathione peroxidase gene have revealed a series of DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHSS) in the 3' flanking region of the gene in erythroid and other high-expression tissues that are lacking in low-expression cells, in addition to a DHSS over the promoter region in both high- and low-expression tissues. Functional transfection experiments have demonstrated that one of the 3' DHSS regions functions as an enhancer in erythroid cells but not in a low-expression epithelial cell line; and site-directed mutagenesis and footprinting experiments reveal that the activity of the erythroid cell-specific enhancer requires a cluster of binding sites for the CACC/GT box factors and the GATA and Ets families of transcription factors. Images PMID:8413228

  7. Novel immunostimulators with a thiazolidin-4-one ring promote the immunostimulatory effect of human iNKT cells on the stimulation of Th2-like immune responsiveness via GATA3 activation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ming; Li, Chunxiao; Yang, Fei; Chen, Hua; Li, Xiaoliu; Yang, Yongbin; Chen, Dongzhi

    2016-10-01

    Invariant natural killer T cells (iNKTs) are important innate immune cells which get involved in various immune responses in both mice and humans. These immune reactions range from self-tolerance to development of autoimmunity and responses to pathogens and tumor development. In this study, we aimed to explore the effects of the novel immunostimulators (CH1b and CH2b) containing thiazolidin-4-one on the functions of human invariant natural killer T cells (iNKTs). First of all, iNKTs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were expanded with α-Galactosylceramide (α-Galcer) in vitro. Then, the highly purified iNKTs were isolated from PBMCs using magnetic cells sorting (MACS). Next, we investigated the impacts of CH1b and CH2b on proliferation, cytokines production, cytotoxicity, and the associated signaling pathways in iNKT cells. Finally, we found that CH2b could significantly promote the activated iNKTs proliferation, increase the production of Th2 cytokines, and induce Th0 differentiation into Th2 subset via GATA 3 signaling pathway. Besides, CH2b could markedly enhance the cytotoxic ability of the activated iNKTs. Therefore, we concluded that CH2b, a promising candidate immunostimulator, might be used for the treatment of infections, tumors, autoimmune and allergic diseases, and for the correction of Th1/Th2 balance disorders in future. PMID:27543853

  8. Johne's disease in cattle is associated with enhanced expression of genes encoding IL-5, GATA-3, tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 2, and factors promoting apoptosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Coussens, Paul M; Pudrith, Chas B; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Ren, Xiaoning; Suchyta, Steven P; Stabel, Judith R; Heegaard, Peter M H

    2005-05-15

    Infection of ruminants with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) leads to a chronic and often fatal granulomatous enteritis known as Johne's disease. Most infections with M. paratuberculosis occur during the first 6 months of life, and there is some evidence for transmission in utero. Once established, infections typically exist in a subclinical state for several years. Recent gene-expression profiling studies suggested the hypothesis that inherent gene-expression profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from M. paratuberculosis-infected cattle may be different than expression profiles in PBMCs from uninfected controls. If true, this would suggest that it is possible to identify an M. paratuberculosis infection "signature" through transcriptional profiling of peripheral immune cells. In addition, identification of groups or classes of genes showing inherently different expression in PBMCs from M. paratuberculosis-infected cattle relative to PBMCs from uninfected controls might highlight important interactions between this pathogen and the host immune system. In this report, we describe studies aimed at testing this hypothesis. Our novel results indicate that, indeed expression profiles of at least 42 genes are inherently different in freshly isolated PBMCs from M. paratuberculosis-infected cattle when compared to similar cells from uninfected controls. Gene-expression differences observed following microarray analysis were verified and expanded upon by quantitative real-time PCR (Q-RT-PCR). Our results indicate that T cells within PBMCs from M. paratuberculosis-infected cows have adopted a predominant Th 2-like phenotype (enhanced expression of IL-5, GATA 3, and possibly IL-4 mRNA), that cells within infected cow PBMCs may exhibit tissue remodeling deficiencies through higher expression of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP) 1 and TIMP2 RNA and lower expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 14 RNA

  9. GATA: A graphic alignment tool for comparative sequenceanalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nix, David A.; Eisen, Michael B.

    2005-01-01

    Several problems exist with current methods used to align DNA sequences for comparative sequence analysis. Most dynamic programming algorithms assume that conserved sequence elements are collinear. This assumption appears valid when comparing orthologous protein coding sequences. Functional constraints on proteins provide strong selective pressure against sequence inversions, and minimize sequence duplications and feature shuffling. For non-coding sequences this collinearity assumption is often invalid. For example, enhancers contain clusters of transcription factor binding sites that change in number, orientation, and spacing during evolution yet the enhancer retains its activity. Dotplot analysis is often used to estimate non-coding sequence relatedness. Yet dot plots do not actually align sequences and thus cannot account well for base insertions or deletions. Moreover, they lack an adequate statistical framework for comparing sequence relatedness and are limited to pairwise comparisons. Lastly, dot plots and dynamic programming text outputs fail to provide an intuitive means for visualizing DNA alignments.

  10. ACTIVATION OF GATA-4 BY SEROTONIN IN PULMONARY ARTERY SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serotonin (5-HT) is a mitogen of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC) and plays an important role in the development of pulmonary hypertension. Signal transduction initiated by 5-HT involves serotonin transporter (SERT)-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activation of...

  11. Regulation of Drosophila yolk protein genes by an ovary-specific GATA factor

    SciTech Connect

    Lossky, M.; Wensink, P.C.

    1995-12-01

    This report investigates the expression of the genes for yolk protein of Drosophila melanogaster and the tissue specific function of the regulatory element which activates transcription in vivo. 70 refs., 8 figs.

  12. 33 CFR 117.465 - Lafourche Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... railroad bridge, mile 69.0 at Lafourche, and all bridges upstream of the Burlington Northern Santa Fe..., mile 23.9, at Golden Meadow (2) Galliano Pontoon Bridge, mile 27.8, at Galliano (3) SR 308 (South...) Cutoff Vertical Lift Bridge, mile 36.3, at Cutoff (6) SR 310 (Larose Pontoon) Bridge, mile 39.1,...

  13. 29 CFR 1917.11 - Housekeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sharp objects not necessary for the work in progress. (b) Hatch beams, covers and pontoons placed in terminal working areas shall be stowed in stable piles with beams secured against tipping or falling. Alternatively, beams may be laid on their sides. When beams and pontoons are stowed in tiers more than one...

  14. 29 CFR 1917.11 - Housekeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sharp objects not necessary for the work in progress. (b) Hatch beams, covers and pontoons placed in terminal working areas shall be stowed in stable piles with beams secured against tipping or falling. Alternatively, beams may be laid on their sides. When beams and pontoons are stowed in tiers more than one...

  15. 29 CFR 1917.11 - Housekeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sharp objects not necessary for the work in progress. (b) Hatch beams, covers and pontoons placed in terminal working areas shall be stowed in stable piles with beams secured against tipping or falling. Alternatively, beams may be laid on their sides. When beams and pontoons are stowed in tiers more than one...

  16. 29 CFR 1917.11 - Housekeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sharp objects not necessary for the work in progress. (b) Hatch beams, covers and pontoons placed in terminal working areas shall be stowed in stable piles with beams secured against tipping or falling. Alternatively, beams may be laid on their sides. When beams and pontoons are stowed in tiers more than one...

  17. Architectural factor HMGA induces promoter bending and recruits C/EBP and GATA during silkmoth chorion gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Papantonis, Argyris; Vanden Broeck, Josef; Lecanidou, Rena

    2008-11-15

    A protein displaying significant similarity to mammalian HMGA (high-mobility group A) proteins, but also bearing unique structural features, was isolated from silkmoth (Bombyx mori) follicular cells. This factor, named BmHMGA, exhibits specific binding preference for chorion gene promoter elements and induces DNA bending thereon. BmHMGA deploys temporal-specific interaction with transcription factors BmC/EBP (C/EBP is CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein) and BmGATAbeta during follicle maturation. The respective protein complexes can be detected on chorion gene promoters in vivo, with different developmental profiles each time. Analogous interaction takes place on the putative promoter of the BmC/EBP gene, hinting towards a transcriptional circuit that is responsible for the progress of choriogenesis as a whole. Finally, transient suppression of BmHMGA expression led to down-regulation of chorion genes and the BmC/EBP gene, and revealed recruitment of BmC/EBP, BmGATAbeta and TFIID (transcription factor IID)/TBP (TATA-box-binding protein) by BmHMGA. A revised model for chorion gene regulation is discussed in view of these findings. PMID:18636971

  18. Identification of a novel pathway involving a GATA transcription factor in yeast and possibly plant Zn uptake and homeostasis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To gain a better understanding of the regulation of Zn homeostasis in plants and the degree of conservation of Zn homeostasis between plants and yeast, a cDNA library from the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulating plant species, Nocceae caerulescens, was screened for its ability to restore growth under Zn limitin...

  19. Presentation of Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia Associated with a GATA-1 Mutation Mimicking the Eruption of Transient Myeloproliferative Disorder.

