Science.gov

Sample records for poor cloud traced

  1. Clouds and trace gas distributions during TRACE-P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, J.; Olson, J.; Davis, D.; Chen, G.; Barrick, J.; Shetter, R.; Lefer, B.; Jordan, C.; Anderson, B.; Clarke, A.; Sachse, G.; Blake, D.; Singh, H.; Sandolm, S.; Tan, D.; Kondo, Y.; Avery, M.; Flocke, F.; Eisele, F.; Mauldin, L.; Zondlo, M.; Brune, W.; Harder, H.; Martinez, M.; Talbot, R.; Bandy, A.; Thornton, D.

    2003-11-01

    This paper addresses the question: To what extent do trace gas distributions correspond to cloudiness? Observations taken during NASA's TRACE-P experiment indicate that there can be statistically significant differences in trace gas concentrations between clear-sky and cloudy areas. During the TRACE-P mission, frontal outflow of Asian emissions from the Pacific Rim to the western, North Pacific was sampled by NASA's DC-8 and P-3B aircraft. On several occasions, enhanced CO mixing ratios were observed in and around frontal clouds. A more detailed analysis of trace gas distributions revealed CO enhancements of 30% in the lower free troposphere (1-5 km) for cloudy regions as compared to clear areas. These enhancements exist within clouds as well as above and below clouds. In the upper free troposphere (5-11 km), overall enhancement in CO of 15% was observed although enhancements are mainly restricted to observations within clouds. These in-cloud observations were enhanced by factors of 1.5 to 2 over clear air data. Similar enhancements were seen for many other anthropogenic tracers. By contrast, distributions for O3 revealed no clear differences between cloudy and clear regions suggesting that other influences (e.g., stratosphere-troposphere exchange) might complicate any correspondence with local cloudiness. Expected cloud influences on oxidation chemistry were evident in enhanced OH concentrations above clouds and depressed OH below clouds. These findings are particularly relevant to current and future satellite investigations of the troposphere. Understanding the potential biases created by the inability to probe cloudy regions will improve the interpretation of regional and globally averaged satellite observations.

  2. Temporally rendered automatic cloud extraction (TRACE) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodrero, Dennis M.; Yale, James G.; Davis, Roger E.; Rollins, John M.

    1999-10-01

    Smoke/obscurant testing requires that 2D cloud extent be extracted from visible and thermal imagery. These data are used alone or in combination with 2D data from other aspects to make 3D calculations of cloud properties, including dimensions, volume, centroid, travel, and uniformity. Determining cloud extent from imagery has historically been a time-consuming manual process. To reduce time and cost associated with smoke/obscurant data processing, automated methods to extract cloud extent from imagery were investigated. The TRACE system described in this paper was developed and implemented at U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground, UT by the Science and Technology Corporation--Acuity Imaging Incorporated team with Small Business Innovation Research funding. TRACE uses dynamic background subtraction and 3D fast Fourier transform as primary methods to discriminate the smoke/obscurant cloud from the background. TRACE has been designed to run on a PC-based platform using Windows. The PC-Windows environment was chosen for portability, to give TRACE the maximum flexibility in terms of its interaction with peripheral hardware devices such as video capture boards, removable media drives, network cards, and digital video interfaces. Video for Windows provides all of the necessary tools for the development of the video capture utility in TRACE and allows for interchangeability of video capture boards without any software changes. TRACE is designed to take advantage of future upgrades in all aspects of its component hardware. A comparison of cloud extent determined by TRACE with manual method is included in this paper.

  3. Cloud draft structure and trace gas transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scala, John R.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Thompson, Anne M.; Simpson, Joanne; Garstang, Michael; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Browell, Edward V.; Sachse, Glen W.; Gregory, Gerald L.; Torres, Arnold L.

    1990-01-01

    During the second Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE 2B), meteorological observations, chemical measurements, and model simulations are utilized in order to interpret convective cloud draft structure and to analyze its role in transport and vertical distribution of trace gases. One-dimensional photochemical model results suggest that the observed poststorm changes in ozone concentration can be attributed to convective transports rather than photochemical production and the results of a two-dimensional time-dependent cloud model simulation are presented for the May 6, 1987 squall system. The mesoscale convective system exhibited evidence of significant midlevel detrainment in addition to transports to anvil heights. Chemical measurements of O3 and CO obtained in the convective environment are used to predict photochemical production within the troposphere and to corroborate the cloud model results.

  4. REDISTRIBUTION OF TRACE CHEMICAL SPECIES BY A SMALL CONVECTIVE CLOUD

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this paper, we describe a new experiment with a SF6 tracer to determine the mixing history of a small region of cloud-base air. n situ measurements of the SF6 are made to follow the egion and simultaneous measurements of natural trace gases are used to determine the dilution o...

  5. TRACING TURBULENT AMBIPOLAR DIFFUSION IN MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Li Huabai; Houde, Martin; Lai Shihping; Sridharan, T. K.

    2010-08-01

    Though flux freezing is a good approximation frequently assumed for molecular clouds, ambipolar diffusion (AD) is inevitable at certain scales. The scale at which AD sets in can be a crucial parameter for turbulence and the star formation process. However, both observation and simulation of AD are very challenging and our knowledge of it is very limited. We recently proposed that the difference between ion and neutral velocity spectra is a signature of turbulent AD and can be used to estimate the AD scales and magnetic field strengths. Here, we present observational evidence showing that this difference between the velocity dispersions from coexistent ions and neutrals is indeed correlated with magnetic field strength.

  6. Are CO Observations of Interstellar Clouds Tracing the H2?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federrath, Christoph; Glover, S. C. O.; Klessen, R. S.; Mac Low, M.

    2010-01-01

    Interstellar clouds are commonly observed through the emission of rotational transitions from carbon monoxide (CO). However, the abundance ratio of CO to molecular hydrogen (H2), which is the most abundant molecule in molecular clouds is only about 10-4. This raises the important question of whether the observed CO emission is actually tracing the bulk of the gas in these clouds, and whether it can be used to derive quantities like the total mass of the cloud, the gas density distribution function, the fractal dimension, and the velocity dispersion--size relation. To evaluate the usability and accuracy of CO as a tracer for H2 gas, we generate synthetic observations of hydrodynamical models that include a detailed chemical network to follow the formation and photo-dissociation of H2 and CO. These three-dimensional models of turbulent interstellar cloud formation self-consistently follow the coupled thermal, dynamical and chemical evolution of 32 species, with a particular focus on H2 and CO (Glover et al. 2009). We find that CO primarily traces the dense gas in the clouds, however, with a significant scatter due to turbulent mixing and self-shielding of H2 and CO. The H2 probability distribution function (PDF) is well-described by a log-normal distribution. In contrast, the CO column density PDF has a strongly non-Gaussian low-density wing, not at all consistent with a log-normal distribution. Centroid velocity statistics show that CO is more intermittent than H2, leading to an overestimate of the velocity scaling exponent in the velocity dispersion--size relation. With our systematic comparison of H2 and CO data from the numerical models, we hope to provide a statistical formula to correct for the bias of CO observations. CF acknowledges financial support from a Kade Fellowship of the American Museum of Natural History.

  7. Evaluation of Glaciogenic Cloud Seeding using Trace Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, J.; Benner, S. G.; Kunkel, M. L.; Blestrud, D.; Holbrook, V. P.; Parkinson, S.

    2015-12-01

    Glaciogenic cloud seeding is an important scientific technology for enhancing water resources across in the Western United States. Cloud seeding enriches orographic super cooled liquid water layers with plumes of ice nuclei, increasing the water yield of a storm event. Weather model assessments of cloud seeding estimate controlled releases of the ice nucleating agent, silver iodide (AgI), increases snow precipitation between 3-15% annually. However, efficacy of cloud seeding programs are difficult to assess using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) models alone. Therefore, this study validated the spatial and temporal distribution of AgI predicted by WRF models using ultra-trace snow chemistry data collected in the target area. Field methods utilized in this study are unique to previous trace chemical assessments of cloud seeding in two ways. First, nearly all snow samples were collected within 24 hours of deposition. Focusing on freshly deposited snow was more effective at constraining AgI plume timing and spatial extent with greater precision (via WRF, SNOTEL, and chemistry data). Second, this study employed geostatistics to describe AgI variability on the pit scale, site scale, and regional scale to optimize on the amount of samples to collect. The analysis revealed 4 columns of vials per snow pit and 1 snow pit per sampling site are optimal. Identifying the seeding signature at the regional scale was also successfully accomplished over a 40 mile sampling transect. All 6 sites had an identical AgI seeding signature despite drastic differences in of canopy cover, aspect, and distance from AgI source. The furthest sites from the AgI source were difficult to identify with Ag concentrations alone. Therefore, enrichment factors were essential to locating AgI influence at the most distal sites.

  8. Micelle Mediated Trace Level Sulfide Quantification through Cloud Point Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Devaramani, Samrat; Malingappa, Pandurangappa

    2012-01-01

    A simple cloud point extraction protocol has been proposed for the quantification of sulfide at trace level. The method is based on the reduction of iron (III) to iron (II) by the sulfide and the subsequent complexation of metal ion with nitroso-R salt in alkaline medium. The resulting green-colored complex was extracted through cloud point formation using cationic surfactant, that is, cetylpyridinium chloride, and the obtained surfactant phase was homogenized by ethanol before its absorbance measurement at 710 nm. The reaction variables like metal ion, ligand, surfactant concentration, and medium pH on the cloud point extraction of the metal-ligand complex have been optimized. The interference effect of the common anions and cations was studied. The proposed method has been successfully applied to quantify the trace level sulfide in the leachate samples of the landfill and water samples from bore wells and ponds. The validity of the proposed method has been studied by spiking the samples with known quantities of sulfide as well as comparing with the results obtained by the standard method. PMID:22619597

  9. Image transfer through cirrus clouds. I. Ray trace analysis and wave-front reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Landesman, B T; Kindilien, P J; Matson, C L; Caudill, T R

    2000-10-20

    A new technique for modeling image transfer through cirrus clouds is presented. The technique uses a ray trace to model beam propagation through a three-dimensional volume of polydisperse, hexagonal ice crystals. Beyond the cloud, the technique makes use of standard Huygens-Fresnel propagation methods. At the air-cloud interface, each wave front is resolved into a ray distribution for input to the ray trace software. Similarly, a wave front is reconstructed from the output ray distribution at the cloud-air interface. Simulation output from the ray trace program is presented and the modulation transfer function for stars imaged through cirrus clouds of varying depths is discussed. PMID:18354542

  10. Clouding tracing: Visualization of the mixing of fluid elements in convection-diffusion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Kwan-Liu; Smith, Philip J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a highly interactive method for computer visualization of the basic physical process of dispersion and mixing of fluid elements in convection-diffusion systems. It is based on transforming the vector field from a traditionally Eulerian reference frame into a Lagrangian reference frame. Fluid elements are traced through the vector field for the mean path as well as the statistical dispersion of the fluid elements about the mean position by using added scalar information about the root mean square value of the vector field and its Lagrangian time scale. In this way, clouds of fluid elements are traced and are not just mean paths. We have used this method to visualize the simulation of an industrial incinerator to help identify mechanisms for poor mixing.

  11. Cloud identification in atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy infrared occultation measurements.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Brian H; Eldering, Annmarie; Irion, Fredrick W; Mills, Franklin P; Sen, Bhaswar; Gunson, Michael R

    2002-05-20

    High-resolution infrared nongas absorption spectra derived from the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment are analyzed for evidence of the presence of cirrus clouds. Several nonspherical ice extinction models based on realistic size distributions and crystal habits along with a stratospheric sulfate aerosol model are fit to the spectra, and comparisons are made with different model combinations. Nonspherical ice models often fit observed transmission spectra better than a spherical Mie ice model, and some discrimination among nonspherical models is noted. The ATMOS lines of sight for eight occultations are superimposed on coincident geostationary satellite infrared imagery, and brightness temperatures along the lines of sight are compared with retrieved vertical temperature profiles. With these comparisons, studies of two cases of clear sky, three cases of opaque cirrus, and three cases of patchy cirrus are discussed. PMID:12027163

  12. FRESCO+: an improved O2 A-band cloud retrieval algorithm for tropospheric trace gas retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P.; Stammes, P.; van der A, R.; Pinardi, G.; van Roozendael, M.

    2008-05-01

    The FRESCO (Fast Retrieval Scheme for Clouds from the Oxygen A-band) algorithm has been used to retrieve cloud information from measurements of the O2 A-band around 760 nm by GOME, SCIAMACHY and GOME-2. The cloud parameters retrieved by FRESCO are the effective cloud fraction and cloud pressure, which are used for cloud correction in the retrieval of trace gases like O3 and NO2. To improve the cloud pressure retrieval for partly cloudy scenes, single Rayleigh scattering has been included in an improved version of the algorithm, called FRESCO+. We compared FRESCO+ and FRESCO effective cloud fractions and cloud pressures using simulated spectra and one month of GOME measured spectra. As expected, FRESCO+ gives more reliable cloud pressures over partly cloudy pixels. Simulations and comparisons with ground-based radar/lidar measurements of clouds shows that the FRESCO+ cloud pressure is about the optical midlevel of the cloud. Globally averaged, the FRESCO+ cloud pressure is about 50 hPa higher than the FRESCO cloud pressure, while the FRESCO+ effective cloud fraction is about 0.01 larger. The effect of FRESCO+ cloud parameters on O3 and NO2 vertical column densities (VCD) is studied using SCIAMACHY data and ground-based DOAS measurements. We find that the FRESCO+ algorithm has a significant effect on tropospheric NO2 retrievals but a minor effect on total O3 retrievals. The retrieved SCIAMACHY tropospheric NO2 VCDs using FRESCO+ cloud parameters (v1.1) are lower than the tropospheric NO2 VCDs which used FRESCO cloud parameters (v1.04), in particular over heavily polluted areas with low clouds. The difference between SCIAMACHY tropospheric NO2 VCDs v1.1 and ground-based MAXDOAS measurements performed in Cabauw, The Netherlands, during the DANDELIONS campaign is about -2.12×1014 molec cm-2.

  13. FRESCO+: an improved O2 A-band cloud retrieval algorithm for tropospheric trace gas retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P.; Stammes, P.; van der A, R.; Pinardi, G.; van Roozendael, M.

    2008-11-01

    The FRESCO (Fast Retrieval Scheme for Clouds from the Oxygen A-band) algorithm has been used to retrieve cloud information from measurements of the O2 A-band around 760 nm by GOME, SCIAMACHY and GOME-2. The cloud parameters retrieved by FRESCO are the effective cloud fraction and cloud pressure, which are used for cloud correction in the retrieval of trace gases like O3 and NO2. To improve the cloud pressure retrieval for partly cloudy scenes, single Rayleigh scattering has been included in an improved version of the algorithm, called FRESCO+. We compared FRESCO+ and FRESCO effective cloud fractions and cloud pressures using simulated spectra and one month of GOME measured spectra. As expected, FRESCO+ gives more reliable cloud pressures over partly cloudy pixels. Simulations and comparisons with ground-based radar/lidar measurements of clouds show that the FRESCO+ cloud pressure is about the optical midlevel of the cloud. Globally averaged, the FRESCO+ cloud pressure is about 50 hPa higher than the FRESCO cloud pressure, while the FRESCO+ effective cloud fraction is about 0.01 larger. The effect of FRESCO+ cloud parameters on O3 and NO2 vertical column density (VCD) retrievals is studied using SCIAMACHY data and ground-based DOAS measurements. We find that the FRESCO+ algorithm has a significant effect on tropospheric NO2 retrievals but a minor effect on total O3 retrievals. The retrieved SCIAMACHY tropospheric NO2 VCDs using FRESCO+ cloud parameters (v1.1) are lower than the tropospheric NO2VCDs which used FRESCO cloud parameters (v1.04), in particular over heavily polluted areas with low clouds. The difference between SCIAMACHY tropospheric NO2 VCDs v1.1 and ground-based MAXDOAS measurements performed in Cabauw, The Netherlands, during the DANDELIONS campaign is about -2.12×1014molec cm-2.

  14. Cumulus cloud model estimates of trace gas transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garstang, Michael; Scala, John; Simpson, Joanne; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Thompson, A.; Pickering, K. E.; Harris, R.

    1989-01-01

    Draft structures in convective clouds are examined with reference to the results of the NASA Amazon Boundary Layer Experiments (ABLE IIa and IIb) and calculations based on a multidimensional time dependent dynamic and microphysical numerical cloud model. It is shown that some aspects of the draft structures can be calculated from measurements of the cloud environment. Estimated residence times in the lower regions of the cloud based on surface observations (divergence and vertical velocities) are within the same order of magnitude (about 20 min) as model trajectory estimates.

  15. Mercury and trace elements in cloud water and precipitation collected on Mt. Mansfield, Vermont.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, Elizabeth G; Keeler, Gerald J; Lawson, Sean T; Sherbatskoy, Timothy D

    2003-08-01

    The lack of high quality measurements of Hg and trace elements in cloud and fog water led to the design of a new collector for clean sequential sampling of cloud and fog water. Cloud water was collected during nine non-precipitating cloud events on Mt. Mansfield, VT in the northeastern USA between August 1 and October 31, 1998. Sequential samples were collected during six of these events. Mercury cloud water concentrations ranged from 7.5 to 71.8 ng l(-1), with a mean of 24.8 ng l(-1). Liquid water content explained about 60% of the variability in Hg cloud concentrations. Highest Hg cloud water concentrations were found to be associated with transport from the Mid-Atlantic and Ohio River Valley, and lowest concentrations with transport from the north of Mt. Mansfield out of Canada. Twenty-nine event precipitation samples were collected during the ten-week cloud sampling period near the base of Mt. Mansfield as part of a long-term deposition study. The Hg concentrations of cloud water were similar to, but higher on average (median of 12.5 ng l(-1)) than Hg precipitation concentrations (median of 10.5 ng l(-1)). Cloud and precipitation samples were analyzed for fifteen trace elements including Mg, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb by ICP-MS. Mean concentrations were higher in cloud water than precipitation for elements with predominately anthropogenic, but not crustal origin in samples from the same source region. One possible explanation is greater in-cloud scavenging of crustal elements in precipitating than non-precipitating clouds, and greater below-cloud scavenging of crustal than anthropogenic aerosols. PMID:12948232

  16. OBSERVATIONS OF TRANSPORT OF TRACE GASES BY VIGOROUS CONVECTIVE CLOUDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cumulus convective clouds provide an important link between the mixed layer and the upper levels of the troposphere. resh boundary layer pollutants emitted naturally and anthropogenically can be transported to high altitudes during deep convective activity. he convective transpor...

  17. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES OF METAL-POOR RR LYRAE STARS IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Haschke, Raoul; Grebel, Eva K.; Duffau, Sonia; Frebel, Anna; Hansen, Camilla J.; Koch, Andreas

    2012-09-01

    We present for the first time a detailed spectroscopic study of chemical element abundances of metal-poor RR Lyrae stars in the Large and Small Magellanic Cloud (LMC and SMC). Using the MagE echelle spectrograph at the 6.5 m Magellan telescopes, we obtain medium resolution (R {approx} 2000-6000) spectra of six RR Lyrae stars in the LMC and three RR Lyrae stars in the SMC. These stars were chosen because their previously determined photometric metallicities were among the lowest metallicities found for stars belonging to the old populations in the Magellanic Clouds. We find the spectroscopic metallicities of these stars to be as low as [Fe/H]{sub spec} = -2.7 dex, the lowest metallicity yet measured for any star in the Magellanic Clouds. We confirm that for metal-poor stars, the photometric metallicities from the Fourier decomposition of the light curves are systematically too high compared to their spectroscopic counterparts. However, for even more metal-poor stars below [Fe/H]{sub phot} < -2.8 dex this trend is reversed and the spectroscopic metallicities are systematically higher than the photometric estimates. We are able to determine abundance ratios for 10 chemical elements (Fe, Na, Mg, Al, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Sr, and Ba), which extend the abundance measurements of chemical elements for RR Lyrae stars in the Clouds beyond [Fe/H] for the first time. For the overall [{alpha}/Fe] ratio, we obtain an overabundance of 0.36 dex, which is in very good agreement with results from metal-poor stars in the Milky Way halo as well as from the metal-poor tail in dwarf spheroidal galaxies. Comparing the abundances with those of the stars in the Milky Way halo we find that the abundance ratios of stars of both populations are consistent with another. Therefore, we conclude that from a chemical point of view early contributions from Magellanic-type galaxies to the formation of the Galactic halo as claimed in cosmological models are plausible.

  18. Time study of trace elements and major ions during two cloud events at the Mt. Brocken

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plessow, K.; Acker, K.; Heinrichs, H.; Möller, D.

    Cloud water investigations have been performed at the highest elevation of Central Germany in 1997. Results of extensive trace element measurements are presented. Besides conductivity, pH, liquid water content and major ions the data set includes 49 minor and trace elements. Estimation of crustal enrichment factors (EFs) provides an indication of the anthropogenic contributions to the cloud water concentrations. The variation of cloud composition with time has been illustrated for two selected events with different air mass origins. The chemical composition of the cloud condensation nuclei on which the droplets grow mainly determines the cloud water chemistry. For a cloud event in June 1997 the concentrations of the crustally derived elements Si, Al, Fe, Ti, Ce, La and Nd follow each other closely. The fact that SO 42-, NO 3- and NH 4+ are only moderately correlated with the particular pollutants with high enrichment factors such as Cd, Sb, Pb, Zn, Cu, As, Bi, Sn, Mo, Ni, Tl and V indicates that their source regions are more widespread. During an event in October 1997 the time trends for most minor and trace elements follow rather closely those for the major ions NH 4+, SO 42- and NO 3-. Back trajectories show that the transport from continental and marine European sources was the likely cause of the sample concentrations. EFs of trace elements in cloud water samples during the June and October event show a strong correlation with those obtained for urban particulate matter. Although both events are influenced by air masses of different origin, there is a good agreement between the EF signatures.

  19. Aerosol and Trace Gas Processing by Clouds During the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, X.; Berg, L.; Berkowitz, C.; Alexander, L.; Lee, Y.; Ogren, J.; Andrews, B.

    2008-12-01

    Clouds play an active role in the processing and cycling of atmospheric constituents. Gases and particles can partition to cloud droplets by absorption and condensation as well as activation and pact scavenging. The Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS) aimed at characterizing freshly emitted aerosols above, within and below fields of cumulus humilis (or fair-weather cumulus) in the vicinity of Oklahoma City. The experiment took place in June 2007. Evolution of aerosol and cloud properties downwind of the Oklahoma City is of particular interest in this project. These observations of a mid-size and mid-latitude city can be used in the development and evaluation of regional-scale and global climate model cumulus parameterizations that describes the transport and transformations of these aerosols by fair-weather cumulus. The Department of Energy (DOE) G-1 aircraft was one of the main platforms used in CHAPS. It carried a suite of instruments to measure properties of interstitial aerosols behind an isokinetic inlet and a set of duplicate instruments to determine properties of activated particles behind a counter-flow virtual impactor (CVI). The sampling line to the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer was switched between the isokinetic inlet and the CVI to allow characterization of interstitial particles out of clouds in contrast to particles activated in clouds. Trace gases including ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and a series of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were also measured as were key meteorological state parameters including liquid water content, cloud drop size, and dew point temperature were measured. This presentation will focus on results related to the transformation and transport of aerosols and trace gases observed in fair-weather cumulus and compare these results with concurrent observations made outside these clouds. Our interest will focus on the differences in particle size and composition under varying conditions. The role of

  20. Field Observations of the Processing of Organic Aerosol Particles and Trace Gases by Fogs and Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collett, J. L.; Herckes, P.

    2003-12-01

    In many environments, organic compounds account for a significant fraction of fine particle mass. Because the lifetimes of accumulation mode aerosol particles are governed largely by interactions with clouds, it is important to understand how organic aerosol particles are processed by clouds and fogs. Recently we have examined the organic composition of clouds and fogs in a variety of environments as well as how these fogs and clouds process organic aerosol particles and soluble organic trace gases. The investigations, conducted in Europe, North America, Central America, and the Pacific region, have included studies of polluted radiation fogs, orographic clouds in clean and polluted environments, and marine stratocumulus. Our results show that organic matter is a significant component of fog and cloud droplets. In polluted California radiation fogs, we observed concentrations of total organic carbon (TOC) ranging from 2 to 40 ppmC, with significantly lower concentrations measured in marine and continental clouds. An average of approximately 80 percent of organic matter was found in solution, while the remainder appears to be suspended material inside cloud and fog drops. Ultrafiltration measurements indicate that as much as half of the dissolved organic carbon is present in very large molecules with molecular weights in excess of 500 Daltons. Field measurements made using a two-stage cloud water collector reveal that organic matter tends to be enriched in smaller cloud or fog droplets. Consequently, removal of organic compounds by precipitating clouds or by direct cloud/fog drop deposition will be slowed due to the fact that small drops are incorporated less efficiently into precipitation and removed less efficiently by sedimentation or inertial impaction. Despite this trend, we have observed that sedimentation of droplets from long-lived radiation fogs provides a very effective mechanism for cleansing the atmosphere of carbonaceous aerosol particles, with organic

  1. An Overview of Current Issues in the Uptake of Atmospheric Trace Gasses by Aerosols and Clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, C. E.; Cox, R. A.; Abbatt, JPD; Ammann, M.; Davis, E. J.; Donaldson, D. J.; Garrett, Bruce C.; George, C.; Griffiths, T.; Hanson, D. R.; Kulmala, M.; McFiggans, Gordon; Poschl, U.; Riipinen, I.; Rossi, M.; Rudich, Yinon; Wagner, P. E.; Winkler, Paul J.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; O'Dowd, C. D.

    2010-11-10

    A workshop was held in the framework of the ACCENT (Atmospheric Composition Change a European Network) Joint Research Programme on Aerosols and the Programme on Access to Laboratory Data. The aim of the workshop was to hold ‘Gordon Conference’ type discussion covering accommodation and reactive uptake of water vapour and trace pollutant gases on condensed phase atmospheric materials. The scope was to review and define the current state of knowledge of accommodation coefficients for water vapour on water droplet and ice surfaces, and uptake of trace gas species on a variety of different surfaces characteristic of the atmospheric condensed phase particulate matter and cloud droplets. Twenty-six scientists participated in this meeting through presentations, discussions and the development of a consensus review. In this review we present an analysis of the state of knowledge on the thermal and mass accommodation coefficient for water vapour on aqueous droplets and ice and a survey of current state-of the-art of reactive uptake of trace gases on a range of liquid and solid atmospheric droplets and particles. The review recommends consistent definitions of the various parameters that are needed for quantitative representation of the range of gas/condensed surface kinetic processes important for the atmosphere and identifies topics that require additional research.

  2. Beyond Survival: Tracing Individual Empowerment Processes in a Poor Chilean Settlement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turro, Claudia; Krause, Mariane

    2009-01-01

    Based on the life histories of residents from La Victoria, a poor settlement in Santiago, Chile, this study reconstructed the central biographic elements in individual empowerment processes, linking them with the sociocultural context in which they occurred. Results show the following main characteristics related to individual empowerment:…

  3. Dynamics of different layers traced by [C ii] and CO in bright-rimmed clouds in IC 1396

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Y.; Güsten, R.; Röllig, M.; Stutzki, J.; Klein, T.; Ishihara, D.

    2016-05-01

    We mapped 4 bright-rimmed clouds in IC 1396 in the veloci-ty-resolved [C ii] 158 μm emission, and analyzed the dynamics of gas components traced by [C ii] and CO. In all rims the [C ii] emission is not fully reproduced by the CO line profile, indicating a complex origin of the line emission including ablating material.

  4. Concentrations and solubility of trace elements in fine particles at a mountain site, southern China: regional sources and cloud processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, T.; Wang, Y.; Li, W. J.; Chen, J. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, W. X.

    2015-08-01

    The concentrations and solubility of twelve trace elements in PM2.5 at Mt. Lushan, southern China, were investigated during the summer of 2011 and the spring of 2012. The average PM2.5 mass was 55.2 ± 20.1 μg m-3 during the observation period. Temporal variations of all trace elements including total and water-soluble fractions with several dust storm spikes in total fractions of Al and Fe were observed. The enrichment factor (EF) values were 1 order of magnitude higher for the water-soluble fractions versus the total fractions of trace elements. Four major emission sources, namely nonferrous metal mining and smelting (for Cr, As, Ba and parts of Zn), coal combustion (for Pb, Zn, Se, Cu and Mn), crustal materials (for Al and Fe) and municipal solid waste incineration (for Cd and Mo), were classified by principal component analysis (PCA). Trajectory cluster analysis and the potential source contribution function (PSCF) consistently identified the Yangtze River delta (YRD), the Pearl River delta (PRD), and the neighbouring provinces of Mt. Lushan as the major source regions and transport pathways for anthropogenic elements. Northern China was identified as a major source region for crustal elements. It should be noted that apart from the YRD, the area around Mt. Lushan has become the most significant contributor to the solubility of most trace elements. Element solubility can be partially determined by emission sources. However, enhanced solubility of trace elements corresponding to increased concentrations of sulfate after the occurrence of cloud events indicated significant effects of cloud processing on aerosol element dissolution. Metal particles mixed with sulfate in cloud droplet residues were further investigated through transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Irreversible alteration of particle morphology by cloud processing was confirmed to be highly responsible for the enhancement of trace element solubility. The findings from this study imply an

  5. Concentrations and solubility of trace elements in fine particles at a mountain site, southern China: regional sources and cloud processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, T.; Wang, Y.; Li, W. J.; Chen, J. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, W. X.

    2015-05-01

    The concentrations and solubility of twelve trace elements in PM2.5 at Mt. Lushan, southern China, were investigated during the summer of 2011 and the spring of 2012. The average PM2.5 mass was 55.2 ± 20.1 μg m-3 during the observation period. Temporal variations of all trace elements including total and water-soluble fractions with several dust storm spikes for total fraction Al and Fe were observed. The enrichment factor (EF) values were one order of magnitude higher for the water-soluble fractions vs. the total fractions of trace elements. Four major emission sources were classified by principal component analysis (PCA), namely nonferrous metal mining and smelting (for Cr, As, Ba and parts of Zn), coal combustion (for Pb, Zn, Se, Cu and Mn), crustal materials (for Al and Fe) and municipal solid waste incineration (for Cd and Mo). Trajectory cluster analysis and the potential source contribution function (PSCF) consistently identified the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), the Pearl River Delta (PRD) and parts of Hunan and Jiangxi as the major source regions and pathways for anthropogenic elements, while northern China was identified for crustal elements. In contrast, the local Jiangxi area has become the most significant contributor to the solubility of most trace elements, apart from the YRD with severe air pollution. In addition, the solubility alteration of trace elements in cloud events was investigated and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis indicated that the irreversible alteration of particle morphology by cloud processing was highly responsible for the enhancement of element solubility. Our work implies an important role of regional anthropogenic pollution and cloud processing in the evolution of trace element solubility during transport.

  6. Effects of Ice-Crystal Structure on Halo Formation: Cirrus Cloud Experimental and Ray-Tracing Modeling Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sassen, Kenneth; Knight, Nancy C.; Takano, Yoshihide; Heymsfield, Andrew J.

    1994-01-01

    During the 1986 Project FIRE (First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project Regional Experiment) field campaign, four 22 deg halo-producing cirrus clouds were studied jointly from a ground-based polarization lidar and an instrumented aircraft. The lidar data show the vertical cloud structure and the relative position of the aircraft, which collected a total of 84 slides by impaction, preserving the ice crystals for later microscopic examination. Although many particles were too fragile to survive impaction intact, a large fraction of the identifiable crystals were columns and radial bullet rosettes, with both displaying internal cavitations and radial plate-column combinations. Particles that were solid or displayed only a slight amount of internal structure were relatively rare, which shows that the usual model postulated by halo theorists, i.e., the randomly oriented, solid hexagonal crystal, is inappropriate for typical cirrus clouds. With the aid of new ray-tracing simulations for hexagonal hollow-ended column and bullet-rosette models, we evaluate the effects of more realistic ice-crystal structures on halo formation and lidar depolarization and consider why the common halo is not more common in cirrus clouds.

  7. Evaluation of trace elements contamination in cloud/fog water at an elevated mountain site in Northern China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-huan; Wai, Ka-ming; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Jie; Li, Peng-hui; Guo, Jia; Xu, Peng-ju; Wang, Wen-xing

    2012-07-01

    Totally 117 cloud/fog water samples were collected at the summit of Mt. Tai (1534m a.s.l.)-the highest mountain in the Northern China Plain. The results were investigated by a combination of techniques including back trajectory model, regional air quality and dust storm models, satellite observations and Principal Component Analysis. Elemental concentrations were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry, with stringent quality control measures. Higher elemental concentrations were found at Mt. Tai compared with those reported by other overseas studies. The larger proportions and higher concentrations of toxic elements such as Pb and As in cloud/fog water compared with those in rainwater at Mt. Tai suggests higher potential hazards of cloud/fog water as a source of contamination in polluted areas to the ecosystem. Peak concentrations of trace elements were frequently observed during the onset of cloud/fog events when liquid water contents of cloud/fog water were usually low and large amount of pollutants were accumulated in the ambient air. Inverse relationship between elemental concentrations and liquid water contents were only found in the samples with high electrical conductivities and liquid water contents lower than 0.3gm(-3). Affected mainly by the emissions of steel industries and mining activities, air masses transported from south/southwest of Mt. Tai were frequently associated with higher elemental concentrations. The element Mn is attributed to play an important role in the acidity of cloud/fog water. The composition of cloud/fog water influenced by an Asian dust storm event was reported, which was seldom found in the literature. PMID:22503636

  8. GBT Search for HI Clouds Tracing the Nuclear Wind of the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corneilus Harrington, Kevin; Lockman, Felix J.; McClure-Griffiths, Naomi M.; Ford, Alyson; Endsley, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    We present 21cm HI observations of the Galactic Center (GC) from a survey that is studying the neutral gas embedded in the Fermi Bubble. Using the 100-meter Green Bank Telescope (GBT), this work expands upon the previous ATCA survey of the central 5x5 sq. deg of the GC. In the GBT data we find almost 300 clouds in HI emission that are likely to be associated with the nuclear wind. This increases the known population by a factor ~3, and includes the highest velocity clouds found at the observed galactic latitudes. Neutral clouds likely associated with the hot wind are found to distances of 1.4 kpc from the nucleus, and the average mass in HI is about 300 Msun. Analysis of the cloud kinematics provide limits on the wind velocity, opening angle, and lifetime of neutral clouds in a hot wind.

  9. Aerosol, Cloud and Trace Gas Observations Derived from Airborne Hyperspectral Radiance and Direct Beam Measurements in Recent Field Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redemann, J.; Flynn, C. J.; Shinozuka, Y.; Kacenelenbogen, M.; Segal-Rosenheimer, M.; LeBlanc, S.; Russell, P. B.; Livingston, J. M.; Schmid, B.; Dunagan, S. E.; Johnson, R. R.

    2014-01-01

    The AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) ground-based suite of sunphotometers provides measurements of spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD), precipitable water and spectral sky radiance, which can be inverted to retrieve aerosol microphysical properties that are critical to assessments of aerosol-climate interactions. Because of data quality criteria and sampling constraints, there are significant limitations to the temporal and spatial coverage of AERONET data and their representativeness for global aerosol conditions. The 4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research) instrument, jointly developed by NASA Ames and PNNL with NASA Goddard collaboration, combines airborne sun tracking and AERONET-like sky scanning with spectroscopic detection. Being an airborne instrument, 4STAR has the potential to fill gaps in the AERONET data set. Dunagan et al. [2013] present results establishing the performance of the instrument, along with calibration, engineering flight test, and preliminary scientific field data. The 4STAR instrument operated successfully in the SEAC4RS [Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys] experiment in Aug./Sep. 2013 aboard the NASA DC-8 and in the DoE [Department of Energy]-sponsored TCAP [Two Column Aerosol Project, July 2012 & Feb. 2013] experiment aboard the DoE G-1 aircraft (Shinozuka et al., 2013), and acquired a wealth of data in support of mission objectives on all SEAC4RS and TCAP research flights. 4STAR provided direct beam measurements of hyperspectral AOD, columnar trace gas retrievals (H2O, O3, NO2; Segal-Rosenheimer et al., 2014), and the first ever airborne hyperspectral sky radiance scans, which can be inverted to yield the same products as AERONET ground-based observations. In addition, 4STAR measured zenith radiances underneath cloud decks for retrievals of cloud optical depth and effective diameter. In this presentation, we provide an overview of the new

  10. Reddening and age of six poorly studied star clusters of the Large Magellanic Cloud derived from integrated spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minniti, J. H.; Ahumada, A. V.; Clariá, J. J.; Benítez-Llambay, A.

    2014-05-01

    Aims: To increase the number of studied star clusters (SCs) of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), we present flux-calibrated integrated spectra in the optical range (λ = 3700-6800 Å) for six poorly studied LMC SCs of IVA type. This type corresponds to the age range between 200 and 400 Myr. We also aim at creating a new template spectrum representative of this age range at the metallicity level of the LMC. Methods: Foreground reddening E(B - V) values and ages are derived by applying the template matching method that consists of comparing the line strengths and continuum distribution of the cluster spectra with those of template cluster spectra with known properties. The equivalent width (EW) of the Balmer lines and the diagnostic diagrams involving the sum of EWs of selected spectral lines were also employed as age indicators. Results: For the first time, we provide estimates of the clusters' reddenings and ages. As expected, all the clusters appear to be of nearly the same age, their mean value being (400 ± 100) Myr, while the resulting mean E(B - V) values range between 0.00 and 0.10 mag. Conclusions: The present cluster sample complements previous ones in an effort to gather a spectral library with several clusters per age bin. By averaging the reddening-corrected integrated spectra, weighted by their signal-to-noise ratios (S/N), a new high S/N template spectrum of 400 Myr has been created. Integrated spectra for each star cluster are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/565/A49

  11. Deposition of trace substances via cloud droplets in the Atlantic Rain Forest of the Serra Do Mar, São Paulo State, SE Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vautz, W.; Pahl, S.; Pilger, H.; Schilling, M.; Klockow, D.

    The Atlantic Rain Forest of the Serra do Mar close to Cubatão, São Paulo State, SE Brazil, is severely affected by the emissions of a big industrial complex. Measurements of trace substance concentrations in air as well as in rain were carried out over a period of 6 years to investigate the interrelation of pollution and vegetation damage. Due to the local atmospheric circulation, orographic clouds occur very frequently at the top of the Serra do Mar, where vegetation damage also is very high. Therefore, additional information was required about trace substance deposition via cloud water. During three field experiments, various samples of cloud water and of the interstitial aerosol were taken by help of a sampling device especially modified for this purpose, and were analysed for the major anions and cations (hydrogen ions, ammonium, chloride, sodium, nitrate and sulphate). The trace substance concentrations found in cloud water were in the same range as for polluted sites in Europe. Over all samples, about 90-100% of the trace substances—both gaseous and particulate matter—found in the atmosphere before a cloud event were found in the cloud water. A resistance model using meteorological input data (wind speed, atmospheric liquid water content) was adapted to the characteristics of the Atlantic Rain Forest to estimate the cloud water deposition to vegetation. The results from cloud water analyses and from modelled cloud water deposition were combined to investigate the ion deposition to the vegetation. A rough estimate of the annual deposition showed, that the deposition via rain is in the order of one magnitude (factor 6-40) higher than that via cloud. The high amount of water deposition via precipitation overcompensates the higher trace substance concentrations in cloud water. Furthermore the trace substance deposition to vegetation via cloud water in the Atlantic Rain Forest is in the order of one magnitude lower than for typical German spruce forests due

  12. Overview of 3D-TRACE, a NASA Initiative in Three-Dimensional Tomography of the Aerosol-Cloud Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Anthony; Diner, David; Yanovsky, Igor; Garay, Michael; Xu, Feng; Bal, Guillaume; Schechner, Yoav; Aides, Amit; Qu, Zheng; Emde, Claudia

    2013-04-01

    microphysical properties, can be reconstructed from multi-angle/multi-spectral imaging radiometry and, more and more, polarimetry. Specific technologies of interest are computed tomography (reconstruction from projections), optical tomography (using cross-pixel radiation transport in the diffusion limit), stereoscopy (depth/height retrievals), blind source and scale separation (signal unmixing), and disocclusion (information recovery in the presence of obstructions). Later on, these potentially powerful inverse problem solutions will be fully integrated in a versatile satellite data analysis toolbox. At present, we can report substantial progress at the component level. Specifically, we will focus on the most elementary problems in atmospheric tomography with an emphasis on the vastly under-exploited class of multi-pixel techniques. One basic problem is to infer the outer shape and mean opacity of 3D clouds, along with a bulk measure of cloud particle size. Another is to separate high and low cloud layers based on their characteristically different spatial textures. Yet another is to reconstruct the 3D spatial distribution of aerosol density based on passive imaging. This suite of independent feasibility studies amounts to a compelling proofof- concept for the ambitious 3D-Tomographic Reconstruction of the Aerosol-Cloud Environment (3D-TRACE) project as a whole.

  13. Implementation of Cloud Retrievals for Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) Atmospheric Retrievals: Part 1. Description and Characterization of Errors on Trace Gas Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulawik, Susan S.; Worden, John; Eldering, Annmarie; Bowman, Kevin; Gunson, Michael; Osterman, Gregory B.; Zhang, Lin; Clough, Shepard A.; Shephard, Mark W.; Beer, Reinhard

    2006-01-01

    We develop an approach to estimate and characterize trace gas retrievals in the presence of clouds in high spectral measurements of upwelling radiance in the infrared spectral region (650-2260/cm). The radiance contribution of clouds is parameterized in terms of a set of frequency-dependent nonscattering optical depths and a cloud height. These cloud parameters are retrieved jointly with surface temperature, emissivity, atmospheric temperature, and trace gases such as ozone from spectral data. We demonstrate the application of this approach using data from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) and test data simulated with a scattering radiative transfer model. We show the value of this approach in that it results in accurate estimates of errors for trace gas retrievals, and the retrieved values improve over the initial guess for a wide range of cloud conditions. Comparisons are made between TES retrievals of ozone, temperature, and water to model fields from the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO), temperature retrievals from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), tropospheric ozone columns from the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) GEOS-Chem, and ozone retrievals from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). In each of these cases, this cloud retrieval approach does not introduce observable biases into TES retrievals.

  14. Disk Tracing for B[e] Supergiants in the Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maravelias, G.; Kraus, M.; Aret, A.

    2015-12-01

    B[e] supergiants are evolved massive stars with a complex circumstellar environment. A number of important emission features probe the structure and the kinematics of the circumstellar material. In our survey of Magellanic Cloud B[e] supergiants we focus on the [OI] and [CaII] emission lines, which we identified in four more objects.

  15. Tracing the Magnetic Field Morphology of the Lupus I Molecular Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, G. A. P.; Alves, F. O.

    2015-07-01

    Deep R-band CCD linear polarimetry collected for fields with lines of sight toward the Lupus I molecular cloud is used to investigate the properties of the magnetic field within this molecular cloud. The observed sample contains about 7000 stars, almost 2000 of them with a polarization signal-to-noise ratio larger than 5. These data cover almost the entire main molecular cloud and also sample two diffuse infrared patches in the neighborhood of Lupus I. The large-scale pattern of the plane-of-sky projection of the magnetic field is perpendicular to the main axis of Lupus I, but parallel to the two diffuse infrared patches. A detailed analysis of our polarization data combined with the Herschel/SPIRE 350 μm dust emission map shows that the principal filament of Lupus I is constituted by three main clumps that are acted on by magnetic fields that have different large-scale structural properties. These differences may be the reason for the observed distribution of pre- and protostellar objects along the molecular cloud and the cloud’s apparent evolutionary stage. On the other hand, assuming that the magnetic field is composed of large-scale and turbulent components, we find that the latter is rather similar in all three clumps. The estimated plane-of-sky component of the large-scale magnetic field ranges from about 70 to 200 μG in these clumps. The intensity increases toward the Galactic plane. The mass-to-magnetic flux ratio is much smaller than unity, implying that Lupus I is magnetically supported on large scales. Based on observations collected at the Observatório do Pico dos Dias, operated by Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica (LNA/MCTI, Brazil).

  16. Trace Level Arsenic Quantification through Cloud Point Extraction: Application to Biological and Environmental Samples

    PubMed Central

    Suresh Kumar, Kempahanumakkagari; Pandurangappa, Malingappa

    2012-01-01

    A sensitive solvent-free extraction protocol for the quantification of arsenic at trace level has been described. It is based on the reaction of arsenic (V) with molybdate in acidic medium in presence of antimony (III) and ascorbic acid as a reducing agent to form a blue-colored arsenomolybdenum blue complex. The complex has been extracted into surfactant phase using Triton X-114, and its absorbance was measured at 690 nm. The detection limit, working range, and the relative standard deviation were found to be 1 ng mL−1, 10–200 ng mL−1, and 1.2%, respectively. The effect of common ions was studied, and the method has been applied to determine trace levels of As(III) and As(V) from a variety of samples like environmental, biological, and commercially procured chemicals. PMID:22666159

  17. Cloud point extraction for trace inorganic arsenic speciation analysis in water samples by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shan; Wang, Mei; Zhong, Yizhou; Zhang, Zehua; Yang, Bingyi

    2015-09-01

    A new cloud point extraction technique was established and used for the determination of trace inorganic arsenic species in water samples combined with hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HGAFS). As(III) and As(V) were complexed with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate and molybdate, respectively. The complexes were quantitatively extracted with the non-ionic surfactant (Triton X-114) by centrifugation. After addition of antifoam, the surfactant-rich phase containing As(III) was diluted with 5% HCl for HGAFS determination. For As(V) determination, 50% HCl was added to the surfactant-rich phase, and the mixture was placed in an ultrasonic bath at 70 °C for 30 min. As(V) was reduced to As(III) with thiourea-ascorbic acid solution, followed by HGAFS. Under the optimum conditions, limits of detection of 0.009 and 0.012 μg/L were obtained for As(III) and As(V), respectively. Concentration factors of 9.3 and 7.9, respectively, were obtained for a 50 mL sample. The precisions were 2.1% for As(III) and 2.3% for As(V). The proposed method was successfully used for the determination of trace As(III) and As(V) in water samples, with satisfactory recoveries.

  18. Growing evidence for a core formation threshold traced in Herschel Gould Belt survey clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Könyves , V.; André, Ph.; Schneider, N.; Palmeirim, P.; Arzoumanian, D.; Men'shchikov, A.

    2013-11-01

    It has already been suggested that a threshold in column density - or in visual extinction - may need to be exceeded to form dense cores and then protostars. Based on Herschel Gould Belt survey results in the Aquila and Orion B molecular cloud complexes we observe clear connection between the locations of the detected prestellar cores and their background column density values. This finding appears to support a core formation scenario where such threshold corresponds to the extinction above which interstellar filaments become gravitationally unstable and fragment into cores. In these two actively star-forming regions we find the vast majority of the gravitationally bound prestellar cores above a high column density of about (6-7) × 1021 cm-2 (AV ˜ 6-7). This limit similarly appears in the column density probability distribution function (PDF) of the regions as well. The spatial distribution of the protostars and young stellar objects (YSOs) also shows a tight connection with the densest sites of both clouds, as more than 70 % of them appear above the mentioned AV thresholds. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  19. Mid-J CO shock tracing observations of infrared dark clouds. I.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pon, A.; Caselli, P.; Johnstone, D.; Kaufman, M.; Butler, M. J.; Fontani, F.; Jiménez-Serra, I.; Tan, J. C.

    2015-05-01

    Infrared dark clouds (IRDCs) are dense, molecular structures in the interstellar medium that can harbour sites of high-mass star formation. IRDCs contain supersonic turbulence, which is expected to generate shocks that locally heat pockets of gas within the clouds. We present observations of the CO J = 8-7, 9-8, and 10-9 transitions, taken with the Herschel Space Observatory, towards four dense, starless clumps within IRDCs (C1 in G028.37+00.07, F1 and F2 in G034.43+0007, and G2 in G034.77-0.55). We detect the CO J = 8-7 and 9-8 transitions towards three of the clumps (C1, F1, and F2) at intensity levels greater than expected from photodissociation region (PDR) models. The average ratio of the 8-7 to 9-8 lines is also found to be between 1.6 and 2.6 in the three clumps with detections, significantly smaller than expected from PDR models. These low line ratios and large line intensities strongly suggest that the C1, F1, and F2 clumps contain a hot gas component not accounted for by standard PDR models. Such a hot gas component could be generated by turbulence dissipating in low velocity shocks. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  20. Mid-J CO Shock Tracing Observations of Infrared Dark Clouds. III. SLED Fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pon, A.; Kaufman, M. J.; Johnstone, D.; Caselli, P.; Fontani, F.; Butler, M. J.; Jiménez-Serra, I.; Palau, A.; Tan, J. C.

    2016-08-01

    Giant molecular clouds contain supersonic turbulence that can locally heat small fractions of gas to over 100 K. We run shock models for low-velocity, C-type shocks propagating into gas with densities between 103 and 105 cm‑3 and find that CO lines are the most important cooling lines. Comparison to photodissociation region (PDR) models indicates that mid-J CO lines (J = 8 \\to 7 and higher) should be dominated by emission from shocked gas. In Papers I and II we presented CO J = 3 \\to 2, 8 \\to 7, and 9 \\to 8 observations toward four primarily quiescent clumps within infrared dark clouds. Here we fit PDR models to the combined spectral line energy distributions and show that the PDR models that best fit the low-J CO emission underpredict the mid-J CO emission by orders of magnitude, strongly hinting at a hot gas component within these clumps. The low-J CO data clearly show that the integrated intensities of both the CO J = 8 \\to 7 and 9 \\to 8 lines are anomalously high, such that the line ratio can be used to characterize the hot gas component. Shock models are reasonably consistent with the observed mid-J CO emission, with models with densities near {10}4.5 cm‑3 providing the best agreement. Where this mid-J CO is detected, the mean volume filling factor of the hot gas is 0.1%. Much of the observed mid-J CO emission, however, is also associated with known protostars and may be due to protostellar feedback.

  1. Tracing mantle-reacted fluids in magma-poor rifted margins: The example of Alpine Tethyan rifted margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Victor Hugo G.; Manatschal, Gianreto; Karpoff, Anne Marie; Viana, Adriano

    2015-09-01

    The thinning of the crust and the exhumation of subcontinental mantle in magma-poor rifted margins is accompanied by a series of extensional detachment faults. We show that exhumation along these detachments is intimately related to migration of fluids leading to changes in mineralogy and chemistry of the mantle, crustal, and sedimentary rocks. Using field observation and analytical methods, we investigate the role of fluids in the fossil distal margins of the Alpine Tethys. Using Cr-Ni-V, Fe, and Mn as tracers, we show that fluids used detachment faults as pathways and interacted with the overlying crust and sediments. These observations allow us to discuss when, where, and how this interaction happened during the formation of the rifted margin. The results show that: (i) serpentinization of mantle rocks during their exhumation results in the depletion of elements and migration of mantle-reacted fluids that are channeled along active detachment system; (ii) in earlier-stages, these fluids affected the overlying syntectonic sediments by direct migration from the underlying detachments;(iii) in later-stages, these fluids arrived at the seafloor, were introduced into, or "polluted" the seawater and were absorbed by post tectonic sediments. We conclude that a significant amount of serpentinization occurred underneath the hyperextended continental crust, and that the mantle-reacted fluids might have modified the chemical composition of the sediments and seawater. We propose that the chemical signature of serpentinization related to mantle exhumation is recorded in the sediments and may serve as a proxy to date serpentinization and mantle exhumation at present-day magma-poor rifted margins.

  2. Use of Incident and Reflected Solar Particle Beams to Trace the Topology of Magnetic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Lun C.; Malandraki, Olga E.; Reames, Donald V.; Ng, Chee K.; Wang, Linghua; Dorrian, Gareth

    2012-05-01

    Occasionally, large solar energetic particle (SEP) events occur inside magnetic clouds (MCs). In this work, the onset time analysis, the peak intensity analysis, and the decay phase analysis of SEPs are used to investigate two large SEP events inside MCs: the 1998 May 2 and 2002 April 21 events. The onset time analysis of non-relativistic electrons and ~MeV nucleon-1 heavy ions shows the stability of the magnetic loop structure during a period of a few hours in the events examined. The joint analysis of pitch-angle distributions and peak intensities of electrons exhibits that, depending on the particle pitch angle observed at 1 AU, in the April event the reflection point of particles may be distributed along a wide spatial range, implying that the magnetic loop is a magnetic bottle connected to the Sun with both legs. In contrast, in the May event particle reflection occurs abruptly at the magnetic mirror formed by a compressed field enhancement behind the interplanetary shock, consistent with its open field line topology.

  3. Use of incident and reflected solar particle beams to trace the topology of magnetic clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malandraki, O.; Tan, L.; Reames, D.; Ng, C.; Wang, L.; Dorrian, G.

    2012-04-01

    Occasionally, large solar energetic particle (SEP) events occur inside magnetic clouds (MCs). In this work the onset time analysis, the peak intensity analysis, and the decay phase analysis of SEPs are used to investigate two large SEP events inside MCs: the 1998 May 2 and 2002 April 21 events. The onset time analysis of non-relativistic electrons and ~MeVnucleon-1 heavy ions exhibits the stability of the magnetic loop structure during a period of a few hours in the events examined. The joint analysis of pitch-angle distributions (PADs) and peak intensities of electrons indicates that in the April event the reflected particles with nearly zero pitch-angle at 1 AU could reach the vicinity of the Sun, implying that the magnetic loop was a magnetic bottle connected to the Sun with both legs. In contrast, in the May event the magnetic mirror was formed by a compressed field enhancement behind the interplanetary shock driven by a preceding coronal mass ejection, being consistent with its open field line topology. We have also measured the anisotropy characteristic of SEPs in the solar wind frame. At the MC boundary the PADs of both non-relativistic electrons and ~MeVnucleon-1 heavy ions are nearly isotropic, suggesting a diffusive transport environment of SEPs there. This work has received funding from the European Commission FP7 Project COMESEP (263252)

  4. USE OF INCIDENT AND REFLECTED SOLAR PARTICLE BEAMS TO TRACE THE TOPOLOGY OF MAGNETIC CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Lun C.; Malandraki, Olga E.; Dorrian, Gareth; Reames, Donald V.; Ng, Chee K.; Wang Linghua

    2012-05-10

    Occasionally, large solar energetic particle (SEP) events occur inside magnetic clouds (MCs). In this work, the onset time analysis, the peak intensity analysis, and the decay phase analysis of SEPs are used to investigate two large SEP events inside MCs: the 1998 May 2 and 2002 April 21 events. The onset time analysis of non-relativistic electrons and {approx}MeV nucleon{sup -1} heavy ions shows the stability of the magnetic loop structure during a period of a few hours in the events examined. The joint analysis of pitch-angle distributions and peak intensities of electrons exhibits that, depending on the particle pitch angle observed at 1 AU, in the April event the reflection point of particles may be distributed along a wide spatial range, implying that the magnetic loop is a magnetic bottle connected to the Sun with both legs. In contrast, in the May event particle reflection occurs abruptly at the magnetic mirror formed by a compressed field enhancement behind the interplanetary shock, consistent with its open field line topology.

  5. A new WRF-Chem treatment for studying regional-scale impacts of cloud processes on aerosol and trace gases in parameterized cumuli

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Berg, L. K.; Shrivastava, M.; Easter, R. C.; Fast, J. D.; Chapman, E. G.; Liu, Y.; Ferrare, R. A.

    2015-02-24

    A new treatment of cloud effects on aerosol and trace gases within parameterized shallow and deep convection, and aerosol effects on cloud droplet number, has been implemented in the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) version 3.2.1 that can be used to better understand the aerosol life cycle over regional to synoptic scales. The modifications to the model include treatment of the cloud droplet number mixing ratio; key cloud microphysical and macrophysical parameters (including the updraft fractional area, updraft and downdraft mass fluxes, and entrainment) averaged over the population of shallow clouds, or a single deep convectivemore » cloud; and vertical transport, activation/resuspension, aqueous chemistry, and wet removal of aerosol and trace gases in warm clouds. These changes have been implemented in both the WRF-Chem chemistry packages as well as the Kain–Fritsch (KF) cumulus parameterization that has been modified to better represent shallow convective clouds. Testing of the modified WRF-Chem has been completed using observations from the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS). The simulation results are used to investigate the impact of cloud–aerosol interactions on regional-scale transport of black carbon (BC), organic aerosol (OA), and sulfate aerosol. Based on the simulations presented here, changes in the column-integrated BC can be as large as –50% when cloud–aerosol interactions are considered (due largely to wet removal), or as large as +40% for sulfate under non-precipitating conditions due to sulfate production in the parameterized clouds. The modifications to WRF-Chem are found to account for changes in the cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) and changes in the chemical composition of cloud droplet residuals in a way that is consistent with observations collected during CHAPS. Efforts are currently underway to port the changes described here to the latest version of WRF-Chem, and it

  6. A new WRF-Chem treatment for studying regional-scale impacts of cloud processes on aerosol and trace gases in parameterized cumuli

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, L. K.; Shrivastava, M.; Easter, R. C.; Fast, J. D.; Chapman, E. G.; Liu, Y.; Ferrare, R. A.

    2015-02-24

    A new treatment of cloud effects on aerosol and trace gases within parameterized shallow and deep convection, and aerosol effects on cloud droplet number, has been implemented in the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) version 3.2.1 that can be used to better understand the aerosol life cycle over regional to synoptic scales. The modifications to the model include treatment of the cloud droplet number mixing ratio; key cloud microphysical and macrophysical parameters (including the updraft fractional area, updraft and downdraft mass fluxes, and entrainment) averaged over the population of shallow clouds, or a single deep convective cloud; and vertical transport, activation/resuspension, aqueous chemistry, and wet removal of aerosol and trace gases in warm clouds. These changes have been implemented in both the WRF-Chem chemistry packages as well as the Kain–Fritsch (KF) cumulus parameterization that has been modified to better represent shallow convective clouds. Testing of the modified WRF-Chem has been completed using observations from the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS). The simulation results are used to investigate the impact of cloud–aerosol interactions on regional-scale transport of black carbon (BC), organic aerosol (OA), and sulfate aerosol. Based on the simulations presented here, changes in the column-integrated BC can be as large as –50% when cloud–aerosol interactions are considered (due largely to wet removal), or as large as +40% for sulfate under non-precipitating conditions due to sulfate production in the parameterized clouds. The modifications to WRF-Chem are found to account for changes in the cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) and changes in the chemical composition of cloud droplet residuals in a way that is consistent with observations collected during CHAPS. Efforts are currently underway to port the changes described here to the latest version of WRF-Chem, and it is

  7. Determination of trace uranium by resonance fluorescence method coupled with photo-catalytic technology and dual cloud point extraction.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiekang; Li, Guirong; Han, Qian

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, two kinds of salophens (Sal) with different solubilities, Sal1 and Sal2, have been respectively synthesized, and they all can combine with uranyl to form stable complexes: [UO2(2+)-Sal1] and [UO2(2+)-Sal2]. Among them, [UO2(2+)-Sal1] was used as ligand to extract uranium in complex samples by dual cloud point extraction (dCPE), and [UO2(2+)-Sal2] was used as catalyst for the determination of uranium by photocatalytic resonance fluorescence (RF) method. The photocatalytic characteristic of [UO2(2+)-Sal2] on the oxidized pyronine Y (PRY) by potassium bromate which leads to the decrease of RF intensity of PRY were studied. The reduced value of RF intensity of reaction system (ΔF) is in proportional to the concentration of uranium (c), and a novel photo-catalytic RF method was developed for the determination of trace uranium (VI) after dCPE. The combination of photo-catalytic RF techniques and dCPE procedure endows the presented methods with enhanced sensitivity and selectivity. Under optimal conditions, the linear calibration curves range for 0.067 to 6.57ngmL(-1), the linear regression equation was ΔF=438.0 c (ngmL(-1))+175.6 with the correlation coefficient r=0.9981. The limit of detection was 0.066ngmL(-1). The proposed method was successfully applied for the separation and determination of uranium in real samples with the recoveries of 95.0-103.5%. The mechanisms of the indicator reaction and dCPE are discussed. PMID:27380304

  8. The Magnetic Field of the L1544 Starless Dark Cloud, Traced Using Near-Infrared Background Starlight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemens, Dan P.; Goldsmith, Paul; Tassis, Konstantinos

    2016-06-01

    What roles do interstellar magnetic fields play in star formation processes? We have studied the B-field of L1544, a dark cloud with a starless dense core showing active gas infall, and located only 140 pc away in Taurus, via deep near-infrared (NIR) imaging polarimetry with the Mimir instrument. We find the B-field orientations in the plane of the sky change significantly at L1544, mimicking its shape and extent. The elongated spine of L1544 is also where the dispersion of NIR linear polarization position angles is smallest, suggesting strengthening of the B-field. Archival WISE, SCUPOL, Herschel, and Planck data were analyzed to characterize dust extinction and emission across L1544 and the field around it. Three-dimensional modeling, constrained through matching two-dimensional integrated model properties to observed dust distributions, led us to develop maps of effective gas mass densities and non-thermal gas velocity dispersions. These were combined with the NIR polarimetry, under the Chandrasekhar & Fermi (1953) approach, to yield a map of B-field strength across the entire 400 sq-arcmin region surveyed. The trends of B-field strength with gas volume density, mass-to-flux ratio with radius, and plane-of-sky B-field strengths with Zeeman-traced line-of-sight B-field strengths were found and compared to previous published work to establish the role of B-fields in L1544. We find field strengths in the 3 - 30 uG range, quite similar to the OH Zeeman values found by Crutcher et al. (2009) for L1544.This work was partially supported by grants to Boston University from NSF (AST-0907790, 1412269) and NASA (NNX15AE51G).

  9. Airship measurements of aerosol size distributions, cloud droplet spectra, and trace gas concentrations in the marine boundary layers

    SciTech Connect

    Frick, G.M.; Hoppel, W.A. )

    1993-11-01

    The use of an airship as a platform to conduct atmospheric chemistry, aerosol, and cloud microphysical research is described, and results from demonstration flights made off the Oregon coast are presented. The slow speed of the airship makes it an ideal platform to do high-spatial resolution profiling both vertically and horizontally, and to measure large aerosol and cloud droplet distributions without the difficulties caused by high-speed aircraft sampling. A unique set of data obtained during the demonstration flights show the effect that processing marine boundary layer aerosol through stratus clouds has on the aerosol size distribution. Evidence of new particle formation (nucleation of particles) was also observed on about half the days on which flights were made. 11 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  10. CU AMAX-DOAS applications in cloud-free and cloudy atmospheres: innovative Scattered Sun Light observations of trace gases and aerosol extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkamer, R.; Baidar, S.; Coburn, S.; Dix, B. K.; Oetjen, H.; Ortega, I.; Sinreich, R.; Atmospeclab

    2011-12-01

    An innovative airborne scanning multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (CU AMAX-DOAS) instrument has been developed at the University of Colorado, Boulder. The instrument collects scattered sunlight spectra in a sequence of discrete viewing angles, and employs the DOAS method (inherently calibrated, and selective) to simultaneously retrieve multiple trace gases, e.g., nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrous acid (HONO), formaldehyde (HCHO), glyoxal (CHOCHO), bromine oxide (BrO), iodine oxide (IO), chlorine dioxide (OClO), water vapor (H2O), and oxygen dimers (O4, at 360nm, 477nm, and 632nm) differential slant column densities (dSCD). Vertical profiles of these gases and multi-spectral aerosol extinction are inferred by combining Monte-Carlo Radiative Transfer Modelling (RTM) and optimal estimation techniques to construct a model atmosphere that can in principle represent 3D clouds and aerosols. The atmospheric state of this model atmosphere is constrained by observations of O4 dSCDs, Raman Scattering Probability (RSP), and intensity ratios, i.e., quantities that depend solely on relative intensity changes, without need for a direct sun view, or absolute radiance calibration. We show results from ongoing validation efforts (NOAA TwinOtter aircraft during CalNex and CARES), and demonstrate vertical profile retrievals (NSF/NCAR GV over the tropical Pacific Ocean) in both cloud-free and cloudy atmospheres.

