Science.gov

Sample records for poor prognostic characteristics

  1. Factors determining poor prognostic outcomes following diabetic hand infections

    PubMed Central

    Ince, Bilsev; Dadaci, Mehmet; Arslan, Abdullah; Altuntas, Zeynep; Evrenos, Mustafa Kursat; Fatih Karsli, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Hand ulcers are seen in a small percentage of patients with diabetes. The predisposing factors of diabetic hand varies between different countries. However, the effects of predisposing factors on prognosis are not clear in diabetic hand infections. In this study, our aim was to determine the effects of predisposing factors on poor prognostic outcomes in patients with diabetes mellitus. Methods: Thirty-four patients with diabetes mellitus who were treated and followed up for a hand infection in between 2008 and 2014 were investigated retrospectively. Patients were evaluated according to predisposing factors defined in the literature that included disease period, age, gender, admission time, presence of neuropathy, smoking habits, HbA1c levels at admission time, peripheral vascular disease, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and trauma. Death and minor/major amputation cases during treatment were defined as poor prognosis. Results: Patients who had ESRD, peripheral neuropathy, or an HbA1c level greater than 10% had significantly higher amputation rates. Conclusions: Peripheral neuropathy, ESRD, and HbA1c levels greater than 10% at the time of admission were determined as poor prognosis criteria for diabetic hand treatment. PMID:26150838

  2. Analysis of clinical characteristics and prognostic factors for angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Kameoka, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Naoto; Itou, Shigeki; Kume, Masaaki; Noji, Hideyoshi; Kato, Yuichi; Ichikawa, Yoshikazu; Sasaki, Osamu; Motegi, Mutsuhito; Ishiguro, Atsushi; Tagawa, Hiroyuki; Ishizawa, Kenichi; Ishida, Yoji; Ichinohasama, Ryo; Harigae, Hideo; Sawada, Kenichi

    2015-06-01

    Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) is a distinct peripheral T-cell lymphoma entity exhibiting peculiar clinical features and poor prognosis. Its clinical characteristics and prognostic factors are not well established. To clarify the clinical characteristics and prognostic features of AITL, we conducted a multicenter, retrospective study. Fifty-six patients were enrolled. The median patient age was 68 years. Immunohistochemical examinations of tumor cells showed positivity for CD10 and T-cell markers, and chromosomal examination detected several types of abnormalities. More than 80 % of patients show advanced disease at diagnosis and poor prognostic scores. A high proportion of patients showed accompanying B symptoms, splenomegaly, and hepatomegaly at diagnosis. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 48 % and progression-free survival was 25 %. Univariate analysis revealed higher age, fever, poor performance status, anemia, and low albumin level to be poor prognostic factors for OS. In addition to these factors, both IPI and PIT were also predictive of OS. Multivariate analysis indicated only a low level of serum albumin to be a significant prognostic factor for OS. Serum albumin may be one of the important prognostic factors for AITL. Further investigation is needed to confirm these results. PMID:25739382

  3. Clinical characteristics and prognostic analysis of Krukenberg tumor

    PubMed Central

    WU, FANG; ZHAO, XIAOAI; MI, BAIBING; FENG, LU; YUAN, NA; LEI, FUXI; LI, MIN; ZHAO, XINHAN

    2015-01-01

    Krukenberg tumor is a rare metastastic tumor of the ovary, characterized by poor prognosis. In order to analyze the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors, we retrospectively investigated 128 patients who were diagnosed with Krukenberg tumor between January, 1990 and December, 2010. The median patient age was 48 years. The median overall survival (OS) of Krukenberg tumor for all patients was 16 months (95% CI: 15–19 months). The median OS among patients with Krukenberg tumors of gastric, colorectal, breast and other origins (including appendix, gallbladder, small intestine and unknown primary) was 11, 21.5, 31 and 19.5 months, respectively (P<0.0001). In the univariate analysis, synchronous metastasis, no chemotherapy, ovarian metastasis beyond the pelvis, ascites and no metastasectomy were identified as significant poor prognostic factors. The multivariate analysis suggested that synchronous metastasis (P=0.0080), pelvic invasion (P=0.0138), ascites (P<0.0001) and no metastasectomy (P=0.0060) were independent factors for predicting unfavorable OS. It was suggested that the prognosis of Krukenberg tumor is dismal and ovarian metastasectomy may prove beneficial. Adequate treatment planning is required for this group of patients. PMID:26807242

  4. Prognostic significance of grading based on the counting of poorly differentiated clusters in colorectal mucinous adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Barresi, Valeria; Reggiani Bonetti, Luca; Ieni, Antonio; Domati, Federica; Tuccari, Giovanni

    2015-11-01

    Mucinous adenocarcinoma (MAC) of the colon and rectum is a histological entity with still indefinite prognostic significance. Although it was previously designated as poorly differentiated by convention, the most recent World Health Organization guidelines indicate that the level of maturation of the epithelium determines differentiation in MAC and that microsatellite instability status should be taken into account for its histological grading. Nonetheless, precise criteria for grading are not provided, and the prognostic value of histological grading in MAC still remains unclear. In the present study we aimed to investigate the prognostic value of a grading system based on the counting of poorly differentiated clusters (PDC) of neoplastic cells in 108 colorectal MACs and to compare its reproducibility and significance with those of a grading system based on glandular differentiation. We found that PDC grade was more reproducible and significantly associated with disease progression (P = .0089) as well as with death from colorectal cancer (P = .0035) in our MACs, as compared to the grade based on glandular differentiation, which was not associated with any of the clinicopathologic variables. Moreover, PDC grade emerged as a significant, independent prognostic factor of recurrence-free survival (P = .0198) and cancer-specific survival (P = .0293) in MAC. Interestingly, the prognostic value of PDC grade was unaltered following incorporation of mismatch repair system status in grading. In conclusion, we demonstrated for the first time that PDC grading is feasible, reproducible, and prognostically relevant in MAC, which may support its use in routine practice. PMID:26344416

  5. Prognostic value of clinicopathological characteristics in patients with pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Mei; Xu, Haoping; Ren, Ruobing; Qu, Qing; Shangguan, Chengfang; Wu, Junwei; Jiang, Jinsong; Li, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of all clinical characteristics on the overall survival time, in order to provide a basis for determining the prognostic factor of patients with pancreatic cancer. Methods A total of 103 pancreatic cancer patients were admitted to the Department of Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy of the Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, between January 2002 and December 2012. There were 68 men and 35 women; the median age was 62 years. Diagnoses of pancreatic cancer in all patients were confirmed by histopathology, cytology, or clinical diagnosis. The Kaplan-Meier method was performed to calculate the overall survival rate. The log-rank method was used to examine the univariate analysis. The Cox regression model was performed for multivariate analysis. Results The median survival time was 293 days, the 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rates were 27.18%, 5.83%, and 1.94%, respectively. Cox regression analysis revealed that age (P=0.015), Karnofsky performance status (PS) (P=0.002), surgical types (P<0.001), and platelet counts (P<0.001) were independent prognostic factors affecting the overall survival of patients with pancreatic cancer. Conclusions Pancreatic cancer had a poor prognosis, the general physical condition, age, the availability of radical surgery, and platelet counts were factors influencing the overall survival of patients with pancreatic cancer. PMID:26543338

  6. Poor prognostic factors after repeat hepatectomy for recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma in the modern era.

    PubMed

    Tsujita, Eiji; Yamashita, Yo-Ichi; Takeishi, Kazuki; Matsuyama, Ayumi; Tsutsui, Shin-Ichi; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Toshima, Takeo; Taketomi, Akinobu; Shirabe, Ken; Ishida, Teruyoshi; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the poor prognostic factors after repeat hepatectomy (Hx) in patients with recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Overall survival rates and clinicopathological variables in 112 patients with repeat Hx from 1992 to 2010 were compared with those in 531 patients who underwent a primary Hx. To clarify the poor prognosis factors after repeat Hx, survival data among 112 patients were univariately and multivariately analyzed. Overall survival after repeat Hx was similar for that of the patients who underwent a primary Hx. The mean age of repeat Hx group was significantly higher, and a well-preserved liver function was recognized than the primary Hx group. Multivariate analysis revealed that: 1) indocyanine green retention rate at 15 minutes; 2) disease-free interval; 3) tumor size; 4) portal vein invasion at primary Hx; 5) gender; and 6) estimated blood loss to be an independent and significant poor prognostic factors. The overall 3-year postrecurrence overall survival rates were 100, 91.3, 59.6, and 0 per cent at risk number (R) R0, R1/2, R3, R4, respectively (P < 0.05). Repeat Hx provided a good compatible prognosis with primary Hx. In our findings, five risk factors to predict poor outcomes after repeat Hx were useful. Patients with recurrent HCC do not have universally poor outcomes, and our simple scoring system using five poor prognostic factors could serve to advise the prognosis and the potential benefit for patient selection about repeat Hx. PMID:22472398

  7. Glycodelin A is a prognostic marker to predict poor outcome in advanced stage ovarian cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Glycodelin is a cell surface glycoprotein offering a unique gender specific carbohydrate configuration. Sialylated carbohydrate structures, which are unusual for mammals, characterize Glycodelin isolated from amniotic fluid (Glycodelin A, GdA). Glycodelin in general exerts multiple, partly opposing functions ranging from immunosuppression to cell differentiation. As these markedly influence tumorigenesis, this study aimed to clarify whether expression of different Glycodelin isoforms is related to clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of ovarian cancer patients. Further the use of Glycodelin as a serum marker in benign and malignant ovarian diseases was evaluated. Methods Ovarian cancer specimens (n = 152) were stained for Glycodelin with carbohydrate and peptide specific antibodies. Associations between Glycodelin expression and histological grading, FIGO stage as well as patients prognosis were examined. Glycodelin was correlated to expression of gonadotropin receptors and mucin-1, which are discussed as ovarian cancer tissue markers. In addition, Glycodelin serum concentrations were analyzed in patients suffering from benign (n = 73) or malignant (n = 38) ovarian neoplasias. Results Glycodelin A was found to be an independent prognostic marker for poor prognosis in advanced ovarian cancer patients. GdA staining correlated with gonadotropin receptor (FSHR and LHCGR) and with hCG expression. Gd expression showed a positive correlation with a tumour-associated epitope of mucin 1 (TA-MUC1). Further, compared to ovarian cancer, serum Gd was increased in patients with benign ovarian tumors. Conclusion Glycodelin A might be related to tumor aggressiveness and poor clinical outcome in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Glycodelin serum levels found in patients suffering from benign ovarian tumors, might contribute to a more global attenuation during progression of these precursor lesions. PMID:23036050

  8. MicroRNA profile of poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas – new diagnostic and prognostic insights

    PubMed Central

    Dettmer, Matthias S.; Perren, Aurel; Moch, Holger; Komminoth, Paul; Nikiforov, Yuri E.; Nikiforova, Marina N.

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of conventional and oncocytic poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas is difficult. The aim of this study was to characterize their largely unknown miRNA expression profile and to compare it to well differentiated thyroid tumors as well as to identify miRNAs which could potentially serve as diagnostic and prognostic markers. A total of 14 poorly differentiated, 13 oncocytic poorly differentiated, 72 well differentiated thyroid carcinomas and 8 normal thyroid specimens were studied for expression of 768 miRNAs using PCR-Microarrays. MiRNA expression was different between poorly differentiated and oncocytic poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas demonstrating individual clusters on the clustering analysis. Both tumor types showed upregulation of miR-125a-5p, -15a-3p, -182, -183-3p, -222, -222-5p and downregulation of miR-130b, -139-5p, -150, -193a-5p, -219-5p, -23b, -451, -455-3p and of miR-886-3p as compared to normal thyroid tissue. In addition, the oncocytic poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas demonstrated upregulation of miR-221 and miR-885-5p. The difference in expression was also observed between miRNA expression in poorly differentiated and well differentiated tumors. The CHAID algorithm allowed to separate poorly differentiated from well differentiated thyroid carcinomas with a 73–79% accuracy using miR-23b and miR-150 as a separator. Kaplan-Meier and multivariate analysis showed a significant association with tumor relapses (for miR-23b) and with tumor specific death (for miR-150) in poorly differentiated and oncocytic poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas. MiRNA expression is different in conventional and oncocytic poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas in comparison to well differentiated thyroid cancers and can be used for discrimination between these tumor types. The newly identified deregulated miRNAs (miR-150, miR-23b) bear the potential to be used in a clinical setting delivering prognostic and diagnostic information. PMID:24443580

  9. MATTED NODES: POOR PROGNOSTIC MARKER IN OROPHARYNGEAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA INDEPENDENT OF HPV AND EGFR STATUS

    PubMed Central

    Spector, Matthew E.; Gallagher, K. Kelly; Light, Emily; Ibrahim, Mohannad; Chanowski, Eric J.; Moyer, Jeffrey S.; Prince, Mark E.; Wolf, Gregory T.; Bradford, Carol R.; Cordell, Kitrina; McHugh, Jonathan B.; Carey, Thomas; Worden, Francis P.; Eisbruch, Avraham; Chepeha, Douglas B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite better prognosis, there is a group of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) human papillomavirus (HPV)+ patients who experience treatment failure and succumb to distant metastasis. Methods Seventy-eight previously untreated patients nested in a concurrent chemoradiation protocol were reviewed to correlate patterns of local-regional tumor extent to distant metastasis. Biomarker assessment was: HPV in situ hybridization and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) immunointensity. Results The 3-year disease-specific survival (DSS) for patients presenting with and without matted nodes was 69% and 94%, respectively (p = .003). Matted nodes were a poor prognostic factor independent of T classification, HPV, EGFR, and smoking status. For patients who were HPV+, 7 of 11 died of distant metastasis and 6 of 7 with distant metastasis had matted nodes. Conclusion Matted nodes are a novel marker of poor prognosis in oropharyngeal SCC independent of established prognostic factors. Matted nodes may identify patients at risk for the development of distant metastasis who could benefit from systemic therapy, whereas patients without matted nodes may be candidates for de-escalation of therapy. PMID:22247002

  10. Identification of low miR-105 expression as a novel poor prognostic predictor for human glioma

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Yanlei; Chen, Ling; Bao, Yijun; Li, Zhipeng; Cui, Run; Li, Guangyu; Wang, Yunjie

    2015-01-01

    Glioma is the most common and aggressive brain tumor with poor clinical outcome. Identification and development of new biomarkers could be beneficial for diagnosis and prognosis of glioma patients. Recent studies have showed evidences that dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) is involved in glioma tumorigenesis. Therefore, we attempted to identify specific miRNAs as prognostic and predictive markers for glioma. We statistically compared expression profile of 365 miRNAs between WHO grade IV and grade III gliomas, by qRT-PCR. MiR-105 was identified as a remarkably decreased miRNA in grade IV gliomas compared with grade III gliomas (P=0.012, fold change =0.04). We subsequently examined its expression levels in an independent series of gliomas, and statistically analyzed the associations between miR-105 expression and clinicopathological characteristics and survivals of these glioma patients. MiR-105 showed remarkably decreased expression in gliomas as compared to non-neoplastic brains. And grade IV gliomas had significantly lower miR-105 expression compared with grade III and II gliomas (both P<0.001). Additionally, low miR-105 expression was statistically associated with advanced tumor grade, advanced patient’s age and low pre-operative Karnofsky performance score (all P<0.001). Furthermore, patients with low miR-105 expression had significantly poorer survival by Kaplan-Meier method (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis indicated miR-105 as an independent prognostic indicator for glioma patients (P=0.018, risk ratio =4.2). Our results suggested that low expression of miR-105 may correlate with unfavorable clinical outcome and be involved in tumorigenesis and aggressive progression of glioma. And miR-105 may be a novel biomarker in prognostic prediction for glioma. PMID:26379879

  11. Decreased Wnt5a Expression is a Poor Prognostic Factor in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, ZhenBin; Shan, Ming; Wang, Ji; Liu, Tong; Shi, QingYu; Pang, Da

    2016-01-01

    Background Wingless-type MMTV integration site family member 5A (Wnt5a) has been documented to either overexpress or be lost in several malignancies. Our study aimed to investigate the expression and clinical significance of Wnt5a protein in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Material/Methods By using immunohistochemistry, Wnt5a expression was evaluated in 90 TNBC specimens. The association between Wnt5a expression and clinic-pathological factors was assessed by using the chi-square test. The survival analysis of patients was conducted by using the Kaplan-Meier and log-rank tests. Cox regression was utilized for the univariate and multivariate analyses of prognostic factors. Results Results showed that negative Wnt5a expression correlated with positive lymph node metastasis (LNM) (P=0.007) and Ki67 proliferation (P=0.002). Patients with negative Wnt5a expression had significantly poorer recurrence-free survival (RFS) than patients with positive Wnt5a expression (P=0.008). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that decreased Wnt5a expression was an independent prognostic factor for RFS (P=0.014). Conclusions Negative Wnt5a protein expression might contribute to the tumor progression and poor prognosis of TNBC and might be a new therapy target in TNBC. PMID:26721633

  12. MicroRNA profile of poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas: new diagnostic and prognostic insights.

    PubMed

    Dettmer, Matthias S; Perren, Aurel; Moch, Holger; Komminoth, Paul; Nikiforov, Yuri E; Nikiforova, Marina N

    2014-04-01

    The diagnosis of conventional and oncocytic poorly differentiated (oPD) thyroid carcinomas is difficult. The aim of this study is to characterise their largely unknown miRNA expression profile and to compare it with well-differentiated thyroid tumours, as well as to identify miRNAs which could potentially serve as diagnostic and prognostic markers. A total of 14 poorly differentiated (PD), 13 oPD, 72 well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas and eight normal thyroid specimens were studied for the expression of 768 miRNAs using PCR-Microarrays. MiRNA expression was different between PD and oPD thyroid carcinomas, demonstrating individual clusters on the clustering analysis. Both tumour types showed upregulation of miR-125a-5p, -15a-3p, -182, -183-3p, -222, -222-5p, and downregulation of miR-130b, -139-5p, -150, -193a-5p, -219-5p, -23b, -451, -455-3p and of miR-886-3p as compared with normal thyroid tissue. In addition, the oPD thyroid carcinomas demonstrated upregulation of miR-221 and miR-885-5p. The difference in expression was also observed between miRNA expression in PD and well-differentiated tumours. The CHAID algorithm allowed the separation of PD from well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas with 73-79% accuracy using miR-23b and miR-150 as a separator. Kaplan-Meier and multivariate analysis showed a significant association with tumour relapses (for miR-23b) and with tumour-specific death (for miR-150) in PD and oPD thyroid carcinomas. MiRNA expression is different in conventional and oPD thyroid carcinomas in comparison with well-differentiated thyroid cancers and can be used for discrimination between these tumour types. The newly identified deregulated miRNAs (miR-150, miR-23b) bear the potential to be used in a clinical setting, delivering prognostic and diagnostic informations. PMID:24443580

  13. A Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma Revealed by a Single Bone Lesion with No Poor Prognostic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Godbert, Yann; Henriques-Figueiredo, Benedicte; Cazeau, Anne-Laure; Carrat, Xavier; Stegen, Marc; Soubeyran, Isabelle; Bonichon, Francoise

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Thyroid carcinomas incidence, in particular papillary variants, is increasing. These cancers are generally considered to have excellent prognosis, and papillary microcarcinomas are usually noninvasive. Many prognostic histopathology factors have been described to guide therapeutic decisions. Most patients are treated with total thyroidectomy without radioiodine treatment or partial surgery. Case Summary. A 65-year-old man with no significant medical history presented with pain in the left chest wall that had been present for several months. A computed tomography (CT) found a large tissue mass of 4 cm responsible for lysis of the middle arch of the 4th rib on the left. It was a single lesion, highly hypermetabolic on the 18-FDG PET/CT. The histology analysis of the biopsy and surgical specimen favored an adenocarcinoma with immunostaining positive for TTF1 and thyroglobulin (Tg). The total thyroidectomy carried out subsequently revealed a 4 mm papillary microcarcinoma with vesicular architecture of the right lobe, well delimited and distant from the capsule without vascular embolisms. After two radioiodine treatments, the patient is in complete clinical, biological, and radiological remission. Conclusion. This extremely rare case of a singular bone metastasis revealing a papillary thyroid microcarcinoma illustrates the necessity of further research to better characterize the forms of papillary thyroid microcarcinomas with potentially poor prognosis. PMID:23509641

  14. Mutant GDF15 presents a poor prognostic outcome for patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wen-wen; Liu, Ying; Tan, Yi-ran; Ma, Hai-long; Zhu, Dong-wang; Wang, Min; Wang, Li-zhen; Li, Jiang; Tu, Yao-yao; Zhang, Chen-ping; Zhang, Zhi-yuan; Zhong, Lai-ping

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the mutation status of growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), as well as the prognostic value of missense GDF15 mutations. Patients and methods Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded biopsy samples from 46 OSCC patients were involved in this study. GDF15 and TP53 mutations were sequenced using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine, GDF15 protein expression was detected using immunohistochemistry. Torrent Suite Software v.3.6, Integrative Genomics Viewer; v.2.3, statistical software SPSS18.0 for Windows were used for analysis. All hypothesis-generating tests were two-sided at a significance level of 0.05. Results Twenty-nine GDF15 mutations were identified in 19 out of 46 patients (41.3%), including eighteen missense mutations, two nonsense mutations and nine synonymous mutations. The patients with missense GDF15 mutations had poorer prognostic outcomes than those with wild-type GDF15, including overall survival (P = 0.035), disease-free survival (P = 0.032), locoregional recurrence-free survival (P = 0.015), and distant metastasis-free survival (P = 0.070). Missense GDF15mutations was an independent increased risk factor of overall survival (HR = 5.993, 95% CI:1.856–19.346, P = 0.003), disease-free survival (HR = 3.764, 95% CI:1.295–10.945, P = 0.015), locoregional recurrence-free survival (HR = 4.555, 95% CI:1.494–13.889, P = 0.008), and distant metastasis-free survival (HR = 4.420, 95% CI:1.145–13.433, P = 0.009). Conclusions Patients with missense GDF15 mutations have significantly poorer outcomes than those with wild-type GDF15, missense GDF15 mutations could be used as an independent increased risk factor of poor prognosis in OSCC patients. PMID:26544895

  15. Clinicopathological Characteristics and Prognostic Factors of Intrahepatic Biliary Cystadenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ming-Yue; Shi, Xian-Jie; Wan, Tao; Liang, Yu-Rong; Wang, Hong-Guang; Zhang, Wen-Zhi; He, Lei; Chen, Ming-Yi; Lyu, Shao-Cheng; Zhang, Wen-Wen; Li, Hui-Xing

    2015-01-01

    Background: Surgical resection is generally considered the main curative treatment for intrahepatic biliary cystadenocarcinoma (IBCA) or suspected IBCAs, but controversy exists regarding the prognosis for IBCAs. This study aimed to describe the clinicopathological characteristics of IBCA and identify prognostic factors that may influence the survival of patients treated with surgical procedures. Methods: Thirty-four patients with histologically confirmed IBCA treated between January 2000 and June 2014 were included. The clinical characteristics of patients with IBCA were compared with those of 41 patients with intrahepatic biliary cystadenoma (IBC); factors that significant difference were analyzed for prognosis analysis of IBCA using multivariate/univariate Cox proportional hazards regression models. Survival curves were constructed using the Kaplan–Meier method and compared using the log-rank test. Results: IBCAs had a strong female predominance, and the most common presenting symptoms were abdominal pain or discomfort. Compared with IBCs, IBCAs occurred in older patients, in more male patients, and were associated statistically significant abnormal increase in alanine aminotransferase (P = 0.01) and total bilirubin (P = 0.04). Mural nodules were more frequently seen with IBCAs and may associate with malignancy. It was difficult to differentiate between IBC and IBCA based on laboratory examination and imaging findings. Although complete resection is recommended, enucleation with negative margins also achieved good outcomes. Median overall patient survival was 76.2 months; survival at 1, 3, and 5 years was 88.0%, 68.7%, and 45.8%, respectively. Radical resection and noninvasive tumor type were independent prognostic factors for overall survival. Conclusions: It remains difficult to distinguish between cystadenomas and cystadenocarcinomas based on laboratory examination and image findings. Complete resection is recommended for curative treatment, and patients should be closely followed postoperatively, particularly those with invasive tumors. PMID:25947400

  16. Elevated AKAP12 in Paclitaxel-Resistant Serous Ovarian Cancer Cells is Prognostic and Predictive of Poor Survival in Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bateman, Nicholas W.; Jaworski, Elizabeth; Ao, Wei; Wang, Guisong; Litzi, Tracy; Dubil, Elizabeth; Marcus, Charlotte; Conrads, Kelly A.; Teng, Pang-ning; Hood, Brian L.; Phippen, Neil T.; Vasicek, Lisa A.; McGuire, William P.; Paz, Keren; Sidransky, David; Hamilton, Chad A.; Maxwell, G. Larry; Darcy, Kathleen M.; Conrads, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    A majority of high-grade (HG) serous ovarian cancer (SOC) patients develop resistant disease despite high initial response rates to platinum/paclitaxel-based chemotherapy. We identified shed/secreted proteins in preclinical models of paclitaxel-resistant human HGSOC models and correlated these candidate proteins with patient outcomes using public data from HGSOC patients. Proteomic analyses of a HGSOC cell line secretome was compared to those from a syngeneic paclitaxel-resistant variant and from a line established from an intrinsically chemorefractory HGSOC patient Associations between the identified candidate proteins and patient outcome were assessed in a discovery cohort of 545 patients and two validation cohorts totaling 795 independent SOC patients. Among the 81 differentially abundant proteins identified (q < 0.05) from paclitaxel-sensitive vs -resistant HGSOC cell secretomes, AKAP12 was verified to be elevated in all models of paclitaxel-resistant HGSOC. Furthermore, elevated AKAP12 transcript expression was associated with worse progression-free and overall survival. Associations with outcome were observed in three independent cohorts and remained significant after adjusted multivariate modeling. We further provide evidence to support that differential gene methyktion status is associated with elevated expression of AKAP12 in taxol-resistant ovarian cancer cells and ovarian cancer patient subsets. Elevated expression and shedding/secretion of AKAP12 is characteristic of paclitaxel-resistant HGSOC cells, and elevated AKAP12 transcript expression is a poor prognostic and predictive marker for progression-free and overall survival in SOC patients. PMID:25748058

  17. Elevated AKAP12 in paclitaxel-resistant serous ovarian cancer cells is prognostic and predictive of poor survival in patients.

    PubMed

    Bateman, Nicholas W; Jaworski, Elizabeth; Ao, Wei; Wang, Guisong; Litzi, Tracy; Dubil, Elizabeth; Marcus, Charlotte; Conrads, Kelly A; Teng, Pang-ning; Hood, Brian L; Phippen, Neil T; Vasicek, Lisa A; McGuire, William P; Paz, Keren; Sidransky, David; Hamilton, Chad A; Maxwell, G Larry; Darcy, Kathleen M; Conrads, Thomas P

    2015-04-01

    A majority of high-grade (HG) serous ovarian cancer (SOC) patients develop resistant disease despite high initial response rates to platinum/paclitaxel-based chemotherapy. We identified shed/secreted proteins in preclinical models of paclitaxel-resistant human HGSOC models and correlated these candidate proteins with patient outcomes using public data from HGSOC patients. Proteomic analyses of a HGSOC cell line secretome was compared to those from a syngeneic paclitaxel-resistant variant and from a line established from an intrinsically chemorefractory HGSOC patient. Associations between the identified candidate proteins and patient outcome were assessed in a discovery cohort of 545 patients and two validation cohorts totaling 795 independent SOC patients. Among the 81 differentially abundant proteins identified (q < 0.05) from paclitaxel-sensitive vs -resistant HGSOC cell secretomes, AKAP12 was verified to be elevated in all models of paclitaxel-resistant HGSOC. Furthermore, elevated AKAP12 transcript expression was associated with worse progression-free and overall survival. Associations with outcome were observed in three independent cohorts and remained significant after adjusted multivariate modeling. We further provide evidence to support that differential gene methylation status is associated with elevated expression of AKAP12 in taxol-resistant ovarian cancer cells and ovarian cancer patient subsets. Elevated expression and shedding/secretion of AKAP12 is characteristic of paclitaxel-resistant HGSOC cells, and elevated AKAP12 transcript expression is a poor prognostic and predictive marker for progression-free and overall survival in SOC patients. PMID:25748058

  18. SOX2 PROTEIN EXPRESSION IS AN INDEPENDENT POOR PROGNOSTIC INDICATOR IN STAGE I LUNG ADENOCARCINOMA

    PubMed Central

    Sholl, Lynette M.; Barletta, Justine A.; Yeap, Beow Y.; Chirieac, Lucian R.; Hornick, Jason L.

    2010-01-01

    Many patients with stage I non-small cell lung carcinoma will develop recurrence following surgical excision. Sox2 is a marker of embryonic stem cell pluripotency that is associated with aggressive tumor behavior and is expressed in a subset of lung adenocarcinomas. We hypothesized that Sox2 expression may provide prognostic information in early stage lung adenocarcinomas. We evaluated formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue from 104 stage I lung adenocarcinomas resected between 1997 and 2000. Sox2 expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and compared to clinicopathologic features, time-to-progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS). Sox2 expression was detected in 50% of cases and was more frequent in tumors from older and male patients but not significantly associated with smoking status, tumor stage, grade, or histologic subtype. Compared to Sox2-negative tumors, Sox2 expression predicted a shorter TTP (49% versus 82% at 5 years; P = 0.0006) and shorter OS (54% versus 79% at 5 years; P = 0.004). By multivariate analysis, Sox2 expression predicted a greater risk of progression among men (hazard ratio [HR] 5.6; 95% CI 2.3 to 13.8) and women (HR 2.1; 95% CI 0.8 to 5.7). Sox2 expression was associated with significantly shorter OS among men (HR 2.5; 95% CI 1.2 to 5.1), but not in women. Sox2 appears to be an independent predictor of poor outcome in stage I lung adenocarcinomas and may help stratify patients at increased risk for recurrence. PMID:20631605

  19. Tumor cell expression of MMP3 as a prognostic factor for poor survival in pancreatic, pulmonary, and mammary carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mehner, Christine; Miller, Erin; Nassar, Aziza; Bamlet, William R.; Radisky, Evette S.; Radisky, Derek C.

    2015-01-01

    Breast, lung, and pancreatic cancers collectively represent one third of all diagnosed tumors and are responsible for almost 40% of overall cancer mortality. Despite improvements in current treatments, efforts to develop more specific therapeutic options are warranted. Here we identify matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3) as a potential target within all three of these tumor types. MMP3 has previously been shown to induce expression of Rac1b, a tumorigenic splice isoform of Rac1. In this study we find that MMP3 and Rac1b proteins are both strongly expressed by the tumor cells of all three tumor types and that expression of MMP3 protein is prognostic of poor survival in pancreatic cancer patients. We also find that MMP3 gene expression can serve as a prognostic marker for patient survival in breast and lung cancer. These results suggest an oncogenic MMP3-Rac1b signaling axis as a driver of tumor progression in three common poor prognosis tumor types, further suggesting that new therapies to target these pathways could have substantial therapeutic benefit. PMID:26807201

  20. Aberrant phenotypic expression of CD15 and CD56 identifies poor prognostic acute promyelocytic leukemia patients.

    PubMed

    Breccia, Massimo; De Propris, Maria Stefania; Minotti, Clara; Stefanizzi, Caterina; Raponi, Sara; Colafigli, Gioia; Latagliata, Roberto; Guarini, Anna; Foà, Robin

    2014-02-01

    Limited information is available on the relationship between expression of some additional aberrant phenotypic features and outcome of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) patients. Here, we set out to assess the frequency of CD15 and CD56 expression, and their prognostic value in a large series of APL patients. One hundred and fourteen adult patients consecutively diagnosed with PML/RARα-positive APL and homogeneously treated with the AIDA induction schedule at a single institution were included in the study. Twelve (10.5%) and 9 (8%) of the 114 patients expressed CD15 and CD56, respectively. CD15 expression identified a subset of patients with a classic morphologic subtype (92%), a prevalent association with a bcr1 expression (67%) with an unexpectedly higher frequency of relapses (42% vs 20% for the CD15- patients, p=0.03) and a low overall survival (OS) (median OS at 5 years 58% vs 85% for the CD15- patients, p=0.01). CD56 expression was detected only in patients with a classic morphologic subtype, a prevalent bcr3 expression (67%), high incidence of differentiation syndrome (55%), higher frequency of relapse (34% vs 20% for the CD56- population, p=0.04) and a low OS (60% vs 85% for the CD56- population p=0.02). We hereby confirm the negative prognostic value of CD56 and we show that the same applies also to cases expressing CD15. These aberrant markers may be considered for the refinement of risk-adapted therapeutic strategies in APL patients. PMID:24296270

  1. Accumulation of ALDH1-positive cells after neoadjuvant chemotherapy predicts treatment resistance and prognosticates poor outcome in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Debald, Manuel; Rostamzadeh, Babak; Thiesler, Thore; Schröder, Lars; Barchet, Winfried; Abramian, Alina; Kaiser, Christina; Kristiansen, Glen; Kuhn, Walther; Kübler, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Although ovarian cancer is a highly chemosensitive disease, it is only infrequently cured. One of the major reasons lies in the presence of drug-resistant cancer stem-like cells, sufficient to fuel recurrence. We phenotyped cancer stem-like cells by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry in 55 matched samples before and after taxane/platinum-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy. All used markers of stemness (ALDH1, CD24, CD117, CD133) isolated low frequencies of malignant cells. ALDH1 was the most valuable marker for tracking stemness in vivo. The enrichment of ALDH1 expression after treatment was associated with a poor response to chemotherapy, with platinum resistance and independently prognosticated unfavorable outcome. Our results suggest that increased ALDH1 expression after treatment identifies patients with aggressive tumor phenotypes. PMID:25999351

  2. Silenced B-cell receptor response to autoantigen in a poor-prognostic subset of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Bergh, Ann-Charlotte; Evaldsson, Chamilly; Pedersen, Lone Bredo; Geisler, Christian; Stamatopoulos, Kostas; Rosenquist, Richard; Rosén, Anders

    2014-11-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells express auto/xeno antigen-reactive antibodies that bind to self-epitopes and resemble natural IgM antibodies in their repertoire. One of the antigenic structures recognized is oxidation-induced malonedialdehyde that is present on low-density lipoprotein, apoptotic blebs, and on certain microbes. The poor-prognostic stereotyped subset #1 (Clan I IGHV genes-IGKV1(D)-39) express IgM B-cell receptors that bind oxidized low-density lipoprotein. In this study, we have used for the first time this authentic cognate antigen for analysis of downstream B-cell receptor-signal transduction events, since it is more faithful to B-cell physiology than anti-IgM. Multivalent oxidized low-density lipoprotein showed specific binding to subset #1 IgM/IgD B-cell receptors, whereas native low-density lipoprotein did not. The antigen binding induced prompt receptor clustering followed by internalization. However, the receptor-signal transduction was silenced, revealing no Ca(2+) mobilization or cell-cycle entry, while phosphorylated extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 basal levels were high and could not be elevated further by oxidized low-density lipoprotein. Interestingly, B-cell receptor responsiveness was recovered after 48-h culture in the absence of antigen in half of the cases. Toll-like receptor 9-ligand was found to breach the B-cell receptor-signaling incompetence in 5 of 12 cases pointing to intra-subset heterogeneity. Altogether, this study supports B-cell receptor unresponsiveness to cognate self-antigen on its own in poor-prognostic subset #1 chronic lymphocytic leukemia, indicating that these cells proliferate by other mechanisms that may override B-cell receptor silencing brought about in a context of self-tolerance/anergy. These novel findings have implications for the understanding of chronic lymphocytic leukemia pathobiology and therapy. PMID:25085355

  3. Up-regulation of CHAF1A, a poor prognostic factor, facilitates cell proliferation of colon cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Zehua; Cui, Feifei; Yu, Fudong; Peng, Xiao; Jiang, Tao; Chen, Dawei; Lu, Su; Tang, Huamei; Peng, Zhihai

    2014-06-27

    Highlights: • We identified that CHAF1A was up-regulated in colon tumor mucosa in TMA. • The expression pattern of CHAF1A was validated with qPCR and western-blot. • CHAF1A overexpression is an independent indicator for poor colon cancer survival. • CHAF1A facilitates cell proliferation of colon cancer both in vitro and in vivo. - Abstract: Deregulation of chromatin assembly factor 1, p150 subunit A (CHAF1A) has recently been reported to be involved in the development of some cancer types. In this study, we identified that the frequency of positive CHAF1A staining in primary tumor mucosa (45.8%, 93 of 203 samples) was significantly elevated compared to that in paired normal mucosa (18.7%, 38 of 203 samples). The increased expression was strongly associated with cancer stage, tumor invasion, and histological grade. The five-year survival rate of patients with CHAF1A-positive tumors was remarkably lower than that of patients with CHAF1A-negative tumors. Colon cancer cells with CHAF1A knockdown exhibited decreased cell growth index, reduction in colony formation ability, elevated cell apoptosis rate as well as impaired colon tumorigenicity in nude mice. Hence, CHAF1A upregulation functions as a poor prognostic indicator of colon cancer, potentially contributing to its progression by mediating cancer cell proliferation.

  4. Early-onset acute kidney injury is a poor prognostic sign for allogeneic SCT recipients.

    PubMed

    Shingai, N; Morito, T; Najima, Y; Kobayashi, T; Doki, N; Kakihana, K; Ohashi, K; Ando, M

    2015-12-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) following stem-cell transplantation (SCT) contributes to a poor prognosis, yet its impact may vary depending on the timing of AKI onset. A prospective cohort study was performed to understand the significance of the onset timing in 103 allogeneic SCT (allo-SCT) recipients. AKI prior to stem-cell engraftment was defined as early AKI and subsequently occurring AKI as late AKI. Propensity score (PS) for early AKI was calculated using a logistic regression model to reduce confounding effects related to differences in clinical background between the early and late AKI groups. The cumulative incidences of early and late AKI were 22.3% and 54.9%, respectively. Non-relapse mortality (NRM) was 39.1% and 7.0%, and overall survival (OS) was 56.5% and 90.9% in early and late AKI at 100 days after AKI, respectively (P<0.001). The cumulative incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) over 2 years after SCT was 41.5% and 19.1% in early and late AKI, respectively (P=0.048). Logistic regression analysis adjusted for the PS showed that early AKI was significantly associated with OS (odds ratio (95% confidence interval); 4.63 (1.15-21.4), P=0.031) but with neither NRM (1.25 (0.28-5.33), P=0.766) nor CKD (1.85 (0.41-8.60), P=0.422). In conclusion, early AKI may portend a poor survival for allo-SCT recipients. PMID:26301965

  5. Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 Overexpression in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: An Independent Poor Prognosticator That Enhances Cell Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Chung-Feng; Huang, Hsuan-Ying; Chen, Chang-Han; Chien, Chih-Yen; Hsu, Yao-Chung; Li, Chien-Feng; and others

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: As a key component of polycomb-repressive complex 2, enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) represses target genes through histone methylation and is frequently overexpressed and associated with poor prognosis in common carcinomas. For the first time, we reported EZH2 expression and its biological and clinical significance in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods and Materials: In NPC cell lines and specimens, endogenous expression of EZH2 mRNA and protein was determined by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting, respectively. To analyze the effect on cell growth, stable silencing of EZH2 was established in EZH2-expressing TW02 NPC cells with RNA interference. EZH2 immunolabeling was assessable for 89 primary NPC biopsy samples and correlated with clinicopathological variables, disease-specific survival (DSS), and overall survival (OS). Results: Growth activity of TW02 cells was significantly suppressed (p < 0.001) with stable EZH2 silencing. Compared with normal nasopharyngeal tissue, expression levels of EZH2 transcript and protein were apparently upregulated in NPC specimens. As a continuous variable, higher EZH2 expression preferentially occurred in NPCs of T3 to T4 stages (p = 0.03) and significantly predicted inferior DSS (p = 0.0010) and OS (p = 0.004). The prognostic implications for DSS (p = 0.010) and OS (p = 0.006) still remained valid when using the median ({>=}60%) of EZH2 immunolabeling index to dichotomize the cohort. In the multivariate model, higher EZH2 expression was an independent adverse factor of both DSS (p = 0.012) and OS (p = 0.011), along with American Joint Committee on Cancer Stages III to IV (p = 0.024 for DSS, p = 0.017 for OS). Conclusion: At least partly through promoting cell growth, EZH2 implicates disease progression, confers tumor aggressiveness, and represents an independent adverse prognosticator in patients with NPC.

  6. MicroRNA-711 is a prognostic factor for poor overall survival and has an oncogenic role in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    HU, JING-YE; YI, WEI; ZHANG, MEI-YIN; XU, RUI; ZENG, LI-SI; LONG, XIAO-RAN; ZHOU, XIAO-MIN; ZHENG, XIAO-FENG STEVEN; KANG, YIBIN; WANG, HUI-YUN

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs are important in cancer development and progression. In the present study, the clinical significance and function of microRNA-711 (miR-711) expression in breast cancer were investigated. The expression level of miR-711 was analyzed in breast cancer tissue samples using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Cell proliferation, colony formation, apoptosis and Transwell assays were performed in breast cancer cell lines transfected with miR-711 mimics or inhibitors, or control sequence. miR-711 was found to be upregulated in 30 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissue samples compared with paired non-cancerous breast tissues (P<0.05). Furthermore, a higher miR-711 expression was demonstrated to be associated with poor overall and disease-free survival times in 161 breast cancer patients, and miR-711 was identified as an independent prognostic factor using multivariate Cox regression analysis. In vitro, overexpression of miR-711 resulted in a significant increase in proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. By contrast, downregulating miR-711 inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion and enhanced the rate of apoptosis of breast cancer cells. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to demonstrate that miR-711 is an independent prognostic factor and serves an important oncogenic function in breast cancer, suggesting that miR-711 is a potential biomarker of prognosis and a molecular therapeutic target in breast cancer. PMID:26998141

  7. Intratumoral Hepatic Stellate Cells as a Poor Prognostic Marker and a New Treatment Target for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xianshuo; Zhang, Yu; Chen, Lei; Shi, Lehua; Liu, Zhenyu; Qian, Haihua; Wu, Mengchao; Yin, Zhengfeng

    2013-01-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), a specialized stromal cytotype in the liver, have been demonstrated to actively contribute to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. However, the previous studies were performed using HSC cell lines, and the prognostic value of intratumoral HSCs (tHSCs) was unclear. Here we isolated tHSCs from fresh human HCC tissues, and analyzed the abilities of tHSCs to promote HCC progression by using in vitro assays for cell viability, migration and invasion as well as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype. 252 HCC patients who underwent hepatectomy were enrolled for analysis of tHSCs and E-cadherin expression in tumor tissues, and 55 HCC patients for analysis of tHSCs in tumor tissues and circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in blood. Prognostic factors were then identified. The results showed that coculture of tHSCs with HCC cells had a stronger effect on HCC cell viability, migration and invasion, accompanied with the acquisition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype. In vivo cotransplantation of HCC cells with tHSCs into nude mice more efficiently promoted tumor formation and growth. Icaritin, a known apoptosis inducer of HSCs, was demonstrated to effectively inhibit tHSC proliferation in vitro and tHSC-induced HCC-promoting effects in vivo. Clinical evidence indicated that tHSCs were rich in 45% of the HCC specimens, tHSC-rich subtypes were negatively correlated either with E-cadherin expression in tumor tissues (r = -0.256, p < 0.001) or with preoperative CTCs in blood (r = -0.287, p = 0.033), and were significantly correlated with tumor size (p = 0.027), TNM staging (p = 0.018), and vascular invasion (p = 0.008). Overall and recurrence-free survival rates of tHSC-rich patients were significantly worse than those for tHSC-poor patients. Multivariate analysis revealed tHSC-rich as an independent factor for overall and recurrence-free survival. In conclusion, tHSCs provide a promising prognostic biomarker and a new treatment target for HCC. PMID:24278260

  8. Poor Prognostic Factors in Patients with Parenteral Nutrition-Dependent Pediatric Intestinal Failure

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Shin Jie; Lee, Kyung Jae; Choi, Jong Sub; Yang, Hye Ran; Chang, Ju Young; Ko, Jae Sung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Parenteral nutrition (PN) not only provides nutritional support but also plays a crucial role in the treatment of children with intestinal failure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance and clinical outcomes of long-term PN. Methods Retrospective cohort study was conducted using the medical records of patients treated at Seoul National University Children's Hospital. This study included 19 patients who received PN for over six months. Most patients received home PN. Results The indications for PN included short bowel syndrome, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, and intractable diarrhea of infancy. The median age of PN initiation was 1.3 years, and the median treatment duration was 2.9 years. Two patients were weaned from PN; 14 continued to receive PN with enteral feedings; and 3 patients died. The overall survival rates at 2 and 5 years were 93.3% and 84.0%, respectively. The incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infections was 2.7/1,000 catheter-days and was associated with younger age at PN initiation and lower initial height Z-score. Six patients developed catheter-related central vein thrombosis, with an incidence of 0.25/1,000 catheter-days. Eleven patients experienced PN-associated liver disease (PNALD), and one patient underwent multi-visceral transplant. The patients with PNALD exhibited lower final heights and body weight Z-scores. All patients experienced micronutrient deficiencies transiently while receiving PN. Conclusion PN is an important and safe treatment for pediatric intestinal failure. PNALD was linked to final anthropometric poor outcomes. Micronutrient deficiencies were common. Anthropometric measurements and micronutrient levels must be monitored for successful PN completion. PMID:27066448

  9. Epidemiological, clinical and prognostic profile of childhood acute bacterial meningitis in a resource poor setting

    PubMed Central

    Kuti, Bankole Peter; Bello, Emmanuel Olasehinde; Jegede, Tolulope Opeoluwa; Olubosede, Omolayo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Childhood bacterial meningitis is a neurologic emergency that continues to kill and maims children particularly in developing countries with poor immunization coverage. Objective: This study set out to assess the hospital incidence, pattern of presentation, etiologic agents, outcome and determinants of mortality among the children admitted with bacterial meningitis at the Wesley Guild Hospital (WGH), Ilesa. Patients and Methods: We carried out a retrospective review of admitted cases of bacterial meningitis in children aged one month to 15 years at the WGH, Ilesa over a three year period by looking at the hospital records. Factors in the history and examinations were compared among survivors and those that died to determine factors significantly associated with mortality in these children. Results: Eighty-one (5.5%) of the 1470 childhood admissions during the study period had bacterial meningitis. Male preponderance was observed and two-thirds of the children were infants. More cases were admitted during the wet rainy season than during the dry harmattan season. Haemophilus influenzae type B and Streptococcus pneumoniae were the leading etiologic agents and ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone adequately cover for these organisms. Twenty-two (27.2%) of the 81 children died, while 34 (42.0%) survived with neurologic deficits. Children with multiple seizures, coma, neck retraction, hyponatremia, hypoglycorrhachia, turbid CSF as well as Gram positive meningitis at presentation were found to more likely to die (P < 0.05). None of these factors however independently predict mortality. Conclusion: Childhood bacterial meningitis often results in death and neurologic deficit among infants and young children admitted at the WGH, Ilesa. Children diagnosed with meningitis who in addition had multiple seizures, neck retraction and coma at presentation are at increased risk of dying. PMID:26752902

  10. Association of Nuclear Localization of a Long Interspersed Nuclear Element-1 Protein in Breast Tumors with Poor Prognostic Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Chris R.; Normart, Robin; Yang, Qifeng; Stevenson, Elizabeth; Haffty, Bruce G.; Ganesan, Shridar; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Levine, Arnold J.; Tang, Laura H.

    2010-01-01

    Within healthy human somatic cells, retrotransposition by long interspersed nuclear element-1 (also known as LINE-1 or L1) is thought to be held in check by a variety of mechanisms, including DNA methylation and RNAi. The expression of L1-ORF1 protein, which is rarely found in normal tissue, was assayed using antibodies with a variety of clinical cancer specimens and cancer cell lines. L1-ORF1p expression was detected in nearly all breast tumors that the authors examined, and the protein was also present in a high percentage of ileal carcinoids, bladder, and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, as well as in a smaller percentage of prostate and colorectal tumors. Tumors generally demonstrated cytoplasmic L1-ORF1p; however, in several breast cancers, L1-ORF1p was nuclear. Patients with breast tumors displaying nuclear L1-ORF1p had a greater incidence of both local recurrence and distal metastases and also showed poorer overall survival when compared with patients with tumors displaying cytoplasmic L1-ORF1p. These data suggest that expression of L1-ORF1p is widespread in many cancers and that redistribution from cytoplasm to nucleus could be a poor prognostic indicator during breast cancer. High expression and nuclear localization of L1-ORF1p may result in a higher rate of L1 retrotransposition, which could increase genomic instability. PMID:20948976

  11. Prognostic Impact of Microsatellite Instability in Colorectal Cancer Presenting With Mucinous, Signet-Ring, and Poorly Differentiated Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sang Hun; Kim, Jae Hwang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Mucinous cells (MUCs), signet-ring cells (SRCs), and poorly differentiated cells (PDCs) are uncommon histologic types and have been associated with advanced tumor stage and poor prognosis. However, MUCs, SRCs, and PDCs are commonly observed in cancers with high microsatellite instability (MSI), which have favorable outcomes compared with cancers with microsatellite stability (MSS). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic impact of high-MSI in patients with sporadic colorectal cancer presenting with MUCs, SRCs, and/or PDCs. Methods Between January 2006 and December 2012, 176 with proven microsatellite status who also presented with MUCs, SRCs, and PDCs were selected for this study and were divided into 2 groups, high-MSI and MSS; their outcomes were analyzed. Results Of the 176 patients, 56 and 120, respectively, had high-MSI and MSS cancers. High-MSI cancers had larger tumors, proximal tumor location, and a lower TNM stage. The recurrence rate was lower in the high-MSI group (13.7% vs. 35.4%, P = 0.006). Common patterns of distant metastasis for MUC, SRC, PDC cancers were peritoneal spread (46.9%) and hematogenous metastasis (46.4%). The 5-year CSS rates were 88.2% and 61.2% for patients with high-MSI and MSS cancers, respectively (P < 0.0001). In the multivariate analysis, except for stage-IV cancer, MSI status was an independent risk factor for cancer-specific survival (MSS: hazard ratio, 4.34; 95% confidence interval, 1.68-11.21). Conclusion In patients with colorectal cancer presenting with MUCs, SRCs, and/or PDCs, those with high-MSI cancers had better outcomes.