    PubMed

    Boos, Markus D; Wine Lee, Lara; Freedman, Jason L; Novoa, Roberto A; Chu, Emily Y; Perman, Marissa J

    2015-01-01

    Children with trisomy 21 are prone to developing hematologic disorders, including transient myeloproliferative disorder (TMD) and acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL). The papulovesicular eruption of TMD provides an important clue to the diagnosis. In contrast, AMKL rarely has associated cutaneous findings. We report the case of a 22-month-old child with trisomy 21 who presented with the acute onset of diffusely scattered and crusted papules, plaques, and vesicles. A thorough infectious evaluation was negative and the patient was unresponsive to empiric antibiotic and antiinflammatory therapies. Complete blood count (CBC) was notable for mild pancytopenia, with a normal peripheral smear. Two weeks later he was reassessed and found to have a population of blasts on repeat CBC. Subsequent evaluation ultimately led to a diagnosis of AMKL. This is the first reported case of a cutaneous eruption in a young child with Down syndrome and transformed AMKL. When children with trisomy 21 present with the acute onset of crusted papules and vesicles that cannot be accounted for by an infectious etiology, a diagnosis of AMKL should be considered even in the absence of a history of TMD. PMID:26205501

  20. Quantitative controls on location and architecture of carbonate depositional sequences: upper miocene, cabo de gata region, se Spain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franseen, E.K.; Goldstein, R.H.; Farr, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    Sequence stratigraphy, pinning-point relative sea-level curves, and magnetostratigraphy provide the quantitative data necessary to understand how rates of sea-level change and different substrate paleoslopes are dominant controls on accumulation rate, carbonate depositional sequence location, and internal architecture. Five third-order (1-10 my) and fourth-order (0.1-1.0 my) upper Miocene carbonate depositional sequences (DS1A, DS1B, DS2, DS3, TCC) formed with superimposed higher-frequency sea-level cycles in an archipelago setting in SE Spain. Overall, our study indicates when areas of high substrate slope (> 15??) are in shallow water, independent of climate, the location and internal architecture of carbonate deposits are not directly linked to sea-level position but, instead, are controlled by location of gently sloping substrates and processes of bypass. In contrast, if carbonate sediments are generated where substrates of low slope ( 15.6 cm/ky to ??? 2 cm/ky and overall relative sea level rose at rates of 17-21.4 cm/ky. Higher frequency sea-level rates were about 111 to more than 260 cm/ky, producing onlapping, fining- (deepening-) upward cycles. Decreasing accumulation rates resulted from decreasing surface area for shallow-water sediment production, drowning of shallow-water substrates, and complex sediment dispersal related to the archipelago setting. Typical systems tract and parasequence development should not be expected in "bypass ramp" settings; facies of onlapping strata do not track base level and are likely to be significantly different compared to onlapping strata associated with coastal onlap. Basal and upper DS2 reef megabreccias (indicating the transition from cool to warmer climatic conditions) were eroded from steep upslope positions and redeposited downslope onto areas of gentle substrate during rapid sea-level falls (> 22.7 cm/ky) of short duration. Such rapid sea-level falls and presence of steep slopes are not conducive to formation of forced regressive systems tracts composed of downstepping reef clinoforms. The DS3 reefal platform formed where shallow water coincided with gently sloping substrates created by earlier deposition. Slow progradation (0.39-1.45 km/my) is best explained by the lack of an extensive bank top, progressively falling sea level, and low productivity resulting from siliciclastic debris and excess nutrients shed from nearby volcanic islands. Although DS3 strata were deposited during a third-order relative sea-level cycle, a typical transgresse??e systems tract is not recognizable, indicating that the initial relative rise in sea level was too rapid (??? 19 cm/ky). Downstepping reefs, forming a forced regressive systems tract, were deposited during the relative sea-level fall at the end of DS3, indicating that relatively slow rates of fall (10 cm/ky or less) over favorable paleoslope conditions are conducive to generation of forced regressive systems tracts consisting of downstepping reef clinoforms. The TCC sequence consists of four shallow -water sedimentary cycles that were deposited during a 400 ky to 100 ky time span. Such shallow-water cycles, typical of many platforms, form only where shallow water intersects gently sloping substrates. The relative thicknesses of cycles (< 2 m to 15 m thick), magnitudes of relative sea-level fluctuations associated with each cycle (25-30 m), high rates of relative sea-level fluctuations (minimum of 25-120 cm/ky), and the widespread distribution of similar TCC cycles in the Mediterranean and elsewhere are supportive of a glacio-eustati

  1. Quantitative controls on location and architecture of carbonate depositional sequences: Upper miocene, cabo de gata region, SE Spain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franseen, E.K.; Goldstein, R.H.; Farr, M.R.

    1997-01-01

    Sequence stratigraphy, pinning-point relative sea-level curves, and magnetostratigraphy provide the quantitative data necessary to understand how rates of sea-level change and different substrate paleoslopes are dominant controls on accumulation rate, carbonate depositional sequence location, and internal architecture. Five third-order (1-10 my) and fourth-order (0.1-1.0 my) upper Miocene carbonate depositional sequences (DS1A, DS1B, DS2, DS3, TCC) formed with superimposed higher-frequency sea-level cycles in an archipelago setting in SE Spain. Overall, our study indicates when areas of high substrate slope (> 15??) are in shallow water, independent of climate, the location and internal architecture of carbonate deposits are not directly linked to sea-level position but, instead, are controlled by location of gently sloping substrates and processes of bypass. In contrast, if carbonate sediments are generated where substrates of low slope ( 15.6 cm/ky to ??? 2 cm/ky and overall relative sea level rose at rates of 17-21.4 cm/ky. Higher frequency sea-level rates were about 111 to more than 260 cm/ky, producing onlapping, fining- (deepening-) upward cycles. Decreasing accumulation rates resulted from decreasing surface area for shallow-water sediment production, drowning of shallow-water substrates, and complex sediment dispersal related to the archipelago setting. Typical systems tract and parasequence development should not be expected in "bypass ramp" settings; facies of onlapping strata do not track base level and are likely to be significantly different compared to onlapping strata associated with coastal onlap. Basal and upper DS2 reef megabreccias (indicating the transition from cool to warmer climatic conditions) were eroded from steep upslope positions and redeposited downslope onto areas of gentle substrate during rapid sea-level falls (> 22.7 cm/ky) of short duration. Such rapid sea-level falls and presence of steep slopes are not conducive to formation of forced regressive systems tracts composed of down-stepping reef clinoforms. The DS3 reefal platform formed where shallow water coincided with gently sloping substrates created by earlier deposition. Slow progradation (0.39-1.45 km/my) is best explained by the lack of an extensive bank top, progressively falling sea level, and low productivity resulting from siliciclastic debris and excess nutrients shed from nearby volcanic islands. Although DS3 strata were deposited during a third-order relative sea-level cycle, a typical transgressive systems tract is not recognizable, indicating that the initial relative rise in sea level was too rapid (??? 19 cm/ky). Downstepping reefs, forming a forced regressive systems tract, were deposited during the relative sea-level fall at the end of DS3, indicating that relatively slow rates of fall (10 cm/ky or less) over favorable paleoslope conditions are conducive to generation of forced regressive systems tracts consisting of downstepping reef clinoforms. The TCC sequence consists of four shallow-water sedimentary cycles that were deposited during a 400 ky to 100 ky time span. Such shallow-water cycles, typical of many platforms, form only where shallow water intersects gently sloping substrates. The relative thicknesses of cycles (< 2 m to 15 m thick), magnitudes of relative sea-level fluctuations associated with each cycle (25-30 m), high rates of relative sea-level fluctuations (minimum of 25-120 cm/ky), and the widespread distribution of similar TCC cycles in the Mediterranean and elsewhere are supportive of a glacio-eustatic

  2. 77 FR 1405 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, LA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... Harvey Locks, at Grand Lake, Cameron Parish, Louisiana. The deviation is necessary to allow for the safe... Lake Pontoon Bridge across the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, mile 231.5 west of Harvey Lock (WHL),...

  3. 3. VIEW NORTH SHOWING FIXED SPAN, COVERED SPAN, MOVEABLE TRANSITION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW NORTH SHOWING FIXED SPAN, COVERED SPAN, MOVEABLE TRANSITION SPAN AND PONTOON FLOATING SPAN - Lacey V. Murrow Memorial Floating Bridge, Spanning Lake Washington at I-90, Seattle, King County, WA

  4. 4. DETAIL VIEW FIXED SPAN INCLUDING TRUSS, MOVEABLE SPAN WHICH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL VIEW FIXED SPAN INCLUDING TRUSS, MOVEABLE SPAN WHICH THE NEXT UNIT TO THE RIGHT, AND FIRST UNIT OF PONTOON FLOATING SPAN. - Lacey V. Murrow Memorial Floating Bridge, Spanning Lake Washington at I-90, Seattle, King County, WA

  5. Benthic assemblages, biodiversity and invasiveness in marinas and commercial harbours: an investigation using a bioindicator group.

    PubMed

    Megina, Cesar; González-Duarte, Manuel M; López-González, Pablo J

    2016-01-01

    Fouling communities on artificial marine structures are generally different from benthic communities in natural rocky habitats. However, they may also differ among different types of artificial structures. Two artificial structures in direct contact with arriving vessels were compared: floating pontoons within recreational marinas, and sea-walls within commercial harbours. Natural rocky habitats were used as a reference, and the genus Eudendrium (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) was chosen as a bioindicator. The assemblages were different among the three types of habitat studied, with different species characterising each habitat. The probability of finding an invasive Eudendrium species was significantly higher on pontoons. Diversity was the lowest on pontoons, but it was not significantly different between sea-walls and natural rocks. In general, a barrier to the spread of exotic species exists between harbours and natural rocky habitats. Floating pontoons seem to be a less suitable habitat for native fauna and a key element in marine biological invasions. PMID:26960078

  6. The Friend of GATA Transcriptional Co-Regulator, U-Shaped, Is a Downstream Antagonist of Dorsal-Driven Prohemocyte Differentiation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hongjuan; Baldeosingh, Rajkumar; Wu, Xiaorong; Fossett, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that mammalian hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) respond directly to infection and inflammatory signaling. These signaling pathways also regulate HSPCs during steady-state conditions (absence of infection), and dysregulation may lead to cancer or age-related loss of progenitor repopulation capacity. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a major class of pathogen recognition receptors, and are expressed on the surface of immune effector cells and HSPCs. TLR/NF-κB activation promotes HSPCs differentiation; however, the mechanisms by which this signaling pathway alters the intrinsic transcriptional landscape are not well understood. Although Drosophila prohemocytes are the functional equivalent of mammalian HSPCs, a prohemocyte-specific function for Toll signaling has not been reported. Using Drosophila transgenics, we identified prohemocyte-specific roles for Toll pathway members, Dorsal and Cactus. We showed that Dorsal is required to limit the size of the progenitor pool. Additionally, we showed that activation of Toll signaling in prohemocytes drives differentiation in a manner that is analogous to TLR/NF-κB-driven HSPC differentiation. This was accomplished by showing that over-expression of Dorsal, or knockdown of Cactus, promotes differentiation. We also investigated whether Dorsal and Cactus control prohemocyte differentiation by regulating a key intrinsic prohemocyte factor, U-shaped (Ush), which is known to promote multipotency and block differentiation. We showed that Dorsal repressed Ush expression levels to promote differentiation, whereas Cactus maintained Ush levels to block differentiation. Additionally, we showed that another Toll antagonist, Lesswright, also maintained the level of Ush to block differentiation and promote proliferative quiescence. Collectively, these results identify a novel role for Ush as a downstream target of Toll signaling. PMID:27163255

