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Sample records for poor prognosis non-aml

  1. Podocalyxin is a marker of poor prognosis in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Over two decades ago, a proposal was that two different colorectal cancer (CRC) entities existed, based on tumour location either proximal (right) or distal (left) of the splenic flexure. Proximal and distal tumours exhibit different clinical, epidemiological, and biological characteristics. Improvement of the prognostic evaluation of CRC requires new molecular markers. Podocalyxin-like 1 (PODXL), an anti-adhesive transmembrane sialomucin, is associated with an aggressive tumour phenotype and poor prognosis. For colorectal cancer, it has been suggested to be a marker of poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of PODXL in CRC by use of a novel monoclonal antibody. Methods In 1983–2001, 840 consecutive colorectal cancer patients were treated at Helsinki University Central Hospital, of whom 767 were successfully scored for PODXL immunohistochemical expression from tumour tissue microarrays by use of a novel monoclonal in-house antibody. Associations of PODXL expression and tumour location with other clinicopathological variables were explored by Fisher’s exact-test, linear-by- linear association test, and binary logistic regression. Survival analyses were done by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards model. Results PODXL protein expression was high in 44 (5.7%) specimens. High expression associated strongly with poor differentiation (p < 0.0001), advanced stage (p = 0.011), and location of the tumour in the right hemicolon (RHC) (p < 0.001). Tumours of the RHC were more poorly differentiated (p < 0.0001) and showed higher PODXL expression (p < 0.001). High PODXL expression associated significantly with higher risk for disease-specific death from CRC (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.00; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.31–3.06, p = 0.001) and also in the subgroups of left hemicolon (LHC) cancers (HR = 2.60; 95% CI 1.45–4.66, p = 0.001) and rectal cancers (HR = 3.03; 95% CI 1.54–5

  2. SPOCK1 Overexpression Confers a Poor Prognosis in Urothelial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Li-Jung; Wu, Wen-Jen; Wang, Yu-Hui; Wu, Ting-Feng; Liang, Peir-In; Chang, I-Wei; He, Hong-Lin; Li, Chien-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose:The majority deaths of cancer patients are related to metastasis, thus genes associated with cell motility interest us. SPOCK1 was elected by data mining and serial evaluation. In addition, SPOCK1 has been reported to be highly expressed in different human cancers and been related to adverse outcomes. Therefore, we validate its prognostic significance in urothelial carcinoma (UC). Materials and Methods:Real-time RT-PCR assay was used to detect SPOCK1 transcript level in 27 urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) and 27 urinary bladder urothelial carcinoma (UBUC) samples. Immunohistochemistry evaluated by H-score determined SPOCK1 expressions in 340 UTUCs and 295 UBUCs. The transcript and protein expression were correlated with clinicopathological features. Further evaluations of the prognostic significance of SPOCK1 for disease-specific survival (DSS) and metastasis-free survival (MeFS) were analyzed. Results:The expressions of SPOCK1 in UC were higher than those in normal urothelium by immunohistochemistry. The statistical analysis of clinicopathologic characteristics and immunohistochemistry showed that the higher expression of SPOCK1 was correlated to pT status (P<0.001), lymph node metastasis (UTUC, P=0.006; UBUC, P=0.033), higher histological grade (UTUC, P<0.001; UBUC, P<0.001), vascular invasion (UTUC, P<0.001; UBUC, P<0.001), perineurial invasion (UTUC, P<0.001; UBUC, P=0.001) and frequent mitosis (UTUC, P<0.001; UBUC, P=0.001). The prognosis of SPOCK1 of UC showed high SPOCK1 expression had significantly worse DSS and MeFS. Conclusions:The investigation demonstrated that the higher expression of SPOCK1 correlates with a poor prognosis in UC. PMID:26918061

  3. CYC1 Predicts Poor Prognosis in Patients with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yingyan; Sun, Shujuan; Zhao, Meisong; Zhang, Zeyu; Gong, Song; Gao, Peipei; Liu, Jia; Zhou, Jianfeng; Ma, Ding; Gao, Qinglei; Wu, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome c-1 (CYC1) is an important subunit of mitochondrial complex III. However, its role in tumor progression is unclear. We found that CYC1 was upregulated in breast tumor tissues, especially in tissues with lymph node metastasis. And higher expression of CYC1 correlates with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients using online databases and tools. Then we confirmed that CYC1 contributed to metastasis and proliferation in two highly metastatic human breast cancer cell lines. Digging into the biological function of CYC1, we found the activity of mitochondrial complex III decreased due to silencing CYC1. Then the ratio of AMP to ATP increased and AMPK was activated. Analyzing units of other mitochondrial complexes, we did not find knockdown of CYC1 expression reduced expression of any other unit of OXPHOS. We concluded that CYC1 promoted tumor metastasis via suppressing activation of AMPK and contributed to tumor growth via facilitating production of ATP. Our results indicated that CYC1 plays crucial roles in breast cancer progression and might be a predictive factor assisting future patient diagnosis.

  4. Coping with Poor Prognosis in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, David A.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The intensive care pediatrician who prophesies to parents that their child's illness is irreversible may encounter denial and hostility. Four cases are reported in which parents rejected their child's hopeless prognosis, counterprophesied miraculous cures, resolved to obtain exorcism, criticized the care, or accused nurses of neglect. Journal…

  5. Intestinal obstruction: predictor of poor prognosis in colorectal carcinoma?

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Suan, Mohd Azri; Tan, Wei Leong; Soelar, Shahrul Aiman; Ismail, Ibtisam; Abu Hassan, Muhammad Radzi

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between intestinal obstruction and the prognosis of colorectal carcinoma. METHODS: Data pertaining to 4,501 colorectal carcinoma patients were extracted from the national colorectal registry and analysed. Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method. The log-rank test was used to compare the survival rate between patients with intestinal obstruction and those without intestinal obstruction. The p-values<0.05 were considered to indicate statistical significance. Simple Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to estimate the crude hazard ratio of mortality from colorectal cancer. RESULTS: Intestinal obstruction was reported in more than 13% of patients. The 3-year survival rate after treatment was 48.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 43.9 to 52.8) for patients with intestinal obstruction (n=593) and 54.9% (95% CI, 53.1 to 56.6) for patients without intestinal obstruction (n=3,908). The 5-year survival rate for patients with intestinal obstruction was 37.3% (95% CI, 31.9 to 42.8), which was lower than that of patients without intestinal obstruction (45.6%; 95% CI, 43.5 to 47.7). After adjusting the hazard ratio for other prognostic variables, intestinal obstruction had a statistically significant negative correlation with the survival rate of colorectal cancer patients, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.22 (p=0.008). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of intestinal obstruction is associated with a lower survival rate among colorectal cancer patients. PMID:25868638

  6. Are Early Relapses in Advanced-Stage Ovarian Cancer Doomed to a Poor Prognosis?

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Fabien; Guerby, Paul; Luyckx, Mathieu; Haddad, Pascale; Stoeckle, Eberhard; Morice, Philippe; Leblanc, Eric; Lecuru, Fabrice; Daraï, Emile; Classe, Jean Marc; Pomel, Christophe; Filleron, Thomas; Ferron, Gwenael; Querleu, Denis; Rafii, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Objective Early recurrence (ER) after completion of therapeutic regimen in advanced-stage ovarian cancer is a challenging clinical situation. Patients are perceived as invariably having a poor prognosis. We investigated the possibility of defining different prognostic subgroups and the parameters implicated in prognosis of ER patients. Study Design We analyzed a multi-centric database of 527 FIGO stage IIIC and IV ovarian cancer patients. We defined patients relapsing within 12 months as ER and investigated using Cox logistic regression the prognostic factors in ER group. We subsequently divided ER patients into good and poor prognosis groups according to a lower or higher overall survival (OS) at 12 months after relapse and determined parameters associated to poor prognosis. Results The median follow up was 49 months. One hundred and thirty eight patients recurred within 12 months. OS and Disease Free Survival (DFS) were 24.6 and 8.6 months, respectively, in this group of patients. Among the ER patients, 73 had a poor prognosis with an OS after relapse below 12 months (mean OS = 5.2 months) and 65 survived after one year (mean OS = 26.9 months). Residual disease (RD) after debulking surgery and mucinous histological subtype negatively impacted prognosis (HR = 1.758, p = 0.017 and HR = 8.641, p = 0.001 respectively). The relative risk of death within 12 months following relapse in ER patients was 1.61 according to RD status. However, RD did not affect DFS (HR = 0.889, p = 0.5). Conclusion ER in advanced-stage ovarian cancer does not inevitably portend a short-term poor prognosis. RD status after initial cytoreduction strongly modulates OS, that gives additional support to the concept of maximum surgical effort even in patients who will experience early recurrence. The heterogeneity in outcomes within the ER group suggests a role for tumor biology in addition to classical clinical parameters. PMID:26820579

  7. APOBEC family mutational signatures are associated with poor prognosis translocations in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Brian A; Wardell, Christopher P; Murison, Alex; Boyle, Eileen M; Begum, Dil B; Dahir, Nasrin M; Proszek, Paula Z; Melchor, Lorenzo; Pawlyn, Charlotte; Kaiser, Martin F; Johnson, David C; Qiang, Ya-Wei; Jones, John R; Cairns, David A; Gregory, Walter M; Owen, Roger G; Cook, Gordon; Drayson, Mark T; Jackson, Graham H; Davies, Faith E; Morgan, Gareth J

    2015-01-01

    We have sequenced 463 presenting cases of myeloma entered into the UK Myeloma XI study using whole exome sequencing. Here we identify mutations induced as a consequence of misdirected AID in the partner oncogenes of IGH translocations, which are activating and associated with impaired clinical outcome. An APOBEC mutational signature is seen in 3.8% of cases and is linked to the translocation mediated deregulation of MAF and MAFB, a known poor prognostic factor. Patients with this signature have an increased mutational load and a poor prognosis. Loss of MAF or MAFB expression results in decreased APOBEC3B and APOBEC4 expression, indicating a transcriptional control mechanism. Kataegis, a further mutational pattern associated with APOBEC deregulation, is seen at the sites of the MYC translocation. The APOBEC mutational signature seen in myeloma is, therefore, associated with poor prognosis primary and secondary translocations and the molecular mechanisms involved in generating them. PMID:25904160

  8. Circulating Carnosine Dipeptidase 1 Associates with Weight Loss and Poor Prognosis in Gastrointestinal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Arner, Peter; Henjes, Frauke; Schwenk, Jochen M.; Darmanis, Spyros; Dahlman, Ingrid; Iresjö, Britt-Marie; Naredi, Peter; Agustsson, Thorhallur; Lundholm, Kent; Nilsson, Peter; Rydén, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Background Cancer cachexia (CC) is linked to poor prognosis. Although the mechanisms promoting this condition are not known, several circulating proteins have been proposed to contribute. We analyzed the plasma proteome in cancer subjects in order to identify factors associated with cachexia. Design/Subjects Plasma was obtained from a screening cohort of 59 patients, newly diagnosed with suspected gastrointestinal cancer, with (n = 32) or without (n = 27) cachexia. Samples were subjected to proteomic profiling using 760 antibodies (targeting 698 individual proteins) from the Human Protein Atlas project. The main findings were validated in a cohort of 93 patients with verified and advanced pancreas cancer. Results Only six proteins displayed differential plasma levels in the screening cohort. Among these, Carnosine Dipeptidase 1 (CNDP1) was confirmed by sandwich immunoassay to be lower in CC (p = 0.008). In both cohorts, low CNDP1 levels were associated with markers of poor prognosis including weight loss, malnutrition, lipid breakdown, low circulating albumin/IGF1 levels and poor quality of life. Eleven of the subjects in the discovery cohort were finally diagnosed with non-malignant disease but omitting these subjects from the analyses did not have any major influence on the results. Conclusions In gastrointestinal cancer, reduced plasma levels of CNDP1 associate with signs of catabolism and poor outcome. These results, together with recently published data demonstrating lower circulating CNDP1 in subjects with glioblastoma and metastatic prostate cancer, suggest that CNDP1 may constitute a marker of aggressive cancer and CC. PMID:25898255

  9. MACC1 upregulation promotes gastric cancer tumor cell metastasis and predicts a poor prognosis*

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Qiu-ping; Xiang, Cheng; Wang, Gang; Lei, Ke-feng; Wang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    In various studies, metastasis associated with colon cancer 1 (MACC1) has been frequently reported to be abnormally highly expressed in human lung cancer, colon cancer, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Our study focuses on the association of MACC1 expression with gastric cancer (GC). During our experiment, the MACC1 expression was tested in 105 GC samples using an immunohistochemical (IHC) method. The clinical characteristics and prognosis of these patients were summarized. During analysis, MACC1 distribution in GC samples with distant metastasis was higher than that in normal samples and in tumors with no dissemination. Subsequently, a lower 5-year survival rate had a strong correlation with high MACC1 expression. As a consequence, the present results suggest that MACC1 is more frequently expressed in a poor prognosis phenotype of GC and acts as a promising prognostic prediction parameter for GC. PMID:27143263

  10. Malignant Melanoma of the Urethra: A Rare Histologic Subdivision of Vulvar Cancer with a Poor Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Günther, Veronika; Alkatout, I.; Lez, C.; Altarac, S.; Fures, R.; Cupic, H.; Persec, Z.; Hrgovic, Z.; Mundhenke, C.

    2012-01-01

    Malignant melanoma of the urethra is a rare tumour that is difficult to diagnose and treat, resulting in a poor prognosis. In this paper, we present the case of a 65-year-old woman who was referred to a gynaecologist because of a urethral mass that mimicked a caruncle. The tumour was removed by local excision, and a pathological analysis revealed a malignant melanoma. Distal urethrectomy was performed after three months with no evidence of residual tumour. There was no evidence of disease at a six-year followup. In this paper, we compare the epidemiology, treatment, staging, and prognosis of vulvar cancer in general to malignant melanoma of the vulva in particular. PMID:23320214

  11. Low Expression of Mir-137 Predicts Poor Prognosis in Cutaneous Melanoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Background The present study aimed to measure miR-137 expression in patients with cutaneous melanoma (CM) and to estimate the correlation of miR-137 expression and the prognosis of CM patients. Material/Methods The expression level of miR-137 was assayed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and presented as mean ±SD. Chi-square was used to evaluate the relationship between miR-137 expression and clinical characteristics. We used a Kaplan-Meier survival curve to determine the overall survival rate of CM patients. Moreover, the correlation between miR-137 expression and the prognosis of CM patients was confirmed by Cox regression analysis. Results The relative expression of miR-137 in CM tissue was 1.59±0.43, while that in paired normal tissue was 2.41±0.54, which was significantly higher. Chi-square analysis showed statistical significance between miR-137 expression and clinical characteristics such as TNM stage, ulcer, and occurrence site (P<0.05). However, no association was found between miR-137 expression and age, sex, or family history (P>0.05). According to the survival curve outcome, patients with low miR-137 expression showed relatively higher mortality (P=0.000) and multivariate analysis verified that low expression of miR-137 predicted poor prognosis of CM patients (HR=8.531, 95% CI=2.950–24.668, P=0.000). Conclusions Compared with paired normal tissues, miR-137 expression was lower in CM tissues. Patients with low miR-137 expression had higher mortality than those with high miR-137 expression, suggesting that low miR-137 expression indicated poor prognosis for CM patients. PMID:26763596

  12. Low CDX1 expression predicts a poor prognosis for hepatocellular carcinoma patients after hepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hao; Yang, Yuan; Wang, Meng-Chao; Yuan, Sheng-Xian; Tian, Tao; Han, Jun; Ni, Jun-Sheng; Wang, Jian; Xing, Hao; Zhou, Wei-Ping

    2016-09-01

    The caudal-type homeobox 1 (CDX1) transcription factor is a member of the caudal-related homeobox transcription factor gene family and has been reported to be down-regulated in a variety of cancers. However, the expression status and significance of CDX1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still controversial, and little is known about the role of CDX1 in HCC·In our previous study, we investigated the expression and clinical significance of CDX1 in HCC samples from 313 HCC patients. We found CDX1 was strikingly down-regulated in HCC samples. CDX1 expression was associated with poor differentiation (P = 0.002), and patients with low CDX1 expression had a significantly poorer prognosis. A subgroup analysis revealed a difference in prognosis between groups with low and high CDX1 expression among patients who had tumors <5 cm in size and who were alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) negative. Moreover, low expression was more frequently observed in the early recurrence group (within 2 years, P = 0.002). In addition, multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that the CDX1 expression level, tumor size, presence of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), vascular invasion, and presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) were independent risk factors for HCC recurrence, and the CDX1 expression level, tumor size, tumor number, and presence of HBsAg were independent predictor of overall survival of HCC patients. In conclusion, the downregulation of CDX1 is associated with poor prognosis; and it may serve as a novel predictor of the prognosis of HCC patients after curative resection. PMID:27566019

  13. Long noncoding RNA SNHG1 predicts a poor prognosis and promotes hepatocellular carcinoma tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Wang, Wei; Li, Tianyue; Yu, Xiaodong; Zhu, Yufeng; Ding, Feng; Li, Dongsheng; Yang, Tao

    2016-05-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the main cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Its poor prognosis is mainly ascribed to high recurrence rate. Identifying novel prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets would be vital for HCC management. Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) is a class of RNA with various roles in tumorigenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance and functions of lncRNA-small nucleolar RNA host gene 1 (SNHG1) in HCC. In this study, we found SNHG1 was upregulated in HCC tissues in comparison with adjacent liver tissues in both publicly available microarray data and our own cohort. High SNHG1 expression was correlated with large tumor size, poor differentiation, and aggressive BCLC stage. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated that high SNHG1 expression predicts poor prognosis of HCC patients. Gain-of-function and loss-of function experiments showed that SNHG1 promotes HCC cells proliferation, cell cycle progression, and inhibits HCC cells apoptosis. Further experiments revealed that SNHG1 promotes HCC cells proliferation through inhibiting p53 and p53-target genes expression. Collectively, our results demonstrated the clinical prognostic significance and roles of SNHG1 in HCC, and suggested that SNHG1 may be considered as a prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for HCC. PMID:27133041

  14. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 circumscribes high invasive glioma cells and predicts poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Sen-Lin; Liu, Sha; Cui, Wei; Shi, Yu; Liu, Qin; Duan, Jiang-Jie; Yu, Shi-Cang; Zhang, Xia; Cui, You-Hong; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Bian, Xiu-Wu

    2015-01-01

    Glioma is the most aggressive brain tumor with high invasiveness and poor prognosis. More reliable, sensitive and practical biomarkers to reveal glioma high invasiveness remain to be explored for the guidance of therapy. We herein evaluated the diagnostic and prognostic value of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) in the glioma specimens from 237 patients, and found that ADLH1A1 was frequently overexpressed in the high-grade glioma (WHO grade III-IV) as compared to the low-grade glioma (WHO grade I-II) patients. The tumor cells with ALDH1A1 expression were more abundant in the region between tumor and the borderline of adjacent tissue as compared to the central part of the tumor. ALDH1A1 overexpression was associated with poor differentiation and dismal prognosis. Notably, the overall and disease-free survivals of the patients who had ALDH1A1(+) tumor cells sparsely located in the adjacent tissue were much worse. Furthermore, ALDH1A1 expression was correlated with the "classical-like" (CL) subtype as we examined GBM specimens from 72 patients. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that ALDH1A1 was an independent marker for glioma patients' outcome. Mechanistically, both in vitro and in vivo studies revealed that ALDH1A1(+) cells isolated from either a glioblastoma cell line U251 or primary glioblastoma cells displayed significant invasiveness, clonogenicity, and proliferation as compared to ALDH1A1(-) cells, due to increased levels of mRNA and protein for matrix metalloproteinase 2, 7 and 9 (MMP2, MMP7 and MMP9). These results indicate that ALDH1A1(+) cells contribute to the progression of glioma including invasion, proliferation and poor prognosis, and suggest that targeting ALDH1A1 may have important implications for the treatment of highly invasive glioma. PMID:26101711

  15. URI1 amplification in uterine carcinosarcoma associates with chemo-resistance and poor prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Garabedian, Michael J; Logan, Susan K

    2015-01-01

    Uterine carcinosarcoma (UCS) is a rare type of cancer and accounts for 5% of uterine malignancies. However, UCS patients suffer a high prevalence of chemo-resistance and a very poor prognosis compared to uterine cancer patients. URI is a chaperone with functions in transcription. We analyzed the somatic URI1 copy number variation in 57 post-menopausal non-metastatic UCS patients in comparison to 363 uterine corpus endometrial carcinomas. URI1 amplification was detected in 40% (23/57) of primary UCS and 5.5% (20/363) of uterine carcinomas. UCS patients with URI1 amplification exhibited 13% (3/23) tumor-free survival compared to 41% (14/34) in the absence of URI amplification (P=0.023). URI1 amplification (OR=6.54, P=0.027), weight (OR=1.068, P=0.024), hypertension (OR=3.35, P=0.044), and tumor stage (OR=2.358, P=0.018) associated with poor survival. Patients treated with hormone replacement therapy (OR=15.87, P=0.011) displayed enhanced overall survival. Combined radiation and chemotherapy improved patient survival (median survival=2043 days) compared to single (median survival=597 days) or no treatment (median survival=317 days, P=0.0016). Importantly, patients with URI1 amplification had poor response to adjuvant treatment compared to control group (P=0.013). Tumors with URI1 amplification displayed decreased transcription of genes encoding tumor suppressor and apoptotic regulators and increased expression of genes regulating oncogenesis, survival and metastasis. Overexpression of URI1 in a cultured cell model induced ATM expression and resistance to cisplatin. Our findings suggest that high prevalence in UCS may associate with poor prognosis and worse response to adjuvant treatment. PMID:26328264

  16. [HEMIHEPATECTOMY FOR RESECTABLE HEPATIC METASTASIS FROM COLORECTAL CANCER WITH POOR PROGNOSIS].

    PubMed

    Patyutko, Yu I; Kotelnikov, A G; Mamontov, K G; Podluzhny, D V; Ponomarenko, A A

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed at improvement of treatment effects for patients with resectable metastases of colorectal cancer in the liver with a poor prognosis. Overall 437 patients were enrolled with metastatic colorectal cancer in the liver exhibiting at least one adverse factor of long-term prognosis: multiple metastases, bilobar liver metastases, large metastases, the presence of extrahepatic metastases, etc. Combined treatment was performed for 339 (78%) patients: combined treatment with adjuvant systemic chemotherapy (163 patients), combined treatment with perioperative systemic chemotherapy (54 patients), or combined treatment of perioperative regional chemotherapy (122 patients). Surgical treatment was performed in 66 (15%) patients. The remaining group of 32 (7%) patients with resectable metastases who received only systemic chemotherapy was considered separately. All liver resections were extensive due to the widespread metastases. The complication rate stood at 56%. Mortality among operated patients was 4%. Postoperative mortality and complications as well as the intraoperative blood loss were not statistically different in two groups. Adding bevacizumab to preoperative chemotherapy did not increase blood loss. After combined treatment with adjuvant chemotherapy a 5-year survival was 26 ± 4% that significantly outperforming a 5-year survival rate after surgery (17 ± 5%), after just drug treatment a 5-year survival has not been reached, and also after combined treatment with perioperative systemic chemotherapy (13 ± 5%) and not statistically significant exceeded a 5-year survival after combined treatment with perioperative regional chemotherapy (20 ±5%). Thus our study demonstrates the benefits of combined treatment with adjuvant systemic chemotherapy for resectable metastases of colorectal cancer in the liver with a poor prognosis. For initially unresectable metastases with extrahepatic manifestations of the disease treatment should be begun with

  17. Epidermal elafin expression is an indicator of poor prognosis in cutaneous graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Brüggen, Marie-Charlotte; Petzelbauer, Peter; Greinix, Hildegard; Contassot, Emmanuel; Jankovic, Dragana; French, Lars; Socié, Gérard; Rabitsch, Werner; Kuzmina, Zoya; Kalhs, Peter; Knobler, Robert; Stingl, Georg; Stary, Georg

    2015-04-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains a common and potentially life-threatening complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In the skin, GVHD can present in an acute (aGVHD), chronic lichenoid (clGVHD), or chronic sclerotic form (csGVHD). Measuring peripheral blood levels of the keratinocyte-derived protease inhibitor elafin has recently emerged as a promising tool for the diagnosis of cutaneous aGVHD. We evaluated whether the analysis of elafin expression in skin would allow distinguishing aGVHD from drug hypersensitivity rashes (DHR) and whether cutaneous elafin expression would correlate with disease severity or altered prognosis of aGVHD and clGVHD/csGVHD. Skin biopsies from aGVHD (n=22), clGVHD (n=15), csGVHD (n=7), and DHR (n=10) patients were collected and epidermal elafin expression and its association with diverse clinical/histological parameters were analyzed. Acute GVHD and DHR displayed varying degrees of elafin expression. No elafin was detectable in csGVHD, whereas the molecule was increased in clGVHD as compared with aGVHD. Elafin-high aGVHD/clGVHD lesions presented with epidermal thickening and were associated with poor prognosis-i.e., decreased overall survival in aGVHD and corticosteroid resistance in clGVHD. Although cutaneous elafin does not seem to discriminate aGVHD from DHR lesions, our study strongly suggests an association between cutaneous elafin expression and poor prognosis for patients with cutaneous GVHD. PMID:25405322

  18. HLA-A11 is associated with poor prognosis in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).

    PubMed

    Orgad, S; Cohen, I J; Neumann, Y; Vogel, R; Kende, G; Ramot, B; Zaizov, R; Gazit, E

    1988-12-01

    A possible association between HLA antigens, susceptibility or resistance to leukemia, and responsiveness to treatment has been studied in 144 patients with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and compared to other prognostic factors, i.e. white blood cell (WBC) counts, age at onset, sex, ethnic origin, and cell surface markers. All sequentially newly diagnosed children (97) comprised the group for the prospective study (PSG) and were followed for 6 years. The group included 37 patients classified as T-ALL, 41 as CALLA+, 27 as NULL, 12 as B and pre-B, and 27 unclassified patients, who were diagnosed before 1980. During the follow-up period, 45 patients of the PSG died. Forty-seven patients designated long-term survivors (LTS) have been followed 6-20 years after diagnosis, having completed a 3-5 year course of anti-leukemia therapy, and having remained disease free thereafter. High WBC counts at diagnosis and T-cell-surface markers were associated with poor prognosis, as were enthnic origin and specific HLA antigens. Thus, there was one (1) a significant increase in HLA-A30 and a decrease in HLA B-14 in the PSG Jewish patients; and (2) a complete absence of HLA-ALL in LTS while, in the PSG, 8 of 9 HLA-All-positive patients died during the follow-up period. This suggests that HLA-All is associated with poor prognosis in childhood ALL. PMID:3199882

  19. Elevated Aurora B expression contributes to chemoresistance and poor prognosis in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiqian; Jiang, Chunling; Li, Huilan; Lv, Feng; Li, Xiaoyan; Qian, Xiaolong; Fu, Li; Xu, Bo; Guo, Xiaojing

    2015-01-01

    Aurora-B is a major kinase responsible for appropriate mitotic progression. Elevated expression of Aurora-B has been frequently associated with several types of cancer, including breast cancer. However, it is not clear whether the alteration contributes to tumor responses to therapies and prognosis. In this study, we conducted immunohistochemistry using antibodies against Aurora-B, S1981p-ATM, Ki67, and p53 in paraffin-embedded tumor tissues from 312 invasive breast cancer patients. The correlation between disease-free-survival (DFS) and Aurora-B expression was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. A Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to determine whether Aurora-B was an independent prognostic factor for breast cancer. We found that Aurora-B expression was correlated with the proliferation index (P < 0.001) and p53 expression (P = 0.014) in breast cancer tissues. Further we found that Aurora-B expression was associated with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.002) and histological grade (P = 0.001). Multivariate analyses indicated that elevated Aurora-B expression predicted a poor survival. In a subgroup of patients that received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, we found that elevated Aurora-B contributed to chemoresistance (P = 0.011). In conclusion, elevated Aurora-B expression in breast cancer patients contributes to chemoresistance and predicts poor prognosis. PMID:25755770

  20. Podocalyxin Is a Marker of Poor Prognosis in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Saukkonen, Kapo; Hagström, Jaana; Mustonen, Harri; Juuti, Anne; Nordling, Stig; Fermér, Christian; Nilsson, Olle; Seppänen, Hanna; Haglund, Caj

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the Study Podocalyxin-like 1 is a transmembrane glyco-protein whose overexpression associates in many cancers with poor prognosis and unfavorable clinicopathological characteristics. Until now, its prognostic value has never been studied in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The aim of this study was to investigate podocalyxin expression in PDAC by a novel monoclonal antibody and a commercially available polyclonal antibody. Patients and Materials With tissue microarrays and immuno-histochemistry, podocalyxin expression evaluation involved 168 PDAC patients. The associa-tions of the podocalyxin tumor expression with clinicopathological variables were explored by Fisher’s exact test and the linear-by-linear test. Survival analyses were by Kaplan-Meier anal-ysis and the Cox proportional hazard model. Results The polyclonal antibody revealed membranous podocalyxin expression in 73 (44.0%) specimens and the monoclonal antibody was highly expressed in 36 (21.8%) cases. Membranous expression by the polyclonal antibody was associated with T classification (p=0.045) and perineural invasion (p=0.005), and high expression by the mono-clonal antibody with poor differentiation (p=0.033). High podocalyxin expression associated significantly with higher risk of death from PDAC by both the polyclonal antibody (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.62; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12-2.33; p=0.01) and the monoclonal antibody (HR = 2.10, 95% CI 1.38-3.20; p<0.001). The results remained significant in multivariate analysis, adjusted for age, gender, stage, lymph node ratio (≥/< 20%), and perivascular invasion (respectively as HR = 2.03; 95% CI 1.32-3.13, p=0.001; and as HR = 2.36; 95% CI 1.47-3.80, p<0.001). Conclusion We found podocalyxin to be an independent factor for poor prognosis in PDAC. To our knowledge, this is the first such report of its prognostic value. PMID:26053486

  1. Genetic Predictors of Poor Prognosis in Portuguese Patients with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: Data from Reuma.pt

    PubMed Central

    Mourão, Ana Filipa; Santos, Maria José; Mendonça, Sílvia; Oliveira-Ramos, Filipa; Salgado, Manuel; Estanqueiro, Paula; Melo-Gomes, José; Martins, Fernando; Lopes, Ana; Bettencourt, Bruno Filipe; Bruges-Armas, Jácome; Costa, José; Furtado, Carolina; Figueira, Ricardo; Brito, Iva; Branco, Jaime; Fonseca, João Eurico; Canhão, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. This study aimed to assess the genetic determinants of poor outcome in Portuguese patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Methods. Our study was conducted in Reuma.pt, the Rheumatic Diseases Portuguese Register, which includes patients with JIA. We collected prospectively patient and disease characteristics and a blood sample for DNA analysis. Poor prognosis was defined as CHAQ/HAQ >0.75 at the last visit and/or the treatment with biological therapy. A selected panel of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with susceptibility was studied to verify if there was association with poor prognosis. Results. Of the 812 patients with JIA registered in Reuma.pt, 267 had a blood sample and registered information used to define “poor prognosis.” In univariate analysis, we found significant associations with poor prognosis for allele A of TNFA1P3/20 rs6920220, allele G of TRAF1/C5 rs3761847, and allele G of PTPN2 rs7234029. In multivariate models, the associations with TRAF1/C5 (1.96 [1.17–3.3]) remained significant at the 5% level, while TNFA1P3/20 and PTPN2 were no longer significant. Nevertheless, none of associations found was significant after the Bonferroni correction was applied. Conclusion. Our study does not confirm the association between a panel of selected SNP and poor prognosis in Portuguese patients with JIA. PMID:26504858

  2. Chronic Activation of Innate Immunity Correlates With Poor Prognosis in Cancer Patients Treated With Oncolytic Adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Taipale, Kristian; Liikanen, Ilkka; Juhila, Juuso; Turkki, Riku; Tähtinen, Siri; Kankainen, Matti; Vassilev, Lotta; Ristimäki, Ari; Koski, Anniina; Kanerva, Anna; Diaconu, Iulia; Cerullo, Vincenzo; Vähä-Koskela, Markus; Oksanen, Minna; Linder, Nina; Joensuu, Timo; Lundin, Johan; Hemminki, Akseli

    2016-02-01

    Despite many clinical trials conducted with oncolytic viruses, the exact tumor-level mechanisms affecting therapeutic efficacy have not been established. Currently there are no biomarkers available that would predict the clinical outcome to any oncolytic virus. To assess the baseline immunological phenotype and find potential prognostic biomarkers, we monitored mRNA expression levels in 31 tumor biopsy or fluid samples from 27 patients treated with oncolytic adenovirus. Additionally, protein expression was studied from 19 biopsies using immunohistochemical staining. We found highly significant changes in several signaling pathways and genes associated with immune responses, such as B-cell receptor signaling (P < 0.001), granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) signaling (P < 0.001), and leukocyte extravasation signaling (P < 0.001), in patients surviving a shorter time than their controls. In immunohistochemical analysis, markers CD4 and CD163 were significantly elevated (P = 0.020 and P = 0.016 respectively), in patients with shorter than expected survival. Interestingly, T-cell exhaustion marker TIM-3 was also found to be significantly upregulated (P = 0.006) in patients with poor prognosis. Collectively, these data suggest that activation of several functions of the innate immunity before treatment is associated with inferior survival in patients treated with oncolytic adenovirus. Conversely, lack of chronic innate inflammation at baseline may predict improved treatment outcome, as suggested by good overall prognosis. PMID:26310629

  3. Decreased FOXD3 Expression Is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Patients with High-Grade Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dongliang; Zhang, Qingjun; Xue, Yake; Jiao, Hongliang; Zhan, Lei; Ma, Qian; Wei, Xinting

    2015-01-01

    Background The transcription factor forkhead box D3 (FOXD3) plays important roles in the development of neural crest and has been shown to suppress the development of various cancers. However, the expression and its potential biological roles of FOXD3 in high-grade gliomas (HGGs) remain unknown. Methods The mRNA and protein expression levels of FOXD3 were examined using real-time quantitative PCR and western blotting in 23 HGG and 13 normal brain samples, respectively. Immunohistochemistry was used to validate the expression FOXD3 protein in 184 HGG cases. The association between FOXD3 expression and the prognosis of HGG patients were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional hazards regression models. In addition, we further examined the effects of FOXD3 on the proliferation and serum starvation-induced apoptosis of glioma cells. Results In comparison to normal brain tissues, FOXD3 expression was significantly decreased in HGG tissues at both mRNA and protein levels. Immunohistochemistry further validated the expression of FOXD3 in HGG tissues. Moreover, low FOXD3 expression was significantly associated with poor prognosis in HGG patients. Depletion of FOXD3 expression promoted glioma cell proliferation and inhibited serum starvation-induced apoptosis, whereas overexpression of FOXD3 inhibited glioma cell proliferation and promoted serum starvation-induced apoptosis. Conclusions Our results indicated that FOXD3 might serve as an independent prognostic biomarker and a potential therapeutic target for HGGs, which warrant further investigation. PMID:26011451

  4. CHKA mediates the poor prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma and acts as a prognostic indicator

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Chen, Ping; Yang, Shen; Li, Guodong; Bao, Wentao; Wu, Peng; Jiang, Shujuan

    2016-01-01

    Choline kinase α (CHKA), the enzyme that converts choline to phosphocholine, has been studied in human carcinogenesis widely. However, the expression and underlying clinicopathological characteristics of CHKA in lung adenocarcinoma remains elusive. In the present study, a tissue microarray of 119 pairs of lung adenocarcinoma samples and corresponding adjacent normal mucosae was used to analysis CHKA expression by immunohistochemistry, and CHKA was observed to exhibit enhanced expression in lung adenocarcinoma tissues. Elevated CHKA expression in lung adenocarcinoma tissues at the gene and protein level was observed. The levels of CHKA expression were closely associated with the poor prognosis status of lung adenocarcinoma patients. Furthermore, certain clinicopathological characteristics such as tumor diameter and differentiation were observed to be significant in those lung adenocarcinoma patients who displayed enhanced CHKA expression. The analysis of CHKA expression could provide a more precise way to predict the prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma patients. Collectively, the present study revealed a novel biomarker in lung adenocarcinoma, and indicated that CHKA may be a promising prognostic marker and therapeutic target for lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:27588131

  5. Subclonal mutations in SETBP1 confer a poor prognosis in juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Troup, Camille B.; Gelston, Laura C.; Haliburton, John; Chow, Eric D.; Yu, Kristie B.; Akutagawa, Jon; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro N.; Liu, Y. Lucy; Wang, Yong-Dong; Beckman, Kyle; Emanuel, Peter D.; Braun, Benjamin S.; Abate, Adam; Gerbing, Robert B.; Alonzo, Todd A.; Loh, Mignon L.

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) is an aggressive myeloproliferative neoplasm of childhood associated with a poor prognosis. Recently, massively parallel sequencing has identified recurrent mutations in the SKI domain of SETBP1 in a variety of myeloid disorders. These lesions were detected in nearly 10% of patients with JMML and have been characterized as secondary events. We hypothesized that rare subclones with SETBP1 mutations are present at diagnosis in a large portion of patients who relapse, but are below the limits of detection for conventional deep sequencing platforms. Using droplet digital polymerase chain reaction, we identified SETBP1 mutations in 17/56 (30%) of patients who were treated in the Children’s Oncology Group sponsored clinical trial, AAML0122. Five-year event-free survival in patients with SETBP1 mutations was 18% ± 9% compared with 51% ± 8% for those without mutations (P = .006). PMID:25395418

  6. NEK2 regulates stem-like properties and predicts poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shuang; Zhou, Senjun; Jiang, Shaojie; Liu, Xiaolong; Wang, Yifan; Zheng, Xueyong; Zhou, Haimeng; Li, Xuhui; Cai, Xiujun

    2016-08-01

    NEK2 has been estimated to play an important role in cancer progression. However, its relevance in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not yet been explored. Immunohistochemistry revealed NEK2 expression was upregulated in HCC. NEK2-positive hepatocellular carcinoma patients were associated with poor prognosis after surgery compared with NEK2-negative patients based on Kaplan-Meier curves. Deletion of NEK2 reduced self-renewal properties and chemotherapeutic resistance, and decreased the stemness associated genes in cell lines. NEK2 was associated with unfavorable outcomes in HCC patients, and was revealed to regulate self-renewal property by means of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, and chemotherapeutic resistance by preferential regulation of the expression of ABCG2 and ALDH1A1 in HCC cells. PMID:27349376

  7. Identification and targeting of a TACE-dependent autocrine loopwhich predicts poor prognosis in breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kenny, Paraic A.; Bissell, Mina J.

    2005-06-15

    The ability to proliferate independently of signals from other cell types is a fundamental characteristic of tumor cells. Using a 3D culture model of human breast cancer progression, we have delineated a protease-dependent autocrine loop which provides an oncogenic stimulus in the absence of proto-oncogene mutation. Inhibition of this protease, TACE/ADAM17, reverts the malignant phenotype by preventing mobilization of two crucial growth factors, Amphiregulin and TGF{alpha}. We show further that the efficacy of EGFR inhibitors is overcome by physiological levels of growth factors and that successful EGFR inhibition is dependent on reducing ligand bioavailability. Using existing patient outcome data, we demonstrate a strong correlation between TACE and TGF{alpha} expression in human breast cancers that is predictive of poor prognosis.

  8. Acute Escherichia coli Mastitis in Dairy Cattle: Diagnostic Parameters Associated with Poor Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    HAGIWARA, Seiichi; MORI, Kouichiro; OKADA, Hiroyuki; OIKAWA, Shin; NAGAHATA, Hajime

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to identify the diagnostic characteristics associated with poor prognosis and mortality in dairy cows with acute clinical Escherichia coli mastitis. On 17 dairy farms, 24 dairy cows with acute E. coli mastitis that had received therapeutic treatment were categorized into 2 groups by outcome: 17 cows that recovered (survivors) and 7 cows that died or were euthanized (non-survivors). Two days after onset of acute E. coli mastitis, dysstasia was observed in non-survivors, but not in survivors. Compared with survivors, significantly increased hematocrit (HCT) values and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations, and significantly decreased antithrombin activity and platelet counts were found in non-survivors on days 2 and 3 after therapy. Dysstasia, associated with decreased antithrombin activity and platelet counts, and with increased HCT and NEFA concentrations, was considered to be the major prognostic indicator associated with high mortality after therapeutic treatment in acute E. coli mastitis. PMID:25056677

  9. GLI1 expression is an important prognostic factor that contributes to the poor prognosis of rhabdomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Sun, Chao; Jiang, Jinfang; Xie, Yuwen; Li, Bingcheng; Cui, Xiaobin; Chen, Yunzhao; Liu, Chunxia; Li, Feng

    2016-03-01

    The GLI1 and MDM2 genes are amplified or exhibit copy number gains in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). Here, we used immunohistochemistry to determine the relationships between GLI1 and MDM2 protein expression and several clinicopathological variables of RMS. GLI1 and MDM2-positivity rates were 61.36% and 13.64%, respectively. GLI1 expression correlated with presence of the PAX3-FOXO1 fusion gene (P=0.040) and lymph node metastasis (P=0.034), and a significant association was found between GLI1 expression and overall survival (OS) (P=0.008). However, there was no association between MDM2 expression and any of the clinicopathological parameters or OS. Thus, GLI1 may be a biomarker of poor prognosis in RMS patients, and could itself be a therapeutic target. This contrasts with the apparent lack of clinical importance of MDM2 in RMS pathology, at least in the cohorts we examined. PMID:26544916

  10. Total corporal synechiae due to tuberculosis carry a very poor prognosis following hysteroscopic synechialysis.

    PubMed

    Bukulmez, O; Yarali, H; Gurgan, T

    1999-08-01

    Twelve consecutive patients with total corporal synechiae due to tuberculosis were reviewed in terms of intrauterine adhesion re-formation rate following hysteroscopic surgery. All patients presented with secondary amenorrhoea and infertility. The diagnosis was based on a 'glove finger appearance' at hysterosalpingography and classical laparoscopic and tubal biopsy findings. Intrauterine synechiae re-formation was assessed by postoperative hysterosalpingograms performed 3-4 months after the procedure. The 12 patients underwent 15 attempts for hysteroscopic lysis of total corporal synechiae. Three perforations occurred and all were managed with laparoscopic extracorporal suturing. Ultimately, adequate uterine cavity was obtained in all cases. Total intracorporal synechiae recurred in all patients at control postoperative hysterosalpingograms. We conclude that total corporal synechiae caused by tuberculosis, unlike other causes, carry a poor prognosis following hysteroscopic lysis. Surrogacy may be the only option for fertility in such couples. PMID:10438408

  11. Multigenerational Positive Family History of Psychiatric Disorders Is Associated With a Poor Prognosis in Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    Post, Robert M; Altshuler, Lori; Kupka, Ralph; McElroy, Susan L; Frye, Mark A; Rowe, Michael; Grunze, Heinz; Suppes, Trisha; Keck, Paul E; Leverich, Gabriele S; Nolen, Willem A

    2015-01-01

    The authors assessed how family history loading affected the course of illness in patients from the United States. A total of 676 outpatients with bipolar disorder from the United States rated their illness and provided a parental and grandparental history of mood disorder, substance abuse, and other clinical conditions. A positive family history for each illness was associated with almost all of the seven poor prognosis factors established in the study (abuse in childhood, early onset, anxiety and substance abuse comorbidity, rapid cycling, multiple episodes, and worsening of severity or frequency of episodes). Family history for psychiatric difficulties in parents and grandparents was associated with a more complex and difficult course of bipolar illness. PMID:26258489

  12. SOX2 Expression Is Regulated by BRAF and Contributes to Poor Patient Prognosis in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lundberg, Ida V.; Löfgren Burström, Anna; Edin, Sofia; Eklöf, Vincy; Öberg, Åke; Stenling, Roger; Palmqvist, Richard; Wikberg, Maria L.

    2014-01-01

    Sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common malignancy and also one of the main causes of cancer deaths worldwide. Aberrant expression of the transcription factor SOX2 has recently been observed in several cancer types, but its role in CRC has not been fully elucidated. Here we studied the expression of SOX2 in 441 CRC patients by immunohistochemistry and related the expression to clinicopathological and molecular variables and patient prognosis. SOX2 was expressed in 11% of the tumors and was significantly associated to BRAFV600E mutation, but not to KRAS mutations (codon 12 and 13). SOX2 positivity was correlated to poor patient survival, especially in BRAFV600E mutated cases. In vitro studies showed that cells expressing the constitutively active BRAFV600E had increased SOX2 expression, a finding not found in cells expressing KRASG12V. Furthermore, blocking downstream BRAF signalling using a MEK-inhibitor resulted in a decreased expression of SOX2. Since SOX2 overexpression has been correlated to increased migration and invasion, we investigated the SOX2 expression in human CRC liver metastasis and found that a SOX2 positive primary CRC also had SOX2 expression in corresponding liver metastases. Finally we found that cells overexpressing SOX2 in vitro showed enhanced expression of FGFR1, which has been reported to correlate with liver metastasis in CRC. Our novel findings suggest that SOX2 expression is partly regulated by BRAF signalling, and an increased SOX2 expression may promote CRC metastasis and mediate a poor patient prognosis. PMID:25010701

  13. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 promotes progression and correlates to poor prognosis in cholangiocarcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yun-Fei; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Lu, Xiao-Fei; Guo, Sen; Liu, Yi; Iqbal, Mohammad; Ning, Shang-Lei; Yang, Hui; Suo, Ning; Chen, Yu-Xin

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • FGFR4 is significantly related with N stage in IHCC, with T stage and TNM stage in PHCC. • FGFR4 is an independent prognostic factor in IHCC and PHCC. • FGFR4 promotes proliferation, invasion and EMT in cholangiocarinoma cell lines. • Inhibitor AP24354 can decrease proliferation, invasion and induce apoptosis of CCA. - Abstract: Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) is related to poor prognosis of several cancers, but the correlation between FGFR4 expression and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) has not been well elucidated. We investigated the expression of FGFR4 in 83 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (IHCCs), 75 perihilar cholangiocarcinomas (PHCCs) and 41 distal cholangiocarcinomas (DCCs) by immunohistochemistry (IHC), and subsequently evaluated association of FGFR4 with clinicopathologic parameters and survival rate. The rate of FGFR4 higher expression was 61.4% (51/83) in IHCCs, 53.3% (40/75) in PHCCs and 56.1% (23/41) in DCCs. FGFR4 expression was significantly related to poor prognosis of IHCC (P = 0.002) and PHCC (P = 0.019) with univariate analysis, and also identified as an independent prognostic factor in IHCC (P = 0.045) and PHCC (P = 0.049) with multivariate analysis. Additionally, with functional assays in vitro, we found FGFR4 can induce proliferation, invasion and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) of CCA cell lines with FGF19 stimulation. Moreover, FGFR4 inhibitor AP24354 can suppress proliferation, invasion and induce apoptosis of CCA cells. In conclusion, FGFR4 expression can be identified as a significant independent prognostic biomarker of IHCC and PHCC. FGFR4 played a pivotal role in proliferation, invasion and EMT of CCA. FGFR4 inhibitor can suppress proliferation, invasion and induce apoptosis of CCA, indicating that FGFR4 may act as a potential therapeutic target.