  12. β-catenin-independent WNT signaling and Ki67 in contrast to the estrogen receptor status are prognostic and associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Bleckmann, Annalen; Conradi, Lena-Christin; Menck, Kerstin; Schmick, Nadine Annette; Schubert, Antonia; Rietkötter, Eva; Arackal, Jetcy; Middel, Peter; Schambony, Alexandra; Liersch, Torsten; Homayounfar, Kia; Beißbarth, Tim; Klemm, Florian; Binder, Claudia; Pukrop, Tobias

    2016-04-01

    Liver metastasis development in breast cancer patients is common and confers a poor prognosis. So far, the prognostic significance of surgical resection and clinical relevance of biomarker analysis in metastatic tissue have barely been investigated. We previously demonstrated an impact of WNT signaling in breast cancer brain metastasis. This study aimed to investigate the value of established prognostic markers and WNT signaling components in liver metastases. Overall N = 34 breast cancer liver metastases (with matched primaries in 19/34 cases) were included in this retrospective study. Primaries and metastatic samples were analyzed for their expression of the estrogen (ER) and progesterone receptor, HER-2, Ki67, and various WNT signaling-components by immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, β-catenin-dependent and -independent WNT scores were generated and analyzed for their prognostic value. Additionally, the influence of the alternative WNT receptor ROR on signaling and invasiveness was analyzed in vitro. ER positivity (HR 0.09, 95 % CI 0.01-0.56) and high Ki67 (HR 3.68, 95 % CI 1.12-12.06) in the primaries had prognostic impact. However, only Ki67 remained prognostic in the metastatic tissue (HR 2.46, 95 % CI 1.11-5.44). Additionally, the β-catenin-independent WNT score correlated with reduced overall survival only in the metastasized situation (HR 2.19, 95 % CI 1.02-4.69, p = 0.0391). This is in line with the in vitro results of the alternative WNT receptors ROR1 and ROR2, which foster invasion. In breast cancer, the value of prognostic markers established in primary tumors cannot directly be translated to metastases. Our results revealed β-catenin-independent WNT signaling to be associated with poor prognosis in patients with breast cancer liver metastasis. PMID:26862065

  13. Prognostic factors and epidemiological characteristics of cutaneous and mucosal head and neck melanoma.

    PubMed

    Berzina, Anna; Azarjana, Kristine; Cema, Ingrida; Pjanova, Dace; Rivosh, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To describe the prognostic factors and epidemiological characteristics of cutaneous and mucosal head and neck melanoma and to identify the variables associated with mortality from this disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Patients treated for head and neck melanoma in the Oncology Centre of Latvia, Riga during a 10-year period were identified. Records from 124 cases were analyzed in a descriptive, retrospective study. For each patient, information regarding age, sex, tumor anatomic site, as well as ulceration, histological tumor subtypes, Breslow thickness and Clark invasion level was viewed. Disease specific survival rates were calculated. The frequencies of all study variables and their 95% confidence intervals were determined. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were produced to illustrate the survival differences for each variable. RESULTS. The patients' mean age was 67.36 years. The study included 81 females (65.32%) and 43 males (34.67%). The prevalent anatomical site for cutaneous head and neck melanoma was the cheek - 49% (n=55) and the intraocular site for mucosal melanoma (61.5%). A high percentage of thick cutaneous melanoma was detected. In 53 cases (47.3%) out of 112 cutaneous melanoma the tumor ulceration was found. Nodular melanoma subtype was predominating (38%). The incidence of cutaneous melanoma has increased unequally whereas mucosal melanoma of the head and neck is an uncommon cancer and the incidence rates in Latvia during a ten year period are decreasing. CONCLUSION. Female sex, advanced age, facial skin, tumor thickness, nodular subtype and ulceration carried a relevant risk of poor prognosis. PMID:21822045

  14. Ribonucleotide reductase small subunit M2 serves as a prognostic biomarker and predicts poor survival of colorectal cancers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiyong; Zhang, Hang; Lai, Lily; Wang, Xiaochen; Loera, Sofia; Xue, Lijun; He, Huiyin; Zhang, Keqiang; Hu, Shuya; Huang, Yasheng; Nelson, RebeccaA.; Zhou, Bingsen; Zhou, Lun; Chu, Peiguo; Zhang, Suzhan; Zheng, Shu; Yen, Yun

    2012-01-01

    The overexpression of RRM2 [RR (ribonucleotide reductase) small subunit M2] dramatically enhances the ability of the cancer cell to proliferate and to invade. To investigate further the relevance of RRM2 and CRCs (colorectal cancers), we correlated the expression of RRM2 with the clinical outcome of CRCs. A retrospective outcome study was conducted on CRCs collected from the COH [(City of Hope) National Medical Center, 217 cases] and ZJU (Zhejiang University, 220 cases). IHC (immunohistochemistry) was employed to determine the protein expression level of RRM2, and quantitative real-time PCR was employed to validate. Multivariate logistic analysis indicated that the adjusted ORs (odds ratios) of RRM2-high for distant metastases were 2.06 [95% CI (confidence interval), 1.014.30] and 5.89 (95% CI, 1.5139.13) in the COH and ZJU sets respectively. The KaplanMeier analysis displayed that high expression of RRM2 had a negative impact on the OS (overall survival) and PFS (progress-free survival) of CRC in both sets significantly. The multivariate Cox analysis further demonstrated that HRs (hazard ratios) of RRM2-high for OS were 1.88 (95% CI, 1.033.36) and 2.06 (95% CI, 1.104.00) in the COH and ZJU sets respectively. Stratification analysis demonstrated that the HR of RRM2 dramatically increased to 12.22 (95% CI, 1.62258.31) in the MMR (mismatch repair) gene-deficient subgroup in the COH set. Meanwhile, a real-time study demonstrated that down-regulation of RRM2 by siRNA (small interfering RNA) could significantly and specifically reduce the cell growth and adhesion ability in HT-29 and HCT-8 cells. Therefore RRM2 is an independent prognostic factor and predicts poor survival of CRCs. It is also a potential predictor for identifying good responders to chemotherapy for CRCs. PMID:23113760

  15. Characteristics and prognostic factors for pain management in 152 patients with lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Lei; Liu, Yumei; He, Hua; Wang, Cong; Li, Hongwei; Wang, Nanya

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to analyze the pain characteristics and factors influencing the outcome of pain control in patients with lung cancer having pain. Methods Pain characteristics, the effectiveness, and prognostic factors for pain control were analyzed in 152 patients with lung cancer having moderate or severe chronic pain admitted to Cancer Center of The First Hospital of Jilin University, People’s Republic of China, between January 2012 and May 2013. Information about sex, age, pathological type, TNM stage, presence/absence of bone metastases, characteristics of pain, methods, and effectiveness of pain management was recorded. Results Patients with non-small-cell lung cancer and small-cell carcinoma accounted for 132/152 (86.8%) and 20/152 (13.2%) cases, respectively. Among them, moderate (72.4%) or severe pain (27.6%) was reported in 73.7% of the cases at stage IV, chest or back pain was reported in 76.3% of the cases, and pain in other locations in the rest of the cases. Bone metastases were apparent in 44.1% of the patients. Neuropathic pain was noted in 46.7% of the patients, and frequent breakthrough pain was noted in 25.7% of the patients. High pain intensity was associated with frequent breakthrough pain. Pain was adequately controlled in 81.6% of the patients prescribed 3 days of analgesics. More patients reported a KPS higher than or equal to 80 after 3 days of analgesic treatment (P<0.001). Severe pain, frequent breakthrough pain, and presence of bone metastases were independent risk factors for poor pain control. Severe pain, frequent breakthrough pain, or neuropathic pain in the patients using opioids required higher doses of analgesic for pain control. Opioids plus nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs offered better pain control than opioids alone. Conclusion High pain intensity is associated with frequent breakthrough pain in patients with lung cancer, which can be largely controlled with analgesics. Severe pain, frequent breakthrough pain, presence of bone metastases, and neuropathic pain are predictors of refractory pain. PMID:27143862

  16. Coalesced Multicentric Analysis of 2,351 Patients With Myelodysplastic Syndromes Indicates an Underestimation of Poor-Risk Cytogenetics of Myelodysplastic Syndromes in the International Prognostic Scoring System

    PubMed Central

    Schanz, Julie; Steidl, Christian; Fonatsch, Christa; Pfeilstöcker, Michael; Nösslinger, Thomas; Tuechler, Heinz; Valent, Peter; Hildebrandt, Barbara; Giagounidis, Aristoteles; Aul, Carlo; Lübbert, Michael; Stauder, Reinhard; Krieger, Otto; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Kantarjian, Hagop; Germing, Ulrich; Haase, Detlef; Estey, Elihu

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) remains the most commonly used system for risk classification in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs). The IPSS gives more weight to blast count than to cytogenetics. However, previous publications suggested that cytogenetics are underweighted in the IPSS. Here we investigate the prognostic impact of cytogenetic subgroups compared with that of bone marrow blast count in a large, multicentric, international patient cohort. Patients and Methods In total, 2,351 patients with MDS who have records in the German-Austrian and the MD Anderson Cancer Center databases were included and analyzed in univariate and multivariate models regarding overall survival and risk of transformation to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The data were analyzed separately for patients treated with supportive care without specific therapy, with AML-like chemotherapy, or with other therapy regimens (low-dose chemotherapy, demethylating agents, immune modulating agents, valproic acid, and cyclosporine). Results The prognostic impact of poor-risk cytogenetic findings (as defined by the IPSS classification) on overall survival was as unfavorable as an increased (> 20%) blast count. The hazard ratio (compared with an abnormal karyotype or a bone marrow blast count < 5%) was 3.3 for poor-risk cytogenetics, 4.8 for complex abnormalities harboring chromosomes 5 and/or 7, and 3.1 for a blast count of 21% to 30% (P < .01 for all categories). The predictive power of the IPSS cytogenetic subgroups was unaffected by type of therapy given. Conclusion The independent prognostic impact of poor-risk cytogenetics on overall survival is equivalent to the impact of high blast counts. This finding should be considered in the upcoming revision of the IPSS. PMID:21519021

  17. Clinicopathological characteristics and prognostic factors in young patients after hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to analyze the clinicopathological characteristics and the prognostic factors for survival and recurrence of young patients who had undergone hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods Between 1990 and 2010, 31 patients aged 40 years or younger (younger patient group) among 811 consecutive patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who had undergone primary hepatectomy were analyzed with regard to patient factors, including liver function, tumor factors and operative factors. The clinicopathological characteristics of the younger patients were compared with those of patients over the age of 40 (older patient group). Then the prognostic factors of the younger patients were analyzed. Continuous variables were expressed as the means ± standard deviation and compared using the χ2 test for categorical variables. Overall survival and recurrence-free survival rates were determined by the Kaplan-Meier method and analyzed by the log-rank test. The Cox proportional hazards model was used for multivariate analysis. Results In the younger patients, the rates of HBs-antigen-positivity, high alpha-fetoprotein, portal invasion, intrahepatic metastasis, large tumors, low indocyanin green retention rate at 15 minutes, and anatomical resection were significantly higher than the same measures in the older patients. The five-year overall survival rate of the young patients was 49.6%. The prognostic factors of survival were HCV-antibody-positivity and low albumin status. Prognostic factors of recurrence were multiple tumors and the presence of portal invasion. Conclusions In younger patients, survival appeared to be primarily affected by liver function, while recurrence was affected by tumor factors. Young patients with hepatocellular carcinoma should be aggressively treated with hepatectomy due to their good pre-surgical liver function. PMID:23452898

  18. Up-regulation of KIF14 is a predictor of poor survival and a novel prognostic biomarker of chemoresistance to paclitaxel treatment in cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenjing; Shi, Yanhua; Li, Jing; Cui, Wei; Yang, Baozhi

    2016-04-01

    Kinesin family member 14 (KIF14) is a member of kinesin family proteins which have been found to be dysregulated in various cancer types. However, the expression of KIF14 and its potential prognostic significance have not been investigated in cervical cancer. Real-time PCR was performed to assess the expression levels of KIF14 in 47 pairs of cervical cancer tissues and their matched normal tissues from patients who had not been exposed to chemotherapy as well as tissue samples from 57 cervical cancer patients who are sensitive to paclitaxel treatment and 53 patients who are resistant. The association between KIF14 expression levels in tissue and clinicopathological features or chemosensitivity was examined. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards model were applied to assess the correlation between KIF14 expression levels and overall survival (OS) of cervical cancer patients. KIF14 expression levels were significantly increased in cervical cancer tissues compared with matched non-cancerous tissues and it was higher in tissues of patients who are chemoresistant compared with those who are chemosensitive. KIF14 expression was positively associated with high tumour stage (P=0.0044), lymph node metastasis (P=0.0034) and chemoresistance (P<0.0001). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that high KIF14 expression levels predicted poor survival in patients with (P=0.0024) or without (P=0.0028) paclitaxel treatment. Multivariate analysis revealed that KIF14 was an independent prognostic factor for OS. Our study suggests that KIF14 may serve as a predictor of poor survival and a novel prognostic biomarker of chemoresistance to paclitaxel treatment in cervical cancer. PMID:27128470

  19. Up-regulation of KIF14 is a predictor of poor survival and a novel prognostic biomarker of chemoresistance to paclitaxel treatment in cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenjing; Shi, Yanhua; Li, Jing; Cui, Wei; Yang, Baozhi

    2016-01-01

    Kinesin family member 14 (KIF14) is a member of kinesin family proteins which have been found to be dysregulated in various cancer types. However, the expression of KIF14 and its potential prognostic significance have not been investigated in cervical cancer. Real-time PCR was performed to assess the expression levels of KIF14 in 47 pairs of cervical cancer tissues and their matched normal tissues from patients who had not been exposed to chemotherapy as well as tissue samples from 57 cervical cancer patients who are sensitive to paclitaxel treatment and 53 patients who are resistant. The association between KIF14 expression levels in tissue and clinicopathological features or chemosensitivity was examined. Kaplan–Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards model were applied to assess the correlation between KIF14 expression levels and overall survival (OS) of cervical cancer patients. KIF14 expression levels were significantly increased in cervical cancer tissues compared with matched non-cancerous tissues and it was higher in tissues of patients who are chemoresistant compared with those who are chemosensitive. KIF14 expression was positively associated with high tumour stage (P=0.0044), lymph node metastasis (P=0.0034) and chemoresistance (P<0.0001). Kaplan–Meier analysis showed that high KIF14 expression levels predicted poor survival in patients with (P=0.0024) or without (P=0.0028) paclitaxel treatment. Multivariate analysis revealed that KIF14 was an independent prognostic factor for OS. Our study suggests that KIF14 may serve as a predictor of poor survival and a novel prognostic biomarker of chemoresistance to paclitaxel treatment in cervical cancer. PMID:27128470

  20. Characteristics and Prognostic Significance of Preoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Assessed Circumferential Margin in Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaoji; Li, Xinxiang; Xu, Linghui; Shi, Debing; Tong, Tong; Huang, Dan; Ding, Ying; Cai, Sanjun; Peng, Junjie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To study the characteristics and prognostic significance of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging- (MRI-) assessed circumferential margin (CRM) in rectal cancer. Methods. Patients underwent preoperative high resolution pelvic MRI, followed by resection of primary tumor. The relationship between MRI-assessed CRM and pathological CRM (pCRM) was studied, and survival analysis was used to determine the prognostic significance of MRI-assessed CRM. Results. Of all the 203 patients, the total accuracy of MRI-assessed CRM for predicting involvement of pCRM was 84.2%, sensitivity was 50%, and specificity was 86.8%. Anterior tumors were more possible to assess involvement of CRM by MRI, while the false positive rate was significantly higher than lateral or posterior tumor (87.5% versus 50%, p = 0.0002). The 3-year local recurrence, disease-free survival, and overall survival rates were 35.6%, 58.1%, and 85.2% in patients with involved mrCRM, compared with 8.9%, 78.9%, and 92.3% in patients with clear mrCRM. In multivariate analysis, MRI-assessed CRM found an independent risk factor for local recurrence, with a hazard ratio of 3.49 (p = 0.003). Conclusions. High resolution MRI was accurate to assess CRM preoperatively, while anterior tumor should be assessed more cautiously. Involvement of mrCRM was significantly associated with local recurrence regardless of pCRM status. PMID:26089866

  1. Immunohistochemical and Molecular Characteristics with Prognostic Significance in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Bellas, Carmen; García, Diego; Vicente, Yolanda; Kilany, Linah; Abraira, Victor; Navarro, Belen; Provencio, Mariano; Martín, Paloma

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is an aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma with marked biologic heterogeneity. We analyzed 100 cases of DLBCL to evaluate the prognostic value of immunohistochemical markers derived from the gene expression profiling-defined cell origin signature, including MYC, BCL2, BCL6, and FOXP1 protein expression. We also investigated genetic alterations in BCL2, BCL6, MYC and FOXP1 using fluorescence in situ hybridization and assessed their prognostic significance. BCL6 rearrangements were detected in 29% of cases, and BCL6 gene alteration (rearrangement and/or amplification) was associated with the non-germinal center B subtype (non-GCB). BCL2 translocation was associated with the GCB phenotype, and BCL2 protein expression was associated with the translocation and/or amplification of 18q21. MYC rearrangements were detected in 15% of cases, and MYC protein expression was observed in 29% of cases. FOXP1 expression, mainly of the non-GCB subtype, was demonstrated in 37% of cases. Co-expression of the MYC and BCL2 proteins, with non-GCB subtype predominance, was observed in 21% of cases. We detected an association between high FOXP1 expression and a high proliferation rate as well as a significant positive correlation between MYC overexpression and FOXP1 overexpression. MYC, BCL2 and FOXP1 expression were significant predictors of overall survival. The co-expression of MYC and BCL2 confers a poorer clinical outcome than MYC or BCL2 expression alone, whereas cases negative for both markers had the best outcomes. Our study confirms that DLBCL, characterized by the co-expression of MYC and BCL2 proteins, has a poor prognosis and establishes a significant positive correlation with MYC and FOXP1 over-expression in this entity. PMID:24887414

  2. Immunohistochemical and molecular characteristics with prognostic significance in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Bellas, Carmen; García, Diego; Vicente, Yolanda; Kilany, Linah; Abraira, Victor; Navarro, Belen; Provencio, Mariano; Martín, Paloma

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is an aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma with marked biologic heterogeneity. We analyzed 100 cases of DLBCL to evaluate the prognostic value of immunohistochemical markers derived from the gene expression profiling-defined cell origin signature, including MYC, BCL2, BCL6, and FOXP1 protein expression. We also investigated genetic alterations in BCL2, BCL6, MYC and FOXP1 using fluorescence in situ hybridization and assessed their prognostic significance. BCL6 rearrangements were detected in 29% of cases, and BCL6 gene alteration (rearrangement and/or amplification) was associated with the non-germinal center B subtype (non-GCB). BCL2 translocation was associated with the GCB phenotype, and BCL2 protein expression was associated with the translocation and/or amplification of 18q21. MYC rearrangements were detected in 15% of cases, and MYC protein expression was observed in 29% of cases. FOXP1 expression, mainly of the non-GCB subtype, was demonstrated in 37% of cases. Co-expression of the MYC and BCL2 proteins, with non-GCB subtype predominance, was observed in 21% of cases. We detected an association between high FOXP1 expression and a high proliferation rate as well as a significant positive correlation between MYC overexpression and FOXP1 overexpression. MYC, BCL2 and FOXP1 expression were significant predictors of overall survival. The co-expression of MYC and BCL2 confers a poorer clinical outcome than MYC or BCL2 expression alone, whereas cases negative for both markers had the best outcomes. Our study confirms that DLBCL, characterized by the co-expression of MYC and BCL2 proteins, has a poor prognosis and establishes a significant positive correlation with MYC and FOXP1 over-expression in this entity. PMID:24887414

  3. Prognostic Factors in the Survival of Patients Diagnosed with Primary Non-Metastatic Osteosarcoma with a Poor Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Júnior, Rosalvo Zósimo Bispo; de Camargo, Olavo Pires

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Identification of variables that determine the prognosis for osteosarcoma may enable stratification of patients into subgroups with better or worse risk of local recurrence, metastases and death due to the disease. Discovery of such prognostic factors would permit selection of a subgroup of at-risk patients, with the aim of improving the therapeutic effectiveness. OBJECTIVE: To identify prognostic factors related to local recurrence-free survival, metastasis-free survival and overall survival among patients with highly malignant primary osteosarcoma that was non-metastatic on diagnosis and had poor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. SAMPLE AND METHODS: Out of 45 patients admitted to a referral center in Brazil between 2000 and 2004, 24 were selected for this study. RESULTS: The adverse factors that influenced the risk of local recurrence and the overall survival in univariate analysis were histological subtype other than osteoblastic (p = 0.017) and tumor size greater than 15 cm (p = 0.048). In relation to metastasis-free survival, the non-osteoblastic subtype had a worse prognosis (p = 0.007). The association of histological subtype maintained its significance in multivariate analysis for all studied survival categories. CONCLUSIONS: Tumor size greater than 15 cm is an adverse factor for local recurrence-free survival and overall survival but did not influence metastasis-free survival. The osteosarcoma histological type is a significant independent predictor for local recurrence-free survival, metastasis-free survival and overall survival. PMID:20037705

  4. GOLPH3 is a potential therapeutic target and a prognostic indicatior of poor survival in bladder cancer treated by cystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiaozhi; Tang, Bo; Yao, Dongwei; Zhao, Wei; Chang, Cunjie; Lu, Qun; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Shiwei; Ji, Changwei; Cao, Lin; Guo, Hongqian

    2015-01-01

    Golgi phosphoprotein 3 (GOLPH3) has been reported to be involved in the development of several human cancers. However, its clinical significance and biological role in bladder cancer remains unclear. In this study, we sought to analyze the GOLPH3 expression in bladder cancer samples and cells, and explore its clinical significance and biological role. We found that GOLPH3 was significantly increased in bladder cancer tissues and cells. Overexpression of GOLPH3 had significant correlation with poorer survival for bladder cancer patients treated by cystectomy. Knockdown of GOLPH3 inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of cancer cells, and tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model. GOLPH3 silencing inhibited AKT/m-TOR signaling, increased the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p27 and decreased the CDK regulator cyclin D1 and matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9). Thus, GOLPH3 is likely to play important roles in bladder cancer progression via modulating AKT/mTOR signaling, and it is a novel prognostic biomarker and promising therapeutic target for bladder cancer. PMID:26375441

  5. The Role of FGFR1 Gene Amplification as a Poor Prognostic Factor in Squamous Cell Lung Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Published Data

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Gao, Wen; Xu, Jiali; Chen, Xiaojun; Yang, Yang; Zhu, Yizhi; Yin, Yongmei; Guo, Renhua; Liu, Ping; Shu, Yongqian; Liu, Lingxiang

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The prognostic factors of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain controversial. Methods. We conducted a meta-analysis of published studies from 1974 to February 2015. In absence of quality difference between studies of reporting significant and nonsignificant results, the relationship between FGFR1 amplification and clinicopathological parameters in NSCLC was analyzed. And also the combined hazard ratio (HR) and their corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated in terms of overall survival. Results. 3178 patients (12 studies) were included in the analysis. It was shown that FGFR1 amplification was significantly more prevalent among male patients (RR 2.03, 95% CI 1.57–2.63) with squamous cell lung cancer (SQCC) (RR 3.49, 95% CI 2.62–4.64) and current smokers (RR 2.63, 95% CI 1.92–3.60). The pooled data also showed that the FGFR1 amplification was a poor prognostic factor in SQCC (HR 1.38, 95% CI 1.07–1.78), Asian patients (HR 1.78, 95% CI 1.22–2.60), and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method (HR 1.30, 95% CI 1.06–1.58). Conclusions. This meta-analysis strongly suggests that FGFR1 amplification occurs more frequently in male, SQCC and smokers, and it is a risk factor for poor prognosis among Asian patients with SQCC. PMID:26788508

  6. Research on Good and Poor Reader Characteristics: Implications for L2 Reading Research in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Jixian

    2008-01-01

    In reading research, studies on good and poor reader characteristics abound. However, these findings remain largely scattered in applied linguistics and cognitive and educational psychology. This paper attempts to synthesize current theory and research on the topic in the past 20 years along 3 dimensions: language knowledge and processing ability,…

  7. Clinical Characteristics and Prognostic Factors in Dogs with Histiocytic Sarcomas in Japan

    PubMed Central

    TAKAHASHI, Masashi; TOMIYASU, Hirotaka; HOTTA, Eri; ASADA, Hajime; FUKUSHIMA, Kenjiro; KANEMOTO, Hideyuki; FUJINO, Yasuhito; OHNO, Koichi; UCHIDA, Kazuyuki; NAKAYAMA, Hiroyuki; TSUJIMOTO, Hajime

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Canine histiocytic sarcoma (HS) is a rare neoplasm that originates from dendritic cells or macrophages, and there have been a number of cases experienced in Japan. To identify the characteristics and prognostic variables that determine outcome in dogs with HS in Japan, medical records of 73 dogs with HS were retrospectively analyzed. Signalment, clinical signs, complete blood count (CBC), blood chemistry profiles, treatment, response to treatment and overall survival (OS) were analyzed. Diagnosis of HS was determined histologically in 44 cases and cytologically in 29 cases. The most frequently diagnosed breeds were Flat-Coated Retrievers (n=16, odds ratio [OR] 62.0), Pembroke Welsh corgis (n=15, OR 9.7) and Bernese Mountain dogs (n=14, OR 45.0). Median survival time for all dogs in this study was 43 days. In the dogs that received no treatment or only symptomatic treatment, the median OS was 12 days (range 2–254 days) compared with that of dogs that received surgical treatment and/or chemotherapy (85 days, range 4–360 days). Univariate analysis identified anemia, thrombocytopenia, hypoalbuminemia, hypoproteinemia and not receiving antitumor treatment (chemotherapy and/or surgery) as factors significantly associated with shorter OS. Multivariate analysis confirmed that platelet counts, localized/disseminated lesional pattern and whether the dog received antitumor treatment were significantly predictive of survival. PMID:24441652

  8. Facility characteristics as independent prognostic factors of nursing home-acquired pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Che Wan; Choi, Younghoon; An, Chang Hyeok; Park, Sang Joon; Hwang, Hee-Jin; Chung, Jae Ho; Min, Joo-Won

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Recently, the incidence of nursing home-acquired pneumonia (NHAP) has been increasing and is now the leading cause of death among nursing home residents. This study was performed to identify risk factors associated with NHAP mortality, focusing on facility characteristics. Methods: Data on all patients ≥ 70 years of age admitted with newly diagnosed pneumonia were reviewed. To compare the quality of care in nursing facilities, the following three groups were defined: patients who acquired pneumonia in the community, care homes, and care hospitals. In these patients, 90-day mortality was compared. Results: Survival analyses were performed in 282 patients with pneumonia. In the analyses, 90-day mortality was higher in patients in care homes (12.2%, 40.3%, and 19.6% in community, care homes, and care hospitals, respectively). Among the 118 NHAP patients, residence in a care home, structural lung diseases, treatment with inappropriate antimicrobial agents for accompanying infections, and a high pneumonia severity index score were risk factors associated with higher 90-day mortality. However, infection by potentially drug-resistant pathogens was not important. Conclusions: Unfavorable institutional factors in care homes are important prognostic factors for NHAP. PMID:26837007

  9. Loss of heterozygosity in tumor tissue in hormonal receptor genes is associated with poor prognostic criteria in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Iobagiu, Cristina; Lambert, Claude; Raica, Marius; Lima, Suzanne; Khaddage, Abir; Peoc'h, Michel; Genin, Christian

    2015-04-01

    The estrogen receptors (ESR? and ?) and the androgen receptor (AR) mediate genomic and non-genomic effects on breast tumor growth and proliferation. We analyzed 101 breast cancer patients for allelic loss in microsatellites located in regulatory regions of the ESRs and AR genes in breast cancer tumors. The loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at these loci was found in 36.2% of tumor tissues (ductal carcinoma cases), for 19% of cases at the ESR? locus, for 16% at the ESR? locus, and for 10% at the AR locus. The LOH in at least one of the two ESR loci was correlated to poor prognosis criteria: ESR-negative status (P=0.007), PR-negative status (P=0.003), high Scarff-Bloom-Richardson (SBR) grade (P=0.0007), high MIB-1 proliferation index (P=0.02), and diminished apoptosis potential (TP53-positive status, P=0.018). When AR was also considered, the LOH in at least one of the three loci was associated with ESR-negative status (P=0.036), PR-negative status (P=0.027), high SBR grade (P=0.005), high mitotic index (P=0.0002), TP53-positive status (P=0.029), and proliferating index (high MIB-1, P=0.03). Allelic loss was observed in 26% of normal tissue adjacent to tumor with LOH at the ESR? locus and in 7.1% of tumors with LOH at the ESR? locus. The LOH in tumor tissue in the regulatory regions of ESR?, ESR?, and AR genes has potentially synergistic effects on tumor proliferation, histological aggressiveness, down-regulation of ESR? and progesterone receptor (PR) genes, and is an early genetic alteration in cancer that is possibly involved in passage to estrogen independence. PMID:25979597

  10. Prognostic role of clinical, pathological and biological characteristics in patients with locally advanced breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Honkoop, A. H.; van Diest, P. J.; de Jong, J. S.; Linn, S. C.; Giaccone, G.; Hoekman, K.; Wagstaff, J.; Pinedo, H. M.

    1998-01-01

    Forty-two patients with clinical stage IIIA or IIIB breast cancer were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by mastectomy and radiotherapy. The median follow-up was 32 months (range 10-72 months) and the median time to progression was 17 months (range 10-30 months). A multivariate analysis showed that a longer disease-free survival (DFS) was related to more chemotherapy cycles given (P = 0.003), a better pathological response to chemotherapy (P = 0.04) and fewer positive axillary lymph nodes (P = 0.05). A better overall survival (OS) was related to more chemotherapy cycles given (P = 0.03) and better pathological response to chemotherapy (P = 0.04). In patients with residual tumour after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, high levels of staining for Ki-67 was correlated with a worse DFS (P = 0.008). Other biological characteristics, including oestrogen receptor status, microvessel density (CD31 staining), P-glycoprotein (P-gp) staining and nuclear accumulation of p53, were not independent prognostic factors for either DFS or OS. If both P-gp and p53 were expressed, DFS and OS were worse in the uni- and multivariate analysis. The preliminary results of this phase II study suggest that coexpression of P-gp/p53 and a high level of staining for Ki-67 after chemotherapy are associated with a worse prognosis, and that prolonged neoadjuvant chemotherapy and the attainment of a pathological complete remission are important factors in determining outcome for patients with this disease. PMID:9484820

  11. Characteristics, clinical outcome, and prognostic significance of IDH mutations in AML.

    PubMed

    DiNardo, Courtney D; Ravandi, Farhad; Agresta, Sam; Konopleva, Marina; Takahashi, Koichi; Kadia, Tapan; Routbort, Mark; Patel, Keyur P; Mark Brandt; Pierce, Sherry; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Cortes, Jorge; Kantarjian, Hagop

    2015-08-01

    The pathophysiology of IDH mutations in tumorigenesis is increasingly described, yet the prognostic significance of IDH1 and IDH2 mutations in AML remains controversial. The primary objective of this study was to define the natural history and prognosis of patients with AML and IDH1 or IDH2 mutations and provide historical survival expectations. A total of 826 patients treated from 2010 to 2014 at a single institution were evaluated, including 167 patients (20%) with AML and IDH1 or IDH2 mutations. Median age was 62 years (range 18-92). There were 59 IDH1-R132, 83 IDH2-R140, and 23 IDH2-R172 mutations. Clinicopathologic characteristics associated with IDH-mutations included older age, less frequent therapy-related status, and increased incidence of intermediate-risk cytogenetics, FLT3-ITD mutations, and NPM1 mutations. Remission rates (CR/CRi) by AML treatment status were: induction, 68%; Salvage-1 (S1), 42%; and Salvage-2 and beyond (S2+), 27%. No difference in response was identified by IDH mutation status. Similarly, overall survival (OS) was not dependent on IDH status within any cohort. The median OS was 15.4 months in induction, 8.7 months in S1, and 4.8 months in S2+. This analysis defines the clinical outcome associated with IDH-mutations in both the front-line and salvage AML treatment settings, and confirms that response rate and OS for both IDH-mutated and IDH wild-type AML patients is comparable. This provides contemporary data to be used for comparison with results of novel investigational (e.g., selective IDH inhibitor) strategies. PMID:26016821

  12. Generation of a poor prognostic chronic lymphocytic leukemia-like disease model: PKCα subversion induces up-regulation of PKCβII expression in B lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Rinako; Vukovic, Milica; Tarafdar, Anuradha; Cosimo, Emilio; Dunn, Karen; McCaig, Alison M.; Holroyd, Ailsa; McClanahan, Fabienne; Ramsay, Alan G.; Gribben, John G.; Michie, Alison M.

    2015-01-01

    Overwhelming evidence identifies the microenvironment as a critical factor in the development and progression of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, underlining the importance of developing suitable translational models to study the pathogenesis of the disease. We previously established that stable expression of kinase dead protein kinase C alpha in hematopoietic progenitor cells resulted in the development of a chronic lymphocytic leukemia-like disease in mice. Here we demonstrate that this chronic lymphocytic leukemia model resembles the more aggressive subset of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, expressing predominantly unmutated immunoglobulin heavy chain genes, with upregulated tyrosine kinase ZAP-70 expression and elevated ERK-MAPK-mTor signaling, resulting in enhanced proliferation and increased tumor load in lymphoid organs. Reduced function of PKCα leads to an up-regulation of PKCβII expression, which is also associated with a poor prognostic subset of human chronic lymphocytic leukemia samples. Treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia-like cells with the selective PKCβ inhibitor enzastaurin caused cell cycle arrest and apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo, and a reduction in the leukemic burden in vivo. These results demonstrate the importance of PKCβII in chronic lymphocytic leukemia-like disease progression and suggest a role for PKCα subversion in creating permissive conditions for leukemogenesis. PMID:25616575

  13. Sox17 promoter methylation in plasma DNA is associated with poor survival and can be used as a prognostic factor in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Fu, Deyuan; Ren, Chuanli; Tan, Haosheng; Wei, Jinli; Zhu, Yuxiang; He, Chunlan; Shao, Wenxi; Zhang, Jiaxin

    2015-03-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation that leads to the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes is known to play an important role in the development and progression of breast cancer. Methylation status of cancer-related genes is considered to be a promising biomarker for the early diagnosis and prognosis of tumors. This study investigated the methylation status of the Sox17 gene in breast cancer tissue and its corresponding plasma DNA to evaluate the association of methylation levels with clinicopathological parameters and prognosis.The methylation status of the Sox17 gene promoter was evaluated with methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) in 155 paired breast cancer tissue and plasma samples and in 60 paired normal breast tissue and plasma samples. Association of Sox17 methylation status with clinicopathological parameters was analyzed by χ tests. Overall and disease-free survival (DFS) curves were calculated using Kaplan-Meier analysis, and the differences between curves were analyzed by log-rank tests.The frequency of Sox17 gene methylation was 72.9% (113/155) in breast cancer tissues and 58.1% (90/155) in plasma DNA. Sox17 gene methylation was not found in normal breast tissues or in their paired plasma DNA. There was a significant correlation of Sox17 methylation between corresponding tumor tissues and paired plasma DNA (r = 0.688, P < 0.001). Aberrant Sox17 methylation in cancer tissues and in plasma DNA was significantly associated with the tumor node metastasis stage (P = 0.035 and P = 0.001, respectively) and with lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively). Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that aberrant Sox17 promoter methylation in cancer tissues and plasma DNA was associated with poor DFS (P < 0.005) and overall survival (OS) (P < 0.005). Multivariate analysis showed that Sox17 methylation in plasma DNA was an independent prognostic factor in breast cancer for both DFS (P = 0.020; hazard ratio [HR] = 2.142; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.128-4.067) and for OS (P = 0.001; HR = 4.737; 95% CI: 2.088-10.747).Sox17 gene promoter methylation may play an important role in breast cancer progression and could be used as a prognostic biomarker to identify patients at risk of developing metastasis or recurrence after mastectomy. PMID:25789956

  14. Prognostic Relevance of Cytokine Receptor Expression in Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Interleukin-2 Receptor ?-Chain (CD25) Expression Predicts a Poor Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Nakase, Kazunori; Kita, Kenkichi; Kyo, Taiichi; Ueda, Takanori; Tanaka, Isao; Katayama, Naoyuki

    2015-01-01

    A variety of cytokine/cytokine receptor systems affect the biological behavior of acute leukemia cells. However, little is known about the clinical relevance of cytokine receptor expression in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We quantitatively examined the expression of interleukin-2 receptor ?-chain (IL-2R?, also known as CD25), IL-2R?, IL-3R?, IL-4R?, IL-5R?, IL-6R?, IL-7R?, the common ?-chain (?c), ?c, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)R?, G-CSFR, c-fms, c-mpl, c-kit, FLT3, and GP130 in leukemia cells from 767 adult patients with AML by flow cytometry and determined their prevalence and clinical significance. All cytokine receptors examined were expressed at varying levels, whereas the levels of IL-3R?, GM-CSFR?, IL-2R?, ?c, c-kit, and G-CSFR exhibited a wide spectrum of ?10,000 sites/cell. In terms of their French-American-British classification types, GM-CSFR? and c-fms were preferentially expressed in M4/M5 patients, G-CSF in M3 patients, and IL-2R? in non-M3 patients. Elevated levels of IL-3R?, GM-CSFR?, and IL-2R? correlated with leukocytosis. In patients ?60 years old, higher levels of these 3 receptors correlated with poor responses to conventional chemotherapy, but only IL-2R? was associated with a shorter overall survival. By incorporating IL-2R? status into cytogenetic risk stratification, we could sort out a significantly adverse-risk cohort from the cytogenetically intermediate-risk group. Analyses with various phenotypical risk markers revealed the expression of IL-2R? as an independent prognostic indicator in patients with intermediate-risk cytogenetics. These findings were not observed in patients >60 years old. Our results indicate that several cytokine receptors were associated with certain cellular and clinical features, but IL-2R? alone had prognostic value that provides an additional marker to improve current risk evaluation in AML patients ?60 years old. PMID:26375984

  15. Prognostic Relevance of Cytokine Receptor Expression in Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Interleukin-2 Receptor α-Chain (CD25) Expression Predicts a Poor Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Nakase, Kazunori; Kita, Kenkichi; Kyo, Taiichi; Ueda, Takanori; Tanaka, Isao; Katayama, Naoyuki

    2015-01-01

    A variety of cytokine/cytokine receptor systems affect the biological behavior of acute leukemia cells. However, little is known about the clinical relevance of cytokine receptor expression in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We quantitatively examined the expression of interleukin-2 receptor α-chain (IL-2Rα, also known as CD25), IL-2Rβ, IL-3Rα, IL-4Rα, IL-5Rα, IL-6Rα, IL-7Rα, the common β-chain (βc), γc, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)Rα, G-CSFR, c-fms, c-mpl, c-kit, FLT3, and GP130 in leukemia cells from 767 adult patients with AML by flow cytometry and determined their prevalence and clinical significance. All cytokine receptors examined were expressed at varying levels, whereas the levels of IL-3Rα, GM-CSFRα, IL-2Rα, γc, c-kit, and G-CSFR exhibited a wide spectrum of ≥10,000 sites/cell. In terms of their French-American-British classification types, GM-CSFRα and c-fms were preferentially expressed in M4/M5 patients, G-CSF in M3 patients, and IL-2Rα in non-M3 patients. Elevated levels of IL-3Rα, GM-CSFRα, and IL-2Rα correlated with leukocytosis. In patients ≤60 years old, higher levels of these 3 receptors correlated with poor responses to conventional chemotherapy, but only IL-2Rα was associated with a shorter overall survival. By incorporating IL-2Rα status into cytogenetic risk stratification, we could sort out a significantly adverse-risk cohort from the cytogenetically intermediate-risk group. Analyses with various phenotypical risk markers revealed the expression of IL-2Rα as an independent prognostic indicator in patients with intermediate-risk cytogenetics. These findings were not observed in patients >60 years old. Our results indicate that several cytokine receptors were associated with certain cellular and clinical features, but IL-2Rα alone had prognostic value that provides an additional marker to improve current risk evaluation in AML patients ≤60 years old. PMID:26375984

  16. The first double-blind, randomised, parallel-group certolizumab pegol study in methotrexate-naive early rheumatoid arthritis patients with poor prognostic factors, C-OPERA, shows inhibition of radiographic progression

    PubMed Central

    Atsumi, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Ishiguro, Naoki; Tanaka, Yoshiya; Eguchi, Katsumi; Watanabe, Akira; Origasa, Hideki; Yasuda, Shinsuke; Yamanishi, Yuji; Kita, Yasuhiko; Matsubara, Tsukasa; Iwamoto, Masahiro; Shoji, Toshiharu; Okada, Toshiyuki; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki; Koike, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate efficacy and safety of combination therapy using certolizumab pegol (CZP) and methotrexate (MTX) as first-line treatment for MTX-naive, early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with poor prognostic factors, compared with MTX alone. Methods MTX-naive, early RA patients with ≤12 months persistent disease, high anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide, and either rheumatoid factor positive and/or presence of bone erosions were enrolled in this multicentre, double-blind, randomised placebo (PBO)-controlled study. Patients were randomised 1:1 to CZP+MTX or PBO+MTX for 52 weeks. Primary endpoint was inhibition of radiographic progression (change from baseline in modified Total Sharp Score (mTSS CFB)) at week 52. Secondary endpoints were mTSS CFB at week 24, and clinical remission rates at weeks 24 and 52. Results 316 patients randomised to CZP+MTX (n=159) or PBO+MTX (n=157) had comparable baseline characteristics reflecting features of early RA (mean disease duration: 4.0 vs 4.3 months; Disease Activity Score 28-joint assessment (DAS28)) (erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)): 5.4 vs 5.5; mTSS: 5.2 vs 6.0). CZP+MTX group showed significantly greater inhibition of radiographic progression relative to PBO+MTX at week 52 (mTSS CFB=0.36 vs 1.58; p<0.001) and week 24 (mTSS CFB=0.26 vs 0.86; p=0.003). Clinical remission rates (Simple Disease Activity Index, Boolean and DAS28 (ESR)) of the CZP+MTX group were significantly higher compared with those of the PBO+MTX group, at weeks 24 and 52. Safety results in both groups were similar, with no new safety signals observed with addition of CZP to MTX. Conclusions In MTX-naive early RA patients with poor prognostic factors, CZP+MTX significantly inhibited structural damage and reduced RA signs and symptoms, demonstrating the efficacy of CZP in these patients. Trial registration number (NCT01451203). PMID:26139005

  17. Pathologic and prognostic characteristics of splenomegaly in dogs due to fibrohistiocytic nodules: 98 cases.

    PubMed

    Spangler, W L; Kass, P H

    1998-11-01

    Ninety-eight canine splenectomy specimens consisting of combined nodular lymphoid and fibrohistiocytic cell proliferation were evaluated for seven light microscopic characteristics. Electron microscopic features in eight primary and two metastatic nodules (liver) were also evaluated. Nodular fibrohistiocytic proliferation in the canine spleen is characterized by a mixed population of histiocytoid and/or spindle cells in varying proportions intermixed with hematopoietic elements, plasma cells, and/or lymphocytes. These nodules seem to form a continuum between splenic lymphoid nodular hyperplasia and malignant splenic stromal neoplasms (malignant fibrous histiocytoma). Immunohistochemical methods used on 32/98 specimens showed uniform and strong positive staining among fibrohisiocytic cells for vimentin and desmin; S100 protein was similarly stained in general abundance. Individual cells strongly stained with smooth muscle actin were sparse but widely distributed. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen was not useful in the subjective differentiation of nodules taken from dogs that died of spleen-related causes and those surviving 12 months following splenectomy. A spectrum of cell types were observed by electron microscopy within each nodule. Fibroblasts, macrophages, intermediate fibrohistiocytic types, and several forms of splenic reticular cells were present. There were no consistent alterations in hematology or serum chemistry profiles of these dogs to provide useful diagnostic/prognostic information. Among the 93/98 dogs with complete (12 month) follow-up information, 48% (45/93) were alive and 52% (48/93) were dead. Dogs that died or were euthanatized during the follow-up period had a median survival of 5 and 5.5 months, respectively (range 0-15 months). Forty-four percent (21/48) died from causes linked to their splenic disease, and 35% (17/48) died from competing causes. The cause of death in 21% (10/48) was unknown. Lymphoid:fibrohistiocytic proportion and mitotic index in the nodules were anatomic features most predictive of postplenectomy mortality. A higher proportion of lymphoid to fibrohistiocytic type cells was associated with increased long-term survival, whereas lower lymphoid:fibrohistiocytic proportions and higher mitotic index indicated a probability of higher short-term mortality. PMID:9823590

  18. Clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of splenic abscess: A review of 67 cases in a single medical center of Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Kuo-Chin; Chuah, Seng-Kee; Changchien, Chi-Sin; Tsai, Tung-Lung; Lu, Sheng-Nan; Chiu, Yi-Chun; Chen, Yaw-Sen; Wang, Chih-Chi; Lin, Jui-Wei; Lee, Chuan-Mo; Hu, Tsung-Hui

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To analyze 67 cases of splenic abscess in a medical center of Taiwan during a period of 19 years. METHODS: From January 1986 to December 2004, a total of 67 patients with splenic abscess were enrolled for the retrospective study. The clinical characteristics, underlying diseases, organism spectra, therapeutic methods, APACHE II scores, and mortality rates were analyzed. RESULTS: There were 41 males and 26 females with the mean age of 54.1 ± 14.1 years. Multiple splenic abscesses (MSA) account for 28.4% and solitary splenic abscess in 71.6% of the patients. Twenty-six of sixty-seven patients (35.8%) had extrasplenic abscesses, with leading site of liver (34.6%). Microbiological cultures were positive in 58 patients (86.6%), with 71.8% in blood culture and 93.5% in abscess culture. Gram negative bacillus (GNB) infection predominated (55.2%), with leading pathogen of Klebsiella pneumoniae (22.4%), followed by gram positive coccus (GPC) infection (31%). Splenectomy was performed in 26 patients (38.8%), percutaneous drainage or aspiration in 21 (31.3%), and antibiotic therapy alone in 20 patients (29.9%). Eventually, 12 of 67 patients expired (17.9 %). By statistics, spleen infected with GNB was likely to develop multiple abscesses compared with infection with GPC (P = 0.036). Patients with GNB infection (P = 0.009) and multiple abscesses (P = 0.011) experienced a higher mortality rate than patients with GPC infection and solitary abscess. The mean APACHE II score of 12 expired patients (16.3 ± 3.2) was significantly higher than that of the 55 survivals (7.2 ± 3.8) (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: MSA, GNB infection, and high APACHE II scores are poor prognostic factors. Early surgical intervention should be encouraged when these risk factors are present. PMID:16489650

  19. Decreased expression of PinX1 protein is correlated with tumor development and is a new independent poor prognostic factor in ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cai, Mu-Yan; Zhang, Bin; He, Wei-Peng; Yang, Guo-Fen; Rao, Hui-Lan; Rao, Zhi-Yue; Wu, Qiu-Liang; Guan, Xin-Yuan; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Xie, Dan

    2010-06-01

    Human interacting protein X1 (PinX1) has been identified as a critical telomerase inhibitor and proposed to be a putative tumor suppressor gene. Loss of PinX1 has been found in a large variety of malignancies, but the expression status in epithelial ovarian tumors has not been investigated. In this study, immunohistochemistry for PinX1 protein was performed on a tissue microarray (TMA) of epithelial ovarian tumors (informatively containing 25 cystadenomas, 29 borderline tumors, and 157 invasive carcinomas) and 12 normal ovaries. Receiver-operator curve (ROC) analysis was used to determine cut-off scores for tumor positivity and to evaluate patients' survival status. The threshold for PinX1 positivity was determined to be above 60% (area under the curve = 0.856, P < 0.001) based on the area under the ROC. Positive expression of PinX1 was observed in 100% of normal ovarian tissues, in 84% of cystadenomas, in 75.9% borderline tumors, and 66.2% of ovarian carcinomas. Decreased expression of PinX1 was strongly related to patients with poor prognostic factors regarding presence of lymph node metastasis (P = 0.024), distant metastasis (P < 0.001), and late International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage (P < 0.001). In univariate survival analysis, a highly significant correlation between loss of PinX1 and shortened patient survival (mean, 48.2 months vs 99.2 months, P < 0.001) was displayed. Multivariate analysis demonstrated PinX1 expression (P = 0.027) was evaluated as an independent parameter. Our findings suggest that loss of PinX1 is an adverse independent molecular marker for epithelial ovarian carcinoma patients. PinX1 may be a novel target for telomerase-based anticancer therapy due to inhibiting telomerase activity. PMID:20367640

  20. Cognitive-Motivational Characteristics of Children Varying in Reading Ability: Evidence for Learned Helplessness in Poor Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butkowsky, Irwin S.; Willows, Dale M.

    1980-01-01

    Fifth-grade boys of relatively good, average, and poor reading ability were assessed on tasks in which success and failure were manipulated. Consistent with predictions, poor readers displayed characteristics indicative of learned helplessness and low self-concepts of ability, including low expectations and less persistence. (Instructional…

  1. A phase III randomized trial of postoperative pelvic irradiation in stage IB cervical carcinoma with poor prognostic features: Follow-up of a gynecologic oncology group study

    SciTech Connect

    Rotman, Marvin . E-mail: mrotman@downstate.edu; Sedlis, Alexander; Piedmonte, Marion R.; Bundy, Brian; Lentz, Samuel S.; Muderspach, Laila I.; Zaino, Richard J.

    2006-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate, in a phase III randomized trial, whether postoperative external-beam irradiation to the standard pelvic field improves the recurrence-free interval and overall survival (OS) in women with Stage IB cervical cancers with negative lymph nodes and certain poor prognostic features treated by radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients had Stage IB cervical cancer with negative lymph nodes but with 2 or more of the following features: more than one third (deep) stromal invasion, capillary lymphatic space involvement, and tumor diameter of 4 cm or more. The study group included 277 patients: 137 randomized to pelvic irradiation (RT) and 140 randomized to observation (OBS). The planned pelvic dose was from 46 Gy in 23 fractions to 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions. Results: Of the 67 recurrences, 24 were in the RT arm and 43 were in the OBS arm. The RT arm showed a statistically significant (46%) reduction in risk of recurrence (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.54, 90% confidence interval [CI] = 0.35 to 0.81, p = 0.007) and a statistically significant reduction in risk of progression or death (HR = 0.58, 90% CI = 0.40 to 0.85, p = 0.009). With RT, 8.8% of patients (3 of 34) with adenosquamous or adenocarcinoma tumors recurred vs. 44.0% (11 of 25) in OBS. Fewer recurrences were seen with RT in patients with adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous histologies relative to others (HR for RT by histology interaction = 0.23, 90% CI = 0.07 to 0.74, p = 0.019). After an extensive follow-up period, 67 deaths have occurred: 27 RT patients and 40 OBS patients. The improvement in overall survival (HR = 0.70, 90% CI = 0.45 to 1.05, p = 0.074) with RT did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions: Pelvic radiotherapy after radical surgery significantly reduces the risk of recurrence and prolongs progression-free survival in women with Stage IB cervical cancer. RT appears to be particularly beneficial for patients with adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous histologies. Circumstances that may have influenced the overall survival differences are considered.

  2. Parent-Adolescent Discrepancies in Perceived Parenting Characteristics and Adolescent Developmental Outcomes in Poor Chinese Families.

    PubMed

    Leung, Janet T Y; Shek, Daniel T L

    2014-01-01

    We examined the relationships between parent-adolescent discrepancies in perceived parenting characteristics (indexed by parental responsiveness, parental demandingness, and parental control) and adolescent developmental outcomes (indexed by achievement motivation and psychological competence) in poor families in Hong Kong. A sample of 275 intact families having at least one child aged 11-16 experiencing economic disadvantage were invited to participate in the study. Fathers and mothers completed the Parenting Style Scale and Chinese Parental Control Scale, and adolescents completed the Social-Oriented Achievement Motivation Scale and Chinese Positive Youth Development Scale in addition to paternal and maternal Parenting Style Scale and Chinese Parental Control Scale. Results indicated that parents and adolescents had different perceptions of parental responsiveness, parental demandingness, and paternal control, with adolescents generally perceived lower levels of parenting behaviors than did their parents. While father-adolescent discrepancy in perceived paternal responsiveness and mother-adolescent discrepancy in perceived maternal control negatively predicted adolescent achievement motivation, mother-adolescent discrepancy in perceptions of maternal responsiveness negatively predicted psychological competence in adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage. The present findings provided support that parent-child discrepancies in perceived parenting characteristics have negative impacts on the developmental outcomes of adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage. The present study addresses parent-child discrepancies in perceived parental behaviors as "legitimate" constructs, and explores their links with adolescent psychosocial development, which sheds light for researchers and clinical practitioners in helping the Chinese families experiencing economic disadvantage. PMID:24482569

  3. Transurethral microwave thermotherapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia: patient characteristics in good and poor responders.

    PubMed

    Arai, Y; Terai, A; Onishi, H; Oishi, K; Takeuchi, H; Yoshida, O

    1994-09-01

    Transurethral microwave thermotherapy (TUMT) has been shown to produce a clinical benefit in patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia. In order to identify the features of the ideal candidate, a retrospective analysis was conducted in 32 patients who were followed for 2 mo or more. Good responders (GR) were defined as having their Siroky peak flow rate (PFR) standard deviation (SD) increase by < 0.5 or a decrease in the International Prostatic Symptom Score (I-PSS) of > 10 (22 patients). Poor responders (PR) were defined as having their PFR SD increase by < or = 0.5 and their I-PSS decrease by < or = 10 (10 patients). The prostate volume, pre-TUMT I-PSS and intravesical opening pressure were significantly greater in the GR group, while there were no significant differences between the 2 groups for the other baseline patient characteristics: age, prostate length, PFR, PFR SD, post-voiding residual volume and quality of life. Concerning the operational parameters, significantly more total energy was delivered to the prostate in the GR group (mean 131 kJ) than in the PR group (mean 101 kJ). Moreover, the 7 patients with anti-androgen therapy pre-TUMT received less total energy and 5 of the 7 were poor responders. These results suggest that patients with apparent obstructive symptoms and with moderate enlargement of prostate could benefit more from this less invasive therapy. Clinical response seems to be dose-dependent and patients with a history of recent anti-androgen treatment may have a less favorable response.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7542156

  4. Sialomucins are characteristically O-acylated in poorly differentiated and colloid prostatic adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Sáez, C; Japón, M A; Conde, A F; Poveda, M A; Luna-Moré, S; Segura, D I

    1998-12-01

    Mucinous glycoproteins are secreted by prostatic adenocarcinomas and might play important roles in tumor invasion and metastasis. Their histochemical properties on routine biopsy specimens have not been fully characterized. We present a histochemical study of mucin in 21 prostatic adenocarcinomas, with particular focus on the demonstration of different types of sialomucins. We applied the following histochemical techniques to routinely processed, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections: Alcian blue (pH 2.5) and periodic acid-Schiff to reveal both acidic and neutral mucins; high iron diamine and Alcian blue (pH 2.5) to show sulfated and acidic nonsulfated mucosubstances simultaneously; periodic acid borohydride, potassium hydroxide, and periodic acid-Schiff to demonstrate O-acylated sialic acids; periodic acid thionine-Schiff, potassium hydroxide, and periodic acid-Schiff to differentiate pre-existing glycols from those revealed after saponification procedures; and periodic acid borohydride and periodic acid-Schiff to show C9-O-acylated sialic acid. These techniques are useful tools for demonstrating neutral and acidic (sialo- and sulfo-) mucins and di(C8,C9- or C7,C9-)-O-acylated, tri(C7,C8,C9-)-O-acylated and mono(C9)-O-acylated sialomucins. Most prostatic adenocarcinomas showed acidic mucins, with sialomucins predominating over sulfomucins. Well-differentiated and moderately differentiated noncolloid tumors had non-O-acylated sialomucins. Poorly differentiated tumors contained mono-O-acylated (C9) sialomucins, and colloid-type tumors secreted mono-, di-, and tri-O-acylated sialoglycoproteins. Acidic mucins, mainly sialomucins, constitute the major secretory component in prostatic adenocarcinomas, and our results show that the O-acylation of these sialoglycoproteins inversely correlates with tumor differentiation. Well-differentiated and moderately differentiated tumors are not O-acylated, whereas the poorly differentiated ones characteristically have O-acylated sialomucins in C9. Adenocarcinomas of the colloid type, thought to bear a poor prognosis, are the most heavily O-acylated. PMID:9872651

  5. Psycho-Social Characteristics of Secondary School Vocational Trainees Rated by their Instructors as Having Poor Worker Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Donald Henry

    A study was made of 269 boys and 388 girls enrolled in "capstone" courses in 30 cooperating schools of Wisconsin's Pilot Program in Vocational Education. The purpose was to identify psychosocial characteristics of secondary school trainees rated by their teachers as having poor employment potential. Characteristics were analyzed in terms of

  6. Ecological and geographic characteristics predict nutritional status of communities: rapid assessment for poor villages.

    PubMed

    Kusumayati, A; Gross, R

    1998-12-01

    The quality of poverty alleviation programmes relies heavily on appropriate targeting and priority setting. Major problems in assessing poverty include identification of the indicators of poverty and the methods used for its assessment. Nutritional status, expressed by anthropometric indices, has been proposed as a poverty indicator because of its validity, objectivity, reliability and feasibility. This study was conducted to explore the application of remote sensing to poverty mapping based on nutritional status at the community level. Relationships between the nutritional status within a community and the ecological characteristics of the community were investigated. Multiple linear regression tests were executed, and the resultant equations were tested for their validity in predicting communities with poor nutritional status. Among geographical and ecological indicators used, distance to the nearest market, main soil type, rice field area, and perennial cultivation area were found to be most useful predictors for the ranking of the communities by nutritional status. Among non-ecological determinants, food consumption, health service status and living conditions were also found as predictors. The highest correlation was found if total population was also taken into account in the regression model (R2 = 0.69; p < 0.0001). In the assessment of the sensitivity and specificity of the eight models studied, 'undernutrition' was defined as a condition where a community belongs in the first quartile for nutritional status (highest prevalence of undernutrition), and the baseline nutritional survey was considered as a standard method for final diagnosis. Most models which included only ecological factors in the equations had lower sensitivity and specificity than models which included all determinant factors in the equations. All models which took into account the total population had higher sensitivity and specificity than those that did not take total population into account. The best model of those that took into account only the geographical and ecological characteristics of the community's living environment had similar sensitivity and specificity (80% and 94.1%, respectively) as the models that considered non-geographical and non-ecological variables in addition to geographical and ecological variables. In the case of West Sumatra, only four ecological and geographic characteristics were sufficient to predict poverty in village. Since these characteristics could be surveyed by remote sensing, it may well be possible to use remote sensing for a rapid method for poverty mapping. PMID:10346032

  7. Clinical, Pathological, and Prognostic Characteristics of Glomerulonephritis Related to Staphylococcal Infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Si-Yang; Bu, Ru; Zhang, Qi; Liang, Shuang; Wu, Jie; Liu, Xue-Guang Zhang Shu-Wen; Cai, Guang-Yan; Chen, Xiang-Mei

    2016-04-01

    Staphylococcal infection has become a common cause of postinfectious glomerulonephritis in the past 3 decades. Because few investigations focus on this disease, the demographics and clinicopathological features of glomerulonephritis related to staphylococcal infection are not well characterized.We conducted a pooled analysis of published literature in electronic databases and analyzed the clinical features, laboratory findings, and histopathological changes. The patients were divided into 4 groups based on their prognosis: remission, persistent renal dysfunction, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), or death. A logistic regression model was used to identify the determinants of disease outcome.A total of 83 (64 men) patients with glomerulonephritis related to staphylococcal infection from 31 reports were analyzed. The mean age was 58 years (58 ± 17). Majority of the reports originated from Taiwan, Japan, and the United States. Clinical characteristics of the cases were hematuria (82/83), proteinuria (78/83), and acute kidney injury (75/83). Visceral abscesses (26/83) and skin infections (24/83) were the common sites of infection. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was the most common pathogen. The dominant or codominant deposition of IgA or C3 along the glomeruli was an important feature identified by immunofluorescence. There were 19 patients (22.9%) that progressed to dialysis-dependent ESRD. Twelve patients (14.5%) died. A univariate regression analysis indicated that diabetes mellitus (DM) (odds ratio [OR] 2.96; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-8.48; P = 0.04) and age (OR 4.80; 95% CI 1.84-12.53; P = 0.001) were risk factors for ESRD or death. A multivariate regression analysis also revealed that age (OR 4.90; 95% CI 1.82-13.18; P = 0.002) and DM (OR 3.07; 95% CI 0.98-9.59; P = 0.05) were independent risk factors for unfavorable prognosis.Glomerulonephritis related to staphylococcal infection has different features than typical postinfectious glomerulonephritis. The diagnosis of glomerulonephritis related to staphylococcal infection relies on immunofluorescence and electron microscopy findings. Age and DM are independent risk factors of poor prognosis for glomerulonephritis related to staphylococcal infection. PMID:27082609

  8. PDGFRA amplification is common in pediatric and adult high-grade astrocytomas and identifies a poor prognostic group in IDH1 mutant glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Joanna J; Aranda, Derick; Ellison, David W; Judkins, Alexander R; Croul, Sidney E; Brat, Daniel J; Ligon, Keith L; Horbinski, Craig; Venneti, Sriram; Zadeh, Gelareh; Santi, Mariarita; Zhou, Shengmei; Appin, Christina L; Sioletic, Stefano; Sullivan, Lisa M; Martinez-Lage, Maria; Robinson, Aaron E; Yong, William H; Cloughesy, Timothy; Lai, Albert; Phillips, Heidi S; Marshall, Roxanne; Mueller, Sabine; Haas-Kogan, Daphne A; Molinaro, Annette M; Perry, Arie

    2013-09-01

    High-grade astrocytomas (HGAs), corresponding to World Health Organization grades III (anaplastic astrocytoma) and IV (glioblastoma; GBM), are biologically aggressive, and their molecular classification is increasingly relevant to clinical management. PDGFRA amplification is common in HGAs, although its prognostic significance remains unclear. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), the most sensitive technique for detecting PDGFRA copy number gains, we determined PDGFRA amplification status in 123 pediatric and 263 adult HGAs. A range of PDGFRA FISH patterns were identified and cases were scored as non-amplified (normal and polysomy) or amplified (low-level and high-level). PDGFRA amplification was frequent in pediatric (29.3%) and adult (20.9%) tumors. Amplification was not prognostic in pediatric HGAs. In adult tumors diagnosed initially as GBM, the presence of combined PDGFRA amplification and isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1)(R132H) mutation was a significant independent prognostic factor (P = 0.01). In HGAs, PDGFRA amplification is common and can manifest as high-level and focal or low-level amplifications. Our data indicate that the latter is more prevalent than previously reported with copy number averaging techniques. To our knowledge, this is the largest survey of PDGFRA status in adult and pediatric HGAs and suggests PDGFRA amplification increases with grade and is associated with a less favorable prognosis in IDH1 mutant de novo GBMs. PMID:23438035

  9. Pretreatment Serum Concentrations of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Breast Cancer Prognostic Characteristics: A Case-Control and a Case-Series Study

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Song; Sucheston, Lara E.; Millen, Amy E.; Johnson, Candace S.; Trump, Donald L.; Nesline, Mary K.; Davis, Warren; Hong, Chi-Chen; McCann, Susan E.; Hwang, Helena; Kulkarni, Swati; Edge, Stephen B.; O'Connor, Tracey L.; Ambrosone, Christine B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Results from epidemiologic studies on the relationship between vitamin D and breast cancer risk are inconclusive. It is possible that vitamin D may be effective in reducing risk only of specific subtypes due to disease heterogeneity. Methods and Findings In case-control and case-series analyses, we examined serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) in relation to breast cancer prognostic characteristics, including histologic grade, estrogen receptor (ER), and molecular subtypes defined by ER, progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2, among 579 women with incident breast cancer and 574 controls matched on age and time of blood draw enrolled in the Roswell Park Cancer Institute from 2003 to 2008. We found that breast cancer cases had significantly lower 25OHD concentrations than controls (adjusted mean, 22.8 versus 26.2 ng/mL, p<0.001). Among premenopausal women, 25OHD concentrations were lower in those with high- versus low-grade tumors, and ER negative versus ER positive tumors (p≤0.03). Levels were lowest among women with triple-negative cancer (17.5 ng/mL), significantly different from those with luminal A cancer (24.5 ng/mL, p = 0.002). In case-control analyses, premenopausal women with 25OHD concentrations above the median had significantly lower odds of having triple-negative cancer (OR = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.08–0.53) than those with levels below the median; and every 10 ng/mL increase in serum 25OHD concentrations was associated with a 64% lower odds of having triple-negative cancer (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.22–0.56). The differential associations by tumor subtypes among premenopausal women were confirmed in case-series analyses. Conclusion In our analyses, higher serum levels of 25OHD were associated with reduced risk of breast cancer, with associations strongest for high grade, ER negative or triple negative cancers in premenopausal women. With further confirmation in large prospective studies, these findings could warrant vitamin D supplementation for reducing breast cancer risk, particularly those with poor prognostic characteristics among premenopausal women. PMID:21386992

  10. Gut transport characteristics in herbivorous and carnivorous serrasalmid fish from ion-poor Rio Negro water.

    PubMed

    Pelster, Bernd; Wood, Chris M; Speers-Roesch, Ben; Driedzic, William R; Almeida-Val, Vera; Val, Adalberto

    2015-02-01

    Three closely related characids, Tambaqui (omnivore), black Piranha (carnivore), and Pacu (herbivore), all Serrasalmidae, inhabit the ion-poor, acidic Rio Negro. We compared O2-consumption and N excretion rates in vivo, and sodium, chloride, glucose, and ammonia transport characteristics of gut sac preparations in vitro. The Pacu had a significantly higher weight-specific oxygen consumption, and a lower N/Q ratio than the omnivorous Tambaqui, and a significantly lower urea-N excretion rate than the carnivorous black Piranha, suggesting N-limitation in the herbivorous Pacu. With a value of 2.62 ± 0.15, gut to fork length ratio in the Pacu was about 2.5 times higher than in the black Piranha, and 2.0 times higher than in the Tambaqui. Anterior intestinal activities of three enzymes involved in N-fixation for amino acid synthesis (glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamate-oxaloacetate transferase, and glutamate-pyruvate transferase) were generally greatest in the carnivore and lowest in the herbivore species. In all three species, sodium, chloride, glucose, and ammonia were taken up at high rates from the intestine, resulting in an isosmotic fluid flux. Comparing the area-specific fluid flux of the anterior, mid, and posterior gut sections, no difference was detected between the three sections of the Pacu, while in the Tambaqui, it was highest in the anterior section, and in the black Piranha highest in the middle section. Overall, the area-specific uptake rates for sodium, chloride, glucose, and ammonia of anterior, mid, and posterior sections were similar in all three species, indicating that there is no difference in the area-specific transport rates associated with trophic position. The net ammonia uptake flux from gut interior was not significantly different from the net ammonia efflux to the serosal fluid, so that the ammonia removed from the intestine by the mucosal epithelium was quantitatively transferred through the tissue to the serosal side in all three species. Thus, metabolic activity of gut tissue did not significantly influence the net ammonia transfer. Due to the much higher gut to fork length ratio, the overall transport capacity of the gut of the herbivorous Pacu by far exceeded the transport capacity of their carnivorous and omnivorous relatives, thus compensating for the lower digestibility and the low Na(+), Cl(-), and N-content of the plant diet. Accordingly, in order to cope with the more difficult digestible plant material and the very low nitrogen content of plants, herbivorous fish have not evolved more effective area-specific transport capacities, but rather have increased the length of the gut. PMID:25528145

  11. Pneumocystis Pneumonia in Patients with Autoimmune Diseases: A Retrospective Study Focused on Clinical Characteristics and Prognostic Factors Related to Death

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Minjiang; Tian, Xinlun; Qin, Fang; Zhou, Jiong; Liu, Jinjing; Wang, Mengzhao; Xu, Kai-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Background With the increasing use of immunosuppressive agents, the number of opportunistic infections has risen in patients with autoimmune diseases. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is one of these opportunistic infections that have a high mortality rate. However, only a few studies have described PCP in these patients, and these studies are limited in scope. We conducted this retrospective study to describe the clinical characteristics and factors associated with outcomes of PCP in patients with autoimmune diseases. Methods A retrospective study was performed in laboratory diagnosed PCP patients with autoimmune diseases in an academic hospital over a 10-year period. Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection were not included. Clinical characteristics were collected and the factors related to death were analysed. Results A total of 69 patients with PCP during the study period were included. Common clinical features included fever (81%), cough (56%), and dyspnea (35%). Ground glass opacity (81%) and reticulation (52%) were the most common radiological findings. Concurrent pulmonary infections including bacterium, aspergillus and cytomegalovirus were found in 34% of the patients. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 32%. High mortality was associated with lower PaO2/FiO2 ratios and albumin levels. The lymphocyte count, CD4+ T cell count, previous usage of immunosuppressive agents, the duration and dose of glucocorticoids did not affect the outcome. Conclusions The mortality rate in PCP patients with autoimmune diseases is high. Low PaO2/FiO2 ratios and albumin levels are independent prognostic factors of mortality. PMID:26422246

  12. Helping Poor Readers Demonstrate Their Science Competence: Item Characteristics Supporting Text-Picture Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sa, Steffani; Schtte, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Solving test items might require abilities in test-takers other than the construct the test was designed to assess. Item and student characteristics such as item format or reading comprehension can impact the test result. This experiment is based on cognitive theories of text and picture comprehension. It examines whether integration aids, which

  13. Helping Poor Readers Demonstrate Their Science Competence: Item Characteristics Supporting Text-Picture Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saß, Steffani; Schütte, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Solving test items might require abilities in test-takers other than the construct the test was designed to assess. Item and student characteristics such as item format or reading comprehension can impact the test result. This experiment is based on cognitive theories of text and picture comprehension. It examines whether integration aids, which…

  14. Pathway-Centric Integrative Analysis Identifies RRM2 as a Prognostic Marker in Breast Cancer Associated with Poor Survival and Tamoxifen Resistance123

    PubMed Central

    Putluri, Nagireddy; Maity, Suman; Kommangani, Ramakrishna; Creighton, Chad J.; Putluri, Vasanta; Chen, Fengju; Nanda, Sarmishta; Bhowmik, Salil Kumar; Terunuma, Atsushi; Dorsey, Tiffany; Nardone, Agostina; Fu, Xiaoyong; Shaw, Chad; Sarkar, Tapasree Roy; Schiff, Rachel; Lydon, John P.; O’Malley, Bert W.; Ambs, Stefan; Das, Gokul M.; Michailidis, George; Sreekumar, Arun

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer (BCa) molecular subtypes include luminal A, luminal B, normal-like, HER-2–enriched, and basal-like tumors, among which luminal B and basal-like cancers are highly aggressive. Biochemical pathways associated with patient survival or treatment response in these more aggressive subtypes are not well understood. With the limited availability of pathologically verified clinical specimens, cell line models are routinely used for pathway-centric studies. We measured the metabolome of luminal and basal-like BCa cell lines using mass spectrometry, linked metabolites to biochemical pathways using Gene Set Analysis, and developed a novel rank-based method to select pathways on the basis of their enrichment in patient-derived omics data sets and prognostic relevance. Key mediators of the pathway were then characterized for their role in disease progression. Pyrimidine metabolism was altered in luminal versus basal BCa, whereas the combined expression of its associated genes or expression of one key gene, ribonucleotide reductase subunit M2 (RRM2) alone, associated significantly with decreased survival across all BCa subtypes, as well as in luminal patients resistant to tamoxifen. Increased RRM2 expression in tamoxifen-resistant patients was verified using tissue microarrays, whereas the metabolic products of RRM2 were higher in tamoxifen-resistant cells and in xenograft tumors. Both genetic and pharmacological inhibition of this key enzyme in tamoxifen-resistant cells significantly decreased proliferation, reduced expression of cell cycle genes, and sensitized the cells to tamoxifen treatment. Our study suggests for evaluating RRM2-associated metabolites as noninvasive markers for tamoxifen resistance and its pharmacological inhibition as a novel approach to overcome tamoxifen resistance in BCa. PMID:25016594

  15. Collected Papers on Poverty Issues. Volume 3: Public Attitude Toward Poverty and the Characteristics of the Poor and the Near Poor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yokelson, Doris, Ed.