  11. Dual cloud point extraction coupled with hydrodynamic-electrokinetic two-step injection followed by micellar electrokinetic chromatography for simultaneous determination of trace phenolic estrogens in water samples.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yingying; Li, Jinhua; Liu, Junshen; Lu, Wenhui; Ma, Jiping; Chen, Lingxin

    2013-07-01

    A dual cloud point extraction (dCPE) off-line enrichment procedure coupled with a hydrodynamic-electrokinetic two-step injection online enrichment technique was successfully developed for simultaneous preconcentration of trace phenolic estrogens (hexestrol, dienestrol, and diethylstilbestrol) in water samples followed by micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) analysis. Several parameters affecting the extraction and online injection conditions were optimized. Under optimal dCPE-two-step injection-MEKC conditions, detection limits of 7.9-8.9 ng/mL and good linearity in the range from 0.05 to 5 μg/mL with correlation coefficients R(2) ≥ 0.9990 were achieved. Satisfactory recoveries ranging from 83 to 108% were obtained with lake and tap water spiked at 0.1 and 0.5 μg/mL, respectively, with relative standard deviations (n = 6) of 1.3-3.1%. This method was demonstrated to be convenient, rapid, cost-effective, and environmentally benign, and could be used as an alternative to existing methods for analyzing trace residues of phenolic estrogens in water samples. PMID:23657452

  12. Assessment of the Accuracy of the Conventional Ray-Tracing Technique: Implications in Remote Sensing and Radiative Transfer Involving Ice Clouds.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bi, Lei; Yang, Ping; Liu, Chao; Yi, Bingqi; Baum, Bryan A.; Van Diedenhoven, Bastiaan; Iwabuchi, Hironobu

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental problem in remote sensing and radiative transfer simulations involving ice clouds is the ability to compute accurate optical properties for individual ice particles. While relatively simple and intuitively appealing, the conventional geometric-optics method (CGOM) is used frequently for the solution of light scattering by ice crystals. Due to the approximations in the ray-tracing technique, the CGOM accuracy is not well quantified. The result is that the uncertainties are introduced that can impact many applications. Improvements in the Invariant Imbedding T-matrix method (II-TM) and the Improved Geometric-Optics Method (IGOM) provide a mechanism to assess the aforementioned uncertainties. The results computed by the II-TMþIGOM are considered as a benchmark because the IITM solves Maxwell's equations from first principles and is applicable to particle size parameters ranging into the domain at which the IGOM has reasonable accuracy. To assess the uncertainties with the CGOM in remote sensing and radiative transfer simulations, two independent optical property datasets of hexagonal columns are developed for sensitivity studies by using the CGOM and the II-TMþIGOM, respectively. Ice cloud bulk optical properties obtained from the two datasets are compared and subsequently applied to retrieve the optical thickness and effective diameter from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements. Additionally, the bulk optical properties are tested in broadband radiative transfer (RT) simulations using the general circulation model (GCM) version of the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTMG) that is adopted in the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmosphere Model (CAM, version 5.1). For MODIS retrievals, the mean bias of uncertainties of applying the CGOM in shortwave bands (0.86 and 2.13 micrometers) can be up to 5% in the optical thickness and as high as 20% in the effective diameter, depending on cloud optical

  13. Assessment of the accuracy of the conventional ray-tracing technique: Implications in remote sensing and radiative transfer involving ice clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Lei; Yang, Ping; Liu, Chao; Yi, Bingqi; Baum, Bryan A.; van Diedenhoven, Bastiaan; Iwabuchi, Hironobu

    2014-10-01

    A fundamental problem in remote sensing and radiative transfer simulations involving ice clouds is the ability to compute accurate optical properties for individual ice particles. While relatively simple and intuitively appealing, the conventional geometric-optics method (CGOM) is used frequently for the solution of light scattering by ice crystals. Due to the approximations in the ray-tracing technique, the CGOM accuracy is not well quantified. The result is that the uncertainties are introduced that can impact many applications. Improvements in the Invariant Imbedding T-matrix method (II-TM) and the Improved Geometric-Optics Method (IGOM) provide a mechanism to assess the aforementioned uncertainties. The results computed by the II-TM+IGOM are considered as a benchmark because the II-TM solves Maxwells equations from first principles and is applicable to particle size parameters ranging into the domain at which the IGOM has reasonable accuracy. To assess the uncertainties with the CGOM in remote sensing and radiative transfer simulations, two independent optical property datasets of hexagonal columns are developed for sensitivity studies by using the CGOM and the II-TM+IGOM, respectively. Ice cloud bulk optical properties obtained from the two datasets are compared and subsequently applied to retrieve the optical thickness and effective diameter from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements. Additionally, the bulk optical properties are tested in broadband radiative transfer (RT) simulations using the general circulation model (GCM) version of the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTMG) that is adopted in the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmosphere Model (CAM, version 5.1). For MODIS retrievals, the mean bias of uncertainties of applying the CGOM in shortwave bands (0.86 and 2.13 μm) can be up to 5% in the optical thickness and as high as 20% in the effective diameter, depending on cloud optical thickness and

  14. Integrated ray tracing simulation of annual variation of spectral bio-signatures from cloud free 3D optical Earth model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Dongok; Kim, Sug-Whan; Kim, Dae Wook; Lee, Jae-Min; Lee, Hanshin; Park, Won Hyun; Seong, Sehyun; Ham, Sun-Jeong

    2010-09-01

    Understanding the Earth spectral bio-signatures provides an important reference datum for accurate de-convolution of collapsed spectral signals from potential earth-like planets of other star systems. This study presents a new ray tracing computation method including an improved 3D optical earth model constructed with the coastal line and vegetation distribution data from the Global Ecological Zone (GEZ) map. Using non-Lambertian bidirectional scattering distribution function (BSDF) models, the input earth surface model is characterized with three different scattering properties and their annual variations depending on monthly changes in vegetation distribution, sea ice coverage and illumination angle. The input atmosphere model consists of one layer with Rayleigh scattering model from the sea level to 100 km in altitude and its radiative transfer characteristics is computed for four seasons using the SMART codes. The ocean scattering model is a combination of sun-glint scattering and Lambertian scattering models. The land surface scattering is defined with the semi empirical parametric kernel method used for MODIS and POLDER missions. These three component models were integrated into the final Earth model that was then incorporated into the in-house built integrated ray tracing (IRT) model capable of computing both spectral imaging and radiative transfer performance of a hypothetical space instrument as it observes the Earth from its designated orbit. The IRT model simulation inputs include variation in earth orientation, illuminated phases, and seasonal sea ice and vegetation distribution. The trial simulation runs result in the annual variations in phase dependent disk averaged spectra (DAS) and its associated bio-signatures such as NDVI. The full computational details are presented together with the resulting annual variation in DAS and its associated bio-signatures.

  15. Origins of the thick disk of the Milky Way Galaxy as traced by the elemental abundances of metal-poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruchti, Gregory Randal

    2010-12-01

    Understanding the formation and evolution of disks in galaxies in the early universe is very important for understanding the forms of galaxies today. Recent studies of the Milky Way Galaxy, an ideal galaxy for analyzing individual stars within its disk, indicate that the formation of the Galactic disk is very complex. Most of these studies, however, contain very few stars at low metallicities. Metal-poor stars are important, because they are potential survivors of the earliest star formation in the disk of the Milky Way Galaxy. I therefore measured elemental abundances of a statistically significant sample of metal-poor ([Fe/H] ≲ - 1.0) stars in the disk of the Galaxy, chosen from the RAVE survey in order to study the early formation history of the Galactic disk. I report on a sample of 214 red giant branch, 31 red clump/horizontal branch, and 74 dwarf/sub-giant metal-poor thick-disk candidate stars. I found that the [alpha/Fe] ratios are enhanced implying that enrichment proceeded by purely core-collapse supernovae. This requires that star formation in each star forming region had a short duration. The relative lack of scatter in the [alpha/Fe] ratios implies good mixing in the interstellar medium prior to star formation. In addition, the ratios resemble that of the halo, indicating that the halo and thick disk share a similar massive star initial mass function. I further looked for radial or vertical gradients in metallicity or alpha-enhancement for the metal-poor thick disk, never before done for such a sample. I found no radial gradient and a moderate vertical gradient in my derived iron abundance, and only minimal-amplitude gradients in [alpha/Fe]. In addition, I show that the distribution of orbital eccentricities for my metal-poor thick-disk stars requires that the thick disk was formed primarily in situ, with direct accretion being extremely minimal. I conclude that the alpha-enhancement of the metal-poor thick disk, and the lack of obvious radial or

  16. Spectrometers for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR) Upgrade to Full Sun-Sky-Cloud-Trace Gas Spectrometry Capability for Airborne Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunagan, S. E.; Flynn, C. J.; Johnson, R. R.; Kacenelenbogen, M. S.; Knobelspiesse, K. D.; LeBlanc, S. E.; Livingston, J. M.; Redemann, J.; Russell, P. B.; Schmid, B.; Segal-Rosenhaimer, M.; Shinozuka, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The Spectrometers for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR) instrument has been developed at NASA Ames in collaboration with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and NASA Goddard, supported substantially since 2009 by NASA's Radiation Science Program and Earth Science Technology Office. It combines grating spectrometers with fiber optic links to a tracking, scanning head to enable sun tracking, sky scanning, and zenith viewing. 4STAR builds on the long and productive heritage of the NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometers (AATS-6 and -14), which have yielded more than 100 peer-reviewed publications and extensive archived data sets in many NASA Airborne Science campaigns from 1986 to the present. The baseline 4STAR instrument has provided extensive data supporting the TCAP (Two Column Aerosol Project, July 2012 & Feb. 2013), SEAC4RS (Studies of Emissions, Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys, 2013), and ARISE (Arctic Radiation - IceBridge Sea and Ice Experiment, 2014), field campaigns.This poster presents plans and progress for an upgrade to the 4STAR instrument to achieve full science capability, including (1) direct-beam sun tracking measurements to derive aerosol optical depth spectra, (2) sky radiance measurements to retrieve aerosol absorption and type (via complex refractive index and mode-resolved size distribution), (3) cloud properties via zenith radiance, and (4) trace gas spectrometry. Technical progress in context with the governing physics is reported on several upgrades directed at improved light collection and usage, particularly as related to spectrally and radiometrically stable propagation through the collection light path. In addition, improvements to field calibration and verification, and flight operability and reliability are addressed.

  17. Trace gas measurements in nascent, aged, and cloud-processed smoke from African savanna fires by airborne Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (AFTIR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokelson, Robert J.; Bertschi, Isaac T.; Christian, Ted J.; Hobbs, Peter V.; Ward, Darold E.; Hao, Wei Min

    2003-07-01

    We measured stable and reactive trace gases with an airborne Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (AFTIR) on the University of Washington Convair-580 research aircraft in August/September 2000 during the SAFARI 2000 dry season campaign in Southern Africa. The measurements included vertical profiles of CO2, CO, H2O, and CH4 up to 5.5 km on six occasions above instrumented ground sites and below the TERRA satellite and ER-2 high-flying research aircraft. We also measured the trace gas emissions from 10 African savanna fires. Five of these fires featured extensive ground-based fuel characterization, and two were in the humid savanna ecosystem that accounts for most African biomass burning. The major constituents that we detected in nascent smoke were (in order of excess molar abundance) H2O, CO2, CO, CH4, NO2, NO, C2H4, CH3COOH, HCHO, CH3OH, HCN, NH3, HCOOH, and C2H2. These are the first quantitative measurements of the initial emissions of oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOC), NH3, and HCN from African savanna fires. On average, we measured 5.3 g/kg of OVOC and 3.6 g/kg of hydrocarbons (including CH4) in the initial emissions from the fires. Thus, the OVOC will have profound, largely unexplored effects on tropical tropospheric chemistry. The HCN emission factor was only weakly dependent on fire type; the average value (0.53 g/kg) is about 20 times that of a previous recommendation. HCN may be useful as a tracer for savanna fires. ΔO3/ΔCO and ΔCH3COOH/ΔCO increased to as much as 9% in <1 h of photochemical processing downwind of fires. Direct measurements showed that cloud processing of smoke greatly reduced CH3OH, NH3, CH3COOH, SO2, and NO2 levels, but significantly increased HCHO and NO.

  18. Trace Gas Measurements in Nascent, Aged and Cloud-processed Smoke from Africa Savanna Fires by Airborne Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (AFTIR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yokelson, Robert J.; Bertschi, Isaac T.; Christian, Ted J.; Hobbs, Peter V.; Ward, Darold E.; Hao, Wei Min

    2003-01-01

    We measured stable and reactive trace gases with an airborne Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (AFTIR) on the University of Washington Convair-580 research aircraft in August/September 2000 during the SAFARI 2000 dry season campaign in Southern Africa. The measurements included vertical profiles of C02, CO, H20, and CH4 up to 5.5 km on six occasions above instrumented ground sites and below the TERRA satellite and ER-2 high-flying research aircraft. We also measured the trace gas emissions from 10 African savanna fires. Five of these fires featured extensive ground-based fuel characterization, and two were in the humid savanna ecosystem that accounts for most African biomass burning. The major constituents we detected in nascent CH3OOH, HCHO, CH30H, HCN, NH3, HCOOH, and C2H2. These are the first quantitative measurements of the initial emissions of oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOC), NH3, and HCN from African savanna fires. On average, we measured 5.3 g/kg of OVOC and 3.6 g/kg of hydrocarbons (including CH4) in the initial emissions from the fires. Thus, the OVOC will have profound, largely unexplored effects on tropical tropospheric chemistry. The HCN emission factor was only weakly dependent on fire type; the average value (0.53 g/kg) is about 20 times that of a previous recommendation. HCN may be useful as a tracer for savanna fires. Delta O3/Delta CO and Delta CH3COO/Delta CO increased to as much as 9% in <1 h of photochemical processing downwind of fires. Direct measurements showed that cloud processing of smoke greatly reduced CH30H, NH3, CH3COOH, SO2, and NO2 levels, but significantly increased HCHO and NO.

  19. The VMC survey - XV. The Small Magellanic Cloud-Bridge connection history as traced by their star cluster populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, Andrés E.; de Grijs, Richard; Rubele, Stefano; Cioni, Maria-Rosa L.; Ripepi, Vincenzo; Kerber, Leandro

    2015-06-01

    We present results based on YJKs photometry of star clusters located in the outermost, eastern region of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We analysed a total of 51 catalogued clusters whose colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs), having been cleaned from field-star contamination, were used to assess the clusters' reality and estimate ages of the genuine systems. Based on CMD analysis, 15 catalogued clusters were found to be possible non-genuine aggregates. We investigated the properties of 80 per cent of the catalogued clusters in this part of the SMC by enlarging our sample with previously obtained cluster ages, adopting a homogeneous scale for all. Their spatial distribution suggests that the oldest clusters, log(t yr-1) ≥ 9.6, are in general located at greater distances to the galaxy's centre than their younger counterparts - 9.0 ≤ log(t yr-1) ≤ 9.4 - while two excesses of clusters are seen at log(t yr-1) ˜ 9.2 and log(t yr-1) ˜ 9.7. We found a trail of younger clusters which follow the wing/bridge components. This long spatial sequence does not only harbour very young clusters, log(t yr-1) ˜ 7.3, but it also hosts some of intermediate ages, log(t yr-1) ˜ 9.1. The derived cluster and field-star formation frequencies as a function of age are different. The most surprising feature is an observed excess of clusters with ages of log(t yr-1) < 9.0, which could have been induced by interactions with the LMC.

  20. Is atomic carbon a good tracer of molecular gas in metal-poor galaxies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, Simon C. O.; Clark, Paul C.

    2016-03-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is widely used as a tracer of molecular hydrogen (H2) in metal-rich galaxies, but is known to become ineffective in low-metallicity dwarf galaxies. Atomic carbon has been suggested as a superior tracer of H2 in these metal-poor systems, but its suitability remains unproven. To help us to assess how well atomic carbon traces H2 at low metallicity, we have performed a series of numerical simulations of turbulent molecular clouds that cover a wide range of different metallicities. Our simulations demonstrate that in star-forming clouds, the conversion factor between [C I] emission and H2 mass, XCI, scales approximately as XCI ∝ Z-1. We recover a similar scaling for the CO-to-H2 conversion factor, XCO, but find that at this point in the evolution of the clouds, XCO is consistently smaller than XCI, by a factor of a few or more. We have also examined how XCI and XCO evolve with time. We find that XCI does not vary strongly with time, demonstrating that atomic carbon remains a good tracer of H2 in metal-poor systems even at times significantly before the onset of star formation. On the other hand, XCO varies very strongly with time in metal-poor clouds, showing that CO does not trace H2 well in starless clouds at low metallicity.

  1. Tracing thalamo-cortical connections in tenrecA further attempt to characterize poorly differentiated neocortical regions, particularly the motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Künzle, Heinz

    2009-02-01

    The hedgehog tenrec (Afrosoricidae) has a very poorly differentiated neocortex. Previously its primary sensory regions have been characterized with hodological and electrophysiological techniques. Unlike the marsupial opossum the tenrec may also have a separate motor area as far as there are cortico-spinal cells located rostral to the primary somatosensory cortex. However, not knowing its thalamic input it may be premature to correlate this area with the true (mirror-image-like) primary motor cortex in higher mammals. For this reason the tenrec's thalamo-cortical connections were studied following tracer injections into various neocortical regions. The main sensory areas were confirmed by their afferents from the principal thalamic nuclei. The dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus, in addition, was connected with the retrosplenial area and a rostromedial visual region. Unlike the somatosensory cortex the presumed motor area did not receive afferents from the ventrobasal thalamus but fibers from the cerebello-thalamic target regions. These projections, however, were not restricted to the motor area, but involved the entire somatosensorimotor field as well as adjacent regions. The projections appeared similar to those arising in the rat thalamic ventromedial nucleus known to have a supporting function rather than a specific motor task. The question was raised whether the input from the basal ganglia might play a crucial role in the evolution of the mammalian motor cortex? Certainly, in the tenrec, the poor differentiation of the motor cortex coincides with the virtual absence of an entopeduncular projection to the ventrolateral thalamus. PMID:19084507

  2. Fermi-LAT Observations of High- and Intermediate-velocity Clouds: Tracing Cosmic Rays in the Halo of the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tibaldo, L.; Digel, S. W.; Casandjian, J. M.; Franckowiak, A.; Grenier, I. A.; Jóhannesson, G.; Marshall, D. J.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Negro, M.; Orlando, E.; Porter, T. A.; Reimer, O.; Strong, A. W.

    2015-07-01

    It is widely accepted that cosmic rays (CRs) up to at least PeV energies are Galactic in origin. Accelerated particles are injected into the interstellar medium where they propagate to the farthest reaches of the Milky Way, including a surrounding halo. The composition of CRs coming to the solar system can be measured directly and has been used to infer the details of CR propagation that are extrapolated to the whole Galaxy. In contrast, indirect methods, such as observations of γ-ray emission from CR interactions with interstellar gas, have been employed to directly probe the CR densities in distant locations throughout the Galactic plane. In this article we use 73 months of data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope in the energy range between 300 MeV and 10 GeV to search for γ-ray emission produced by CR interactions in several high- and intermediate-velocity clouds (IVCs) located at up to ∼7 kpc above the Galactic plane. We achieve the first detection of IVCs in γ rays and set upper limits on the emission from the remaining targets, thereby tracing the distribution of CR nuclei in the halo for the first time. We find that the γ-ray emissivity per H atom decreases with increasing distance from the plane at 97.5% confidence level. This corroborates the notion that CRs at the relevant energies originate in the Galactic disk. The emissivity of the upper intermediate-velocity Arch hints at a 50% decline of CR densities within 2 kpc from the plane. We compare our results to predictions of CR propagation models.

  3. Inference of cloud altitude and optical properties from MAX-DOAS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasse, Jan-Marcus; Zielcke, Johannes; Frieß, Udo; Lampel, Johannes; König-Langlo, Gert; Platt, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) is a widely used technique for the detection of atmospheric trace gases, e.g. NO2, SO2, BrO, HCHO, but also for the oxygen collision complex O4. The atmospheric distribution of the latter is proportional to the square of the molecular oxygen concentration and thus well known. By comparing measured O4 differential slant column densities (dSCDs) from MAX-DOAS measurements with modeled ones, information on aerosol distributions and optical properties, as well as on clouds can be obtained using an algorithm based on optimal estimation. Here the ability of MAX-DOAS observations to detect cloud altitude and cloud optical properties of different cloud covers based on measurements of O4 will be discussed. The analysis uses measurements made by a ship-borne instrument on two cruises of the German research vessel Polarstern to the Antarctic Weddell Sea from June to October 2013. During this time a broad range of cloud and aerosol conditions was encountered, in particular persistent low cloud cover with a high optical thickness. Aerosol and particle extinction profiles were retrieved with temporal resolutions of up to 15 minutes. For clouds at altitudes up to 2000 m the results show a very good agreement with co-located measurements of a commercial ceilometer and pictures from a cloud camera. Unless visibility was very poor due to fog, even rapid changes in cloud altitude or cover could be detected by MAX-DOAS. These results indicate that under homogeneous cloud cover an accurate retrieval of trace gas vertical profiles can be possible despite the strong influence of clouds on atmospheric light paths. We will discuss advantages and limitations of cloud detection with MAX-DOAS, implications for the subsequent retrieval of trace gas profiles and the possible use of external (ceilometer) data as a priori information for the profile retrieval algorithm.

  4. Mid-J CO shock tracing observations of infrared dark clouds. II. Low-J CO constraints on excitation, depletion, and kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pon, A.; Johnstone, D.; Caselli, P.; Fontani, F.; Palau, A.; Butler, M. J.; Kaufman, M.; Jiménez-Serra, I.; Tan, J. C.

    2016-03-01

    Infrared dark clouds are kinematically complex molecular structures in the interstellar medium that can host sites of massive star formation. We present maps measuring 4 square arcminutes of the 12CO, 13CO, and C18O J = 3 to 2 lines from selected locations within the C and F (G028.37+00.07 and G034.43+00.24) infrared dark clouds (IRDCs), as well as single pointing observations of the 13CO and C18O J = 2 to 1 lines towards three cores within these clouds. We derive CO gas temperatures throughout the maps and find that CO is significantly frozen out within these IRDCs. We find that the CO depletion tends to be the highest near column density peaks with maximum depletion factors between 5 and 9 in IRDC F and between 16 and 31 in IRDC C. We also detect multiple velocity components and complex kinematic structure in both IRDCs. Therefore, the kinematics of IRDCs seem to point to dynamically evolving structures yielding dense cores with considerable depletion factors. Based on observations carried out with the JCMT and IRAM 30 m Telescopes. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany) and IGN (Spain).IRAM CO observations are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/587/A96

  5. Search Cloud

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/cloud.html Search Cloud To use the sharing features on this page, ... Top 110 zoster vaccine Share the MedlinePlus search cloud with your users by embedding our search cloud ...

  6. Search Cloud

    MedlinePlus

    ... www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/cloud.html Search Cloud To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Share the MedlinePlus search cloud with your users by embedding our search cloud ...

  7. Clouding behaviour in surfactant systems.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Partha; Padhan, Susanta K; Dash, Sukalyan; Patel, Sabita; Mishra, Bijay K

    2011-02-17

    A study on the phenomenon of clouding and the applications of cloud point technology has been thoroughly discussed. The phase behaviour of clouding and various methods adopted for the determination of cloud point of various surfactant systems have been elucidated. The systems containing anionic, cationic, nonionic surfactants as well as microemulsions have been reviewed with respect to their clouding phenomena and the effects of structural variation in the surfactant systems have been incorporated. Additives of various natures control the clouding of surfactants. Electrolytes, nonelectrolytes, organic substances as well as ionic surfactants, when present in the surfactant solutions, play a major role in the clouding phenomena. The review includes the morphological study of clouds and their applications in the extraction of trace inorganic, organic materials as well as pesticides and protein substrates from different sources. PMID:21296314

  8. Application of dual-cloud point extraction for the trace levels of copper in serum of different viral hepatitis patients by flame atomic absorption spectrometry: A multivariate study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arain, Salma Aslam; Kazi, Tasneem G.; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Abbasi, Abdul Rasool; Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Naeemullah; Shanker, Bhawani; Arain, Mohammad Balal

    2014-12-01

    An efficient, innovative preconcentration method, dual-cloud point extraction (d-CPE) has been developed for the extraction and preconcentration of copper (Cu2+) in serum samples of different viral hepatitis patients prior to couple with flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The d-CPE procedure was based on forming complexes of elemental ions with complexing reagent 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN), and subsequent entrapping the complexes in nonionic surfactant (Triton X-114). Then the surfactant rich phase containing the metal complexes was treated with aqueous nitric acid solution, and metal ions were back extracted into the aqueous phase, as second cloud point extraction stage, and finally determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry using conventional nebulization. The multivariate strategy was applied to estimate the optimum values of experimental variables for the recovery of Cu2+ using d-CPE. In optimum experimental conditions, the limit of detection and the enrichment factor were 0.046 μg L-1 and 78, respectively. The validity and accuracy of proposed method were checked by analysis of Cu2+ in certified sample of serum (CRM) by d-CPE and conventional CPE procedure on same CRM. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of Cu2+ in serum samples of different viral hepatitis patients and healthy controls.

  9. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and select aldehydes in cloud and fog water: the role of the aqueous phase in impacting trace gas budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ervens, B.; Wang, Y.; Eagar, J.; Leaitch, W. R.; Macdonald, A. M.; Valsaraj, K. T.; Herckes, P.

    2012-12-01

    Cloud and fog droplets efficiently scavenge and process water-soluble compounds and thus modify the chemical composition of the gas and particle phases. The concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the aqueous phase reach concentrations on the order of ~10 mg C L-1 which is typically on the same order of magnitude as the sum of inorganic anions. Aldehydes and carboxylic acids typically comprise a large fraction of DOC because of their high solubility. The dissolution of species in the aqueous phase can lead to (i) the removal of species from the gas phase preventing their processing by gas phase reactions (e.g. photolysis of aldehydes) and (ii) the formation of unique products that do not have any efficient gas phase sources (e.g. dicarboxylic acids). We present measurements of DOC and select aldehydes in fog water at high elevation and intercepted clouds in a biogenically-impacted location (Whistler, Canada) and in fog water in a more polluted area (Davis, CA). Concentrations of formaldehyde, glyoxal and methylglyoxal were in the micromolar range and comprised ≤2% each individually of the DOC. Comparison of the DOC and aldehyde concentrations to those at other locations shows good agreement and reveals highest levels for both in anthropogenically impacted regions. Based on this overview, we conclude that the fraction of organic carbon (dissolved and insoluble inclusions) in the aqueous phase comprises 1-~40% of total organic carbon. Higher values are observed to be associated with aged air masses where organics are expected to be more highly oxidized and thus more soluble. Accordingly, the aqueous/gas partitioning ratio expressed here as an effective Henry's law constant for DOC (KH*DOC) increases by an order of magnitude from 7×103 M atm-1 to 7×104 M atm-1 during the ageing of air masses. The measurements are accompanied by photochemical box model simulations. They suggest that the scavenging of aldehydes by the aqueous phase can reduce HO2 gas

  10. Nonaqueous catalytic fluorometric trace determination of vanadium based on the pyronine B-hydrogen peroxide reaction and flow injection after cloud point extraction.

    PubMed

    Paleologos, E K; Koupparis, M A; Karayannis, M I; Veltsistas, P G

    2001-09-15

    The catalytic effect of vanadium on the pyronine B-H2O2 system is examined. Enhancement of the catalytic reaction rate along with the efficiency and selectivity against vanadium is achieved in a formic acid environment in the presence of a nonionic surfactant (Triton X-114). Elimination of drastic interference caused by inorganic acids and aqueous matrix along with a 50-fold preconcentration of vanadium are facilitated through cloud point extraction of its neutral complex with 8-quinolinol in an acidic solution. Subsequent flow injection analysis (FIA) with fluorometric detection renders the proposed method ideal for selective and cost-effective determination of as little as 0.020 microng L(-1) vanadium in environmental, biological, and food substrates. The preconcentration step can be applied simultaneously to multiple samples, allowing for massive preparation prior to analysis, compensating, thus, for the time-consuming procedure. PMID:11575789

  11. Spectrophotometeric determination of trace amounts of Al3+ ion in water samples after cloud point extraction using quinizarin as a complexing agent.

    PubMed

    Shokrollahi, Ardeshir; Aghaei, Roghayeh

    2014-02-01

    In this study, cloud point extraction was used for the preconcentration of Al(3+) ion after the complex formation with 1,4-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (Quinizarin [QUIN]), and subsequent analysis by spectrophotometeric method, using Triton X-114 as surfactant. The optimal extraction and reaction conditions were studied (i.e., pH = 5.5, 0.1 mM QUIN, Triton X-114 = 0.1% (w/v)), and the analytical characteristics of the method (e.g., limit of detection, linear range, preconcentration, and enrichment factors) were obtained. Linearity was obeyed in the range of 3.33-166.67 ng ml(-1) of Al(3+) ion. The detection limit of the method was 2.09 ng ml(-1) for Al(3+) ion. The interference effect of some anions and cations was also tested. The method was applied to determine Al(3+) ion in water samples. PMID:24065134

  12. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and select aldehydes in cloud and fog water: the role of the aqueous phase in impacting trace gas budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ervens, B.; Wang, Y.; Eagar, J.; Leaitch, W. R.; Macdonald, A. M.; Valsaraj, K. T.; Herckes, P.

    2013-05-01

    Cloud and fog droplets efficiently scavenge and process water-soluble compounds and, thus, modify the chemical composition of the gas and particle phases. The concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the aqueous phase reach concentrations on the order of ~ 10 mgC L-1 which is typically on the same order of magnitude as the sum of inorganic anions. Aldehydes and carboxylic acids typically comprise a large fraction of DOC because of their high solubility. The dissolution of species in the aqueous phase can lead to (i) the removal of species from the gas phase preventing their processing by gas phase reactions (e.g., photolysis of aldehydes) and (ii) the formation of unique products that do not have any efficient gas phase sources (e.g., dicarboxylic acids). We present measurements of DOC and select aldehydes in fog water at high elevation and intercepted clouds at a biogenically-impacted location (Whistler, Canada) and in fog water in a more polluted area (Davis, CA). Concentrations of formaldehyde, glyoxal and methylglyoxal were in the micromolar range and comprised ≤ 2% each individually of the DOC. Comparison of the DOC and aldehyde concentrations to those at other locations shows good agreement and reveals highest levels for both in anthropogenically impacted regions. Based on this overview, we conclude that the fraction of organic carbon (dissolved and insoluble inclusions) in the aqueous phase of clouds or fogs, respectively, comprises 2-~ 40% of total organic carbon. Higher values are observed to be associated with aged air masses where organics are expected to be more highly oxidised and, thus, more soluble. Accordingly, the aqueous/gas partitioning ratio expressed here as an effective Henry's law constant for DOC (KH*DOC) increases by an order of magnitude from 7 × 103 M atm-1 to 7 × 104 M atm-1 during the ageing of air masses. The measurements are accompanied by photochemical box model simulations. These simulations are used to contrast two

  13. Validation of AIRS Cloud Cleared Radiances Using MODIS and its Affect on QualityControl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, R. C.; Schreier, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) was launched aboard the AQUA satellite to provide measurements of temperature, humidity, and various trace gases in support of climate research and weather prediction. Only clear sky measurements of the outgoing radiance are used in the AIRS physical retrieval of temperature, water vapor, and certain trace gases. To overcome cloud contamination the clear sky radiance is estimated using an iterative procedure that combines an initial estimate of the clear state from a neural network along with a three by three grid of AIRS measurements. The radiance error estimate, a component critical to the AIRS physical retrieval, must include contributions from all assumed parameters input to the forward model on top of instrument noise and amplification from cloud clearing. When the error estimate is too large the AIRS physical retrieval becomes over-constrained to the first guess profile. Therefore quantifying the cloud cleared error estimate is essential to an effective physical retrieval. We will validate the cloud-cleared radiances through the use of nearby clear ocean scenes and with comparisons to clear pixels from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS). AIRS cloud cleared radiances are spectrally convolved to MODIS channels for this comparison. This analysis quantifies error due to cloud-clearing and demonstrates that clear MODIS pixels can be used with the standard AIRS quality control procedure to improve identification poor retrievals.

  14. Isotopic, major and trace element constraints on the sources of granites in an 1800-Ma-old igneous complex near St. Cloud, Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, K.J.

    1987-01-01

    A suite of basic to granitic rocks was emplaced near St. Cloud, MN about 1800 Ma ago. These are strongly LREE enriched and were derived from LREE enriched sources. Nd-Sm systematics suggest that LREE enrichment occurred during the Early Proterozoic. Initial Pb ratios for basic rocks through granites are similar to inferred 1800 Ma old mantle Pb, and suggest sources that became U/Pb enriched during the Proterozoic or latest Archean. These sources had long-term Th/U ratios similar to inferred mantle or average crustal values. Oxygen isotopes indicate that granitic rocks incorporated a small previous crustal component. Petrogenetic modeling suggest these processes: Granodiorite represents an evolved high Mg-andesite or a partial melt of a basic precursor distinct from the nearby basic rocks. Granites and quartz monzonites were derived at temperatures of ca. 800-950 (e.g. water-undersaturated) and at 15 to 20 km depth. The sources are inferred to have been quartz saturated with respect to tholeiite. Because granites have similar isotopic histories as basic, sources of granites were ultimately derived from the mantle. REE and Nd isotope systematics allow these scenarios: (1) 40-75% of the Nd in the rocks was derived from continental crust recycled into the mantle. (2) The mantle source had a chondritic REE geochemistry but was enriched in LREE shortly before melting. (3) The rocks were in fact derived by melting a basic lower crust that included a small fraction of intercalated sedimentary rocks.

  15. Toward a robust analytical method for separating trace levels of nano-materials in natural waters: cloud point extraction of nano-copper(II) oxide.

    PubMed

    Majedi, Seyed Mohammad; Kelly, Barry C; Lee, Hian Kee

    2014-10-01

    Cloud point extraction (CPE) factors, namely Triton X-114 (TX-114) concentration, pH, ionic strength, incubation time, and temperature, were optimized for the separation of nano-sized copper(II) oxide (nCuO) in aqueous matrices. The kinetics of phase transfer was studied using UV-visible spectroscopy. From the highest separation rate, the most favorable conditions were observed with 0.2 % w/v of TX-114, pH = 9.0, ionic strength of 10 mM NaCl, and incubation at 40 °C for 60 min, yielding an extraction efficiency of 89.2 ± 3.9 % and a preconcentration factor of 86. The aggregate size distribution confirmed the formation of very large nCuO-micelle assemblies (11.9 μm) under these conditions. The surface charge of nCuO was also diminished effectively. An extraction efficiency of 91 % was achieved with a mixture of TX-100 and TX-114 containing 30 wt.% of TX-100. Natural organic and particulate matters, represented by humic acid (30 mg/L) and micron-sized silica particles (50 mg/L), respectively, did not significantly reduce the CPE efficiency (<10 %). The recovery of copper(II) ions (20 mg/L) in the presence of humic acid was low (3-10 %). The spiked natural water samples were analyzed either directly or after CPE by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry following acid digestion/microwave irradiation. The results indicated the influence of matrix effects and their reduction by CPE. A delay between spiking nCuO and CPE may also influence the recovery of nCuO due to aggregation and dissolution. A detection limit of 0.04 μg Cu/L was achieved for nCuO. PMID:24293302

  16. Upgrade of the NASA 4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research) to its Full Science Capability of Sun-Sky-Cloud-Trace Gas Spectrometry in Airborne Science Deployments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Roy R.; Russell, P.; Dunagan, S.; Redemann, J.; Shinozuka, Y.; Segal-Rosenheimer, M.; LeBlanc, S.; Flynn, C.; Schmid, B.; Livingston, J.

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this task in the AITT (Airborne Instrument Technology Transition) Program are to (1) upgrade the NASA 4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research) instrument to its full science capability of measuring (a) direct-beam sun transmission to derive aerosol optical depth spectra, (b) sky radiance vs scattering angle to retrieve aerosol absorption and type (via complex refractive index spectra, shape, and mode-resolved size distribution), (c) zenith radiance for cloud properties, and (d) hyperspectral signals for trace gas retrievals, and (2) demonstrate its suitability for deployment in challenging NASA airborne multiinstrument campaigns. 4STAR combines airborne sun tracking, sky scanning, and zenith pointing with diffraction spectroscopy to improve knowledge of atmospheric constituents and their links to air pollution, radiant energy budgets (hence climate), and remote measurements of Earth's surfaces. Direct beam hyperspectral measurement of optical depth improves retrievals of gas constituents and determination of aerosol properties. Sky scanning enhances retrievals of aerosol type and size distribution. 4STAR measurements are intended to tighten the closure between satellite and ground-based measurements. 4STAR incorporates a modular sun-tracking/sky-scanning optical head with fiber optic signal transmission to rack mounted spectrometers, permitting miniaturization of the external optical head, and future detector evolution. 4STAR test flights, as well as science flights in the 2012-13 TCAP (Two-Column Aerosol Project) and 2013 SEAC4RS (Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys) have demonstrated that the following are essential for 4STAR to achieve its full science potential: (1) Calibration stability for both direct-beam irradiance and sky radiance, (2) Improved light collection and usage, and (3) Improved flight operability and reliability. A particular challenge

  17. The Southern Ocean Clouds, Radiation, Aerosol Transport Experimental Study (SOCRATES): An Observational Campaign for Determining Role of Clouds, Aerosols and Radiation in Climate System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarquhar, G. M.; Wood, R.; Bretherton, C. S.; Alexander, S.; Jakob, C.; Marchand, R.; Protat, A.; Quinn, P.; Siems, S. T.; Weller, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Southern Ocean (SO) region is one of the cloudiest on Earth, and as such clouds determine its albedo and play a major role in climate. Evidence shows Earth's climate sensitivity and the Intertropical Convergence Zone location depend upon SO clouds. But, climate models are challenged by uncertainties and biases in the simulation of clouds, aerosols, and air-sea exchanges in this region which trace back to a poor process-level understanding. Due to the SO's remote location, there have been sparse observations of clouds, aerosols, precipitation, radiation and the air-sea interface apart from those from satellites. Plans for an upcoming observational program, SOCRATES, are outlined. Based on feedback on observational and modeling requirements from a 2014 workshop conducted at the University of Washington, a plan is described for obtaining a comprehensive dataset on the boundary-layer structure and associated vertical distributions of liquid and mixed-phase cloud and aerosol properties across a range of synoptic settings, especially in the cold sector of cyclonic storms. Four science themes are developed: improved climate model simulation of SO cloud and boundary layer structure in a rapidly varying synoptic setting; understanding seasonal and synoptic variability in SO cloud condensation and ice nucleus concentration and the role of local biogenic sources; understanding supercooled liquid and mixed-phase clouds and their impacts; and advancing retrievals of clouds, precipitation, aerosols, radiation and surface fluxes. Testable hypotheses for each theme are identified. The observational strategy consists of long-term ground-based observations from Macquarie Island and Davis, continuous data collection onboard Antarctic supply ships, satellite retrievals, and a dedicated field campaign covering 2 distinct seasons using in-situ and remote sensors on low- and high-altitude aircraft, UAVs, and a ship-borne platform. A timeline for these activities is proposed.

  18. Poor Americans: How the Poor White Live.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilisuk, Marc; Pilisuk, Phyllis

    Contents of this book include the following essays which originally appeared in "Transaction" magazine: (1) "Poor Americans: an introduction," Marc Pilisuk and Phyllis Pilisuk; (2) "How the white poor live," Marc Pilisuk and Phyllis Pilisuk; (3) "The culture of poverty," Oscar Lewis; (4) "Life in Appalachia--the case of Hugh McCaslin," Robert…

  19. Fast Simulators for Satellite Cloud Optical Centroid Pressure Retrievals, 1. Evaluation of OMI Cloud Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joiner, J.; Vasilkov, A.; Gupta, P.; Bhartia, P. K.; Veefkind, P.; Sneep, M.; de Haan, J.; Polonsky, I.; Spurr, R.

    2012-01-01

    The cloud Optical Centroid Pressure (OCP), also known as the effective cloud pressure, is a satellite-derived parameter that is commonly used in trace-gas retrievals to account for the effects of clouds on near-infrared through ultraviolet radiance measurements. Fast simulators are desirable to further expand the use of cloud OCP retrievals into the operational and climate communities for applications such as data assimilation and evaluation of cloud vertical structure in general circulation models. In this paper, we develop and validate fast simulators that provide estimates of the cloud OCP given a vertical profile of optical extinction. We use a pressure-weighting scheme where the weights depend upon optical parameters of clouds and/or aerosol. A cloud weighting function is easily extracted using this formulation. We then use fast simulators to compare two different satellite cloud OCP retrievals from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) with estimates based on collocated cloud extinction profiles from a combination of CloudS at radar and MODIS visible radiance data. These comparisons are made over a wide range of conditions to provide a comprehensive validation of the OMI cloud OCP retrievals. We find generally good agreement between OMI cloud OCPs and those predicted by CloudSat. However, the OMI cloud OCPs from the two independent algorithms agree better with each other than either does with the estimates from CloudSat/MODIS. Differences between OMI cloud OCPs and those based on CloudSat/MODIS may result from undetected snow/ice at the surface, cloud 3-D effects, low altitude clouds missed by CloudSat, and the fact that CloudSat only observes a relatively small fraction of an OMI field-of-view.

  20. Cloud Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Pete Beckman and Ian Foster

    2009-12-04

    Chicago Matters: Beyond Burnham (WTTW). Chicago has become a world center of "cloud computing." Argonne experts Pete Beckman and Ian Foster explain what "cloud computing" is and how you probably already use it on a daily basis.

  1. Arctic Clouds

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ...     View Larger Image Stratus clouds are common in the Arctic during the summer months, and are ... formats available at JPL August 23, 2000 - Stratus clouds help modulate the arctic climate. project:  ...

  2. Chemical evolution of the Galactic bulge as traced by microlensed dwarf and subgiant stars. III. Detection of lithium in the metal-poor bulge dwarf MOA-2010-BLG-285S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bensby, T.; Asplund, M.; Johnson, J. A.; Feltzing, S.; Meléndez, J.; Dong, S.; Gould, A.; Han, C.; Adén, D.; Lucatello, S.; Gal-Yam, A.

    2010-10-01

    Context. To study the evolution of Li in the Galaxy it is necessary to observe dwarf or subgiant stars. These are the only long-lived stars whose present-day atmospheric chemical composition reflects their natal Li abundances according to standard models of stellar evolution. Although Li has been extensively studied in the Galactic disk and halo, to date there has only been one uncertain detection of Li in an unevolved bulge star. Aims: Our aim with this study is to provide the first clear detection of Li in the Galactic bulge, based on an analysis of a dwarf star that has largely retained its initial Li abundance. Methods: We performed a detailed elemental abundance analysis of the bulge dwarf star MOA-2010-BLG-285S using a high-resolution and high signal-to-noise spectrum obtained with the UVES spectrograph at the VLT when the object was optically magnified during a gravitational microlensing event (visual magnification A~550 during observation). The Li abundance was determined through synthetic line profile fitting of the 7Li resonance doublet line at 670.8 nm. The results have been corrected for departures from LTE. Results: MOA-2010-BLG-285S is, at [Fe/H] = -1.23, the most metal-poor dwarf star detected so far in the Galactic bulge. Its old age (12.5 Gyr) and enhanced [α/Fe] ratios agree well with stars in the thick disk at similar metallicities. This star represents the first unambiguous detection of Li in a metal-poor dwarf star in the Galactic bulge. We find an NLTE corrected Li abundance of logɛ(Li) = 2.16, which is consistent with values derived for Galactic disk and halo dwarf stars at similar metallicities and temperatures. Conclusions: Our results show that there are no signs of Li enrichment or production in the Galactic bulge during its earliest phases. Observations of Li in other galaxies (ω Cen) and other components of the Galaxy suggest further that the Spite plateau is universal. Based on observations carried out at the European Southern

  3. Sterilizing the Poor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Sheila M.

    1977-01-01

    Suggests that freedom for the middle classes may mean vulnerability for the poor. The enthusiasm for sterilization may be so intense as to deprive the poor of their right not to be sterilized. (Author/AM)

  4. Comparison between SAGE II and ISCCP high-level clouds. 2: Locating clouds tops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liao, Xiaohan; Rossow, William B.; Rind, David

    1995-01-01

    A comparison is made of the vertical distribution of high-level cloud tops derived from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) occultation measurements and from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) for all Julys and Januarys in 1985 to 1990. The results suggest that ISCCP overestimates the pressure of high-level clouds by up to 50-150 mbar, particularly at low latitudes. This is caused by the frequent presence of clouds with diffuse tops (greater than 50% time when cloudy events are observed). The averaged vertical extent of the diffuse top is about 1.5 km. At midlatitudes where the SAGE II and ISCCP cloud top pressure agree best, clouds with distinct tops reach a maximum relative proportion of the total level cloud amount (about 30-40%), and diffuse-topped clouds are reduced to their minimum (30-40%). The ISCCP-defined cloud top pressure should be regarded not as the material physical height of the clouds but as the level which emits the same infrared radiance as observed. SAGE II and ISCCP cloud top pressures agree for clouds with distinct tops. There is also an indication that the cloud top pressures of optically thin clouds not overlying thicker clouds are poorly estimated by ISCCP at middle latitudes. The average vertical extent of these thin clouds is about 2.5 km.

  5. Parameterization of clouds and radiation in climate models

    SciTech Connect

    Roeckner, E.

    1995-09-01

    Clouds are a very important, yet poorly modeled element in the climate system. There are many potential cloud feedbacks, including those related to cloud cover, height, water content, phase change, and droplet concentration and size distribution. As a prerequisite to studying the cloud feedback issue, this research reports on the simulation and validation of cloud radiative forcing under present climate conditions using the ECHAM general circulation model and ERBE top-of-atmosphere radiative fluxes.

  6. Development of a hybrid cloud parameterization for general circulation models

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, C.Y.J.; Kristjansson, J.E.; Langley, D.L.

    1995-04-01

    We have developed a cloud package with state-of-the-art physical schemes that can parameterize low-level stratus or stratocumulus, penetrative cumulus, and high-level cirrus. Such parameterizations will improve cloud simulations in general circulation models (GCMs). The principal tool in this development comprises the physically based Arakawa-Schubert scheme for convective clouds and the Sundqvist scheme for layered, nonconvective clouds. The term {open_quotes}hybrid{close_quotes} addresses the fact that the generation of high-attitude layered clouds can be associated with preexisting convective clouds. Overall, the cloud parameterization package developed should better determine cloud heating and drying effects in the thermodynamic budget, realistic precipitation patterns, cloud coverage and liquid/ice water content for radiation purposes, and the cloud-induced transport and turbulent diffusion for atmospheric trace gases.

  7. Cloud Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswami, Rama; Raths, David; Schaffhauser, Dian; Skelly, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    For many IT shops, the cloud offers an opportunity not only to improve operations but also to align themselves more closely with their schools' strategic goals. The cloud is not a plug-and-play proposition, however--it is a complex, evolving landscape that demands one's full attention. Security, privacy, contracts, and contingency planning are all…

  8. Cloud Cover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2012-01-01

    This article features a major statewide initiative in North Carolina that is showing how a consortium model can minimize risks for districts and help them exploit the advantages of cloud computing. Edgecombe County Public Schools in Tarboro, North Carolina, intends to exploit a major cloud initiative being refined in the state and involving every…

  9. Cloud Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2012-01-01

    Your learning curriculum needs a new technological platform, but you don't have the expertise or IT equipment to pull it off in-house. The answer is a learning system that exists online, "in the cloud," where learners can access it anywhere, anytime. For trainers, cloud-based coursework often means greater ease of instruction resulting in greater…

  10. Rich Donors, Poor Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    The shifting ideological winds of foreign aid donors have driven their policy towards governments in poor countries. Donors supported state-led development policies in poor countries from the 1940s to the 1970s; market and private-sector driven reforms during the 1980s and 1990s; and returned their attention to the state with an emphasis on…

  11. Inference in `poor` languages

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, S.

    1996-10-01

    Languages with a solvable implication problem but without complete and consistent systems of inference rules (`poor` languages) are considered. The problem of existence of finite complete and consistent inference rule system for a ``poor`` language is stated independently of the language or rules syntax. Several properties of the problem arc proved. An application of results to the language of join dependencies is given.

  12. Fuzzy cloud concepts for assessing radiation feedbacks

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, H.

    1995-09-01

    The importance of clouds in the climate system is well-known but poorly understood. Modeling and observational studies have suggested that there may be positive feedbacks associated with certain cloud processes, but it is not known how strong these feedbacks are in the context of the overall system. Examples include ice microphysics feedback, as shown by Liou`s model, and the relationship between SST and cloud cover in the tropics, which is the focus of this research. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  13. A new laboratory facility to study gas-aerosol-cloud interactions in a turbulent environment: The Π Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedermeier, Dennis; Cantrell, Will; Chang, Kelken; Ciochetto, David; Bench, Jim; Shaw, Raymond

    2015-04-01

    A detailed understanding of interactions of aerosols, cloud droplets/ice crystals, and trace gases within the turbulent atmosphere is of prime importance for an accurate understanding of Earth's climate system. But despite extensive research activity during the last decades these interactions are still poorly understood and ill quantified. For example: Every cloud droplet in Earth's atmosphere (~1025) was catalyzed by a preexisting aerosol particle. While every cloud droplet began as an aerosol particle, not every aerosol particle becomes a cloud droplet. The particle to droplet transformation, known as activation, requires that the particle be exposed to some critical concentration of water vapor, which differs for different combinations of particle size and chemical composition. Similarly, the formation of ice particles in the atmosphere is often catalyzed by aerosol particles, either activated or not. Even in the simplest scenarios it is challenging to gain a full understanding of the aerosol activation and ice nucleation processes, but at least two other factors contribute greatly to the complexity observed in the atmosphere. First, aerosols and cloud particles are not static entities, but are continuously interacting with their chemical environment, and therefore changing in their properties. Second, clouds are ubiquitously turbulent, and therefore thermodynamic and compositional variables, such as water vapor or trace gas concentration, fluctuate in space and time. Indeed, the coupling between turbulence and microphysical processes is recognized as one of the major research challenges in cloud physics today. We have developed a multiphase, turbulent reaction chamber - called the Π Chamber because of the internal volume of 3.14 m3 (with cylindical wall installed) - designed to address the open issues outlined above. It is capable of pressures ranging from sea level to ~60 mbar, and can sustain temperatures of +55 to -55

  14. Poorly controlled gout: who is doing poorly?

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Faith Li-Ann

    2016-01-01

    Gout, an inflammatory arthritis caused by the deposition of monosodium urate crystals, is commonly seen in primary care and specialist clinics. In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in gout due to advances in therapies and the understanding of pathophysiology, with new guidelines being published by international bodies. However, there is still a gap between the goals of treatment and actual day-to-day practice. Barriers that result in poorly controlled gout include patient factors such as lack of understanding of the disease, stigma and nonadherence to treatment, as well as physician factors such as knowledge gaps, inadequate use of allopurinol and lack of ownership of the disease. The medical profession needs to do more to bridge the gap through physician and patient education, identification of treatment targets with appropriate use of drugs, and dissemination of guidelines. PMID:27549096

  15. Poorly controlled gout: who is doing poorly?

    PubMed

    Chia, Faith Li-Ann

    2016-08-01

    Gout, an inflammatory arthritis caused by the deposition of monosodium urate crystals, is commonly seen in primary care and specialist clinics. In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in gout due to advances in therapies and the understanding of pathophysiology, with new guidelines being published by international bodies. However, there is still a gap between the goals of treatment and actual day-to-day practice. Barriers that result in poorly controlled gout include patient factors such as lack of understanding of the disease, stigma and nonadherence to treatment, as well as physician factors such as knowledge gaps, inadequate use of allopurinol and lack of ownership of the disease. The medical profession needs to do more to bridge the gap through physician and patient education, identification of treatment targets with appropriate use of drugs, and dissemination of guidelines. PMID:27549096

  16. Cloud parameterization for climate modeling - Status and prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randall, David A.

    1989-01-01

    The current status of cloud parameterization research is reviewed. It is emphasized that the upper tropospheric stratiform clouds associated with deep convection are both physically important and poorly parameterized in current models. Emerging parameterizations are described in general terms, with emphasis on prognostic cloud water and fractional cloudiness, and how these relate to the problem just mentioned.

  17. Cloud Chemistry in Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, X.; Lee, T.; Wang, X.; Wang, W.; Wang, T.; Collett, J. L.

    2008-12-01

    Rapid industrial growth and increased energy demand in China have resulted in a large amount of coal consumption, which causes enormous quantities of sulfur dioxide emission. The potential long-range transportation of sulfur dioxide is a concern to neighboring countries such as South Korea and Japan as well as the western United States. The transportation distance of emitted sulfur depends on its atmospheric lifetime. Conversion of gaseous sulfur dioxide to fine particle sulfate can enhance the lifetime of emitted sulfur. Clouds play a substantial role in this transformation. In order to assess the ability of regional clouds to oxidize sulfur dioxide to sulfate, spring and summer field studies of cloud chemistry were conducted in 2008 at Mt. Tai in eastern China. Samples of cloud water were collected at Mt. Tai with single and 2-stage Caltech Active Strand Cloudwater Collectors and analyzed for pH and concentrations of major inorganic ions, total organic carbon, S(IV), hydrogen peroxide, Fe, Mn, and organic acids. Meanwhile, the study also measured key trace gases including sulfur dioxide, ozone and hydrogen peroxide, which are important to understand the mechanism of S(IV) oxidation. This presentation will provide an overview of the composition of cloud water collected in this region, will examine factors controlling cloud pH, and will examine the capacity of the regional atmosphere to support aqueous phase sulfur oxidation by hydrogen peroxide, ozone, and oxygen (catalyzed by Fe and Mn).

  18. Poor school performance.

    PubMed

    Karande, Sunil; Kulkarni, Madhuri

    2005-11-01

    Education is one of the most important aspects of human resource development. Poor school performance not only results in the child having a low self-esteem, but also causes significant stress to the parents. There are many reasons for children to under perform at school, such as, medical problems, below average intelligence, specific learning disability, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, emotional problems, poor socio-cultural home environment, psychiatric disorders and even environmental causes. The information provided by the parents, classroom teacher and school counselor about the child's academic difficulties guides the pediatrician to form an initial diagnosis. However, a multidisciplinary evaluation by an ophthalmologist, otolaryngologist, counselor, clinical psychologist, special educator, and child psychiatrist is usually necessary before making the final diagnosis. It is important to find the reason(s) for a child's poor school performance and come up with a treatment plan early so that the child can perform up to full potential. PMID:16391452

  19. CLOUD CONDENSATION NUCLEI MEASUREMENTS WITHIN CLOUDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurements of the spectra of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) within and near the boundaries of clouds are presented. Some of the in-cloud measurements excluded the nuclei within cloud droplets (interstitial CCN) while others included all nuclei inside the cloud (total CCN). The...

  20. Morphosyntax in Poor Comprehenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adlof, Suzanne M.; Catts, Hugh W.

    2015-01-01

    Children described as "poor comprehenders" (PCs) have reading comprehension difficulties in spite of adequate word reading abilities. PCs are known to display weakness with semantics and higher-level aspects of oral language, but less is known about their grammatical skills, especially with regard to morphosyntax. The purpose of this…

  1. CLOUD CHEMISTRY.

    SciTech Connect

    SCHWARTZ,S.E.

    2001-03-01

    Clouds present substantial concentrations of liquid-phase water, which can potentially serve as a medium for dissolution and reaction of atmospheric gases. The important precursors of acid deposition, SO{sub 2} and nitrogen oxides NO and NO{sub 2} are only sparingly soluble in clouds without further oxidation to sulfuric and nitric acids. In the case of SO{sub 2} aqueous-phase reaction with hydrogen peroxide, and to lesser extent ozone, are identified as important processes leading to this oxidation, and methods have been described by which to evaluate the rates of these reactions. The limited solubility of the nitrogen oxides precludes significant aqueous-phase reaction of these species, but gas-phase reactions in clouds can be important especially at night.

  2. Neptune's clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The bright cirrus-like clouds of Neptune change rapidly, often forming and dissipating over periods of several to tens of hours. In this sequence Voyager 2 observed cloud evolution in the region around the Great Dark Spot (GDS). The surprisingly rapid changes which occur separating each panel shows that in this region Neptune's weather is perhaps as dynamic and variable as that of the Earth. However, the scale is immense by our standards -- the Earth and the GDS are of similar size -- and in Neptune's frigid atmosphere, where temperatures are as low as 55 degrees Kelvin (-360 F), the cirrus clouds are composed of frozen methane rather than Earth's crystals of water ice. The Voyager Mission is conducted by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications

  3. Our World: Cool Clouds

    NASA Video Gallery

    Learn how clouds are formed and watch an experiment to make a cloud using liquid nitrogen. Find out how scientists classify clouds according to their altitude and how clouds reflect and absorb ligh...

  4. Mars water-ice clouds and precipitation.

    PubMed

    Whiteway, J A; Komguem, L; Dickinson, C; Cook, C; Illnicki, M; Seabrook, J; Popovici, V; Duck, T J; Davy, R; Taylor, P A; Pathak, J; Fisher, D; Carswell, A I; Daly, M; Hipkin, V; Zent, A P; Hecht, M H; Wood, S E; Tamppari, L K; Renno, N; Moores, J E; Lemmon, M T; Daerden, F; Smith, P H

    2009-07-01

    The light detection and ranging instrument on the Phoenix mission observed water-ice clouds in the atmosphere of Mars that were similar to cirrus clouds on Earth. Fall streaks in the cloud structure traced the precipitation of ice crystals toward the ground. Measurements of atmospheric dust indicated that the planetary boundary layer (PBL) on Mars was well mixed, up to heights of around 4 kilometers, by the summer daytime turbulence and convection. The water-ice clouds were detected at the top of the PBL and near the ground each night in late summer after the air temperature started decreasing. The interpretation is that water vapor mixed upward by daytime turbulence and convection forms ice crystal clouds at night that precipitate back toward the surface. PMID:19574386

  5. Complex Clouds

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ...     View Larger Image The complex structure and beauty of polar clouds are highlighted by these images acquired ... Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and every 9 days views the entire globe ...

  6. Cloud Front

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA02171 Cloud Front

    These clouds formed in the south polar region. The faintness of the cloud system likely indicates that these are mainly ice clouds, with relatively little dust content.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -86.7N, Longitude 212.3E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  7. Thin Clouds

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    ... of this montage is a natural-color view of the Caribbean Sea east of the Yucatan Peninsula as seen by MISR's most steeply ... - Thin, feathery clouds of ice crystals over the Caribbean Sea. project:  MISR category:  gallery ...

  8. What can simulated molecular clouds tell us about real molecular clouds?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte-Cabral, A.; Dobbs, C. L.

    2016-06-01

    We study the properties of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) from a smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulation of a portion of a spiral galaxy, modelled at high resolution, with robust representations of the physics of the interstellar medium. We examine the global molecular gas content of clouds, and investigate the effect of using CO or H2 densities to define the GMCs. We find that CO can reliably trace the high-density H2 gas, but misses less dense H2 clouds. We also investigate the effect of using 3D CO densities versus CO emission with an observer's perspective, and find that CO-emission clouds trace well the peaks of the actual GMCs in 3D, but can miss the lower density molecular gas between density peaks which is often CO-dark. Thus, the CO emission typically traces smaller clouds within larger GMC complexes. We also investigate the effect of the galactic environment (in particular the presence of spiral arms), on the distribution of GMC properties, and we find that the mean properties are similar between arm and inter-arm clouds, but the tails of some distributions are indicative of intrinsic differences in the environment. We find highly filamentary clouds (similar to the giant molecular filaments of our Galaxy) exclusively in the inter-arm region, formed by galactic shear. We also find that the most massive GMC complexes are located in the arm, and that as a consequence of more frequent cloud interactions/mergers in the arm, arm clouds are more sub-structured and have higher velocity dispersions than inter-arm clouds.

  9. The MAGellanic Inter-Cloud (MAGIC) project - II. Slicing up the Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noël, N. E. D.; Conn, B. C.; Read, J. I.; Carrera, R.; Dolphin, A.; Rix, H.-W.

    2015-10-01

    The origin of the gas in between the Magellanic Clouds (MCs), known as the Magellanic Bridge, has always been the subject of controversy. To shed light into this, we present the results from the MAGellanic Inter-Cloud II (MAGIC II) project aimed at probing the stellar populations in 10 large fields located perpendicular to the main ridge-line of H I in the Inter-Cloud region. We secured these observations of the stellar populations in between the MCs using the WFI (Wide Field Imager) camera on the 2.2 m telescope in La Silla. Using colour-magnitude diagrams, we trace stellar populations across the Inter-Cloud region. In good agreement with MAGIC I, we find significant intermediate-age stars in the Inter-Cloud region as well as young stars of a similar age to the last pericentre passage in between the MCs (˜200 Myr ago). We show here that the young, intermediate-age and old stars have distinct spatial distributions. The young stars correlate well with the H I gas suggesting that they were either recently stripped from the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) or formed in situ. The bulk of intermediate-age stars are located mainly in the Bridge region where the H I column density is higher, but they are more spread out than the young stars. They have very similar properties to stars located ˜2 kpc from the SMC centre, suggesting that they were tidally stripped from this region. Finally, the old stars extend to some 8 kpc from the SMC supporting the idea that all galaxies have a large extended metal-poor stellar halo.

  10. The use of rapidly synergistic cloud point extraction for the separation and preconcentration of trace amounts of Ni (II) ions from food and water samples coupling with flame atomic absorption spectrometry determination.

    PubMed

    Rahnama, Reyhaneh; Najafi, Marzieh

    2016-03-01

    A novel improved preconcentration method known as rapidly synergistic cloud point extraction (RS-CPE) was established for nickel preconcentration and determination prior to its determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. In this work, the traditional CPE pattern was changed and greatly simplified in order to be applicable in metal extraction and detection. This method was accomplished in room temperature in 1 min. Non-ionic surfactant Triton X-114 was used as extractant. Octanol worked as cloud point revulsant and synergic reagent. The various parameters affecting the extraction and preconcentration of nickel such as sample pH, 2,2'-Furildioxime concentration, amounts of octanol, amounts of Triton X-114, type of diluting solvent, extraction time, and ionic strength were investigated and optimized. Under optimal conditions, the calibration curve showed an excellent linearity in the concentration range of 2-200 μg L(-1), and the limit of detection was 0.6 μg L(-1) for nickel. The developed method was successfully applied for the determination of nickel in food and water samples. The results showed that, the proposed method can be used as a cheap, rapid, and efficient method for the extraction and preconcentration of nickel from real samples. PMID:26857255

  11. Photometric Properties of Galaxies in Poor Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, M.; Prabhu, T.

    We study several statistical properties of galaxies in four poor clusters of galaxies using optical photometry. We select these poor clusters as luminous, extended X-ray sources identified with poor galaxy systems in the EMSS catalogue of clusters of galaxies. The clusters are at moderate redshifts (0.08traced by the tightness of their color--magnitude relations and accordance of the latter with those of the Virgo Cluster. The fraction of blue galaxies is similar to those of low-redshift richness 0 clusters and higher than those of richer clusters at similar redshifts. The luminosity functions (LFs) of the individual clusters are not significantly different from each other. Using these, we construct composite LFs in B, V , and R bands (to MV=-18). The faint-end of these LFs are flat, like the V-band LF of other (e.g., MKW/AWM) poor clusters, but steeper than the field LF in the R-band. In terms of the statistical properties of their member galaxies, poor clusters appear to be lower-mass extensions of their rich counterparts.