  7. Overexpression of the Aspergillus niger GatA transporter leads to preferential use of D-galacturonic acid over D-xylose

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Pectin is a structural heteropolysaccharide of the primary cell walls of plants and as such is a significant fraction of agricultural waste residues that is currently insufficiently used. Its main component, D-galacturonic acid, is an attractive substrate for bioconversion. The complete metabolic pathway is present in the genome of Aspergillus niger, that is used in this study. The objective was to identify the D-galacturonic acid transporter in A. niger and to use this transporter to study D-galacturonic acid metabolism. We have functionally characterized the gene An14g04280 that encodes the D-galacturonic acid transporter in A. niger. In a mixed sugar fermentation it was found that the An14g04280 overexpression strain, in contrast to the parent control strain, has a preference for D-galacturonic acid over D-xylose as substrate. Overexpression of this transporter in A. niger resulted in a strong increase of D-galacturonic acid uptake and induction of the D-galacturonic acid reductase activity, suggesting a metabolite controlled regulation of the endogenous D-galacturonic acid catabolic pathway. PMID:25177540

  8. The Friend of GATA Transcriptional Co-Regulator, U-Shaped, Is a Downstream Antagonist of Dorsal-Driven Prohemocyte Differentiation in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hongjuan; Baldeosingh, Rajkumar; Wu, Xiaorong; Fossett, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that mammalian hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) respond directly to infection and inflammatory signaling. These signaling pathways also regulate HSPCs during steady-state conditions (absence of infection), and dysregulation may lead to cancer or age-related loss of progenitor repopulation capacity. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a major class of pathogen recognition receptors, and are expressed on the surface of immune effector cells and HSPCs. TLR/NF-κB activation promotes HSPCs differentiation; however, the mechanisms by which this signaling pathway alters the intrinsic transcriptional landscape are not well understood. Although Drosophila prohemocytes are the functional equivalent of mammalian HSPCs, a prohemocyte-specific function for Toll signaling has not been reported. Using Drosophila transgenics, we identified prohemocyte-specific roles for Toll pathway members, Dorsal and Cactus. We showed that Dorsal is required to limit the size of the progenitor pool. Additionally, we showed that activation of Toll signaling in prohemocytes drives differentiation in a manner that is analogous to TLR/NF-κB-driven HSPC differentiation. This was accomplished by showing that over-expression of Dorsal, or knockdown of Cactus, promotes differentiation. We also investigated whether Dorsal and Cactus control prohemocyte differentiation by regulating a key intrinsic prohemocyte factor, U-shaped (Ush), which is known to promote multipotency and block differentiation. We showed that Dorsal repressed Ush expression levels to promote differentiation, whereas Cactus maintained Ush levels to block differentiation. Additionally, we showed that another Toll antagonist, Lesswright, also maintained the level of Ush to block differentiation and promote proliferative quiescence. Collectively, these results identify a novel role for Ush as a downstream target of Toll signaling. PMID:27163255

  9. Method of installing sub-sea templates

    SciTech Connect

    Hampton, J.E.

    1984-03-06

    A subsea template is installed by a method which includes the steps of securing the template in a position beneath the deck of a semi-submersible drilling vessel, moving the semi-submersible drilling vessel to an appropriate offshore site and subsequently lowering the template from the semi-submersible to the sea bed. In addition, at least three anchorage templates may be loaded onto one or both of the pontoons of the semi-submersible drilling vessel at its original position and are subsequently lowered from the pontoons to their respective locations on the sea bed after the semi-submersible has moved to the offshore site.

  10. Genetics Home Reference: dyserythropoietic anemia and thrombocytopenia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Page Crispino JD. GATA1 in normal and malignant hematopoiesis. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2005 Feb;16(1): ... GATA1 function, a paradigm for transcription factors in hematopoiesis. Mol Cell Biol. 2005 Feb;25(4):1215- ...

  11. 76 FR 2949 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Project in Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ... Construction Project in the State of Washington. Those actions grant approval for the project. DATES: By this... Construction Project. The project includes constructing pontoons sufficient to replace the existing traffic... Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Project in...

  12. 75 FR 16007 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lower Grand River, Iberville Parish, LA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    .... The Iberville Parish School Board requested that the operating regulation of the LA 75 pontoon bridge... (74 FR 57884). We received one comment on the proposed rule. No public meeting was requested, and none was held. Background and Purpose The Iberville Parish School Board requested a change in the...

  13. 18 CFR 1304.400 - Flotation devices and material, all floating structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., shall be of materials commercially manufactured for marine use. Flotation materials shall be fabricated... manufactured flotation device or material specifically designed for marine applications (for example, pontoons... system must be firmly and securely affixed to the structure it supports with materials capable...

  14. 76 FR 5582 - Whitestone Power and Communications; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-01

    ... pontoon; (3) a 100-kilowatt turbine/generator unit; (4) a 33-foot-long, 3.5-foot-wide gangway from the... Energy Regulatory Commission Whitestone Power and Communications; Notice of Intent To File License..., 2011. d. Submitted By: Whitestone Power and Communications. e. Name of Project: Whitestone...

  15. 75 FR 71543 - Safety Zone; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, Mile Marker 49.0 to 50.0, west of Harvey Locks, Bank to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, Mile Marker 49.0 to 50.0, west of Harvey Locks, Bank to Bank, Bayou Blue Pontoon Bridge, Lafourche Parish, LA... temporary safety zone in the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway extending from Mile Marker 49.0 to Mile Marker...

  16. 46 CFR 42.15-25 - Hatchways closed by portable covers and secured weathertight by tarpaulins and battening devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... lengths shall be obtained by linear interpolation. (c) Portable beams. (1) Where portable beams for... covers. (1) Where pontoon covers used in place of portable beams and covers are made of mild steel the... for portable beams shall be of substantial construction, and shall provide means for the...

  17. 46 CFR 42.15-25 - Hatchways closed by portable covers and secured weathertight by tarpaulins and battening devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... lengths shall be obtained by linear interpolation. (c) Portable beams. (1) Where portable beams for... covers. (1) Where pontoon covers used in place of portable beams and covers are made of mild steel the... for portable beams shall be of substantial construction, and shall provide means for the...

  18. 40 CFR 63.1041 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... floating roof, and the seal is in contact with the liquid in a separator. Oil-water separator means a... level of the liquid managed in the separator. Floating roof means a pontoon-type or double-deck type... Standards for Oil-Water Separators and Organic-Water Separators § 63.1041 Definitions. All terms used...

  19. 29 CFR 1926.1437 - Floating cranes/derricks and land cranes/derricks on barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... damage; evidence of leaks and damage below the waterline may be determined through internal inspection of...: internal vessel/flotation device inspection. For each four-year inspection: (i) A marine engineer, marine... devices surveys the internal portion of the barge, pontoons, vessel, or other means of flotation. (ii)...

  20. 29 CFR 1926.1437 - Floating cranes/derricks and land cranes/derricks on barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... damage; evidence of leaks and damage below the waterline may be determined through internal inspection of...: internal vessel/flotation device inspection. For each four-year inspection: (i) A marine engineer, marine... devices surveys the internal portion of the barge, pontoons, vessel, or other means of flotation. (ii)...

  1. 29 CFR 1926.1437 - Floating cranes/derricks and land cranes/derricks on barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... damage; evidence of leaks and damage below the waterline may be determined through internal inspection of...: internal vessel/flotation device inspection. For each four-year inspection: (i) A marine engineer, marine... devices surveys the internal portion of the barge, pontoons, vessel, or other means of flotation. (ii)...

  2. 40 CFR Table 31 to Subpart G of... - Typical Number of Vacuum Breakers, NF6 and Roof Drains, a NF7

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Typical Number of Vacuum Breakers, NF6..., and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 31 Table 31 to Subpart G of Part 63—Typical Number of Vacuum Breakers, NF6 and Roof Drains, a NF7 Tank diameter D (feet) b No. of vacuum breakers, NF6 Pontoon...

  3. 40 CFR Table 31 to Subpart G of... - Typical Number of Vacuum Breakers, NF6 and Roof Drains, a NF7

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Typical Number of Vacuum Breakers, NF6..., and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 31 Table 31 to Subpart G of Part 63—Typical Number of Vacuum Breakers, NF6 and Roof Drains, a NF7 Tank diameter D (feet) b No. of vacuum breakers, NF6 Pontoon...

  4. 40 CFR Table 31 to Subpart G of... - Typical Number of Vacuum Breakers, NF6 and Roof Drains, a NF7

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Typical Number of Vacuum Breakers, NF6..., and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 31 Table 31 to Subpart G of Part 63—Typical Number of Vacuum Breakers, NF6 and Roof Drains, a NF7 Tank diameter D (feet) b No. of vacuum breakers, NF6 Pontoon...

  5. 40 CFR Table 31 to Subpart G of... - Typical Number of Vacuum Breakers, NF6 and Roof Drains, a NF7

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Typical Number of Vacuum Breakers, NF6..., and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 31 Table 31 to Subpart G of Part 63—Typical Number of Vacuum Breakers, NF6 and Roof Drains, a NF7 Tank diameter D (feet) b No. of vacuum breakers, NF6 Pontoon...

  6. 40 CFR Table 31 to Subpart G of... - Typical Number of Vacuum Breakers, NF6 and Roof Drains, a NF7

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Typical Number of Vacuum Breakers, NF6..., and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 31 Table 31 to Subpart G of Part 63—Typical Number of Vacuum Breakers, NF6 and Roof Drains, a NF7 Tank diameter D (feet) b No. of vacuum breakers, NF6 Pontoon...

  7. Advanced piggyback water power generator

    SciTech Connect

    Wiggs, B.R.

    1988-02-16

    A power generating system is described including: a central boat containing gearing and electric and/or power generation equipment, with a forward angled-back deflection screen and a rear non-angled deflection screen, with a smaller outrigger pontoon on each respective side of the central boat, with closed cell, waterproof, plastic foam filling in the central boat and pontoons, and with the bow of the respective outrigger pontoons angled so as to completely turn water away from, and to the outside of, the space and/or incoming water area between each such respective pontooon and the central boat. There are legs with cone shaped bottoms and with wheels attached, with the wheels extending slightly below the cone shaped bottoms; paddle wheels on each side of the central boat, between the central boat, and respective outrigger pontoons, with 90 degree spaced, flat, paddle blades, and with a solid, disk division vertically dividing each respective side paddle wheel in half and extending at right angles to, and from, the central axle, to the outside extreme end of the paddle blades, with each such half of the equally divided paddle wheel being constructed so that the 90 degree spaced paddle blades in one half are offset by 45 degrees from the 90 degree space paddle blades in the other half, and with the extreme ends of each such set of divided paddle wheels being enclosed via a similar solid.