    Volume 3 of a four volume collection, this document addresses the extent and the depth of public support in America for domestic social welfare programs and the social, moral, and economic attitudes of the poor and near poor. Specifically, three major sections focus on: the national morale and support for domestic reform; attitudes toward welfare,…

  16. Molecular Profiling of Multiple Human Cancers Defines an Inflammatory Cancer-Associated Molecular Pattern and Uncovers KPNA2 as a Uniform Poor Prognostic Cancer Marker

    PubMed Central

    Rachidi, Saleh M.; Qin, Tingting; Sun, Shaoli; Zheng, W. Jim; Li, Zihai

    2013-01-01

    Background Immune evasion is one of the recognized hallmarks of cancer. Inflammatory responses to cancer can also contribute directly to oncogenesis. Since the immune system is hardwired to protect the host, there is a possibility that cancers, regardless of their histological origins, endow themselves with a common and shared inflammatory cancer-associated molecular pattern (iCAMP) to promote oncoinflammation. However, the definition of iCAMP has not been conceptually and experimentally investigated. Methods and Findings Genome-wide cDNA expression data was analyzed for 221 normal and 324 cancer specimens from 7 cancer types: breast, prostate, lung, colon, gastric, oral and pancreatic. A total of 96 inflammatory genes with consistent dysregulation were identified, including 44 up-regulated and 52 down-regulated genes. Protein expression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry for some of these genes. The iCAMP contains proteins whose roles in cancer have been implicated and others which are yet to be appreciated. The clinical significance of many iCAMP genes was confirmed in multiple independent cohorts of colon and ovarian cancer patients. In both cases, better prognosis correlated strongly with high CXCL13 and low level of GREM1, LOX, TNFAIP6, CD36, and EDNRA. An “Inflammatory Gene Integrated Score” was further developed from the combination of 18 iCAMP genes in ovarian cancer, which predicted overall survival. Noticeably, as a selective nuclear import protein whose immuno-regulatory function just begins to emerge, karyopherin alpha 2 (KPNA2) is uniformly up-regulated across cancer types. For the first time, the cancer-specific up-regulation of KPNA2 and its clinical significance were verified by tissue microarray analysis in colon and head-neck cancers. Conclusion This work defines an inflammatory signature shared by seven epithelial cancer types and KPNA2 as a consistently up-regulated protein in cancer. Identification of iCAMP may not only serve as a novel biomarker for prognostication and individualized treatment of cancer, but also have significant biological implications. PMID:23536776

  17. Overexpression of centromere protein K (CENPK) in ovarian cancer is correlated with poor patient survival and associated with predictive and prognostic relevance

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yi-Chao

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer has a poor prognosis. Most patients are diagnosed with ovarian cancer when the disease has reached an advanced stage and cure rates are generally under 30%. Hence, early diagnosis of ovarian cancer is the best means to control the disease in the long term and abate mortality. So far, cancer antigen 125 (CA125) and human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) are the gold-standard tumor markers for ovarian cancer; however, these two markers can be elevated in a number of conditions unrelated to ovarian cancer, resulting in decreased specifically and positive predictive value. Therefore, it is urgent to identify novel biomarkers with high reliability and sensitivity for ovarian cancer. In this study for the first time, we identified a member of the centromere protein (CENP) family, CENPK, which was specifically upregulated in ovarian cancer tissues and cell lines and the overexpression of which was associated with poor prognoses in patients with ovarian cancer. In addition, the presence of CENPK significantly improved the sensitivity of CA125 or HE4 for predicting clinical outcomes of ovarian cancer patients. In conclusion, we identified that CENPK was specifically upregulated in ovarian cancer cells and can be used as a novel tumor marker of ovarian cancer. PMID:26587348

  18. Structural characteristics of oil-poor dilutable fish oil omega-3 microemulsions for ophthalmic applications.

    PubMed

    Lidich, Nina; Aserin, Abraham; Garti, Nissim

    2016-02-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) promotes synthesis of anti-inflammatory prostaglandins and relief of dry eye symptoms. However, topical ophthalmic application of DHA is difficult because of its lipophilic property. Therefore, it is important to develop aqueous-based formulation with enhanced capabilities. Novel, unique water-dilutable microemulsions (MEs) were constructed to allow loading of naturally occurring rigid long-chain triglyceride of DHA (TG-DHA). The TG-DHA serves as solubilizate and as the oil phase, therefore preparation is poor in oil. The structural transformations of MEs upon water dilution were studied by SAXS, viscosity, electrical conductivity, self-diffusion NMR, DSC, cryo-TEM, and DLS techniques. At low water content a new type of water-in-oil (W/O) structure is formed. The glycerol/water phase hydrates the headgroups of surfactants, and the oil solvates their tails, forming "ill-defined bicontinuous domains". Upon further water dilution more structured bicontinuous domains of high viscosity are formed. After additional dilution, the mesophases invert to oil-in-water (O/W) droplets of ∼8nm. In the structures composed of up to 25wt% water, the TG-DHA spaces and de-entangles the surfactant tails. Once the bicontinuous structures are formed, the surfactants and TG-DHA content decrease and their interfacial layer shrinks, leading to entanglement and buildup of viscous non-Newtonian mesophase. Above 70wt% water TG-DHA is embedded in the core of the O/W droplets, and its effect on the droplets' structure is minimal. This new dilutable ill-defined microemulsion can be a potential delivery vehicle for ophthalmic TG-DHA transport. PMID:26520814

  19. Clinicopathologic characteristics, treatment outcomes, and prognostic factors of primary thoracic soft tissue sarcoma: A multicenter study of the Anatolian Society of Medical Oncology (ASMO)

    PubMed Central

    Unal, Olcun Umit; Oztop, Ilhan; Yasar, Nurgul; Urakci, Zuhat; Ozatli, Tahsin; Bozkurt, Oktay; Sevinc, Alper; Gunaydin, Yusuf; Yapar Taskoylu, Burcu; Arpaci, Erkan; Ulas, Arife; Kodaz, Hilmi; Tonyali, Onder; Avci, Nilufer; Aksoy, Asude; Yilmaz, Ahmet Ugur

    2015-01-01

    Background Soft tissue sarcomas (STSs) are rare malignant tumors of embryogenic mesoderm origin. Primary thoracic STSs account for a small percentage of all STSs and limited published information is available. This study aimed to identify the prognostic factors for thoracic STSs and evaluate the disease's clinical outcomes. Methods The medical records of 109 patients with thoracic STSs who were treated between 2003 and 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients' survival rates were analyzed and potential prognostic factors evaluated. Results The median follow-up period was 29 months (range: 1–121 months). STSs were most frequently localized on the chest wall (n = 42; 38.5%) and lungs (n = 42; 38.5%). The most common histological types were malignant fibrous histiocytoma (n = 23; 21.1%), liposarcoma (n = 17; 15.6%), and leiomyosarcoma (n = 16; 14.7%). The median survival time of all patients was 40.3 months (95% confidence interval, 14.22–66.37 months), with one and five-year survival rates of 93.4% and 63.5%, respectively. Univariate analysis of all groups revealed that metastatic stage, unresectability, tumor diameter of >10 cm, tumor location other than the chest wall, and grade 3 diseases were predictable of poor survival. However, only grade 3 diseases and tumor location other than the chest wall were confirmed by multivariate analysis as poor prognostic factors. Conclusions Primary thoracic STSs are rarely seen malignant tumors. Our results indicated that patients with low-grade tumors and those localized on the chest wall often experienced better survival outcomes. PMID:26273340

  20. An increased NM23H1 copy number may be a poor prognostic factor independent of LOH on 1p in neuroblastomas.

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, O.; Handa, M.; Uehara, T.; Maseki, N.; Sakashita, A.; Sakurai, M.; Kanda, N.; Arai, Y.; Kaneko, Y.

    1996-01-01

    In a study of 154 neuroblastomas, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) was observed on 1p (13%, 19/143), 11q (19%, 11/59), 14q (15%, 15/97), 17p (5%, 5/105) and 17q (17%, 9/52). We also found an increase in NM23H1 copy number in 14% (13/95) of neuroblastomas. All except one tumour with an increased copy number stained positive with anti-NM23H1 monoclonal antibody. Event-free survival (EFS) was significantly shorter in 19 patients with LOH on 1p than in 128 without (41% vs 77% 4 year EFS, P=0.0093), and in 13 patients with increased NM23H1 copy numbers than in 82 with normal copy numbers of the gene (61% vs 84% 4 year EFS, P=0.0103). LOH on 11q, 14q or 17q did not affect EFS. Most tumours with LOH on 1p, increased NM23H1 copy numbers or MYCN amplification occurred in patients aged 12 months or more, those with advanced stage disease, and those who showed near diploidy or pseudodiploidy. However, LOH on 1p was found in only 1 of the 13 tumours with increased NM23H1 copy numbers, and MYCN amplification of four copies occurred in only one other such tumour. These findings suggest that the increased NM23H1 copy number may be a predictor for poor prognosis, independent of LOH on 1p, and probably also of MYCN amplification. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 PMID:8932344

  1. Metastasis-Free Interval Is Closely Related to Tumor Characteristics and Has Prognostic Value in Breast Cancer Patients with Distant Relapse

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Jun; Ahn, Sung Gwe; Lee, Hak Min; Park, Jong Tae; Han, Kyunghwa; Lee, Seung Ah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the relationships between metastasis-free interval (MFI) and tumor characteristics, and assessed the prognostic value of MFI for survival after metastasis in patients with metastatic breast cancer. Furthermore, we compared MFI among the subtypes. Methods We identified 335 patients with postoperative tumor recurrence at distant site(s). All patients underwent curative resection and had a MFI of at least 6 months. MFI was categorized as short (<2 years), intermediate (?2 years and <5 years), or long (?5 years). Overall survival after metastasis (OSM) was estimated. Results Patients with a shorter MFI were younger, more likely to have initial metastasis to visceral organs, and had a larger tumor with a higher stage and grade as well as a higher rate of nodal involvement at initial diagnosis. Among 136 patients with known disease subtypes, shorter MFI was associated with the triple-negative subtype while longer MFI was associated with the hormone receptor-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative subtype. Mortality after metastasis declined sharply with increasing MFI up to approximately 2 years, and continued gradually declining between 2 and 5 years. An MFI longer than 5 years did not add any survival benefit. MFI was a significant prognostic factor for OSM independent of nodal status, stage, metastatic site, and hormone receptor status of the metastasized cancer. Conclusion MFI is closely related to biological characteristics of both primary tumors and their metastases, and has a prognostic value for survival after metastasis. We therefore suggest investigation into treatments targeting improvement of MFI as a potential novel strategy. PMID:26770244

  2. Human mutL homolog 1 expression characteristic and prognostic effect on patients with sporadic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Chibin; Ren, Weiguo; Sun, Zhenqiang; Yu, Xianbo; Yuan, Wei; Huang, Mingyu; Shen, Shourong; Wang, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the relationship between aberrant human mutL homolog 1 (hMLH1) expression and clinicopathological parameters of patients with sporadic colorectal cancer, and to explore the prognostic effect of aberrant hMLH1 expression in these patients. The relationship was measured by chi-square test and Fisher’s exact test. Survival analysis was performed with Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression model to measure 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and 5-year overall survival (OS) rates. Totally 17.13% of the patients with sporadic colorectal cancer showed aberrant nuclear staining for hMLH1 expression. Aberrant hMLH1 expression was related with tumor pathologic types, tumor location and TNM staging (P<0.05) in the patients with sporadic colorectal cancer. Cox regression analysis indicated important prognostic factors were age (RR: 1.021, 95% CI: 1.003-1.039, P=0.023), mucinous adenocarcinoma (RR: 2.603, 95% CI: 1.705-3.974, P<0.0001), TNM staging (RR: 2.071, 95% CI: 1.170-3.666, P=0.012), lymphangion invasion (RR: 2.013, 95% CI: 1.227-3.303, P=0.006) and aberrant hMLH1 expression (RR: 0.414, 95% CI: 0.216-0.791, P=0.008). Consequently, hMLH1 expression level is related with some clinicopathologic features. Aberrant hMLH1 expression plays a significant part in prognosis for patients with sporadic colorectal cancer and it will promisingly become an independent prognostic factor. PMID:26770629

  3. The demographic features, clinicopathologic characteristics, treatment outcome and disease-specific prognostic factors of solitary fibrous tumor: a population-based analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wushou, Alimujiang; Jiang, Yi-Zhou; Liu, Yi-Rong; Shao, Zhi-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background Solitary fibrous tumor's (SFT) demographic features, clinicopathologic characteristics, treatment outcome and disease-specific prognostic factors were unexplored comprehensively. Methods SEER program was used to identify patients diagnosed with SFT from 1973 to 2012. Overall collected data were analyzed by using the SPSS 18.0. Results In total, 804 cases were found including 613 cases with SFT-specific mortality and 801 patients were analyzed for overall survival (OS). The 3-year disease specific survival (DSS), 5-year DSS and 10-year DSS were 73.3%, 65.7% and 53.3%. The 3-year OS, 5-year OS and 10-year OS were 71.9%, 63.3% and 47.3%. In the multivariate survival analysis, the age > 51 years (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.851 for DSS, P = 0.024 and HR = 1.652 for OS, P = 0.033; Reference [Ref] ≤ 51 years for DSS and ≤ 53 years for OS), SEER stage metastasized tumor (HR = 4.269 for DSS, P = 0.000 and HR = 2.905 for OS, P = 0.028, Ref - localized + regional tumor), pathologic grade III + IV (HR = 2.734 for DSS, P = 0.001 and HR = 2.585 for OS, P = 0.000, Ref - grade I + II) were adversely associated with DSS and OS. In addition, surgery was favorably associated with DSS (HR = 0.217, P = 0.045, Ref - surgery + radiotherapy). Conclusions The surgery was an independent prognostic factor for DSS. The patient's age, SEER stage and pathologic grade were SFT-specific independent prognostic indicators for DSS and OS. PMID:26496033

  4. The Practicability of a Novel Prognostic Index (PI) Model and Comparison with Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI) in Stage I–III Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Surgical Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuaijie; Huang, Xiaojia; Yang, Lu; Xiao, Xiangsheng; Xie, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies have indicated the prognostic value of various laboratory parameters in cancer patients. This study was to establish a prognostic index (PI) model for breast cancer patients based on the potential prognostic factors. Methods A retrospective study of 1661 breast cancer patients who underwent surgical treatment between January 2002 and December 2008 at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center was conducted. Multivariate analysis (Cox regression model) was performed to determine the independent prognostic factors and a prognostic index (PI) model was devised based on these factors. Survival analyses were used to estimate the prognostic value of PI, and the discriminatory ability of PI was compared with Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI) by evaluating the area under the receiver operating characteristics curves (AUC). Results The mean survival time of all participants was 123.6 months. The preoperative globulin >30.0g/L, triglyceride >1.10mmol/L and fibrinogen >2.83g/L were identified as risk factors for shorter cancer-specific survival. The novel prognostic index model was established and enrolled patients were classified as low- (1168 patients, 70.3%), moderate- (410 patients, 24.7%) and high-risk groups (83 patients, 5.0%), respectively. Compared with the low-risk group, higher risks of poor clinical outcome were indicated in the moderate-risk group [Hazard ratio (HR): 1.513, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.169–1.959, p = 0.002] and high-risk group (HR: 2.481, 95%CI: 1.653–3.724, p< 0.001). Conclusions The prognostic index based on three laboratory parameters was a novel and practicable prognostic tool. It may serve as complement to help predict postoperative survival in breast cancer patients. PMID:26600129

  5. Clinical Characteristics and Prognostic Significance of TERT Promoter Mutations in Cancer: A Cohort Study and a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Ping; Cao, Jin-lin; Abuduwufuer, Abudumailamu; Wang, Lu-Ming; Yuan, Xiao-Shuai; Lv, Wang; Hu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutations (pTERTm) in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have been investigated, but the results were inconsistent. In addition, several studies have analysed the role of pTERTm in the etiology of various types of cancers, however, the results also remain inconsistent. Methods The genomic DNA sequence of 103 NSCLC samples were analysed to investigate the frequency of pTERTm in these patients and to establish whether these mutations are associated with their clinical data. Furthermore, a meta-analysis based on previously published articles and our cohort study was performed to investigate the association of pTERTm with patient gender, age at diagnosis, metastasis status, tumour stage and cancer prognosis (5-year overall survival rate). Results In the cohort study, 4 patients had C228T and 2 had C250T, with a total mutation frequency up to 5.8%. Significant difference of clinical data between pTERTm carriers and noncarriers was only found in age at diagnosis. In the meta-analysis, We found that pTERTm carriers in cancer patients are older than noncarriers (Mean difference (MD) = 5.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.00 to 8.48), male patients were more likely to harbour pTERTm (odds Ratios (OR) = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.22 to 1.58), and that pTERTm had a significant association with distant metastasis (OR = 3.78; 95% CI, 2.45 to 5.82), a higher tumour grade in patients with glioma (WHO grade III, IV vs. I, II: OR, 2.41; 95% CI, 1.88 to 3.08) and a higher tumour stage in other types of cancer (III, IV vs. I, II: OR, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.48 to 4.15). pTERTm was also significantly associated with a greater risk of death (hazard ratio = 1.71; 95% CI, 1.41 to 2.08). Conclusions pTERTm are a moderately prevalent genetic event in NSCLC. The current meta-analysis indicates that pTERTm is associated with patient age, gender and distant metastasis. It may serves as an adverse prognostic factor in individuals with cancers. PMID:26799744

  6. Poor performance validity predicts clinical characteristics and cognitive test performance of OEF/OIF/OND Veterans in a research setting.

    PubMed

    Clark, Alexandra L; Amick, Melissa M; Fortier, Catherine; Milberg, William P; McGlinchey, Regina E

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the performance of 198 Veteran research participants deployed during Operation Enduring Freedom, Operation Iraqi Freedom, and/or Operation New Dawn (OEF/OIF/OND) on four measures of performance validity: the Medical Symptom Validity Test (MSVT), California Verbal Learning Test: Forced Choice Recognition (FCR), Reliable Digit Span (RDS), and TOVA Symptom Exaggeration Index (SEI). Failure on these performance validity tests (PVTs) ranged from 4% to 9%. The overall base rate of poor performance validity, as measured by failure of the MSVT in conjunction with an embedded PVT (FCR, RDS, SEI), was 5.6%. Regression analyses revealed that poor performance validity predicted cognitive test performance and self-reported psychological symptom severity. Furthermore, a greater prevalence of traumatic brain injury (TBI), Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), co-morbid TBI/PTSD, and other Axis I diagnoses, was observed among participants with poor effort. Although poor performance validity is relatively uncommon in a research setting, these findings demonstrate that clinicians should be cautious when interpreting psychological symptoms and neuropsychological test performance of Veteran participants who fail effort measures. PMID:24766521

  7. Lipid-poor renal angiomyolipoma: Differentiation from clear cell renal cell carcinoma using wash-in and washout characteristics on contrast-enhanced computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    XIE, PINGKUN; YANG, ZHIHUI; YUAN, ZHENG

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, a total of 82 patients (42 men and 40 women; age range, 24–84 years), including 34 patients with lipid-poor renal angiomyolipoma (AML) and 49 with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC), who had undergone multiphase contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) (i.e., CT with unenhanced, corticomedullary, nephrographic and 5-min delay phase scanning) were evaluated. The peak enhancement attenuation value, net enhancement attenuation value, enhancement ratio, washout value and washout ratio were calculated to compare the enhancement characteristics between the two diseases. The results revealed that the lipid-poor AMLs had a significantly higher mean attenuation value compared with that of CCRCCs on unenhanced CT scans (37.8 vs. 30.9 HU; Mann-Whitney U test, P=0.003). In addition, significant differences were found between lipid-poor AMLs and CCRCCs with regard to wash-in (Mann-Whitney U test, P=0.001) and enhancement ratios (Mann-Whitney U test, P=0.010) on contrast-enhanced CT scans. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.722 using wash-in for differentiation between CCRCCs and lipid-poor AMLs. Lipid-poor AMLs exhibited a reduced washout of contrast enhancement (35.8±32.7 HU washout value; 29.4±0.187% washout ratio) compared with that of CCRCCs (48.3±28.4 HU washout value; 35.7±0.148% washout ratio; Mann-Whitney U test, P=0.037 and P=0.204, respectively). The ROC analysis result yielded an AUC of 0.639 for the use of washout to differentiate CCRCCs from lipid-poor AMLs. In summary, a larger wash-in and washout of contrast enhancement is a predictor that a lesion is CCRCC. PMID:26998171

  8. Differentiation syndrome in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia treated with all-trans retinoic acid and anthracycline chemotherapy: characteristics, outcome, and prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Montesinos, Pau; Bergua, Juan M; Vellenga, Edo; Rayn, Chelo; Parody, Ricardo; de la Serna, Javier; Len, Angel; Esteve, Jordi; Milone, Gustavo; Debn, Guillermo; Rivas, Concha; Gonzlez, Marcos; Tormo, Mar; Daz-Mediavilla, Joaqun; Gonzlez, Jose D; Negri, Silvia; Amutio, Elena; Brunet, Salut; Lowenberg, Bob; Sanz, Miguel A

    2009-01-22

    Differentiation syndrome (DS) can be a life-threatening complication in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) undergoing induction therapy with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). Detailed knowledge about DS has remained limited. We present an analysis of the incidence, characteristics, prognostic factors, and outcome of 739 APL patients treated with ATRA plus idarubicin in 2 consecutive trials (Programa Espaol de Tratamientos en Hematologa [PETHEMA] LPA96 and LPA99). Overall, 183 patients (24.8%) experienced DS, 93 with a severe form (12.6%) and 90 with a moderate form (12.2%). Severe but not moderate DS was associated with an increase in mortality. A bimodal incidence of DS was observed, with peaks occurring in the first and third weeks after the start of ATRA therapy. A multivariate analysis indicated that a WBC count greater than 5 x 10(9)/L and an abnormal serum creatinine level correlated with an increased risk of developing severe DS. Patients receiving systematic prednisone prophylaxis (LPA99 trial) in contrast to those receiving selective prophylaxis with dexamethasone (LPA96 trial) had a lower incidence of severe DS. Patients developing severe DS showed a reduced 7-year relapse-free survival in the LPA96 trial (60% vs 85%, P = .003), but this difference was not apparent in the LPA99 trial (86% vs 88%). PMID:18945964

  9. Expression of APPL1 is correlated with clinicopathologic characteristics and poor prognosis in patients with gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, J.S.; Song, J.G.; Zhu, C.H.; Wu, K.; Yao, Y.; Li, N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although appl1 is overexpressed in many cancers, its status in gastric cancer (gc) is not known. In the present study, we used relevant pathologic and clinical data to investigate appl1 expression in patients with gc. Methods In 47 gc and 27 non-gc surgical specimens, immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of appl1, and reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) was used to detect messenger rna (mrna). A scatterplot visualized the relationship between survival time and mrna expression in gc patients. The log-rank test and other survival statistics were used to determine the association of appl1 expression with the pathologic features of the cancer and clinical outcomes. Results In gc, appl1 was expressed in 28 of 47 specimens (59.6%), and in non-gc, it was expressed in 7 of 23 specimens (30.4%, p < 0.05). The expression of mrna in gc was 0.82 [95% confidence interval (ci): 0.78 to 0.86], and in non-gc, it was 0.73 (95% ci: 0.69 to 0.77; p < 0.05). Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that, in gc, appl1 expression was correlated with depth of infiltration (p = 0.005), lymph node metastasis (p = 0.017), and TNM stage (p = 0.022), but not with pathologic type (p = 0.41). Testing by rt-pcr demonstrated that, in gc, appl1 mrna expression was correlated with depth of infiltration (p = 0.042), lymph node metastasis (p = 0.031), and TNM stage (p = 0.04), but again, not with pathologic type (p = 0.98). The correlation coefficient between survival time and mrna expression was −0.83 (p < 0.01). Overexpression of appl1 protein (hazard ratio: 3.88; 95% ci: 1.07 to 14.09) and mrna (hazard ratio: 4.23; 95% ci: 3.09 to 15.11) was a risk factor for death in patients with gc. Conclusions Expression of appl1 is increased in gc. Overexpression is prognostic for a lethal outcome. PMID:27122990

  10. Village characteristics and health of rural Chinese older adults: examining the CHARLS Pilot Study of a rich and poor province.

    PubMed

    Yeatts, Dale E; Pei, Xiaomei; Cready, Cynthia M; Shen, Yuying; Luo, Hao; Tan, Junxin

    2013-12-01

    Community (or village) characteristics have received growing attention as researchers have sought factors affecting health. This study examines the association between a variety of environmental, economic, and social village characteristics and health of Chinese older rural adults with health measured in terms of physical limitations. The Chinese Health and Retirement Longitudinal Survey (CHARLS) Pilot Study data were used. Older villagers from a low-income province (Gansu) and a relatively wealthy province (Zhejiang) were surveyed between July and September, 2008. The sample included 1267 respondents in 73 villages age 45 and older. The relationship between a variety of village characteristics and physical limitations of older adults was examined using negative binomial regression (NBR) with standard errors adjusted to account for non-independence of respondents in a village. A comparison of means/percentages shows that Gansu and Zhejiang were significantly different on the dependent and most independent variables. The NBR models show that at the personal-level, decreased risk of physical limitations was associated with being male, less than 60 years old, married, higher in education, and higher in household expenditures (proxy for income). At the village-level, decreased risk of limitations was associated with a continuous supply of electricity, not using coal in the household, the existence of a sewage system, low cost of electricity, and village wealth. Decreased risk of physical limitations was also associated with various characteristics of China's New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS), an insurance program for rural older adults. Policy implications for improved health of rural older adults include: (1) continued use of China's NCMS, (2) establishment of village sewage systems, (3) ending the use of coal in the home, and (4) increased educational opportunities focused on health. PMID:24331884

  11. DNMT3A R882 Mutation with FLT3-ITD Positivity Is an Extremely Poor Prognostic Factor in Patients with Normal-Karyotype Acute Myeloid Leukemia after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jae-Sook; Kim, Hyeoung-Joon; Kim, Yeo-Kyeoung; Lee, Seun-Shin; Jung, Sung-Hoon; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Lee, Je-Jung; Kim, Nan Young; Choi, Seung Hyun; Jung, Chul Won; Jang, Jun-Ho; Kim, Hee Je; Moon, Joon Ho; Sohn, Sang Kyun; Won, Jong-Ho; Kim, Sung-Hyun; Kim, Dennis Dong Hwan

    2016-01-01

    The prognostic relevance of epigenetic modifying genes (DNMT3A, TET2, and IDH1/2) in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has been investigated extensively. However, the prognostic implications of these mutations after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) have not been evaluated comprehensively in patients with normal-karyotype (NK)-AML. A total of 115 patients who received allogeneic HCT for NK-AML were retrospectively evaluated for the FLT3-ITD, NPM1, CEBPA, DNMT3A, TET2, IDH1/2, WT1, NRAS, ASXL2, FAT1, DNAH11, and GATA2 mutations in diagnostic samples and analyzed for long-term outcomes after allogeneic HCT. The prevalence rates for the mutations were as follows: FLT3-ITD positivity (FLT3-ITD(pos)) (32.2%), NPM1 mutation (43.5%), CEBPA mutation (double) (24.6%), DNMT3A mutation (DNMT3A(mut)) (31.3%), DNMT3A R882(mut) (18.3%), TET2 mutation (8.7%), and IDH1/2 mutation (16.5%). The 5-year overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) rates were 57.3% and 58.1%, respectively. A multivariate analysis revealed that FLT3-ITD(pos) (hazard ratio, [HR], 2.23; P = .006) and DNMT3A R882(mut) (HR, 2.74; P = .002) were unfavorable prognostic factors for OS. In addition, both mutations were significant risk factors for EFS and relapse. People with DNMT3A R882(mut) accompanied by FLT3-ITD(pos) had worse OS and EFS, and higher relapse rates than those with the other mutations, which were confirmed in a propensity score 1:2 matching analysis. These results suggest that DNMT3A R882(mut), particularly when accompanied by FLT3-ITD(pos), is a significant prognostic factor for inferior transplantation survival outcome by increasing relapse risk, even after allogeneic HCT. PMID:26234722

  12. Nano-scale Characteristics of Copper poor ordered defect compound at grain boundary of CuInGaSe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yaping

    This work investigates the copper poor ordered defect compound (ODC) layer at grain boundaries (GB) for CuX(Ga0.3In0.7) Se2 with different Cu composition ratio (x = 0.9 and 0.68). Same chemical composition while widened ODC layer at GBs with lower Cu ratio were first reported determined by the energy dispersive spectroscopy in scanning transmission microscopy mode. Band structure of the ODC layer was directly measured by scanning tunneling spectroscopy showing a downward offset for conduction band and valance band of 200 eV and 350 eV, respectively. This result was further confirmed by photocurrent accumulation and higher schottky barrier at GBs measured by the conducting probe atomic force microscopy (CP-AFM). Local photovoltaic performance measurements of individual grain boundaries with different ODC width were investigated, using CP-AFM and the disappearance of the differences of open circuit voltage and shunt resistance between grain interior and grain boundary at low illumination provides a direct evidence for the reduced recombination at widened ODC grain boundary which greatly supports the hole barrier theory for the high efficiency of the Copper Indium Ga Selenide solar cells.

  13. Conceptualizing prognostic awareness in advanced cancer: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Applebaum, Allison J; Kolva, Elissa A; Kulikowski, Julia R; Jacobs, Jordana D; DeRosa, Antonio; Lichtenthal, Wendy G; Olden, Megan E; Rosenfeld, Barry; Breitbart, William

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review synthesizes the complex literature on prognostic awareness in cancer. A total of 37 studies examining cancer patients’ understanding of their prognosis were included. Prognostic awareness definitions and assessment methods were inconsistent across studies. A surprisingly high percentage of patients (up to 75%) were unaware of their poor prognosis, and in several studies, even their cancer diagnosis (up to 96%), particularly in studies conducted outside of North America. This review highlights surprisingly low rates of prognostic awareness in patients with advanced cancer as well as discrepancies in prognostic awareness assessment, suggesting the need for empirically validated measures of prognostic awareness. PMID:24157936

  14. A retrospective analysis of clinicopathological and prognostic characteristics of ovarian tumors in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ovarian cancer is sixth most common cancer among women and the leading cause of death in women with gynecological malignancies. Despite the great impact ovarian cancer has on women's health and its great impact in public economy, Brazil still lacks valuable information concerning epidemiological aspects of this disease Methods We've compiled clinical data of all ovarian tumors registered at the two public hospitals of reference (1997 - 2007), such as: patients' age at diagnosis, tumor histological type, tumor stage, chemotherapy regimens, chemotherapy responsiveness, disease-free survival, and overall survival. Results Women's mean age at diagnosis was 54.67 ± 13.84 for ovarian cancer, 46.15 ± 11.15 for borderline tumors, and 42.01 ± 15.06 for adenomas. Among epithelial ovarian cancer cases, 30.1% were of serous, 13.7% were of mucinous, and 13.7% were of endometrioid type; exceptionally serous carcinoma was diagnosed in women younger than 30 years old. Endometrioid cancer had lower disease-free survival than others (p < 0.05). Cases were predominantly diagnosed as poor prognosis disease (FIGO III and IV, 56.2%). Regarding responsiveness to platinum-based therapy, 17.1% of patients were resistant, whereas 24.6%, susceptible. From these, we found equally responsiveness to platinum alone or its association with paclitaxel or cyclophosphamide. Discussion Our data agreed with other studies regarding mean patients' age at diagnosis, histological type frequency, FIGO stages distribution, and chemotherapy regimens. However, the histological type distribution, with equal contribution of mucinous and endometrioid types seems to be a unique characteristic of the studied highly miscegenated population. Conclusion We have enlighten the profile of the studied ovarian cancer population, which might enable the development of more efficient political strategies to control this malignancy that is the fifth leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women. PMID:21827671

  15. Morphological and molecular characteristics of a poorly known marine ascomycete, Manglicola guatemalensis (Jahnulales: Pezizomycotina; Dothideomycetes, Incertae sedis): new lineage of marine ascomycetes.

    PubMed

    Suetrong, Satinee; Sakayaroj, Jariya; Phongpaichit, Souwalak; Jones, E B Gareth

    2010-01-01

    The poorly known marine ascomycete Manglicola guatemalensis from Trang and Trat provinces, Thailand, were collected in 2005 and 2006 on the brackish water palm Nypa fruticans. This fungus is known only from two previous collections. This paper reports on the morphological characteristics and molecular phylogeny of this unique marine bitunicate ascomycete. Manglicola guatemalensis has large clavate to obtusely fusiform ascomata, wide ostioles, bitunicate asci, cylindrical, thick-walled, unequally one-septate ascospores, constricted at the septum, apical cell larger, chestnut-brown and a smaller light brown basal cell. Ascospores germinate readily, always from the basal cell. Four isolates from different locations were selected for the phylogenetic study. Regions of the rDNA gene, including SSU and LSU, were sequenced and combined. Molecular data places M. guatemalensis in the Jahnulales with high bootstrap support; all strains are monophyletic. In the combined SSU and LSU analyses the Jahnulales comprises four subclades, A, B, C and D. Subclade A comprises Jahnula species and two anamorphic fungi, Brachiosphaera tropicalis and Xylomyces chlamydosporus. In subclade B Manglicola strains form a sister group of the Aliquandostipite species Aliquandostipite crystallinus, A. khaoyaiensis, Jahnula siamensiae and Patescospora separans. Subclade C comprises Jahnula species, Jahnula aquatica, J. granulosa and J. rostrata, while Megalohypha aqua-dulces constitutes subclade D. Therefore Manglicola forms another lineage of marine fungi. PMID:20120232

  16. Prognostic factors and classification in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed Central

    San Miguel, J. F.; Sànchez, J.; Gonzalez, M.

    1989-01-01

    Analyses of prognostic factors have allowed the design of staging systems in different haematological disorders. In a series of 220 patients with multiple myeloma, univariate analysis showed that nine parameters had a significant adverse effect on survival; poor performance status (Karnowsky scaling system less than 70%), infections before diagnosis, renal impairment (assessed either by creatinine clearance greater than 2 mg dl-1 or urea greater than 40 mg dl-1), serum calcium (greater than 10 mg dl-1), severe anaemia (less than 8.5 g dl-1), the presence of Bence-Jones proteinuria, failure to achieve complete remission, more than 40% plasma cells in bone marrow and a low paraprotein index (monoclonal component/% plasma cells: P less than 0.09). In addition, this index correlated significantly with all the other prognostic factors except performance status. The best combination of disease characteristics selected by means of the Cox regression proportional hazards method were performance status and creatinine levels. Additionally, by factor analysis of principal components we obtained a regression equation that included creatinine levels, haemoglobin, performance status and paraprotein index. Using this it was possible to separate the series of patients into three risk categories: A (65 patients), B (69 patients) and C (65 patients) with a median survival of 41, 24 and 12 months, respectively. The model provided similar results to those of the British Medical Research Council, whereas the staging systems proposed by Durie and Salmon, Merlin et al. and Carbone et al. had a lower discriminant value in our series. PMID:2757917

  17. Prognostics for Microgrid Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, Abhinav

    2012-01-01

    Prognostics is the science of predicting future performance and potential failures based on targeted condition monitoring. Moving away from the traditional reliability centric view, prognostics aims at detecting and quantifying the time to impending failures. This advance warning provides the opportunity to take actions that can preserve uptime, reduce cost of damage, or extend the life of the component. The talk will focus on the concepts and basics of prognostics from the viewpoint of condition-based systems health management. Differences with other techniques used in systems health management and philosophies of prognostics used in other domains will be shown. Examples relevant to micro grid systems and subsystems will be used to illustrate various types of prediction scenarios and the resources it take to set up a desired prognostic system. Specifically, the implementation results for power storage and power semiconductor components will demonstrate specific solution approaches of prognostics. The role of constituent elements of prognostics, such as model, prediction algorithms, failure threshold, run-to-failure data, requirements and specifications, and post-prognostic reasoning will be explained. A discussion on performance evaluation and performance metrics will conclude the technical discussion followed by general comments on open research problems and challenges in prognostics.

  18. Change in prognostic factors

    PubMed Central

    Hoelzer, D; Gökbuget, N

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of evaluating prognostic factors in acute lymphoblastic leukemia is, first, to stratify patients into adverse- or good-risk groups, second, to determine different treatment options accordingly and, third, to evaluate their potential outcome. Prognostic factors are particularly relevant for disease-free survival and overall survival.

  19. Toward IVHM Prognostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Kevin; Venti, Mike

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the prognostics of Integrated Vehicle Health Management. The contents include: 1) Aircraft Operations-Today's way of doing business; 2) Prognostics; 3) NASA's instrumentation data-system rack; 4) Data mining for IVHM; 5) NASA GRC's C-MAPSS generic engine model; and 6) Concluding thoughts.

  20. A review of advanced genetic testing for clinical prognostication in uveal melanoma.

    PubMed

    Werdich, Xiang Q; Jakobiec, Frederick A; Singh, Arun D; Kim, Ivana K

    2013-01-01

    Uveal melanoma (UM) has a strong propensity to metastasize and the prognosis for metastatic disease is very poor. It has been suggested that occult micrometastases are already present, but undetectable, in many patients at the time when the primary ocular tumor is diagnosed and treated. To identify high-risk patients for close monitoring and early intervention with prophylactic adjuvant systemic therapy, an accurate predictive system is necessary for stratifying those patients at risk of developing metastatic disease. To date, many clinical and histopathological features, molecular pathway characteristics, and genetic fingerprints of UM have been suggested for disease prognostication. Among the newest of them, tumor genetics has received the most attention in demonstrating promise as a prognostic tool. Because of the plethora of recent developments, we summarize and compare in this review the important standard and more advanced cytogenetic prognostic markers. We further describe the variety of genetic tests available for prognostication of UM, and provide a critical assessment of the respective advantages and disadvantages of these tools. PMID:24010756

  1. Immunology of gynecologic neoplasms: analysis of the prognostic significance of the immune status.

    PubMed

    Bellati, F; Visconti, V; Napoletano, C; Antonilli, M; Frati, L; Panici, P Benedetti; Nuti, M

    2009-06-01

    Gynecologic Oncology has changed in the last few decades. An increasing proportion of patients is benefiting from long term survival although patients diagnosed with advanced disease suffer from a poor prognosis. Unfortunately, several recent studies are confirming that changing the combinations of "traditional" cytotoxic drugs is unlikely to obtain a real breakthrough in survival rates. Furthermore, there is discouraging data regarding consolidation therapies. It is, therefore, necessary to identify new target therapies with a minimal impact on quality of life. It is likely that new breakthroughs are only going to be achieved when changes in therapies are tailored to the entire natural history of the disease and on specific patient characteristic's. Since the discovery that tumor infiltrating lymphocytes represent an independent prognostic factor in ovarian cancer patients, several researchers have dedicated their attention to cancer immune response in order to identify prognostic factors and immunological targets. Analyses on immunophenotype at diagnosis and throughout the entire course of treatment are currently ongoing and are giving the new diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic tools to the physicians. Furthermore new antigens and new vaccination strategies are being investigated. Encouraging data on selected patient populations have been observed recently. The objective of the present review is to define the immunology of women affected by gynecological malignancies and describe new immunological targets for prognostic and therapeutic use. PMID:19519321

  2. Fuzzy logic-based prognostic score for outcome prediction in esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chang-Yu; Lee, Tsair-Fwu; Fang, Chun-Hsiung; Chou, Jyh-Horng

    2012-11-01

    Given the poor prognosis of esophageal cancer and the invasiveness of combined modality treatment, improved prognostic scoring systems are needed. We developed a fuzzy logic-based system to improve the predictive performance of a risk score based on the serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) and albumin in a cohort of 271 patients with esophageal cancer before radiotherapy. Univariate and multivariate survival analyses were employed to validate the independent prognostic value of the fuzzy risk score. To further compare the predictive performance of the fuzzy risk score with other prognostic scoring systems, time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was used. Application of fuzzy logic to the serum values of CRP and albumin increased predictive performance for 1-year overall survival (AUC=0.773) compared with that of a single marker (AUC=0.743 and 0.700 for CRP and albumin, respectively), where the AUC denotes the area under curve. This fuzzy logic-based approach also performed consistently better than the Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS) (AUC=0.745). Thus, application of fuzzy logic to the analysis of serum markers can more accurately predict the outcome for patients with esophageal cancer. PMID:22875252

  3. Prognostic Significance of MiR-34a Expression in Patients with Gastric Cancer after Radical Gastrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Wen-Tao; Ma, Xiao-Bin; Zan, Ying; Wang, Xi-Jing; Dong, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Background: MiR-34a dysregulation has been implicated in tumorigenesis and progression of gastric cancer, but its role in prognosis of patients with gastric cancer remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and prognostic significance of miR-34a in gastric cancer patients after radical gastrectomy. Methods: Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect the expression of miR-34a in human gastric cancer cell lines and tissues in 76 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma from China. Results are assessed for association with clinical features and overall survival (OS) using Kaplan–Meier analysis. Prognostic values of miR-34a expression and clinical outcomes were evaluated by Cox regression analysis. A molecular prognostic stratification scheme incorporating miR-34a expression was determined using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results: The results show that the expression level of miR-34a was decreased in human gastric cancer cell lines and tissues, and down-regulated expression of miR-34a was associated with Lauren classification (P = 0.034). Decreased miR-34a expression in gastric cancer tissues was positively correlated with poor OS of gastric cancer patients (P = 0.013). Further multivariate Cox regression analysis suggested that miR-34a expression was an independent prognostic indicator for gastric cancer (P = 0.027). Applying the prognostic value of miR-34a expression to tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage system showed a better prognostic value in patients with gastric cancer than miR-34a expression (P = 0.0435) or TNM stage (P = 0.0249) alone. Conclusion: The results reinforce the critical role for the down-regulated miR-34a expression in gastric cancer and suggest that miR-34a could be a prognostic indicator for this disease. PMID:26415802

  4. Metrics for Offline Evaluation of Prognostic Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, Abhinav; Celaya, Jose; Saha, Bhaskar; Saha, Sankalita; Goebel, Kai

    2010-01-01

    Prognostic performance evaluation has gained significant attention in the past few years. Currently, prognostics concepts lack standard definitions and suffer from ambiguous and inconsistent interpretations. This lack of standards is in part due to the varied end-user requirements for different applications, time scales, available information, domain dynamics, etc. to name a few. The research community has used a variety of metrics largely based on convenience and their respective requirements. Very little attention has been focused on establishing a standardized approach to compare different efforts. This paper presents several new evaluation metrics tailored for prognostics that were recently introduced and were shown to effectively evaluate various algorithms as compared to other conventional metrics. Specifically, this paper presents a detailed discussion on how these metrics should be interpreted and used. These metrics have the capability of incorporating probabilistic uncertainty estimates from prognostic algorithms. In addition to quantitative assessment they also offer a comprehensive visual perspective that can be used in designing the prognostic system. Several methods are suggested to customize these metrics for different applications. Guidelines are provided to help choose one method over another based on distribution characteristics. Various issues faced by prognostics and its performance evaluation are discussed followed by a formal notational framework to help standardize subsequent developments.

  5. On Applying the Prognostic Performance Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, Abhinav; Celaya, Jose; Saha, Bhaskar; Saha, Sankalita; Goebel, Kai

    2009-01-01

    Prognostics performance evaluation has gained significant attention in the past few years. As prognostics technology matures and more sophisticated methods for prognostic uncertainty management are developed, a standardized methodology for performance evaluation becomes extremely important to guide improvement efforts in a constructive manner. This paper is in continuation of previous efforts where several new evaluation metrics tailored for prognostics were introduced and were shown to effectively evaluate various algorithms as compared to other conventional metrics. Specifically, this paper presents a detailed discussion on how these metrics should be interpreted and used. Several shortcomings identified, while applying these metrics to a variety of real applications, are also summarized along with discussions that attempt to alleviate these problems. Further, these metrics have been enhanced to include the capability of incorporating probability distribution information from prognostic algorithms as opposed to evaluation based on point estimates only. Several methods have been suggested and guidelines have been provided to help choose one method over another based on probability distribution characteristics. These approaches also offer a convenient and intuitive visualization of algorithm performance with respect to some of these new metrics like prognostic horizon and alpha-lambda performance, and also quantify the corresponding performance while incorporating the uncertainty information.

  6. Molecular prognostic prediction in liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Goossens, Nicolas; Nakagawa, Shigeki; Hoshida, Yujin

    2015-01-01

    The natural history of cirrhosis varies and therefore prognostic prediction is critical given the sizable patient population. A variety of clinical prognostic indicators have been developed and enable patient risk stratification although their performance is somewhat limited especially within relatively earlier stage of disease. Molecular prognostic indicators are expected to refine the prediction, and potentially link a subset of patients with molecular targeted interventions that counteract poor prognosis. Here we overview clinical and molecular prognostic indicators in the literature, and discuss critical issues to successfully define, evaluate, and deploy prognostic indicators as clinical scores or tests. The use of liver biopsy has been diminishing due to sampling variability on fibrosis assessment and emergence of imaging- or lab test-based fibrosis assessment methods. However, recent rapid developments of genomics technologies and selective molecular targeted agents has highlighted the need for biopsy tissue specimen to explore and establish molecular information-guided personalized/stratified clinical care, and eventually achieve “precision medicine”. PMID:26420954

  7. The Identification of Prognostic Factors and Survival Statistics of Conventional Central Chondrosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Nota, Sjoerd P. F. T.; Braun, Yvonne; Schwab, Joseph H.; van Dijk, C. Niek; Bramer, Jos A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Chondrosarcomas are malignant bone tumors that are characterized by the production of chondroid tissue. Since radiation therapy and chemotherapy have limited effect on chondrosarcoma, treatment of most patients depends on surgical resection. We conducted this study to identify independent predictive factors and survival characteristics for conventional central chondrosarcoma and dedifferentiated central chondrosarcoma. Methods. A systematic literature review was performed in September 2014 using the Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane databases. Subsequent to a beforehand-composed selection procedure we included 13 studies, comprising a total of 1114 patients. Results. The prognosis of central chondrosarcoma is generally good for the histologically low-grade tumors. Prognosis for the high-grade chondrosarcoma and the dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma is poor with lower survival rates. Poor prognostic factors in conventional chondrosarcoma for overall survival are high-grade tumors and axial/pelvic tumor location. In dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma the percentage of dedifferentiated component has significant influence on disease-free survival. Conclusion. Despite the fact that there are multiple prognostic factors identified, as shown in this study, there is a need for prospective and comparative studies. The resulting knowledge about prognostic factors and survival can give direction in the development of better therapies. This could eventually lead to an evidence-based foundation for treating chondrosarcoma patients. PMID:26633939

  8. Towards clinically useful neuroimaging in depression treatment: Is subgenual cingulate activity robustly prognostic for depression outcome in Cognitive Therapy across studies, scanners, and patient characteristics?

    PubMed Central

    Siegle, Greg J.; Thompson, Wesley K.; Collier, Amanda; Berman, Susan R.; Feldmiller, Joshua; Thase, Michael E.; Friedman, Edward S.

    2013-01-01

    Context 40–60% of unmedicated depressed individuals respond to Cognitive Therapy (CT) in controlled trials. Multiple previous studies suggest that activity in the subgenual anterior cingulate predicts outcome in CT for depression, but there have been no prospective replications. Objective This study prospectively examined whether subgenual cingulate activity is a reliable and robust prognostic outcome marker for CT for depression and whether its activity changes in treatment. Design Two inception cohorts were assessed with fMRI on different scanners on a task sensitive to sustained emotional information processing before and after 16–20 sessions of CT, along with a sample of control participants tested at comparable intervals. Setting Therapy took place in a hospital outpatient clinic. Patients Participants included 49 unmedicated depressed adults and 35 healthy control participants. Main Outcome Measures Pre-treatment subgenual anterior cingulate activity in an a priori region in response to negative words was correlated with residual severity and used to classify response and remission. Results As expected, in both samples, participants with the lowest pre-treatment sustained subgenual cingulate (sgACC; BA25) reactivity in response to negative words displayed the most improvement in CT (R2=.29, >75% correct classification of response, >70% correct classification of remission). Other a priori regions explained additional variance. Response/Remission in Cohort 2 was predicted based on thresholds from Cohort 1. sgACC activity remained low for remitters following treatment. Conclusions Neuroimaging provides a quick, valid, and clinically applicable way of assessing neural systems associated with treatment response/remission. sgACC activity, in particular, may reflect processes which interfere with treatment, e.g,. emotion generation in addition to its putative regulatory role; alternately, its absence may facilitate treatment response. PMID:22945620

  9. Prognostic Significance and Molecular Features of Colorectal Mucinous Adenocarcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mo-Jin; Ping, Jie; Li, Yuan; Holmqvist, Annica; Adell, Gunnar; Arbman, Gunnar; Zhang, Hong; Zhou, Zong-Guang; Sun, Xiao-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mucinous adenocarcinoma (MC) is a special histology subtype of colorectal adenocarcinoma. The survival of MC is controversial and the prognostic biomarkers of MC remain unclear. To analyze prognostic significance and molecular features of colorectal MC. This study included 755,682 and 1001 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program (SEER, 1973–2011), and Linköping Cancer (LC, 1972–2009) databases. We investigated independently the clinicopathological characteristics, survival, and variety of molecular features from these 2 databases. MC was found in 9.3% and 9.8% patients in SEER and LC, respectively. MC was more frequently localized in the right colon compared with nonmucinous adenocarcinoma (NMC) in both SEER (57.7% vs 37.2%, P < 0.001) and LC (46.9% vs 27.7%, P < 0.001). Colorectal MC patients had significantly worse cancer-specific survival (CSS) than NMC patients (SEER, P < 0.001; LC, P = 0.026), prominently in stage III (SEER, P < 0.001; LC, P = 0.023). The multivariate survival analysis showed that MC was independently related to poor prognosis in rectal cancer patients (SEER, hazard ratios [HR], 1.076; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 1.057–1.096; P < 0.001). In LC, the integrated analysis of genetic and epigenetic features showed that that strong expression of PINCH (HR, 3.954; 95% CI, 1.493–10.47; P = 0.013) and weak expression of RAD50 (HR 0.348, 95% CI, 0.106–1.192; P = 0.026) were significantly associated with poor CSS of colorectal MC patients. In conclusion, the colorectal MC patients had significantly worse CSS than NMC patients, prominently in stage III. MC was an independent prognostic factor associated with worse survival in rectal cancer patients. The PINCH and RAD50 were prognostic biomarkers for colorectal MC patients. PMID:26705231

  10. Prognostic microRNAs in high-grade glioma reveal a link to oligodendrocyte precursor differentiation.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Josie; Thygesen, Helene; Droop, Alastair; Hughes, Thomas A; Westhead, David; Lawler, Sean E; Wurdak, Heiko; Short, Susan C

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNA expression can be exploited to define tumor prognosis and stratification for precision medicine. It remains unclear whether prognostic microRNA signatures are exclusively tumor grade and/or molecular subtype-specific, or whether common signatures of aggressive clinical behavior can be identified. Here, we defined microRNAs that are associated with good and poor prognosis in grade III and IV gliomas using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Pathway analysis of microRNA targets that are differentially expressed in good and poor prognosis glioma identified a link to oligodendrocyte development. Notably, a microRNA expression profile that is characteristic of a specific oligodendrocyte precursor cell type (OP1) correlates with microRNA expression from 597 of these tumors and is consistently associated with poor patient outcome in grade III and IV gliomas. Our study reveals grade-independent and subtype-independent prognostic molecular signatures in high-grade glioma and provides a framework for investigating the mechanisms of brain tumor aggressiveness. PMID:25897422

  11. Poor performance characteristics of conventional PCR in detection of respiratory syncytial virus-experience of a tertiary care centre in Southern India.