  12. Trace Elements in River Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillardet, J.; Viers, J.; Dupré, B.

    2003-12-01

    satisfactorily model and predict the behavior of most of the trace elements in hydrosystems?An impressive literature has dealt with experimental works on aqueous complexation, uptake of trace elements by surface complexation (inorganic and organic), uptake by living organisms (bioaccumulation) that we have not reported here, except when the results of such studies directly explain natural data. As continental waters encompass a greater range of physical and chemical conditions, we focus on river waters and do not discuss trace elements in groundwaters, lakes, and the ocean. In lakes and in the ocean, the great importance of life processes in regulating trace elements is probably the major difference from rivers.Section 5.09.2 of this chapter reports data. We will review the present-day literature on trace elements in rivers to show that our knowledge is still poor. By comparing with the continental abundances, a global mobility index is calculated for each trace element. The spatial and temporal variability of trace-element concentrations in rivers will be shown to be important. In Section 5.09.3, sources of trace elements in river waters are indicated. We will point out the great diversity of sources and the importance of global anthropogenic contamination for a number of elements. The question of inorganic and organic speciation of trace elements in river water will then be addressed in Section 5.09.4, considering some general relationships between speciation and placement in the periodic table. In Section 5.09.5, we will show that studies on organic-rich rivers have led to an exploration of the "colloidal world" in rivers. Colloids are small particles, passing through the conventional filters used to separate dissolved and suspended loads in rivers. They appear as major carriers of trace elements in rivers and considerably complicate aqueous-speciation calculation. Finally, in Section 5.09.6, the significance of interactions between solutes and solid surfaces in river waters

  13. Liquid Cloud Responses to Soot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, D. M.

    2010-12-01

    Although soot absorption warms the atmosphere, soot may cause climate cooling due to its effects on liquid clouds, including contribution to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and semi-direct effects. Six global models that include aerosol microphysical schemes conducted three soot experiments. The average model cloud radiative response to biofuel soot (black and organic carbon), including both indirect and semi-direct effects, is -0.12 Wm-2, comparable in size but opposite in sign to the respective direct atmospheric warming. In a more idealized fossil fuel black carbon only experiment, some models calculated a positive cloud response because the soot provided a deposition sink for sulfate, decreasing formation of more viable CCN. Biofuel soot particles were typically assumed to be larger and more hygroscopic than for fossil fuel soot and therefore caused more negative forcing, as also found in previous studies. Diesel soot (black and organic carbon) experiments had relatively smaller cloud impacts with five of the models < ±0.06 Wm-2 from clouds. The net semi-direct effect alone may also be negative in global models, as found by several previous studies. The soot-cloud effects are quite uncertain. The range of model responses was large and interrannual variability for each model can also be large. Furthermore the aerosol microphysical schemes are poorly constrained, and the non-linearities resulting from the competition of opposing effects on the CCN population make it difficult to extrapolate from idealized experiments to likely impacts of realistic potential emission changes. However, results so far suggest that soot-induced cloud-cooling effects are comparable in magnitude to the direct warming effects from soot absorption.

  14. Trace element indiscrimination diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chusi; Arndt, Nicholas T.; Tang, Qingyan; Ripley, Edward M.

    2015-09-01

    We tested the accuracy of trace element discrimination diagrams for basalts using new datasets from two petrological databases, PetDB and GEOROC. Both binary and ternary diagrams using Zr, Ti, V, Y, Th, Hf, Nb, Ta, Sm, and Sc do a poor job of discriminating between basalts generated in various tectonic environments (continental flood basalt, mid-ocean ridge basalt, ocean island basalt, oceanic plateau basalt, back-arc basin basalt, and various types of arc basalt). The overlaps between the different types of basalt are too large for the confident application of such diagrams when used in the absence of geological and petrological constraints. None of the diagrams we tested can clearly discriminate between back-arc basin basalt and mid-ocean ridge basalt, between continental flood basalt and oceanic plateau basalt, and between different types of arc basalt (intra-oceanic, island and continental arcs). Only ocean island basalt and some mid-ocean ridge basalt are generally distinguishable in the diagrams, and even in this case, mantle-normalized trace element patterns offer a better solution for discriminating between the two types of basalt.

  15. Toward ab initio extremely metal poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Jeremy S.; Safranek-Shrader, Chalence; Milosavljević, Miloš; Bromm, Volker

    2016-09-01

    Extremely metal poor stars have been the focus of much recent attention owing to the expectation that their chemical abundances can shed light on the metal and dust yields of the earliest supernovae. We present our most realistic simulation to date of the astrophysical pathway to the first metal enriched stars. We simulate the radiative and supernova hydrodynamic feedback of a 60 M⊙ Population III star starting from cosmological initial conditions realizing Gaussian density fluctuations. We follow the gravitational hydrodynamics of the supernova remnant at high spatial resolution through its freely-expanding, adiabatic, and radiative phases, until gas, now metal-enriched, has resumed runaway gravitational collapse. Our findings are surprising: while the Population III progenitor exploded with a low energy of 1051 erg and injected an ample metal mass of 6 M⊙, the first cloud to collapse after the supernova explosion is a dense surviving primordial cloud on which the supernova blast wave deposited metals only superficially, in a thin, unresolved layer. The first metal-enriched stars can form at a very low metallicity, of only 2 - 5 × 10-4 Z⊙, and can inherit the parent cloud's highly elliptical, radially extended orbit in the dark matter gravitational potential.

  16. Linear Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03667 Linear Clouds

    These clouds are located near the edge of the south polar region. The cloud tops are the puffy white features in the bottom half of the image.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -80.1N, Longitude 52.1E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  17. Cloud radiative forcing on surface shortwave fluxes: A case study based on Cloud Lidar and Radar Exploratory Test

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, L.

    1994-12-20

    Shortwave downward fluxes for selected stratus, cirrus, and mixed phase cloud cases are analyzed based on cloud and surface radiation measurements from the Cloud Lidar and Radar Exploratory Test conducted in the Denver-Boulder area of Colorado during September-October, 1989. A medium resolution, discrete-ordinate shortwave radiative transfer model is used to provide clear-sky conditions and to examine the cloud shortwave radiative forcing. The model simulation indicates that for stratus clouds the effective radius increases with increasing liquid water path. For cirrus cloud simulation, the model results are within 10% agreement with the surface flux measurements. However, using the one-dimensional plane-parallel model, the model results are in poor agreement for the inhomogeneous mixed phase cloud case. Over the elevated observation site, the reduction in shortwave downward flux by clouds can be as large as 40% for a small cloud water path value of 20 g m{sup {minus}2}. The variation in observed cloud shortwave forcing is highly correlated with the integrated cloud water path. The normalized (by the clear-sky value) cloud shortwave forcing increases rapidly when the cloud water path is small. The rate of increase decreases, and the normalized cloud forcing approaches saturation when cloud water path becomes large. The magnitude of the saturation value depends on cloud optical properties. The variation in observed cloud forcing is consistent with the theoretical curve for cloudy atmospheric albedo variation. At a constant value of cloud water path, the normalized cloud forcing increases with solar zenith angle. The solar zenith angle effect is less significant for larger value of cloud water path. 44 refs., 11 figs.

  18. Cloud Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 1 July 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth.

    Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms.

    This image was acquired during mid-spring near the North Pole. The linear water-ice clouds are now regional in extent and often interact with neighboring cloud system, as seen in this image. The bottom of the image shows how the interaction can destroy the linear nature. While the surface is still visible through most of the clouds, there is evidence that dust is also starting to enter the atmosphere.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 68.4, Longitude 258.8 East (101.2 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration

  19. Poor ovarian reserve.

    PubMed

    Jirge, Padma Rekha

    2016-01-01

    Poor ovarian reserve (POR) is an important limiting factor for the success of any treatment modality for infertility. It indicates a reduction in quantity and quality of oocytes in women of reproductive age group. It may be age related as seen in advanced years of reproductive life or may occur in young women due to diverse etiological factors. Evaluating ovarian reserve and individualizing the therapeutic strategies are very important for optimizing the success rate. Majority or women with POR need to undergo in vitro fertilization to achieve pregnancy. However, pregnancy rate remains low despite a plethora of interventions and is associated with high pregnancy loss. Early detection and active management are essential to minimize the need for egg donation in these women. PMID:27382229

  20. Poor ovarian reserve

    PubMed Central

    Jirge, Padma Rekha

    2016-01-01

    Poor ovarian reserve (POR) is an important limiting factor for the success of any treatment modality for infertility. It indicates a reduction in quantity and quality of oocytes in women of reproductive age group. It may be age related as seen in advanced years of reproductive life or may occur in young women due to diverse etiological factors. Evaluating ovarian reserve and individualizing the therapeutic strategies are very important for optimizing the success rate. Majority or women with POR need to undergo in vitro fertilization to achieve pregnancy. However, pregnancy rate remains low despite a plethora of interventions and is associated with high pregnancy loss. Early detection and active management are essential to minimize the need for egg donation in these women. PMID:27382229

  1. Estimating Cloud Cover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, Christine

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this activity was to help students understand the percentage of cloud cover and make more accurate cloud cover observations. Students estimated the percentage of cloud cover represented by simulated clouds and assigned a cloud cover classification to those simulations. (Contains 2 notes and 3 tables.)

  2. Instrument measures cloud cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laue, E. G.

    1981-01-01

    Eight solar sensing cells comprise inexpensive monitoring instrument. Four cells always track Sun while other four face sky and clouds. On overcast day, cloud-irradiance sensors generate as much short-circuit current as Sun sensor cells. As clouds disappear, output of cloud sensors decreases. Ratio of two sensor type outputs determines fractional cloud cover.

  3. Photometric Properties of Poor Cluster Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, M.; Prabhu, T. P.

    2002-12-01

    We study several statistical properties of galaxies in four poor clusters of galaxies using multi-color optical photometry obtained at the Vainu Bappu Telescope, India. The clusters, selected from the EMSS Catalog, are at moderate redshifts (0.08 < z < 0.25), of equivalent Abell richness R=0, and appear to be dynamically young. The early-type galaxy populations are clearly evolved, as traced by the tightness of the color-magnitude relations and the accordance of the latter with those of the Virgo cluster. The blue galaxy fractions are similar to those of R=0 clusters and higher than those of richer clusters at similar redshifts. The composite luminosity functions (LFs) in B, V, and R bands are flat at the faint end, similar to the V-band LF derived by Yamagata & Maehara for other (MKW/AWM) poor clusters but steeper than the R-band field LF derived by Lin et al. In terms of the statistical properties of their member galaxies, poor clusters appear to be lower-mass extensions of their rich counterparts. The brightest galaxies of three of these poor clusters appear to be luminous ellipticals with no incontrovertible signatures of a halo. It is likely that they were formed from multiple mergers early in the history of the clusters.

  4. Preliminary investigation of radiatively driven convection in marine stratocumulus clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, P.

    1995-09-01

    Marine stratocumulus play an important yet still poorly modeled role in the climate system. These clouds cool the planet, having a large albedo, but little infrared effect. A fundamental question is whether such clouds will exist at a given time and location. Stratocumulus is often formed at higher latitudes as stratus and advected equatorward until it breaks up. Possible mechanisms for cloud breakup include strong subsidence, cloud top entrainment instability (CTEI), drizzle, solar heating and resultant boundary layer decoupling, and surface forcing. The Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) was conducted to investigate these potential cloud breakup mechanisms. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Cloud-radiation interactions - Effects of cirrus optical thickness feedbacks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somerville, Richard C. J.; Iacobellis, Sam

    1987-01-01

    The paper is concerned with a cloud-radiation feedback mechanism which may be an important component of the climate changes expected from increased atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other trace greenhouse gases. A major result of the study is that cirrus cloud optical thickness feedbacks may indeed tend to increase the surface warming due to trace gas increases. However, the positive feedback from cirrus appears to be generally weaker than the negative effects due to lower clouds. The results just confirm those of earlier research indicating that the net effect of cloud optical thickness feedbacks may be a negative feedback which may substantially (by a factor of about 2) reduce the surface warming due to the doubling of CO2, even in the presence of cirrus clouds.

  6. Martian Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 28 June 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth.

    Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms.

    This image was acquired during early spring near the North Pole. The linear 'ripples' are transparent water-ice clouds. This linear form is typical for polar clouds. The black regions on the margins of this image are areas of saturation caused by the build up of scattered light from the bright polar material during the long image exposure.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 68.1, Longitude 147.9 East (212.1 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS

  7. Morphosyntax in Poor Comprehenders

    PubMed Central

    Adlof, Suzanne M.; Catts, Hugh W.

    2016-01-01

    Children described as poor comprehenders (PCs) have reading comprehension difficulties in spite of adequate word reading abilities. PCs are known to display weakness with semantics and higher-level aspects of oral language, but less is known about their grammatical skills, especially with regard to morphosyntax. The purpose of this study was to examine morphosyntax in fourth grade PCs and typically developing readers (TDs), using three experimental tasks involving finiteness marking. Participants also completed standardized, norm-referenced assessments of phonological memory, vocabulary, and broader language skills. PCs displayed weakness relative to TDs on all three morphosyntax tasks and on every other assessment of oral language except phonological memory, as indexed by nonword repetition. These findings help to clarify the linguistic profile of PCs, suggesting that their language weaknesses include grammatical weaknesses that cannot be fully explained by semantic factors. Because finiteness markers are usually mastered prior to formal schooling in typical development, we call for future studies to examine whether assessments of morphosyntax could be used for the early identification of children at risk for future reading comprehension difficulty.

  8. Epidemic contact tracing via communication traces.

    PubMed

    Farrahi, Katayoun; Emonet, Rémi; Cebrian, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Traditional contact tracing relies on knowledge of the interpersonal network of physical interactions, where contagious outbreaks propagate. However, due to privacy constraints and noisy data assimilation, this network is generally difficult to reconstruct accurately. Communication traces obtained by mobile phones are known to be good proxies for the physical interaction network, and they may provide a valuable tool for contact tracing. Motivated by this assumption, we propose a model for contact tracing, where an infection is spreading in the physical interpersonal network, which can never be fully recovered; and contact tracing is occurring in a communication network which acts as a proxy for the first. We apply this dual model to a dataset covering 72 students over a 9 month period, for which both the physical interactions as well as the mobile communication traces are known. Our results suggest that a wide range of contact tracing strategies may significantly reduce the final size of the epidemic, by mainly affecting its peak of incidence. However, we find that for low overlap between the face-to-face and communication interaction network, contact tracing is only efficient at the beginning of the outbreak, due to rapidly increasing costs as the epidemic evolves. Overall, contact tracing via mobile phone communication traces may be a viable option to arrest contagious outbreaks. PMID:24787614

  9. The Oort cloud in transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissman, P. R.

    1986-01-01

    The evolution of theoretical and empirical models of the Oort cloud (OC) since it was first proposed by Oort in 1950 is traced, and the main features of current models are discussed, in a general review. Consideration is given to work on the classical OC (Monte Carlo simulations of OC evolution, population and mass estimates, and OC perturbation by passing stars and giant molecular clouds), models of a massive inner OC (simulations of planetesimal-swarm evolution in the Uranus-Neptune zone and IRAS observations of circumstellar dust shells), evidence for random and/or periodic comet showers, and the possible role of the Galactic missing mass. The current OC model comprises an almost spherical outer (10,000-100,000-AU) cloud of mass 7-8 earth mass and population (1.4-2.3) x 10 to the 12th, and a flat disklike inner (40-10,000 AU) cloud of mass 100-200 earth mass and population (1-10) x 10 to the 13th.

  10. Parametric Trace Slicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosu, Grigore (Inventor); Chen, Feng (Inventor); Chen, Guo-fang; Wu, Yamei; Meredith, Patrick O. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A program trace is obtained and events of the program trace are traversed. For each event identified in traversing the program trace, a trace slice of which the identified event is a part is identified based on the parameter instance of the identified event. For each trace slice of which the identified event is a part, the identified event is added to an end of a record of the trace slice. These parametric trace slices can be used in a variety of different manners, such as for monitoring, mining, and predicting.

  11. Arthur Ziegler: Prophet of Preservation for the Poor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cliff, Ursula

    1975-01-01

    This article traces the history and development of the Pittsburgh History and Landmarks Foundation. This foundation has been notably successful in preserving neighborhoods for their original inhabitants and now has the first urban renewal program to be based on historic preservation for poor people. (BT)

  12. Gamma rays from giant molecular clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Stanley D.; Kanbach, Gottfried

    1990-01-01

    Giant Molecular Clouds (GMCs) are massive, bounded, cool, dense regions containing mostly H2, but also H I, CO, and other molecules. These clouds occupy less than 1 percent of the galactic volume, but are a substantial part of the interstellar mass. They are irradiated by the high energy cosmic rays which are possibly modulated by the matter and magnetic fields within the clouds. The product of cosmic-ray flux and matter density is traced by the emission of high energy gamma-rays. A spherical cloud model is considered and the gamma ray flux from several GMCs within 1 kpc of the sun which should be detectable by the EGRET (Energetic Gamma-Ray Experimental Telescope) instrument on GRO (Gamma Ray Observatory).

  13. Infrared limb brightening in the Barnard 5 cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beichman, C. A.; Wilson, R. W.; Langer, W. D.; Goldsmith, P. F.

    1988-01-01

    IRAS and (C-13)O data are presented for the dark cloud Barnard 5. The 100-micron and (C-13)O emission are well correlated and suggest that the 100-micron emission traces the dust and gas column density through the cloud. The 12-micron emission, on the other hand, is anticorrelated with the overall opacity in the cloud, which is interpreted as limb brightening in the context of a model in which small dust grains, probably PAHs, are transiently excited by the absorption of UV photons in a thin shell around the denser parts of the cloud.

  14. Trace Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Whitefield, Philip

    1999-01-01

    The goals of the trace chemistry group were to identify the processes relevant to aerosol and aerosol precursor formation occurring within aircraft gas turbine engines; that is, within the combustor, turbine, and nozzle. The topics of discussion focused on whether the chemistry of aerosol formation is homogeneous or heterogeneous; what species are important for aerosol and aerosol precursor formation; what modeling/theoretical activities to pursue; what experiments to carry out that both support modeling activities and elucidate fundamental processes; and the role of particulates in aerosol and aerosol precursor formation. The consensus of the group was that attention should be focused on SO2, SO3, and aerosols. Of immediate concern is the measurement of the concentration of the species SO3, SO2, H2SO4 OH, HO2, H2O2, O, NO, NO2, HONO, HNO3, CO, and CO2 and particulates in various engines, both those currently in use and those in development. The recommendation was that concentration measurements should be made at both the combustor exit and the engine exit. At each location the above species were classified into one of four categories of decreasing importance, Priority I through IV, as follows: Combustor exit: Priority I species - SO3:SO2 ratio, SO3, SO2, and particulates; Priority II species: OH and O; Priority III species - NO and NO2; and Priority IV species - CO and CO2. For the Engine exit: Priority I species - SO3:SO2 ratio, SO3, SO2,H2SO4, and particulates; Priority II species: OH,HO2, H2O2, and O; Priority III species - NO, NO2, HONO, and HNO3; and Priority IV species - CO and CO2. Table I summarizes the anticipated concentration range of each of these species. For particulate matter, the quantities of interest are the number density, size distribution, and composition. In order to provide data for validating multidimensional reacting flow models, it would be desirable to make 2-D, time-resolved measurements of the concentrations of the above species and

  15. Crater Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA06085 Crater Clouds

    The crater on the right side of this image is affecting the local wind regime. Note the bright line of clouds streaming off the north rim of the crater.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -78.8N, Longitude 320.0E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  16. Fresh clouds: A parameterized updraft method for calculating cloud densities in one-dimensional models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Michael H.; Atreya, Sushil K.; Kuhn, William R.; Romani, Paul N.; Mihalka, Kristen M.

    2015-01-01

    Models of cloud condensation under thermodynamic equilibrium in planetary atmospheres are useful for several reasons. These equilibrium cloud condensation models (ECCMs) calculate the wet adiabatic lapse rate, determine saturation-limited mixing ratios of condensing species, calculate the stabilizing effect of latent heat release and molecular weight stratification, and locate cloud base levels. Many ECCMs trace their heritage to Lewis (Lewis, J.S. [1969]. Icarus 10, 365-378) and Weidenschilling and Lewis (Weidenschilling, S.J., Lewis, J.S. [1973]. Icarus 20, 465-476). Calculation of atmospheric structure and gas mixing ratios are correct in these models. We resolve errors affecting the cloud density calculation in these models by first calculating a cloud density rate: the change in cloud density with updraft length scale. The updraft length scale parameterizes the strength of the cloud-forming updraft, and converts the cloud density rate from the ECCM into cloud density. The method is validated by comparison with terrestrial cloud data. Our parameterized updraft method gives a first-order prediction of cloud densities in a “fresh” cloud, where condensation is the dominant microphysical process. Older evolved clouds may be better approximated by another 1-D method, the diffusive-precipitative Ackerman and Marley (Ackerman, A.S., Marley, M.S. [2001]. Astrophys. J. 556, 872-884) model, which represents a steady-state equilibrium between precipitation and condensation of vapor delivered by turbulent diffusion. We re-evaluate observed cloud densities in the Galileo Probe entry site (Ragent, B. et al. [1998]. J. Geophys. Res. 103, 22891-22910), and show that the upper and lower observed clouds at ∼0.5 and ∼3 bars are consistent with weak (cirrus-like) updrafts under conditions of saturated ammonia and water vapor, respectively. The densest observed cloud, near 1.3 bar, requires unexpectedly strong updraft conditions, or higher cloud density rates. The cloud

  17. Cloud Infrastructure & Applications - CloudIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulistio, Anthony; Reich, Christoph; Doelitzscher, Frank

    The idea behind Cloud Computing is to deliver Infrastructure-as-a-Services and Software-as-a-Service over the Internet on an easy pay-per-use business model. To harness the potentials of Cloud Computing for e-Learning and research purposes, and to small- and medium-sized enterprises, the Hochschule Furtwangen University establishes a new project, called Cloud Infrastructure & Applications (CloudIA). The CloudIA project is a market-oriented cloud infrastructure that leverages different virtualization technologies, by supporting Service-Level Agreements for various service offerings. This paper describes the CloudIA project in details and mentions our early experiences in building a private cloud using an existing infrastructure.

  18. Interpretation of FRESCO cloud retrievals in case of absorbing aerosol events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P.; Tuinder, O. N. E.; Tilstra, L. G.; de Graaf, M.; Stammes, P.

    2012-10-01

    Cloud and aerosol information is needed in trace gas retrievals from satellite measurements. The Fast REtrieval Scheme for Clouds from the Oxygen A band (FRESCO) cloud algorithm employs reflectance spectra of the O2 A band around 760 nm to derive cloud pressure and effective cloud fraction. In general, clouds contribute more to the O2 A band reflectance than aerosols. Therefore, the FRESCO algorithm does not correct for aerosol effects in the retrievals and attributes the retrieved cloud information entirely to the presence of clouds, and not to aerosols. For events with high aerosol loading, aerosols may have a dominant effect, especially for almost cloud free scenes. We have analysed FRESCO cloud data and Absorbing Aerosol Index (AAI) data from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME-2) instrument on the Metop-A satellite for events with typical absorbing aerosol types, such as volcanic ash, desert dust and smoke. We find that the FRESCO effective cloud fractions are correlated with the AAI data for these absorbing aerosol events and that the FRESCO cloud pressure contains information on aerosol layer pressure. For cloud free scenes, the derived FRESCO cloud pressure is close to the aerosol layer pressure, especially for optically thick aerosol layers. For cloudy scenes, if the strongly absorbing aerosols are located above the clouds, then the retrieved FRESCO cloud pressure may represent the height of the aerosol layer rather than the height of the clouds. Combining FRESCO and AAI data, an estimate for the aerosol layer pressure can be given.

  19. Consequences of Growing Up Poor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J., Ed.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne, Ed.

    The consequences and correlates of growing up poor as well as the mechanisms through which poverty influences children are explored. This book is organized with a primary focus on research findings and a secondary concern with policy implications. The chapters are: (1) "Poor Families, Poor Outcomes: The Well-Being of Children and Youth" (Jeanne…

  20. Meridionally tilted ice cloud structures in the tropical upper troposphere as seen by CloudSat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, J.; Wu, D. L.; Limpasuvan, V.

    2015-06-01

    It remains challenging to quantify global cloud properties and uncertainties associated with their impacts on climate change because of our poor understanding of cloud three-dimensional (3-D) structures from observations and unrealistic characterization of 3-D cloud effects in global climate models (GCMs). In this study we find cloud 3-D effects can cause significant error in cloud ice and radiation measurements if it is not taken into account appropriately. One of the cloud 3-D complexities, the slantwise tilt structure, has not received much attention in research and even less has been reported considering a global perspective. A novel approach is presented here to analyze the ice cloud water content (IWC) profiles retrieved from CloudSat and a joint radar-lidar product (DARDAR). By integrating IWC profiles along different tilt angles, we find that upper-troposphere (UT) ice cloud mass between 11 and 17 km is tilted poleward from active convection centers in the tropics [30° S, 30° N]. This systematic tilt in cloud mass structure is expected from the mass conservation principle of the Hadley circulation with the divergent flow of each individual convection/convective system from down below, and its existence is further confirmed from cloud-resolving-scale Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model simulations. Thus, additive effects of tilted cloud structures can introduce 5-20% variability by its nature or produce errors to satellite cloud/hydrometeor ice retrievals if simply converting it from slant to nadir column. A surprising finding is the equatorward tilt in middle tropospheric (5-11 km) ice clouds, which is also evident in high-resolution model simulations but not in coarse-resolution simulations with cumulus parameterization. The observed cloud tilt structures are intrinsic properties of tropical clouds, producing synoptic distributions around the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). These findings imply that current interpretations based on over

  1. Trace elements in coal ash

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deonarine, Amrika; Kolker, Allan; Doughten, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    In this fact sheet, the form, distribution, and behavior of trace elements of environmental interest in samples of coal fly ash were investigated in response to concerns about element mobility in the event of an ash spill. The study includes laboratory-based leaching experiments to examine the behavior of trace elements, such as arsenic (As) and chromium (Cr), in response to key environmental factors including redox conditions (degree of oxygenation), which are known to vary with depth within coal ash impoundments and in natural ecosystems. The experiments show that As dissolves from samples of coal fly ash into simulated freshwater under both oxic (highly oxygenated) and anoxic (poorly oxygenated) conditions, whereas dissolved Cr concentrations are very redox dependent. This U.S. Geological Survey research helps define the distribution of elements such as As in coal ash and shows that element mobility can vary considerably under different conditions expected in the environment.

  2. MAGIC Cloud Properties from Zenith Radiance Data Final Campaign Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, J. -Y.C.; Gregory, L.; Wagener, R.

    2016-01-01

    Cloud droplet size and optical depth are the most fundamental properties for understanding cloud formation, dissipation and interactions with aerosol and drizzle. They are also a crucial determinant of Earth’s radiative and water-energy balances. However, these properties are poorly predicted in climate models. As a result, the response of clouds to climate change is one of the major sources of uncertainty in climate prediction.

  3. Satellite retrieval of cloud properties from the O2 A-band for air quality and climate applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P.; Stammes, P.; van der A, R.

    2009-04-01

    The FRESCO (Fast Retrieval Scheme for Clouds from the Oxygen A-band) algorithm has been used to retrieve cloud information from measurements of the O2 A-band around 760 nm by GOME, SCIAMACHY and GOME-2. The cloud parameters retrieved by FRESCO are the effective cloud fraction and cloud pressure, which are used for cloud correction in the retrieval of trace gases like O3 and NO2. To improve the cloud pressure retrieval for partly cloudy scenes, single Rayleigh scattering has been included in an improved version of the algorithm, called FRESCO+. FRESCO+ gives more reliable cloud pressures over partly cloudy pixels. Simulations and comparisons with ground-based radar measurements of clouds shows that the FRESCO+ cloud pressure is about the optical midlevel of the cloud. Globally averaged, the FRESCO+ cloud pressure is about 50 hPa higher than the FRESCO cloud pressure, while the FRESCO+ effective cloud fraction is about 0.01 larger. From ground-based validation (P. Wang et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 6565-6576, 2008) it appears that the FRESCO+ cloud retrievals improve the retrieval of tropospheric NO2 as compared to FRESCO. So FRESCO+ contributes to better monitoring of air quality from space. The FRESCO+ cloud algorithm has been applied to GOME and SCIAMACHY measurements since the beginning of the missions. Monthly averaged SCIAMACHY FRESCO+ effective cloud fraction and cloud pressure maps show similar patterns as the ISCCP cloud maps, although there are some differences, due to the different meaning of the cloud products and due to the fact that photons in the O2 A-band penetrate into clouds. The 6-year averaged seasonal cloud maps from SCIAMACHY data have good agreement with the global circulation patterns. Therefore, the FRESCO+ products are not only efficient for cloud correction of trace gas retrievals but also contribute additional information for climate research.

  4. A Population of Dark Clouds Detected in Radio Continuum Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusef-Zadeh, Farhad

    2013-01-01

    Using the VLA and GBT, radio continuum images of the inner Galaxy reveal the presence of numerous dark features. These dark features coincide with dense molecular and dust clouds. Unlike infrared dark clouds or extinction clouds at optical wavelengths, these features which we call ``radio dark clouds'' are produced by a deficiency in radio continuum emission from molecular clouds that are embedded in a bath of UV radiation field or synchrotron emitting cosmic ray particles. The contribution of the continuum emission along different pathlengths results in dark features that trace embedded molecular clouds. The new technique of identifying cold clouds can place constraints on the depth and the strength of diffuse magnetic field of molecular clouds. We present several examples of radio dark clouds and demonstrate an anti-correlation between the distributions of radio continuum and molecular line and dust emission. The level at which the continuum flux is suppressed in these sources suggests that the depth of the molecular cloud is similar to the size of the continuum emission within a factor of two. These examples suggest that radio continuum survey images can be powerful probes of interacting molecular clouds with massive stars and supernova remnants in the Galaxy as well as in the nuclei of active galaxies.

  5. Image transfer through cirrus clouds. II. Wave-front segmentation and imaging.

    PubMed

    Landesman, Barbara T; Matson, Charles L

    2002-12-20

    A hybrid technique to simulate the imaging of space-based objects through cirrus clouds is presented. The method makes use of standard Huygens-Fresnel propagation beyond the cloud boundary and a novel vector trace approach within the cloud. At the top of the cloud, the wave front is divided into an array of input gradient vectors, which are in turn transmitted through the cloud model by use of the Coherent Illumination Ray Trace and Imaging Software for Cirrus. At the bottom of the cloud, the output vector distribution is used to reconstruct a wave front that continues propagating to the ground receiver. Images of the object as seen through cirrus clouds with different optical depths are compared with a diffraction-limited image. Turbulence effects from the atmospheric propagation are not included. PMID:12510928

  6. Herschel far-infrared observations of the Carina Nebula complex. I. Introduction and global cloud structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preibisch, T.; Roccatagliata, V.; Gaczkowski, B.; Ratzka, T.

    2012-05-01

    Context. The Carina Nebula represents one of the most massive star forming regions known in our Galaxy and displays a high level of feedback from the large number of very massive stars. While the stellar content is now well known from recent deep X-ray and near-infrared surveys, the properties of the clouds remained rather poorly studied until today. Aims: By mapping the Carina Nebula complex in the far-infrared, we aim at a comprehensive and detailed characterization of the dust and gas clouds in the complex. Methods: We used SPIRE and PACS onboard of Herschel to map the full spatial extent (≈5.3 square-degrees) of the clouds in the Carina Nebula complex at wavelengths between 70 μm and 500 μm. We used here the 70 μm and 160 μm far-infrared maps to determine color temperatures and column densities, and to investigate the global properties of the gas and dust clouds in the complex. Results: Our Herschel maps show the far-infrared morphology of the clouds at unprecedented high angular resolution. The clouds show a very complex and filamentary structure that is dominated by the radiation and wind feedback from the massive stars. In most locations, the column density of the clouds is NH ≲ 2 × 1022 cm-2 (corresponding to visual extinctions of AV ≲ 10 mag); denser cloud structures are restricted to the massive cloud west of Tr 14 and the innermost parts of large pillars. Our temperature map shows a clear large-scale gradient from ≈35-40 K in the central region to ≲20 K at the periphery and in the densest parts of individual pillars. The total mass of the clouds seen by Herschel in the central (1 degree radius) region is ≈656 000 M⊙. We also derive the global spectral energy distribution in the mid-infrared to mm wavelength range. A simple radiative transfer model suggests that the total mass of all the gas (including a warmer component that is not well traced by Herschel) in the central 1 degree radius region is ≤890 000 M⊙. Conclusions: Despite

  7. Evaluation of climate models in terms of relationship between cloud fraction and cloud albedo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Song, H.; Lin, W.; Wu, W.; Jensen, M. P.; Toto, T.

    2011-12-01

    Cloud fraction and cloud albedo have been investigated extensively but often separately in studying cloud-climate interaction; their quantitative relationship has been much less studied and understood, in both observations and climate models. In this study, we first examine this crucial relationship by empirical analysis of observational data, both surface-based and satellite measurements. We then decipher the key variables/processes that determine the relationship using designed simulations of the single-column model of the NCAR CAM (SCAM). Finally we explore how well or poor this relationship is simulated in the AR4 climate simulations. The preliminary results indicate that all the AR4 models as a group produce a cloud fraction-albedo relationship that is literally opposite to that observed. This stark contrast between model and observational results calls for new strategies and approaches in future development of cloud parameterizations and application of observations as model constraints.

  8. The Oort cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marochnik, Leonid S.; Mukhin, Lev M.; Sagdeev, Roald Z.

    1991-01-01

    Views of the large-scale structure of the solar system, consisting of the Sun, the nine planets and their satellites, changed when Oort demonstrated that a gigantic cloud of comets (the Oort cloud) is located on the periphery of the solar system. The following subject areas are covered: (1) the Oort cloud's mass; (2) Hill's cloud mass; (3) angular momentum distribution in the solar system; and (4) the cometary cloud around other stars.

  9. Two Molecular Clouds near M17

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, T. L.; Hanson, M. M.; Muders, D.

    2003-06-01

    We present fully sampled images in the C18O J=2-1 line extending over 13'×23', made with the Heinrich Hertz Telescope (HHT) on Mount Graham, AZ. The HHT has a resolution of 35" at the line frequency. This region includes two molecular clouds. Cloud A, to the north, is more compact, while cloud B is to the west of the H II region M17. Cloud B contains the well-known source M17SW. In C18O we find 13 maxima in cloud A and 39 in cloud B. Sixteen sources in cloud B are in M17SW, mapped previously with higher resolution. In cloud B, sources outside M17SW have line widths comparable to those in M17SW. In comparison, cloud A has lower C18O line intensities and smaller line widths but comparable densities and sizes. Maps of the cores of these clouds were also obtained in the J=5-4 line of CS, which traces higher H2 densities. Our images of the cores of clouds A and B show that for VLSR<=20 km s-1, the peaks of the CS emission are shifted closer to the H II region than the C18O maxima, so higher densities are found toward the H II region. Our CS data give additional support to the already strong evidence that M17SW and nearby regions are heated and compressed by the H II region. Our data show that cloud A has a smaller interaction with the H II region. We surmise that M17SW was an initially denser region, and the turn-on of the H II region will make this the next region of massive star formation. Outside of M17SW, the only other obvious star formation region may be in cloud A, since there is an intense millimeter dust continuum peak found by Henning et al. (1998) but no corresponding C18O maximum. If the CO/H2 ratio is constant, the dust must have a temperature of ~100 K or the H2 density is greater than 106 cm-3 or both to reconcile the C18O and dust data. Alternatively, if the CO/H2 ratio is low, perhaps much of the CO is depleted.

  10. Modelling [C I] emission from turbulent molecular clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, Simon C. O.; Clark, Paul C.; Micic, Milica; Molina, Faviola

    2015-04-01

    We use detailed numerical simulations of a turbulent molecular cloud to study the usefulness of the [C I] 609 and 370 μm fine structure emission lines as tracers of cloud structure. Emission from these lines is observed throughout molecular clouds, and yet they have attracted relatively little theoretical attention. We show that the widespread [C I] emission results from the fact that the clouds are turbulent. Turbulence creates large density inhomogeneities, allowing radiation to penetrate deeply into the clouds. As a result, [C I] emitting gas is found throughout the cloud. We examine how well [C I] emission traces the cloud structure, and show that the 609 μm line traces column density accurately over a wide range of values. For visual extinctions greater than a few, [C I] and 13CO both perform well, but [C I] performs better at AV ≤ 3. We have also studied the distribution of [C I] excitation temperatures. We show that these are typically smaller than the kinetic temperature, indicating that the carbon is subthermally excited. We discuss how best to estimate the excitation temperature and the carbon column density, and show that the latter tends to be systematically underestimated. Consequently, estimates of the atomic carbon content of real giant molecular clouds could be wrong by up to a factor of 2.

  11. Understanding subtropical cloud feedbacks in anthropogenic climate change simulations of CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, T. A.; Norris, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Subtropical marine boundary layer clouds over the eastern subtropics are poorly simulated by climate models and contribute substantially to inter-model differences in climate sensitivity. The aim of the present study is to better understand inter-model differences in projected cloud changes and to constrain the cloud feedback to warming. To do this, we compute independent relationships of cloud properties (cloud fraction, cloud-top height, and cloud radiative effect) to interannual variations in sea surface temperature, estimated inversion strength, horizontal surface temperature advection, free-tropospheric humidity, and subsidence using observations and as simulated by models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5. Each relationship is considered to be independent because it represents the association between some cloud property and a meteorological parameter when the other parameters are held constant. We approximate modelled cloud trends in climate change simulations as the sum of the simulated cloud/meteorology relationships multiplied by the respective meteorological trends. We compare these estimated cloud trends to the sum of the observed cloud/meteorology relationships multiplied by the simulated meteorological trends. This method allows us to better understand the sources of inter-model differences in projected cloud changes, including whether cloud/meteorology relationships or meteorological trends dominate the spread of cloud changes. We approximate the true cloud trend due to climate change as the sum of the observed cloud/meteorology relationships multiplied by the multi-model mean meteorological trends. The results may provide an observational and model constraint on climate sensitivity.

  12. Cirrus cloud iridescence: a rare case study.

    PubMed

    Sassen, Kenneth

    2003-01-20

    On the evening of 25 November 1998, a cirrus cloud revealing the pastel colors of the iridescence phenomenon was photographed and studied by a polarization lidar system at the University of Utah Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing (FARS). The diffraction of sunlight falling on relatively minute cloud particles, which display spatial gradients in size, is the cause of iridescence. According to the 14-year study of midlatitude cirrus clouds at FARS, cirrus rarely produce even poor iridescent patches, making this particularly long-lived and vivid occurrence unique. In this unusually high (13.2-14.4-km) and cold (-69.7 degrees to -75.5 degrees) tropopause-topped cirrus cloud, iridescence was noted from approximately 6.0 degrees to approximately 13.5 degrees from the Sun. On the basis of simple diffraction theory, this indicates the presence of particles of 2.5-5.5-microm effective diameter. The linear depolarization ratios of delta = 0.5 measured by the lidar verify that the cloud particles were nonspherical ice crystals. The demonstration that ice clouds can generate iridescence has led to the conclusion that iridescence is rarely seen in midlatitude cirrus clouds because populations of such small particles do not exist for long in the presence of the relatively high water-vapor supersaturations needed for ice-particle nucleation. PMID:12570270

  13. Forgotten Americans: The "Working Poor."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joe, Tom

    1984-01-01

    The working poor are employable people who have found low-paying jobs and barely scrape out a living. By removing many forms of federal aid, the Reagan administration has locked the working poor into poverty. In saving a few dollars today, we are penalizing the next generation. (CS)

  14. Cloud CCN feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, J.G.

    1992-12-31

    Cloud microphysics affects cloud albedo precipitation efficiency and the extent of cloud feedback in response to global warming. Compared to other cloud parameters, microphysics is unique in its large range of variability and the fact that much of the variability is anthropogenic. Probably the most important determinant of cloud microphysics is the spectra of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) which display considerable variability and have a large anthropogenic component. When analyzed in combination three field observation projects display the interrelationship between CCN and cloud microphysics. CCN were measured with the Desert Research Institute (DRI) instantaneous CCN spectrometer. Cloud microphysical measurements were obtained with the National Center for Atmospheric Research Lockheed Electra. Since CCN and cloud microphysics each affect the other a positive feedback mechanism can result.

  15. Direct Observations of Excess Solar Absorption by Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilewskie, Peter; Valero, Francisco P. J.

    1995-01-01

    Aircraft measurements of solar flux in the cloudy tropical atmosphere reveal that solar absorption by clouds is anomalously large when compared to theoretical estimates. The ratio of cloud forcing at an altitude of 20 kilometers to that at the surface is 1.58 rather than 1.0 as predicted by models. These results were derived from a cloud radiation experiment in which identical instrumentation was deployed on coordinated stacked aircraft. These findings indicate a significant difference between measurements and theory and imply that the interaction between clouds and solar radiation is poorly understood.

  16. Analysis of Organic matter from cloud particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bank, Shelton; Castillo, Raymond

    1987-03-01

    Organic matter collected from filtration of two separate cloud events was analysed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Particles collected from different size filters were separated by color and each type of particle gave rise to a characteristic spectrum. The major constituents were identified as complex proteins and cellulose. Additionally, some degraded material (likely protein) and an unidentified orange-brown material were present. Finally some trace components were identified as wax, oil, silicon oil, polyvinyl chloride, calcium carbonate, clay, sand and polyethylene.

  17. Separation/preconcentration of ultra-trace levels of inorganic Sb and Se from different sample matrices by charge transfer sensitized ion-pairing using ultrasonic-assisted cloud point extraction prior to their speciation and determination by hydride generation AAS.

    PubMed

    Altunay, Nail; Gürkan, Ramazan

    2016-10-01

    In the existing study, a new, simple and low cost process for separation/preconcentration of ultra-trace level of inorganic Sb and Se from natural waters, beverages and foods using ultrasonic-assisted cloud point extraction (UA-CPE) prior to their speciation and determination by hydride generation AAS, is proposed. The process is based on charge transfer sensitized complex formations of Sb(III) and Se(IV) with 3-amino-7-dimethylamino-2-methylphenazine hydrochloride (Neutral red, NRH(+)) in presence of pyrogallol and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as both sensitivity enhancement and counter ion at pH 6.0. Under the optimized reagent conditions, the calibration curves were highly linear in the ranges of 8-300ngL(-1) and 12-250ngL(-1) (r(2)≥0.993) for Se(IV) and Sb(III), respectively. The limits of detection were 2.45 and 3.60ngL(-1) with sensitivity enhancement factors of 155 and 120, respectively. The recovery rate was higher than 96% with a relative standard deviation lower than 5.3% for five replicate measurements of 25, 75 and 150ngL(-1) Se(IV) and Sb(III), respectively. The method was validated by analysis of two certified reference materials (CRMs), and was successfully applied to the accurate and reliable speciation and determination of the contents of total Sb/Sb(III), and total Se/Se(IV) after UA-CPE of the pretreated sample matrices with and without pre-reduction with a mixture of l-cysteine and tartaric acid. Their Sb(V) and Se(VI) contents were calculated from the differences between total Sb and Sb(III) and/or total Se and Se(IV) levels. PMID:27474317

  18. Star-forming Substructure within Molecular Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Francesco, James

    2013-03-01

    Wide-field far-infrared/submillimeter continuum maps of molecular clouds by the Herschel Space Observatory GBS and HOBYS surveys are revealing the star-forming substructures that lead to star formation in dense gas. In particular, these maps have revealed the central role in clouds of filaments, likely formed through turbulent motions. These filaments appear to be non-isothermal and fragment into cores only when their column densities exceed a stability threshold. Organizations of filament networks suggest the relative role of turbulence and gravity can be traced in different parts of a cloud, and filament intersections may lead to larger amounts of mass flow that form the precursors of high-mass stars or clusters.

  19. Aerosol-Cloud Interactions and the Role of Clouds in Modifying Atmospheric Composition during INTEX-NA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, B. E.; Thornhill, K. L.; Chen, G.; Barrick, J. D.; Winstead, E. L.; Diskin, G. S.; Sachse, G. W.; Vay, S. A.; McNaughton, C.; Clarke, A. D.; Dibb, J. E.

    2005-12-01

    During the summer 2004 INTEX-NA mission, extensive measurements of atmospheric composition were recorded aboard the NASA DC-8 aircraft as it flew sampling missions within the North American tropospheric airshed. Clouds were often encountered along the flight paths, as wet convection was quite active throughout the study area. To examine the impact of these clouds upon trace gas distributions and chemistry as well as to search for links between aerosols and cloud properties (indirect effects), particle size distribution data recorded aboard the DC-8 were used to derive a number of important cloud microphysical parameters including cloud water content, extinction, effective radius, and particle mean volume and number diameters. We have also analyzed UV-Dial aerosol profiles to calculate cirrus cloud frequency, optical depth, wavelength dependencies, and depolarization ratios. Results of the study indicate that the aircraft flew within clouds somewhere between 5 and 10% of the time at most flight levels. The largest cloud particles, highest cloud water concentrations, and greatest average extinctions were found at temperatures between -20 and 0 C. Most of the cumulus clouds sampled during the mission contained low liquid water contents (< 0.2 g/m3), had relatively small particles (< 20 um), and exhibited small values of light extinction. Many cloud penetrations occurred at the top of the planetary boundary layer, where convective overshoot had produced high levels of water vapor saturation. Assuming these clouds grew in parcels that contained roughly the same aerosol particle concentrations as the air just below cloud base, we investigated the relationship between submicron particle densities and cloud microphysical properties and found that there were significant differences in median cloud extinction, effective radius, volume mean diameter, and total particle concentrations between the "clean", low aerosol and "polluted", high aerosol cases. Thin cirrus clouds were

  20. Ice Nuclei Production in Volcanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Few, A. A.

    2012-12-01

    The paper [Durant et al., 2008] includes a review of research on ice nucleation in explosive volcanic clouds in addition to reporting their own research on laboratory measurements focused on single-particle ice nucleation. Their research as well as the research they reviewed were concerned with the freezing of supercooled water drops (250 to 260 K) by volcanic ash particles acting as ice freezing nuclei. Among their conclusions are: Fine volcanic ash particles are very efficient ice freezing nuclei. Volcanic clouds likely contain fine ash concentrations 104 to 105 times greater than found in meteorological clouds. This overabundance of ice nuclei will produce a cloud with many small ice crystals that will not grow larger as they do in meteorological clouds because the cloud water content is widely distributed among the numerous small ice crystals. The small ice crystals have a small fall velocity, thus volcanic clouds are very stable. The small ice crystals are easily lofted into the stratosphere transporting water and adsorbed trace gasses. In this paper we examine the mechanism for the production of the small ice nuclei and develop a simple model for calculating the size of the ice nuclei based upon the distribution of magma around imbedded bubbles. We also have acquired a volcanic bomb that exhibits bubble remnants on its entire surface. The naturally occurring fragments from the volcanic bomb reveal a size distribution consistent with that predicted by the simple model. Durant, A. J., R. A. Shaw, W. I. Rose, Y. Mi, and G. G. J. Ernst (2008), Ice nucleation and overseeding of ice in volcanic clouds, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D09206, doi:10.1029/2007JD009064.

  1. Modelling the Martian CO2 Ice Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Listowski, Constantino; Määttänen, A.; Montmessin, F.; Lefèvre, F.

    2012-10-01

    Martian CO2 ice cloud formation represents a rare phenomenon in the Solar System: the condensation of the main component of the atmosphere. Moreover, on Mars, condensation occurs in a rarefied atmosphere (large Knudsen numbers, Kn) that limits the growth efficiency. These clouds form in the polar winter troposphere and in the mesosphere near the equator. CO2 ice cloud modeling has turned out to be challenging: recent efforts (e.g. [1]) fail in explaining typical small sizes (80 nm-130 nm) observed for mesospheric clouds [2]. Supercold pockets (T<< Tcond), which appear to be common in the mesosphere [3],might be exclusively responsible of the formation of such clouds, as a consequence of gravity waves propagating throughout the atmosphere [4]. In order to understand by modeling the effect CO2 clouds could have on the Martian climate, one needs to properly predict the crystal sizes, and so the growth rates involved. We will show that Earth microphysical crystal growth models, which deal with the condensation of trace gases, are misleading when transposed for CO2 cloud formation: they overestimate the growth rates at high saturation ratios. On the other hand, an approach based on the continuum regime (small Kn), corrected to account for the free molecular regime (high Kn) remains efficient. We present our new approach for modelling the growth of Martian CO2 cloud crystals, investigated with a 1D-microphysical model. [1] Colaprete, A., et al., (2008) PSS, 56, 150C [2] Montmessin, F., et al., (2006) Icarus, 183, 403-410 [3] Montmessin at al., (2011) mamo, 404-405 [4] Spiga, A., et al., (2012), GRL, 39, L02201 [5] Wood, S. E., (1999), Ph.D. thesis, UCLA [6] Young, J. B., J. Geophys. Res., 36, 294-2956, 1993

  2. Cloud Processed CCN Affect Cloud Microphysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, J. G.; Noble, S. R., Jr.; Tabor, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Variations in the bimodality/monomodality of CCN spectra (Hudson et al. 2015) exert opposite effects on cloud microphysics in two aircraft field projects. The figure shows two examples, droplet concentration, Nc, and drizzle liquid water content, Ld, against classification of CCN spectral modality. Low ratings go to balanced separated bimodal spectra, high ratings go to single mode spectra, strictly monomodal 8. Intermediate ratings go merged modes, e.g., one mode a shoulder of another. Bimodality is caused by mass or hygroscopicity increases that go only to CCN that made activated cloud droplets. In the Ice in Clouds Experiment-Tropical (ICE-T) small cumuli with lower Nc, greater droplet mean diameters, MD, effective radii, re, spectral widths, σ, cloud liquid water contents, Lc, and Ld were closer to more bimodal (lower modal ratings) below cloud CCN spectra whereas clouds with higher Nc, smaller MD, re, σ, and Ld were closer to more monomodal CCN (higher modal ratings). In polluted stratus clouds of the MArine Stratus/Stratocumulus Experiment (MASE) clouds that had greater Nc, and smaller MD, re, σ, Lc, and Ld were closer to more bimodal CCN spectra whereas clouds with lower Nc, and greater MD, re, σ, Lc, and Ld were closer to more monomodal CCN. These relationships are opposite because the dominant ICE-T cloud processing was coalescence whereas chemical transformations (e.g., SO2 to SO4) were dominant in MASE. Coalescence reduces Nc and thus also CCN concentrations (NCCN) when droplets evaporate. In subsequent clouds the reduced competition increases MD and σ, which further enhance coalescence and drizzle. Chemical transformations do not change Nc but added sulfate enhances droplet and CCN solubility. Thus, lower critical supersaturation (S) CCN can produce more cloud droplets in subsequent cloud cycles, especially for the low W and effective S of stratus. The increased competition reduces MD, re, and σ, which inhibit coalescence and thus reduce drizzle

  3. The polarization lidar technique for cloud research - A review and current assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sassen, Kenneth

    1991-01-01

    The development of the polarization lidar technique is reviewed, and the current capabilities and limitations of the technique for the cloud research are discussed. At present, polarization lidar is a key component of climate-research programs designed to characterize the properties of cirrus clouds and is an integral part of multiple remote-sensor studies of mixed-phase cloud systems such as winter mountain storms, making it possible to discriminate between cloud phases and to identify some particle types and orientations. Recent theoretical approaches involving ice crystal ray-tracing and cloud microphysical-model simulations are expected to increase the utility of the polarization lidar technique.

  4. Formaldehyde in Absorption: Tracing Molecular Gas in Early-Type Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dollhopf, Niklaus M.; Donovan Meyer, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Early-Type Galaxies (ETGs) have been long-classified as the red, ellipsoidal branch of the classic Hubble tuning fork diagram of galactic structure. In part with this classification, ETGs are thought to be molecular and atomic gas-poor with little to no recent star formation. However, recent efforts have questioned this ingrained classification. Most notably, the ATLAS3D survey of 260 ETGs within ~40 Mpc found 22% contain CO, a common tracer for molecular gas. The presence of cold molecular gas also implies the possibility for current star formation within these galaxies. Simulations do not accurately predict the recent observations and further studies are necessary to understand the mechanisms of ETGs.CO traces molecular gas starting at densities of ~102 cm-3, which makes it a good tracer of bulk molecular gas, but does little to constrain the possible locations of star formation within the cores of dense molecular gas clouds. Formaldehyde (H2CO) traces molecular gas on the order of ~104 cm-3, providing a further constraint on the location of star-forming gas, while being simple enough to possibly be abundant in gas-poor ETGs. In cold molecular clouds at or above ~104 cm-3 densities, the structure of formaldehyde enables a phenomenon in which rotational transitions have excitation temperatures driven below the temperature of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), ~2.7 K. Because the CMB radiates isotropically, formaldehyde can be observed in absorption, independent of distance, as a tracer of moderately-dense molecular clouds and star formation.This novel observation technique of formaldehyde was incorporated for observations of twelve CO-detected ETGs from the ATLAS3D sample, including NGC 4710 and PGC 8815, to investigate the presence of cold molecular gas, and possible star formation, in ETGs. We present images from the Very Large Array, used in its C-array configuration, of the J = 11,0 - 11,1 transition of formaldehyde towards these sources. We report our

  5. OMMYDCLD: a New A-train Cloud Product that Co-locates OMI and MODIS Cloud and Radiance Parameters onto the OMI Footprint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Brad; Joiner, Joanna; Vasilkov, Alexander; Veefkind, Pepijn; Platnick, Steven; Wind, Galina

    2014-01-01

    Clouds cover approximately 60% of the earth's surface. When obscuring the satellite's field of view (FOV), clouds complicate the retrieval of ozone, trace gases and aerosols from data collected by earth observing satellites. Cloud properties associated with optical thickness, cloud pressure, water phase, drop size distribution (DSD), cloud fraction, vertical and areal extent can also change significantly over short spatio-temporal scales. The radiative transfer models used to retrieve column estimates of atmospheric constituents typically do not account for all these properties and their variations. The OMI science team is preparing to release a new data product, OMMYDCLD, which combines the cloud information from sensors on board two earth observing satellites in the NASA A-Train: Aura/OMI and Aqua/MODIS. OMMYDCLD co-locates high resolution cloud and radiance information from MODIS onto the much larger OMI pixel and combines it with parameters derived from the two other OMI cloud products: OMCLDRR and OMCLDO2. The product includes histograms for MODIS scientific data sets (SDS) provided at 1 km resolution. The statistics of key data fields - such as effective particle radius, cloud optical thickness and cloud water path - are further separated into liquid and ice categories using the optical and IR phase information. OMMYDCLD offers users of OMI data cloud information that will be useful for carrying out OMI calibration work, multi-year studies of cloud vertical structure and in the identification and classification of multi-layer clouds.

  6. Cloud Computing for radiologists.

    PubMed

    Kharat, Amit T; Safvi, Amjad; Thind, Ss; Singh, Amarjit

    2012-07-01

    Cloud computing is a concept wherein a computer grid is created using the Internet with the sole purpose of utilizing shared resources such as computer software, hardware, on a pay-per-use model. Using Cloud computing, radiology users can efficiently manage multimodality imaging units by using the latest software and hardware without paying huge upfront costs. Cloud computing systems usually work on public, private, hybrid, or community models. Using the various components of a Cloud, such as applications, client, infrastructure, storage, services, and processing power, Cloud computing can help imaging units rapidly scale and descale operations and avoid huge spending on maintenance of costly applications and storage. Cloud computing allows flexibility in imaging. It sets free radiology from the confines of a hospital and creates a virtual mobile office. The downsides to Cloud computing involve security and privacy issues which need to be addressed to ensure the success of Cloud computing in the future. PMID:23599560

  7. Noctilucent Cloud Sightings

    NASA Video Gallery

    Polar Mesospheric Clouds form during each polar region's summer months in the coldest place in the atmosphere, 50 miles above Earth's surface. Noctilucent Clouds were first observed in 1885 by an a...

  8. Closed Small Cell Clouds

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    article title:  Closed Small Cell Clouds in the South Pacific     ... the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). Closed cell clouds are formed under conditions of widespread sinking of the air above. ...

  9. Interstellar cloud evolution and the abundance of formaldehyde

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langer, W. D.

    1976-01-01

    The time scale for essentially complete conversion of C(+) to CO in interstellar clouds can be comparable to, or greater than, dynamical time scales for evolution, therefore suggesting steady state time independent abundances to be inappropriate. The solutions for the time-dependent carbon chemistry in dense clouds, with density not less than 500/cu cm, indicate that significant amounts of neutral carbon will be present throughout a cloud's lifetime. These nonequilibrium values of C I can explain the relatively large abundances observed for formaldehyde, isotopes of carbon monoxide, and other trace molecules

  10. Using assertions with trace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazimek, Piotr

    2015-09-01

    Algorithms for dynamic detection of assertions are designed to find different types of dependences in programs based only on information collected during their execution without static analysis. Specificity of those algorithms and limited quantity of data to analyze needs to investigate the usage principle of discovered assertions for software dependability increase. This article introduces techniques for increasing usage efficiency of detected assertions through using program execution trace. Concept of trace and of an assertion with trace were defined. The work describes algorithms for reducing the number of traces, shortening traces lengths and reducing the number of observation points identifiers in traces. For several applications fault injection based experiments were conducted in order to check the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  11. Computer animation of clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Max, N.

    1994-01-28

    Computer animation of outdoor scenes is enhanced by realistic clouds. I will discuss several different modeling and rendering schemes for clouds, and show how they evolved in my animation work. These include transparency-textured clouds on a 2-D plane, smooth shaded or textured 3-D clouds surfaces, and 3-D volume rendering. For the volume rendering, I will present various illumination schemes, including the density emitter, single scattering, and multiple scattering models.

  12. Cloud Scaling Properties and Cloud Parameterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahalan, R. F.; Morcrette, J. J.

    1998-01-01

    Cloud liquid and cloud traction variability is studied as a function of horizontal scale in the ECMWF forecast model during several 10-day runs at the highest available model resolution, recently refined from approximately 60 km (T213) down to approximately 20 km (T639). At higher resolutions, model plane-parallel albedo biases are reduced, so that models may be tuned to have larger, more realistic, cloud liquid water amounts, However, the distribution of cloud liquid assumed -within- each gridbox, for radiative and thermodynamic computations, depends on ad hoc assumptions that are not necessarily consistent with observed scaling properties, or with scaling properties produced by the model at larger scales. To study the larger-scale cloud properties, ten locations on the Earth are chosen to coincide with locations having considerable surface data available for validation, and representing a variety of climatic regimes, scaling exponents are determined from a range or scales down to model resolution, and are re-computed every three hours, separately for low, medium and high clouds, as well as column-integrated cloudiness. Cloud variability fluctuates in time, due to diurnal, synoptic and other' processes, but scaling exponents are found to be relatively stable. various approaches are considered for applying computed cloud scaling to subgrid cloud distributions used for radiation, beyond simple random or maximal overlap now in common use. Considerably more work is needed to compare model cloud scaling with observations. This will be aided by increased availability of high-resolution surface, aircraft and satellite data, and by the increasing resolution of global models,

  13. First Results from the OMI Rotational Raman Scattering Cloud Pressure Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joiner, Joanna; Vasilkov, Alexander P.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed an algorithm to retrieve scattering cloud pressures and other cloud properties with the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). The scattering cloud pressure is retrieved using the effects of rotational Raman scattering (RRS). It is defined as the pressure of a Lambertian surface that would produce the observed amount of RRS consistent with the derived reflectivity of that surface. The independent pixel approximation is used in conjunction with the Lambertian-equivalent reflectivity model to provide an effective radiative cloud fraction and scattering pressure in the presence of broken or thin cloud. The derived cloud pressures will enable accurate retrievals of trace gas mixing ratios, including ozone, in the troposphere within and above clouds. We describe details of the algorithm that will be used for the first release of these products. We compare our scattering cloud pressures with cloud-top pressures and other cloud properties from the Aqua Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument. OMI and MODIS are part of the so-called A-train satellites flying in formation within 30 min of each other. Differences between OMI and MODIS are expected because the MODIS observations in the thermal infrared are more sensitive to the cloud top whereas the backscattered photons in the ultraviolet can penetrate deeper into clouds. Radiative transfer calculations are consistent with the observed differences. The OMI cloud pressures are shown to be correlated with the cirrus reflectance. This relationship indicates that OMI can probe through thin or moderately thick cirrus to lower lying water clouds.

  14. Chemistry and physics of a winter stratus cloud layer: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Daum, P.H.; Kelly, T.J.; Strapp, J.W.; Leaitch, W.R.; Joe, P.; Schemenauer, R.S.; Isaac, G.A.; Anlauf, K.G.; Wiebe, H.A.

    1987-07-20

    The chemical and physical properties of a supercooled stratus cloud layer and surrounding clear air covering southern Ontario on February 20, 1984, were studied with the objectives of identifying the processes responsible for the cloud water chemical composition. The cloud layer, which extended from circa 650 to 1050 m mean sea level, was bounded by a strong temperature inversion just at cloud top. The air below this inversion was well mixed vertically, as indicated by the near independence of concentrations of various trace gas species with altitude and by conservation of number concentration of particles from the surface to cloud top, with below-cloud aerosol number concentrations (0.2cloud droplet (2cloud water, determined by comparison of interstitial and cloud water sulfate concentrations, was in the range of 85--90%, similar to the result inferred from comparison of interstitial aerosol and cloud droplet number concentrations. Gas phase equivalent concentrations of cloud water species in the below-cloud air. These results suggest that the dominant processes determining cloud water composition in this cloud layer were nucleation scavenging of sulfate aerosol and scavenging of gaseous HNO3, with no significant contribution from reactive scavenging processes. copyright American Geophysical Union 1987

  15. Cloud Computing Explained

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metz, Rosalyn

    2010-01-01

    While many talk about the cloud, few actually understand it. Three organizations' definitions come to the forefront when defining the cloud: Gartner, Forrester, and the National Institutes of Standards and Technology (NIST). Although both Gartner and Forrester provide definitions of cloud computing, the NIST definition is concise and uses…

  16. Jets and Water Clouds on Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Yuan; Showman, A. P.

    2012-10-01

    Ground-based and spacecraft observations show that Jupiter exhibits multiple banded zonal jet structures. These banded jets correlate with dark and bright clouds, often called "belts" and "zones". The mechanisms that produce these banded zonal jets and clouds are poorly understood. Our previous studies showed that the latent heat released by condensation of water vapor could produce equatorial superrotation along with multiple zonal jets in the mid-to-high latitudes. However, that previous work assumed complete and instant removal of condensate and therefore could not predict the cloud formation. Here we present an improved 3D Jupiter model to investigate some effects of cloud microphysics on large-scale dynamics using a closed water cycle that includes condensation, three-dimensional advection of cloud material by the large-scale circulation, evaporation and sedimentation. We use a dry convective adjustment scheme to adjust the temperature towards a dry adiabat when atmospheric columns become convectively unstable, and the tracers are mixed within the unstable layers accordingly. Other physics parameterizations included in our model are the bottom drag and internal heat flux as well as the choices of either Newtonian heating scheme or gray radiative transfer. Given the poorly understood cloud microphysics, we perform case studies by treating the particle size and condensation/evaporation time scale as free parameters. We find that, in some cases, the active water cycle can produce multiple banded jets and clouds. However, the equatorial jet is generally very weak in all the cases because of insufficient supply of eastward eddy momentum fluxes. These differences may result from differences in the overall vertical stratification, baroclinicity, and moisture distribution in our new models relative to the older ones; we expect to elucidate the dynamical mechanisms in continuing work.

  17. The Kimball Free-Cloud Model: A Failed Innovation in Chemical Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, William B.

    2014-01-01

    This historical review traces the origins of the Kimball free-cloud model of the chemical bond, otherwise known as the charge-cloud or tangent-sphere model, and the central role it played in attempts to reform the introductory chemical curriculum at both the high school and college levels in the 1960s. It also critically evaluates the limitations…

  18. Probing exoplanet clouds with optical phase curves.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Antonio García; Isaak, Kate G

    2015-11-01

    Kepler-7b is to date the only exoplanet for which clouds have been inferred from the optical phase curve--from visible-wavelength whole-disk brightness measurements as a function of orbital phase. Added to this, the fact that the phase curve appears dominated by reflected starlight makes this close-in giant planet a unique study case. Here we investigate the information on coverage and optical properties of the planet clouds contained in the measured phase curve. We generate cloud maps of Kepler-7b and use a multiple-scattering approach to create synthetic phase curves, thus connecting postulated clouds with measurements. We show that optical phase curves can help constrain the composition and size of the cloud particles. Indeed, model fitting for Kepler-7b requires poorly absorbing particles that scatter with low-to-moderate anisotropic efficiency, conclusions consistent with condensates of silicates, perovskite, and silica of submicron radii. We also show that we are limited in our ability to pin down the extent and location of the clouds. These considerations are relevant to the interpretation of optical phase curves with general circulation models. Finally, we estimate that the spherical albedo of Kepler-7b over the Kepler passband is in the range 0.4-0.5. PMID:26489652

  19. Probing exoplanet clouds with optical phase curves

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Antonio García; Isaak, Kate G.