  14. Overexpression of the PSAT1 Gene in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Is an Indicator of Poor Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Kuang-Ming; Chao, Tung-Bo; Tian, Yu-Feng; Lin, Ching-Yih; Lee, Sung-Wei; Chuang, Hua-Ying; Chan, Ti-Chun; Chen, Tzu-Ju; Hsing, Chung-Hsi; Sheu, Ming-Jen; Li, Chien-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common cancer in southern China and Southeast Asia, but risk stratification and treatment outcome in NPC patients remain suboptimal. Our study identified and validated metabolic drivers that are relevant to the pathogenesis of NPC using a published transcriptome. Phosphoserine aminotransferase 1 (PSAT1) is an enzyme that is involved in serine biosynthesis, and its overexpression is associated with colon cancer, non-small cell lung cancer and breast cancer. However, its expression has not been systemically evaluated in patients with NPC. Materials and Methods: We evaluated two public transcriptomes of NPC tissues and benign nasopharyngeal mucosal epithelial tissues that deposited in the NIH Gene Expression Omnibus database under accession number GSE34574 and GSE12452. We also performed immunohistochemical staining and assessment of PSAT1 in a total of 124 NPC patients received radiotherapy and were regularly followed-up until death or loss. The endpoints analyzed were local recurrence-free survival (LRFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and overall survival (OS). Results: We retrospectively evaluated 124 patients with NPC and found that high PSAT1 expression was associated with poor prognosis of NPC and indicator of advanced tumor stage. High PSAT1 expression also correlated with an aggressive clinical course, with significantly shorter DSS (HR= 2.856, 95% CI 1.599 to 5.101), DMFS (HR= 3.305, 95% CI 1.720 to 6.347), LRFS (HR= 2.834, 95% CI 1.376 to 5.835), and OS HR= 2.935, 95% CI 1.646-5.234) in multivariate analyses. Conclusions: Our study showed that PSAT1 is a potential prognostic biomarker and higher expression of PSAT1 is associated with a poor prognosis in NPC. PMID:27326252

  15. High preoperative blood levels of HE4 predicts poor prognosis in patients with ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the clinical value of preoperative blood levels of HE4 as a predictor of overall survival in patients with ovarian cancer and to validate previous data of HE4 and the ROMA algorithm including HE4 and CA125 in discriminating benign and malignant ovarian tumors. Experimental design The preoperative plasma levels of HE4 and CA125 were analyzed with ELISA in 312 patients with adnexal lesions. Tumors were classified as benign (n= 206), borderline (i.e. low malignant potential tumors) (n= 25), and well (n= 14), moderately (n= 15), and poorly (n= 51) differentiated malignant. Results In univariate Cox regression analyses high levels (dichotomized at the median) of HE4, CA125, increased age (continuous variable), advanced-stage of disease 2–4, histological grade 3 and non-optimal tumor debulking at primary surgery were all significantly associated with shorter overall survival. A multivariate Cox regression model including pre-operative available covariates HE4 and CA125 both dichotomized at median in addition to age as continuous variable showed that high levels of HE4 was an independent prognostic marker for worse prognosis HR 2.02 (95% CI 1.1-3.8). In postmenopausal women the ROMA algorithm gave the highest AUC of 0.94 (95% CI, 0.90-0.97) which was higher than the separate markers HE4 AUC 0.91 (95% CI 0.86-0.95) and CA125 AUC 0.91(95% CI 0.87-0.96). Conclusions High concentration of plasma HE4 is an independent preoperative marker of poor prognosis in patients with ovarian cancer. The algorithm ROMA discriminates in postmenopausal women between malignant and benign tumors with an AUC of 0.94. PMID:22909379

  16. Epitope Spreading of Autoantibody Response to PLA2R Associates with Poor Prognosis in Membranous Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Seitz-Polski, Barbara; Dolla, Guillaume; Payré, Christine; Girard, Christophe A; Polidori, Joel; Zorzi, Kevin; Birgy-Barelli, Eléonore; Jullien, Perrine; Courivaud, Cécile; Krummel, Thierry; Benzaken, Sylvia; Bernard, Ghislaine; Burtey, Stéphane; Mariat, Christophe; Esnault, Vincent L M; Lambeau, Gérard

    2016-05-01

    The phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R1) is the major autoantigen in idiopathic membranous nephropathy. However, the value of anti-PLA2R1 antibody titers in predicting patient outcomes is unknown. Here, we screened serum samples from 50 patients positive for PLA2R1 for immunoreactivity against a series of PLA2R1 deletion mutants covering the extracellular domains. We identified reactive epitopes in the cysteine-rich (CysR), C-type lectin domain 1 (CTLD1), and C-type lectin domain 7 (CTLD7) domains and confirmed the reactivity with soluble forms of each domain. We then used ELISAs to stratify 69 patients positive for PLA2R1 by serum reactivity to one or more of these domains: CysR (n=23), CysRC1 (n=14), and CysRC1C7 (n=32). Median ELISA titers measured using the full-length PLA2R1 antigens were not statistically different between subgroups. Patients with anti-CysR-restricted activity were younger (P=0.008), had less nephrotic range proteinuria (P=0.02), and exhibited a higher rate of spontaneous remission (P=0.03) and lower rates of renal failure progression (P=0.002) and ESRD (P=0.01) during follow-up. Overall, 31 of 69 patients had poor renal prognosis (urinary protein/creatinine ratio >4 g/g or eGFR<45 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) at end of follow-up). High anti-PLA2R1 activity and epitope spreading beyond the CysR epitope were independent risk factors of poor renal prognosis in multivariable Cox regression analysis. Epitope spreading during follow-up associated with disease worsening (n=3), whereas reverse spreading from a CysRC1C7 profile back to a CysR profile associated with favorable outcome (n=1). We conclude that analysis of the PLA2R1 epitope profile and spreading is a powerful tool for monitoring disease severity and stratifying patients by renal prognosis. PMID:26567246

  17. Downregulated Ku70 and ATM associated to poor prognosis in colorectal cancer among Chinese patients

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yuanfang; Gao, Jingyan; Lu, Yuanming

    2014-01-01

    Background Double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs) are a key factor in carcinogenesis. The necessary repair of DSBs is pivotal in maintaining normal cell division. To address the relationship between altered expression of DSB repair of proteins Ku70 and ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) in colorectal cancer (CRC), we examined the expression levels and patterns of Ku70 and ATM in CRC samples. Methods Expression and coexpression of Ku70 and ATM were investigated by using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays and confirmed further with fluorescent immunohistochemistry in CRC and pericancerous samples from 112 Chinese patients. Results Downexpression patterns for both Ku70 and ATM were found in the CRC samples and were significantly associated with advanced tumor node metastasis stage and decreased 5-year overall survival rate. Conclusion Downregulated Ku70 and ATM were associated with poor disease-free survival. Loss of Ku70 and ATM expression might act as a biomarker to predict poor prognosis in patients with CRC. PMID:25368522

  18. Periostin in tumor microenvironment is associated with poor prognosis and platinum resistance in epithelial ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Pi-Lin; Jan, Yi-Hua; Lin, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Chao-Cheng; Lin, Hao; Wen, Kuo-Chang; Chao, Kuan-Chong; Lai, Chiung-Ru; Wang, Peng-Hui; Chuang, Chi-Mu; Wu, Hua-Hsi; Twu, Nae-Fang; Yen, Ming-Shyen; Hsiao, Michael; Huang, Chi-Ying F.

    2016-01-01

    The interplay between tumor microenvironment and cancer that causes chemoresistance remains unclear. By analyzing public available microarray datasets, we identified that periostin (POSTN) was overexpressed in cancer stroma in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed overexpression of stromal POSTN is a powerful independent poor prognostic predictor for EOC patients. Furthermore, patients with high levels of stromal POSTN tend to have higher percentage of cisplatin resistance compared to those with low levels of stromal POSTN. Moreover, we found POSTN treatment can induce cisplatin resistant and activate AKT pathway in A2780 cells in vitro. Inhibition of AKT activity by AKT inhibitor MK-2206 abolished POSTN-induced AKT activation and cisplatin resistance in vitro. Taken together, we found high POSTN expression in cancer microenvironment is correlated with poor prognosis in EOC patients and associated with platinum resistance. The effect of POSTN in cancer stroma cells may activate AKT pathway in tumor and AKT inhibitor can be beneficial to augment the efficacy of existing cancer therapeutics. PMID:26716408

  19. Periostin in tumor microenvironment is associated with poor prognosis and platinum resistance in epithelial ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sung, Pi-Lin; Jan, Yi-Hua; Lin, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Chao-Cheng; Lin, Hao; Wen, Kuo-Chang; Chao, Kuan-Chong; Lai, Chiung-Ru; Wang, Peng-Hui; Chuang, Chi-Mu; Wu, Hua-Hsi; Twu, Nae-Fang; Yen, Ming-Shyen; Hsiao, Michael; Huang, Chi-Ying F

    2016-01-26

    The interplay between tumor microenvironment and cancer that causes chemoresistance remains unclear. By analyzing public available microarray datasets, we identified that periostin (POSTN) was overexpressed in cancer stroma in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed overexpression of stromal POSTN is a powerful independent poor prognostic predictor for EOC patients. Furthermore, patients with high levels of stromal POSTN tend to have higher percentage of cisplatin resistance compared to those with low levels of stromal POSTN. Moreover, we found POSTN treatment can induce cisplatin resistant and activate AKT pathway in A2780 cells in vitro. Inhibition of AKT activity by AKT inhibitor MK-2206 abolished POSTN-induced AKT activation and cisplatin resistance in vitro. Taken together, we found high POSTN expression in cancer microenvironment is correlated with poor prognosis in EOC patients and associated with platinum resistance. The effect of POSTN in cancer stroma cells may activate AKT pathway in tumor and AKT inhibitor can be beneficial to augment the efficacy of existing cancer therapeutics. PMID:26716408

  20. Matrix-Gla protein promotes osteosarcoma lung metastasis and associates with poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Zandueta, Carolina; Ormazábal, Cristina; Perurena, Naiara; Martínez-Canarias, Susana; Zalacaín, Marta; Julián, Mikel San; Grigoriadis, Agamemnon E; Valencia, Karmele; Campos-Laborie, Francisco J; Rivas, Javier De Las; Vicent, Silvestre; Patiño-García, Ana; Lecanda, Fernando

    2016-08-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most prevalent osseous tumour in children and adolescents and, within this, lung metastases remain one of the factors associated with a dismal prognosis. At present, the genetic determinants driving pulmonary metastasis are poorly understood. We adopted a novel strategy using robust filtering analysis of transcriptomic profiling in tumour osteoblastic cell populations derived from human chemo-naive primary tumours displaying extreme phenotypes (indolent versus metastatic) to uncover predictors associated with metastasis and poor survival. We identified MGP, encoding matrix-Gla protein (MGP), a non-collagenous matrix protein previously associated with the inhibition of arterial calcification. Using different orthotopic models, we found that ectopic expression of Mgp in murine and human OS cells led to a marked increase in lung metastasis. This effect was independent of the carboxylation of glutamic acid residues required for its physiological role. Abrogation of Mgp prevented lung metastatic activity, an effect that was rescued by forced expression. Mgp levels dramatically altered endothelial adhesion, trans-endothelial migration in vitro and tumour cell extravasation ability in vivo. Furthermore, Mgp modulated metalloproteinase activities and TGFβ-induced Smad2/3 phosphorylation. In the clinical setting, OS patients who developed lung metastases had high serum levels of MGP at diagnosis. Thus, MGP represents a novel adverse prognostic factor and a potential therapeutic target in OS. Microarray datasets may be found at: http://bioinfow.dep.usal.es/osteosarcoma/ Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27172275

  1. Elevated expression of chloride intracellular channel 1 is correlated with poor prognosis in human gliomas

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chloride intracellular channel 1 (CLIC1) is expressed ubiquitously in human tissues and is involved in the regulation of cell cycle, cell proliferation and differentiation. Recent studies have shown that CLIC1 is highly expressed in several human malignant tumors. However, its roles in human gliomas are still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinicopathological significance and prognostic value of CLIC1 expression in human gliomas. Methods CLIC1 expression in human gliomas and nonneoplastic brain tissues was measured by real-time quantitative RT-PCR assay and immunohistochemistry. Its association with clinicopathological factors or prognosis in patients with gliomas was statistically analyzed. Results The expression of CLIC1 at both mRNA and protein levels was significantly increased in high-grade (Grade III~IV) glioma tissues compared with that in low-grade (Grade I~II) and nonneoplastic brain tissues, and was up-regulated with ascending tumor World Health Organization (WHO) grades. The elevated expression of CLIC1 protein was also significantly correlated with low Karnofsky performance score (KPS) (P=0.008). Moreover, both univariate and multivariate analysis shown that high CLIC1 expression was significantly associated with poor prognosis in patients with gliomas (P<0.001 and P=0.01, respectively). In particular, the elevated CLIC1 expression also correlated with shorter overall survival in different glioma subgroups stratified according to the WHO grading. Conclusions Our data provide the first evidence that CLIC1 expression might play an important role in the regulation of aggressiveness in human gliomas. The elevated expression of CLIC1 might represent a valuable prognostic marker for this disease. PMID:22578365

  2. HBV is a risk factor for poor patient prognosis after curative resection of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhonghu; Zhao, Xin; Jiang, Peng; Xiao, Senlin; Wu, Guo; Chen, Kai; Zhang, Xi; Liu, Hui; Han, Xiuguo; Wang, Shuguang; Li, Xiaowu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Controversy exists regarding pathological factors affecting the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV-HCC). Their postoperative clinical behaviors and the exact HBV Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) thresholds that distinguish good and poor prognoses are unknown. This study aimed to compare clinicopathological, pre- and postoperative clinical factors and overall and recurrence-free survival (RFS) between HBV-HCC patients and nonhepatitis B and nonhepatitis C HCC (NBC-HCC) patients to determine the optimal prognostic HBV DNA threshold. Data from 1440 patients with HBV-HCC and NBC-HCC who underwent curative hepatectomy were retrospectively analyzed. Liver function in the HBV-HCC group was significantly worse than in the NBC-HCC group. Compared with NBC-HCC patients, HBV-HCC patients had significantly more vascular invasion and advanced HCC. The HBV-HCC patients also had significantly worse liver function and more complications. Further survival analysis showed significantly lower overall and RFS rates and a higher early recurrence rate in the HBV-HCC group. Univariate analysis indicated that HBV was a risk factor for overall and RFS. Finally, X-tile analysis revealed that the optimal HBV DNA cutoff points for predicting RFS and overall survival in HCC patients were 10,100 and 12,800 IU/mL, respectively. After hepatectomy for HCC, HBV-HCC patients had more complications and a worse prognosis than NBC-HCC patients. Antiviral therapy should be considered before hepatectomy in patients with high (more than approximately 104 IU/mL) HBV DNA levels. PMID:27495026

  3. Expression of ADP-ribosyltransferase 1 Is Associated with Poor Prognosis of Glioma Patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Yan, Xinling; Sun, Yuyan; Yang, Xiaoqing

    2016-01-01

    Glioma has a poor prognosis due to its rapid overgrowth, diffuse invasion, and chemotherapy resistance. The improvements in clinical outcome are still limited and the identification of novel biomarkers involved in the progression of gliomas is still under critical demands. Amino acid ADP-ribosyltransferase 1 (ART1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the mono-ADP-ribosylation, a reversible post-translational modification. For example, the mono-ADP-ribosylation of transcription factors can affect their binding to target gene promoters. However, the functional significance of ART1 in glioma has not been reported. We collected 107 glioma cases from Qianfoshan Hospital and Yidu Central Hospital of Weifang between April 2008 and September 2015 to analyze the prognosis value of ART1 in gliomas. RT-qPCR analysis showed that the expression level of ART1 mRNA in glioma tissues was 4-fold higher than that in normal brain tissues. According to the immunohistochemical staining results, 44 patients (41.1%) were categorized as ART1 positive (≥ 20% of stained glioma cells), while the other 63 patients (58.9%) categorized as ART1 negative (< 20% of stained glioma cells). Moreover, the mean percentage of ART1-positive cells was 43.7%, 53.6% and 64.2% in WHO grade II, III and IV specimens, respectively. Through univariate and multivariate analyses, we identified ART1 as an independent prognostic factor. We also found that ART1 overexpression in U251 glioblastoma cells could significantly decrease the susceptibility to vincristine, one of tubulin-targeted drugs, which is widely used in clinical treatment for glioma. Taken together, we propose that up-regulation of ART1 expression is associated with the aggressiveness of glioma. PMID:27466078

  4. Downregulation of microRNA-504 is associated with poor prognosis in high-grade glioma

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Yanlei; Chen, Ling; Bao, Yijun; Pang, Chao; Cui, Run; Li, Guangyu; Liu, Jiyuan; Wang, Yunjie

    2015-01-01

    Several previous reports indicated that microRNA-504 (miR-504) has an oncogenic function through negatively regulating p53. On the other hand, a recent study revealed that miR-504 inhibits cancer cell proliferation through targeting CDK6 in hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HSCC), suggesting the tumor suppressive role of this miRNA. However, the role of miR-504 in human malignant glioma remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of miR-504 expression in high pathological grade glioma. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptive-PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to examine miR-504 expression levels in 63 glioma tissues including 13 anaplastic astrocytomas (AA, WHO grade III) and 50 glioblastomas (GBM, WHO grade IV), as well as 10 non-neoplastic brain tissues. Associations between miR-504 expression and clinicopathological factors and prognosis of glioma patients were statistically analyzed. MiR-504 showed significant decreased expression levels both in AAs and GBMs relative to non-neoplastic brains (P ≤ 0.001, respectively). Additionally, low expression level of miR-504 was significantly associated with advanced WHO grade (P = 0.01). Moreover, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that patients with low expression of miR-504 had significantly poor survival rate (P = 0.002). Cox regression analysis showed that miR-504 expression was independent prognosis-predicting factor for malignant glioma patients (P = 0.038; risk ration = 2.5). Our results suggest that miR-504 may be a prognostic predictor and be involved in tumorigencity as a tumor suppressor of malignant glioma. PMID:25755767

  5. Reduced miRNA-218 expression in pancreatic cancer patients as a predictor of poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Li, B-S; Liu, H; Yang, W-L

    2015-01-01

    microRNA-218 (miR-218) is a vertebrate-specific miRNA that plays a crucial role in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. This study analyzed the miR-218 expression level and clinical significance in pancreatic cancer. One hundred and seven pairs of pancreatic cancer and adjacent normal tissues were analyzed by quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The correlation between miR-218 expression and clinicopathological characters was determined by the two-sample Student t-test. The survival correlations were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards model. The relative expression of miR-218 in pancreatic cancer tissues (2.63 ± 1.59) was significantly lower than that in matched noncancerous pancreatic tissues (6.52 ± 2.50, P < 0.001). The low expression of miR-218 in the pancreatic cancer tissues were strongly correlated with the TNM classification (P = 0.02), distant metastasis (P = 0.001), and tumor differentiation (P = 0.003). The low level of miR-218 expression was significantly correlated with the shorter overall survival time of pancreatic cancer patients (5-year overall survival rate: 7.5 vs 34.9%; log-rank test: P < 0.001). Multivariate analyses confirmed that a low level of miR-218 expression was an independent predictor of poor prognosis in pancreatic cancer patients (Hazard ratio: 7.24; 95% confidence interval: 2.01-18.28; P = 0.007). Our findings suggested a significant downregulation in the expression of miR-218; this might have considerable potential value in the prognosis for pancreatic cancer. PMID:26662432

  6. Up-regulation of Tim-3 is associated with poor prognosis of patients with colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Encheng; Huang, Qing; Wang, Ji; Fang, Chengfeng; Yang, Leilei; Zhu, Min; Chen, Jianhui; Chen, Lihua; Dong, Milian

    2015-01-01

    Tim-3 (T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3), belonging to the member of the novel Tim family, has been confirmed that it plays a critical negative role in regulating the immune responses against viral infection and carcinoma. Recently, it has also been reported that the over-expression of Tim-3 is associated with poor prognosis in solid tumors. However, the role of Tim-3 in colorectal cancer remains largely unknown. In the current study, we aim to investigate the expression of Tim-3 in colorectal carcinoma and discuss the relationship between Tim-3 expression and colon cancer prognosis, thus speculating the possible role of Tim-3 in colon cancer progression. Colon cancer tissues and paired normal tissue were obtained from 201 patients with colon cancer for preparation of tissue microarray. Tim-3 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. The Tim-3 expression level was evaluated by q-RT-PCR, western blot and immunocytochemistry in four colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, HCT116, LoVo, SW620). Tim-3 was expressed in 92.5% tumor tissue samples and 86.5% corresponding normal tissue samples. Expression of Tim-3 was significantly higher in tumor tissues than in normal tissues (P < 0.0001). Tim-3 expression in colon cancer tissues is in correlation with colon cancer lymphatic metastasis and TNM (P < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that Tim-3 expression could be a potential independent prognostic factor for colon cancer patients (P < 0.0001). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis result showed that patients with higher Tim-3 expression had a significantly shorter survival time than those with lower Tim-3 expression patients. Our results indicated that Tim-3 might participate in the tumorgenesis of colon cancer and Tim-3 expression might be a potential independent prognostic factor for patients with colorectal cancer. PMID:26339368

  7. Overexpression of chaperonin containing TCP1, subunit 3 predicts poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xiao; Hu, Zhi-Ping; Li, Zhao; Gao, Peng-Ji; Zhu, Ji-Ye

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the value of chaperonin containing TCP1, subunit 3 (CCT3) to predict the prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and determine its function in HCC progression. METHODS: CCT3 expression levels were examined in human non-cancerous liver tissues and a variety of HCC cell lines by quantitative real-time PCR and immunoblotting. CCT3 expression was suppressed by small interfering RNA. The effects of reducing CCT3 expression in HCC cells were tested. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, cell counting experiment, cell cycle assay, apoptosis assay and invasion assay were employed to evaluate cell functions in vitro. Immunohistochemistry was performed on HCC specimens. In addition, CCT3 expression in HCC specimens was also assessed at the protein and mRNA level. Associations between clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis were analyzed, along with the possible mechanisms involved in CCT3’s function in HCC progression. RESULTS: The expression levels of CCT3 mRNA and protein were upregulated in HCC cell lines in contrast to adjacent non-cancerous tissues. Reducing CCT3 expression not only suppressed cell proliferation in cell counts, MTT assay, cell cycle assay and induced cell apoptosis (P < 0.05 vs negative control), but also inhibited the tumor cell invasion capacity in vitro (P < 0.01 vs negative control). Overexpression of CCT3 in the nuclei of cancer cells in HCC specimens (58 of 104 patients, 55.8%) was associated with poor prognosis in HCC patients (3-year survival rate, 55.5% vs 84.2%, P = 0.020) after hepatectomy. Mechanistic analyses showed that signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) activation was decreased even when stimulated by interleukin-6 after knocking down CCT3 in the HepG2 cell line. CONCLUSION: Overexpression of CCT3 in the nuclei of cancerous cells is associated with HCC progression. CCT3 may be a target that affects the activation of STAT3 in

  8. Down-regulation of sirtuin 3 is associated with poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma after resection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sirtuin 3 (Sirt3), one of the seven Sirtuins family members, plays critical roles in the progression of multiple cancer types. However, its role in the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not yet been investigated systematically. Methods The correlation of Sirtuins expression with prognosis of HCC was determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in a large HCC patient cohort (n = 342). Expression of Sirt3 in tumoral and peritumoral tissues of HCC patients were further determined by western blotting (WB). Results IHC and WB studies both showed a decreased expression of Sirt3 in tumoral tissues compared with peritumoral tissues (P = 0.003 for IHC, P = 0.0042 for WB). Decreased expression of Sirt3 in both tumoral and peritumoral tissues was associated with increased recurrence probability and decreased overall survival rate by univariate analyses (intratumoral Sirt3: P = 0.011 for TTR, P = 0.001 for OS; peritumoral Sirt3: P = 0.017 for TTR, P = 0.023 for OS), the prognostic value was strengthened by multivariate analyses (intratumoral Sirt3: P = 0.031 for TTR, P = 0.001 for OS; peritumoral Sirt3: P = 0.047 for TTR, P = 0.031 for OS). Intratumoral Sirt3 also showed a favorable prognostic value in patients with BCLC stage A (TTR, P = 0.011; OS, P < 0.001). In addition, we found that IHC studies of other sirtuin members showed a decreased expression of Sirt2, Sirt4 and Sirt5 and an increased expression of Sirt1, Sirt6 and Sirt7 in intratumoral tissues compared with peritumoral tissues. In contrast to Sirt3, other members did not showed a remarkable correlation with HCC prognosis. Conclusions Down-regulation of intratumoral and peritumoral Sirt3 were both associated with poor outcome in HCC, moreover, intratumoral Sirt3 was a favorable prognostic predictor in early stage patients. PMID:24774224

  9. Surgical Rehabilitation Techniques in Children with Poor Prognosis Short Bowel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dore, Mariela; Junco, Paloma Triana; Andres, Ane M; Sánchez-Galán, Alba; Amesty, Maria Virginia; Ramos, Esther; Prieto, Gerardo; Hernandez, Francisco; Lopez Santamaria, Manuel

    2016-02-01

    Intestinal failure (IF) requires a multidisciplinary management based on nutritional support, surgical and medical rehabilitation, and transplantation. The aim of this study is to review our experience with surgical rehabilitation techniques (SRTs: enteroplasty, Bianchi, Serial Transverse Enteroplasty Procedure [STEP]) in patients with short bowel syndrome (SBS) and poor prognosis due to complex abdominal pathology. We performed a single-center retrospective study of patients with IF evaluated for intestinal transplantation in the Intestinal Rehabilitation Unit who underwent an SRT. Nonparametric tests were used for statistical analysis.A total of 205 patients (107 males/98 females) with mean age of 25 ± 7 months were assessed for IF. A total of 433 laparotomies were performed on 130 patients including intestinal resection, enteroplasties, adhesiolysis, and transit reconstruction. SRT were performed in 22 patients: 12 enteroplasties, 8 STEPs, and 4 Bianchi procedures. All patients were parenteral nutrition (PN) dependent with different stages of liver disease: mild (13), moderate (5), and severe (4). The adaptation rate for patients who underwent enteroplasty, STEP, and Bianchi were 70, 63, and 25%, respectively, although the techniques are not comparable. Overall, intestinal adaptation was achieved in nine (41%) patients, and four (18%) patients showed significant reduction of PN needs. One child did not respond to SRT and did not meet transplantation criteria. The remaining eight (36%) patients were included on the waiting list for transplant: four were transplanted, two are still on the waiting list, and two died. Better outcomes were observed in milder cases of liver disease (mild 77%, moderate 40%, severe 25%) (p < 0.05). Conversely, a trend toward a poorer outcome was observed in cases with ultrashort bowel (p > 0.05). One patient required reoperation after a Bianchi procedure due to intestinal ischemia and six needed further re-STEP or adhesiolysis

  10. B7-H4 overexpression correlates with a poor prognosis for cervical cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenting; Shibata, Kiyosumi; Koya, Yoshihiro; Kajiyama, Hiroaki; Senga, Takeshi; Yamashita, Mamoru; Kikkawa, Fumitaka

    2014-03-01

    Cervical cancer is a major global public health care concern and the second most commonly diagnosed malignancy among females worldwide. B7-H4 is an immunoregulatory protein that has been shown to be overexpressed in several types of cancer and is often associated with more advanced disease and poor prognosis. We investigated whether B7-H4 is a prognostic maker for cervical cancer by detecting its expression in cervical cancer specimens. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks from cervical cancer were evaluated for B7-H4 expression by immunohistochemistry with free R software analysis. The intensity of B7-H4 immunoexpression was evaluated according to age, histological type, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage, lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI) and lymph node status. We investigated the distribution and expression of B7-H4 in 102 cervical cancer specimens and determined the association between its expression and clinicopathological characteristics, including patient outcomes. Of the 102 specimens, 31 were found to be negative for B7-H4 immunoexpression, whereas 71 were B7-H4-positive. When classified by negative vs. positive expression, B7-H4 was not found to be associated with any of the clinicopathological parameters investigated. A positive B7-H4 expression significantly predicted poor overall survival (OS) when compared to negative expression (P<0.05). In the multivariate analysis, positive B7-H4 expression was identified as an independent prognostic factor for OS (P<0.05). Our data suggested that positive B7-H4 expression may be a useful biomarker in patients with cervical cancer likely to have an unfavorable clinical outcome. PMID:24649336

  11. p27 Loss Is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Sung; Lee, Hye Seung; Nam, Kyung Han; Choi, Jiwoon; Kim, Woo Ho

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) represent a heterogeneous disease group originating from the neuroendocrine cells. Identification of prognostic markers, related to neuroendocrine tissue-selective tumorigenesis, is necessary to find therapeutic targets. Materials and Methods A total of 327 patients with GEP-NETs were included in this study; there were 49 gastric, 29 duodenal, 49 pancreatic, 12 hepatobiliary, 33 appendiceal, 5 proximal colon, and 150 distal colon cases. We performed immunostaining with the tissue microarray method for menin, p27, and p18. Results We observed negative staining for menin, p27, and p18 in 34%, 21%, and 56% of GEP-NETs, respectively. The loss of p27, but not menin, was positively correlated with the grade of Ki-67. Menin–/p27–, menin–/p27+, menin+/p27–, and menin+/p27+ phenotype groups included 13%, 22%, 8%, and 57% of patients, respectively. A dichotomized comparison showed that menin– or p27– tumors were significantly associated with foregut and midgut localizations, high World Health Organization (WHO) grade, lymph node metastasis, and more advanced stage as compared to menin+/p27+ patients. Kaplan-Meier analysis for the overall survival showed that p27 loss was significantly associated with decreased survival. Multivariate analysis showed that p27 loss is an independent factor for poor overall survival. Conclusion Our results revealed that the loss of p27 is associated with poor prognosis and the menin-p27 pathway is important in the tumorigenesis of GEP-NETs. PMID:25036575

  12. Overexpression of MutSα Complex Proteins Predicts Poor Prognosis in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Vivian Petersen; Webber, Liana Preto; Salvadori, Gabriela; Meurer, Luise; Fonseca, Felipe Paiva; Castilho, Rogério Moraes; Squarize, Cristiane Helena; Vargas, Pablo Agustin; Martins, Manoela Domingues

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system is responsible for the detection and correction of errors created during DNA replication, thereby avoiding the incorporation of mutations in dividing cells. The prognostic value of alterations in MMR system has not previously been analyzed in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The study comprised 115 cases of OSCC diagnosed between 1996 and 2010. The specimens collected were constructed into tissue microarray blocks. Immunohistochemical staining for MutSα complex proteins hMSH2 and hMSH6 was performed. The slides were subsequently scanned into high-resolution images, and nuclear staining of hMSH2 and hMSH6 was analyzed using the Nuclear V9 algorithm. Univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression models were performed to evaluate the prognostic value of hMSH2 and hMSH6 in OSCC. All cases in the present cohort were positive for hMSH2 and hMSH6 and a direct correlation was found between the expression of the proteins (P < 0.05). The mean number of positive cells for hMSH2 and hMSH6 was 64.44 ± 15.21 and 31.46 ± 22.38, respectively. These values were used as cutoff points to determine high protein expression. Cases with high expression of both proteins simultaneously were classified as having high MutSα complex expression. In the multivariable analysis, high expression of the MutSα complex was an independent prognostic factor for poor overall survival (hazard ratio: 2.75, P = 0.02). This study provides a first insight of the prognostic value of alterations in MMR system in OSCC. We found that MutSα complex may constitute a molecular marker for the poor prognosis of OSCC. PMID:27258499

  13. Upregulation of KPNβ1 in gastric cancer cell promotes tumor cell proliferation and predicts poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jia; Wang, Yingying; Huang, Hua; Yang, Qichang; Cai, Jing; Wang, Qiuhong; Gu, Xiaoling; Xu, Pan; Zhang, Shusen; Li, Manhua; Ding, Haifang; Yang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    KPNβ1, also known as importin β, P97, is reported as one of soluble transport factors that mediates transportion of proteins and RNAs between the nucleus and cytoplasm in cellular process. Recent studies show that KPNβ1 is a tumor gene which is highly expressed in several malignant tumors such as ovarian cancer, cervical tumor, neck cancer, and lung cancer via promoting cell proliferation or inhibiting cell apoptotic pathways. However, the the role of KPNβ1 in gastric cancer remains unclear. In this study, Western blot and immunohistochemistrical analyses showed that KPNβ1 was significantly upregulated in clinical gastric cancer specimens compared with adjacent noncancerous tissues. KPNβ1 was positively correlated with tumor grade, Ki-67, and predicted poor prognosis of gastric cancer. More importantly, through starvation-refeeding model, CCK8 assay, flow cytometry, colony formation assays, the vitro studies demonstrated that KPNβ1 promoted proliferation of gastric cancer cells, while KPNβ1 knockdown led to decreased cell proliferation and arrested cell cycle at G1 phase. Furthermore, our results also indicated that KPNβ1 expression could result in docetaxel resistance. And, KPNβ1 could interact with Stat1, contributed to its nucleus import in gastric cancer cells. These findings provided a novel promising therapeutic targets for clinical treatment against human gastric cancer. PMID:26242264

  14. Overexpression of HOXC8 is Associated With Poor Prognosis in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shumin; Liu, Rong; Su, Min; Wei, Yingze; Yang, Shuyun; He, Song; Wang, Xia; Qiang, Fulin; Chen, Chen; Zhao, Shuyang; Qian, Li; Shao, Mengting; Mao, Guoxin

    2016-07-01

    Homeobox C8 (HOXC8) is a transcription factor that has been reported as a potential driver oncogene in several tumors and involved in the regulation of many cancer-related proteins. In this study, we investigated the expression and role of HOXC8 in ovarian cancer. Western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses were performed to detect the expression of HOXC8. Kaplan-Meier curve showed that high expression of HOXC8 was related to poor prognosis of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Starvation and refeeding assay were used to assess cell cycle, suggesting that HOXC8 played a critical role in EOC cell proliferation. HOXC8 depletion by small interfering RNA inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and induced apoptosis in EOC cells. Moreover, HOXC8 knockdown increased the expression of ZAC1. Owing to the overexpression of HOXC8, our findings implied that HOXC8 is involved in the progression of EOC and could be a potential therapeutical approach of EOC. PMID:26763553

  15. Trop2 is overexpressed in gastric cancer and predicts poor prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shu; Yong, Hongmei; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Yan; Wang, Bing; Wen, Jinbo; Qiu, Zhenning; Ding, Guipeng; Feng, Zhenqing; Zhu, Jin

    2016-01-01

    The cell surface protein Trop2 is overexpressed in a variety of human cancers. Trop2 expression increases tumor development and metastasis and reduces patient survival. However, little is known about the role of Trop2 expression and its prognostic value in gastric cancer (GC), particularly in Chinese populations. We analyzed Trop2 expression in GC tissues collected from Chinese GC patients. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays were performed to assess levels of Trop2 mRNA and protein in GC, and correlations between Trop2 expression and clinical characteristics and prognosis were analyzed. Trop2 expression was higher in GC tissues than in neighboring non-tumor tissues. Increased Trop2 protein levels in GC were associated with increased differentiation, tumor node metastasis stage, tumor size, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, and H. pylori infection. GC patients with high Trop2 expression also had poor overall survival rates. These data suggest Trop2 is a useful prognostic biomarker for GC. PMID:26716416

  16. Upregulation of CDK7 in gastric cancer cell promotes tumor cell proliferation and predicts poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiuhong; Li, Manhua; Zhang, Xunlei; Huang, Hua; Huang, Jianfei; Ke, Jing; Ding, Haifang; Xiao, Jinzhang; Shan, Xiaohang; Liu, Qingqing; Bao, Bojun; Yang, Lei

    2016-06-01

    CDK7 has been known as a component of CDK activating kinase (CAK) complex, the complex was composed of CDK7, Cyclin H and RING finger protein Mat1 that contribute to cell cycle progression by phosphorylating other CDKs. In addition, the complex is also an essential component of general transcription factor TFIIH which controls transcription via activating RNA polymerase II by serines 5 and 7 phosphorylation of the carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) of its largest subunit. However, the role of CDK7 in the pathogenesis of gastric cancer has not been identified. Our study showed that CDK7 was significantly upregulated and positively correlated with tumor grade, infiltration depth, lymph node, Ki-67, and predicted poor prognosis in 173 gastric cancer specimens by immunohistochemistrical analyses. Furthermore, in vitro results indicated that CDK7 promoted proliferation of gastric cancer cells by CCK8, clone formation analyses and flow cytometric analyses, while CDK7 knockdown led to decreased cell proliferation. Our study will provide a theoretical basis for the study of CDK7 in gastric cancer. PMID:27155449

  17. Underweight status predicts a poor prognosis in elderly patients with colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Manabu; Sasaki, Shin; Ozaki, Kosuke; Ishimaru, Kazuhiro; Terai, Emi; Nakayama, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of underweight status on the survival of elderly patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer (CRC). A total of 113 patients aged ≥75 years who underwent curative surgery for CRC were included. In addition to standard perioperative variables, body mass index (BMI) was assessed. The patients were categorized as underweight (BMI<18.5 kg/m2) or non-underweight (BMI≥18.5 kg/m2). The 3-year overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) were analyzed. Of the 113 patients, 24 (21%) were underweight. The two groups were well-balanced regarding all factors evaluated. In the multivariate analysis, underweight status was an independent indicator of lower 3-year OS [hazard ratio (HR)=2.65; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08–6.50; P=0.033] and CSS (HR=3.51, 95% CI: 1.16–10.60; P=0.025) rates. Compared with the non-underweight group, the underweight group had significantly worse 3-year OS (66.7 vs. 86.5%, respectively; P=0.017) and CSS (74.1 vs. 90.9%, respectively; P=0.025) rates. Therefore, underweight status was a significant risk factor for poor survival in elderly CRC patients. The development of effective nutritional interventions may improve the prognosis of such patients. PMID:27602223

  18. Abnormal expression of calcyphosine is associated with poor prognosis and cell biology function in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Weiwei; Wang, Quhui; Wang, Feiran; Jiang, Yasu; Xu, Meirong; Xu, Junfei

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the calcyphosine (CAPS) expression in human colorectal cancer (CRC) and to explore its clinical and prognostic significances. CAPS expression was measured by Western blot, real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis, and immunohistochemistry. The relationships between the CAPS expression levels and the clinicopathological factors were investigated. The Kaplan–Meier method and log-rank test were used to investigate the overall survival of the patients. Moreover, the effects of CAPS on biological roles of CRC cells were also evaluated by MTT assay, colony formation assay, and transwell assay. CAPS was significantly overexpressed in cancerous tissue and CRC cell lines compared with adjacent nontumor tissue and a normal human intestinal epithelial cell line. Overexpression of CAPS was significantly associated with histological grade (P=0.004), invasive depth (P<0.001), lymph node metastasis (P=0.003), tumor node metastasis stage (P=0.017), and distant metastasis (P=0.042). Furthermore, silencing of CAPS expression in CRC cells inhibited their proliferation, colony formation, migration, and invasion. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed that high CAPS expression might demonstrate poor prognosis in CRC patients. Cox regression analysis revealed that CAPS expression was an independent prognostic factor of CRC. Our data suggested that the upregulation of CAPS might play a role in the carcinogenesis and progression of CRC. CAPS could be used as a potential diagnostic factor and be an independent good prognostic indicator for CRC patients. PMID:26889086

  19. High Ki-67 Immunohistochemical Reactivity Correlates With Poor Prognosis in Bladder Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yihuan; Zhang, Xin; Mo, Meile; Tan, Zhong; Huang, Lanshan; Zhou, Hong; Wang, Chunqin; Wei, Fanglin; Qiu, Xiaohui; He, Rongquan; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Ki-67 is considered as one of prime biomarkers to reflect cell proliferation and immunohistochemical Ki-67 staining has been widely applied in clinical pathology. To solve the widespread controversy whether Ki-67 reactivity significantly predicts clinical prognosis of bladder carcinoma (BC), we performed a comprehensive meta-analysis by combining results from different literature. A comprehensive search was conducted in the Chinese databases of WanFang, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Chinese VIP as well as English databases of PubMed, ISI web of science, EMBASE, Science Direct, and Wiley online library. Independent studies linking Ki-67 to cancer-specific survival (CSS), disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were included in our meta-analysis. With the cut-off values literature provided, hazard ratio (HR) values between the survival distributions were extracted and later combined with STATA 12.0. In total, 76 studies (n = 13,053 patients) were eligible for the meta-analysis. It was indicated in either univariate or multivariate analysis for survival that high Ki-67 reactivity significantly predicted poor prognosis. In the univariate analysis, the combined HR for CSS, DFS, OS, PFS, and RFS were 2.588 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.623–4.127, P < 0.001), 2.697 (95%CI: 1.874–3.883, P < 0.001), 2.649 (95%CI: 1.632–4.300, P < 0.001), 3.506 (95%CI: 2.231–5.508, P < 0.001), and 1.792 (95%CI: 1.409–2.279, P < 0.001), respectively. The pooled HR of multivariate analysis for CSS, DFS, OS, PFS, and RFS were 1.868 (95%CI: 1.343–2.597, P < 0.001), 2.626 (95%CI: 2.089–3.301, P < 0.001), 1.104 (95%CI: 1.008–1.209, P = 0.032), 1.518 (95%CI: 1.299–1.773, P < 0.001), and 1.294 (95%CI: 1.203–1.392, P < 0.001), respectively. Subgroup analysis of univariate analysis by origin showed that Ki-67 reactivity significantly

  20. PTEN gene mutations correlate to poor prognosis in glioma patients: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Han, Feng; Hu, Rong; Yang, Hua; Liu, Jian; Sui, Jianmei; Xiang, Xin; Wang, Fan; Chu, Liangzhao; Song, Shibin

    2016-01-01

    Background We conducted this meta-analysis based on eligible trials to investigate the relationship between phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) genetic mutation and glioma patients’ survival. Methods PubMed, Web of Science, and EMBASE were searched for eligible studies regarding the relationship between PTEN genetic mutation and glioma patients’ survival. The primary outcome was the overall survival of glioma patient with or without PTEN genetic mutation, and second outcome was prognostic factors for the survival of glioma patient. A fixed-effects or random-effects model was used to pool the estimates according to the heterogeneity among the included studies. Results Nine cohort studies, involving 1,173 patients, were included in this meta-analysis. Pooled results suggested that glioma patients with PTEN genetic mutation had a significant shorter overall survival than those without PTEN genetic mutation (hazard ratio [HR] =2.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.35, 3.67; P=0.002). Furthermore, subgroup analysis indicated that this association was only observed in American patients (HR =2.19, 95% CI: 1.23, 3.89; P=0.008), but not in Chinese patients (HR =1.44, 95% CI: 0.29, 7.26; P=0.657). Histopathological grade (HR =1.42, 95% CI: 0.07, 28.41; P=0.818), age (HR =0.94, 95% CI: 0.43, 2.04; P=0.877), and sex (HR =1.28, 95% CI: 0.55, 2.98; P=0.564) were not significant prognostic factors for the survival of patients with glioma. Conclusion Current evidence indicates that PTEN genetic mutation is associated with poor prognosis in glioma patients. However, this finding is derived from data in observational studies, potentially subject to selection bias, and hence well conducted, high-quality randomized controlled trials are warranted. PMID:27366085

  1. Cortactin is a sensitive biomarker relative to the poor prognosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cortactin is an important regulator involved in invasion and migration of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this study was to elucidate the forecasting role of cortactin in resectable HCCs. Methods We compared the invasiveness and motility among liver epithelial cell line and HCC cell lines by using Transwell assay and wound healing assay. We further investigated the CTTN mRNA expression by real-time PCR. Next, 91 HCC and 20 normal liver tissue samples were detected by IHC and real-time PCR. Finally, we analyzed the clinicopathologic features and survival time of the HCC cases. Results We identified that HepG2, LM3, and SK-Hep-1 had more invasiveness and motility (P <0.05). Compared with liver epithelial cell line, CTTN expression was higher in LM3, HepG2, and MHCC97-L (P <0.01) and lower in SK-Hep-1 (P <0.05). IHC examination showed cortactin expression was closely relative to TNM stage (AJCC/UICC), cancer embolus, and metastasis (P <0.01). Cortactin overexpression indicated a longer survival time of 52 ± 8.62 months and low expression of a shorter survival time of 20 ± 4.95 months (P <0.01). Cortactin examination has more predictive power in patients with Child-Pugh grade A and BCLC stage 0-B. Conclusions Overexpression of cortactin is closely associated with poor human HCCs prognosis that caused by cancer embolus and metastasis. Cortactin and CTTN should be used for differentiating varieties of survival for patients after HCC resection. PMID:23518204

  2. Elevated expression of Thoc1 is associated with aggressive phenotype and poor prognosis in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chenchen; Yue, Ben; Yuan, Chenwei; Zhao, Senlin; Fang, Changyi; Yu, Yang; Yan, Dongwang

    The THO complex 1 (Thoc1) is a nuclear matrix protein playing vital roles in transcription elongation and mRNA export. Recently, aberrant expression of Thoc1 has been reported in an increasing array of tumor types. However, the clinical significance of Thoc1 expression in colorectal cancer (CRC) is still unknown. The present study aimed to characterize the expression of Thoc1 in human CRC and evaluate its clinical significance. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting analyses showed that the mRNA and protein expression of Thoc1 in CRC specimens was significantly higher than that in adjacent normal colon mucosae. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was conducted to characterize the expression pattern of Thoc1 in 185 archived paraffin-embedded CRC specimens. Statistical analyses revealed that high levels of Thoc1 expression were associated with the clinical stages and tumor differentiation. CRC patients with high levels of Thoc1 expression had poorer overall-survival and disease-free survival, whereas those with lower levels of Thoc1 expression survived longer. Furthermore, multivariate Cox regression analyses demonstrated that Thoc1 expression remained an independent prognostic factor for increased disease recurrence and decreased survival. Our results suggest for the first time that Thoc1 is involved in the development and progression of CRC, and elevated expression of Thoc1 is associated with aggressive phenotype and poor prognosis in CRC. These findings may prove to be clinically useful for developing a new therapeutic target of CRC treatment. PMID:26545775

  3. Increased Plasma Levels of Pentraxin 3 Are Associated with Poor Prognosis of Colorectal Carcinoma Patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Wang, Tai-Yong; Niu, Xue-Cai

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is one of the most common cancers globally. It is essential to identify a prognostic predictor for CRC. Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a glycoprotein that is secreted by a variety of human cells. It plays an important role in inflammation and immune regulation. Increasing evidence reveals that elevated PTX3 expression is related to poor prognosis in various cancers. The aim of the study was to determine the usefulness of plasma PTX3 level as a prognostic predictor in CRC. Total 184 CRC patients and 216 controls were included. Plasma levels of PTX3 were determined using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. On admission, plasma PTX3 levels in CRC patients were higher than those in controls (11.8 ± 2.5 ng/ml vs. 3.1 ± 0.9 ng/ml, P < 0.001). After resection, plasma PTX3 levels in patients were decreased (6.0 ± 1.4 ng/ml, P = 0.007), and were elevated at the time of relapse (10.8 ± 2.8 ng/ml, P < 0.001). During the 60-month follow-up period, 108 patients suffered from relapse. Plasma PTX3 levels of ≥ 12 ng/ml on admission were associated with relapse (OR: 3.11, 95% CI: 1.74 ~ 6.29), and tumor-free survival rate in those patients with plasma PTX3 levels of ≥ 12 ng/ml was lower than that in other patients (P = 0.001). Furthermore, plasma PTX3 levels on admission showed positive linear correlations with plasma complement 3, 4 and 5b9 levels (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.001). Therefore, we propose that PTX3 is an independent prognostic indicator in CRC. PMID:27568661

  4. High expression of cellular retinol binding protein-1 in lung adenocarcinoma is associated with poor prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Doldo, Elena; Costanza, Gaetana; Ferlosio, Amedeo; Pompeo, Eugenio; Agostinelli, Sara; Bellezza, Guido; Mazzaglia, Donatella; Giunta, Alessandro; Sidoni, Angelo; Orlandi, Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Adenocarcinoma, the most common non-small cell lung cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, with a low overall survival (OS) despite increasing attempts to achieve an early diagnosis and accomplish surgical and multimodality treatment strategies. Cellular retinol binding protein-1 (CRBP-1) regulates retinol bioavailability and cell differentiation, but its role in lung cancerogenesis remains uncertain. Experimental design CRBP-1 expression, clinical outcome and other prognostic factors were investigated in 167 lung adenocarcinoma patients. CRBP-1 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry of tissue microarray sections, gene copy number analysis and tumor methylation specific PCR. Effects of CRBP-1 expression on proliferation/apoptosis gene array, protein and transcripts were investigated in transfected A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells. Results CRBP-1High expression was observed in 62.3% of adenocarcinomas and correlated with increased tumor grade and reduced OS as an independent prognostic factor. CRBP-1 gene copy gain also associated with tumor CRBP-1High status and dedifferentiation. CRBP-1-transfected (CRBP-1+) A549 grew more than CRBP-1− A549 cells. At >1μM concentrations, all trans-retinoic acid and retinol reduced viability more in CRBP-1+ than in CRBP-1− A549 cells. CRBP-1+ A549 cells showed up-regulated RARα/ RXRα and proliferative and transcriptional genes including pAkt, pEGFR, pErk1/2, creb1 and c-jun, whereas RARβ and p53 were strongly down-regulated; pAkt/pErk/ pEGFR inhibitors counteracted proliferative advantage and increased RARα/RXRα, c-jun and CD44 expression in CRBP-1+ A549 cells. Conclusion CRBP-1High expression in lung adenocarcinoma correlated with increased tumor grade and reduced OS, likely through increased Akt/Erk/EGFR-mediated cell proliferation and differentiation. CRBP-1High expression can be considered an additional marker of poor prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma patients. PMID:26807202