    PubMed

    Nandhini, G; Sujatha, S; Jain, N; Dhodapkar, R; Kadhiravan, T; Krishnamurthy, S

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a significant cause of contagious acute respiratory infections in children and older adults. Since there are contradictory reports regarding the efficacy of different methods to detect RSV, we evaluated the performance of the conventional PCR versus real-time PCR in 222 patients with acute respiratory infections (ARI) recruited between January 2012 and March 2013. Conventional PCR had a very poor sensitivity of 40% (95% CI: 19.2-63.9%) and failed to detect RSV in respiratory samples with low viral load. Thus, it may be prudent to replace it with real-time PCR to achieve precise diagnosis. PMID:25865982

  12. Prognostics of Power MOSFET

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Celaya, Jose Ramon; Saxena, Abhinav; Vashchenko, Vladislay; Saha, Sankalita; Goebel, Kai Frank

    2011-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how to apply prognostics to power MOSFETs (metal oxide field effect transistor). The methodology uses thermal cycling to age devices and Gaussian process regression to perform prognostics. The approach is validated with experiments on 100V power MOSFETs. The failure mechanism for the stress conditions is determined to be die-attachment degradation. Change in ON-state resistance is used as a precursor of failure due to its dependence on junction temperature. The experimental data is augmented with a finite element analysis simulation that is based on a two-transistor model. The simulation assists in the interpretation of the degradation phenomena and SOA (safe operation area) change.

  13. An international data set for CMML validates prognostic scoring systems and demonstrates a need for novel prognostication strategies

    PubMed Central

    Padron, E; Garcia-Manero, G; Patnaik, M M; Itzykson, R; Lasho, T; Nazha, A; Rampal, R K; Sanchez, M E; Jabbour, E; Al Ali, N H; Thompson, Z; Colla, S; Fenaux, P; Kantarjian, H M; Killick, S; Sekeres, M A; List, A F; Onida, F; Komrokji, R S; Tefferi, A; Solary, E

    2015-01-01

    Since its reclassification as a distinct disease entity, clinical research efforts have attempted to establish baseline characteristics and prognostic scoring systems for chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML). Although existing data for baseline characteristics and CMML prognostication have been robustly developed and externally validated, these results have been limited by the small size of single-institution cohorts. We developed an international CMML data set that included 1832 cases across eight centers to establish the frequency of key clinical characteristics. Of note, we found that the majority of CMML patients were classified as World Health Organization CMML-1 and that a 7.5% bone marrow blast cut-point may discriminate prognosis with higher resolution in comparison with the existing 10%. We additionally interrogated existing CMML prognostic models and found that they are all valid and have comparable performance but are vulnerable to upstaging. Using random forest survival analysis for variable discovery, we demonstrated that the prognostic power of clinical variables alone is limited. Last, we confirmed the independent prognostic relevance of ASXL1 gene mutations and identified the novel adverse prognostic impact imparted by CBL mutations. Our data suggest that combinations of clinical and molecular information may be required to improve the accuracy of current CMML prognostication. PMID:26230957

  14. Prognostic Value of Perineural Invasion in Esophageal and Esophagogastric Junction Carcinoma: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Aiqin; Wang, Linlin; Li, Juan; Li, Hongyu; Han, Yali; Sun, Yuping

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Here we aimed to clarify the prognostic significance of perineural invasion (PNI) in esophageal and esophagogastric junction (EGJ) carcinoma. Methods. A comprehensive literature search for relevant reports published up to July 2015 was performed using Pubmed and Embase databases. The pooled HR and 95% CI for overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were used to assess the prognostic value. The association of PNI with pathological characteristics was evaluated by OR and 95% CI. Results. A total of 13 cohorts were retrieved, covering 2770 patients treated by surgery. The cumulative analysis revealed a statistical correlation between PNI and poor OS (HR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.54–2.20, and P < 0.00001), as well as poor DFS (HR = 1.96, 95% CI: 1.42–2.71, and P < 0.001). Moreover, analysis of 1475 patients showed improved PNI in T3 + T4 (OR = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.21–0.70, and P = 0.002), N+ (OR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.40–0.69, and P < 0.00001), and G3 + G4 (OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.48–0.90, and P = 0.008) patients compared with T1 + T2, N−, and G1 + G2 ones, respectively. No significant heterogeneity was found between the studies. Conclusions. PNI is an adverse prognostic biomarker in esophageal and EGJ carcinoma. Moreover, PNI implies advanced T, N stage and poor cell differentiation. PMID:27051075

  15. [Epidemiology and prognostic aspects of ankylosing spondylitis].

    PubMed

    Braun, J

    2004-03-01

    The spondyloarthritides (SpA) comprise ankylosing spondylitis (AS), psoriatic SpA (PsSpA), reactive SpA (ReSpA), arthritis associated with chronic inflammatory bowel disease (SpAIBD) and undifferentiated SpA (uSpA). There are characteristic clinical features of SpA: inflammatory back pain (IBP), asymmetric peripheral arthritis, enthesitis, anterior uveitis, positive family history and others. The SpA, mainly AS, are strongly associated with HLA B27. AS is the most frequent and potentially most severe subtype, next to PsSpA. The prevalence of all SpA is rather high and not much different from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and AS patients carry a burden of disease similar to RA patients. The prognosis of AS has not been extensively studied but some factors have been identified. There is a clear role for imaging modalities in the diagnosis of AS. Changes in the sacroiliac joint as detected by radiography still constitute the basis for the diagnosis of AS (New York criteria 1984). A diagnosis of sacroiliitis as made by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides more objective evidence to a diagnosis of IBP arguing in favour of SpA which is defined on the basis of the ESSG criteria 1991 mainly on a clinical basis. Radiographic spinal changes such as syndesmophytes are important for the staging and outcome of AS. MR based assessment of spinal changes in are now being increasingly used to assess disease activity of AS patients. The presence of spinal radiographic changes at time of presentation was found to be the best predictor of further deterioration using the score modified SASSS' in a recent study. Other clinical features such as hip arthritis, early onset of disease, dactylitis, oligoarthritis, limitation of spinal mobility and poor efficacy of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs were found to also have negative prognostic value. PMID:15287356

  16. Serum IgA level, monocyte count, and international prognostic index are independently associated with overall survival in patients with HTLV-I-negative nodal peripheral T cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Kato, Aiko; Imai, Yukihiro; Aoki, Kazunari; Tabata, Sumie; Matsushita, Akiko; Hashimoto, Hisako; Takahashi, Takayuki; Ishikawa, Takayuki

    2014-07-01

    Peripheral T cell lymphomas (PTCL) account for 10-15 % of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and are associated with poor prognosis. Although many prognostic factors for PTCL have been proposed, the heterogeneity of PTCL seems to be an obstacle in the establishment of clinically useful prognostic system, such as the International Prognostic Index (IPI) in diffuse large B cell lymphoma. PTCL with nodal manifestation include the HTLV-I-negative histologic subtypes of PTCL not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS), angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma (AITL), and anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). As PTCL-NOS encompasses a group of similar tumors and mostly shares their clinical pictures, we retrospectively analyzed clinical data from 77 patients diagnosed with ALCL, AITL, and PTCL-NOS at Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital from May 1994 to February 2012 to identify the prognostic factor for nodal PTCL. The median age of patients was 64 years, ranging from 23 to 83 years. With a median follow-up of 50 months, 5-year overall survival (OS) was 43 %. Multivariate analysis identified high-risk IPI (hazard ratio (HR), 4.04; P = 0.015), absolute monocyte count > 0.8 × 10(9)/L (HR, 3.44; P = 0.001), and serum concentration of IgA > 410 mg/dL (HR, 2.31; P = 0.013) as poor prognostic factors for OS. Thus, we have identified novel prognostic factors of monocyte count and serum IgA level for nodal PTCL. Although conventional prognostic models mainly reflect both tumor characteristics and host factors, the present model indicates the importance of host immune response as the unfavorable prognosis. PMID:24526138

  17. Unregulated usage of labour-inducing medication in a region of Pakistan with poor drug regulatory control: characteristics and risk patterns

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Safieh; Van den Bergh, Rafael; Prinsloo, Jeanne Rene; Rehman, Gulalai; Bibi, Amna; Shaeen, Neelam; Auat, Rosa; Daudi, Sabina Mutindi; Njenga, Joyce Wanjiru; Khilji, Tahir Bashir-ud-Din; Maïkéré, Jacob; De Plecker, Eva; Caluwaerts, Séverine; Zachariah, Rony; Van Overloop, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Background In developing countries such as Pakistan, poor training of mid-level cadres of health providers, combined with unregulated availability of labour-inducing medication can carry considerable risk for mother and child during labour. Here, we describe the exposure to labour-inducing medication and its possible risks in a vulnerable population in a conflict-affected region of Pakistan. Methods A retrospective cohort study using programme data, compared the outcomes of obstetric risk groups of women treated with unregulated oxytocin, with those of women with regulated treatment. Results Of the 6379 women included in the study, 607 (9.5%) received labour-inducing medication prior to reaching the hospital; of these, 528 (87.0%) received unregulated medication. Out of 528 labour-inducing medication administrators, 197 (37.3%) traditional birth attendants (also known as dai) and 157 (29.7%) lady health workers provided unregulated treatment most frequently. Women given unregulated medication who were diagnosed with obstructed/prolonged labour were at risk for uterine rupture (RR 4.1, 95% CI: 1.7–9.9) and severe birth asphyxia (RR 3.9, 95% CI: 2.5–6.1), and those with antepartum haemorrhage were at risk for stillbirth (RR 1.8, 95% CI: 1.0–3.1). Conclusions In a conflict-affected region of Pakistan, exposure to unregulated treatment with labour-inducing medication is common, and carries great risk for mother and child. Tighter regulatory control of labour-inducing drugs is needed, and enhanced training of the mid-level cadres of healthcare workers is required. PMID:26276813

  18. Poor Americans: How the Poor White Live.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilisuk, Marc; Pilisuk, Phyllis

    Contents of this book include the following essays which originally appeared in "Transaction" magazine: (1) "Poor Americans: an introduction," Marc Pilisuk and Phyllis Pilisuk; (2) "How the white poor live," Marc Pilisuk and Phyllis Pilisuk; (3) "The culture of poverty," Oscar Lewis; (4) "Life in Appalachia--the case of Hugh McCaslin," Robert

  19. Poor Americans: How the Poor White Live.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilisuk, Marc; Pilisuk, Phyllis

    Contents of this book include the following essays which originally appeared in "Transaction" magazine: (1) "Poor Americans: an introduction," Marc Pilisuk and Phyllis Pilisuk; (2) "How the white poor live," Marc Pilisuk and Phyllis Pilisuk; (3) "The culture of poverty," Oscar Lewis; (4) "Life in Appalachia--the case of Hugh McCaslin," Robert…

  20. Lightning injuries: prognostic signs for death.

    PubMed

    Cooper, M A

    1980-03-01

    A chi-square analysis of 66 cases, including the author's eight cases and 58 from the literature, was undertaken to determine prognostic signs for death in patients seriously injured by lightning. A review of the injuries and of the physics and pathophysiology of lightning is presented. Prognosis was poor for those victims suffering leg burns (mortality 30%), cranial burns (37%), or cardiopulmonary arrest (76%). Death occurred in 30% of the cases studied. Permanent sequelae were found in 74% of the survivors. Nonsignificant factors were age, sex, and trunk and arm burns. Resuscitation of victims exhibiting loss of consciousness should begin immediately, as these are the most likely to die. PMID:7362103

  1. Predictive model for patients with poor-grade subarachnoid haemorrhage in 30-day observation: a 9-year cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Szklener, Sebastian; Melges, Anna; Korchut, Agnieszka; Zaluska, Wojciech; Trojanowski, Tomasz; Rejdak, Robert; Rejdak, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to identify prognostic factors and build the predictive model based on poor-grade subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) population received only supportive symptomatic treatment. Design Prospective observational cohort study. Setting Intensive care unit at the Clinical Department of Neurology. Participants A total of 101 patients with spontaneous SAH disqualified from neurosurgical operative treatment due to poor clinical condition. Data were collected over a 9-year period. Outcome measures Unfavourable outcome was defined as a modified Rankin Score ≥5 at 30 days of observation. Results Multivariable logistic regression analysis indicated the World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies Scale score, increasing age, Fisher grade and admission leucocytosis as independent predictive factors. The proposed scale subdivides the study population into four prognostic groups with significantly different outcomes: grade I: probability of favourable outcome 89.9%; grade II: 47.5%; grade III: 4.2%; grade IV: 0%. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for the prediction of outcome performed by the new scale had an area under the curve (AUC)=0.910 (excellent accuracy). Conclusions Unfavourable outcome in non-operated patients with poor-grade SAH is strongly predicted by traditional unmodifiable factors such as age, amount of bleeding in CT, level of consciousness as well as leucocytosis. A new predictive scale based on the above parameters seems to reliably predict the outcome and may contribute to more effective planning of therapeutic management in patients with poor-grade SAH. PMID:26070797

  2. New prognostic model for extranodal natural killer/T cell lymphoma, nasal type.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qingqing; Luo, Xiaolin; Zhang, Guanrong; Huang, Huiqiang; Huang, Hui; Lin, Tongyu; Jiang, Wenqi; Xia, Zhongjun; Young, Ken H

    2014-09-01

    Extranodal natural killer/T cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTL) is an aggressive disease with a poor prognosis, requiring risk stratification in affected patients. We designed a new prognostic model specifically for ENKTL to identify high-risk patients who need more aggressive therapy. We retrospectively reviewed 158 patients who were newly diagnosed with ENKTL. The estimated 5-year overall survival rate was 39.4 %. Independent prognostic factors included total protein (TP) <60 g/L, fasting blood glucose (FBG) >100 mg/dL, and Korean Prognostic Index (KPI) score ≥2. We constructed a new prognostic model by combining these prognostic factors: group 1 (64 cases (41.0 %)), no adverse factors; group 2 (58 cases (37.2 %)), one adverse factor; and group 3 (34 cases (21.8 %)), two or three adverse factors. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rates of these groups were 66.7, 23.0, and 5.9 %, respectively (p < 0.001). Our new prognostic model had a better prognostic value than did the KPI model alone (p < 0.001). Our proposed prognostic model for ENKTL, including the newly identified prognostic indicators, TP and FBG, demonstrated a balanced distribution of patients into different risk groups with better prognostic discrimination compared with the KPI model alone. PMID:24782120

  3. Prognostic factors in neuroendocrine cervical carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Da Yong; Chong, Chul; Kim, Jae Weon; Park, Noh Hyun; Song, Yong Sang; Park, Sang Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical and pathologic factors associated with survival in patients with neuroendocrine cervical carcinoma (NECC). Methods The records of 61 patients with NECC diagnosed between 2000 and 2014 at Seoul National University Hospital and the National Cancer Center were retrospectively reviewed. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression methods were used for analyses. Results Of the 61 patients, 67.2% were diagnosed at early stage (I to IIA) with a median age of 49 years. Of those, 78% underwent surgery and 75.6% received postoperative adjuvant treatment. For patients diagnosed at advanced stage, 60.0% received chemotherapy only and 25.0% received concurrent chemoradiation therapy. In the univariate analysis, advanced stage (77 vs. 40 months, P=0.013), tumor size ≥2 cm (133 vs. 47 months, P=0.002) and mixed tumor (101 vs. 34 months, P=0.004) were shown to be poor prognostic factors. In the multivariate analysis, tumor stage, tumor size and tumor homology were shown to be independent prognostic factors for overall survival. Of the total, 39.3% of the patients experienced recurrence, and 54.1% of the patients had metastasis. Of the patients diagnosed at early stage, 51.2% experienced recurrence. Conclusion Tumor stage, tumor size and tumor homology were found to be independent prognostic factors in patients with NECC. Even in patients diagnosed at early stage, recurrence and distant metastasis were frequently observed. PMID:27004202

  4. Clinicopathological, genetic, ultrastructural characterizations and prognostic factors of papillary renal cell carcinoma: new diagnostic and prognostic information.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wenjuan; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Yanxia; Wang, Yuewei; Li, Yujun; Wang, Jigang; Sun, Lingling; Ran, Wenwen; Li, Hong

    2013-06-01

    Papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC) includes two different morphological subtypes. The differences of genetics and ultrastructure of the two subtypes have been rarely reported. Also, new biomarkers related to the diagnosis and prognosis of PRCC have still not been well elucidated. Immunohistochemistry, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and transmission electron microscopy were used systematically to determine the characteristics of 56 cases of PRCC and to reveal new diagnostic and prognostic information. Type 1 PRCC presented higher expression rates of EMA and CK7, whereas type 2 presented a higher expression rate of CD10. New immunohistochemical markers, including: p504s, PAX-2, PAX-8 and CA-IX showed extensive immunostaining in PRCC. We first revealed a distinct immunostaining pattern of CA-IX, which was located in multiple foci in PRCC. All tumors had at least one chromosomal aberration including loss of Y, gains of 7 or 17. Gain of chromosome 17 was common in type 1; losses of chromosome 18, 11 and 8 appeared in type 2. Ultrastructurally, glycogen granules and secondary lysosomes were seen in type 1, mitochondria and smooth endoplasmic reticulum were scattered in type 2. Tumor subtype, nuclear grade, TNM stage, clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) component and sarcomatoid elements, metastasis, CAIX expression, losses of chromosome 18 and 8 were related to poor outcome of PRCC. We conclude that the two subtypes of PRCC originate from different renal cells, and arise from partially common genetic pathways. EMA, CK7, CD10, p504s, PAX-2, PAX-8 and CA-IX are helpful markers in the differential diagnosis of PRCC. CA-IX expression, losses of chromosome 18 and 8 are new prognostic factors of PRCC. PMID:23219441

  5. Prognostic Inflammation Score in Surgical Patients with Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Several inflammatory markers have been investigated as prognostic parameters in a variety of cancer population with mostly favorable results. This study aimed to verify the significance of common inflammatory markers as prognostic variables and assess whether a selective combination of them as prognostic inflammation score (PIS) could further improve their prognostic values in surgical patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). A total of 265 patients who had undergone curative resection of CRC were reviewed retrospectively. Preoperative levels of inflammatory markers such as serum C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), white blood cell count (WBC), and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) were assessed by uni- and multivariate survival analysis with disease-free (DFS) and disease-specific survival (DSS). PIS was constructed with a selective combination of inflammatory markers which were independently significant. On univariate analysis, CRP, ESR, and NLR were significantly associated with DFS and DSS. On multivariate analysis, CRP and NLR were independently significant prognostic variables for DSS and DFS respectively (P=0.013, P=0.021). When PIS was constructed with combination of CRP and NLR, it was independently and significantly associated with both DFS and DSS (P=0.006, P=0.010). Furthermore, PIS was superior to CRP for DSS (HR=15.679 vs. HR=5.183), and NLR for DFS in terms of prognosticating power (HR=4.894 vs. HR=2.687). When PIS is constructed with combination of CRP and NLR, it is a potentially significant prognostic variable associated with poor survival regardless pathologic prognostic variables in patients with CRC after curative resection. PMID:26713054

  6. [Prognostic factors of localised, locally advanced or metastatic prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Joly, Florence; Henry-Amar, Michel

    2007-07-01

    In prostate cancer, whatever the stage of the disease, the selection of a treatment strategy is based on prognostic factors. Clinical stage, serum PSA concentration and Gleason score are among the most recognised factors. A combination of these three parameters leads to a score used to define prognostic groups that are routinely used in daily practice. More recently, predictive statistical models have been developed that were associated with nomograms. The objective of nomograms is, for a given patient, to calculate his probability to develop disease extension or relapse based on clinical, biological, histological and therapeutic (radiotherapy, hormonotherapy) data. Such nomograms are not all validated and their application in daily practice is more difficult than that of classical prognostic classifications. Nowadays, the progress and accessibility to novel technologies applied to biology will make possible in the near future the assessment of new prognostic profiles based on genetic and/or proteomic tumour characteristics. PMID:17845992

  7. High Infiltration of Tumor-Associated Macrophages Influences Poor Prognosis in Human Gastric Cancer Patients, Associates With the Phenomenon of EMT

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jia; Yan, Yan; Yang, Ya; Wang, Li; Li, Min; Wang, Jizhao; Liu, Xu; Duan, Xiaoyi; Wang, Jiansheng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are associated with poor prognosis in numerous human cancers and play important roles in tumor progression. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) contributes to invasion and metastasis in cancer. However, the associations between TAMs and EMT are not clear in gastric cancer (GC). The present study was designed to investigate the effects of TAMs on EMT in human GC. TAMs marker CD68 and EMT-related proteins were detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in human GC tissues and their clinical significance were evaluated. A high level of infiltration of TAMs was associated with aggressive characteristics of tumor and an independent poor prognostic factor in human GC tissues. Infiltration of TAMs was also associated with EMT-related proteins in human GC tissues. Our findings suggest that the high level of infiltration TAMs was associated with aggressive features of GC and is an independent poor prognostic factor in GC patients. TAMs are associated with EMT induction in human GC tissues. The level of TAMs infiltration may be used as a prognostic factor and even a therapeutic target in GC. PMID:26871785

  8. Prognostic factors of laryngeal solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma: a case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yong; Qiu, Jun; Zhou, Min-Li; Zhou, Shui-Hong; Bao, Yang-Yang; Wang, Qin-Ying; Zheng, Zhou-Jun

    2015-01-01

    A paucity of data exists concerning the presentation, natural course and outcome of extramedullary plasmcytoma (EMP). It is difficult to determine the optimal treatment strategy and prognostic factors for EMP. We present an additional case of laryngeal EMP and systemic review relevant reports in the English and Chinese literature. We found, to our knowledge, 147 cases in larynx in the English-language literature and Chinese-literature. The most common treatment modality was radiotherapy alone. The mean survival duration was ~184 months, and the 5- and 10- year survival rates were 76.1% and 67.4%, respectively. The univariate analysis suggested that progression to multiple myeloma and amyloid deposits may be poor prognostic factors. The multivariate analysis suggested that only progression to multiple myeloma may be a poor prognostic factor. Laryngeal EMP is uncommon. Progression to multiple myeloma may be a poor prognostic factor. PMID:26045749

  9. [Prognostic Factors in Guillain-Barré Syndrome].

    PubMed

    Kaida, Kenichi

    2015-11-01

    Clinical outcome of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is poorer than may be expected, despite recent applications of plasmapheresis and IVIg. Among prognostic factors of GBS, clinical factors are more useful compared to electrophysiological or biological factors. To improve the outcome of GBS patients with poor prognoses, a worldwide prospective survey (IGOS, International GBS Outcome Study) and a Japanese prospective GBS outcome study (JGOS) have been conducted. These surveys make it possible to define biomarkers for disease activity and recovery, and to develop prognostic models to precisely predict the clinical course and outcome in individual patients in the early stage of the disease. PMID:26560956

  10. The expression of TSSC3 and its prognostic value in patients with osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing; He, Huisen; Zhang, Kai; Peng, Wanyou

    2016-04-01

    Osteosarcoma is one of the most common primary bone tumors in children and adolescents, typically presenting with poor prognosis. Recent studies have found that TSSC3 had a potential capability in suppressing the tumor development in osteosarcoma. Our purpose was to explore the role of TSSC3 in the clinical outcome of osteosarcoma patients. Firstly, we detected the expression of TSSC3 at mRNA level by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The result demonstrated that TSSC3 expression was lower in osteosarcoma patients than in healthy controls (P<0.05). Then, the relationship between TSSC3 and clinicopathological characteristics was analyzed by chi-square test which manifested that WHO grade, metastasis, and recurrence were vital influential factors on the expression of TSSC3 (P<0.05). We also estimated the association between TSSC3 and overall survival of osteosarcoma patients by Kaplan-Meier analysis as well as assessed the prognostic value of TSSC3 and clinicopathological characteristics through cox regression analysis. Patients with high TSSC3 expression were proved to live longer than those with low TSSC3 expression (log rank test, P<0.05). TSSC3 expression (P=0.032, HR=0.405, 95%CI=0.177-0.926) and metastasis (P=0.010, HR=2.849, 95%CI=1.291-6.287) were considered to be independent prognostic factors in osteosarcoma. Taken together, our findings provided preliminary evidence that the TSSC3 was a prognostic marker in osteosarcoma and this might be useful for the therapy of osteosarcoma. PMID:27044808

  11. The elevated preoperative derived neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio predicts poor clinical outcome in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Krenn-Pilko, Sabine; Langsenlehner, Uwe; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Pichler, Martin; Gerger, Armin; Kapp, Karin S; Langsenlehner, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Existing preclinical and clinical data suggest that the presence of a systemic inflammatory response plays a critical role in the progression of several solid tumors. The derived neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (dNLR) represents an easily determinable marker of systemic inflammation and has been proposed as a potential prognostic marker. The present study was performed to validate and further clarify the prognostic relevance of an elevated pre-treatment dNLR in a large cohort of European breast cancer patients. Data from 762 consecutive female breast cancer patients treated from 1999 to 2004 were evaluated. Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method. To evaluate the prognostic relevance, univariate and multivariate Cox regression models were performed for each endpoint. Applying receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis, the optimal cutoff level for the dNLR was 3. In univariate analysis, a dNLR ≥3 was associated with poor DFS (hazard ratio (HR) 1.87, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.28-2.73, p = 0.001) and OS (HR 1.67, 95 % CI 1.07-2.63, p = 0.025). Multivariate analysis revealed a significant association between the elevated dNLR and poor DFS (hazard ratio (HR) 1.70, 95 % CI 1.09-2.65, p = 0.018) but did not show a significant association between the dNLR and OS (HR 1.54, 95 % CI 0.91-2.59, p = 0.106). The present study shows that the pre-treatment dNLR is an independent prognostic factor that could be useful for future individual risk assessment in breast cancer patients. PMID:26219894

  12. Current management and prognostic factors in physiotherapy practice for patients with shoulder pain: design of a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Shoulder pain is disabling and has a considerable socio-economic impact. Over 50% of patients presenting in primary care still have symptoms after 6months; moreover, prognostic factors such as pain intensity, age, disability level and duration of complaints are associated with poor outcome. Most shoulder complaints in this group are categorized as non-specific. Musculoskeletal ultrasound might be a useful imaging method to detect subgroups of patients with subacromial disorders. This article describes the design of a prospective cohort study evaluating the influence of known prognostic and possible prognostic factors, such as findings from musculoskeletal ultrasound outcome and working alliance, on the recovery of shoulder pain. Also, to assess the usual physiotherapy care for shoulder pain and examine the inter-rater reliability of musculoskeletal ultrasound between radiologists and physiotherapists for patients with shoulder pain. Methods A prospective cohort study including an inter-rater reliability study. Patients presenting in primary care physiotherapy practice with shoulder pain are enrolled. At baseline validated questionnaires are used to measure patient characteristics, disease-specific characteristics and social factors. Physical examination is performed according to the expertise of the physiotherapists. Follow-up measurements will be performed 6, 12 and 26weeks after inclusion. Primary outcome measure is perceived recovery, measured on a 7-point Likert scale. Logistic regression analysis will be used to evaluate the association between prognostic factors and recovery. Discussion The ShoCoDiP (Shoulder Complaints and using Diagnostic ultrasound in Physiotherapy practice) cohort study will provide information on current management of patients with shoulder pain in primary care, provide data to develop a prediction model for shoulder pain in primary care and to evaluate whether musculoskeletal ultrasound can improve prognosis. PMID:23399098

  13. Sterilizing the Poor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Sheila M.

    1977-01-01

    Suggests that freedom for the middle classes may mean vulnerability for the poor. The enthusiasm for sterilization may be so intense as to deprive the poor of their right not to be sterilized. (Author/AM)

  14. SPOCK1 Overexpression Confers a Poor Prognosis in Urothelial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Li-Jung; Wu, Wen-Jen; Wang, Yu-Hui; Wu, Ting-Feng; Liang, Peir-In; Chang, I-Wei; He, Hong-Lin; Li, Chien-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose:The majority deaths of cancer patients are related to metastasis, thus genes associated with cell motility interest us. SPOCK1 was elected by data mining and serial evaluation. In addition, SPOCK1 has been reported to be highly expressed in different human cancers and been related to adverse outcomes. Therefore, we validate its prognostic significance in urothelial carcinoma (UC). Materials and Methods:Real-time RT-PCR assay was used to detect SPOCK1 transcript level in 27 urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) and 27 urinary bladder urothelial carcinoma (UBUC) samples. Immunohistochemistry evaluated by H-score determined SPOCK1 expressions in 340 UTUCs and 295 UBUCs. The transcript and protein expression were correlated with clinicopathological features. Further evaluations of the prognostic significance of SPOCK1 for disease-specific survival (DSS) and metastasis-free survival (MeFS) were analyzed. Results:The expressions of SPOCK1 in UC were higher than those in normal urothelium by immunohistochemistry. The statistical analysis of clinicopathologic characteristics and immunohistochemistry showed that the higher expression of SPOCK1 was correlated to pT status (P<0.001), lymph node metastasis (UTUC, P=0.006; UBUC, P=0.033), higher histological grade (UTUC, P<0.001; UBUC, P<0.001), vascular invasion (UTUC, P<0.001; UBUC, P<0.001), perineurial invasion (UTUC, P<0.001; UBUC, P=0.001) and frequent mitosis (UTUC, P<0.001; UBUC, P=0.001). The prognosis of SPOCK1 of UC showed high SPOCK1 expression had significantly worse DSS and MeFS. Conclusions:The investigation demonstrated that the higher expression of SPOCK1 correlates with a poor prognosis in UC. PMID:26918061

  15. Proliferation is the strongest prognosticator in node-negative breast cancer: significance, error sources, alternatives and comparison with molecular prognostic markers.

    PubMed

    Baak, Jan P A; Gudlaugsson, Einar; Skaland, Ivar; Guo, Lydia Hui Ru; Klos, Jan; Lende, Tone Hoel; Søiland, Håvard; Janssen, Emiel A M; Zur Hausen, Axel

    2009-05-01

    Independent studies have shown that in node negative breast cancer patients less than 71 years, the proliferation marker mitotic activity index (MAI) is the strongest, most well reproducible prognosticator and chemotherapy success predictor. The MAI overshadows the prognostic value of tubule formation, nuclear atypia and thereby grade. An often used crude mitotic impression is much less prognostic than the MAI; strict adherence to the MAI protocol is therefore important. The prognostic value of the MAI is age dependent: although patients with a MAI > or = 10 always have a poor prognosis irrespective of age, a low MAI (<10) loses its favourable prognostic association in women >70 years. PPH3 counts are prognostically stronger than the MAI, and markers such as Cyclin-B and E2FR are promising, but must be validated. Compared with commercial prognostic gene expression signatures, the MAI is at least as strong prognostically, has far fewer false positive results and as such should be included as an independent feature in any node negative breast cancer pathology report. PMID:18665447

  16. Chromosomal aberrations and their prognostic value in a series of 174 untreated patients with Waldenström's macroglobulinemia

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen-Khac, Florence; Lambert, Jerome; Chapiro, Elise; Grelier, Aurore; Mould, Sarah; Barin, Carole; Daudignon, Agnes; Gachard, Nathalie; Struski, Stéphanie; Henry, Catherine; Penther, Dominique; Mossafa, Hossein; Andrieux, Joris; Eclache, Virginie; Bilhou-Nabera, Chrystèle; Luquet, Isabelle; Terre, Christine; Baranger, Laurence; Mugneret, Francine; Chiesa, Jean; Mozziconacci, Marie-Joelle; Callet-Bauchu, Evelyne; Veronese, Lauren; Blons, Hélène; Owen, Roger; Lejeune, Julie; Chevret, Sylvie; Merle-Beral, Hélène; Leblondon, Véronique

    2013-01-01

    Waldenström's macroglobulinemia is a disease of mature B cells, the genetic basis of which is poorly understood. Few recurrent chromosomal abnormalities have been reported, and their prognostic value is not known. We conducted a prospective cytogenetic study of Waldenström's macroglobulinemia and examined the prognostic value of chromosomal aberrations in an international randomized trial. The main aberrations were 6q deletions (30%), trisomy 18 (15%), 13q deletions (13%), 17p (TP53) deletions (8%), trisomy 4 (8%), and 11q (ATM) deletions (7%). There was a significant association between trisomy of chromosome 4 and trisomy of chromosome 18. Translocations involving the IGH genes were rare (<5%). Deletion of 6q and 11q, and trisomy 4, were significantly associated with adverse clinical and biological parameters. Patients with TP53 deletion had short progression-free survival and short disease-free survival. Although rare (<5%), trisomy 12 was associated with short progression-free survival. In conclusion, the cytogenetic profile of Waldenström's macroglobulinemia appears to differ from that of other B-cell lymphomas. Chromosomal abnormalities may help with diagnosis and prognostication, in conjunction with other clinical and biological characteristics. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov, numbers NCT00566332 and NCT00608374. PMID:23065509

  17. Preoperative radiotherapy for rectal adenocarcinoma: Which are strong prognostic factors?

    SciTech Connect

    Chapet, Olivier . E-mail: ochapet@med.umich.edu; Romestaing, Pascale; Mornex, Francoise; Souquet, Jean-Christophe; Favrel, Veronique; Ardiet, Jean-Michel; D'Hombres, Anne; Gerard, Jean-Pierre

    2005-04-01

    Purpose: This retrospective 12-year study evaluated the prognostic value of initial and postoperative staging of rectal tumors. Methods and Materials: Between 1985 and 1996, 297 patients were treated with preoperative radiotherapy (39 Gy in 13 fractions) and surgery for Stage T2-T4N0-N1M0 rectal adenocarcinoma. Pretreatment staging included a clinical examination and endorectal ultrasonography (EUS) since 1988. Clinical staging was performed by digital rectal examination and rigid proctoscopy. EUS was performed in 236 patients. Postoperative staging was performed by examination of the pathologic specimen. Results: The median follow-up was 49 months. The overall 5-year survival rate was 67%, with a local failure rate of 9%. The rate of sphincter preservation was 65%. The clinical examination findings were strong prognostic factor for both cT stage (p < 0.001) and cN stage (p < 0.006) but had poor specificity for cN stage (only 25 lymph nodes detected). In both univariate and multivariate analyses, EUS had a statistically significant prognostic value for uT (p < 0.014) but not for uN (p < 0.47) stage. In contrast, pT and pN stages were strong prognostic factors (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: Pretreatment staging, including clinical examination and EUS, seemed accurate enough to present a high prognostic value for the T stage. EUS was insufficient to stage lymph node involvement. Owing to its lack of specificity, uN stage was not a reliable prognostic factor. An improvement in N staging is necessary and essential. Despite downstaging, postoperative staging remained a very strong prognostic factor for both T and N stages.

  18. Molecular correlates and prognostic significance of SATB1 expression in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 1 (SATB1) is a global gene regulator that has been reported to confer malignant behavior and associate with poor prognosis in several cancer forms. SATB1 expression has been demonstrated to correlate with unfavourable tumour characteristics in rectal cancer, but its association with clinical outcome in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unclear. In this study, we examined the prognostic impact of SATB1 expression in CRC, and its association with important molecular characteristics; i.e. beta-catenin overexpression, microsatellite instability (MSI) screening status, and SATB2 expression. Methods Immunohistochemical expression of SATB1 and beta-catenin was assessed in tissue microarrays with tumours from 529 incident CRC cases in the prospective population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer Study, previously analysed for SATB2 expression and MSI screening status. Spearmans Rho and Chi-Square tests were used to explore correlations between SATB1 expression, clinicopathological and investigative parameters. Kaplan Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards modelling were used to explore the impact of SATB1 expression on cancer specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS). Results SATB1 was expressed in 222 (42%) CRC cases and negative, or sparsely expressed, in adjacent colorectal mucosa (n = 16). SATB1 expression was significantly associated with microsatellite stable tumours (p < 0.001), beta-catenin overexpression (p < 0.001) and SATB2 expression (p < 0.001). While not prognostic in the full cohort, SATB1 expression was significantly associated with poor prognosis in SATB2 negative tumours (HR = 2.63; 95% CI 1.46-4.71; pinteraction = 0.011 for CSS and HR = 2.31; 95% CI 1.32-4.04; pinteraction = 0.015 for OS), remaining significant in multivariable analysis. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate that SATB1 expression in CRC is significantly associated with beta-catenin overexpression, microsatellite stability and SATB2 expression. Furthermore, SATB1 expression is a factor of poor prognosis in SATB2 negative tumours. Altogether, these data indicate an important role for SATB1 in colorectal carcinogenesis and suggest prognostically antagonistic effects of SATB1 and SATB2. The mechanistic basis for these observations warrants further study. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1922643082772076 PMID:22935204

  19. Antihistamines and other prognostic factors for adverse outcome in hyperemesis gravidarum

    PubMed Central

    Fejzo, Marlena S.; Magtira, Aromalyn; Schoenberg, Frederic Paik; MacGibbon, Kimber; Mullin, Patrick; Romero, Roberto; Tabsh, Khalil

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to determine the frequency of adverse perinatal outcome in women with hyperemesis gravidarum and identify prognostic factors. Study design This is a case-control study in which outcomes of first pregnancies were compared between 254 women with hyperemesis gravidarum treated with intravenous fluids and 308 controls. Prognostic factors were identified by comparing the clinical profile of patients with hyperemesis gravidarum with a normal and an adverse pregnancy outcome. Binary responses were analyzed using either a Chi-square or Fisher exact test and continuous responses were analyzed using a t-test. Results Women with hyperemesis gravidarum have over a 4-fold increased risk of poor outcome including preterm birth and lower birth weight (p < 0.0001). Among maternal characteristics, only gestational hypertension had an influence on outcome (p < 0.0001). Treatment as an outpatient and/or by alternative medicine (acupuncture/acupressure/Bowen massage) was associated with a positive outcome (p < 0.0089). Poor outcomes were associated with early start of symptoms (p < 0.019), and treatment with methylprednisolone (p < 0.0217), promethazine (p < 0.0386), and other antihistamines [diphenhy- dramine (Benadryl), dimenhydrinate (Gravol), doxylamine (Unisom), hydroxyzine (Vistaril/Atarax), doxylamine and pyridoxine (Diclectin/Bendectin)] (p < 0.0151) independent of effectiveness. Among these medications, only the other antihistamines were prescribed independent of severity: they were effective in less than 20% of cases and were taken by almost 50% of patients with an adverse outcome. Conclusion Poor outcomes are significantly greater in women with HG and are associated with gestational hypertension, early symptoms, and antihistamine use. Given these results, there is an urgent need to address the safety and effectiveness of medications containing antihistamines in women with severe nausea of pregnancy. PMID:23751910

  20. Prognostic value of Muc5AC in gastric cancer: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chuan-Tao; He, Ke-Cheng; Pan, Fei; Li, Yuan; Wu, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the correlation between decreased Muc5AC expression and patients’ survival and clinicopathological characteristics by conducting a meta-analysis. METHODS: Literature searches were performed in PubMed and EMBASE, and 11 studies met our criteria. Summary hazard ratios or odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to estimate the effect. For the pooled analysis of the correlation between decreased Muc5AC expression and clinicopathological characteristics (tumour invasion depth, lymph node metastasis, tumour-node-metastasis stage, tumour size, venous invasion and lymphatic invasion), ORs and their variance were combined to estimate the effect. RESULTS: Eleven retrospective cohort studies comprising 2135 patients were included to assess the association between Muc5AC expression and overall survival and/or clinicopathological characteristics. Decreased Muc5AC expression was significantly correlated with poor overall survival of gastric cancer patients (pooled HR = 1.35, 95%CI: 1.08-1.7). Moreover, decreased Muc5AC expression was also significantly associated with tumour invasion depth (pooled OR = 2.12, 95%CI: 1.56-2.87) and lymph node metastasis (pooled OR = 1.56, 95%CI: 1.00-2.44) in gastric cancer. CONCLUSION: Decreased Muc5AC expression might be a poor prognostic predictor for gastric cancer. PMID:26420972

  1. Prognostic Significance and Molecular Features of Colorectal Mucinous Adenocarcinomas: A Strobe-Compliant Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mo-Jin; Ping, Jie; Li, Yuan; Holmqvist, Annica; Adell, Gunnar; Arbman, Gunnar; Zhang, Hong; Zhou, Zong-Guang; Sun, Xiao-Feng

    2015-12-01

    Mucinous adenocarcinoma (MC) is a special histology subtype of colorectal adenocarcinoma. The survival of MC is controversial and the prognostic biomarkers of MC remain unclear. To analyze prognostic significance and molecular features of colorectal MC. This study included 755,682 and 1001 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program (SEER, 1973-2011), and Linköping Cancer (LC, 1972-2009) databases. We investigated independently the clinicopathological characteristics, survival, and variety of molecular features from these 2 databases. MC was found in 9.3% and 9.8% patients in SEER and LC, respectively. MC was more frequently localized in the right colon compared with nonmucinous adenocarcinoma (NMC) in both SEER (57.7% vs 37.2%, P < 0.001) and LC (46.9% vs 27.7%, P < 0.001). Colorectal MC patients had significantly worse cancer-specific survival (CSS) than NMC patients (SEER, P < 0.001; LC, P = 0.026), prominently in stage III (SEER, P < 0.001; LC, P = 0.023). The multivariate survival analysis showed that MC was independently related to poor prognosis in rectal cancer patients (SEER, hazard ratios [HR], 1.076; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 1.057-1.096; P < 0.001). In LC, the integrated analysis of genetic and epigenetic features showed that that strong expression of PINCH (HR, 3.954; 95% CI, 1.493-10.47; P = 0.013) and weak expression of RAD50 (HR 0.348, 95% CI, 0.106-1.192; P = 0.026) were significantly associated with poor CSS of colorectal MC patients. In conclusion, the colorectal MC patients had significantly worse CSS than NMC patients, prominently in stage III. MC was an independent prognostic factor associated with worse survival in rectal cancer patients. The PINCH and RAD50 were prognostic biomarkers for colorectal MC patients. PMID:26705231

  2. Comparison of Prognostic MicroRNA Biomarkers in Blood and Tissues for Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Wenying; Qian, Laijun; Chen, Jiajia; Chen, Weichang; Shen, Bairong

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) still keeps up high mortality worldwide with poor prognosis. Efficient and non-invasive prognostic biomarkers are urgently needed. MicroRNAs are non-coding RNAs playing roles in post-transcriptional gene regulation, which contribute to various biological processes such as development, differentiation and carcinogenesis. MicroRNA expression profiles have been associated with the prognosis and outcome in GC. MicroRNA prognostic biomarkers have been identified from blood or tissues samples, but with different prognostic features. Understanding the various roles of microRNAs in different sample sources of GC will provide deep insights into GC progression. In this review, we highlight the distinct prognostic roles of microRNAs biomarkers in blood and tissue according to their relationships with prognostic parameters, survival rates and target pathways. This will be useful for non-invasive biomarker development and selection in prognosis of GC. PMID:26722365

  3. Protein Expression of ZEB2 in Renal Cell Carcinoma and Its Prognostic Significance in Patient Survival

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Jiazheng; Zhao, Hongwei; Liao, Bing; Qiu, Shaopeng; Wang, Daohu; Luo, Junhang; Chen, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Background ZEB2 has been reportedly shown to mediate the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and disease aggressiveness in human tumors. However, the expression status of ZEB2 in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and ZEB2’s clinicopathologic/prognostic significance are poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, tissue microarray, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western blot analyses were utilized to investigate the ZEB2 expression status in RCC and adjacent renal tissue samples. In our study, samples from 116 RCC patients treated with radical nephrectomy were used as a training set to generate a ZEB2 optimal cut-point for patient outcome by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. For validation, the correlation of ZEB2 expression with the clinical characteristics and patient outcomes in another set (including 113 patients) was analyzed to validate the obtained cut-point. In the training and validation sets, high expression of ZEB2, defined by ROC analysis, predicted a poorer overall survival and progression-free survival, as evidenced by the univariate and multivariate analyses. In different subsets of overall patients, ZEB2 expression was also a prognostic indicator in patients with stage I/II, stage III/IV, grade 1/2 and grade 3/4 disease (P<0.05). Downregulation of ZEB2 by shRNA decreased the migration and invasion ability of 769-P cells in vitro. Furthermore, high ZEB2 expression was positively correlated with vimentin expression and inversely linked to E-cadherin expression in RCC. Conclusions/Significance Our findings provide a basis for the concept that high ZEB2 expression in RCC may be important in the acquisition of an aggressive phenotype. This evidence suggests that ZEB2 overexpression (examined by IHC) is an independent biomarker for the poor prognosis of patients with RCC. PMID:23658743

  4. Elevated preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio is associated with poor prognosis in gastrointestinal stromal tumor patients

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Chang; Hu, Wan-Ming; Liao, Fang-Xin; Yang, Qiong; Chen, Ping; Rong, Yu-Ming; Guo, Gui-Fang; Yin, Chen-Xi; Zhang, Bei; He, Wen-Zhuo; Xia, Liang-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the prognostic relevance of preoperative peripheral neutrophil- to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) patients. Materials and methods We enrolled 129 consecutive GIST patients who underwent initial curative surgical resection with or without adjuvant/palliative imatinib treatment in our study. Blood NLR was calculated as neutrophil count (number of neutrophils ×109/L) divided by lymphocyte count (number of lymphocytes ×109/L). Survival curves were constructed by using the Kaplan–Meier method. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models were performed to identify associations with outcome variable. All tests were two-sided, and P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The optimal cut-off value of NLR was 2.07 in the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The median overall survival (OS) of high NLR group was 113.0 months, whereas that of the low NLR group had not reached the median OS both in the general (P<0.001) and subgroup analyses. The elevated NLR suggested shorter OS in the high malignant potential groups (P=0.01) and the combined low and moderate groups (P=0.02). Increased NLR indicated poor OS in patients regardless of whether if received imatinib treatment or not (P=0.005, and P=0.032, respectively). High NLR indicated poor OS of patients in stage I and II disease (P=0.005) and a clear tendency that increased level of NLR is inimical to OS. Conclusion Elevated NLR was detected as an independent adverse prognostic factor. Elevated preoperative NLR predicts poor clinical outcome in GIST patients and may serve as a cost-effective and broadly available independent prognostic biomarker.

  5. Prognostic factors in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Buhmeida, A; Pyrhönen, S; Laato, M; Collan, Y

    2006-01-01

    Prognostic factors in organ confined prostate cancer will reflect survival after surgical radical prostatectomy. Gleason score, tumour volume, surgical margins and Ki-67 index have the most significant prognosticators. Also the origins from the transitional zone, p53 status in cancer tissue, stage, and aneuploidy have shown prognostic significance. Progression-associated features include Gleason score, stage, and capsular invasion, but PSA is also highly significant. Progression can also be predicted with biological markers (E-cadherin, microvessel density, and aneuploidy) with high level of significance. Other prognostic features of clinical or PSA-associated progression include age, IGF-1, p27, and Ki-67. In patients who were treated with radiotherapy the survival was potentially predictable with age, race and p53, but available research on other markers is limited. The most significant published survival-associated prognosticators of prostate cancer with extension outside prostate are microvessel density and total blood PSA. However, survival can potentially be predicted by other markers like androgen receptor, and Ki-67-positive cell fraction. In advanced prostate cancer nuclear morphometry and Gleason score are the most highly significant progression-associated prognosticators. In conclusion, Gleason score, capsular invasion, blood PSA, stage, and aneuploidy are the best markers of progression in organ confined disease. Other biological markers are less important. In advanced disease Gleason score and nuclear morphometry can be used as predictors of progression. Compound prognostic factors based on combinations of single prognosticators, or on gene expression profiles (tested by DNA arrays) are promising, but clinically relevant data is still lacking. PMID:16759347

  6. Breast thermography. A prognostic indicator for breast cancer survival.

    PubMed

    Isard, H J; Sweitzer, C J; Edelstein, G R

    1988-08-01

    A prognostic classification for thermographic staging of breast cancer has been applied to a cohort of 70 patients from 5040 screenees enrolled in the Albert Einstein Medical Center (AEMC) Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project (BCDDP). A diagnosis of breast cancer was established in each case before December 31, 1980. None of the patients have been lost to follow-up which extended from a minimum of 6 to a maximum of 13 years. Survival rates for those with favorable, equivocal, and poor thermographic factors are compared with each other and with results in accordance with tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) classification. As of December 31, 1986, there have been 22 (31.4%) deaths, all attributed to breast cancer. The thermographic scoring system clearly shows shorter survival for patients with poor thermographic prognostic factors, 30% surviving at 5 years and only 20% at 10 years compared with overall survival of 80% at 5 years and 70% at 10 years. PMID:3390789

  7. Twist1 is a potential prognostic marker for colorectal cancer and associated with chemoresistance

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Da-Jian; Chen, Xiao-Wu; Zhang, Wei-Jie; Wang, Jia-Zhi; Ouyang, Man-Zhao; Zhong, Qiang; Liu, Chang-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Twist1 is a highly conserved basic helix-loophelix transcription factor, and has been shown to play an important role in carcinogenesis of many tumors including colorectal cancer (CRC). Here we aimed to investigate the role of Twist1 in the clinical significance and chemoresistance in CRC. In this study, we examined the correlation between Twist1 expression and clinicopathological characteristics using immunohistochemistry in patients with CRC. The molecular mechanisms of Twist1 expression and its effects on chemosensitivity to 5-Fluorouracil and oxaliplatin were also explored by MTT assay, colony forming assay, flow cytometry assay. The results indicate that Twist1 is overexpressed in cancer tissue, and its positive expression are related to histological grade (P=0.004), T-stage (P=0.033), N-stage (P=0.000), M-stage (P=0.040), TNM stage (P=0.002) and recurrence (P=0.023). Moreover, positive Twist1 expression is correlated with poor overall survival in CRC patients (P<0.0001), and is a significant independent prognostic indicator. In addition, we show that knockdown of Twist1 inhibits proliferation, and increased the percentage of apoptotic cells of CRC cell lines. Our findings suggest that Twist1 promotes proliferation and chemoresistance of CRC cells. Twist1 may be a potential prognostic marker and a molecular target for therapies. PMID:26269759

  8. Recurrent Bleeding in Hemorrhagic Moyamoya Disease : Prognostic Implications of the Perfusion Status

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Kyung-Il; Kim, Min Soo; Yeon, Je Young; Kim, Jong-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Objective Hemorrhagic moyamoya disease (hMMD) is associated with a poor clinical course. Furthermore, poorer clinical outcomes occur in cases of recurrent bleeding. However, the effect of hemodynamic insufficiency on rebleeding risk has not been investigated yet. This study evaluated the prognostic implications of the perfusion status during the clinical course of adult hMMD. Methods This retrospective study enrolled 52 adult hMMD patients between April 1995 and October 2010 from a single institute. Demographic data, clinical and radiologic characteristics, including hemodynamic status using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and follow up data were obtained via a retrospective review of medical charts and imaging. Statistical analyses were performed to explore potential prognostic factors. Results Hemodynamic abnormality was identified in 44 (84.6%) patients. Subsequent revascularization surgery was performed in 22 (42.3%) patients. During a 58-month (median, range 3–160) follow-up assessment period, 17 showed subsequent stroke (hemorrhagic n=12, ischemic n=5, Actuarial stroke rate 5.8±1.4%/year). Recurrent hemorrhage was associated with decreased basal perfusion (HR 19.872; 95% CI=1.196–294.117) and omission of revascularization (10.218; 95%; CI=1.532–68.136). Conclusion Decreased basal perfusion seems to be associated with recurrent bleeding. Revascularization might prevent recurrent stroke in hMMD by rectifying the perfusion abnormality. A larger-sized, controlled study is required to address this issue. PMID:26962416

  9. Long-Term Follow-Up and Prognostic Factors for Advanced Thymic Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jun-xin; Chen, Hui-qin; Shao, Ling-dong; Qiu, Su-fang; Ni, Qian-yu; Zheng, Bu-hong; Wang, Jie-zhong; Pan, Jian-ji; Li, Jin-luan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term survival outcomes in patients with advanced thymic carcinoma and identify prognostic factors influencing the survival. We retrospectively analyzed 90 consecutive patients with pathologically confirmed advanced thymic carcinoma (Masaoka III and IV) in our institute, from December 2000 to 2012. Age, sex, clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, Masaoka and tumor node metastasis staging, pathologic grade, and treatment modalities were analyzed to identify prognostic factors associated with the progress-free survival (PFS) and the overall survival (OS) rates. Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS, version 19.0 (SPSS, Inc, Chicago, IL). A total of 73 (81.1%) male and 17 (18.9%) female patients participated in the study. The median follow-up time was 75 months (range, 20–158 months). The 5-year PFS and OS rates were 23.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 14.6%–33.8%) and 35.7% (95% CI, 25.1%–46.4%), respectively. The multivariate Cox regression model analysis showed that factors improving the PFS were the normal lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level (P < 0.001), Masaoka III stage (P = 0.028), and radiotherapy (RT) (P < 0.001). The LDH (P < 0.001), T stage (P < 0.001), and the pathologic grade (P = 0.047) were independently prognostic of OS. Long-term follow-up of the advanced thymic carcinoma showed poor outcomes of PFS and OS. LDH, Masaoka stage, and RT affected the PFS, and LDH, T stage, and pathologic grade seemed to affect the OS. Establishing a better staging system for predicting outcomes would be warranted. PMID:25526488

  10. Histological and prognostic importance of CD44(+) /CD24(+) /EpCAM(+) expression in clinical pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Ohara, Yusuke; Oda, Tatsuya; Sugano, Masato; Hashimoto, Shinji; Enomoto, Tsuyoshi; Yamada, Keiichi; Akashi, Yoshimasa; Miyamoto, Ryoichi; Kobayashi, Akihiko; Fukunaga, Kiyoshi; Morishita, Yukio; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro

    2013-08-01

    CD44(+) /CD24(+) /EpCAM(+) cells have been reported to be cancer stem cells in pancreatic cancer; however, the histological and clinical importance of these cells has not yet been investigated. Here we clarified the characteristics of CD44(+) /CD24(+) /EpCAM(+) cells in clinical specimens of pancreatic cancer using immunohistochemical assay. We used surgical specimens of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma from 101 patients. In view of tumor heterogeneity, we randomly selected 10 high-power fields per case, and triple-positive CD44(+) /CD24(+) /EpCAM(+) expression was identified using our scoring system. The distribution, histological characteristics, and prognostic importance of CD44(+) /CD24(+) /EpCAM(+) cells were then analyzed. As a result, the distribution of CD44(+) /CD24(+) /EpCAM(+) cells varied widely among the 101 cases examined, and CD44(+) /CD24(+) /EpCAM(+) expression was correlated with poor glandular differentiation and high proliferation. Survival analysis showed that CD44(+) /CD24(+) /EpCAM(+) expression was not correlated with patient outcome; however, CD44(+) /CD24(+) expression appeared to be correlated with poor prognosis. In conclusion, CD44(+) /CD24(+) /EpCAM(+) expression overlapped with poorly differentiated cells and possessed high proliferative potential in clinical pancreatic cancer. In particular, the presence of double-positive CD44(+) /CD24(+) expression seemed to have clinical relevance, associating with poor prognosis. PMID:23679813

  11. Rich Donors, Poor Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    The shifting ideological winds of foreign aid donors have driven their policy towards governments in poor countries. Donors supported state-led development policies in poor countries from the 1940s to the 1970s; market and private-sector driven reforms during the 1980s and 1990s; and returned their attention to the state with an emphasis on…

  12. Prognostic Factors in Cholinesterase Inhibitor Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Sun, In O; Yoon, Hyun Ju; Lee, Kwang Young

    2015-01-01

    Background Organophosphates and carbamates are insecticides that are associated with high human mortality. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prognostic factors affecting survival in patients with cholinesterase inhibitor (CI) poisoning. Material/Methods This study included 92 patients with CI poisoning in the period from January 2005 to August 2013. We divided these patients into 2 groups (survivors vs. non-survivors), compared their clinical characteristics, and analyzed the predictors of survival. Results The mean age of the included patients was 56 years (range, 16–88). The patients included 57 (62%) men and 35 (38%) women. When we compared clinical characteristics between the survivor group (n=81, 88%) and non-survivor group (n=11, 12%), there were no differences in renal function, pancreatic enzymes, or serum cholinesterase level, except for serum bicarbonate level and APACHE II score. The serum bicarbonate level was lower in non-survivors than in survivors (12.45±2.84 vs. 18.36±4.73, P<0.01). The serum APACHE II score was higher in non-survivors than in survivors (24.36±5.22 vs. 12.07±6.67, P<0.01). The development of pneumonia during hospitalization was higher in non-survivors than in survivors (n=9, 82% vs. n=31, 38%, P<0.01). In multiple logistic regression analysis, serum bicarbonate concentration, APACHE II score, and pneumonia during hospitalization were the important prognostic factors in patients with CI poisoning. Conclusions Serum bicarbonate and APACHE II score are useful prognostic factors in patients with CI poisoning. Furthermore, pneumonia during hospitalization was also important in predicting prognosis in patients with CI poisoning. Therefore, prevention and active treatment of pneumonia is important in the management of patients with CI poisoning. PMID:26411989

  13. Podocalyxin is a marker of poor prognosis in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Over two decades ago, a proposal was that two different colorectal cancer (CRC) entities existed, based on tumour location either proximal (right) or distal (left) of the splenic flexure. Proximal and distal tumours exhibit different clinical, epidemiological, and biological characteristics. Improvement of the prognostic evaluation of CRC requires new molecular markers. Podocalyxin-like 1 (PODXL), an anti-adhesive transmembrane sialomucin, is associated with an aggressive tumour phenotype and poor prognosis. For colorectal cancer, it has been suggested to be a marker of poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of PODXL in CRC by use of a novel monoclonal antibody. Methods In 19832001, 840 consecutive colorectal cancer patients were treated at Helsinki University Central Hospital, of whom 767 were successfully scored for PODXL immunohistochemical expression from tumour tissue microarrays by use of a novel monoclonal in-house antibody. Associations of PODXL expression and tumour location with other clinicopathological variables were explored by Fishers exact-test, linear-by- linear association test, and binary logistic regression. Survival analyses were done by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards model. Results PODXL protein expression was high in 44 (5.7%) specimens. High expression associated strongly with poor differentiation (p?poorly differentiated (p?poor prognosis in colorectal cancer and in the subgroups of left hemicolon and rectum. This is, to our knowledge, the first evidence of such difference in PODXL expression, its function possibly being dependent upon tumour location. PMID:25004863

  14. Prognostic role of neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio in operable esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Hao; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Fei-Xiang; Cai, Mu-Yan; Ma, Guo-Wei; Yang, Hong; Fu, Jian-Hua; Tan, Zi-Hui; Meng, Yu-Qi; Fu, Xia-Yu; Ma, Qi-Long; Lin, Peng

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prognostic significance of preoperative serum neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). METHODS: Data from 371 eligible patients with ESCC who had undergone surgery with curative intent at our institution between October 2000 and May 2007 were retrospectively recruited for analysis. The cutoff value of NLR was 3.0 as determined by the receiver operating characteristic curve, which discriminated between survival and death; the area under the curve was 0.709, and the sensitivity and specificity were 66.1% and 69.1%, respectively, at the cutoff point. The correlation between the NLR and clinicopathological characteristics was analyzed using a χ2 test. The prognostic influence of the NLR and other clinicopathological factors on cancer-specific survival (CSS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) was studied using the Kaplan-Meier method. To evaluate the independent prognostic value of NLR, multivariate Cox regression models were applied. RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 57.0 years, and 276/371 (74.4%) patients were male. The NLR was ≤ 3.0 in 80.1% (297/371) of the patients, and the remaining 19.9% (74/371) had an NLR > 3.0. Median postoperative follow-up was 66.0 mo [interquartile range (IQR): 49.0-76.0 mo], with a follow-up rate of 94%. Follow-up was not significantly different between patients with an NLR ≤ and > 3.0 (63.13 ± 1.64 vs 61.52 ± 3.66, P = 0.711). However, higher preoperative serum NLR was associated with significantly increased risks of higher pathological tumor status (P = 0.007). A significant, independent association between high preoperative serum NLR and poor clinical outcome was identified in a multivariate analysis for CSS (HR = 1.591; P = 0.007) and RFS (HR = 1.525; P = 0.013). Moreover, when patients were stratified by pathological tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging, the adverse effects of preoperative serum NLR on CSS (HR = 2.294; P = 0.008) and RFS (HR = 2.273; P = 0.008) were greatest in those patients with stage IIIA disease. CONCLUSION: Preoperative serum NLR is a useful prognostic marker to complement TNM staging for operable ESCC patients, particularly in patients with stage IIIA disease. PMID:25987784

  15. MACC1 upregulation promotes gastric cancer tumor cell metastasis and predicts a poor prognosis*

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Qiu-ping; Xiang, Cheng; Wang, Gang; Lei, Ke-feng; Wang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    In various studies, metastasis associated with colon cancer 1 (MACC1) has been frequently reported to be abnormally highly expressed in human lung cancer, colon cancer, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Our study focuses on the association of MACC1 expression with gastric cancer (GC). During our experiment, the MACC1 expression was tested in 105 GC samples using an immunohistochemical (IHC) method. The clinical characteristics and prognosis of these patients were summarized. During analysis, MACC1 distribution in GC samples with distant metastasis was higher than that in normal samples and in tumors with no dissemination. Subsequently, a lower 5-year survival rate had a strong correlation with high MACC1 expression. As a consequence, the present results suggest that MACC1 is more frequently expressed in a poor prognosis phenotype of GC and acts as a promising prognostic prediction parameter for GC. PMID:27143263

  16. Acute Escherichia coli Mastitis in Dairy Cattle: Diagnostic Parameters Associated with Poor Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    HAGIWARA, Seiichi; MORI, Kouichiro; OKADA, Hiroyuki; OIKAWA, Shin; NAGAHATA, Hajime

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to identify the diagnostic characteristics associated with poor prognosis and mortality in dairy cows with acute clinical Escherichia coli mastitis. On 17 dairy farms, 24 dairy cows with acute E. coli mastitis that had received therapeutic treatment were categorized into 2 groups by outcome: 17 cows that recovered (survivors) and 7 cows that died or were euthanized (non-survivors). Two days after onset of acute E. coli mastitis, dysstasia was observed in non-survivors, but not in survivors. Compared with survivors, significantly increased hematocrit (HCT) values and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations, and significantly decreased antithrombin activity and platelet counts were found in non-survivors on days 2 and 3 after therapy. Dysstasia, associated with decreased antithrombin activity and platelet counts, and with increased HCT and NEFA concentrations, was considered to be the major prognostic indicator associated with high mortality after therapeutic treatment in acute E. coli mastitis. PMID:25056677

  17. Prognostic Implication of Semi-quantitative Immunohistochemical Assessment of CD20 Expression in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Chang Hwan; Park, Young Hoon; Lim, Joo Han; Choi, Suk Jin; Kim, Lucia; Park, In Suh; Han, Jee Young; Kim, Joon Mee; Chu, Young Chae

    2016-01-01

    Background: Immunohistochemical demonstration of CD20 in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is prerequisite not only for the diagnosis but also for assigning patients to rituximab-containing chemotherapy. However, little is known about the impact of abundance of CD20 expression assessed by immunohistochemistry on the clinical outcome of DLBCL. We performed a semi-quantitative immunohistochemical analysis of CD20 expression in DLBCL to examine the prognostic implication of the level of CD20 expression. Methods: Pre-treatment diagnostic tissue samples from 48 DLBCL patients who were treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) regimen were represented in a tissue microarray and immunostained for CD20. The relative abundance of CD20 expression was semi-quantitatively scored using a web-based ImmunoMembrane plug-in. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to determine a prognostically relevant cut-off score in order to dichotomize the patients into CD20-high versus CD20-low groups. Results: The levels of CD20 expression were heterogeneous among the patients, with a wide and linear distribution of scores. Patients in CD20-low group showed significantly poor clinical outcome. Conclusions: The levels of CD20 expression in DLBCL are heterogeneous among the patients with DLBCL. A subgroup of the patients with CD20 expression levels below the cut-off score showed poor clinical outcome. PMID:26875759

  18. Nodal metastases in thyroid cancer: prognostic implications and management.

    PubMed

    Wang, Laura Y; Ganly, Ian

    2016-04-01

    The significance of cervical lymph node metastases in differentiated thyroid cancer has been controversial and continues to evolve. Current staging systems consider nodal metastases to confer a poorer prognosis, particularly in older patients. Increasingly, the literature suggests that characteristics of the metastatic lymph nodes such as size and number are also prognostic. There is a growing trend toward less aggressive treatment of low-volume nodal disease. The aim of this review is to summarize the current literature and discuss prognostic and management implications of lymph node metastases in differentiated thyroid cancer. PMID:26948758

  19. Review and Analysis of Algorithmic Approaches Developed for Prognostics on CMAPSS Dataset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramasso, Emannuel; Saxena, Abhinav

    2014-01-01

    Benchmarking of prognostic algorithms has been challenging due to limited availability of common datasets suitable for prognostics. In an attempt to alleviate this problem several benchmarking datasets have been collected by NASA's prognostic center of excellence and made available to the Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) community to allow evaluation and comparison of prognostics algorithms. Among those datasets are five C-MAPSS datasets that have been extremely popular due to their unique characteristics making them suitable for prognostics. The C-MAPSS datasets pose several challenges that have been tackled by different methods in the PHM literature. In particular, management of high variability due to sensor noise, effects of operating conditions, and presence of multiple simultaneous fault modes are some factors that have great impact on the generalization capabilities of prognostics algorithms. More than 70 publications have used the C-MAPSS datasets for developing data-driven prognostic algorithms. The C-MAPSS datasets are also shown to be well-suited for development of new machine learning and pattern recognition tools for several key preprocessing steps such as feature extraction and selection, failure mode assessment, operating conditions assessment, health status estimation, uncertainty management, and prognostics performance evaluation. This paper summarizes a comprehensive literature review of publications using C-MAPSS datasets and provides guidelines and references to further usage of these datasets in a manner that allows clear and consistent comparison between different approaches.