    2015-01-01

    Kepler-7b is to date the only exoplanet for which clouds have been inferred from the optical phase curve—from visible-wavelength whole-disk brightness measurements as a function of orbital phase. Added to this, the fact that the phase curve appears dominated by reflected starlight makes this close-in giant planet a unique study case. Here we investigate the information on coverage and optical properties of the planet clouds contained in the measured phase curve. We generate cloud maps of Kepler-7b and use a multiple-scattering approach to create synthetic phase curves, thus connecting postulated clouds with measurements. We show that optical phase curves can help constrain the composition and size of the cloud particles. Indeed, model fitting for Kepler-7b requires poorly absorbing particles that scatter with low-to-moderate anisotropic efficiency, conclusions consistent with condensates of silicates, perovskite, and silica of submicron radii. We also show that we are limited in our ability to pin down the extent and location of the clouds. These considerations are relevant to the interpretation of optical phase curves with general circulation models. Finally, we estimate that the spherical albedo of Kepler-7b over the Kepler passband is in the range 0.4–0.5. PMID:26489652

  20. Poor smokers, poor quitters, and cigarette tax regressivity.

    PubMed

    Remler, Dahlia K

    2004-02-01

    The traditional view that excise taxes are regressive has been challenged. I document the history of the term regressive tax, show that traditional definitions have always found cigarette taxes to be regressive, and illustrate the implications of the greater price responsiveness observed among the poor. I explain the different definitions of tax burden: accounting, welfare-based willingness to pay, and welfare-based time inconsistent. Progressivity (equity across income groups) is sensitive to the way in which tax burden is assessed. Analysis of horizontal equity (fairness within a given income group) shows that cigarette taxes heavily burden poor smokers who do not quit, no matter how tax burden is assessed. PMID:14759931

  1. Aerosols, clouds, and precipitation in the North Atlantic trades observed during the Barbados aerosol cloud experiment - Part 1: Distributions and variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Eunsil; Albrecht, Bruce A.; Feingold, Graham; Jonsson, Haflidi H.; Chuang, Patrick; Donaher, Shaunna L.

    2016-07-01

    Shallow marine cumulus clouds are by far the most frequently observed cloud type over the Earth's oceans; but they are poorly understood and have not been investigated as extensively as stratocumulus clouds. This study describes and discusses the properties and variations of aerosol, cloud, and precipitation associated with shallow marine cumulus clouds observed in the North Atlantic trades during a field campaign (Barbados Aerosol Cloud Experiment- BACEX, March-April 2010), which took place off Barbados where African dust periodically affects the region. The principal observing platform was the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter (TO) research aircraft, which was equipped with standard meteorological instruments, a zenith pointing cloud radar and probes that measured aerosol, cloud, and precipitation characteristics.The temporal variation and vertical distribution of aerosols observed from the 15 flights, which included the most intense African dust event during all of 2010 in Barbados, showed a wide range of aerosol conditions. During dusty periods, aerosol concentrations increased substantially in the size range between 0.5 and 10 µm (diameter), particles that are large enough to be effective giant cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The 10-day back trajectories showed three distinct air masses with distinct vertical structures associated with air masses originating in the Atlantic (typical maritime air mass with relatively low aerosol concentrations in the marine boundary layer), Africa (Saharan air layer), and mid-latitudes (continental pollution plumes). Despite the large differences in the total mass loading and the origin of the aerosols, the overall shapes of the aerosol particle size distributions were consistent, with the exception of the transition period.The TO was able to sample many clouds at various phases of growth. Maximum cloud depth observed was less than ˜ 3 km, while most clouds were less than 1 km

  2. Corona Discharge in Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sin'kevich, A. A.; Dovgalyuk, Yu. A.

    2014-04-01

    We present a review of the results of theoretical studies and laboratory modeling of corona discharge initiation in clouds. The influence of corona discharges on the evolution of the cloud microstructure and electrification is analyzed. It is shown that corona discharges are initiated when large-size hydrometeors approach each other, whereas in some cases, corona discharges from crystals, ice pellets, and hailstones can appear. The corona discharges lead to significant air ionization, charging of cloud particles, and separation of charges in clouds and initiate streamers and lightnings. The influence of corona discharges on changes in the phase composition of clouds is analyzed.

  3. Cloud microstructure studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blau, H. H., Jr.; Fowler, M. G.; Chang, D. T.; Ryan, R. T.

    1972-01-01

    Over two thousand individual cloud droplet size distributions were measured with an optical cloud particle spectrometer flown on the NASA Convair 990 aircraft. Representative droplet spectra and liquid water content, L (gm/cu m) were obtained for oceanic stratiform and cumuliform clouds. For non-precipitating clouds, values of L range from 0.1 gm/cu m to 0.5 gm/cu m; with precipitation, L is often greater than 1 gm/cu m. Measurements were also made in a newly formed contrail and in cirrus clouds.

  4. INFRARED DARK CLOUDS IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD?

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Min-Young; Stanimirovic, Snezana; Devine, Kathryn E.; Ott, Juergen; Van Loon, Jacco Th.; Oliveira, Joana M.; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Jones, Paul A.; Cunningham, Maria R. E-mail: sstanimi@astro.wisc.edu E-mail: jott@nrao.edu E-mail: joana@astro.keele.ac.uk E-mail: pjones@phys.unsw.edu.au

    2009-10-15

    We have applied the unsharp-masking technique to the 24 {mu}m image of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope, to search for high-extinction regions. This technique has been used to locate very dense and cold interstellar clouds in the Galaxy, particularly infrared dark clouds (IRDCs). Fifty-five candidate regions of high extinction, namely, high-contrast regions (HCRs), have been identified from the generated decremental contrast image of the SMC. Most HCRs are located in the southern bar region and mainly distributed in the outskirts of CO clouds, but most likely contain a significant amount of H{sub 2}. HCRs have a peak contrast at 24 {mu}m of 2%-2.5% and a size of 8-14 pc. This corresponds to the size of typical and large Galactic IRDCs, but Galactic IRDCs are 2-3 times darker at 24 {mu}m than our HCRs. To constrain the physical properties of the HCRs, we have performed NH{sub 3}, N{sub 2}H{sup +}, HNC, HCO{sup +}, and HCN observations toward one of the HCRs, HCR LIRS36-east, using the Australia Telescope Compact Array and the Mopra single-dish radio telescope. We did not detect any molecular line emission, however, our upper limits to the column densities of molecular species suggest that HCRs are most likely moderately dense with n {approx} 10{sup 3} cm{sup -3}. This volume density is in agreement with predictions for the cool atomic phase in low-metallicity environments. We suggest that HCRs may be tracing clouds at the transition from atomic to molecule-dominated medium, and could be a powerful way to study early stages of gas condensation in low-metallicity galaxies. Alternatively, if made up of dense molecular clumps <0.5 pc in size, HCRs could be counterparts of Galactic IRDCs, and/or regions with highly unusual abundance of very small dust grains.

  5. Thin Lens Ray Tracing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatland, Ian R.

    2002-01-01

    Proposes a ray tracing approach to thin lens analysis based on a vector form of Snell's law for paraxial rays as an alternative to the usual approach in introductory physics courses. The ray tracing approach accommodates skew rays and thus provides a complete analysis. (Author/KHR)

  6. Trace element emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, S.A.; Erickson, T.A.; Steadman, E.N.; Zygarlicke, C.J.; Hauserman, W.B.; Hassett, D.J.

    1994-10-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is carrying out an investigation that will provide methods to predict the fate of selected trace elements in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems to aid in the development of methods to control the emission of trace elements determined to be air toxics. The goal of this project is to identify the effects of critical chemical and physical transformations associated with trace element behavior in IGCC and IGFC systems. The trace elements included in this project are arsenic, chromium, cadmium, mercury, nickel, selenium, and lead. The research seeks to identify and fill, experimentally and/or theoretically, data gaps that currently exist on the fate and composition of trace elements. The specific objectives are to (1) review the existing literature to identify the type and quantity of trace elements from coal gasification systems, (2) perform laboratory-scale experimentation and computer modeling to enable prediction of trace element emissions, and (3) identify methods to control trace element emissions.

  7. Transport of Trace Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark R.

    2005-01-01

    Trace gases measurements are used to diagnose both the chemistry and transport of the atmosphere. These lectures emphasize the interpretation of trace gases measurements and techniques used to untangle chemistry and transport effects. I will discuss PV transform, trajectory techniques, and age-of-air as far as the circulation of the stratosphere.

  8. Methane Clouds on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, Caitlin A.

    Following the Voyager encounter with Titan in 1981 Saturn's largest moon was hypothesized sport a liquid cycle similar that on Earth with clouds rain and seas. On Titan methane is the condensible playing the role that water plays on Earth. Although the presence of seas is difficult to establish from ground methane clouds have been detected on Titan. Ground-based observations reveal that Titan's clouds differ remarkedly from their terrestrial counterparts. Titan's clouds are sparse reside primarily at particular altitude and concentrate presently in the south pole. That Titan's clouds are exotic is not surprising. Titan receives ~100 times less sunlight than Earth to drive weather. In addition Titan's radiative time constant is 180 years large compared to the 3 month terrestrial value. With little power and sluggish conditions it is not clear how clouds form on Titan. This talk will compare Titan to Earth to explore the nature of clouds under Titan's foreign conditions.

  9. Clouds Over Crater Rim

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Clouds above the rim of 'Endurance Crater' in this image from NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity can remind the viewer that Mars, our celestial neighbor, is subject to weather. On Earth, clouds like these would be referred to as 'cirrus' or the aptly nicknamed 'mares' tails.' These clouds occur in a region of strong vertical shear. The cloud particles (ice in this martian case) fall out, and get dragged along away from the location where they originally condensed, forming characteristic streamers. Opportunity took this picture with its navigation camera during the rover's 269th martian day (Oct. 26, 2004).

    The mission's atmospheric science team is studying cloud observations to deduce seasonal and time-of-day behavior of the clouds. This helps them gain a better understanding of processes that control cloud formation.

  10. Are Poor Chinese Text Comprehenders Also Poor in Written Composition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guan, Connie Qun; Ye, Feifei; Meng, Wanjin; Leong, Che Kan

    2013-01-01

    We studied the performance in three genres of Chinese written composition (narration, exposition, and argumentation) of 158 grade 4, 5, and 6 poor Chinese text comprehenders compared with 156 good Chinese text comprehenders. We examined text comprehension and written composition relationship. Verbal working memory (verbal span working memory and…

  11. The management of poor performance

    PubMed Central

    Mayberry, John F

    2007-01-01

    Identification of poor performance is in an integral part of government policy. The suggested approach for the identification of such problems, advocated by the General Medical Council, is that of appraisal. However, traditionally, there has been a reluctance to deal with poor performers, as all doctors have made mistakes and are usually only too ready to forgive and be non‐critical of colleagues. The problems are widespread, and 6% of the senior hospital workforce in any 5‐year period may have problems. PMID:17308213

  12. Theoretical development of Monte Carlo codes for modeling cumulus cloud fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    Reflected fluxes are calculated for stratocumulus cloud fields as a function of skycover, cloud aspect ratio, and cloud shape. Cloud liquid water volume is held invariant as cloud shape is varied so that the results can be utilized more effectively by general circulation models and climate models. On the basis of required accuracy in the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment program, an order of magnitude value of 10 W/sq m is used to estimate significant differences between plane parallel and broken cloudiness. This limit is exceeded for cloud covers between 10% and 90%, indicating that plane paralel calculations are not satisfactory at most values of cloud cover. The choice of cloud shape also leads to large differences in reflected fluxes. These differences are traced to the anisotropic intensity pattern out the cloud sides, to the size and shape of the holes between clouds, and to variations in cloud area as viewed from the solar direction. An empirical relationship for effective cloud cover is given at solar zenith angle of theta = 60 deg. This relationship allows for the relatively accurate (delta F = 10 - 15 W/sq m.) computation of broken cloud field reflected fluxes from plane parallel calculations.

  13. Interpretation of FRESCO cloud retrievals in case of absorbing aerosol events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P.; Tuinder, O. N. E.; Tilstra, L. G.; Stammes, P.

    2011-12-01

    Cloud and aerosol information is needed in trace gas retrievals from satellite measurements. The Fast REtrieval Scheme for Clouds from the Oxygen A band (FRESCO) cloud algorithm employs reflectance spectra of the O2 A band around 760 nm to derive cloud pressure and effective cloud fraction. In general, clouds contribute more to the O2 A band reflectance than aerosols. Therefore, the FRESCO algorithm does not correct for aerosol effects in the retrievals and attributes the retrieved cloud information entirely to the presence of clouds, and not to aerosols. For events with high aerosol loading, aerosols may have a dominant effect, especially for almost cloud-free scenes. We have analysed FRESCO cloud data and Absorbing Aerosol Index (AAI) data from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME-2) instrument on the Metop-A satellite for events with typical absorbing aerosol types, such as volcanic ash, desert dust and smoke. We find that the FRESCO effective cloud fractions are correlated with the AAI data for these absorbing aerosol events and that the FRESCO cloud pressures contain information on aerosol layer pressure. For cloud-free scenes, the derived FRESCO cloud pressures are close to those of the aerosol layer for optically thick aerosols. For cloudy scenes, if the strongly absorbing aerosols are located above the clouds, then the retrieved FRESCO cloud pressures may represent the height of the aerosol layer rather than the height of the clouds. Combining FRESCO cloud data and AAI, an estimate for the aerosol layer pressure can be given, which can be beneficial for aviation safety and operations in case of e.g. volcanic ash plumes.

  14. Traceds: An Experimental Trace Element Partitioning Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, R. L.; Ghiorso, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this project, which is part of the EARTHCHEM initiative, is to compile the existing experimental trace element partitioning data, and to develop a transparent, accessible resource for the community. The primary goal of experimental trace element partitioning studies is to create a database that can be used to develop models of how trace elements behave in natural geochemical systems. The range of approaches as to how this is accomplished and how the data are reported differs dramatically from one system to another and one investigator to another. This provides serious challenges to the creation of a coherent database - and suggests the need for a standard format for data presentation and reporting. The driving force for this compilation is to provide community access to the complete database for trace element experiments. Our new effort includes all the published analytical results from experimental determinations. In compiling the data, we have set a minimum standard for the data to be included. The threshold criteria include: Experimental conditions (temperature, pressure, device, container, time, etc.) Major element composition of the phases Trace element analyses of the phases Data sources that did not report these minimum components were not included. The rationale for not including such data is that the degree of equilibration is unknown, and more important, no rigorous approach to modeling the behavior of trace elements is possible without a knowledge of the actual concentrations or the temperature and pressure of formation. The data are stored using a schema derived from that of the Library of Experimental Phase Relations (LEPR), modified to account for additional metadata, and restructured to permit multiple analytical entries for various element/technique/standard combinations. Our ultimate goal is to produce a database together with a flexible user interface that will be useful for experimentalists to set up their work and to build

  15. High velocity clouds in nearby disk galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulman, Eric; Bregman, Joel N.; Roberts, Morton S.; Brinks, Elias

    1993-01-01

    Clouds of neutral hydrogen in our galaxy with the absolute value of v greater than 100 km/s cover approximately 10 percent of the sky to a limiting column density of 1 x 10(exp 18) cm(exp -2). These high velocity clouds (HVCs) may dominate the kinetic energy of neutral hydrogen in non-circular motion, and are an important though poorly understood component of galactic gas. It has been suggested that the HVCs can be reproduced by a combination of three phenomena: a galactic fountain driven by disk supernovae which would account for most of the HVCs, material tidally torn from the Magellanic Clouds, and an outer arm complex which is associated with the large scale structure of the warped galactic disk. We sought to detect HVCs in external galaxies in order to test the galactic fountain model.

  16. Prospects for the Working Poor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, S. M.

    1970-01-01

    Based on a chapter entitled "Barriers to Employment of the Disadvantaged by Martin Deutsch and S. M. Miller in "Manpower Report of the President, 1968. Discusses the Nixon proposals for remediating poverty in relation to the socioeconomic factors operating to maintain the condition of being poor while working. (JM)

  17. Poor Memory: A Case Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meltzer, Malcolm L.

    1983-01-01

    Presents a case study of a person who had a cardiac arrest with some right-sided brain damage. Describes the effects of poor memory on cognition, personality, and interpersonal relationships based on personal observations during memory impairment. Highlights the course of rehabilitation over a two-year period. (PAS)

  18. Silicon photonics cloud (SiCloud)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVore, Peter T. S.; Jiang, Yunshan; Lynch, Michael; Miyatake, Taira; Carmona, Christopher; Chan, Andrew C.; Muniam, Kuhan; Jalali, Bahram

    2015-02-01

    We present SiCloud (Silicon Photonics Cloud), the first free, instructional web-based research and education tool for silicon photonics. SiCloud's vision is to provide a host of instructional and research web-based tools. Such interactive learning tools enhance traditional teaching methods by extending access to a very large audience, resulting in very high impact. Interactive tools engage the brain in a way different from merely reading, and so enhance and reinforce the learning experience. Understanding silicon photonics is challenging as the topic involves a wide range of disciplines, including material science, semiconductor physics, electronics and waveguide optics. This web-based calculator is an interactive analysis tool for optical properties of silicon and related material (SiO2, Si3N4, Al2O3, etc.). It is designed to be a one stop resource for students, researchers and design engineers. The first and most basic aspect of Silicon Photonics is the Material Parameters, which provides the foundation for the Device, Sub-System and System levels. SiCloud includes the common dielectrics and semiconductors for waveguide core, cladding, and photodetection, as well as metals for electrical contacts. SiCloud is a work in progress and its capability is being expanded. SiCloud is being developed at UCLA with funding from the National Science Foundation's Center for Integrated Access Networks (CIAN) Engineering Research Center.

  19. Interpretation of MODIS Cloud Images by CloudSat/CALIPSO Cloud Vertical Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T.; Fetzer, E. J.; Wong, S.; Yue, Q.

    2015-12-01

    Clouds observed by passive remote-sensing imager (Aqua-MODIS) are collocated to cloud vertical profiles observed by active profiling sensors (CloudSat radar and CALIPSO lidar) at the pixel-scale. By comparing different layers of cloud types classified in the 2B-CLDCLASS-LIDAR product from CloudSat+CALIPSO to those cloud properties observed by MODIS, we evaluate the occurrence frequencies of cloud types and cloud-overlap in CloudSat+CALIPSO for each MODIS cloud regime defined by cloud optical depth (τ) and cloud-top pressure (P) histograms. We find that about 70% of MODIS clear sky agrees with the clear category in CloudSat+CALIPSO; whereas the remainder is either single layer (~25%) cirrus (Ci), low-level cumulus (Cu), stratocumulus (Sc), or multi-layer (<5%) clouds in CloudSat+CALIPSO. Under MODIS cloudy conditions, 60%, 28%, and 8% of the occurrences show single-, double-, and triple-layer clouds, respectively in CloudSat+CALIPSO. When MODIS identifies single-layer clouds, 50-60% of the MODIS low-level clouds are categorized as stratus (Sc) in CloudSat+CALIPSO. Over the tropics, ~70% of MODIS high and optically thin clouds (considered as cirrus in the histogram) is also identified as Ci in CloudSat+CALIPSO, and ~40% of MODIS high and optically thick clouds (considered as convective in the histogram) agrees with CloudSat+CALIPSO deep convections (DC). Over mid-latitudes these numbers drop to 45% and 10%, respectively. The best agreement occurs in tropical single-layer cloud regimes, where 90% of MODIS high-thin clouds are identified as Ci by CloudSat+CALIPSO and 60% of MODIS high-thick clouds are identified as DC. Worst agreement is found for multi-layer clouds, where cirrus on top of low- and mid-level clouds in MODIS are frequently categorized as high-thick clouds by passive imaging - among these only 5-12% are DC in CloudSat+CALIPSO. It is encouraging that both MODIS low-level clouds (regardless of optical thickness) and high-level thin clouds are consistently

  20. Are poor Chinese text comprehenders also poor in written composition?

    PubMed

    Guan, Connie Qun; Ye, Feifei; Meng, Wanjin; Leong, Che Kan

    2013-10-01

    We studied the performance in three genres of Chinese written composition (narration, exposition, and argumentation) of 158 grade 4, 5, and 6 poor Chinese text comprehenders compared with 156 good Chinese text comprehenders. We examined text comprehension and written composition relationship. Verbal working memory (verbal span working memory and operation span working memory) and different levels of linguistic tasks-morphological sensitivity (morphological compounding and morphological chain), sentence processing (syntax construction and syntax integrity), and text comprehension (narrative and expository texts)-were used to predict separately narrative, expository, and argumentation written compositions in these students. Grade for grade, the good text comprehenders outperformed the poor text comprehenders in all tasks, except for morphological chain. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed differential contribution of the tasks to different genres of writing. In particular, text comprehension made unique contribution to argumentation writing in the poor text comprehenders. Future studies should ask students to read and write parallel passages in the same genre for better comparison and incorporate both instructional and motivational variables. PMID:23666849

  1. OH 18 cm Transition as a Thermometer for Molecular Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebisawa, Yuji; Inokuma, Hiroshi; Sakai, Nami; Menten, Karl M.; Maezawa, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Satoshi

    2015-12-01

    We have observed the four hyperfine components of the 18 cm OH transition toward the translucent cloud eastward of Heiles Cloud 2 (HCL2E), the cold dark cloud L134N, and the photodissociation region of the ρ-Ophiuchi molecular cloud with the Effelsberg 100 m telescope. We have found intensity anomalies among the hyperfine components in all three regions. In particular, an absorption feature of the 1612 MHz satellite line against the cosmic microwave background has been detected toward HCL2E and two positions of the ρ-Ophiuchi molecular cloud. On the basis of statistical equilibrium calculations, we find that the hyperfine anomalies originate from the non-LTE population of the hyperfine levels, and can be used to determine the kinetic temperature of the gas over a wide range of H2 densities (102-107 cm-3). Toward the center of HCL2E, the gas kinetic temperature is determined to be 53 ± 1 K, and it increases toward the cloud peripheries (˜60 K). The ortho-to-para ratio of H2 is determined to be 3.5 ± 0.9 from the averaged spectrum for the eight positions. In L134N, a similar increase of the temperature is also seen toward the periphery. In the ρ-Ophiuchi molecular cloud, the gas kinetic temperature decreases as a function of the distance from the exciting star HD 147889. These results demonstrate a new aspect of the OH 18 cm line that can be used as a good thermometer of molecular cloud envelopes. The OH 18 cm line can be used to trace a new class of warm molecular gas surrounding a molecular cloud, which is not well traced by the emission of CO and its isotopologues.

  2. Computer ray tracing speeds.

    PubMed

    Robb, P; Pawlowski, B

    1990-05-01

    The results of measuring the ray trace speed and compilation speed of thirty-nine computers in fifty-seven configurations, ranging from personal computers to super computers, are described. A correlation of ray trace speed has been made with the LINPACK benchmark which allows the ray trace speed to be estimated using LINPACK performance data. The results indicate that the latest generation of workstations, using CPUs based on RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) technology, are as fast or faster than mainframe computers in compute-bound situations. PMID:20563112

  3. What is a Cloud?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, C. N.; Wu, W.

    2013-12-01

    There are multiple factors that cause disagreements between differing methods using differing instruments to infer cloud amounts. But along with these issues is a fundamental concern that has permeated all comparisons and supersedes such questions as what are the uncertainty estimates of a given retrieval. To wit: what is a cloud? How can uncertainty of a cloud amount measurement be determined when there is no absolute 'truth' on what defines a cloud, as opposed to cloud-free? Recent research comparing a decade of surface- and satellite-based retrievals of cloud amount for the ARM Southern Great Plains site shows significant disagreements. While Total Sky Imager 100-degree FOV, Shortwave (SW) Radiative Flux Analysis, GOES satellite and PATMOS-x satellite amounts agree relatively well, ISCCP satellite and ARSCL time-series cloud amounts are significantly greater, 15% (ISCCP) and 8% (ARSCL) larger in average diurnal variations. In both cases, it appears that optically thin high ice is counted as 'cloud' in ARSCL and ISCCP that is not categorized as cloud by all the others. Additionally, cloud amounts from three methods (ISCCP, ARSCL, and GOES) show an overall increase of 8%-10% in the annually averaged cloud fractions from 1998 to 2009, while those from the other three (TSI, SWFA, PATMOS-x) show little trend for this period. So one wonders: are cloud amounts increasing or not over this period? The SW Flux Analysis used sky imager retrievals as 'truth' in development of the methodology (Long et al, 2006a), where sky imagery itself used human observations as the model (Long et al., 2006b). Min et al. (2008) then used SW Flux Analysis retrievals as 'truth' to develop an MFRSR-based spectral SW retrieval method. Dupont et al. (2008) show that the SW-based retrievals allow up to a visible optical depth of 0.15 (95% of occurrences) under the 'clear-sky' category which primarily consists of sub-visual cirrus, which by ancestry applies to spectral SW, sky imager and human

  4. Stratus Cloud Supersaturations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, S.; Hudson, J. G.; Jha, V.

    2009-12-01

    Extensive aircraft measurements of cloud microphysics and complete CCN spectra from 15 flights in central California stratus clouds are presented. Cloud droplet and CCN concentrations varied over an order of magnitude in this July-August, 2008 POST project. Correlation coefficients (R) between CCN and average total cloud droplet concentrations within parcels with specific minimal liquid water contents (LWC) are shown in the table. For most LWC thresholds R is greatest for CCN concentrations at rather high supersaturations (S); i.e., 1%. The highest R for the 0.1 gm-3 are for the 300’ altitude CCN measurements but the number of cases is very small. The 0.5 g-3 R values are higher at lower S but the number of cases is also very small. The high cloud S implied by most R values goes against conventional wisdom that low stratus cloud updraft velocities limit cloud S to < 0.3%. On the other hand average droplet concentrations for most LWC thresholds match best the CCN concentrations at 0.2-0.3% S, which is more in keeping with conventional wisdom. However, these average droplet concentrations were probably reduced from adiabatic values by entrainment, which would suggest higher initial cloud S. Yum and Hudson (2002, Tellus) did report S > 1% in some maritime clouds. Further research is ongoing with this data set to substantiate stratus cloud S values. If stratus cloud S is determined to be higher than previous estimates this would imply that a much larger subset of particles (even smaller sizes) influence cloud microphysics and this would have important climate implications. As has recently been reported for small cumulus clouds (Hudson et al. 2009 JGR and Hudson and Noble 2009 GRL) negative R values were found for CCN with larger cloud droplets and drizzle drop concentrations. Correlation coefficients (R) between average droplet and CCN concentrations. 1st row (1 min)is for CCN measurements in ascents or descents closest to cloud base. 2nd row is for CCN averaged in

  5. Energy Aware Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orgerie, Anne-Cécile; de Assunção, Marcos Dias; Lefèvre, Laurent

    Cloud infrastructures are increasingly becoming essential components for providing Internet services. By benefiting from economies of scale, Clouds can efficiently manage and offer a virtually unlimited number of resources and can minimize the costs incurred by organizations when providing Internet services. However, as Cloud providers often rely on large data centres to sustain their business and offer the resources that users need, the energy consumed by Cloud infrastructures has become a key environmental and economical concern. This chapter presents an overview of techniques that can improve the energy efficiency of Cloud infrastructures. We propose a framework termed as Green Open Cloud, which uses energy efficient solutions for virtualized environments; the framework is validated on a reference scenario.

  6. Cloud water deposition at a high-elevation site in the Vosges Mountains (France).

    PubMed

    Herckes, Pierre; Mirabel, Philippe; Wortham, Henri

    2002-09-16

    The importance of cloud water deposition fluxes to a high-elevation site in the Vosges Mountains (France) has been studied. An existing one-dimensional cloud water deposition model has been adapted to site conditions. The adaptation of the main parameters has been tested and is discussed. These tests illustrate the small influence of the surface area index (SAI) and the roughness length on cloud water deposition and the negligible contribution of sedimentation compared to impaction of cloud droplets. Model input data, including cloud water composition, liquid water content (LWC) and wind speed, have been collected over a 1-year period and are used to evaluate annual cloud deposition fluxes of major ions and trace metals. The calculations indicate that the hydrologic input by cloud water (55.5 mm year(-1)) is negligible compared to the input by rainwater (1265 mm year(-1)). However, due to the higher concentrations in cloud water, the deposition fluxes of cloud water represent 10-28% of the total wet deposition (rain + cloud deposition) for major ions and 50% or higher for trace elements. PMID:12398327

  7. Submm-Wave Radiometry for Cloud/Humidity/Precipitation Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Dong L.

    2011-01-01

    Although active sensors can provide cloud profiles at good vertical resolution, clouds are often coupled with dynamics to form fast and organized structures. Lack of understanding of these organized systems leads to great challenge for numerical models. The deficiency is partly reflected, for example, in poorly modeled intraseasonal variations (e.g., MJD). Remote sensing clouds in the middle and upper troposphere has been challenging from space. Vis/IR sensors are sensitive to the topmost cloud layers whereas low-frequency MW techniques are sensitivity to liquid and precipitation at the bottom of cloud layers. The middle-level clouds, mostly in the ice phase, require a sensor that has moderate penetration and sensitivity to cloud scattering, in order to measure cloud water content. Sensors at submm wavelengths provide promising sensitivity and coverage with the spatial resolution needed to measure cloud water content floating in the upper air. In addition, submm-wave sensors are able to provide better measurements of upper-tropospheric humidity than traditional microwave instruments.

  8. Ammonia Clouds on Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of Ammonia Ice Clouds on Jupiter

    In this movie, put together from false-color images taken by the New Horizons Ralph instrument as the spacecraft flew past Jupiter in early 2007, show ammonia clouds (appearing as bright blue areas) as they form and disperse over five successive Jupiter 'days.' Scientists noted how the larger cloud travels along with a small, local deep hole.

  9. Trace gas emissions by plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sharkey, T.D.; Holland, E.A.

    1991-12-31

    The trace gases released or influenced by plants play a key role in atmospheric processes. In the troposphere, methane and carbon monoxide are key species that react with the hydroxyl radical (OH), an effective atmospheric detergent. Carbon monoxide is formed by the oxidation of the biogenic hydrocarbons discussed previously. In the presence of NO, the oxidation of CO, CH{sub 4} and NMHC can lead to the formation of ozone, a tropospheric pollutant. In the stratosphere, methane is an important source of water vapor. Volatile sulfur compounds released by plants may be an important source of cloud condensation nuclei. Collectively, these compounds may directly regulate the earth`s climate because they are radiatively active and influence the radiation balance at the earth`s surface or indirectly regulate the earth`s climate because they influence the concentration of radiatively active gases. The focus of the workshop was on naturally occurring gas fluxes. It is sometimes claimed that the gas fluxes from plants pollute the atmosphere. Our focus was on the natural chemistry occurring at the biosphere-atmosphere interface. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

  10. Trace gas emissions by plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sharkey, T.D. . Dept. of Botany); Holland, E.A. ); Mooney, H.A. . Dept. of Biological Sciences)

    1991-01-01

    The trace gases released or influenced by plants play a key role in atmospheric processes. In the troposphere, methane and carbon monoxide are key species that react with the hydroxyl radical (OH), an effective atmospheric detergent. Carbon monoxide is formed by the oxidation of the biogenic hydrocarbons discussed previously. In the presence of NO, the oxidation of CO, CH[sub 4] and NMHC can lead to the formation of ozone, a tropospheric pollutant. In the stratosphere, methane is an important source of water vapor. Volatile sulfur compounds released by plants may be an important source of cloud condensation nuclei. Collectively, these compounds may directly regulate the earth's climate because they are radiatively active and influence the radiation balance at the earth's surface or indirectly regulate the earth's climate because they influence the concentration of radiatively active gases. The focus of the workshop was on naturally occurring gas fluxes. It is sometimes claimed that the gas fluxes from plants pollute the atmosphere. Our focus was on the natural chemistry occurring at the biosphere-atmosphere interface. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

  11. Trace Elements and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettyjohn, Wayne A.

    1972-01-01

    Summarizes the effects of arsenic, lead, zinc, mercury, and cadmium on human health, indicates the sources of the elements in water, and considers the possibility of students in high schools analyzing water for trace amounts of the elements. (AL)

  12. Trace Organic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ember, Lois R.

    1978-01-01

    Trace organic analysis (TOA) is seen as a more useful way to quantify environmental pollutants. Current practices and future trends are discussed in detail. Seven steps in TOA are identified: collection, storage, extraction, concentration, isolation, identification, and quantification. (MA)

  13. Seven poor clusters of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beers, T. C.; Geller, M. J.; Huchra, J. P.; Latham, D. W.; Davis, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    The measurement of 83 new redshifts from galaxies in the region of seven of the poor clusters of galaxies identified by Morgan et al (1975) and Albert et al (1977) has been followed by an estimation of cluster masses through the application of both the virial theorem and the projected mas method. For each system, these two estimates are consistent. For the two clusters with highest X-ray luminosities, the line-of-sight velocity dispersions are about 700 km/sec, while for the five other clusters, the dispersions are of the order of less than about 370 km/sec. The D or cD galaxy in each poor cluster is at the kinematic center of each system.

  14. SMEAT atmosphere trace contaminants.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schornick, J. L.; Heinrich, C. T.; Garcia, G. S., Jr.; Verostko, C. E.

    1973-01-01

    The atmosphere trace contaminant analysis support provided for the Skylab Medical Experiments Altitude Test (SMEAT) which was conducted from July 26 through September 20, 1972, at the JSC Crew Systems Division facility is discussed. Sample acquisition techniques and analytical instrumentation methodology utilized for identification and quantification of the trace contaminants are described. Emphasis is placed on the contaminants found, their occurrence patterns, and possible sources.

  15. TRACE 3-D documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, K.R.

    1987-08-01

    TRACE 3-D is an interactive beam-dynamics program that calculates the envelopes of a bunched beam, including linear space-charge forces, through a user-defined transport system. TRACE 3-D provides an immediate graphics display of the envelopes and the phase-space ellipses and allows nine types of beam-matching options. This report describes the beam-dynamics calculations and gives detailed instruction for using the code. Several examples are described in detail.

  16. Physical properties of luminous dust-poor quasars

    SciTech Connect

    Jun, Hyunsung David; Im, Myungshin E-mail: mim@astro.snu.ac.kr

    2013-12-20

    We identify and characterize a population of luminous, dust-poor quasars at 0 < z < 5 that is photometrically similar to objects previously found at z > 6. This class of active galactic nuclei is known to show little IR emission from dusty structure, but it is poorly understood in terms of number evolution and dependence on physical quantities. To better understand the properties of these quasars, we compile a rest-frame UV to IR library of 41,000 optically selected type 1 quasars with L {sub bol} > 10{sup 45.7} erg s{sup –1}. After fitting the broadband spectral energy distributions (SEDs) with accretion disk and dust components, we find 0.6% of our sample to be hot dust-poor, with rest-frame 2.3 μm to 0.51 μm flux density ratios of –0.5 dex or less. The dust-poor SEDs are blue in the UV-optical and weak in the mid-IR, such that their accretion disks are less obscured and the hot dust emission traces that of warm dust down to the dust-poor regime. At a given bolometric luminosity, dust-poor quasars are lower in black hole mass and higher in Eddington ratio than general luminous quasars, suggesting that they are in a rapidly growing evolutionary state in which the dust-poor phase appears as a short or rare phenomenon. The dust-poor fraction increases with redshift, and possible implications for their evolution are discussed.

  17. TraceContract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavelund, Klaus; Barringer, Howard

    2012-01-01

    TraceContract is an API (Application Programming Interface) for trace analysis. A trace is a sequence of events, and can, for example, be generated by a running program, instrumented appropriately to generate events. An event can be any data object. An example of a trace is a log file containing events that a programmer has found important to record during a program execution. Trace - Contract takes as input such a trace together with a specification formulated using the API and reports on any violations of the specification, potentially calling code (reactions) to be executed when violations are detected. The software is developed as an internal DSL (Domain Specific Language) in the Scala programming language. Scala is a relatively new programming language that is specifically convenient for defining such internal DSLs due to a number of language characteristics. This includes Scala s elegant combination of object-oriented and functional programming, a succinct notation, and an advanced type system. The DSL offers a combination of data-parameterized state machines and temporal logic, which is novel. As an extension of Scala, it is a very expressive and convenient log file analysis framework.

  18. Clouds enhance Greenland ice sheet meltwater runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Tricht, K.; Lhermitte, S.; Lenaerts, J. T. M.; Gorodetskaya, I. V.; L'Ecuyer, T. S.; Noël, B.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Turner, D. D.; van Lipzig, N. P. M.

    2016-01-01

    The Greenland ice sheet has become one of the main contributors to global sea level rise, predominantly through increased meltwater runoff. The main drivers of Greenland ice sheet runoff, however, remain poorly understood. Here we show that clouds enhance meltwater runoff by about one-third relative to clear skies, using a unique combination of active satellite observations, climate model data and snow model simulations. This impact results from a cloud radiative effect of 29.5 (+/-5.2) W m-2. Contrary to conventional wisdom, however, the Greenland ice sheet responds to this energy through a new pathway by which clouds reduce meltwater refreezing as opposed to increasing surface melt directly, thereby accelerating bare-ice exposure and enhancing meltwater runoff. The high sensitivity of the Greenland ice sheet to both ice-only and liquid-bearing clouds highlights the need for accurate cloud representations in climate models, to better predict future contributions of the Greenland ice sheet to global sea level rise.

  19. Clouds enhance Greenland ice sheet meltwater runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Tricht, Kristof; Lhermitte, Stef; Lenaerts, Jan T. M.; Gorodetskaya, Irina V.; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.; Noël, Brice; van den Broeke, Michiel R.; Turner, David D.; van Lipzig, Nicole P. M.

    2016-04-01

    The Greenland ice sheet has become one of the main contributors to global sea level rise, predominantly through increased meltwater runoff. The main drivers of Greenland ice sheet runoff, however, remain poorly understood. Here we show that clouds enhance meltwater runoff by about one-third relative to clear skies, using a unique combination of active satellite observations, climate model data and snow model simulations. This impact results from a cloud radiative effect of 29.5 (±5.2) W m‑2. Contrary to conventional wisdom, however, the Greenland ice sheet responds to this energy through a new pathway by which clouds reduce meltwater refreezing as opposed to increasing surface melt directly, thereby accelerating bare-ice exposure and enhancing meltwater runoff. The high sensitivity of the Greenland ice sheet to both ice-only and liquid-bearing clouds highlights the need for accurate cloud representations in climate models, to better predict future contributions of the Greenland ice sheet to global sea level rise.

  20. Clouds enhance Greenland ice sheet meltwater runoff

    PubMed Central

    Van Tricht, K.; Lhermitte, S.; Lenaerts, J. T. M.; Gorodetskaya, I. V.; L'Ecuyer, T. S.; Noël, B.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Turner, D. D.; van Lipzig, N. P. M.

    2016-01-01

    The Greenland ice sheet has become one of the main contributors to global sea level rise, predominantly through increased meltwater runoff. The main drivers of Greenland ice sheet runoff, however, remain poorly understood. Here we show that clouds enhance meltwater runoff by about one-third relative to clear skies, using a unique combination of active satellite observations, climate model data and snow model simulations. This impact results from a cloud radiative effect of 29.5 (±5.2) W m−2. Contrary to conventional wisdom, however, the Greenland ice sheet responds to this energy through a new pathway by which clouds reduce meltwater refreezing as opposed to increasing surface melt directly, thereby accelerating bare-ice exposure and enhancing meltwater runoff. The high sensitivity of the Greenland ice sheet to both ice-only and liquid-bearing clouds highlights the need for accurate cloud representations in climate models, to better predict future contributions of the Greenland ice sheet to global sea level rise. PMID:26756470

  1. Effects of observed horizontal inhomogeneities within cirrus clouds on solar radiative transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buschmann, Nicole; McFarquhar, Greg M.; Heymsfield, Andrew J.

    2002-10-01

    In situ microphysical and combined radar and radiometer measurements of 11 cirrus clouds from Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX), European Cloud and Radiation Experiment (EUCREX), investigation of Clouds by Ground-Based and Airborne Radar and Lidar (CARL), and First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) Regional Experiment (FIRE) are used to investigate effects of horizontal cloud inhomogeneities on solar radiative transfer. A three-dimensional ray-tracing model (GRIMALDI), based on the Monte Carlo method, is used to calculate upward and downward flux densities and absorption for the spectral range from 0.38 to 4.0 μm. Radiative flux densities are calculated using the inhomogeneous clouds derived from the observations and for horizontally and vertically averaged homogeneous clouds. Horizontally averaged values of radiative flux densities and absorption for heterogeneous clouds can differ by up to 30% from those calculated for the homogeneous clouds for convectively induced tropical cirrus clouds. The midlatitude cases examined tended to be more homogeneous, and hence differences between radiative properties for the homogeneous and heterogeneous clouds did not exceed 10%. For cirrus clouds with mean optical thicknesses smaller than 5 and with relative variances of optical thickness smaller than 0.2, errors caused by the homogeneous assumption are smaller than ±10%.

  2. Retrieval of cloud height from SCIAMACHY using oxygen absorption around 630nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzegorski, Michael; Deutschmann, Tim; Platt, Ulrich; Wang, Ping; Wagner, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    The SCanning Imaging Absorption spectrometer for Atmospheric ChartographY (SCIAMACHY) on ENVISAT allows measurements of different atmospheric trace gases (e.g. O3, NO2, SO2, CH4, HCHO, CO, BrO, H2O, O2, O4) using the DOAS technique. The HICRU algorithm retrieves cloud height using the spectral analysis of the oxygen absorption around 630nm combined with results of the Monte-Carlo model TRACY-II and a new SCIAMACHY surface albedo database. The results are compared to: 1.) cloud height retrievals of other satellite instruments (MERIS, MODIS) 2.) ISCCP climatology 3.) SCIAMACHY cloud algorithms (SACURA, FRESCO+) 4.) LIDAR/RADAR measurements. For low clouds, the HICRU algorithm retrieves cloud heights more close to the the top, because of the assumption of an appropriate cloud model with a realistic estimation of the scattering inside the cloud. It is also demonstrated, that none the three SCIAMACHY cloud algorithms HICRU, SACURA and FRESCO+ is able to retrieve the top of high clouds because of principal characteristics of the retrieval methods based on oxygen absorption. But oxygen absorptions can provide important additional information on the vertical cloud structure and multiple cloud layers if the method is combined with cloud-top-retrieval using windows in the thermal infrared. An application of these concepts to the GOSAT instrument will be discussed.

  3. Lost in Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maluf, David A.; Shetye, Sandeep D.; Chilukuri, Sri; Sturken, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Cloud computing can reduce cost significantly because businesses can share computing resources. In recent years Small and Medium Businesses (SMB) have used Cloud effectively for cost saving and for sharing IT expenses. With the success of SMBs, many perceive that the larger enterprises ought to move into Cloud environment as well. Government agency s stove-piped environments are being considered as candidates for potential use of Cloud either as an enterprise entity or pockets of small communities. Cloud Computing is the delivery of computing as a service rather than as a product, whereby shared resources, software, and information are provided to computers and other devices as a utility over a network. Underneath the offered services, there exists a modern infrastructure cost of which is often spread across its services or its investors. As NASA is considered as an Enterprise class organization, like other enterprises, a shift has been occurring in perceiving its IT services as candidates for Cloud services. This paper discusses market trends in cloud computing from an enterprise angle and then addresses the topic of Cloud Computing for NASA in two possible forms. First, in the form of a public Cloud to support it as an enterprise, as well as to share it with the commercial and public at large. Second, as a private Cloud wherein the infrastructure is operated solely for NASA, whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally. The paper addresses the strengths and weaknesses of both paradigms of public and private Clouds, in both internally and externally operated settings. The content of the paper is from a NASA perspective but is applicable to any large enterprise with thousands of employees and contractors.

  4. The turbulent destruction of clouds - III. Three-dimensional adiabatic shock-cloud simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittard, J. M.; Parkin, E. R.

    2016-04-01

    We present 3D hydrodynamic simulations of the adiabatic interaction of a shock with a dense, spherical cloud. We compare how the nature of the interaction changes with the Mach number of the shock, M, and the density contrast of the cloud, χ. We examine the differences with 2D axisymmetric calculations, perform detailed resolution tests, and compare `inviscid' results to those obtained with the inclusion of a k-ɛ subgrid turbulence model. Resolutions of 32-64 cells per cloud radius are the minimum necessary to capture the dominant dynamical processes in 3D simulations, while the 3D inviscid and k-ɛ simulations typically show very good agreement. Clouds accelerate and mix up to five times faster when they are poorly resolved. The interaction proceeds very similarly in 2D and 3D - although non-azimuthal modes lead to different behaviour, there is very little effect on key global quantities such as the lifetime of the cloud and its acceleration. In particular, we do not find significant differences in the hollowing or `voiding' of the cloud between 2D and 3D simulations with M = 10 and χ = 10, which contradicts previous work in the literature.

  5. Cloud-Vegetation Radiative Interaction: What Can We Learn from it about Cloud Optical Properties?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshak, Alexander; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Evans, Keith; Wiscombe, Warren

    2004-01-01

    Because of their radiative interactions, the vegetation canopy and the atmosphere are coupled together; each serves as a boundary condition to the radative transfer equations in the adjacent medium. To better understand radiative processes in these media we need an accurate description of their interactions. This presentation outlines a technique needed to describe interactions between vegetation and clouds and exploits it to retrieve cloud optical depth from ground-based radiance measurements. measurements of zenith radiance in the RED and NIR spectral regions. In addition to an algebraic combinations of spectral radiances such as Normalized Difference Cloud Index (NDCI) that can result in poor retrievals due to its insensitivity to cloud fraction, both RED and NIR radiances as points on the "RED vs. NIR" plane are proposed to be used for retrieval. The proposed method is applied to a multi-channel sunphotometer (as a part of AERONET) measurements at the ARM site in Oklahoma. In addition to cloud optical depth, the new method also infers a "radiatively effective" cloud fraction.

  6. Hunting for the signatures of molecular cloud formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, S. C. O.; Clark, P. C.

    2016-05-01

    In order to understand how molecular clouds form in the Galactic interstellar medium, we would like to be able to map the structure and kinematics of the gas flows responsible for forming them. However, doing so is observationally challenging. CO, the workhorse molecule for studies of molecular clouds, traces only relatively dense gas and hence only allows us to study those portions of the clouds that have already assembled. Numerical simulations suggest that the inflowing gas that forms these clouds is largely composed of CO-dark H2. These same simulations allow us to explore the usefulness of different tracers of this CO-dark molecular material, and we use them here to show that the [C ii] fine structure line is potentially a very powerful tracer of this gas and should be readily detectable using modern instrumentation.

  7. Fast cloud parameter retrievals of MIPAS/Envisat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spang, R.; Arndt, K.; Dudhia, A.; Höpfner, M.; Hoffmann, L.; Hurley, J.; Grainger, R. G.; Griessbach, S.; Poulsen, C.; Remedios, J. J.; Riese, M.; Sembhi, H.; Siddans, R.; Waterfall, A.; Zehner, C.

    2011-12-01

    The infrared limb spectra of the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) on board the Envisat satellite include detailed information on tropospheric clouds and polar stratospheric clouds (PSC). However, no consolidated cloud product is available for the scientific community. Here we describe a fast prototype processor for cloud parameter retrieval from MIPAS (MIPclouds). Retrieval of parameters such as cloud top height, temperature, and extinction are implemented, as well as of microphysical parameters, e.g. effective radius and the integrated quantities over the limb path (surface area density and volume density). MIPclouds classifies clouds as either liquid or ice cloud in the upper troposphere and polar stratospheric clouds types in the stratosphere based on statistical combinations of colour ratios and brightness temperature differences. Comparison of limb measurements of clouds with model results or cloud parameters from nadir looking instruments is often difficult due to different observation geometries. We therefore introduce a new concept, the limb-integrated surface area density path (ADP). By means of validation and radiative transfer calculations of realistic 2-D cloud fields as input for a blind test retrieval (BTR), we demonstrate that ADP is an extremely valuable parameter for future comparison with 3-D model data of ice water content, when applying limb integration (ray tracing) through the model fields. In addition, ADP is used for a more objective definition of a cloud detection threshold. Based on BTR, a detection threshold for ADP of 107 μm2 cm-2 and an ice water content of 10-5 g m-3 is estimated, depending on the horizontal and vertical extent of the cloud. Intensive validation of the cloud detection methods shows that the limb-sounding MIPAS instrument has a sensitivity in detecting stratospheric and tropospheric clouds similar to that of space- and ground-based lidars, with a tendency for higher cloud top heights

  8. Rain chemistry and cloud composition and microphysics in a Caribbean tropical montane cloud forest under the influence of African dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Delgado, Elvis; Valle-Diaz, Carlos J.; Baumgardner, Darrel; McDowell, William H.; González, Grizelle; Mayol-Bracero, Olga L.

    2015-04-01

    It is known that huge amounts of mineral dust travels thousands of kilometers from the Sahara and Sahel regions in Africa over the Atlantic Ocean reaching the Caribbean, northern South America and southern North America; however, not much is understood about how the aging process that takes place during transport changes dust properties, and how the presence of this dust affects cloud's composition and microphysics. This African dust reaches the Caribbean region mostly in the summer time. In order to improve our understanding of the role of long-range transported African dust (LRTAD) in cloud formation processes in a tropical montane cloud forest (TMCF) in the Caribbean region we had field campaigns measuring dust physical and chemical properties in summer 2013, as part of the Puerto Rico African Dust and Cloud Study (PRADACS), and in summer 2014, as a part of the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory (LCZO) and in collaboration with the Saharan Aerosol Long-Range Transport and Aerosol-Cloud-Interaction Experiment (SALTRACE). Measurements were performed at the TMCF of Pico del Este (PE, 1051 masl) and at the nature reserve of Cabezas de San Juan (CSJ, 60 masl). In both stations we monitored meteorological parameters (e.g., temperature, wind speed, wind direction). At CSJ, we measured light absorption and scattering at three wavelengths (467, 528 and 652 nm). At PE we collected cloud and rainwater and monitored cloud microphysical properties (e.g., liquid water content, droplet size distribution, droplet number concentration, effective diameter and median volume diameter). Data from aerosol models, satellites, and back-trajectories were used together with CSJ measurements to classify air masses and samples collected at PE in the presence or absence of dust. Soluble ions, insoluble trace metals, pH and conductivity were measured for cloud and rainwater. Preliminary results for summer 2013 showed that in the presence of LRTAD (1) the average conductivity of cloud water

  9. Cloud Statistics and Discrimination in the Polar Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, M.; Comiso, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    Despite their important role in the climate system, cloud cover and their statistics are poorly known, especially in the polar regions, where clouds are difficult to discriminate from snow covered surfaces. The advent of the A-train, which included Aqua/MODIS, CALIPSO/CALIOP and CloudSat/CPR sensors has provided an opportunity to improve our ability to accurately characterize the cloud cover. MODIS provides global coverage at a relatively good temporal and spatial resolution while CALIOP and CPR provide limited nadir sampling but accurate characterization of the vertical structure and phase of the cloud cover. Over the polar regions, cloud detection from a passive sensors like MODIS is challenging because of the presence of cold and highly reflective surfaces such as snow, sea-ice, glaciers, and ice-sheet, which have surface signatures similar to those of clouds. On the other hand, active sensors such as CALIOP and CPR are not only very sensitive to the presence of clouds but can also provide information about its microphysical characteristics. However, these nadir-looking sensors have sparse spatial coverage and their global data can have data spatial gaps of up to 100 km. We developed a polar cloud detection system for MODIS that is trained using collocated data from CALIOP and CPR. In particular, we employ a machine learning system that reads the radiative profile observed by MODIS and determine whether the field of view is cloudy or clear. Results have shown that the improved cloud detection scheme performs better than typical cloud mask algorithms using a validation data set not used for training. A one-year data set was generated and results indicate that daytime cloud detection accuracies improved from 80.1% to 92.6% (over sea-ice) and 71.2% to 87.4% (over ice-sheet) with CALIOP data used as the baseline. Significant improvements are also observed during nighttime, where cloud detection accuracies increase by 19.8% (over sea-ice) and 11.6% (over ice

  10. Cloud Resolving Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2007-01-01

    One of the most promising methods to test the representation of cloud processes used in climate models is to use observations together with cloud-resolving models (CRMs). CRMs use more sophisticated and realistic representations of cloud microphysical processes, and they can reasonably well resolve the time evolution, structure, and life cycles of clouds and cloud systems (with sizes ranging from about 2-200 km). CRMs also allow for explicit interaction between clouds, outgoing longwave (cooling) and incoming solar (heating) radiation, and ocean and land surface processes. Observations are required to initialize CRMs and to validate their results. This paper provides a brief discussion and review of the main characteristics of CRMs as well as some of their major applications. These include the use of CRMs to improve our understanding of: (1) convective organization, (2) cloud temperature and water vapor budgets, and convective momentum transport, (3) diurnal variation of precipitation processes, (4) radiative-convective quasi-equilibrium states, (5) cloud-chemistry interaction, (6) aerosol-precipitation interaction, and (7) improving moist processes in large-scale models. In addition, current and future developments and applications of CRMs will be presented.

  11. On Cloud Nine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrea, Bridget; Weil, Marty

    2011-01-01

    Across the U.S., innovative collaboration practices are happening in the cloud: Sixth-graders participate in literary salons. Fourth-graders mentor kindergarteners. And teachers use virtual Post-it notes to advise students as they create their own television shows. In other words, cloud computing is no longer just used to manage administrative…

  12. Weather Fundamentals: Clouds. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) discusses how clouds form, the different types of clouds, and the important role they play in…

  13. Smoke Above Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, Lorraine A.

    2009-01-01

    Aerosols in the atmosphere alter the radiative balance of the Earth by reflecting or absorbing solar radiation. Spaceborne measurements of clouds and aerosols advected over the southeastern Atlantic Ocean indicate that the greater the cloud cover below the aerosols, the more likely the aerosols are to heat the planet.

  14. Cloud shadow speed sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, V.; Bosch, J. L.; Roberts, S. W.; Kleissl, J.

    2014-06-01

    Changing cloud cover is a major source of solar radiation variability and poses challenges for the integration of solar energy. A compact and economical system is presented that measures cloud shadow motion vectors to estimate power plant ramp rates and provide short-term solar irradiance forecasts. The cloud shadow speed sensor (CSS) is constructed using an array of luminance sensors and a high-speed data acquisition system to resolve the progression of cloud passages across the sensor footprint. An embedded microcontroller acquires the sensor data and uses a cross-correlation algorithm to determine cloud shadow motion vectors. The CSS was validated against an artificial shading test apparatus, an alternative method of cloud motion detection from ground-measured irradiance (linear cloud edge, LCE), and a UC San Diego sky imager (USI). The CSS detected artificial shadow directions and speeds to within 15° and 6% accuracy, respectively. The CSS detected (real) cloud shadow directions and speeds with average weighted root-mean-square difference of 22° and 1.9 m s-1 when compared to USI and 33° and 1.5 m s-1 when compared to LCE results.

  15. Cloud speed sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, V.; Bosch, J. L.; Roberts, S. W.; Kleissl, J.

    2013-10-01

    Changing cloud cover is a major source of solar radiation variability and poses challenges for the integration of solar energy. A compact and economical system that measures cloud motion vectors to estimate power plant ramp rates and provide short term solar irradiance forecasts is presented. The Cloud Speed Sensor (CSS) is constructed using an array of luminance sensors and high-speed data acquisition to resolve the progression of cloud passages across the sensor footprint. An embedded microcontroller acquires the sensor data and uses a cross-correlation algorithm to determine cloud motion vectors. The CSS was validated against an artificial shading test apparatus, an alternative method of cloud motion detection from ground measured irradiance (Linear Cloud Edge, LCE), and a UC San Diego Sky Imager (USI). The CSS detected artificial shadow directions and speeds to within 15 and 6% accuracy, respectively. The CSS detected (real) cloud directions and speeds without average bias and with average weighted root mean square difference of 22° and 1.9 m s-1 when compared to USI and 33° and 1.5 m s-1 when compared to LCE results.

  16. Kernel structures for Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spafford, Eugene H.; Mckendry, Martin S.

    1986-01-01

    An overview of the internal structure of the Clouds kernel was presented. An indication of how these structures will interact in the prototype Clouds implementation is given. Many specific details have yet to be determined and await experimentation with an actual working system.

  17. Learning in the Clouds?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butin, Dan W.

    2013-01-01

    Engaged learning--the type that happens outside textbooks and beyond the four walls of the classroom--moves beyond right and wrong answers to grappling with the uncertainties and contradictions of a complex world. iPhones back up to the "cloud." GoogleDocs is all about "cloud computing." Facebook is as ubiquitous as the sky.…

  18. Clouds over Open Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The heavy concentration of these cirrocumulus and nimbostratus clouds over open ocean - location unknown, indicate that a heavy downpouring of rain is occuring on the Earth's surface below. Towering anvils, seen rising high above the base cloud cover and casting long shadows, also indicate high winds and possible tornado activity.

  19. A new method for automated discontinuity trace mapping on rock mass 3D surface model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaojun; Chen, Jianqin; Zhu, Hehua

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents an automated discontinuity trace mapping method on a 3D surface model of rock mass. Feature points of discontinuity traces are first detected using the Normal Tensor Voting Theory, which is robust to noisy point cloud data. Discontinuity traces are then extracted from feature points in four steps: (1) trace feature point grouping, (2) trace segment growth, (3) trace segment connection, and (4) redundant trace segment removal. A sensitivity analysis is conducted to identify optimal values for the parameters used in the proposed method. The optimal triangular mesh element size is between 5 cm and 6 cm; the angle threshold in the trace segment growth step is between 70° and 90°; the angle threshold in the trace segment connection step is between 50° and 70°, and the distance threshold should be at least 15 times the mean triangular mesh element size. The method is applied to the excavation face trace mapping of a drill-and-blast tunnel. The results show that the proposed discontinuity trace mapping method is fast and effective and could be used as a supplement to traditional direct measurement of discontinuity traces.

  20. Analysis of co-located MODIS and CALIPSO observations near clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Várnai, T.; Marshak, A.

    2011-11-01

    This paper aims at helping synergistic studies in combining data from different satellites for gaining new insights into two critical yet poorly understood aspects of anthropogenic climate change, aerosol-cloud interactions and aerosol radiative effects. In particular, the paper examines the way cloud information from the MODIS imager can refine our perceptions based on CALIOP lidar measurements about the systematic aerosol changes that occur near clouds. The statistical analysis of a yearlong dataset of co-located global maritime observations from the Aqua and CALIPSO satellites reveals that MODIS's multispectral imaging ability can greatly help the interpretation of CALIOP observations. The results show that imagers on Aqua and CALIPSO yield very similar pictures, and that the discrepancies - due mainly to wind drift and differences in view angle - do not significantly hinder aerosol measurements near clouds. By detecting clouds outside the CALIOP track, MODIS reveals that clouds are usually closer to clear areas than CALIOP data alone would suggest. The paper finds statistical relationships between the distances to clouds in MODIS and CALIOP data, and proposes a rescaling approach to statistically account for the impact of clouds outside the CALIOP track even when MODIS cannot reliably detect low clouds, for example at night or over sea ice. Finally, the results show that the typical distance to clouds depends on both cloud coverage and cloud type, and accordingly varies with location and season. The global median distance to clouds in maritime clear-sky areas is in the 4-5 km range.

  1. Simultaneous observations of aerosol-cloud-albedo interactions with three stacked unmanned aerial vehicles.

    PubMed

    Roberts, G C; Ramana, M V; Corrigan, C; Kim, D; Ramanathan, V

    2008-05-27

    Aerosol impacts on climate change are still poorly understood, in part, because the few observations and methods for detecting their effects are not well established. For the first time, the enhancement in cloud albedo is directly measured on a cloud-by-cloud basis and linked to increasing aerosol concentrations by using multiple autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles to simultaneously observe the cloud microphysics, vertical aerosol distribution, and associated solar radiative fluxes. In the presence of long-range transport of dust and anthropogenic pollution, the trade cumuli have higher droplet concentrations and are on average brighter. Our observations suggest a higher sensitivity of radiative forcing by trade cumuli to increases in cloud droplet concentrations than previously reported owing to a constrained droplet radius such that increases in droplet concentrations also increase cloud liquid water content. This aerosol-cloud forcing efficiency is as much as -60 W m(-2) per 100% percent cloud fraction for a doubling of droplet concentrations and associated increase of liquid water content. Finally, we develop a strategy for detecting aerosol-cloud interactions based on a nondimensional scaling analysis that relates the contribution of single clouds to albedo measurements and illustrates the significance of characterizing cloud morphology in resolving radiometric measurements. This study demonstrates that aerosol-cloud-albedo interactions can be directly observed by simultaneous observations below, in, and above the clouds. PMID:18499803

  2. Io's sodium cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, B. A.; Garneau, G. W.; Lavoie, S. K.

    1984-11-01

    The first two-dimensional images of the source region of Io's neutral sodium cloud have been acquired by ground-based observation. Observed asymmetries in its spatial brightness distribution provide new evidence that the cloud is supplied by sodium that is ejected nonisotropically from Io or its atmosphere. Complementary, high-time-resolution, calibrated image sequences that give the first comprehensive picture of the variations of the fainter regions of the cloud extending more than 100,000 kilometers from Io were also obtained. These data demonstrate that the cloud exhibits a persistent systematic behavior coupled with Io's orbital position, a distinct 'east-west orbital asymmetry', a variety of spatial morphologies, and true temporal changes. The geometric stability of the sodium source is also indicated. Isolation of the cloud's temporal changes constitutes an important milestone toward its utilization as a long-term probe of Io and the inner Jovian magnetosphere.

  3. SMILES ice cloud products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MilláN, L.; Read, W.; Kasai, Y.; Lambert, A.; Livesey, N.; Mendrok, J.; Sagawa, H.; Sano, T.; Shiotani, M.; Wu, D. L.

    2013-06-01

    Upper tropospheric water vapor and clouds play an important role in Earth's climate, but knowledge of them, in particular diurnal variation in deep convective clouds, is limited. An essential variable to understand them is cloud ice water content. The Japanese Superconducting Submillimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES) on board the International Space Station (ISS) samples the atmosphere at different local times allowing the study of diurnal variability of atmospheric parameters. We describe a new ice cloud data set consisting of partial Ice Water Path and Ice Water Content. Preliminary comparisons with EOS-MLS, CloudSat-CPR and CALIOP-CALIPSO are presented. Then, the diurnal variation over land and over open ocean for partial ice water path is reported. Over land, a pronounced diurnal variation peaking strongly in the afternoon/early evening was found. Over the open ocean, little temporal dependence was encountered. This data set is publicly available for download in HDF5 format.

  4. Cloud computing security.

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Dongwan; Claycomb, William R.; Urias, Vincent E.

    2010-10-01

    Cloud computing is a paradigm rapidly being embraced by government and industry as a solution for cost-savings, scalability, and collaboration. While a multitude of applications and services are available commercially for cloud-based solutions, research in this area has yet to fully embrace the full spectrum of potential challenges facing cloud computing. This tutorial aims to provide researchers with a fundamental understanding of cloud computing, with the goals of identifying a broad range of potential research topics, and inspiring a new surge in research to address current issues. We will also discuss real implementations of research-oriented cloud computing systems for both academia and government, including configuration options, hardware issues, challenges, and solutions.

  5. Polarization of clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goloub, Philippe; Herman, Maurice; Parol, Frederic

    1995-12-01

    This paper reports the main results concerning polarization by clouds derived from POLDER (polarization and directionality of earth's reflectances) airborne version. These results tend to confirm the high information content in the polarization (phase, altimetry). The preliminary results of EUCREX'94 (European Cloud Radiation Experiment) evidenced the drastically different polarized signatures for ice crystals and water droplets. Here we report systematic and statistically significative observations over the whole EUCREX data set. The results show that the cirrus exhibit their own signature. Preliminary observations performed during CLEOPATRA'91 (Cloud Experiment Ober Pfaffenhofen And Transport) and EUCREX'94 campaigns have shown the feasibility of cloud altimetry using spectral information (443 nm and 865 nm) of the polarized light over liquid water droplets clouds. Altimetry technique has been generalized on ASTEX-SOFIA'92 and EUCREX'94 data sets. All these results are presented and discussed in this paper.