  8. 75 FR 78063 - Passenger Weight and Inspected Vessel Stability Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ...--Department of Transportation EO--Executive Order FAA--Federal Aviation Administration FR--Federal Register GM... Safety Certificate PSST--Pontoon Simplified Stability Proof Test SBA--United States Small Business... the vessel may be assumed to act. Operator means the person or business entity who...

  9. Differential sensitivities of transcription factor target genes underlie cell type-specific gene expression profiles

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kirby D.; Kim, Shin-Il; Bresnick, Emery H.

    2006-01-01

    Changes in transcription factor levels and activities dictate developmental fate. Such a change might affect the full ensemble of target genes for a factor or only uniquely sensitive targets. We investigated the relationship among activity of the hematopoietic transcription factor GATA-1, chromatin occupancy, and target gene sensitivity. Graded activation of GATA-1 in GATA-1-null cells revealed high-, intermediate-, and low-sensitivity targets. GATA-1 activity requirements for occupancy and transcription often correlated. A GATA-1 amino-terminal deletion mutant severely deregulated the low-sensitivity gene Tac-2. Thus, cells expressing different levels of a cell type-specific activator can have qualitatively distinct target gene expression patterns, and factor mutations preferentially deregulate low-sensitivity genes. Unlike other target genes, GATA-1-mediated Tac-2 regulation was bimodal, with activation followed by repression, and the coregulator Friend of GATA-1 (FOG-1) selectively mediated repression. A GATA-1 mutant defective in FOG-1 binding occupied a Tac-2 regulatory region at levels higher than wild-type GATA-1, whereas FOG-1 facilitated chromatin occupancy at a distinct target site. These results indicate that FOG-1 is a determinant of GATA factor target gene sensitivity by either facilitating or opposing chromatin occupancy. PMID:17043224

  10. 78 FR 56605 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lafourche Bayou, Larose, LA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ...The Coast Guard is modifying its drawbridge operation regulations by replacing the reference to the SR 310 (Larose Pontoon) Bridge with the LA 657 (Larose) Vertical Lift Bridge. The SR 310 bridge has been taken out of service and has been replaced by the LA 657 bridge. This substitution will also permit the LA 657 bridge to operate under the same schedule as the five other bridges in this......

  11. Method and apparatus for production of subsea hydrocarbon formations

    SciTech Connect

    Blandford, J.W.

    1992-06-02

    This patent describes a subsea well tender system. It comprises vertically oriented external flotation tanks and a surface-piercing central flotation column connected to the external flotation tanks by pontoon braces positioned below the water surface, wherein the surface-piercing flotation column supports one or more decks above the water surface for the purpose of accommodating equipment to process oil, gas, and water, and tendon means securing the surface buoy to the seabed.

  12. Down syndrome-associated haematopoiesis abnormalities created by chromosome transfer and genome editing technologies.

    PubMed

    Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Yakura, Yuwna; Abe, Satoshi; Osaki, Mitsuhiko; Kajitani, Naoyo; Kazuki, Kanako; Takehara, Shoko; Honma, Kazuhisa; Suemori, Hirofumi; Yamazaki, Satoshi; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Toki, Tsutomu; Shimizu, Ritsuko; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Yamamoto, Takashi; Oshimura, Mitsuo

    2014-01-01

    Infants with Down syndrome (DS) are at a high risk of developing transient abnormal myelopoiesis (TAM). A GATA1 mutation leading to the production of N-terminally truncated GATA1 (GATA1s) in early megakaryocyte/erythroid progenitors is linked to the onset of TAM and cooperated with the effect of trisomy 21 (Ts21). To gain insights into the underlying mechanisms of the progression to TAM in DS patients, we generated human pluripotent stem cells harbouring Ts21 and/or GATA1s by combining microcell-mediated chromosome transfer and genome editing technologies. In vitro haematopoietic differentiation assays showed that the GATA1s mutation blocked erythropoiesis irrespective of an extra chromosome 21, while Ts21 and the GATA1s mutation independently perturbed megakaryopoiesis and the combination of Ts21 and the GATA1s mutation synergistically contributed to an aberrant accumulation of skewed megakaryocytes. Thus, the DS model cells generated by these two technologies are useful in assessing how GATA1s mutation is involved in the onset of TAM in patients with DS. PMID:25159877

  13. The anticancer potential of steroidal saponin, dioscin, isolated from wild yam (Dioscorea villosa) root extract in invasive human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously, we observed that wild yam (Dioscorea villosa) root extract (WYRE) was able to activate GATA3 in human breast cancer cells targeting epigenome. This study aimed to 'nd out if dioscin (DS), a bioactive compound of WYRE, can modulate GATA3 functions and cellular invasion in human breast can...

  14. The exosome complex establishes a barricade to erythroid maturation.

    PubMed

    McIver, Skye C; Kang, Yoon-A; DeVilbiss, Andrew W; O'Driscoll, Chelsea A; Ouellette, Jonathan N; Pope, Nathaniel J; Camprecios, Genis; Chang, Chan-Jung; Yang, David; Bouhassira, Eric E; Ghaffari, Saghi; Bresnick, Emery H

    2014-10-01

    Complex genetic networks control hematopoietic stem cell differentiation into progenitors that give rise to billions of erythrocytes daily. Previously, we described a role for the master regulator of erythropoiesis, GATA-1, in inducing genes encoding components of the autophagy machinery. In this context, the Forkhead transcription factor, Foxo3, amplified GATA-1-mediated transcriptional activation. To determine the scope of the GATA-1/Foxo3 cooperativity, and to develop functional insights, we analyzed the GATA-1/Foxo3-dependent transcriptome in erythroid cells. GATA-1/Foxo3 repressed expression of Exosc8, a pivotal component of the exosome complex, which mediates RNA surveillance and epigenetic regulation. Strikingly, downregulating Exosc8, or additional exosome complex components, in primary erythroid precursor cells induced erythroid cell maturation. Our results demonstrate a new mode of controlling erythropoiesis in which multiple components of the exosome complex are endogenous suppressors of the erythroid developmental program. PMID:25115889

  15. The exosome complex establishes a barricade to erythroid maturation

    PubMed Central

    McIver, Skye C.; Kang, Yoon-A; DeVilbiss, Andrew W.; O’Driscoll, Chelsea A.; Ouellette, Jonathan N.; Pope, Nathaniel J.; Camprecios, Genis; Chang, Chan-Jung; Yang, David; Bouhassira, Eric E.; Ghaffari, Saghi

    2014-01-01

    Complex genetic networks control hematopoietic stem cell differentiation into progenitors that give rise to billions of erythrocytes daily. Previously, we described a role for the master regulator of erythropoiesis, GATA-1, in inducing genes encoding components of the autophagy machinery. In this context, the Forkhead transcription factor, Foxo3, amplified GATA-1–mediated transcriptional activation. To determine the scope of the GATA-1/Foxo3 cooperativity, and to develop functional insights, we analyzed the GATA-1/Foxo3-dependent transcriptome in erythroid cells. GATA-1/Foxo3 repressed expression of Exosc8, a pivotal component of the exosome complex, which mediates RNA surveillance and epigenetic regulation. Strikingly, downregulating Exosc8, or additional exosome complex components, in primary erythroid precursor cells induced erythroid cell maturation. Our results demonstrate a new mode of controlling erythropoiesis in which multiple components of the exosome complex are endogenous suppressors of the erythroid developmental program. PMID:25115889

  16. Epigenetic Determinants of Erythropoiesis: Role of the Histone Methyltransferase SetD8 in Promoting Erythroid Cell Maturation and Survival.

    PubMed

    DeVilbiss, Andrew W; Sanalkumar, Rajendran; Hall, Bryan D R; Katsumura, Koichi R; de Andrade, Isabela Fraga; Bresnick, Emery H

    2015-06-01

    Erythropoiesis, in which committed progenitor cells generate millions of erythrocytes daily, involves dramatic changes in the chromatin structure and transcriptome of erythroblasts, prior to their enucleation. While the involvement of the master-regulatory transcription factors GATA binding protein 1 (GATA-1) and GATA-2 in this process is established, the mechanistic contributions of many chromatin-modifying/remodeling enzymes in red cell biology remain enigmatic. We demonstrated that SetD8, a histone methyltransferase that catalyzes monomethylation of histone H4 at lysine 20 (H4K20me1), is a context-dependent GATA-1 corepressor in erythroid cells. To determine whether SetD8 controls erythroid maturation and/or function, we used a small hairpin RNA (shRNA)-based loss-of-function strategy in a primary murine erythroblast culture system. In this system, SetD8 promoted erythroblast maturation and survival, and this did not involve upregulation of the established regulator of erythroblast survival Bcl-x(L). SetD8 catalyzed H4K20me1 at a critical Gata2 cis element and restricted occupancy by an enhancer of Gata2 transcription, Scl/TAL1, thereby repressing Gata2 transcription. Elevating GATA-2 levels in erythroid precursors yielded a maturation block comparable to that induced by SetD8 downregulation. As lowering GATA-2 expression in the context of SetD8 knockdown did not rescue erythroid maturation, we propose that SetD8 regulation of erythroid maturation involves multiple target genes. These results establish SetD8 as a determinant of erythroid cell maturation and provide a framework for understanding how a broadly expressed histone-modifying enzyme mediates cell-type-specific GATA factor function. PMID:25855754