  20. Prognostic and predictive markers in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Le, Nha; Sund, Malin; Vinci, Alessio

    2016-03-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is characterized by a poor prognosis and a low median survival, despite improvements observed for many other solid tumours. Intensive research efforts have been undertaken during the last decades to discover new prognostic and treatment predictive biomarkers for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. The mainstay of medical treatment for the disease has been the well-tolerated nucleoside analogue, gemcitabine. The only targeted agent currently used in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients is the epithelial growth factor receptor inhibitor erlotinib in combination with gemcitabine. Recently, treatment regimens such as a combination of fluorouracil-leucovorin-irinotecan-oxaliplatin (FOLFIRINOX) and the combination of nab-paclitaxel with gemcitabine have been introduced for metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Although these treatment regimens significantly improve survival of patients, there are no good predictive biomarkers available that can be used to identify who would benefit most from them. Therefore, the search for predictive biomarkers that would facilitate personalization of chemotherapy is highly relevant. PMID:26769569

  1. Nonrhabdomyosarcomatous abdominopelvic sarcomas: Analysis of prognostic factors

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Nida; Shukla, Nootan K.; Deo, S. V. S.; Agarwala, Sandeep; Sharma, D. N.; Sharma, Meher C.; Bakhshi, Sameer

    2016-01-01

    Background: Data concerning treatment outcome and prognostic factors in sarcomas of abdomen and pelvis are sparse in literature. Methods and Results: Of 696 patients with nonrhabdomyosarcomatous soft tissue sarcoma registered at our center between June 2003 and December 2012, 112 (16%) patients of sarcomas arising from abdomen and pelvis were identified, of which 88 patients were analyzed for treatment outcome and prognostic factors. The median age was 40 years (range: 1–78 years) with a male: female ratio of 0.7:1. Twenty-one (24%) patients were metastatic at baseline. The most common tumor sites were retroperitoneum in 70% patients and abdominal wall in 18% patients. Leiomyosarcoma was the most common histological subtype in 36% patients followed by liposarcoma in 17% patients. Thirty-five (40%) patients had Grade III tumors. Forty-six (52%) patients underwent surgical resection. At a median follow-up of 43 months (range: 2–94 months), the 5-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were 35% and 42%, with a median of 22 months and 43 months, respectively. Multivariate analysis identified male gender (P - 0.03, hazard ratio [HR] - 0.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] - 0.23–0.92), baseline metastatic disease (P - 0.01, HR - 2.98, 95% CI - 1.27–6.98) and Grade III tumors (P - 0.02, HR - 1.84, 95% CI - 1.08–3.13) as factors associated with poor EFS, whereas baseline metastatic disease (P < 0.001, HR - 5.45, 95% CI - 2.31–12.87) and unresectability (P - 0.01, HR - 2.72, 95% CI - 1.27–5.83) were associated with poor OS. Conclusion: This is a single-institutional study of patients with abdominopelvic sarcomas where gender was identified as a new factor affecting survival apart from baseline presentation, histologic grade, and surgical resection. PMID:27168708

  2. Impact of the International Prognostic Scoring System cytogenetic risk groups on the outcome of patients with primary myelodysplastic syndromes undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation from human leukocyte antigen-identical siblings: a retrospective analysis of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation-Chronic Malignancies Working Party

    PubMed Central

    Onida, Francesco; Brand, Ronald; van Biezen, Anja; Schaap, Michel; von dem Borne, Peter A.; Maertens, Johan; Beelen, Dietrich W.; Carreras, Enric; Alessandrino, Emilio P.; Volin, Liisa; Kuball, Jürgen H.E.; Figuera, Angela; Sierra, Jorge; Finke, Jürgen; Kröger, Nicolaus; de Witte, Theo

    2014-01-01

    Acquired chromosomal abnormalities are important prognostic factors in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes treated with supportive care and with disease-modifying therapeutic interventions, including allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. To assess the prognostic impact of cytogenetic characteristics after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation accurately, we investigated a homogeneous group of 523 patients with primary myelodysplastic syndromes who have received stem cells from human leukocyte antigen-identical siblings. Overall survival at five years from transplantation in good, intermediate, and poor cytogenetic risk groups according to the International Prognostic Scoring System was 48%, 45% and 30%, respectively (P<0.01). Both the disease status (complete remission vs. not in complete remission) and the morphological classification at transplant in the untreated patients were significantly associated with probability of overall survival and relapse-free survival (P<0.01). The cytogenetic risk groups have no prognostic impact in untreated patients with refractory anemia ± ringed sideroblasts (P=0.90). However, combining the good and intermediate cytogenetic risk groups and comparing them to the poor-risk group showed within the other three disease-status-at-transplant groups a hazard ratio of 1.86 (95%CI: 1.41–2.45). In conclusion, this study shows that, in a large series of patients with primary myelodysplastic syndromes, poor-risk cytogenetics as defined by the standard International Prognostic Scoring System is associated with a relatively poor survival after allogeneic stem cell transplantation from human leukocyte antigen-identical siblings except in patients who are transplanted in refractory anemia/refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts stage before progression to higher myelodysplastic syndrome stages. PMID:25085359

  3. High IDH1 expression is associated with a poor prognosis in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qiu-Ling; Wang, Jing-Han; Wang, Yun-Gui; Hu, Chao; Mu, Qi-Tian; Yu, Meng-Xia; Wang, Lei; Wang, Dong-Mei; Yang, Min; Yin, Xiu-Feng; Chen, Fei-Fei; Lu, Sha-Sha; Chen, Jian; Zhu, Zhi-Juan; Chen, Sai-Juan; Jin, Jie

    2015-09-01

    The prognostic value of IDH1 mutations has been systematically evaluated in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients recently. However, the role of IDH1 expression in AML is still under exploration. To investigate the clinical significance, we analyzed the IDH1/2 expression in 320 patients with cytogenetically normal AML (CN-AML) by quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. High expression of IDH1 was predominant in patients with FLT3-ITD and DNMT3A mutations and less prevalent in cases with CEBPA double allele mutations. Strong association was observed between high IDH1 expression and low expression of microRNA 181 family. Prognosis was adversely affected by high IDH1 expression, with shorter overall survival and event-free survival in the context of clinical characteristics, including age, WBC count, and gene mutations of NPM1, FLT3-ITD, CEBPA, IDH1, IDH2 and DNMT3A in CN-AML. Moreover, the clinical outcome of IDH1 expression in terms of overall survival, event-free survival and complete remission rate still remained in multivariate models in CN-AML. Importantly, the prognostic value was validated using the published microarray data from 79 adult patients treated according to the German AMLCG-1999 protocol. Our results demonstrated that high IDH1 expression is associated with a poor prognosis of CN-AML. PMID:25523507

  4. Loss of MHC class II gene and protein expression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is related to decreased tumor immunosurveillance and poor patient survival regardless of other prognostic factors: a follow-up study from the Leukemia and Lymphoma Molecular Profiling Project.

    PubMed

    Rimsza, Lisa M; Roberts, Robin A; Miller, Thomas P; Unger, Joseph M; LeBlanc, Michael; Braziel, Rita M; Weisenberger, Dennis D; Chan, Wing C; Muller-Hermelink, H Konrad; Jaffe, Elaine S; Gascoyne, Randy D; Campo, Elias; Fuchs, Deborah A; Spier, Catherine M; Fisher, Richard I; Delabie, Jan; Rosenwald, Andreas; Staudt, Louis M; Grogan, Thomas M

    2004-06-01

    The Leukemia and Lymphoma Molecular Profiling Project recently published results from DNA microarray analyses of 240 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs). Four gene expression "signatures" were identified as correlated with patient outcome, including the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II genes (eg, HLA-DRA) which correlated with better survival. We further analyzed the effects of HLA-DRA on survival and correlated gene expression with protein status and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. The 5-year overall survival was 24% in the lowest 10% of HLA-DRA expression, 37% in the 10% to 25% group, 50% in the 25% to 50% group, and 55% for patients in the highest 50%. Further analysis demonstrated that the hazard ratio of death was a nonlinear function of HLA-DRA expression. Adjustment for the International Prognostic Index did not alter the impact of HLA-DRA on survival. Other MHC class II genes were found to predict survival similarly. Microarray HLA-DRA expression correlated with the presence or absence of human leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR) protein in 20 of 22 cases assessed. Fewer tumor-infiltrating CD8(+) T cells were detected in MHC class II-negative cases compared with positive cases (2.8% versus 11.0%; P =.001), supporting the hypothesis that loss of tumor immunosurveillance has a devastating effect on patient outcome in DLBCL. PMID:14976040

  5. Prognostic Factors After Extraneural Metastasis of Medulloblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Mazloom, Ali; Zangeneh, Azy H.; Paulino, Arnold C.

    2010-09-01

    Purpose: To review the existing literature regarding the characteristics, prognostic factors, treatment, and survival of patients with medulloblastoma, who develop extraneural metastasis (ENM). Methods and Materials: A PubMed search of English language articles from 1961 to 2007 was performed, yielding 47 articles reporting on 119 patients. Factors analyzed included age, time interval to development of ENM, ENM location, central nervous system (CNS) involvement, treatment, and outcome. Results: Sites of ENM included bone in 84% of patients, bone marrow in 27% of patients, lymph nodes in 15% of patients, lung in 6% of patients, and liver in 6% of patients. Median survival was 8 months after diagnosis of ENM. The 1-, 2-, and 5-year overall survival (OS) rates after diagnosis of ENM were 41.9%, 31.0%, and 26.0%, respectively. The 1-, 2-, and 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) rates after diagnosis of ENM were 34.5%, 23.2%, and 13.4%, respectively. For patients without CNS involvement at the time of ENM diagnosis, the 1-, 2-, and 5-year OS rates for those treated with and without radiotherapy (RT) were 82.4%, 64.8%, and 64.8% vs. 51.0%, 36.6%, and 30.5%, respectively (p = 0.03, log-rank test). RT did not significantly improve OS or PFS rates for those with CNS involvement. Concurrent CNS involvement, ENM in the lung or liver, a time interval of <18 months to development of ENM, and a patient age of <16 years at ENM diagnosis were found to be negative prognostic factors for both OS and PFS. Conclusions: Several prognostic factors were identified for patients with ENM from medulloblastoma. Patients without concurrent CNS involvement, who received RT after ENM diagnosis had an OS and PFS benefit compared to those who did not receive RT.

  6. Towards Prognostics of Electrolytic Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Celaya, Jose R.; Kulkarni, Chetan; Biswas, Gautam; Goegel, Kai

    2011-01-01

    A remaining useful life prediction algorithm and degradation model for electrolytic capacitors is presented. Electrolytic capacitors are used in several applications ranging from power supplies on critical avionics equipment to power drivers for electro-mechanical actuators. These devices are known for their low reliability and given their criticality in electronics subsystems they are a good candidate for component level prognostics and health management research. Prognostics provides a way to assess remaining useful life of a capacitor based on its current state of health and its anticipated future usage and operational conditions. In particular, experimental results of an accelerated aging test under electrical stresses are presented. The capacitors used in this test form the basis for a remaining life prediction algorithm where a model of the degradation process is suggested. This preliminary remaining life prediction algorithm serves as a demonstration of how prognostics methodologies could be used for electrolytic capacitors.

  7. A Prognostic Model of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Based on miR-27b-3p and Node Status

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Songjie; Sun, Qiang; Liang, Zhiyong; Cui, Xiaojiang; Ren, Xinyu; Chen, Huan; Zhang, Xiao; Zhou, Yidong

    2014-01-01

    Objective Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive but heterogeneous subtype of breast cancer. This study aimed to identify and validate a prognostic signature for TNBC patients to improve prognostic capability and to guide individualized treatment. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the prognostic performance of clinicopathological characteristics and miRNAs in a training set of 58 patients with invasive ductal TNBC diagnosed between 2002 and 2012. A prediction model was developed based on independent clinicopathological and miRNA covariates. The prognostic value of the model was further validated in a separate set of 41 TNBC patients diagnosed between 2007 and 2008. Results Only lymph node status was marginally significantly associated with poor prognosis of TNBC (P?=?0.054), whereas other clinicopathological factors, including age, tumor size, histological grade, lymphovascular invasion, P53 status, Ki-67 index, and type of surgery, were not. The expression levels of miR-27b-3p, miR-107, and miR-103a-3p were significantly elevated in the metastatic group compared with the disease-free group (P value: 0.008, 0.005, and 0.050, respectively). The Cox proportional hazards regression analysis revealed that lymph node status and miR-27b-3p were independent predictors of poor prognosis (P value: 0.012 and 0.027, respectively). A logistic regression model was developed based on these two independent covariates, and the prognostic value of the model was subsequently confirmed in a separate validation set. The two different risk groups, which were stratified according to the model, showed significant differences in the rates of distant metastasis and breast cancer-related death not only in the training set (P value: 0.001 and 0.040, respectively) but also in the validation set (P value: 0.013 and 0.012, respectively). Conclusion This model based on miRNA and node status covariates may be used to stratify TNBC patients into different prognostic subgroups for potentially individualized therapy. PMID:24945253

  8. Preoperative Plasma Fibrinogen Level Represents an Independent Prognostic Factor in a Chinese Cohort of Patients with Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Jie; Zhou, Li-Qun; He, Zhi-Song; Shen, Cheng; He, Qun; Li, Jun; Liu, Li-Bo; Wang, Cong; Chen, Xiao-Yu; Fan, Yu; Hu, Shuai; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Wei; Han, Wen-Ke

    2016-01-01

    Background Increased plasma fibrinogen is thought to contribute to tumor progression and metastasis. The association of plasma fibrinogen with clinicopathological characteristics, and the optimal cutoff with an ideal predictive value has not been fully determined in patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). We aimed to investigate the clinical significance of this parameter in a Chinese cohort of patients with UTUC. Methods A retrospective study was conducted to analyze the clinical data of 184 operable UTUC patients in a Chinese cohort with a high incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). An optimal cutoff was set for further analysis according to validated web-based software. The associations of plasma fibrinogen with clinicopathological characteristics and survival were assessed. Multivariate analyses were performed to determine the independent prognostic factors. Results Elevated plasma fibrinogen was significantly associated with tumor necrosis, lymph node involvement, and a higher preoperative CKD stage, pathological tumor stage and grade (all P < 0.05). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that plasma fibrinogen ≥ 3.54 g/L predicted a poorer overall and cancer-specific survival than < 3.54 g/L (P < 0.001 for both). Multivariate analyses revealed that elevated preoperative plasma fibrinogen was an independent negative prognostic factor for overall survival (HR = 2.026; 95% CI: 1.226–3.349; P = 0.006) and cancer-specific survival (HR = 1.886; 95% CI: 1.019–3.490; P = 0.043). Conclusions Increased plasma fibrinogen was an independent prognostic risk factor for poor outcomes in UTUC. This parameter may serve as an effective biomarker with easy accessibility for evaluating prognosis for patients with UTUC. PMID:26930207

  9. Ki-67 is a valuable prognostic factor in gliomas: evidence from a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Jie; He, De-Shen; Tang, Rui-Xue; Ren, Fang-Hui; Chen, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Ki-67 has been widely used as an indicator of cell proliferation in gliomas. However, the role of Ki-67 as a prognostic marker is still undefined. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis of the published literatures in order to clarify the impact of Ki-67 on survival in glioma cases. Eligible studies were identified in PubMed, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Science Direct and Wiley Online Library with the last search updated on August 31, 2014. The clinical characteristics, overall survival (OS) and progression- free survival (PFS) together with Ki-67 expression at different time points were extracted. A total of 51 studies, covering 4,307 patients, were included in the current meta-analysis. The results showed that overexpression of Ki-67 can predict poor OS (HR=1.66, 95%CI: 1.53-1.80; Z=11.87; p=0.000) and poor PFS (HR=1.67, 95%CI: 1.47-1.91; Z=7.67; p=0.000) in gliomas. Moreover, subgroup analyses also indicated that high level of Ki-67 expression was related to poor OS and PFS in glioma patients regardless of region, pathology type, cut-off value and statistical method. In conclusion, the current meta-analysis revealed that Ki-67 expression might be a predicative factor for poor prognosis of glioma patients, emphasizing its importance as a predictor. PMID:25684464

  10. Pooled analysis of the prognostic relevance of progesterone receptor status in five German cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Salmen, Jessica; Neugebauer, Julia; Fasching, Peter A; Haeberle, Lothar; Huober, Jens; Wckel, Achim; Rauh, Claudia; Schuetz, Florian; Weissenbacher, Tobias; Kost, Bernd; Stickeler, Elmar; Klar, Maximilian; Orlowska-Volk, Marzenna; Windfuhr-Blum, Marisa; Heil, Joerg; Rom, Joachim; Sohn, Christof; Fehm, Tanja; Mohrmann, Svjetlana; Loehberg, Christian R; Hein, Alexander; Schulz-Wendtland, Ruediger; Hartkopf, Andreas D; Brucker, Sara Y; Wallwiener, Diethelm; Friese, Klaus; Hartmann, Arndt; Beckmann, Matthias W; Janni, Wolfgang; Rack, Brigitte

    2014-11-01

    The progesterone receptor (PR) has been increasingly well described as an important mediator of the pathogenesis and progression of breast cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the role of PR status as a prognostic factor in addition to other well-established prognostic factors. Data from five independent German breast cancer centers were pooled. A total of 7,965 breast cancer patients were included for whom information about their PR status was known, as well as other patient and tumor characteristics commonly used as prognostic factors. Cox proportional hazards models were built to compare the predictive value of PR status in addition to age at diagnosis, tumor size, nodal status, grading, and estrogen receptor (ER) status. PR status significantly increased the accuracy of prognostic predictions with regard to overall survival, distant disease-free survival, and local recurrence-free survival. There were differences with regard to its prognostic value relative to subgroups such as nodal status, ER status, and grading. The prognostic value of PR status was greatest in patients with a positive nodal status, negative ER status, and low grading. The PR-status adds prognostic value in addition to ER status and should not be omitted from clinical routine testing. The significantly greater prognostic value in node-positive and high-grade tumors suggests a greater role in the progression of advanced and aggressive tumors. PMID:25253172

  11. Morphosyntax in Poor Comprehenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adlof, Suzanne M.; Catts, Hugh W.

    2015-01-01

    Children described as "poor comprehenders" (PCs) have reading comprehension difficulties in spite of adequate word reading abilities. PCs are known to display weakness with semantics and higher-level aspects of oral language, but less is known about their grammatical skills, especially with regard to morphosyntax. The purpose of this…

  12. Prognostic Value of Neutrophil-Related Factors in Locally Advanced Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients Treated with Cisplatin-Based Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan-Yang; Bai, Zhou-Lan; He, Jian-Li; Yang, Yan; Zhao, Ren; Hai, Ping; Zhe, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between neutrophil-related factors, including neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and the responses of neutrophil to granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (RNG), and the prognosis of patients with locally advanced cervical squamous cell carcinoma (LACSCC) undergoing cisplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCCRT). A total of sixty LACSCC patients were enrolled in this study. We analyzed the association of NLR or RNG with clinicopathologic characteristics of these patients. The prognostic factors were evaluated by univariate and multivariate survival analysis. The optimal cut-off value of the NLR was determined to be 2.0 for the overall survival (OS). A higher level of the NLR was associated with younger age (P = 0.017) and higher baseline platelet count (P = 0.040). NLR was identified to be the only independent prognostic factor for OS by multivariate analysis (P = 0.037). The median RNG was 3.01, with a range of 1.19–16.84. RNG level was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis of these patients (P = 0.023). And higher RNG was identified as being a closely independent poor prognostic factor for OS (P = 0.055). This study showed that NLR and RNG may be used as potential biomarkers for survival prediction in patients with LACSCC receiving CCCRT. PMID:27087737

  13. Factors prognosticating the outcome of decompressive craniectomy in severe traumatic brain injury: A Malaysian experience

    PubMed Central

    Sharda, Priya; Haspani, Saffari; Idris, Zamzuri

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this prospective cohort study was to analyse the characteristics of severe Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) in a regional trauma centre Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL) along with its impact of various prognostic factors post Decompressive Craniectomy (DC). Materials and Methods: Duration of the study was of 13 months in HKL. 110 consecutive patients undergoing DC and remained in our centre were recruited. They were then analysed categorically with standard analytical software. Results: Age group have highest range between 12-30 category with male preponderance. Common mechanism of injury was motor vehicle accident involving motorcyclist. Univariate analysis showed statistically significant in referral area (P = 0.006). In clinical evaluation statistically significant was the motor score (P = 0.040), pupillary state (P = 0.010), blood pressure stability (P = 0.013) and evidence of Diabetes Insipidus (P < 0.001). In biochemical status the significant statistics included evidence of coagulopathy (P < 0.001), evidence of acidosis (P = 0.003) and evidence of hypoxia (P = 0.030). In Radiological sector, significant univariate analysis proved in location of the subdural clot (P < 0.010), location of the contusion (P = 0.045), site of existence of both type of clots (P = 0.031) and the evidence of edema (P = 0.041). The timing of injury was noted to be significant as well (P = 0.061). In the post operative care was, there were significance in the overall stability in intensive care (P < 0.001), the stability of blood pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure, pulse rates and oxygen saturation (all P < 0.001)seen individually, post operative ICP monitoring in the immediate (P = 0.002), within 24 hours (P < 0.001) and within 24-48 hours (P < 0.001) period, along with post operative pupillary size (P < 0.001) and motor score (P < 0.001). Post operatively, radiologically significant statistics included evidence of midline shift post operatively in the CT scan (P < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression with stepwise likelihood ratio (LR) method concluded that hypoxia post operatively (P = 0.152), the unmaintained Cerebral Perfusion Pressure (CPP) (P = 0.007) and unstable blood pressure (BP) (P = <0.001). Poor outcome noted 10.2 times higher in post operative hypoxia [OR10.184; 95% CI: 0.424, 244.495]. Odds of having poor outcome if CPP unmaintained was 13.8 times higher [OR: 13.754; CI: 2.050, 92.301]. Highest predictor of poor outcome was the unstable BP, 32 times higher [OR 31.600; CI: 4.530, 220440]. Conclusion: Our series represent both urban and rural population, noted to be the largest series in severe TBI in this region. Severe head injury accounts for significant proportion of neurosurgical admissions, resources with its impact on socio-economic concerns to a growing population like Malaysia. This study concludes that the predictors of outcome in severe TBI post DC were postoperative hypoxia, unmaintained cerebral perfusion pressure and unstable blood pressure as independent predictors of poor outcome. Key words: Decompressive craniectomy, prognostication of decompressive craniectomy, prognostication of severe head injury, prognostication of traumatic brain injury, severe head injury, severe traumatic brain injury, traumatic brain injury. PMID:25685217

  14. Prognostic factors in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Braeckman, Johan; Michielsen, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    In the nineteenth century the main goal of medicine was predictive: diagnose the disease and achieve a satisfying prognosis of the patient's chances. Today the effort has shifted to cure the disease. Since the twentieth century, the word prognosis has also been used in nonmedical contexts, for example in corporate finance or elections. The most accurate form of prognosis is achieved statistically. Based on different prognostic factors it should be possible to tell patients how they are expected to do after prostate cancer has been diagnosed and how different treatments may change this outcome. A prognosis is a prediction. The word prognosis comes from the Greek word (see text) and means foreknowing. In the nineteenth century this was the main goal of medicine: diagnose the disease and achieve a satisfying prognosis of the patient's chances. Today the effort has shifted towards seeking a cure. Prognostic factors in (prostate) cancer are defined as "variables that can account for some of the heterogeneity associated with the expected course and outcome of a disease". Bailey defined prognosis as "a reasoned forecast concerning the course, pattern, progression, duration, and end of the disease. Prognostic factors are not only essential to understand the natural history and the course of the disease, but also to predict possible different outcomes of different treatments or perhaps no treatment at all. This is extremely important in a disease like prostate cancer where there is clear evidence that a substantial number of cases discovered by prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing are unlikely ever to become clinically significant, not to mention mortal. Furthermore, prognostic factors are of paramount importance for correct interpretation of clinical trials and for the construction of future trials. Finally, according to WHO national screening committee criteria for implementing a national screening programme, widely accepted prognostic factors must be defined before assessing screening. PMID:17432552

  15. Cytogenetic Prognostication Within Medulloblastoma Subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Shih, David J.H.; Northcott, Paul A.; Remke, Marc; Korshunov, Andrey; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Kool, Marcel; Luu, Betty; Yao, Yuan; Wang, Xin; Dubuc, Adrian M.; Garzia, Livia; Peacock, John; Mack, Stephen C.; Wu, Xiaochong; Rolider, Adi; Morrissy, A. Sorana; Cavalli, Florence M.G.; Jones, David T.W.; Zitterbart, Karel; Faria, Claudia C.; Schüller, Ulrich; Kren, Leos; Kumabe, Toshihiro; Tominaga, Teiji; Shin Ra, Young; Garami, Miklós; Hauser, Peter; Chan, Jennifer A.; Robinson, Shenandoah; Bognár, László; Klekner, Almos; Saad, Ali G.; Liau, Linda M.; Albrecht, Steffen; Fontebasso, Adam; Cinalli, Giuseppe; De Antonellis, Pasqualino; Zollo, Massimo; Cooper, Michael K.; Thompson, Reid C.; Bailey, Simon; Lindsey, Janet C.; Di Rocco, Concezio; Massimi, Luca; Michiels, Erna M.C.; Scherer, Stephen W.; Phillips, Joanna J.; Gupta, Nalin; Fan, Xing; Muraszko, Karin M.; Vibhakar, Rajeev; Eberhart, Charles G.; Fouladi, Maryam; Lach, Boleslaw; Jung, Shin; Wechsler-Reya, Robert J.; Fèvre-Montange, Michelle; Jouvet, Anne; Jabado, Nada; Pollack, Ian F.; Weiss, William A.; Lee, Ji-Yeoun; Cho, Byung-Kyu; Kim, Seung-Ki; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Leonard, Jeffrey R.; Rubin, Joshua B.; de Torres, Carmen; Lavarino, Cinzia; Mora, Jaume; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Tabori, Uri; Olson, James M.; Gajjar, Amar; Packer, Roger J.; Rutkowski, Stefan; Pomeroy, Scott L.; French, Pim J.; Kloosterhof, Nanne K.; Kros, Johan M.; Van Meir, Erwin G.; Clifford, Steven C.; Bourdeaut, Franck; Delattre, Olivier; Doz, François F.; Hawkins, Cynthia E.; Malkin, David; Grajkowska, Wieslawa A.; Perek-Polnik, Marta; Bouffet, Eric; Rutka, James T.; Pfister, Stefan M.; Taylor, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Medulloblastoma comprises four distinct molecular subgroups: WNT, SHH, Group 3, and Group 4. Current medulloblastoma protocols stratify patients based on clinical features: patient age, metastatic stage, extent of resection, and histologic variant. Stark prognostic and genetic differences among the four subgroups suggest that subgroup-specific molecular biomarkers could improve patient prognostication. Patients and Methods Molecular biomarkers were identified from a discovery set of 673 medulloblastomas from 43 cities around the world. Combined risk stratification models were designed based on clinical and cytogenetic biomarkers identified by multivariable Cox proportional hazards analyses. Identified biomarkers were tested using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) on a nonoverlapping medulloblastoma tissue microarray (n = 453), with subsequent validation of the risk stratification models. Results Subgroup information improves the predictive accuracy of a multivariable survival model compared with clinical biomarkers alone. Most previously published cytogenetic biomarkers are only prognostic within a single medulloblastoma subgroup. Profiling six FISH biomarkers (GLI2, MYC, chromosome 11 [chr11], chr14, 17p, and 17q) on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues, we can reliably and reproducibly identify very low-risk and very high-risk patients within SHH, Group 3, and Group 4 medulloblastomas. Conclusion Combining subgroup and cytogenetic biomarkers with established clinical biomarkers substantially improves patient prognostication, even in the context of heterogeneous clinical therapies. The prognostic significance of most molecular biomarkers is restricted to a specific subgroup. We have identified a small panel of cytogenetic biomarkers that reliably identifies very high-risk and very low-risk groups of patients, making it an excellent tool for selecting patients for therapy intensification and therapy de-escalation in future clinical trials. PMID:24493713

  16. Prognostic determinants in the management of prostatic cancer in Ife.

    PubMed

    Badejo, O A

    1991-01-01

    Sixty-two patients diagnosed as early and advanced cancer of the prostate gland were studied under three categories. The survival rate of those diagnosed early was 80% in the first five years while the overall survival rate in the series was 19.23%. The prognostic determinants in all categories while under therapy was, however, similar. The study confirmed that poor prognostic features were body weight of about 40 kg, haematocrit below 20%, Urea level of 10 mmol/lit and above, raised white cell count, raised erythrocytes sedimentation rate and total confinement to bed. The paper concluded that these findings, in a local pilot study, are of significance and sufficient value to merit further study and clinical evaluation. PMID:1923553

  17. Genetic prognostic markers in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Houlston, R S; Tomlinson, I P

    1997-01-01

    The contribution of molecular genetics to colorectal cancer has been restricted largely to relatively rare inherited tumours and to the detection of germline mutations predisposing to these cancers. However, much is now also known about somatic events leading to colorectal cancer. A number of studies has been undertaken examining possible relations between genetic features and prognostic indices. While many of these studies are small and inconclusive, it is clear that a number of different pathways exist for the development of this cancer and some molecular characteristics correlate with clinicopathological features. With the advent of methods for the rapid genotyping of large numbers of colorectal cancers, it should be possible to evaluate fully the clinical usefulness of colorectal cancer genotypes through multivariate analyses. PMID:9536276

  18. Sensor Systems for Prognostics and Health Management

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Shunfeng; Azarian, Michael H.; Pecht, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    Prognostics and health management (PHM) is an enabling discipline consisting of technologies and methods to assess the reliability of a product in its actual life cycle conditions to determine the advent of failure and mitigate system risk. Sensor systems are needed for PHM to monitor environmental, operational, and performance-related characteristics. The gathered data can be analyzed to assess product health and predict remaining life. In this paper, the considerations for sensor system selection for PHM applications, including the parameters to be measured, the performance needs, the electrical and physical attributes, reliability, and cost of the sensor system, are discussed. The state-of-the-art sensor systems for PHM and the emerging trends in technologies of sensor systems for PHM are presented. PMID:22219686

  19. Pretransplant Elevated Plasma Fibrinogen Level is a Novel Prognostic Predictor for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Recurrence and Patient Survival Following Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Ying; Jiang, Nan; Yi, Hui-Min; Wang, Gen-Shu; Zhang, Jian-Wen; Li, Hua; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Qi; Yang, Yang; Chen, Gui-Hua

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Elevated plasma fibrinogen is associated with tumour progression and poor outcomes in several cancers. The present study investigated the prognostic value of preoperative fibrinogen in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients after liver transplantation (LT). MATERIAL AND METHODS We analyzed the preoperative plasma fibrinogen levels of 41 patients who underwent LT for HCC. The cut-off value for elevated level of fibrinogen was determined by using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Cox regression analysis was performed to analyze the relationship between elevated fibrinogen level and HCC recurrence. The disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rate after transplantation were calculated by Kaplan-Meier method and compared by log-rank test. RESULTS The fibrinogen levels were significantly higher in patients with tumor recurrence (3.310.98 g/L) compared with those in patients without recurrence (2.390.89 g/L) (P<0.01). A cut-off value for elevated fibrinogen level of 2.675 g/L was defined. Cox regression analysis showed that the relative risk for tumor recurrence increased by 6.871 times for patients with elevated fibrinogen. Eleven patients in the elevated fibrinogen group (21 cases) developed recurrence, while only 2 in the normal fibrinogen group (20 cases) developed recurrence. There were significant differences in DFS and OS between the elevated fibrinogen group and normal fibrinogen group (5-year DFS and OS of 44.0% and 42.9% vs. 89.2% and 80.0%, respectively, P<0.05). Vascular invasion and fibrinogen level ?2.675 g/L were the independent prognostic predictors of tumor recurrence and poor outcome. CONCLUSIONS Pretransplant elevated fibrinogen levels are associated with tumor recurrence and poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma patients after liver transplantation. PMID:26903139

  20. Comparison of selected inflammation-based prognostic markers in relapsed or refractory metastatic colorectal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Song, Anna; Eo, Wankyu; Lee, Sookyung

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the impact of systemic inflammation-based prognostic markers on overall survival in relapsed/refractory metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients. METHODS: To investigate prognostic markers in mCRC patients, this study was performed with patients who have experienced relapsed/refractory mCRC with standard chemotherapy or were inapplicable to conventional treatment modality because of poor performance status, age, or comorbidity. We reviewed the medical records of 177 mCRC patients managed with Korean Medicine (KM) treatment modality using an anticancer agent of Rhus verniciflua Stokes extract from June 2006 to April 2013. The clinicopathologic characteristics, laboratory test, the systemic inflammation markers including the modified Glasgow prognostic score (mGPS), neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet lymphocyte ratio (PLR), lymphocyte monocyte ratio (LMR), and prognostic nutritional index (PNI) were analyzed. The overall survival of patients was calculated with the Kaplan-Meier method and the statistical significance was compared using with the log-rank test. To compare the impact of systemic inflammation based markers, the hazard ratio (HR) of mGPS, NLR, PLR, LMR, and PNI for overall survival were evaluated with the Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: The majority of mCRC patients had relapsed/refractory to standard chemotherapy; 128 patients (72.3%) had undergone more than second line chemotherapy, and the median time from diagnosis of mCRC to initiation of KM was 9.4 mo. The median overall survival of enrolled patients was 8.3 mo. On univariate analyses, the inflammation markers of higher mGPS (P < 0.001), NLR ≥ 5 (P < 0.001), PLR > 300 (P = 0.004), LMR ≤ 3.4 (P < 0.001), and PNI ≤ 45.3 (P = 0.001) were significantly associated with decreased survival time. On stepwise multivariate proportional hazards model, mGPS at 2 vs 0 (HR = 3.212, 95%CI: 1.437-7.716, P = 0.004), and LMR ≤ 3.4 (HR = 1.658, 95%CI: 1.092-2.518, P = 0.018) as independent predictors associated with poor overall survival along with carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (HR = 1.482, 95%CI: 1.007-2.182, P = 0.046), AST ≥ 40 (HR = 2.377, 95%CI: 1.359-4.155, P = 0.002), and the treatment duration for KM less than 2.9 mo (HR = 1.718, 95%CI: 1.160-2.543, P = 0.007). CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the inflammatory markers, mGPS and LMR are independent prognostic factors for predicting overall survival in relapsed/refractory mCRC patients. PMID:26604648

  1. Systematic review of multivariable prognostic models for mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Silverberg, Noah D; Gardner, Andrew J; Brubacher, Jeffrey R; Panenka, William J; Li, Jun Jian; Iverson, Grant L

    2015-04-15

    Prognostic models can guide clinical management and increase statistical power in clinical trials. The availability and adequacy of prognostic models for mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is uncertain. The present study aimed to (1) identify and evaluate multivariable prognostic models for MTBI, and (2) determine which pre-, peri-, and early post-injury variables have independent prognostic value in the context of multivariable models. An electronic search of MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, EMBASE, and CINAHL databases for English-language MTBI cohort studies from 1970-2013 was supplemented by Web of Science citation and hand searching. This search strategy identified 7789 articles after removing duplicates. Of 182 full-text articles reviewed, 26 met eligibility criteria including (1) prospective inception cohort design, (2) prognostic information collected within 1 month post-injury, and (3) 2+variables combined to predict clinical outcome (e.g., post-concussion syndrome) at least 1 month later. Independent reviewers extracted sample characteristics, study design features, clinical outcome variables, predictor selection methods, and prognostic model discrimination, calibration, and cross-validation. These data elements were synthesized qualitatively. The present review found no multivariable prognostic model that adequately predicts individual patient outcomes from MTBI. Suboptimal methodology limits their reproducibility and clinical usefulness. The most robust prognostic factors in the context of multivariable models were pre-injury mental health and early post-injury neuropsychological functioning. Women and adults with early post-injury anxiety also have worse prognoses. Relative to these factors, the severity of MTBI had little long-term prognostic value. Future prognostic studies should consider a broad range of biopsychosocial predictors in large inception cohorts. PMID:25222514

  2. Prognostic factors and risk stratification in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Sameer A; Shanafelt, Tait D

    2016-04-01

    There is considerable heterogeneity in the clinical outcome of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). While some patients live for decades without any therapy, others die within years of diagnosis despite multiple treatments. To better counsel newly diagnosed CLL patients about their disease course, the Rai and Binet staging systems were developed four decades ago. A deeper understanding of the biologic and molecular aberrations contributing to the pathogenesis of CLL led to identification of novel prognostic markers such as immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable gene (IGHV) mutation status, leukemia-cell expression of CD38, ZAP-70, and CD49d, and cytogenetic abnormalities detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). The advent of next-generation sequencing has provided unprecedented insights into the subclonal architecture of CLL and its impact on disease progression and survival. More recently, integrated prognostic scoring systems that incorporate clinical, biologic and genetic characteristics into a single risk score have been developed and appear to improve the accuracy of prognostication for individual patients. This review summarizes the state-of-the-art prognostic factors and will guide the practicing clinician in their care of patients with CLL. PMID:27040701

  3. Towards Prognostics for Electronics Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Bhaskar; Celaya, Jose R.; Wysocki, Philip F.; Goebel, Kai F.

    2013-01-01

    Electronics components have an increasingly critical role in avionics systems and in the development of future aircraft systems. Prognostics of such components is becoming a very important research field as a result of the need to provide aircraft systems with system level health management information. This paper focuses on a prognostics application for electronics components within avionics systems, and in particular its application to an Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT). This application utilizes the remaining useful life prediction, accomplished by employing the particle filter framework, leveraging data from accelerated aging tests on IGBTs. These tests induced thermal-electrical overstresses by applying thermal cycling to the IGBT devices. In-situ state monitoring, including measurements of steady-state voltages and currents, electrical transients, and thermal transients are recorded and used as potential precursors of failure.

  4. Prognostic Value of Plasma Intermedin Level in Patients With Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pengyang; Shi, Lin; Han, Yalei; Zhao, Yuntao; Qi, Yongfen; Wang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Intermedin (IMD), an autocrine/paracrine biologically active peptide, plays a critical role in maintaining vascular homeostasis. Recent research has shown that high plasma levels of IMD are associated with poor outcomes for patients with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction. However, the prognostic utility of IMD levels in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) has not yet been investigated. We hypothesized that the level of plasma IMD would have prognostic value in patients with NSTE-ACS. Plasma IMD was determined by radioimmunoassay in 132 NSTE-ACS patients on admission to hospital and 132 sex- and age-matched healthy-control subjects. Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs), including death, heart failure, hospitalization, and acute myocardial infarction, were noted during follow-up. In total, 23 patients suffered MACEs during the follow-up period (mean 227 ± 118 days, range 2–421 days). Median IMD levels were higher in NSTE-ACS patients than control [320.0 (250.9/384.6) vs. 227.2 (179.7/286.9) pg/mL, P <0.001]. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for IMD and N-terminal pro-B-type brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) did not significantly differ (0.73 and 0.79, both P <0.001, respectively; P = 0.946). ROC curve analysis revealed a cut-off value for IMD at 340.7 pg/mL. Cox regression analysis with cardiovascular risk variables and NT-proBNP showed that the risk of MACEs increased by a factor of 12.96 (95% CI, 3.26–49.42; P <0.001) with high IMD levels (at the cut-off value). IMD has potential as a prognostic biomarker for predicting MACEs in patients with NSTE-ACS. PMID:27100434

  5. Expression of cluster of differentiation 34 and vascular endothelial growth factor in breast cancer, and their prognostic significance

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, ZHANHONG; XU, SHENHUA; XU, WEIZHEN; HUANG, JIAN; ZHANG, GU; LEI, LEI; SHAO, XIYING; WANG, XIAOJIA

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the immunohistochemical expression of cluster of differentiation (CD) 34 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in breast cancer tissue, and their prognostic significance. High CD34 expression levels (microvessel density, >15/HPF) were identified in 27.3% (12/44) of cases, exhibiting no significant correlation with the clinicopathological characteristics of the patients. However, Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that the survival time of patients with high CD34 expression was significantly shorter than that of patients with low CD34 expression (50.0 vs. 90.6%; P=0.003). Samples with high VEGF expression levels (++ or +++) accounted for 63.6% (28/44) of the total number of cases. High VEGF expression was significantly prevalent in patients aged ≥50 years compared with patients aged <50 years (≤78.6 vs. 37.5%; P=0.006). Furthermore, all patients with vascular invasion exhibited high VEGF expression levels; thus, patients with vascular invasion presented with significantly higher VEGF expression rates compared with patients with no vascular invasion (100.0 vs. 55.6%; P=0.018). However, Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that high VEGF expression was not correlated with the overall survival of the patients (P=0.366). By contrast, Cox multivariate analysis identified that clinical stage, triple-negative subtype and age were independent prognostic factors for patients with breast cancer (P=0.005, P=0.006 and P=0.032, respectively), and that CD34 expression was a potential independent prognostic factor (P=0.055). Therefore, the present study determined that for patients with breast cancer, a high level of CD34 expression may be a potential indicator of a poor prognosis. PMID:26622560

  6. Prognostic Value of Plasma Intermedin Level in Patients With Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengyang; Shi, Lin; Han, Yalei; Zhao, Yuntao; Qi, Yongfen; Wang, Bin

    2016-04-01

    Intermedin (IMD), an autocrine/paracrine biologically active peptide, plays a critical role in maintaining vascular homeostasis. Recent research has shown that high plasma levels of IMD are associated with poor outcomes for patients with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction. However, the prognostic utility of IMD levels in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) has not yet been investigated. We hypothesized that the level of plasma IMD would have prognostic value in patients with NSTE-ACS.Plasma IMD was determined by radioimmunoassay in 132 NSTE-ACS patients on admission to hospital and 132 sex- and age-matched healthy-control subjects. Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs), including death, heart failure, hospitalization, and acute myocardial infarction, were noted during follow-up. In total, 23 patients suffered MACEs during the follow-up period (mean 227 ± 118 days, range 2-421 days). Median IMD levels were higher in NSTE-ACS patients than control [320.0 (250.9/384.6) vs. 227.2 (179.7/286.9) pg/mL, P <0.001]. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for IMD and N-terminal pro-B-type brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) did not significantly differ (0.73 and 0.79, both P <0.001, respectively; P = 0.946). ROC curve analysis revealed a cut-off value for IMD at 340.7 pg/mL. Cox regression analysis with cardiovascular risk variables and NT-proBNP showed that the risk of MACEs increased by a factor of 12.96 (95% CI, 3.26-49.42; P <0.001) with high IMD levels (at the cut-off value).IMD has potential as a prognostic biomarker for predicting MACEs in patients with NSTE-ACS. PMID:27100434

  7. Clinical Significance of the Prognostic Nutritional Index for Predicting Short- and Long-Term Surgical Outcomes After Gastrectomy: A Retrospective Analysis of 7781 Gastric Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jee Youn; Kim, Hyoung-Il; Kim, You-Na; Hong, Jung Hwa; Alshomimi, Saeed; An, Ji Yeong; Cheong, Jae-Ho; Hyung, Woo Jin; Noh, Sung Hoon; Kim, Choong-Bai

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the predictive and prognostic significance of the prognostic nutritional index (PNI) in a large cohort of gastric cancer patients who underwent gastrectomy.Assessing a patient's immune and nutritional status, PNI has been reported as a predictive marker for surgical outcomes in various types of cancer.We retrospectively reviewed data from a prospectively maintained database of 7781 gastric cancer patients who underwent gastrectomy from January 2001 to December 2010 at a single center. From this data, we analyzed clinicopathologic characteristics, PNI, and short- and long-term surgical outcomes for each patient. We used the PNI value for the 10th percentile (46.70) of the study cohort as a cut-off for dividing patients into low and high PNI groups.Regarding short-term outcomes, multivariate analysis showed a low PNI (odds ratio [OR] = 1.505, 95% CI = 1.212-1.869, P <0.001), old age, male sex, high body mass index, medical comorbidity, total gastrectomy, and combined resection to be independent predictors of postoperative complications. Among these, only low PNI (OR = 4.279, 95% CI = 1.760-10.404, P = 0.001) and medical comorbidity were independent predictors of postoperative mortality. For long-term outcomes, low PNI was a poor prognostic factor for overall survival, but not recurrence (overall survival: hazard ratio [HR] = 1.383, 95% CI = 1.221-1.568, P < 0.001; recurrence-free survival: HR = 1.142, 95% CI = 0.985-1.325, P = 0.078).PNI can be used to predict patients at increased risk of postoperative morbidity and mortality. Although PNI was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival, the index was not associated with cancer recurrence. PMID:27149460

  8. Usefulness of Midregional Proadrenomedullin to Predict Poor Outcome in Patients with Community Acquired Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Gordo-Remartínez, Susana; Sevillano-Fernández, José A.; Álvarez-Sala, Luis A.; Andueza-Lillo, Juan A.; de Miguel-Yanes, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Background midregional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) is a prognostic biomarker in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We sought to confirm whether MR-proADM added to Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI) improves the potential prognostic value of PSI alone, and tested to what extent this combination could be useful in predicting poor outcome of patients with CAP in an Emergency Department (ED). Methods Consecutive patients diagnosed with CAP were enrolled in this prospective, single-centre, observational study. We analyzed the ability of MR-proADM added to PSI to predict poor outcome using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, logistic regression and risk reclassification and comparing it with the ability of PSI alone. The primary outcome was “poor outcome”, defined as the incidence of an adverse event (ICU admission, hospital readmission, or mortality at 30 days after CAP diagnosis). Results 226 patients were included; 33 patients (14.6%) reached primary outcome. To predict primary outcome the highest area under curve (AUC) was found for PSI (0.74 [0.64-0.85]), which was not significantly higher than for MR-proADM (AUC 0.72 [0.63-0.81, p > 0.05]). The combination of PSI and MR-proADM failed to improve the predictive potential of PSI alone (AUC 0.75 [0.65-0.85, p=0.56]). Ten patients were appropriately reclassified when the combined PSI and MR-proADM model was used as compared with the model of PSI alone. Net reclassification improvement (NRI) index was statistically significant (7.69%, p = 0.03) with an improvement percentage of 3.03% (p = 0.32) for adverse event, and 4.66% (P = 0.02) for no adverse event. Conclusion MR-proADM in combination with PSI may be helpful in individual risk stratification for short-term poor outcome of CAP patients, allowing a better reclassification of patients compared with PSI alone. PMID:26030588

  9. αB-Crystallin is a novel oncoprotein that predicts poor clinical outcome in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Moyano, Jose V.; Evans, Joseph R.; Chen, Feng; Lu, Meiling; Werner, Michael E.; Yehiely, Fruma; Diaz, Leslie K.; Turbin, Dmitry; Karaca, Gamze; Wiley, Elizabeth; Nielsen, Torsten O.; Perou, Charles M.; Cryns, Vincent L.