  6. Cloud model bat algorithm.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yongquan; Xie, Jian; Li, Liangliang; Ma, Mingzhi

    2014-01-01

    Bat algorithm (BA) is a novel stochastic global optimization algorithm. Cloud model is an effective tool in transforming between qualitative concepts and their quantitative representation. Based on the bat echolocation mechanism and excellent characteristics of cloud model on uncertainty knowledge representation, a new cloud model bat algorithm (CBA) is proposed. This paper focuses on remodeling echolocation model based on living and preying characteristics of bats, utilizing the transformation theory of cloud model to depict the qualitative concept: "bats approach their prey." Furthermore, Lévy flight mode and population information communication mechanism of bats are introduced to balance the advantage between exploration and exploitation. The simulation results show that the cloud model bat algorithm has good performance on functions optimization. PMID:24967425

  7. Prebiotic chemistry in clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberbeck, Verne R.; Marshall, John; Shen, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    The chemical evolution hypothesis of Woese (1979), according to which prebiotic reactions occurred rapidly in droplets in giant atmospheric reflux columns was criticized by Scherer (1985). This paper proposes a mechanism for prebiotic chemistry in clouds that answers Scherer's concerns and supports Woese's hypothesis. According to this mechanism, rapid prebiotic chemical evolution was facilitated on the primordial earth by cycles of condensation and evaporation of cloud drops containing clay condensation nuclei and nonvolatile monomers. For example, amino acids supplied by, or synthesized during entry of meteorites, comets, and interplanetary dust, would have been scavenged by cloud drops containing clay condensation nuclei and would be polymerized within cloud systems during cycles of condensation, freezing, melting, and evaporation of cloud drops.

  8. Relationship between cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction and cloud albedo, and new surface-based approach for determining cloud albedo

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Wu, W.; Jensen, M. P.; Toto, T.

    2011-07-21

    This paper focuses on three interconnected topics: (1) quantitative relationship between surface shortwave cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction, and cloud albedo; (2) surface-based approach for measuring cloud albedo; (3) multiscale (diurnal, annual and inter-annual) variations and covariations of surface shortwave cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction, and cloud albedo. An analytical expression is first derived to quantify the relationship between cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction, and cloud albedo. The analytical expression is then used to deduce a new approach for inferring cloud albedo from concurrent surface-based measurements of downwelling surface shortwave radiation and cloud fraction. High-resolution decade-long data on cloud albedos are obtained by use of this surface-based approach over the US Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiaton Measurement (ARM) Program at the Great Southern Plains (SGP) site. The surface-based cloud albedos are further compared against those derived from the coincident GOES satellite measurements. The three long-term (1997-2009) sets of hourly data on shortwave cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction and cloud albedo collected over the SGP site are analyzed to explore the multiscale (diurnal, annual and inter-annual) variations and covariations. The analytical formulation is useful for diagnosing deficiencies of cloud-radiation parameterizations in climate models.

  9. Trace Fossil Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasiotis, Stephen T.

    2009-05-01

    Today, the study of trace fossils—ichnology—is an important subdiscipline of geology at the interface of paleontology and sedimentology, mostly because of the efforts of Adolf Seilacher. His ability to synthesize various aspects of ichnology and produce a hierarchy of marine ichna and sedimentary facies has made ichnology useful worldwide in interpreting paleodiversity, rates of sedimentation, oxygenation of bottom water and sediment pore water, and depositional energy. Seilacher's book Trace Fossil Analysis provides a glimpse into the mind, methodology, and insights of the father of modern ichnology, generated from his course notes as a professor and a guest lecturer. The title sounds misleading—readers looking for up-to-date principles and approaches to trace fossil analysis in marine and continental strata will be disappointed. In his preface, however, Seilacher clearly gives direction for the use of his text: “This is a course book—meaning that it is intended to confer not knowledge, but skill.” Thus, it is not meant as a total compilation of all trace fossils, ichnotaxonomy, ichnological interpretations, applications, or the most relevant and up-to-date references. Rather, it takes the reader on a personal journey, explaining how trace fossils are understood in the context of their three-dimensional (3-D) morphology and sedimentary facies.

  10. Livestock services and the poor.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, V; Redmond, E

    2004-04-01

    This paper reviews the economic framework for the delivery of livestock services to the poor. It is argued that the demand for livestock products is likely to increase rapidly and the ability of the poor to participate in the opportunities presented by this growth is linked critically to the availability of good service support, both on the input and output side. Governments therefore have a responsibility to supply the necessary public goods (including the institutions and legal frameworks), and the market infrastructure for facilitating the emergence of efficient markets for livestock services. The paper further argues that the dynamics of public policy in developing countries are much more complex than the simple application of economic logic. It is the larger political economy that often dictates policy choices. It is therefore important to integrate political economy and governance issues into the economic debate on livestock service delivery. The paper also reviews the context in which the markets for livestock services will need to function. Different countries are facing very different sets of issues, and the identification of possible interventions in livestock service markets would require careful field research and analysis. In this context, the paper suggests the elements of a research agenda for the next few years. PMID:15080541

  11. Seven poor clusters of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beers, T. C.; Geller, M. J.; Huchra, J. P.; Latham, D. W.; Davis, R. J.

    1984-08-01

    The authors have measured 83 new redshifts for galaxies in the region of seven of the poor clusters of galaxies identified by Morgan, Kayser, and White and Albert, White, and Morgan. For three systems (MKW 1s, AWM 1, and AWM 7) complete redshift samples were obtained for galaxies brighter than mB(0) = 15.7 within 1° of the D or cD galaxy. The authors estimate masses for the clusters by applying both the virial theorem and the projected mass method. For the two clusters with the highest X-ray luminosities, the line-of-sight velocity dispersions are ≡700 km s-1, and mass-to-light ratios M/LB(0) ⪆ 400 M_sun;/L_sun;. For the five other clusters the velocity dispersions are ⪉370 km s-1, and four of the five have mass-to-light ratios ⪉250 M_sun;/L_sun;. The D or cD galaxy in each poor cluster is at the kinematic center of the system.

  12. Fast cloud parameter retrievals of MIPAS/Envisat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spang, R.; Arndt, K.; Dudhia, A.; Höpfner, M.; Hoffmann, L.; Hurley, J.; Grainger, R. G.; Griessbach, S.; Poulsen, C.; Remedios, J. J.; Riese, M.; Sembhi, H.; Siddans, R.; Waterfall, A.; Zehner, C.

    2012-08-01

    The infrared limb spectra of the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) on board the Envisat satellite include detailed information on tropospheric clouds and polar stratospheric clouds (PSC). However, no consolidated cloud product is available for the scientific community. Here we describe a fast prototype processor for cloud parameter retrieval from MIPAS (MIPclouds). Retrieval of parameters such as cloud top height, temperature, and extinction are implemented, as well as retrieval of microphysical parameters, e.g. effective radius and the integrated quantities over the limb path (surface area density and volume density). MIPclouds classifies clouds as either liquid or ice cloud in the upper troposphere and polar stratospheric clouds types in the stratosphere based on statistical combinations of colour ratios and brightness temperature differences. Comparison of limb measurements of clouds with model results or cloud parameters from nadir looking instruments is often difficult due to different observation geometries. We therefore introduce a new concept, the limb-integrated surface area density path (ADP). By means of validation and radiative transfer calculations of realistic 2-D cloud fields as input for a blind test retrieval (BTR), we demonstrate that ADP is an extremely valuable parameter for future comparison with model data of ice water content, when applying limb integration (ray tracing) through the model fields. In addition, ADP is used for a more objective definition of detection thresholds of the applied detection methods. Based on BTR, a detection threshold of ADP = 107 μm2 cm-2 and an ice water content of 10-5 g m-3 is estimated, depending on the horizontal and vertical extent of the cloud. Intensive validation of the cloud detection methods shows that the limb-sounding MIPAS instrument has a sensitivity in detecting stratospheric and tropospheric clouds similar to that of space- and ground-based lidars, with a tendency

  13. Imprints of Molecular Clouds in Radio Continuum Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusef-Zadeh, F.

    2012-11-01

    We show radio continuum images of several molecular complexes in the inner Galaxy and report the presence of dark features that coincide with dense molecular clouds. Unlike infrared dark clouds, these features which we call "radio dark clouds" are produced by a deficiency in radio continuum emission from molecular clouds that are embedded in a bath of UV radiation field or synchrotron emitting cosmic-ray particles. The contribution of the continuum emission along different path lengths results in dark features that trace embedded molecular clouds. The new technique of identifying cold clouds can place constraints on the depth and the magnetic field of molecular clouds when compared to those of the surrounding hot plasma radiating at radio wavelengths. The study of five molecular complexes in the inner Galaxy, Sgr A, Sgr B2, radio Arc, the Snake filament, and G359.75-0.13 demonstrates an anti-correlation between the distributions of radio continuum and molecular line and dust emission. Radio dark clouds are identified in Green Bank Telescope maps and Very Large Array images taken with uniform sampling of uv coverage. The level at which the continuum flux is suppressed in these sources suggests that the depth of the molecular cloud is similar to the size of the continuum emission within a factor of two. These examples suggest that high-resolution, high-dynamic-range continuum images can be powerful probes of interacting molecular clouds with massive stars and supernova remnants in regions where the kinematic distance estimates are ambiguous as well as in the nuclei of active galaxies.

  14. Cloud Ozone Dust Imager (CODI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clancy, R. Todd; Dusenbery, Paul; Wolff, Michael; James, Phil; Allen, Mark; Goguen, Jay; Kahn, Ralph; Gladstone, Rany; Murphy, Jim

    1995-01-01

    The Cloud Ozone Dust Imager (CODI) is proposed to investigate the current climatic balance of the Mars atmosphere, with particular emphasis on the important but poorly understood roles which dust and water ice aerosols play in this balance. The large atmospheric heating (20-50 K) resulting from global dust storms around Mars perihelion is well recognized. However, groundbased observations of Mars atmospheric temperatures, water vapor, and clouds since the Viking missions have identified a much colder, cloudier atmosphere around Mars aphelion that may prove as important as global dust storms in determining the interannual and long-term behavior of the Mars climate. The key climate issues CODI is designed to investigate are: 1) the degree to which non-linear interactions between atmospheric dust heating, water vapor saturation, and cloud nucleation influence the seasonal and interannual variability of the Mars atmosphere, and 2) whether the strong orbital forcing of atmospheric dust loading, temperatures and water vapor saturation determines the long-term balance of Mars water, as reflected in the north-south hemispheric asymmetries of atmospheric water vapor and polar water ice abundances. The CODI experiment will measure the daily, seasonal and (potentially) interannual variability of atmospheric dust and cloud opacities, and the key physical properties of these aerosols which determine their role in the climate cycles of Mars. CODI is a small (1.2 kg), fixed pointing camera, in which four wide-angle (+/- 70 deg) lenses illuminate fixed filters and CCD arrays. Simultaneous sky/surface imaging of Mars is obtained at an angular resolution of 0.28 deg/pixel for wavelengths of 255, 336, 502, and 673 nm (similar to Hubble Space Telescope filters). These wavelengths serve to measure atmospheric ozone (255 and 336 nm), discriminate ice and dust aerosols (336 and 673 nm), and construct color images (336, 502, and 673 nm). The CODI images are detected on four 512 x 512

  15. Stack Trace Analysis Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2008-01-16

    STAT is a light weight debugging tool that gathers and merges stack traces from all of the processes in a parallel application. STAT uses the MRNet free based overlay network to broadcast commands from the tool front-end to the STAT daemons and for the front-end to gather the traces from the STAT daemons. As the traces propagate through the MRNet network tree, they are merged across all tasks to form a single call prefix tree.more » The call prefix tree can be examined to identify tasks with similar function call patterns and to delineate a small set of equivalence classes. A representative task from each of these classes can then be fed into a full feature debugger like TotalView for root cause analysis.« less

  16. Stack Trace Analysis Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-02-19

    STAT is a light weight debugging tool that gathers and merges stack traces from all of the processes in a parallell application. STAT uses the MRNet tree based overlay network to broadcast commands from the tool front-end to the STAT daemons and for the front-end to gather the traces from the STAT daemons. As the traces propagate through the MRNet network tree, they are merged across all tasks to from a single call prefix tree.more » The call prefix tree can be examined to identify tasks with similar function call patterns and to delineate a small set of equivalence slasses. A representative task from each of these classes can then be fed into a full feature debugger like TotalView for root cause analysis.« less

  17. Stack Trace Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2013-02-19

    STAT is a light weight debugging tool that gathers and merges stack traces from all of the processes in a parallell application. STAT uses the MRNet tree based overlay network to broadcast commands from the tool front-end to the STAT daemons and for the front-end to gather the traces from the STAT daemons. As the traces propagate through the MRNet network tree, they are merged across all tasks to from a single call prefix tree. The call prefix tree can be examined to identify tasks with similar function call patterns and to delineate a small set of equivalence slasses. A representative task from each of these classes can then be fed into a full feature debugger like TotalView for root cause analysis.

  18. Stack Trace Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2008-01-16

    STAT is a light weight debugging tool that gathers and merges stack traces from all of the processes in a parallel application. STAT uses the MRNet free based overlay network to broadcast commands from the tool front-end to the STAT daemons and for the front-end to gather the traces from the STAT daemons. As the traces propagate through the MRNet network tree, they are merged across all tasks to form a single call prefix tree. The call prefix tree can be examined to identify tasks with similar function call patterns and to delineate a small set of equivalence classes. A representative task from each of these classes can then be fed into a full feature debugger like TotalView for root cause analysis.

  19. Atom trap trace analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Z.-T.; Bailey, K.; Chen, C.-Y.; Du, X.; Li, Y.-M.; O'Connor, T. P.; Young, L.

    2000-05-25

    A new method of ultrasensitive trace-isotope analysis has been developed based upon the technique of laser manipulation of neutral atoms. It has been used to count individual {sup 85}Kr and {sup 81}Kr atoms present in a natural krypton sample with isotopic abundances in the range of 10{sup {minus}11} and 10{sup {minus}13}, respectively. The atom counts are free of contamination from other isotopes, elements,or molecules. The method is applicable to other trace-isotopes that can be efficiently captured with a magneto-optical trap, and has a broad range of potential applications.

  20. Tropospheric trace gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gammon, R.; Wofsy, S. C.; Cicerone, R. J.; Delany, A. C.; Harriss, R. T.; Khalil, M. A. K.; Logan, J. A.; Midgley, P.; Prather, M.

    1985-01-01

    Trace gas concentrations in the atmosphere reflect in part the overall metabolism of the biosphere, and in part the broad range of human activities such as agriculture, production of industrial chemicals, and combustion of fossil fuels and biomass. There is compelling evidence that the composition of the atmosphere is now changing. Observed trends in trace gas levels are reviewed and implications for the chemistry of the atmosphere are discussed. Throughout the discussion, particular emphasis is given to those species which are now increasing in the atmosphere.

  1. Osteoporosis and trace elements--an overview.

    PubMed

    Aaseth, Jan; Boivin, Georges; Andersen, Ole

    2012-06-01

    More than 200 million people are affected by osteoporosis worldwide, as estimated by 2 million annual hip fractures and other debilitating bone fractures (vertebrae compression and Colles' fractures). Osteoporosis is a multi-factorial disease with potential contributions from genetic, endocrine functional, exercise related and nutritional factors. Of particular considerations are calcium (Ca) status, vitamin D, fluoride, magnesium and other trace elements. Several trace elements such as zinc and copper are essential for normal development of the skeleton in humans and animals. Fluoride accumulates in new bone and results in a net gain in bone mass, but may be associated with a tissue of poor quality. Aluminum induces impairment of bone formation. Gallium and cadmium suppresses bone turnover. However, exact involvements of the trace elements in osteoporosis have not yet been fully clarified. Numerous investigators have evaluated the role of medications and supplementations with minerals and trace substances to reverse the progression of this disease. Although bisphosphonates are still the drugs of choice, low-dosed fluoride and strontium salts have shown promise for the future. PMID:22575536

  2. Interaction between Cassiopeia A and nearby molecular clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Kilpatrick, C. D.; Bieging, J. H.; Rieke, G. H.

    2014-12-01

    We present spectroscopy of the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A (Cas A) observed at infrared wavelengths from 10 to 40 μm with the Spitzer Space Telescope and at millimeter wavelengths in {sup 12}CO and {sup 13}CO J =2-1 (230 and 220 GHz) with the Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope. The IR spectra demonstrate high-velocity features toward a molecular cloud coincident with a region of bright radio continuum emission along the northern shock front of Cas A. The millimeter observations indicate that CO emission is broadened by a factor of two in some clouds toward Cas A, particularly to the south and west. We believe that these features trace interactions between the Cas A shock front and nearby molecular clouds. In addition, some of the molecular clouds that exhibit broadening in CO lie 1'-2' away from the furthest extent of the supernova remnant shock front. We propose that this material may be accelerated by ejecta with velocity significantly larger than the observed free-expansion velocity of the Cas A shock front. These observations may trace cloud interactions with fast-moving outflows such as the bipolar outflow along the southwest to northeast axis of the Cas A supernova remnant, as well as fast-moving knots seen emerging in other directions.

  3. Community Cloud Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinos, Alexandros; Briscoe, Gerard

    Cloud Computing is rising fast, with its data centres growing at an unprecedented rate. However, this has come with concerns over privacy, efficiency at the expense of resilience, and environmental sustainability, because of the dependence on Cloud vendors such as Google, Amazon and Microsoft. Our response is an alternative model for the Cloud conceptualisation, providing a paradigm for Clouds in the community, utilising networked personal computers for liberation from the centralised vendor model. Community Cloud Computing (C3) offers an alternative architecture, created by combing the Cloud with paradigms from Grid Computing, principles from Digital Ecosystems, and sustainability from Green Computing, while remaining true to the original vision of the Internet. It is more technically challenging than Cloud Computing, having to deal with distributed computing issues, including heterogeneous nodes, varying quality of service, and additional security constraints. However, these are not insurmountable challenges, and with the need to retain control over our digital lives and the potential environmental consequences, it is a challenge we must pursue.

  4. Clouds in GEOS-5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacmeister, Julio; Rienecker, Michele; Suarez, Max; Norris, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The GEOS-5 atmospheric model is being developed as a weather-and-climate capable model. It must perform well in assimilation mode as well as in weather and climate simulations and forecasts and in coupled chemistry-climate simulations. In developing GEOS-5, attention has focused on the representation of moist processes. The moist physics package uses a single phase prognostic condensate and a prognostic cloud fraction. Two separate cloud types are distinguished by their source: "anvil" cloud originates in detraining convection, and large-scale cloud originates in a PDF-based condensation calculation. Ice and liquid phases for each cloud type are considered. Once created, condensate and fraction from the anvil and statistical cloud types experience the same loss processes: evaporation of condensate and fraction, auto-conversion of liquid or mixed phase condensate, sedimentation of frozen condensate, and accretion of condensate by falling precipitation. The convective parameterization scheme is the Relaxed Arakawa-Schubert, or RAS, scheme. Satellite data are used to evaluate the performance of the moist physics packages and help in their tuning. In addition, analysis of and comparisons to cloud-resolving models such as the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model are used to help improve the PDFs used in the moist physics. The presentation will show some of our evaluations including precipitation diagnostics.

  5. Child Health: Reaching the Poor

    PubMed Central

    Wagstaff, Adam; Bustreo, Flavia; Bryce, Jennifer; Claeson, Mariam

    2004-01-01

    In most countries, rates of mortality and malnutrition among children continue to decline, but large inequalities between poor and better-off children exist, both between and within countries. These inequalities, which appear to be widening, call into question the strategies for child mortality reduction relied upon to date. We review (1) what is known about the causes of socioeconomic inequalities in child health and where programs aimed at reducing inequalities may be most effectively focused and (2) what is known about the success of actual programs in narrowing these inequalities. We end with lessons learned: the need for better evidence, but most of all for a new approach to improving the health of all children that is evidence based, broad, and multifaceted. PMID:15117689

  6. Serving the world's poor, profitably.

    PubMed

    Prahalad, C K; Hammond, Allen

    2002-09-01

    By stimulating commerce and development at the bottom of the economic pyramid, multi-nationals could radically improve the lives of billions of people and help create a more stable, less dangerous world. Achieving this goal does not require MNCs to spearhead global social-development initiatives for charitable purposes. They need only act in their own self-interest. How? The authors lay out the business case for entering the world's poorest markets. Fully 65% of the world's population earns less than $2,000 per year--that's 4 billion people. But despite the vastness of this market, it remains largely untapped. The reluctance to invest is easy to understand, but it is, by and large, based on outdated assumptions of the developing world. While individual incomes may be low, the aggregate buying power of poor communities is actually quite large, representing a substantial market in many countries for what some might consider luxury goods like satellite television and phone services. Prices, and margins, are often much higher in poor neighborhoods than in their middle-class counterparts. And new technologies are already steadily reducing the effects of corruption, illiteracy, inadequate infrastructure, and other such barriers. Because these markets are in the earliest stages of economic development, revenue growth for multi-nationals entering them can be extremely rapid. MNCs can also lower costs, not only through low-cost labor but by transferring operating efficiencies and innovations developed to serve their existing operations. Certainly, succeeding in such markets requires MNCs to think creatively. The biggest change, though, has to come from executives: Unless business leaders confront their own preconceptions--particularly about the value of high-volume, low-margin businesses--companies are unlikely to master the challenges or reap the rewards of these developing markets. PMID:12227146

  7. Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment TWP-ICE Cloud and rain characteristics in the Australian Monsoon

    SciTech Connect

    May, P.T., Jakob, C., and Mather, J.H.

    2004-05-31

    The impact of oceanic convection on its environment and the relationship between the characteristics of the convection and the resulting cirrus characteristics is still not understood. An intense airborne measurement campaign combined with an extensive network of ground-based observations is being planned for the region near Darwin, Northern Australia, during January-February, 2006, to address these questions. The Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) will be the first field program in the tropics that attempts to describe the evolution of tropical convection, including the large scale heat, moisture, and momentum budgets, while at the same time obtaining detailed observations of cloud properties and the impact of the clouds on the environment. The emphasis will be on cirrus for the cloud properties component of the experiment. Cirrus clouds are ubiquitous in the tropics and have a large impact on their environment but the properties of these clouds are poorly understood. A crucial product from this experiment will be a dataset suitable to provide the forcing and testing required by cloud-resolving models and parameterizations in global climate models. This dataset will provide the necessary link between cloud properties and the models that are attempting to simulate them.

  8. Diagnosing AIRS Sampling with CloudSat Cloud Classes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetzer, Eric; Yue, Qing; Guillaume, Alexandre; Kahn, Brian

    2011-01-01

    AIRS yield and sampling vary with cloud state. Careful utilization of collocated multiple satellite sensors is necessary. Profile differences between AIRS and ECMWF model analyses indicate that AIRS has high sampling and excellent accuracy for certain meteorological conditions. Cloud-dependent sampling biases may have large impact on AIRS L2 and L3 data in climate research. MBL clouds / lower tropospheric stability relationship is one example. AIRS and CloudSat reveal a reasonable climatology in the MBL cloud regime despite limited sampling in stratocumulus. Thermodynamic parameters such as EIS derived from AIRS data map these cloud conditions successfully. We are working on characterizing AIRS scenes with mixed cloud types.

  9. Trace metal speciation and bioavailability in anaerobic digestion: A review.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Pham Minh; Ketheesan, Balachandran; Yan, Zhou; Stuckey, David

    2016-01-01

    Trace metals are essential for the growth of anaerobic microorganisms, however, in practice they are often added to anaerobic digesters in excessive amounts, which can lead to inhibition. The concept of bioavailability of metals in anaerobic digestion has been poorly understood in the past, and a lack of deep understanding of the relationship between trace metal speciation and bioavailability can result in ineffective metal dosing strategies for anaerobic digesters. Sequential extraction schemes are useful for fractionating trace metals into their different forms, and metal sulfides can serve as a store and source for trace metals during anaerobic digestion, while natural/synthetic chelating agents (soluble microbial products-SMPs, extracellular polysaccharides-EPS, and EDTA/NTA) are capable of controlling trace metal bioavailability. Nevertheless, more work is needed to: investigate the speciation and bioavailability of Ca, Mg, Mn, W, and Se; compare the bioavailability of different forms of trace metals e.g. carbonates, sulfides, phosphates to different anaerobic trophic groups; determine what factors influence metal sulfide dissolution; investigate whether chelating agents can increase trace metal bioavailability; develop and adapt specialized analytical techniques, and; determine how trace metal dynamics change in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR). PMID:26707985

  10. Stormy Clouds of Star Birth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Hidden behind a shroud of dust in the constellation Cygnus is an exceptionally bright source of radio emission called DR21. Visible light images reveal no trace of what is happening in this region because of heavy dust obscuration. In fact, visible light is attenuated in DR21 by a factor of more than 10,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000, 000,000,000,000 (ten thousand trillion heptillion).

    New images from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope allow us to peek behind the cosmic veil and pinpoint one of the most massive natal stars yet seen in our Milky Way galaxy. The never-before-seen star is 100,000 times as bright as the Sun. Also revealed for the first time is a powerful outflow of hot gas emanating from this star and bursting through a giant molecular cloud.

    This image shows a 24-micron image mosaic, obtained with the Multiband Imaging Photometer aboard Spitzer (MIPS). This image maps the cooler infrared emission from interstellar dust found throughout the interstellar medium. The DR21 complex is clearly seen near the center of the strip, which covers about twice the area of the IRAC image.

    Perhaps the most fascinating feature in this image is a long and shadowy linear filament extending towards the 10 o'clock position of DR21. This jet of cold and dense gas, nearly 50 light-years in extent, appears in silhouette against a warmer background. This filament is too long and massive to be a stellar jet and may have formed from a pre-existing molecular cloud core sculpted by DR21's strong winds. Regardless of its true nature, this jet and the numerous other arcs and wisps of cool dust signify the interstellar turbulence normally unseen by the human eye.

  11. Mechanical Device Traces Parabolas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soper, Terry A.

    1989-01-01

    Mechanical device simplifies generation of parabolas of various focal lengths. Based on fundamental geometrical construction of parabola. Constancy of critical total distance enforced by maintaining cable in tension. Applications of device include design of paraboloidal antennas, approximating catenaries on drawings of powerlines or long-wire antennas, and general tracing of parabolas on drawings.

  12. Spectral Bayesian Knowledge Tracing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falakmasir, Mohammad; Yudelson, Michael; Ritter, Steve; Koedinger, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Bayesian Knowledge Tracing (BKT) has been in wide use for modeling student skill acquisition in Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS). BKT tracks and updates student's latent mastery of a skill as a probability distribution of a binary variable. BKT does so by accounting for observed student successes in applying the skill correctly, where success is…

  13. Visible Traces. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ASIA Society, New York, NY.

    This teacher's guide is based on the exhibition, "Visible Traces: Rare Books and Special Collections from the National Library of China," a collaborative effort of the Queens Borough Public Library and the National Library of China; it links rare treasures from the National Library of China to curriculum standards. The following themes are…

  14. QCD trace anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Jens O.; Leganger, Lars E.; Strickland, Michael; Su, Nan

    2011-10-15

    In this brief report we compare the predictions of a recent next-to-next-to-leading order hard-thermal-loop perturbation theory (HTLpt) calculation of the QCD trace anomaly to available lattice data. We focus on the trace anomaly scaled by T{sup 2} in two cases: N{sub f}=0 and N{sub f}=3. When using the canonical value of {mu}=2{pi}T for the renormalization scale, we find that for Yang-Mills theory (N{sub f}=0) agreement between HTLpt and lattice data for the T{sup 2}-scaled trace anomaly begins at temperatures on the order of 8T{sub c}, while treating the subtracted piece as an interaction term when including quarks (N{sub f}=3) agreement begins already at temperatures above 2T{sub c}. In both cases we find that at very high temperatures the T{sup 2}-scaled trace anomaly increases with temperature in accordance with the predictions of HTLpt.

  15. Cloud computing basics for librarians.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Matthew B

    2012-01-01

    "Cloud computing" is the name for the recent trend of moving software and computing resources to an online, shared-service model. This article briefly defines cloud computing, discusses different models, explores the advantages and disadvantages, and describes some of the ways cloud computing can be used in libraries. Examples of cloud services are included at the end of the article. PMID:22289098

  16. A Universal Dynamic Threshold Cloud Detection Algorithm (UDTCDA) supported by a prior surface reflectance database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lin; Wei, Jing; Wang, Jian; Mi, Xueting; Guo, Yamin; Lv, Yang; Yang, Yikun; Gan, Ping; Zhou, Xueying; Jia, Chen; Tian, Xinpeng

    2016-06-01

    Conventional cloud detection methods are easily affected by mixed pixels, complex surface structures, and atmospheric factors, resulting in poor cloud detection results. To minimize these problems, a new Universal Dynamic Threshold Cloud Detection Algorithm (UDTCDA) supported by a priori surface reflectance database is proposed in this paper. A monthly surface reflectance database is constructed using long-time-sequenced MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer surface reflectance product (MOD09A1) to provide the surface reflectance of the underlying surfaces. The relationships between the apparent reflectance changes and the surface reflectance are simulated under different observation and atmospheric conditions with the 6S (Second Simulation of the Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum) model, and the dynamic threshold cloud detection models are developed. Two typical remote sensing data with important application significance and different sensor parameters, MODIS and Landsat 8, are selected for cloud detection experiments. The results were validated against the visual interpretation of clouds and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation cloud measurements. The results showed that the UDTCDA can obtain a high precision in cloud detection, correctly identifying cloudy pixels and clear-sky pixels at rates greater than 80% with error rate and missing rate of less than 20%. The UDTCDA cloud product overall shows less estimation uncertainty than the current MODIS cloud mask products. Moreover, the UDTCDA can effectively reduce the effects of atmospheric factors and mixed pixels and can be applied to different satellite sensors to realize long-term, large-scale cloud detection operations.

  17. Cloud Distribution Statistics from LITE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winker, David M.

    1998-01-01

    The Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE) mission has demonstrated the utility of spaceborne lidar in observing multilayer clouds and has provided a dataset showing the distribution of tropospheric clouds and aerosols. These unambiguous observations of the vertical distribution of clouds will allow improved verification of current cloud climatologies and GCM cloud parameterizations. Although there is now great interest in cloud profiling radar, operating in the mm-wave region, for the spacebased observation of cloud heights the results of the LITE mission have shown that satellite lidars can also make significant contributions in this area.

  18. Entrainment, Drizzle, and Cloud Albedo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackerman, A. S.; Kirkpatrick, J. P.; Stevens, D. E.; Toon, O. B.

    2004-01-01

    Increased aerosol and hence droplet concentrations in polluted clouds are expected to inhibit precipitation and thereby increase cloud water, leading to more reflective clouds that partially offset global warming. Yet polluted clouds are not generally observed to hold more water. Much of the uncertainty regarding the indirect aerosol effect stems from inadequate understanding of such changes in cloud water. Detailed simulations show that the relative humidity of air overlying stratocumulus is a leading factor determining whether cloud water increases or decreases when precipitation is suppressed. When the overlying air is dry, cloud water can decrease as droplet concentrations increase.

  19. Methanol in dark clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friberg, P.; Hjalmarson, A.; Madden, S. C.; Irvine, W. M.

    1988-04-01

    The authors report observations, for the first time, of the 20 - 10A+ and E, 2-1 - 1-1 E, and 10 - 00A+ lines of methanol (CH3OH) in three dark cold clouds, TMC 1, L 134N, and B 335. The CH3OH emission is extended in these clouds and shows a complex velocity structure. Clear indications of non LTE excitation are observed in TMC 1. Estimated column densities are a few×1013cm-2. Although less abundant than formaldehyde (H2CO), methanol is almost an order of magnitude more abundant than acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), in these clouds. Dimethyl ether was searched for in L 134N, to an upper limit of 4×1012cm-2 (3σ). Implications for dark cloud excitation and chemistry are discussed.

  20. Fingerprinting the Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orellana, M. V.; Caballero, J.; Lee, A. M.; Matrai, P. A.; Leck, C.; Madan, A.; Collins, H.

    2012-12-01

    Marine microgels play an important role in regulating ocean-basin-scale biogeochemical dynamics. We have found them in surface waters, in airborne aerosol, fog, and cloud water in the high Arctic (north of 80oN). Microgels dominated the available cloud condensation nuclei number population during the summer season. These microgels have unique physicochemical characteristics and originate from the ice algae and/or phytoplankton in the surface water. We have sequenced the genomic material found in the microgels from the sea surface and cloud waters with next-generation sequencing technology. The sequence analysis and annotation, show a high abundance of proteins of microbial and diatom origin, including a high number of proteins from different taxonomical origin associated with antifreeze functions. Our results have implications not only for cloud droplet activation but also for ice nucleation.

  1. My NASA Data Clouds

    NASA Video Gallery

    This lesson has two activities that help students develop a basic understanding of the relationship between cloud type and the form of precipitation and the relationship between the amount of water...

  2. Noctilucent Clouds in Motion

    NASA Video Gallery

    Swedish photographer Peter Rosén took this close-up, time-lapse movieof Noctilucent Clouds (NLCs) over Stockholm, Sweden on the evening ofJuly 16, 2012. "What looked like a serene view from a di...

  3. GEOS-5 Modeled Clouds

    NASA Video Gallery

    This visualization shows clouds from a simulation using the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Verison 5 (GEOS-5). The global atmospheric simulation covers a period from Feb 3, 2010 through Feb ...

  4. Methanol in dark clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friberg, P.; Hjalmarson, A.; Madden, S. C.; Irvine, W. M.

    1988-01-01

    The first observation of methanol in cold dark clouds TMC 1, L 134 N, and B 335 is reported. In all three clouds, the relative abundance of methanol was found to be in the range of 10 to the -9th (i.e., almost an order of magnitude more abundant than acetaldehyde), with no observable variation between the clouds. Methanol emission showed a complex velocity structure; in TMC 1, clear indications of non-LTE were observed. Dimethyl ether was searched for in L 134 N; the upper limit of the column density of dimethyl ether in L 134 N was estimated to be 4 x 10 to the 12th/sq cm, assuming 5 K rotation temperature and LTE. This limit makes the abundance ratio (CH3)2O/CH3OH not higher than 1/5, indicating that dimethyl ether is not overabundant in this dark cloud.

  5. Closed Large Cell Clouds

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    article title:  Closed Large Cell Clouds in the South Pacific     ... unperturbed by cyclonic or frontal activity. When the cell centers are cloudy and the main sinking motion is concentrated at cell ...

  6. Humans differ in their personal microbial cloud

    PubMed Central

    Altrichter, Adam E.; Bateman, Ashley C.; Stenson, Jason; Brown, GZ; Green, Jessica L.; Bohannan, Brendan J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Dispersal of microbes between humans and the built environment can occur through direct contact with surfaces or through airborne release; the latter mechanism remains poorly understood. Humans emit upwards of 106 biological particles per hour, and have long been known to transmit pathogens to other individuals and to indoor surfaces. However it has not previously been demonstrated that humans emit a detectible microbial cloud into surrounding indoor air, nor whether such clouds are sufficiently differentiated to allow the identification of individual occupants. We used high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes to characterize the airborne bacterial contribution of a single person sitting in a sanitized custom experimental climate chamber. We compared that to air sampled in an adjacent, identical, unoccupied chamber, as well as to supply and exhaust air sources. Additionally, we assessed microbial communities in settled particles surrounding each occupant, to investigate the potential long-term fate of airborne microbial emissions. Most occupants could be clearly detected by their airborne bacterial emissions, as well as their contribution to settled particles, within 1.5–4 h. Bacterial clouds from the occupants were statistically distinct, allowing the identification of some individual occupants. Our results confirm that an occupied space is microbially distinct from an unoccupied one, and demonstrate for the first time that individuals release their own personalized microbial cloud. PMID:26417541

  7. Humans differ in their personal microbial cloud.

    PubMed

    Meadow, James F; Altrichter, Adam E; Bateman, Ashley C; Stenson, Jason; Brown, G Z; Green, Jessica L; Bohannan, Brendan J M

    2015-01-01

    Dispersal of microbes between humans and the built environment can occur through direct contact with surfaces or through airborne release; the latter mechanism remains poorly understood. Humans emit upwards of 10(6) biological particles per hour, and have long been known to transmit pathogens to other individuals and to indoor surfaces. However it has not previously been demonstrated that humans emit a detectible microbial cloud into surrounding indoor air, nor whether such clouds are sufficiently differentiated to allow the identification of individual occupants. We used high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes to characterize the airborne bacterial contribution of a single person sitting in a sanitized custom experimental climate chamber. We compared that to air sampled in an adjacent, identical, unoccupied chamber, as well as to supply and exhaust air sources. Additionally, we assessed microbial communities in settled particles surrounding each occupant, to investigate the potential long-term fate of airborne microbial emissions. Most occupants could be clearly detected by their airborne bacterial emissions, as well as their contribution to settled particles, within 1.5-4 h. Bacterial clouds from the occupants were statistically distinct, allowing the identification of some individual occupants. Our results confirm that an occupied space is microbially distinct from an unoccupied one, and demonstrate for the first time that individuals release their own personalized microbial cloud. PMID:26417541

  8. More clouds over large European forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teuling, Ryan; Fokke Meirink, Jan; Vila, Jordi; Stegehuis, Annemiek; Nabuurs, Gert-Jan; Miralles, Diego; Taylor, Chris

    2015-04-01

    The impact of temperate forests on their environment is still uncertain [1]. While forests generally have a lower albedo, the flux partitioning over forests and its relation to weather conditions is still poorly understood [2,3], complicating attempts to study impacts of forest cover on atmospheric conditions through modeling. Effects of land surface conditions on boundary-layer humidity and cloud formation can also be very non-linear [4]. Furthermore, the study of hydrological and climate impacts of temperate European forests is complicated because forests are strongly fragmented and often can be found on hilly terrain, making it impossible to attribute differences in for instance cloud cover or runoff directly to forest cover. Only few regions exist where forests can be found in absence of strong topography of a size large enough to result in near-equilibrium between the atmospheric boundary layer and local surface conditions. In this study, we analyse 10 years (2004-2013) of cloud cover observations from the SEVIRI instrument aboard the Meteosat Second Generation satellite platform at a 15-minute temporal resolution [5]. We focus on two regions in France where large forests are found which satisfy the following criteria: a) absence of strong topography, and b) presence of sharp contrast between forest and non-forest regions. Cloud occurrence is expressed by the fraction of the daytime that clouds are detected within a ~6 km MSG pixel. We find that in particular in summer and late summer, clouds are much more likely to occur over forest than over the surrounding non-forest land (difference in the order of 0.2). An opposite signal, but of much weaker magnitude, is found during springtime, when clouds are less likely to develop over forest. Difference in cloud occurrence is consistent with MODIS-derived differences in EVI, which reflects a more pronounced soil moisture reduction in the non-forested areas. In addition to investigating seasonal and diurnal patterns

  9. A Sample of What We Have Learned from A-Train Cloud Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joiner, Joanna; Vasilkov, Alexander; Ziemke, Jerry; Chandra, Sushil; Spurr, Robert; Bhartia, P. K.; Krotkov, Nick; Sneep, Maarten; Menzel, Paul; Platnick, Steve; Stephens, Graeme; Wennberg, Paul; Avery, Melody; Wentz, Frank; Vanbaunce, Claudine; Pilewski, Peter; Diskin, Glenn; Vay, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    The A-train active sensors CloudSat and CALIPSO provide detailed information about cloud vertical structure. Coarse vertical information can also be obtained from a combination of passive sensors (e.g. cloud liquid water content from AMSR-E, cloud ice properties from MLS and HIRDLS, cloud-top pressure from MODIS and AIRS, and UVNISINear IR absorption and scattering from OMI, MODIS, and POLDER). In addition, the wide swaths of instruments such as MODIS, AIRS, OMI, POLDER, and AMSR-E can be exploited to create estimates of the three-dimensional cloud extent. We will show how data fusion from A-train sensors can be used, e.g., to detect and map the presence of multiple layer/phase clouds. Ultimately, combined cloud information from Atrain instruments will allow for estimates of heating and radiative flux at the surface as well as UV/VIS/Near IR trace-gas absorption at the overpass time on a near-global daily basis. CloudSat has also dramatically improved our interpretation of visible and UV passive measurements in complex cloudy situations such as deep convection and multiple cloud layers. This has led to new approaches for unique and accurate constituent retrievals from A-train instruments. For example, ozone mixing ratios inside tropical deep convective clouds have recently been estimated using the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). Field campaign data from TC4 provide additional information about the spatial variability and origin of trace-gases inside convective clouds. We will highlight some of the new applications of remote sensing in cloudy conditions that have been enabled by the synergy between the A-train active and passive sensors.

  10. Cloud Inhomogeneity from MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Cahalan, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    Two full months (July 2003 and January 2004) of MODIS Atmosphere Level-3 data from the Terra and Aqua satellites are analyzed in order to characterize the horizontal variability of cloud optical thickness and water path at global scales. Various options to derive cloud variability parameters are discussed. The climatology of cloud inhomogeneity is built by first calculating daily parameter values at spatial scales of l degree x 1 degree, and then at zonal and global scales, followed by averaging over monthly time scales. Geographical, diurnal, and seasonal changes of inhomogeneity parameters are examined separately for the two cloud phases, and separately over land and ocean. We find that cloud inhomogeneity is weaker in summer than in winter, weaker over land than ocean for liquid clouds, weaker for local morning than local afternoon, about the same for liquid and ice clouds on a global scale, but with wider probability distribution functions (PDFs) and larger latitudinal variations for ice, and relatively insensitive to whether water path or optical thickness products are used. Typical mean values at hemispheric and global scales of the inhomogeneity parameter nu (roughly the mean over the standard deviation of water path or optical thickness), range from approximately 2.5 to 3, while for the inhomogeneity parameter chi (the ratio of the logarithmic to linear mean) from approximately 0.7 to 0.8. Values of chi for zonal averages can occasionally fall below 0.6 and for individual gridpoints below 0.5. Our results demonstrate that MODIS is capable of revealing significant fluctuations in cloud horizontal inhomogenity and stress the need to model their global radiative effect in future studies.

  11. Mesospheric cloud formations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    Formation of mesospheric clouds as a result of deposition of large amounts of H2O by the heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) of the solar power satellite system is discussed. The conditions which must be met in order to form and maintain clouds near the mesopause are described. The frequency and magnitude of H2O injections from the HLLV rocket exhaust are considered.

  12. Marine Cloud Brightening

    SciTech Connect

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, H.; Connolly, P.; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Philip J.; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Robert

    2012-09-07

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could - subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein - have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seedparticle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud-albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action.

  13. Interstellar Cloud Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lattanzio, J. C.; Monaghan, J. J.; Pongracic, H.; Schwarz, M. P.

    1985-07-01

    We describe the results of a three-dimensional numerical simulation of isothermal interstellar clouds in the absence of magnetic fields. A wide variety of high and low Mach number, head-on and off-centre collisions of clouds with mass ratios 1, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.1 have been studied. The results show that a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for the gravitational instability of a substantial fraction of the matter is that the initial clouds should be either marginally stable or unstable according to the usual Jeans criterion. The collisions, in general, do not result in one or more clouds. Instead we find, in most cases, that the matter disperses in an irregular way. The calculations therefore suggest that if the initial state of the interstellar medium is one of cool dense clouds in a hotter more tenuous background, collisions will rapidly mix the medium rather than produce a steady-state spectrum of cool clouds.

  14. FIRE Arctic Clouds Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, J. A.; Hobbs, P. V.; King, M. D.; Randall, D. A.; Minnis, P.; Issac, G. A.; Pinto, J. O.; Uttal, T.; Bucholtz, A.; Cripe, D. G.; Gerber, H.; Fairall, C. W.; Garrett, T. J.; Hudson, J.; Intrieri, J. M.; Jakob, C.; Jensen, T.; Lawson, P.; Marcotte, D.; Nguyen, L.

    1998-01-01

    An overview is given of the First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) Arctic Clouds Experiment that was conducted in the Arctic during April through July, 1998. The principal goal of the field experiment was to gather the data needed to examine the impact of arctic clouds on the radiation exchange between the surface, atmosphere, and space, and to study how the surface influences the evolution of boundary layer clouds. The observations will be used to evaluate and improve climate model parameterizations of cloud and radiation processes, satellite remote sensing of cloud and surface characteristics, and understanding of cloud-radiation feedbacks in the Arctic. The experiment utilized four research aircraft that flew over surface-based observational sites in the Arctic Ocean and Barrow, Alaska. In this paper we describe the programmatic and science objectives of the project, the experimental design (including research platforms and instrumentation), conditions that were encountered during the field experiment, and some highlights of preliminary observations, modelling, and satellite remote sensing studies.

  15. A cloud physics radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyle, H. L.; Curran, R. J.; Barnes, W. L.; Escoe, D.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes the design features and capabilities of a seven-channel cloud physics radiometer (CPR) for remote sensing of cloud properties. The CPR channel characteristics and functions are tabulated and diagrammed. Each of the first three channels utilizes a photo-multipler detector, with the high-voltage power supply integrated with the tube into a single unit. In operation a heater is used to keep the optics temperature at or above 273 K and this temperature is constantly monitored. The last four channel detectors and filters are all cooled to the temperature of liquid nitrogen. The inclined scanning mirror rotates at a rate of 3.48 rps. Registration pulses are triggered and recorded as the mirror enters and leaves the + or -45 deg earth observation region. The ice-cloud, water cloud, snow discriminator detector has worked quite well in general. Interesting radiometer data have been obtained and their analysis is under way. The combination of the CPR and the Cloud Lidar System will make possible sophisticated remote sensing cloud studies.

  16. Molecules in interstellar clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, W. M.; Hjalmarson, A.; Rydbeck, O. E. H.

    The physical conditions and chemical compositions of the gas in interstellar clouds are reviewed in light of the importance of interstellar clouds for star formation and the origin of life. The Orion A region is discussed as an example of a giant molecular cloud where massive stars are being formed, and it is pointed out that conditions in the core of the cloud, with a kinetic temperature of about 75 K and a density of 100,000-1,000,000 molecules/cu cm, may support gas phase ion-molecule chemistry. The Taurus Molecular Clouds are then considered as examples of cold, dark, relatively dense interstellar clouds which may be the birthplaces of solar-type stars and which have been found to contain the heaviest interstellar molecules yet discovered. The molecular species identified in each of these regions are tabulated, including such building blocks of biological monomers as H2O, NH3, H2CO, CO, H2S, CH3CN and H2, and more complex species such as HCOOCH3 and CH3CH2CN.

  17. Analysis of co-located MODIS and CALIPSO observations near clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Várnai, T.; Marshak, A.

    2012-02-01

    This paper aims at helping synergistic studies in combining data from different satellites for gaining new insights into two critical yet poorly understood aspects of anthropogenic climate change, aerosol-cloud interactions and aerosol radiative effects. In particular, the paper examines the way cloud information from the MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) imager can refine our perceptions based on CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) lidar measurements about the systematic aerosol changes that occur near clouds. The statistical analysis of a yearlong dataset of co-located global maritime observations from the Aqua and CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) satellites reveals that MODIS's multispectral imaging ability can greatly help the interpretation of CALIOP observations. The results show that imagers on Aqua and CALIPSO yield very similar pictures, and that the discrepancies - due mainly to wind drift and differences in view angle - do not significantly hinder aerosol measurements near clouds. By detecting clouds outside the CALIOP track, MODIS reveals that clouds are usually closer to clear areas than CALIOP data alone would suggest. The paper finds statistical relationships between the distances to clouds in MODIS and CALIOP data, and proposes a rescaling approach to statistically account for the impact of clouds outside the CALIOP track even when MODIS cannot reliably detect low clouds, for example at night or over sea ice. Finally, the results show that the typical distance to clouds depends on both cloud coverage and cloud type, and accordingly varies with location and season. In maritime areas perceived cloud free, the global median distance to clouds below 3 km altitude is in the 4-5 km range.

  18. Ray Tracing with Virtual Objects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leinoff, Stuart

    1991-01-01

    Introduces the method of ray tracing to analyze the refraction or reflection of real or virtual images from multiple optical devices. Discusses ray-tracing techniques for locating images using convex and concave lenses or mirrors. (MDH)

  19. Satellite view of the extreme haze clouds over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minghui, T.; Chen, L.; Wang, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Minghui Tao*, Liangfu Chen, Zifeng Wang State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Jointly Sponsored by Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth of Chinese Academy of Sciences and Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100101, China *Email: tmh1985@163.com ABSTRACT: In the past decades, great increases in anthropogenic emissions have caused dramatic changes in air quality and regional climate in China, which are further complicated by the natural processes such as dust events and atmospheric dynamics such as variations in intensity of the Asian monsoon. The common urban photochemistry smog, haze, and fog-haze pollution lead to poor air quality in major cities in eastern and middle parts of China. On the other hand, the heavy aerosol loading exerts marked influences on radiation, clouds, and precipitation over China. Satellites usually observed widespread haze clouds over eastern China. In most of previous studies, the dense haze clouds were directly connected with accumulation of anthropogenic emissions. However, satellite observations show that formation processes of haze clouds and local pollution near surface were different. Understanding the connections and interactions between haze clouds and local anthropogenic emissions is essential in chemistry and climate modeling of the aerosols over China. In January 2013, durative haze clouds covered most parts of eastern China, leading to extreme pollution events in many cities. With integrated A-train satellite observations and ground measurements, we investigated variations, optical properties, vertical structures as well as formation process of the extreme haze clouds over eastern China. Satellite-surface results were compared to analyze relations between the haze clouds and surface pollution. Different from traditional views, our results reveal that variation and formation of the haze clouds were driven by large-scale natural processes rather than local anthropogenic emissions. Figure 1. Aqua MODIS true color

  20. FORMATION OF MASSIVE MOLECULAR CLOUD CORES BY CLOUD-CLOUD COLLISION

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Fukui, Yasuo

    2013-09-10

    Recent observations of molecular clouds around rich massive star clusters including NGC 3603, Westerlund 2, and M20 revealed that the formation of massive stars could be triggered by a cloud-cloud collision. By using three-dimensional, isothermal, magnetohydrodynamics simulations with the effect of self-gravity, we demonstrate that massive, gravitationally unstable, molecular cloud cores are formed behind the strong shock waves induced by cloud-cloud collision. We find that the massive molecular cloud cores have large effective Jeans mass owing to the enhancement of the magnetic field strength by shock compression and turbulence in the compressed layer. Our results predict that massive molecular cloud cores formed by the cloud-cloud collision are filamentary and threaded by magnetic fields perpendicular to the filament.

  1. First observations of tracking clouds using scanning ARM cloud radars

    SciTech Connect

    Borque, Paloma; Giangrande, Scott; Kollias, Pavlos

    2014-12-01

    Tracking clouds using scanning cloud radars can help to document the temporal evolution of cloud properties well before large drop formation (‘‘first echo’’). These measurements complement cloud and precipitation tracking using geostationary satellites and weather radars. Here, two-dimensional (2-D) Along-Wind Range Height Indicator (AW-RHI) observations of a population of shallow cumuli (with and without precipitation) from the 35-GHz scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program Southern Great Plains (SGP) site are presented. Observations from the ARM SGP network of scanning precipitation radars are used to provide the larger scale context of the cloud field and to highlight the advantages of the SACR to detect the numerous, small, non-precipitating cloud elements. A new Cloud Identification and Tracking Algorithm (CITA) is developed to track cloud elements. In CITA, a cloud element is identified as a region having a contiguous set of pixels exceeding a preset reflectivity and size threshold. The high temporal resolution of the SACR 2-D observations (30 sec) allows for an area superposition criteria algorithm to match cloud elements at consecutive times. Following CITA, the temporal evolution of cloud element properties (number, size, and maximum reflectivity) is presented. The vast majority of the designated elements during this cumulus event were short-lived non-precipitating clouds having an apparent life cycle shorter than 15 minutes. The advantages and disadvantages of cloud tracking using an SACR are discussed.

  2. Molecular Complexity in the Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharyya, Kinsuk; Herbst, Eric

    2016-07-01

    Recently, we studied chemical complexity in the Large and Small Magellanic clouds. These are irregular satellite galaxies of the Milky Way. Both are metal- and dust-poor, although the SMC is significantly poorer in both. The dust temperature in these galaxies could also be higher compared to our Galaxy; this can have a profound effect on the synthesis of molecules in these galaxies. Our simulations show that the cold, dense regions of the LMC and SMC can have a rich chemistry. We found major gas phase species, as well as water and CO2 ices, could be found in abundant quantity. In this presentation I will discuss the complex organic molecules that are found in abundant quantity in our Galaxy, and how their abundance varies in the Magellanic clouds. This comparison will help us to understand the role of metallicity and dust grain temperature in the formation of complex organic molecules.

  3. The chemical evolution of molecular clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iglesias, E.

    1977-01-01

    The nonequilibrium chemistry of dense molecular clouds (10,000 to 1 million hydrogen molecules per cu cm) is studied in the framework of a model that includes the latest published chemical data and most of the recent theoretical advances. In this model the only important external source of ionization is assumed to be high-energy cosmic-ray bombardment; standard charge-transfer reactions are taken into account as well as reactions that transfer charge from molecular ions to trace-metal atoms. Schemes are proposed for the synthesis of such species as NCO, HNCO, and CN. The role played by adsorption and condensation of molecules on the surface of dust grains is investigated, and effects on the chemical evolution of a dense molecular cloud are considered which result from varying the total density or the elemental abundances and from assuming negligible or severe condensation of gaseous species on dust grains. It is shown that the chemical-equilibrium time scale is given approximately by the depletion times of oxygen and nitrogen when the condensation efficiency is negligible; that this time scale is probably in the range from 1 to 4 million years, depending on the elemental composition and initial conditions in the cloud; and that this time scale is insensitive to variations in the total density.

  4. Global Dust Budgets of the Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, Mikako

    2013-03-01

    Within galaxies, gas and dust are constantly exchanged between stars and the interstellar medium (ISM). The life-cycle of gas and dust is the key to the evolution of galaxies. Despite its importance, it is has been very difficult to trace the life-cycle of gas and dust via observations. The Spitzer Space Telescope and Herschel Space Observatory have provided a great opportunity to study the life-cycle of the gas and dust in very nearby galaxies, the Magellanic Clouds. AGB stars are more important contributors to the dust budget in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), while in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), SNe are dominant. However, it seems that the current estimates of the total dust production from AGB stars is insufficient to account for dust present in the ISM. Other dust sources are needed, and supernovae are promising sources. Alternatively the time scale of dust lifetime itself needs some revisions, potentially because they could be unevenly distributed in the ISM or clumps.

  5. The Filamentary Structure of the Lupus 3 Molecular Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedettini, Milena

    We present the column density map of the Lupus 3 molecular cloud derived from the Herschel photometric maps. We compared the Herschel continuum maps, tracing the dense and cold dust emission, with the CS (2-1) map observed with the Mopra 22-m antenna, tracing the dense gas. Both the continuum and the CS maps show a well defined filamentary structure, with most of the dense cores being on the filaments. The CS (2-1) line shows a double peak in the central part of the longest filament due to the presence of two distinct gas components along this line of sight. Therefore, what seems a single filament in the Herschel map is actually the overlap of two kinematically distinct filaments. This case clearly shows that kinematical information is essential for the correct interpretation of filaments in molecular clouds.

  6. Results from the CERN pilot CLOUD experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duplissy, J.; Enghoff, M. B.; Aplin, K. L.; Arnold, F.; Aufmhoff, H.; Avngaard, M.; Baltensperger, U.; Bondo, T.; Bingham, R.; Carslaw, K.; Curtius, J.; David, A.; Fastrup, B.; Gagné, S.; Hahn, F.; Harrison, R. G.; Kellett, B.; Kirkby, J.; Kulmala, M.; Laakso, L.; Laaksonen, A.; Lillestol, E.; Lockwood, M.; Mäkelä, J.; Makhmutov, V.; Marsh, N. D.; Nieminen, T.; Onnela, A.; Pedersen, E.; Pedersen, J. O. P.; Polny, J.; Reichl, U.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Sipilä, M.; Stozhkov, Y.; Stratmann, F.; Svensmark, H.; Svensmark, J.; Veenhof, R.; Viisanen, Y.; Wagner, P. E.; Wehrle, G.; Weingartner, E.; Wex, H.; Wilhelmsson, M.; Winkler, P. M.

    2009-09-01

    During a 4-week run in October-November 2006, a pilot experiment was performed at the CERN Proton Synchrotron in preparation for the CLOUD1 experiment, whose aim is to study the possible influence of cosmic rays on clouds. The purpose of the pilot experiment was firstly to carry out exploratory measurements of the effect of ionising particle radiation on aerosol formation from trace H2SO4 vapour and secondly to provide technical input for the CLOUD design. A total of 44 nucleation bursts were produced and recorded, with formation rates of particles above the 3 nm detection threshold of between 0.1 and 100 cm-3s-1, and growth rates between 2 and 37 nm h-1. The corresponding H2SO4 concentrations were typically around 106 cm-3 or less. The experimentally-measured formation rates and H2SO4 concentrations are comparable to those found in the atmosphere, supporting the idea that sulphuric acid is involved in the nucleation of atmospheric aerosols. However, sulphuric acid alone is not able to explain the observed rapid growth rates, which suggests the presence of additional trace vapours in the aerosol chamber, whose identity is unknown. By analysing the charged fraction, a few of the aerosol bursts appear to have a contribution from ion-induced nucleation and ion-ion recombination to form neutral clusters. Some indications were also found for the accelerator beam timing and intensity to influence the aerosol particle formation rate at the highest experimental SO2 concentrations of 6 ppb, although none was found at lower concentrations. Overall, the exploratory measurements provide suggestive evidence for ion-induced nucleation or ion-ion recombination as sources of aerosol particles. However in order to quantify the conditions under which ion processes become significant, improvements are needed in controlling the experimental variables and in the reproducibility of the experiments. Finally, concerning technical aspects, the most important lessons for the CLOUD design

  7. Lidar Detection of Explosives Traces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrovnikov, Sergei M.; Gorlov, Evgeny V.; Zharkov, Victor I.; Panchenko, Yury N.

    2016-06-01

    The possibility of remote detection of traces of explosives using laser fragmentation/laser-induced fluorescence (LF/LIF) is studied. Experimental data on the remote visualization of traces of trinitrotoluene (TNT), hexogen (RDX), trotyl-hexogen (Comp B), octogen (HMX), and tetryl with a scanning lidar detector of traces of nitrogen-containing explosives at a distance of 5 m are presented.

  8. New Particle Formation in and Around Ice Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axisa, D.; Reeves, J. M.; Wilson, J. C.; Lawson, P.; Sargent, M. R.; Sayres, D. S.; Smith, J. B.; Schiller, C.; Kraemer, M.

    2012-12-01

    The MACPEX mission permitted observation of aerosol size distributions in the 4 to 1000 nm diameter range, cloud particles and water vapor in and around clouds in the mid-latitude upper troposphere. The NMASS consists of 5 condensation particle counters (cpcs) operating in parallel. The 5 cpcs have lower detection limits of approximately 4 nm, 8 nm, 16 nm, 32 nm and 50 nm. The FCAS measures the optical size of particles in the 100 nm to 1000 nm range. The data from these instruments are combined to provide size distributions from 4 to 1000 nm. Size distributions that show a local maximum in the smallest size range are evidence for recent new particle formation since the lifetime of particles in this size range is short due to coagulation. Size distributions showing evidence of new particle formation were observed inside and near clouds in the altitude range from 10 to 14 km. The cloud particles in these high clouds are expected to be ice. Care was taken to avoid interpreting shattering of ice on the aerosol inlets as new particles. The size distributions showing new particle formation are contrasted with size distributions that do not show new particle formation in and out of the clouds. Temperature, relative humidity and trace gas abundances in air parcels exhibiting new particle formation are contrasted with those in air parcels not showing new particle formation.

  9. I/O Performance of Virtualized Cloud Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Ghoshal, Devarshi; Canon, Shane; Ramakrishnan, Lavanya

    2011-11-03

    The scientific community is exploring the suitability of cloud infrastructure to handle High Performance Computing (HPC) applications. The goal of Magellan, a project funded through DOE ASCR, is to investigate the potential role of cloud computing to address the computing needs of the Department of Energy?s Office of Science, especially for mid-range computing and data-intensive applications which are not served through existing DOE centers today. Prior work has shown that applications with significant communication orI/O tend to perform poorly in virtualized cloud environments. However, there is a limited understanding of the I/O characteristics in virtualized cloud environments. This paper will present our results in benchmarking the I/O performance over different cloud and HPC platforms to identify the major bottlenecks in existing infrastructure. We compare the I/O performance using IOR benchmark on two cloud platforms - Amazon and Magellan. We analyze the performance of different storage options available, different instance types in multiple availability zones. Finally, we perform large-scale tests in order to analyze the variability in the I/O patterns over time and region. Our results highlight the overhead and variability in I/O performance on both public and private cloud solutions. Our results will help applications decide between the different storage options enabling applications to make effective choices.

  10. Macquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment (MICRE) Science Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Marchand, RT; Protat, A; Alexander, SP

    2015-12-01

    Clouds over the Southern Ocean are poorly represented in present day reanalysis products and global climate model simulations. Errors in top-of-atmosphere (TOA) broadband radiative fluxes in this region are among the largest globally, with large implications for modeling both regional and global scale climate responses (e.g., Trenberth and Fasullo 2010, Ceppi et al. 2012). Recent analyses of model simulations suggest that model radiative errors in the Southern Ocean are due to a lack of low-level postfrontal clouds (including clouds well behind the front) and perhaps a lack of supercooled liquid water that contribute most to the model biases (Bodas-Salcedo et al. 2013, Huang et al. 2014). These assessments of model performance, as well as our knowledge of cloud and aerosol properties over the Southern Ocean, rely heavily on satellite data sets. Satellite data sets are incomplete in that the observations are not continuous (i.e., they are acquired only when the satellite passes nearby), generally do not sample the diurnal cycle, and view primarily the tops of cloud systems (especially for the passive instruments). This is especially problematic for retrievals of aerosol, low-cloud properties, and layers of supercooled water embedded within (rather than at the top of) clouds, as well as estimates of surface shortwave and longwave fluxes based on these properties.

  11. Anisotropic ray trace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Wai Sze Tiffany

    Optical components made of anisotropic materials, such as crystal polarizers and crystal waveplates, are widely used in many complex optical system, such as display systems, microlithography, biomedical imaging and many other optical systems, and induce more complex aberrations than optical components made of isotropic materials. The goal of this dissertation is to accurately simulate the performance of optical systems with anisotropic materials using polarization ray trace. This work extends the polarization ray tracing calculus to incorporate ray tracing through anisotropic materials, including uniaxial, biaxial and optically active materials. The 3D polarization ray tracing calculus is an invaluable tool for analyzing polarization properties of an optical system. The 3x3 polarization ray tracing P matrix developed for anisotropic ray trace assists tracking the 3D polarization transformations along a ray path with series of surfaces in an optical system. To better represent the anisotropic light-matter interactions, the definition of the P matrix is generalized to incorporate not only the polarization change at a refraction/reflection interface, but also the induced optical phase accumulation as light propagates through the anisotropic medium. This enables realistic modeling of crystalline polarization elements, such as crystal waveplates and crystal polarizers. The wavefront and polarization aberrations of these anisotropic components are more complex than those of isotropic optical components and can be evaluated from the resultant P matrix for each eigen-wavefront as well as for the overall image. One incident ray refracting or reflecting into an anisotropic medium produces two eigenpolarizations or eigenmodes propagating in different directions. The associated ray parameters of these modes necessary for the anisotropic ray trace are described in Chapter 2. The algorithms to calculate the P matrix from these ray parameters are described in Chapter 3 for

  12. Experimental and theoretical investigations of marine stratocumulus cloud sensitivity to climate parameters using ship-trail clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Porch, W.; Buchwald, M.; Glatzmaier, T.; Kao, C.-Y.; Unruh, W. ); Hudson, J.; Rogers, F. . Desert Research Inst.); Durkee, P. ); Hindman, E. ); Kocian, J. )

    1991-01-01

    The formation and radiative properties of clouds are poorly parameterized in numerical climate models, especially marine boundary layer clouds. Twomey (1991), after describing the importance of cloud microphysics to the climate problem, states Clearly, many more field measurements and laboratory experiments are called for, rather than endless repetitions of computer simulations that are closely related to each other and parameterize in very similar ways.'' The effort described here is a field experimental effort supported by the Department of Energy under its Quantitative Links'' program. The project is called Ship-Trail Evolution Above High Updraft Naval Targets (SEAHUNT). The purpose of this study is to improve our understanding of the meteorological context in which ship trails and other perturbations to marine boundary layer clouds occur. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Marine cloud brightening

    PubMed Central

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, Hugh; Connolly, Paul; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Phillip; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Rob

    2012-01-01

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could—subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein—have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seed-particle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud–albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100×100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action

  14. Stratocumulus cloud evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, X.; Rogers, D.P.; Norris, P.M.; Johnson, D.W.; Martin, G.M.