  17. Immature and Mature Megakaryocytes Enhance Osteoblast Proliferation and Inhibit Osteoclast Formation

    PubMed Central

    Ciovacco, Wendy A.; Cheng, Ying-Hua; Horowitz, Mark C.; Kacena, Melissa A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent data suggests that megakaryocytes (MKs) play a role in skeletal homeostasis. In vitro and in vivo data show that MKs stimulate osteoblast (OB) proliferation and inhibit osteoclast (OC) formation, thus favoring net bone deposition. There are several mouse models with dysregulated megakaryopoiesis and resultant high bone mass phenotypes. One such model that our group has extensively studied is GATA-1 deficient mice. GATA-1 is a transcription factor required for normal megakaryopoiesis, and mice deficient in GATA-1 have increases in immature MK number and a striking increase in bone mass. While the increased bone mass could simply be a result of increased MK number, here we take a more in depth look at the MKs of these mice to see if there is a unique factor inherent to GATA-1 deficient MKs that favors increased bone deposition. We show that increased MK number does correspond with increased OB proliferation and decreased OC proliferation, that stage of maturation does not alter the effect of MKs on bone cell lineages beyond the megakaryoblast stage, and that GATA-1 deficient MKs survive longer than wild-type controls. So while increased MK number in GATA-1 deficient mice likely contributes to the high bone mass phenotype, we propose that the increased longevity of this lineage also plays a role. Since GATA-1 deficient MKs live longer they are able to exert both more proliferative influence on OBs and more inhibitory influence on OCs. PMID:20052670

  18. Erythropoietin and IGF-1 signaling synchronize cell proliferation and maturation during erythropoiesis.

    PubMed

    Kadri, Zahra; Lefevre, Carine; Goupille, Olivier; Penglong, Tipparat; Granger-Locatelli, Marine; Fucharoen, Suthat; Maouche-Chretien, Leila; Leboulch, Philippe; Chretien, Stany

    2015-12-15

    Tight coordination of cell proliferation and differentiation is central to red blood cell formation. Erythropoietin controls the proliferation and survival of red blood cell precursors, while variations in GATA-1/FOG-1 complex composition and concentrations drive their maturation. However, clear evidence of cross-talk between molecular pathways is lacking. Here, we show that erythropoietin activates AKT, which phosphorylates GATA-1 at Ser310, thereby increasing GATA-1 affinity for FOG-1. In turn, FOG-1 displaces pRb/E2F-2 from GATA-1, ultimately releasing free, proproliferative E2F-2. Mice bearing a Gata-1(S310A) mutation suffer from fatal anemia when a compensatory pathway for E2F-2 production involving insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling is simultaneously abolished. In the context of the GATA-1(V205G) mutation resulting in lethal anemia, we show that the Ser310 cannot be phosphorylated and that constitutive phosphorylation at this position restores partial erythroid differentiation. This study sheds light on the GATA-1 pathways that synchronize cell proliferation and differentiation for tissue homeostasis. PMID:26680303

  19. MicroRNA-486-5p is an erythroid oncomiR of the myeloid leukemias of Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Shaham, Lital; Vendramini, Elena; Ge, Yubin; Goren, Yaron; Birger, Yehudit; Tijssen, Marloes R.; McNulty, Maureen; Geron, Ifat; Schwartzman, Omer; Goldberg, Liat; Chou, Stella T.; Pitman, Holly; Weiss, Mitchell J.; Michaeli, Shulamit; Sredni, Benjamin; Göttgens, Berthold; Crispino, John D.; Taub, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    Children with Down syndrome (DS) are at increased risk for acute myeloid leukemias (ML-DS) characterized by mixed megakaryocytic and erythroid phenotype and by acquired mutations in the GATA1 gene resulting in a short GATA1s isoform. The chromosome 21 microRNA (miR)-125b cluster has been previously shown to cooperate with GATA1s in transformation of fetal hematopoietic progenitors. In this study, we report that the expression of miR-486-5p is increased in ML-DS compared with non-DS acute megakaryocytic leukemias (AMKLs). miR-486-5p is regulated by GATA1 and GATA1s that bind to the promoter of its host gene ANK1. miR-486-5p is highly expressed in mouse erythroid precursors and knockdown (KD) in ML-DS cells reduced their erythroid phenotype. Ectopic expression and KD of miR-486-5p in primary fetal liver hematopoietic progenitors demonstrated that miR-486-5p cooperates with Gata1s to enhance their self renewal. Consistent with its activation of AKT, overexpression and KD experiments showed its importance for growth and survival of human leukemic cells. Thus, miR-486-5p cooperates with GATA1s in supporting the growth and survival, and the aberrant erythroid phenotype of the megakaryocytic leukemias of DS. PMID:25533034

  20. Erythropoietin and IGF-1 signaling synchronize cell proliferation and maturation during erythropoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Kadri, Zahra; Lefevre, Carine; Goupille, Olivier; Penglong, Tipparat; Granger-Locatelli, Marine; Fucharoen, Suthat; Maouche-Chretien, Leila; Leboulch, Philippe; Chretien, Stany

    2015-01-01

    Tight coordination of cell proliferation and differentiation is central to red blood cell formation. Erythropoietin controls the proliferation and survival of red blood cell precursors, while variations in GATA-1/FOG-1 complex composition and concentrations drive their maturation. However, clear evidence of cross-talk between molecular pathways is lacking. Here, we show that erythropoietin activates AKT, which phosphorylates GATA-1 at Ser310, thereby increasing GATA-1 affinity for FOG-1. In turn, FOG-1 displaces pRb/E2F-2 from GATA-1, ultimately releasing free, proproliferative E2F-2. Mice bearing a Gata-1S310A mutation suffer from fatal anemia when a compensatory pathway for E2F-2 production involving insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling is simultaneously abolished. In the context of the GATA-1V205G mutation resulting in lethal anemia, we show that the Ser310 cannot be phosphorylated and that constitutive phosphorylation at this position restores partial erythroid differentiation. This study sheds light on the GATA-1 pathways that synchronize cell proliferation and differentiation for tissue homeostasis. PMID:26680303

  1. MicroRNA-486-5p is an erythroid oncomiR of the myeloid leukemias of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shaham, Lital; Vendramini, Elena; Ge, Yubin; Goren, Yaron; Birger, Yehudit; Tijssen, Marloes R; McNulty, Maureen; Geron, Ifat; Schwartzman, Omer; Goldberg, Liat; Chou, Stella T; Pitman, Holly; Weiss, Mitchell J; Michaeli, Shulamit; Sredni, Benjamin; Göttgens, Berthold; Crispino, John D; Taub, Jeffrey W; Izraeli, Shai

    2015-02-19

    Children with Down syndrome (DS) are at increased risk for acute myeloid leukemias (ML-DS) characterized by mixed megakaryocytic and erythroid phenotype and by acquired mutations in the GATA1 gene resulting in a short GATA1s isoform. The chromosome 21 microRNA (miR)-125b cluster has been previously shown to cooperate with GATA1s in transformation of fetal hematopoietic progenitors. In this study, we report that the expression of miR-486-5p is increased in ML-DS compared with non-DS acute megakaryocytic leukemias (AMKLs). miR-486-5p is regulated by GATA1 and GATA1s that bind to the promoter of its host gene ANK1. miR-486-5p is highly expressed in mouse erythroid precursors and knockdown (KD) in ML-DS cells reduced their erythroid phenotype. Ectopic expression and KD of miR-486-5p in primary fetal liver hematopoietic progenitors demonstrated that miR-486-5p cooperates with Gata1s to enhance their self renewal. Consistent with its activation of AKT, overexpression and KD experiments showed its importance for growth and survival of human leukemic cells. Thus, miR-486-5p cooperates with GATA1s in supporting the growth and survival, and the aberrant erythroid phenotype of the megakaryocytic leukemias of DS. PMID:25533034

  2. Divergent functions of hematopoietic transcription factors in lineage priming and differentiation during erythro-megakaryopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Pimkin, Maxim; Kossenkov, Andrew V; Mishra, Tejaswini; Morrissey, Christapher S; Wu, Weisheng; Keller, Cheryl A; Blobel, Gerd A; Lee, Dongwon; Beer, Michael A; Hardison, Ross C; Weiss, Mitchell J

    2014-12-01

    Combinatorial actions of relatively few transcription factors control hematopoietic differentiation. To investigate this process in erythro-megakaryopoiesis, we correlated the genome-wide chromatin occupancy signatures of four master hematopoietic transcription factors (GATA1, GATA2, TAL1, and FLI1) and three diagnostic histone modification marks with the gene expression changes that occur during development of primary cultured megakaryocytes (MEG) and primary erythroblasts (ERY) from murine fetal liver hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. We identified a robust, genome-wide mechanism of MEG-specific lineage priming by a previously described stem/progenitor cell-expressed transcription factor heptad (GATA2, LYL1, TAL1, FLI1, ERG, RUNX1, LMO2) binding to MEG-associated cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) in multipotential progenitors. This is followed by genome-wide GATA factor switching that mediates further induction of MEG-specific genes following lineage commitment. Interaction between GATA and ETS factors appears to be a key determinant of these processes. In contrast, ERY-specific lineage priming is biased toward GATA2-independent mechanisms. In addition to its role in MEG lineage priming, GATA2 plays an extensive role in late megakaryopoiesis as a transcriptional repressor at loci defined by a specific DNA signature. Our findings reveal important new insights into how ERY and MEG lineages arise from a common bipotential progenitor via overlapping and divergent functions of shared hematopoietic transcription factors. PMID:25319996

  3. Rigid Polyurethane Foam (RPF) Technology for Countermines (Sea) Program Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    WOODFIN,RONALD L.; FAUCETT,DAVID L.; HANCE,BRADLEY G.; LATHAM,AMY E.; SCHMIDT,C.O.

    1999-10-01

    This Phase II report documents the results of one subtask initiated under the joint Department of Energy (DOE)/Department of Defense (DoD) Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for Countermine Warfare. The development of Rigid Polyurethane Foams for neutralization of mines and barriers in amphibious assault was the objective of the tasking. This phase of the program concentrated on formation of RPF in water, explosive mine simulations, and development of foam and fabric pontoons. Field experimentation was done primarily at the Energetic Materials Research and Testing Center (EMRTC) of the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM between February 1996 and September 1998.

  4. Evaluation of two juvenile salmon collection devices at Cowlitz Falls Dam, Washington, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kock, Tobias J.; Liedtke, Theresa L.; Ekstrom, Brian K.; Hurst, William

    2015-01-01

    In an attempt to improve overall collection efficiency, Tacoma Power developed and tested a new device in 2014, called the Upper Riffe Lake Collector (URLC). The URLC was a floating device designed to collect fish as they moved downstream after passing through turbines at Cowlitz Falls Dam. The design of the URLC included a pontoon barge that supported a large net structure designed to funnel fish into a live box where they could be removed and transported downstream of dams on the Cowlitz River.

  5. Differentiation and molecular heterogeneity of inhibitory and excitatory neurons associated with midbrain dopaminergic nuclei.