    2006-01-01

    Recent gene profiling studies have identified a new breast cancer subtype, the basal-like group, which expresses genes characteristic of basal epithelial cells and is associated with poor clinical outcomes. However, the genes responsible for the aggressive behavior observed in this group are largely unknown. Here we report that the small heat shock protein α-basic–crystallin (αB-crystallin) was commonly expressed in basal-like tumors and predicted poor survival in breast cancer patients independently of other prognostic markers. We also demonstrate that overexpression of αB-crystallin transformed immortalized human mammary epithelial cells (MECs). In 3D basement membrane culture, αB-crystallin overexpression induced luminal filling and other neoplastic-like changes in mammary acini, while silencing αB-crystallin by RNA interference inhibited these abnormalities. αB-Crystallin overexpression also induced EGF- and anchorage-independent growth, increased cell migration and invasion, and constitutively activated the MAPK kinase/ERK (MEK/ERK) pathway. Moreover, the transformed phenotype conferred by αB-crystallin was suppressed by MEK inhibitors. In addition, immortalized human MECs overexpressing αB-crystallin formed invasive mammary carcinomas in nude mice that recapitulated aspects of human basal-like breast tumors. Collectively, our results indicate that αB-crystallin is a novel oncoprotein expressed in basal-like breast carcinomas that independently predicts shorter survival. Our data also implicate the MEK/ERK pathway as a potential therapeutic target for these tumors. PMID:16395408

  10. AlphaB-crystallin is a novel oncoprotein that predicts poor clinical outcome in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Moyano, Jose V; Evans, Joseph R; Chen, Feng; Lu, Meiling; Werner, Michael E; Yehiely, Fruma; Diaz, Leslie K; Turbin, Dmitry; Karaca, Gamze; Wiley, Elizabeth; Nielsen, Torsten O; Perou, Charles M; Cryns, Vincent L

    2006-01-01

    Recent gene profiling studies have identified a new breast cancer subtype, the basal-like group, which expresses genes characteristic of basal epithelial cells and is associated with poor clinical outcomes. However, the genes responsible for the aggressive behavior observed in this group are largely unknown. Here we report that the small heat shock protein alpha-basic-crystallin (alphaB-crystallin) was commonly expressed in basal-like tumors and predicted poor survival in breast cancer patients independently of other prognostic markers. We also demonstrate that overexpression of alphaB-crystallin transformed immortalized human mammary epithelial cells (MECs). In 3D basement membrane culture, alphaB-crystallin overexpression induced luminal filling and other neoplastic-like changes in mammary acini, while silencing alphaB-crystallin by RNA interference inhibited these abnormalities. alphaB-Crystallin overexpression also induced EGF- and anchorage-independent growth, increased cell migration and invasion, and constitutively activated the MAPK kinase/ERK (MEK/ERK) pathway. Moreover, the transformed phenotype conferred by alphaB-crystallin was suppressed by MEK inhibitors. In addition, immortalized human MECs overexpressing alphaB-crystallin formed invasive mammary carcinomas in nude mice that recapitulated aspects of human basal-like breast tumors. Collectively, our results indicate that alphaB-crystallin is a novel oncoprotein expressed in basal-like breast carcinomas that independently predicts shorter survival. Our data also implicate the MEK/ERK pathway as a potential therapeutic target for these tumors. PMID:16395408

  11. Tumor suppressor p53 protein expression: prognostic significance in patients with low-risk myelodysplastic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Fernando Barroso; Gonçalves, Romelia Pinheiro; Barbosa, Maritza Cavalcante; Rocha Filho, Francisco Dário; de Jesus dos Santos, Talyta Ellen; dos Santos, Thayna Nogueira; de Vasconcelos, Paulo Roberto Leitão

    2014-01-01

    Background At the time of diagnosis, more than 50% of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome have a normal karyotype and are classified as having a favorable prognosis. However, these patients often show very variable clinical outcomes. Furthermore, current diagnostic tools lack the ability to look at genetic factors beyond karyotyping in order to determine the cause of this variability. Objective To evaluate the impact of p53 protein expression at diagnosis in patients with low-risk myelodysplastic syndrome. Methods This study enrolled 38 patients diagnosed with low-risk myelodysplastic syndrome. Clinical data were collected by reviewing medical records, and immunohistochemical p53 staining was performed on bone marrow biopsies. Results Of the 38 participants, 13 (34.21%) showed p53 expression in their bone marrow. At diagnosis, this group of patients also presented clinical features characteristic of a poor prognosis more often than patients who did not express p53. Furthermore, patients expressing p53 had a shorter median survival time compared to those without p53 expression. Conclusion This study shows that the expression of p53 at diagnosis is a useful indicator of distinct clinical characteristics and laboratory profiles found in low-risk myelodysplastic syndrome patients. These data indicate that the immunohistochemical analysis of p53 may be a prognostic tool for myelodysplastic syndrome and should be used as an auxiliary test to help determine the best therapeutic choice. PMID:25031059

  12. Prognostic models in coronary artery disease: Cox and network approaches.

    PubMed

    Mora, Antonio; Sicari, Rosa; Cortigiani, Lauro; Carpeggiani, Clara; Picano, Eugenio; Capobianco, Enrico

    2015-02-01

    Predictive assessment of the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases is usually provided by computational approaches centred on Cox models. The complex interdependence structure underlying clinical data patterns can limit the performance of Cox analysis and complicate the interpretation of results, thus calling for complementary and integrative methods. Prognostic models are proposed for studying the risk associated with patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing vasodilator stress echocardiography, an established technique for CAD detection and prognostication. In order to complement standard Cox models, network inference is considered a possible solution to quantify the complex relationships between heterogeneous data categories. In particular, a mutual information network is designed to explore the paths linking patient-associated variables to endpoint events, to reveal prognostic factors and to identify the best possible predictors of death. Data from a prospective, multicentre, observational study are available from a previous study, based on 4313 patients (2532 men; 64±11 years) with known (n=1547) or suspected (n=2766) CAD, who underwent high-dose dipyridamole (0.84 mg kg(-1) over 6 min) stress echocardiography with coronary flow reserve (CFR) evaluation of left anterior descending (LAD) artery by Doppler. The overall mortality was the only endpoint analysed by Cox models. The estimated connectivity between clinical variables assigns a complementary value to the proposed network approach in relation to the established Cox model, for instance revealing connectivity paths. Depending on the use of multiple metrics, the constraints of regression analysis in measuring the association strength among clinical variables can be relaxed, and identification of communities and prognostic paths can be provided. On the basis of evidence from various model comparisons, we show in this CAD study that there may be characteristic factors involved in prognostic stratification whose complexity suggests an exploration beyond the analysis provided by the still fundamental Cox approach. PMID:26064595

  13. Prognostic models in coronary artery disease: Cox and network approaches

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Antonio; Sicari, Rosa; Cortigiani, Lauro; Carpeggiani, Clara; Picano, Eugenio; Capobianco, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Predictive assessment of the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases is usually provided by computational approaches centred on Cox models. The complex interdependence structure underlying clinical data patterns can limit the performance of Cox analysis and complicate the interpretation of results, thus calling for complementary and integrative methods. Prognostic models are proposed for studying the risk associated with patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing vasodilator stress echocardiography, an established technique for CAD detection and prognostication. In order to complement standard Cox models, network inference is considered a possible solution to quantify the complex relationships between heterogeneous data categories. In particular, a mutual information network is designed to explore the paths linking patient-associated variables to endpoint events, to reveal prognostic factors and to identify the best possible predictors of death. Data from a prospective, multicentre, observational study are available from a previous study, based on 4313 patients (2532 men; 64±11 years) with known (n=1547) or suspected (n=2766) CAD, who underwent high-dose dipyridamole (0.84 mg kg−1 over 6 min) stress echocardiography with coronary flow reserve (CFR) evaluation of left anterior descending (LAD) artery by Doppler. The overall mortality was the only endpoint analysed by Cox models. The estimated connectivity between clinical variables assigns a complementary value to the proposed network approach in relation to the established Cox model, for instance revealing connectivity paths. Depending on the use of multiple metrics, the constraints of regression analysis in measuring the association strength among clinical variables can be relaxed, and identification of communities and prognostic paths can be provided. On the basis of evidence from various model comparisons, we show in this CAD study that there may be characteristic factors involved in prognostic stratification whose complexity suggests an exploration beyond the analysis provided by the still fundamental Cox approach. PMID:26064595

  14. Periodic acid-Schiff-positive loops and networks as a prognostic factor in oral mucosal melanoma.

    PubMed

    Song, Hao; Jing, Guangping; Wang, Lizhen; Guo, Wei; Ren, Guoxin

    2016-04-01

    The prognostic factors of oral mucosal melanoma (OMM), a rare and aggressive neoplasm, remain to be determined. The aim of this study is to investigate the prognostic significance of vasculogenic mimicry in OMM. The clinical data of 62 patients with primary OMM treated in Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital from April 2007 to April 2012 were retrieved and analyzed retrospectively. Staining of periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and CD31 immunohistochemistry were performed to evaluate the prognostic value of PAS-positive patterns, blood lakes, and microvascular density. PAS-positive loops and networks (P<0.001) as well as blood lakes (P=0.040) were found to be predictors of overall survival (OS). The presence of PAS-positive loops and networks was an independent prognostic factor of poor OS in multivariate analysis (P=0.002). Although the presence of PAS-positive loops and networks was associated with hematogenous metastasis (P=0.041) and lymphogenous metastasis (P=0.041), it was not an independent predictor of both types of metastasis in multivariate analysis. Microvascular density was not associated with OS (P=0.627) and metastasis of OMM patients. PAS-positive loops and networks have a significant prognostic value in OMM. Detection of PAS-positive patterns may lead to better staging and serve as a prognostic parameter of OMM. PMID:26636907

  15. Prognostic role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha expression in osteosarcoma: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Hai-Yong; Zhang, Yin-Hua; Li, Heng-Yuan; Xie, Tao; Sun, Ling-Ling; Zhu, Ting; Wang, Sheng-Dong; Ye, Zhao-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) plays an important role in tumor progression and metastasis. A number of studies have investigated the association of HIF-1α with prognosis and clinicopathological characteristics of osteosarcoma but yielded inconsistent results. Method Systematic computerized searches were performed in PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases for relevant original articles. The pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to assess the prognostic value of HIF-1α expression. The standard mean difference was used to analyze the continuous variable. Results Finally, nine studies comprising 486 patients were subjected to final analysis. Protein expression level of HIF-1α was found to be significantly related to overall survival (HR =3.0; 95% CI: 1.46–6.15), disease-free survival (HR =2.23; 95% CI: 1.26–3.92), pathologic grade (OR =21.33; 95% CI: 4.60–98.88), tumor stage (OR =10.29; 95% CI: 3.55–29.82), chemotherapy response (OR =9.68; 95% CI: 1.87–50.18), metastasis (OR =5.06; 95% CI: 2.87–8.92), and microvessel density (standard mean difference =2.83; 95% CI: 2.28–3.39). Conclusion This meta-analysis revealed that overexpression of HIF-1α is a predictive factor of poor outcomes for osteosarcoma. HIF-1α appeared to play an important role in prognostic evaluation and may be a potential target in antitumoral therapy. PMID:27042116

  16. Prognostic Factors of Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Spontaneous Thalamic Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Hoon; Park, Kyung-Jae; Kang, Shin-Hyuk; Jung, Yong-Gu; Park, Jung-Yul; Park, Dong-Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Background Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a well-known condition, but ICH restricted to the thalamus is less widely studied. We investigated the prognostic factors of thalamic ICHs. Material/Methods Seventy patients from January 2009 to November 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients who demonstrated spontaneous ICH primarily affecting the thalamus on initial brain computed tomography (CT) were enrolled. Patients were categorized into 2 groups based on their Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) scores. Various presumptive prognostic factors were analyzed to investigate relationships between various clinical characteristics and outcomes. Results Of the enrolled patients, 39 showed a GOS of 4–5, and were categorized as the good outcome group, while another 31 patients showed a GOS of 1–3 and were categorized as the poor outcome group. Initial GCS score, calculated volume of hematoma, presence of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), coexisting complications, hydrocephalus, performance of external ventricular drainage, and modified Graeb’s scores of patients with IVH were significantly different between the 2 groups. In multivariate analysis, among the factors above, initial GCS score (P=0.002, Odds ratio [OR]=1.761, Confidence interval [CI]=1.223–2.536) and the existence of systemic complications (P=0.015, OR=0.059, CI=0.006–0.573) were independently associated with clinical outcomes. Calculated hematoma volume showed a borderline relationship with outcomes (P=0.079, OR=0.920, CI=0.839–1.010). Conclusions Initial GCS score and the existence of systemic complications were strong predictive factors for prognosis of thalamic ICH. Calculated hematoma volume also had predictive value for clinical outcomes. PMID:26343784

  17. Prognostic Significance of Preoperative Albumin-Globulin Ratio in Patients with Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Li-Qun; He, Zhi-Song; Shen, Cheng; He, Qun; Li, Jun; Liu, Li-Bo; Wang, Cong; Chen, Xiao-Yu; Fan, Yu; Hu, Shuai; Zhang, Lei; Han, Wen-Ke; Jin, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Background Preoperative albumin-globulin ratio (AGR) reflects both malnutrition and systemic inflammation in cancer patients. In particular, systemic inflammation has been reported to contribute to tumor progression and poor oncological outcome in various malignancies. However, the prognostic value of preoperative AGR in upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) has not been examined. Methods We retrospectively reviewed medical data of 187 operable UTUC patients in a Chinese cohort with a high incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). AGR was calculated as [AGR = albumin/(serum total protein—albumin)]. The associations of preoperative AGR with clinicopathologic characteristics and prognosis were assessed. Multivariate analyses using Cox regression models were performed to determine the independent prognostic factors. Results The median (IQR) preoperative AGR was 1.50 (1.30–1.70), and the optimal cutoff value was determined to be 1.45 according to the receiver operating curve analysis. Low AGR was significantly associated with female gender, high CKD stage and tumor grade (P < 0.05). Eighty-three patients died before the follow-up endpoint. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that an AGR < 1.45 predicted significantly poorer overall and cancer-specific survivals compared to an AGR ≥ 1.45 (P < 0.001 and P = 0.008, respectively). Multivariate analyses showed that an AGR < 1.45 was an independent risk factor for poorer overall and cancer-specific survivals (P = 0.002 and P = 0.015, respectively). Conclusions Preoperative AGR can act as an effective biomarker with easy accessibility for evaluating the prognosis of patients with UTUC. AGR should be applied in UTUC patients for risk stratification and determination of optimal therapeutic regimens. PMID:26681341

  18. Platelet to lymphocyte ratio as a novel prognostic tool for gallbladder carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Qing; Zhang, Ling-Qiang; Wang, Rui-Tao; Bi, Jian-Bin; Zhang, Jing-Yao; Qu, Kai; Liu, Su-Shun; Song, Si-Dong; Xu, Xin-Sen; Wang, Zhi-Xin; Liu, Chang

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To preliminarily investigate the prognostic significance of the platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in patients with gallbladder carcinoma (GBC). METHODS: Clinical data of 316 surgical GBC patients were analyzed retrospectively, and preoperative serum platelet and lymphocyte counts were used to calculate the PLR. The optimal cut-off value of the PLR for detecting death was determined by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The primary outcome was overall survival, which was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. The log-rank test was used to compare the differences in survival. Then, we conducted multivariate Cox analysis to assess the independent effect of the PLR on the survival of GBC patients. RESULTS: For the PLR, the area under the ROC curve was 0.620 (95%CI: 0.542-0.698, P = 0.040) in detecting death. The cut-off value for the PLR was determined to be 117.7, with 73.6% sensitivity and 53.2% specificity. The PLR was found to be significantly positively correlated with CA125 serum level, tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage, and tumor differentiation. Univariate analysis identified carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CA125 and CA199 levels, PLR, TNM stage, and the degree of differentiation as significant prognostic factors for GBC when they were expressed as binary data. Multivariate analysis showed that CA125 > 35 U/mL, CA199 > 39 U/mL, PLR ≥ 117.7, and TNM stage IV were independently associated with poor survival in GBC. When expressed as a continuous variable, the PLR was still an independent predictor for survival, with a hazard ratio of 1.018 (95%CI: 1.001-1.037 per 10-unit increase, P = 0.043). CONCLUSION: The PLR could be used as a simple, inexpensive, and valuable tool for predicting the prognosis of GBC patients. PMID:26074706

  19. Modifiable Prognostic Factors of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Patients with Non-Surgical Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Jen-Hao; Hung, Chao-Hung; Wang, Jing-Houng; Chen, Chien-Hung; Kee, Kwong-Ming; Kuo, Chung-Mou; Yen, Yi-Hao; Cheng, Yu-Fan; Chen, Yen-Yang; Hsu, Hsuan-Chi; Lu, Sheng-Nan

    2015-01-01

    Background & aims Current hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) staging systems only use baseline characteristics to predict outcome. We aimed to explore modifiable factors of the prognosis in HCC cases had undergone non-surgical treatment. Methods All HCC cases in Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial hospital in southern Taiwan from 2002 to 2012 must met all below criteria: (1) met international diagnostic guidelines, (2) underwent the initial treatments in our hospital (3) treated by non-surgical treatment modalities and (4) survived more than two years, with follow-up time longer than five years. Results A total 698 patients were enrolled: 451 (24.6%, group A) survivied between 2 to 5 years, and 247 (13.5%, group B) had survived > 5 years. Aside from liver function reserve and BCLC stages, four interventional factors: initial treatment modality, outcomes of 1st or 2nd treatment, and anti-viral therapy to chronic viral hepatitis were associated with prognosis. After propensity score matching, multiple logistic regression of 223 well-matched pairs showed that recurrence within one year after 1st treatment (OR: 2.17, 95% CI: 1.35–3.48), incomplete 2nd treatment (2.01, 1.27–3.17) and absence of anti-viral agents (1.68, 1.09–2.59) were independent poor prognostic factors. Conclusion Complete treatment and anti-viral agents to chronic hepatitis were both independent modifiable prognostic factors of HCC patients had undergone non-surgical treatment. Based on these findings, timely treatment to achieve maximal locoregional control and anti-viral treatment should be provided as possible. PMID:26661388

  20. Oncogenic Wnt3a expression as an estimable prognostic marker for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Liu-Hong; Yao, Min; Cai, Yin; Gu, Juan-Juan; Yang, Xu-Li; Wang, Li; Yao, Deng-Fu

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate member 3a of Wingless-type MMTV integration site family (Wnt3a) expression in cancerous and surrounding tissues and the relationship between clinicopathologic features of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and Wnt3a expression. METHODS: Wnt3a expression and cellular distribution and clinicopathologic characteristics in cancerous tissue and matched surrounding tissues were analyzed in 80 HCC patients from January 2006 to August 2008 by tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry. The overall and disease-free survival rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with the log-rank test. The prognostic analysis was carried out with univariate and multivariate Cox regressions models. RESULTS: The incidence of oncogenic Wnt3a expression in the cancerous group was up to 96.25% (77 of 80), which was significantly higher (χ2 = 48.818, P < 0.001) than that in the surrounding group (46.25%, 37 of 80). Brown Wnt3a staining gradually increased with clinical staging that showed very strong staining in advanced HCC. The clinicopathologic features of high Wnt3a expression in HCC were related to poorly-differentiated grade (χ2 = 20.211, P < 0.001), liver cirrhosis (χ2 = 8.467, P < 0.004), hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (χ2 = 12.957, P < 0.001), higher tumor-node-metastasis stage (χ2 = 22.960, P < 0.001), and 5-year survival rate (χ2 = 15.469, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Oncogenic Wnt3a expression associated with HBV infection and cirrhotic liver might be an independent prognostic factor for HCC. PMID:27076768

  1. Identification of common prognostic gene expression signatures with biological meanings from microarray gene expression datasets.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jun; Zhao, Qi; Yuan, Ying; Zhang, Li; Liu, Xiaoming; Yung, W K Alfred; Weinstein, John N

    2012-01-01

    Numerous prognostic gene expression signatures for breast cancer were generated previously with few overlap and limited insight into the biology of the disease. Here we introduce a novel algorithm named SCoR (Survival analysis using Cox proportional hazard regression and Random resampling) to apply random resampling and clustering methods in identifying gene features correlated with time to event data. This is shown to reduce overfitting noises involved in microarray data analysis and discover functional gene sets linked to patient survival. SCoR independently identified a common poor prognostic signature composed of cell proliferation genes from six out of eight breast cancer datasets. Furthermore, a sequential SCoR analysis on highly proliferative breast cancers repeatedly identified T/B cell markers as favorable prognosis factors. In glioblastoma, SCoR identified a common good prognostic signature of chromosome 10 genes from two gene expression datasets (TCGA and REMBRANDT), recapitulating the fact that loss of one copy of chromosome 10 (which harbors the tumor suppressor PTEN) is linked to poor survival in glioblastoma patients. SCoR also identified prognostic genes on sex chromosomes in lung adenocarcinomas, suggesting patient gender might be used to predict outcome in this disease. These results demonstrate the power of SCoR to identify common and biologically meaningful prognostic gene expression signatures. PMID:23029298

  2. Prognostic Indexes for Brain Metastases: Which Is the Most Powerful?

    SciTech Connect

    Arruda Viani, Gustavo; Bernardes da Silva, Lucas Godoi; Stefano, Eduardo Jose

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to compare the prognostic indexes (PIs) of patients with brain metastases (BMs) treated with whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) using an artificial neural network. This analysis is important, because it evaluates the prognostic power of each PI to guide clinical decision-making and outcomes research. Methods and Materials: A retrospective prognostic study was conducted of 412 patients with BMs who underwent WBRT between April 1998 and March 2010. The eligibility criteria for patients included having undergone WBRT or WBRT plus neurosurgery. The data were analyzed using the artificial neural network. The input neural data consisted of all prognostic factors included in the 5 PIs (recursive partitioning analysis, graded prognostic assessment [GPA], basic score for BMs, Rotterdam score, and Germany score). The data set was randomly divided into 300 training and 112 testing examples for survival prediction. All 5 PIs were compared using our database of 412 patients with BMs. The sensibility of the 5 indexes to predict survival according to their input variables was determined statistically using receiver operating characteristic curves. The importance of each variable from each PI was subsequently evaluated. Results: The overall 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rate was 22%, 10.2%, and 5.1%, respectively. All classes of PIs were significantly associated with survival (recursive partitioning analysis, P < .0001; GPA, P < .0001; basic score for BMs, P = .002; Rotterdam score, P = .001; and Germany score, P < .0001). Comparing the areas under the curves, the GPA was statistically most sensitive in predicting survival (GPA, 86%; recursive partitioning analysis, 81%; basic score for BMs, 79%; Rotterdam, 73%; and Germany score, 77%; P < .001). Among the variables included in each PI, the performance status and presence of extracranial metastases were the most important factors. Conclusion: A variety of prognostic models describe the survival of patients with BMs to a more or less satisfactory degree. Among the 5 PIs evaluated in the present study, GPA was the most powerful in predicting survival. Additional studies should include emerging biologic prognostic factors to improve the sensibility of these PIs.

  3. Prognostic value of sarcopenia in liver surgery.

    PubMed

    Cornet, M; Lim, C; Salloum, C; Lazzati, A; Compagnon, P; Pascal, G; Azoulay, D

    2015-11-01

    Current knowledge indicates that malnutrition increases the rate of post-operative complications, particularly respiratory and infectious, after major surgery. Almost all liver surgery is performed in patients with cancer, a factor that increases the risk of malnutrition. The primary risk factors for post-operative complications are pre-operative hypo-albuminemia and a body mass index less than 20 kg/m(2). To improve the prediction of complications in these patients, some teams have suggested measurement of muscle thickness by computed tomography. Muscular mass can thus be quantified by measuring the total surface of the psoas muscle or the total surface of all muscles (i.e. external and internal oblique, transverse, psoas and paravertebral muscles) seen on an axial CT slice at L3. As well, data exist suggesting that sarcopenia is an independent predictive factor of post-operative morbidity and poor long-term survival after resection for cancer. Nonetheless, the literature on the subject is limited, there are no standardized definitions for sarcopenia, and the need of special software to calculate the surfaces limits its usefulness. Lastly, there are little if any data concerning the nutritional or pharmacologic means to treat sarcopenia. This update, based on a literature review, deals with the value and the prognostic impact of sarcopenia in surgery for liver tumors. The current definition of sarcopenia, validated internationally, the methods of measurement, and the consequences of sarcopenia on the outcome of liver resections are detailed in this review. PMID:26476674

  4. Immunologic functions as prognostic indicators in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Bouwhuis, Marna G; ten Hagen, Timo L M; Eggermont, Alexander M M

    2011-04-01

    Outcome in melanoma patients with advanced disease is poor and systemic treatment seems to benefit only a subset of patients. Predictive markers identifying these patients are currently not available. Early studies showed an association of immune-related side effects such as vitiligo and autoimmune thyroiditis with response to IL-2 or IFNα treatment. However, conflicting data have been reported as well, mentioning the effect of a higher rate of immune-related toxicities during prolonged administration of the drug in responders. The review discusses the prognostic significance of autoimmunity during various forms of immunotherapy and stresses the importance of correcting for guarantee-time bias. In addition, other immune-related factors which have been associated with melanoma prognosis such as, CRP, white blood cell count, absolute lymphocyte count and human leukocyte antigen will be reviewed as well. A better understanding of the immune system and the host-tumor interactions should ultimately lead to more effective treatment. A major challenge expected to be addressed in future is proving ways to uncouple tumor immunity from autoimmunity. PMID:21367679

  5. Distilling the Verification Process for Prognostics Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roychoudhury, Indranil; Saxena, Abhinav; Celaya, Jose R.; Goebel, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The goal of prognostics and health management (PHM) systems is to ensure system safety, and reduce downtime and maintenance costs. It is important that a PHM system is verified and validated before it can be successfully deployed. Prognostics algorithms are integral parts of PHM systems. This paper investigates a systematic process of verification of such prognostics algorithms. To this end, first, this paper distinguishes between technology maturation and product development. Then, the paper describes the verification process for a prognostics algorithm as it moves up to higher maturity levels. This process is shown to be an iterative process where verification activities are interleaved with validation activities at each maturation level. In this work, we adopt the concept of technology readiness levels (TRLs) to represent the different maturity levels of a prognostics algorithm. It is shown that at each TRL, the verification of a prognostics algorithm depends on verifying the different components of the algorithm according to the requirements laid out by the PHM system that adopts this prognostics algorithm. Finally, using simplified examples, the systematic process for verifying a prognostics algorithm is demonstrated as the prognostics algorithm moves up TRLs.

  6. Correlation of HMGB1 expression to progression and poor prognosis of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell/adenosquamous carcinoma of gallbladder

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zilu; Huang, Qian; Chen, Jian; Yu, Pengcheng; Wang, Xiaosong; Qiu, Hong; Chen, Yijie; Dong, Yangyang

    2015-01-01

    HMGB1 (High mobility group box 1) expressions in adenocarcinoma (AC) and squamous cell/adenosquamous (SC/ASC) carcinoma of gallbladder, as well as its prognostic significance, have not yet been evaluated. We investigated HMGB1 expression in 80 cases of AC gallbladder cancer and 52 cases of SC/ASC gallbladder cancer. Survival information was concomitantly collected. The association of HMGB1 expression with clinicopathological characteristics and the possible prognostic role of HMGB1 for two aforementioned subtypes of gallbladder cancers were also analyzed. siRNA technique was utilized to explore the role of HMGB1 in proliferation and invasion of gallbladder cancer cells in vitro. HMGB1 overexpression is present in AC and SC/ASC gallbladder cancers. HMGB1 expression significantly associates with growth and metastasis of AC and SC/ASC gallbladder cancers. In vitro cell experiments based on siRNA demonstrated that HMGB1 downregulation inhibits proliferation and invasion of gallbladder cancer cells. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that HMGB1 expression is negatively associated with overall survival time of patients with AC or SC/ASC gallbladder cancer. Cox multivariate analysis confirmed that HMGB1 is an independent risk factor for survival of patients with AC or SC/ASC gallbladder cancer. HMGB1 overexpression closely correlates with progression and poor prognosis of AC and SC/ASC gallbladder cancers. PMID:26692945

  7. Lipoprotein lipase expression is a novel prognostic factor in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Nückel, Holger; Hüttmann, Andreas; Klein-Hitpass, Ludger; Schroers, Roland; Führer, Anja; Sellmann, Ludger; Dührsen, Ulrich; Dürig, Jan

    2006-06-01

    B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) is a heterogenous disease with a highly variable clinical course. Recent studies have shown that expression of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and ADAM29 may serve as novel prognostic markers in B-CLL. To investigate the prognostic value of these genes, we quantified their expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells using quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR) in a cohort of 133 B-CLL patients and correlated the results with clinical outcome, and other known prognostic factors. LPL, ADAM29, LPL and ADAM29 ratios, as well as CD38 and ZAP-70 protein expression determined by multiparameter flow cytometry, were predictive of treatment-free survival. Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified LPL, ADAM29 and CD38 as independent prognostic markers. Evaluation of several disease characteristics in association with the LPL expression status of the patients' B-CLL cells showed highly significant differences for CD38 and ZAP-70 expression, suggesting a correlation of LPL expression with these established adverse prognostic factors. Sequential RQ-PCR analyses in a subset of 22 patients revealed that LPL mRNA expression was relatively stable in the majority of patients, whereas ADAM29 expression levels varied substantially over time. Furthermore, in a subgroup analysis, LPL provided prognostic information in both early stage (Binet A) and patients with more advanced disease (Binet B and C). Conversely, high ADAM29 expression was predictive of a long treatment-free interval in Binet stage A but did not retain its prognostic significance in Binet B and C patients. The LPL/ADAM29 expression ratio was not found to be an independent prognostic factor and did not offer any advantages over the use of LPL alone. Collectively, our data confirm a role for LPL as a novel prognostic indicator in B-CLL. PMID:16840197

  8. Clinical examination for prognostication in comatose cardiac arrest patients☆

    PubMed Central

    Greer, David M.; Yang, Jingyun; Scripko, Patricia D.; Sims, John R.; Cash, Sydney; Wu, Ona; Hafler, Jason P.; Schoenfeld, David A.; Furie, Karen L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To build new algorithms for prognostication of comatose cardiac arrest patients using clinical examination, and investigate whether therapeutic hypothermia influences the value of the clinical examination. Methods From 2000 to 2007, 500 consecutive patients in non-traumatic coma were prospectively enrolled, 200 of whom were post-cardiac arrest. Outcome was determined by modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score at 6 months, with mRS ≤ 3 indicating good outcome. The clinical examination was performed on days 0, 1, 3 and 7 post-arrest, and clinical variables analyzed for importance in prognostication of outcome. A classification and regression tree analysis (CART) was used to develop a predictive algorithm. Results Good outcome was achieved in 9.9% of patients. In CART analysis, motor response was often chosen as a root node, and spontaneous eye movements, pupillary reflexes, eye opening and corneal reflexes were often chosen as splitting nodes. Over 8% of patients with absent or extensor motor response on day 3 achieved a good outcome, as did 2 patients with myoclonic status epilepticus. The odds of achieving a good outcome were lower in patients who suffered asystole (OR 0.187, 95% CI: 0.039–0.875, p = 0.033) compared with ventricular fibrillation or non-perfusing ventricular tachycardia, but some still achieved good outcome. The absence of pupillary and corneal reflexes on day 3 remained highly reliable for predicting poor outcome, regardless of therapeutic hypothermia utilization. Conclusion The clinical examination remains central to prognostication in comatose cardiac arrest patients in the modern area. Future studies should incorporate the clinical examination along with modern technology for accurate prognostication. PMID:23954666

  9. Prognostic value of perioperative leukocyte count in resectable gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiao-Feng; Qian, Jing; Pei, Dong; Zhou, Chen; Røe, Oluf Dimitri; Zhu, Fang; He, Shao-Hua; Qian, Ying-Ying; Zhou, Yue; Xu, Jun; Xu, Jin; Li, Xiao; Ping, Guo-Qiang; Liu, Yi-Qian; Wang, Ping; Guo, Ren-Hua; Shu, Yong-Qian

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the prognostic significance of perioperative leukopenia in patients with resected gastric cancer. METHODS: A total of 614 eligible gastric cancer patients who underwent curative D2 gastrectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy were enrolled in this study. The relationship between pre- and postoperative hematologic parameters and overall survival was assessed statistically, adjusted for known prognostic factors. RESULTS: The mean white blood cell count (WBC) significantly decreased after surgery, and 107/614 (17.4%) patients developed p-leukopenia, which was defined as a preoperative WBC ≥ 4.0 × 109/L and postoperative WBC < 4.0 × 109/L, with an absolute decrease ≥ 0.5 × 109/L. The neutrophil count decreased significantly more than the lymphocyte count. P-leukopenia significantly correlated with poor tumor differentiation and preoperative WBC. A higher preoperative WBC and p-leukopenia were independent negative prognostic factors for survival [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.602, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.185-2.165; P = 0.002, and HR = 1.478, 95%CI: 1.149-1.902; P = 0.002, respectively] after adjusting for histology, Borrmann type, pTNM stage, vascular or neural invasion, gastrectomy method, resection margins, chemotherapy regimens, and preoperative WBC count. The patients with both higher preoperative WBC and p-leukopenia had a worse prognosis compared to those with lower baseline WBC and no p-leukopenia (27.5 mo vs 57.3 mo, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Preoperative leukocytosis alone or in combination with postoperative leukopenia could be independent prognostic factors for survival in patients with resectable gastric cancer. PMID:26973420

  10. Prognostic Value of VEGF in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients Treated with Sorafenib: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Guangchao; Li, Xiaoyun; Qin, Chao; Li, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is characterized by rich vascularization in the tumor, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays important roles in vascularization. The results of the roles of VEGF in predicting efficacy of sorafenib in HCC are conflicting. In this meta-analysis, we aimed to investigate the prognostic and predictive value of VEGF in HCC patients receiving sorafenib. Material/Methods PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane library electronic databases were systematically searched for eligible studies. The baseline characteristics were recorded and overall qualities of the eligible studies were assessed by 2 reviewers independently. VEGF levels and data relevant to efficacy of sorafenib were extracted and used for meta-analysis. Results The comprehensive search yielded 9 studies that evaluated the relationship between VEGF level and clinical outcome in advanced HCC patients treated with sorafenib. Pooled estimates suggested that high level of VEGF was associated with poor overall survival (HR=1.85; 95% CI: 1.24–2.77; P=0.003) and poor progression-free survival (HR=2.09; 95% CI: 1.43–3.05; P<0.01) in HCC. Mutation of VEGF had a favorable effect on hand-foot skin reaction in HCC patients treated with sorafenib (P<0.05). Conclusions High level of VEGF is associated with poor outcomes in HCC patients treated with sorafenib, indicating that VEGF could be used as an indicator of clinical efficacy in patients with HCC. However, more well-designed studies are needed to strengthen our findings. PMID:26476711

  11. [Prognostic factors in hantavirus infections].

    PubMed

    Kaya, Selçuk

    2014-01-01

    The hantaviruses classified in Hantavirus genus of Bunyaviridae family, may cause two different types of clinical conditions, namely hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). Mortality may reach up to 40% in these infections. Hantavirus subtypes (Sin Nombre, Hantaan, Seoul, Puumala, Dobrava, etc) with different virulences represent one of the most significant factors affecting the mortality. Additionally, many other factors including age, gender, humoral immune response, genetic factors, patient's clinical and laboratory findings, transfusion, mechanical ventilation requirement, antiviral treatment and immunotherapy administered to the patient are prognostically important. Increasing age had an unfavorable effect on mortality. While the disease is commonly observed in the male gender, mortality rate is higher in the female gender. The higher the emergent neutralizing antibody response, the virus spread, the number of the infected cells and the cytotoxic T lymphocyte-mediated injury will be lower. The requirement for dialysis is reported to be higher with a poorer prognosis in individuals with HLA-B8, -DR3, -DQ2 alleles, and those with HLA-B27 allele usually experience a milder clinical course. Clinically, the risk of mortality increases in patients with multiple, central nervous system hemorrhage, sepsis, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and secondary infection. The presence of adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), the requirement for mechanical ventilation, the presence of dyspnea and hemoconcentration in HPS are reported to be the most important prognostic factors associated with death. The correlation of severity and the transfusion requirement with mortality was demonstrated. High serum levels of white blood cells, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine phophokinase (CPK), C-reactive protein (CRP), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), D-dimer and INR (International normalized ratio) are prognostic factors that increase the mortality risk. Hemodialysis support is particularly important in cases infected with Hantaan and Dobrava viruses. Respiratory support and mechanical ventilation can be life-saving in HPS cases. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support has been demonstrated to have a favorable contribution to the patient survival in HPS. While there are some human and animal trials showing that ribavirin reduces the severity of HFRS, hemodialysis requirement and mortality, its efficacy for HPS has not yet been demonstrated. As a result, a proper evaluation of the prognostic factors will provide physicians a perspective with respect to the disease course and the necessary treatment approach. PMID:24506730

  12. Hybrid Bearing Prognostic Test Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Certo, Joseph M.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Dimofte, Florin

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has developed a new Hybrid Bearing Prognostic Test Rig to evaluate the performance of sensors and algorithms in predicting failures of rolling element bearings for aeronautics and space applications. The failure progression of both conventional and hybrid (ceramic rolling elements, metal races) bearings can be tested from fault initiation to total failure. The effects of different lubricants on bearing life can also be evaluated. Test conditions monitored and recorded during the test include load, oil temperature, vibration, and oil debris. New diagnostic research instrumentation will also be evaluated for hybrid bearing damage detection. This paper summarizes the capabilities of this new test rig.

  13. Diagnostic and Prognostic Value of Serum Interleukin-6 in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jinming; Ye, Yao; Zhang, Honghe; Szmitkowski, Maciej; Mäkinen, MJ; Li, Peiwei; Xia, Dajing; Yang, Jun; Wu, Yihua; Wu, Han

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The application of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the diagnosis and prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) has been evaluated in many studies, whereas the results were contradictive. The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate this issue. An original study was conducted to explore the diagnostic value of serum IL-6 in CRC. Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane library databases were searched for eligible studies. For diagnostic meta-analysis, aggregate data (AD) and individual participant data (IPD) meta-analyses were both adopted. The sensitivity and specificity were pooled and a summary receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed. For prognostic meta-analysis, study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) of IL-6 for survival were summarized. Secondary analysis of survival data was performed to synthesize the Kaplan–Meier curves. Total 17 studies (including our study) were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, and area under curve (AUC) of serum IL-6 were 0.72 (95% CI: 0.46–0.88), 0.74 (95% CI: 0.56–0.86), and 0.79 (95% CI: 0.75–0.82) in CRC diagnosis, respectively. Further, IPD meta-analysis strengthened the diagnostic value of serum IL-6 (the AUC, sensitivity, and specificity were 0.794, 0.606, and 0.839, respectively). For prognostic analysis, the high serum level of IL-6 was inversely associated with overall survival (OS) (pooled HR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.42–2.19, P < 0.001) and disease-free survival (DFS) (pooled HR = 2.97, 95% CI: 1.76–5.01, P < 0.001). The synthesized Kaplan–Meier curves indicated that CRC patients with higher serum IL-6 level had a worse OS (P = 0.0027) and DFS (P < 0.001), which further support the prognostic value of serum IL-6 in CRC patients. The present study confirmed that serum IL-6 may be a potential biomarker for CRC diagnosis, and the high serum IL-6 level was associated with poor prognosis for both CRC overall survival and disease-free survival. The study has been registered in an international registry of systematic reviews PROSPERO (CRD42013006485). PMID:26765465

  14. Causes of Death and Prognostic Factors in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Tetsuhide; Igarashi, Hisato; Uehara, Hirotsugu; Berna, Marc J.; Jensen, Robert T.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is classically characterized by the development of functional or nonfunctional hyperplasia or tumors in endocrine tissues (parathyroid, pancreas, pituitary, adrenal). Because effective treatments have been developed for the hormone excess state, which was a major cause of death in these patients in the past, coupled with the recognition that nonendocrine tumors increasingly develop late in the disease course, the natural history of the disease has changed. An understanding of the current causes of death is important to tailor treatment for these patients and to help identify prognostic factors; however, it is generally lacking. To add to our understanding, we conducted a detailed analysis of the causes of death and prognostic factors from a prospective long-term National Institutes of Health (NIH) study of 106 MEN1 patients with pancreatic endocrine tumors with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (MEN1/ZES patients) and compared our results to those from the pooled literature data of 227 patients with MEN1 with pancreatic endocrine tumors (MEN1/PET patients) reported in case reports or small series, and to 1386 patients reported in large MEN1 literature series. In the NIH series over a mean follow-up of 24.5 years, 24 (23%) patients died (14 MEN1-related and 10 non-MEN1-related deaths). Comparing the causes of death with the results from the 227 patients in the pooled literature series, we found that no patients died of acute complications due to acid hypersecretion, and 8%–14% died of other hormone excess causes, which is similar to the results in 10 large MEN1 literature series published since 1995. In the 2 series (the NIH and pooled literature series), two-thirds of patients died from an MEN1-related cause and one-third from a non-MEN1-related cause, which agrees with the mean values reported in 10 large MEN1 series in the literature, although in the literature the causes of death varied widely. In the NIH and pooled literature series, the main causes of MEN1-related deaths were due to the malignant nature of the PETs, followed by the malignant nature of thymic carcinoid tumors. These results differ from the results of a number of the literature series, especially those reported before the 1990s. The causes of non-MEN1-related death for the 2 series, in decreasing frequency, were cardiovascular disease, other nonendocrine tumors > lung diseases, cerebrovascular diseases. The most frequent non-MEN1-related tumor deaths were colorectal, renal > lung > breast, oropharyngeal. Although both overall and disease-related survival are better than in the past (30-yr survival of NIH series: 82% overall, 88% disease-related), the mean age at death was 55 years, which is younger than expected for the general population. Detailed analysis of causes of death correlated with clinical, laboratory, and tumor characteristics of patients in the 2 series allowed identification of a number of prognostic factors. Poor prognostic factors included higher fasting gastrin levels, presence of other functional hormonal syndromes, need for >3 parathyroidectomies, presence of liver metastases or distant metastases, aggressive PET growth, large PETs, or the development of new lesions. The results of this study have helped define the causes of death of MEN1 patients at present, and have enabled us to identify a number of prognostic factors that should be helpful in tailoring treatment for these patients for both short- and long-term management, as well as in directing research efforts to better define the natural history of the disease and the most important factors determining long-term survival at present. PMID:23645327

  15. Prognostic factors of hepatocellular carcinoma patients treated by transarterial chemoembolization.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jun; Li, Guojian; Lin, Shuhan; He, Ke; Lai, Hao; Mo, Xianwei; Chen, Jiansi; Lin, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    We aim to investigate the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) patients treated by transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) in Chinese cohort. A total of 2,493 HCC patients treated by TACE were included in this retrospective study. Patients were divided into the younger group (n=1,877) or the elderly group (n=616) based upon their ages (cut-off value of 60 y/o). Chi-square test or Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare patients' characteristics. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to determine prognostic factors. When compared with the younger group, the elderly group had lower male/female ratio and family liver disease history ratio, as well as advanced stage or Child-Pugh grade B patients. The median survival time was 8 months and 27 months for the younger and the elderly group, respectively. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rates in the younger group and the elderly group were 31.82%, 12.5%, 6.53%, and 84.66%, 53.28%, 28.39%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that HBV infection, AFP value, TNM stage, Child-Pugh class, portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT) and tumor number were independent prognostic factors for the younger patients; the elderly ones had similar independent prognostic factors except for HBV infection. The elderly group had lower male/female ratio and family history ratio, as well as advanced stage or Child-Pugh grade B patients. The elderly seems to have better prognosis than the younger ones, which is probably related to the fact that the elderly have lower tumor burden and better liver function. PMID:24696728

  16. Dendritic Cells in Kidney Transplant Biopsy Samples Are Associated with T Cell Infiltration and Poor Allograft Survival.

    PubMed

    Batal, Ibrahim; De Serres, Sacha A; Safa, Kassem; Bijol, Vanesa; Ueno, Takuya; Onozato, Maristela L; Iafrate, A John; Herter, Jan M; Lichtman, Andrew H; Mayadas, Tanya N; Guleria, Indira; Rennke, Helmut G; Najafian, Nader; Chandraker, Anil

    2015-12-01

    Progress in long-term renal allograft survival continues to lag behind the progress in short-term transplant outcomes. Dendritic cells are the most efficient antigen-presenting cells, but surprisingly little attention has been paid to their presence in transplanted kidneys. We used dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing nonintegrin as a marker of dendritic cells in 105 allograft biopsy samples from 105 kidney transplant recipients. High dendritic cell density was associated with poor allograft survival independent of clinical variables. Moreover, high dendritic cell density correlated with greater T cell proliferation and poor outcomes in patients with high total inflammation scores, including inflammation in areas of tubular atrophy. We then explored the association between dendritic cells and histologic variables associated with poor prognosis. Multivariate analysis revealed an independent association between the densities of dendritic cells and T cells. In biopsy samples with high dendritic cell density, electron microscopy showed direct physical contact between infiltrating lymphocytes and cells that have the ultrastructural morphologic characteristics of dendritic cells. The origin of graft dendritic cells was sought in nine sex-mismatched recipients using XY fluorescence in situ hybridization. Whereas donor dendritic cells predominated initially, the majority of dendritic cells in late allograft biopsy samples were of recipient origin. Our data highlight the prognostic value of dendritic cell density in allograft biopsy samples, suggest a new role for these cells in shaping graft inflammation, and provide a rationale for targeting dendritic cell recruitment to promote long-term allograft survival. PMID:25855773

  17. Symptoms at diagnosis as independent prognostic factors in retroperitoneal liposarcoma

    PubMed Central

    TAGUCHI, SATORU; KUME, HARUKI; FUKUHARA, HIROSHI; MORIKAWA, TEPPEI; KAKUTANI, SHIGENORI; TAKESHIMA, YUTA; MIYAZAKI, HIDEYO; SUZUKI, MOTOFUMI; FUJIMURA, TETSUYA; NAKAGAWA, TOHRU; ISHIKAWA, AKIRA; IGAWA, YASUHIKO; HOMMA, YUKIO

    2016-01-01

    The prognostic factors of retroperitoneal liposarcoma have yet to be clearly determined due to its rarity, whereas the prognostic value of symptoms at diagnosis has never been evaluated to date. In this context, we reviewed 24 consecutive patients with primary retroperitoneal liposarcoma who underwent surgical resection with curative intent at our institution. The Kaplan-Meier analysis and the log-rank test were used to estimate progression-free survival (PFS; primary endpoint) and sarcoma-specific survival (SSS; secondary endpoint). The effect of various clinicopathological factors, including symptoms at diagnosis, on these two endpoints was assessed with a Cox proportional hazards model. During the study period, 11 patients (45.8%) developed recurrence after the initial surgery and 8 (33.3%) succumbed to retroperitoneal liposarcoma, with a median follow-up of 64 months. A total of 16 patients (66.7%) had symptoms at diagnosis, while the remaining 8 (33.3%) were diagnosed incidentally. The symptoms were palpability of the tumor (n=8); abdominal pain/fullness (n=3); flank pain/fullness (n=2); lower extremity pain (n=1); testicular pain due to varicocele (n=1); and discomfort on urination (n=1). Patients with symptoms at diagnosis were significantly more likely to develop recurrence (log-rank test, P=0.0196) and were also more likely to succumb to sarcoma (P=0.0778) compared with asymptomatic patients. On the multivariate analysis, symptoms at diagnosis and dedifferentiated components were independent predictors of poor PFS, while positive surgical margins were predictors of poor SSS. Given that symptoms at diagnosis are easily accessible for physicians, they may prove to be useful additional prognostic factors for primary retroperitoneal liposarcoma. PMID:26893871

  18. Prognostic factors for stereopsis in refractive accommodative esotropia

    PubMed Central

    Guclu, Hande; Gurlu, Vuslat Pelitli; Ozal, Sadik Altan; Ozkurt, Zeynep Gursel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prognostic factors affecting stereoacuity in patients with refractive accommodative esotropia (RAE) according to the results of long follow- up period. Methods: We reviewed the charts of 70 patients with RAE between the years 1985-2014. Patients were classified into three groups. G-1: Stereoacuity score 40 second/arc. G-2: Stereoacuity score >40 second/arc (50-3000). G-3: No binocular vision. Initiation age of RAE, duration of deviation, refractive error, amblyopia, amblyopia treatment, anisometropia, visual acuity, family history, angle of deviation for distance and near at each group and the prognostic factors affecting stereoacuity were analyzed. Results: The mean initiation age of RAE was 2.7±1.5 years, the mean age at first visit was 6.4±4.2 years. The mean follow up time was 7.3±4.4 years. Seven patients had 40 second/arc, 48 patients had 50 to 3000 second/arc stereoacuity, 15 patients had no binocular vision. Mean deviation for near was statistically higher in group 2 and 3. Visual acuity levels were higher in group 1 and 2 and was statistically significant. Low visual acuity (p=0.001, 0.008), higher angle of deviation at near (p=0.01), increased duration of deviation (p=0.01), presence of amblyopia (p=0.001) and irregularity of amblyopia treatment (p=0.01) were significantly related with poor stereoacuity. Conclusion: According to the prognostic factors low stereoacuity was mostly related with amblyopia as a result the late presentation of the patients in seeking care. Appropriate treatment as full refractive correction and amblyopia treatment during the RAE is important for development of good stereopsis. Also angle of deviation at near and duration of deviation can be a useful predictor for poor stereoacuity levels. PMID:26430408

  19. Immunohistochemical Analysis of IL-6, IL-8/CXCR2 Axis,  Tyrp-STAT-3, and SOCS-3 in Lymph Nodes from Patients with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Correlation between Microvascular Characteristics and Prognostic Significance

    PubMed Central

    Pangalis, Gerassimos A.; Kalpadakis, Christina; Yiakoumis, Xanthi; Moschogiannis, Maria; Sepsa, Athanasia; Lakiotaki, Eleftheria; Milionis, Vassilis; Vassilakopoulos, Theodoros P.; Tsirkinidis, Pantelis; Kontopidou, Flora; Kokoris, Styliani; Siakantaris, Marina; Angelopoulou, Maria; Papadaki, Helen; Kavantzas, Nikolaos; Panayiotidis, Panayiotis; Patsouris, Efstratios; Korkolopoulou, Penelope

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies have looked into the pathophysiological role of angiogenesis in CLL, but the results have often been inconsistent. We aimed to gain direct insight into the angiogenic process in lymph nodes involved by CLL, focusing on proangiogenic cytokines and microvessel morphometry. The tissue levels of VEGF, Th-2 cytokines IL-6 and IL-8, IL-8 receptor CXCR2, and tyrosine p-STAT-3/SOCS-3 axis modulating cytokine expression were evaluated immunohistochemically in 62 CLL/SLL cases. Microvascular characteristics were evaluated by image analysis. Results were analyzed with regard to clinicopathological characteristics. Proliferation centers (PCs) were less well vascularised compared to non-PC areas. IL-8 and CXCR2 expression was distinctly uncommon as opposed to IL-6, VEGF and SOCS-3, which were detected in the vast majority of cases. The latter two molecule expressions were more pronounced in the PCs in ∼40% of the cases. p-STAT-3 immunoreactivity was recorded in 66.67% of the cases with a predilection for PCs. Microvessel morphometry was unrelated to proangiogenic cytokines, p-STAT-3, SOCS-3, or survival. Microvascular caliber and VEGF expression were higher in Binet stage A, whereasIL-6 expression was higher in stage C. VEGF and p-STAT-3 exerted a favorable effect on progression, which remained significant in multivariate analysis, thereby constituting potential outcome predictors in CLL patients. PMID:24883303

  20. Prognostic factors in hanging injuries.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Takeshi; Okuchi, Kazuo; Seki, Tadahiko; Murao, Yoshinori

    2004-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to review variable factors influencing outcomes in hanging and to identify prognostic factors related to outcomes. Forty-seven patients presented to our department. Eleven patients survived and 36 died. A significant difference in mean hanging time was observed between survivor (11.8 +/- 8.37 minutes) and nonsurvivor (50.81 +/- 61.9). In survivors, heartbeat was recognized in 63.6% at the scene and in 90.9% on arrival. Conversely, cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) was recognized in all nonsurvivors and heartbeat was recognized on arrival in only 5.6%. Thirty-nine (83%) had a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) of 3 on arrival. Three (7.7%) of theses 39 patients survived. In survivors, eight patients had a GCS greater than 3. A significant difference in outcome existed between patients with a GCS of 3 and those with a GCS greater than 3. Hanging time, presence of CPA at the scene and on arrival, and GCS on arrival represented prognostic factors of outcome in hanging. PMID:15138959

  1. Low SIRT3 Expression Correlates with Poor Differentiation and Unfavorable Prognosis in Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chris Zhiyi; Liu, Lili; Cai, Muyan; Pan, Yinghua; Fu, Jia; Cao, Yun; Yun, Jingping

    2012-01-01

    SIRT3, a mitochondrial sirtuin belonging to nicotinamide adenine nucleotide (NAD) dependent deacetylases, is implicated in metabolism, longevity and carcinogenesis. SIRT3 expression and its significance in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain largely unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that SIRT3 expression in HCC tissue was much lower than that in paracarcinoma tissue, at both mRNA and protein levels. The cutoff value for low SIRT3 expression in HCC was defined according to receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis. As disclosed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) results, low SIRT3 expression was present in 67.3% (167/248) of HCC cases. Furthermore, low expression of SIRT3 was significantly correlated to differentiation (P = 0.013), clinical stage (P = 0.005), serum AFP level (P<0.01), tumor multiplicity (P = 0.026) and relapse (P = 0.028). Moreover, Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that low SIRT3 expression associated with unfavorable overall survival (P<0.01) and recurrence-free survival (P = 0.004). The prognostic impact of SIRT3 was further confirmed by stratified survival analysis. Importantly, multivariate analysis revealed that low SIRT3 expression was an independent poor prognostic marker for overall survival (Hazard Ratio (HR) 0.555, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.344–0.897, P = 0.016). Collectively, we conclude that SIRT3 is decreased in HCC and is a novel unfavorable marker for prognosis of patients with this fatal disease. PMID:23272146

  2. Anatomical Involvement of the Subventricular Zone Predicts Poor Survival Outcome in Low-Grade Astrocytomas

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuai; Wang, Yinyan; Fan, Xing; Ma, Jun; Ma, Wenbin; Wang, Renzhi; Jiang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    The subventricular zone (SVZ) has been implicated in the origination, development, and biological behavior of gliomas. Tumor-SVZ contact is also postulated to be a poor prognostic factor in glioblastomas. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic consequence of the anatomical involvement of low-grade gliomas with the SVZ. To that end, we reviewed 143 patients with diffuse astrocytomas, and tumor lesions were manually delineated on magnetic resonance images. We initially investigated the prognostic role of SVZ contact in all patients. Additionally, we investigated the influence of the anatomical proximity of the tumor lesion centroids to the SVZ in the SVZ-involved patient cohorts, as well as location within the SVZ. We found SVZ contact with tumors to be a significant prognostic factor of overall survival in all patients with diffuse astrocytomas (p = 0.027). In the SVZ-involved cohort, a shorter distance from the tumor centroid to the SVZ (≤30 mm) correlated with shorter overall survival (p = 0.022) on univariate analysis. However, there was no significant difference in overall survival with respect to the SVZ region involved with the tumor (p = 0.930). Multivariate analysis showed that a shorter distance between the tumor centroid and the SVZ (p = 0.039) was significantly associated with poor overall survival in SVZ-involved patients. Hence, this study helps establish the prognostic role of the anatomical interaction of tumors with the SVZ in low-grade astrocytomas. PMID:27120204

  3. Distributed Prognostics based on Structural Model Decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daigle, Matthew J.; Bregon, Anibal; Roychoudhury, I.

    2014-01-01

    Within systems health management, prognostics focuses on predicting the remaining useful life of a system. In the model-based prognostics paradigm, physics-based models are constructed that describe the operation of a system and how it fails. Such approaches consist of an estimation phase, in which the health state of the system is first identified, and a prediction phase, in which the health state is projected forward in time to determine the end of life. Centralized solutions to these problems are often computationally expensive, do not scale well as the size of the system grows, and introduce a single point of failure. In this paper, we propose a novel distributed model-based prognostics scheme that formally describes how to decompose both the estimation and prediction problems into independent local subproblems whose solutions may be easily composed into a global solution. The decomposition of the prognostics problem is achieved through structural decomposition of the underlying models. The decomposition algorithm creates from the global system model a set of local submodels suitable for prognostics. Independent local estimation and prediction problems are formed based on these local submodels, resulting in a scalable distributed prognostics approach that allows the local subproblems to be solved in parallel, thus offering increases in computational efficiency. Using a centrifugal pump as a case study, we perform a number of simulation-based experiments to demonstrate the distributed approach, compare the performance with a centralized approach, and establish its scalability. Index Terms-model-based prognostics, distributed prognostics, structural model decomposition ABBREVIATIONS

  4. Prognostic Analysis System and Methods of Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacKey, Ryan M. E. (Inventor); Sneddon, Robert (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A prognostic analysis system and methods of operating the system are provided. In particular, a prognostic analysis system for the analysis of physical system health applicable to mechanical, electrical, chemical and optical systems and methods of operating the system are described herein.

  5. Trace elements as tumor biomarkers and prognostic factors in breast cancer: a study through energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The application and better understanding of traditional and new breast tumor biomarkers and prognostic factors are increasing due to the fact that they are able to identify individuals at high risk of breast cancer, who may benefit from preventive interventions. Also, biomarkers can make possible for physicians to design an individualized treatment for each patient. Previous studies showed that trace elements (TEs) determined by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) techniques are found in significantly higher concentrations in neoplastic breast tissues (malignant and benign) when compared with normal tissues. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of TEs, determined by the use of the Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) technique, as biomarkers and prognostic factors in breast cancer. Methods By using EDXRF, we determined Ca, Fe, Cu, and Zn trace elements concentrations in 106 samples of normal and breast cancer tissues. Cut-off values for each TE were determined through Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis from the TEs distributions. These values were used to set the positive or negative expression. This expression was subsequently correlated with clinical prognostic factors through Fisher’s exact test and chi-square test. Kaplan Meier survival curves were also evaluated to assess the effect of the expression of TEs in the overall patient survival. Results Concentrations of TEs are higher in neoplastic tissues (malignant and benign) when compared with normal tissues. Results from ROC analysis showed that TEs can be considered a tumor biomarker because, after establishing a cut-off value, it was possible to classify different tissues as normal or neoplastic, as well as different types of cancer. The expression of TEs was found statistically correlated with age and menstrual status. The survival curves estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method showed that patients with positive expression for Cu presented a poor overall survival (p < 0.001). Conclusions This study suggests that TEs expression has a great potential of application as a tumor biomarker, once it was revealed to be an effective tool to distinguish different types of breast tissues and to identify the difference between malignant and benign tumors. The expressions of all TEs were found statistically correlated with well-known prognostic factors for breast cancer. The element copper also showed statistical correlation with overall survival. PMID:22534013

  6. Consequences of Growing Up Poor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J., Ed.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne, Ed.

    The consequences and correlates of growing up poor as well as the mechanisms through which poverty influences children are explored. This book is organized with a primary focus on research findings and a secondary concern with policy implications. The chapters are: (1) "Poor Families, Poor Outcomes: The Well-Being of Children and Youth" (Jeanne

  7. Consequences of Growing Up Poor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J., Ed.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne, Ed.

    The consequences and correlates of growing up poor as well as the mechanisms through which poverty influences children are explored. This book is organized with a primary focus on research findings and a secondary concern with policy implications. The chapters are: (1) "Poor Families, Poor Outcomes: The Well-Being of Children and Youth" (Jeanne…

  8. Model-Based Prognostics of Hybrid Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daigle, Matthew; Roychoudhury, Indranil; Bregon, Anibal

    2015-01-01

    Model-based prognostics has become a popular approach to solving the prognostics problem. However, almost all work has focused on prognostics of systems with continuous dynamics. In this paper, we extend the model-based prognostics framework to hybrid systems models that combine both continuous and discrete dynamics. In general, most systems are hybrid in nature, including those that combine physical processes with software. We generalize the model-based prognostics formulation to hybrid systems, and describe the challenges involved. We present a general approach for modeling hybrid systems, and overview methods for solving estimation and prediction in hybrid systems. As a case study, we consider the problem of conflict (i.e., loss of separation) prediction in the National Airspace System, in which the aircraft models are hybrid dynamical systems.

  9. Aberrant DNA methylation characterizes juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia with poor outcome.

    PubMed

    Olk-Batz, Christiane; Poetsch, Anna R; Nöllke, Peter; Claus, Rainer; Zucknick, Manuela; Sandrock, Inga; Witte, Tania; Strahm, Brigitte; Hasle, Henrik; Zecca, Marco; Stary, Jan; Bergstraesser, Eva; De Moerloose, Barbara; Trebo, Monika; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M; Wojcik, Dorota; Locatelli, Franco; Plass, Christoph; Niemeyer, Charlotte M; Flotho, Christian

    2011-05-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation contributes to the malignant phenotype in virtually all types of cancer, including myeloid leukemia. We hypothesized that CpG island hypermethylation also occurs in juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) and investigated whether it is associated with clinical, hematologic, or prognostic features. Based on quantitative measurements of DNA methylation in 127 JMML cases using mass spectrometry (MassARRAY), we identified 4 gene CpG islands with frequent hypermethylation: BMP4 (36% of patients), CALCA (54%), CDKN2B (22%), and RARB (13%). Hypermethylation was significantly associated with poor prognosis: when the methylation data were transformed into prognostic scores using a LASSO Cox regression model, the 5-year overall survival was 0.41 for patients in the top tertile of scores versus 0.72 in the lowest score tertile (P = .002). Among patients given allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, the 5-year cumulative incidence of relapse was 0.52 in the highest versus 0.10 in the lowest score tertile (P = .007). In multivariate models, DNA methylation retained prognostic value independently of other clinical risk factors. Longitudinal analyses indicated that some cases acquired a more extensively methylated phenotype at relapse. In conclusion, our data suggest that a high-methylation phenotype characterizes an aggressive biologic variant of JMML and is an important molecular predictor of outcome. PMID:21406719

  10. Prognostic variables for the selection of patients with operable soft tissue sarcomas to be considered in adjuvant chemotherapy trials.