  5. DEPTOR suppresses the progression of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and predicts poor prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiang; Li, Sheng-Bao; Wei, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Tao; Cheng, Dong-Liang; Liu, Ping; Song, Kuncheng; Tan, Tao; Zhu, Hua; Guo, Jia-Long

    2016-01-01

    As a naturally occurring inhibitor of mTOR, accumulated evidence has suggested that DEPTOR plays a pivotal role in suppressing the progression of human malignances. However, the function of DEPTOR in the development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is still unclear. Here we report that the expression of DEPTOR is significantly reduced in tumor tissues derived from human patients with ESCC, and the downregulation of DEPTOR predicts a poor prognosis of ESCC patients. In addition, we found that the expression of DEPTOR negatively regulates the tumorigenic activities of ESCC cell lines (KYSE150, KYSE510 and KYSE190). Furthermore, ectopic DEPTOR expression caused a significant suppression of the cellular proliferation, migration and invasion of KYSE150 cells, which has the lowest expression level of DEPTOR in the three cell lines. Meanwhile, CRISPR/Cas9 mediated knockout of DEPTOR in KYSE-510 cells significantly promoted cellular proliferation, migration and invasion. In addition, in vivo assays further revealed that tumor growth was significantly inhibited in xenografts with ectopic DEPTOR expression as compared to untreated KYSE150 cells, and was markedly enhanced in DEPTOR knockout KYSE-510 cells. Biochemical studies revealed that overexpression of DEPTOR led to the suppression of AKT/mTOR pathway as evidenced by reduced phosphorylation of AKT, mTOR and downstream SGK1, indicating DEPTOR might control the progression of ESCC through AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Thus, these findings, for the first time, demonstrated that DEPTOR inhibits the tumorigenesis of ESCC cells and might serve as a potential therapeutic target or prognostic marker for human patients with ESCC. PMID:26893358

  6. Decreased Expression of AZGP1 Is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Primary Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-bing; Li, Yuan-fang; Jiang, Shan-shan; Wang, Wei; Pan, Ke; Zheng, Yan; Zhao, Bai-wei; Wang, Dan-dan; Chen, Yong-ming; Yang, Lei; Zhou, Zhi-wei; Xia, Jian-chuan

    2013-01-01

    Background 2-Zinc-glycoprotein 1 (AZGP1) is a multidisciplinary protein that participates in many important functions in the human body, including fertilization, immunoregulation and lipid mobilization. Recently, it has been shown that AZGP1 is also involved in carcinogenesis and tumor differentiation. In this study, we investigated the expression levels and prognostic value of AZGP1 in primary gastric cancers. Methods and Results We examined the expression of AZGP1 in 35 paired cancerous and matched adjacent noncancerous gastric mucosa tissues by real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blotting. Furthermore, we analyzed AZGP1 expression in 248 patients who underwent resection procedures between 2005 and 2007 using immunohistochemistry. The relationships between the AZGP1 expression levels, the clinicopathological factors, and patient survival were investigated. AZGP1 expression was significantly reduced at both the mRNA (P = 0.023) and protein levels (P = 0.019) in tumor tissue samples, compared with expression in matched adjacent non-tumor tissue samples. The immunohistochemical staining data showed that AZGP1 expression was significantly decreased in 52.8% (131/248) of gastric adenocarcinoma cases. Clinicopathological analysis showed that the reduced expression of AZGP1 was significantly correlated with tumor location (P = 0.011), histological grade (P = 0.005) and T stage (P = 0.008). Kaplan–Meier survival curves revealed that the reduced expression of AZGP1 was associated with a poor prognosis in gastric adenocarcinoma patients (P = 0.009). Multivariate Cox analysis identified AZGP1 expression was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival of gastric adenocarcinoma patients (HR = 1.681, 95% CI = 1.134–2.494, P = 0.011). Conclusions Our study suggests that AZGP1 might serve as a candidate tumor suppressor and a potential prognostic biomarker in gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:23935945

  7. High c-Cbl expression in gliomas is associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis

    PubMed Central

    JING, ZHITAO; LI, LONG; WANG, XIN; WANG, MINGHAO; CAI, YING; JIN, ZI; ZHANG, YE

    2016-01-01

    Casitas B-lineage lymphoma (c-Cbl) expression has been linked to the development of several types of cancer. However, no studies on the association of c-Cbl and glioma have been published thus far. The present study examined glioma samples obtained from 136 patients treated at The First Hospital of China Medical University (Shenyang, China) from January 2007 to December 2009, and the expression levels of c-Cbl in the samples were evaluated by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were generated and subjected to Cox regression analysis. The messenger RNA and protein levels of c-Cbl were observed to be upregulated in high-grade glioma, compared with low-grade glioma. A multivariate analysis revealed that the protein levels of c-Cbl were independently associated with overall survival [hazard ratio (HR)=4.923, 95% confidence interval (CI)=3.163–7.662; P<0.001]. Furthermore, the grade of the glioma (according to the World Health Organization criteria) was observed to be independent prognostic factors for progression-free survival and overall survival time (HR=8.842, 95% CI=7.827–9.989; P<0.001, and HR=10.247, 95% CI=9.009–11.655; P<0.001, respectively). Kaplan-Meier analysis and log-rank test indicated that high protein expression levels of c-Cbl were significantly associated with overall and progression-free survival (P<0.001). To the best of our knowledge, these results provide the first evidence that the overexpression of c-Cbl is correlated with advanced clinicopathological features and poor prognosis in patients with glioma. PMID:27073553

  8. Aquaporin 1 Is an Independent Marker of Poor Prognosis in Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Sumi; Sun, Ping-Li; Jin, Yan; Kim, Hyojin; Park, Eunhyang; Park, Soo Young; Lee, Kyuho; Lee, Kyoungyul; Chung, Jin-Haeng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aquaporin 1 (AQP1) overexpression has been shown to be associated with uncontrolled cell replication, invasion, migration, and tumor metastasis. We aimed to evaluate AQP1 expression in lung adenocarcinomas and to examine its association with clinicopathological features and prognostic significance. We also investigated the association between AQP1 overexpression and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers. Methods: We examined AQP1 expression in 505 cases of surgically resected lung adenocarcinomas acquired at the Seoul National University Bundang Hospital from 2003 to 2012. Expression of AQP1 and EMT-related markers, including Ecadherin and vimentin, were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and tissue microarray. Results: AQP1 overexpression was associated with several aggressive pathological parameters, including venous invasion, lymphatic invasion, and tumor recurrence. AQP1 overexpression tended to be associated with higher histological grade, advanced pathological stage, and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) translocation; however, these differences were not statistically significant. In addition, AQP1 overexpression positively correlated with loss of E-cadherin expression and acquired expression of vimentin. Lung adenocarcinoma patients with AQP1 overexpression showed shorter progression-free survival (PFS, 46.1 months vs. 56.2 months) compared to patients without AQP1 overexpression. Multivariate analysis confirmed that AQP1 overexpression was significantly associated with shorter PFS (hazard ratio, 1.429; 95% confidence interval, 1.033 to 1.977; p=.031). Conclusions: AQP1 overexpression was thereby concluded to be an independent factor of poor prognosis associated with shorter PFS in lung adenocarcinoma. These results suggested that AQP1 overexpression might be considered as a prognostic biomarker of lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:27271108

  9. Increased frequency of minimal homozygous deletions is associated with poor prognosis in primary malignant melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Boi, Sebastiana; Tebaldi, Toma; Re, Angela; Cantaloni, Chiara; Adami, Valentina; Barbareschi, Mattia; Cristofolini, Mario; Pasini, Luigi; Quattrone, Alessandro

    2014-06-01

    Identification of prognostic melanoma-associated copy number alterations (CNAs) is still an area of active research. Here, we investigated by high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) a cohort of 31 paraffin-preserved primary malignant melanomas (MMs), whose prognosis was not predictable on the basis of conventional histopathological parameters. Although we identified a variety of highly recurrent sites of genomic lesions, the total number of CNAs per patient was not a discriminator of MM outcome. Furthermore, validation of aCGH by quantitative PCR on an extended population of 65 MM samples confirmed the absence of predictive value for the most recurrent CNA loci. Instead, our analysis revealed specific prognostic potential of the frequency of homozygous deletions (representing less than 3% of the total CNAs on average per sample), which was strongly associated with sentinel lymph node (SLN) invasion (P = 0.003), and distant metastasis (P = 0.003). Increased number of homozygous deletions was also indicative of poor patient survival (P = 0.01), both in our samples and in an independent validation of public dataset of primary and metastatic MMs. Moreover, we identified 77 hotspots of minimal common homozygous deletions, enriched in genes involved in cell adhesion processes and cell-communication functions, which preferentially accumulated in primary MMs showing the most severe outcome. Therefore, specific loss of gene loci in regions of minimal homozygous deletion may represent a pivotal type of genomic alteration accumulating during MM progression with potential prognostic implication. PMID:24615732

  10. Overexpression of Rab27B is correlated with distant metastasis and poor prognosis in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Ping; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Zhai, Xiao-Lu; Zhang, Yu-Quan; Huang, Jian-Fei

    2016-01-01

    The secretory small guanosine-5′-triphosphate-binding enzyme, Rab27B, has been identified to be an oncogene that is involved in the progression of certain tumors. The current study was designed to evaluate the expression pattern of Rab27B in ovarian cancer (OC), borderline tumors and benign ovarian adenoid tumors, as well as its association with survival prognosis and clinical parameters. The expression of Rab27B protein was examined by immunohistochemistry in 204 patients who had undergone ovarian resection without preoperative systemic chemotherapy at the Surgical Department of the Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University (Nantong, China), including 57 benign ovarian adenoid tumors, 44 borderline tumors and 103 malignant tumors. Rab27B expression and clinicopathological features were analyzed with the χ2 test. Patient survival rate was analyzed with the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate analysis of the prognostic factors was performed using the Cox regression model. Increased expression of Rab27B was positively correlated with histological type (P=0.012), level of differentiation (P=0.015), lymph node metastasis (P=0.024), distant metastasis (P<0.001) and International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage (P=0.001). Survival analysis revealed an association between Rab27B-positivity and poor overall survival rate. Multivariate analysis indicated that Rab27B (P<0.031) and distant metastases (P=0.031) were independent prognostic factors for OC patients' survival. The results of the present study supported the hypothesis that Rab27B may be a valuable prognostic indicator in patients with OC. PMID:27446467

  11. Alternatively activated macrophages are associated with metastasis and poor prognosis in prostate adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    HU, WENXUE; QIAN, YUNJUAN; YU, FENG; LIU, WEI; WU, YANHUA; FANG, XIAOWU; HAO, WENKE

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that alternatively activated macrophages (AAMs) are involved in tumor progression. However, the effect of AAMs on the metastasis of prostate cancer is poorly understood. In the present study, the prostate tissues of 42 patients with prostate adenocarcinoma (PCa) were used in the analysis of tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) and AAMs by immunofluorescence. The patients were followed up for 5 years. The associations of TAMs and AAMs with the clinicopathological features and outcome in these cases were evaluated. Immunofluorescent analysis indicated that the mean number of TAMs (CD68-positive cells) in the prostate tissues of PCa patients with metastasis [45.29±7.25 cells/high-power field (HPF)] was significantly higher compared with that of PCa patients without metastasis (33.57±5.25 cells/HPF; P<0.01). The mean numbers of AAMs (CD68- and CD206-positive cells) in the tissues of PCa patients with and without metastasis were 29.43±5.68 and 9.14±5.29 cells/HPF, respectively. In addition, the percentage of AAMs (number of AAMs/number of TAMs) was 65.11±9.68 and 27.32±7.85% in patients with and without metastasis, respectively. The differences in the number and percentage of AAMs between the two groups were statistically significant (P<0.01). The number and percentage of AAMs was positively correlated with tumor grade and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level. Univariate analysis indicated that the level of PSA, Gleason score, metastatic status, T grade, number of TAMs, number of AAMs and percentage of AAMs were predictors of the overall survival. Furthermore, multivariate analyses revealed that Gleason score, level of PSA and number of TAMs were predictors for overall survival rate. These results indicate that TAMs and AAMs may be important in the metastasis of PCa, and that TAMs and AAMs may be used as potential biomarkers of poor prognosis in late-stage PCa patients. PMID:26622679

  12. Expression of E2F-4 in invasive breast carcinomas is associated with poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Rakha, Emad A; Pinder, Sarah E; Paish, E Claire; Robertson, John F; Ellis, Ian O

    2004-07-01

    The E2F family of transcription factors plays a key role in the control of cellular proliferation and apoptosis. Some family members act as oncogenes and others act as tumour suppressor genes (TSGs), behaviour which appears to be tissue-specific. E2F-4 is a member of the E2F family, located at chromosome band 16q22.1, that shows frequent deletion in breast cancer, suggesting that it may function as a TSG in breast carcinogenesis. In the present study, the expression of E2F-4 was assessed immunohistochemically on paraffin wax sections from 265 breast carcinomas and expression was compared with both clinicopathological variables and disease outcome in an attempt to identify its possible role as a TSG and to assess its prognostic value, if any, in breast cancer. E2F-4 protein expression was detected in the nuclei and in the cytoplasm of normal and malignant breast epithelial cells. In the malignant tissues, no significant loss or decrease of expression was seen in association with any specific tumour type. There was a correlation between increased nuclear expression of E2F-4 and indicators of poor prognosis including larger tumour size (p = 0.000), grade 3 lesions (p = 0.033), lymph node stage (p = 0.037), and poorer Nottingham prognostic index group (p = 0.003). Increased immunoreactivity was also seen in association with the development of recurrent disease (p = 0.004), distant metastasis (p = 0.001), and poorer outcome including poorer overall survival time (p = 0.002) and shorter disease-free interval (p = 0.001). In multivariate analysis, E2F-4 was of independent prognostic significance along with grade and lymph node stage. These results suggest that E2F-4 may play a role in breast cancer progression and that increased nuclear expression is associated with more advanced tumours with poor outcomes. E2F-4 appears to have an oncogenic role rather than a tumour suppressor role in breast carcinogenesis and, hence, it is not the gene targeted by 16q22.1 loss in breast

  13. Cytoplasmic Kaiso is associated with poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    -regulation of the nuclear expresses Kaiso in vitro, both proliferative and invasive abilities of three cancer cell lines were significantly enhanced, along with the up-regulation of Kaiso target gene, matrilysin. Conclusion Our data suggest cytoplasmic Kaiso expression is associated with poor prognosis of NSCLC and various subcellular localizations of Kaiso may play differential biological roles in NSCLC. PMID:19508730

  14. Low expression of ARID1A correlates with poor prognosis in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Song-Zhu; Wang, An-Qiang; Du, Juan; Wang, Jian-Tao; Yu, Wei-Wei; Liu, Qing; Wu, Yan-Fang; Chen, Shu-Guang

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between ARID1A expression and clinicopathologic parameters, as well as its prognostic value, for patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IHCC). METHODS: We assessed ARID1A protein and mRNA expression in IHCC tissues and paracarcinomatous (PC) tissues from 57 patients with IHCC using western blot and quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, respectively. We used Fisher’s exact and χ2 tests to analyze relationships between clinicopathological parameters and ARID1A expression. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression were used to analyze survival. RESULTS: The mean ARID1A protein level in IHCC tissues was 1.16 ± 0.36 relative units (RU), which was significantly lower than that in PC tissues (1.26 ± 0.21 RU, P < 0.01) and NL tissues (1.11 ± 0.31, P < 0.001). The mean ARID1A mRNA level in IHCC tissues (1.20 ± 0.18) was also lower than that in PC tissues (1.27 ± 0.15, P < 0.001) and normal liver tissues (1.15 ± 0.34, P < 0.001). Low ARID1A expression was significantly associated with tumor nodules, vein invasion, and recurrence. Median overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) for the low ARID1A expression group was 15.0 and 7.0 mo, respectively, which were significantly shorter than those for the high ARID1A expression group at 25.0 and 22.0 mo (OS: P < 0.01; DFS: P < 0.001), respectively. Low ARID1A expression was significantly associated with worse OS (HR = 3.967, 95%CI: 1.299-12.118, P = 0.016) in multivariate analyses. CONCLUSION: Low expression of ARID1A is associated with poor prognosis in patients with IHCC, and thus may be a potential prognostic biomarker candidate in IHCC. PMID:27433094

  15. Expression of the Stem Cell Factor Nestin in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Is Associated with Poor Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Thies, Svenja; Friess, Martina; Frischknecht, Lukas; Korol, Dimitri; Felley-Bosco, Emanuela; Stahel, Rolf; Vrugt, Bart; Weder, Walter; Opitz, Isabelle; Soltermann, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Background The epithelioid and sarcomatoid histologic variants of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) can be considered as E- and M-parts of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) axis; the biphasic being an intermediate. EMT is associated with an increase of stem cell (SC) traits. We correlated the neural crest SC marker nestin and the EMT marker periostin with histology, type of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) and overall survival (OS) of MPM patients. Patients and Methods Tumor tissues of a historic cohort 1 (320 patients) and an intended induction chemotherapy followed by extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) cohort 2 (145 patients) were immunohistochemically H-scored (intensity of immunoreactivity multiplied by frequency of stained cells). Paired chemo-naïve biopsies and -treated surgical specimens were available for 105/145 patients. CT included platinum/gemcitabine (Pla/Gem) or platinum/pemetrexed (Pla/Pem). Results Expression of any cytosolic nestin progressively increased from epithelioid to biphasic to sarcomatoid MPM in cohort 1, whereas the diagnostic markers calretinin and podoplanin decreased. In cohort 2, Pla/Pem CT increased the expression level of nestin in comparison to Pla/Gem, whereas the opposite was found for periostin. In Pla/Pem treated patients, nestin was higher in biphasic MPM compared to epithelioid. In addition to non-epithelioid histology, any expression of nestin in chemo-naïve biopsies (median overall survival: 22 vs. 17 months) and chemo-treated surgical specimens (18 vs. 12 months) as well as high periostin in biopsies (23 vs. 15 months) were associated with poor prognosis. In the multivariate survival analysis, any nestin expression in chemo-naïve biopsies proved to be an independent prognosticator against histology. In both pre- and post-CT situations, the combination of nestin or periostin expression with non-epithelioid histology was particularly/ dismal (all p-values <0.05). Conclusions The SC marker nestin and the EMT

  16. Overexpression of periostin predicts poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    HONG, LING-ZHI; WEI, XIAO-WEI; CHEN, JIN-FEI; SHI, YI

    2013-01-01

    -level periostin expression (periostin-L; n=27) and 45.4% for patients with high-level periostin expression (periostin-H; n=22). Similarly, pathological node (pN) status was a significant prognostic marker in the univariate Cox survival analysis. Notably, periostin-H expression was also identified as an independent prognostic factor by the multivariate analysis (P=0.011). These results showed that the overexpression of periostin predicts a poor prognosis, therefore it may be regarded as a novel molecule in the progression and development of NSCLC. The results provide an additional target for the adjuvant treatment of NSCLC. PMID:24273600

  17. Generation of 2,000 breast cancer metabolic landscapes reveals a poor prognosis group with active serotonin production

    PubMed Central

    Leoncikas, Vytautas; Wu, Huihai; Ward, Lara T.; Kierzek, Andrzej M.; Plant, Nick J.

    2016-01-01

    A major roadblock in the effective treatment of cancers is their heterogeneity, whereby multiple molecular landscapes are classified as a single disease. To explore the contribution of cellular metabolism to cancer heterogeneity, we analyse the Metabric dataset, a landmark genomic and transcriptomic study of 2,000 individual breast tumours, in the context of the human genome-scale metabolic network. We create personalized metabolic landscapes for each tumour by exploring sets of active reactions that satisfy constraints derived from human biochemistry and maximize congruency with the Metabric transcriptome data. Classification of the personalized landscapes derived from 997 tumour samples within the Metabric discovery dataset reveals a novel poor prognosis cluster, reproducible in the 995-sample validation dataset. We experimentally follow mechanistic hypotheses resulting from the computational study and establish that active serotonin production is a major metabolic feature of the poor prognosis group. These data support the reconsideration of concomitant serotonin-specific uptake inhibitors treatment during breast cancer chemotherapy. PMID:26813959

  18. Increased interleukin-6 expression is associated with poor prognosis and acquired cisplatin resistance in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    GAO, JIAN; ZHAO, SEN; HALSTENSEN, TROND S.

    2016-01-01

    Increased expression of interleukin 6 (IL-6) is associated with poor prognosis and chemoresistance in many different carcinomas, but its role in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is still unsettled. Analyzing tumorous mRNA expression data from 399 HNSCC patients revealed that high IL-6 expression predicted poor prognosis. Similar tendency was observed in platinum treated patients, suggesting an IL-6 associated cisplatin resistance. IL-6 increase was also found in two in-house acquired cisplatin-resistant HNSCC cell lines (both basaloid and conventional squamous cell carcinoma) by using microarray analysis. However, although the in-house acquired cisplatin-resistant cell lines had higher basal and markedly increased cisplatin-induced IL-6 expression, IL-6 did not mediate the cisplatin resistance as neither exogenous IL-6 nor IL-6R/gp130 inhibitors affected cisplatin sensitivity. Moreover, the IL-6/STAT3 pathway was impaired in the resistant cell lines, partly due to decreased IL-6R expression. Thus, high IL-6 expression correlated to poor prognosis and acquired cisplatin resistance, but it did not mediate cisplatin resistance in the HNSCC cell lines. PMID:27108527

  19. Increased interleukin-6 expression is associated with poor prognosis and acquired cisplatin resistance in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jian; Zhao, Sen; Halstensen, Trond S

    2016-06-01

    Increased expression of interleukin 6 (IL-6) is associated with poor prognosis and chemoresistance in many different carcinomas, but its role in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is still unsettled. Analyzing tumorous mRNA expression data from 399 HNSCC patients revealed that high IL-6 expression predicted poor prognosis. Similar tendency was observed in platinum treated patients, suggesting an IL-6 associated cisplatin resistance. IL-6 increase was also found in two in-house acquired cisplatin‑resistant HNSCC cell lines (both basaloid and conventional squamous cell carcinoma) by using microarray analysis. However, although the in-house acquired cisplatin-resistant cell lines had higher basal and markedly increased cisplatin-induced IL-6 expression, IL-6 did not mediate the cisplatin resistance as neither exogenous IL-6 nor IL-6R/gp130 inhibitors affected cisplatin sensitivity. Moreover, the IL-6/STAT3 pathway was impaired in the resistant cell lines, partly due to decreased IL-6R expression. Thus, high IL-6 expression correlated to poor prognosis and acquired cisplatin resistance, but it did not mediate cisplatin resistance in the HNSCC cell lines. PMID:27108527

  20. High neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio indicates poor prognosis for acute-on-chronic liver failure after liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Bing-Yi; Zhou, Lin; Geng, Lei; Zheng, Zhi-Yun; Jia, Jun-Jun; Zhang, Jing; Yao, Jia; Zheng, Shu-Sen

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the significance of pre-transplant neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in determining the prognosis of liver transplant (LT) recipients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). METHODS: Data were collected from the liver transplantation data bank. The NLR values and other conventional inflammatory markers were evaluated for their ability to predict the prognosis of 153 patients with ACLF after LT. The NLR cut-off value was based on a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. A Kaplan-Meier curve analysis and univariate and multivariate Cox regression models were used to define the independent risk factors for poor outcomes. RESULTS: The optimal NLR cut-off value was 4.6. Out of 153 patients, 83 (54.2%) had an NLR ≥ 4.6. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rates were 94.3%, 92.5% and 92.5%, respectively, in the normal NLR group and 74.7%, 71.8% and 69.8%, respectively, in patients with high NLRs (P < 0.001). Furthermore, there was a significant difference in infectious complications after LT between the high and normal NLR groups. There were no significant differences for other complications. In the multivariate Cox regression model, a high NLR was defined as a significant predictor of poor outcomes for LT. CONCLUSION: A high NLR is a convenient and available predictor for prognosis of LT patients and can potentially optimize the current criteria for LT in ACLF. PMID:25805939

  1. Stathmin1 regulates p27 expression, proliferation and drug resistance, resulting in poor clinical prognosis in cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Akira; Suzuki, Hideki; Yokobori, Takehiko; Tsukagoshi, Mariko; Altan, Bolag; Kubo, Norio; Suzuki, Shigemasa; Araki, Kenichiro; Wada, Satoshi; Kashiwabara, Kenji; Hosouchi, Yasuo; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Patients with extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (EHCC) have a poor prognosis; postoperative survival depends on cancer progression and therapeutic resistance. The mechanism of EHCC progression needs to be clarified to identify ways to improve disease prognosis. Stathmin1 (STMN1) is a major cytosolic phosphoprotein that regulates microtubule dynamics and is associated with malignant phenotypes and chemoresistance in various cancers. Recently, STMN1 was reported to interact with p27, an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase complexes. Eighty EHCC cases were studied using immunohistochemistry and clinical pathology to determine the correlation between STMN1 and p27 expression; RNA interference to analyze the function of STMN1 in an EHCC cell line was also used. Cytoplasmic STMN1 expression correlated with venous invasion (P = 0.0021) and nuclear p27 underexpression (P = 0.0011). Patients in the high-STMN1-expression group were associated with shorter recurrence-free survival and overall survival than those in the low-expression group. An in vitro protein-binding assay revealed that cytoplasmic STMN1 bound to p27 in the cytoplasm, but not in the nucleus of EHCC cells. Moreover, p27 accumulated in EHCC cells after STMN1 suppression. STMN1 knockdown inhibited proliferation and increased the sensitivity of EHCC cells to paclitaxel. STMN1 contributes to a poor prognosis and cancer progression in EHCC patients. Understanding the regulation of p27 by STMN1 could provide new insights for overcoming therapeutic resistance in EHCC. PMID:24708177

  2. ZFX is a Strong Predictor of Poor Prognosis in Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Changying; Li, Hongjie; Zhang, Ting; Li, Jianmin; Ma, Fuling; Li, Mei; Sui, Zhifang; Chang, Jiwu

    2015-01-01

    Background This study was designed to assay the expression of zinc finger protein X-linked (ZFX) in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) tissues and evaluate the correlation between ZFX expression and prognosis of RCC patients. Material/Methods The expressions of ZFX mRNA in 53 RCC tissues and 51 normal tissues were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) technology was used to measure the expression of ZFX protein. Then chi-square test was conducted to verify the association between ZFX expression and clinical parameters. Next, we explored the overall survival rate of RCC patients with Kaplan-Meier analysis. Finally, the correlation between ZFX expression and the prognosis of RCC patients was evaluated by Cox regression analysis. Results The qRT-PCR result showed that the ZFX was significantly up-regulated in RCC tissues. As for the IHC consequence, the positive rate of ZFX expression in RCC specimens was 79.2%, while that in the normal control tissues was only 17.6%. Chi-square test showed that ZFX expression shared no close relationship with age, sex, or smoking (P>0.05), but was tightly associated with TNM stage, tumor size, and lymph node metastasis (P<0.05). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with ZFX positive expression had higher mortality than those with negative expression (P<0.05). Cox regression analysis revealed that ZFX expression had tight correlation with prognosis of RCC patients (HR=4.997, P=0.045, 95%CI=1.033–24.180). Conclusions Our findings show that ZFX could be considered as a predictor for prognosis of RCC patients. PMID:26540164

  3. Promoter CpG island methylation of RET predicts poor prognosis in stage II colorectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Draht, Muriel X G; Smits, Kim M; Tournier, Benjamin; Jooste, Valerie; Chapusot, Caroline; Carvalho, Beatriz; Cleven, Arjen H G; Derks, Sarah; Wouters, Kim A D; Belt, Eric J T; Stockmann, Hein B A C; Bril, Herman; Weijenberg, Matty P; van den Brandt, Piet A; de Bruïne, Adriaan P; Herman, James G; Meijer, Gerrit A; Piard, Françoise; Melotte, Veerle; van Engeland, Manon

    2014-05-01

    Improved prognostic stratification of patients with TNM stage II colorectal cancer (CRC) is desired, since 20-30% of high-risk stage II patients may die within five years of diagnosis. This study was conducted to investigate REarranged during Transfection (RET) gene promoter CpG island methylation as a possible prognostic marker for TNM stage II CRC patients. The utility of RET promoter CpG island methylation in tumors of stage II CRC patients as a prognostic biomarker for CRC related death was studied in three independent series (including 233, 231, and 294 TNM stage II patients, respectively) by using MSP and pyrosequencing. The prognostic value of RET promoter CpG island methylation was analyzed by using Cox regression analysis. In the first series, analyzed by MSP, CRC stage II patients (n = 233) with RET methylated tumors had a significantly worse overall survival as compared to those with unmethylated tumors (HRmultivariable = 2.51, 95%-CI: 1.42-4.43). Despite a significant prognostic effect of RET methylation in stage III patients of a second series, analyzed by MSP, the prognostic effect in stage II patients (n = 231) was not statistically significant (HRmultivariable = 1.16, 95%-CI 0.71-1.92). The third series (n = 294), analyzed by pyrosequencing, confirmed a statistically significant association between RET methylation and poor overall survival in stage II patients (HRmultivariable = 1.91, 95%-CI: 1.04-3.53). Our results show that RET promoter CpG island methylation, analyzed by two different techniques, is associated with a poor prognosis in stage II CRC in two independent series and a poor prognosis in stage III CRC in one series. RET methylation may serve as a useful and robust tool for clinical practice to identify high-risk stage II CRC patients with a poor prognosis. This merits further investigation. PMID:24560444

  4. BC200 LncRNA a potential predictive marker of poor prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Rui-Hua; Zhu, Cai-hua; Li, Xiang-Ke; Cao, Wei; Zong, Hong; Cao, Xin-Guang; Hu, Hai-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the expression and prognosis significance of BC200 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients who received radical resection. Methods We used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect the expression level of BC200 in cancer tissue and paired adjacent normal tissue samples from 70 ESCC patients who received radical surgical resection and analyzed the correlation of the relative expression level of BC200 with clinical-pathological features and prognosis. Results We found that the relative expression of BC200 was significantly higher in ESCC tissues compared with adjacent normal tissue samples (P=0.023). But the expression of BC200 were not related to clinical-pathological features, such as age, TNM stages, and histological grade (P>0.05). Kaplan–Meier analysis showed that high expression levels of BC200 were correlated with poor prognosis in ESCC patients. Patients with a high level of BC200 had a shorter disease-free survival and overall survival than those with low BC200 expression (P=0.034 and P=0.031, respectively). On multivariate analysis, the hazard ratio (HR) of BC200 expression was 2.17 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.12–4.19, P=0.022) for disease-free survival and 2.24 (95% CI=1.12–4.49, P=0.023) for overall survival. Conclusion Our results indicate that high expression of BC200 reflects poor prognosis and could serve as a novel predictive marker for ESCC patients who received radical resection. PMID:27143917

  5. Mast Cells Comprise the Major of Interleukin 17-Producing Cells and Predict a Poor Prognosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Jian-Fei; Pan, Hong-Ying; Ying, Xi-Hui; Lou, Jian; Ji, Jian-Song; Zou, Hai

    2016-01-01

    Abstract IL-17 and IL-17-producing cells have been found in many types of human cancers and murine models. However, the source of tumor-infiltrating IL-17 and IL-17-producing cells in HCC and the prognostic values remain poorly understood. A total of 57 HCC patients were enrolled in this study, and immunofluorescence double stain was used to evaluate the colocalization of CD3+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, CD56+ NK cells, CD20+ B cells, CD68+ Macrophages, and MCT+ mast cells with IL-17. The prognostic value of IL-17-producing cells was evaluated by Kaplan–Meier analysis and Cox regression model. MCT+ mast cells, but not other cells, were the predominant IL-17-producing cell type. Overall survival analysis revealed that the increasing intratumoral-infiltrated MCT+ mast cells were significantly associated with poor prognosis. Immunofluorescence double stain showed a positive correlation between the number of MCT+ mast cells and MCVs. These findings indicated the major IL-17-producing cells in HCC were MCT+ mast cells and these cells infiltration may promote tumor progression by angiogenesis. Increased MCT+ mast cells was associated with a poor prognosis, indicating therapy targeting MCT+ mast cells might be an effective strategy in controlling intratumor IL-17 infiltration and MCVs. PMID:27043690

  6. Nuclear Ep-ICD Expression Is a Predictor of Poor Prognosis in “Low Risk” Prostate Adenocarcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Assi, Jasmeet; Srivastava, Gunjan; Matta, Ajay; MacMillan, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Molecular markers for predicting prostate cancer (PCa) that would have poor prognosis are urgently needed for a more personalized treatment for patients. Regulated intramembrane proteolysis of Epithelial cell adhesion molecule results in shedding of the extracellular domain (EpEx) and release of its intracellular domain (Ep-ICD) which triggers oncogenic signaling and might correlate to tumor aggressiveness. This study aimed to explore the potential of Ep-ICD and EpEx to identify PCa that have poor prognosis. Methods Immunohistochemical analysis of Ep-ICD and EpEx was carried out in normal prostate tissues (n = 100), benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH, n = 83), and prostate cancer (n = 249) using domain specific antibodies. The expression of Ep-ICD and EpEx was correlated with clinico- pathological parameters and disease free survival (DFS). Results Reduced expression of nuclear Ep-ICD and membrane EpEx was observed in PCa in comparison with BPH and normal prostate tissues (p = 0.006, p < 0.001 respectively). For patients who had PCa with Gleason Score less than 7, preserved nuclear Ep-ICD emerged as the most significant marker in multivariate analysis for prolonged DFS, where these patients did not have recurrence during follow up of up to 12 years (p = 0.001). Conclusion Reduced expression of nuclear Ep-ICD was associated with shorter disease free survival in patients with a Gleason Score less than 7 and may be useful in identifying patients likely to have aggressive tumors with poor prognosis. Furthermore, nuclear Ep-ICD can differentiate between normal and prostate cancer tissues for ambiguous cases. PMID:25695234

  7. TSLP Expression and High Serum TSLP Level Indicate a Poor Prognosis in Gastric Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Joji; Saito, Hiroaki; Miyatani, Kozo; Ikeguchi, Masahide; Umekita, Yoshihisa

    2015-01-01

    Background Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) plays an important role in promoting tumor survival, by manipulating the immune response and angiogenesis. However, the clinical significance of TSLP in gastric cancer is unclear. Methods Immunohistochemistry was used to investigate TSLP expression in non-cancerous gastric mucosa and gastric cancer tissue from patients with gastric cancer. Serum TSLP levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Tumors with TSLP expression were significantly larger than those without TSLP expression. TSLP expression was observed more frequently in advanced (T2/T3/T4) than in early (T1) gastric cancer and in stage 3/4 than in stage 1/2. Lymph node metastasis, liver metastasis, positive peritoneal lavage cytology, lymphatic invasion, and vascular invasion occurred significantly more often in TSLP-expressing than in non-expressing tumors. The prognosis of patients with TSLP-positive tumors was significantly worse than that of patients with TSLP-negative tumors. Patients with high serum TSLP concentrations also had a significantly worse prognosis than those with low concentrations. Multivariate analysis identified serum TSLP level as an independent prognostic indicator. Conclusion TSLP is closely related to the progression of gastric cancer and may predict survival in these patients. PMID:26538800

  8. Upregulation of PD-L1 and APE1 is associated with tumorigenesis and poor prognosis of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Qing, Yi; Li, Qing; Ren, Tao; Xia, Wei; Peng, Yu; Liu, Gao-Lei; Luo, Hao; Yang, Yu-Xin; Dai, Xiao-Yan; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Wang, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Gastric cancer is a fatal malignancy with a rising incidence rate. Effective methods for early diagnosis, monitoring metastasis, and prognosis are currently unavailable for gastric cancer. In this study, we examined the association of programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) expression with the prognosis of gastric cancer. Methods The expressions of PD-L1 and APE1 were detected by immunohistochemistry in 107 cases of human gastric carcinoma. The correlation of PD-L1 and APE1 expression with the clinicopathologic features of gastric carcinoma was analyzed by SPSS version 19.0. Results The positive expression rates of PD-L1 and APE1 in gastric cancer tissues were 50.5% (54/107) and 86.9% (93/107), respectively. PD-L1 and APE1 positive expressions were significantly associated with depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis, pathological type, overall survival, and higher T stage. Furthermore, the expression of PD-L1 in highly differentiated gastric cancers was higher than that in poorly differentiated cancers (P=0.008). Moreover, the expression of APE1 and PD-L1 in gastric cancers was positively correlated (r=0.336, P<0.01). Multivariate analysis showed that the depth of invasion was a significant prognostic factor (risk ratio 19.91; P=0.000), but there was no significant relationship with PD-L1, APE1, prognosis, and other characteristics. Conclusion The deregulation of PD-L1 and APE1 might contribute to the development and the poor prognosis of gastric cancer. Our findings suggest that high expression of PD-L1 and APE1 is a risk factor of gastric cancer and a new biomarker to predict the prognosis of gastric cancer. Furthermore, our findings suggest that targeting the PD-L1 and APE1 signaling pathways may be a new strategy for cancer immune therapy and targeted therapy for gastric cancer, especially in patients with deep invasion and lymph node metastasis. PMID:25733810

  9. Ack1 overexpression promotes metastasis and indicates poor prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guo-dong; Ou, Di-peng; Qiu, Xiao-xin; Zuo, Chao-hui; Yang, Lian-Yue

    2015-01-01

    Despite the substantial data supporting the oncogenic role of Ack1, the predictive value and biologic role of Ack1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastasis remains unknown. In this study, both correlations of Ack1 expression with prognosis of HCC, and the role of Ack1 in metastasis of HCC were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that Ack1 was overexpressed in human HCC tissues and cell lines. High Ack1 expression was associated with HCC metastasis and determined as a significant and independent prognostic factor for HCC after liver resection. Ack1 promoted HCC invasion and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, we confirmed that Ack1 enhanced invasion and metastasis of HCC via EMT by mediating AKT phosphorylation. In conclusion, our study shows Ack1 is a novel prognostic biomarker for HCC and promotes metastasis of HCC via EMT by activating AKT signaling. PMID:26536663

  10. Overexpression of vascular adhesion protein-1 is associated with poor prognosis of astrocytomas.

    PubMed

    Kostoro, Joanna; Chang, Shu-Jyuan; Clark Lai, Yen-Chang; Wu, Chun-Chieh; Chai, Chee-Yin; Kwan, Aij-Lie

    2016-06-01

    Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) is one of the endothelial adhesion molecules that is believed to play a role in tumor progression and metastasis, supporting cancer cell extravasation. Very few studies have been performed on analyzing the contribution of VAP-1 in brain tumor. Astrocytomas are the most common type of brain tumors, which are classified by World Health Organization (WHO) into four grades according to the degree of malignancy. This study was designed to investigate VAP-1 expression level in different astrocytoma grades and its correlation with clinicopathological features as well as prognosis of astrocytoma patients. Eighty-seven patients with different grades of astrocytoma (WHO Grade I-Grade IV) were enrolled in this study. The expression of VAP-1 was assayed by immunohistochemistry. The correlation between VAP-1 expression and clinicopathological features was evaluated by Chi-square test, and overall survival was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method. Cox regression analysis was applied to analyze the independent influence of each parameter on overall survival. The expression level of VAP-1 was significantly higher in diffuse astrocytoma than those of pilocytic astrocytoma (p < 0.0001). In the subgroup analysis, upregulated VAP-1 expression was frequently found in older age patients (≥50 years). The VAP-1 expression was found to be significantly correlated with the overall survival (p = 0.0002). There was a statistical correlation between VAP-1(high) tumors in diffuse astrocytoma and VAP-1(low) tumors in pilocytic astrocytoma (p < 0.0001). Multivariate Cox analysis indicated VAP-1 was an independent predictive marker for poorer prognosis (p = 0.0036). Therefore, VAP-1 could be a promising prognostic biomarker in astrocytoma. PMID:26935340

  11. Upregulation of KLHDC4 Predicts a Poor Prognosis in Human Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Qi-Sheng; Xu, Miao; Bei, Jin-Xin; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Feng, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Kelch proteins are implicated in the pathogenesis of many human diseases, including cancer. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a rare malignancy in most countries, but prevalent in southern China and certain areas of Southeast Asia. In this study, we identified Kelch Domain Containing 4 (KLHDC4), an orphan member of the kelch repeat superfamily, as a prognosis marker for NPC. We examined the expression of KLHDC4 in 168 NPC cases by immunohistochemical staining and found a substantially higher level of KLHDC4 in NPC biopsies compared to adjacent normal nasopharyngeal mucosa. KLHDC4 expression was significantly related to the T classification (P <0.05), N classification (P <0.05) and total staging (P <0.01) in NPC, and patients with higher KLHDC4 expression had poorer overall (P <0.01) and metastasis-free survival (P <0.05) rates. Knockout (KO) of KLHDC4 via CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing in NPC cell line dramatically inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation in soft agar and tumor formation in nude mice. In addition, cell migration and invasion were also impaired by KLHDC4 depletion as revealed by wound healing and Transwell assay. Mechanically, loss of KLHDC4 markedly induced spontaneous apoptosis in NPC cells, as evidenced by increased levels of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP. Consistently, KLHDC4 knockout cell-derived xenografts also showed elevated cleaved caspase-3 and PARP but reduced Ki-67 staining. In conclusion, our results suggest that KLHDC4 promotes NPC oncogenesis by suppressing cellular apoptosis. Thus, KLHDC4 may serve as a prognosis biomarker and a potential therapeutic target for NPC. PMID:27030985

  12. Over-Expression of CD200 Predicts Poor Prognosis in Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Tian, YanLi; Shi, ChengFang; Zhang, Hua; Zhou, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Background CD200 is reported to be involved in tumor progression and can serve as a prognostic marker in several cancers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of CD200 in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Material/Methods The relative mRNA and protein expression of CD200 in the tumor tissues and corresponding normal tissues of 102 CSCC patients were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot analysis, respectively. The chi-square test was used to analyze the association between CD200 expression and clinical features of CSCC patients. In addition, the overall survival of the patients according to the expression level of CD200 was estimated by Kaplan-Meier analysis and the prognostic significance of the gene was analyzed by Cox regression analysis. Results Increased expression of CD200 was detected in the tumor tissues compared with the corresponding normal tissues both at mRNA and protein level. And CD200 expression level was associated with tumor differentiation grade (P=0.041) and clinical stage (P=0.004). Patients with high expression level of CD200 had a shorter overall survival than those with low expression (31.3 months vs. 41.9 months) and there was a significant difference between them (log-rank test, P<0.001). Cox regression analysis indicated that CD200 could be an independent marker for the prognosis of CSCC. Conclusions CD200 is up-regulated and may be a novel biomarker for the prognosis in CSCC, and it may be a potential therapeutic target for CSCC. PMID:27035797

  13. High DEPTOR expression correlates with poor prognosis in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Nan-bo; Zhang, Jun-hua; Liu, Yu-fan; Li, Jun; Zhang, Zhen-zhong; Li, Ji-wei; Liu, Wen-yue; Huang, Chen; Shen, Tao; Gu, Cheng-wei; Gao, Dong-yun; Wu, Xia; Wu, Xu

    2015-01-01

    Objective The disheveled, Egl-10, and pleckstrin (DEP) domain containing mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-interacting protein (DEPTOR) is a binding protein containing mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1), mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2), and an endogenous mTOR inhibitor. DEPTOR shows abnormal expressions in numerous types of solid tumors. However, how DEP-TOR is expressed in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains elusive. Methods The expression of DEPTOR in 220 cases of ESCC and non-cancerous adjacent tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry. DEPTOR levels in ESCC and paired normal tissue were quantified using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis to verify the immunohistochemical results. The relationship between DEPTOR expression and the clinicopathological features of ESCC was analyzed based on the results of immunohistochemistry. Finally, we analyzed the relationship between DEPTOR expression and the prognosis of patients with ESCC. Results Immunohistochemical staining showed that the expression rate of DEPTOR in ESCC tissues was significantly increased. DEPTOR mRNA and protein expression was significantly higher in ESCC tissues than in normal adjacent esophageal squamous tissues. High DEPTOR expression was significantly correlated with regional lymph node status in the TNM stage of patients with ESCC. Kaplan–Meier survival curves showed that the rate of overall survival was significantly lower in patients with high DEPTOR expression than in those with low DEPTOR expression. Additionally, high DEPTOR expression was an independent prognostic predictor for ESCC patients. Conclusion High DEPTOR expression is an independent prognostic biomarker indicating a worse prognosis for patients with ESCC. PMID:26640385

  14. Upregulation of KLHDC4 Predicts a Poor Prognosis in Human Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lian, Yi-Fan; Yuan, Jing; Cui, Qian; Feng, Qi-Sheng; Xu, Miao; Bei, Jin-Xin; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Feng, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Kelch proteins are implicated in the pathogenesis of many human diseases, including cancer. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a rare malignancy in most countries, but prevalent in southern China and certain areas of Southeast Asia. In this study, we identified Kelch Domain Containing 4 (KLHDC4), an orphan member of the kelch repeat superfamily, as a prognosis marker for NPC. We examined the expression of KLHDC4 in 168 NPC cases by immunohistochemical staining and found a substantially higher level of KLHDC4 in NPC biopsies compared to adjacent normal nasopharyngeal mucosa. KLHDC4 expression was significantly related to the T classification (P <0.05), N classification (P <0.05) and total staging (P <0.01) in NPC, and patients with higher KLHDC4 expression had poorer overall (P <0.01) and metastasis-free survival (P <0.05) rates. Knockout (KO) of KLHDC4 via CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing in NPC cell line dramatically inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation in soft agar and tumor formation in nude mice. In addition, cell migration and invasion were also impaired by KLHDC4 depletion as revealed by wound healing and Transwell assay. Mechanically, loss of KLHDC4 markedly induced spontaneous apoptosis in NPC cells, as evidenced by increased levels of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP. Consistently, KLHDC4 knockout cell-derived xenografts also showed elevated cleaved caspase-3 and PARP but reduced Ki-67 staining. In conclusion, our results suggest that KLHDC4 promotes NPC oncogenesis by suppressing cellular apoptosis. Thus, KLHDC4 may serve as a prognosis biomarker and a potential therapeutic target for NPC. PMID:27030985

  15. “Frequent exacerbator” is a phenotype of poor prognosis in Japanese patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Tomioka, Ryusuke; Kawayama, Tomotaka; Suetomo, Masashi; Kinoshita, Takashi; Tokunaga, Yoshihisa; Imaoka, Haruki; Matsunaga, Kazuko; Okamoto, Masaki; Hoshino, Tomoaki

    2016-01-01

    Background The prognosis of Japanese patients with COPD who suffer repeated exacerbations is unclear, although Westerners with such episodes have a poor prognosis. Materials and methods We conducted a 1-year prospective observational trial involving 90 Japanese patients with COPD: 58 nonexacerbators, 12 infrequent exacerbators, and 20 frequent exacerbators classified on the basis of exacerbation frequency (zero, one, and two or more exacerbations/year), respectively, during the previous year were observed prospectively for 1 year. The characteristics of frequent exacerbators, the frequency of exacerbation, and the period until the first event were then compared among the groups. Results A total of 78 patients completed the study. Frequent exacerbators had a significantly higher risk of frequent exacerbation in the following year than the case for nonexacerbators (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] 2.94 [1.21–7.17], P=0.0340), but not in comparison with infrequent exacerbators (1.51 [0.49–4.63], P>0.05). The mean annual frequency of exacerbations in the following year was significantly (P=0.0020) higher in the frequent exacerbators (1.4 exacerbations/year) than in the nonexacerbators (0.4), but not in the infrequent exacerbators (0.9, P>0.05). The mean period until the first exacerbation was significantly shorter in the frequent exacerbators than in the infrequent or nonexacerbators (P=0.0012). Independent risk factors for future frequent exacerbation included the presence of gastroesophageal reflux disease, more severe airflow obstruction, and use of inhaled corticosteroids. Conclusion Our present results indicate that Japanese COPD patients suffering frequent exacerbation have a poor prognosis. The characteristics of Japanese and Western COPD patients suffering frequent exacerbation are similar. PMID:26893552