    PubMed

    Lahti, Laura; Haugas, Maarja; Tikker, Laura; Airavaara, Mikko; Voutilainen, Merja H; Anttila, Jenni; Kumar, Suman; Inkinen, Caisa; Salminen, Marjo; Partanen, Juha

    2016-02-01

    Local inhibitory GABAergic and excitatory glutamatergic neurons are important for midbrain dopaminergic and hindbrain serotonergic pathways controlling motivation, mood, and voluntary movements. Such neurons reside both within the dopaminergic nuclei, and in adjacent brain structures, including the rostromedial and laterodorsal tegmental nuclei. Compared with the monoaminergic neurons, the development, heterogeneity, and molecular characteristics of these regulatory neurons are poorly understood. We show here that different GABAergic and glutamatergic subgroups associated with the monoaminergic nuclei express specific transcription factors. These neurons share common origins in the ventrolateral rhombomere 1, where the postmitotic selector genes Tal1, Gata2 and Gata3 control the balance between the generation of inhibitory and excitatory neurons. In the absence of Tal1, or both Gata2 and Gata3, the GABAergic precursors adopt glutamatergic fates and populate the glutamatergic nuclei in excessive numbers. Together, our results uncover developmental regulatory mechanisms, molecular characteristics, and heterogeneity of central regulators of monoaminergic circuits. PMID:26718003

  6. Identification of a novel putative mitochondrial protein FAM210B associated with erythroid differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Aiko; Fujiwara, Tohru; Okitsu, Yoko; Fukuhara, Noriko; Onishi, Yasushi; Nakamura, Yukio; Sawada, Kenichi; Harigae, Hideo

    2016-04-01

    The transcription factor GATA-1 plays an essential role in erythroid differentiation. To identify novel GATA-1 target genes, we analyzed a merged ChIP-seq and expression profiling dataset. We identified FAM210B as a putative novel GATA-1 target gene. Study results demonstrated that GATA-1 directly regulates FAM210B expression, presumably by binding to an intronic enhancer region. Both human and murine FAM210B are abundantly expressed in the later stages of erythroblast development. Moreover, the deduced amino acid sequence predicted that FAM210B is a membrane protein, and Western blot analysis demonstrated its mitochondrial localization. Loss-of-function analysis in erythroid cells suggested that FAM210B may be involved in erythroid differentiation. The identification and characterization of FAM210B provides new insights in the study of erythropoiesis and hereditary anemias. PMID:26968549

  7. O-Linked N-Acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) Transferase and O-GlcNAcase Interact with Mi2β Protein at the Aγ-Globin Promoter.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Costa, Flávia C; Tan, Ee Phie; Bushue, Nathan; DiTacchio, Luciano; Costello, Catherine E; McComb, Mark E; Whelan, Stephen A; Peterson, Kenneth R; Slawson, Chad

    2016-07-22

    One mode of γ-globin gene silencing involves a GATA-1·FOG-1·Mi2β repressor complex that binds to the -566 GATA site relative to the (A)γ-globin gene cap site. However, the mechanism of how this repressor complex is assembled at the -566 GATA site is unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that the O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) processing enzymes, O-GlcNAc-transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA), interact with the (A)γ-globin promoter at the -566 GATA repressor site; however, mutation of the GATA site to GAGA significantly reduces OGT and OGA promoter interactions in β-globin locus yeast artificial chromosome (β-YAC) bone marrow cells. When WT β-YAC bone marrow cells are treated with the OGA inhibitor Thiamet-G, the occupancy of OGT, OGA, and Mi2β at the (A)γ-globin promoter is increased. In addition, OGT and Mi2β recruitment is increased at the (A)γ-globin promoter when γ-globin becomes repressed in postconception day E18 human β-YAC transgenic mouse fetal liver. Furthermore, we show that Mi2β is modified with O-GlcNAc, and both OGT and OGA interact with Mi2β, GATA-1, and FOG-1. Taken together, our data suggest that O-GlcNAcylation is a novel mechanism of γ-globin gene regulation mediated by modulating the assembly of the GATA-1·FOG-1·Mi2β repressor complex at the -566 GATA motif within the promoter. PMID:27231347

  8. Characterization of the zebrafish cx36.7 gene promoter: Its regulation of cardiac-specific expression and skeletal muscle-specific repression.

    PubMed

    Miyagi, Hisako; Nag, Kakon; Sultana, Naznin; Munakata, Keijiro; Hirose, Shigehisa; Nakamura, Nobuhiro

    2016-02-15

    Zebrafish connexin 36.7 (cx36.7/ecx) has been identified as a key molecule in the early stages of heart development in this species. A defect in cx36.7 causes severe heart malformation due to the downregulation of nkx2.5 expression, a result which resembles congenital heart disease in humans. It has been shown that cx36.7 is expressed specifically in early developing heart cardiomyocytes. However, the regulatory mechanism for the cardiac-restricted expression of cx36.7 remains to be elucidated. In this study we isolated the 5'-flanking promoter region of the cx36.7 gene and characterized its promoter activity in zebrafish embryos. Deletion analysis showed that a 316-bp upstream region is essential for cardiac-restricted expression. This region contains four GATA elements, the proximal two of which are responsible for promoter activation in the embryonic heart and serve as binding sites for gata4. When gata4, gata5 and gata6 were simultaneously knocked down, the promoter activity was significantly decreased. Moreover, the deletion of the region between -316 and -133bp led to EGFP expression in the embryonic trunk muscle. The distal two GATA and A/T-rich elements in this region act as repressors of promoter activity in skeletal muscle. These results suggest that cx36.7 expression is directed by cardiac promoter activation via the two proximal GATA elements as well as by skeletal muscle-specific promoter repression via the two distal GATA elements. PMID:26692140

  9. Physical Controls on Carbon Flux from a Temperate Lake During Autumn Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czikowsky, M. J.; Miller, S. D.; Tedford, E. W.; MacIntyre, S.

    2011-12-01

    Seasonally-stratified temperate lakes are a source of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere during autumn overturning as CO2 trapped below the thermocline becomes available to the surface for release to the atmosphere. We made continuous measurements of the vertical profile of pCO2 in a ~600 ha temperate lake (Lake Pleasant, maximum depth ~24 m) in southwestern Adirondack Park, New York from mid-September to mid-October 2010 from a moored pontoon boat. Continuous eddy covariance flux measurements of momentum, sensible and latent heat, and CO2 were made in situ, and the water column thermal structure was measured using thermistor chains. The spatial variability (horizontal and vertical) of pCO2 throughout the lake was characterized periodically using a roving profiling system. At the beginning of the study interval, pCO2 at the pontoon boat varied from 500 ppm at the surface to > 3000 ppm below the thermocline. The vertical profile of pCO2 changed markedly during the campaign due to the effects of wind forcing and evaporation (buoyancy), with nearly uniform, high pCO2 throughout the water column at the end of the campaign (Figure 1). The elevated surface water pCO2 increased CO2 emission to the atmosphere.

  10. Nutrition considerations for open-water swimming.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Gregory; Koivisto, Anu; Gerrard, David; Burke, Louise M

    2014-08-01

    Open-water swimming (OWS) is a rapidly developing discipline. Events of 5-25 km are featured at FINA World Championships, and the international circuit includes races of 5-88 km. The Olympic OWS event, introduced in 2008, is contested over 10 km. Differing venues present changing environmental conditions, including water and ambient temperatures, humidity, solar radiation, and unpredictable tides. Furthermore, the duration of most OWS events (1-6 hr) creates unique physiological challenges to thermoregulation, hydration status, and muscle fuel stores. Current nutrition recommendations for open-water training and competition are either an extension of recommendations from pool swimming or are extrapolated from other athletic populations with similar physiological requirements. Competition nutrition should focus on optimizing prerace hydration and glycogen stores. Although swimmers should rely on self-supplied fuel and fluid sources for shorter events, for races of 10 km or greater, fluid and fuel replacement can occur from feeding pontoons when tactically appropriate. Over the longer races, feeding pontoons should be used to achieve desirable targets of up to 90 g/ hr of carbohydrates from multitransportable sources. Exposure to variable water and ambient temperatures will play a significant role in determining race nutrition strategies. For example, in extreme environments, thermoregulation may be assisted by manipulating the temperature of the ingested fluids. Swimmers are encouraged to work with nutrition experts to develop effective and efficient strategies that enhance performance through appropriate in-competition nutrition. PMID:24667305

  11. Design of a semi-autonomous boat for measurements of coastal sedimentation and erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D.; Cross, L.; Rivet, J.; Hall, S.

    2015-03-01

    Measurement of sediment deposition and erosion in coastal areas is a challenge due to soft shifting sediments, but is critical to assessing loss or restoration of coastal sediments and wetlands. The aim of this project was to design and construct a semi-autonomous boat with water depth measuring capabilities. It was intended to map the depth of coastal wetlands to determine erosion rates and assess coastal restoration effects. Depth-measuring equipment was incorporated into an autonomous pontoon boat powered by solar panels. The propulsion system consisted of two paddlewheels and two-way motors to allow movement and positioning for measurements. Modifications included a lightweight, hard coating on the pontoons and powder-coating the frame to extend their usable life. A microcontroller controlled the boat and captured depth data from sensors and location data with a GPS system. The depth measuring system consisted of a pulley and counter system that completed each measurement in less than 45 seconds. This allowed the boat to take approximately 400 measurements per day. Net accuracy was approximately 3 cm in the tested configuration. The boat can continually measure the depth of specified areas in the wetlands; with this data, the change in depth can be monitored to see the effects of restoration projects.

  12. The impact of 85 years of coastal development on shallow seagrass beds (Posidonia oceanica L. (Delile)) in South Eastern France: A slow but steady loss without recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holon, F.; Boissery, P.; Guilbert, A.; Freschet, E.; Deter, J.