    1994-12-31

    The structure and evolution of the extra-tropical marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) depends largely on the variability of stratus and stratocumulus clouds. The typical boundary-layer is capped by a temperature inversion that limits exchange with the free atmosphere. Cloud-top is usually coincident with the base of the inversion. Stratus clouds are generally associated with a well-mixed MABL, whereas daytime observations of stratocumulus-topped boundary-layers indicate that the cloud and subcloud layers are often decoupled due to shortwave radiative heating of the cloud layer. In this case the surface-based mixed layer is separated from the base of the stratocumulus (Sc) by a layer that is stable to dry turbulent mixing. This is sometimes referred to as the transition layer. Often cumulus clouds (Cu) develop in the transition layer. The cumulus tops may remain below the Sc base or they may penetrate into the Sc layer and occasionally through the capping temperature inversion. While this cloud structure is characteristic of the daytime MABL, it may persist at night also. The Cu play an important role in connecting the mixed layer to the Sc layer. If the Cu are active they transport water vapor from the sea surface that maintains the Sc against the dissipating effects of shortwave heating. The Cu, however, are very sensitive to small changes in the heat and moisture in the boundary-layer and are transient features. Here the authors discuss the effect of these small Cu on the turbulent structure of the MABL.

  15. Cloud Photogrammetry from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaksek, K.; Gerst, A.; von der Lieth, J.; Ganci, G.; Hort, M.

    2015-04-01

    The most commonly used method for satellite cloud top height (CTH) compares brightness temperature of the cloud with the atmospheric temperature profile. Because of the uncertainties of this method, we propose a photogrammetric approach. As clouds can move with high velocities, even instruments with multiple cameras are not appropriate for accurate CTH estimation. Here we present two solutions. The first is based on the parallax between data retrieved from geostationary (SEVIRI, HRV band; 1000 m spatial resolution) and polar orbiting satellites (MODIS, band 1; 250 m spatial resolution). The procedure works well if the data from both satellites are retrieved nearly simultaneously. However, MODIS does not retrieve the data at exactly the same time as SEVIRI. To compensate for advection in the atmosphere we use two sequential SEVIRI images (one before and one after the MODIS retrieval) and interpolate the cloud position from SEVIRI data to the time of MODIS retrieval. CTH is then estimated by intersection of corresponding lines-of-view from MODIS and interpolated SEVIRI data. The second method is based on NASA program Crew Earth observations from the International Space Station (ISS). The ISS has a lower orbit than most operational satellites, resulting in a shorter minimal time between two images, which is needed to produce a suitable parallax. In addition, images made by the ISS crew are taken by a full frame sensor and not a push broom scanner that most operational satellites use. Such data make it possible to observe also short time evolution of clouds.

  16. Microphysics of Pyrocumulonimbus Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Eric; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Fridlind, Ann

    2004-01-01

    The intense heat from forest fires can generate explosive deep convective cloud systems that inject pollutants to high altitudes. Both satellite and high-altitude aircraft measurements have documented cases in which these pyrocumulonimbus clouds inject large amounts of smoke well into the stratosphere (Fromm and Servranckx 2003; Jost et al. 2004). This smoke can remain in the stratosphere, be transported large distances, and affect lower stratospheric chemistry. In addition recent in situ measurements in pyrocumulus updrafts have shown that the high concentrations of smoke particles have significant impacts on cloud microphysical properties. Very high droplet number densities result in delayed precipitation and may enhance lightning (Andrew et al. 2004). Presumably, the smoke particles will also lead to changes in the properties of anvil cirrus produces by the deep convection, with resulting influences on cloud radiative forcing. In situ sampling near the tops of mature pyrocumulonimbus is difficult due to the high altitude and violence of the storms. In this study, we use large eddy simulations (LES) with size-resolved microphysics to elucidate physical processes in pyrocumulonimbus clouds.

  17. Counting the clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, David A.

    2005-01-01

    Cloud processes are very important for the global circulation of the atmosphere. It is now possible, though very expensive, to simulate the global circulation of the atmosphere using a model with resolution fine enough to explicitly represent the larger individual clouds. An impressive preliminary calculation of this type has already been performed by Japanese scientists, using the Earth Simulator. Within the next few years, such global cloud-resolving models (GCRMs) will be applied to weather prediction, and later they will be used in climatechange simulations. The tremendous advantage of GCRMs, relative to conventional lowerresolution global models, is that GCRMs can avoid many of the questionable "parameterizations" used to represent cloud effects in lower-resolution global models. Although cloud microphysics, turbulence, and radiation must still be parameterized in GCRMs, the high resolution of a GCRM simplifies these problems considerably, relative to conventional models. The United States currently has no project to develop a GCRM, although we have both the computer power and the expertise to do it. A research program aimed at development and applications of GCRMs is outlined.

  18. Hydrogen delivery onto white dwarfs from remnant exo-Oort cloud comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veras, Dimitri; Shannon, Andrew; Gänsicke, Boris T.

    2014-12-01

    The origin of trace hydrogen in white dwarfs (WDs) with He-dominated atmospheres is a long-standing problem, one that cannot satisfactorily be explained by the historically favoured hypothesis of accretion from the interstellar medium. Here we explore the possibility that the gradual accretion of exo-Oort cloud comets, which are a rich source of H, contributes to the apparent increase of trace H with WD cooling age. We determine how often remnant exo-Oort clouds, freshly excited from post-main-sequence stellar mass loss, dynamically inject comets inside the WD's Roche radius. We improve upon previous studies by considering a representative range of single WD masses (0.52-1.00 M⊙) and incorporating different cloud architectures, giant branch stellar mass loss, stellar flybys, Galactic tides and a realistic escape ellipsoid in self-consistent numerical simulations that integrate beyond 8 Gyr ages of WD cooling. We find that ˜10-5 of the material in an exo-Oort cloud is typically amassed on to the WD, and that the H deposits accumulate even as the cloud dissipates. This accumulation may account for the relatively large amount of trace H, 1022-1025 g, that is determined frequently among WDs with cooling ages ≥1 Gyr. Our results also reaffirm the notion that exo-Oort cloud comets are not the primary agents of the metal budgets observed in polluted WD atmospheres.

  19. Major Characteristics of Southern Ocean Cloud Regimes and Their Effects on the Energy Budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haynes, John M.; Jakob, Christian; Rossow, William B.; Tselioudis, George; Brown, Josephine

    2011-01-01

    Clouds over the Southern Ocean are often poorly represented by climate models, but they make a significant contribution to the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiation balance, particularly in the shortwave portion of the energy spectrum. This study seeks to better quantify the organization and structure of Southern Hemisphere midlatitude clouds by combining measurements from active and passive satellite-based datasets. Geostationary and polar-orbiter satellite data from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) are used to quantify large-scale, recurring modes of cloudiness, and active observations from CloudSat and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) are used to examine vertical structure, radiative heating rates, and precipitation associated with these clouds. It is found that cloud systems are organized into eight distinct regimes and that ISCCP overestimates the midlevel cloudiness of these regimes. All regimes contain a relatively high occurrence of low cloud, with 79%of all cloud layers observed having tops below 3 km, but multiple-layered clouds systems are present in approximately 34% of observed cloud profiles. The spatial distribution of regimes varies according to season, with cloud systems being geometrically thicker, on average, during the austral winter. Those regimes found to be most closely associated with midlatitude cyclones produce precipitation the most frequently, although drizzle is extremely common in low-cloud regimes. The regimes associated with cyclones have the highest in-regime shortwave cloud radiative effect at the TOA, but the low-cloud regimes, by virtue of their high frequency of occurrence over the oceans, dominate both TOA and surface shortwave effects in this region as a whole.

  20. Validation of MAX-DOAS Cloud classification technique by other techniques based on three years observations in Wuxi, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang; Wagner, Thomas; Xie, Pinhua; Beirle, Steffen; Dörner, Steffen; Remmers, Julia; Li, Ang; Wu, Dexia

    2014-05-01

    Multi-Axis-Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) observations of trace gases can be strongly influenced by clouds and aerosols. Thus it is important to identify clouds and characterise their properties. In the former work (Wagner et al. 2013) we found the colour index, radiance and O4 absorption from MAX-DOAS measurements are sensitive to the properties of cloud and aerosol and built a sophisticated classification scheme. In this work we further improved the identification of clouds and aerosol for each elevation sequence of MAX-DOAS based on three years of measurements (2011 to 2013) in Wuxi, China (31.57°N, 120.31°E). The cloud classification results were verified by comparing with other cloud or aerosol data sets such as the aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the AERONET Taihu monitoring site (31.42° N, 120.22° E), MODIS Level 2 cloud products and cloud parameters in level 2b productions of OMI and GOME-2 from TEMIS. We find good agreement with the MAX-DOAS cloud classification using statistical analyses. Based on the results of MAX-DOAS cloud classification, we investigate the influence of clouds and aerosol to the MAX-DOAS measurements of the NO2 tropospheric vertical column density. We compare the influence of clouds and aerosols on the atmospheric light paths with their influence of the NO2 photolysis and thus on the partitioning between NO2 and NO.

  1. Cloud condensation nucleus-sulfate mass relationship and cloud albedo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hegg, Dean A.

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of previously published, simultaneous measurements of cloud condensation nucleus number concentration and sulfate mass concentration suggest a nonlinear relationship between the two variables. This nonlinearity reduces the sensitivity of cloud albedo to changes in the sulfur cycle.

  2. Cloud top entrainment instability and cloud top distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boers, Reinout; Spinhirne, James D.

    1990-01-01

    Classical cloud-top entrainment instability condition formulation is discussed. A saturation point diagram is used to investigate the details of mixing in cases where the cloud-top entrainment instability criterion is satisfied.

  3. Scientists Trace Adversity's Toll

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2012-01-01

    The stress of a spelling bee or a challenging science project can enhance a student's focus and promote learning. But the stress of a dysfunctional or unstable home life can poison a child's cognitive ability for a lifetime, according to new research. Those studies show that stress forms the link between childhood adversity and poor academic…

  4. Screening of biosurfactants from cloud microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sancelme, Martine; Canet, Isabelle; Traikia, Mounir; Uhliarikova, Yveta; Capek, Peter; Matulova, Maria; Delort, Anne-Marie; Amato, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    The formation of cloud droplets from aerosol particles in the atmosphere is still not well understood and a main source of uncertainties in the climate budget today. One of the principal parameters in these processes is the surface tension of atmospheric particles, which can be strongly affected by trace compounds called surfactants. Within a project devoted to bring information on atmospheric surfactants and their effects on cloud droplet formation, we focused on surfactants produced by microorganisms present in atmospheric waters. From our unique collection of microorganisms, isolated from cloud water collected at the Puy-de-Dôme (France),1 we undertook a screening of this bank for biosurfactant producers. After extraction of the supernatants of the pure cultures, surface tension of crude extracts was determined by the hanging drop technique. Results showed that a wide variety of microorganisms are able to produce biosurfactants, some of them exhibiting strong surfactant properties as the resulting tension surface decreases to values less then 35 mN.m-1. Preliminary analytical characterization of biosurfactants, obtained after isolation from overproducing cultures of Rhodococcus sp. and Pseudomonas sp., allowed us to identify them as belonging to two main classes, namely glycolipids and glycopeptides. 1. Vaïtilingom, M.; Attard, E.; Gaiani, N.; Sancelme, M.; Deguillaume, L.; Flossmann, A. I.; Amato, P.; Delort, A. M. Long-term features of cloud microbiology at the puy de Dôme (France). Atmos. Environ. 2012, 56, 88-100. Acknowledgements: This work is supported by the French-USA ANR SONATA program and the French-Slovakia programs Stefanik and CNRS exchange.

  5. Cloud absorption radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strange, M. G.

    1988-01-01

    The Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) was developed to measure spectrally how light is scattered by clouds and to determine the single scattering albedo, important to meteorology and climate studies, with unprecedented accuracy. This measurement is based on ratios of downwelling to upwelling radiation within clouds, and so is not strongly dependent upon absolute radiometric calibration of the instrument. The CAR has a 5-inch aperture and 1 degree IFOV, and spatially scans in a plane orthogonal to the flight vector from the zenith to nadir at 1.7 revolutions per second. Incoming light is measured in 13 spectral bands, using silicon, germanium, and indium-antimonide detectors. Data from each channel is digitally recorded in flight with 10-bit (0.1 percent) resolution. The instrument incorporates several novel features. These features are briefly detailed.

  6. Global observations of aerosol-cloud-precipitation-climate interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenfeld, Daniel; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Asmi, Ari; Chin, Mian; Leeuw, Gerrit; Donovan, David P.; Kahn, Ralph; Kinne, Stefan; Kivekäs, Niku; Kulmala, Markku; Lau, William; Schmidt, K. Sebastian; Suni, Tanja; Wagner, Thomas; Wild, Martin; Quaas, Johannes

    2014-12-01

    Cloud drop condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nuclei (IN) particles determine to a large extent cloud microstructure and, consequently, cloud albedo and the dynamic response of clouds to aerosol-induced changes to precipitation. This can modify the reflected solar radiation and the thermal radiation emitted to space. Measurements of tropospheric CCN and IN over large areas have not been possible and can be only roughly approximated from satellite-sensor-based estimates of optical properties of aerosols. Our lack of ability to measure both CCN and cloud updrafts precludes disentangling the effects of meteorology from those of aerosols and represents the largest component in our uncertainty in anthropogenic climate forcing. Ways to improve the retrieval accuracy include multiangle and multipolarimetric passive measurements of the optical signal and multispectral lidar polarimetric measurements. Indirect methods include proxies of trace gases, as retrieved by hyperspectral sensors. Perhaps the most promising emerging direction is retrieving the CCN properties by simultaneously retrieving convective cloud drop number concentrations and updraft speeds, which amounts to using clouds as natural CCN chambers. These satellite observations have to be constrained by in situ observations of aerosol-cloud-precipitation-climate (ACPC) interactions, which in turn constrain a hierarchy of model simulations of ACPC. Since the essence of a general circulation model is an accurate quantification of the energy and mass fluxes in all forms between the surface, atmosphere and outer space, a route to progress is proposed here in the form of a series of box flux closure experiments in the various climate regimes. A roadmap is provided for quantifying the ACPC interactions and thereby reducing the uncertainty in anthropogenic climate forcing.

  7. Temporal variation of the cloud top height over the tropical Pacific observed by geostationary satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishi, N.; Hamada, A.

    2012-12-01

    Stratiform clouds (nimbostratus and cirriform clouds) in the upper troposphere accompanied with cumulonimbus activity cover large part of the tropical region and largely affect the radiation and water vapor budgets there. Recently new satellites (CloudSat and CALIPSO) can give us the information of cloud height and cloud ice amount even over the open ocean. However, their coverage is limited just below the satellite paths; it is difficult to capture the whole shape and to trace the lifecycle of each cloud system by using just these datasets. We made, as a complementary product, a dataset of cloud top height and visible optical thickness with one-hour resolution over the wide region, by using infrared split-window data of the geostationary satellites (AGU fall meeting 2011) and released on the internet (http://database.rish.kyoto-u.ac.jp/arch/ctop/). We made lookup tables for estimating cloud top height only with geostationary infrared observations by comparing them with the direct cloud observation by CloudSat (Hamada and Nishi, 2010, JAMC). We picked out the same-time observations by MTSAT and CloudSat and regressed the cloud top height observation of CloudSat back onto 11μm brightness temperature (Tb) and the difference between the 11μm Tb and 12μm Tb. We will call our estimated cloud top height as "CTOP" below. The area of our coverage is 85E-155W (MTSAT2) and 80E-160W(MTSAT1R), and 20S-20N. The accuracy of the estimation with the IR split-window observation is the best in the upper tropospheric height range. We analyzed the formation and maintenance of the cloud systems whose top height is in the upper troposphere with our CTOP analysis, CloudSat 2B-GEOPROF, and GSMaP (Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation) precipitation data. Most of the upper tropospheric stratiform clouds have their cloud top within 13-15 km range. The cloud top height decreases slowly when dissipating but still has high value to the end. However, we sometimes observe that a little

  8. Reconstruction of cloud geometry using a scanning cloud radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewald, F.; Winkler, C.; Zinner, T.

    2015-06-01

    Clouds are one of the main reasons of uncertainties in the forecasts of weather and climate. In part, this is due to limitations of remote sensing of cloud microphysics. Present approaches often use passive spectral measurements for the remote sensing of cloud microphysical parameters. Large uncertainties are introduced by three-dimensional (3-D) radiative transfer effects and cloud inhomogeneities. Such effects are largely caused by unknown orientation of cloud sides or by shadowed areas on the cloud. Passive ground-based remote sensing of cloud properties at high spatial resolution could be crucially improved with this kind of additional knowledge of cloud geometry. To this end, a method for the accurate reconstruction of 3-D cloud geometry from cloud radar measurements is developed in this work. Using a radar simulator and simulated passive measurements of model clouds based on a large eddy simulation (LES), the effects of different radar scan resolutions and varying interpolation methods are evaluated. In reality, a trade-off between scan resolution and scan duration has to be found as clouds change quickly. A reasonable choice is a scan resolution of 1 to 2°. The most suitable interpolation procedure identified is the barycentric interpolation method. The 3-D reconstruction method is demonstrated using radar scans of convective cloud cases with the Munich miraMACS, a 35 GHz scanning cloud radar. As a successful proof of concept, camera imagery collected at the radar location is reproduced for the observed cloud cases via 3-D volume reconstruction and 3-D radiative transfer simulation. Data sets provided by the presented reconstruction method will aid passive spectral ground-based measurements of cloud sides to retrieve microphysical parameters.

  9. Ash cloud aviation advisories

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, T.J.; Ellis, J.S.; Schalk, W.W.; Nasstrom, J.S.

    1992-06-25

    During the recent (12--22 June 1991) Mount Pinatubo volcano eruptions, the US Air Force Global Weather Central (AFGWC) requested assistance of the US Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) in creating volcanic ash cloud aviation advisories for the region of the Philippine Islands. Through application of its three-dimensional material transport and diffusion models using AFGWC meteorological analysis and forecast wind fields ARAC developed extensive analysis and 12-hourly forecast ash cloud position advisories extending to 48 hours for a period of five days. The advisories consisted of ``relative`` ash cloud concentrations in ten layers (surface-5,000 feet, 5,000--10,000 feet and every 10,000 feet to 90,000 feet). The ash was represented as a log-normal size distribution of 10--200 {mu}m diameter solid particles. Size-dependent ``ashfall`` was simulated over time as the eruption clouds dispersed. Except for an internal experimental attempt to model one of the Mount Redoubt, Alaska, eruptions (12/89), ARAC had no prior experience in modeling volcanic eruption ash hazards. For the cataclysmic eruption of 15--16 June, the complex three-dimensional atmospheric structure of the region produced dramatically divergent ash cloud patterns. The large eruptions (> 7--10 km) produced ash plume clouds with strong westward transport over the South China Sea, Southeast Asia, India and beyond. The low-level eruptions (< 7 km) and quasi-steady-state venting produced a plume which generally dispersed to the north and east throughout the support period. Modeling the sequence of eruptions presented a unique challenge. Although the initial approach proved viable, further refinement is necessary and possible. A distinct need exists to quantify eruptions consistently such that ``relative`` ash concentrations relate to specific aviation hazard categories.

  10. Opaque cloud detection

    DOEpatents

    Roskovensky, John K.

    2009-01-20

    A method of detecting clouds in a digital image comprising, for an area of the digital image, determining a reflectance value in at least three discrete electromagnetic spectrum bands, computing a first ratio of one reflectance value minus another reflectance value and the same two values added together, computing a second ratio of one reflectance value and another reflectance value, choosing one of the reflectance values, and concluding that an opaque cloud exists in the area if the results of each of the two computing steps and the choosing step fall within three corresponding predetermined ranges.

  11. Automatic cloud cover mapping.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strong, J. P., III; Rosenfeld, A.

    1971-01-01

    A method of converting a picture into a 'cartoon' or 'map' whose regions correspond to differently textured regions is described. Texture edges in the picture are detected, and solid regions surrounded by these (usually broken) edges are 'colored in' using a propagation process. The resulting map is cleaned by comparing the region colors with the textures of the corresponding regions in the picture, and also by merging some regions with others according to criteria based on topology and size. The method has been applied to the construction of cloud cover maps from cloud cover pictures obtained by satellites.

  12. The Oort cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessman, Paul R.

    1990-01-01

    Although the outermost planet, Pluto, is 6 x 10 to the 9th km from the sun, the sun's gravitational sphere of influence extends much further, out to about 2 x 10 to the 13th km. This space is occupied by the Oort cloud, comprising 10 to the 12th-10 to the 13th cometary nuclei, formed in the primordial solar nebula. Observations and computer modeling have contributed to a detailed understanding of the structure and dynamics of the cloud, which is thought to be the source of the long-period comets and possibly comet showers.

  13. Cloud and Precipitation Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen, Martin; Höller, Hartmut; Schmidt, Kersten

    Precipitation or weather radar is an essential tool for research, diagnosis, and nowcasting of precipitation events like fronts or thunderstorms. Only with weather radar is it possible to gain insights into the three-dimensional structure of thunderstorms and to investigate processes like hail formation or tornado genesis. A number of different radar products are available to analyze the structure, dynamics and microphysics of precipitation systems. Cloud radars use short wavelengths to enable detection of small ice particles or cloud droplets. Their applications differ from weather radar as they are mostly orientated vertically, where different retrieval techniques can be applied.

  14. Cloud Computing for Astronomers on Top of EGI Federated Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taffoni, G.; Vuerli, C.; Pasian, F.

    2015-09-01

    EGI Federated Cloud offers a general academic Cloud Infrastructure. We exploit EGI functionalities to address the needs of representative Astronomy and Astrophysics communities through clouds and gateways while respecting commonly used standards. The vision is to offer a novel environment empowering scientists to focus more on experimenting and pitching new ideas to service their needs for scientific discovery.

  15. Can cloud-top entrainment promote cloud growth?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randall, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    The primary significance of Cloud Deepening through Entrainment (CDE) is that it can prevent the cloud top entrainment instability from destroying a cloud deck. Without suppressing the instability, CDE transforms it from a cloud destroyer to a cloud builder. The analysis does not depend on an entrainment hypothesis. Moreover, it is not restricted to PBL stratocumulus sheets. Stratiform clouds in the free atmosphere can be subject to CDE we need only reinterpret Ps as the pressure at the base of an elevated turbulent mixed layer. Modest departures from well mixedness will alter the results quantitatively but not qualitatively. Processes other than entrainment, such as surface evaporation, radiative cooling, and advection will often work with CDE to build a cloud layer; but of course they can also oppose CDE by reducing the relative humidity. If we make the weak assumption that the deepening of a cloud layer favors an increase in the cloud top entrainment rate (without specifying any particular functional relationship) we are led to speculate that CDE can cause runaway cloud growth, even in the absence of cloud top entrainment instability. through CDE entrainment leads to a deeper cloud, which leads to stronger entrainment.

  16. CLOUD WATER CHEMISTRY AND THE PRODUCTION OF SULFATES IN CLOUDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurements are presented of the pH and ionic content of water collected in clouds over Western Washington and the Los Angeles Basin. Evidence for sulfate production in some of the clouds is presented. Not all of the sulfur in the cloud water was in the form of sulfate. However,...

  17. Cloud Based Applications and Platforms (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Brodt-Giles, D.

    2014-05-15

    Presentation to the Cloud Computing East 2014 Conference, where we are highlighting our cloud computing strategy, describing the platforms on the cloud (including Smartgrid.gov), and defining our process for implementing cloud based applications.

  18. Real World: Global Cloud Observation Day

    NASA Video Gallery

    Learn about precipitation and how clouds are formed. Find out why scientists study clouds and how you can help NASA collect cloud observation data as part of the Students' Cloud Observation OnLine,...

  19. Animated View of Noctilucent Cloud

    NASA Video Gallery

    Polar mesospheric clouds, as they are known to those who study them from satellite observations, are also often called "noctilucent," or night shining, clouds as seen by ground-based observers. Bec...

  20. G2 Gas Cloud Simulation

    NASA Video Gallery

    This simulation shows the future behavior of the G2 gas cloud now approaching Sgr A*, the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way. X-ray emission from the cloud's tidal interaction w...

  1. Physical View of Cloud Seeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tribus, Myron

    1970-01-01

    Reviews experimental data on various aspects of climate control. Includes a discussion of (1) the physics of cloud seeding, (2) the applications of cloud seeding, and (3) the role of statistics in the field of weather modification. Bibliography. (LC)

  2. Enigmatic eight-meter trace fossils in the Lower Pennsylvanian Lee sandstone, central Appalachian basin, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wnuk, C.; Maberry, J.O.

    1990-01-01

    Enigmatic tubular trace fossils up to eight meters long occur in the Lower Pennsylvanian Middlesboro Member of the Lee Formation. Two morphotypes occur: type 1 trace fossils are plain, smooth, vertical, nonbranching, parallel-walled, tubular structures, type 2 trace fossils branch, have walls with faint vertical striations, regularly or irregularly spaced nodes, and funnel-shaped terminations. Sandstone casts filling type 2 structures have helical spiral morphology, and, in rare individuals, faint meniscate fills have been observed. Both trace-fossil morphotypes have poorly cemented wall linings containing framboidal pyrite, amorphous carbon, quartz sand, and poorly preserved fecal material. The trace fossils occur in a massive, structureless, channel-form sandstone, originating at the contact between a channel lag and the overlying massive fill representing a barrier island transgressing an estuarine facies. Origin of these structures is uncertain. -from Authors

  3. Trace metal transformations in gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, S.A.; Erickson, T.A.; O`Keefe, C.A.; Katrinak, K.; Allan, S.E.; Hassett, D.J.; Hauserman, W.B.; Zygarlicke, C.J.

    1995-11-01

    The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) is carrying out an investigation that will provide methods to predict the fate of selected trace elements in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems to aid in the development of methods to control the emission of trace elements determined to be air toxics. The goal of this project is to identify the effects of critical chemical and physical transformations associated with trace element behavior in IGCC and IGFC systems. The trace elements included in this project are arsenic, chromium, cadmium, mercury, nickel, selenium, and lead. The research seeks to identify and fill, experimentally and/or theoretically, data gaps that currently exist on the fate and composition of trace elements. The specific objectives are to (1) review the existing literature to identify the type and quantity of trace elements from coal gasification systems; (2) perform laboratory-scale experimentation and computer modeling to enable prediction of trace element emissions; and (3) identify methods to control trace element emissions. Results are presented and discussed on the partitioning of trace metals and the model design for predicting trace metals behavior.

  4. Trace conditioning in insects—keep the trace!

    PubMed Central

    Dylla, Kristina V.; Galili, Dana S.; Szyszka, Paul; Lüdke, Alja

    2013-01-01

    Trace conditioning is a form of associative learning that can be induced by presenting a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (US) following each other, but separated by a temporal gap. This gap distinguishes trace conditioning from classical delay conditioning, where the CS and US overlap. To bridge the temporal gap between both stimuli and to form an association between CS and US in trace conditioning, the brain must keep a neural representation of the CS after its termination—a stimulus trace. Behavioral and physiological studies on trace and delay conditioning revealed similarities between the two forms of learning, like similar memory decay and similar odor identity perception in invertebrates. On the other hand differences were reported also, like the requirement of distinct brain structures in vertebrates or disparities in molecular mechanisms in both vertebrates and invertebrates. For example, in commonly used vertebrate conditioning paradigms the hippocampus is necessary for trace but not for delay conditioning, and Drosophila delay conditioning requires the Rutabaga adenylyl cyclase (Rut-AC), which is dispensable in trace conditioning. It is still unknown how the brain encodes CS traces and how they are associated with a US in trace conditioning. Insects serve as powerful models to address the mechanisms underlying trace conditioning, due to their simple brain anatomy, behavioral accessibility and established methods of genetic interference. In this review we summarize the recent progress in insect trace conditioning on the behavioral and physiological level and emphasize similarities and differences compared to delay conditioning. Moreover, we examine proposed molecular and computational models and reassess different experimental approaches used for trace conditioning. PMID:23986710

  5. Trace element emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, S.A.; Erickson, T.A.; Steadman, E.N.; Zygarlicke, C.J.; Hauserman, W.B.; Hassett, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    The predicting of inorganic transformations (major and minor components) during coal combustion has long been the focus of many research programs (Zygarlicke et al., 1992; Wilemski et al., 1992; Baxter, 1992). In the program described in this paper, the predictive techniques that have been applied to combustion are being modified to predict inorganic transformations under gasification conditions. Many of the current trace element predictive techniques are based on the assumption of equilibrium conditions and not on actual kinetically constrained transformations that occur during coal utilization. The approach used in this program is to combine inorganic transformation algorithms and the thermochemical equilibrium calculations (Ramanathan et al., 1989, 1991). These techniques will be developed to predict the particle-size and composition distribution of the resulting coal ash particulate, along with the state of the vapor species at selected conditions for major, minor, and trace constituents. Many of the computer models recently to predict the evolution of major developed and minor elements during coal gasification were made possible by the development on a highly quantitative analytical technique for coal analysis, CCSEM (Steadman et al., 1990). CCSEM provides a particle-size and composition distribution for the mineral contents of a particular coal for twelve major and minor elements. These raw CCSEM data are the primary input to the newest computer models of ash formation.

  6. Stratocumulus Clouds, eastern Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This sheet of closed-cell stratocumulus clouds was sighted in the eastern Pacific Ocean (13.5N, 141.0W) southeast of the Hawaiian Islands. This cloud sheet has a distinctive fracture zone that separates an older cloud layer (right side of scene) from a newly formed layer (left). Stratocumulus cloud sheets originate over the cold waters of the California current and migrate westward over the Pacific Ocean.

  7. Stratospheric sulfate from the Gareloi eruption, 1980: Contribution to the ''ambient'' aerosol by a poorly documented volcanic eruption

    SciTech Connect

    Sedlacek, W.A.; Mroz, E.J.; Heiken, G.

    1981-07-01

    While sampling stratospheric aerosols during July--August 1980 a plume of ''fresh'' volcanic debris was observed in the Northern hemisphere. The origin of this material seems to be a poorly documented explosive eruption of Gareloi valcano in the Aleutian Islands. The debris was sampled at an altitude of 19.2 km: almost twice the height of observed eruption clouds. Such remote, unobserved or poorly documented eruptions may be a source that helps maintain the ''ambient'' stratospheric aerosol background.

  8. Cloud chamber laboratory investigations into scattering properties of hollow ice particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Helen R.; Connolly, Paul J.; Baran, Anthony J.; Hesse, Evelyn; Smedley, Andrew R. D.; Webb, Ann R.

    2015-05-01

    Measurements are presented of the phase function, P11, and asymmetry parameter, g, of five ice clouds created in a laboratory cloud chamber. At -7 °C, two clouds were created: one comprised entirely of solid columns, and one comprised entirely of hollow columns. Similarly at -15 °C, two clouds were created: one consisting of solid plates and one consisting of hollow plates. At -30 °C, only hollow particles could be created within the constraints of the experiment. The resulting cloud at -30 °C contained short hollow columns and thick hollow plates. During the course of each experiment, the cloud properties were monitored using a Cloud Particle Imager (CPI). In addition to this, ice crystal replicas were created using formvar resin. By examining the replicas under an optical microscope, two different internal structures were identified. The internal and external facets were measured and used to create geometric particle models with realistic internal structures. Theoretical results were calculated using both Ray Tracing (RT) and Ray Tracing with Diffraction on Facets (RTDF). Experimental and theoretical results are compared to assess the impact of internal structure on P11 and g and the applicability of RT and RTDF for hollow columns.

  9. Utilizing clouds for Belle II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobie, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes the use of cloud computing resources for the Belle II experiment. A number of different methods are used to exploit the private and opportunistic clouds. Clouds are making significant contributions to the generation of Belle II MC data samples and it is expected that their impact will continue to grow over the coming years.

  10. The Basics of Cloud Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaestner, Rich

    2012-01-01

    Most school business officials have heard the term "cloud computing" bandied about and may have some idea of what the term means. In fact, they likely already leverage a cloud-computing solution somewhere within their district. But what does cloud computing really mean? This brief article puts a bit of definition behind the term and helps one…

  11. A View from the Clouds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudnov, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Cloud computing is definitely a thing now, but it's not new and it's not even novel. Back when people were first learning about the Internet in the 1990s, every diagram that one saw showing how the Internet worked had a big cloud in the middle. That cloud represented the diverse links, routers, gateways, and protocols that passed traffic around in…

  12. Cloud water chemistry and the production of sulfates in clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hegg, D. A.; Hobbs, P. V.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements are presented of the pH and ionic content of water collected in clouds over western Washington and the Los Angeles Basin. Evidence for sulfate production in some of the clouds is presented. Not all of the sulfur in the cloud water was in the form of sulfate. However, the measurements indicate that the production of sulfate in clouds is of considerable significance in the atmosphere. Comparison of field measurements with model results show reasonable agreement and suggest that the production of sulfate in cloud water is a consequence of more than one conversion mechanism.

  13. Do Middle-Class Students Perceive Poor Women and Poor Men Differently?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cozzarelli, Catherine; Tagler, Michael J.; Wilkinson, Anna V.

    2002-01-01

    Examined college students' attitudes and stereotypes regarding poor women, attributions for their poverty, and whether those thoughts and feelings differed from those about poor men. Attitudes and stereotypes were significantly more positive regarding poor women than poor men. Participants endorsed internal attributions for both women's and men's…

  14. Results from the CERN pilot CLOUD experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duplissy, J.; Enghoff, M. B.; Aplin, K. L.; Arnold, F.; Aufmhoff, H.; Avngaard, M.; Baltensperger, U.; Bondo, T.; Bingham, R.; Carslaw, K.; Curtius, J.; David, A.; Fastrup, B.; Gagné, S.; Hahn, F.; Harrison, R. G.; Kellett, B.; Kirkby, J.; Kulmala, M.; Laakso, L.; Laaksonen, A.; Lillestol, E.; Lockwood, M.; Mäkelä, J.; Makhmutov, V.; Marsh, N. D.; Nieminen, T.; Onnela, A.; Pedersen, E.; Pedersen, J. O. P.; Polny, J.; Reichl, U.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Sipilä, M.; Stozhkov, Y.; Stratmann, F.; Svensmark, H.; Svensmark, J.; Veenhof, R.; Verheggen, B.; Viisanen, Y.; Wagner, P. E.; Wehrle, G.; Weingartner, E.; Wex, H.; Wilhelmsson, M.; Winkler, P. M.

    2010-02-01

    During a 4-week run in October-November 2006, a pilot experiment was performed at the CERN Proton Synchrotron in preparation for the Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets (CLOUD) experiment, whose aim is to study the possible influence of cosmic rays on clouds. The purpose of the pilot experiment was firstly to carry out exploratory measurements of the effect of ionising particle radiation on aerosol formation from trace H2SO4 vapour and secondly to provide technical input for the CLOUD design. A total of 44 nucleation bursts were produced and recorded, with formation rates of particles above the 3 nm detection threshold of between 0.1 and 100 cm-3s-1, and growth rates between 2 and 37 nm h-1. The corresponding H2O concentrations were typically around 106 cm-3 or less. The experimentally-measured formation rates and htwosofour concentrations are comparable to those found in the atmosphere, supporting the idea that sulphuric acid is involved in the nucleation of atmospheric aerosols. However, sulphuric acid alone is not able to explain the observed rapid growth rates, which suggests the presence of additional trace vapours in the aerosol chamber, whose identity is unknown. By analysing the charged fraction, a few of the aerosol bursts appear to have a contribution from ion-induced nucleation and ion-ion recombination to form neutral clusters. Some indications were also found for the accelerator beam timing and intensity to influence the aerosol particle formation rate at the highest experimental SO2 concentrations of 6 ppb, although none was found at lower concentrations. Overall, the exploratory measurements provide suggestive evidence for ion-induced nucleation or ion-ion recombination as sources of aerosol particles. However in order to quantify the conditions under which ion processes become significant, improvements are needed in controlling the experimental variables and in the reproducibility of the experiments. Finally, concerning technical aspects, the most

  15. Jupiter Clouds in Depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] 619 nm [figure removed for brevity, see original site] 727 nm [figure removed for brevity, see original site] 890 nm

    Images from NASA's Cassini spacecraft using three different filters reveal cloud structures and movements at different depths in the atmosphere around Jupiter's south pole.

    Cassini's cameras come equipped with filters that sample three wavelengths where methane gas absorbs light. These are in the red at 619 nanometer (nm) wavelength and in the near-infrared at 727 nm and 890 nm. Absorption in the 619 nm filter is weak. It is stronger in the 727 nm band and very strong in the 890 nm band where 90 percent of the light is absorbed by methane gas. Light in the weakest band can penetrate the deepest into Jupiter's atmosphere. It is sensitive to the amount of cloud and haze down to the pressure of the water cloud, which lies at a depth where pressure is about 6 times the atmospheric pressure at sea level on the Earth). Light in the strongest methane band is absorbed at high altitude and is sensitive only to the ammonia cloud level and higher (pressures less than about one-half of Earth's atmospheric pressure) and the middle methane band is sensitive to the ammonia and ammonium hydrosulfide cloud layers as deep as two times Earth's atmospheric pressure.

    The images shown here demonstrate the power of these filters in studies of cloud stratigraphy. The images cover latitudes from about 15 degrees north at the top down to the southern polar region at the bottom. The left and middle images are ratios, the image in the methane filter divided by the image at a nearby wavelength outside the methane band. Using ratios emphasizes where contrast is due to methane absorption and not to other factors, such as the absorptive properties of the cloud particles, which influence contrast at all wavelengths.

    The most prominent feature seen in all three filters is the polar stratospheric haze that makes Jupiter

  16. New MISR Cloud Data

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-08-06

    ... (MISR) project and the NASA Langley Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) announce the release of a new science data product, ... product. The new Level 2 Cloud product is a substantial update of, and improvement to, the existing MISR Level 2 Stereo product.   ...

  17. Living under a Cloud.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gursky, Daniel

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the efforts of three high school teachers at Richland High School in Richland (Washington) to change the school logo from a mushroom cloud, the symbol for a nuclear explosion. Opposition to these teachers' efforts has come from school administrators and fellow teachers, students, alumnae, and community residents. (IAH)

  18. Data in the Cloud

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Glen; Garofalo, Joe

    2010-01-01

    The ability to move from one representation of data to another is one of the key characteristics of expert mathematicians and scientists. Cloud computing will offer more opportunities to create and display multiple representations of data, making this skill even more important in the future. The advent of the Internet led to widespread…

  19. Data Products on Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ly, Vuong T.; Mandl, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation lays out the data processing products that exist and are planned for the Matsu cloud for Earth Observing 1. The presentation focuses on a new feature called co-registration of Earth Observing 1 with Landsat Global Land Survey chips.

  20. Computing in the Clouds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Doug

    2010-01-01

    Web-based applications offer teachers, students, and school districts a convenient way to accomplish a wide range of tasks, from accounting to word processing, for free. Cloud computing has the potential to offer staff and students better services at a lower cost than the technology deployment models they're using now. Saving money and improving…

  1. Seeding the Cloud

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2013-01-01

    For any institution looking to shift enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems to the cloud, big savings can be achieved--but only if the school has properly prepped "before" negotiations begin. These three steps can help: (1) Mop up the mess first; (2) Understand the true costs for services; and (3) Calculate the cost of transition.

  2. Training in the Clouds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretlow, Cassi; Jayroe, Tina

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors share how cloud-based applications, such as Google Calendar, Wikidot, Google Docs, Google Sites, YouTube, and Craigslist, played a big part in the success of their plan of implementing a technology training program for customers and employees. A few years ago the Denver Public Library, where the authors work, developed…

  3. Invisible Cirrus Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer's (MODIS') cloud detection capability is so sensitive that it can detect clouds that would be indistinguishable to the human eye. This pair of images highlights MODIS' ability to detect what scientists call 'sub-visible cirrus.' The image on top shows the scene using data collected in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum-the part our eyes can see. Clouds are apparent in the center and lower right of the image, while the rest of the image appears to be relatively clear. However, data collected at 1.38um (lower image) show that a thick layer of previously undetected cirrus clouds obscures the entire scene. These kinds of cirrus are called 'sub-visible' because they can't be detected using only visible light. MODIS' 1.38um channel detects electromagnetic radiation in the infrared region of the spectrum. These images were made from data collected on April 4, 2000. Image courtesy Mark Gray, MODIS Atmosphere Team

  4. Multiscale Cloud System Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Moncrieff, Mitchell W.

    2009-01-01

    The central theme of this paper is to describe how cloud system resolving models (CRMs) of grid spacing approximately 1 km have been applied to various important problems in atmospheric science across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales and how these applications relate to other modeling approaches. A long-standing problem concerns the representation of organized precipitating convective cloud systems in weather and climate models. Since CRMs resolve the mesoscale to large scales of motion (i.e., 10 km to global) they explicitly address the cloud system problem. By explicitly representing organized convection, CRMs bypass restrictive assumptions associated with convective parameterization such as the scale gap between cumulus and large-scale motion. Dynamical models provide insight into the physical mechanisms involved with scale interaction and convective organization. Multiscale CRMs simulate convective cloud systems in computational domains up to global and have been applied in place of contemporary convective parameterizations in global models. Multiscale CRMs pose a new challenge for model validation, which is met in an integrated approach involving CRMs, operational prediction systems, observational measurements, and dynamical models in a new international project: the Year of Tropical Convection, which has an emphasis on organized tropical convection and its global effects.

  5. The VOCALS Regional Experiment: Aerosol-Cloud-Precipitation Interactions in Marine Boundary Layer Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, R.

    2012-12-01

    Robert Wood, C.S. Bretherton, C. R. Mechoso, R. A. Weller, B. J. Huebert, H. Coe, B. A. Albrecht, P. H. Daum, D. Leon, A. Clarke, P. Zuidema, C. W. Fairall, G. Allen, S. deSzoeke, G. Feingold, J. Kazil, S. Yuter, R. George, A. Berner, C. Terai, G. Painter, H. Wang, M. Wyant, D. Mechem The VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx) is an international field program designed to make observations of poorly understood but critical components of the coupled climate system of the southeast Pacific (SEP), a region dominated by strong coastal upwelling, extensive cold SSTs, and home to the largest subtropical stratocumulus deck on Earth. VOCALS-REx took place during October and November 2008 and involved five research aircraft, two ships and two surface sites in northen Chile. A central theme of VOCALS-REx is the improved understanding of links between aerosols, clouds and precipitation and their impacts on marine stratocumulus radiative properties. In this presentation, we will present a synthesis of results from VOCALS-REx focusing on the following questions: (a) how are aerosols, clouds and precipitation inter-related in the SEP region? (b) what microphysical-macrophysical interactions are necessary for the formation and maintenance of open cells? (c) how do cloud and MBL properties change across the strong microphysical gradients from the South American coast to the remote ocean?

  6. Retrieval Of Cloud Pressure And Chlorophyll Content Using Raman Scattering In GOME Ultraviolet Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor); Joiner, Joanna; Vasikov, Alexander; Flittner, David; Gleason, James; Bhartia, P. K.

    2002-01-01

    Reliable cloud pressure estimates are needed for accurate retrieval of ozone and other trace gases using satellite-borne backscatter ultraviolet (buv) instruments such as the global ozone monitoring experiment (GOME). Cloud pressure can be derived from buv instruments by utilizing the properties of rotational-Raman scattering (RRS) and absorption by O2-O2. In this paper we estimate cloud pressure from GOME observations in the 355-400 nm spectral range using the concept of a Lambertian-equivalent reflectivity (LER) surface. GOME has full spectral coverage in this range at relatively high spectral resolution with a very high signal-to-noise ratio. This allows for much more accurate estimates of cloud pressure than were possible with its predecessors SBUV and TOMS. We also demonstrate the potential capability to retrieve chlorophyll content with full-spectral buv instruments. We compare our retrieved LER cloud pressure with cloud top pressures derived from the infrared ATSR instrument on the same satellite. The findings confirm results from previous studies that showed retrieved LER cloud pressures from buv observations are systematically higher than IR-derived cloud-top pressure. Simulations using Mie-scattering radiative transfer algorithms that include O2-O2 absorption and RRS show that these differences can be explained by increased photon path length within and below cloud.

  7. Arsia Mons Spiral Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    One of the benefits of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) Extended Mission is the opportunity to observe how the planet's weather changes during a second full martian year. This picture of Arsia Mons was taken June 19, 2001; southern spring equinox occurred the same day. Arsia Mons is a volcano nearly large enough to cover the state of New Mexico. On this particular day (the first day of Spring), the MOC wide angle cameras documented an unusual spiral-shaped cloud within the 110 km (68 mi) diameter caldera--the summit crater--of the giant volcano. Because the cloud is bright both in the red and blue images acquired by the wide angle cameras, it probably consisted mostly of fine dust grains. The cloud's spin may have been induced by winds off the inner slopes of the volcano's caldera walls resulting from the temperature differences between the walls and the caldera floor, or by a vortex as winds blew up and over the caldera. Similar spiral clouds were seen inside the caldera for several days; we don't know if this was a single cloud that persisted throughout that time or one that regenerated each afternoon. Sunlight illuminates this scene from the left/upper left.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  8. Impact of Antarctic mixed-phase clouds on climate

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, R. Paul; Gettelman, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Precious little is known about the composition of low-level clouds over the Antarctic Plateau and their effect on climate. In situ measurements at the South Pole using a unique tethered balloon system and ground-based lidar reveal a much higher than anticipated incidence of low-level, mixed-phase clouds (i.e., consisting of supercooled liquid water drops and ice crystals). The high incidence of mixed-phase clouds is currently poorly represented in global climate models (GCMs). As a result, the effects that mixed-phase clouds have on climate predictions are highly uncertain. We modify the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Earth System Model (CESM) GCM to align with the new observations and evaluate the radiative effects on a continental scale. The net cloud radiative effects (CREs) over Antarctica are increased by +7.4 Wm−2, and although this is a significant change, a much larger effect occurs when the modified model physics are extended beyond the Antarctic continent. The simulations show significant net CRE over the Southern Ocean storm tracks, where recent measurements also indicate substantial regions of supercooled liquid. These sensitivity tests confirm that Southern Ocean CREs are strongly sensitive to mixed-phase clouds colder than −20 °C. PMID:25489069

  9. Ice nucleation and overseeding of ice in volcanic clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durant, A. J.; Shaw, R. A.; Rose, W. I.; Mi, Y.; Ernst, G. G. J.

    2008-05-01

    Water is the dominant component of volcanic gas emissions, and water phase transformations, including the formation of ice, can be significant in the dynamics of volcanic clouds. The effectiveness of volcanic ash particles as ice-forming nuclei (IN) is poorly understood and the sparse data that exist for volcanic ash IN have been interpreted in the context of meteorological, rather than volcanic clouds. In this study, single-particle freezing experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of ash particle composition and surface area on water drop freezing temperature. Measured freezing temperatures show only weak correlations with ash IN composition and surface area. Our measurements, together with a review of previous volcanic ash IN measurements, suggest that fine-ash particles (equivalent diameters between approximately 1 and 1000 μm) from the majority of volcanoes will exhibit an onset of freezing between ˜250-260 K. In the context of explosive eruptions where super-micron particles are plentiful, this result implies that volcanic clouds are IN-rich relative to meteorological clouds, which typically are IN-limited, and therefore should exhibit distinct microphysics. We can expect that such "overseeded" volcanic clouds will exhibit enhanced ice crystal concentrations and smaller average ice crystal size, relative to dynamically similar meteorological clouds, and that glaciation will tend to occur over a relatively narrow altitude range.

  10. The influence of trace elements of fluoride uptake by teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwar Chaudhri, M.; Crawford, A.

    1981-03-01

    To investigate the effect of various trace elements on fluoride uptake by teeth, the concentrations F and other trace elemenys have been simultaneously determined in different regions of the teeth from children of South Australia. Teeth cross sectioned along the median plane have been used in these investigations, and their inside enamel, dentine and amelodentinal junctions investigated separately for the trace elemental composition. Fluoride has been determined by observing the 6-7 MeV gammas for the 19F(p, αγ) 16O reaction, C by activation through the 12C( 3He, n) 14O reaction, while other trace elements have been measured by the thick target PIXE technique. Linear correlation coefficients have been calculated between the F concentrations in teeth, and those of other trace elements observed. Fluoride is found to correlate best with C, Cu and Pb, poorly with Fe, Sr, Ni and Ag, while with Br and Zn it has -ve coefficients. Student's t-test has been applied to the data to examine the significance of the variation of Fand other trace elements amongst different dental tissues from healthy and diseased teeth.

  11. First observations of tracking clouds using scanning ARM cloud radars

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Borque, Paloma; Giangrande, Scott; Kollias, Pavlos

    2014-12-01

    Tracking clouds using scanning cloud radars can help to document the temporal evolution of cloud properties well before large drop formation (‘‘first echo’’). These measurements complement cloud and precipitation tracking using geostationary satellites and weather radars. Here, two-dimensional (2-D) Along-Wind Range Height Indicator (AW-RHI) observations of a population of shallow cumuli (with and without precipitation) from the 35-GHz scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program Southern Great Plains (SGP) site are presented. Observations from the ARM SGP network of scanning precipitation radars are used to provide the larger scale context of the cloud fieldmore » and to highlight the advantages of the SACR to detect the numerous, small, non-precipitating cloud elements. A new Cloud Identification and Tracking Algorithm (CITA) is developed to track cloud elements. In CITA, a cloud element is identified as a region having a contiguous set of pixels exceeding a preset reflectivity and size threshold. The high temporal resolution of the SACR 2-D observations (30 sec) allows for an area superposition criteria algorithm to match cloud elements at consecutive times. Following CITA, the temporal evolution of cloud element properties (number, size, and maximum reflectivity) is presented. The vast majority of the designated elements during this cumulus event were short-lived non-precipitating clouds having an apparent life cycle shorter than 15 minutes. The advantages and disadvantages of cloud tracking using an SACR are discussed.« less

  12. The effect of cloud type on earth's energy balance - Results for selected regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ockert-Bell, Maureen E.; Hartmann, Dennis L.

    1992-01-01

    International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) C1 cloud information is compared with planetary albedo, outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), and net radiation measured at the top of the atmosphere by the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). Principal component analysis indicates that the day-to-day variations of the abundances of the 35 cloud types of the C1 data are correlated with each other, so that for many purposes the data set can be well represented by about five cloud types. Using stepwise multiple regression, the ISCCP C1 data can be used to predict the day-to-day variations of the energy balance measured by ERBE for 2.5-deg regions. Total fractional area coverage of cloudiness is a relatively poor predictor of radiation budget quantities. If the total fractional area coverage by clouds is divided into contributions from several distinct cloud types, the fractional coverages by these several cloud types will together form a much better prediction of radiation budget quantities than the single variable of total fractional-area cloud coverage. The regression equations can be used to estimate the net effect of clouds on the radiation balance and the contributions from particular types of clouds to albedo, OLR, and net radiation.

  13. A Linearized Prognostic Cloud Scheme in NASAs Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdaway, Daniel; Errico, Ronald M.; Gelaro, Ronald; Kim, Jong G.; Mahajan, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    A linearized prognostic cloud scheme has been developed to accompany the linearized convection scheme recently implemented in NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System data assimilation tools. The linearization, developed from the nonlinear cloud scheme, treats cloud variables prognostically so they are subject to linearized advection, diffusion, generation, and evaporation. Four linearized cloud variables are modeled, the ice and water phases of clouds generated by large-scale condensation and, separately, by detraining convection. For each species the scheme models their sources, sublimation, evaporation, and autoconversion. Large-scale, anvil and convective species of precipitation are modeled and evaporated. The cloud scheme exhibits linearity and realistic perturbation growth, except around the generation of clouds through large-scale condensation. Discontinuities and steep gradients are widely used here and severe problems occur in the calculation of cloud fraction. For data assimilation applications this poor behavior is controlled by replacing this part of the scheme with a perturbation model. For observation impacts, where efficiency is less of a concern, a filtering is developed that examines the Jacobian. The replacement scheme is only invoked if Jacobian elements or eigenvalues violate a series of tuned constants. The linearized prognostic cloud scheme is tested by comparing the linear and nonlinear perturbation trajectories for 6-, 12-, and 24-h forecast times. The tangent linear model performs well and perturbations of clouds are well captured for the lead times of interest.

  14. Challenges in constraining anthropogenic aerosol effects on cloud radiative forcing using present-day spatiotemporal variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghan, Steven; Wang, Minghuai; Zhang, Shipeng; Ferrachat, Sylvaine; Gettelman, Andrew; Griesfeller, Jan; Kipling, Zak; Lohmann, Ulrike; Morrison, Hugh; Neubauer, David; Partridge, Daniel G.; Stier, Philip; Takemura, Toshihiko; Wang, Hailong; Zhang, Kai

    2016-05-01

    A large number of processes are involved in the chain from emissions of aerosol precursor gases and primary particles to impacts on cloud radiative forcing. Those processes are manifest in a number of relationships that can be expressed as factors dlnX/dlnY driving aerosol effects on cloud radiative forcing. These factors include the relationships between cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration and emissions, droplet number and CCN concentration, cloud fraction and droplet number, cloud optical depth and droplet number, and cloud radiative forcing and cloud optical depth. The relationship between cloud optical depth and droplet number can be further decomposed into the sum of two terms involving the relationship of droplet effective radius and cloud liquid water path with droplet number. These relationships can be constrained using observations of recent spatial and temporal variability of these quantities. However, we are most interested in the radiative forcing since the preindustrial era. Because few relevant measurements are available from that era, relationships from recent variability have been assumed to be applicable to the preindustrial to present-day change. Our analysis of Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models (AeroCom) model simulations suggests that estimates of relationships from recent variability are poor constraints on relationships from anthropogenic change for some terms, with even the sign of some relationships differing in many regions. Proxies connecting recent spatial/temporal variability to anthropogenic change, or sustained measurements in regions where emissions have changed, are needed to constrain estimates of anthropogenic aerosol impacts on cloud radiative forcing.

  15. Distances of Three High-Galactic Latitude Diffuse Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, Sharon Lynn; Kelly, M. E.; Burrows, D. N.

    2010-01-01

    The Sun is embedded within a large, irregularly-shaped region of plasma called the Local Bubble. Lallement et al. (2003) have traced its convoluted boundary by using the equivalent widths of NaD lines in 1005 distant stars. To avoid directional bias, however, they intentionally avoided targeting stars that shared lines-of-sight with clouds visible on IR, X-ray, or radio maps. Thus, to complement their study, we have determined the distances of three diffuse clouds that were also classified as soft X-ray shadows by Snowden et al. (2000). We targeted these objects since X-ray shadows are expected to lie at or near the bubble's boundary. Thus, their distances and radial velocities provide information about the bubble's edge. In addition, a small fraction of the clouds that are also shadows may prove to lie well within the bubble. The number and nature of such interlopers allows us to place constraints on the bubble's history. To determine the distances and radial velocities, we collected moderately high-resolution spectra of 62 bright, early-type stars lying near the three clouds using the Sandiford Cassegrain-Echelle spectrograph of the 2.1m Otto Struve Telescope. We then searched the stars’ spectra for interstellar Na-D lines and used their known distances to bracket the distances to the clouds.

  16. Cloud Computing Security Issue: Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal, Shailza; Kaur, Rajpreet

    2011-12-01

    Cloud computing is the growing field in IT industry since 2007 proposed by IBM. Another company like Google, Amazon, and Microsoft provides further products to cloud computing. The cloud computing is the internet based computing that shared recourses, information on demand. It provides the services like SaaS, IaaS and PaaS. The services and recourses are shared by virtualization that run multiple operation applications on cloud computing. This discussion gives the survey on the challenges on security issues during cloud computing and describes some standards and protocols that presents how security can be managed.

  17. Stratocumulus cloud deepening through entrainment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randall, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    Under a substantial range of realistic conditions, stratocumulus cloud top entrainment is noted to either deepen an existing cloud layer or produce clouds in an unsaturated mixed layer, though the entrained air is warmer and drier than the mixed-layer air. These results, which apply irrespective of entrainment rate-determining mechanism, imply that the cloud top entrainment instability discussed by Randall (1980) and Deardorff (1980) does not necessarily destroy a layer cloud. Examples are given which include soundings, marine layer data, and simulation results produced by the UCLA general circulation model.

  18. Concealed wire tracing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receivers position with respect to the wiring. The receivers audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receivers coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring's concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest.

  19. From Regional Cloud-Albedo to a Global Albedo Footprint - Studying Aerosol Effects on the Radiation Budget Using the Relation Between Albedo and Cloud Fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, F.; Engström, A.; Karlsson, J.; Wood, R.; Charlson, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    Earth's albedo is the primary determinant of the amount of energy absorbed by the Earth-atmosphere system. The main factor controlling albedo is the amount of clouds present, but aerosols can affect and alter both clear-sky and cloudy-sky reflectance. How albedo depends on cloud fraction and how albedo varies at a given cloud fraction and a given cloud water content, reveals information about these aerosol effects on the radiation budget. Hence, the relation between total albedo and cloud fraction can be used for illustration and quantification of aerosol effects, and as a diagnostic tool, to test model performance. Here, we show examples of the utilisation of this relation focusing on satellite observations from CERES and MODIS on Aqua, as well as from Calipso and CloudSat, and performing comparisons with climate models on the way: In low-cloud regions in the subtropics, we find that climate models well represent a near-constant regional cloud albedo, and this representation has improved from CMIP3 to CMIP5. CMIP5 models indicate more reflective clouds in present-day climate than pre-industrial, as a result of increased aerosol burdens. On monthly mean time scale, models are found to over-estimate the regional cloud-brightening due to aerosols. On the global scale we find an increasing cloud albedo with increasing cloud fraction - a relation that is very well defined in observations, and less so in CMIP5 models. Cloud brightening from pre-industrial to present day is also seen on global scale. Further, controlling for both cloud fraction and cloud water content we can trace small variations in albedo, or perturbations of solar reflectivity, that create a near-global coherent geographical pattern that is consistent with aerosol impacts on climate, with albedo enhancement in regions dominant of known aerosol sources and suppression of albedo in regions associated with high rates of aerosol removal (deduced using CloudSat precipitation estimates). This mapping can be

  20. Io's Sodium Cloud (Clear Filter)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image of Jupiter's moon Io and its surrounding sky is shown in false color. It was taken at 5 hours 30 minutes Universal Time on Nov. 9, 1996 by the solid state imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft, using a clear filter whose wavelength range was approximately 400 to 1100 nanometers. This picture differs in two main ways from the green-yellow filter image of the same scene which was released yesterday.

    First, the sky around Io is brighter, partly because the wider wavelength range of the clear filter lets in more scattered light from Io's illuminated crescent and from Prometheus' sunlit plume. Nonetheless, the overall sky brightness in this frame is comparable to that seen through the green-yellow filter, indicating that even here much of the diffuse sky emission is coming from the wavelength range of the green-yellow filter (i.e., from Io's Sodium Cloud).

    The second major difference is that a quite large roundish spot has appeared in Io's southern hemisphere. This spot -- which has been colored red -- corresponds to thermal emission from the volcano Pele. The green-yellow filter image bears a much smaller trace of this emission because the clear filter is far more sensitive to those relatively long wavelengths where thermal emission is strongest.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  1. Fractal statistics of cloud fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahalan, Robert F.; Joseph, Joachim H.

    1989-01-01

    Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) and Thematic Mapper (TM) data, with 80 and 30 m spatial resolution, respectively, have been employed to study the spatial structure of boundary-layer and intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) clouds. The probability distributions of cloud areas and cloud perimeters are found to approximately follow a power-law, with a different power (i.e., fractal dimension) for each cloud type. They are better approximated by a double power-law behavior, indicating a change in the fractal dimension at a characteristic size which depends upon cloud type. The fractal dimension also changes with threshold. The more intense cloud areas are found to have a higher perimeter fractal dimension, perhaps indicative of the increased turbulence at cloud top. A detailed picture of the inhomogeneous spatial structure of various cloud types will contribute to a better understanding of basic cloud processes, and also has implications for the remote sensing of clouds, for their effects on remote sensing of other parameters, and for the parameterization of clouds in general circulation models, all of which rely upon plane-parallel radiative transfer algorithms.

  2. Integrating retrieved cloud information with model simulation to extend usability of tracer gas retrievals.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Q.; Prinn, R.

    2007-12-01

    We have explored the possibility of using retrieved cloud information to extend the usability of trace gas concentration retrievals from satellites, since choosing only cloud-free retrievals might lead to a bias in their source-sink estimates using inverse modeling, i.e. the geographic locations of cloud-free or cloudy regions and trace gas source or sink regions might be correlated. We used methane retrievals (IMAP) and cloud retrievals (FRESCO) from SCIAMACHY as an example for this study, and assumed agreement between 3D model simulations (MATCH) and cloud-free satellite retrievals as a proxy for defining usability of satellite data. We found that when the pixel is very cloudy (f>0.7), the model simulation, which is integrated with retrieved cloud top height and cloud fraction data, yields similar agreement with observations as obtained with cloud-free pixels (f=0). The addition of cloudy pixel data significantly extends the spatial and temporal coverage of methane retrievals that can be used in source and sink studies. We also tried to overlay the MODIS aerosol retrievals with SCIAMACHY methane data to test the impact of aerosols on trace gas retrievals. Since these two retrievals are somewhat orthogonal, i.e. stronger MODIS aerosol signals over the ocean, and stronger SCIAMACHY methane signals over the land, we have not found a significant correlation between these two retrievals. Other possible reasons for this result could be the different passing times of the two satellites and the wave length differences of the two retrievals.

  3. Formation of giant molecular clouds in global spiral structures: The role of orbital dynamics and cloud-cloud collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, W. W., Jr.; Stewart, G. R.

    1987-01-01

    The different roles played by orbital dynamics and dissipative cloud-cloud collisions in the formation of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in a global spiral structure are investigated. The interstellar medium (ISM) is simulated by a system of particles, representing clouds, which orbit in a spiral-perturbed, galactic gravitational field. The overall magnitude and width of the global cloud density distribution in spiral arms is very similar in the collisional and collisionless simulations. The results suggest that the assumed number density and size distribution of clouds and the details of individual cloud-cloud collisions have relatively little effect on these features. Dissipative cloud-cloud collisions play an important steadying role for the cloud system's global spiral structure. Dissipative cloud-cloud collisions also damp the relative velocity dispersion of clouds in massive associations and thereby aid in the effective assembling of GMC-like complexes.

  4. Cloud boundaries during FIRE 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uttal, Taneil; Shaver, Scott M.; Clothiaux, Eugene E.; Ackerman, Thomas P.

    1993-01-01

    To our knowledge, previous observations of cloud boundaries have been limited to studies of cloud bases with ceilometers, cloud tops with satellites, and intermittent reports by aircraft pilots. Comprehensive studies that simultaneously record information of cloud top and cloud base, especially in multiple layer cases, have been difficult, and require the use of active remote sensors with range-gated information. In this study, we examined a 4-week period during which the NOAA Wave Propagation Laboratory (WPL) 8-mm radar and the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) 3-mm radar operated quasi-continuously, side by side. By quasi-continuously, we mean that both radars operated during all periods when cloud was present, during both daytime and nighttime hours. Using this data, we develop a summary of cloud boundaries for the month of November for a single location in the mid-continental United States.

  5. Magnetic confinement of cosmic clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azar, Michel; Thompson, W. B.

    1988-01-01

    The role of the magnetic field in the confinement or compression of interstellar gas clouds is reconsidered. The virial theorem for an isolated magnetized cloud in the presence of distant magnetic sources is reformulated in terms of moments of the internal and external currents, and an equilibrium condition is derived. This condition is applied to the interaction between isolated clouds for the simple- and artificial-case in which the field of each cloud is a dipole. With the simplest of statistical assumptions, the probability of any given cloud being compressed is calculated as about 10 percent, the magnetic field acting as a medium which transmits the kinetic pressure between clouds. Even when compression occurs the magnetic pressure 1/2 B-squared may decrease on leaving the cloud surface.