  16. Peritumoral vascular invasion and NHERF1 expression define an immunophenotype of grade 2 invasive breast cancer associated with poor prognosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Traditional determinants proven to be of prognostic importance in breast cancer include the TNM staging, histological grade, proliferative activity, hormone receptor status and HER2 overexpression. One of the limitations of the histological grading scheme is that a high percentage of breast cancers are still classified as grade 2, a category with ambiguous clinical significance. The aim of this study was to best characterize tumors scored as grade 2. Methods We investigated traditional prognostic factors and a panel of tumor markers not used in routine diagnosis, such as NHERF1, VEGFR1, HIF-1α and TWIST1, in 187 primary invasive breast cancers by immunohistochemistry, stratifying patients into good and poor prognostic groups by the Nottingham Prognostic Index. Results Grade 2 subgroup analysis showed that the PVI (p = 0.023) and the loss of membranous NHERF1 (p = 0.028) were adverse prognostic factors. Relevantly, 72% of grade 2 tumors were associated to PVI+/membranous NHERF1- expression phenotype, characterizing an adverse prognosis (p = 0.000). Multivariate logistic regression analysis in the whole series revealed poor prognosis correlated with PVI and MIB1 (p = 0.000 and p = 0.001, respectively). Furthermore, in the whole series of breast cancers we found cytoplasmic NHERF1 expression positively correlated to VEGFR1 (r = 0.382, p = 0.000), and in VEGFR1-overexpressing tumors the oncogenic receptor co-localized with NHERF1 at cytoplasmic level. Conclusions The PVI+/membranous NHERF1- expression phenotype identifies a category of grade 2 tumors with the worst prognosis, including patient subgroup with a family history of breast cancer. These observations support the idea of the PVI+/membranous NHERF1- expression immunophenotype as a useful marker, which could improve the accuracy of predicting clinical outcome in grade 2 tumors. PMID:22439624

  17. Upregulation of the long noncoding RNA PCAT-1 correlates with advanced clinical stage and poor prognosis in esophageal squamous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei-hong; Wu, Qing-quan; Li, Su-qing; Yang, Tong-xin; Liu, Zi-hao; Tong, Yu-suo; Tuo, Lei; Wang, Shan; Cao, Xiu-Feng

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies reveal that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play critical regulatory roles in cancer biology. Prostate cancer-associated ncRNA transcript 1 (PCAT-1) is one of the lncRNAs involved in cell apoptosis and proliferation of prostate cancer. This study aimed to assess the potential role of PCAT-1 specifically in the pathogenesis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to detect the expression level of PCAT-1 in matched cancerous tissues and adjacent noncancerous tissues from 130 patients with ESCC, 34 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and 30 patients with gastric carcinoma (GC). The correlation of PCAT-1 with clinicopathological features and prognosis were also analyzed. The expression of PCAT-1 was significantly higher in human ESCC compared with the adjacent noncancerous tissues (70.8%, p < 0.01), and the high level of PCAT-1 expression was significantly correlated with invasion of the tumor (p = 0.024), advanced clinical stage (p = 0.003), lymph node metastasis (p = 0.032), and poor prognosis. However, PCAT-1 mRNA expression had no significant difference between paired primary cancerous tissues and the adjacent noncancerous tissues in 34 cases of NSCLC (p = 0.293) and 30 cases of GC (p = 0.125). High expression of PCAT-1 was specifically correlated with invasion of cancer tissues, metastasis of lymph node, and advanced tumor stage of ESCC. High expression of PCAT-1 might reflect poor prognosis of ESCC and indicate a potential diagnostic target in ESCC patients. Adjuvant therapy targeting PCAT-1 molecule might be effective in treatment of ESCC. PMID:25731728

  18. CXCL17 Expression Predicts Poor Prognosis and Correlates with Adverse Immune Infiltration in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jing; Liu, Chao-Qun; Zhen, Zuo-Jun; Chen, Huan-Wei; Ji, Yong; Wu, Zhi-Peng; Hu, Jian-Yuan; Zheng, Limin; Lau, Wan Yee

    2014-01-01

    CXC ligand 17 (CXCL17) is a novel CXC chemokine whose clinical significance remains largely unknown. In the present study, we characterized the prognostic value of CXCL17 in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and evaluated the association of CXCL17 with immune infiltration. We examined CXCL17 expression in 227 HCC tissue specimens by immunohistochemical staining, and correlated CXCL17 expression patterns with clinicopathological features, prognosis, and immune infiltrate density (CD4 T cells, CD8 T cells, B cells, natural killer cells, neutrophils, macrophages). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that both increased intratumoral CXCL17 (P = 0.015 for overall survival [OS], P = 0.003 for recurrence-free survival [RFS]) and peritumoral CXCL17 (P = 0.002 for OS, P<0.001 for RFS) were associated with shorter OS and RFS. Patients in the CXCL17low group had significantly lower 5-year recurrence rate compared with patients in the CXCL17high group (peritumoral: 53.1% vs. 77.7%, P<0.001, intratumoral: 58.6% vs. 73.0%, P = 0.001, respectively). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis identified peritumoral CXCL17 as an independent prognostic factor for both OS (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.066, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.296–3.292, P = 0.002) and RFS (HR = 1.844, 95% CI = 1.218–2.793, P = 0.004). Moreover, CXCL17 expression was associated with more CD68 and less CD4 cell infiltration (both P<0.05). The combination of CXCL17 density and immune infiltration could be used to further classify patients into subsets with different prognosis for RFS. Our results provide the first evidence that tumor-infiltrating CXCL17+ cell density is an independent prognostic factor that predicts both OS and RFS in HCC. CXCL17 production correlated with adverse immune infiltration and might be an important target for anti-HCC therapies. PMID:25303284

  19. Embryonic Morphogen Nodal Is Associated with Progression and Poor Prognosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Wei-Dong; Xu, Ge-Liang; Ma, Jin-Liang; Ren, Yun; Chen, Hao; Sun, Si-Nan; Huang, Mei; Li, Jian-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Nodal, a TGF-β-related embryonic morphogen, is involved in multiple biologic processes. However, the expression of Nodal in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its correlation with tumor angiogenesis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and prognosis is unclear. Methods We used real-time PCR and Western blotting to investigate Nodal expression in 6 HCC cell lines and 1 normal liver cell line, 16 pairs of tumor and corresponding paracarcinomatous tissues from HCC patients. Immunohistochemistry was performed to examine Nodal expression in HCC and corresponding paracarcinomatous tissues from 96 patients. CD34 and Vimentin were only examined in HCC tissues of patients mentioned above. Nodal gene was silenced by shRNA in MHCC97H and HCCLM3 cell lines, and cell migration and invasion were detected. Statistical analyses were applied to evaluate the prognostic value and associations of Nodal expression with clinical parameters. Results Nodal expression was detected in HCC cell lines with high metastatic potential alone. Nodal expression is up-regulated in HCC tissues compared with paracarcinomatous and normal liver tissues. Nodal protein was expressed in 70 of the 96 (72.9%) HCC tumors, and was associated with vascular invasion (P = 0.000), status of metastasis (P = 0.004), AFP (P = 0.049), ICGR15 (indocyanine green retention rate at 15 min) (P = 0.010) and tumor size (P = 0.000). High Nodal expression was positively correlated with high MVD (microvessal density) (P = 0.006), but not with Vimentin expression (P = 0.053). Significantly fewer migrated and invaded cells were seen in shRNA group compared with blank group and negative control group (P<0.05). High Nodal expression was found to be an independent factor for predicting overall survival of HCC. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that Nodal expression is associated with aggressive characteristics of HCC. Its aberrant expression may be a predictive factor of unfavorable prognosis

  20. Increased NUCKS expression is a risk factor for poor prognosis and recurrence in endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tianbo; Tan, Shu; Xu, Ye; Meng, Fanling; Yang, Chang; Lou, Ge

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear ubiquitous casein and cyclin-dependent kinases substrate (NUCKS) was reported to function as a potential biomarker in various tumors. Thus, we aimed to explore the expression of NUCKS in endometrial cancer (EC) and its clinical significance using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). qRT-PCR results showed that NUCKS mRNA expression gradually elevated from normal endometrium to atypical endometrial hyperplasia, and to EC (P < 0.05 between each group). NUCKS overexpression was strongly associated with FIGO stage (P = 0.002), histologic grade (P = 0.029), lympho-vascular space involvement (P = 0.014), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.019), and recurrence (P < 0.001). Cox multivariate analysis revealed that NUCKS overexpression was an independent factor for overall survival and recurrence-free survival (P < 0.001 for both). Multivariate logistic regression suggested that recurrence was independently correlated with NUCKS overexpresion (P = 0.039), FIGO stage (P = 0.002), and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.002). In summary, NUCKS overexpression may function as a potential biomarker for prognosis especially for recurrence in ECs. PMID:26885454

  1. Increased Expression of CSF-1 Associates With Poor Prognosis of Patients With Gastric Cancer Undergoing Gastrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hao; Zhang, Heng; Shen, Zhenbin; Lin, Chao; Wang, Xuefei; Qin, Jing; Qin, Xinyu; Xu, Jiejie; Sun, Yihong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Clinical significance of diametrically polarized tumor-associated macrophages in gastric cancer has been elucidated in our previous study, whereas the role of cytokines that orchestrate tumor-associated macrophages polarization in gastric cancer remains elusive. The study aims to evaluate the prognostic value of colony-stimulating factor-1 expression in patients with gastric cancer. We examined the colony-stimulating factor-1 expression in tumor tissues by immunohistochemical staining in retrospectively enrolled 365 patients with gastric cancer undergoing gastrectomy at Zhongshan Hospital during 2008. Kaplan–Meier analysis and Cox regression models were used to evaluate the prognostic value of colony-stimulating factor-1 expression and its association with clinicopathological factors. A predictive nomogram by integrating colony-stimulating factor-1 expression with the TNM staging system was generated for overall survival evaluation of the patients. High colony-stimulating factor-1 expression predicted an unfavorable outcome in gastric cancer. The colony-stimulating factor-1 expression in tumor tissue could give a further discrimination for the prognosis of gastric cancer patients. Cox multivariate analysis identified the colony-stimulating factor-1 expression as an independent prognostic factor. The generated nomogram performed well in predicting the 3- and 5-year overall survival of gastric cancer patients. The colony-stimulating factor-1 is a potential independent adverse prognosticator for gastric cancer patients, which could be integrated with the tumor-associated macrophages staging system to improve the predictive accuracy for overall survival, especially in advanced tumors. PMID:26945355

  2. SOX4 is overexpressed in diffusely infiltrating astrocytoma and confers poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Li, Qiuyao; Chen, Xueqin; Xu, Miao; Li, Xinglan; Nie, Ling; Chen, Ni; Gong, Jing; Mao, Qing; Zhou, Qiao

    2015-12-01

    The SOX4 (sex-determining region Y-related high-mobility-group box transcription factor 4) gene plays critical roles in embryonic development and cell-fate determination. Recently, SOX4 overexpression has been found in various tumors. However, its expression status and prognostic significance in astrocytoma remain unknown. In this study, SOX4 expression in diffusely infiltrating astrocytoma (WHO grades II-IV) tissues (in comparison with pilocytic astrocytomas) was examined by immunohistochemistry, and its relevance with prognosis was analyzed. Our data showed that SOX4 was over-expressed in diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas and its expression was positively correlated with astrocytoma grade (WHO grades II-IV). Significantly, Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that SOX4 nuclear overexpression (SOX4-N) was associated with poorer progression-free survival (PFS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) in diffusely infiltrating astrocytoma patients (P < 0.05). Cox regression analysis further showed that nuclear SOX4-N was a significant independent negative prognostic factor for these patients. PMID:26096696

  3. SOD2 deregulation enhances migration, invasion and has poor prognosis in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Boyang; Yang, Hang; Jiao, Yuan; Wang, Kefeng; Liu, Zhonghua; Wu, Peihong; Li, Su; Wang, Anxun

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the role of SOD2 in the progression and metastasis of salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC). We analyzed the expression of SOD2 in 50 SACC patients. Then, the effects and mechanism of SOD2 on cell metastasis in a pair of different metastatic potential cell lines was investigated. SOD2 was deregulated in patients with SACC. Up-regulation of SOD2 was associated with distant metastasis and reduced overall survival and disease free - survival. Compared to SACC-83 cells (lower metastasis ability), SACC-LM cells (higher metastasis ability) had higher SOD2 activity and intracellular H2O2 concentrations, and protein levels of pERK1/2 and Slug, but had similar catalase protein level and activity. In SACC-LM, reducing the expression of SOD2 by SiRNA inhibited the metastasis ability and reduced the SOD2 activities, intracellular H2O2 concentrations, and protein levels of pERK1/2 and Slug. These effects were revised in SACC-83 after SOD2 overexpression. Moreover, in SACC-83, treated with H2O2, the metastasis was enhanced accompanied by increased protein levels of pERK1/2 and Slug. We confirmed that SOD2 play an important role in the development and prognosis of SACC and SOD2-dependent production of H2O2 contributes to metastasis of SACC through the ERK-Slug signaling pathway. PMID:27181103

  4. High expression of Sox10 correlates with tumor aggressiveness and poor prognosis in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yu; Liu, Zhi-gang; Tang, Jiao; Zou, Ren-fang; Chen, Xiao-yan; Jiang, Guan-min; Qiu, Yan-fang; Wang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the study was to detect the expression of Sox10 in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and investigate the relationship between its expression and the clinicopathological characteristics of NPC patients. Patients and methods Tumor specimens (n=105) were retrospectively collected from patients with NPC diagnosed between 2004 and 2005 who presented at Hunan Cancer Hospital. Immunohistochemistry analyses were performed to characterize the expression of Sox10 in NPC. Kaplan–Meier survival and Cox regression analyses were employed to evaluate the prognosis of 105 NPC patients. Results The results showed that Sox10 was markedly overexpressed in human NPC tissues. Analysis of clinicopathological parameters showed that high Sox10 expression was significantly correlated with the clinical stage (P=0.032), T classification (P=0.034), and lymph node metastasis (P=0.03). Cox regression analyses further showed that Sox10 expression was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (P=0.005). This is the first time Sox10 has shown its importance in predicting NPC progressiveness and survival outcomes. Conclusion Sox10 serves as a potential biomarker for NPC patients. It may hopefully become a novel therapeutic target for NPC patients. PMID:27051302

  5. Overexpressed Rce1 is positively correlated with tumor progression and predicts poor prognosis in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liangliang; Li, Meicai; Wang, Delin; He, Jiang; Wu, Wenqiang; Zeng, Qiangfeng; Li, Jianjun; Xiao, Maolin; Hu, Jie; He, Yunfeng; Li, Ying; Mai, Li; Liu, Wujiang

    2016-01-01

    Ras and a-factor-converting enzyme 1 (Rce1) have been reported to play a key role in the proteolysis processing of Ras proteins. The present study investigated the prognostic significance of Rce1 in patients with prostate cancer (PCa). The expressions of the mRNA and protein of Rce1 were analyzed in 12 pairs of PCa and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. Immunohistochemistry was used to examine expression of Rce1 protein in 74 PCa tissues and 30 BPH tissues. The association between Rce1 expression and the specific clinicopathologic features was evaluated by χ(2) tests. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to analyze the data. We found that expression of Rce1 mRNA and protein was markedly higher in PCa tissues than in paired BPH tissues. Expression of Rce1 in PCa was strongly associated with clinicopathologic features. It was detected in 69 (93.24%) of 74 PCa tissues by immunohistochemistry, and it was found to be associated with Gleason score (P = .013), T class (P = .015), and distant metastasis (P = .044). Patients with PCa having higher Rce1 expression had substantially shorter survival times than patients with lower Rce1 expression. Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed that Rce1 was an independent prognostic factor. In conclusion, our study suggests that expression of Rce1 can serve as an independent biomarker for the prognosis of PCa patients. PMID:26546252

  6. Axl Expression Stratifies Patients with Poor Prognosis after Hepatectomy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yong; Li, Jun; Shi, Lehua; Zou, Qifei; Wan, Xuying; Jiao, Binghua; Wang, Hongyang; Wu, Mengchao; Zhang, Yongjie; Shen, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Background Axl is a receptor tyrosine kinase which plays an important role in multiple human malignancies. Design The Axl expression was examined in several hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) cell lines, paired tumor and nontumorous samples. Then, we examined cell growth curve, cell apoptosis and cell migration in SMMC-7721 cells over-expressed with Axl or siRNA against Axl, respectively. Finally, the prognostic value of Axl was investigated in a prospective cohort of 246 consecutive HCC patients undergoing curative hepatoectomy. Results We found Axl was positive in 22% of examined tumor tissues and all four cell lines. Over-expressing Axl in SMMC-7721 cells accelerated cell growth, cell migration and inhibited cell apoptosis, while knock-down of Axl exerted opposite effect. Axl expression was closely associated with serum AFP, multiple tumors, absence of encapsulation, microvascular invasion, and advanced BCLC or TNM stage. Patients with positive Axl staining had a higher 5-year recurrence rate (92% vs. 71%, P<0.001) and a lower 5-year survival rate (9% vs. 48%, P<0.001) than those with negative staining. The multivariate analyses showed that Axl expression was an independent factor for both tumor recurrence (HR: 1.725; 95% CI: 1.219–2.441) and survival (1.847; 1.291–2.642). Conclusion Axl expression suggests more aggressive tumor invasiveness and predicts worse prognosis for HCC patients undergoing resection. PMID:27182739

  7. Low Level of Microsatellite Instability Correlates with Poor Clinical Prognosis in Stage II Colorectal Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mojarad, Ehsan Nazemalhosseini; Kashfi, Seyed Mohammad Hossein; Mirtalebi, Hanieh; Taleghani, Mohammad Yaghoob; Azimzadeh, Pedram; Savabkar, Sanaz; Pourhoseingholi, Mohammad Amin; Jalaeikhoo, Hasan; Asadzadeh Aghdaei, Hamid; Kuppen, Peter J. K.; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    The influence of microsatellite instability (MSI) on the prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) requires more investigation. We assessed the role of MSI status in survival of individuals diagnosed with primary colorectal cancer. In this retrospective cross-sectional study the MSI status was determined in 158 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumors and their matched normal tissues from patients who underwent curative surgery. Cox proportional hazard modeling was performed to assess the clinical prognostic significance. In this study we found that MSI-H tumors were predominantly located in the colon versus rectum (p = 0.03), associated with poorer differentiation (p = 0.003) and TNM stage II/III of tumors (p = 0.02). In CRC patients with stage II, MSI-L cases showed significantly poorer survival compared with patients who had MSI-H or MSS tumors (p = 0.04). This study indicates that MSI-L tumors correlate with poorer clinical outcome in patients with stage II tumors (p = 0.04) or in tumors located in the colon (p = 0.02). MSI-L characterizes a distinct subgroup of CRC patients who have a poorer outcome. This study suggests that MSI status in CRC, as a clinical prognostic marker, is dependent on other factors, such as tumor stage and location. PMID:27429617

  8. Low level of 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine predicts poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    LIAO, YUNFEI; GU, JIE; WU, YONGBING; LONG, XIANG; GE, DI; XU, JIANJUN; DING, JIANYONG

    2016-01-01

    The loss of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) has previously been demonstrated to be implicated in the initiation and progression of various tumors. However, its role in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains unknown. The present study aimed to determine the level of 5-hmC in NSCLC and their adjacent normal lung tissues by immunohistochemistry and dot-blot analysis; then the relationship between 5-hmC level and the clinicopathological features of NSCLC and the prognostic significance of 5-hmC level in NSCLC patients were analyzed. By employing the dot-blot analysis, a significant reduction of 5-hmC level in NSCLC tissues compared with the adjacent normal tissues was detected, which were further verified by the immunohistochemistry results on tissue microarrays. Further analyses demonstrated that 65.38% (136/208) presented with low 5-hmC level, and low 5-hmC level was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (P<0.001), histological type (P<0.001) and large tumor size (P=0.031). Notably, the 5-year overall survival rate of patients with low 5-hmC levels were significantly lower than patients with high 5-hmC levels (P<0.001). In addition, it was demonstrated that 5-hmC level was identified as independent prognostic factor in patients' overall survival. In conclusion, downregulation of 5-hmC may serve as a useful biomarker for NSCLC prognosis evaluation. PMID:27313688

  9. Overexpression of long noncoding RNA HOTTIP promotes tumor invasion and predicts poor prognosis in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Heng; Liu, Kun; Qian, Keqing

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Long noncoding RNAs have been proved to play important roles in the tumorigenesis and development of human gastric cancer (GC). Our study aims to investigate the expression and function of Homeobox A transcript at the distal tip (HOTTIP) in GC. Methods HOTTIP expression was detected in GC tissues and cell lines by using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Association between HOTTIP levels and clinicopathological factors and patient prognosis was also analyzed. MTT, flow cytometry, and transwell invasion and migration assays were used to investigate the role of HOTTIP in the regulation of biological behaviors of GC cells. Results HOTTIP expression was remarkably increased in GC tissues and cell lines compared with that in the normal control. Clinicopathologic analysis revealed that high HOTTIP expression correlated with larger tumor size, deeper invasion depth, positive lymph node metastasis, advanced TNM stage, and shorter overall survival. Multivariate regression analysis identified HOTTIP overexpression as an independent unfavorable prognostic factor in GC patients. Moreover, HOTTIP downregulation by si-HOTTIP transfection impaired GC cell proliferation, promoted cell apoptosis, and reduced cell invasion and migration. Conclusion These findings suggested that HOTTIP may contribute to GC initiation and progression, and would be not only a novel prognostic marker but also a potential therapeutic target for this disease. PMID:27103834

  10. SOD2 deregulation enhances migration, invasion and has poor prognosis in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chang, Boyang; Yang, Hang; Jiao, Yuan; Wang, Kefeng; Liu, Zhonghua; Wu, Peihong; Li, Su; Wang, Anxun

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the role of SOD2 in the progression and metastasis of salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC). We analyzed the expression of SOD2 in 50 SACC patients. Then, the effects and mechanism of SOD2 on cell metastasis in a pair of different metastatic potential cell lines was investigated. SOD2 was deregulated in patients with SACC. Up-regulation of SOD2 was associated with distant metastasis and reduced overall survival and disease free - survival. Compared to SACC-83 cells (lower metastasis ability), SACC-LM cells (higher metastasis ability) had higher SOD2 activity and intracellular H2O2 concentrations, and protein levels of pERK1/2 and Slug, but had similar catalase protein level and activity. In SACC-LM, reducing the expression of SOD2 by SiRNA inhibited the metastasis ability and reduced the SOD2 activities, intracellular H2O2 concentrations, and protein levels of pERK1/2 and Slug. These effects were revised in SACC-83 after SOD2 overexpression. Moreover, in SACC-83, treated with H2O2, the metastasis was enhanced accompanied by increased protein levels of pERK1/2 and Slug. We confirmed that SOD2 play an important role in the development and prognosis of SACC and SOD2-dependent production of H2O2 contributes to metastasis of SACC through the ERK-Slug signaling pathway. PMID:27181103

  11. High telomerase activity and long telomeres in advanced hepatocellular carcinomas with poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Oh, Bong-Kyeong; Kim, Haeryoung; Park, Young Nyun; Yoo, Jeong Eun; Choi, Jinsub; Kim, Kyung-Sik; Lee, Jae Jung; Park, Chanil

    2008-02-01

    Telomerase reactivation and telomere maintenance are crucial in carcinogenesis and tumor progression. In this study, the relationships between telomere parameters, chromosomal instability and clinicopathological features were evaluated in hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). Telomere length (TL), telomerase activity (TA) and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) mRNA levels were measured in 49 hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related HCCs and corresponding non-tumorous tissues. The results were compared with clinicopathological data, including differentiation, multipolar mitosis (MM), anaphase bridge, immunohistochemical stain results for cytokeratin 19 (CK19) and patient outcome. TL of HCCs ranged from 4.7 to 13.1 kb, and 44.4% of HCCs showed telomere lengthening. hTERT mRNA levels and TA were closely related (P=0.008), and were significantly higher in HCCs than non-tumorous tissues. TL was significantly higher in HCCs with strong TA (P=0.048), high hTERT mRNA levels (P=0.001) and poor differentiation (P=0.041). Frequent MM was associated with poor differentiation (P=0.007) and advanced stage (P<0.001). TA was positively correlated with MM, anaphase bridges and advanced stage (P=0.019, P=0.017 and P=0.029). Thirteen (28.3%) HCCs were CK19+ and demonstrated longer telomeres than CK19- HCCs (P=0.046). Overall survival was poor in HCCs with MM >0.4 per field (P=0.016), high TA (P=0.009) and high TL ratio (HCC/non-HCC) >0.8 (P=0.044). Our results show that long telomeres, high TA and high mitotic instability are poor prognostic markers for HBV-related HCCs and their close association suggests that telomere maintenance may be important for the progression of HCCs with high chromosomal instability to more aggressive ones. PMID:18158557

  12. Fertility treatment when the prognosis is very poor or futile: a committee opinion.

    PubMed

    2012-07-01

    The Ethics Committee recommends development of evidence-based policies that are patient-centered for each in vitro fertilization (IVF) center. In most cases, the provision of futile therapies is not ethically justifiable. For those treatments with very poor success rates, clinicians must be vigilant in their presentation of risks, benefits, and alternatives. This document was reviewed in January 2012. This version replaces the previous version of this document, published in 2009. PMID:22537382

  13. DNMT3A R882 Mutations Predict a Poor Prognosis in AML

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xiao-Qing; Peng, Li; Zeng, Wen-Jing; Jiang, Bin-Yuan; Li, Guan-Cheng; Chen, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 3 alpha (DNMT3A) mutations were widely believed to be independently associated with inferior prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. As dominant missense alterations in DNMT3A mutations, R882 mutations cause the focal hypomethylation phenotype. However, there remains debate on the influence of R882 mutations on AML prognosis. Thus, this meta-analysis aimed at further illustrating the prognostic power of DNMT3A R882 mutations in AML patients. Eligible studies were identified from 5 databases containing PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Clinical Trials, and the Cochrane Library (up to October 25, 2015). Effects (hazard ratios [HRs] with 95% confidence interval [CI]) of relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were pooled to estimate the prognostic power of mutant DNMT3A R882 in overall patients and subgroups of AML patients. Eight competent studies with 4474 AML patients including 694 with DNMT3A R882 mutations were included. AML patients with DNMT3A R882 mutations showed significant shorter RFS (HR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.24–1.59, P < 0.001) and OS (HR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.17–1.86, P = 0.001) in the overall population. DNMT3A R882 mutations predicted worse RFS and OS among the subgroups of patients under age 60 (RFS: HR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.25–1.66, P < 0.001; OS: HR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.15–1.90, P = 0.002), over age 60 (RFS: HR = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.40–2.93, P < 0.001; OS: HR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.36–2.53, P < 0.001), cytogenetically normal (CN)-AML (RFS: HR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.26–1.83, P < 0.001; OS: HR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.16–2.41, P = 0.006), and non-CN-AML (RFS: HR = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.20–3.21, P = 0.006; OS: HR = 2.51, 95% CI = 1.52–4.15, P = 0.0038). DNMT3A R882 mutations possessed significant unfavorable prognostic influence on RFS and OS in AML patients. PMID:27149454

  14. Gastric-type Endocervical Adenocarcinoma: An Aggressive Tumor With Unusual Metastatic Patterns and Poor Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Karamurzin, Yevgeniy S; Kiyokawa, Takako; Parkash, Vinita; Jotwani, Anjali R; Patel, Prusha; Pike, Malcolm C; Soslow, Robert A; Park, Kay J

    2015-11-01

    Gastric-type adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix (GAS) is a rare variant of mucinous endocervical adenocarcinoma not etiologically associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, with minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA) at the well-differentiated end of the morphologic spectrum. These tumors are reported to have worse prognosis than usual HPV associated endocervical adenocarcinoma (UEA). A retrospective review of GAS was performed from the pathology databases of 3 institutions spanning 20 years. Stage, metastatic patterns, and overall survival were documented. Forty GAS cases were identified, with clinical follow-up data available for 38. The tumors were subclassified as MDA (n=13) and non-MDA GAS (n=27). Two patients were syndromic (1 Li-Fraumeni, 1 Peutz-Jeghers). At presentation, 59% were advanced stage (FIGO II to IV), 50% had lymph node metastases, 35% had ovarian involvement, 20% had abdominal disease, 39% had at least 1 site of metastasis at the time of initial surgery, and 12% of patients experienced distant recurrence. The metastatic sites included lymph nodes, adnexa, omentum, bowel, peritoneum, diaphragm, abdominal wall, bladder, vagina, appendix, and brain. Follow-up ranged from 1.4 to 136.0 months (mean, 33.9 mo); 20/38 (52.6%) had no evidence of disease, 3/38 (7.9%) were alive with disease, and 15/38 (39.5%) died of disease. Disease-specific survival at 5 years was 42% for GAS versus 91% for UEA. There were no survival differences between MDA and non-MDA GAS. GAS represents a distinct, biologically aggressive type of endocervical adenocarcinoma. The majority of patients present at advanced stage and pelvic, abdominal, and distant metastases are not uncommon. PMID:26457350

  15. Elevated Preoperative Serum Gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase Predicts Poor Prognosis for Hepatocellular Carcinoma after Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Shun-Jun; Zhao, Qiang; Ji, Fei; Chen, Mao-Gen; Wu, Lin-Wei; Ren, Qing-Qi; Guo, Zhi-Yong; He, Xiao-Shun

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-glutamyltransferase (γ-GGT) is a membrane-bound enzyme that is involved in biotransformation, nucleic acid metabolism, and tumourigenesis. Elevated serum γ-GGT levels are related to an increased cancer risk and worse prognosis in many cancers. In the present study, we evaluated the prognostic value of preoperative serum γ-GGT in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who underwent liver transplantation (LT). A total of 130 HCC patients after LT were included in the study. The optimal cut-off value of γ-GGT was 128U/L by receiver operating characteristic analysis, with a sensitivity and specificity of 60.0% and 72.9%, respectively. Elevated preoperative serum γ-GGT was significantly associated with high alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), large tumor size, and macro- and micro-vascular invasion. The 1-, 3-, 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates of HCC patients in the γ-GGT > 128U/L group were poorer than those in the γ-GGT ≤ 128U/L group. Stratification analysis revealed that γ-GGT exhibited a greater predictive value for DFS and OS in HCC patients beyond the Milan criteria and no macro-vascular invasion. In conclusion, elevated preoperative serum γ-GGT was significantly associated with advanced tumor stage and aggressive tumor behaviors, and serum γ-GGT can be considered as a prognostic factor for HCC patients after LT, especially for patients beyond the Milan criteria or without macro-vascular invasion. PMID:27381639

  16. Elevated Preoperative Serum Gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase Predicts Poor Prognosis for Hepatocellular Carcinoma after Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fu, Shun-Jun; Zhao, Qiang; Ji, Fei; Chen, Mao-Gen; Wu, Lin-Wei; Ren, Qing-Qi; Guo, Zhi-Yong; He, Xiao-Shun

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-glutamyltransferase (γ-GGT) is a membrane-bound enzyme that is involved in biotransformation, nucleic acid metabolism, and tumourigenesis. Elevated serum γ-GGT levels are related to an increased cancer risk and worse prognosis in many cancers. In the present study, we evaluated the prognostic value of preoperative serum γ-GGT in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who underwent liver transplantation (LT). A total of 130 HCC patients after LT were included in the study. The optimal cut-off value of γ-GGT was 128U/L by receiver operating characteristic analysis, with a sensitivity and specificity of 60.0% and 72.9%, respectively. Elevated preoperative serum γ-GGT was significantly associated with high alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), large tumor size, and macro- and micro-vascular invasion. The 1-, 3-, 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates of HCC patients in the γ-GGT > 128U/L group were poorer than those in the γ-GGT ≤ 128U/L group. Stratification analysis revealed that γ-GGT exhibited a greater predictive value for DFS and OS in HCC patients beyond the Milan criteria and no macro-vascular invasion. In conclusion, elevated preoperative serum γ-GGT was significantly associated with advanced tumor stage and aggressive tumor behaviors, and serum γ-GGT can be considered as a prognostic factor for HCC patients after LT, especially for patients beyond the Milan criteria or without macro-vascular invasion. PMID:27381639

  17. High expression of WDR1 in primary glioblastoma is associated with poor prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hanchong; Chen, Yihong; Tan, Cong; Xu, Tao; Yan, Yong; Qin, Rong; Huang, Qilin; Lu, Chengyin; Liang, Chun; Lu, Yicheng; Wang, Hongxiang; Chen, Juxiang

    2016-01-01

    Primary glioblastoma always has a fatal outcome despite maximal therapy. Identification and validation of prognostic biomarkers and novel therapeutics will be potentially powerful to transform the care of glioblastoma patients. In this study, we constructed Affymetrix gene microarrays with 14 glioma samples to screen for genes with potential prognostic value by hieratical clustering, and 83 genes including WD-repeat containing protein 1 (WDR1) were filtered out. WDR1 is a major co-factor collaborating with cofilin in actin cytoskeletal dynamics, which may play vital role in glioma proliferation and invasion. Further, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database was utilizedto verify the expression of WDR1 and its prognostic implicationin 528 glioblastoma specimens. Survival and correlation analyses showed WDR1 expression was highly expressed and related to the prognosis of glioblastoma and the expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), respectively (p<0.05). Finally, WDR1 expression was detected in our large cohort containing 258 glioma patients (including 100 primary glioblastomas).And univariate and multivariate analyses confirmed that high WDR1 expression was an independent prognostic factor for a shorter progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in primary glioblastoma patients at our center [hazard ratio (HR)=1.844, p=0.005 and HR=2.085, p=0.001, respectively]. Together, WDR1 is significantly over-expressed in primary glioblastoma. High expression of WDR1 can independently predict unfavorable clinical outcome for primary glioblastoma patients. This study identifies a novel prognostic biomarker and a potential therapeutic target for glioblastoma. PMID:27158412

  18. Decreased xanthine oxidoreductase is a predictor of poor prognosis in early‐stage gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Linder, N; Haglund, C; Lundin, M; Nordling, S; Ristimäki, A; Kokkola, A; Mrena, J; Wiksten, J‐P; Lundin, J

    2006-01-01

    Background Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) is a key enzyme in the degradation of DNA, RNA and high‐energy phosphates. About half of the patients with breast cancer have a decrease in XOR expression. Patients with breast cancer with unfavourable prognosis are independently identified by the loss of XOR. Aim To assess the clinical relevance of XOR expression in gastric cancer. Methods XOR levels were studied by immunohistochemistry in tissue microarray specimens of 337 patients with gastric cancer and the relation between XOR expression and a series of clinicopathological variables, as well as disease‐specific survival, was assessed. Results XOR was moderately decreased in 41% and was undetectable in another 14% of the tumours compared with the corresponding normal tissue. Decreased XOR was associated with advanced stage, deep tumour penetration, diffusely spread tumour location, positive lymph node status, large tumour size, non‐curative disease, cellular aneuploidy, high S‐phase fraction and high cyclooxygenase‐2 expression, but not with p53 expression or Borrmann classification. Down regulation of XOR was associated with unfavourable outcome, and the cumulative 5‐year gastric cancer‐specific survival in patients with strong XOR expression was 47%, compared with 22% in those with moderate to negative expression (p<0.001). This was also true in patients with stage I–II (p = 0.01) and lymph node‐negative (p = 0.02) disease, as well as in patients with smaller (⩽5 cm) tumours (p = 0.02). Conclusion XOR expression in gastric cancer may be a new marker for a more aggressive gastric cancer biology, similar to that previously reported for breast cancer. PMID:16935971

  19. Concurrent Expression of VEGF-C and Neuropilin-2 Is Correlated with Poor Prognosis in Glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haiqing; Hou, Chunfeng; Hou, Aiwu; Zhu, Dongyuan

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) is a secreted growth factor involved in many oncogenic processes, and neuropilin-2 (NRP2) is essential for neuronal guidance as a well-acknowledged co-receptor of VEGF receptors. The overexpression of NRP2 has been reported in many types of cancers, but the significance of NRP2 in glioblastoma is not elucidated. To investigate the clinical significance of VEGF-C and NRP2 in glioblastoma, we detected their expression in 86 cases of glioblastoma with immunohistochemistry and categorized our cohort into high- and low-expression groups according to the immunohistochemistry score, which was the product of the score of staining intensity multiplied by the score reflecting the percentage of positive cells. The proportion of glioblastoma with high VEGF-C expression was 34.9% (30/86), and that with high NRP2 expression was 37.2% (32/86). The proportion of glioblastoma with high expression of both VEGF-C and NRP2 was 15.1% (13/86). Moreover, the proportion of cases with high VEGF-C and low NRP2 was 19.7% (17/86), while the proportion of cases with low VEGF-C and high NRP2 was 22.1% (19/86). The high expression of both VEGF-C and NRP2 was associated with poorer survival rate (P = 0.023), and can be identified as an independent prognostic factor in glioblastoma (P = 0.030). Moreover, cases with low NRP2 expression are easier for complete tumor resection (P = 0.038). In conclusion, the concurrent high expression of VEGF-C and NRP2 is predictive of the unfavorable prognosis in glioblastoma, indicating that the VEGF-C-NRP2 signaling pathway is a potential and promising drug target in glioblastoma therapy. PMID:26753562

  20. Decreased expression of SOX17 is associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Fu, De-Yuan; Tan, Hao-Sheng; Wei, Jin-Li; Zhu, Chang-Ren; Jiang, Ji-Xin; Zhu, Yu-Xiang; Cai, Feng-Lin; Chong, Mei-Hong; Ren, Chuan-Li

    2015-09-01

    The SOX17 (SRY-related HMG-box) transcription factor is involved in a variety of biological processes and is related to the tumorigenesis and progression of multiple tumors. However, the clinical application of SOX17 for breast cancer prognosis is currently limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinicopathologic and prognostic significance of SOX17 expression in human breast cancer. qPCR and western blot assays were performed to measure the expression of SOX17 in breast cancer cell lines and 30 matched pairs of breast cancer and corresponding noncancerous tissues. A SOX17 overexpression cell model was used to examine changes in cell growth in vitro. Immunohistochemical analyses were performed to retrospectively examine the prognostic impact of SOX17 expression in 187 additional breast cancer patients. Our results showed that SOX17 expression was decreased at both the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels in the breast cancer cell lines and tissues, and that SOX17 overexpression could strongly suppress cell growth in vitro. Furthermore, the lack of SOX17 protein expression was strongly correlated with higher tumor grade (P = 0.002), lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001), and tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage (P = 0.001) and had poorer disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) compared to normal SOX17 expression (P = 0.002 and 0.001, respectively). Univariate and multivariate analyses indicated that lower SOX17 expression was an independent prognostic factor for DFS (P = 0.007; HR = 2.854; 95 % CI 1.326-6.147) and OS (P = 0.005; HR = 5.035; 95 % CI 1.648-15.385) for breast cancer. Our findings indicate that SOX17 expression is a useful prognostic biomarker for breast cancer. PMID:25971583

  1. Overexpression of HOXB7 is associated with a poor prognosis in patients with gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    TU, WEIWEI; ZHU, XINGWU; HAN, YANG; WEN, YUGANG; QIU, GUOQIANG; ZHOU, CHONGZHI

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that the homeobox gene HOXB7 is overexpressed in certain cancers, which promotes tumorigenesis. However, less is known about the association between the HOXB7 gene and gastric cancer. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between the expression level of HOXB7 and gastric cancer. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis were used to detect the expression of the homeobox B7 (HOXB7) RNA and protein, respectively. In addition, the association between the expression of HOXB7 and the clinicopathological characteristics of gastric cancer was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate the survival rates, and the COX proportional hazards model was used to investigate univariate and multivariate analyses. The expression level of HOXB7 RNA and protein was significantly elevated in cancerous tissues compared with the corresponding normal mucosa. Increased expression of HOXB7 was significantly associated with tumor size (P=0.01), T stage (P<0.001) and advanced Union for International Cancer Control stage (P=0.003). In addition, patients with positive HOXB7 expression possessed an evident lower overall survival and disease-free survival rate compared with patients with tumors that did not express HOXB7. Furthermore, univariate and multivariate analyses indicated that HOXB7 served as a significant independent prognostic factor for OS and DFS in patients with gastric cancer. The present data indicate that the HOXB7 gene may play an important role in the process of gastric tumorigenesis, and also indicate that HOXB7 may be an important determinant of patient prognosis in gastric cancer. PMID:26722273

  2. High Expression of HULC Is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Osteosarcoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Uzan, Vanessa Regina Maciel; Lengert, André van Helvoort; Boldrini, Érica; Penna, Valter; Scapulatempo-Neto, Cristovam; Scrideli, Carlos Alberto; Filho, Alberto Paiva de Moraes; Cavalcante, Carlos Eduardo Bezerra; de Oliveira, Cleyton Zanardo; Lopes, Luiz Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary bone cancer in childhood. OS is an aggressive disease, and metastatic patients evolve with very poor clinical outcomes. Genetically, OSs are extremely complex tumors, and the related metastatic process is not well understood in terms of the biology of the disease. In this context, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as an important class of gene expression regulators that play key roles in the invasion and metastasis of several human tumors. Here, we evaluated the expression of HULC, which is an lncRNA that is associated with the tumor metastatic process, and assessed its potential role as a prognostic marker in OS. HULC expression was evaluated in primary OS samples using real-time RT-PCR. HULC expression status was determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, and its association with survival was assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method. The HULC expression level was not significantly associated with the clinicopathological characteristics of the OS patients. However, our data demonstrated that higher levels of expression of HULC were associated with lower survival rates in OS patients, both in terms of overall and event-free survival. Elevated HULC expression was associated with poor clinical outcomes among the OS patients, which suggests that HULC could be a potential prognostic biomarker in OS. PMID:27253450

  3. High-level expression of HOXB13 is closely associated with tumor angiogenesis and poor prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jian-Yu; Sun, Qi-Kai; Wang, Wei; Jia, Wei-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Homeobox B13 (HOXB13) is generally considered as a crucial regulator of terminal cellular differentiation. More recently, the absent or aberrant expression of HOXB13 has been increasingly implicated in cancer development and metastasis. However, the expression of HOXB13 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its correlation with tumor angiogenesis and prognosis still remain unclear. The aim of the study was to evaluate the expression of HOXB13 in patients with HCC and explore the relationship of HOXB13 expression with clinicopathologic factors, tumor angiogenesis and prognosis. Immunohistochemistry was performed to determine the expression of HOXB13 in HCC and corresponding paracarcinomatous tissues from 72 patients. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and CD31 were only examined in tissues of HCC patients mentioned above. The results showed that HOXB13 expression was significantly (P <0.001) higher in HCC (69.4%) than that in surrounding non-tumor tissues (26.4%), positively correlated with tumor VEGF (P <0.001) and microvessel density (MVD) (P = 0.013). Besides, it was associated with tumor capsula (P <0.001), vascular invasion (P <0.001), Edmondson grade (P <0.001), AFP (P = 0.007) and TNM stage (P <0.001). Univariate analysis showed poorer overall survival (OS) rate and disease free survival (DFS) rate in patients expressing higher levels of HOXB13. HOXB13 was also found to be an independent poor prognostic factor of OS and DFS in multivariate analysis. Taken together, our results suggest that increased HOXB13 expression is associated with tumor angiogenesis and progression in HCC and may function as a promising biomarker for unfavorable prognosis of HCC. PMID:25031711

  4. Cytokeratin 8/18 expression indicates a poor prognosis in squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Fillies, Thomas; Werkmeister, Richard; Packeisen, Jens; Brandt, Burkhard; Morin, Philippe; Weingart, Dieter; Joos, Ulrich; Buerger, Horst

    2006-01-01

    Background Intermediary filaments are involved in cell motility and cancer progression. In a variety of organs, the expression of distinct intermediary filaments are associated with patient prognosis. In this study, we seeked to define the prognostic potential of cytokeratin and vimentin expression patterns in squamous cell carcinomas (SCC's) of the oral cavity. Methods 308 patients with histologically proven and surgically treated squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity were investigated for the immunohistochemical expression of a variety of intermediary filaments including high- and low-molecular weight cytokeratins (Ck's), such as Ck 5/6, Ck 8/18, Ck 1, CK 10, Ck 14, Ck 19 and vimentin, using the tissue microarray technique. Correlations between clinical features and the expression of Cytokeratins and vimentin were evaluated statistically by Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariate Cox regression analysis. Results The expression of Ck 8/18 and Ck 19 were overall significantly correlated with a poor clinical prognosis (Ck 8/18 p = 0.04; Ck19 p < 0.01). These findings could also be reproduced for Ck 8/18 in primary nodal-negative SCC's and held true in multivariate-analysis. No significant correlation with patient prognosis could be found for the expression of the other cytokeratins and for vimentin. Conclusion The expression of Ck 8/18 in SCC's of the oral cavity is an independent prognostic marker and indicates a decreased overall and progression free survival. These results provide an extended knowledge about the role of intermediary filament expression patterns in SCC's. PMID:16412231

  5. Downregulation of the long non-coding RNA TUSC7 promotes NSCLC cell proliferation and correlates with poor prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhongwei; Jin, Yingying; Ren, Hongtao; Ma, Xiulong; Wang, Baofeng; Wang, Yali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Emerging evidence indicated that dysregulated long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) was implicated in the tumorigenesis and progression. LncRNA TUSC7 was involved in various malignancies. However, the role of TUSC7 in human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains unclear. Methods: Expression of TUSC7 was analyzed in 112 cases of NSCLC tissues and six lung cancer cell lines by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Then the correlation of TUSC7 expression with clinicopathological features and prognosis was aslo studied. Furthermore, overexpression of TUSC7 was performed and its role in tumor progression was explored. Results: The expression level of TUSC7 was lower in NSCLC tissues and lung cancer cells compared with their normal counterparts. Lower expression of TUSC7 in NSCLC tissues was associated with larger tumor size and higher TNM stage. Patients with lower TUSC7 expression had worse overall survival compared with the high expression cases. Univariate and multivariate analyses suggested that low expression of TUSC7 was an independent poor prognostic indicator for NSCLC patients. Moreover, upregulation of TUSC7 expression could inhibit proliferation of lung cancer cell in vitro. Conclusions: Our results suggested that TUSC7 was a potential biomarker for NSCLC prognosis, and the dysregulation of TUSC7 may play an important role in the NSCLC progression. PMID:27158360

  6. Genetic alterations in fatty acid transport and metabolism genes are associated with metastatic progression and poor prognosis of human cancers

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Aritro; Chan, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Reprogramming of cellular metabolism is a hallmark feature of cancer cells. While a distinct set of processes drive metastasis when compared to tumorigenesis, it is yet unclear if genetic alterations in metabolic pathways are associated with metastatic progression of human cancers. Here, we analyzed the mutation, copy number variation and gene expression patterns of a literature-derived model of metabolic genes associated with glycolysis (Warburg effect), fatty acid metabolism (lipogenesis, oxidation, lipolysis, esterification) and fatty acid uptake in >9000 primary or metastatic tumor samples from the multi-cancer TCGA datasets. Our association analysis revealed a uniform pattern of Warburg effect mutations influencing prognosis across all tumor types, while copy number alterations in the electron transport chain gene SCO2, fatty acid uptake (CAV1, CD36) and lipogenesis (PPARA, PPARD, MLXIPL) genes were enriched in metastatic tumors. Using gene expression profiles, we established a gene-signature (CAV1, CD36, MLXIPL, CPT1C, CYP2E1) that strongly associated with epithelial-mesenchymal program across multiple cancers. Moreover, stratification of samples based on the copy number or expression profiles of the genes identified in our analysis revealed a significant effect on patient survival rates, thus confirming prominent roles of fatty acid uptake and metabolism in metastatic progression and poor prognosis of human cancers. PMID:26725848

  7. Genetic alterations in fatty acid transport and metabolism genes are associated with metastatic progression and poor prognosis of human cancers.