    2015-11-01

    Shallow Posidonia oceanica beds (0 to -15 m), the most common seagrass in the Mediterranean, were mapped from aerial photographs dating from the 1920's and from 2012 along 800 km of coastline in South-Eastern France (Provence-Alpes-Côte-d'Azur region). Changes in P. oceanica bed spatial distribution (limits and extent) during these 85 years were analyzed in terms of concordance (remaining areas), positive discordance (expanding areas) or negative discordance (lost areas). Lost areas were linked with direct or indirect impacts of coastal development (artificialized coastlines (namely harbours, ports of refuge, landfills, artificial beaches, groynes and pontoons, submarine pipelines and aquatic farms) visible on the photographs. The comparison showed that 73% of the shallow limits have declined. Considering spatial extent, remaining seagrass meadows areas accounted for the major part (85%), while lost areas accounted for 13% and expanding areas for 1.1%. Lost areas were mainly linked with artificial coastlines but 44% remained with undetermined causes (invisible pressures and/or mixed effects). The analysis of 96 coastal facilities creating the artificial (namely man-made) coastlines showed that the highest impact over the longest distance (5 km) was caused by harbours. Only artificial beaches had such a distant impact. Pontoons were the least surrounded by lost seagrass meadows areas. These quantitative data offer important information for marine conservation.

  13. Dynamics of submersible mussel rafts in waves and current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin-xin; Swift, M. Robinson; Dewhurst, Tobias; Tsukrov, Igor; Celikkol, Barbaros; Newell, Carter

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the dynamics of submersible mussel rafts, the finite element program Aqua-FE™, developed by the University of New Hampshire (UNH), was applied to rafts moored at the surface and submerged. The submerged configuration is used to reduce wave forcing and to avoid contact with floating ice during winters in northern waters. Each raft consists of three pontoons connected by a grid framework. Rafts are intended to support densely spaced mussel ropes hung from the framework. When submerged, the pontoons are flooded, and the raft is held vertically by floats attached by lines. The computer models were developed in Aqua-FE™ to simulate the effects of waves and current. They were validated by comparison with wave tank results by use of a 1/10 scale raft physical model. Comparisons showed good agreement for the important heave (vertical) and pitch (rotational) motions, though there was a tendency towards conservative results for wave and current drag. Full-scale simulations of surface and submerged single raft and two rafts connected in tandem were performed. Submerged raft wave response was found to be reduced relative to that at the surface for both the single and two-raft configurations. In particular, the vertical motion of mussel rope connection points was significantly reduced by submergence, resulting in reduced potential for mussel drop-off. For example, the maximum vertical velocities of mussel rope attachment points in the submerged two raft case were 7%-20% of the corresponding velocities when at the surface.

  14. The benzophenanthridine alkaloid fagaronine induces erythroleukemic cell differentiation by gene activation.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Claude; Couillerot, Eric; Gillet, Reynald; Caron, Catherine; Zeches-Hanrot, Monique; Riou, Jean-François; Trentesaux, Chantal

    2005-06-01

    Fagaronine, a benzophenanthridine alkaloid from Fagara zanthoxyloides Lam. (Rutaceae), has been tested on the erythroleukemic cell line K562 in order to explain some previous results on cell differentiation. In this study we showed that fagaronine induces a significant hemoglobinization of the human erythroleukemic cell line K562. This hemoglobin synthesis was accompanied by a strong increase of erythroid mRNA expression such as gamma- and alpha-globin, and PBGD, an enzyme of heme synthesis. In addition, the Epo-R transcripts were also stimulated indicating that cells are engaged in a maturation process. Both transcription factors GATA-1 and NF-E2, which play an important role in the regulation of genes involved in the erythroid differentiation, were also transcriptionally up-regulated. To elucidate the possible role of GATA-1 in the FAG-induced differentiation of K562 cells, we transfected reporter constructs containing regulatory regions of erythroid genes encompassing GATA-1 binding sites. After 48 hours of treatment, FAG stimulated the EPO-R and gamma-globin promoters by 2- to 3-fold and the promoter/enhancer region of GATA-1 gene by 3.2-fold. A mutation within the GATA-1 binding sites strongly decreased the promoter activation induced by FAG. Taken together, our results represent a demonstration that FAG exerts its differentiating activity by a specific activation of the regulating GATA-1 regions of genes involved in the erythroid phenotype expression. PMID:15971117

  15. A hormone-encoding gene identifies a pathway for cardiac but not skeletal muscle gene transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Grépin, C; Dagnino, L; Robitaille, L; Haberstroh, L; Antakly, T; Nemer, M

    1994-01-01

    In contrast to skeletal muscle, the mechanisms responsible for activation and maintenance of tissue-specific transcription in cardiac muscle remain poorly understood. A family of hormone-encoding genes is expressed in a highly specific manner in cardiac but not skeletal myocytes. This includes the A- and B-type natriuretic peptide (ANP and BNP) genes, which encode peptide hormones with crucial roles in the regulation of blood volume and pressure. Since these genes are markers of cardiac cells, we have used them to probe the mechanisms for cardiac muscle-specific transcription. Cloning and functional analysis of the rat BNP upstream sequences revealed unexpected structural resemblance to erythroid but not to muscle-specific promoters and enhancers, including a requirement for regulatory elements containing GATA motifs. A cDNA clone corresponding to a member of the GATA family of transcription factors was isolated from a cardiomyocyte cDNA library. Transcription of this GATA gene is restricted mostly to the heart and is undetectable in skeletal muscle. Within the heart, GATA transcripts are localized in ANP- and BNP-expressing myocytes, and forced expression of the GATA protein in heterologous cells markedly activates transcription from the natural cardiac muscle-specific ANP and BNP promoters. This GATA-dependent pathway defines the first mechanism for cardiac muscle-specific transcription. Moreover, the present findings reveal striking similarities between the mechanisms controlling gene expression in hematopoietic and cardiac cells and may have important implications for studies of cardiogenesis. Images PMID:8164667

  16. Ubiquitin Specific Protease 21 Is Dispensable for Normal Development, Hematopoiesis and Lymphocyte Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Pannu, Jaspreet; Belle, Jad I.; Förster, Michael; Duerr, Claudia U.; Shen, Shiyang; Kane, Leanne; Harcourt, Katherine; Fritz, Jörg H.; Clare, Simon; Nijnik, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    USP21 is a ubiquitin specific protease that catalyzes protein deubiquitination, however the identification of its physiological substrates remains challenging. USP21 is known to deubiquitinate transcription factor GATA3 and death-domain kinase RIPK1 in vitro, however the in vivo settings where this regulation plays a biologically significant role remain unknown. In order to determine whether USP21 is an essential and non-redundant regulator of GATA3 or RIPK1 activity in vivo, we characterized Usp21-deficient mice, focusing on mouse viability and development, hematopoietic stem cell function, and lymphocyte differentiation. The Usp21-knockout mice were found to be viable and fertile, with no significant dysmorphology, in contrast to the GATA3 and RIPK1 knockout lines that exhibit embryonic or perinatal lethality. Loss of USP21 also had no effect on hematopoietic stem cell function, lymphocyte development, or the responses of antigen presenting cells to TLR and TNFR stimulation. GATA3 levels in hematopoietic stem cells or T lymphocytes remained unchanged. We observed that aged Usp21-knockout mice exhibited spontaneous T cell activation, however this was not linked to altered GATA3 levels in the affected cells. The contrast in the phenotype of the Usp21-knockout line with the previously characterized GATA3 and RIPK1 knockout mice strongly indicates that USP21 is redundant for the regulation of GATA3 and RIPK1 activity during mouse development, in hematopoietic stem cells, and in lymphocyte differentiation. The Usp21-deficient mouse line characterized in this study may serve as a useful tool for the future characterization of USP21 physiological functions. PMID:25680095

  17. Linking patient outcome to high throughput protein expression data identifies novel regulators of colorectal adenocarcinoma aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    French, Christi L.; Ye, Fei; Revetta, Frank; Zhang, Bing; Coffey, Robert J.; Washington, M. Kay; Deane, Natasha G.; Beauchamp, R. Daniel; Weaver, Alissa M.

    2015-01-01

    A key question in cancer systems biology is how to use molecular data to predict the biological behavior of tumors from individual patients. While genomics data have been heavily used, protein signaling data are more directly connected to biological phenotype and might predict cancer phenotypes such as invasion, metastasis, and patient survival. In this study, we mined publicly available data for colorectal adenocarcinoma from the Cancer Genome Atlas and identified protein expression and signaling changes that are statistically associated with patient outcome. Our analysis identified a number of known and potentially new regulators of colorectal cancer. High levels of insulin growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP2) were associated with both recurrence and death, and this was validated by immunohistochemical staining of a tissue microarray for a secondary patient dataset. Interestingly, GATA binding protein 3 (GATA3) was the protein most frequently associated with death in our analysis, and GATA3 expression was significantly decreased in tumor samples from stage I-II deceased patients. Experimental studies using engineered colon cancer cell lines show that exogenous expression of GATA3 decreases three-dimensional colony growth and invasiveness of colon cancer cells but does not affect two-dimensional proliferation. These findings suggest that protein data are useful for biomarker discovery and identify GATA3 as a regulator of colorectal cancer  aggressiveness. PMID:26097693

  18. The IL-33 receptor (ST2) regulates early IL-13 production in fungus-induced allergic airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Piehler, D; Eschke, M; Schulze, B; Protschka, M; Müller, U; Grahnert, A; Richter, T; Heyen, L; Köhler, G; Brombacher, F; Alber, G

    2016-07-01

    Allergic airway inflammation (AAI) in response to environmental antigens is an increasing medical problem, especially in the Western world. Type 2 interleukins (IL) are central in the pathological response but their importance and cellular source(s) often rely on the particular allergen. Here, we highlight the cellular sources and regulation of the prototypic type 2 cytokine, IL-13, during the establishment of AAI in a fungal infection model using Cryptococcus neoformans. IL-13 reporter mice revealed a rapid onset of IL-13 competence within innate lymphoid cells type 2 (ILC2) and IL-33R(+) T helper (Th) cells. ILC2 showed IL-33-dependent proliferation upon infection and significant IL-13 production. Th cells essentially required IL-33 to become either GATA3(+) or GATA3(+)/Foxp3(+) hybrids. GATA3(+) Th cells almost exclusively contributed to IL-13 production but hybrid GATA3(+)/Foxp3(+) Th cells did not. In addition, alveolar macrophages upregulated the IL-33R and subsequently acquired a phenotype of alternative activation (Ym1(+), FIZZ1(+), and arginase-1(+)) linked to type 2 immunity. Absence of adaptive immunity in rag2(-/-) mice resulted in attenuated AAI, revealing the need for Th2 cells for full AAI development. Taken together, in pulmonary cryptococcosis ILC2 and GATA3(+) Th2 cells produce early IL-13 largely IL-33R-dependent, thereby promoting goblet cell metaplasia, pulmonary eosinophilia, and alternative activation of alveolar macrophages. PMID:26555705

  19. The chemical oceanographic consequences of environmental restoration projects in the Golden Horn estuary (Marmara Sea, Turkey).