    PubMed Central

    Ravaud, A.; Bui, N. B.; Coindre, J. M.; Lagarde, P.; Tramond, P.; Bonichon, F.; Stöckle, E.; Kantor, G.; Trojani, M.; Chauvergne, J.

    1992-01-01

    From 1975 to 1988, 144 patients naive of treatment, with non-metastatic soft tissue sarcoma were treated at Fondation Bergonié by surgery, followed by radiotherapy and without chemotherapy. An analysis of prognostic variables was done on this population to determine patients for whom an adjuvant chemotherapy would be relevant. Prognostic variables in overall survival (OS), metastasis-free survival (MFS), disease-free and local free recurrence survivals were analysed by univariate and multivariate analysis. In multivariate analysis using Cox's model, only tumour depth and tumour grade were significant with the MFS end point, while tumour depth, tumour grade and tumour site were significant when considering OS. A predictive stratification for patients is proposed: a favourable prognostic group with grade 1 tumour or superficial, grade 2 tumour (5-year OS: 97.8%; 5-year MFS: 100%); an intermediate prognostic group with deep, grade 2 tumour or superficial, grade 3 tumour (5-year OS: 58.8%; 5-year MFS: 48.1%); and finally a poor prognostic group with deep, grade 3 tumour (5-year OS: 31.7%; 5-year MFS: 34.1%). Patients in the intermediate and poor prognostic groups who present a high metastatic risk are to be considered for adjuvant chemotherapy trials. PMID:1419644

  11. Treatment outcomes and clinical relevance of the Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index in Korean follicular lymphoma patients treated with chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Maeng, Chi Hoon; Ahn, Sung Woo; Ryu, Seong-Yoon; Han, Sungjun; Ko, Young Hyeh; Ji, Jun Ho; Kim, Won Seog; Kim, Seok Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: The Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (FLIPI) and FLIPI2 are well-known prognostic models for patients with follicular lymphoma (FL). However, their prognostic relevance has not been examined before in Korean patients with FL. Methods: We reviewed clinical and laboratory information from our database of patients between 1995 and 2012. In total, 125 patients were stratified in three categories according to FLIPI or FLIPI2 scores: low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups. We compared FLIPI and FLIPI2 in terms of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Results: Among the 125 patients, the prognostic value of FLIPI and FLIPI2 was evaluated in 73 patients who fulfilled the criteria of both prognostic models. Risk stratification by FLIPI and FLIPI2 showed significant differences in unfavorable parameters among each risk group, particularly between low- and intermediate-risk groups. The high-risk group b was significantly associated with poor PFS on both FLIPI and FLIPI2 (p < 0.05). However, the OS was significantly different only in the risk groups determined by FLIPI2 (p = 0.042). In a subgroup analysis of patients who received rituximab-containing chemotherapy, the risk stratification of both prognostic models showed a significant impact on PFS, especially in the low-risk group. Conclusions: FLIPI and FLIPI2 are appropriate prognostic models in Korean FL patients, especially for discriminating low-risk patients from intermediate- and high-risk groups. PMID:26898595

  12. CDH1 promoter methylation correlates with decreased gene expression and poor prognosis in patients with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    LIU, JIAN; SUN, XIN; QIN, SIDA; WANG, HUANGZHEN; DU, NING; LI, YANBO; PANG, YAMEI; WANG, CUICUI; XU, CHONGWEN; REN, HONG

    2016-01-01

    The E-cadherin gene (CDH1) is associated with poor prognosis and metastasis in patients with breast cancer, and methylation of its promoter is correlated with decreased gene expression. However, there is currently no direct evidence that CDH1 promoter methylation indicates poor prognosis in patients with breast cancer. In the present study, methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was applied to detect the methylation status of the CDH1 promoter in 137 primary breast cancer, 85 matched normal breast tissue and 13 lung metastasis specimens. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR was used to assess the relative expression levels of CDH1 mRNA, and correlation analysis between CDH1 methylation status, and gene expression, clinicopathological characteristics and patient survival was performed. Methylation of CDH1 was identified in 40.9% (56/137) of primary breast cancer specimens, 61.5% (8/13) of lung metastasis specimens and none of the matched normal breast specimens. The downregulation of CDH1 mRNA and E-cadherin protein expression were identified to be significantly correlated with CDH1 methylation (P<0.05). In addition, CDH1 methylation was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis and estrogen receptor status of patients (P<0.05). In univariate analyses, patients with CDH1 methylation exhibited poor overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS; P<0.05). Furthermore, multivariate analyses revealed that CDH1 methylation was an independent prognostic factor predicting poor OS (HR, 1.737; 95% CI, 0.957–3.766; P=0.041) and DFS (HR, 2.018; 95% CI, 2.057–3.845; P=0.033) in patients with breast cancer. Therefore, the present study suggests that CDH1 promoter methylation may be correlated with breast carcinogenesis and indicates poor prognosis in patients with breast cancer. PMID:27073531

  13. Prognostic Factors of Primary Intraosseous Squamous Cell Carcinoma (PIOSCC): A Retrospective Review

    PubMed Central

    Wenguang, Xu; Hao, Shen; Xiaofeng, Qi; Zhiyong, Wang; Yufeng, Wang; Qingang, Hu; Wei, Han

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To delineate clinical and pathological features and determine the prognostic factors of primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma (PIOSCC). Materials and methods Patients diagnosed with PIOSCC, attending the department of oral and maxillofacial surgery, Nanjing stomatological hospital between 2005 and 2015, were identified and retrospectively reviewed for clinical and pathological characteristics. Therapeutic modalities were measured and related follow-up data recorded, in order to determine prognostic factors of PIOSSC. Results A total of 77 patients with PIOSCC were included in the study. Mean age at diagnosis was 58.8 years, (range, 37−81 years). Of the 77 patients, there were 58 men and 19 women. The most common location of disease was the mandible (71.42%), particularly the posterior mandible. The common presenting symptoms included jaw swelling (79.2%) and ulceration (42.65%). The estimated 2-year and 5-year overall survival were 68.9% and 38.8%, respectively. Univariate analysis identified the following as negative prognostic factors: histological grade, N classification, nodal status and treatment modalities. However, multivariate analysis determined positive nodal status, high histological grade and advanced N classification as the independent significant prognostic factors. Conclusion Our results demonstrate several clinical and pathological features of PIOSCC and identify important prognostic factors associated with overall survival in PIOSCC. These prognostic factors include nodal status, histological grade, N classification, and treatment modalities, all of which are important for patient counseling and may be useful for the development of new treatment approaches. PMID:27074366

  14. Germline BRCA Mutations Are Associated With Higher Risk of Nodal Involvement, Distant Metastasis, and Poor Survival Outcomes in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Elena; Goh, Chee; Olmos, David; Saunders, Ed; Leongamornlert, Daniel; Tymrakiewicz, Malgorzata; Mahmud, Nadiya; Dadaev, Tokhir; Govindasami, Koveela; Guy, Michelle; Sawyer, Emma; Wilkinson, Rosemary; Ardern-Jones, Audrey; Ellis, Steve; Frost, Debra; Peock, Susan; Evans, D. Gareth; Tischkowitz, Marc; Cole, Trevor; Davidson, Rosemarie; Eccles, Diana; Brewer, Carole; Douglas, Fiona; Porteous, Mary E.; Donaldson, Alan; Dorkins, Huw; Izatt, Louise; Cook, Jackie; Hodgson, Shirley; Kennedy, M. John; Side, Lucy E.; Eason, Jacqueline; Murray, Alex; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Easton, Douglas F.; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Eeles, Rosalind

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the baseline clinicopathologic characteristics of prostate tumors with germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutations and the prognostic value of those mutations on prostate cancer (PCa) outcomes. Patients and Methods This study analyzed the tumor features and outcomes of 2,019 patients with PCa (18 BRCA1 carriers, 61 BRCA2 carriers, and 1,940 noncarriers). The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analysis were used to evaluate the associations between BRCA1/2 status and other PCa prognostic factors with overall survival (OS), cause-specific OS (CSS), CSS in localized PCa (CSS_M0), metastasis-free survival (MFS), and CSS from metastasis (CSS_M1). Results PCa with germline BRCA1/2 mutations were more frequently associated with Gleason ≥ 8 (P = .00003), T3/T4 stage (P = .003), nodal involvement (P = .00005), and metastases at diagnosis (P = .005) than PCa in noncarriers. CSS was significantly longer in noncarriers than in carriers (15.7 v 8.6 years, multivariable analyses [MVA] P = .015; hazard ratio [HR] = 1.8). For localized PCa, 5-year CSS and MFS were significantly higher in noncarriers (96% v 82%; MVA P = .01; HR = 2.6%; and 93% v 77%; MVA P = .009; HR = 2.7, respectively). Subgroup analyses confirmed the poor outcomes in BRCA2 patients, whereas the role of BRCA1 was not well defined due to the limited size and follow-up in this subgroup. Conclusion Our results confirm that BRCA1/2 mutations confer a more aggressive PCa phenotype with a higher probability of nodal involvement and distant metastasis. BRCA mutations are associated with poor survival outcomes and this should be considered for tailoring clinical management of these patients. PMID:23569316

  15. A prognostic gene expression signature in infratentorial ependymoma

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Khalida; Armstrong, Terri; Vera-Bolanos, Elizabeth; Raghunathan, Aditya; Ellison, David; Gilbertson, Richard; Vaillant, Brian; Goldman, Stewart; Packer, Roger J.; Fouladi, Maryam; Pollack, Ian; Mikkelsen, Tom; Prados, Michael; Omuro, Antonio; Soffietti, Riccardo; Ledoux, Alicia; Wilson, Charmaine; Long, Lihong; Gilbert, Mark; Aldape, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Patients with ependymoma exhibit a wide range of clinical outcomes that is currently unexplained by clinical or histological factors. Little is known regarding molecular biomarkers that could predict clinical behavior. Since recent data suggests that these tumors display biological characteristics according to their location (cerebral vs. infratentorial vs. spinal cord), rather than explore a broad spectrum of ependymoma, we focused on molecular alterations in ependymomas arising in the infratentorial compartment. Unsupervised clustering of available gene expression microarray data revealed two major subgroups of infratentorial ependymoma. Group 1 tumors over expressed genes that were associated with mesenchyme, Group 2 tumors showed no distinct gene ontologies. To assess the prognostic significance of these gene expression subgroups, real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assays were performed on genes defining the subgroups in a training set. This resulted in a 10-gene prognostic signature. Multivariate analysis showed that the 10-gene signature was an independent predictor of recurrence-free survival after adjusting for clinical factors. Evaluation of an external dataset describing subgroups of infratentorial ependymomas showed concordance of subgroup definition, including validation of the mesenchymal subclass. Importantly, the 10-gene signature was validated as a predictor of recurrence-free survival in this dataset. Taken together, the results indicate a link between clinical outcome and biologically-identified subsets of infratentorial ependymoma and offer the potential for prognostic testing to estimate clinical aggressiveness in these tumors. PMID:22322993

  16. Clinical characteristics of hepatoduodenal lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Taisuke; Komatsu, Shuhei; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Kosuga, Toshiyuki; Okamoto, Kazuma; Konishi, Hirotaka; Shiozaki, Atsushi; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Otsuji, Eigo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the clinical features of hepatoduodenal lymph node (HDLN) metastasis and to clarify the optimal indication of HDLN dissection. METHODS: We investigated a total of 276 patients who underwent gastrectomy with extended lymphadenectomy, including HDLN dissection, for gastric cancer between 1999 and 2012. Of these, 26 patients (9.4%) had HDLN metastasis. First, we investigated the clinicopathological characteristics, their perioperative clinical outcomes, such as postoperative complications, and prognostic outcomes between patients with and without HDLN metastasis. Second, we detected the prognostic factors, particularly in patients with HDLN metastasis. Third, we assessed the therapeutic value of HDLN dissection to determine its optimal indication. RESULTS: The five-year overall survival rate of the patients with HDLN metastasis was 29%. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that the tumour location (the middle or lower stomach [P = 0.005, OR = 5.88 (95%CI: 1.61-38.1)] and pT category [T3 or T4, P = 0.017, OR = 4.45 (95%CI: 1.28-21.3)] were independent risk factors for HDLN metastasis. Cox proportional hazard analysis identified pN3 as an independent poor prognostic factor in the patients with HDLN metastasis [P = 0.021, HR = 5.17 (95%CI: 1.8-292)]. For patients who underwent radical HDLN dissection, HDLN metastasis was a prognostic indicator in pN3 gastric cancer (P < 0.0001), but not pN1-2 (P = 0.602). Furthermore, the index of therapeutic value of HDLN dissection for gastric cancer in the middle or lower stomach and the upper stomach was 3.4 and 0.0, respectively. CONCLUSION: We suggest that HDLN dissection should be indicated for pN1 or pN2 gastric cancers located at the middle or lower stomach. PMID:26478677

  17. Analysis of and prognostic information from disseminated tumour cells in bone marrow in primary breast cancer: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Disseminated tumour cells (DTCs) in the bone marrow of patients with breast cancer have been identified as an independent predictor of poor prognosis in patients with non-metastatic disease. This prospective study aimed to evaluate the presence and prognostic value of DTCs in the bone marrow of female patients with primary breast cancer. Methods Between 1999 and 2003, bone marrow aspirates were obtained from patients at the time of surgery for primary invasive breast cancer. DTCs in bone marrow were identified using monoclonal antibodies against cytokeratins for detection of epithelial cells. The detection of DTCs was related to clinical follow-up with distant disease-free survival (DDFS) and breast cancer-specific survival as endpoints. Bone marrow aspirates from adult healthy bone marrow donors were analysed separately. Results DTCs were analysed in 401 patients, and cytokeratin-positive cells were found in 152 of these (38%). An immunofluorescence (IF) staining procedure was used in 327 patients, and immunocytochemistry (IC) was performed in 74 patients. The IF-based method resulted in 40% DTC-positive cases, whereas 30% were positive using IC (p?=?0.11). The presence of DTCs in bone marrow was not significantly related to patient or tumour characteristics. The presence of DTCs was not a prognostic factor for DDFS (IF: hazards ratio [HR], 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.632.2; p?=?0.60; IC: HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.098.1; p?=?0.88). Significant prognostic factors were lymph node metastases, oestrogen receptor positivity, Nottingham histological grade, and tumour size using Cox univariate analysis. The analyses were positive for epithelial cells in bone marrow from adult healthy donors in 19 (25%) samples. Conclusions The detection of DTCs in bone marrow in primary breast cancer was previously shown to be a predictor of poor prognosis. We were not able to confirm these results in a prospective cohort including unselected patients before the standard procedure was established. Future studies with a standardised patient protocol and improved technique for isolating and detecting DTCs may reveal the clinical applications of DTC detection in patients with micrometastases in the bone marrow. PMID:22963449

  18. VEGF and Ki-67 Overexpression in Predicting Poor Overall Survival in Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seongyeol; Nam, Soo Jeong; Keam, Bhumsuk; Kim, Tae Min; Jeon, Yoon Kyung; Lee, Se-Hoon; Hah, J. Hun; Kwon, Tack-Kyun; Kim, Dong-Wan; Sung, Myung-Whun; Heo, Dae Seog; Bang, Yung-Jue

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential prognostic factors in patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC). Materials and Methods A total of 68 patients who underwent curative surgery and had available tissue were enrolled in this study. Their medical records and pathologic slides were reviewed and immunohistochemistry for basic fibroblast growth factor, fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) 2, FGFR3, c-kit, Myb proto-oncogene protein, platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and Ki-67 was performed. Univariate and multivariate analysis was performed for determination of disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Results In univariate analyses, primary site of nasal cavity and paranasal sinus (p=0.022) and Ki-67 expression of more than 7% (p=0.001) were statistically significant factors for poor DFS. Regarding OS, perineural invasion (p=0.032), high expression of VEGF (p=0.033), and high expression of Ki-67 (p=0.007) were poor prognostic factors. In multivariate analyses, primary site of nasal cavity and paranasal sinus (p=0.028) and high expression of Ki-67 (p=0.004) were independent risk factors for poor DFS, and high expression of VEGF (p=0.011) and Ki-67 (p=0.011) showed independent association with poor OS. Conclusion High expression of VEGF and Ki-67 were independent poor prognostic factors for OS in ACC. PMID:26194375

  19. Clinical course and prognostic factors following bone recurrence from breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, R. E.; Smith, P.; Rubens, R. D.

    1998-01-01

    Three hundred and sixty-seven women presenting to the Breast Unit at Guy's Hospital between 1975 and 1990 whose first distant metastasis was in the skeleton were identified and the influence of a number of patient and tumour characteristics on the development and subsequent prognosis of bone metastases was assessed. One hundred and thirty-nine women had disease that remained clinically confined to the skeleton. They were more likely to be older, with lobular carcinoma and to have presented initially with little or no axillary lymph node involvement. The 228 women who subsequently developed disease at extra-osseus sites were more likely to have poorly differentiated ductal tumours and heavy lymph node involvement at primary diagnosis. On multivariate analysis, the clinical and pathological factors of greatest prognostic importance for survival after the development of bone metastases were histological grade (P = < 0.0001), oestrogen receptor status (P = < 0.0001), bone disease at initial presentation (P = < 0.0001), disease-free interval (P = 0.002) and age (P = 0.006). PMID:9461007

  20. The prognostic role of desmoplastic stroma in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Soonawalla, Zahir; Liu, Stanley; O'Neill, Eric; Mukherjee, Somnath; McKenna, W. Gillies; Muschel, Ruth; Fokas, Emmanouil

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterized by an abundant desmoplastic stroma. We examined the prognostic value of stroma density and activity in patients with resectable PDAC treated with surgery and adjuvant gemcitabine-based chemotherapy. FFPE-tissue from the pancreatectomy of 145 patients was immunohistochemically stained for haematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome to assess stroma density, and alpha-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) expression for activated pancreatic stellate cells. Their expression was correlated with clinicopathological characteristics as well as overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), local progression-free survival (LPFS) and distant metastases free-survival (DMFS). After a mean follow-up of 20 months (range, 2–69 months), the median OS was 21 months and the 3-year OS was 35.7%. In multivariate analysis, highly-dense stroma was an independent prognostic parameter for OS (p = 0.001), PFS (p = 0.007), LPFS (p = 0.001) and DMFS (p = 0.002), while αSMA expression lacked significance. Interestingly, highly-dense stroma retained significance for the four clinical endpoints only in early (pT1–2) but not late (pT3–4) stage tumors. Additionally, late pT-stage (pT3–4), the presence of lymph node metastases (pN+ vs pN0), perineural/neural invasion and administration of adjuvant chemotherapy also correlated with prognosis in multivariate analysis. Altogether, stroma density constitutes an independent prognostic marker in PDAC patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Our findings highlight the dynamic complexity of desmoplasia and indicate that highly-dense stroma is correlated with better outcome. Further validation of the prognostic value of stroma as a biomarker and its role in PDAC patients after adjuvant chemotherapy is warranted and will be performed in a prospective study. PMID:26716653

  1. Yes associated protein is a poor prognostic factor in well-differentiated lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi Hyun; Kim, Young Keum; Shin, Dong Hoon; Lee, Hyun Jeong; Shin, Nari; Kim, Arong; Lee, Jung Hee; Choi, Kyung Un; Kim, Jee Yeon; Lee, Chang Hun; Sol, Mee Young

    2015-01-01

    The Hippo pathway is a highly conserved potent regulator of cell growth and apoptosis including large tumor suppressor (LATS) and Yes-associated protein (YAP). LATS has been regarded as a tumor suppressor gene and YAP as either of a tumor suppressor gene or an oncogene. We investigated their expression in lung adenocarcinoma. YAP and LATS protein expression was assessed in 167 surgically resected lung adenocarcinomas and compared with clinicopathologic factors. Disease free survival and overall survival were also evaluated. YAP expression was noted in cytoplasm (48 cases; 28.7%), nuclear (34; 20.4%) and both locations (4; 2.4%). The nuclear expression was typically observed in well differentiated adenocarcinoma. LATS was expressed in cytoplasm when its signal is weak. Perinuclear expression of LATS was observed when it is strongly expressed. While cytoplasmic and nuclear YAP expressions were inversely related. In well differentiated adenocarcinoma patients, YAP nuclear expression was related with more frequent relapse. Both of nuclear YAP and LATS expression were more frequently observed in well differentiated adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, YAP expression exhibited more frequent relapse in well differentiated adenocarcinoma group. We suggest that YAP may act as an oncogene and predict poorer prognosis in well differentiated lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:26884866

  2. Strong claudin 5 expression is a poor prognostic sign in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Soini, Ylermi; Eskelinen, M; Juvonen, P; Kärjä, V; Haapasaari, K M; Saarela, A; Karihtala, P

    2014-04-01

    We investigated the expression of claudin 5 in 88 ductal adenocarcinomas of the pancreas. The results were correlated with patient prognosis, with claudin 5 expression in blood vessels, with the expression level of bcl2 and bax and with apoptosis. Claudin 5 expression was detected in 24 (38%) cases. It was not associated with tumour size or spread, but strong claudin 5 expression correlated with a worse survival (p = 0.005). Claudin 5 also associated with a higher extent of apoptosis and greater expression of bax protein. In the tumour vasculature, some vessels displayed a loss of claudin 5 expression. The presence of this loss was associated with tumour grade and the presence of nodal metastases (p = 0.02, p = 0.022, respectively). These results indicate that claudin 5 is upregulated in a proportion of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas. The association of strong claudin 5 expression with a worse survival is in line with some earlier reports indicating that this protein is involved with increased locomotion and more aggressive spread of carcinomas. The association of claudin 5 with apoptosis and bax might be due to stronger cellular kinetics found in such tumours. The loss of claudin 5 expression in the tumour vasculature points to a leaky vessel type; this might also ease the access of tumours to vessels and be reflected in its association with the presence of nodal metastases. PMID:24519061

  3. Estimating the Risk of Chronic Pain: Development and Validation of a Prognostic Model (PICKUP) for Patients with Acute Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Traeger, Adrian C.; Henschke, Nicholas; Hübscher, Markus; Williams, Christopher M.; Kamper, Steven J.; Maher, Christopher G.; Moseley, G. Lorimer; McAuley, James H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Low back pain (LBP) is a major health problem. Globally it is responsible for the most years lived with disability. The most problematic type of LBP is chronic LBP (pain lasting longer than 3 mo); it has a poor prognosis and is costly, and interventions are only moderately effective. Targeting interventions according to risk profile is a promising approach to prevent the onset of chronic LBP. Developing accurate prognostic models is the first step. No validated prognostic models are available to accurately predict the onset of chronic LBP. The primary aim of this study was to develop and validate a prognostic model to estimate the risk of chronic LBP. Methods and Findings We used the PROGRESS framework to specify a priori methods, which we published in a study protocol. Data from 2,758 patients with acute LBP attending primary care in Australia between 5 November 2003 and 15 July 2005 (development sample, n = 1,230) and between 10 November 2009 and 5 February 2013 (external validation sample, n = 1,528) were used to develop and externally validate the model. The primary outcome was chronic LBP (ongoing pain at 3 mo). In all, 30% of the development sample and 19% of the external validation sample developed chronic LBP. In the external validation sample, the primary model (PICKUP) discriminated between those who did and did not develop chronic LBP with acceptable performance (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.66 [95% CI 0.63 to 0.69]). Although model calibration was also acceptable in the external validation sample (intercept = −0.55, slope = 0.89), some miscalibration was observed for high-risk groups. The decision curve analysis estimated that, if decisions to recommend further intervention were based on risk scores, screening could lead to a net reduction of 40 unnecessary interventions for every 100 patients presenting to primary care compared to a “treat all” approach. Limitations of the method include the model being restricted to using prognostic factors measured in existing studies and using stepwise methods to specify the model. Limitations of the model include modest discrimination performance. The model also requires recalibration for local settings. Conclusions Based on its performance in these cohorts, this five-item prognostic model for patients with acute LBP may be a useful tool for estimating risk of chronic LBP. Further validation is required to determine whether screening with this model leads to a net reduction in unnecessary interventions provided to low-risk patients. PMID:27187782

  4. Prognostic Factors for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Patients Undergoing Irinotecan-Based Second-Line Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Shitara, Kohei; Matsuo, Keitaro; Yokota, Tomoya; Takahari, Daisuke; Shibata, Takashi; Ura, Takashi; Inaba, Yoshitaka; Yamaura, Hidekazu; Sato, Yozo; Najima, Mina; Muro, Kei

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: No reports about factors that predict prognosis after second-line chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer have been published. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 124 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who received irinotecan-based second-line chemotherapy after first-line folinic acid/5-fluorouracil (5-FU)/oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) with or without bevacizumab. Results: A multivariate Cox model revealed 5 prognostic factors for worse survival: ECOG performance status 2, pathologically poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, peritoneal metastasis, progression-free survival of first-line FOLFOX < 6 months, and lactate dehydrogenase ≥ 400 IU/L. When patients were categorized into 3 risk groups—patients without any prognostic factors (low-risk, n = 55), patients with one prognostic factor (intermediate-risk, n = 32), and patients with 2 or more prognostic factors (high-risk, n = 37)—overall survival from initiation of second-line chemotherapy was 23.5, 14.6, and 5.5 months, respectively. The proportion of patients who were eligible to receive further chemotherapy after disease progression was significantly lower in the high-risk group (41%) than in the intermediate- (67%) and low-risk (95%) groups. Conclusion: Several prognostic factors for survival after second-line therapy and probability of receiving third-line chemotherapy were identified. This risk classification system might be useful for determining which patients should receive cetuximab in the second-line setting rather than the third-line setting. PMID:22295128

  5. Prognostic model for mantle cell lymphoma in the rituximab era: a nationwide study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Chihara, Dai; Asano, Naoko; Ohmachi, Ken; Kinoshita, Tomohiro; Okamoto, Masataka; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Mizuno, Ishikazu; Matsue, Kosei; Uchida, Toshiki; Nagai, Hirokazu; Nishikori, Momoko; Nakamura, Shigeo; Ogura, Michinori; Suzuki, Ritsuro

    2015-09-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is essentially incurable with conventional chemotherapy. The MCL International Prognostic Index (MIPI) is a validated specific prognostic index, but was derived from patients with advanced-stage disease primarily in the pre-rituximab era. We analysed 501 MCL patients (median age, 67 years; range 22-90) treated with rituximab-containing chemotherapy, and evaluated the prognostic factors adjusted by the treatment. Five-year overall survival (OS) in the low, intermediate and high MIPI groups was 74%, 70% and 35%, respectively. Additional to MIPI risk factors, multivariate analysis revealed that low serum albumin and bone-marrow involvement were also significantly associated with a poor outcome. The revised-MIPI (R-MIPI) was constructed using six factors, namely age, performance status, white blood cell count, serum lactate dehydrogenase, bone-marrow involvement and serum albumin, which is divided into four prognostic groups. Five-year OS in low, low-intermediate (L-I), high-intermediate (H-I) and high R-MIPI groups was 92%, 75%, 61% and 19%, respectively. Hazard ratio for OS of L-I, H-I and high risk to low risk patients were 5·4, 8·3 and 33·0, respectively. R-MIPI, a new prognostic index with easy application to the general patient population, shows promise for identifying low- and high-risk MCL patients in the rituximab era. PMID:25953436

  6. The utilization of immunohistochemical prognostic factor in endometrial adenocarcinoma: is it cost effective?

    PubMed

    Gürer, I E; Simşek, T; Erdoğan, G; Atalay, E; Zorlu, C G; Karaveli, S; Erman, O

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between immunohistochemical prognostic factors and clinical stage and histopathological grade in endometrial adenocarcinoma. Twenty-seven patients with a mean age of 61 (38-74), who underwent radical surgery due to endometrial adenocarcinoma in our hospital between 1983-1998, were re-evaluated. For clinical staging FIGO criteria were used. Histopathological differentiation of the tumor was graded as good (grade 1), moderate (grade 2), and poor (grade 3). Estrogen and progesterone receptors, c-erb B2, UEA 1, Ki-67, PCNA and p53 were studied as immunohistochemical prognostic factors. There were no patients in stages IA and IIIB. Among the prognostic factors, PCNA was the most significantly stained marker, followed by c-erb B2, estrogen and progesterone receptors, regardless of the clinical stage and histopathological grade of the tumor. The least positivity was achieved with Ki-67. There was no significant difference when each prognostic factor was analysed with respect to clinical stage and histopathological grade. In our study no significant relation was found between the prognostic factors and the clinical stage and histopathological differentiation of the tumor. Therefore the cost effectiveness of the utilization of these factors should be reconsidered. PMID:10843486

  7. An Integrated Approach for Gear Health Prognostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, David; Bechhoefer, Eric; Dempsey, Paula; Ma, Jinghua

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an integrated approach for gear health prognostics using particle filters is presented. The presented method effectively addresses the issues in applying particle filters to gear health prognostics by integrating several new components into a particle filter: (1) data mining based techniques to effectively define the degradation state transition and measurement functions using a one-dimensional health index obtained by whitening transform; (2) an unbiased l-step ahead RUL estimator updated with measurement errors. The feasibility of the presented prognostics method is validated using data from a spiral bevel gear case study.

  8. Prognostic Significance of the Tumor-Stroma Ratio in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Wenxin; Liu, Xiangyu

    2015-01-01

    Tumor-stroma ratio (TSR) has recently been identified as a promising prognostic parameter for several solid tumors. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic role of TSR in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and 838 EOC patients were enrolled in this study. TSR was estimated on hematoxylin-and-eosin-stained tissue sections from the most invasive part of the primary tumor. Patients were classified as stroma-rich or stroma-poor according to the proportion of stroma ≥50% or <50%. Chi-square test analysis revealed that TSR were significantly associated with FIGO stage, LN status, and recurrence or not (all of them P < 0.001). The higher stroma-rich proportions were found in EOC patients with advanced stage (36.13% versus 19.75%), LN metastasis (51.93% versus 27.25%), and recurrence (34.27% versus 6.82%). Stroma-rich EOC patients had obvious shorter median time of progression-free survival (29 versus 39 months) and overall survival (50 versus 58 months), respectively. TSR was an independent prognostic factor for the evaluation of PFS in EOC. Stroma-rich tumors had worse prognosis and higher risk of relapse compared with those in stroma-poor tumors in EOC patients. Considered easy to determine for routine pathological examination, TSR may serve as a new prognostic histological parameter in EOC. PMID:26609529

  9. Comorbidity as an independent prognostic factor in elderly patients with peripheral T-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Haifeng; Wang, Tengteng; Wang, Yafei; Yu, Yong; Wang, Xiaofan; Zhao, Zhigang; Yang, Hongliang; Yan, Bei; Wu, Xiaoxiong; Da, Wanming; Zhang, Yizhuo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of comorbidities in the outcomes of patients with peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) in a Chinese population. Fifty-six newly diagnosed PTCL patients aged >60 years were enrolled in our institution between April 2008 and August 2014. Medical record details including clinical parameters, pathological status, and treatment were reviewed. Prognostic factors were assessed using univariate and multivariate analyses. Forty-one (73.2%) patients with PTCL, not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS), nine (16.1%) with angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma, and six (10.7%) with anaplastic large cell lymphoma were recruited in this study. Twenty-eight (50%) had at least one comorbidity. Univariate analysis showed that an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score of 2–4, the presence of B symptoms, an International Prognostic Index (IPI) score of 3–5, and a Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) score ≥2 were significantly associated with shortened overall survival (OS), whereas the presence of B symptoms, an IPI of 3–5, and a CCI ≥2 were associated with worsened progression-free survival (PFS). Multivariate analysis indicated that a high CCI (≥2) and a high IPI (3–5) were poor independent prognostic factors for OS and PFS in the elderly patients with PTCL. Comorbidity was identified as a new independent poor prognostic factor for elderly patients with PTCL. PMID:27069369

  10. Prognostic value of legumain in uveal melanoma

    PubMed Central

    WU, TONG; SUN, LEI; WU, YING; XIANG, RONG; LI, YUWEI; RONG, WEINING; SUN, FENGYUAN; WANG, NINGLI

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the expression of legumain in uveal melanoma (UM) cell lines and primary UM specimens, and to determine the possible association between legumain expression and clinical as well as pathological characteristics to reveal its impact on the prognosis of patients with UM. Records of primary UM cases treated at Beijing Tongren Hospital and Tianjin Eye Hospital between 1996 and 2005 were retrieved for analysis and a total of 82 patients with uveal melanoma were included in the study. The expression of legumain in the formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded surgical specimens of these 82 patients was determined using immunohistochemical analysis. In addition, the expression of legumain was examined in two uveal melanoma cell lines using polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses. The association of legumain expression with clinical/pathological characteristics was analyzed using the χ2 and Fisher's exact test. In addition, the impact of legumain on the prognosis of patients with uveal melanoma was examined. Upregulation of legumain was more predominant in the highly invasive uveal melanoma cell line MUM-2B compared with that in the MUM-2C with low invasiveness. Of 82 primary uveal melanoma tissues, 35 exhibited high expression of legumain, while the other 47 specimens exhibited low or negative expression of legumain. High legumain expression was primarily associated with local invasion of UM. Overall survival analysis revealed that the patients with high legumain expression exhibited poorer survival than patients with low/negative legumain expression. These findings suggested that upregulation of legumain is associated with malignant behavior of UM and that legumain may be used as an negative prognostic factor as well as a therapeutic target. PMID:26846877

  11. Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarkers in Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Leininger, Jennifer; Hamby, Carl; Safai, Bijan

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma is a lethal melanocytic neoplasm. Unfortunately, the histological diagnosis can be difficult at times. Distinguishing ambiguous melanocytic neoplasms that are benign nevi from those that represent true melanoma is important both for treatment and prognosis. Diagnostic biomarkers currently used to assist in the diagnosis of melanoma are usually specific only for melanocytic neoplasms and not necessarily for their ability to metastasize. Traditional prognostic biomarkers include depth of invasion and mitotic count. Newer diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers utilize immunohistochemical staining as well as ribonucleic acid, micro-ribonucleic acid, and deoxyribonucleic acid assays and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Improved diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers are of increasing importance in the treatment of melanoma with the development of newer and more targeted therapies. Herein, the authors review many of the common as well as newer diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers used in melanoma. PMID:25013535

  12. No Way Out: Working Poor Women in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission on Working Women, Washington, DC.

    This report examines the situation of the one-half of the nation's nine million working poor who are female. It begins by looking at just who the working poor are. Two areas of study are education levels and types of jobs. The discussion then shifts to minimum wage earners and their characteristics, the current status of the minimum wage, and the…

  13. The Economic Determinants of Labor Supply for the Urban Poor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Charles Russell

    The study is concerned with empirically deriving a labor supply function for members of poor families. It contains a definition of poverty as well as a brief summary of the characteristics of families in poverty in 1966 and a review of the existing literature on the supply of labor by the poor. A general model of labor supply based on family…

  14. Prognostic and predictive biomarkers: tools in personalized oncology.

    PubMed

    Nalejska, Ewelina; Mączyńska, Ewa; Lewandowska, Marzena Anna

    2014-06-01

    Oncology indispensably leads us to personalized medicine, which allows an individual approach to be taken with each patient. Personalized oncology is based on pharmacogenomics and the effect of genetic differences in individuals (germline and somatic) on the way cancer patients respond to chemotherapeutics. Biomarkers detected using molecular biology tools allow the molecular characterization of cancer signatures and provide information relevant for personalized treatment. Biomarkers can be divided into two main subgroups: prognostic and predictive. The aim of the application of prognostic biomarkers, which provide information on the overall cancer outcome in patients, is to facilitate cancer diagnosis, usually with no need for putting invasive methods into use. Predictive biomarkers help to optimize therapy decisions, as they provide information on the likelihood of response to a given chemotherapeutic. Among the prognostic factors that identify patients with different outcome risks (e.g., recurrence of the disease), the following factors can be distinguished: somatic and germline mutations, changes in DNA methylation that lead to the enhancement or suppression of gene expression, the occurrence of elevated levels of microRNA (miRNA) capable of binding specific messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules, which affects gene expression, as well as the presence of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in blood, which leads to a poor prognosis for the patient. Biomarkers for personalized oncology are used mainly in molecular diagnostics of chronic myeloid leukemia, colon, breast and lung cancer, and recently in melanoma. They are successfully used in the evaluation of the benefits that can be achieved through targeted therapy or in the evaluation of toxic effects of the chemotherapeutic used in the therapy. PMID:24385403

  15. Prognostic value of platelet to lymphocyte ratio in non-small cell lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hua; Gao, Liuwei; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Lianmin; wang, Changli

    2016-01-01

    The prognostic value of the platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains controversial. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis of published studies to determine the prognostic value of PLR in NSCLC. A systematic search was performed in PubMed, Web of Science and Embase for relevant studies. The data and characteristics of each study were extracted, and the hazard ratio (HR) at a 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated to estimate the effect. We also performed subgroup and meta-regression analyses. A total of 2,889 patients in 12 studies were enrolled in this meta-analysis, and the pooled HR of 1.492 (95% CI: 1.231–1.807, P < 0.001) indicated that patients with an elevated PLR are expected to have a shorter overall survival (OS) after treatment. This meta-analysis indicates that a high PLR might be a predictive factor of poor prognosis in NSCLC. Further large-cohort studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:26939789

  16. Prognostic value of platelet to lymphocyte ratio in non-small cell lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Gao, Liuwei; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Lianmin; Wang, Changli

    2016-01-01

    The prognostic value of the platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains controversial. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis of published studies to determine the prognostic value of PLR in NSCLC. A systematic search was performed in PubMed, Web of Science and Embase for relevant studies. The data and characteristics of each study were extracted, and the hazard ratio (HR) at a 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated to estimate the effect. We also performed subgroup and meta-regression analyses. A total of 2,889 patients in 12 studies were enrolled in this meta-analysis, and the pooled HR of 1.492 (95% CI: 1.231-1.807, P?poor prognosis in NSCLC. Further large-cohort studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:26939789

  17. Non-invasive prognostic protein biomarker signatures associated with colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Surinova, Silvia; Radová, Lenka; Choi, Meena; Srovnal, Josef; Brenner, Hermann; Vitek, Olga; Hajdúch, Marián; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2015-01-01

    The current management of colorectal cancer (CRC) would greatly benefit from non-invasive prognostic biomarkers indicative of clinicopathological tumor characteristics. Here, we employed targeted proteomic profiling of 80 glycoprotein biomarker candidates across plasma samples of a well-annotated patient cohort with comprehensive CRC characteristics. Clinical data included 8-year overall survival, tumor staging, histological grading, regional localization, and molecular tumor characteristics. The acquired quantitative proteomic dataset was subjected to the development of biomarker signatures predicting prognostic clinical endpoints. Protein candidates were selected into the signatures based on significance testing and a stepwise protein selection, each within 10-fold cross-validation. A six-protein biomarker signature of patient outcome could predict survival beyond clinical stage and was able to stratify patients into groups of better and worse prognosis. We further evaluated the performance of the signature on the mRNA level and assessed its prognostic value in the context of previously published transcriptional signatures. Additional signatures predicting regional tumor localization and disease dissemination were also identified. The integration of rich clinical data, quantitative proteomic technologies, and tailored computational modeling facilitated the characterization of these signatures in patient circulation. These findings highlight the value of a simultaneous assessment of important prognostic disease characteristics within a single measurement. PMID:26253080

  18. Vehicle Integrated Prognostic Reasoner (VIPR) Metric Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornhill, Dennis; Bharadwaj, Raj; Mylaraswamy, Dinkar

    2013-01-01

    This document outlines a set of metrics for evaluating the diagnostic and prognostic schemes developed for the Vehicle Integrated Prognostic Reasoner (VIPR), a system-level reasoner that encompasses the multiple levels of large, complex systems such as those for aircraft and spacecraft. VIPR health managers are organized hierarchically and operate together to derive diagnostic and prognostic inferences from symptoms and conditions reported by a set of diagnostic and prognostic monitors. For layered reasoners such as VIPR, the overall performance cannot be evaluated by metrics solely directed toward timely detection and accuracy of estimation of the faults in individual components. Among other factors, overall vehicle reasoner performance is governed by the effectiveness of the communication schemes between monitors and reasoners in the architecture, and the ability to propagate and fuse relevant information to make accurate, consistent, and timely predictions at different levels of the reasoner hierarchy. We outline an extended set of diagnostic and prognostics metrics that can be broadly categorized as evaluation measures for diagnostic coverage, prognostic coverage, accuracy of inferences, latency in making inferences, computational cost, and sensitivity to different fault and degradation conditions. We report metrics from Monte Carlo experiments using two variations of an aircraft reference model that supported both flat and hierarchical reasoning.

  19. MicroRNA-21 and Risk of Severe Acute Kidney Injury and Poor Outcomes after Adult Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Du, Juan; Cao, Xiaoqing; Zou, Liang; Chen, Yi; Guo, Jin; Chen, Zujun; Hu, Shengshou; Zheng, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    Background Severe acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac surgery is associated with poor clinical outcomes. This study evaluated the potential use of miR-21 as a risk marker for postoperative AKI progression and other poor outcomes. Methodology/Principal Findings The study included 120 adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery: 40 non-AKI controls, 39 patients with progressive AKI, and 41 with non-progressive AKI. Urine and plasma levels of miR-21 were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). Associations between miR-21 levels and AKI progression were determined by estimating areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC). We demonstrated that up-regulated urine and plasma levels of miR-21 in patients with AKI were both associated with AKI progression. The AUCs for urine and plasma levels of miR-21 associated with established AKI were 0.68 (95%CI: 0.59–0.78) and 0.80 (95%CI: 0.73–0.88), respectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis, adjusting for clinical variables, indicated that the prognostic predictive power of urine and plasma miR-21 levels for AKI progression were represented by AUCs of 0.81 (95%CI: 0.72–0.91) and 0.83 (95%CI: 0.74–0.92), respectively. Urinary and plasma miR-21 levels also predicted the need for postoperative renal replacement therapy (RRT), development of Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) stage 3 AKI, 30-day in-hospital mortality and prolonged stay in hospital or ICU. Urine miR-21 was a better outcome predictor than plasma miR-21, being associated with higher (1.4- to 2.6-fold) unadjusted odds ratio for progression of AKI and other poor outcomes. Conclusions Urinary and plasma miR-21 are associated with severe AKI and other poor postoperative outcomes of cardiac surgery, indicating their potential use as prognostic markers. PMID:23717419

  20. SOCIAL CLASS RESEARCH AND IMAGES OF THE POOR, A BIBLIOGRAPHIC REVIEW.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BLUM, ZAHAVA D.; ROSSI, PETER H.

    DRAWING UPON RECENT STUDIES OF SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS, THIS PAPER DISCUSSES THE BASIC CLASS-RELATED CHARACTERISTICS OF THE POOR. THE POOR ARE DESCRIBED SPECIFICALLY IN TERMS OF COMMUNITY CHARACTERISTICS, HEALTH CHARACTERISTICS, DELINQUENCY, AND SEX AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS. OTHER CORRELATES OF SOCIAL CLASS POSITION WHICH ARE DISCUSSED INCLUDE THE…

  1. Mortality in heart failure: clinical variables of prognostic value.

    PubMed Central

    Cleland, J G; Dargie, H J; Ford, I

    1987-01-01

    One hundred and fifty two patients with chronic heart failure caused primarily by left ventricular dysfunction were followed prospectively in an open study for a mean period of 21 months. The effects of several clinical variables on subsequent outcome were examined, including the effects of treatment, which was determined by the clinician caring for the patient and was not randomly allocated. In order of importance, frequent ventricular extrasystoles, non-treatment with amiodarone, low mean arterial pressure, and a diagnosis of coronary artery disease were associated with a poor prognosis, with each of these variables providing extra predictive information independently of the others. Initial serum potassium concentration and treadmill exercise time also carried further weak but independent prognostic information. Neither treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors nor digoxin appeared to affect outcome. Left ventricular function (as reflected by M mode echocardiography) and the dose of diuretic also failed to predict outcome. There did, however, appear to be a reduction in the frequency of sudden death when angiotension converting enzyme inhibitors were given. Further studies are required to confirm the adverse prognostic significance of ventricular arrhythmias in patients with heart failure and the possible benefit associated with amiodarone treatment. PMID:2447925

  2. Plasma cathepsin L: A prognostic marker for pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nidhi; Das, Prasenjit; Gupta, Surabhi; Sachdev, Vikas; Srivasatava, Siddhartha; Datta Gupta, Siddhartha; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Sahni, Peush; Chauhan, Shyam S; Saraya, Anoop

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assess the prognostic significance of cathepsin L, a cysteine protease that degrades the peri-tumoral tissue, in patients with pancreatic cancer. METHODS: Plasma samples from 127 pancreatic cancer patients were analyzed for cathepsin L levels by ELISA. Out of these patients, 25 underwent surgery and their paraffin-embedded tissue was analyzed for cathepsin L expression by immunohistochemistry. Survival of patients and clinicopathological parameters was correlated with cathepsin L expression in plasma and tissue using appropriate statistical analysis. RESULTS: The mean (± SD) cathepsin L in plasma samples of pancreatic cancer patients was 5.98 ± 2.5 ng/mL that was significantly higher compared to the levels in healthy controls (3.83 ± 0.45) or chronic pancreatitis patients (3.97 ± 1.06). Using ROC curve, a cut-off level of 5.0 ng/mL was decided for survival analysis. Elevated plasma levels of cathepsin L were found to be associated with poor prognosis (P = 0.01) in multivariate analysis. The plasma levels of the protease decreased after surgery. Though no significant correlation was seen between plasma and tissue expression of this protease, a trend did emerge that high cathepsin L expression in tissue correlated with its high levels in plasma. CONCLUSION: Cathepsin L levels in plasma of pancreatic cancer patients may be used as a potential prognostic marker for the disease. PMID:25516668

  3. Prognostic and survival analysis of presbyopia: The healthy twin study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lira, Adiyani; Sung, Joohon

    2015-12-01

    Presbyopia, a vision condition in which the eye loses its flexibility to focus on near objects, is part of ageing process which mostly perceptible in the early or mid 40s. It is well known that age is its major risk factor, while sex, alcohol, poor nutrition, ocular and systemic diseases are known as common risk factors. However, many other variables might influence the prognosis. Therefore in this paper we developed a prognostic model to estimate survival from presbyopia. 1645 participants which part of the Healthy Twin Study, a prospective cohort study that has recruited Korean adult twins and their family members based on a nation-wide registry at public health agencies since 2005, were collected and analyzed by univariate analysis as well as Cox proportional hazard model to reveal the prognostic factors for presbyopia while survival curves were calculated by Kaplan-Meier method. Besides age, sex, diabetes, and myopia; the proposed model shows that education level (especially engineering program) also contribute to the occurrence of presbyopia as well. Generally, at 47 years old, the chance of getting presbyopia becomes higher with the survival probability is less than 50%. Furthermore, our study shows that by stratifying the survival curve, MZ has shorter survival with average onset time about 45.8 compare to DZ and siblings with 47.5 years old. By providing factors that have more effects and mainly associate with presbyopia, we expect that we could help to design an intervention to control or delay its onset time.

  4. WDR5 Expression Is Prognostic of Breast Cancer Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Chunjun; Liu, Xiuxia; Bai, Zhonghu; Yang, Yankun

    2015-01-01

    WDR5 is a core component of the human mixed lineage leukemia-2 complex, which plays central roles in ER positive tumour cells and is a major driver of androgen-dependent prostate cancer cell proliferation. Given the similarities between breast and prostate cancers, we explore the potential prognostic value of WDR5 gene expression on breast cancer survival. Our findings reveal that WDR5 over-expression is associated with poor breast cancer clinical outcome in three gene expression data sets and BreastMark. The eQTL analysis reveals 130 trans-eQTL SNPs whose genes mapped with statistical significance are significantly associated with patient survival. These genes together with WDR5 are enriched with cellular development, gene expression, cell cycle signallings. Knocking down WDR5 in MCF7 dramatically decreases cell viability, but does not alter tumour cell response to doxorubicin. Our study reveals the prognostic value of WDR5 expression in breast cancer which is under long-range regulation of genes involved in cell cycle, and anthracycline could be coupled with treatments targeting WDR5 once such a regimen is available. PMID:26355959

  5. Gastric Mucinous Cancer Histology: Clinicopathological Characteristics and Prognostic Value

    PubMed Central

    Jian-Hui, Chen; Shi-Rong, Cai; Hui, Wu; Jian-bo, Xu; Kai-Ming, Wu; Si-le, Chen; He, Yu-Long

    2016-01-01

    MC tended toward worse tumor biological behavior and long-term survival outcome compared to WMDC. Moreover, MC also showed worse clinicopathological features and survival outcome in some selected patients. For these reasons, MC should be deemed as a special histological type of gastric cancer with worse clinicopathological features and survival outcome. PMID:26839544

  6. The Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS) as a novel and significant predictor of extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type.

    PubMed

    Li, Ya-Jun; Jiang, Wen-Qi; Huang, Jia-Jia; Xia, Zhong-Jun; Huang, Hui-Qiang; Li, Zhi-Ming

    2013-05-01

    The Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS), an inflammation-based prognostic score including C-reactive protein and albumin, shows significant prognostic value in several types of solid tumors. The prognostic value of GPS in lymphoma remains unclear. We performed this study to evaluate the prognostic significance of GPS in extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma (ENKL). We retrospectively analyzed 164 patients with newly diagnosed ENKL. The prognostic value of GPS was evaluated and compared with that of International Prognostic Index (IPI), Prognostic Index for Peripheral T-cell lymphoma unspecified (PIT), and Korean Prognostic Index (KPI). Patients with higher GPS tended to have more adverse clinical characteristics, lower rates of complete remission (P < 0.001), inferior progression-free survival (PFS, P < 0.001), and inferior overall survival (OS, P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that high GPS, age > 60 years, and elevated LDH were independent adverse predictors of OS. GPS was found superior to IPI, PIT, and KPI in discriminating patients with different outcomes in low-risk groups (all P < 0.05). GPS is an independent predictor of survival outcomes in ENKL. Inflammatory response might play an important role in the progression of ENKL and survival of patients with ENKL. PMID:23423859

  7. Defining the Optimal Prognostic Window for Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing in Patients with Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Arena, Ross; Myers, Jonathan; Abella, Joshua; Pinkstaff, Sherry; Brubaker, Peter; Kitzman, Dalane; Peberdy, Mary Ann; Bensimhon, Daniel; Chase, Paul; Forman, Daniel; Guazzi, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Background Ventilatory efficiency (VE/VCO2 slope) and peak oxygen consumption (VO2) provide robust prognostic information in patients with heart failure (HF) undergoing cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX). The purpose of the present study is to assess the change in prognostic characteristics of CPX at different time intervals. Methods and Results Seven hundred and ninety-one subjects (74% male, mean age: 60.7 ±12.9 years, ejection fraction: 34.6 ±15.0%, ischemic etiology: 51%) underwent CPX and were tracked for major cardiac events over a four year period. All event-free subjects were tracked for at least three years. Mean VE/VCO2 slope and peak VO2 were 35.0 ±10.0 and 16.0 ±6 mlO2•kg−1•min−1, respectively. There were a total of 263 major cardiac events (199 deaths/45 transplants/19 left ventricular assist device implantations). Both continuous and dichotomous expressions of the VE/VCO2 slope and peak VO2 were prognostically significant up to 18 months post CPX. Continuous and dichotomous expressions of the VE/VCO2 slope remained prognostically significant up to 36 months post CPX while peak VO2 was not predictive during the third and fourth year of follow-up. In a multivariate analysis, the VE/VCO2 slope was consistently the superior prognostic marker while peak VO2 added predictive value and was retained in the regression up to 18 months post CPX. Conclusions These results indicate that commonly assessed CPX variables retain prognostic value for at least two years. The VE/VCO2 slope is the superior predictor of adverse events throughout follow-up, although peak VO2 provides additive prognostic information during the first two years of follow-up. PMID:20200329

  8. Assessment of the prognostic significance of endoglin (CD105) in clear cell renal cell carcinoma using automated image analysis.