    PubMed

    Nath, Aritro; Chan, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Reprogramming of cellular metabolism is a hallmark feature of cancer cells. While a distinct set of processes drive metastasis when compared to tumorigenesis, it is yet unclear if genetic alterations in metabolic pathways are associated with metastatic progression of human cancers. Here, we analyzed the mutation, copy number variation and gene expression patterns of a literature-derived model of metabolic genes associated with glycolysis (Warburg effect), fatty acid metabolism (lipogenesis, oxidation, lipolysis, esterification) and fatty acid uptake in >9000 primary or metastatic tumor samples from the multi-cancer TCGA datasets. Our association analysis revealed a uniform pattern of Warburg effect mutations influencing prognosis across all tumor types, while copy number alterations in the electron transport chain gene SCO2, fatty acid uptake (CAV1, CD36) and lipogenesis (PPARA, PPARD, MLXIPL) genes were enriched in metastatic tumors. Using gene expression profiles, we established a gene-signature (CAV1, CD36, MLXIPL, CPT1C, CYP2E1) that strongly associated with epithelial-mesenchymal program across multiple cancers. Moreover, stratification of samples based on the copy number or expression profiles of the genes identified in our analysis revealed a significant effect on patient survival rates, thus confirming prominent roles of fatty acid uptake and metabolism in metastatic progression and poor prognosis of human cancers. PMID:26725848

  8. High ROR2 expression in tumor cells and stroma is correlated with poor prognosis in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jianfei; Fan, Xiangjun; Wang, Xudong; Lu, Yuhua; Zhu, Huijun; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Shu; Wang, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    RTK-like orphan receptor 2 (ROR2) is overexpressed in several cancers and has tumorigenic activity. However, the expression of ROR2 and its functional and prognostic significance have yet to be evaluated in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to characterize the expression of ROR2 mRNA in PDAC, corresponding peritumoral tissues, and PDAC cell lines. Immunohistochemical analysis with tissue microarrays was used to evaluate ROR2 expression in PDAC and to investigate the relationship of this expression to clinicopathological factors and prognosis. The expression of ROR2 mRNA and protein was significantly higher in PDAC than in normal pancreatic tissues. High cytoplasmic ROR2 expression in cancer cells was significantly associated with a primary tumor, distant metastasis, and TNM stage, and high stromal ROR2 expression was significantly associated with regional lymph node metastasis and TNM stage. The Kaplan–Meier method and Cox regression analyses showed that high ROR2 expression in tumor cytoplasm or stromal cells was significantly associated with malignant attributes and reduced survival in PDAC. We present strong evidence that ROR2 could be used as an indicator of poor prognosis and could represent a novel therapeutic target for PDAC. PMID:26259918

  9. Upregulated expression of polycomb protein Ring1 contributes to poor prognosis and accelerated proliferation in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yicheng; Hu, Baoying; Wei, Lixian; Jiang, Dawei; Zhu, Mingyan

    2015-12-01

    Ring finger protein 1 (Ring1) have recently been reported to be closely related to aggressive tumor features in multiple cancer types, including prostate cancer, non-small-cell lung cancer, and bladder cancer. However, the role of Ring1 in human hepatocarcinogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we aimed at investigating the latent role of Ring1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. The expression of Ring1 was evaluated using Western blot analysis in 8 paired fresh HCC tissues and immunohistochemistry on 98 paraffin-embedded sections from 2005 to 2008. Moreover, RNA interference, CCK-8, colony formation, and flow-cytometry analyses were performed to investigate the role of Ring1 in the regulation of HCC cell proliferation. Compared with adjacent normal tissues, the level of Ring1 was significantly increased in HCC specimens. High expression of Ring1 was associated with histological grade (P = 0.011) and tumor size (P = 0.004), and Ring1 expression was positively related with the proliferation marker Ki-67 (P < 0.001). Moreover, knocking down Ring1 induced growth impairment and G1/S cell cycle arrest in HCC cells. Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that high expression of Ring1 indicated poor prognosis of HCC (P = 0.03). On the basis of these results, we proposed that the expression of Ring1 protein may be a novel indicator of HCC prognosis. PMID:26141041

  10. Co-expression of LASS2 and TGF-β1 predicts poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Haoyu; Wang, Ting; Yang, Chen; Jin, Guangzhi; Gu, Dishui; Deng, Xuan; Wang, Cun; Qin, Wenxin; Jin, Haojie

    2016-01-01

    Longevity assurance homolog 2 of yeast LAG1 (LASS2) has been reported to act as an important tumor suppressor in the development of human cancers. However, little is known about the prognostic value of LASS2 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) . In the present study, we analyzed correlation between LASS2 and TGF-β1 levels, and evaluated their prognostic values in HCC patients. We first analyzed the expression of LASS2 and TGF-β1 in two independent cohorts (test cohort: 184 HCC patients; validation cohort: 118 HCC patients) using immunohistochemistry (IHC). Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox regression analyses were executed to evaluate the prognosis of HCC. The results of IHC analysis revealed a positive correlation between the expression of LASS2 and TGF-β1. HCC Patients with low expression of LASS2 and TGF-β1 had shorter overall survival (OS) and time to recurrence (TTR) than patients with high expression of LASS2 and TGF-β1. Furthermore, combination of LASS2 and TGF-β1 was an independent and significant risk factor for OS and TTR. In conclusion, low expression of LASS2 and TGF-β1 contributes to the aggressiveness and poor prognosis of HCC, and may represent a novel prognostic biomarker for HCC patients. PMID:27581744

  11. Co-expression of LASS2 and TGF-β1 predicts poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Haoyu; Wang, Ting; Yang, Chen; Jin, Guangzhi; Gu, Dishui; Deng, Xuan; Wang, Cun; Qin, Wenxin; Jin, Haojie

    2016-01-01

    Longevity assurance homolog 2 of yeast LAG1 (LASS2) has been reported to act as an important tumor suppressor in the development of human cancers. However, little is known about the prognostic value of LASS2 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) . In the present study, we analyzed correlation between LASS2 and TGF-β1 levels, and evaluated their prognostic values in HCC patients. We first analyzed the expression of LASS2 and TGF-β1 in two independent cohorts (test cohort: 184 HCC patients; validation cohort: 118 HCC patients) using immunohistochemistry (IHC). Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox regression analyses were executed to evaluate the prognosis of HCC. The results of IHC analysis revealed a positive correlation between the expression of LASS2 and TGF-β1. HCC Patients with low expression of LASS2 and TGF-β1 had shorter overall survival (OS) and time to recurrence (TTR) than patients with high expression of LASS2 and TGF-β1. Furthermore, combination of LASS2 and TGF-β1 was an independent and significant risk factor for OS and TTR. In conclusion, low expression of LASS2 and TGF-β1 contributes to the aggressiveness and poor prognosis of HCC, and may represent a novel prognostic biomarker for HCC patients. PMID:27581744

  12. APACHE II Score, Rather Than Cardiac Function, May Predict Poor Prognosis in Patients With Stress-Induced Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Joe, Byung-Hyun; Jo, Uk; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Park, Chang-Bum; Hwang, Hui-Jeong; Sohn, Il-Suk; Jin, Eun-Sun; Cho, Jin-Man; Park, Jeong-Hwan

    2012-01-01

    While the disease course of stress-induced cardiomyopathy (SIC) is usually benign, it can be fatal. The prognostic factors to predict poorer outcome are not well established, however. We analyzed the Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score to assess its value for predicting poor prognosis in patients with SIC. Thirty-seven consecutive patients with SIC were followed prospectively during their hospitalization. Clinical factors, including APACHE II score, coronary angiogram, echocardiography and cardiac enzymes at presentation were analyzed. Of the 37 patients, 27 patients (73%) were women. The mean age was 66.1 ± 15.6 yr, and the most common presentation was chest pain (38%). Initial echocardiographic left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) was 42.5% ± 9.3%, and the wall motion score index (WMSI) was 1.9 ± 0.3. Six patients (16%) expired during the follow-up period of hospitalization. Based on the analysis of characteristics and clinical factors, the only predictable variable in prognosis was APACHE II score. The patients with APACHE II score greater than 20 had tendency to expire than the others (P = 0.001). Based on present study, APACHE II score more than 20, rather than cardiac function, is associated with mortality in patients with SIC. PMID:22219614

  13. High expression of myofibrillogenesis regulator-1 predicts poor prognosis for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma after curative hepatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunwei; Xiang, Hua; Si, Huiyuan; Guo, Dandan; Sun, Mei

    2015-01-01

    Myofibrillogenesis regulator (MR-1) is overexpressed in human cancer cells and plays an essential role in cancer cell growth. However, its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not yet been explored. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of MR-1 expression with clinicopathologic features and prognosis in patients with HCC. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to detect MR-1 mRNA levels in tissues samples from 120 HCC patients. Results showed that MR-1 expression was significantly higher in HCC tissues when compared with matched adjacent normal tissues (P=0.004). In HCC cancerous tissues, it was also significantly associated with tumor size (P=0.024) and serum AFP level (P=0.003). Moreover, Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that HCC patients with high MR-1 expression had shorter overall survival time than those with low MR-1 expression (P=0.009). When analyzed with a multivariate Cox regression model, MR-1 was identified as an independent prognostic factor for overall survival. Furthermore, when combined with serum AFP level, the median survival time significantly differed between patients with baseline high serum AFP and high MR-1 expression levels and those with normal AFP and low MR-1 levels (P=0.007). Taken together, our results suggest that high expression of MR-1 is involved in HCC progression and could be a novel biomarker of poor prognosis in patients with HCC. PMID:26823810

  14. Oncogene mutation profiling reveals poor prognosis associated with FGFR1/3 mutation in liposarcoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Chengfang; Shen, Yaoyuan; Ren, Yan; Liu, Wei; Li, Man; Liang, Weihua; Liu, Chunxia; Li, Feng

    2016-09-01

    Liposarcoma (LPS) is one of the most prevalent soft tissue sarcomas. LPS shows a poor response to radiation and chemotherapy. The causes of death in patients with LPS include locally recurrent and metastatic disease. We sought to examine novel gene mutations and pathways in primary and matched recurrent LPSs to identify potential therapeutic targets. We conducted a high-throughput analysis of 238 known mutations in 19 oncogenes using Sequenom MassARRAY technology. Nucleic acids were extracted from 19 primary and recurrent LPS samples, encompassing 9 dedifferentiated LPSs (DDLPS), 9 myxoid/round cell LPSs, and 1 pleomorphic LPS. Mutation screening revealed missense mutations in 21.1% (4/19) of the LPS specimens, including 4 different genes (FGFR1, FGFR3, PIK3CA, and KIT). Based on histologic subtypes, 22.2% DDLPS (2/9) and 22.2% myxoid cell LPS (2/9) contained gene mutations. Specifically, 3 (23.1%) of 13 primary tumors harbored mutations. Furthermore, although gene mutations were identified in 1 (11.1%) of 9 recurrent LPS samples, the difference between the primary and the recurrence was not statistically significant. Analysis of patient survival data indicated that patients harboring FGFR1/3 mutations experienced reduced overall survival (P<.05). Despite the limited number of samples, our findings provide the first evidence of FGFR1/3 mutations in DDLPS, which were associated with poor clinical outcomes. The FGFR pathway may play an important role in the development and progression of DDLPS and warrants further investigation; moreover, PIK3CA mutation is a common event (11.1%) in myxoid cell LPS. PMID:27237367

  15. Decreased apolipoprotein A-I level indicates poor prognosis in extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Qi; Chen, Qi; Chen, Ping; Jiang, Li; Li, Tingwei; Qiu, Huijuan; Zhang, Bei

    2016-01-01

    Background Extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTL) is an invasive lymphoid malignancy with unfavorable survival, for which a prognostic model has not yet been validated. We hypothesized that serum apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) may serve as a novel prognostic marker for ENKTL. Patients and methods A total of 236 newly diagnosed cases of ENKTL were analyzed retrospectively. Results The optimal cutoff value for the serum ApoA-I level was determined to be 0.95 g/L. A total of 154 and 82 cases were assigned to the high and low ApoA-I groups, respectively. Patients in the low ApoA-I group tended to present with poorer clinical features, a lower complete remission rate (P=0.001), and poor median progression-free survival (P<0.001) and overall survival (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis using Cox model showed that the serum ApoA-I level was an independent prognostic marker of overall survival (P<0.001) and progression-free survival (P<0.001) for ENKTL patients. For cases in the low-risk group, as assessed by International Prognostic Index, Prognosis Index for peripheral T-cell lymphoma, unspecified, and Korean Prognostic Index, the serum ApoA-I level was able to differentiate cases with poor outcomes from cases with good outcomes. Conclusion Our results showed that the baseline serum ApoA-I level was helpful for predicting ENKTL prognosis. PMID:27051293

  16. Decreased expression of RNA-binding motif protein 3 correlates with tumour progression and poor prognosis in urothelial bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Low nuclear expression of the RNA-binding motif protein 3 (RBM3) has previously been found to be associated with poor prognosis in several cancer forms e.g. breast, ovarian, colorectal, prostate cancer and malignant melanoma. The aim of this study was to examine the prognostic impact of RBM3 expression in urinary bladder cancer. Methods Immunohistochemical RBM3 expression was examined in tumours from 343 patients with urothelial bladder cancer. Chi-square and Spearman’s correlation tests were applied to explore associations between RBM3 expression and clinicopathological characteristics. The impact of RBM3 expression on disease-specific survival (DSS), 5-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) was assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards modelling. Results Reduced nuclear RBM3 expression was significantly associated with more advanced tumour (T) stage (p <0.001) and high grade tumours (p=0.004). Negative RBM3 expression was associated with a significantly shorter DSS (HR=2.55; 95% CI 1.68-3.86)) and 5-year OS (HR=2.10; 95% CI 1.56-2.82), also in multivariable analysis (HR=1.65; 95% CI 1.07-2.53 for DSS and HR=1.54; 95% CI 1.13-2.10 for 5-year OS). In patients with Ta and T1 tumours expressing reduced RBM3 levels, Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a significantly shorter PFS (p=0.048) and 5-year OS (p=0.006). Conclusion Loss of RBM3 expression is associated with clinically more aggressive tumours and an independent factor of poor prognosis in patients with urothelial bladder cancer and a potentially useful biomarker for treatment stratification and surveillance of disease progression. PMID:23565664

  17. Increased Expression of SETD7 Promotes Cell Proliferation by Regulating Cell Cycle and Indicates Poor Prognosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jiewei; Yu, Chaoqin; He, Miaoxia; Cai, Zailong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the role of SET domain containing 7 (SETD7) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and determine whether SETD7 can be used as a predictor of overall survival in HCC patients. Methods mRNAs and proteins of SETD7 and related genes in HCC tumor samples and paired adjacent non-tumorous liver tissues (ANLTs) (n = 20) or culture cells were determined by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot. Cell proliferation and apoptosis with SETD7 knockdown SMMC-7721 cells or SETD7 overexpressed HepG2 cells were analyzed by CCK8 assay or flow cytometry. Gene expression alterations in SETD7 knockdown of SMMC-7721 cells were determined by digital gene expression (DGE) profiling. Defined data on patients (n = 225) with HCC were retrieved for the further study. Tissue microarrays (TMAs) were performed using paraffin tissues with tumor and ANLTs. SETD7 and related proteins were determined by TMAs immunohistochemistry. Statistical analyses were conducted to associate SETD7 expression with tumor features and patient outcomes, as well as related proteins expression. Results SETD7 expression was significantly higher in HCC tumor tissues than in ANLTs. SETD7 overexpression in vitro can promote HepG2 cell proliferation, whereas SETD7 knockdown can inhibit SMMC-7721 cell proliferation by regulating the cell cycle. SETD7 expression was significantly correlated with five genes expression. Increased SETD7 is associated with metastasis, recurrence, large tumor size, and poor tumor differentiation, and indicates poor prognosis in HCC patients. Conclusions SETD7 plays a critical role in HCC, and its immunohistochemistry signature provides potential clinical significance for personalized prediction of HCC prognosis. PMID:27183310

  18. CD73 as a novel marker for poor prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    REN, ZHEN-HU; YUAN, YONG-XIANG; JI, TONG; ZHANG, CHEN-PING

    2016-01-01

    Ecto-5′-nucleotidase [cluster of differentiation (CD)73] has important functions in several types of cancer, however, its expression in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) remains unknown. The present study was designed to investigate CD73 expression in SCC. CD73 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in 113 patients with oral SCC (OSCC). The association between CD73 expression and clinicopathological features, overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) times of patients were statistically analyzed. CD73 expression was detected in 58.4% (66/113) of OSCC patients, with the immunostaining predominantly localized in the cytomembrane and a little in the cytoplasm. Statistical analysis revealed that CD73 expression was more frequently detected in patients with larger tumors (P=0.021). The overexpression of CD73 was significantly associated with clinical stage (P=0.047). Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining showed that overexpression of CD73 was inversely correlated with DFS (P=0.002) and OS (P=0.002) times. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that CD73 expression was an independent prognostic factor for poor DFS (P=0.018) and OS (P=0.021). The current study is the first to evaluate the clinical significance and prognostic value of CD73 in patients with OSCC. The findings suggest that CD73 is a potential prognostic marker for OSCC. PMID:27347180

  19. ATAD2 Overexpression Identifies Colorectal Cancer Patients with Poor Prognosis and Drives Proliferation of Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yang; Ye, Guang-Yao; Qin, Shao-Lan; Yu, Min-Hao; Mu, Yi-Fei; Zhong, Ming

    2015-01-01

    ATPase family AAA domain-containing 2 (ATAD2) has been identified as a critical modulator involved in cell proliferation and invasion. The purpose of this study was to explore the expression of ATAD2 in CRC tissues as well as its relationship with degree of malignancy. Data containing three independent investigations from Oncomine database demonstrated that ATAD2 is overexpressed in CRC compared with normal tissue, and similar result was also found in 32 pairs of CRC tissues by qPCR. The protein expression of ATAD2 was examined in six CRC cell lines and 300 CRC specimens. The results showed that high expression of ATAD2 was significantly correlated with tumor size (P < 0.001), serum CEA (P = 0.012), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.018), liver metastasis (P = 0.025), and clinical stage (P = 0.004). Kaplan-Meier method suggested that higher ATAD2 protein expression significantly associated with the overall survival (OS) of CRC patients (P < 0.001) and was an independent predictor of poor OS. Functional studies showed that suppression of ATAD2 expression with siRNA could significantly inhibit the growth in SW480 and HCT116 cells. These results indicated that ATAD2 could serve as a prognostic marker and a therapeutic target for CRC. PMID:26697062

  20. MicroRNA-139-3p indicates a poor prognosis of colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaojing; Duan, Bensong; Dong, Yuanyuan; He, Chengzhi; Zhou, Hongmei; Sheng, Haihui; Gao, Hengjun; Zhang, Xizhi

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in the regulation of gene expression and are involved in almost biological procession. Recently, miR-139-5p has been reported to be downregulated in some types of cancer, and inhibits cancer cell invasion and metastasis. However, there are few reports on the role of miR-139-3p in cancer. In this study, we examined the expression level of miR-139-3p in 63 pairs of colon cancer and adjacent paracancerous tissues using quantitative reverse transcription PCR. The levels of miR-139-3p in colon cancer tissues were significantly lower than those in adjacent noncancerous tissues. There was an inverse correlation between the level of miR-139-3p and patient’s age. Lower level of miR-139-3p was significantly associated with poor overall survival, especially in patients with TNM stages I and II. In conclusion, miR-139-3p has potential as a prognostic biomarker for colon cancer. Further prospective studies are required to validate this result. PMID:25550849

  1. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K is overexpressed and associated with poor prognosis in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ruirui; Zeng, Ying; Xu, Haifan; Chen, Zhuo; Xiang, Mengqin; Fu, Yun; Yin, Yufang; Zhong, Jing; Zeng, Min; Wang, Peihua; You, Qin; Zeng, Xi

    2016-08-01

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) is one of the major pre-mRNA-binding proteins, that is involved in translational modifications. In our previous studies, we found that hnRNP K is associated with human gastric cancer. The protein levels of hnRNP K were detected in cell lines and tissue microarrays. The correlation between hnRNP K expression and patient survival rate was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. In addition, we also detected hnRNP K expression in preoperative and postoperative serum samples from patients with gastric cancer, and serum samples from healthy volunteers. We found that hnRNP K was overexpressed in the gastric cancer cell lines. The levels of hnRNP K were significantly elevated in the gastric cancer tissues compared with that noted in the tumor-adjacent gastric mucosal and normal gastric mucosal sampes, and hnRNP K expression was found to correlate with tumor stage and lymph node metastasis. However, the level of serum hnRNP K did not differ significantly between gastric cancer patients and healthy volunteers. We also found that patients whose tumors showed elevated expression of hnRNP K had poor survival. The present study suggests that hnRNP K is a promising tissue biomarker for diagnosing gastric cancer and is a prognostic indicator for patients with gastric cancer. PMID:27278897

  2. Identification of SPHK1 as a therapeutic target and marker of poor prognosis in cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ming-Huang; Yen, Chueh-Chuan; Cheng, Chi-Tung; Wu, Ren-Chin; Huang, Shih-Chiang; Yu, Chung-Shan; Chung, Yi-Hsiu; Liu, Chun-Yu; Chang, Peter Mu-Hsin; Chao, Yee; Chen, Ming-Han; Chen, Yu-Fen; Chiang, Kun-Chun; Yeh, Ta-Sen; Chen, Tzu Chi; Huang, Chi-Ying F.; Yeh, Chun-Nan

    2015-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is characterized by a uniquely aggressive behavior and lack of effective targeted therapies. After analyzing the gene expression profiles of seven paired intrahepatic CCA microarrays, a novel sphingosine kinase 1 (SPHK1)/sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) pathway and a novel target gene, SPHK1, were identified. We hypothesized that therapeutic targeting of this pathway can be used to kill intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cells. High levels of SPHK1 protein expression, which was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining of samples from 96 patients with intrahepatic CCA, correlated with poor overall survival. The SPHK1 inhibitor SK1-I demonstrated potent antiproliferative activity in vitro and in vivo. SK1-I modulated the balance of ceramide-sphinogosine-S1P and induced CCA apoptosis. Furthermore, SK1-I combined with JTE013, an antagonist of the predominant S1P receptor S1PR2, inhibited the AKT and ERK signaling pathways in CCA cells. Our preclinical data suggest SPHK1/S1P pathway targeting may be an effective treatment option for patients with CCA. PMID:26090720

  3. ZNF217 is associated with poor prognosis and enhances proliferation and metastasis in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Song, Lanlin; Qiu, Yuwen; Yin, Ailan; Zhong, Mei

    2014-01-01

    ZNF217 is an alternatively spliced Kruppel-like transcription factor that has recently been implicated to play a role in human carcinogenesis. Here, we used immunohistochemistry (IHC) to show that ZNF217 protein is overexpressed in nearly 60% of ovarian tumor samples. The disease-free survival time was shorter in patients with positive ZNF217 expression than in ZNF217-negative patients (P=0.042). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis showed ZNF217 genomic amplification in the poorly differentiated tumors, suggesting that ZNF217 is associated with the progression of ovarian cancer. Invasion was enhanced in HO-8910 cells stably transfected with constructs carrying full-length ZNF217 relative to cells transfected with the empty vector. To confirm our findings in vivo, we performed a tumorigenicity assay in nude mice inoculated with the HO-8910 overexpressing ZNF217 cells. As expected, tumors grown in the ZNF217 group were more invasive and prone to metastasis than those formed control groups. Based on these clinical and laboratory observations, we conclude that ZNF217 may contribute to ovarian cancer invasion and metastasis, and associated with worse clinical outcomes. PMID:25031722

  4. Pyruvate kinase M2 overexpression and poor prognosis in solid tumors of digestive system: evidence from 16 cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jiayuan; Hu, Liren; Chen, Manyu; Cao, Wenjun; Chen, Haicong; He, Taiping

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The expression of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) has been linked to tumor formation and invasion. Specifically, the relationship between high PKM2 expression and prognosis has been evaluated in solid tumors of digestive system. However, the prognostic value of PKM2 remains controversial. Methods A literature search of PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases was conducted until October 2015. The end point focused on overall survival (OS). The pooled hazard ratio (HR) or odds ratio and the 95% confidence intervals were calculated to correlate PKM2 overexpression with OS and clinicopathological characteristics by employing fixed- or random-effects models, depending on the heterogeneity of the included studies. Results We identified 18 cohorts in 16 studies involving 2,812 patients for this meta-analysis. Overall, the combined HR for OS in all tumor types was 1.74 (1.44–2.11; P<0.001). When stratified by tumor type, the influence of PKM2 expression on poor prognosis was also found in gastric cancer (HR =1.54 [1.08–2.21], P=0.018), esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (HR =1.71 [1.38–2.12], P<0.001), hepatocellular cancer (HR =1.92 [1.52–2.42], P<0.001), biliary cancer (HR =2.11 [1.50–2.95], P<0.001), and oral cancer (HR =3.49 [1.97–6.18], P<0.001), but not in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (HR =1.03 [0.28–3.76], P=0.968). Furthermore, PKM2 overexpression had a negative effect on the late clinical stage of all tumor types except for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. The high density of PKM2 overexpression was significantly associated with some clinical characteristics in different cancer types, such as tumor stage, modal metastasis, and tumor size. Conclusion Our findings revealed significant association of PKM2 overexpression with OS and certain clinicopathological features in solid tumors of digestive system, thereby suggesting that PKM2 might be an indicator of poor prognosis in digestive system cancers. PMID:27478385

  5. RALY RNA binding protein-like reduced expression is associated with poor prognosis in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhi-Wen; Xia, Ye; Ye, Yi-Wang; Jiang, Zhi-Mao; Wang, Ya-Dong; Wu, Jian-Ting; Sun, Liang; Zhao, Jun; Fa, Ping-Ping; Sun, Xiao-Juan; Gui, Yao-Ting; Cai, Zhi-Mingn

    2012-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms involved in the progression of clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs) are still unclear. The aim of this study was to analyse the relationships between expression of RALYL and clinical characteristics. In 41 paired samples of ccRCCs and adjacent normal tissues, we used real-time qPCR to evaluate the expression of RALYL mRNA. RALYL protein levels were determined in 146 samples of ccRCC and 37 adjacent normal tissues by immunohistochemistry. Statistical analysis was used to explore the relationships between expression of RALYL and the clinical characteristics (gender, age, tumor size, T stage, N stage, M stage, survival times and survival outcome) in ccRCC. In addition, these patients were follow-up period 64 months (range: 4~116 months) to investigate the influence on prognosis. We found significantly differences between ccRCC tissues and normal tissues (p<0.001, paired-sample t test) in mRNA levels of RALYL. Immunohistochemistry analyses in 146 ccRCC samples and 37 adjacent normal tissues showed significantly lower RALYL protein levels in ccRCC samples (χ2-test, p<0.001), inversely correlating with tumour size (p=0.024), T stage (0.005), N stage (p<0.001) as well as M stage (p=0.019), but not age (p=0.357) and gender (p=0.348). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated that people with lower level of RALYL expression had a poorer survival rate than those with a higher level of RALYL expression, significantly different by the log-rank test (p=0.011). Cox regression analysis indicated that RALYL expression (p=0.039), N stage (p=0.008) and distant metastasis (p<0.001) were independent prognosis factors for the overall survival of ccRCC patients. We demonstrated that the expression of RALYL was significantly low in ccRCC and correlated with a poor prognosis in a large number of clinical samples. Our findings showed that RALYL may be a potential therapeutic target as well as a poor prognostic factor. PMID:22994768

  6. RRAD inhibits aerobic glycolysis, invasion, and migration and is associated with poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shang, Runze; Wang, Jianlin; Sun, Wei; Dai, Bin; Ruan, Bai; Zhang, Zhuochao; Yang, Xisheng; Gao, Yuan; Qu, Shibin; Lv, Xing; Tao, Kaishan; Wang, Lin; Dou, Kefeng; Wang, Desheng

    2016-04-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most prevalent and lethal cancer worldwide. However, the mechanism underlying the HCC development remains unclear. Ras-related associated with diabetes (RRAD) is a small Ras-related GTPase which has been implicated in metabolic disease and several types of cancer, yet its functions in HCC remain unknown. A tissue microarray constructed by 90 paired HCC tissues and adjacent non-cancerous liver tissues was used to examine the protein levels of RRAD, and the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of RRAD was also detected in a subset of this cohort. The prognostic significance of RRAD was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression. The glucose utilization assay and lactate production assay were performed to measure the role of RRAD in HCC glycolysis. The effect of RRAD in HCC invasion and metastasis was analyzed by transwell assays. Our results suggested that the expression of RRAD was downregulated in HCC tissues compared to the adjacent non-tumorous liver tissues both in mRNA and protein levels and lower RRAD expression served as an independent prognostic indicator for the survival of HCC patients. Moreover, RRAD inhibited hepatoma cell aerobic glycolysis by negatively regulating the expression of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) and hexokinase II (HK-II). In addition, RRAD inhibition dramatically increased hepatoma cell invasion and metastasis. In conclusion, our study revealed that RRAD expression was decreased in HCC tumor tissues and predicted poor clinical outcome for HCC patients and played an important role in regulating aerobic glycolysis and cell invasion and metastasis and may represent potential targets for improving the treatment of HCC. PMID:26546438

  7. Peripheral blood involvement in patients with follicular lymphoma: a rare disease manifestation associated with poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Sarkozy, Clémentine; Baseggio, Lucile; Feugier, Pierre; Callet-Bauchu, Evelyne; Karlin, Lionel; Seymour, John F; Lebras, Laure; Michallet, Anne-Sophie; Offner, Fritz; Dumas, Olivier; Traverse-Glehen, Alexandra; Ffrench, Martine; Lopez-Guillermo, Armando; Berger, Françoise; Coiffier, Bertrand; Felman, Pascale; Salles, Gilles

    2014-03-01

    Follicular Lymphoma (FL) is the second most common non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) subtype and its course is heterogeneous. At diagnosis, some patients with FL manifest a detectable leukaemic phase (FL-LP), but this feature has been seldom described and is poorly characterized. Among 499 patients diagnosed with FL in Lyon-Sud hospital, 37 (7·4%) had characteristic FL-LP (by cytological blood smears and flow cytometric analysis). In addition, 91/1135 FL patients from the PRIMA study presented FL-LP at study entry. In order to evaluate the outcome of this Lyon-Sud cohort, FL-LP patients were matched with 111 newly diagnosed FL without LP according to the Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (FLIPI) score, age and treatment. Presence of FL-LP was associated with shorter progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) (P = 0·004 and P = 0·031, respectively). Presence of FL-LP and high FLIPI score remained independent prognostic factors in a Cox model for time to progression (TTP). A number of circulating lymphoma cells (CLC) >4 × 10(9) /l was the most significant predictor for a shorter TTP in this Cox model. The prognostic impact of FL-LP on TTP was validated in the PRIMA cohort (P = 0·0004). In conclusion, FL-LP is a rare event associated with shorter PFS and patients with CLC >4 × 10(9) /l have a poorer outcome. These patients should be monitored carefully to consider alternative therapeutic options. PMID:24274024

  8. A Long Noncoding RNA ZEB1-AS1 Promotes Tumorigenesis and Predicts Poor Prognosis in Glioma.

    PubMed

    Lv, Qiao-Li; Hu, Lei; Chen, Shu-Hui; Sun, Bao; Fu, Meng-Long; Qin, Chong-Zhen; Qu, Qiang; Wang, Gui-Hua; He, Chen-Jie; Zhou, Hong-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Emerging studies show that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have important roles in carcinogenesis. lncRNA ZEB1 antisense 1 (ZEB1-AS1) is a novel lncRNA, whose clinical significance, biological function, and underlying mechanism remains unclear in glioma. Here, we found that ZEB1-AS1 was highly expressed in glioma tissues, being closely related to clinical stage of glioma. Moreover, patients with high ZEB1-AS1 levels had poor prognoses, with the evidence provided by multivariate Cox regression analysis indicating that ZEB1-AS1 expression could serve as an independent prognostic factor in glioma patients. Functionally, silencing of ZEB1-AS1 could significantly inhibit cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, as well as promote apoptosis. Knockdown of ZEB1-AS1 significantly induced the G0/G1 phase arrest and correspondingly decreased the percentage of S phase cells. Further analysis indicated that ZEB1-AS1 could regulate the cell cycle by inhibiting the expression of G1/S transition key regulators, such as Cyclin D1 and CDK2. Furthermore, ZEB1-AS1 functioned as an important regulator of migration and invasion via activating epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) through up-regulating the expression of ZEB1, MMP2, MMP9, N-cadherin, and Integrin-β1 as well as decreasing E-cadherin levels in the metastatic progression of glioma. Additionally, forced down-regulation of ZEB1-AS1 could dramatically promote apoptosis by increasing the expression level of Bax and reducing Bcl-2 expression in glioma. Taken together, our data suggest that ZEB1-AS1 may serve as a new prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target of glioma. PMID:27589728

  9. Association of pancreatic adenocarcinoma up-regulated factor expression in ovarian mucinous adenocarcinoma with poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Kyum; Song, Si Young; Kim, Sunghoon; Cho, Nam Hoon; Yim, Ga Won; Kim, Sang Wun; Kim, Young Tae; Nam, Eun Ji

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma up-regulated factor (PAUF) expression is elevated in both ovarian tumors and pancreatic adenocarcinoma. However, PAUF expression in ovarian tumors according to histologic subtype and grade has not been investigated. In this study, we examined various clinicopathologic features of 24 patients with mucinous cystadenoma (MCA), 36 with mucinous borderline tumors (MBTs), and 46 with mucinous adenocarcinomas (MACs) according to PAUF expression status assessed using immunohistochemistry. We found that MACs more frequently stained positive for PAUF than did MCAs and MBTs (P < 0.0001). Although there was no significant differences with respect to other clinicopathologic characteristics of MACs according to PAUF expression status, patients with PAUF-weakly positive and PAUF-strongly positive MACs tended to have a shorter overall survival (OS) than those with PAUF-negative MAC, determined using a Kaplan-Meier analysis (P = 0.1885). After adjusting for various clinicopathologic parameters, PAUF positivity of MACs was a significant predictive factor for disease-free survival (DFS) (negative vs. weakly positive: P = 0.045, hazard ratio [HR] = 57.406, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.090-3022.596; and negative vs. strongly positive: P = 0.034, HR = 97.890, 95% CI: 1.412-6785.925). In conclusion, PAUF was more frequently expressed in MAC than in its benign and borderline counterparts, and was associated with a poor OS and DFS in MAC patients. Therefore, we suggest that PAUF may be a practical biomarker for histopathological categorization and a prognostic marker for patients with an ovarian mucinous tumor. PMID:25197383

  10. Association between cytoplasmic CRABP2, altered retinoic acid signaling, and poor prognosis in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rong-Zong; Li, Shuai; Garcia, Elizabeth; Glubrecht, Darryl D; Yin Poon, Ho; Easaw, Jacob C; Godbout, Roseline

    2016-06-01

    Retinoic acid (RA), a metabolite of vitamin A, is required for the regulation of growth and development. Aberrant expression of molecules involved in RA signaling has been reported in various cancer types including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Cellular retinoic acid-binding protein 2 (CRABP2) has previously been shown to play a key role in the transport of RA to retinoic acid receptors (RARs) to activate their transcription regulatory activity. Here, we demonstrate that CRABP2 is predominantly located in the cytoplasm of GBM tumors. Cytoplasmic, but not nuclear, CRABP2 levels in GBM tumors are associated with poor patient survival. Treatment of malignant glioma cell lines with RA results in a dose-dependent increase in accumulation of CRABP2 in the cytoplasm. CRABP2 knockdown reduces proliferation rates of malignant glioma cells, and enhances RA-induced RAR activation. Levels of CRYAB, a small heat shock protein with anti-apoptotic activity, and GFAP, an astrocyte-specific intermediate filament protein, are greatly reduced in CRABP2-depleted cells. Restoration of CRYAB expression partially but significantly reversed the effect of CRABP2 depletion on RAR activation. Our combined in vivo and in vitro data indicate that: (i) CRABP2 is an important determinant of clinical outcome in GBM patients, and (ii) the mechanism of action of CRABP2 in GBM involves sequestration of RA in the cytoplasm and activation of an anti-apoptotic pathway, thereby enhancing proliferation and preventing RA-mediated cell death and differentiation. We propose that reducing CRABP2 levels may enhance the therapeutic index of RA in GBM patients. GLIA 2016;64:963-976. PMID:26893190

  11. Lost expression of ADAMTS5 protein associates with progression and poor prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chongyi; Xiong, Yanli; Yang, Xueqin; Wang, Lin’ang; Zhang, Shiheng; Dai, Nan; Li, Mengxia; Ren, Tao; Yang, Yuxin; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Gan, Lixia; Wang, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Altered expression of ADAMTS5 is associated with human carcinogenesis and tumor progression. However, the role of ADAMTS5 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is unclear. This study analyzed ADAMTS5 expression in HCC tissues and tested for association with clinicopathological and survival data from HCC patients and then explored the role of ADAMTS5 in HCC cells in vitro. Paraffin blocks from 48 HCC patients were used to detect ADAMTS5 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and microvessel density (MVD). A normal liver cell line and HCC cell lines were used to detect ADAMTS5 expression and for ADAMTS5 manipulation. ADAMTS5 cDNA was stably transfected into HCC cells and ADAMTS5 expression assessed by Western blot analysis. Tumor cell-conditioned growth medium was used to assess human umbilical vein endothelial cell migration and Matrigel tube formation. Xenograft assay was performed to determine the role of ADAMTS5 in vivo. The data showed that the expression of ADAMTS5 was reduced in HCC, which was inversely associated with VEGF expression, MVD, and tumor size and associated with poor overall survival of HCC patients. Lentivirus-mediated ADAMTS5 expression significantly inhibited tumor angiogenesis by downregulating in vitro expression of VEGF and inhibiting migration and tube formations, and also inhibited tumor growth and VEGF expression and reduced MVD in vivo in a mouse xenograft model. Taken together, these results suggest that ADAMTS5 plays a role in suppression of HCC progression, which could be further studied as a promising novel therapeutic target and a potential prognostic marker in HCC. PMID:25848214

  12. B7-H4 expression indicates poor prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lei; Deng, Wei-Wei; Yu, Guang-Tao; Mao, Liang; Bu, Lin-Lin; Ma, Si-Rui; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Wen-Feng; Sun, Zhi-Jun

    2016-09-01

    Checkpoint blockade therapy utilizing monoclonal antibodies to reactivate T cells and recover their antitumor activity makes an epoch in cancer immunotherapy. The role of B7-H4, a novel negative immune checkpoint, in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has still not been elucidated. In this study, tissue samples from human OSCC, which contains 165 primary OSCC, 48 oral epithelial dysplasia and 43 normal oral mucosa specimens, and Tgfbr1/Pten 2cKO mice OSCC model were stained with B7-H4 antibody to analyze the correlations between B7-H4 expression and clinicopathological characteristics. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to compare the survival of patients with high B7-H4 expression and patients with low B7-H4 expression. We found B7-H4 is highly expressed in human OSCC tissue, and the B7-H4 expression level was associated with the clinicopathological parameters containing pathological grade and lymph node status. Moreover, we confirmed that B7-H4 was overexpressed in Tgfbr1/Pten 2cKO mice OSCC model. Our data also indicated that patients with high B7-H4 expression had poor overall survival compared with those with low B7-H4 expression. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that B7-H4 was positively associated with PD-L1, CD11b, CD33, PI3Kα p110, and p-S6 (S235/236). Taken together, these findings suggest B7-H4 is a potential target in the treatment of OSCC. PMID:27383830

  13. Osteopontin Involves Cisplatin Resistance and Poor Prognosis in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Sheng-Dean; Chen, Yi-Ju; Liu, Chien-Ting; Rau, Kun-Ming; Chen, Yi-Ching; Tsai, Hsin-Ting; Chen, Chang-Han; Chiu, Tai-Jan

    2015-01-01

    Background. Osteopontin (OPN) is a multifunctional cytokine involved in cell survival, migration, and adhesion. However, its role in chemosensitivity in locally advanced oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in humans has not yet been investigated. Methods. We enrolled 121 patients with locally advanced stage IVA/B OSCC receiving cisplatin-based IC followed by CCRT from January 1, 2006, through January 1, 2012. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess OPN expression in OSCC patients' biopsy specimens from paraffin blocks before treatment. In addition, MTT/colony formation assay was used to estimate the influence of OPN in an oral cancer cell line treated with cisplatin. Results. Of the 121 patients, 94 had positive OPN findings and 52 responded to IC followed by CCRT. Positive osteopontin immunostaining also correlated significantly with positive N status/TNM stage/male gender and smoking. Univariate analyses showed that patients whose tumors had a low expression of OPN were more likely to respond to chemotherapy and have a significantly better OS than those whose tumors had a high expression of OPN. Multivariate analysis revealed that prolonged survival was independently predicted for patients with stage IVA disease, negative lymph nodes, and negative expressions of OPN and for those who received chemotherapy with Docetaxel/cisplatin/fluorouracil (TPF). An oral cancer line stimulated with OPN exhibited a dose-dependent resistance to cisplatin treatment. Conversely, endogenous OPN depletion by OPN-mediated shRNA increased sensitivity to cisplatin. Conclusions. A positive expression of OPN predicts a poor response and survival in patients with locally advanced stage IVA/B OSCC treated with cisplatin-based IC followed by CCRT. PMID:26491674

  14. Increased programmed death ligand-1 expression predicts poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xiaobin; Gao, Xian-Shu; Xiong, Wei; Guo, Wei; Han, Linjun; Bai, Yun; Peng, Chuan; Cui, Ming; Xie, Mu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Accumulating studies have investigated the prognostic and clinical significance of programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, the results were conflicting and inconclusive. We conducted a meta-analysis to combine controversial data to precisely evaluate this issue. Methods Relevant studies were thoroughly searched on PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase until April 2016. Eligible studies were evaluated by selection criteria. Hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to estimate the prognostic role of PD-L1 for overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS)/recurrence-free survival (RFS). Odds ratio (OR) with 95% CI were selected to assess the relationship between PD-L1 and clinicopathological features of HCC patients. Publication bias was tested using Begg’s funnel plot. Results A total of seven studies published from 2009 to 2016 were included for meta-analysis. The data showed that high PD-L1 expression was correlated to shorter OS (HR =2.09, 95% CI: 1.66–2.64, P<0.001) as well as poor DFS/RFS (HR =2.3, 95% CI: 1.46–3.62, P<0.001). In addition, increased PD-L1 expression was also associated with tumor differentiation (HR =1.51, 95% CI: 1–2.29, P=0.05), vascular invasion (HR =2.16, 95% CI: 1.43–3.27, P<0.001), and α-fetoprotein (AFP; HR =1.46, 95% CI: 1–2.14, P=0.05), but had no association with tumor stage, tumor size, hepatitis history, sex, age, or tumor multiplicity. No publication bias was found for all analyses. Conclusion This meta-analysis revealed that overexpression of PD-L1 was predictive for shortened OS and DFS/RFS in HCC. Furthermore, increased PD-L1 expression was associated with less differentiation, vascular invasion, and AFP elevation. PMID:27536144

  15. Overexpression of interleukins IL-17 and IL-8 with poor prognosis in colorectal cancer induces metastasis.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Mohsen; Kaghazian, Maria; Rahmani, Omid; Ahmadi, Koorosh; Hatami, Elham; Ziari, Katayoun; Talebreza, Amir

    2016-06-01

    Current evidences indicated that a group of soluble mediators called chemokines is involved in tumor growth and metastasis. The association of IL-8 with tumor cell migration was previously found, and its expression was related to angiogenesis, tumor progression, and metastasis in many kinds of carcinomas in human and animal models. Furthermore, it has been showed that IL-17 plays its role as either a proteome of tumor progression or antitumor indifferent cancer models. To investigate the messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of IL-8 and IL-17 in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) and non-tumor tissue, quantitative real-time PCR was used in the study. Our results showed that expression of IL-8 mRNA was significantly increased in tumor tissues (mean ± SD 3.84 ± 0.08) compared with adjacent normal mucosa (mean ± SD 1.17 ± 0.75, P = 0.001). Furthermore, a higher expression of IL-17 mRNA was found in tumor tissues (mean ± SD 2.73 ± 0.69) when compared with normal tissues (mean ± SD 1.06 ± 0.07, P = 0.001). Our findings indicated that advanced tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage (P = 0.024) and histological grade (poorly differentiated, P = 0.013) and distant metastasis (P = 0.001) were correlated with expression of IL-8. Moreover, high expression of IL-17 showed significant association with early stage CRC (TNM) (P = 0.038). In conclusion, the expression of IL-8 and IL-17 mRNAs was significantly increased in tumor tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues. We found that advanced TNM stage and histological grade and distant metastasis were correlated with expression of IL-8, while high expression of IL-17 showed significant association with early stage CRC (TNM) stage and overexpression of IL-8 may be associated with progression of CRC. PMID:26678893

  16. Decreased long noncoding RNA MIR31HG is correlated with poor prognosis and contributes to cell proliferation in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Nie, Feng-Qi; Ma, Shijie; Xie, Min; Liu, Yan-Wen; De, Wei; Liu, Xiang-Hua

    2016-06-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as key regulators governing fundamental biological processes, and their disorder expression involves in the development of several human cancers. MIR31HG, an lncRNA located in 9p21.3 and 2166 bp in length, has been found to be upregulated in breast cancer and contributes to cell proliferation and invasion. However, the expression pattern and biological function of MIR31HG in gastric cancer are still not well documented. In this study, we found that MIR31HG expression is decreased in gastric cancer tissues and associated with larger tumor size and advanced pathological stage. Patients with lower MIR31HG expression had a relatively poor prognosis. Furthermore, ectopic over-expression of MIR31HG could inhibit gastric cancer (GC) cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo, while knockdown of MIR31HG by small interfering RNA (siRNA) promoted cell proliferation in GC cells partly via regulating E2F1 and p21 expression. Our findings present that decreased MIR31HG is involved in GC development and could be identified as a poor prognostic biomarker in GC patients. PMID:26692098

  17. Physician’s Undecided Attitudes towards Posthumous Reproduction: Fertility Preservation in Cancer Patients with a Poor Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Gwendolyn P.; Knapp, Caprice; Malo, Teri; McIntyre, Jessica; Jacobsen, Paul; Vadaparampil, Susan T.