    PubMed

    Balkis, N; Müftüoğlu, E; Aksu, A; Sur, H I; Apak, R

    2010-05-01

    The input of industrial and domestic waste to the horizontal circulation in the Golden Horn Estuary of Marmara Sea has resulted in one of the most polluted estuaries in the past. Consequently, the dissolved oxygen concentrations in both the surface and bottom waters decreased toward to the estuary head during 1998-2005. In contrast, the total suspended solids content of the surface water decreased toward to the estuary mouth. However, construction of the operational collector system surrounding the estuary during the process of rehabilitation projects, combined with the opening of the middle pontoons of the Valide Sultan Bridge, resulted in gradually improved water quality of the estuary with a concomitant decrease in pollution. However, phytoplankton blooms and eutrophication persist especially in the innermost part of the Golden Horn in 2005. The region from the estuary mouth up to Camialti has a dynamic structure, and sufficient circulation seemingly occurs in this part of the Golden Horn. PMID:19353286

  20. Progress report on Bertelsen research and development of an air cushion crawler all-terrain vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertelsen, W. R.

    1987-06-01

    The ACV is an exceptional amphibian but it is not, nor is any other existing craft, an all-terrain vehicle (ATV). Using the best elements of the ACV in an air-cushion crawler tractor, a true ATV can be attained. A conventional crawler drive train will propel two tracks as pressurized, propulsive pontoons. The key to a successful ATV is in perfecting efficient, durable, sliding seals to allow the belt to move in its orbit around the track unit and maintain its internal pressure. After deriving the adequate seal, a 12 inch wide x 86 inch long endless rubber belt was fitted bilateral seals and slide plates with internal guide wheels fore and aft with a 21 inch wheel base. From this approximately one-quarter scale model, full-scale air track crawlers, true ATVs, of any size and capacity can be produced.

  1. Infrared Thermography As Quality Control For Foamed In-Place Insulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Joel A.

    1989-03-01

    Since November of 1985, FOAM-TECH, INC. has been utilizing an I.S.I. Model 91 Videotherm Camera to quality control the installation of foamed in-place polyurethane and polyisocyanurate insulation. Monitoring the injection of foam into the walls and roofs of new construction and during the the retrofitting of older buildings has become an integral and routine step in daily operations. The Videotherm is also used to monitor the injection of foam into hot water tanks, trailer bodies for refrigeration trucks, and pontoons and buoys for flotation. The camera is also used for the detection of heat loss and air infiltration for conventionally insulated buildings. Appendix A are thermograms of foamed in-place insulation.

  2. Solar desalination system and method

    SciTech Connect

    Kruse, C.L.

    1985-03-12

    A solar desalination system in which fresh water is derived from sea water by focussing solar ray energy from a collecting reflector onto an evaporator tube located at substantially the focal apex of the reflector. The reflector/evaporator tube assembly is mounted on a horizontal open grid platform which may support a plurality of parallel reflector/evaporator tube assemblies. The reflectors may serve as pontoons to support the desalination system unit on a body of sea water. The solar heat generated vapor is condensed in condenser tubes immersed in the sea water. Intermittently sea water concentrate is withdrawn from the evaporator tubes. Velocity of the vapor passing from the evaporator tubes to the condensers may be utilized for generating power.

  3. Studies of TLP dynamic response under wind, waves and current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jia-yang; Yang, Jian-min; Lv, Hai-ning

    2012-09-01

    Investigated is the coupled response of a tension leg platform (TLP) for random waves. Inferred are the mass matrix, coupling stiffness matrix, damping matrix in the vibration differential equation and external load of TLP in moving coordinating system. Infinitesimal method is applied to divide columns and pontoons into small parts. Time domain motion equation is solved by Runge-Kutta integration scheme. Jonswap spectrum is simulated in the random wave, current is simulated by linear interpolation, and NPD spectrum is applied as wind spectrum. The Monte Carlo method is used to simulate random waves and fluctuated wind. Coupling dynamic response, change of tendon tension and riser tension in different sea conditions are analyzed by power spectral density (PSD). The influence of approach angle on dynamic response of TLP and tendon tension is compared.

  4. IL-33 in T Cell Differentiation, Function, and Immune Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Peine, Michael; Marek, Roman M; Löhning, Max

    2016-05-01

    Recent studies have highlighted a role for the alarmin interleukin (IL)-33 in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell activation and function, and have also revealed important distinctions. The IL-33 receptor ST2 is constitutively and abundantly expressed on T-helper-2 (Th2) and GATA-3(+) regulatory T cells in a GATA-3- and STAT5-dependent manner. Upon activation, Th1 and cytotoxic T cells express ST2 transiently, driven by T-bet and/or STAT4. We review these findings here, and critically examine evidence indicating that IL-33 enhances the differentiation and functionality of various T cell subsets through positive feedback loops involving lineage-specifying transcription factors. In this context, we discuss how quantitative and qualitative differences in ST2 expression between effector and GATA-3(+) regulatory T cells may contribute to immune homeostasis, and outline important areas of future inquiry. PMID:27055914

  5. Signaling from the Sympathetic Nervous System Regulates Hematopoietic Stem Cell Emergence during Embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fitch, Simon R.; Kimber, Gillian M.; Wilson, Nicola K.; Parker, Aimée; Mirshekar-Syahkal, Bahar; Göttgens, Berthold; Medvinsky, Alexander; Dzierzak, Elaine; Ottersbach, Katrin

    2012-01-01

    Summary The first adult-repopulating hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) emerge in the aorta-gonads-mesonephros (AGM) region of the embryo. We have recently identified the transcription factor Gata3 as being upregulated in this tissue specifically at the time of HSC emergence. We now demonstrate that the production of functional and phenotypic HSCs in the AGM is impaired in the absence of Gata3. Furthermore, we show that this effect on HSC generation is secondary to the role of Gata3 in the production of catecholamines, the mediators of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), thus making these molecules key components of the AGM HSC niche. These findings demonstrate that the recently described functional interplay between the hematopoietic system and the SNS extends to the earliest stages of their codevelopment and highlight the fact that HSC development needs to be viewed in the context of the development of other organs. PMID:23040481

  6. An Alternative Transcript of the FOG-2 Gene Encodes a FOG-2 Isoform lacking the FOG Repression Motif

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Rodney M.; Remo, Benjamin F.; Svensson, Eric C.

    2007-01-01

    The FOG family of transcriptional co-factors is composed of two members in mammals: FOG-1 and FOG-2. Both have been shown to bind to GATA factors and function as transcriptional co-repressors in specific cell and promoter contexts. We have previously defined a novel repression domain localized to the N-terminus of each FOG family member, the FOG Repression Motif, which is necessary for FOG-mediated transcriptional repression. In this report, we describe the identification and characterization of a novel isoform of FOG-2 lacking the FOG Repression Motif. In contrast to full-length FOG-2, this isoform is expressed predominately in the embryonic and adult heart. It can bind GATA4 avidly, but is unable to repress GATA4-mediated activation of cardiac-restricted gene promoters. Together, these results suggest that FOG-2 repressive activity may be modulated by the generation of isoforms of FOG-2 lacking the FOG repression motif. PMID:17445768

  7. POLG exon 22 skipping induced by different mechanisms in two unrelated cases of Alpers syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mousson de Camaret, Bénédicte; Chassagne, Maïté; Mayençon, Martine; Padet, Sylvie; Crehalet, Hervé; Clerc-Renaud, Pascale; Rouvet, Isabelle; Zabot, Marie-Thérèse; Rivier, François; Sarda, Pierre; des Portes, Vincent; Bozon, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    The POLG genes were sequenced in two unrelated patients presenting with Alpers syndrome. The novel c.3626_3629dupGATA and the c.3643+2T>C alleles were associated in trans with p.A467T and p.[W748S;E1143G], respectively. POLG transcripts from skin fibroblasts showed complete exon 22 skipping for patient 2, but surprisingly partial exon 22 skipping from the c.3626_3629dupGATA for patient 1. The creation of a putative exonic splicing silencer could be responsible for the splicing anomaly observed in patient 1. Both c.3643+2T>C and c.3626_3629dupGATA create a premature termination codon and a low polymerase γ activity in skin fibroblasts is responsible for the severe phenotype in these patients. PMID:20691285

  8. Markers of metastatic carcinoma of breast origin.

    PubMed

    Gown, Allen M; Fulton, Regan S; Kandalaft, Patricia L

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes the three major breast-associated markers that can be of assistance in evaluating metastatic carcinomas for which a breast primary diagnosis is entertained. These markers include gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15), mammaglobin, and GATA3. The first two are cytoplasmic markers that show comparable sensitivities for breast cancer, although relatively few of the published studies have employed the same antibodies against the target molecule, making direct comparisons challenging. GATA3 is a nuclear transcription factor that shows superior sensitivity to GCDFP-15 and mammaglobin. However, the specificity of GATA3 can pose challenges, inasmuch as carcinomas of the bladder and other sites can show significant levels of positivity. Determination of the optimal panel of antibodies employed in a given clinical setting will thus depend on the non-breast tumours included in the differential diagnosis. PMID:26768031

  9. Valproic acid regulates erythro-megakaryocytic differentiation through the modulation of transcription factors and microRNA regulatory micro-networks.

    PubMed

    Trécul, Anne; Morceau, Franck; Gaigneaux, Anthoula; Schnekenburger, Michael; Dicato, Mario; Diederich, Marc

    2014-11-15

    Valproic acid (VPA) exhibits important pharmacological properties but has been reported to trigger side effects, notably on the hematological system. We previously reported that VPA affects hematopoietic homeostasis by inhibiting erythroid differentiation and promoting myeloid and megakaryocyte differentiation. Here, we analyzed the effect of VPA on regulatory factors involved in erythro-megakaryocytic differentiation pathways, including transcription factors and microRNAs (miRs). We demonstrate that VPA inhibited erythroid differentiation in erythropoietin (Epo)-stimulated TF1 leukemia cells and CD34(+)/hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and in aclacinomycin-(Acla)-treated K562 cells. Mir-144/451 gene expression was decreased in all erythroid and megakaryocyte mo