  6. H I OBSERVATIONS OF THE ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STAR X HERCULIS: DISCOVERY OF AN EXTENDED CIRCUMSTELLAR WAKE SUPERPOSED ON A COMPACT HIGH-VELOCITY CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, L. D.; Johnson, M. C.; Libert, Y.; Gerard, E.; Le Bertre, T.; Dame, T. M.

    2011-02-15

    We report H I 21 cm line observations of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star X Her obtained with the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) and the Very Large Array. We have unambiguously detected H I emission associated with the circumstellar envelope of the star, with a mass totaling M{sub HI} {approx} 2.1 x 10{sup -3} M{sub sun}. The H I distribution exhibits a head-tail morphology, similar to those previously observed around the AGB stars Mira and RS Cnc. The tail is elongated along the direction of the star's space motion, with a total extent of {approx}> 6.'0 (0.24 pc) in the plane of the sky. We also detect a systematic radial velocity gradient of {approx}6.5 km s{sup -1} across the H I envelope. These results are consistent with the H I emission tracing a turbulent wake that arises from the motion of a mass-losing star through the interstellar medium (ISM). GBT mapping of a 2{sup 0} x 2{sup 0} region around X Her reveals that the star lies (in projection) near the periphery of a much larger H I cloud that also exhibits signatures of interaction with the ISM. The properties of the cloud are consistent with those of compact high-velocity clouds. Using {sup 12}CO J = 1-0 observations, we have placed an upper limit on its molecular gas content of N{sub H2} < 1.3 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -2}. Although the distance to the cloud is poorly constrained, the probability of a chance coincidence in position, velocity, and apparent position angle of space motion between X Her and the cloud is extremely small, suggesting a possible physical association. However, the large H I mass of the cloud ({approx}>2.4 M{sub sun}) and the blueshift of its mean velocity relative to X Her are inconsistent with an origin tied directly to ejection from the star.

  7. Distances of Four High-Galactic Latitude Molecular Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, Sharon L.; Rombach, C. E.; Birney, C. Y.; Burrows, D. N.

    2006-12-01

    The Sun is embedded within a large, irregularly-shaped region of plasma called the Local Bubble that formed when relatively nearby stars exploded as supernovae several million years ago. Lallement et al. (2003) have traced its convoluted boundary by using the equivalent widths of NaD lines in 1005 distant stars. To avoid directional bias, however, they intentionally avoided targeting stars that shared lines-of-sight with clouds visible on IR, X-ray, or radio maps. Thus, to complement their study, we have determined the distances and radial velocities of four molecular clouds that were also classified as soft X-ray shadows by Snowden et al. (2000). We targeted these objects since X-ray shadows are expected to lie at or near the bubble’s boundary. Thus, their distances and radial velocities provide information about the bubble’s edge. In addition, a small fraction of the clouds that are also shadows may prove to lie well within the bubble. The number and nature of such interlopers places constraints on the bubble’s history. The clouds' distances and radial velocities were determined using moderately high-resolution spectra of 88 bright, early-type stars lying near the clouds. The spectra were obtained using the Sandiford Cassegrain-Echelle spectrograph of the 2.1m Otto Struve Telescope. We then searched the stars’ spectra for interstellar Na-D lines and used their known distances to bracket the distances to the clouds. We use the derived distances to calculate the density and pressure of the Local Bubble in the direction of these clouds.

  8. STAR FORMATION LAWS: THE EFFECTS OF GAS CLOUD SAMPLING

    SciTech Connect

    Calzetti, D.; Liu, G.; Koda, J.

    2012-06-20

    Recent observational results indicate that the functional shape of the spatially resolved star formation-molecular gas density relation depends on the spatial scale considered. These results may indicate a fundamental role of sampling effects on scales that are typically only a few times larger than those of the largest molecular clouds. To investigate the impact of this effect, we construct simple models for the distribution of molecular clouds in a typical star-forming spiral galaxy and, assuming a power-law relation between star formation rate (SFR) and cloud mass, explore a range of input parameters. We confirm that the slope and the scatter of the simulated SFR-molecular gas surface density relation depend on the size of the sub-galactic region considered, due to stochastic sampling of the molecular cloud mass function, and the effect is larger for steeper relations between SFR and molecular gas. There is a general trend for all slope values to tend to {approx}unity for region sizes larger than 1-2 kpc, irrespective of the input SFR-cloud relation. The region size of 1-2 kpc corresponds to the area where the cloud mass function becomes fully sampled. We quantify the effects of selection biases in data tracing the SFR, either as thresholds (i.e., clouds smaller than a given mass value do not form stars) or as backgrounds (e.g., diffuse emission unrelated to current star formation is counted toward the SFR). Apparently discordant observational results are brought into agreement via this simple model, and the comparison of our simulations with data for a few galaxies supports a steep (>1) power-law index between SFR and molecular gas.

  9. Poor Rural Children Attract Close Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2008-01-01

    Growing up poor in isolated rural areas and small towns is qualitatively different from growing up poor in the city. Yet most of what experts know about the effects of poverty on children's development comes from studies conducted in big cities. Now, an ambitious project run by universities in Pennsylvania and North Carolina is putting what some…

  10. Extent of Malnourishment among the Rural Poor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shotland, Jeffrey

    1989-01-01

    Uses national survey data to demonstrate that, compared to the rural or U.S. non-poor, the rural poor consumed less of eight of nine key nutrients; and disparities were greatest for vitamins A and C, iron, and calcium, and for the youngest (two-five years) age group studied. (SV)

  11. Cloud Radiative Effect in dependence on Cloud Type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aebi, Christine; Gröbner, Julian; Kämpfer, Niklaus; Vuilleumier, Laurent

    2015-04-01

    Radiative transfer of energy in the atmosphere and the influence of clouds on the radiation budget remain the greatest sources of uncertainty in the simulation of climate change. Small changes in cloudiness and radiation can have large impacts on the Earth's climate. In order to assess the opposing effects of clouds on the radiation budget and the corresponding changes, frequent and more precise radiation and cloud observations are necessary. The role of clouds on the surface radiation budget is studied in order to quantify the longwave, shortwave and the total cloud radiative forcing in dependence on the atmospheric composition and cloud type. The study is performed for three different sites in Switzerland at three different altitude levels: Payerne (490 m asl), Davos (1'560 m asl) and Jungfraujoch (3'580 m asl). On the basis of data of visible all-sky camera systems at the three aforementioned stations in Switzerland, up to six different cloud types are distinguished (Cirrus-Cirrostratus, Cirrocumulus-Altocumulus, Stratus-Altostratus, Cumulus, Stratocumulus and Cumulonimbus-Nimbostratus). These cloud types are classified with a modified algorithm of Heinle et al. (2010). This cloud type classifying algorithm is based on a set of statistical features describing the color (spectral features) and the texture of an image (textural features) (Wacker et al. (2015)). The calculation of the fractional cloud cover information is based on spectral information of the all-sky camera data. The radiation data are taken from measurements with pyranometers and pyrgeometers at the different stations. A climatology of a whole year of the shortwave, longwave and total cloud radiative effect and its sensitivity to integrated water vapor, cloud cover and cloud type will be calculated for the three above-mentioned stations in Switzerland. For the calculation of the shortwave and longwave cloud radiative effect the corresponding cloud-free reference models developed at PMOD/WRC will be

  12. Colorectal poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas frequently exhibit BRAF mutations and are associated with poor overall survival.

    PubMed

    Olevian, Dane C; Nikiforova, Marina N; Chiosea, Simon; Sun, Weijing; Bahary, Nathan; Kuan, Shih-Fan; Pai, Reetesh K

    2016-03-01

    The molecular alterations in colorectal poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma remain incompletely characterized, particularly with respect to mutations in BRAF and KRAS. We analyzed 32 colorectal poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas and 40 colorectal poorly differentiated conventional adenocarcinomas for mutations in KRAS and BRAF and for DNA mismatch repair protein abnormalities to correlate histopathology with molecular alterations and survival. Compared with poorly differentiated conventional adenocarcinoma, poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma frequently harbored BRAF mutations (59% versus 5%; P < .001) and less frequently demonstrated KRAS codon 12 or 13 mutations (17% versus 43%; P = .03). BRAF mutations were identified in both pure poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (60%) and poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma associated with a signet ring cell adenocarcinoma component (82%). Most (93%) poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas demonstrated proficient DNA mismatch repair by either microsatellite instability polymerase chain reaction or DNA mismatch repair immunohistochemistry. Patients with poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma had a significantly worse overall survival compared with patients with poorly differentiated conventional adenocarcinoma (P < .001). There was no significant difference in overall survival between patients with pure poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma and patients with both poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma and adenocarcinoma components (P = .5). In conclusion, colorectal poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas frequently harbor BRAF mutations and are associated with poor overall survival. PMID:26826419

  13. Airborne observations of cloud properties on HALO during NARVAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konow, Heike; Hansen, Akio; Ament, Felix

    2016-04-01

    The representation of cloud and precipitation processes is one of the largest sources of uncertainty in climate and weather predictions. To validate model predictions of convective processes over the Atlantic ocean, usually satellite data are used. However, satellite products provide just a coarse view with poor temporal resolution of convective maritime clouds. Aircraft-based observations offer a more detailed insight due to lower altitude and high sampling rates. The research aircraft HALO (High Altitude Long Range Research Aircraft) is operated by the German Aerospace Center (DLR). With a ceiling of 15 km, and a range of 10,000 km and more than 10 hours it is able to reach remote regions and operate from higher altitudes than most other research aircraft. Thus, it provides the unique opportunity to exploit regions of the atmosphere that cannot be easily accessed otherwise. Measurements conducted on HALO provide more detailed insights than achievable from satellite data. Therefore, this measurement platform bridges the gap between previous airborne measurements and satellites. The payload used for this study consists of, amongst others, a suite of passive microwave radiometers, a cloud radar, and a water vapor DIAL. To investigate cloud and precipitation properties of convective maritime clouds, the NARVAL (Next-generation Aircraft Remote-Sensing for Validation Studies) campaign was conducted in winter 2013/2014 out of Barbados and Keflavik (Iceland). This campaign was one of the first that took place on the HALO aircraft. During the experiment's two parts 15 research flights were conducted (8 flights during NARVAL-South out of Barbados to investigate trade-wind cumuli and 7 flights out of Keflavik with focus on mid-latitude cyclonic systems). Flight durations were between five and nine hours, amounting to roughly 118 flight hours overall. 121 dropsondes were deployed. In fall 2016 two additional aircraft campaigns with the same payload will take place: The

  14. Pressure-driven fragmentation of multiphase clouds at high redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanoa, H.; Mackey, J.; Yates, J.

    2014-11-01

    The discovery of a hyper metal-poor star with total metallicity of ≤10-5 Z⊙ has motivated new investigations of how such objects can form from primordial gas polluted by a single supernova. In this paper, we present a shock-cloud model which simulates a supernova remnant interacting with a cloud in a metal-free environment at redshift z = 10. Pre-supernova conditions are considered, which include a multiphase neutral medium and H II region. A small dense clump (n = 100 cm-3), located 40 pc from a 40 M⊙ metal-free star, embedded in an n = 10 cm-3 ambient cloud. The evolution of the supernova remnant and its subsequent interaction with the dense clump is examined. We include a comprehensive treatment of the non-equilibrium hydrogen and helium chemistry and associated radiative cooling that is occurring at all stages of the shock-cloud model, covering the temperature range 10-109 K. Deuterium chemistry and its associated cooling are not included because the UV radiation field produced by the relic H II region and supernova remnant is expected to suppress deuterium chemistry and cooling. We find a 103 times density enhancement of the clump (maximum density ≈78 000 cm-3) within this metal-free model. This is consistent with Galactic shock-cloud models considering solar metallicity gas with equilibrium cooling functions. Despite this strong compression, the cloud does not become gravitationally unstable. We find that the small cloud modelled here is destroyed for shock velocities ≳50 km s-1, and not significantly affected by shocks with velocity ≲30 km s-1. Rather specific conditions are required to make such a cloud collapse, and substantial further compression would be required to reduce the local Jeans mass to sub-solar values.

  15. The origin of the most iron-poor star

    SciTech Connect

    Marassi, S.; Schneider, R.; Limongi, M.; Omukai, K.; Nozawa, T.; Chieffi, A.

    2014-10-20

    We investigate the origin of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars starting from the recently discovered [Fe/H] < -7.1 star SMSS J031300. We show that the elemental abundances observed on the surface of SMSS J031300 can be well fit by the yields of faint, metal-free, supernovae (SNe). Using properly calibrated faint SN explosion models, we study, for the first time, the formation of dust grains in such carbon-rich, iron-poor SN ejecta. Calculations are performed assuming both unmixed and uniformly mixed ejecta and taking into account the partial destruction by the SN reverse shock. We find that, due to the paucity of refractory elements beside carbon, amorphous carbon is the only grain species to form, with carbon condensation efficiencies that range between (0.15 and 0.84), resulting in dust yields in the range (0.025-2.25) M {sub ☉}. We follow the collapse and fragmentation of a star-forming cloud enriched by the products of these faint SN explosions and we explore the role played by fine structure line cooling and dust cooling. We show that even if grain growth during the collapse has a minor effect of the dust-to-gas ratio, due to C depletion into CO molecules at an early stage of the collapse, the formation of CEMP low-mass stars, such as SMSS J031300, could be triggered by dust cooling and fragmentation. A comparison between model predictions and observations of a sample of C-normal and C-rich metal-poor stars supports the idea that a single common pathway may be responsible for the formation of the first low-mass stars.

  16. Time estimation in good and poor sleepers.

    PubMed

    Fichten, Catherine S; Creti, Laura; Amsel, Rhonda; Bailes, Sally; Libman, Eva

    2005-12-01

    Time estimation was examined in 148 older good and poor sleepers in analogue and naturalistic sleep settings. On analogue tasks, both "empty" time and time listening to an audiobook were overestimated by both good and poor sleepers. There were no differences between groups. "Empty" time was experienced as "dragging." In the sleep setting, most poor sleepers underestimated nocturnal sleep and overestimated awake times related to their own sleep problem: sleep onset vs. sleep maintenance insomnia. Good sleepers did the opposite. Severity of sleep problem and size of time estimation errors were unrelated. Greater night-to-night wake time variability was experienced by poor than by good sleepers. Psychological adjustment was unrelated to time estimations and to magnification or minimization of sleep problems. The results suggest that for poor sleepers who magnify their sleep problem, self-monitoring can be of benefit by demonstrating that the sleep problem is not as severe as believed. PMID:16320096

  17. Global cloud and precipitation chemistry and wet deposition: tropospheric model simulations with ECHAM5/MESSy1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tost, H.; Jöckel, P.; Kerkweg, A.; Pozzer, A.; Sander, R.; Lelieveld, J.

    2007-01-01

    The representation of cloud and precipitation chemistry and subsequent wet deposition of trace constituents in global atmospheric chemistry models is associated with large uncertainties. To improve the simulated trace gas distributions we apply the new submodel SCAV, which includes detailed cloud and precipitation chemistry and present results of the atmospheric chemistry general circulation model ECHAM5/MESSy1. A good agreement with observed wet deposition fluxes for species causing acid rain is obtained. The new scheme enables prognostic calculations of the pH of clouds and precipitation, and these results are also in accordance with observations. We address the influence of detailed cloud and precipitation chemistry on trace constituents based on sensitivity simulations. The results confirm previous results from regional scale and box models, and we extend the analysis to the role of aqueous phase chemistry on the global scale. Some species are directly affected through multiphase removal processes, and many also indirectly through changes in oxidant concentrations, which in turn have an impact on the species lifetime. While the overall effect on tropospheric ozone is relatively small (<10%), regional effects on O3 can reach ~20%, and several important compounds (e.g., H2O2, HCHO) are substantially depleted by clouds and precipitation.

  18. Global cloud and precipitation chemistry and wet deposition: tropospheric model simulations with ECHAM5/MESSy1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tost, H.; Jöckel, P.; Kerkweg, A.; Pozzer, A.; Sander, R.; Lelieveld, J.

    2007-05-01

    The representation of cloud and precipitation chemistry and subsequent wet deposition of trace constituents in global atmospheric chemistry models is associated with large uncertainties. To improve the simulated trace gas distributions we apply the new submodel SCAV, which includes detailed cloud and precipitation chemistry and present results of the atmospheric chemistry general circulation model ECHAM5/MESSy1. A good agreement with observed wet deposition fluxes for species causing acid rain is obtained. The new scheme enables prognostic calculations of the pH of clouds and precipitation, and these results are also in accordance with observations. We address the influence of detailed cloud and precipitation chemistry on trace constituents based on sensitivity simulations. The results confirm previous results from regional scale and box models, and we extend the analysis to the role of aqueous phase chemistry on the global scale. Some species are directly affected through multiphase removal processes, and many also indirectly through changes in oxidant concentrations, which in turn have an impact on the species lifetime. While the overall effect on tropospheric ozone is relatively small (<10%), regional effects on O3 can reach ≍20%, and several important compounds (e.g., H2O2, HCHO) are substantially depleted by clouds and precipitation.

  19. EDITORIAL: Focus on Cloud Physics FOCUS ON CLOUD PHYSICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkovich, Gregory; Malinowski, Szymon P.

    2008-07-01

    Cloud physics has for a long time been an important segment of atmospheric science. It is common knowledge that clouds are crucial for our understanding of weather and climate. Clouds are also interesting by themselves (not to mention that they are beautiful). Complexity is hidden behind the common picture of these beautiful and interesting objects. The typical school textbook definition that a cloud is 'a set of droplets or particles suspended in the atmosphere' is not adequate. Clouds are complicated phenomena in which dynamics, turbulence, microphysics, thermodynamics and radiative transfer interact on a wide range of scales, from sub-micron to kilometres. Some of these interactions are subtle and others are more straightforward. Large and small-scale motions lead to activation of cloud condensation nuclei, condensational growth and collisions; small changes in composition and concentration of atmospheric aerosol lead to significant differences in radiative properties of the clouds and influence rainfall formation. It is justified to look at a cloud as a composite, nonlinear system which involves many interactions and feedback. This system is actively linked into a web of atmospheric, oceanic and even cosmic interactions. Due to the complexity of the cloud system, present-day descriptions of clouds suffer from simplifications, inadequate parameterizations, and omissions. Sometimes the most fundamental physics hidden behind these simplifications and parameterizations is not known, and a wide scope of view can sometimes prevent a 'microscopic', deep insight into the detail. Only the expertise offered by scientists focused on particular elementary processes involved in this complicated pattern of interactions allows us to shape elements of the puzzle from which a general picture of clouds can be created. To be useful, every element of the puzzle must be shaped precisely. This often creates problems in communication between the sciences responsible for shaping

  20. Discourse Tracing as Qualitative Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeGreco, Marianne; Tracy, Sarah J.

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces a qualitative research method called "discourse tracing". Discourse tracing draws from contributions made by ethnographers, discourse critics, case study scholars, and process tracers. The approach offers new insights and an attendant language about how we engage in research designed specifically for the…

  1. Trace metal transformations in gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, T.A.; Zygarlicke, C.J.; O`Keefe, C.A.

    1995-08-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is carrying out an investigation that will provide methods to predict the fate of selected trace elements in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems to aid in the development of methods to control the emission of trace elements determined to be air toxics. The goal of this project is to identify the effects of critical chemical and physical transformations associated with trace element behavior in IGCC and IGFC systems. The trace elements included in this project are arsenic, chromium, cadmium, mercury, nickel, selenium, and lead. The research seeks to identify and fill, experimentally and/or theoretically, data gaps that currently exist on the fate and composition of trace elements. The specific objectives are to (1) review the existing literature to identify the type and quantity of trace elements from coal gasification systems, (2) perform laboratory-scale experimentation and computer modeling to enable prediction of trace element emissions, and (3) identify methods to control trace element emissions.

  2. Trace metal transformations in gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, S.; Erickson, T.A.; Zygarlicke, C.J.

    1995-12-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is carrying out an investigation that will provide methods to predict the fate of selected trace elements in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems to aid in the development of methods to control the emission of trace elements determined to be air toxics. The goal of this project is to identify the effects of critical chemical and physical transformations associated with trace element behavior in IGCC and IGFC systems. The trace elements included in this project are arsenic, chromium, cadmium, mercury, nickel, selenium, and lead. The research seeks to identify and fill, experimentally and/or theoretically, data gaps that currently exist on the fate and composition of trace elements. The specific objectives are to (1) review the existing literature to identify the type and quantity of trace elements from coal gasification systems, (2) perform laboratory-scale experimentation and computer modeling to enable prediction of trace element emissions, and (3) identify methods to control trace element emissions.

  3. Trace metal transformation in gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, S.A.; Erickson, T.A.; Zygarlicke, C.J.; O`Keefe, C.A.; Katrinak, K.A.; Allen, S.E.; Hassett, D.J.; Hauserman, W.B.; Holcombe, N.T.

    1996-12-31

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is carrying out an investigation that will provide methods to predict the fate of selected trace elements in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems to aid in the development of methods to control the emission of trace elements determined to be air toxics. The goal of this project is to identify the effects of critical chemical and physical transformations associated with trace element behavior in IGCC and IGFC systems. The trace elements included in this project are arsenic, chromium, cadmium, mercury, nickel, selenium, and lead. The research seeks to identify and fill, experimentally and/or theoretically, data gaps that currently exist on the fate and composition of trace elements. The specific objectives are to 1) review the existing literature to identify the type and quantity of trace elements from coal gasification systems, 2) perform laboratory-scale experimentation and computer modeling to enable prediction of trace element emissions, and 3) identify methods to control trace element emissions.

  4. Ray Tracing in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majewski, Mirek

    1997-01-01

    Ray tracing is a method that allows the creation of photo-realistic images on a computer. This article describes a shareware ray tracing program called PovRay and includes some ideas on how PovRay can be used in teaching and in 3-D geometry, physics, and other high school and university subjects. (Author/AIM)

  5. Massive cold cloud clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, L. Viktor; Marton, Gabor; Zahorecz, Sarolta

    2015-08-01

    The all-sky Planck catalogue of Galactic Cold Clumps (PGCC, Planck 2015 results XXVIII 2015) allows an almost unbiased study of the early phases of star-formation in our Galaxy. Several thousand of the clumps have also distance estimates allowing a mass, and density determination. The nature of Planck clumps varies from IRDCs to tiny nearby cold clouds with masses ranging from one to several tens of thousands solar masses. Some of the clumps are embedded in GMCs, others are isolated. Some are close or even very close to OB associations, while others lay far from any UV luminous objects.The small scale clustering of these objects was studied with the improved Minimum Spanning Tree method of Cartwright & Whitworth identifying groups in 3D space. As a result also massive cold cloud clusters were identified. We analyse the MST structures, and discuss their relation to ongoing and future massive star formation.

  6. The Clouds of Isidore

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These views of Hurricane Isidore were acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) on September 20, 2002. After bringing large-scale flooding to western Cuba, Isidore was upgraded (on September 21) from a tropical storm to a category 3hurricane. Sweeping westward to Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula, the hurricane caused major destruction and left hundreds of thousands of people homeless. Although weakened after passing over the Yucatan landmass, Isidore regained strength as it moved northward over the Gulf of Mexico.

    At left is a colorful visualization of cloud extent that superimposes MISR's radiometric camera-by-camera cloud mask (RCCM) over natural-color radiance imagery, both derived from data acquired with the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. Using brightness and statistical metrics, the RCCM is one of several techniques MISR uses to determine whether an area is clear or cloudy. In this rendition, the RCCM has been color-coded, and purple = cloudy with high confidence, blue = cloudy with low confidence, green = clear with low confidence, and red = clear with high confidence.

    In addition to providing information on meteorological events, MISR's data products are designed to help improve our understanding of the influences of clouds on climate. Cloud heights and albedos are among the variables that govern these influences. (Albedo is the amount of sunlight reflected back to space divided by the amount of incident sunlight.) The center panel is the cloud-top height field retrieved using automated stereoscopic processing of data from multiple MISR cameras. Areas where heights could not be retrieved are shown in dark gray. In some areas, such as the southern portion of the image, the stereo retrieval was able to detect thin, high clouds that were not picked up by the RCCM's nadir view. Retrieved local albedo values for Isidore are shown at right. Generation of the albedo product is dependent upon observed cloud radiances as a function

  7. Cloud and Cloud Shadow Masking Using Multi-Temporal Cloud Masking Algorithm in Tropical Environmental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candra, D. S.; Phinn, S.; Scarth, P.

    2016-06-01

    A cloud masking approach based on multi-temporal satellite images is proposed. The basic idea of this approach is to detect cloud and cloud shadow by using the difference reflectance values between clear pixels and cloud and cloud shadow contaminated pixels. Several bands of satellite image which have big difference values are selected for developing Multi-temporal Cloud Masking (MCM) algorithm. Some experimental analyses are conducted by using Landsat-8 images. Band 3 and band 4 are selected because they can distinguish between cloud and non cloud. Afterwards, band 5 and band 6 are used to distinguish between cloud shadow and clear. The results show that the MCM algorithm can detect cloud and cloud shadow appropriately. Moreover, qualitative and quantitative assessments are conducted using visual inspections and confusion matrix, respectively, to evaluate the reliability of this algorithm. Comparison between this algorithm and QA band are conducted to prove the reliability of the approach. The results show that MCM better than QA band and the accuracy of the results are very high.

  8. Evaluation of the OMI Cloud Pressures Derived from Rotational Raman Scattering by Comparisons with other Satellite Data and Radiative Transfer Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasilkov, Alexander; Joiner, Joanna; Spurr, Robert; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Levelt, Pieternel; Stephens, Graeme

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we examine differences between cloud pressures retrieved from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) using the ultraviolet rotational Raman scattering (RRS) algorithm and those from the thermal infrared (IR) Aqua/MODIS. Several cloud data sets are currently being used in OMI trace gas retrieval algorithms including climatologies based on IR measurements and simultaneous cloud parameters derived from OMI. From a validation perspective, it is important to understand the OMI retrieved cloud parameters and how they differ with those derived from the IR. To this end, we perform radiative transfer calculations to simulate the effects of different geophysical conditions on the OMI RRS cloud pressure retrievals. We also quantify errors related to the use of the Mixed Lambert-Equivalent Reflectivity (MLER) concept as currently implemented of the OMI algorithms. Using properties from the Cloudsat radar and MODIS, we show that radiative transfer calculations support the following: (1) The MLER model is adequate for single-layer optically thick, geometrically thin clouds, but can produce significant errors in estimated cloud pressure for optically thin clouds. (2) In a two-layer cloud, the RRS algorithm may retrieve a cloud pressure that is either between the two cloud decks or even beneath the top of the lower cloud deck because of scattering between the cloud layers; the retrieved pressure depends upon the viewing geometry and the optical depth of the upper cloud deck. (3) Absorbing aerosol in and above a cloud can produce significant errors in the retrieved cloud pressure. (4) The retrieved RRS effective pressure for a deep convective cloud will be significantly higher than the physical cloud top pressure derived with thermal IR.

  9. Positron clouds within thunderstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwyer, Joseph R.; Smith, David M.; Hazelton, Bryna J.; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Kelley, Nicole A.; Lowell, Alexander W.; Schaal, Meagan M.; Rassoul, Hamid K.

    2015-08-01

    We report the observation of two isolated clouds of positrons inside an active thunderstorm. These observations were made by the Airborne Detector for Energetic Lightning Emissions (ADELE), an array of six gamma-ray detectors, which flew on a Gulfstream V jet aircraft through the top of an active thunderstorm in August 2009. ADELE recorded two 511 keV gamma-ray count rate enhancements, 35 s apart, each lasting approximately 0.2 s. The enhancements, which were approximately a factor of 12 above background, were both accompanied by electrical activity as measured by a flat-plate antenna on the underside of the aircraft. The energy spectra were consistent with a source mostly composed of positron annihilation gamma rays, with a prominent 511 keV line clearly visible in the data. Model fits to the data suggest that the aircraft was briefly immersed in clouds of positrons, more than a kilometre across. It is not clear how the positron clouds were created within the thunderstorm, but it is possible they were caused by the presence of the aircraft in the electrified environment.

  10. Plasma cloud behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linson, Lewis M.

    1991-08-01

    Participation in PLACES (Position Location And Communications Effects Simulations) and Midnight Sky field operations is described. In the former, four barium releases were made during the period 4 to 12 December 1980. The range of velocities experienced was greater than before at this location. The principal challenge was to perform real-time tracking of the ion cloud so as to predict a future aim point for use in targeting beacon and probe rockets. Recommendations for obtaining smoother tracking data involve determining the motion of a field line through the ion cloud rather than an indeterminate point in the cloud, making measurements at set intervals, and coordinating measurements by more than one observer. During Midnight Sky, 2 barium releases were made on 29 March 81 and 2 April 81. The first went westerly at 450 m/s while the second was nearly motionless. A small aircraft was positioned so as to take photographs up the magnetic field line during the second release. It is strongly urged that a complete dry run including all participants, communications links, and necessary operations be carried out before a test event.

  11. Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer: An ARM Mobile Facility Deployment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Robert; Wyant, Matthew; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Remillard, Jasmine; Kollias, Pavlos; Fletcher, Jennifer; Stemmler, Jayson; de Szoeke, Simone; Yuter, Sandra; Miller, Matthew; Mechem, David; Tselioudis, George; Chiu, J. Christine; Mann, Julian A. L.; O'Connor, Ewan J.; Hogan, Robin J.; Dong, Xiquan; Miller, Mark; Ghate, Virendra; Jefferson, Anne; Min, Qilong; Minnis, Patrick; Palikonda, Rabindra; Albrecht, Bruce; Luke, Ed; Hannay, Cecile; Lin, Yanluan

    2015-01-01

    Capsule: A 21-month deployment to Graciosa Island in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean is providing an unprecedented record of the clouds, aerosols and meteorology in a poorly-sampled remote marine environment The Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) deployment at Graciosa Island in the Azores generated a 21 month (April 2009- December 2010) comprehensive dataset documenting clouds, aerosols and precipitation using the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF). The scientific aim of the deployment is to gain improved understanding of the interactions of clouds, aerosols and precipitation in the marine boundary layer. Graciosa Island straddles the boundary between the subtropics and midlatitudes in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean, and consequently experiences a great diversity of meteorological and cloudiness conditions. Low clouds are the dominant cloud type, with stratocumulus and cumulus occurring regularly. Approximately half of all clouds contained precipitation detectable as radar echoes below the cloud base. Radar and satellite observations show that clouds with tops from 1- 11 km contribute more or less equally to surface-measured precipitation at Graciosa. A wide range of aerosol conditions was sampled during the deployment consistent with the diversity of sources as indicated by back trajectory analysis. Preliminary findings suggest important two-way interactions between aerosols and clouds at Graciosa, with aerosols affecting light precipitation and cloud radiative properties while being controlled in part by precipitation scavenging. The data from at Graciosa are being compared with short-range forecasts made a variety of models. A pilot analysis with two climate and two weather forecast models shows that they reproduce the observed time-varying vertical structure of lower-tropospheric cloud fairly well, but the cloud-nucleating aerosol concentrations less well. The Graciosa site has been chosen to be a

  12. IBM Cloud Computing Powering a Smarter Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jinzy; Fang, Xing; Guo, Zhe; Niu, Meng Hua; Cao, Fan; Yue, Shuang; Liu, Qin Yu

    With increasing need for intelligent systems supporting the world's businesses, Cloud Computing has emerged as a dominant trend to provide a dynamic infrastructure to make such intelligence possible. The article introduced how to build a smarter planet with cloud computing technology. First, it introduced why we need cloud, and the evolution of cloud technology. Secondly, it analyzed the value of cloud computing and how to apply cloud technology. Finally, it predicted the future of cloud in the smarter planet.

  13. A Cloud-based Approach to Medical NLP

    PubMed Central

    Chard, Kyle; Russell, Michael; Lussier, Yves A.; Mendonça, Eneida A; Silverstein, Jonathan C.

    2011-01-01

    Natural Language Processing (NLP) enables access to deep content embedded in medical texts. To date, NLP has not fulfilled its promise of enabling robust clinical encoding, clinical use, quality improvement, and research. We submit that this is in part due to poor accessibility, scalability, and flexibility of NLP systems. We describe here an approach and system which leverages cloud-based approaches such as virtual machines and Representational State Transfer (REST) to extract, process, synthesize, mine, compare/contrast, explore, and manage medical text data in a flexibly secure and scalable architecture. Available architectures in which our Smntx (pronounced as semantics) system can be deployed include: virtual machines in a HIPAA-protected hospital environment, brought up to run analysis over bulk data and destroyed in a local cloud; a commercial cloud for a large complex multi-institutional trial; and within other architectures such as caGrid, i2b2, or NHIN. PMID:22195072

  14. Chemistry and microphysics of polar stratospheric clouds and cirrus clouds.

    PubMed

    Zondlo, M A; Hudson, P K; Prenni, A J; Tolbert, M A

    2000-01-01

    Ice particles found within polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) and upper tropospheric cirrus clouds can dramatically impact the chemistry and climate of the Earth's atmosphere. The formation of PSCs and the subsequent chemical reactions that occur on their surfaces are key components of the massive ozone hole observed each spring over Antarctica. Cirrus clouds also provide surfaces for heterogeneous reactions and significantly modify the Earth's climate by changing the visible and infrared radiation fluxes. Although the role of ice particles in climate and chemistry is well recognized, the exact mechanisms of cloud formation are still unknown, and thus it is difficult to predict how anthropogenic activities will change cloud abundances in the future. This article focuses on the nucleation, chemistry, and microphysical properties of ice particles composing PSCs and cirrus clouds. A general overview of the current state of research is presented along with some unresolved issues facing scientists in the future. PMID:11031290

  15. [Current options to manage clopidogrel poor responsiveness].

    PubMed

    Fileti, Luca; Campo, Gianluca; Valgimigli, Marco; Marchesini, Jlenia; Ferrari, Roberto

    2010-12-01

    Antiplatelet therapy (aspirin + clopidogrel) is the cornerstone of treatment for patients with acute coronary syndromes and/or undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). More than 40 million patients worldwide receive clopidogrel, but about 20% of them are nonresponders or poor responders. Many studies using different techniques, platelet agonists and definitions have shown that patients who are poor responders to clopidogrel have an increased risk of death, reinfarction and stent thrombosis. The mechanisms leading to poor responsiveness are not fully elucidated and are likely multifactorial: genetic factors, accelerated platelet turnover, up-regulation of the P2Y12 pathways, high baseline platelet reactivity, poor compliance, underdosing and drug-drug interactions. The management of these patients is very difficult, but evidence does exist showing that a strategy of higher maintenance dose or switch to different thienopyridines (e.g. ticlopidine or prasugrel) or use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors during PCI may be helpful to overcome poor responsiveness and improve the long-term clinical outcome. This review describes the impact of poor responsiveness to clopidogrel on clinical outcomes, the mechanisms leading to poor effect, and the different assays to assess it. Finally, current and future options for its management are discussed. PMID:21355335

  16. ATLAS Cloud R&D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panitkin, Sergey; Barreiro Megino, Fernando; Caballero Bejar, Jose; Benjamin, Doug; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Gable, Ian; Hendrix, Val; Hover, John; Kucharczyk, Katarzyna; Medrano Llamas, Ramon; Love, Peter; Ohman, Henrik; Paterson, Michael; Sobie, Randall; Taylor, Ryan; Walker, Rodney; Zaytsev, Alexander; Atlas Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    The computing model of the ATLAS experiment was designed around the concept of grid computing and, since the start of data taking, this model has proven very successful. However, new cloud computing technologies bring attractive features to improve the operations and elasticity of scientific distributed computing. ATLAS sees grid and cloud computing as complementary technologies that will coexist at different levels of resource abstraction, and two years ago created an R&D working group to investigate the different integration scenarios. The ATLAS Cloud Computing R&D has been able to demonstrate the feasibility of offloading work from grid to cloud sites and, as of today, is able to integrate transparently various cloud resources into the PanDA workload management system. The ATLAS Cloud Computing R&D is operating various PanDA queues on private and public resources and has provided several hundred thousand CPU days to the experiment. As a result, the ATLAS Cloud Computing R&D group has gained a significant insight into the cloud computing landscape and has identified points that still need to be addressed in order to fully utilize this technology. This contribution will explain the cloud integration models that are being evaluated and will discuss ATLAS' learning during the collaboration with leading commercial and academic cloud providers.

  17. The cloud albedo-cloud droplet effective radius relationship for clean and polluted clouds from RACE and FIRE.ACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yiran; Lohmann, Ulrike; Leaitch, Richard; Banic, Catharine; Couture, Mark

    2002-06-01

    Twenty-eight liquid water cloud cases selected from two field studies (the Canadian Radiation, Aerosol and Cloud Experiment (RACE) and the First ISCCP Regional Experiment-Arctic Cloud Experiment (FIRE.ACE)) are analyzed with respect to the first and second indirect aerosol effects and the relationship between cloud droplet effective radius and cloud albedo for clean and polluted clouds. For the same liquid water path the polluted clouds have more and smaller cloud droplets and thus a higher cloud albedo and less drizzle size drops. The effective radius is positively correlated with cloud albedo for polluted clouds caused by the absence of drizzle size drops. Conversely effective radius is negatively correlated with cloud albedo for clean clouds.

  18. Cloud condensation nucleation activities of calcium carbonate and its atmospheric ageing products.

    PubMed

    Tang, M J; Whitehead, J; Davidson, N M; Pope, F D; Alfarra, M R; McFiggans, G; Kalberer, M

    2015-12-28

    Aerosol particles can serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) to form cloud droplets, and its composition is a main factor governing whether an aerosol particle is an effective CCN. Pure mineral dust particles are poor CCN; however, changes in chemical composition of mineral dust aerosol particles, due to heterogeneous reactions with reactive trace gases in the troposphere, can modify their CCN properties. In this study we investigated the CCN activities of CaCO3 (as a surrogate for mineral dust) and its six atmospheric ageing products: Ca(NO3)2, CaCl2, CaSO4, Ca(CH3SO3)2, Ca(HCOO)2, and Ca(CH3COO)2. CaCO3 has a very low CCN activity with a hygroscopicity parameter (κ) of 0.001-0.003. The CCN activities of its potential atmospheric ageing products are significantly higher. For example, we determined that Ca(NO3)2, CaCl2 and Ca(HCOO)2 have κ values of ∼0.50, similar to that of (NH4)2SO4. Ca(CH3COO)2 has slightly lower CCN activity with a κ value of ∼0.40, and the κ value of CaSO4 is around 0.02. We further show that exposure of CaCO3 particles to N2O5 at 0% relative humidity (RH) significantly enhances their CCN activity, with κ values increasing to around 0.02-0.04. Within the experimental uncertainties, it appears that the variation in exposure to N2O5 from ∼550 to 15,000 ppbv s does not change the CCN activities of aged CaCO3 particles. This observation indicates that the CaCO3 surface may be already saturated at the shortest exposure. We also discussed the atmospheric implications of our study, and suggested that the rate of change in CCN activities of mineral dust particles in the troposphere is important to determine their roles in cloud formation. PMID:26578034

  19. Clouds and Dust Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 2 July 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth.

    Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms.

    This image was acquired during mid-spring near the North Pole. The linear water-ice clouds are now regional in extent and often interact with neighboring cloud system, as seen in this image. The bottom of the image shows how the interaction can destroy the linear nature. While the surface is still visible through most of the clouds, there is evidence that dust is also starting to enter the atmosphere.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 68.4, Longitude 180 East (180 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with

  20. Fractal trace of earthworms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdzy, Krzysztof; Hołyst, Robert; Pruski, Łukasz

    2013-05-01

    We investigate a process of random walks of a point particle on a two-dimensional square lattice of size n×n with periodic boundary conditions. A fraction p⩽20% of the lattice is occupied by holes (p represents macroporosity). A site not occupied by a hole is occupied by an obstacle. Upon a random step of the walker, a number of obstacles, M, can be pushed aside. The system approaches equilibrium in (nlnn)2 steps. We determine the distribution of M pushed in a single move at equilibrium. The distribution F(M) is given by Mγ where γ=-1.18 for p=0.1, decreasing to γ=-1.28 for p=0.01. Irrespective of the initial distribution of holes on the lattice, the final equilibrium distribution of holes forms a fractal with fractal dimension changing from a=1.56 for p=0.20 to a=1.42 for p=0.001 (for n=4,000). The trace of a random walker forms a distribution with expected fractal dimension 2.

  1. Trace anomaly driven inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawking, S. W.; Hertog, T.; Reall, H. S.

    2001-04-01

    This paper investigates Starobinsky's model of inflation driven by the trace anomaly of conformally coupled matter fields. This model does not suffer from the problem of contrived initial conditions that occurs in most models of inflation driven by a scalar field. The universe can be nucleated semiclassically by a cosmological instanton that is much larger than the Planck scale provided there are sufficiently many matter fields. There are two cosmological instantons: the four sphere and a new ``double bubble'' solution. This paper considers a universe nucleated by the four sphere. The AdS/CFT correspondence is used to calculate the correlation function for scalar and tensor metric perturbations during the ensuing de Sitter phase. The analytic structure of the scalar and tensor propagators is discussed in detail. Observational constraints on the model are discussed. Quantum loops of matter fields are shown to strongly suppress short scale metric perturbations, which implies that short distance modifications of gravity would probably not be observable in the cosmic microwave background. This is probably true for any model of inflation provided there are sufficiently many matter fields. This point is illustrated by a comparison of anomaly driven inflation in four dimensions and in a Randall-Sundrum brane-world model.

  2. Concealed wire tracing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31

    An apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface is disclosed. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receivers position with respect to the wiring. The receivers audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receivers coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring's concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest. 4 figs.

  3. Tracing Geothermal Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Michael C. Adams; Greg Nash

    2004-03-01

    Geothermal water must be injected back into the reservoir after it has been used for power production. Injection is critical in maximizing the power production and lifetime of the reservoir. To use injectate effectively the direction and velocity of the injected water must be known or inferred. This information can be obtained by using chemical tracers to track the subsurface flow paths of the injected fluid. Tracers are chemical compounds that are added to the water as it is injected back into the reservoir. The hot production water is monitored for the presence of this tracer using the most sensitive analytic methods that are economically feasible. The amount and concentration pattern of the tracer revealed by this monitoring can be used to evaluate how effective the injection strategy is. However, the tracers must have properties that suite the environment that they will be used in. This requires careful consideration and testing of the tracer properties. In previous and parallel investigations we have developed tracers that are suitable from tracing liquid water. In this investigation, we developed tracers that can be used for steam and mixed water/steam environments. This work will improve the efficiency of injection management in geothermal fields, lowering the cost of energy production and increasing the power output of these systems.

  4. Specialised emission pattern of leaf trace in a late Permian (253 million-years old) conifer.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hai-Bo; Feng, Zhuo; Yang, Ji-Yuan; Chen, Yu-Xuan; Shen, Jia-Jia; He, Xiao-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Leaf traces are important structures in higher plants that connect leaves and the stem vascular system. The anatomy and emission pattern of leaf traces are well studied in extant vascular plants, but remain poorly understood in fossil lineages. We quantitatively analysed the leaf traces in the late Permian conifer Ningxiaites specialis from Northwest China based on serial sections through pith, primary and secondary xylems. A complete leaf traces emission pattern of a conifer is presented for the first time from the late Palaeozoic. Three to five monarch leaf traces are grouped in clusters, arranged in a helical phyllotaxis. The leaf traces in each cluster can be divided into upper, middle and lower portions, and initiate at the pith periphery and cross the wood horizontally. The upper leaf trace increases its diameter during the first growth increment and then diminishes completely, which indicates leaf abscission at the end of the first year. The middle trace immediately bifurcates once or twice to form two or three vascular bundles. The lower trace persists as a single bundle during its entire length. The intricate leaf trace dynamics indicates this fossil plant had a novel evolutionary habit by promoting photosynthetic capability for the matured plant. PMID:26198410

  5. Specialised emission pattern of leaf trace in a late Permian (253 million-years old) conifer

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Hai-Bo; Feng, Zhuo; Yang, Ji-Yuan; Chen, Yu-Xuan; Shen, Jia-Jia; He, Xiao-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Leaf traces are important structures in higher plants that connect leaves and the stem vascular system. The anatomy and emission pattern of leaf traces are well studied in extant vascular plants, but remain poorly understood in fossil lineages. We quantitatively analysed the leaf traces in the late Permian conifer Ningxiaites specialis from Northwest China based on serial sections through pith, primary and secondary xylems. A complete leaf traces emission pattern of a conifer is presented for the first time from the late Palaeozoic. Three to five monarch leaf traces are grouped in clusters, arranged in a helical phyllotaxis. The leaf traces in each cluster can be divided into upper, middle and lower portions, and initiate at the pith periphery and cross the wood horizontally. The upper leaf trace increases its diameter during the first growth increment and then diminishes completely, which indicates leaf abscission at the end of the first year. The middle trace immediately bifurcates once or twice to form two or three vascular bundles. The lower trace persists as a single bundle during its entire length. The intricate leaf trace dynamics indicates this fossil plant had a novel evolutionary habit by promoting photosynthetic capability for the matured plant. PMID:26198410

  6. TURBULENCE DECAY AND CLOUD CORE RELAXATION IN MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Yang; Law, Chung K.; Xu, Haitao

    2015-02-01

    The turbulent motion within molecular clouds is a key factor controlling star formation. Turbulence supports molecular cloud cores from evolving to gravitational collapse and hence sets a lower bound on the size of molecular cloud cores in which star formation can occur. On the other hand, without a continuous external energy source maintaining the turbulence, such as in molecular clouds, the turbulence decays with an energy dissipation time comparable to the dynamic timescale of clouds, which could change the size limits obtained from Jean's criterion by assuming constant turbulence intensities. Here we adopt scaling relations of physical variables in decaying turbulence to analyze its specific effects on the formation of stars. We find that the decay of turbulence provides an additional approach for Jeans' criterion to be achieved, after which gravitational infall governs the motion of the cloud core. This epoch of turbulence decay is defined as cloud core relaxation. The existence of cloud core relaxation provides a more complete understanding of the effect of the competition between turbulence and gravity on the dynamics of molecular cloud cores and star formation.

  7. CLOUD PARAMETERIZATIONS, CLOUD PHYSICS, AND THEIR CONNECTIONS: AN OVERVIEW.

    SciTech Connect

    LIU,Y.; DAUM,P.H.; CHAI,S.K.; LIU,F.

    2002-02-12

    This paper consists of three parts. The first part is concerned with the parameterization of cloud microphysics in climate models. We demonstrate the crucial importance of spectral dispersion of the cloud droplet size distribution in determining radiative properties of clouds (e.g., effective radius), and underline the necessity of specifying spectral dispersion in the parameterization of cloud microphysics. It is argued that the inclusion of spectral dispersion makes the issue of cloud parameterization essentially equivalent to that of the droplet size distribution function, bringing cloud parameterization to the forefront of cloud physics. The second part is concerned with theoretical investigations into the spectral shape of droplet size distributions in cloud physics. After briefly reviewing the mainstream theories (including entrainment and mixing theories, and stochastic theories), we discuss their deficiencies and the need for a paradigm shift from reductionist approaches to systems approaches. A systems theory that has recently been formulated by utilizing ideas from statistical physics and information theory is discussed, along with the major results derived from it. It is shown that the systems formalism not only easily explains many puzzles that have been frustrating the mainstream theories, but also reveals such new phenomena as scale-dependence of cloud droplet size distributions. The third part is concerned with the potential applications of the systems theory to the specification of spectral dispersion in terms of predictable variables and scale-dependence under different fluctuating environments.

  8. Influence of atmospheric circulation patterns on local cloud and solar variability in Bergen, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parding, Kajsa; Olseth, Jan Asle; Liepert, Beate G.; Dagestad, Knut-Frode

    2016-08-01

    In a previous paper, we have shown that long-term cloud and solar observations (1965-2013) in Bergen, Norway (60.39°N, 5.33°E) are compatible with a largely cloud dominated radiative climate. Here, we explicitly address the relationship between the large scale circulation over Europe and local conditions in Bergen, identifying specific circulation shifts that have contributed to the observed cloud and solar variations. As a measure of synoptic weather patterns, we use the Grosswetterlagen (GWL), a daily classification of European weather for 1881-2013. Empirical models of cloud cover, cloud base, relative sunshine duration, and normalised global irradiance are constructed based on the GWL frequencies, extending the observational time series by more than 70 years. The GWL models successfully reproduce the observed increase in cloud cover and decrease in solar irradiance during the 1970s and 1980s. This cloud-induced dimming is traced to an increasing frequency of cyclonic and decreasing frequency of anticyclonic weather patterns over northern Europe. The changing circulation patterns in winter can be understood as a shift from the negative to the positive phase of the North Atlantic and Arctic Oscillation. A recent period of increasing solar irradiance is observed but not reproduce by the GWL models, suggesting this brightening is associated with factors other than large scale atmospheric circulation, possibly decreasing aerosol loads and local cloud shifts.

  9. Cell Model of In-cloud Scavenging of Highly Soluble Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baklanov, A.; Elperin, T.; Fominykh, A.; Krasovitov, B.

    2012-04-01

    Transport of soluble gases in clouds is an integral part of the atmospheric transport of gases and is important for understanding the global distribution pattern of soluble trace gases. In the present study we investigated mass transfer during absorption of highly soluble gases such as hydrogen peroxide H2O2 and nitric acid HNO3 by stagnant cloud droplets in the presence of inert admixtures. Diffusion interactions between droplets, caused by the overlap of depleted of soluble gas regions around the neighboring droplets, are taken into account in the approximation of a cellular model of a gas-droplet suspension whereby a suspension is viewed as a periodic structure consisting of the identical spherical cells with periodic boundary conditions at the cell boundary. Using this model we determined temporal and spatial dependencies of the concentration of the soluble trace gas in a gaseous phase and in a droplet and calculated the dependence of the scavenging coefficient on time. It is shown that scavenging of highly soluble gases by cloud droplets leads to essential decrease of soluble trace gas concentration in the interstitial air. We found that scavenging coefficient for gas absorption by cloud droplets remains constant and sharply decreases only at the final stage of absorption. This assertion implies the exponential time decay of the average concentration of the soluble trace gas in the gaseous phase and can be used for the parameterization of gas scavenging by cloud droplets in the atmospheric transport modeling. In the calculations we employed gamma size distribution of cloud droplets. It was shown that despite of the comparable values of Henry's law constants for the hydrogen peroxide and the nitric acid, the nitric acid is scavenged more effectively by cloud than the hydrogen peroxide due to a major affect of the dissociation reaction on nitric acid scavenging. We obtained also the analytical expressions for the "equilibrium values" of concentration of the

  10. Tracing the Magnetic Field in Orion A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houde, Martin; Dowell, C. Darren; Hildebrand, Roger H.; Dotson, Jessie L.; Vaillancourt, John E.; Phillips, Thomas G.; Peng, Ruisheng; Bastien, Pierre

    2004-04-01

    We use extensive 350 μm polarimetry and continuum maps obtained with the Hertz polarimeter and SHARC II (Submillimeter High Angular Resolution Camera II) along with HCN and HCO+ spectroscopic data to trace the orientation of the magnetic field in the Orion A star-forming region. Using the polarimetry data, we find that the direction of the projection of the magnetic field in the plane of the sky relative to the orientation of the integral-shaped filament varies considerably as one moves from north to south. While in IRAS 05327-0457 and OMC-3 MMS 1-6 the projection of the field is primarily perpendicular to the filament, it becomes better aligned with it at OMC-3 MMS 8-9, and well aligned with it at OMC-2 FIR 6. The OMC-2 FIR 4 cloud, located between the last two clouds, is a peculiar object in which we find almost no polarization. There is a relatively sharp boundary within its core where two adjacent regions exhibiting differing polarization angles merge. The projected angle of the field is more complicated in OMC-1, where it exhibits smooth variations in its orientation across the face of this massive complex. We also note that while the relative orientation of the projected angle of the magnetic field to the filament varies significantly in the OMC-3 and OMC-2 regions, its orientation relative to a fixed position on the sky shows far greater stability. This suggests that the orientation of the field is perhaps relatively unaffected by the mass condensation present in these parts of the molecular cloud. By combining the polarimetry and spectroscopic data, we were able to measure a set of average values for the inclination angle of the magnetic field relative to the line of sight. We find that the field is oriented quite close to the plane of the sky in most places. More precisely, the inclination of the magnetic field is ~73° around OMC-3 MMS 6, ~74° at OMC-3 MMS 8-9, ~80° at OMC-2 FIR 4, ~65° in the northeastern part of OMC-1, and ~49° in the Orion bar

  11. Cloud effects on ultraviolet photoclimatology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, A. E. S.; Spinhirne, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantify for the needs of photobiology the influence of clouds upon the ultraviolet spectral irradiance reaching the ground. Towards this end, analytic formulas are developed which approximately characterize the influence of clouds upon total solar radiation. These may be used in conjunction with a solar pyranometer to assign an effective visual optical depth for the cloud cover. A formula is also developed which characterizes the influence of the optical depth of clouds upon the UV spectral irradiance in the 280-340 nm region. Thus total solar energy observations to assign cloud optical properties can be used to calculate the UV spectral irradiance at the ground in the presence of these clouds. As incidental by-products of this effort, convenient formulas are found for the direct and diffuse components of total solar energy.

  12. Exoplanet Clouds in the Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Alexandria; Cziczo, Daniel J.; Seager, Sara; Charbonneau, David; Bauer, Amy J. R.

    2015-12-01

    The lack of strong spectral features of some exoplanet atmospheres may suggest the presence of a cloud layer and poses great challenges for atmospheric characterization. We aim to address these observations and the challenges by leveraging lab-based terrestrial cloud particle instrumentation as a means of investigating how particles representative of those in exoplanet atmospheres interact with incoming radiation. In the end we hope to achieve two goals - First, to better understand the observable properties of cloud particles in exoplanet atmospheres. Second, to determine how these clouds might directly limit our ability to observe and characterize the atmosphere below.In this presentation I will discuss the cloud chamber used for this work, how we leverage terrestrial based cloud knowledge, our initial investigation of the light scattered by ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) across temperature and relative humidity dependent phase changes, and future work with suspected exoplanet atmospheric condensates under various atmospheric compositions, pressures, and temperatures.

  13. Biogeography, Cloud Base Heights and Cloud Immersion in Tropical Montane Cloud Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, R. M.; Asefi, S.; Zeng, J.; Nair, U. S.; Lawton, R. O.; Ray, D. K.; Han, Q.; Manoharan, V. S.

    2007-05-01

    Tropical Montane Cloud Forests (TMCFs) are ecosystems characterized by frequent and prolonged immersion within orographic clouds. TMCFs often lie at the core of the biological hotspots, areas of high biodiversity, whose conservation is necessary to ensure the preservation of a significant amount of the plant and animal species in the world. TMCFs support islands of endemism dependent on cloud water interception that are extremely susceptible to environmental and climatic changes at regional or global scales. Due to the ecological and hydrological importance of TMCFs it is important to understand the biogeographical distribution of these ecosystems. The best current list of TMCFs is a global atlas compiled by the United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP). However, this list is incomplete, and it does not provide information on cloud immersion, which is the defining characteristic of TMCFs and sorely needed for ecological and hydrological studies. The present study utilizes MODIS satellite data both to determine orographic cloud base heights and then to quantify cloud immersion statistics over TMCFs. Results are validated from surface measurements over Northern Costa Rica for the month of March 2003. Cloud base heights are retrieved with approximately 80m accuracy, as determined at Monteverde, Costa Rica. Cloud immersion derived from MODIS data is also compared to an independent cloud immersion dataset created using a combination of GOES satellite data and RAMS model simulations. Comparison against known locations of cloud forests in Northern Costa Rica shows that the MODIS-derived cloud immersion maps successfully identify these cloud forest locations, including those not included in the UNEP data set. Results also will be shown for cloud immersion in Hawaii. The procedure appears to be ready for global mapping.

  14. Testing cloud-radiation algorithms in GCMs and single-column models

    SciTech Connect

    Somerville, R.

    1995-09-01

    Our poor understanding of cloud processes limits our ability to make realistic climate change predictions. Part of the problem is that we have too many cloud parameterizations and too few observations. Lack of contact between observationalists and modelers exacerbates this problem. The principle behind the single column model presented here is that the horizontal convergence of heat, momentum, and moisture is specified from observations. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  15. How School Taught Me I Was Poor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author recounts how school taught him that he was poor. For him, third grade was the year in which he learned in school that he was poor. The author's story reminds everyone that all children do not experience school in the same way. Their social class (in the case described in this article), as well as their race, gender,…

  16. Constraining the Evolution of Poor Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broming, Emma J.; Fuse, C. R.

    2012-01-01

    There currently exists no method by which to quantify the evolutionary state of poor clusters (PCs). Research by Broming & Fuse (2010) demonstrated that the evolution of Hickson compact groups (HCGs) are constrained by the correlation between the X-ray luminosities of point sources and diffuse gas. The current investigation adopts an analogous approach to understanding PCs. Plionis et al. (2009) proposed a theory to define the evolution of poor clusters. The theory asserts that cannibalism of galaxies causes a cluster to become more spherical, develop increased velocity dispersion and increased X-ray temperature and gas luminosity. Data used to quantify the evolution of the poor clusters were compiled across multiple wavelengths. The sample includes 162 objects from the WBL catalogue (White et al. 1999), 30 poor clusters in the Chandra X-ray Observatory archive, and 15 Abell poor clusters observed with BAX (Sadat et al. 2004). Preliminary results indicate that the cluster velocity dispersion and X-ray gas and point source luminosities can be used to highlight a weak correlation. An evolutionary trend was observed for multiple correlations detailed herein. The current study is a continuation of the work by Broming & Fuse examining point sources and their properties to determine the evolutionary stage of compact groups, poor clusters, and their proposed remnants, isolated ellipticals and fossil groups. Preliminary data suggests that compact groups and their high-mass counterpart, poor clusters, evolve along tracks identified in the X-ray gas - X-ray point source relation. While compact groups likely evolve into isolated elliptical galaxies, fossil groups display properties that suggest they are the remains of fully coalesced poor clusters.

  17. Effects of aerosol sources and chemical compositions on cloud drop sizes and glaciation temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zipori, Assaf; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Tirosh, Ofir; Teutsch, Nadya; Erel, Yigal

    2015-09-01

    The effect of aerosols on cloud properties, such as its droplet sizes and its glaciation temperatures, depends on their compositions and concentrations. In order to examine these effects, we collected rain samples in northern Israel during five winters (2008-2011 and 2013) and determined their chemical composition, which was later used to identify the aerosols' sources. By combining the chemical data with satellite-retrieved cloud properties, we linked the aerosol types, sources, and concentrations with the cloud glaciation temperatures (Tg). The presence of dust increased Tg from -26°C to -12°C already at relatively low dust concentrations. This result is in agreement with the conventional wisdom that desert dust serves as good ice nuclei (INs). With higher dust concentrations, Tg saturated at -12°C, even though cloud droplet sizes decreased as a result of the cloud condensation nucleating (CCN) activity of the dust. Marine air masses also encouraged freezing, but in this case, freezing was enhanced by the larger cloud droplet sizes in the air masses (caused by low CCN concentrations) and not by IN concentrations or by aerosol type. An increased fraction of anthropogenic aerosols in marine air masses caused a decrease in Tg, indicating that these aerosols served as poor IN. Anthropogenic aerosols reduced cloud droplet sizes, which further decreased Tg. Our results could be useful in climate models for aerosol-cloud interactions, as we investigated the effects of aerosols of different sources on cloud properties. Such parameterization can simplify these models substantially.

  18. The ACRIDICON-CHUVA observational study of tropical convective clouds and precipitation using the new German research aircraft HALO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendisch, Manfred; Pöschl, Ulrich; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Albrecht, Rachel; Schlager, Hans; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Krämer, Martina

    2015-04-01

    An extensive airborne/ground-based measurement campaign to study tropical convective clouds is introduced. It was performed in Brazil with focus on the Amazon rainforest from 1 September to 4 October 2014. The project combined the joint German-Brazilian ACRIDICON (Aerosol, Cloud, Precipitation, and Radiation Interactions and Dynamics of Convective Cloud Systems) and CHUVA (Machado et al.2014) projects. ACRIDICON aimed at the quantification of aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions and their thermodynamic, dynamic and radiative effects in convective cloud systems by in-situ aircraft observations and indirect measurements (aircraft, satellite, and ground-based). The ACRIDICON-CHUVA campaign was conducted in cooperation with the second Intensive Operational Phase (IOP) of the GOAmazon (Green Ocean Amazon) program. The focus in this presentation is on the airborne observations within ACRIDICON-CHUVA. The German HALO (High Altitude and Long-Range Research Aircraft) was based in Manaus (Amazonas State); it carried out 14 research flights (96 flight hours in total). HALO was equipped with remote sensing and in-situ instrumentation for meteorological, trace gas, aerosol, cloud, and precipitation measurements. Five mission objectives were pursued: (1) cloud vertical evolution (cloud profiling), (2) aerosol processing (inflow and outflow), (3) satellite validation, (4) vertical transport and mixing (tracer experiment), and (5) clouds over forested and deforested areas. The five cloud missions collected data in clean atmospheric conditions and in contrasting polluted (urban and biomass burning) environments.

  19. Shape of fair weather clouds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Zocchi, Giovanni

    2010-03-19

    We introduce a model which accounts for the shape of cumulus clouds exclusively in terms of thermal plumes or thermals. The plumes are explicitly represented by a simple potential flow generated by singularities (sources and sinks) and are thus laminar, but with their motion create a field which supports the cloud. We compare this model with actual clouds by means of various shape descriptors including the fractal dimension, and find agreement. PMID:20366506

  20. Particle cloud mixing in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, H.; Facca, L.; Tangirala, V.; Berlad, A. L.

    1989-01-01

    Quasi-steady flame propagation through clouds of combustible particles requires quasi-steady transport properties and quasi-steady particle number density. Microgravity conditions may be employed to help achieve the conditions of quiescent, uniform clouds needed for such combustion studies. Joint experimental and theoretical NASA-UCSD studies were concerned with the use of acoustic, electrostatic, and other methods of dispersion of fuel particulates. Results of these studies are presented for particle clouds in long cylindrical tubes.

  1. Cloud Occurrence Frequency at the Barrow, Alaska, ARM Climate Research Facility for 2008 Third Quarter 2009 ARM and Climate Change Prediction Program Metric Report

    SciTech Connect

    M Jensen; K Johnson; JH Mather

    2009-07-14

    Clouds represent a critical component of the Earth’s atmospheric energy balance as a result of their interactions with solar and terrestrial radiation and a redistribution of heat through convective processes and latent heating. Despite their importance, clouds and the processes that control their development, evolution and lifecycle remain poorly understood. Consequently, the simulation of clouds and their associated feedbacks is a primary source of inter-model differences in equilibrium climate sensitivity. An important step in improving the representation of cloud process simulations is an improved high-resolution observational data set of the cloud systems including their time evolution. The first order quantity needed to understand the important role of clouds is the height of cloud occurrence and how it changes as a function of time. To this end, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facilities (ACRF) suite of instrumentation has been developed to make the observations required to improve the representation of cloud systems in atmospheric models.

  2. Cloud droplet size distributions in low-level stratiform clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, N.L.; Verlinde, J.; Clothiaux, E.E.

    2000-01-15

    A database of stratus cloud droplet size distribution parameters, derived from in situ data reported in the existing literature, was created, facilitating intercomparison among datasets and quantifying typical values and their variability. From the datasets, which were divided into marine and continental groups, several parameters are presented, including the total number concentration, effective diameter, mean diameter, standard deviation of the droplet diameters about the mean diameter, and liquid water content, as well as the parameters of modified gamma and lognormal distributions. In light of these results, the appropriateness of common assumptions used in remote sensing of cloud droplet size distributions is discussed. For example, vertical profiles of mean diameter, effective diameter, and liquid water content agreed qualitatively with expectations based on the current paradigm of cloud formation. Whereas parcel theory predicts that the standard deviation about the mean diameter should decrease with height, the results illustrated that the standard deviation generally increases with height. A feature common to all marine clouds was their approximately constant total number concentration profiles; however, the total number concentration profiles of continental clouds were highly variable. Without cloud condensation nuclei spectra, classification of clouds into marine and continental groups is based on indirect methods. After reclassification of four sets of measurements in the database, there was a fairly clear dichotomy between marine and continental clouds, but a great deal of variability within each classification. The relevant applications of this study lie in radiative transfer and climate issues, rather than in cloud formation and dynamics. Techniques that invert remotely sensed measurements into cloud droplet size distributions frequently rely on a priori assumptions, such as constant number concentration profiles and constant spectral width. The

  3. Interstellar clouds and molecular hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jura, M.

    1977-01-01

    Data obtained from the Copernicus Orbiting Astronomical Observatory, launched in 1972 and still obtaining information, are used in a discussion of the interstellar medium. The Copernicus instruments have facilitated direct estimates for the density and temperature of individual interstellar clouds, and improved the ability to determine where along the line of sight a cloud lies with respect to background stars. The physical characteristics of hydrogen molecules are considered, with attention to the formation and destruction of interstellar hydrogen. The differences between 'thin' clouds, in which molecular hydrogen is optically thin, and 'thick' clouds are examined. Several features of the interstellar medium are described.