    2015-01-01

    Background The American Society for Clinical Oncology (ASCO) established guidelines for fertility preservation for cancer patients. In a national study of US oncologists, we examined attitudes towards the use of fertility preservation among patients with a poor prognosis, focusing on attitudes towards posthumous reproduction. Method A cross-sectional survey was administered via mail and Internet to a stratified random sample of US oncologists and measured demographics, knowledge, attitude, and practice behaviors regarding posthumous reproduction and fertility preservation with cancer patients of childbearing age. Results Only 16.2% supported posthumous parenting, while the majority (51.5%) did not have an opinion. ANOVA analyses indicated attitudes towards posthumous reproduction were significantly related to physician practice behaviors and dependent on oncologists’ knowledge of ASCO guidelines. Conclusions Physician attitudes may conflict with following recommended guidelines and may reduce the likelihood that some patients receive information about fertility preservation. Further education may raise physicians’ awareness of poor prognostic patients’ interest in pursuing this technology. PMID:22266153

  18. Decreased expression of PBLD correlates with poor prognosis and functions as a tumor suppressor in human hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Jietao; Yang, Haiyun; Feng, Zhiqiang; Du, Yanlei; Wang, Yadong; Wang, Zenan; Wang, Hong; Zhou, Yongjian; Liu, Side; Nie, Yuqiang

    2016-01-01

    Recent accumulating genomic and proteomic data suggested that decreased expression of phenazine biosynthesis-like domain-containing protein (PBLD) was frequently involved in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, there is lack of systematical investigation focusing on its expression pattern, clinical relevance, and biological function. Here, we found that PBLD was frequently decreased in HCC tissues relative to adjacent non-tumorigenic liver tissues. This decreased expression was significantly associated with poor tumor differentiation and advanced tumor stage. Kaplan–Meier analysis further showed that recurrence-free survival and overall survival were significantly worse among patients with low PBLD expression. Moreover, multivariate analyses revealed that PBLD was an independent predictor of OS and RFS. This prognostic value of PBLD was further validated in another independent cohort. We also found PBLD inhibited HCC cell growth and invasion in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Furthermore, forced expression of PBLD influenced multiple downstream genes related to MAPK, NF-κB, EMT, and angiogenesis signaling pathways. PBLD deletion was an independent predictor of poor prognosis in patients with HCC. Elevated PBLD expression may reduce HCC cell growth and invasion via inactivation of several tumorigenesis-related signaling pathways. PMID:26594798

  19. Vasculogenic mimicry is a major feature and novel predictor of poor prognosis in patients with orbital rhabdomyosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, LUXIA; HE, YANJIN; SUN, SHIZHEN; SUN, BAOCUN; TANG, XIN

    2015-01-01

    Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) is a key developmental program, frequently activated during cancer invasion and metastasis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of VM in orbital rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), the correlation between VM and tumor differentiation, recurrence and survival duration, as well as the contribution of epithelial cell kinase (EphA2) and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in VM initiation. A total of 32 patients were enrolled to investigate the associations between VM in orbital RMS tumors and clinical characteristics, as well as its impact on overall survival. VM was identified and confirmed by CD31/periodic acid-Schiff double staining, while the presence of EphA2 and MMP-2 were examined by immunohistochemical analysis. VM was identified in eleven patients, particularly those with poorly differentiated orbital RMS (P=0.001). Patients with VM exhibited significantly worse survival rates (P=0.001, log-rank test), a significantly increased risk of mortality (P=0.008) and EphA2 and MMP-2 expression levels were enhanced (P=0.005 and 0.001, respectively). The VM and mitotic rate were independent predictors of poor prognosis (P=0.001 and 0.004, respectively), indicated by multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. These results demonstrated that VM is present in orbital RMS and represents an independent prognostic factor for overall survival. In addition, overexpression of EphA2 and MMP-2 may promote VM formation in orbital RMS. PMID:26622724

  20. Elevated ASCL2 expression is associated with metastasis of osteosarcoma and predicts poor prognosis of the patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming-Han; Cui, You-Hong; Guo, Qiao-Nan; Zhou, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Achaetescute-like 2 (ASCL2), a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor, plays an important role in the determination of neuronal precursors in the central and peripheral nervous system and involves in tumor progression. However, the role of ASCL2 expression in the osteosarcoma prognosis has not been elaborated. This study aimed to evaluate ASCL2 expression level in osteosarcoma and assess its prognostic value for patients. ASCL2 protein expression was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 73 cases of osteosarcoma. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression analysis were performed to evaluate the prognostic significance of ASCL2. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that the overall survival and metastasis-free survival of patients with positive ASCL2 expression were significantly shorter than patients with negative expression (both P<0.01). Multivariate Cox analysis identified ASCL2 expression as an independent prognostic factor to predict poor overall survival and metastasis-free survival (both P<0.01). Overexpression of ASCL2 expression greatly promoted cell proliferation and enhanced migration and invasion in vitro. This study indicates that increased expression of ASCL2 in primary osteosarcoma is a novel biomarker for predicting the development of metastases and poor outcomes of the patients. PMID:27429855

  1. Lung cancer diagnosed in the young is associated with enrichment for targetable genomic alterations and poor prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Sacher, Adrian G.; Dahlberg, Suzanne E.; Heng, Jennifer; Mach, Stacy; Jänne, Pasi A.; Oxnard, Geoffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    Importance NSCLC in the young is a rare entity and the genomics and clinical characteristics of this disease are poorly understood. In contrast, young age at diagnosis has been demonstrated to define unique disease biology in other cancers. Here we report on the association of young age with targetable genomic alterations and prognosis in a large cohort of NSCLC patients. Objective To determine the relationship between young age at diagnosis and both the presence of a potentially targetable genomic alteration as well as prognosis and natural history. Design All patients with NSCLC genotyped at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute between 2002–2014 were identified. Tumor genotype, patient characteristics and clinical outcomes were collected. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between age and mutation status. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were fitted for survival analysis. Setting A National Cancer Institute (NCI) designated comprehensive cancer center. Participants All patients with NSCLC seen at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute between 2002–2014 who underwent tumor genotyping. Main Outcome Measure The frequency of targetable genomic alterations by defined age categories as well as the association of these age groups with survival. Results 2237 patients with NSCLC were studied. EGFR (p=0.02) and ALK (P<0.01) were associated with younger age, and a similar trend existed for HER2 (p=0.15) and ROS1 (p=0.1) but not BRAF V600E (p=0.43). Amongst patients tested for all 5 targetable genomic alterations, younger age was associated with an increased frequency of a targetable genotype (p<0.01). Those diagnosed at age 50 or younger have a 59% increased likelihood of harboring a targetable genotype. While presence of a potentially targetable genomic alteration treated with a targeted agent was associated with improved survival, the youngest and oldest age groupings had similarly poor outcomes even when a targetable genotype was

  2. Loss of 11βHSD1 enhances glycolysis, facilitates intrahepatic metastasis, and indicates poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xu; Tan, Xiao-long; Xia, Meng; Wu, Chao; Song, Jia; Wu, Jing-jing; Laurence, Arian; Xie, Qing-guo; Zhang, Ming-zhi

    2016-01-01

    11Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11βHSD1), converting glucocorticoids from hormonally inactive cortisone to active cortisol, plays an essential role in glucose homeostasis. Accumulating evidence suggests that enhanced glycolytic activity is closely associated with postoperative recurrence and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Whether 11βHSD1 contributes to HCC metastasis and recurrence remains unclear. Here we found that expression of 11βHSD1 in human HCC (310 pairs) was frequently decreased compared to the adjacent non-neoplastic liver tissues (ANT), which correlated well with the intrahepatic-metastatic index, serum glycemia, and other malignant clinicopathological characteristics of HCC and predicted poor prognosis. Knockdown of 11βHSD1 in BEL-7402 cells drastically reduced the pH of culture medium and induced cell death. Meanwhile, overexpression of 11βHSD1 in SMMC-7721 HCC cells resulted in repression of cell migration, invasion, angiogenesis, and proliferation in vitro. When transferred into BALB/c nude mice, 11βHSD1 overexpression resulted in decreased intrahepatic metastasis, angiogenesis, and tumor size. F-18-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose accumulation assay measured by positron emission tomography elucidated that 11βHSD1 reduced glucose uptake and glycolysis in SMMC-7721 cells in vitro, and intrahepatic metastasis foci and subcutaneous tumor growth in vivo. We showed that 11βHSD1 repressed cell metastasis, angiogenesis and proliferation of HCC by causing disruption of glycolysis via the HIF-1α and c-MYC pathways. In conclusion, 11βHSD1 inhibits the intrahepatic metastasis of HCC via restriction of tumor glycolysis activity and may serve as a prognostic biomarker for patients. PMID:26700460

  3. Loss of autophagy-related protein Beclin 1 may define poor prognosis in ovarian clear cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    KATAGIRI, HIROSHI; NAKAYAMA, KENTARO; RAZIA, SULTANA; NAKAMURA, KOHEI; SATO, EMI; ISHIBASHI, TOMOKA; ISHIKAWA, MASAKO; IIDA, KOUJI; ISHIKAWA, NORIYOSHI; OTSUKI, YOSHIRO; NAKAYAMA, SATORU; KYO, SATORU

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the role of autophagy in cisplatin (CDDP) sensitivity in OCCCs and the role of Beclin 1 in OCCC progression. Autophagy was measured using: i) western blot analysis of LC3 and p62 and ii) microscopic observation of GFP-LC3 puncta. Autophagy was suppressed using chloroquine and Beclin 1 siRNA. Surgical specimens were examined for Beclin 1 protein expression by immunohistochemistry. The correlations between the loss of Beclin 1 expression and clinicopathological characteristics, prognosis and chemosensitivity were investigated. Inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine or Beclin 1 siRNA did not enhance the sensitivity of the ES2 and TOV-21G OCCC cell lines to CDDP. Loss of Beclin 1 expression was observed in 38.3% (23/60) of the analyzed tumors. There was no significant correlation between loss of Beclin 1 expression and FIGO stage, CA125 levels, patient age, status of endometriosis, Ki-67 labeling index, chemotherapy regimen or status of residual tumor. However, negative expression of Beclin 1 was associated with a shorter progression-free survival in comparison to positive Beclin 1 expression in OCCC who received cytoreductive surgery, followed by a standard platinum-based chemotherapy regimen (P=0.027, log-rank test). Beclin 1-negative tumors were no more resistant to primary adjuvant chemotherapy than were Beclin 1-positive tumors (50.0 vs. 66.7%, P=0.937). Beclin 1 knockdown using siRNA increased cell growth but not cell migration and invasion in ES2 and TOV-21G OCCC cell lines. Autophagy defects caused by loss of Beclin 1 are not related to chemoresistance and metastasis, but may be associated with malignant phenotype and poor prognosis of OCCC. PMID:26458502

  4. High PD-L1 Expression Correlates with Metastasis and Poor Prognosis in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Tsai, Shih-Chen; Lai, Hung-Wen; Yang, Shu-Mei; Shen, Ko-Hong; Chen, Mu-Kuan; Lee, Huei; Yeh, Kun-Tu; Chen, Chih-Jung

    2015-01-01

    PD-L1 has been widely demonstrated to contribute to failed antitumor immunity. Blockade of PD-L1 with monoclonal antibody could modulate the tumor immune environment to augment immunotherapy. PD-L1 expression is also detected in several types of cancer and is associated with poor prognosis. However, the prognostic role of PD-L1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is still controversial. Our aim was to determine the role of PD-L1 in the prognosis of OSCC patients to identify its potential therapeutic relevance. PD-L1 immunoreactivity was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 305 cancer specimens from primary OSCC patients. The medium follow-up time after surgery was 3.8 years (range from 0.1 to 11.1 years). The prognostic value of PD-L1 on overall survival was determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazard models. Higher PD-L1 expression is more likely in tumor tissues of female than male OSCC patients (P = 0.0062). Patients with distant metastasis also had high PD-L1 expression (P = 0.0103). Multivariate analysis identified high PD-L1 expression as an independent risk factor in males and smokers (males: hazard ratio = 1.556, P = 0.0077; smokers: hazard ratio = 2.058, P = 0.0004). We suggest that PD-L1 expression, determined by IHC staining, could be an independent prognostic marker for OSCC patients who are male or who have a smoking habit. PMID:26562534

  5. Allelic loss at chromosome 13q12-q13 is associated with poor prognosis in familial and sporadic breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, J.; Johannsson, O.; Håkansson, S.; Olsson, H.; Borg, A.

    1996-01-01

    Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) was analysed in 84 primary tumours from sporadic, familial and hereditary breast cancer using five microsatellite markers spanning the chromosomal region 13q12-q13 which harbours the BRCA2 breast cancer susceptibility gene, and using one other marker located within the RBI tumour-suppressor gene at 13q14. LOH at the BRCA2 region was found in 34% and at RBI in 27% of the tumours. Selective LOH at BRCA2 occurred in 7% of the tumours, whereas selective LOH at RBI was observed in another 7%. Moreover, a few tumours demonstrated a restricted deletion pattern, suggesting the presence of additional tumour-suppressor genes both proximal and distal of BRCA2. LOH at BRCA2 was significantly correlated to high S-phase values, low oestrogen and progesterone receptor content and DNA non-diploidy. LOH at BRCA2 was also associated, albeit non-significantly, with large tumour size and the ductal and medullar histological types. No correlation was found with lymph node status, patient age or a family history of breast cancer. A highly significant and independent correlation existed between LOH at BRCA2 and early recurrence and death. LOH at RBI was not associated with the above mentioned factors or prognosis. The present study does not provide conclusive evidence that BRCA2 is the sole target for deletions at 13q12-q13 in breast tumours. However, the results suggest that inactivation of one or several tumour-suppressor genes in the 13q12-q13 region confer a strong tumour growth potential and poor prognosis in both familial and sporadic breast cancer. Images Figure 1 PMID:8932343

  6. Loss of 11βHSD1 enhances glycolysis, facilitates intrahepatic metastasis, and indicates poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xu; Tan, Xiao-Long; Xia, Meng; Wu, Chao; Song, Jia; Wu, Jing-Jing; Laurence, Arian; Xie, Qing-Guo; Zhang, Ming-Zhi; Liang, Hui-Fang; Zhang, Bi-Xiang; Chen, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-12

    11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11βHSD1), converting glucocorticoids from hormonally inactive cortisone to active cortisol, plays an essential role in glucose homeostasis. Accumulating evidence suggests that enhanced glycolytic activity is closely associated with postoperative recurrence and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Whether 11βHSD1 contributes to HCC metastasis and recurrence remains unclear. Here we found that expression of 11βHSD1 in human HCC (310 pairs) was frequently decreased compared to the adjacent non-neoplastic liver tissues (ANT), which correlated well with the intrahepatic-metastatic index, serum glycemia, and other malignant clinicopathological characteristics of HCC and predicted poor prognosis. Knockdown of 11βHSD1 in BEL-7402 cells drastically reduced the pH of culture medium and induced cell death. Meanwhile, overexpression of 11βHSD1 in SMMC-7721 HCC cells resulted in repression of cell migration, invasion, angiogenesis, and proliferation in vitro. When transferred into BALB/c nude mice, 11βHSD1 overexpression resulted in decreased intrahepatic metastasis, angiogenesis, and tumor size. F-18-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose accumulation assay measured by positron emission tomography elucidated that 11βHSD1 reduced glucose uptake and glycolysis in SMMC-7721 cells in vitro, and intrahepatic metastasis foci and subcutaneous tumor growth in vivo. We showed that 11βHSD1 repressed cell metastasis, angiogenesis and proliferation of HCC by causing disruption of glycolysis via the HIF-1α and c-MYC pathways. In conclusion, 11βHSD1 inhibits the intrahepatic metastasis of HCC via restriction of tumor glycolysis activity and may serve as a prognostic biomarker for patients. PMID:26700460

  7. Overexpression of long noncoding RNA PCAT-1 is a novel biomarker of poor prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xiaosong; Chen, Yuanbin; Liao, Xiaoyu; Liu, Deqing; Li, Fangfang; Ruan, Honglian; Jia, Weihua

    2013-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) are emerging as key molecules in human cancer. Prostate cancer-associated ncRNA transcripts 1 (PCAT-1), a lncRNA, has been recently revealed involving in human prostate cancer progression. However, whether PCAT-1 could serve as novel biomarker to predict prognosis in colorectal cancer (CRC) or not is unknown. We therefore carried out the present study to explore the correlation between PCAT-1 expression and the progression of CRC. In this study, the expression of PCAT-1 in 108 cases of CRC tissues and matched 81 adjacent normal tissues were determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Furthermore, the copy number variation of PCAT-1 was also measured in 17 tumor tissues and matched normal tissues. Our results showed that PCAT-1 expression in CRC tissues was significantly upregulated compared with the matched normal tissues (p < 0.001) and the overexpression of PCAT-1(upregulated by more than 50 %) was found in 64 % (62/81) of CRC. Moreover, PCAT-1 gene copy number variation explains only a few percent of observed overexpression. In addition, there was a significant association between PCAT-1 expression and distant metastasis (p = 0.04), but not other clinical characteristics. More important, CRC patients with PCAT-1 higher expression have shown significantly poorer overall survival than those with lower PCAT-1 expression (p < 0.001). Also, multivariable Cox regression analysis identified PCAT-1 overexpression as an independent prognostic factor for CRC (p = 0.007, HR = 3.12 95 %CI = 1.355-7.185). In conclusion, our results suggest that high expression of PCAT-1 is involved in CRC progression and could be a novel biomarker of poor prognosis in patient with colorectal cancer. PMID:23640607

  8. High PD-L1 Expression Correlates with Metastasis and Poor Prognosis in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yueh-Min; Sung, Wen-Wei; Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Tsai, Shih-Chen; Lai, Hung-Wen; Yang, Shu-Mei; Shen, Ko-Hong; Chen, Mu-Kuan; Lee, Huei; Yeh, Kun-Tu; Chen, Chih-Jung

    2015-01-01

    PD-L1 has been widely demonstrated to contribute to failed antitumor immunity. Blockade of PD-L1 with monoclonal antibody could modulate the tumor immune environment to augment immunotherapy. PD-L1 expression is also detected in several types of cancer and is associated with poor prognosis. However, the prognostic role of PD-L1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is still controversial. Our aim was to determine the role of PD-L1 in the prognosis of OSCC patients to identify its potential therapeutic relevance. PD-L1 immunoreactivity was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 305 cancer specimens from primary OSCC patients. The medium follow-up time after surgery was 3.8 years (range from 0.1 to 11.1 years). The prognostic value of PD-L1 on overall survival was determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazard models. Higher PD-L1 expression is more likely in tumor tissues of female than male OSCC patients (P = 0.0062). Patients with distant metastasis also had high PD-L1 expression (P = 0.0103). Multivariate analysis identified high PD-L1 expression as an independent risk factor in males and smokers (males: hazard ratio = 1.556, P = 0.0077; smokers: hazard ratio = 2.058, P = 0.0004). We suggest that PD-L1 expression, determined by IHC staining, could be an independent prognostic marker for OSCC patients who are male or who have a smoking habit. PMID:26562534

  9. Overexpression of STAT3/pSTAT3 was associated with poor prognosis in gastric cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    He, Shaozhong; Liao, Guixiang; Liu, Yungen; Huang, Liling; Kang, Mafei; Chen, Longhua

    2015-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and phospho-STAT3 (pSTAT3) play important roles in the development of gastric cancer. STAT3 is often associated with cell survival, proliferation, and transformation. The prognostic value of STAT3/pSTAT3 in patients with gastric cancer remains controversial in numerous published studies. The aim of this study was to summarize recent findings relevant to the prognostic role of STAT3 and pSTAT3 in patients with gastric cancer. A meta-analysis was performed by searching Web of Knowledge, EMBASE, and PubMed to identify studies on the prognostic impact of STAT3/pSTAT3 in gastric cancers in August 2014. In all, 10 studies were included in the analysis. Data were collected for comparing survival rates in patients with high STAT3 levels compared to those with low levels. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Sensitivity analysis was conducted, and publication bias was evaluated. Eventually, 1667 cases of gastric cancer were subjected to the final analysis. Among patients with gastric cancer, poor survival was predicted by higher expressions of STAT3 (HR=2.30; 95% CI=1.13-4.68; P=0.02) and pSTAT3 (HR=1.75; 95% CI=1.17-2.61; P=0.006). Moreover, overexpression of STAT3 was associated with poor tumor stage. Additionally, our analysis did not show any statistically significant effect of publication bias regarding STAT3 or pSTAT3. The results of this meta-analysis demonstrated that overexpression of STAT3 and pSTAT3 was associated with poor prognosis in gastric cancer. PMID:26884913

  10. SALL4 Expression in Hepatocellular Carcinomas Is Associated with EpCAM-Positivity and a Poor Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyunjin; Lee, Hyejung; Seo, An Na; Cho, Jai Young; Choi, Young Rok; Yoon, Yoo-Seok; Han, Ho-Seong; Park, Young Nyun; Kim, Haeryoung

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is increasing interest in hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) expressing “stemness”-related markers, as they have been associated with aggressive behavior and poor prognosis. In this study, we investigated the usefulness of Sal-like protein 4 (SALL4), a recently proposed candidate marker of “stemness.” Methods: Immunohistochemical stains were performed for SALL4, K19, and epithelial cellular adhesion molecule (EpCAM) on tissue microarrays constructed from 190 surgically resected HCCs, and the results were correlated with the clinicopathological features and patient survival data. Results: Nuclear SALL4 expression was observed in 39/190 HCCs (20.5%), while K19 and EpCAM were expressed in 30 (15.9%) and 92 (48.7%) HCCs, respectively. The nuclear expression was generally weak, punctate or clumped. SALL4 expression was significantly associated with a poor overall survival compared to SALL4-negative HCCs (p = .014) compared to SALL4-negative HCCs. On multivariate analysis adjusted for tumor size, multiplicity, vascular invasion, and pathological tumor stage, SALL4 remained as a significant independent predictor of decreased overall survival (p= .004). SALL4 expression was positively correlated with EpCAM expression (p = .013) but not with K19 expression. HCCs that expressed both SALL4 and EpCAM were associated with significantly decreased overall survival, compared to those cases which were negative for both of these markers (p = .031). Conclusions: Although SALL4 expression was not significantly correlated with other clinicopathological parameters suggestive of tumor aggressiveness, SALL4 expression was an independent predictor of poor overall survival in human HCCs, and was also positively correlated with EpCAM expression. PMID:26265684

  11. Stromal Myofibroblasts Are Associated with Poor Prognosis in Solid Cancers: A Meta-Analysis of Published Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhi Qiang; Ning, Zhong Liang; Huang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Objective Published studies have evaluated the impact of stromal myofibroblasts on prognosis in solid cancers. However, the results of these studies remain controversial. We therefore performed a meta-analysis to address this issue. Methods The PubMed, ISI Web of Science and Embase databases were searched through November 30th, 2015 by two investigators, and a total of 17 studies that contained 2606 patients were included. Stromal myofibroblasts were quantified in solid cancers using α-smooth muscle actin staining. Pooled Odds Ratio with 95% Confidence Intervals were calculated, and publication bias was analyzed. Results The results of this study suggest that in solid cancers, a high density of stromal myofibroblasts is significantly associated with poor 3- and 5-year overall survival (pooled odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 1.33 (1.10–1.60) for 3-year overall survival and 1.68 (1.22–2.32) for 5-year overall survival). In addition, a high density of stromal myofibroblasts also predicted poor 3- and 5-year disease-free survival (1.30 (1.05–1.60) for 3-year disease-free survival and 1.36 (1.01–1.83) for 5-year disease-free survival). However, stromal myofibroblasts were not associated with 3- and 5-year cancer-specific survival. No publication bias was found for all analyses. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that a high density of stromal myofibroblasts is associated with poor survival in solid cancers. More studies were required to investigate the prognostic value of stromal myofibroblasts in different types of solid cancers. PMID:27459365

  12. Decreased expression of Beclin‑1 is significantly associated with a poor prognosis in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zedong; Zhong, Zhaoming; Huang, Shaohui; Wen, Haojie; Chen, Xue; Chu, Hongying; Li, Qiuli; Sun, Chuanzheng

    2016-08-01

    The autophagy-related gene Beclin-1 is critical in the regulation of tumourigenesis and progression, but its role in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) has not yet been reported. This study aimed to investigate Beclin‑1 expression and its significance in OTSCC. Beclin‑1 expression was assessed by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction or western blot analysis in 14 OTSCC tissues and matched adjacent noncancerous tissues as well as in 5 OTSCC cell lines and a normal tongue epithelial cell line. Beclin‑1 protein expression was examined by immunohistochemistry in 133 OTSCC specimens, and the correlation between Beclin‑1 expression and clinicopathological features was investigated. Furthermore, MTT and colony formation assays were performed to investigate the effect of Beclin‑1 on the proliferation and clonogenicity of OTSCC cells. It was demonstrated that Beclin‑1 expression was significantly decreased in the majority of the 14 OTSCC tissues and the 5 OTSCC cell lines relative to the matched non‑cancerous tissues and the normal tongue epithelial cell line, respectively. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that decreased Beclin‑1 expression was significantly correlated with poor differentiation, lymph node metastasis, advanced clinical tumour‑node‑metastasis stage, and a poor prognosis in patients with OTSCC. The in vitro assays indicated that the overexpression of Beclin‑1 significantly inhibits the proliferation and clonogenicity of OTSCC cells. These results demonstrate that Beclin‑1 acts as a tumour suppressor in the development or progression of OTSCC and that Beclin‑1 may represent a novel prognostic marker for patients with OTSCC. PMID:27356955

  13. M6P/IGF2R loss of heterozygosity in head and neck cancer associated with poor patient prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Jamieson, Timothy A; Brizel, David M; Killian, J Keith; Oka, Yoshihiko; Jang, Hong-Seok; Fu, Xiaolong; Clough, Robert W; Vollmer, Robin T; Anscher, Mitchell S; Jirtle, Randy L

    2003-01-01

    Background The mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (M6P/IGF2R) encodes for a multifunctional receptor involved in lysosomal enzyme trafficking, fetal organogenesis, cytotoxic T cell-induced apoptosis and tumor suppression. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if the M6P/IGF2R tumor suppressor gene is mutated in human head and neck cancer, and if allelic loss is associated with poor patient prognosis. Methods M6P/IGF2R loss of heterozygosity in locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck was assessed with six different gene-specific nucleotide polymorphisms. The patients studied were enrolled in a phase 3 trial of twice daily radiotherapy with or without concurrent chemotherapy; median follow-up for surviving patients is 76 months. Results M6P/IGF2R was polymorphic in 64% (56/87) of patients, and 54% (30/56) of the tumors in these informative patients had loss of heterozygosity. M6P/IGF2R loss of heterozygosity was associated with a significantly reduced 5 year relapse-free survival (23% vs. 69%, p = 0.02), locoregional control (34% vs. 75%, p = 0.03) and cause specific survival (29% vs. 75%, p = 0.02) in the patients treated with radiotherapy alone. Concomitant chemotherapy resulted in a better outcome when compared to radiotherapy alone only in those patients whose tumors had M6P/IGF2R loss of heterozygosity. Conclusions This study provides the first evidence that M6P/IGF2R loss of heterozygosity predicts for poor therapeutic outcome in patients treated with radiotherapy alone. Our findings also indicate that head and neck cancer patients with M6P/IGF2R allelic loss benefit most from concurrent chemotherapy. PMID:12589712

  14. CENP-F expression is associated with poor prognosis and chromosomal instability in patients with primary breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Sallyann L.; Fagan, Ailís; Fox, Edward J.P.; Millikan, Robert C.; Culhane, Aedín C.; Brennan, Donal J.; McCann, Amanda H.; Hegarty, Shauna; Moyna, Siobhan; Duffy, Michael J.; Higgins, Desmond G.; Jirström, Karin; Landberg, Göran; Gallagher, William M.

    2016-01-01

    DNA microarrays have the potential to classify tumors according to their transcriptome. Tissue microarrays (TMAs) facilitate the validation of biomarkers by offering a high-throughput approach to sample analysis. We reanalyzed a high profile breast cancer DNA microarray dataset containing 96 tumor samples using a powerful statistical approach, between group analyses. Among the genes we identified was centromere protein-F (CENP-F), a gene associated with poor prognosis. In a published follow-up breast cancer DNA microarray study, comprising 295 tumour samples, we found that CENP-F upregulation was significantly associated with worse overall survival (p < 0.001) and reduced metastasis-free survival (p < 0.001). To validate and expand upon these findings, we used 2 independent breast cancer patient cohorts represented on TMAs. CENP-F protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 91 primary breast cancer samples from cohort I and 289 samples from cohort II. CENP-F correlated with markers of aggressive tumor behavior including ER negativity and high tumor grade. In cohort I, CENP-F was significantly associated with markers of CIN including cyclin E, increased telomerase activity, c-Myc amplification and aneuploidy. In cohort II, CENP-F correlated with VEGFR2, phosphorylated Ets-2 and Ki67, and in multivariate analysis, was an independent predictor of worse breast cancer-specific survival (p = 0.036) and overall survival (p = 0.040). In conclusion, we identified CENP-F as a biomarker associated with poor outcome in breast cancer and showed several novel associations of biological significance. PMID:17205517

  15. High expression of interleukin-11 is an independent indicator of poor prognosis in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Deng; Xu, Le; Liu, Haiou; Zhang, Weijuan; Liu, Weisi; Liu, Yidong; Fu, Qiang; Xu, Jiejie

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-11 (IL-11), a member of the IL-6 family of cytokines, exerts pleiotropic oncogenic activities by stimulating angiogenesis and metastasis in many cancer types. The present study aims to evaluate the impact of IL-11 expression on recurrence and mortality of patients with clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). We retrospectively enrolled 193 ccRCC patients undergoing nephrectomy at a single center. Clinicopathologic features, recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were recorded. IL-11 intensity was assessed by immunohistochemistry in tumor specimens. The Kaplan–Meier method was applied to compare survival curves. Cox regression models were used to analyze the impact of prognostic factors on RFS and OS. The concordance index (C-index) was calculated to assess predictive accuracy. High IL-11 expression is associated with increased risk of recurrence and poor survival for ccRCC patients (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively), especially those with early-stage disease (TNM stage I + II). Multivariate analyses confirmed that IL-11 expression was an independent prognostic factor for RFS and OS (P = 0.006 and P = 0.008, respectively). The predictive accuracy of well-established prognostic models was improved when IL-11 expression was integrated. In conclusion, high IL-11 expression is an independent predictor of poor prognosis in ccRCC patients. It may help identify patients who could benefit from additional treatments and closer follow up. PMID:25702890

  16. Decreased expression of Beclin-1 is significantly associated with a poor prognosis in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zedong; Zhong, Zhaoming; Huang, Shaohui; Wen, Haojie; Chen, Xue; Chu, Hongying; Li, Qiuli; Sun, Chuanzheng

    2016-01-01

    The autophagy-related gene Beclin-1 is critical in the regulation of tumourigenesis and progression, but its role in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) has not yet been reported. This study aimed to investigate Beclin-1 expression and its significance in OTSCC. Beclin-1 expression was assessed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction or western blot analysis in 14 OTSCC tissues and matched adjacent noncancerous tissues as well as in 5 OTSCC cell lines and a normal tongue epithelial cell line. Beclin-1 protein expression was examined by immunohistochemistry in 133 OTSCC specimens, and the correlation between Beclin-1 expression and clinicopathological features was investigated. Furthermore, MTT and colony formation assays were performed to investigate the effect of Beclin-1 on the proliferation and clonogenicity of OTSCC cells. It was demonstrated that Beclin-1 expression was significantly decreased in the majority of the 14 OTSCC tissues and the 5 OTSCC cell lines relative to the matched non-cancerous tissues and the normal tongue epithelial cell line, respectively. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that decreased Beclin-1 expression was significantly correlated with poor differentiation, lymph node metastasis, advanced clinical tumour-node-metastasis stage, and a poor prognosis in patients with OTSCC. The in vitro assays indicated that the overexpression of Beclin-1 significantly inhibits the proliferation and clonogenicity of OTSCC cells. These results demonstrate that Beclin-1 acts as a tumour suppressor in the development or progression of OTSCC and that Beclin-1 may represent a novel prognostic marker for patients with OTSCC. PMID:27356955

  17. Low expression of PKCα and high expression of KRAS predict poor prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Suxian; Wang, Yadi; Zhang, Yun; Wan, Yizeng

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to determine the association between protein kinase Cα (PKCα) and Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) expression and the response to folinic acid, 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX regimen) in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). The protein levels of PKCα and KRAS were analyzed by immunohistochemistry in tissue samples from patients with CRC and in non-cancerous tissues, including 152 cases of colorectal adenocarcinoma, 30 cases of colorectal adenoma and 20 normal colonic mucosa samples. The association between PKCα and KRAS expression and clinicopathological features was analyzed. The rates of positive PKCα protein expression in patients with poorly, moderately and well-differentiated adenocarcinoma were 16.7% (6/36), 40.0% (24/60), and 57.1% (32/56), respectively (P<0.013). The rate of positive KRAS expression in CRC patients was significantly higher than in patients with colon adenoma and normal colon mucosa (P<0.001). Expression levels of KRAS were associated with the degree of differentiation of CRC (P<0.001). Expression of PKCα was negatively correlated with KRAS expression in CRC tissues. The mean progression-free survival (PFS) times in patients with high and low expression of PKCα were 43.9 and 38.8 months, respectively (P<0.001). The mean PFS times were 38.5 and 45.5 months in patients with high and low expression of KRAS, respectively (P=0.001). In conclusion, low PKCα and high KRAS expression predicted relatively poor prognosis in patients with CRC.

  18. Deletion and low expression of NFKBIA are associated with poor prognosis in lower-grade glioma patients

    PubMed Central

    Kinker, Gabriela Sarti; Thomas, Andrew Maltez; Carvalho, Vinicius Jardim; Lima, Felipe Prata; Fujita, André

    2016-01-01

    Lower-grade gliomas (LGGs), which are uniformly fatal in young adults, are classified as grades II-III tumors according to their histological features. The NFκB transcription factor, a crucial player in cancer initiation and progression, is inactivated in the cytoplasm by inhibitory proteins (IκBs) that have been shown to exert tumor-suppressor activity. Therefore, using The Cancer Genome Atlas copy number alteration and RNA-Seq data from 398 patients, we evaluated the association between the expression and dosage of NFKBIA, which encodes IκBα, and the overall malignancy of LGGs. Deletion and low expression of NFKBIA were associated with enhanced tumor aggressiveness and poor prognosis in LGGs. Accordingly, the dosage and expression of NFKBIA were independent prognostic factors for 5-year survival (dosage: P = 0.016; expression: P = 0.002) and 5-year recurrence-free survival (dosage: P = 0.009; expression: P = 0.005). Moreover, gene set enrichment analyses and co-expression network analyses indicated a role for NFKBIA in the negative regulation of cell proliferation, possibly through the modulation of downstream NFκB activation. Overall, the present findings reveal the prognostic value of NFKBIA in LGGs, reinforcing the relevance of NFκB signaling in the development and progression of gliomas. PMID:27052952

  19. Elevated Preoperative Serum CA19-9 Levels in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma Is Associated with Poor Prognosis after Resection

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chien-Hung; Hu, Rey-Heng; Ho, Ming-Chih

    2013-01-01

    Serum levels of the tumor marker CA19-9 have been reported to be elevated in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but its clinicopathologic significance is still unknown. A cohort of 304 patients undergoing surgical resection for HCC and having preoperative CA19-9 data was enrolled in this study. Serum CA19-9 levels were correlated with clinicopathologic factors. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the predictors of patient survival. On receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the cut off value of CA19-9 was determined to be 27 U/mL. One hundred and six patients had preoperative CA19-9 values >27 U/mL. High serum CA19-9 levels did not correlate with patient age, sex, viral status, α-fetoprotein level, tumor size, tumor grade, tumor stage, multiplicity, and vascular invasion. Patients with elevated preoperative CA19-9 levels had lower 10-year survival than those without CA19-9 elevation. Multivariate analysis revealed that CA19-9 level, tumor grade, and tumor size are independent prognostic factors for long-term survival. In conclusion, a preoperative CA19-9 value >27 U/mL is associated with poor prognosis after resection for HCC. PMID:23843733

  20. Deletion and low expression of NFKBIA are associated with poor prognosis in lower-grade glioma patients.

    PubMed

    Kinker, Gabriela Sarti; Thomas, Andrew Maltez; Carvalho, Vinicius Jardim; Lima, Felipe Prata; Fujita, André

    2016-01-01

    Lower-grade gliomas (LGGs), which are uniformly fatal in young adults, are classified as grades II-III tumors according to their histological features. The NFκB transcription factor, a crucial player in cancer initiation and progression, is inactivated in the cytoplasm by inhibitory proteins (IκBs) that have been shown to exert tumor-suppressor activity. Therefore, using The Cancer Genome Atlas copy number alteration and RNA-Seq data from 398 patients, we evaluated the association between the expression and dosage of NFKBIA, which encodes IκBα, and the overall malignancy of LGGs. Deletion and low expression of NFKBIA were associated with enhanced tumor aggressiveness and poor prognosis in LGGs. Accordingly, the dosage and expression of NFKBIA were independent prognostic factors for 5-year survival (dosage: P = 0.016; expression: P = 0.002) and 5-year recurrence-free survival (dosage: P = 0.009; expression: P = 0.005). Moreover, gene set enrichment analyses and co-expression network analyses indicated a role for NFKBIA in the negative regulation of cell proliferation, possibly through the modulation of downstream NFκB activation. Overall, the present findings reveal the prognostic value of NFKBIA in LGGs, reinforcing the relevance of NFκB signaling in the development and progression of gliomas. PMID:27052952

  1. GIT1 promotes lung cancer cell metastasis through modulating Rac1/Cdc42 activity and is associated with poor prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jeng-Shou; Su, Chia-Yi; Yu, Wen-Hsuan; Lee, Wei-Jiunn; Liu, Yu-Peng; Lai, Tsung-Ching; Jan, Yi-Hua; Yang, Yi-Fang; Shen, Chia-Ning; Shew, Jin-Yuh; Lu, Jean; Yang, Chih-Jen; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Lu, Pei-Jung; Lin, Yuan-Feng; Kuo, Min-Liang; Hua, Kuo-Tai; Hsiao, Michael

    2015-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptor kinase interacting protein 1 (GIT1) is participated in cell movement activation, which is a fundamental process during tissue development and cancer progression. GIT1/PIX forming a functional protein complex that contributes to Rac1/Cdc42 activation, resulting in increasing cell mobility. Although the importance of Rac1/Cdc42 activation is well documented in cancer aggressiveness, the clinical importance of GIT1 remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the clinical significance of GIT1 expression in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and also verified the importance of GIT1-Rac1/Cdc42 axis in stimulating NSCLC cell mobility. The result indicated higher GIT1 expression patients had significantly poorer prognoses in disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) compared with lower GIT1 expression patients. Higher GIT1 expression was an independent prognostic factor by multivariate analysis and associated with migration/invasion of NSCLC cells in transwell assay. In vivo studies indicated that GIT1 promotes metastasis of NSCLC cells. Finally, GIT1 was found to stimulate migration/invasion by altering the activity of Rac1/Cdc42 in NSCLC cells. Together, the GIT1 expression is associated with poor prognosis in patients with NSCLC. GIT1 is critical for the invasiveness of NSCLC cells through stimulating the activity of Rac1/Cdc42. PMID:26462147

  2. High circulating activin A level is associated with tumor progression and predicts poor prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hoda, Mir Alireza; Rozsas, Anita; Lang, Elisabeth; Klikovits, Thomas; Lohinai, Zoltan; Torok, Szilvia; Berta, Judit; Bendek, Matyas; Berger, Walter; Hegedus, Balazs; Klepetko, Walter; Renyi-Vamos, Ferenc; Grusch, Michael; Dome, Balazs; Laszlo, Viktoria

    2016-01-01

    Activin A (ActA)/follistatin (FST) signaling has been shown to be deregulated in different tumor types including lung adenocarcinoma (LADC). Here, we report that serum ActA protein levels are significantly elevated in LADC patients (n=64) as compared to controls (n=46, p=0.015). ActA levels also correlated with more advanced disease stage (p<0.0001) and T (p=0.0035) and N (p=0.0002) factors. M1 patients had significantly higher ActA levels than M0 patients (p<0.001). High serum ActA level was associated with poor overall survival (p<0.0001) and was confirmed as an independent prognostic factor (p=0.004). Serum FST levels were increased only in female LADC patients (vs. female controls, p=0.031). Two out of five LADC cell lines secreted biologically active ActA, while FST was produced in all of them. Transcripts of both type I and II ActA receptors were detected in all five LADC cell lines. In conclusion, our study does not only suggest that measuring blood ActA levels in LADC patients might improve the prediction of prognosis, but also indicates that this parameter might be a novel non-invasive biomarker for identifying LADC patients with organ metastases. PMID:26950277

  3. GIT1 promotes lung cancer cell metastasis through modulating Rac1/Cdc42 activity and is associated with poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jeng-Shou; Su, Chia-Yi; Yu, Wen-Hsuan; Lee, Wei-Jiunn; Liu, Yu-Peng; Lai, Tsung-Ching; Jan, Yi-Hua; Yang, Yi-Fang; Shen, Chia-Ning; Shew, Jin-Yuh; Lu, Jean; Yang, Chih-Jen; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Lu, Pei-Jung; Lin, Yuan-Feng; Kuo, Min-Liang; Hua, Kuo-Tai; Hsiao, Michael

    2015-11-01

    G-protein-coupled receptor kinase interacting protein 1 (GIT1) is participated in cell movement activation, which is a fundamental process during tissue development and cancer progression. GIT1/PIX forming a functional protein complex that contributes to Rac1/Cdc42 activation, resulting in increasing cell mobility. Although the importance of Rac1/Cdc42 activation is well documented in cancer aggressiveness, the clinical importance of GIT1 remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the clinical significance of GIT1 expression in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and also verified the importance of GIT1-Rac1/Cdc42 axis in stimulating NSCLC cell mobility. The result indicated higher GIT1 expression patients had significantly poorer prognoses in disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) compared with lower GIT1 expression patients. Higher GIT1 expression was an independent prognostic factor by multivariate analysis and associated with migration/invasion of NSCLC cells in transwell assay. In vivo studies indicated that GIT1 promotes metastasis of NSCLC cells. Finally, GIT1 was found to stimulate migration/invasion by altering the activity of Rac1/Cdc42 in NSCLC cells. Together, the GIT1 expression is associated with poor prognosis in patients with NSCLC. GIT1 is critical for the invasiveness of NSCLC cells through stimulating the activity of Rac1/Cdc42. PMID:26462147

  4. CCR4 frameshift mutation identifies a distinct group of adult T cell leukaemia/lymphoma with poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Noriaki; Miyoshi, Hiroaki; Kato, Takeharu; Sakata-Yanagimoto, Mamiko; Niino, Daisuke; Taniguchi, Hiroaki; Moriuchi, Yukiyoshi; Miyahara, Masaharu; Kurita, Daisuke; Sasaki, Yuya; Shimono, Joji; Kawamoto, Keisuke; Utsunomiya, Atae; Imaizumi, Yoshitaka; Seto, Masao; Ohshima, Koichi

    2016-04-01

    Adult T cell leukaemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is an intractable T cell neoplasm caused by human T cell leukaemia virus type 1. Next-generation sequencing-based comprehensive mutation studies have revealed recurrent somatic CCR4 mutations in ATLL, although clinicopathological findings associated with CCR4 mutations remain to be delineated. In the current study, 184 cases of peripheral T cell lymphoma, including 113 cases of ATLL, were subjected to CCR4 mutation analysis. This sequence analysis identified mutations in 27% (30/113) of cases of ATLL and 9% (4/44) of cases of peripheral T cell lymphoma not otherwise specified. Identified mutations included nonsense (NS) and frameshift (FS) mutations. No significant differences in clinicopathological findings were observed between ATLL cases stratified by presence of CCR4 mutation. All ATLL cases with CCR4 mutations exhibited cell-surface CCR4 positivity. Semi-quantitative CCR4 protein analysis of immunohistochemical sections revealed higher CCR4 expression in cases with NS mutations of CCR4 than in cases with wild-type (WT) CCR4. Furthermore, among ATLL cases, FS mutation was significantly associated with a poor prognosis, compared with NS mutation and WT CCR4. These results suggest that CCR4 mutation is an important determinant of the clinical course in ATLL cases, and that NS and FS mutations of CCR4 behave differently with respect to ATLL pathophysiology. PMID:26847489

  5. Overexpression of lncRNA AFAP1-AS1 correlates with poor prognosis and promotes tumorigenesis in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Ni, Hongbing; Sun, Feng; Li, Min; Chen, Lin

    2016-07-01

    Accumulating evidence has shown that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as key molecules in human malignancies. The lncRNA actin filament associated protein 1 antisense RNA1 (AFAP1-AS1) was recently found deregulated in several cancers. However, its expression pattern, clinical performance and functional roles in colorectal cancer (CRC) had not been addressed. In this study, we found that AFAP1-AS1 was aberrantly over-expressed in CRC tissues and closely correlated with tumor size, TNM stage and distant metastasis. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that patients with high level of AFAP1-AS1 expression had poorer overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Univariate and multivariable Cox regression analyses further identified that up-regulated AFAP1-AS1 might act as an independent prognostic factor for CRC patients. Moreover, AFAP1-AS1 depletion resulted in the inhibition of CRC cell proliferation and colony formation. In addition, AFAP1-AS1 knockdown induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in CRC cells. Taken together, our findings indicate that AFAP1-AS1 is significantly up-regulated in CRC, which may act as an oncogene and correlate with tumor malignant progression and poor prognosis of CRC. This study may shed a new light on better understanding the pathogenesis of CRC. Moreover, AFAP1-AS1 also may be a promising diagnostic and therapeutic target for this deadly disease. PMID:27261589

  6. Results of a prospective phase II trial evaluating interim positron emission tomography-guided high dose therapy for poor prognosis diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Douglas A; Kloiber, Reinhard; Owen, Carolyn; Bahlis, Nizar J; Duggan, Peter; Mansoor, Adnan; Bence-Bruckler, Isabelle

    2014-09-01

    Patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with a poor prognosis based upon advanced stage and elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase achieve a 3-4-year progression-free survival (PFS) of only 55%. The role of interim fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to guide use of upfront high dose chemotherapy (HDCT) and autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) for patients with poor prognosis DLBCL is unproven. A prospective phase II clinical trial was designed to evaluate the outcomes of HDCT/ASCT for patients with poor prognosis DLBCL aged 18-65 years who had unfavorable interim restaging PET scans. Of the 70 eligible patients, 36 had unfavorable and 34 favorable interim PET responses, with 3-year PFS rates of 65.2% and 52.7%, respectively. In conclusion, favorable interim PET response as defined in this study is not associated with improved PFS rates for patients with poor prognosis DLBCL treated with RCHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone). A phase III trial evaluating this PET-guided approach is not warranted. PMID:24188476

  7. Upregulation of long non-coding RNA TUG1 correlates with poor prognosis and disease status in osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Ma, Bing; Li, Meng; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Ming; Lei, Jun-Bin; Fu, Gui-Hong; Liu, Chun-Xin; Lai, Qi-Wen; Chen, Qing-Quan; Wang, Yi-Lian

    2016-04-01

    The pathogenesis of osteosarcoma involves complex genetic and epigenetic factors. This study was to explore the impact and clinical relevance of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), Taurine up-regulated gene 1 (TUG1) on patients with osteosarcoma. Seventy-six osteosarcoma tissues and matched adjacent normal tissues were included for analysis. The plasma samples were obtained from 29 patients with osteosarcoma at pre-operation and post-operation, 42 at newly diagnosed, 18 who experienced disease progression or relapse, 45 post-treatment, 36 patients with benign bone tumor, and 20 healthy donors. Quantitative real-time reverse transcript polymerase chain reactions were used to assess the correlation of the expression levels of TUG1 with clinical parameters of osteosarcoma patients. TUG1 was significantly overexpressed in the osteosarcoma tissues compared with matched adjacent normal tissues (P < 0.01) and was closely correlated with tumor size, post-operative chemotherapy, and Enneking surgical stage. Upregulation of TUG1 strongly correlated with poor prognosis and was an independent prognostic indicator for overall survival (HR = 2.78, 95% CI = 1.29-6.00, P = 0.009) and progression-free survival (HR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.01-3.54, P = 0.037). Our constructed nomogram containing TUG1 had more predictive accuracy than that without TUG1 (c-index 0.807 versus 0.776, respectively). In addition, for plasma samples, TUG1 expression levels were obviously decreased in post-operative patients (mean ΔCT -4.98 ± 0.22) compared with pre-operation patients (mean ΔCT -6.09 ± 0.74), and the changes of TUG1 expression levels were significantly associated with disease status. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis demonstrated that TUG1 could distinguish patients with osteosarcoma from healthy individuals compared with alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (the area under curve 0.849 versus 0.544). TUG1 was overexpressed in patients with osteosarcoma

  8. Poor Prognosis with In Vitro Fertilization in Indian Women Compared to Caucasian Women Despite Similar Embryo Quality

    PubMed Central

    Shahine, Lora K.; Lamb, Julie D.; Lathi, Ruth B.; Milki, Amin A.; Langen, Elizabeth; Westphal, Lynn M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Disease prevalence and response to medical therapy may differ among patients of diverse ethnicities. Poor outcomes with in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment have been previously shown in Indian women compared to Caucasian women, and some evidence suggests that poor embryo quality may be a cause for the discrepancy. In our center, only patients with the highest quality cleavage stage embryos are considered eligible for extending embryo culture to the blastocyst stage. We compared live birth rates (LBR) between Indian and Caucasian women after blastocyst transfer to investigate whether differences in IVF outcomes between these ethnicities would persist in patients who transferred similar quality embryos. Methodology/Principal Findings In this retrospective cohort analysis, we compared IVF outcome between 145 Caucasians and 80 Indians who had a blastocyst transfer between January 1, 2005 and June 31, 2007 in our university center. Indians were younger than Caucasians by 2.7 years (34.03 vs. 36.71, P = 0.03), were more likely to have an agonist down regulation protocol (68% vs. 43%, P<0.01), and were more likely to have polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), although not significant, (24% vs. 14%, P = 0.06). Sixty eight percent of Indian patients had the highest quality embryos (4AB blastocyst or better) transferred compared to 71% of the Caucasians (P = 0.2). LBR was significantly lower in the Indians compared to the Caucasians (24% vs. 41%, P<0.01) with an odds ratio of 0.63, (95%CI 0.46–0.86). Controlling for age, stimulation protocol and PCOS showed persistently lower LBR with an adjusted odds ratio of 0.56, (95%CI 0.40–0.79) in the multivariate analysis. Conclusions/Significance Despite younger age and similar embryo quality, Indians had a significantly lower LBR than Caucasians. In this preliminary study, poor prognosis after IVF for Indian ethnicity persisted despite limiting analysis to patients with high quality embryos transferred

  9. High expression of pituitary tumor-transforming gene-1 predicts poor prognosis in clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    WEI, CAN; YANG, XIAOLIANG; XI, JUNHUA; WU, WEI; YANG, ZHENXING; WANG, WEI; TANG, ZHIGUO; YING, QUANSHENG; ZHANG, YANBIN

    2015-01-01

    Pituitary tumor-transforming gene-1 (PTTG1) is a recently identified oncogene involved in the progression of malignant tumors; however, the expression level of PTTG1 in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and its potential value as a novel prognostic marker for ccRCC remains unclear. In this study, PTTG1 mRNA and protein levels were assessed in 44 paired ccRCC tissues and adjacent normal tissues by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Further immunohistochemical analysis was implemented in 192 samples of ccRCC to evaluate the associations between PTTG1 levels and the clinical characteristics in ccRCC. Reverse transcription qPCR and immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that the PTTG1 mRNA and protein levels were significantly higher in ccRCC compared to normal tissues. In addition, the PTTG1 protein level in 192 ccRCC samples was found to be significantly correlated with T stage, N classification, metastasis, recurrence and Fuhrman grade, whereas it was not associated with age and gender. Patients with low PTTG1 levels exhibited a better survival outcome compared to those with a higher PTTG1 level. PTTG1 expression and N stage were identified as independent prognostic factors for the overall survival of ccRCC patients. The results suggested that the overexpression of PTTG1 indicates a poor prognosis in ccRCC patients and, therefore, PTTG1 may serve as a novel prognostic marker for ccRCC. PMID:25798272

  10. Expression of Sirtuin 1 and 2 Is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Terroba, Elena; Agorreta, Jackeline; Mikecin, Ana-Matea; Larráyoz, Marta; Idoate, Miguel A.; Gall-Troselj, Koraljka; Pio, Ruben; Montuenga, Luis M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) are NAD+-dependent protein deacetylases involved in the regulation of key cancer-associated genes. In this study we evaluated the relevance of these deacetylases in lung cancer biology. Material and Methods Protein levels of SIRT1 and SIRT2 were determined in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines and primary tumors from 105 patients. Changes in proliferation were assessed after SIRT1 and SIRT2 downregulation in lung cancer cell lines using siRNA-mediated technology or tenovin-1, a SIRT1 and SIRT2 inhibitor. Results High SIRT1 and SIRT2 protein levels were found in NSCLC cell lines compared with non-tumor lung epithelial cells. The expression of SIRT1 and SIRT2 proteins was also significantly higher in lung primary tumors than in normal tissue (P<0.001 for both sirtuins). Stronger nuclear SIRT1 staining was observed in adenocarcinomas than in squamous cell carcinomas (P=0.033). Interestingly, in NSCLC patients, high SIRT1 and SIRT2 expression levels were associated with shorter recurrence-free survival (P=0.04 and P=0.007, respectively). Moreover, the combination of high SIRT1 and SIRT2 expression was an independent prognostic factor for shorter recurrence-free survival (P=0.002) and overall survival (P=0.022). In vitro studies showed that SIRT1 and/or SIRT2 downregulation significantly decreased proliferation of NSCLC. Conclusions Our results support the hypothesis that SIRT1 and SIRT2 have a protumorigenic role in lung cancer, promoting cell proliferation. Moreover, the expression of these proteins is associated with poor prognosis in NSCLC patients and may help to identify those NSCLC patients with high risk of recurrence that could benefit from adjuvant therapy after resection. PMID:25915617

  11. Overexpression of SPARC correlates with poor prognosis in patients with cervical carcinoma and regulates cancer cell epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    SHI, DEHUAN; JIANG, KAN; FU, YING; FANG, RUI; LIU, XI; CHEN, JIE

    2016-01-01

    Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is associated with the progression of numerous types of cancer. However, the role of SPARC in the progression of cervical cancer has not yet been adequately elucidated. In the current study, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and immunohistochemistry were employed to evaluate the mRNA and protein expression of SPARC in normal cervical tissue, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer. In addition, three epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers (E-cadherin, N-cadherin and vimentin) were detected by immunohistochemistry in the same specimens, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was conducted to detect the serum levels of SPARC in patients with cervical neoplasia. In highly invasive subclones of human cervical carcinoma cells, HeLa-1 and SiHa-1, lentiviral transfections were performed and RT-qPCR and western blot were used to investigate the effects of downregulated EGF-containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 1 on the expression of E-cadherin, N-cadherin and vimentin. The results revealed that, in cervical carcinoma tissue, SPARC expression was significantly upregulated in a manner that positively correlated with N-cadherin and vimentin expression, and negatively correlated with E-cadherin expression. SPARC overexpression and high serum levels were significantly associated with the progression of cervical cancer and adverse prognosis of cervical cancer patients. Downregulation of SPARC can markedly reduce the expression of N-cadherin and vimentin and increase the expression of E-cadherin. Thus, overexpression of SPARC is significantly associated with poor prognostic clinicopathological characteristics in cervical carcinoma, and may be important in EMT. The results of the current study suggest that SPARC may be a potential therapeutic option for individuals diagnosed with cervical carcinoma. PMID:27123099

  12. h-Prune is associated with poor prognosis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in patients with colorectal liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Masakazu; Kobayashi, Tsuyoshi; Tashiro, Hirotaka; Arihiro, Koji; Kikuchi, Akira; Ohdan, Hideki

    2016-08-15

    The prognosis of patients with colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) remains low despite advances in chemotherapy and surgery. The expression of h-prune (human homolog of Drosophila prune protein; HGNC13420), an exopolyphosphatase, is correlated with progression and aggressiveness in several cancers and promotes migration and invasion. We investigated the role of h-prune in CRLM. To investigate the role of h-prune, immunohistochemical analysis for h-prune was performed in 87 surgically resected specimens of CRLM obtained between 2001 and 2009 at the Hiroshima University Hospital. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed positive staining for h-prune in 24 (28%) cases. The overall survival rate was significantly lower in h-prune-positive cases than in h-prune-negative cases (p = 0.003). Multivariate analysis showed that h-prune positivity was the only independent factor related to poor overall survival of patients after curative hepatectomy of CRLM. In vitro and in vivo, h-prune-knocked-down and h-prune-overexpressing cells were analyzed. In vitro, h-prune was associated with increased cell motility and upregulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers. In a mouse model, h-prune was associated with invasion of the tumor and distant metastases. In summary, h-prune expression is a useful marker to identify high-risk patients for resectable colorectal liver metastasis. h-Prune expression is necessary for cancer cell motility and EMT and is associated with liver and lung metastasis in colorectal cancer cells. h-Prune could be a new prognostic marker and molecular target for CRLM. PMID:27037526

  13. Association of Decreased Expression of Serum miR-9 with Poor Prognosis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Legang; Liu, Ling; Fu, Honghai; Wang, Qiuqin; Shi, Yao

    2016-01-01

    Background Dysregulation of miR-9 is a common feature of many types of cancers, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, whether the expression level of serum miR-9 is changed in patients with OSCC remains unknown. Material/Methods Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was performed to examine the expression level of serum miR-9 in OSCC patients, oral leukoplakia (OLK) patients, and healthy volunteers, then we evaluated the association between serum miR-9 expression level and clinical outcome of OSCC patients. Results The expression level of serum miR-9 was significantly downregulated in patients with OSCC or OLK in comparison with healthy controls (P<0.01). Serum miR-9 expression level was associated with various clinicopathological parameters, including T stage (P=0.013), lymph node metastasis (P=0.002), and TNM stage (P=0.007). In addition, the OSCC patients in the low serum miR-9 expression group had poorer overall survival rate (P=0.022) and disease-free survival rate (P=0.004) compared with those in the high serum miR-9 expression group. Multivariate analysis showed that serum miR-9 was an independent prognostic factor for OSCC. Conclusions Serum miR-9 was downregulated in patients with OSCC and patients with OLK. In addition, low serum miR-9 was correlated with poor prognosis of OSCC, indicating miR-9 might play a tumor suppressive role in OSCC and can serve as a promising biomarker for this deadly disease. PMID:26813876

  14. Osteopontin promoter polymorphisms at locus -443 are associated with metastasis and poor prognosis of human intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma in Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiang-Qian; Ma, Huan-Xian; Su, Mao-Sheng; He, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Osteopontin (OPN) is known to be a secreted adhesive glycoprotein. Role of OPN in human intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) has not been well understood. This study explored whether genetic variations in the osteopontin gene are associated with ICC risk, progression and metastasis. Material and methods: 260 patients with stages I to IV between 2008 and 2013 were recruited in this study and same number healthy persons were used as control. OPN-66 T/G, -156 G/GG and -443 C/T variants were genotyped using DNA from blood lymphocytes. Chi-square test and a Fisher’s exact test were used to analyze the genotype distribution between healthy subjects and patients, and further its distribution among TNM stages and incidence metastasis in patients. Results: For the variant at nt- 443 (CC), there was a significant difference between the number of patients with stage IV and those with all other stages of ICC (P < 0.01). Patients with -443 (CC) variant had significant higher incidence of lymph and distant metastasis development compared to other genotypes. For the variant at nt- 443 (CT), there was a significant difference between the number of ICC patients with stage III + IV and those with stage I + II (P < 0.01). The survival rates for ICC patients with the C/C genotype were significantly lower than for patients with the other two genotypes (C/T, T/T). Conclusion: OPN -443 C/T polymorphism is a potential predictive marker of metastasis and poor prognosis in ICC patients. PMID:25400775

  15. Tumor necrosis is associated with increased alphavbeta3 integrin expression and poor prognosis in nodular cutaneous melanomas

    PubMed Central

    Bachmann, Ingeborg M; Ladstein, Rita G; Straume, Oddbjørn; Naumov, George N; Akslen, Lars A

    2008-01-01

    Background Tumor necrosis and apoptotic activity are considered important in cancer progression, but these features have not been much studied in melanomas. Our hypothesis was that rapid growth in cutaneous melanomas of the vertical growth phase might lead to tissue hypoxia, alterations in apoptotic activity and tumor necrosis. We proposed that these tumor characteristics might be associated with changes in expression of cell adhesion proteins leading to increased invasive capacity and reduced patient survival. Methods A well characterized series of nodular melanoma (originally 202 cases) and other benign and malignant melanocytic tumors (109 cases) were examined for the presence of necrosis, apoptotic activity (TUNEL assay), immunohistochemical expression of hypoxia markers (HIF-1 α, CAIX, TNF-α, Apaf-1) and cell adhesion proteins (αvβ3 integrin, CD44/HCAM and osteopontin). We hypothesized that tumor hypoxia and necrosis might be associated with increased invasiveness in melanoma through alterations of tumor cell adhesion proteins. Results Necrosis was present in 29% of nodular melanomas and was associated with increased tumor thickness, tumor ulceration, vascular invasion, higher tumor proliferation and apoptotic index, increased expression of αvβ3 integrin and poor patient outcome by multivariate analysis. Tumor cell apoptosis did also correlate with reduced patient survival. Expression of TNF-α and Apaf-1 was significantly associated with tumor thickness, and osteopontin expression correlated with increased tumor cell proliferation (Ki-67). Conclusion Tumor necrosis and apoptotic activity are important features of melanoma progression and prognosis, at least partly through alterations in cell adhesion molecules such as increased αvβ3 integrin expression, revealing potentially important targets for new therapeutic approaches to be further explored. PMID:19061491

  16. High ABCG4 Expression Is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Patients Treated with Cisplatin-Based Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yong-An; Tian, Feng; Zhao, Jin-Bo; Chen, Peng; Liu, Bo-Ya; Wen, Miao-Miao; Li, Xiao-Fei; Zhang, Zhi-Pei

    2015-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are associated with poor response to chemotherapy, and confer a poor prognosis in various malignancies. However, the association between the expression of the ABC sub-family G member 4 (ABCG4) and prognosis in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains unclear. NSCLC tissue samples (n = 140) and normal lung tissue samples (n = 90) were resected from patients with stage II to IV NSCLC between May 2004 and May 2009. ABCG4 mRNA and protein expressions were detected by RT-PCR, western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Patients received four cycles of cisplatin-based post-surgery chemotherapy and were followed up until May 31st, 2014. ABCG4 positivity rate was higher in NSCLC than in normal lung tissues (48.6% vs. 0%, P<0.001) and ABCG4 expression was significantly associated with poor differentiation, higher tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage, and adenocarcinoma histological type (all P<0.001). Univariate (HR = 2.284, 95%CI: 1.570–3.324, P<0.001) and multivariate (HR = 2.236, 95%CI: 1.505–3.321, P<0.001) analyses showed that ABCG4 expression was an independent factor associated with a poor prognosis in NSCLC. Patients with ABCG4-positive NSCLC had shorter median survival than ABCG4-negative NSCLC (20.1 vs. 43.2 months, P<0.001). The prognostic significance of ABCG4 expression was apparent in stages III and IV NSCLC. In conclusion, high ABCG4 expression was associated with a poor prognosis in patients with NSCLC treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy. PMID:26270652

  17. Reduced Expression of the Polymeric Immunoglobulin Receptor in Pancreatic and Periampullary Adenocarcinoma Signifies Tumour Progression and Poor Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Fristedt, Richard; Elebro, Jacob; Gaber, Alexander; Jonsson, Liv; Heby, Margareta; Yudina, Yulyana; Nodin, Björn; Uhlén, Mathias; Eberhard, Jakob; Jirström, Karin

    2014-01-01

    The polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) is a key component of the mucosal immune system that mediates epithelial transcytosis of immunoglobulins. High pIgR expression has been reported to correlate with a less aggressive tumour phenotype and an improved prognosis in several human cancer types. Here, we examined the expression and prognostic significance of pIgR in pancreatic and periampullary adenocarcinoma. The study cohort encompasses a consecutive series of 175 patients surgically treated with pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic and periampullary adenocarcinoma in Malmö and Lund University Hospitals, Sweden, between 2001–2011. Tissue microarrays were constructed from primary tumours (n = 175) and paired lymph node metastases (n = 105). A multiplied score was calculated from the fraction and intensity of pIgR staining. Classification and regression tree analysis was used to select the prognostic cut-off. Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for death and recurrence within 5 years were calculated. pIgR expression could be evaluated in 172/175 (98.3%) primary tumours and in 96/105 (91.4%) lymph node metastases. pIgR expression was significantly down-regulated in lymph node metastases as compared with primary tumours (p = 0.018). Low pIgR expression was significantly associated with poor differentiation grade (p<0.001), perineural growth (p = 0.027), lymphatic invasion (p = 0.016), vascular invasion (p = 0.033) and infiltration of the peripancreatic fat (p = 0.039). In the entire cohort, low pIgR expression was significantly associated with an impaired 5-year survival (HR = 2.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.71–5.25) and early recurrence (HR = 2.89, 95% CI 1.67–4.98). This association remained significant for survival after adjustment for conventional clinicopathological factors, tumour origin and adjuvant treatment (HR = 1.98, 95% CI 1.10–3.57). These results demonstrate, for the first time, that high

  18. CSF2 Overexpression Is Associated with STAT5 Phosphorylation and Poor Prognosis in Patients with Urothelial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yi-Ying; Wu, Wen-Jeng; Huang, Chun-Nung; Li, Ching-Chia; Li, Wei-Ming; Yeh, Bi-Wen; Liang, Peir-In; Wu, Ting-Feng; Li, Chien-Feng

    2016-01-01

    prognosis for both DSS (UTUC, p=0.0001; UBUC, p<0.0001) and MeFS (UTUC, p=0.0001; UBUC, p=0.0002). High expression of CSF2 still remained prognostically for DSS (UTUC, p=0.015; UBUC, p=0.004) and MeFS (UTUC, p=0.008; UBUC, p=0.027) in multivariate comparison. Conclusion: Our data showed that overexpression of CSF2 was inferred in advanced disease status and poor clinical outcomes for both UTUC and UBUC patients, suggesting that CSF2 may serve as an important prognosticator and a potential therapeutic target of UC. PMID:27076853

  19. Decreased maspin combined with elevated vascular endothelial growth factor C is associated with poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xing; Wang, Yang; Li, Shaolei; Dong, Bin; Zheng, Qingfeng; Yan, Shi; Ma, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Jianzhi; Fang, Jian; Wu, Nan; Wu, Huijuan; Yang, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to investigate the clinical significance of the combination of maspin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C expression in the prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods Immunohistochemistry was performed to assay the expression of maspin and VEGF-C in primary tumor tissues, metastatic, and non-metastatic lymph nodes in 98 NSCLC patients. Survival analysis was determined by Kaplan-Meier curves. Results The positive expression rate of maspin was 26.5% (26/98) in NSCLC primary tumor tissues, significantly associated with histological type (P = 0.005) and the absence of nodal metastasis (P < 0.001). The expression of maspin in primary tumor tissues was stronger than metastatic lymph nodes of the N1 group (P = 0.048), while the metastatic lymph nodes of the N1 group had a stronger maspin expression than the N2 group (P = 0.008). In survival analysis, a positive expression of maspin of the N1 lymph node was also found to be an independent positive prognostic factor in overall survival (P = 0.003). We also found that decreased maspin combined with elevated VEGF-C is associated with a poor prognosis for disease-free survival (P = 0.019). Conclusion Our results suggest that positive expression of maspin might significantly inhibit nodal metastasis in NSCLC. Decreased maspin combined with elevated VEGF-C might be associated with a poor prognosis in NSCLC. PMID:26767029

  20. Elevated serum CA72-4 levels predict poor prognosis in pancreatic adenocarcinoma after intensity-modulated radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Zhu, Yuan; Liu, Luying

    2015-04-20

    Carbohydrate antigen 72-4 (CA72-4) is a human tumor-associated glycoprotein, commonly used as a tumor marker for diagnosing and predicting outcome in gastric and ovarian cancers. However, the relationship between serum CA72-4 levels and prognosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma has not been fully elucidated. A total of 113 consecutive locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients who underwent intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with or without chemotherapy were enrolled in this study. Serum CA72-4 levels were analyzed using immunoenzymometric assays. The association between serum CA72-4 levels and prognosis was evaluated. Serum CA72-4 levels was related with lymph node metastasis (P<0.001). The median overall survival time was 14.0 months for patients with serum CA72-4 normal levels and 10.0 months for the elevated levels (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis identified that Serum CA72-4 concentration was a significant prognostic factor (P<0.001). The hazard ratio (HR) of elevated serum CA72-4 levels compared with normal serum CA72-4 levels was 2.34 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.46-3.73), after adjusted for gender and age. Based on this finding, Serum CA72-4 is a potential marker to predict lymph node metastasis and prognosis in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. PMID:25860937

  1. Loss of ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated protein expression correlates with poor prognosis but benefits from anthracycline-containing adjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Suh, Koung Jin; Ryu, Han Suk; Lee, Kyung-Hun; Kim, Hyojin; Min, Ahrum; Kim, Tae-Yong; Yang, Yaewon; Moon, Hyeong-Gon; Han, Sae-Won; Oh, Do-Youn; Han, Wonshik; Park, In Ae; Noh, Dong-Young; Im, Seock-Ah

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the correlation of ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) protein expression with clinicopathological features and prognosis in patients with breast cancer. ATM expression was determined by immunohistochemistry in 420 surgically resected breast tumors. ATM loss was observed in 126/407 evaluable cases (31.0 %), and was significantly associated with larger tumor size, lymph node metastasis, higher tumor grade, and ER- and/or PR-negative status. ATM loss was also associated with significantly lower disease-free survival rates than those in patients with intact ATM (5-year disease-free survival rate 81.2 vs. 90.7 %, p = 0.015). In multivariate analysis, ATM loss combined with abnormal p53 expression was an independent predictor of shorter disease-free survival [hazard ratio (HR) 3.48; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.48-8.17, p = 0.004]. A tendency towards a poorer prognosis was observed for tumoral ATM loss alone, although statistical significance was not reached (HR 1.74; 95 % CI 0.95-3.20; p = 0.075). In subgroup analysis, ATM loss was associated with shorter disease-free survival in patients who did not receive adjuvant anthracycline chemotherapy (5-year disease-free survival rate 92.7 % in intact ATM group vs. 68.1 % in ATM loss group, p = 0.002), but this poor prognosis was overcome in patients who did (5-year disease-free survival rate 89.8 vs. 84.4 %, p = 0.243), suggesting more benefit from anthracycline-based chemotherapy. Tumors with loss of ATM expression have a poor prognosis and their prognoses are dependent on the use of adjuvant anthracycline. ATM loss might be a practical tool for predicting benefits from anthracycline-based adjuvant therapy. PMID:27329169

  2. Elevated RNA expression of long non-coding HOTAIR promotes cell proliferation and predicts a poor prognosis in patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    YAN, YULING; HAN, JINGYIN; LI, ZHENQING; YANG, HONGLAN; SUI, YANMIN; WANG, MINGLIN

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is one of the most common types of malignancy worldwide. The lack of clear symptoms and early detection make it difficult to diagnose at an early stage, leading to poor prognosis of the patients. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have come into focus for their important regulatory roles in fundamental biological processes, particularly in cancer initiation, development and progression. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of lncRNA Hox transcript antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR) in a cohort of patients with DLBCL to assess its clinical value and biological function in DLBCL. The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to detect HOTAIR expression levels and cells were transfected with small interfering RNA to compare cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and apoptosis. Western blotting was also conducted to detect possible signaling pathways. It was first found that the expression levels of HOTAIR were upregulated in DLBCL tumor tissues and cell lines, compared with normal tissues and cells. In addition, HOTAIR was significantly correlated with tumor size, clinical stage, B symptoms and International Prognostic Index scores; and higher expression levels of HOTAIR were correlated with improved prognosis. Univariate and multivariate analyses verified that HOTAIR was a key independent predictive factor for DLBCL prognosis. Furthermore, it was revealed that the knockdown of the expression of HOTAIR led to growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in vitro, possibly through the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT/nuclear factor-κB pathway. These results suggested that HOTAIR may be regarded as a novel indicator of poor prognosis, and may serve as a potential target for gene therapy in the treatment of DLBCL. PMID:27122348

  3. Elevated RNA expression of long non‑coding HOTAIR promotes cell proliferation and predicts a poor prognosis in patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yuling; Han, Jingyin; Li, Zhenqing; Yang, Honglan; Sui, Yanmin; Wang, Minglin

    2016-06-01

    Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is one of the most common types of malignancy worldwide. The lack of clear symptoms and early detection make it difficult to diagnose at an early stage, leading to poor prognosis of the patients. Long non‑coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have come into focus for their important regulatory roles in fundamental biological processes, particularly in cancer initiation, development and progression. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of lncRNA Hox transcript antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR) in a cohort of patients with DLBCL to assess its clinical value and biological function in DLBCL. The reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction was used to detect HOTAIR expression levels and cells were transfected with small interfering RNA to compare cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and apoptosis. Western blotting was also conducted to detect possible signaling pathways. It was first found that the expression levels of HOTAIR were upregulated in DLBCL tumor tissues and cell lines, compared with normal tissues and cells. In addition, HOTAIR was significantly correlated with tumor size, clinical stage, B symptoms and International Prognostic Index scores; and higher expression levels of HOTAIR were correlated with improved prognosis. Univariate and multivariate analyses verified that HOTAIR was a key independent predictive factor for DLBCL prognosis. Furthermore, it was revealed that the knockdown of the expression of HOTAIR led to growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in vitro, possibly through the phosphoinositide 3‑kinase/AKT/nuclear factor‑κB pathway. These results suggested that HOTAIR may be regarded as a novel indicator of poor prognosis, and may serve as a potential target for gene therapy in the treatment of DLBCL. PMID:27122348

  4. Single high-dose etoposide and melphalan with non-cryopreserved autologous marrow rescue as primary therapy for relapsed, refractory and poor-prognosis Hodgkin's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Seymour, L. K.; Dansey, R. D.; Bezwoda, W. R.

    1994-01-01

    A simplified schedule of high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) consisting of melphalan (140 mg m-2) plus VP16 (2.5 g m-2) given over 12-18 h together with autologous non-cryopreserved autologous bone marrow transplant (ABMT) was used for treatment of relapsed (37 patients) and refractory (seven patients) patients and as first-line treatment (four patients) for poor-prognosis Hodgkin's disease. Two patients had a second HDC-ABMT after relapse following prior HDC-ABMT, giving a total of 50 procedures among 48 patients. The haematological recovery rate was 98% with a complete response rate of the Hodgkin's disease of > 90%. Factors significantly influencing response rate were performance status and the presence of liver involvement. Thirty-nine patients are alive, with 37 in continuous complete remission. The median duration of survival and median duration of remission have not been reached at a median follow-up time of 45 months. Adverse prognostic factors for survival were disease status at the time of HDC-ABMT (refractory versus relapse, with primarily refractory patients showing significantly poor survival) and the presence of liver involvement. High-dose chemotherapy with short-duration chemotherapy and non-cryopreserved bone marrow is an effective and safe treatment modality for patients with relapsed and poor-prognosis Hodgkin's disease. PMID:8080741

  5. Allelic loss of chromosome 16q in endometrial cancer: correlation with poor prognosis of patients and less differentiated histology.

    PubMed

    Kihana, T; Yano, N; Murao, S; Iketani, H; Hamada, K; Yano, J; Murao, S; Iketani, H; Hamada, K; Yano, J; Matsuura, S

    1996-11-01

    Deletion of certain chromosomal regions can be demonstrated in malignant cells. Chromosome 16q is one of the regions where allelic loss is frequently detected in carcinoma of the breast and many other tumors, suggesting that gene(s) which retard tumor growth may exist here. To elucidate the clinicopathological significance of chromosome 16q, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) was investigated using microsatellite polymorphism analysis in 58 patients with endometrial lesions (50 with endometrial carcinoma and 8 who had hyperplasia with or without atypia). When 11 regions of chromosome 16q were examined, LOH was found in 20 patients with carcinoma (40%) and none of the patients with hyperplasia. The tumors of 9 of the 20 patients (45%) showed total loss of 16q, while the others (55%) showed partial deletion. Tumors with LOH were histologically less differentiated than those without LOH (P = 0.038, chi2 test). Patients with tumors showing LOH of 16q had a worse prognosis than those without LOH according to Kaplan-Meier survival analysis (P=0.0158, log-rank test). In addition, LOH of 16q showed a significant relationship to prognosis by Cox regression analysis. Deletion mapping of 16q demonstrated that two regions (16q22.1 and 16q22.2-23.1) were frequently involved. Patients with 16q22.1 LOH had a poorer prognosis than those with intact 16q22.1 (P=0.0003, log-rank test). These findings suggest that gene(s) of which defect is possibly related to the aggressiveness of endometrial cancer are localized on a limited region of 16q that includes 16q22.1. PMID:9045949

  6. Overexpression Of Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor-1beta Predicting Poor Prognosis Is Associated With Biliary Phenotype In Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Dan-Dan; Jing, Ying-Ying; Guo, Shi-Wei; Ye, Fei; Lu, Wen; Li, Quan; Dong, Yu-Long; Gao, Lu; Yang, Yu-Ting; Yang, Yang; Wu, Meng-Chao; Wei, Li-Xin

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocyte nuclear factor-1beta (HNF-1B) is involved in the hepatobiliary specification of hepatoblasts to cholangiocytes during liver development, and is strongly expressed throughout adult biliary epithelium. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of HNF-1B in different pathologic subtypes of primary liver cancer, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), and the relationship between HNF-1B expression, clinicopathological features and prognosis. We retrospectively investigated 2 cohorts of patients, including 183 HCCs and 69 ICCs. The expression of HNF-1B was examined by immunohistochemistry. We found that HNF-1B expression was associated with pathological subtype of primary tumor, and HNF-1B expression in HCC tissue may be associated with the change of phenotype on recurrence. The HNF-1B expression was positively correlated with biliary/HPC (hepatic progenitor cell) markers expression. Further, multivariable analysis showed that HNF-1B expression was an independent prognostic factor for both overall survival and disease-free survival of HCC patients. However, no correlation between HNF-1B expression and survival was found in ICC patients. In summary, HCC with high HNF-1B expression displayed biliary phenotype and tended to show poorer prognosis. HNF-1B-positive malignant cells could be bipotential cells and give rise to both hepatocytic and cholangiocytic lineages during tumorigenesis. PMID:26311117

  7. FoxM1 Is Associated with Poor Prognosis of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients through Promoting Tumor Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Nuo; Jia, Deshui; Chen, Wenfeng; Wang, Hao; Liu, Fanglei; Ge, Haiyan; Zhu, Xiaodan; Song, Yuanlin; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, David

    2013-01-01

    Background FoxM1 has been reported to be important in initiation and progression of various tumors. However, whether FoxM1 has any indication for prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer patients remains unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, FoxM1 expression in tumor cells was examined first by immunohistochemistry in 175 NSCLC specimens, the result of which showed that FoxM1 overexpression was significantly associated with positive smoking status (P = 0.001), poorer tissue differentiation (P = 0.0052), higher TNM stage (P<0.0001), lymph node metastasis (P<0.0001), advanced tumor stage (P<0.0001), and poorer prognosis (P<0.0001). Multivariable analysis showed that FoxM1 expression increased the hazard of death (hazard ratio, 1.899; 95% CI, 1.016–3.551). Furthermore, by various in vitro and in vivo experiments, we showed that targeted knockdown of FoxM1 expression could inhibit the migratory and invasive abilities of NSCLC cells, whereas enforced expression of FoxM1 could increased the invasion and migration of NSCLC cells. Finally, we found that one of the cellular mechanisms by which FoxM1 promotes tumor metastasis is through inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) program. Conclusions These results suggested that FoxM1 overexpression in tumor tissues is significantly associated with the poor prognosis of NSCLC patients through promoting tumor metastasis. PMID:23536876

  8. The correlation of microRNA-181a and target genes with poor prognosis of glioblastoma patients.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shi-Xiong; Zhao, Zhong-Yan; Weng, Guo-Hu; He, Xiang-Ying; Wu, Chan-Ji; Fu, Chuan-Yi; Sui, Zhi-Yan; Zhong, Xiao-Ming; Liu, Tao

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the expression and clinical significance of miR-181a and its target genes in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the expression levels of miR-181a and three target genes in human normal brain tissues and GBM were analyzed in silico using gene microarray, gene ontology, KEGG pathway and hierarchical clustering analysis followed by validation with quantitative RT-PCR. Our results show that miR-181a is down-regulated in GBM patients. The three target genes, ANGPT2, ARHGAP18 and LAMC1, are negatively correlated with the expression of miR-181a. Moreover, high expression of ANGPT2 or LAMC1 together with large size of GBM is correlated with a shorter median overall survival. In conclusion, our results showed that miR-181a and it targets ANGPT2 and LAMC1 might be predictors of prognosis in GBM patients. PMID:27176932

  9. Low claudin-6 expression correlates with poor prognosis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Tao; Han, Zhi-Gang; Shan, Li

    2015-01-01

    Objective Claudins are found in junctional complexes mediating cell adhesion and are involved in the attachment of tight junctions to the underlying cytoskeleton. Abnormal claudin-6 expression has been observed for a variety of malignant solid tumors, but the expression of claudin-6 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has not yet been characterized. Methods Immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and western blot analysis were used to quantify claudin-6 expression in 123 cases of NSCLC and non-cancerous adjacent tissue. We analyzed the relationship between claudin-6 expression and clinicopathological features of NSCLC. The Kaplan–Meier method was used to analyze postoperative survival rates, and the log-rank test was used to assess differences in survival rates. The Cox regression model was used to perform multivariate analysis. Results Claudin-6 expression was low for 61 of 123 (49.6%) NSCLC tissue samples and for 33 of 123 (26.8%) normal adjacent tissue samples. RT-PCR and western blot analyses confirmed the immunohistochemistry results. Claudin-6 expression was associated with lymph node metastasis (P<0.001) and TNM stage (P=0.007). Kaplan–Meier analysis indicated that patients with low claudin-6 expression had significantly lower survival rates than those with high claudin-6 expression. Multivariate analysis suggested that low claudin-6 expression was an independent indicator of prognosis in NSCLC patients. Conclusion Low claudin-6 expression is an independent prognostic biomarker that indicates a worse prognosis in patients with NSCLC. PMID:26261421

  10. High leukocyte mtDNA content contributes to poor prognosis through ROS-mediated immunosuppression in hepatocellular carcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Feng; Zhou, Xingchun; Chen, Yibing; Guo, Xu; Li, Jibin; Huang, Qichao; Yang, Yefa; Lyu, Zhuomin; Zhang, Hongxin; Xing, Jinliang

    2016-01-01

    Compelling epidemiological evidences indicate a significant association between leukocyte mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content and incidence risk of several malignancies, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, whether leukocyte mtDNA content affect prognosis of HCC patients and underlying mechanism has never been explored. In our study, leukocyte mtDNA content was measured in 618 HCC patients and its prognostic value was analyzed. Moreover, we detected the immunophenotypes of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and plasma concentrations of several cytokines in 40 HCC patients and assessed the modulating effects of mtDNA content on immunosuppression in cell models. Our results showed that HCC patients with high leukocyte mtDNA content exhibited a significantly worse recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) than those with low leukocyte mtDNA content. Leukocyte mtDNA content and TNM stage exhibited a notable joint effect in prognosis prediction. Furthermore, we found that patients with high leukocyte mtDNA content exhibited a higher frequency of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells and lower frequency of NK cells in PBMCs and had higher TGF-β1 and lower TNF-α and IFN-γ plasma concentration when compared with those with low leukocyte mtDNA content, which suggests an immunosuppressive status. High leukocyte mtDNA content significantly enhanced the ROS-mediated secretion of TGF-β1, which accounted for higher Treg and lower NK frequency in PBMCs. In a conclusion, our study for the first time demonstrates that leukocyte mtDNA content is an independent prognostic marker complementing TNM stage and associated with an ROS-mediated immunosuppressive phenotype in HCC patients. PMID:26985767

  11. Exosomal levels of miRNA-21 from cerebrospinal fluids associated with poor prognosis and tumor recurrence of glioma patients.

    PubMed

    Shi, Rui; Wang, Pei-Yin; Li, Xin-Yi; Chen, Jian-Xin; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xin-Zhong; Zhang, Chen-Guang; Jiang, Tao; Li, Wen-Bin; Ding, Wei; Cheng, Shu-Jun

    2015-09-29

    Glioma is a most common type of primary brain tumors. Extracellular vesicles, in the form of exosomes, are known to mediate cell-cell communication by transporting cell-derived proteins and nucleic acids, including various microRNAs (miRNAs). Here we examined the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with recurrent glioma for the levels of cancer-related miRNAs, and evaluated the values for prognosis by comparing the measures of CSF-, serum-, and exosome-contained miR-21 levels. Samples from seventy glioma patients following surgery were compared with those from brain trauma patients as a non-tumor control group. Exosomal miR-21 levels in the CSF of glioma patients were found significantly higher than in the controls; whereas no difference was detected in serum-derived exosomal miR-21 expression. The CSF-derived exosomal miR-21 levels correlated with tumor spinal/ventricle metastasis and the recurrence with anatomical site preference. From additional 198 glioma tissue samples, we verified that miR-21 levels associated with tumor grade of diagnosis and negatively correlated with the median values of patient overall survival time. We further used a lentiviral inhibitor to suppress miR-21 expression in U251 cells. The results showed that the levels of miR-21 target genes of PTEN, RECK and PDCD4 were up-regulated at protein levels. Therefore, we concluded that the exosomal miR-21 levels could be demonstrated as a promising indicator for glioma diagnosis and prognosis, particularly with values to predict tumor recurrence or metastasis. PMID:26284486

  12. Ultra-early microsurgical treatment within 24 h of SAH improves prognosis of poor-grade aneurysm combined with intracerebral hematoma

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, JUNHUI; ZHU, JUN; HE, JIANQING; WANG, YUHAI; CHEN, LEI; ZHANG, CHUNLEI; ZHOU, JINGXU; YANG, LIKUN

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is the most common cerebrovascular disease. The conventional treatment for SAH is usually associated with high mortality. The present study aims to assess the prognosis of microsurgical treatment for patients with poor-grade aneurysm (Hunt and Hess grades IV–V) associated with intracerebral hematoma. A total of 18 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with poor-grade aneurysm accompanied with intracerebral hematoma were retrospectively recruited. All patients underwent microsurgical treatment between April 2010 and June 2013 at The 101st Hospital of Chinese People's Liberation Army (Wuxi, China). Among them, 15 cases underwent microsurgery within 24 h of SAH, and 3 cases underwent microsurgery 24 h following SAH. All 18 cases were examined by computed tomography angiography (CTA). The outcome was assessed during a follow-up time of 6–36 months. According to the Glasgow Outcome Scale, 4 patients experienced a good recovery, 6 were dissatisfied with the outcome, 4 were in vegetative state and 4 succumbed to disease. Poor outcome occurred in patients with an aneurysm diameter >10 mm, exhibited >50 ml volume of intracerebral hematoma or presented cerebral hernia prior to the surgical operation. The outcome of ultra-early surgery (within 24 h of SAH) was improved, compared with that of surgery following 24 h of SAH (P=0.005). Among 7 patients who accepted extraventricular drainage, good outcomes were achieved in 4 of them, whereas dissatisfaction and mortality occurred in 2 and 1 patients, respectively. Therefore, ultra-early microsurgery (within 24 h of SAH) combined with extraventricular drainage may improve the prognosis of patients with poor-grade aneurysm. PMID:27123084

  13. High expression of lncRNA MALAT1 suggests a biomarker of poor prognosis in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hong-Tu; Shi, De-Bing; Wang, Yu-Wei; Li, Xin-Xiang; Xu, Ye; Tripathi, Pratik; Gu, Wei-Lie; Cai, Guo-Xiang; Cai, San-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study sought to investigate the role of the long noncoding RNA MALAT1 in the prognosis of stage II/III colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Methods: The expression of MALAT1 was evaluated in cancer tissues from 146 stage II/III CRC patients undergoing radical resection and 23 paired normal colonic mucosa samples using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR. Differences in the expression of MALAT1 between 23 CRC and paired normal colonic mucosa samples were analysed with the Wilcoxon test. Relationships between the expression level of MALAT1, patient clinicopathological parameters and disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were analysed using the univariate Kaplan-Meier method and the multivariate COX regression model. Results: The MALAT1 levels in cancerous tissues were 2.26 times higher than those measured in noncancerous tissues, and this difference was statistically significant (P = 0.0004). Based on their expression level of MALAT1, the patients were divided into a high MALAT1 expression group (n = 73) and a low expression group (n = 73). Patients with tumours harbouring higher expression of MALAT1 showed a significantly worse prognosis with a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.863 (95% CI, 1.659 to 4.943; P < 0.001) for DFS and 3.968 (95% CI, 1.665 to 9.456; P = 0.002) for OS. Furthermore, patients with perineural invasion demonstrated significantly worse DFS (HR = 3.459, 95% CI 2.008 to 5.957; P < 0.001) and OS (HR = 3.750, 95% CI 1.743 to 8.069; P = 0.001) than those without perineural invasion. Multivariate analyses indicated that MALAT1 expression and perineural invasion were two independent prognostic risk factors for patients with CRC. Conclusion: The expression of MALAT1 is upregulated in CRC tissues, and a higher expression level of MALAT1 might serve as a negative prognostic marker in stage II/III CRC patients. PMID:25031737

  14. DNMT3A R882 Mutations Predict a Poor Prognosis in AML: A Meta-Analysis From 4474 Patients.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiao-Qing; Peng, Li; Zeng, Wen-Jing; Jiang, Bin-Yuan; Li, Guan-Cheng; Chen, Xiao-Ping

    2016-05-01

    DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 3 alpha (DNMT3A) mutations were widely believed to be independently associated with inferior prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. As dominant missense alterations in DNMT3A mutations, R882 mutations cause the focal hypomethylation phenotype. However, there remains debate on the influence of R882 mutations on AML prognosis. Thus, this meta-analysis aimed at further illustrating the prognostic power of DNMT3A R882 mutations in AML patients.Eligible studies were identified from 5 databases containing PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Clinical Trials, and the Cochrane Library (up to October 25, 2015). Effects (hazard ratios [HRs] with 95% confidence interval [CI]) of relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were pooled to estimate the prognostic power of mutant DNMT3A R882 in overall patients and subgroups of AML patients.Eight competent studies with 4474 AML patients including 694 with DNMT3A R882 mutations were included. AML patients with DNMT3A R882 mutations showed significant shorter RFS (HR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.24-1.59, P < 0.001) and OS (HR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.17-1.86, P = 0.001) in the overall population. DNMT3A R882 mutations predicted worse RFS and OS among the subgroups of patients under age 60 (RFS: HR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.25-1.66, P < 0.001; OS: HR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.15-1.90, P = 0.002), over age 60 (RFS: HR = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.40-2.93, P < 0.001; OS: HR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.36-2.53, P < 0.001), cytogenetically normal (CN)-AML (RFS: HR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.26-1.83, P < 0.001; OS: HR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.16-2.41, P = 0.006), and non-CN-AML (RFS: HR = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.20-3.21, P = 0.006; OS: HR = 2.51, 95% CI = 1.52-4.15, P = 0.0038).DNMT3A R882 mutations possessed significant unfavorable prognostic influence on RFS and OS in AML patients. PMID:27149454

  15. Overexpression of Notch3 and pS6 Is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Human Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Rongna; Yu, Xiaolin; Huang, Genhua; Tan, Buzhen

    2016-01-01

    Notch3 and pS6 play important roles in tumor angiogenesis. To assess the expression of Notch3 and pS6 in Chinese ovarian epithelial cancer patients, a ten-year follow-up study was performed in ovarian epithelial cancer tissues from 120 specimens of human ovarian epithelial cancer, 30 specimens from benign ovarian tumors, and 30 samples from healthy ovaries by immunohistochemistry. The results indicate that the expression of Notch3 and pS6 was higher in ovarian epithelial cancer than in normal ovary tissues and in benign ovarian tumor tissues (p < 0.01). In tumor tissues, Notch3 expression and pS6 expression were negatively associated with age (p > 0.05) but positively associated with clinical stage, pathological grading, histologic type, lymph node metastasis, and ascites (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01). A follow-up survey of 64 patients with ovarian epithelial cancer showed that patients with high Notch3 and pS6 expression had a shorter survival time (p < 0.01), in which the clinical stage (p < 0.05) and Notch3 expression (p < 0.01) played important roles. In conclusion, Notch3 and pS6 are significantly related to ovarian epithelial cancer development and prognosis, and their combination represents a potential biomarker and therapeutic target in ovarian tumor angiogenesis. PMID:27445438

  16. Galectin-1 is associated with poor prognosis in patients with cutaneous head and neck cancer with perineural spread.

    PubMed

    Chawla, Sharad; Warren, Timothy A; Wockner, Leesa F; Lambie, Duncan L J; Brown, Ian S; Martin, Thomas P C; Khanna, Rajiv; Leggatt, Graham R; Panizza, Benedict J

    2016-02-01

    Spread of head and neck cancer along the cranial nerves is often a lethal complication of this tumour. Current treatment options include surgical resection and/or radiotherapy, but recurrence is a frequent event suggesting that our understanding of this tumour and its microenvironment is incomplete. In this study, we have analysed the nature of the perineural tumour microenvironment by immunohistochemistry with particular focus on immune cells and molecules, which might impair anti-tumour immunity. Moderate to marked lymphocyte infiltrates were present in 58.8% of the patient cohort including T cells, B cells and FoxP3-expressing T cells. While human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and more variably HLA class II were expressed on the tumour cells, this did not associate with patient survival or recurrence. In contrast, galectin-1 staining within lymphocyte areas of the tumour was significantly associated with a poorer patient outcome. Given the known role of galectin-1 in immune suppression, the data suggest that galectin inhibitors might improve the prognosis of patients with perineural spread of cancer. PMID:26759008

  17. Ring finger protein 43 expression is associated with genetic alteration status and poor prognosis among patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Talabnin, Chutima; Janthavon, Patcharee; Thongsom, Sunisa; Suginta, Wipa; Talabnin, Krajang; Wongkham, Sopit

    2016-06-01

    Ring finger E3 ligases have roles in processes central to maintenance of genomic integrity and cellular homeostasis. Many ring finger E3 ligases are implicated in malignancy. Ring finger protein 43 (RNF43) is a ring finger E3 ligase that negatively regulates the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. RNF43 is frequently mutated in several types of malignancy, including intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). The significance of its expression in ICC has not, however, been reported. We determined RNF43 expression and identified RNF43 polymorphisms in ICC tissues. We also investigated the correlation between RNF43 expression and RNF43 mutation status, RNF43 polymorphisms, clinicopathological features, and prognosis of ICC patients. RNF43 reduced expression in ICC, and the reduction of RNF43 messenger RNA expression was significantly correlated with the presence of rs2257205 and RNF43 somatic mutations, confirming that all RNF43 somatic mutations in ICC are inactivating. Overall survival was worst in patients with down-regulation of RNF43. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that RNF43 expression was an independent prognostic factor. There was no statistically significant association between RNF43 messenger RNA and protein expression nor any clinicopathological features or RNF43 polymorphisms. The results imply that RNF43 is down-regulated in ICC and may play a crucial role during development of ICC. PMID:26980022

  18. Decreased expression of Siglec-8 associates with poor prognosis in patients with gastric cancer after surgical resection.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yifan; Liu, Hao; Zhang, Heng; Lin, Chao; Li, Ruochen; Zhang, Weijuan; Shen, Zhenbin; Xu, Jiejie

    2016-08-01

    The expression of sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin (Siglec) family has been detected in many malignant tumors and correlated with patient outcomes. The present study aims to investigate the prognostic value of Siglec-8 expression and refine current risk stratification system in patients with gastric cancer. Two independent sets of patients (n = 78; n = 356, respectively) with gastric cancer from Zhongshan Hospital were enrolled into this study. The expression of Siglec-8 was detected by immunohistochemistry. Cox regression analysis was used to assess the prognostic value of Siglec-8 expression and clinical outcomes. A novel molecular prognostic stratification system combining intratumoral Siglec-8 expression with TNM stage was determined by means of receiver operating characteristic analysis. Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified that intratumoral Siglec-8 low expression was an independent prognostic factor for dismal overall survival of patients with gastric cancer. Incorporating intratumoral Siglec-8 expression into the current TNM staging system showed more accuracy for predicting prognosis of patients with gastric cancer. Our study suggested that intratumoral Siglec-8 expression was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival of patients with gastric cancer. Incorporating Siglec-8 expression level into current TNM staging system might add more comprehensive prognostic information for patients with gastric cancer and lead to a more precise risk stratification system for predicting clinical outcomes. PMID:26883254

  19. Increased Expression of Eps15 Homology Domain 1 is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Resected Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Qingwei; Sun, Weiling; Li, Man; Zhao, Yanbin; Chen, Xuesong; Sun, Lichun; Cai, Li

    2015-01-01

    One of the great challenges of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) treatment is identifying patients at high risk for recurrence after surgical resection and chemotherapy. We examined Eps15 homology domain 1 (EHD1) protein expression in paraffin sections of 85 resected SCLC tissues, metastatic lymph nodes and normal bronchial epithelial tissues using immunohistochemistry to study the correlation between EHD1 expression and patient clinicopathological features. Within these variables, disease free survival (DFS) analyzed by the log-rank test was constructed using the multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model and Kaplan-Meier analysis. Immunohistochemistry results showed that EHD1 protein was significantly increased in SCLC tissues compared with normal tissues (P < 0.001). Moreover, EHD1 expression was positively correlated with tumor size (P = 0.019). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards model analysis showed that EHD1 expression (P = 0.047; HR, 1.869; 95% CI, 1.008-3.466) and American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) status (P < 0.001; HR, 1.412; 95% CI, 1.165-1.711) were independent prognostic indicators of DFS. In conclusion, these data demonstrated a remarkable correlation between the cytoplasmic expression of EHD1 protein and adverse prognosis in patients receiving early-stage cisplatin treatment for resected SCLC. PMID:26366212

  20. High expression of CTHRC1 promotes EMT of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and is associated with poor prognosis

    PubMed Central

    He, Shanyang; Li, Yang; Pan, Yunping; Feng, Chongjin; Chen, Xinlin; Zhang, Yang; Lin, Millicent; Wang, Liantang; Ke, Zunfu

    2015-01-01

    Collagen triple helix repeat-containing 1 (CTHRC1) is aberrantly overexpressed in multiple malignant tumors. However, the expression characteristics and function of CTHRC1 in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remain unclear. We found that CTHRC1 expression was up-regulated in the paraffin-embedded EOC tissues compared to borderline or benign tumor tissues. CTHRC1 expression was positively correlated with tumor size (p = 0.008), menopause (p = 0.037), clinical stage (p = 0.002) and lymph node metastasis (p < 0.001) and was also an important prognostic factor for the overall survival of EOC patients, as revealed by Kaplan-Meier analysis. CTHRC1 increased the invasive capabilities of EOC cells in vitro by activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. We showed that ectopic transfection of CTHRC1 in EOC cells up-regulated the expression of EMT markers such as N-cadherin and vimentin, and EMT-associated transcriptional factor Snail. Knockdown of CTHRC1 expression in EOC cells resulted in down-regulation of N-cadherin, vimentin, Snail and translocation of β-catenin. Collectively, CTHRC1 may promote EOC metastasis through the induction of EMT process and serve as a potential biomarker for prognosis as well as a target for therapy. PMID:26452130

  1. Decreased expression of miR-378 correlates with tumor invasiveness and poor prognosis of patients with glioma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bing; Wang, Yilin; Li, Shiting; He, Hua; Sun, Fengbin; Wang, Chunlin; Lu, Yicheng; Wang, Xiaoqiang; Tao, Bangbao

    2015-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that play important roles in a variety of biological process. It has been reported that dysregulation of miRNA is always associated with cancer progression and development, and miR-378 aberrant expression has been found in some types of cancers. However, the association of miR-378 and glioma has not been evaluated. In this work, we measured the expression of miR-378 in glioma tissues and non-neoplastic brain tissues was measured using real-time PCR, and found that miRNA-378 expression level was significantly lower in glioma tissues compared with non-neoplastic brain tissues. Patients with lower miR-378 expression level had significantly poorer overall survival. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that miR-378 expression was an independent prognostic factor for 5-year overall survival. Over-expression of miR-378 inhibits glioma cell migration and invasion. In conclusion, our results indicated that miR-378 may serve as a tumor suppressor and play an important role in inhibiting tumor migration and invasion. Our work implicates the potential effect of miR-378 on the prognosis of glioma. PMID:26261592

  2. Upregulation of MAGEA4 correlates with poor prognosis in patients with early stage of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Wei-Wei; Liu, Zi-Hao; Yang, Tong-Xin; Wang, Han-Jin; Cao, Xiu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is a common type of cancer in the People’s Republic of China. Many genes have been reported to be linked with it. Melanoma antigen gene family A (MAGEA) genes are frequently highly expressed in various types of carcinoma. However, the specific role of MAGEA gene expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) still remains unclear. MAGEA4 is a member of MAGEA genes. We aimed to investigate the expression and prognosis of MAGEA4 expression in ESCC. MAGEA4 messenger RNA expression levels of 120 pairs of tumor and nontumor tissues of patients with ESCC were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that MAGEA4 messenger RNA was significantly elevated in tumor tissues of patients with ESCC compared to nontumor ones. In addition, overexpression of MAGEA4 messenger RNA was significantly correlated with poorer overall survival (P=0.018) in early stage of patients with ESCC (I–IIA). In conclusion, MAGEA4 played an important role in the early stage of ESCC and overexpression of MAGEA4 was expected to become a potential prognostic marker for patients with early stage of ESCC. PMID:27478386

  3. ARID1A Alterations Are Associated with FGFR3-Wild Type, Poor-Prognosis, Urothelial Bladder Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Balbás-Martínez, Cristina; Rodríguez-Pinilla, María; Casanova, Ariel; Domínguez, Orlando; Pisano, David G.; Gómez, Gonzalo; Lloreta, Josep; Lorente, José A.; Malats, Núria; Real, Francisco X.