  4. Cloud formation in substellar atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helling, Christiane

    2009-02-01

    Clouds seem like an every-day experience. But-do we know how clouds form on brown dwarfs and extra-solar planets? How do they look like? Can we see them? What are they composed of? Cloud formation is an old-fashioned but still outstanding problem for the Earth atmosphere, and it has turned into a challenge for the modelling of brown dwarf and exo-planetary atmospheres. Cloud formation imposes strong feedbacks on the atmospheric structure, not only due to the clouds own opacity, but also due to the depletion of the gas phase, possibly leaving behind a dynamic and still supersaturated atmosphere. I summarise the different approaches taken to model cloud formation in substellar atmospheres and workout their differences. Focusing on the phase-non-equilibrium approach to cloud formation, I demonstrate the inside we gain from detailed microphysical modelling on for instance the material composition and grain size distribution inside the cloud layer on a Brown Dwarf atmosphere. A comparison study on four different cloud approaches in Brown Dwarf atmosphere simulations demonstrates possible uncertainties in interpretation of observational data.

  5. Cloud/climate sensitivity experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roads, J. O.; Vallis, G. K.; Remer, L.

    1982-01-01

    A study of the relationships between large-scale cloud fields and large scale circulation patterns is presented. The basic tool is a multi-level numerical model comprising conservation equations for temperature, water vapor and cloud water and appropriate parameterizations for evaporation, condensation, precipitation and radiative feedbacks. Incorporating an equation for cloud water in a large-scale model is somewhat novel and allows the formation and advection of clouds to be treated explicitly. The model is run on a two-dimensional, vertical-horizontal grid with constant winds. It is shown that cloud cover increases with decreased eddy vertical velocity, decreased horizontal advection, decreased atmospheric temperature, increased surface temperature, and decreased precipitation efficiency. The cloud field is found to be well correlated with the relative humidity field except at the highest levels. When radiative feedbacks are incorporated and the temperature increased by increasing CO2 content, cloud amounts decrease at upper-levels or equivalently cloud top height falls. This reduces the temperature response, especially at upper levels, compared with an experiment in which cloud cover is fixed.

  6. On the surface of clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Malinowski, S.P.; Zawadzki, I. )

    1993-01-01

    The cloud-environment mixing process is considered in terms of fractal properties of the cloud-clear air interface. The fractal dimension of the cloud surface is estimated from high-resolution airborne data. The value obtained is D = 2.55 in a range of scales from at least 10 m to over 1,000 m with the possibility of even greater extension. This differs significantly from values obtained in shear-generated, well-developed, and homogeneous turbulence. This distribution of filament sizes of cloudy and clear air and estimates of the cloud surface and characteristic time of mixing process are given. 22 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Empirical data from Oort's cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desemme, A. H.

    1985-01-01

    Empirical evidence on the size and origin of the Oort cloud of comets is compared with theories on the origin of the Oort cloud. Data on the binding energy of the very long period comets indicate that the Oort cloud is five times smaller than previously thought and that the mean velocity perturbation introduced by stellar passages is smaller than Oort believed. The bimodal brightness distribution of 'new' comets indicates that their formation mechanism is straightforward accretion without later fragmentation. Data on retrograde versus prograde orbits and their relevance to the rotation of the Oort cloud are examined. Models of the solar nebula are discussed in the light of the foregoing evidence.

  8. Climate zones for maritime clouds

    SciTech Connect

    White, A.B.; Ruffieux, D.; Fairall, C.W.

    1995-04-01

    In this paper we use a commercially available lidar ceilometer to investigate how the basic structure of marine boundary-layer clouds varies for four different marine climate regimes. We obtained most of the data used in this analysis from ship-based ceilometer measurements recorded during several different atmospheric and oceanographic field programs conducted in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. For comparison, we show the results obtained at a mid-latitude continental location and at an ice camp on the Arctic ice shelf. For each analyzed case, we use an extended time series to generate meaningful cloud base and cloud fraction statistics. The Vaisala CT 12K ceilometer uses a GaAs diode laser to produce short (150 ns), high-intensity pulses of infrared radiation (904 nm wavelength). The return signals from a large number of consecutive pulses are coherently summed to boost the signal-to-noise ratio. Each resulting 30-s profile of backscattered power (15-m resolution) is analyzed to detect cloud layers using a specified cloud detection limit. In addition to measurements of cloud base, the ceilometer can also provide information on cloud fraction using a time series of the {open_quotes}cloud{close_quotes} or {open_quotes} no cloud{close_quotes} status reported in the 30-s data.

  9. Evidence for the predominance of mid-tropospheric aerosols as subtropical anvil cloud nuclei.

    PubMed

    Fridlind, Ann M; Ackerman, Andrew S; Jensen, Eric J; Heymsfield, Andrew J; Poellot, Michael R; Stevens, David E; Wang, Donghai; Miloshevich, Larry M; Baumgardner, Darrel; Lawson, R Paul; Wilson, James C; Flagan, Richard C; Seinfeld, John H; Jonsson, Haflidi H; VanReken, Timothy M; Varutbangkul, Varuntida; Rissman, Tracey A

    2004-04-30

    NASA's recent Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers-Florida Area Cirrus Experiment focused on anvil cirrus clouds, an important but poorly understood element of our climate system. The data obtained included the first comprehensive measurements of aerosols and cloud particles throughout the atmospheric column during the evolution of multiple deep convective storm systems. Coupling these new measurements with detailed cloud simulations that resolve the size distributions of aerosols and cloud particles, we found several lines of evidence indicating that most anvil crystals form on mid-tropospheric rather than boundary-layer aerosols. This result defies conventional wisdom and suggests that distant pollution sources may have a greater effect on anvil clouds than do local sources. PMID:15118158

  10. Cloud and aerosol classification for 2 1/2 years of MAX-DOAS observations in Wuxi (China) and comparison to independent data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Penning de Vries, M.; Xie, P. H.; Beirle, S.; Dörner, S.; Remmers, J.; Li, A.; Wagner, T.

    2015-05-01

    Multi-Axis-Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) observations of trace gases can be strongly influenced by clouds and aerosols. Thus it is important to identify clouds and characterise their properties. In a recent study Wagner et al. (2014) developed a cloud classification scheme based on the MAX-DOAS measurements themselves with which different "sky conditions" (e.g. clear sky, continuous clouds, broken clouds) can be distinguished. Here we apply this scheme to long term MAX-DOAS measurements from 2011 to 2013 in Wuxi, China (31.57° N, 120.31° E). The original algorithm has been modified, in particular in order to account for smaller solar zenith angles (SZA). Instrumental degradation is accounted for to avoid artificial trends of the cloud classification. We compared the results of the MAX-DOAS cloud classification scheme to several independent measurements: aerosol optical depth from a nearby AERONET station and from MODIS, visibility derived from a visibility meter; and various cloud parameters from different satellite instruments (MODIS, OMI, and GOME-2). The most important findings from these comparisons are: (1) most cases characterized as clear sky with low or high aerosol load were associated with the respective AOD ranges obtained by AERONET and MODIS, (2) the observed dependences of MAX-DOAS results on cloud optical thickness and effective cloud fraction from satellite indicate that the cloud classification scheme is sensitive to cloud (optical) properties, (3) separation of cloudy scenes by cloud pressure shows that the MAX-DOAS cloud classification scheme is also capable of detecting high clouds, (4) some clear sky conditions, especially with high aerosol load, classified from MAX-DOAS observations corresponding to the optically thin and low clouds derived by satellite observations probably indicate that the satellite cloud products contain valuable information on aerosols.

  11. Waves Within Magnetic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siu Tapia, A. L.; Blanco-Cano, X.; Kajdic, P.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Russell, C. T.; Jian, L. K.; Luhmann, J. G.

    2013-05-01

    Complex events are formed by two or more large-scale structures which interact in the solar wind. Typical cases are interactions of: (i) a magnetic cloud/interplanetary coronal mass ejection (MC/ICME) with another MC/ICME transient; (ii) a MC/ICME embedded within a stream interaction region (SIR); and (iii) a MC/ICME followed by a fast stream. Using data from the STEREO mission during the years 2007-2011 we found 17 ICMEs forming complex events with an associated shock wave. All the ICMEs included in this study showed a smooth rotation of the magnetic field and low proton beta plasma, and were classified as MCs. We use magnetic field and plasma data to study the waves observed within these MCs. To determine wave characteristics we perform Power Spectra and Minimum Variance Analysis. We also analyze 10 MCs driving shocks which were not associated with complex events. We compare wave characteristics within the Magnetic Clouds forming Complex Events (MCCE), with those waves observed within the Magnetic Clouds that were isolated (IMC), i. e., not associated with complex events. Transverse and almost parallel propagating ion cyclotron waves were observed within both, MCCE and IMC. Compressive mirror mode waves were observed only within MCCE. Both modes can grow due to temperature anisotropy. Most of the mirror mode events found within MCCE are observed in regions with enhanced plasma beta. This is in agreement with kinetic theory, which predicts that mirror mode growth is favored by high plasma beta values. It is possible that the observed enhancements in plasma beta are due to compressions inside MCCE.

  12. OGLE Atlas of Classical Novae. II. Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mróz, P.; Udalski, A.; Poleski, R.; Soszyński, I.; Szymański, M. K.; Pietrzyński, G.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Ulaczyk, K.; Kozłowski, S.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Skowron, J.

    2016-01-01

    The population of classical novae in the Magellanic Clouds was poorly known because of a lack of systematic studies. There were some suggestions that nova rates per unit mass in the Magellanic Clouds were higher than in any other galaxy. Here, we present an analysis of data collected over 16 years by the OGLE survey with the aim of characterizing the nova population in the Clouds. We found 20 eruptions of novae, half of which are new discoveries. We robustly measure nova rates of 2.4 ± 0.8 yr-1 (LMC) and 0.9 ± 0.4 yr-1 (SMC) and confirm that the K-band luminosity-specific nova rates in both Clouds are 2-3 times higher than in other galaxies. This can be explained by the star formation history in the Magellanic Clouds, specifically the re-ignition of the star formation rate a few Gyr ago. We also present the discovery of the intriguing system OGLE-MBR133.25.1160, which mimics recurrent nova eruptions.

  13. Molecular Clouds in the North American and Pelican Nebulae: Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shaobo; Xu, Ye; Yang, Ji

    2014-03-01

    We present observations of a 4.25 deg2 area toward the North American and Pelican Nebulae in the J = 1-0 transitions of 12CO, 13CO, and C18O. Three molecules show different emission areas with their own distinct structures. These different density tracers reveal several dense clouds with a surface density of over 500 M ⊙ pc-2 and a mean H2 column density of 5.8, 3.4, and 11.9 × 1021 cm-2 for 12CO, 13CO, and C18O, respectively. We obtain a total mass of 5.4 × 104 M ⊙ (12CO), 2.0 × 104 M ⊙ (13CO), and 6.1 × 103 M ⊙ (C18O) in the complex. The distribution of excitation temperature shows two phases of gas: cold gas (~10 K) spreads across the whole cloud; warm gas (>20 K) outlines the edge of the cloud heated by the W80 H II region. The kinetic structure of the cloud indicates an expanding shell surrounding the ionized gas produced by the H II region. There are six discernible regions in the cloud: the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Islands and Sea, and Pelican's Beak, Hat, and Neck. The areas of 13CO emission range within 2-10 pc2 with mass of (1-5) × 103 M ⊙ and line width of a few km s-1. The different line properties and signs of star-forming activity indicate they are in different evolutionary stages. Four filamentary structures with complicated velocity features are detected along the dark lane in LDN 935. Furthermore, a total of 611 molecular clumps within the 13CO tracing cloud are identified using the ClumpFind algorithm. The properties of the clumps suggest that most of the clumps are gravitationally bound and at an early stage of evolution with cold and dense molecular gas.

  14. Martian Clouds Data Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Steven (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The major topics covered were a discussion of the structure of relational data base systems and features of the Britton Lee Relational Data Base Management System (RDBMS); a discussion of the workshop's objectives, approach, and research scenarios; and an overview of the Atmospheres Node User's Guide, which details the datasets stored on the Britton Lee, the structure of the query and data analysis system, and examples of the exact menu screens encountered. Also discussed were experience with the system, review of the system performance, and a strategy to produce queries and performance data retrievals of mutual interest. The goals were defined as examining correlations between cloud occurrence, water vapor abundance, and surface properties.

  15. A Microphysics Guide to Cirrus Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krämer, Martina; Rolf, Christian; Luebke, Anna; Afchine, Armin; Spelten, Nicole; Costa, Anja; Zöger, Martin; Smith, Jessica; Herman, Robert; Buchholz, Bernhard; Ebert, Volker; Baumgardner, Darrel; Borrmann, Stephan; Klingebiel, Marcus; Avallone, Linnea

    2015-04-01

    Cirrus clouds still represent one of the largest uncertainties in the prediction of the Earth's climate (IPCC, 2013) since their microphysical and radiative properties remain poorly or only partially characterized. One major reason is that it is difficult to measure these properties on fast-flying, high altitude aircraft. Another problem is that aircraft measurements cannot capture the evolution of the cirrus clouds properties with time. The most common parameters that are measured in cirrus clouds -besides the meteorological variables- are ice water content (IWC), number of ice crystals (Nice) and relative humidity (with respect to ice, RHice), and sometimes vertical velocity. However, it is difficult to deduce on the history of ice nucleation and development of microphysical properties from these observations. Our study aims to provide a guide to cirrus microphysics, which is compiled from an extensive set of model simulations covering the broad range of atmospheric conditions for cirrus formation and evolution. The model results are portrayed in the same parameter space as the field measurements, i.e. in the temperature - IWC parameter space. From this representation of simulated cirrus, we can relate the formation mechanism and history to specific combinations of IWC, Nice and RHice inside of cirrus as a function of temperature. We validate this analysis approach by evaluating measurements of about 60h in cirrus during fifteen aircraft campaigns conducted in the last fifteen years over Europe, Australia and Southern and Northern America. It can be shown that the field observations indeed show the characteristics expected from the cirrus guide. For example, high/low IWCs are found together with high/low Nice. As a result it is now possible to track, to a certain degree, the formation mechanism and history of the observed cirrus clouds only from the measurement of IWC and RHice. Important findings from our study are that (i) a substantial part of thick cirrus

  16. Ray Tracing for Complex Astrophysical High-opacity Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinacker, J.; Bacmann, A.; Henning, T.

    2006-07-01

    We present a ray-tracing technique for radiative transfer modeling of complex three-dimensional (3D) structures that include dense regions of high optical depth, such as that in dense molecular clouds, circumstellar disks, envelopes of evolved stars, and dust tori around active galactic nuclei. The corresponding continuum radiative transfer problem is described, and the numerical requirements for inverse 3D density and temperature modeling are defined. We introduce a relative intensity and transform the radiative transfer equation along the rays to solve machine precision problems and to relax strong gradients in the source term. For the optically thick regions where common ray tracers are forced to perform small trace steps, we give two criteria for making use of a simple approximative solver crossing the optically thick region quickly. Using an example of a density structure with optical depth changes of 6 orders of magnitude and sharp temperature variations, we demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed scheme using a common fifth-order Runge-Kutta ray tracer with adaptive step-size control. In our test case, the gain in computational speed is about a factor of 870. The method is applied in order to calculate the temperature distribution within a massive molecular cloud core for different boundary conditions for the radiation field.

  17. Why so many children are poor.

    PubMed

    Betson, D M; Michael, R T

    1997-01-01

    According to the official U.S. measure of poverty, in 1995 the child poverty rate in this country was nearly 21%, compared with an adult poverty rate of 11%. This article explores why, according to the official measure, there are so many poor children. Working from the premise that children are poor because they live with poor adults, the reasons for adult poverty are reviewed. Both economic forces and demographic trends have contributed to growing inequality of earnings among workers. That inequality coupled with stagnating real earnings has increased poverty. In addition, education, age, and race affect an individual's earning capacity; the article examines the likelihood that an individual will earn enough to keep his or her family out of poverty, given the individual's educational attainment, age, and race. The reasons for the large difference between the child and adult poverty rates are explored, using a decomposition of the poverty population to show how demographic characteristics such as higher fertility rates among poor families and the higher prevalence of single-parent families among the poor lead to substantially higher poverty rates for children than for adults. Finally, the article examines the validity of the official poverty measure and reviews how an alternative measure proposed by a National Research Council panel would address the official measure's shortcomings. If the panel's proposed measure were adopted, it would change the statistical face of poor children. It would, for example, show an increase in the proportion of poor children who live in families with two parents and a corresponding decrease in the proportion in families with only one parent, and it would show an increase in the proportion of children who live in families with at least one full-time employed adult and a corresponding decrease in the proportion in families with no adult employed full time. PMID:9299835

  18. Trace mineral feeding and assessment.

    PubMed

    Swecker, William S

    2014-11-01

    This article gives practitioners an overview of trace mineral requirements, supplementation, and assessment in dairy herds. In addition, a step-by-step guideline for liver biopsy in cows is provided with interpretive results from a sample herd. PMID:25214468

  19. Forensic trace DNA: a review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    DNA analysis is frequently used to acquire information from biological material to aid enquiries associated with criminal offences, disaster victim identification and missing persons investigations. As the relevance and value of DNA profiling to forensic investigations has increased, so too has the desire to generate this information from smaller amounts of DNA. Trace DNA samples may be defined as any sample which falls below recommended thresholds at any stage of the analysis, from sample detection through to profile interpretation, and can not be defined by a precise picogram amount. Here we review aspects associated with the collection, DNA extraction, amplification, profiling and interpretation of trace DNA samples. Contamination and transfer issues are also briefly discussed within the context of trace DNA analysis. Whilst several methodological changes have facilitated profiling from trace samples in recent years it is also clear that many opportunities exist for further improvements. PMID:21122102

  20. How Certain Trace Elements Behave.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zingaro, Ralph A.

    1979-01-01

    Fluorine, selenium, tin, and arsenic are among the trace elements occurring in the environment which are considered. Emphasis is given to developing a qualitative survey of the extent and kinds of metal transformations and their resultant effects. (CS)

  1. MODIS Collection 6 Clear Sky Restoral (CSR): Filtering Cloud Mast 'Not Clear' Pixels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Kerry G.; Platnick, Steven Edward; Wind, Galina; Riedi, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    Correctly identifying cloudy pixels appropriate for the MOD06 cloud optical and microphysical property retrievals is accomplished in large part using results from the MOD35 1km cloud mask tests (note there are also two 250m subpixel cloud mask tests that can convert the 1km cloudy designations to clear sky). However, because MOD35 is by design clear sky conservative (i.e., it identifies "not clear" pixels), certain situations exist in which pixels identified by MOD35 as "cloudy" are nevertheless likely to be poor retrieval candidates. For instance, near the edge of clouds or within broken cloud fields, a given 1km MODIS field of view (FOV) may in fact only be partially cloudy. This can be problematic for the MOD06 retrievals because in these cases the assumptions of a completely overcast homogenous cloudy FOV and 1-dimensional plane-parallel radiative transfer no longer hold, and subsequent retrievals will be of low confidence. Furthermore, some pixels may be identified by MOD35 as "cloudy" for reasons other than the presence of clouds, such as scenes with thick smoke or lofted dust, and should therefore not be retrieved as clouds. With such situations in mind, a Clear Sky Restoral (CSR) algorithm was introduced in C5 that attempts to identify pixels expected to be poor retrieval candidates. Table 1 provides SDS locations for CSR and partly cloudy (PCL) pixels.

  2. Alterations of Cloud Microphysics Due to Cloud Processed CCN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, J. G.; Tabor, S. S.; Noble, S. R., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    High-resolution CCN spectra have revealed bimodality (Hudson et al. 2015) similar to aerosol size spectra (e.g., Hoppel et al. 1985). Bimodality is caused by chemical and physical cloud processes that increase mass or hygroscopicity of only CCN that produced activated cloud droplets. Bimodality is categorized by relative CCN concentrations (NCCN) within the two modes, Nu-Np; i.e., NCCN within the higher critical supersaturation, Sc, mode that did not undergo cloud processing minus NCCN within the lower Sc mode that was cloud processed. Lower, especially negative, Nu-Np designates greater processing. The table shows regressions between Nu-Np and characteristics of clouds nearest the CCN measurements. ICE-T MASE parameter R SL R SL Nc 0.17 93.24 -0.26 98.65 MD -0.31 99.69 0.33 99.78 σ -0.27 99.04 0.48 100.00 Ld -0.31 99.61 0.38 99.96 Table. Correlation coefficients, R, and one-tailed significance levels in percent, SL, for Nu-Np with microphysics of the clouds closest to each CCN measurement, 75 ICE-T and 74 MASE cases. Nc is cloud droplet concentration, MD is cloud droplet mean diameter, σ is standard deviation of cloud droplet spectra, Ldis drizzle drop LWC. Two aircraft field campaigns, Ice in Clouds Experiment-Tropical (ICE-T) and Marine Stratus/Stratocumulus Experiment (MASE) show opposite R signs because coalescence dominated cloud processing in low altitude ICE-T cumuli whereas chemical transformations predominated in MASE low altitude polluted stratus. Coalescence reduces Nc and NCCN, which thus increases MD, and σ, which promote Ld. Chemical transformations, e.g., SO2 to SO4, increase CCN hygroscopicity, thus reducing Sc, but not affecting Nc or NCCN. Lower Sc CCN are capable of producing greater Nc in subsequent cloud cycles, which leads to lower MD and σ which reduce Ld (figure). These observations are consistent with cloud droplet growth models for the higher vertical wind (W) of cumuli and lower W of stratus. Coalescence thus reduces the indirect

  3. Trace gas effects on climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramanathan, V.; Callis, L. B., Jr.; Cess, R. D.; Hansen, J. E.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Kuhn, W. R.; Lacis, A.; Luther, F. M.; Mahlman, J. D.; Reck, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    The two primary objectives are to describe the new scientific challenges posed by the trace gas-climate problem and to summarize current strategies, and to make an assessment of the trace gas effects on troposphere-stratosphere temperature trends. Numerous reports on CO2-climate problems are examined with respect to climate modeling issues. The role of the oceans in governing the transient climate response to time varying CO2 concentrations is discussed.

  4. Cloud albedo control by cloud-top entrainment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Howard P.

    1991-01-01

    Marine stratus and stratocumulus clouds exert a considerable influence on the earth's heat budget, mainly due to their high albedos relative to the ocean surface. It is therefore important to understand the processes that control the radiative properties of these extensive cloud systems, particularly during daylight hours. Aircraft measurements of a stratocumulus cloud deck taken around local noon during the 1987 field phase of the First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project Regional Experiment are the topic of this paper. A mixing line analysis of data from a series of flight tracks across a strong gradient in cloud albedo provides evidence that variations in the water vapor content of the air above the marine inversion can be responsible for the albedo change. The implications of this unexpected result for climate modeling are discussed.

  5. A Survey of Hidden Molecular Clouds in the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, James; Gibson, S. J.; Survey Consortium, I.-GALFA

    2014-01-01

    It is critical to understand the internal processes of galaxies, such as star formation, which occurs in the coldest, densest interstellar clouds. Unlike stars, these clouds are difficult to detect in visible light, but radio and infrared telescopes allow observations of the gas and dust particles they contain. In regions of the galaxy, ambient neutral atomic hydrogen gas is forming molecules, a sign of condensing clouds. We are interested in these clouds as precursors to stellar evolution where molecular hydrogen is critical. However, it is difficult to observe molecular hydrogen directly. Thus, proxy detectors such as carbon monoxide (CO) are used as indicators of molecular hydrogen. This method is not flawless. Through a comparative study, we propose substantial dark molecular hydrogen is not detected with current methods. We use far-infrared dust emission measurements from the IRAS and the Planck satellites for two independent measures of total column density. We trace visible gas column density using radio 21-cm hydrogen emission from Arecibo and 3-mm CO data from multiple surveys. Without dark gas, the dust and visible gas column densities should be equivalent. As this is not the case, there is evidence for dark molecular hydrogen overlooked in standard observations.

  6. N2H(+) in the Orion ambient ridge - Cloud clumping versus rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Womack, Maria; Ziurys, L. M.; Sage, L. J.

    1993-01-01

    The IRAM 30-m telescope is used to obtain spectra of the J = 1 yields 0 transition of N2H(+) over a 2 x 2 arcsec area toward the Orion-KL/IRc2 star-forming region with 26-arcsec angular resolution. The N2H(+) emission, which exclusively traces the ridge gas, exhibits multiple radial velocities which appear to arise from the presence of at least four clouds of quiescent material. It is argued that the velocity structure of N2H(+) does not uniformly change across OMC-1 and, consequently, is inconsistent with the presence of large-scale differential rotation of the extended ridge along the SW-NE axis about IRc2. The coincidence of the two larger clouds with star-forming activity in Orion-KL suggests that either the quiescent gas is being pushed apart or that the star formation may have been triggered by a cloud-cloud interaction.

  7. Albedo, clouds and climate sensitivity in the CMIP3 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, F.; Rodhe, H.; Ekman, A. M.; Charlson, R.

    2010-12-01

    The albedo is a key parameter in the radiative budget of the Earth and a primary determinant of the planetary temperature and is therefore also central to questions regarding climate stability, climate change and climate sensitivity. Global climate models are essential for studying the albedo, and the parameters determining it (specifically clouds), on large spatial and temporal scales. Although models (here represented by the CMIP3 models) are able to capture the large-scale characteristics of the albedo, a bias is found between modelled and observed global albedo estimates, and on a regional scale particularly problematic regions can be identified. Many cloud parameters are poorly constrained by observations, and vary widely among models. This freedom of variability can be used in tuning models to the better constrained radiative budget, which may influence the model climate sensitivity. The effect can be kept small, compared to the range of climate sensitivities estimated by different models. Despite their different parameterizations of clouds, aerosols etc., models do have fundamental features in common, which can further the understanding of the real climate system. For instance, sensitivity to volcanic forcing is related to climate sensitivity in an ensemble of CMIP3 models. If this relation is valid for the real climate as well, observations of the volcanic sensitivity can help restrict estimates of climate sensitivity. The range of climate sensitivity estimates in models can largely be attributed to variations in cloud response to external forcing. In models with high (low) climate sensitivity, changes in cloud cover and cloud reflectivity generally enhance (counteract) a positive radiative forcing due to increased CO2 concentrations, feeding back on (damping) the warming, with a more (less) negative albedo response to the forcing. Cloud albedo is important in this regard, yet not well known. Regional cloud albedo, particularly for low-level marine

  8. Efficient Resources Provisioning Based on Load Forecasting in Cloud

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Rongdong; Jiang, Jingfei; Liu, Guangming; Wang, Lixin

    2014-01-01

    Cloud providers should ensure QoS while maximizing resources utilization. One optimal strategy is to timely allocate resources in a fine-grained mode according to application's actual resources demand. The necessary precondition of this strategy is obtaining future load information in advance. We propose a multi-step-ahead load forecasting method, KSwSVR, based on statistical learning theory which is suitable for the complex and dynamic characteristics of the cloud computing environment. It integrates an improved support vector regression algorithm and Kalman smoother. Public trace data taken from multitypes of resources were used to verify its prediction accuracy, stability, and adaptability, comparing with AR, BPNN, and standard SVR. Subsequently, based on the predicted results, a simple and efficient strategy is proposed for resource provisioning. CPU allocation experiment indicated it can effectively reduce resources consumption while meeting service level agreements requirements. PMID:24701160

  9. Halos in cirrus clouds: why are classic displays so rare?

    PubMed

    Sassen, Kenneth

    2005-09-20

    Upper tropospheric cirrus clouds consist of hexagonal ice crystals, which geometrical ray-tracing-theory predicts should regularly produce a variety of optical phenomena such as vivid 22 degrees and 46 degrees halos. Yet, cirrus inconsistently generate such optical displays, while a class of more exotic displays are reported, albeit rarely. I review current knowledge of the cirrus cloud microphysical factors that control ice crystal shape, and hence halo/arc formation, but also appeal to halo enthusiasts to help investigate the causes of unusually complex, brilliant, or rare optical displays. Currently, a wealth of meteorological information can be tapped from the Internet to help advance our knowledge of the basic meteorological factors leading to these rare events. PMID:16201430

  10. Efficient resources provisioning based on load forecasting in cloud.

    PubMed

    Hu, Rongdong; Jiang, Jingfei; Liu, Guangming; Wang, Lixin

    2014-01-01

    Cloud providers should ensure QoS while maximizing resources utilization. One optimal strategy is to timely allocate resources in a fine-grained mode according to application's actual resources demand. The necessary precondition of this strategy is obtaining future load information in advance. We propose a multi-step-ahead load forecasting method, KSwSVR, based on statistical learning theory which is suitable for the complex and dynamic characteristics of the cloud computing environment. It integrates an improved support vector regression algorithm and Kalman smoother. Public trace data taken from multitypes of resources were used to verify its prediction accuracy, stability, and adaptability, comparing with AR, BPNN, and standard SVR. Subsequently, based on the predicted results, a simple and efficient strategy is proposed for resource provisioning. CPU allocation experiment indicated it can effectively reduce resources consumption while meeting service level agreements requirements. PMID:24701160

  11. Nonlinear evolutions of bosonic clouds around black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okawa, Hirotada

    2015-11-01

    Black holes are a laboratory not only for testing the theory of gravity but also for exploring the properties of fundamental fields. Fundamental fields around a supermassive black hole give rise to extremely long-lived quasi-bound states which can in principle extract the energy and angular momentum from the black hole. To investigate the final state of such a system, the backreaction onto the spacetime becomes important because of the nonlinearity of the Einstein equation. In this paper, we review the numerical method to trace the evolution of massive scalar fields in the vicinity of black holes, how such a system originates from scalar clouds initially in the absence of black holes or from the capture of scalar clouds by a black hole, and the evolution of quasi-bound states around both a non-rotating black hole and a rotating black hole including the backreaction.

  12. Aircraft-measured indirect cloud effects from biomass burning smoke in the Arctic and subarctic

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zamora, L. M.; Kahn, R. A.; Cubison, M. J.; Diskin, G. S.; Jimenez, J. L.; Kondo, Y.; McFarquhar, G. M.; Nenes, A.; Thornhill, K. L.; Wisthaler, A.; et al

    2016-01-21

    The incidence of wildfires in the Arctic and subarctic is increasing; in boreal North America, for example, the burned area is expected to increase by 200–300% over the next 50–100 years, which previous studies suggest could have a large effect on cloud microphysics, lifetime, albedo, and precipitation. However, the interactions between smoke particles and clouds remain poorly quantified due to confounding meteorological influences and remote sensing limitations. Here, we use data from several aircraft campaigns in the Arctic and subarctic to explore cloud microphysics in liquid-phase clouds influenced by biomass burning. Median cloud droplet radii in smoky clouds were ~40–60% smallermore » than in background clouds. Based on the relationship between cloud droplet number (Nliq) and various biomass burning tracers (BBt) across the multi-campaign data set, we calculated the magnitude of subarctic and Arctic smoke aerosol–cloud interactions (ACIs, where ACI = (1/3) × dln(Nliq)/dln(BBt)) to be ~0.16 out of a maximum possible value of 0.33 that would be obtained if all aerosols were to nucleate cloud droplets. Interestingly, in a separate subarctic case study with low liquid water content (~0.02gm–3) and very high aerosol concentrations (2000–3000 cm–3) in the most polluted clouds, the estimated ACI value was only 0.05. In this case, competition for water vapor by the high concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) strongly limited the formation of droplets and reduced the cloud albedo effect, which highlights the importance of cloud feedbacks across scales. Using our calculated ACI values, we estimate that the smoke-driven cloud albedo effect may decrease local summertime short-wave radiative flux by between 2 and 4 Wm–2 or more under some low and homogeneous cloud cover conditions in the subarctic, although the changes should be smaller in high surface albedo regions of the Arctic. Furthermore, we lastly explore evidence suggesting that

  13. Aircraft-Measured Indirect Cloud Effects from Biomass Burning Smoke in the Arctic and Subarctic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zamora, L. M.; Kahn, R. A.; Cubison, M. J.; Diskin, G. S.; Jimenez, J. L.; Kondo, Y.; McFarquhar, G. M.; Nenes, A.; Thornhill, K. L.; Wisthaler, A.; Zelenyuk, A.; Ziemba, L. D.

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of wildfires in the Arctic and subarctic is increasing; in boreal North America, for example, the burned area is expected to increase by 200-300% over the next 50-100 years, which previous studies suggest could have a large effect on cloud microphysics, lifetime, albedo, and precipitation. However, the interactions between smoke particles and clouds remain poorly quantified due to confounding meteorological influences and remote sensing limitations. Here, we use data from several aircraft campaigns in the Arctic and subarctic to explore cloud microphysics in liquid-phase clouds influenced by biomass burning. Median cloud droplet radii in smoky clouds were approx. 40- 60% smaller than in background clouds. Based on the relationship between cloud droplet number (N(liq)/ and various biomass burning tracers (BBt/ across the multi-campaign data set, we calculated the magnitude of subarctic and Arctic smoke aerosol-cloud interactions (ACIs, where ACI = (1/3) x dln(N(liq))/dln(BBt)) to be approx. 0.16 out of a maximum possible value of 0.33 that would be obtained if all aerosols were to nucleate cloud droplets. Interestingly, in a separate subarctic case study with low liquid water content (0.02 gm/cu m and very high aerosol concentrations (2000- 3000/ cu cm in the most polluted clouds, the estimated ACI value was only 0.05. In this case, competition for water vapor by the high concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) strongly limited the formation of droplets and reduced the cloud albedo effect, which highlights the importance of cloud feedbacks across scales. Using our calculated ACI values, we estimate that the smoke-driven cloud albedo effect may decrease local summertime short-wave radiative flux by between 2 and 4 W/sq m or more under some low and homogeneous cloud cover conditions in the subarctic, although the changes should be smaller in high surface albedo regions of the Arctic.We lastly explore evidence suggesting that numerous northern

  14. Aircraft-measured indirect cloud effects from biomass burning smoke in the Arctic and subarctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamora, L. M.; Kahn, R. A.; Cubison, M. J.; Diskin, G. S.; Jimenez, J. L.; Kondo, Y.; McFarquhar, G. M.; Nenes, A.; Thornhill, K. L.; Wisthaler, A.; Zelenyuk, A.; Ziemba, L. D.

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of wildfires in the Arctic and subarctic is increasing; in boreal North America, for example, the burned area is expected to increase by 200-300 % over the next 50-100 years, which previous studies suggest could have a large effect on cloud microphysics, lifetime, albedo, and precipitation. However, the interactions between smoke particles and clouds remain poorly quantified due to confounding meteorological influences and remote sensing limitations. Here, we use data from several aircraft campaigns in the Arctic and subarctic to explore cloud microphysics in liquid-phase clouds influenced by biomass burning. Median cloud droplet radii in smoky clouds were ˜ 40-60 % smaller than in background clouds. Based on the relationship between cloud droplet number (Nliq) and various biomass burning tracers (BBt) across the multi-campaign data set, we calculated the magnitude of subarctic and Arctic smoke aerosol-cloud interactions (ACIs, where ACI = (1/3) × dln(Nliq)/dln(BBt)) to be ˜ 0.16 out of a maximum possible value of 0.33 that would be obtained if all aerosols were to nucleate cloud droplets. Interestingly, in a separate subarctic case study with low liquid water content ( ˜ 0.02 g m-3) and very high aerosol concentrations (2000-3000 cm-3) in the most polluted clouds, the estimated ACI value was only 0.05. In this case, competition for water vapor by the high concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) strongly limited the formation of droplets and reduced the cloud albedo effect, which highlights the importance of cloud feedbacks across scales. Using our calculated ACI values, we estimate that the smoke-driven cloud albedo effect may decrease local summertime short-wave radiative flux by between 2 and 4 W m-2 or more under some low and homogeneous cloud cover conditions in the subarctic, although the changes should be smaller in high surface albedo regions of the Arctic. We lastly explore evidence suggesting that numerous northern

  15. CloudSat View of Flossie

    NASA Video Gallery

    CloudSat passed directly over Tropical Storm Flossie on July 29 and showed cumulus and stratocumulus clouds in northern Hawaii and cumulonimbus clouds over the southern part. Large amounts of liqui...

  16. Vertical Velocity Measurements in Warm Stratiform Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luke, E. P.; Kollias, P.

    2013-12-01

    Measurements of vertical air motion in warm boundary layer clouds are key for quantitatively describing cloud-scale turbulence and for improving our understanding of cloud and drizzle microphysical processes. Recently, a new technique that produces seamless measurements of vertical air velocity in the cloud and sub-cloud layers for both drizzling and non-drizzling stratocumulus clouds has been developed. The technique combines radar Doppler spectra-based retrievals of vertical air motion in cloud and light drizzle conditions with a novel neural network analysis during heavily drizzling periods. Observations from Doppler lidars are used to characterize sub-cloud velocities and to evaluate the performance of the technique near the cloud base. The technique is applied to several cases of stratiform clouds observed by the ARM Mobile Facility during the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) campaign in Cape Cod. The observations clearly illustrate coupling of the sub-cloud and cloud layer turbulent structures.

  17. MISR Level 3 Albedo and Cloud Versioning

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-09-07

    ... 2:  CLOUD - Wind Vectors, Height Histogram Stage 1:  ALBEDO - Expansive, Restrictive and Local Albedo (except over snow and ... Stage 2 CLOUD - Height Histogram Stage 1 CLOUD - Wind Vectors Stage 1 ALBEDO - Expansive and Restrictive ...

  18. Daytime Land Cloud Detection Enhancements For The VIIRS Cloud Mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, R. A.; Heidinger, A. K.; Hutchinson, K. D.; Iisager, B.

    2005-12-01

    The first in a new series of polar-orbiting satellites, National Polar-Orbiting Operational Satellite System (NPOESS), is scheduled to be launched in 2008. The Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is a major component of the series and will replace the AVHRR instrument on operational polar orbiters. A crucial piece of the VIIRS data processing chain is the VIIRS Cloud Mask (VCM). A high quality cloud detection system is necessary as a first step for most if not all of the algorithms which produce the 18 EDRs (Environmental Data Records) from VIIRS. A cloud detection scheme similar to the one developed for MODIS data (MOD35) will be implemented for VIIRS, but several enhancements have been investigated for daytime land scenes. During daylight hours over vegetated surfaces and in the absence of snow cover, use of the high contrast between clouds and surface in visible wavelengths offers the most sensitive clear/cloud discrimination. However, visible surface reflectances vary from about 10% over tropical rain forests to as high as 50% in arid regions, making the use of a single cloud test threshold very difficult. A set of reflectance thresholds based on NDVI and scattering angle has been developed from historical AVHRR data. Clear-sky NDVIs were accumulated as a function of scattering angle over a multi-year period and from morning and afternoon satellites, from which cloud test thresholds were developed. The thresholds were then tested on several AVHRR scenes. For extremely arid scenes, where visible reflectances from clouds and surface are similar, a cloud test using 0.4 μm data has been devised. This poster describes the development of both new cloud tests and associated thresholds, from initial tests using MODIS data to the calculation and implementation of the thresholds.

  19. The Role of African Dust Particles on Cloud Chemistry and Microphysics in a Tropical Montane Cloud Forest in the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Delgado, E.; Valle-Diaz, C. J.; Baumgardner, D.; McDowell, W. H.; Gonzalez, G.; Mayol-Bracero, O. L.

    2015-12-01

    Huge amounts of African dust travels thousands of kilometers from the Sahara and Sahel regions to the Caribbean, northern South America and southern North America. However, not much is understood about how the aging process that takes place during transport changes dust properties, and how it affects cloud's composition and microphysics. In order to improve our understanding of the role of long-range transported African dust (LRTAD) in cloud formation processes we had field campaigns measuring dust physical and chemical properties in summers of 2013, 2014 and 2015, as part of the Puerto Rico African Dust and Cloud Study (PRADACS), and of the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory (LCZO). Measurements were performed at the tropical montane cloud forest (TMCF) of Pico del Este (PE, 1051 masl) and at the nature reserve of Cabezas de San Juan (CSJ, 60 masl). In both ground stations we monitored meteorological parameters (e.g., temperature, wind speed, wind direction). At CSJ, we measured light absorption and scattering at three wavelengths (467, 528 and 652 nm). At PE we collected cloud and rainwater for chemical analyses and monitored cloud microphysical properties (e.g., liquid water content, droplet size distribution, droplet number concentration, effective diameter and median volume diameter). Summer 2015 was the first attempt to characterize microphysical properties of the summer period (June to August) at PE, where dust is in its higher concentrations of the year. Samples were classified using data from models and satellites together with CSJ measurements as low or high dust influenced. Soluble ions, insoluble trace metals, pH, conductivity, total and dissolved organic carbon and total and dissolved nitrogen were measured for cloud and rainwater. Enrichment factor analysis was used to determine sea and crustal contribution of species by sample, as well as the neutralization factor and fractional acidity. Some preliminary results show cloud water conductivity for low

  20. Lake Effect Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The lake effect is particularly clear in this Sea-viewing Wide field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) true-color image of the North American Great Lakes region, acquired December 5, 2000. Lakes Nipigon, Superior, and Michigan show striking contrasts between clear and cloudy air as the wind blows from the northwest across the lakes. As it flows across the relatively warm lakes, the cold dry air gathers heat and moisture from the surface. The warm moist air rises into the atmosphere and mixes vigorously with the cold dry air above. The layer of warm moist air deepens as it travels across the lake. Some of the evaporated water from the lake condenses into streamers of fog rising from the surface, while much of the moisture condenses to form a stratocumulus cloud in the upper half of the mixed layer. The cloud-forming water droplets may freeze into ice crystals and, due to accumulated water deposition over time, grow into snowflakes. This process can generate snowstorms that produce significant amounts of snowfall downwind. It is not uncommon for lake effect snowstorms to produce as much as two feet of snow within a 24-hour period in northwestern parts of New York and Pennsylvania. Image provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  1. Trace-fossil assemblages with a new ichnogenus in "spotted"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šimo, Vladimír; Tomašových, Adam

    2013-10-01

    Highly-bioturbated "spotted" limestones and marls (Fleckenmergel-Fleckenkalk facies) of the Early Jurassic, which were deposited in broad and recurrent deep-shelf habitats of the Northern Tethys, are characterized by rare benthic carbonate-producing macroinvertebrates. To address this paradox, we analyse trace-fossil assemblages in a ~85 m-thick succession of Pliensbachian spotted deposits (Zliechov Basin, Western Carpathians). They are dominated by infaunal and semi-infaunal deposit-feeders, with 9 ichnogenera and pyritized tubes of the semi-infaunal foraminifer Bathysiphon, being dominated by Chondrites, Lamellaeichnus (new ichnogenus), and Teichichnus. Lamellaeichnus, represented by a horizontal basal cylindrical burrow and an upper row of stacked convex-up gutters, was produced by a mobile deposit-feeder inhabiting shallow tiers because it is crossed by most other trace fossils. We show that the spotty appearance of the deposits is generated by a mixture of (1) dark, organic-rich shallow- and deep-tier traces (TOC = 0.16-0.36), and (2) light grey, organic-poor mottled or structurless sediment (TOC = 0.09-0.22). The higher TOC in shallow-tier burrows of Lamellaeichnus demonstrates that uppermost sediment layers were affected by poor redox cycling. Such conditions imply a limited mixed-layer depth and inefficient nutrient recycling conditioned by hypoxic bottom-waters, allowed by poor circulation and high sedimentation rates in depocenters of the Zliechov Basin. Hypoxic conditions are further supported by (1) dominance of trace-fossils produced by infaunal deposit feeders, (2) high abundance of hypoxiatolerant agglutinated foraminifer Bathysiphon, and (3) high abundance of Chondrites with ~0.5 mm-sized branches. Oxygen-deficient bottom-conditions can thus simultaneously explain the rarity of benthic carbonate-producing macroinvertebrates and high standing abundance of tolerant soft-shell and agglutinated organisms in spotted deposits.

  2. Measuring Cloud Properties from UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicoll, K.; Harrison, R. G.; Roberts, G.

    2014-12-01

    Observations of in-situ cloud properties are an essential aspect of cloud microphysics studies. UAVs readily provide a platform from which high resolution cloud measurements can be made, both in the vertical and horizontal directions. Currently, however, one limiting factor in the use of UAVs for cloud studies is the lack of availability of lightweight, low power sensors. This work describes a number of small, disposable sensors for cloud droplet detection and electrical charge measurements, which have been flown on both free balloon and UAV platforms. The cloud droplet detector utilises optical reflection, combining a low power, high brightness LED as the optical source with a semiconductor photodiode as the detector. During daylight conditions, the photodiode detector also provides a measurement of broadband solar radiation, allowing an estimate of extinction within the cloud to be derived. The current consumption of the sensor is <30mA, and it has worked reliably in both day and night time conditions. Multiple flights of these sensors onboard UAVs with wingspan <2m (including Funjet and Easystar aircraft), made from southern France through a variety of cloud types will be presented.

  3. A Tale of Two Clouds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Terry

    2010-01-01

    The University of Washington (UW) adopted a dual-provider cloud-computing strategy, focusing initially on software as a service. The original project--to replace an obsolete alumni e-mail system--resulted in a cloud solution that soon grew to encompass the entire campus community. The policies and contract terms UW developed, focusing on…

  4. Chemical evolution of molecular clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, Sheo S.; Tarafdar, Sankar P.; Villere, Karen R.; Huntress, Wesley T., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The principles behind the coupled chemical-dynamical evolution of molecular clouds are described. Particular attention is given to current problems involving the simplest species (i.e., C. CO, O2, and H2) in quiescent clouds. The results of a comparison made between the molecular abundances in the Orion ridge and the hot core (Blake, 1986) are presented.

  5. Cloud shadow Speed Sensor (CSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Victor

    Changing cloud cover is a major source of solar radiation variability and poses challenges for the integration of solar energy. A compact and economical system that measures cloud shadow motion vectors to estimate power plant ramp rates and provide short-term forecasting is presented. The Cloud shadow Speed Sensor (CSS) is constructed using an array of luminance sensors and a high-speed data acquisition system to resolve the progression of cloud passages across the sensor footprint. An embedded microcontroller acquires the sensor data and uses a cross-correlation algorithm to determine cloud shadow motion vectors. The CSS was validated against an artificial shading test apparatus, an alternative method of cloud motion detection from ground-measured irradiance (linear cloud edge, LCE), and a UC San Diego sky imager (USI). The CSS detected artificial shadow directions and speeds to within 15° and 6 % accuracy, respectively. The CSS detected (real) cloud shadow directions and speeds with average weighted root-mean-square difference of 22° and 1.9 m s-1 when compared to USI and 33° and 1.5 m s -1 when compared to LCE results.

  6. Effective cloud fractions of GOME-2 measurements using an enhanced HICRU implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sihler, Holger; Beirle, Steffen; Grzegorski, Michael; Hörmann, Christoph; Lampel, Johannes; Penning de Vries, Marloes; Wagner, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The physics of clouds is one of the most important drivers of meteorology and the climate system. Apart from this, the distribution of clouds interferes with the majority of satellite measurement techniques. Tropospheric trace gas retrievals are particularly sensitivity to the distribution of clouds within the field-of-view of the instrument, because already small cloud fractions have the potential to alter the measurement error and significantly increase the uncertainty of the measurement. Hence, the accuracy of tropospheric trace gas retrievals depends on the accuracy of the cloud fraction, particularly for small cloud fractions. The original HICRU Iterative Cloud Retrieval Utilities (HICRU) algorithm has been specifically developed for the retrieval of small cloud fractions at high accuracy. This is achieved by inferring a clear sky top of atmosphere reflectance map from the dataset itself, minimising the influence of instrument degradation and/or insufficient calibration. HICRU thus requires a minimum of a-priori knowledge. So far, this approach was limited to measurements at sufficiently small viewing angles, such as GOME and SCIAMACHY, for which the use of a single, viewing-angle independent background albedo map is justified. Here, we demonstrate how this empirical approach may be enhanced by parametrising the viewing angle dependence of the TOA reflectance. It then becomes applicable to satellite instruments like GOME-2, OMI, and the upcoming TROPOMI/S5P with viewing angles up to 45 or even 70 degrees, by parametrising the viewing angle dependence of the TOA reflectance. Furthermore, the enhanced HICRU algorithm comprises an advanced treatment of the temporal evolution using a spatially averaged Fourier series fit. The enhanced HICRU has the potential to be applied also to instruments with moderate spectral resolution like MERIS, MODIS, or AVHRR as well.

  7. Optically thin ice clouds in Arctic; Formation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouan, Caroline; Pelon, Jacques; Girard, Eric; Blanchet, Jean-Pierre; Wobrock, Wolfram; Gayet, Jean-Franćois; Schwarzenböck, Alfons; Gultepe, Ismail; Delanoë, Julien; Mioche, Guillaume

    2010-05-01

    Arctic ice cloud formation during winter is poorly understood mainly due to lack of observations and the remoteness of this region. Yet, their influence on Northern Hemisphere weather and climate is of paramount importance, and the modification of their properties, linked to aerosol-cloud interaction processes, needs to be better understood. Large concentration of aerosols in the Arctic during winter is associated to long-range transport of anthropogenic aerosols from the mid-latitudes to the Arctic. Observations show that sulphuric acid coats most of these aerosols. Laboratory and in-situ measurements show that at cold temperature (< -30°C), acidic coating lowers the freezing point and deactivates ice nuclei (IN). Therefore, the IN concentration is reduced in these regions and there is less competition for the same available moisture. As a result, large ice crystals form in relatively small concentrations. It is hypothesized that the observed low concentration of large ice crystals in thin ice clouds is linked to the acidification of aerosols. To check this, it is necessary to analyse cloud properties in the Arctic. Extensive measurements from ground-based sites and satellite remote sensing (CloudSat and CALIPSO) reveal the existence of two types of extended optically thin ice clouds (TICs) in the Arctic during the polar night and early spring. The first type (TIC-1) is seen only by the lidar, but not the radar, and is found in pristine environment whereas the second type (TIC-2) is detected by both sensors, and is associated with high concentration of aerosols, possibly anthropogenic. TIC-2 is characterized by a low concentration of ice crystals that are large enough to precipitate. To further investigate the interactions between TICs clouds and aerosols, in-situ, airborne and satellite measurements of specific cases observed during the POLARCAT and ISDAC field experiments are analyzed. These two field campaigns took place respectively over the North Slope of

  8. Climate Effects of Cloud Modified CCN-Cloud Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, S. R., Jr.; Hudson, J. G.

    2015-12-01

    Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) play an important role in the climate system through the indirect aerosol effect (IAE). IAE is one of the least understood aspects of the climate system as many cloud processes are complicated. Many studies of aerosol-cloud interaction involve CCN interaction with cloud droplet concentrations (Nc), cloud microphysics, and radiative properties. However, fewer studies investigate how cloud processes modify CCN. Upon evaporation from non-precipitating clouds, CCN distributions develop bimodal shaped distributions (Hoppel et al. 1986). Activated CCN participate in cloud processing that is either chemical: aqueous oxidation; or physical: Brownian scavenging, collision and coalescence. Chemical processing does not change CCN concentration (NCCN) but reduces critical supersaturations (Sc; larger size) (Feingold and Kreidenweis, 2000) while physical processing reduces NCCN and Sc. These processes create the minima in the bimodal CCN distributions (Hudson et al., 2015). Updraft velocity (W) and NCCN are major factors on how these modified CCN distributions affect clouds. Panel a shows two nearby CCN distributions in the MArine Stratus/stratocumulus Experiment (MASE), which have similar concentrations, but the bimodal one (red) has been modified by cloud processing. In a simplified cloud droplet model, the modified CCN then produces higher Nc (panel b) and smaller droplet mean diameters (MD; panel c) when compared to the unmodified CCN (black) for W lower than 50 cm/s. The better CCN (lower Sc) increase competition among droplets reducing MD and droplet distribution spread (σ) which acts to reduce drizzle. Competition is created by limited available condensate due to lower S created by the low W (<50 cm/s) typical of stratus. The increased Nc of the modified CCN in stratus then increases IAE in the climate system. At higher W (>50 cm/s) typical of cumuli, Ncis reduced and MD is increased from the modified CCN distribution (panels b & c). Here

  9. ML-CIRRUS - the HALO mission on mid latitude cirrus clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, Christiane; Minikin, Andreas; Schumann, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    Clouds are a major source of uncertainty in current climate predictions. In particular, the observation of cirrus cloud variability and the classification of cirrus cloud properties in distinct meteorological regimes are prone to substantial ambiguities. Here we present results of the ML-CIRRUS mission with the German atmospheric science community high altitude long range aircraft HALO. The first in-situ cloud mission with the new research aircraft combined a state-of-the-art clould instrumentation consisting of 9 wing station probes with a novel aerosol, trace gas and radiation instrumentation and a high spectral resolution LIDAR inside the cabin. Further, a newly designed counter flow virtual impactor system allowed for the detection of ice residuals. In addition, models were specifically developed to support flight planning by forecasts of the occurrence and properties of natural cirrus (CLAMS, ECMWF) and frontal cirrus (WCB-ETH), as well as of aircraft induced clouds (CoCiP). In March and April 2014, the HALO research aircraft performed 16 flights (88 flight hours) in mid-latitude cirrus clouds and contrail cirrus at longitudes from 15 deg W to 15 deg E and latitudes from 36 to 58 deg N. Cirrus clouds with an ice water content < 0.5 mg m-3 were encountered up to 14 km altitude over a wide range of temperatures down to 204 K. More than 22 hours of in-situ observations in cirrus clouds plus remote sensing with the radiation instruments and the LIDAR onboard HALO allow to derive statistically significant data sets on microphysical and optical properties of mid latitude cirrus clouds. The clouds were observed in different meteorological regimes including jet stream cirrus, lee wave cirrus and convective clouds - with a strong focus on frontal cirrus. Besides natural cirrus, aircraft induced contrail cirrus were probed during 4 flights and an interesting contrail cirrus outbreak situation was encountered over the Atlantic. Here we present an overview and first

  10. A New WRF-Chem Treatment for Studying Regional Scale Impacts of Cloud-Aerosol Interactions in Parameterized Cumuli

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Larry K.; Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Easter, Richard C.; Fast, Jerome D.; Chapman, Elaine G.; Liu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    A new treatment of cloud-aerosol interactions within parameterized shallow and deep convection has been implemented in WRF-Chem that can be used to better understand the aerosol lifecycle over regional to synoptic scales. The modifications to the model to represent cloud-aerosol interactions include treatment of the cloud dropletnumber mixing ratio; key cloud microphysical and macrophysical parameters (including the updraft fractional area, updraft and downdraft mass fluxes, and entrainment) averaged over the population of shallow clouds, or a single deep convective cloud; and vertical transport, activation/resuspension, aqueous chemistry, and wet removal of aerosol and trace gases in warm clouds. Thesechanges have been implemented in both the WRF-Chem chemistry packages as well as the Kain-Fritsch cumulus parameterization that has been modified to better represent shallow convective clouds. Preliminary testing of the modified WRF-Chem has been completed using observations from the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS) as well as a high-resolution simulation that does not include parameterized convection. The simulation results are used to investigate the impact of cloud-aerosol interactions on the regional scale transport of black carbon (BC), organic aerosol (OA), and sulfate aerosol. Based on the simulations presented here, changes in the column integrated BC can be as large as -50% when cloud-aerosol interactions are considered (due largely to wet removal), or as large as +35% for sulfate in non-precipitating conditions due to the sulfate production in the parameterized clouds. The modifications to WRF-Chem version 3.2.1 are found to account for changes in the cloud drop number concentration (CDNC) and changes in the chemical composition of cloud-drop residuals in a way that is consistent with observations collected during CHAPS. Efforts are currently underway to port the changes described here to WRF-Chem version 3.5, and it is anticipated that they

  11. [Multifractal cloud properties data assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Gautier, C.; Ricchiazzi, P.; Peterson, P.; Lavallee, D.; Frouin, R.; Lubin, D.; Lovejoy, S.; Schertzer, D.

    1992-05-06

    Our group has been very active over the last year, analyzing a number of data sets to characterize multifractal cloud properties and assess the effects of clouds on surface radiation properties (spectral and broadband). The data sets analyzed include: AVHRR observations of clouds over the ocean, SPOT observations of clouds over the ocean, SSM/I observations of clouds over the ocean, pyranometer data with all-sky photographs, pyrgeometer data all-sky photographs, and spectral surface irradiance all-sky photographs. A number of radiative transfer computations have been performed to help in the interpretation of these observations or provide theoretical guidance for their analysis. Finally 4 number of radiative transfer models have been acquired and tested to prepare for the interpretation of ARM/CART data.

  12. Physical conditions in molecular clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Neal J., II

    1989-01-01

    Recent developments have complicated the picture of the physical conditions in molecular clouds. The discoveries of widespread emission from high-J lines of CD and 12-micron IRAS emission have revealed the presence of considerably hotter gas and dust near the surfaces of molecular clouds. These components can complicate interpretation of the bulk of the cloud gas. Commonly assumed relations between column density or mean density and cloud size are called into question by conflicting results and by consideration of selection effects. Analysis of density and density structure through molecular excitation has shown that very high densities exist in star formation regions, but unresolved structure and possible chemical effects complicate the interpretation. High resolution far-IR and submillimeter observations offer a complementary approach and are beginning to test theoretical predictions of density gradients in clouds.

  13. Trusted computing strengthens cloud authentication.

    PubMed

    Ghazizadeh, Eghbal; Zamani, Mazdak; Ab Manan, Jamalul-lail; Alizadeh, Mojtaba

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing is a new generation of technology which is designed to provide the commercial necessities, solve the IT management issues, and run the appropriate applications. Another entry on the list of cloud functions which has been handled internally is Identity Access Management (IAM). Companies encounter IAM as security challenges while adopting more technologies became apparent. Trust Multi-tenancy and trusted computing based on a Trusted Platform Module (TPM) are great technologies for solving the trust and security concerns in the cloud identity environment. Single sign-on (SSO) and OpenID have been released to solve security and privacy problems for cloud identity. This paper proposes the use of trusted computing, Federated Identity Management, and OpenID Web SSO to solve identity theft in the cloud. Besides, this proposed model has been simulated in .Net environment. Security analyzing, simulation, and BLP confidential model are three ways to evaluate and analyze our proposed model. PMID:24701149

  14. Trusted Computing Strengthens Cloud Authentication

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing is a new generation of technology which is designed to provide the commercial necessities, solve the IT management issues, and run the appropriate applications. Another entry on the list of cloud functions which has been handled internally is Identity Access Management (IAM). Companies encounter IAM as security challenges while adopting more technologies became apparent. Trust Multi-tenancy and trusted computing based on a Trusted Platform Module (TPM) are great technologies for solving the trust and security concerns in the cloud identity environment. Single sign-on (SSO) and OpenID have been released to solve security and privacy problems for cloud identity. This paper proposes the use of trusted computing, Federated Identity Management, and OpenID Web SSO to solve identity theft in the cloud. Besides, this proposed model has been simulated in .Net environment. Security analyzing, simulation, and BLP confidential model are three ways to evaluate and analyze our proposed model. PMID:24701149

  15. Cloud regimes as phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stechmann, Samuel N.; Hottovy, Scott

    2016-06-01

    Clouds are repeatedly identified as a leading source of uncertainty in future climate predictions. Of particular importance are stratocumulus clouds, which can appear as either (i) closed cells that reflect solar radiation back to space or (ii) open cells that allow solar radiation to reach the Earth's surface. Here we show that these clouds regimes -- open versus closed cells -- fit the paradigm of a phase transition. In addition, this paradigm characterizes pockets of open cells as the interface between the open- and closed-cell regimes, and it identifies shallow cumulus clouds as a regime of higher variability. This behavior can be understood using an idealized model for the dynamics of atmospheric water as a stochastic diffusion process. With this new conceptual viewpoint, ideas from statistical mechanics could potentially be used for understanding uncertainties related to clouds in the climate system and climate predictions.

  16. Analysis of cloud polarization measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, J. E.; Coffeen, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    The polarization of sunlight reflected by various cloud types was measured in the near-infrared with a polarimeter flown aboard the NASA Convair 990. The data reduction has been completed and detailed comparisons have been made between the observations and theoretical computations. The analysis presented shows that the polarization in the near-infrared can be used on a routine basis to reliably yield the cloud particle phase (water or ice) and the average particle size in the top part of water clouds (usually within + or - 25%). In some cases the polarization also yields the cloud optical thickness (or a lower limit) and a measure of the width of the particle size distribution in the top of the water clouds.

  17. Collapse models for dark interstellar clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villere, K. R.; Black, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    Properties of self-consistent numerical hydrodynamic models are compared with observed properties of several dark clouds. The results are consistent with the view that these clouds are undergoing gravitational collapse. The clouds appear to have evolved from similar initial states and to have ages comparable to their free-fall times. Derived cloud masses range between 10 and 1000 solar masses, correlating with cloud size. The models reproduce observed cloud-to-cloud variations in the (C-13)O abundance, and they offer additional evidence that the (C-13)O abundance varies within individual clouds.

  18. Comparison of Cirrus Cloud Models: A Project of the GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS) Working Group on Cirrus Cloud Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, David O'C.; Benedetti, Angela; Boehm, Matt; Brown, Philip R. A.; Gierens, Klaus M.; Girard, Eric; Giraud, Vincent; Jakob, Christian; Jensen, Eric

    2000-01-01

    The GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS, GEWEX is the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment) is a community activity aiming to promote development of improved cloud parameterizations for application in the large-scale general circulation models (GCMs) used for climate research and for numerical weather prediction. The GCSS strategy is founded upon the use of cloud-system models (CSMs). These are "process" models with sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to represent individual cloud elements, but spanning a wide range of space and time scales to enable statistical analysis of simulated cloud systems. GCSS also employs single-column versions of the parametric cloud models (SCMs) used in GCMs. GCSS has working groups on boundary-layer clouds, cirrus clouds, extratropical layer cloud systems, precipitating deep convective cloud systems, and polar clouds.

  19. Comparison of Cirrus Cloud Models: A Project of the GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS) Working Group on Cirrus Cloud Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, David OC.; Benedetti, Angela; Boehm, Matt; Brown, Philip R. A.; Gierens, Klaus M.; Girard, Eric; Giraud, Vincent; Jakob, Christian; Jensen, Eric; Khvorostyanov, Vitaly; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS, GEWEX is the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment) is a community activity aiming to promote development of improved cloud parameterizations for application in the large-scale general circulation models (GCMs) used for climate research and for numerical weather prediction (Browning et al, 1994). The GCSS strategy is founded upon the use of cloud-system models (CSMs). These are "process" models with sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to represent individual cloud elements, but spanning a wide range of space and time scales to enable statistical analysis of simulated cloud systems. GCSS also employs single-column versions of the parametric cloud models (SCMs) used in GCMs. GCSS has working groups on boundary-layer clouds, cirrus clouds, extratropical layer cloud systems, precipitating deep convective cloud systems, and polar clouds.

  20. GOT C+ Survey of [CII] 158 Micrometer Emission: Atomic to Molecular Cloud Transitions in the Inner Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velusamy, T.; Langer, W. D.; Willacy, K.; Pineda, J. L.; Goldsmith, P. F.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of the distribution of CO-dark H2 gas in a sample of 2200 interstellar clouds in the inner Galaxy (l = 90 deg to +57 deg) detected in the velocity resolved [CII] spectra observed in the GOT C+ survey using the Herschel HIFI. We analyze the [CII] intensities along with the ancillary HI, (12)CO and (13)CO data for each cloud to determine their evolutionary state and to derive the H2 column densities in the C(+) and C(+)/CO transition layers in the cloud. We discuss the overall Galactic distribution of the [CII] clouds and their properties as a function Galactic radius. GOT C+ results on the global distribution of [CII] clouds and CO-dark H2 gas traces the FUV and star formation rates in the Galactic disk.