    2013-01-01

    Urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) is heterogeneous at the clinical, pathological, genetic, and epigenetic levels. Exome sequencing has identified ARID1A as a novel tumor suppressor gene coding for a chromatin remodeling protein that is mutated in UBC. Here, we assess ARID1A alterations in two series of patients with UBC. In the first tumor series, we analyze exons 2–20 in 52 primary UBC and find that all mutant tumors belong to the aggressive UBC phenotype (high grade non-muscle invasive and muscle invasive tumors) (P = 0.05). In a second series (n = 84), we assess ARID1A expression using immunohistochemistry, a surrogate for mutation analysis, and find that loss of expression increases with higher stage/grade, it is inversely associated with FGFR3 overexpression (P = 0.03) but it is not correlated with p53 overexpression (P = 0.30). We also analyzed the expression of cytokeratins in the same set of tumor and find, using unsupervised clustering, that tumors with ARID1A loss of expression are generally KRT5/6-low. In this patient series, loss of ARID1A expression is also associated with worse prognosis, likely reflecting the higher prevalence of losses found in tumors of higher stage and grade. The independent findings in these two sets of patients strongly support the notion that ARID1A inactivation is a key player in bladder carcinogenesis occurring predominantly in FGFR3 wild type tumors. PMID:23650517

  4. Down-regulation of miR-503 expression predicate advanced mythological features and poor prognosis in patients with NSCLC

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lei; Qu, Weiqing; Zhong, Zhaokun

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to explore what impact miR-503 has on the prognosis of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: Cancer and matched non-malignant lung tissue specimens were collected from 109 patients who underwent surgery in Tanisha Hospital from Jun 2006 to July 2013. Overall survival (OS) curves were analyzed using the Lapland-Meier method, and the differences were examined using log-rank tests. Cox proportional- hazards regression analysis was applied in order to estimate univariate and multivariate hazard ratios for OS. Results: The relative expression of miR-503 in NSCLC tissues (0.366 ± 0.130) was significantly lower than that in matched noncancerous lung tissues (1.667 ± 1.047, P < 0.01). Statistically significant association was observed between miR-503 expression and lymphatic invasion (P = 0.005), distant metastasis (P = 0.002), TNM stage (P = 0.008), and tumor grade (P = 0.043). Lapland Meier analysis clearly illustrated that the patients with the lower expression of miR-503 had a worse outcome compared to patients with higher miR-503 expression (P = 0.004). Furthermore, multivariate analysis revealed that miR-503 expression level was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (HR = 3.992, 95% CI: 2.276-9.872; P = 0.018) in NSCLC. Conclusion: In patients with NSCLC, low miR-503 expression is an independent prognostic factor. PMID:26191272

  5. Micropapillary morphology is an indicator of poor prognosis in patients with urothelial carcinoma treated with transurethral resection and radiochemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bertz, Simone; Wach, S; Taubert, H; Merten, R; Krause, F S; Schick, S; Ott, O J; Weigert, E; Dworak, O; Rödel, C; Fietkau, R; Wullich, B; Keck, B; Hartmann, A

    2016-09-01

    Purpose of this study was to evaluate prognostic impact of rare variants of urothelial bladder cancer (BC) after treatment with combined radiochemotherapy (RCT). To this end tumour tissue of 238 patients with urothelial carcinoma (UC) treated with transurethral resection of the bladder (TUR-B) and RCT with curative intent was collected. Histomorphological analysis included re-evaluation and semi-quantitative assessment of rare UC subtypes. Additionally, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) chromogenic in situ hybridisation (CISH) was performed in tumours with a micropapillary component exceeding 30 %. Long-term follow-up was available for 200 patients (range 3-282 months). Variant UC histology was found in 45 of 238 tumours, most frequently micropapillary UC (N = 17) including cases with a small fraction of tumour with micropapillary morphology. The mere presence of micropapillary morphology did not affect prognosis. In tumours with extensive (≥30 %) micropapillary morphology (N = 8) Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed significantly worse cancer specific survival (CSS) (P = 0.002) compared to conventional UC (mean survival times 97 months and 229 months, respectively). Univariate Cox regression analysis of cases with ≥30 % micropapillary morphology revealed a hazard ratio of 4.726 (95 % CI 1.629-13.714) for CSS (P = 0.004). CISH revealed HER2 gene amplification in 3/10 tumours with ≥30 % micropapillary component. In conclusion, for BC treated with TUR-B and RCT, the presence of micropapillary morphology in more than 30 % of the tumour is an adverse prognostic factor. Further studies are needed to evaluate a potential benefit of different, especially multimodal treatment strategies for micropapillary UC and also other subtypes of UC. Her2 represents a promising therapeutic target in a subset of micropapillary UC. PMID:27392930

  6. Overexpression of HOXB7 homeobox gene in oral cancer induces cellular proliferation and is associated with poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    De Souza Setubal Destro, Maria Fernanda; Bitu, Carolina Cavalcanti; Zecchin, Karina G; Graner, Edgard; Lopes, Marcio A; Kowalski, Luis Paulo; Coletta, Ricardo D

    2010-01-01

    A growing body of evidence has confirmed the involvement of dysregulated expression of HOX genes in cancer. HOX genes are a family of 39 transcription factors, divided in 4 clusters (HOXA to HOXD), that during normal development regulate cell proliferation and specific cell fate. In the present study it was investigated whether genes of the HOXB cluster play a role in oral cancer. We showed that most of the genes in the HOXB network are inactive in oral tissues, with exception of HOXB2, HOXB7 and HOXB13. Expression of HOXB7 was significantly higher in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) compared to normal oral mucosas. We further demonstrated that HOXB7 overexpression in HaCAT human epithelial cell line promoted proliferation, whereas downregulation of HOXB7 endogenous levels in human oral carcinoma cells (SCC9 cells) decreased proliferation. In OSCCs, expression of HOXB7 and Ki67, a marker of proliferation, correlate strongly with each other (rs=0.79, p<0.006). High immunohistochemical expression of HOXB7 was correlated with T stage (p=0.06), N stage (p=0.07), disease stage (p=0.09) and Ki67 expression (p=0.01), and patients with tumors showing high number of HOXB7-positive cells had shorter overall survival (p=0.08) and shorter disease-free survival after treatment (p=0.10) compared with patients with tumors exhibiting low amount of HOXB7-positive cells. Our data suggest that HOXB7 may contribute to oral carcinogenesis by increasing tumor cell proliferation, and imply that HOXB7 may be an important determinant of OSCC patient prognosis. PMID:19956843

  7. Elevated preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio is associated with poor prognosis in gastrointestinal stromal tumor patients

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Chang; Hu, Wan-Ming; Liao, Fang-Xin; Yang, Qiong; Chen, Ping; Rong, Yu-Ming; Guo, Gui-Fang; Yin, Chen-Xi; Zhang, Bei; He, Wen-Zhuo; Xia, Liang-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the prognostic relevance of preoperative peripheral neutrophil- to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) patients. Materials and methods We enrolled 129 consecutive GIST patients who underwent initial curative surgical resection with or without adjuvant/palliative imatinib treatment in our study. Blood NLR was calculated as neutrophil count (number of neutrophils ×109/L) divided by lymphocyte count (number of lymphocytes ×109/L). Survival curves were constructed by using the Kaplan–Meier method. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models were performed to identify associations with outcome variable. All tests were two-sided, and P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The optimal cut-off value of NLR was 2.07 in the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The median overall survival (OS) of high NLR group was 113.0 months, whereas that of the low NLR group had not reached the median OS both in the general (P<0.001) and subgroup analyses. The elevated NLR suggested shorter OS in the high malignant potential groups (P=0.01) and the combined low and moderate groups (P=0.02). Increased NLR indicated poor OS in patients regardless of whether if received imatinib treatment or not (P=0.005, and P=0.032, respectively). High NLR indicated poor OS of patients in stage I and II disease (P=0.005) and a clear tendency that increased level of NLR is inimical to OS. Conclusion Elevated NLR was detected as an independent adverse prognostic factor. Elevated preoperative NLR predicts poor clinical outcome in GIST patients and may serve as a cost-effective and broadly available independent prognostic biomarker. PMID:26966375

  8. Up-Regulation of Long Non-Coding RNA AB073614 Predicts a Poor Prognosis in Patients with Glioma.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lei; Lv, Qiao-Li; Chen, Shu-Hui; Sun, Bao; Qu, Qiang; Cheng, Lin; Guo, Ying; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Fan, Lan

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulated long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been found in human diseases, especially in cancer. Emerging evidence indicates that dysregulated lncRNAs are implicated in tumorigenesis and cancer progression. LncRNA AB073614 characterized as a new candidate lncRNA promotes the development of ovarian cancer. However, the role of lncRNA AB073614 in human gliomas remains unknown. The expression of AB073614 was detected in 65 glioma tissues and 13 normal brain tissues by qRT-PCR, showing that lncRNA AB073614 expression was significantly up-regulated in cancerous tissues compared with normal brain tissues (p < 0.001), and it was positively correlated with tumor grade (I-II grades vs. III-IV grades, p = 0.013) in glioma patients. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that increased AB073614 expression contributed to poor overall survival (HR (hazard ratio) = 1.952, 95%CI: 1.202-3.940, p = 0.0129). Further, univariate Cox regression analysis indicated that lncRNA AB073614 overexpression was an unfavorable prognostic factor in gliomas (HR = 1.997, 95%CI: 1.135-3.514, p = 0.016), regardless of the tumor grade (I-II grades vs. III-IV grades, HR = 1.902, 95%CI: 1.066-3.391, p = 0.029). Finally, after adjustment with age, sex, tumor grade and tumor location, multivariate Cox regression analysis suggested that both highly expressed lncRNA AB073614 (HR = 2.606, 95%CI: 1.408-4.824, p = 0.002) and high tumor grade (III-IV grades, HR = 2.720, 95%CI: 1.401-5.282, p = 0.003) could be considered independent poor prognostic indicators for glioma patients. In conclusion, our study suggested that increased lncRNA AB073614 expression may be identified as a poor prognostic biomarker in gliomas. PMID:27104549

  9. Wntless (GPR177) expression correlates with poor prognosis in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia via Wnt signaling.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Shyh-Shin; Wang, Li-Ting; Huang, Shih-Bo; Chai, Chee-Yin; Wang, Shen-Nien; Liao, Yu-Mei; Lin, Pei-Chin; Liu, Kwei-Yan; Hsu, Shih-Hsien

    2014-10-01

    B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP ALL) is the most common childhood leukemia, with a cure rate of 80%. Nevertheless, disease relapse is the most important prognostic factor for the disease outcome. We aimed to elucidate the role of Wnt secretion-regulating protein, Wntless (Wls)/GPR177, on disease outcome in pediatric patients with BCP ALL, and assess its pathogenetic role in the regulation of the disease. Wls expression was characterized and correlated with Wnt pathway signaling in the bone marrow leukemia cells isolated from 44 pediatric patients with BCP ALL. The overexpression of Wls was detected in leukemia cells and was significantly correlated with the disease relapse and poor survival in the patients. The high expression of Wls also correlated with the Wnt expression and consequent downstream signaling activation, which was shown to provide essential proliferation, transformation and anti-apoptotic activity during leukemogenesis. These results indicated that Wls played an essential role in disease relapse and poor survival in patients with BCP ALL. Therefore, Wls may provide a potential future therapeutic target, particularly for patients who do not respond to existing therapies and suffer relapse. PMID:25115440

  10. Migration-inducing gene 7 promotes tumorigenesis and angiogenesis and independently predicts poor prognosis of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bihui; Yin, Mingzhu; Li, Xia; Cao, Guosheng; Qi, Jin; Lou, Ge; Sheng, Shijie; Kou, Junping; Chen, Kang; Yu, Boyang

    2016-05-10

    Epithelial ovarian carcinomas (EOC) cause more mortality than any other cancer of the female reproductive system. New therapeutic approaches to reduce EOC mortality have been largely unsuccessful due to the poor understanding of the mechanisms underlying EOC proliferation and metastasis. Progress in EOC treatment is further hampered by a lack of reliable prognostic biomarkers for early risk assessment. In this study, we identify that Migration-Inducting Gene 7 (MIG-7) is specifically induced in human EOC tissues but not normal ovaries or ovarian cyst. Ovarian MIG-7 expression strongly correlated with EOC progression. Elevated MIG-7 level at the time of primary cytoreductive surgery was a strong and independent predictor of poor survival of EOC patients. Cell and murine xenograft models showed that MIG-7 was required for EOC proliferation and invasion, and MIG-7 enhanced EOC-associated angiogenesis by promoting the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor. Inhibiting MIG-7 by RNA interference in grafted EOC cells retarded tumor growth, angiogenesis and improved host survival, and suppressing MIG-7 expression with a small molecule inhibitor D-39 identified from the medicinal plant Liriope muscari mitigated EOC growth and invasion and specifically abrogated the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor. Our data not only reveal a critical function of MIG-7 in EOC growth and metastasis and support MIG-7 as an independent prognostic biomarker for EOC, but also demonstrate that therapeutic targeting of MIG-7 is likely beneficial in the treatment of EOC. PMID:27050277

  11. Overexpression of ST3Gal-I promotes migration and invasion of HCCLM3 in vitro and poor prognosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Han; Shi, Xue-Liang; Zhang, Hai-Jian; Song, Qing-Jie; Yang, Xiao-Bing; Hu, Wei-Dong; Mei, Guang-Lin; Chen, Xi; Mao, Qin-Sheng; Chen, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Excessive ST3Gal-I levels predict a poor outcome for patients with several types of tumors. This study aims to investigate the role of ST3Gal-I in determining the invasive and metastatic potential of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and clinical prognosis for patients with HCC. Methods We compared the expression of ST3Gal-I in various HCC cell lines and in 20 pairs of tumor and peritumor tissue samples using Western blot analysis. Changes in the degree of invasiveness and migration were determined before and after small interfering RNA-induced knockdown of ST3Gal-I using a Transwell matrigel invasion assay and scratch wound assay. The correlation between ST3Gal-I expression and prognosis was determined in a large HCC patient cohort (n=273). Results ST3Gal-I expression was higher in metastatic HCCLM3 cells and tumor tissue compared with normal adjacent tissue. Following the ST3Gal-I knockdown, the invasiveness and migration of HCCLM3 cells were markedly reduced. ST3Gal-I expression in HCC correlated closely with tumor thrombus (P<0.001), tumor size (>5.0 cm, P=0.032), tumor node metastasis stages II–III (P=0.002), and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stages B–C (P<0.001). Cox regression analysis demonstrated that ST3Gal-I is an independent predictor of prognosis in patients with HCC, and related to disease-free survival (hazard ratio =1.464, P=0.037) and overall survival (hazard ratio =1.662, P=0.012). Conclusion ST3Gal-I might contribute to the invasiveness and metastatic nature of HCC and, thus, could be an independent predictor of recurrence and a suitable pharmaceutical target in patients with HCC. PMID:27143918

  12. Up-Regulation of Long Non-Coding RNA AB073614 Predicts a Poor Prognosis in Patients with Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Lei; Lv, Qiao-Li; Chen, Shu-Hui; Sun, Bao; Qu, Qiang; Cheng, Lin; Guo, Ying; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Fan, Lan

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulated long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been found in human diseases, especially in cancer. Emerging evidence indicates that dysregulated lncRNAs are implicated in tumorigenesis and cancer progression. LncRNA AB073614 characterized as a new candidate lncRNA promotes the development of ovarian cancer. However, the role of lncRNA AB073614 in human gliomas remains unknown. The expression of AB073614 was detected in 65 glioma tissues and 13 normal brain tissues by qRT-PCR, showing that lncRNA AB073614 expression was significantly up-regulated in cancerous tissues compared with normal brain tissues (p < 0.001), and it was positively correlated with tumor grade (I–II grades vs. III–IV grades, p = 0.013) in glioma patients. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that increased AB073614 expression contributed to poor overall survival (HR (hazard ratio) = 1.952, 95%CI: 1.202–3.940, p = 0.0129). Further, univariate Cox regression analysis indicated that lncRNA AB073614 overexpression was an unfavorable prognostic factor in gliomas (HR = 1.997, 95%CI: 1.135–3.514, p = 0.016), regardless of the tumor grade (I–II grades vs. III–IV grades, HR = 1.902, 95%CI: 1.066–3.391, p = 0.029). Finally, after adjustment with age, sex, tumor grade and tumor location, multivariate Cox regression analysis suggested that both highly expressed lncRNA AB073614 (HR = 2.606, 95%CI: 1.408–4.824, p = 0.002) and high tumor grade (III–IV grades, HR = 2.720, 95%CI: 1.401–5.282, p = 0.003) could be considered independent poor prognostic indicators for glioma patients. In conclusion, our study suggested that increased lncRNA AB073614 expression may be identified as a poor prognostic biomarker in gliomas. PMID:27104549

  13. The A Allele at rs13419896 of EPAS1 Is Associated with Enhanced Expression and Poor Prognosis for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kian Leong; Yamane, Yuko; Gustine, Ewita; Isobe, Takeshi; Nishiyama, Masahiko; Hiyama, Keiko; Poellinger, Lorenz; Tanimoto, Keiji

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-2α (HIF-2α, or EPAS1) is important for cancer progression, and is a putative biomarker for poor prognosis for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, molecular mechanisms underlying the EPAS1 overexpression are not still fully understood. We explored a role of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs13419896 located within intron 1 of the EPAS1 gene in regulation of its expression. Bioinformatic analyses suggested that a region including the rs13419896 SNP plays a role in regulation of the EPAS1 gene expression and the SNP alters the binding activity of transcription factors. In vitro analyses demonstrated that a fragment containing the SNP locus function as a regulatory region and that a fragment with A allele showed higher transactivation activity than one with G, especially in the presence of overexpressed c-Fos or c-Jun. Moreover, NSCLC patients with the A allele showed poorer prognosis than those with G at the SNP even after adjustment with various variables. In conclusion, the genetic polymorphism of the EPAS1 gene may lead to variation of its gene expression levels to drive progression of the cancer and serve as a prognostic marker for NSCLC. PMID:26263511

  14. Upregulated long non-coding RNA AFAP1-AS1 expression is associated with progression and poor prognosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bo, Hao; Gong, Zhaojian; Zhang, Wenling; Li, Xiayu; Zeng, Yong; Liao, Qianjin; Chen, Pan; Shi, Lei; Lian, Yu; Jing, Yizhou; Tang, Ke; Li, Zheng; Zhou, Yanhong; Zhou, Ming; Xiang, Bo; Li, Xiaoling; Yang, Jianbo; Xiong, Wei; Li, Guiyuan; Zeng, Zhaoyang

    2015-01-01

    Altered expression of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) associated with human carcinogenesis. We performed a cDNA microarray analysis of lncRNA expression in 12 cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and 4 non-tumor nasopharyngeal epitheliums. One lncRNA, actin filament associated protein 1 antisense RNA1 (AFAP1-AS1), was identified and selected for further study. AFAP1-AS1 expression was upregulated in NPC and associated with NPC metastasis and poor prognosis. In vitro experiments demonstrated that AFAP1-AS1 knockdown significantly inhibited the NPC cell migration and invasive capability. AFAP1-AS1 knockdown also increased AFAP1 protein expression. Proteomic and bioinformatics analyses suggested that AFAP1-AS1 affected the expression of several small GTPase family members and molecules in the actin cytokeratin signaling pathway. AFAP1-AS1 promoted cancer cell metastasis via regulation of actin filament integrity. AFAP1-AS1 might be a potential novel marker that can predict cancer patient prognosis and as a potential therapeutic target for NPC. PMID:26246469

  15. Activating Transcription Factor 4 Promotes Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Invasion and Metastasis in Mice and Is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Human Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bin; Chen, Bei; Song, Weibing; Sun, Dayong; Zhao, Yagang

    2014-01-01

    Background Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) is a stress response gene that is involved in homeostasis and cellular protection. However, its expression and function in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains unknown. In this study, we aimed to determine the clinicopathologic significance of ATF4 in ESCC and its potential role in ESCC invasion and metastasis. Methodology/Principal Findings We demonstrated that ATF4 overexpression is correlated with multiple malignant characteristics and indicates poor prognosis in ESCC patients. ATF4 expression was an independent factor that affected the overall survival of patients with ESCC after surgical resection. ATF4 promoted cell invasion and metastasis by promoting matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-7 expression, while its silencing significantly attenuated these activities both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions/Significance We report that ATF4 is a potential biomarker for ESCC prognosis and that its dysregulation may play a key role in the regulation of invasion and metastasis in ESCC cells. The targeting of ATF4 may provide a new strategy for blocking ESCC metastasis. PMID:25078779

  16. Phylogenetic analysis of multiple FISH markers in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma suggests that a diverse distribution of copy number changes is associated with poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Wangsa, Darawalee; Chowdhury, Salim Akhter; Ryott, Michael; Gertz, E Michael; Elmberger, Göran; Auer, Gert; Åvall Lundqvist, Elisabeth; Küffer, Stefan; Ströbel, Philipp; Schäffer, Alejandro A; Schwartz, Russell; Munck-Wikland, Eva; Ried, Thomas; Heselmeyer-Haddad, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) is associated with poor prognosis. To improve prognostication, we analyzed four gene probes (TERC, CCND1, EGFR and TP53) and the centromere probe CEP4 as a marker of chromosomal instability, using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in single cells from the tumors of sixty-five OTSCC patients (Stage I, n = 15; Stage II, n = 30; Stage III, n = 7; Stage IV, n = 13). Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of the FISH data distinguished three clusters related to smoking status. Copy number increases of all five markers were found to be correlated to non-smoking habits, while smokers in this cohort had low-level copy number gains. Using the phylogenetic modeling software FISHtrees, we constructed models of tumor progression for each patient based on the four gene probes. Then, we derived test statistics on the models that are significant predictors of disease-free and overall survival, independent of tumor stage and smoking status in multivariate analysis. The patients whose tumors were modeled as progressing by a more diverse distribution of copy number changes across the four genes have poorer prognosis. This is consistent with the view that multiple genetic pathways need to become deregulated in order for cancer to progress. PMID:26175310

  17. Presence of a putative tumor-initiating progenitor cell population predicts poor prognosis in smokers with non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, Aik T.; Mah, Vei; Nickerson, Derek W.; Gilbert, Jennifer L.; Ha, Vi Luan; Hegab, Ahmed E.; Horvath, Steve; Alavi, Mohammad; Maresh, Erin L.; Chia, David; Gower, Adam C.; Lenburg, Marc E.; Spira, Avrum; Solis, Luisa M.; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Walser, Tonya C.; Wallace, William D.; Dubinett, Steven M.; Goodglick, Lee; Gomperts, Brigitte N.

    2010-01-01

    Smoking is the most important known risk factor for the development of lung cancer. Tobacco exposure results in chronic inflammation, tissue injury and repair. A recent hypothesis argues for a stem/progenitor cell involved in airway epithelial repair that may be a tumor-initiating cell in lung cancer, and which may be associated with recurrence and metastasis. We used immunostaining, quantitative real-time PCR, Western blots and lung cancer tissue microarrays to identify subpopulations of airway epithelial stem/progenitor cells under steady state conditions, normal repair, aberrant repair with premalignant lesions and lung cancer and their correlation with injury and prognosis. We identified a population of keratin 14 (K14)-expressing progenitor epithelial cells that was involved in repair after injury. Dysregulated repair resulted in persistence of K14+ cells in the airway epithelium in premalignant lesions. The presence of K14+ cells in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) samples predicted poorer outcomes. This was especially true in smokers where the presence of K14+ cells in NSCLC was predictive of metastasis. The presence of K14+ progenitor airway epithelial cells in NSCLC predicted a poor prognosis and this predictive value was strongest in smokers, where it also correlated with metastasis. This suggests that reparative K14+ progenitor cells may be tumor-initiating cells in this subgroup of smokers with NSCLC. PMID:20710044

  18. Phylogenetic Analysis of Multiple FISH Markers in Oral Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma Suggests that a Diverse Distribution of Copy Number Changes Is Associated with Poor Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Wangsa, Darawalee; Chowdhury, Salim Akhter; Ryott, Michael; Gertz, E. Michael; Elmberger, Göran; Auer, Gert; Lundqvist, Elisabeth Åvall; Küffer, Stefan; Ströbel, Philipp; Schäffer, Alejandro A.; Schwartz, Russell; Munck-Wikland, Eva; Ried, Thomas; Heselmeyer-Haddad, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) is associated with poor prognosis. To improve prognostication, we analyzed four gene probes (TERC, CCND1, EGFR, and TP53) and the centromere probe CEP4 as a marker of chromosomal instability, using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in single cells from the tumors of sixty-five OTSCC patients (Stage I, n=15; Stage II, n=30; Stage III, n=7; Stage IV, n=13). Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of the FISH data distinguished three clusters related to smoking status. Copy number increases of all five markers were found to be correlated to non-smoking habits, while smokers in this cohort had low-level copy number gains. Using the phylogenetic modeling software FISHtrees, we constructed models of tumor progression for each patient based on the four gene probes. Then, we derived test statistics on the models that are significant predictors of disease-free and overall survival, independent of tumor stage and smoking status in multivariate analysis. The patients whose tumors were modeled as progressing by a more diverse distribution of copy number changes across the four genes have poorer prognosis. This is consistent with the view that multiple genetic pathways need to become deregulated in order for cancer to progress. PMID:26175310

  19. High expression of hexokinase domain containing 1 is associated with poor prognosis and aggressive phenotype in hepatocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zijian; Huang, Shanzhou; Wang, Huanyu; Wu, Jian; Chen, Dong; Peng, Baogang; Zhou, Qi

    2016-06-10

    Rapid progress and metastasis remain the major treatment failure modes of hepatocarcinoma (HCC). Unfortunately, the underlying molecular mechanisms of hepatoma cell proliferation and migration are poorly understood. Metabolic abnormalities play critical roles in tumorigenesis and progression. Hexokinase domain containing 1 (HKDC1) catalyzes the phosphorylation of glucose. However, the functions and mechanisms of HKDC1 in cancer remain unknown. In this study, real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting assays were used to detect the HKDC1 expression levels in HCC tissues and cell lines. The Oncomine™ Cancer Microarray Database was applied to analysis the correlations between HKDC1 expression and HCC clinical characteristics. MTT and Transwell migration assays were performed to determine the functions of HKDC1 in HCC cells. The effect of HKDC1 on Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was assessed using Western blotting assay. In this study, we found that HKDC1 expression levels were elevated in HCC tissues compared with the adjacent tissues. HCC patients with high expression levels of HKDC1 had poor overall survival (OS). Furthermore, higher HKDC1 levels also predicted a worse OS of patients within solitary, elevated pre-operated serum alpha fetoprotein (AFP) level and higher tumor diameter. Moreover, silencing HKDC1 suppressed HCC cells proliferation and migration in vitro. Downregulated HKDC1 expression repressed β-Catenin and c-Myc expression, which indicates that silencing HKDC1 may reduce proliferation and migration via inhibiting the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in HCC. In summary, HKDC1 provides further insight into HCC tumor progression and may provide a novel prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for HCC treatment. PMID:27155152

  20. High Infiltration of Tumor-Associated Macrophages Influences Poor Prognosis in Human Gastric Cancer Patients, Associates With the Phenomenon of EMT

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jia; Yan, Yan; Yang, Ya; Wang, Li; Li, Min; Wang, Jizhao; Liu, Xu; Duan, Xiaoyi; Wang, Jiansheng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are associated with poor prognosis in numerous human cancers and play important roles in tumor progression. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) contributes to invasion and metastasis in cancer. However, the associations between TAMs and EMT are not clear in gastric cancer (GC). The present study was designed to investigate the effects of TAMs on EMT in human GC. TAMs marker CD68 and EMT-related proteins were detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in human GC tissues and their clinical significance were evaluated. A high level of infiltration of TAMs was associated with aggressive characteristics of tumor and an independent poor prognostic factor in human GC tissues. Infiltration of TAMs was also associated with EMT-related proteins in human GC tissues. Our findings suggest that the high level of infiltration TAMs was associated with aggressive features of GC and is an independent poor prognostic factor in GC patients. TAMs are associated with EMT induction in human GC tissues. The level of TAMs infiltration may be used as a prognostic factor and even a therapeutic target in GC. PMID:26871785

  1. High Infiltration of Tumor-Associated Macrophages Influences Poor Prognosis in Human Gastric Cancer Patients, Associates With the Phenomenon of EMT.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia; Yan, Yan; Yang, Ya; Wang, Li; Li, Min; Wang, Jizhao; Liu, Xu; Duan, Xiaoyi; Wang, Jiansheng

    2016-02-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are associated with poor prognosis in numerous human cancers and play important roles in tumor progression. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) contributes to invasion and metastasis in cancer. However, the associations between TAMs and EMT are not clear in gastric cancer (GC). The present study was designed to investigate the effects of TAMs on EMT in human GC.TAMs marker CD68 and EMT-related proteins were detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in human GC tissues and their clinical significance were evaluated.A high level of infiltration of TAMs was associated with aggressive characteristics of tumor and an independent poor prognostic factor in human GC tissues. Infiltration of TAMs was also associated with EMT-related proteins in human GC tissues.Our findings suggest that the high level of infiltration TAMs was associated with aggressive features of GC and is an independent poor prognostic factor in GC patients. TAMs are associated with EMT induction in human GC tissues. The level of TAMs infiltration may be used as a prognostic factor and even a therapeutic target in GC. PMID:26871785

  2. Down-regulated expression of the protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is associated with aggressive clinicopathologic features and poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Long-Yi; Zhou, Dong-Xun; Lu, Jin; Zhang, Wen-Jun; Zou, Da-Jin

    2012-04-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PTP1B protein showed decreased expression in 67.79% of the HCC patients. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low PTP1B expression predicts poor prognosis of HCC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low PTP1B expression is correlated with expansion of OV6{sup +} tumor-initiating cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Down-regulation of PTP1B is associated with activation of Wnt/{beta}-Catenin signaling. -- Abstract: The protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a classical non-transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase that plays a key role in metabolic signaling and can exert both tumor suppressing and tumor promoting effects in different cancers depending on the substrate involved and the cellular context. However, the expression level and function of PTP1B in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unclear. In this study, PTP1B expression was detected by immunohistochemistry in normal liver tissue (n = 16) and hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 169). The correlations between PTP1B expression level and clinicopathologic features and patient survival were also analyzed. One hundred and eleven of 169 HCC patients (65.7%) had negative or low PTP1B expression in tumorous tissues, whereas normal tissues always expressed strong PTP1B. Decreased PTP1B expression was significantly associated with aggressive clinicopathologic features and poor prognosis. Immunohistochemistry also showed that low PTP1B expression level was correlated with high percentage of OV6{sup +} tumor-initiating cells (T-ICs) and high frequency of nuclear {beta}-Catenin expression in HCC specimens. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that the loss of inhibitory effect of PTP1B may contribute to progression and invasion of HCC through activation of Wnt/{beta}-Catenin signaling and expansion of liver T-ICs. PTP1B may serve as a valuable prognostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target in HCC.

  3. Maintenance of remission following 2 years of standard treatment then dose reduction with abatacept in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis and poor prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Westhovens, Rene; Robles, Manuel; Ximenes, Antonio Carlos; Wollenhaupt, Jurgen; Durez, Patrick; Gomez-Reino, Juan; Grassi, Walter; Haraoui, Boulos; Shergy, William; Park, Sung-Hwan; Genant, Harry; Peterfy, Charles; Becker, Jean-Claude; Murthy, Bindu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate maintenance of response while reducing intravenous abatacept dose from ∼10 mg/kg to ∼5 mg/kg in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who achieved disease activity score (DAS)28 (erythrocyte sedimentation rate, ESR) <2.6. Methods This 1-year, multinational, randomised, double-blind substudy evaluated the efficacy and safety of ∼10 mg/kg and ∼5 mg/kg abatacept in patients with early RA with poor prognosis who had reached DAS28 (ESR) <2.6 at year 2 of the AGREE study. The primary outcome was time to disease relapse (defined as additional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, ≥2 courses high-dose steroids, return to open-label abatacept ∼10 mg/kg, or DAS28 (C reactive protein) ≥3.2 at two consecutive visits). Results 108 patients were randomised (∼10 mg/kg, n=58; ∼5 mg/kg, n=50). Three and five patients, respectively, discontinued, and four per group returned to open-label abatacept. Relapse over time and the proportion of patients relapsing were similar in both groups (31% (∼10 mg/kg) vs 34% (∼5 mg/kg); HR: 0.87 (95% CI 0.45 to 1.69)). Mean steady-state trough serum concentration for the ∼10 mg/kg group was 20.3–24.1 µg/mL, compared with 8.8–12.0 µg/mL for the ∼5 mg/kg group. Conclusions This exploratory study suggests that abatacept dose reduction may be an option in patients with poor prognosis early RA who achieve DAS28 (ESR) <2.6 after ≥1 year on abatacept (∼10 mg/kg). Trial registration number NCT00989235. PMID:25550337

  4. Neuropilin-1 Promotes Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition by Stimulating Nuclear Factor-Kappa B and Is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Weiming; Song, Xiaomeng; Yang, Xueming; Ma, Lu; Zhu, Jiang; He, Mengying; Wang, Zilu; Wu, Yunong

    2014-01-01

    Background The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key process in carcinogenesis, invasion, and metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). In our previous studies, we found that neuropilin-1 (NRP1) is overexpressed in tongue squamous cell carcinoma and that this overexpression is associated with cell migration and invasion. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) plays an essential role both in the induction and the maintenance of EMT and tumor metastasis. Therefore, we hypothesized that NRP1 induces EMT, and that NRP1-induced migration and invasion may be an important mechanism for promoting invasion and metastasis of OSCC through NF-κB activation. Methods/Results The variations in gene and protein expression and the changes in the biological behavior of OSCC cell lines transfected with a vector encoding NRP1, or the corresponding vector control, were evaluated. NRP1 overexpression promoted EMT and was associated with enhanced invasive and metastatic properties. Furthermore, the induction of EMT promoted the acquisition of some cancer stem cell (CSC)-like characteristics in OSCC cells. We addressed whether selective inhibition of NF-κB suppresses the NRP1-mediated EMT by treating cells with pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate ammonium (PDTC), an inhibitor of NF-κB. Immunohistochemical analysis of NRP1 in OSCC tissue samples further supported a key mediator role for NRP1 in tumor progression, lymph node metastasis, and indicated that NRP1 is a predictor for poor prognosis in OSCC patients. Conclusion Our results indicate that NRP1 may regulate the EMT process in OSCC cell lines through NF-κB activation, and that higher NRP1 expression levels are associated with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis in OSCC patients. Further investigation of the role of NRP1 in tumorigenesis may help identify novel targets for the prevention and therapy of oral cancers. PMID:24999732

  5. Copy number gain of PIK3CA and MET is associated with poor prognosis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Brauswetter, Diána; Dános, Kornél; Gurbi, Bianka; Félegyházi, Éva Fruzsina; Birtalan, Ede; Meggyesházi, Nóra; Krenács, Tibor; Tamás, László; Peták, István

    2016-05-01

    The incidence of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas is still growing, and the long-term prognosis of advanced disease remains poor. Only a fraction of head and neck cancers are sensitive to the EGFR-inhibitor cetuximab, which is the only registered targeted therapy available today. In several cancers, gene copy number alterations of MET and PIK3CA have been found to be prognostic and predictive for therapy response. The aim of this study was to systematically analyze in head and neck cancers the pathological characteristics and prognostic significance of copy number changes of MET and PIK3CA genes. MET and PIK3CA copy numbers were analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization in tumor samples of 152 patients. Expression of EGFR, p16, and Ki67 was studied by immunohistochemistry. High polysomy of PIK3CA (chromosome 3) was found in 20 % of cases and amplification in 4.5 %. Regarding MET, 35 % of cases showed low or high polysomy of the gene (chromosome 7), while no intra-chromosomal amplification of MET was detected. PIK3CA copy number gain (high polysomy or amplification) was significantly associated with shorter disease-specific survival, larger tumor volume, and lower p16 expression. MET copy number gain (low or high polysomy) in tumors was significantly associated with shorter disease-specific survival and lower level of EGFR. PIK3CA and MET may play an important role in oncogenesis of certain specific subtypes of head and neck cancer. There is an urgent need for the development of novel targeted therapies against these tumors associated with poor prognosis. PMID:26832731

  6. Decreased expression of 14-3-3σ is predictive of poor prognosis for patients with human uterine papillary serous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Fumihiko; Nagase, Satoru; Suzuki, Kichiya; Oba, Etsuko; Hiroki, Eri; Matsuda, Yukika; Akahira, Jun-Ichi; Nishigori, Hidekazu; Sugiyama, Takashi; Otsuki, Takeo; Yoshinaga, Kousuke; Takano, Tadao; Niikura, Hitoshi; Ito, Kiyoshi; Sasano, Hironobu; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2013-01-01

    Uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) morphologically resembles ovarian serous carcinoma and is categorized as a type II endometrial cancer. UPSC comprises about 10% of all types of endometrial cancer and has an aggressive clinical course and a poor prognosis. The 14-3-3σ gene was originally discovered as a p53-inducible gene; its expression is induced by DNA damage in a p53-dependent manner, which leads to G2 arrest and repair of damaged DNA. Moreover, it has been reported that expression of 14-3-3σ is frequently lost in various types of human cancer, including ovarian cancer. We therefore examined the association between 14-3-3σ expression determined by immunohistochemistry and clinical outcomes of 51 patients with UPSC. UPSC was considered positive for 14-3-3σ when > 30% of tumor cells were stained with a specific antibody. Of these patients, 29 (58.7%) showed positive immunoreactivity for 14-3-3σ and 22 (41.3%) had decreased 14-3-3σ staining. Decreased immunoreactivity for 14-3-3σ was associated with stage (P = 0.001) and lymphovascular space involvement (P = 0.005). Moreover, decreased 14-3-3σ expression was an independent risk factor for reduced overall survival (P = 0.0416) in multivariate analysis. Direct bisulfite sequencing was performed to evaluate the methylation status of the 27 CpG islands in the promoter region and first exon of the 14-3-3σ gene. These CpG islands were hypermethylated in 30% of 14-3-3σ-positive UPSC and 80% of 14-3-3σ-negative UPSC, although the difference was not statistically significant. These findings suggest that decreased expression of immunoreactive 14-3-3σ may be a predictor of poor prognosis in patients with UPSC. PMID:24201220

  7. High expression of Y-box-binding protein 1 correlates with poor prognosis and early recurrence in patients with small invasive lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shilei; Guo, Wei; Li, Jinxiu; Yu, Wendan; Guo, Tao; Deng, Wuguo; Gu, Chundong

    2016-01-01

    Background Prognosis of small (≤2 cm) invasive lung adenocarcinoma remains poor, and identification of high-risk individuals from the patients after complete surgical resection of lung adenocarcinoma has become an urgent problem. YBX1 has been reported to be able to predict prognosis in many cancers (except lung adenocarcinoma) that are independent of TNM (tumor, nodes, metastases) staging, especially small invasive lung adenocarcinoma. Therefore, we examined the significance of YBX1 expression on prognosis and recurrence in patients with small invasive lung adenocarcinoma. Material and methods A total of 75 patients with small invasive lung adenocarcinoma after complete resection were enrolled from January 2008 to December 2010. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression of YBX1, and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to precisely assess the overall expression of YBX1. Meanwhile, primary lesions were identified based on the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, the American Thoracic Society, and the European Respiratory Society’s classification of lung adenocarcinoma. The effect of different clinicopathological factors on patients’ survival was examined. Furthermore, Western blot analysis was used to show the expression of YBX1 in vitro. Results Sensitivity and specificity of YBX1 for detecting small invasive lung adenocarcinoma from normal surrounding tissue were 66.7% and 74.7% (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve =0.731; P<0.001), respectively. High YBX1 expression was detected in 31 (41.3%) patients, and in A549, H322, Hcc827, and H1299 lung adenocarcinoma cells but not in HLF cells. In addition to sex, age, tumor size, TNM staging, pleural invasion, and lymph node metastasis, the expression of YBX1 was associated with the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, the American Thoracic Society, and the European Respiratory Society pathological grade risk (P

  8. p63 is an alternative p53 repressor in melanoma that confers chemoresistance and a poor prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Matin, Rubeta N.; Chikh, Anissa; Law Pak Chong, Stephanie; Mesher, David; Graf, Manuela; Sanza’, Paolo; Senatore, Valentina; Scatolini, Maria; Moretti, Francesca; Leigh, Irene M.; Proby, Charlotte M.; Costanzo, Antonio; Chiorino, Giovanna; Cerio, Rino; Harwood, Catherine A.

    2013-01-01

    The role of apoptosis in melanoma pathogenesis and chemoresistance is poorly characterized. Mutations in TP53 occur infrequently, yet the TP53 apoptotic pathway is often abrogated. This may result from alterations in TP53 family members, including the TP53 homologue TP63. Here we demonstrate that TP63 has an antiapoptotic role in melanoma and is responsible for mediating chemoresistance. Although p63 was not expressed in primary melanocytes, up-regulation of p63 mRNA and protein was observed in melanoma cell lines and clinical samples, providing the first evidence of significant p63 expression in this lineage. Upon genotoxic stress, endogenous p63 isoforms were stabilized in both nuclear and mitochondrial subcellular compartments. Our data provide evidence of a physiological interaction between p63 with p53 whereby translocation of p63 to the mitochondria occurred through a codependent process with p53, whereas accumulation of p53 in the nucleus was prevented by p63. Using RNA interference technology, both isoforms of p63 (TA and ΔNp63) were demonstrated to confer chemoresistance, revealing a novel oncogenic role for p63 in melanoma cells. Furthermore, expression of p63 in both primary and metastatic melanoma clinical samples significantly correlated with melanoma-specific deaths in these patients. Ultimately, these observations provide a possible explanation for abrogation of the p53-mediated apoptotic pathway in melanoma, implicating novel approaches aimed at sensitizing melanoma to therapeutic agents. PMID:23420876

  9. High CD4+ T cell density is associated with poor prognosis in patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qinglei; Hao, Chongli; Cheng, Guangzhou; Wang, Lei; Wang, Xiang; Li, Chang; Qiu, Juhui; Ding, Kejia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of CD4+ T cells in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) tissues in situ. Methods: Immunohistochemistry was used to examine the distribution of CD4+ T cells in 131 NMIBC tissues. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression models were applied to estimate overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS). Results: NMIBC patients were divided into two groups based on the median frequency of CD4+ T cells (median, 1/×400 high resolution). On univariate analysis, CD4+ T cell density was inversely associated with overall survival (P = 0.01). In those patients with high CD4+ T density, 5-year OS rates was only 77%, compared with 86% in those with low density, respectively. Although CD4+ T cell density showed no prognostic significance for RFS (P = 0.36), 5-year RFS rates of patients with high CD4+ T density (58%) was lower than those of patients with low CD4+ T density (65%, respectively). By multivariate analysis, tumor infiltrating CD4+ T cell density emerged as an independent prognostic factor for OS (HR, 2.75; P = 0.004). In addition, no association was found between CD4+ T cell density and any clinicopathological variables (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that CD4+ T cells could potentially serve as a poor prognostic marker for patients with NMIBC. PMID:26617883

  10. Intra-tumour IgA1 is common in cancer and is correlated with poor prognosis in bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Welinder, Charlotte; Jirström, Karin; Lehn, Sophie; Nodin, Björn; Marko-Varga, György; Blixt, Ola; Danielsson, Lena; Jansson, Bo

    2016-08-01

    A high frequency of IgA1-positive tumour cells was found in tissue micro-arrays of oesophagus, colon, testis, lung, breast, bladder and ovarian cancer. IgA1 was observed in the cytoplasm and the plasma membrane. A correlation was found between intra-tumour IgA1 and poor overall survival in a large cohort of bladder cancer patients (n = 99, p = 0.011, log-rank test). The number of IgA1-positive tumour cells was also found to be higher in female than male bladder cancer patients. The presence of IgA1 was confirmed in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded ovarian carcinoma samples using LC-MS/MS analysis. Uptake of IgA1 was also observed in breast cancer and melanoma cell lines when cultivated in the presence of serum from healthy individuals, indicating a possible origin of the IgA1 antibodies in cancer cells. PMID:27579449