    PubMed

    Dubinski, William; Gabril, Manal; Iakovlev, Vladimir V; Scorilas, Andreas; Youssef, Youssef M; Faragalla, Hala; Kovacs, Kalman; Rotondo, Fabio; Metias, Shereen; Arsanious, Androu; Plotkin, Anna; Girgis, Andrew H F; Streutker, Catherine J; Yousef, George M

    2012-07-01

    The behavior of clear cell renal cell carcinoma can be difficult to predict. Angiogenesis has proven to be a useful prognostic indicator in different malignancies. Endoglin (CD105) is a new marker of angiogenesis found to have prognostic utility in various tumors. Here, we provide the first automated digital assessment of intratumoral microvascular density in clear cell renal cell carcinoma using endoglin and CD31 and assess their utility as predictors of clinical outcome. Both endoglin and CD31 expression showed association with advanced tumor stage (P = .025 and P = .011, respectively). There was a significant correlation between CD31 and tumor grade (P = .034). Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that patients with higher endoglin expression had significantly shorter progression-free survival (P = .010). Patients with higher CD31 expression tended to have a worse prognosis, although this was not statistically significant (P = .082). In univariate analysis using endoglin as a continuous variable, increased endoglin was strongly associated with reduced survival (hazard ratio, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.39-2.18; P = <.001). CD31 also correlated with poor outcomes (hazard ratio, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.24-1.86; P = .001). There was no correlation between CD31 and endoglin expression (r = -0.090, P = .541). Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed the area under the curve to be 0.749 for endoglin and 0.550 for CD31. In conclusion, increased endoglin and CD31 expression are associated with a higher tumor stage and decreased progression-free survival. Our automated approach overcomes many limitations of manual quantification. Advances in digital assessment of immunohistochemical markers can be helpful in standardizing the evaluation of tumor biomarkers. PMID:22204709

  9. Prognostic and clinicopathological significance of serum interleukin-6 expression in colorectal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhen; Wu, Pin; Wu, Dang; Zhang, Zhigang; Hu, Guoming; Zhao, Shuai; Lai, Yucheng; Huang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Interleukin-6 (IL-6) plays an important role in human colorectal cancer (CRC) development. However, the exact clinical and prognostic significance of IL-6 in CRC is still unclear. Here, we conducted this meta-analysis to explore this issue in detail. Methods A meta-analysis was performed to clarify the association between serum IL-6 expression and clinical outcomes in articles published up to June 2015. Weighted mean difference (WMD) and its corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to assess the association between serum IL-6 expression and the clinicopathological characteristics of CRC. Hazard ratio (HR) with 95% CI was used to quantify the predictive value of IL-6 on CRC prognosis. Results Fourteen studies comprising 1,245 patients were included. Analysis of these data showed that serum IL-6 expression was highly correlated with poor 5-year overall survival (OS) rate (HR =0.43, 95% CI: 0.31–0.59, P=0.755). Simultaneously, we also found that serum IL-6 expression was associated with certain clinical parameters of CRC, such as tumor invasion (T category: T0–T2, T3–T4) (WMD =3.15, 95% CI: 1.92–4.39, P=0.816), distant metastasis (M category: M0, M1) (WMD =4.69, 95% CI: 3.33–6.06, P=0.377), and tumor stage (I–II, III–IV) (WMD =2.65, 95% CI: 1.09–4.21, P=0.066). Conclusion A high serum IL-6 expression is associated with adverse OS in CRC. The IL-6 expression can be an important supplement in establishing prognostic score for clinical decision. PMID:26719707

  10. Prognostic factors and risk stratification in early mycosis fungoides.

    PubMed

    Vonderheid, Eric C; Pavlov, Igor; Delgado, Julio C; Martins, Thomas B; Telang, Gladys H; Hess, Allan D; Kadin, Marshall E

    2014-01-01

    Available demographic, clinical, histologic, immunohistochemical and laboratory findings, including serum cytokine/cytokine receptor levels, obtained at initial evaluation in a cohort of 33 patients with mycosis fungoides (MF) at stages I-IIA who had subsequent progression of disease were compared against 70 stage-matched cases of MF without observed progression. Significant factors that correlated with both disease progression and overall survival were: (1) presence of large Pautrier microabscesses (10 or more atypical lymphocytes), (2) presence of atypical lymphocytes with hyperchromatic or vesicular nuclei in the dermal infiltrate, (3) less than 20% CD8 + cells in the dermal infiltrate and (4) above normal (> 122 U/mL) serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) level. Combination of these factors was used to construct prognostic groupings which, if validated, might be useful to identify patients with clinically early MF at highest risk for disease progression and poor outcome. PMID:23547839

  11. Bone Scan Index as a prognostic imaging biomarker during androgen deprivation therapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bone Scan Index (BSI) is a quantitative measurement of tumour burden in the skeleton calculated from bone scan images. When analysed at the time of diagnosis, it has been shown to provide prognostic information on survival in men with metastatic prostate cancer (PCa). In this study, we evaluated the prognostic value of BSI during androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Methods Prostate cancer patients who were at high risk of a poor outcome and who had undergone bone scan at the time of diagnosis and during ADT were recruited from two university hospitals for a retrospective study. BSI at baseline and follow-up were calculated using an automated software package (EXINIbonebsi). Associations between BSI, other prognostic biomarkers and overall survival (OS) were evaluated using a Cox proportional hazards regression model. Results One hundred forty-six PCa patients were included in the study. A total of 102 patient deaths were registered, with a median survival time after the follow-up bone scan of 2.4 years (interquartile range (IQR) =0.8 to 4.4). Both at baseline and during ADT, BSI was significantly associated with OS in univariate and multivariate analyses. When BSI was added to a prognostic base model including age, prostate-specific antigen, clinical tumour stage and Gleason score, the concordance index increased from 0.73 to 0.77 (p =0.0005) at baseline and from 0.77 to 0.82 (p <0.0001) during ADT. Conclusions Automated BSI during ADT is an independent prognostic indicator of OS in PCa patients with bone metastasis. It represents an emerging imaging biomarker that can be used in a prognostic model for risk stratification of PCa patients at the time of diagnosis and at later stages of the disease. BSI could then help physicians identify patients who could benefit from more aggressive therapies. PMID:25386390

  12. Immunohistochemical analysis of RTKs expression identified HER3 as a prognostic indicator of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ema, Akira; Yamashita, Keishi; Ushiku, Hideki; Kojo, Ken; Minatani, Naoko; Kikuchi, Mariko; Mieno, Hiroaki; Moriya, Hiromitsu; Hosoda, Kei; Katada, Natsuya; Kikuchi, Shiro; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2014-01-01

    Standard treatment in Japan for the 13th Japanese Gastric Cancer Association stage II/III advanced gastric cancer is postoperative adjuvant S-1 administration after curative surgery. High expression of receptor type tyrosine kinases (RTKs) has repeatedly represented poor prognosis for cancers. However it has not been demonstrated whether RTKs have prognostic relevance for stage II/III gastric cancer with standard treatment. Tumor tissues were obtained from 167 stage II/III advanced gastric cancer patients who underwent curative surgery and received postoperative S-1 chemotherapy from 2000 to 2010. Expression of the RTKs including EGFR, HER2, HER3, IGF-1R, and EphA2 was analyzed using immunohistochemistry (IHC). Analysis using a multivariate proportional hazard model identified the most significant RTKs that represented independent prognostic relevance. When tumor HER3 expression was classified into IHC 1+/2+ (n = 98) and IHC 0 (n = 69), the cumulative 5-year Relapse Free Survival (5y-RFS) was 56.5 and 82.9%, respectively (P = 0.0034). Significant prognostic relevance was similarly confirmed for IGF-1R (P = 0.014), and EGFR (P = 0.030), but not for EphA2 or HER2 expression. Intriguingly, HER3 expression was closely correlated with IGF-1R (P < 0.0001, R = 0.41), and EphA2 (P < 0.0001, R = 0.34) expression. Multivariate proportional hazard model analysis identified HER3 (IHC 1+/2+) (HR; 1.53, 95% CI, 1.112.16, P = 0.0078) as the sole RTK that was a poor prognostic factor independent of stage. Of the 53 patients who recurred, 40 patients (75.5%) were HER3-positive. Thus, of the RTKs studied, HER3 was the only RTK identified as an independent prognostic indicator of stage II/III advanced gastric cancer with standard treatment. PMID:25455899

  13. A systematic review of prognostic factors for distal upper limb pain

    PubMed Central

    Whibley, Daniel; Martin, Kathryn R; Lovell, Karina; Jones, Gareth T

    2015-01-01

    Background: Musculoskeletal pain in the distal upper limb is relatively common, can be a cause of disability, presents a high cost to society and is clinically important. Previous reviews of prognostic factors have focused on pain in the proximal upper limb, whole upper extremity or isolated regions of the distal upper limb. Aim: To identify factors that predict outcome of distal upper limb pain. Study design: Systematic review Method: Eight bibliographic databases were searched from inception to March 2014. Eligible articles included adults with pain anywhere in the distal upper limb at baseline from randomised controlled trials with a waiting list, expectant policy or usual care group, or observational studies where no treatment or usual care was provided. Data describing the association between a putative prognostic factor and pain or functional outcome at follow-up were required. Quality was assessed using the Quality in Prognostic Studies tool. Results: Seven articles reporting on six studies were identified. Heterogeneity of study populations and outcome measures prevented a meta-analysis so a narrative synthesis of results was undertaken. Three factors (being female, a longer duration of the complaint at initial presentation and having musculoskeletal pain in multiple locations) were significantly associated with poor pain outcome in more than one study. Being female was the only factor significantly associated with poor functional outcome in more than one study. Conclusions: A range of sociodemographic, pain-related, occupational and psychosocial prognostic factors for distal upper limb pain outcomes were investigated in studies included in the review. However, due to the lack of commonality of factors investigated and lack of consistency of results across studies, there is limited evidence for predictors of distal upper limb pain outcomes. Further research is required to identify prognostic factors of distal upper limb pain, particularly modifiable factors that may influence management. PMID:26526466

  14. Educational attainment in poor comprehenders

    PubMed Central

    Ricketts, Jessie; Sperring, Rachael; Nation, Kate

    2014-01-01

    To date, only one study has investigated educational attainment in poor (reading) comprehenders, providing evidence of poor performance on national UK school tests at age 11 years relative to peers (Cain and Oakhill, 2006). In the present study, we adopted a longitudinal approach, tracking attainment on such tests from 11 years to the end of compulsory schooling in the UK (age 16 years). We aimed to investigate the proposal that educational weaknesses (defined as poor performance on national assessments) might become more pronounced over time, as the curriculum places increasing demands on reading comprehension. Participants comprised 15 poor comprehenders and 15 controls; groups were matched for chronological age, nonverbal reasoning ability and decoding skill. Children were identified at age 9 years using standardized measures of nonverbal reasoning, decoding and reading comprehension. These measures, along with a measure of oral vocabulary knowledge, were repeated at age 11 years. Data on educational attainment were collected from all participants (n = 30) at age 11 and from a subgroup (n = 21) at 16 years. Compared to controls, educational attainment in poor comprehenders was lower at ages 11 and 16 years, an effect that was significant at 11 years. When poor comprehenders were compared to national performance levels, they showed significantly lower performance at both time points. Low educational attainment was not evident for all poor comprehenders. Nonetheless, our findings point to a link between reading comprehension difficulties in mid to late childhood and poor educational outcomes at ages 11 and 16 years. At these ages, pupils in the UK are making key transitions: they move from primary to secondary schools at 11, and out of compulsory schooling at 16. PMID:24904464

  15. Postoperative Low Absolute Lymphocyte Counts may Predict Poor Outcomes of Hepatocellular Carcinoma After Liver Resection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ming; Li, Chuan; Wen, Tian-Fu; Peng, Wei; Chen, Li-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Background: The absolute lymphocyte counts (ALCs) have been reported as one of worse prognostic factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patient after liver transplantation. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of ALCs on the outcomes of patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related HCC within the Milan criteria following liver resection. Methods: Data of patients with HCC within the Milan criteria who received liver resection between January 2007 and June 2013 were reviewed, and perioperative ALCs were carefully monitored. All potential risk factors were statistically analyzed by uni- and multi-variate analyses. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine the optimal ALCs cut-off value to predict HCC recurrence after liver resection. Results: A total of 221 patients were enrolled in the current study. During the follow-up period, 106 patients experienced recurrence, and 38 patients died. Multivariate analysis suggested microvascular invasion (MVI), a tumor grade ≥2, and a low postoperative ALCs in the 1st postoperative month increased the incidence of postoperative recurrence, besides, MVI, intraoperative transfusion, and a low postoperative ALCs in the 1st postoperative month were associated with poor overall survival (OS). An ROC analysis showed that a cut-off value of 1.5 × 109/L for ALCs in the 1st postoperative month predicted postoperative recurrence. The 5-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) and OS rates of patients with low postoperative ALCs were 34.5% and 64.8%, respectively, which were significantly lower than those of patients with high postoperative ALC (58.5% for RFS and 86.5% for OS). Conclusion: Low ALCs in the 1st postoperative month may be associated with high recurrence incidence and poor OS for patients with HBV-related HCC within the Milan criteria after liver resection. PMID:26904987

  16. Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma: Prognostic Factors and Oncologic Outcome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Magge, Deepa; Zenati, Mazen S.; Austin, Frances; Mavanur, Arun; Sathaiah, Magesh; Ramalingam, Lekshmi; Jones, Heather; Zureikat, Amer H.; Holtzman, Matthew; Ahrendt, Steven; Pingpank, James; Zeh, Herbert J.; Bartlett, David L.; Choudry, Haroon A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Most patients with malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) present with late-stage, unresectable disease that responds poorly to systemic chemotherapy while, at the same time, effective targeted therapies are lacking. We assessed the efficacy of cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemoperfusion (HIPEC) in MPM. Methods We prospectively analyzed 65 patients with MPM undergoing CRS/HIPEC between 2001 and 2010. KaplanMeier survival curves and multivariate Cox-regression models identified prognostic factors affecting oncologic outcomes. Results Adequate CRS was achieved in 56 patients (CC-0 = 35; CC-1 = 21), and median simplified peritoneal cancer index (SPCI) was 12. Pathologic assessment revealed predominantly epithelioid histology (81 %) and biphasic histology (8 %), while lymph node involvement was uncommon (8 %). Major postoperative morbidity (grade III/IV) occurred in 23 patients (35 %), and 60-day mortality rate was 6 %. With median follow-up of 37 months, median overall survival was 46.2 months, with 1-, 2-, and 5-year overall survival probability of 77, 57, and 39 %, respectively. Median progression-free survival was 13.9 months, with 1-, 2-, and 5-year disease failure probability of 47, 68, and 83 %, respectively. In a multivariate Cox-regression model, age at surgery, SPCI >15, incomplete cytoreduction (CC-2/3), aggressive histology (epithelioid, biphasic), and postoperative sepsis were joint significant predictors of poor survival (chi square = 42.8; p = 0.00001), while age at surgery, SPCI >15, incomplete cytoreduction (CC-2/3), and aggressive histology (epithelioid, biphasic) were joint significant predictors of disease progression (Chi square = 30.6; p = 0.00001). Conclusions Tumor histology, disease burden, and the ability to achieve adequate surgical cytoreduction are essential prognostic factors in MPM patients undergoing CRS/HIPEC. PMID:24322529

  17. Promoter CpG island methylation of RET predicts poor prognosis in stage II colorectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Draht, Muriel X G; Smits, Kim M; Tournier, Benjamin; Jooste, Valerie; Chapusot, Caroline; Carvalho, Beatriz; Cleven, Arjen H G; Derks, Sarah; Wouters, Kim A D; Belt, Eric J T; Stockmann, Hein B A C; Bril, Herman; Weijenberg, Matty P; van den Brandt, Piet A; de Bruïne, Adriaan P; Herman, James G; Meijer, Gerrit A; Piard, Françoise; Melotte, Veerle; van Engeland, Manon

    2014-05-01

    Improved prognostic stratification of patients with TNM stage II colorectal cancer (CRC) is desired, since 20-30% of high-risk stage II patients may die within five years of diagnosis. This study was conducted to investigate REarranged during Transfection (RET) gene promoter CpG island methylation as a possible prognostic marker for TNM stage II CRC patients. The utility of RET promoter CpG island methylation in tumors of stage II CRC patients as a prognostic biomarker for CRC related death was studied in three independent series (including 233, 231, and 294 TNM stage II patients, respectively) by using MSP and pyrosequencing. The prognostic value of RET promoter CpG island methylation was analyzed by using Cox regression analysis. In the first series, analyzed by MSP, CRC stage II patients (n = 233) with RET methylated tumors had a significantly worse overall survival as compared to those with unmethylated tumors (HRmultivariable = 2.51, 95%-CI: 1.42-4.43). Despite a significant prognostic effect of RET methylation in stage III patients of a second series, analyzed by MSP, the prognostic effect in stage II patients (n = 231) was not statistically significant (HRmultivariable = 1.16, 95%-CI 0.71-1.92). The third series (n = 294), analyzed by pyrosequencing, confirmed a statistically significant association between RET methylation and poor overall survival in stage II patients (HRmultivariable = 1.91, 95%-CI: 1.04-3.53). Our results show that RET promoter CpG island methylation, analyzed by two different techniques, is associated with a poor prognosis in stage II CRC in two independent series and a poor prognosis in stage III CRC in one series. RET methylation may serve as a useful and robust tool for clinical practice to identify high-risk stage II CRC patients with a poor prognosis. This merits further investigation. PMID:24560444

  18. Tuberculous meningitis in children: a retrospective study of 79 patients, with an analysis of prognostic factors.

    PubMed Central

    Delage, G.; Dusseault, M.

    1979-01-01

    A study of 79 cases of tuberculous meningitis in children, with an emphasis on prognostic factors, was conducted by means of a review of hospital records and completion of a follow-up questionnaire. The survival rate was 62%. Stage 3 disease (with severe changes in the sensorium and often severe neurologic abnormalities) at the time of admission, age 3 years or less, associated miliary tuberculosis and delay in the initiation of therapy correlated significantly with poor outcome. Severe neurologic complications in the acute phase were also related to poor outcome and severe sequelae. General recommendations pertaining to treatment are made. PMID:427668

  19. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-2 Plays a Leading Prognostic Role among Protease Families in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Su, Chia-Yi; Liu, Yu-Peng; Yang, Chih-Jen; Lin, Yuan-Feng; Chiou, Jean; Chi, Li-Hsing; Lee, Jih-Jong; Wu, Alex T. H.; Lu, Pei-Jung; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Hsiao, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background In lung cancer, uPA, its receptor (uPAR), and the inhibitors PAI-1 and PAI-2 of the plasminogen activator family interact with MMP-2 and MMP-9 of the MMP family to promote cancer progression. However, it remains undetermined which of these markers plays the most important role and may be the most useful indicator to stratify the patients by risk. Methods We determined the individual prognostic value of these 6 markers by analyzing a derivation cohort with 98 non-small cell lung cancer patients by immunohistochemical staining. The correlation between the IHC expression levels of these markers and disease prognosis was investigated, and an immunohistochemical panel for prognostic prediction was subsequently generated through prognostic model analysis. The value of the immunohistochemical panel was then verified by a validation cohort with 91 lung cancer patients. Results In derivation cohort, PAI-2 is the most powerful prognostic factor (HR = 2.30; P = 0.001), followed by MMP-9 (HR = 2.09; P = 0.019) according to multivariate analysis. When combining PAI-2 and MMP-9, the most unfavorable prognostic group (low PAI-2 and high MMP-9 IHC expression levels) showed a 6.40-fold increased risk of a poor prognosis compared to the most favorable prognostic group (high PAI-2 and low MMP-9 IHC expression levels). PAI-2 and MMP-9 IHC panel could more precisely identify high risk patients in both derivation and validation cohort. Conclusions We revealed PAI-2 as the most powerful prognostic marker among PA and MMP protease family even after considering their close relationships with each other. By utilizing a combination of PAI-2 and MMP-9, more precise prognostic information than merely using pathological stage alone can be obtained for lung cancer patients. PMID:26230665

  20. Prognostic DNA Methylation Markers for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Strand, Siri H.; Orntoft, Torben F.; Sorensen, Karina D.

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the most commonly diagnosed neoplasm and the third most common cause of cancer-related death amongst men in the Western world. PC is a clinically highly heterogeneous disease, and distinction between aggressive and indolent disease is a major challenge for the management of PC. Currently, no biomarkers or prognostic tools are able to accurately predict tumor progression at the time of diagnosis. Thus, improved biomarkers for PC prognosis are urgently needed. This review focuses on the prognostic potential of DNA methylation biomarkers for PC. Epigenetic changes are hallmarks of PC and associated with malignant initiation as well as tumor progression. Moreover, DNA methylation is the most frequently studied epigenetic alteration in PC, and the prognostic potential of DNA methylation markers for PC has been demonstrated in multiple studies. The most promising methylation marker candidates identified so far include PITX2, C1orf114 (CCDC181) and the GABRE~miR-452~miR-224 locus, in addition to the three-gene signature AOX1/C1orf114/HAPLN3. Several other biomarker candidates have also been investigated, but with less stringent clinical validation and/or conflicting evidence regarding their possible prognostic value available at this time. Here, we review the current evidence for the prognostic potential of DNA methylation markers in PC. PMID:25238417

  1. A Distributed Prognostic Health Management Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhaskar, Saha; Saha, Sankalita; Goebel, Kai

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a generic distributed prognostic health management (PHM) architecture with specific application to the electrical power systems domain. Current state-of-the-art PHM systems are mostly centralized in nature, where all the processing is reliant on a single processor. This can lead to loss of functionality in case of a crash of the central processor or monitor. Furthermore, with increases in the volume of sensor data as well as the complexity of algorithms, traditional centralized systems become unsuitable for successful deployment, and efficient distributed architectures are required. A distributed architecture though, is not effective unless there is an algorithmic framework to take advantage of its unique abilities. The health management paradigm envisaged here incorporates a heterogeneous set of system components monitored by a varied suite of sensors and a particle filtering (PF) framework that has the power and the flexibility to adapt to the different diagnostic and prognostic needs. Both the diagnostic and prognostic tasks are formulated as a particle filtering problem in order to explicitly represent and manage uncertainties; however, typically the complexity of the prognostic routine is higher than the computational power of one computational element ( CE). Individual CEs run diagnostic routines until the system variable being monitored crosses beyond a nominal threshold, upon which it coordinates with other networked CEs to run the prognostic routine in a distributed fashion. Implementation results from a network of distributed embedded devices monitoring a prototypical aircraft electrical power system are presented, where the CEs are Sun Microsystems Small Programmable Object Technology (SPOT) devices.

  2. Evaluating Algorithm Performance Metrics Tailored for Prognostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, Abhinav; Celaya, Jose; Saha, Bhaskar; Saha, Sankalita; Goebel, Kai

    2009-01-01

    Prognostics has taken a center stage in Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) where it is desired to estimate Remaining Useful Life (RUL) of the system so that remedial measures may be taken in advance to avoid catastrophic events or unwanted downtimes. Validation of such predictions is an important but difficult proposition and a lack of appropriate evaluation methods renders prognostics meaningless. Evaluation methods currently used in the research community are not standardized and in many cases do not sufficiently assess key performance aspects expected out of a prognostics algorithm. In this paper we introduce several new evaluation metrics tailored for prognostics and show that they can effectively evaluate various algorithms as compared to other conventional metrics. Specifically four algorithms namely; Relevance Vector Machine (RVM), Gaussian Process Regression (GPR), Artificial Neural Network (ANN), and Polynomial Regression (PR) are compared. These algorithms vary in complexity and their ability to manage uncertainty around predicted estimates. Results show that the new metrics rank these algorithms in different manner and depending on the requirements and constraints suitable metrics may be chosen. Beyond these results, these metrics offer ideas about how metrics suitable to prognostics may be designed so that the evaluation procedure can be standardized. 1

  3. Poor smokers, poor quitters, and cigarette tax regressivity.

    PubMed

    Remler, Dahlia K

    2004-02-01

    The traditional view that excise taxes are regressive has been challenged. I document the history of the term regressive tax, show that traditional definitions have always found cigarette taxes to be regressive, and illustrate the implications of the greater price responsiveness observed among the poor. I explain the different definitions of tax burden: accounting, welfare-based willingness to pay, and welfare-based time inconsistent. Progressivity (equity across income groups) is sensitive to the way in which tax burden is assessed. Analysis of horizontal equity (fairness within a given income group) shows that cigarette taxes heavily burden poor smokers who do not quit, no matter how tax burden is assessed. PMID:14759931

  4. Prognostic Significance of Single Progesterone Receptor Positivity

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Ying; Ding, Xiaoyan; Xu, Binghe; Ma, Fei; Yuan, Peng; Wang, Jiayu; Zhang, Pin; Li, Qing; Luo, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Single progesterone receptor positive (PgR+), especially in form of ER−/PgR+/HER2−, is a nonnegligible phenomenon. Little is known about the characteristics and the role of single PgR positive in this phenotype. Therefore, we explore the significance of single PgR positivity by comparing ER−/PgR+/HER2− breast cancers with triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs). Three thousand nine hundred sixty-six cases of primary invasive breast carcinoma operated consecutively from January 2005 to May 2008 in Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences were examined. Two hundred forty (6%) cases were identified as ER−/PgR+/HER2− breast cancers and 348 (8.8%) cases as TNBCs. Clinicopathological characteristics and survivals were analyzed respectively and then compared between 2 subtypes. Compared with patients with TNBCs, ER−/PgR+/HER2− tumor tended to have lower tumor grade (Grade 3: 45.7% vs. 37.5%, P = 0.051) and smaller tumor size (P = 0.036). However, no differences were found between ER−/PgR+/HER2− and TNBC patients in relapse-free survival (RFS) and OS. The 5-year RFS rates were 80.7% and 77.4%, respectively (P = 0.330) and the 5-year OS rates were 88.0% and 85.2%, respectively (P = 0.290). ER−/PgR+/HER2− patients receiving adjuvant endocrine treatment had better RFS (P = 0.016) and overall survival (OS) (P < 0.0001) than patients receiving no endocrine therapy. This exclusive analysis of patients with ER−/PgR+/HER2− breast cancers showed that this subtype exhibited an aggressive behavior as TNBC, suggesting that it should also be regarded as biologically distinctive group and single PgR positive itself is not a good prognostic factor. However, adjuvant endocrine therapy could still benefit this group of patients. Further investigations should be done to elucidate the underlying mechanism. PMID:26579819

  5. Prognostic significance of Ki-67 antigen expression in extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li; Li, Pengfei; Wang, Hua; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Xinke; Qiu, Huijuan; Zhang, Bei

    2014-10-01

    Extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma, nasal-type (ENKTL) is a clinically heterogeneous disease with poor prognosis and requires risk stratification in affected patients. Recent studies have shown that Ki-67 may serve as a prognostic marker in certain types of lymphoma. We analyzed Ki-67 expression and its correlation with prognosis in 182 patients with ENKTL from January 2002 to June 2013. The patients were classified into two groups through a median value: low (<60%) versus high Ki-67 (≥60%). High Ki-67 expression was more common in patients with B symptoms (p=0.02), bulky disease (p=0.001), and extraupper aerodigestive tract NK/T-cell lymphoma (p=0.001). High Ki-67 expression was significantly associated with poor overall survival (p<0.0001) and progression-free survival (p<0.0001). For patients with low-risk IPI or KPI, Ki-67 at diagnosis could contribute to distinguish patients with favorable outcomes from those with poor outcomes. The results of multivariate analysis showed that the high Ki-67 expression is an independent prognostic factor for overall survival and progression-free survival. (OS, p=0.001; PFS, p=0.003). Our data showed that Ki-67 is an effective prognostic indicator of survival in ENKTL patients. This prognostic index may be helpful in identifying high-risk patients with ENKTL. PMID:25204411

  6. Single Gene Prognostic Biomarkers in Ovarian Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Willis, Scooter; Villalobos, Victor M.; Gevaert, Olivier; Abramovitz, Mark; Williams, Casey; Sikic, Branimir I.; Leyland-Jones, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To discover novel prognostic biomarkers in ovarian serous carcinomas. Methods A meta-analysis of all single genes probes in the TCGA and HAS ovarian cohorts was performed to identify possible biomarkers using Cox regression as a continuous variable for overall survival. Genes were ranked by p-value using Stouffer’s method and selected for statistical significance with a false discovery rate (FDR) <.05 using the Benjamini-Hochberg method. Results Twelve genes with high mRNA expression were prognostic of poor outcome with an FDR <.05 (AXL, APC, RAB11FIP5, C19orf2, CYBRD1, PINK1, LRRN3, AQP1, DES, XRCC4, BCHE, and ASAP3). Twenty genes with low mRNA expression were prognostic of poor outcome with an FDR <.05 (LRIG1, SLC33A1, NUCB2, POLD3, ESR2, GOLPH3, XBP1, PAXIP1, CYB561, POLA2, CDH1, GMNN, SLC37A4, FAM174B, AGR2, SDR39U1, MAGT1, GJB1, SDF2L1, and C9orf82). Conclusion A meta-analysis of all single genes identified thirty-two candidate biomarkers for their possible role in ovarian serous carcinoma. These genes can provide insight into the drivers or regulators of ovarian cancer and should be evaluated in future studies. Genes with high expression indicating poor outcome are possible therapeutic targets with known antagonists or inhibitors. Additionally, the genes could be combined into a prognostic multi-gene signature and tested in future ovarian cohorts. PMID:26886260

  7. Collagen Triple Helix Repeat Containing-1 (CTHRC1) Expression in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC): Prognostic Value and Clinico-Pathological Implications

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chia Ee; Vincent-Chong, Vui King; Ramanathan, Anand; Kallarakkal, Thomas George; Karen-Ng, Lee Peng; Ghani, Wan Maria Nabillah; Rahman, Zainal Ariff Abdul; Ismail, Siti Mazlipah; Abraham, Mannil Thomas; Tay, Keng Kiong; Mustafa, Wan Mahadzir Wan; Cheong, Sok Ching; Zain, Rosnah Binti

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Collagen Triple Helix Repeat Containing 1 (CTHRC1) is a protein often found to be over-expressed in various types of human cancers. However, correlation between CTHRC1 expression level with clinico-pathological characteristics and prognosis in oral cancer remains unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to determine mRNA and protein expression of CTHRC1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and to evaluate the clinical and prognostic impact of CTHRC1 in OSCC. METHODS: In this study, mRNA and protein expression of CTHRC1 in OSCCs were determined by quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The association between CTHRC1 and clinico-pathological parameters were evaluated by univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses. Correlation between CTHRC1 protein expressions with survival were analysed using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression models. RESULTS: Current study demonstrated CTHRC1 was significantly overexpressed at the mRNA level in OSCC. Univariate analyses indicated a high-expression of CTHRC1 that was significantly associated with advanced stage pTNM staging, tumour size ≥ 4 cm and positive lymph node metastasis (LNM). However, only positive LNM remained significant after adjusting with other confounder factors in multivariate logistic regression analyses. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses and Cox model demonstrated that patients with high-expression of CTHRC1 protein were associated with poor prognosis and is an independent prognostic factor in OSCC. CONCLUSION: This study indicated that over-expression of CTHRC1 potentially as an independent predictor for positive LNM and poor prognosis in OSCC. PMID:26664254

  8. Are Poor Chinese Text Comprehenders Also Poor in Written Composition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guan, Connie Qun; Ye, Feifei; Meng, Wanjin; Leong, Che Kan

    2013-01-01

    We studied the performance in three genres of Chinese written composition (narration, exposition, and argumentation) of 158 grade 4, 5, and 6 poor Chinese text comprehenders compared with 156 good Chinese text comprehenders. We examined text comprehension and written composition relationship. Verbal working memory (verbal span working memory and

  9. Are Poor Chinese Text Comprehenders Also Poor in Written Composition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guan, Connie Qun; Ye, Feifei; Meng, Wanjin; Leong, Che Kan

    2013-01-01

    We studied the performance in three genres of Chinese written composition (narration, exposition, and argumentation) of 158 grade 4, 5, and 6 poor Chinese text comprehenders compared with 156 good Chinese text comprehenders. We examined text comprehension and written composition relationship. Verbal working memory (verbal span working memory and…

  10. Circulating Endothelial Cells and Procoagulant Microparticles in Patients with Glioblastoma: Prognostic Value

    PubMed Central

    Reynés, Gaspar; Vila, Virtudes; Fleitas, Tania; Reganon, Edelmiro; Font de Mora, Jaime; Jordá, María; Martínez-Sales, Vicenta

    2013-01-01

    Aim Circulating endothelial cells and microparticles are prognostic factors in cancer. However, their prognostic and predictive value in patients with glioblastoma is unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential prognostic value of circulating endothelial cells and microparticles in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma treated with standard radiotherapy and concomitant temozolomide. In addition, we have analyzed the methylation status of the MGMT promoter. Methods Peripheral blood samples were obtained before and at the end of the concomitant treatment. Blood samples from healthy volunteers were also obtained as controls. Endothelial cells were measured by an immunomagnetic technique and immunofluorescence microscopy. Microparticles were quantified by flow cytometry. Microparticle-mediated procoagulant activity was measured by endogen thrombin generation and by phospholipid-dependent clotting time. Methylation status of MGMT promoter was determined by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Results Pretreatment levels of circulating endothelial cells and microparticles were higher in patients than in controls (p<0.001). After treatment, levels of microparticles and thrombin generation decreased, and phospholipid-dependent clotting time increased significantly. A high pretreatment endothelial cell count, corresponding to the 99th percentile in controls, was associated with poor overall survival. MGMT promoter methylation was present in 27% of tumor samples and was associated to a higher overall survival (66 weeks vs 30 weeks, p<0.004). Conclusion Levels of circulating endothelial cells may have prognostic value in patients with glioblastoma. PMID:23922679

  11. CCL21 as an independent favorable prognostic factor for stage III/IV colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yifeng; Chen, Yufeng; Wu, Xianrui; Yuan, Ruixue; Cai, Zerong; He, Xiaosheng; Fan, Xinjuan; Wang, Lei; Wu, Xiaojian; Lan, Ping

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression dynamics of CCL21 and its prognostic significance in human stage III/IV colorectal cancer (CRC). CCL21 expression dynamics were detected with western blotting. The expression of CCL21 in CRC tissue microarrays was examined by immunohistochemistry. The optimal cut-point of CCL21 expression was assessed by the X-tile program. The prognostic significance was analyzed using both Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression analysis. Western blot analysis demonstrated that CCL21 expression was comparable in the CRC and normal colorectal tissues. According to the X-tile program, the cut-point for high expression of CCL21 in CRC was determined when the CCL21 expression index was >56.1. Overexpression of CCL21 was significantly correlated with larger tumor diameter, more mucinous carcinoma or signet ring cell carcinoma and poor tumor differentiation. Patients with high expression of CCL21 had a higher overall survival rate in comparison to patients with low expression. In the multivariate Cox regression analysis, CCL21 expression was found to be an independent prognostic biomarker for CRC. ROC curves showed that CCL21 expression could improve the prognostic capability of TNM stage in stage III/IV CRC patients. High expression of CCL21 is an independent and useful biomarker for predicting longer survival of stage III/IV CRC patients. PMID:23760102

  12. Static and dynamic prognostic factors for hepatitis-B-related acute-on-chronic liver failure

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Jung Min; Sohn, Won; Cho, Ju Yeon; Pyo, Jeung Hui; Choi, Kyu; Sinn, Dong Hyun; Gwak, Geum-Youn; Choi, Moon Seok; Lee, Joon Hyeok; Koh, Kwang Chul; Paik, Seung Woon; Yoo, Byung Chul

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Hepatitis-B-related acute-on-chronic liver failure has a poor prognosis. However, the advent of potent oral antiviral agents means that some patients can now recover with medical treatment. We aimed to identify the prognostic factors for hepatitis-B-related acute-on-chronic liver failure including the initial as well as the dynamically changing clinical parameters during admission. Methods Sixty-seven patients were retrospectively enrolled from 2003 to 2012 at Samsung Medical Center. The patients were classified into three categories: Recovery group (n=23), Liver transplantation group (n=28), and Death group (n=16). The Liver transplantation and Death groups were combined into an Unfavorable prognosis group. We analyzed the prognostic factors including the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores determined at 3-day intervals. Results A multivariable analysis showed that the unfavorable prognostic factors were a high initial MELD score (≥28) (odds ratio [OR] =6.64, p=0.015), moderate-to-severe ascites at admission (OR=6.71, P=0.012), and the aggravation of hepatic encephalopathy during hospitalization (≥grade III) (OR=15.41, P=0.013). Compared with the baseline level, significant reductions in the MELD scores were observed on the 7th day after admission in the Recovery group (P=0.016). Conclusions Dynamic changes in clinical parameters during admission are useful prognostic factors for hepatitis-B-related acute-on-chronic liver failure. PMID:26523268

  13. Prognostic Fifteen-Gene Signature for Early Stage Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dung-Tsa; Davis-Yadley, Ashley H.; Huang, Po-Yu; Husain, Kazim; Centeno, Barbara A.; Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Pimiento, Jose M.; Malafa, Mokenge

    2015-01-01

    The outcomes of patients treated with surgery for early stage pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are variable with median survival ranging from 6 months to more than 5 years. This challenge underscores an unmet need for developing personalized medicine strategies to refine the current treatment decision-making process. To derive a prognostic gene signature for patients with early stage PDAC, a PDAC cohort from Moffitt Cancer Center (n = 63) was used with overall survival (OS) as the primary endpoint. This was further evaluated using an independent microarray cohort dataset (Stratford et al: n = 102). Technical validation was performed by NanoString platform. A prognostic 15-gene signature was developed and showed a statistically significant association with OS in the Moffitt cohort (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.26; p<0.001) and Stratford et al cohort (HR = 2.07; p = 0.02), and was independent of other prognostic variables. Moreover, integration of the signature with the TNM staging system improved risk prediction (p<0.01 in both cohorts). In addition, NanoString validation showed that the signature was robust with a high degree of reproducibility and the association with OS remained significant in the two cohorts. The gene signature could be a potential prognostic tool to allow risk-adapted stratification of PDAC patients into personalized treatment protocols; possibly improving the currently poor clinical outcomes of these patients. PMID:26247463

  14. Prognostic value of tumour budding in oesophageal cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Almangush, Alhadi; Karhunen, Markku; Hautaniemi, Sampsa; Salo, Tuula; Leivo, Ilmo

    2016-01-01

    Recently, tumour budding (TB) has been suggested as a strong prognostic marker in oesophageal cancer. The aim of this systematic review is to test the prognostic value of TB in oesophageal cancer by a meta-analysis of previously published studies. We systematically reviewed the literature related to TB by using the bibliographic databases of Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science. The search was limited to publications in the English language up to and including December 2014. There are 11 retrospective studies in which TB has been evaluated in oesophageal cancer. Two authors independently extracted the results from eligible studies. The meta-analysis of eligible studies revealed that TB is a significant prognosticator for overall survival in oesophageal cancer, with a risk ratio (RR) of 2.97 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.81-4.85; P = 0.0023] in univariate analysis, and with an RR of 2.07 (95% CI 1.22-3.52; P = 0.017) in multivariate analysis. We conclude that a high TB score is a promising prognostic marker of poor survival in oesophageal cancer. Because of its simplicity, reproducibility and high predictive power, TB is strongly recommended to be included in the routine pathology report of oesophageal cancer. PMID:26183253

  15. IMP3 Protein Expression is an Independent Prognostic Factor in Pediatric Pilocytic and Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Valerie N.; Donson, Andrew M.; Birks, Diane K.; Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, BK; Handler, Michael H.; Foreman, Nicholas K.; Rush, Sarah Z.

    2015-01-01

    Prognostic factors in pilocytic astrocytomas (PA) and pilomyxoid astrocytomas (PMA) include extent of resection, location and age but no molecular markers have been established. Insulin-like growth factor-II messenger RNA binding protein-3 (IMP3, IGF2BP3) is predictive of an unfavorable prognosis in other tumors including high grade astrocytomas but its role in PA/PMA is unknown. This study aimed to determine the expression and prognostic value of IMP3 in pediatric PA/PMAs. IMP3 protein expression was examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 77 pediatric PAs (n=70) and PMAs (n=7) and scored on a subjective scale. Strong diffuse staining for IMP3 was observed in 31% (24/77) of tumors and associated with a shorter progression free survival (HR=2.63; p=0.008). This cohort confirmed previously identified prognostic factors including extent of resection, age and tumor location. Currently, only clinical factors are weighed to stratify risk for patients and to identify those who should receive further therapy. Multivariate analyses identified IMP3 expression as an independent prognostic factor (HR=2.45; p=0.016) when combined with high/low risk stratification. High IMP3 as measured by IHC has potential utility as an additional predictor of poor prognosis in pediatric PA/PMAs and warrants evaluation in larger cohorts. PMID:23584203

  16. Initial Hyperleukocytosis and Neutrophilia in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Incidence and Prognostic Impact

    PubMed Central

    OuYang, Pu-Yun; Tang, Jie; Xie, Fang-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate initial hyperleukocytosis and neutrophilia as prognostic indicators in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods A retrospective analysis of 5,854 patients identified from a cohort of 6,035 patients diagnosed with nasopharyngeal carcinoma was performed with initial hyperleukocytosis and neutrophilia analyzed as prognostic factors. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analyses were applied. Results Hyperleukocytosis was observed in 508 patients (8.7%). Multivariate analysis showed that initial hyperleukocytosis was an independent predictor of death (HR 1.40, 95%CI 1.15–1.70, p = 0.001), progression (HR 1.25, 95%CI 1.06–1.47, p = 0.007) and, marginally, distant metastasis (HR 1.21, 95%CI 0.97–1.52, p = 0.088). Neutrophilia was also an independent predictor of death (HR 1.46, 95%CI 1.18–1.81, p = 0.001), progression (HR 1.31, 95%CI 1.10–1.56, p = 0.003), and distant metastasis (HR 1.29, 95%CI 1.02–1.65, p = 0.036), after adjusting for prognostic factors and excluding hyperleukocytosis. Conclusion Initial hyperleukocytosis and neutrophilia were independent, poor prognostic factors and may be convenient and useful biological markers for survival of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. PMID:26336064

  17. Is BPPV a Prognostic Factor in Idiopathic Sudden Sensory Hearing Loss?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, No Hee

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The prognostic significance of vertigo in patients with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) remains a matter of debate because vertigo is associated with many different vestibular disorders. The purpose of this study is to determine the role of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) as a prognostic factor in patients with SSNHL. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of 298 patients with SSNHL. Hearing outcomes were evaluated by assessments of pre-treatment hearing and hearing gain. Comparative multivariate analyses between prognostic factors and hearing outcome were conducted. Results Thirty-eight (12.7%) SSNHL patients were found to also have BPPV. BPPV showed significant negative prognostic factors in hearing outcome on multivariate analysis (odds ratio, 0.15). In comparison to average pure tone audiometry (PTA), patients diagnosed with SSNHL with BPPV exhibited poorer hearing in pre- and post-treatment PTA compared to SSNHL without BPPV. Old age (>60 years), pre-treatment hearing, and canal paresis were significant outcome predictors. Conclusion BPPV in SSNHL patients, representing definitive vestibular damage, was closely related to poor prognosis. PMID:21217960

  18. Prognostic impact of histological categorisation of epithelial–mesenchymal transition in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, H; Shinto, E; Kajiwara, Y; Fukazawa, S; Shimazaki, H; Yamamoto, J; Hase, K

    2014-01-01

    Background: The crosstalk between cancer cells and stroma is involved in the acquired capability for metastasis through the induction of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). We aimed to clarify the prognostic value of the histological category of EMT in colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: Tumour EMT was graded into one of three histological categories on the basis of integrated assessment of poorly differentiated clusters and pro-EMT desmoplasia at the leading edge of the primary tumour (HistologyEMT). Stage II and III CRC patients (cohort 1, N=500) and stage IV patients (cohort 2, N=196) were retrospectively analysed. Results: In cohort 1, patients were stratified into three groups with widely different disease-free survival rates (95%, 83% and 39%) on the basis of HistologyEMT (P<0.0001). In cohort 2, HistologyEMT significantly stratified overall survival of patients irrespective of metasectomy. Multivariate analyses indicated that HistologyEMT had a strong prognostic impact independent of staging factors. Statistically, HistologyEMT had a better prognostic stratification power than T and N stages; however, in cohort 2, the power of M substage was superior. Conclusions: A histological model to categorise EMT by integrated assessment of dedifferentiation and desmoplastic environment is a potent prognostic index independent of staging factors. PMID:25247323

  19. Histology-based expression profiling yields novel prognostic markers in human glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shumin; Nutt, Catherine L; Betensky, Rebecca A; Stemmer-Rachamimov, Anat O; Denko, Nicholas C; Ligon, Keith L; Rowitch, David H; Louis, David N

    2005-11-01

    Although the prognosis for patients with glioblastoma is poor, survival is variable, with some patients surviving longer than others. For this reason, there has been longstanding interest in the identification of prognostic markers for glioblastoma. We hypothesized that specific histologic features known to correlate with malignancy most likely express molecules that are directly related to the aggressive behavior of these tumors. We further hypothesized that such molecules could be used as biomarkers to predict behavior in a manner that might add prognostic power to sole histologic observation of the feature. We reasoned that perinecrotic tumor cell palisading, which denotes the most aggressive forms of malignant gliomas, would be a striking histologic feature on which to test this hypothesis. We therefore used laser capture microdissection and oligonucleotide arrays to detect molecules differentially expressed in perinecrotic palisades. A set of RNAs (including POFUT2, PTDSR, PLOD2, ATF5, and HK2) that were differentially expressed in 3 initially studied, microdissected glioblastomas also provided prognostic information in an independent set of 28 glioblastomas that did not all have perinecrotic palisades. On validation in a second, larger independent series, this approach could be applied to other human glioma types to derive tissue biomarkers that could offer ancillary prognostic and predictive information alongside standard histopathologic examination. PMID:16254489

  20. Histology-Based Expression Profiling Yields Novel Prognostic Markers in Human Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Shumin; Nutt, Catherine L.; Betensky, Rebecca A.; Stemmer-Rachamimov, Anat O.; Denko, Nicholas C.; Ligon, Keith L.; Rowitch, David H.; Louis, David N.

    2006-01-01

    Although the prognosis for patients with glioblastoma is poor, survival is variable, with some patients surviving longer than others. For this reason, there has been longstanding interest in the identi-fication of prognostic markers for glioblastoma. We hypothesized that specific histologic features known to correlate with malignancy most likely express molecules that are directly related to the aggressive behavior of these tumors. We further hypothesized that such molecules could be used as biomarkers to predict behavior in a manner that might add prognostic power to sole histologic observation of the feature. We reasoned that perinecrotic tumor cell palisading, which denotes the most aggressive forms of malignant gliomas, would be a striking histologic feature on which to test this hypothesis. We therefore used laser capture microdissection and oligonucleotide arrays to detect molecules differentially expressed in perinecrotic palisades. A set of RNAs (including POFUT2, PTDSR, PLOD2, ATF5, and HK2) that were differentially expressed in 3 initially studied, micro-dissected glioblastomas also provided prognostic information in an independent set of 28 glioblastomas that did not all have perinecrotic palisades. On validation in a second, larger independent series, this approach could be applied to other human glioma types to derive tissue biomarkers that could offer ancillary prognostic and predictive information alongside standard histopathologic examination. PMID:16254489

  1. Prognostic role of microRNA-150 in various carcinomas: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Xinshuai; Zhang, Yali; Wang, Dan; Gao, Hui; Wang, Lijuan; Gao, Shegan

    2016-01-01

    Objective MicroRNA-150 (miR-150) was revealed to be an attractive prognostic biomarker in recent studies. However, the prognostic significance of miR-150 expression in cancer remains inconclusive. The aim of this study was to summarize the global predicting role of miR-150 in survival in patients with various carcinomas. Methods Eligible studies were identified through multiple search strategies. Data were extracted from the studies by investigating the relationship between miR-150 expression and survival in patients with cancer. A meta-analysis of the hazard ratio (HR) was then performed to evaluate the prognostic role of miR-150 in different tumors. Pooled HRs of miR-150 for overall survival and progression-free survival were calculated to measure the effect of miR-150 expression on prognosis. Results This meta-analysis included nine published studies concerning various carcinomas. Our results indicate that an elevated miR-150 expression is associated with an enhanced overall survival in the digestive tract cancer subgroup (HR =0.57, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.37–0.90) and a poor progression-free survival in various cancers (HR =3.08, 95% CI: 2.00–4.75). Conclusion miR-150 may have the potential to become a new useful prognostic factor to monitor cancer prognosis and progression. However, given the current insufficient relevant data, further clinical studies are needed. PMID:27042106

  2. Long noncoding RNA SNHG1 predicts a poor prognosis and promotes hepatocellular carcinoma tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Wang, Wei; Li, Tianyue; Yu, Xiaodong; Zhu, Yufeng; Ding, Feng; Li, Dongsheng; Yang, Tao

    2016-05-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the main cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Its poor prognosis is mainly ascribed to high recurrence rate. Identifying novel prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets would be vital for HCC management. Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) is a class of RNA with various roles in tumorigenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance and functions of lncRNA-small nucleolar RNA host gene 1 (SNHG1) in HCC. In this study, we found SNHG1 was upregulated in HCC tissues in comparison with adjacent liver tissues in both publicly available microarray data and our own cohort. High SNHG1 expression was correlated with large tumor size, poor differentiation, and aggressive BCLC stage. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated that high SNHG1 expression predicts poor prognosis of HCC patients. Gain-of-function and loss-of function experiments showed that SNHG1 promotes HCC cells proliferation, cell cycle progression, and inhibits HCC cells apoptosis. Further experiments revealed that SNHG1 promotes HCC cells proliferation through inhibiting p53 and p53-target genes expression. Collectively, our results demonstrated the clinical prognostic significance and roles of SNHG1 in HCC, and suggested that SNHG1 may be considered as a prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for HCC. PMID:27133041

  3. Phase Angle for Prognostication of Survival in Patients with Advanced Cancer: Preliminary Findings

    PubMed Central

    Hui, David; Bansal, Swati; Morgado, Margarita; Dev, Rony; Chisholm, Gary; Bruera, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Background Accurate survival prediction is essential for decision-making in cancer therapies and care planning. Objective physiologic measures may improve the accuracy of prognostication. In this prospective study, we determined the association of phase angle, hand grip strength, and maximal inspiratory pressure with overall survival in patients with advanced cancer. Methods We enrolled hospitalized patients with advanced cancer who were seen by palliative care for consultation. We collected information on phase angle, hand grip strength, maximal inspiratory pressure and known prognostic factors including Palliative Prognostic Score (PaP), Palliative Prognostic Index, serum albumin and body composition. We conducted univariate and multivariate survival analysis, and examined the correlation between phase angle and other prognostic variables. Results 222 patients were enrolled: average age 55 (range 22–79), female 59%, mean Karnofsky Performance Status 55, and median overall survival 106 days (95% confidence interval [CI] 71–128 days). The median survival for patients with phase angle 2–2.9°, 3–3.9°, 4–4.9°, 5–5.9° and ≥6° was 35, 54, 112, 134 and 220 days, respectively (P=0.001). In multivariate analysis, phase angle (hazard ratio [HR]=0.86 per degree increase; 95% CI 0.74–0.99; P=0.04), PaP (HR=1.07; 95% CI 1.02–1.13, P=0.008), serum albumin (HR=0.67, 95% CI 0.50–0.91; P=0.009), and fat free mass (HR=0.98, CI=0.96–0.99; P=0.02) were significantly associated with survival. Phase angle was only weakly (γ<0.4) associated with other prognostic variables. Conclusions Phase angle was a novel predictor of poor survival, independent of established prognostic factors in the advanced cancer setting. This objective and non-invasive tool may be useful for bedside prognostication. PMID:24899148

  4. [A case of unresectable gastric cancer with poor ingestion].

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Tetsuo; Hashimoto, Tatsuya; Naito, Masayasu; Matsumoto, Hisanobu; Kuramochi, Hitoshi; Nakagawa, Motomichi; Ishii, Fuminori; Yamashita, Yuichi

    2013-11-01

    We encountered cases of unresectable gastric cancer in which patients had difficulty with ingestion because of pyloric stenosis and diffuse invasion. We examined the improvement in the quality of life(QOL)of patients and the effect and usefulness of S-1 treatment in such cases. The median survival time(MST; 310 days)of patients who received S-1 as primary treatment was significantly longer than that(105 days)of patients who did not receive S-1 treatment(p=0.0001). Of the 25 patients who underwent gastrojejunostomy, S-1 was administered to 10 patients(MST: 384 days). The MST of patients who received drugs other than S-1 was 121 days. Thus, the MST of patients who did receive S-1 was significantly longer than that of patients who did not receive S-1. In univariate analysis, oral ingestion, performance status(PS), best supportive care(BSC), and S-1 administration were prognostic factors. Of these factors, oral ingestion(p=0.0278, hazard ratio[HR]: 2.992)and S- 1 administration(p=0.0002, HR: 14.956)were prognostic factors in multivariate analysis. Gastrojejunostomy is desirable for the treatment of cases of unresectable gastric cancer with poor ingestion. In addition, the use of postoperative chemotherapy with S-1 alone or with S-1 as combination therapy may help improve prognosis. PMID:24231703

  5. The management of poor performance

    PubMed Central

    Mayberry, John F

    2007-01-01

    Identification of poor performance is in an integral part of government policy. The suggested approach for the identification of such problems, advocated by the General Medical Council, is that of appraisal. However, traditionally, there has been a reluctance to deal with poor performers, as all doctors have made mistakes and are usually only too ready to forgive and be non‐critical of colleagues. The problems are widespread, and 6% of the senior hospital workforce in any 5‐year period may have problems. PMID:17308213

  6. Prognostic factors in the sick neonatal foal.

    PubMed

    Castagnetti, C; Veronesi, M C

    2008-09-01

    In the foal, the most common neonatal diseases are responsible for an high non-survival rate. Since intensive care for neonatal foals is usually very expensive an early prognosis for survival at admission or during hospitalization is recommended, as well as a prognosis for future athletic potential. Therefore, prognostic factors for prematurity, septicaemia, other infectious diseases and hospitalized foals are revised and discussed on the base of literature and authors experiences. The advantages and limitations of retrospective and perspective prognostic factors is also presented, and the possible role of new expected factors deducted by the recent advances in the knowledge of main neonatal foal diseases pathogenesis proposed. PMID:18686000

  7. Prognostic Factors in Childhood Leukemia (ALL or AML)

    MedlinePlus

    ... for childhood leukemias Prognostic factors in childhood leukemia (ALL or AML) Certain factors that can affect a ... myelogenous leukemia (AML). Prognostic factors for children with ALL Children with ALL are often divided into risk ...

  8. Survival Outcomes According to Adjuvant Treatment and Prognostic Factors Including Host Immune Markers in Patients with Curatively Resected Ampulla of Vater Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Hye rim; Oh, Do-Youn; Kim, Tae-Yong; Lee, KyoungBun; Kim, Kyubo; Lee, Kyung-Hun; Han, Sae-Won; Chie, Eui Kyu; Jang, Jin-Young; Im, Seock-Ah; Kim, Tae-You; Kim, Sun-Whe; Bang, Yung-Jue

    2016-01-01

    Background Ampulla of Vater cancer (AoV Ca) is a rare tumor, and its adjuvant treatment has not been established. The purpose of this study was to find out prognostic factors including host immunity and role of adjuvant treatment in AoV Ca. Methods and Findings We reviewed 227 AoV Ca patients with curative resection. Clinical characteristics, adjuvant treatment, disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed. Among all patients, 63.9, 36.1 and 33.9% had T1/T2, T3/T4 stage and lymph node-positive disease (LN+), respectively. OS of all patients was 90.9 months (95% CI: 52.9–129.0). OS was different according to neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (HR 1.651, 95% CI: 1.11–2.47), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (HR 1.488, 95% CI: 1.00–2.21) and systemic inflammatory index (HR 1.669, 95% CI: 1.13–2.47). In multivariate analysis, adverse prognostic factors for OS included vascular invasion (HR 2.571, 95% CI: 1.20–5.53) and elevated CA 19–9 (HR 1.794, 95% CI: 1.07–3.05). A total of 104 patients (46.3%) received adjuvant treatment (25 out of 111of T1/T2 & LN (-), 79 out of 116 of T3/T4 or LN (+)). In T3/T4 or LN (+) stage, adjuvant CCRT with maintenance chemotherapy provided the longest OS (5-year OS rate: 47.0 vs. 41.4%). Conclusions Vascular invasion and elevated CA 19–9 were adverse prognostic factors in resected AoV Ca. In T3/T4 or LN (+) stage, adjuvant CCRT with maintenance chemotherapy provided the best survival outcome. Adjuvant treatment should be further defined in AoV Ca, especially with poor prognostic factors. PMID:26974670

  9. Proposal of a prognostically relevant grading scheme for pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Weichert, Wilko; Kossakowski, Claudia; Harms, Alexander; Schirmacher, Peter; Muley, Thomas; Dienemann, Hendrik; Warth, Arne

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies in lung adenocarcinoma established a clinically relevant histomorphology-based classification. In contrast, no morphological classifiers have yet been implemented into routine diagnostics for lung squamous cell carcinoma (SQCC). However, morphology-based characteristics putatively impacting on survival have been proposed.We analysed a cohort of 541 SQCC patients with complete clinical follow-up data for morphological characteristics (keratinisation, tumour cell budding, size of tumour cell nests, nuclear size and stromal content). Morphological characteristics were correlated with clinical data and patient outcome.Keratinisation, budding, stromal content and tumour cell nest size, but not nuclear size, were associated with distinct clinicopathological characteristics and survival. SQCC patients with keratinisation, small cell nest size, high stromal content and extensive budding had shorter overall survival. A combined grading scheme composed of the two most reliable validated prognostic markers, i.e. budding and nest size, resulted in an age-, stage- and sex-independent prognosticator for overall survival with a hazard ratio of 1.6 for grade 2 tumours and a hazard ratio of 3.7 for grade 3 tumours when compared with grade 1 neoplasms (p<0.001).Morphological characteristics of SQCC have significant prognostic impact and could constitute the basis for a diagnostically relevant future SQCC grading scheme. PMID:26541540

  10. Urban Poor and Developmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De, Nitish R.

    1980-01-01

    Developmental education can play a positive role in improving the situation of the urban poor. Change can be brought about by people who are educated to understand, appreciate and analyze the underlying causes of their condition, and to discover solutions. (SK)

  11. Prospects for the Working Poor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, S. M.

    1970-01-01

    Based on a chapter entitled "Barriers to Employment of the Disadvantaged by Martin Deutsch and S. M. Miller in "Manpower Report of the President, 1968. Discusses the Nixon proposals for remediating poverty in relation to the socioeconomic factors operating to maintain the condition of being poor while working. (JM)

  12. Triple negative breast cancers: clinical and prognostic implications.

    PubMed

    Dawson, S J; Provenzano, E; Caldas, C

    2009-09-01

    Triple negative breast cancers are defined by the absence of oestrogen, progesterone and HER2 expression. Most triple negative cancers display distinct clinical and pathological characteristics with a high proportion of these tumours occurring at a younger age of onset and in African-American women. Triple negative tumours typically demonstrate high histological grade and are the most common breast cancer subtype in BRCA1 carriers. In addition, many of the features of triple negative cancers are similar to those identified in the basal-like molecular subtype which has recently been characterised by gene expression profiling. Although the two groups overlap, they are not synonymous. Triple negative breast cancers are of pivotal clinical importance given the lack of therapeutic options. The prognostic significance of triple negative tumours remains unclear since the group is heterogeneous and worst prognosis seems to be mostly confined to those that express basal cytokeratins or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). This review focuses on outlining the pathological, molecular, and clinical features of triple negative breast cancers, discusses its prognostic value and summarises current therapeutic approaches and future directions of research. PMID:19775602

  13. Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma in elderly patients may portend a poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Ng, Wai Hoe; Lim, Tchoyoson; Yeo, Tseng Tsai

    2008-04-01

    Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is a rare primary astrocytic tumour of the nervous system usually involving the superficial temporal cortex of children and young adults. Although the tumour may exhibit histological features of pleomorphism or cellular atypia, the overall prognosis is good compared with other glial tumours, with only 30% of PXA recurring and 20% undergoing anaplastic transformation. Increased mitotic activity, high MIB-1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen labelling indices and necrosis are poor prognostic factors, whereas abundant lymphocytic infiltration is associated with more benign biological behaviour. Rarely, in older patients, PXA may have a poor prognosis as these patients tend to have intracranial hypertension and focal deficits, as well as histological features of mitosis, increased cellularity and necrosis. We report the case of a 76-year-old woman who presented with dysphasia and right hemiparesis. A left fronto-temporal lobe PXA was misdiagnosed as glioblastoma multiforme. Although a rare and benign tumour type, PXA in the elderly tend to be more malignant, may have the radiological appearance of a malignant tumour and have poor prognosis. PMID:18255294

  14. CA9 overexpression is an independent favorable prognostic marker in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Mijin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the expression of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9) and to identify its prognostic significance in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IHCC). We performed immunohistochemistry (IHC) for CA9 in a total of 85 IHCCs. CA9 overexpression was observed in 38 of 85 (44.7%) IHCCs. CA9 overexpression was related to tumors with intraductal growth than mass forming or periductal infiltrative type. CA9 overexpression was more observed in tumors with well/moderate differentiation than poor differentiation and without lymph node metastasis. No significant correlation was observed in CA9 overexpression with tumor size, pT, stage and lymphovascular invasion. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas with CA9 overexpression showed better overall survival than that without expression (P = 0.001). In multivariate analysis, lymph node metastasis (95% CI: 2.103 (1.167-3.791), P = 0.013) was an independent poor prognostic factor. IHCC with CA9 overexpression showed a 0.5-fold (95% confidence interval, 0.328-0.944) lower risk of death compared with those of no or weak expression. CA9 overexpression was related to histologic differentiation and an independent good prognostic factor. PMID:25755787

  15. Prognostic and Predictive Values of Subcellular Localisation of RET in Renal Clear-Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Zhang, Yu; Gao, Yu; Fan, Yang; Chen, Luyao; Liu, Kan; Meng, Qingyu; Zhao, Chaofei; Ma, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) presents a poor prognosis and an unpredictable course. To date, no validated biomarkers can predict the outcome of RCC. Ongoing efforts are conducted to identify the molecular markers of RCC progression, as well as the targets for novel therapeutic approaches. RET is a tyrosine kinase receptor which has been investigated as a possible target in other cancers because it is involved in oncogenic activation. To evaluate the predictive and prognostic functions of RET in ccRCC, a tissue microarray study was conducted on 273 ccRCC patients. Results showed that both RET cytoplasmic and nuclear expression were independently associated with PFS and OS, and the combined RET cytoplasmic and nuclear statuses demonstrated that the ratio of high nuclear RET and cytoplasmic RET was the strongest predictor of both PFS and OS. The high cytoplasmic RET expression retained its independent poor prognostic value in targeted drug treated patients. The RET nuclear expression was associated with distant metastasis. Moreover, the RET nuclear expression was an independent predictor of ccRCC postoperative metastasis. In conclusion, RET may be useful in prognostication and can be used at initial diagnosis to identify patients with high potential to develop metastasis.

  16. Are poor Chinese text comprehenders also poor in written composition?

    PubMed

    Guan, Connie Qun; Ye, Feifei; Meng, Wanjin; Leong, Che Kan

    2013-10-01

    We studied the performance in three genres of Chinese written composition (narration, exposition, and argumentation) of 158 grade 4, 5, and 6 poor Chinese text comprehenders compared with 156 good Chinese text comprehenders. We examined text comprehension and written composition relationship. Verbal working memory (verbal span working memory and operation span working memory) and different levels of linguistic tasks-morphological sensitivity (morphological compounding and morphological chain), sentence processing (syntax construction and syntax integrity), and text comprehension (narrative and expository texts)-were used to predict separately narrative, expository, and argumentation written compositions in these students. Grade for grade, the good text comprehenders outperformed the poor text comprehenders in all tasks, except for morphological chain. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed differential contribution of the tasks to different genres of writing. In particular, text comprehension made unique contribution to argumentation writing in the poor text comprehenders. Future studies should ask students to read and write parallel passages in the same genre for better comparison and incorporate both instructional and motivational variables. PMID:23666849

  17. Loss of Tumor Suppressor ARID1A Protein Expression Correlates with Poor Prognosis in Patients with Primary Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyun Deuk; Lee, Jong Eun; Jung, Hae Yoen; Oh, Mee-Hye; Lee, Ji-Hye; Jang, Si-Hyong; Kim, Kyung-Ju; Han, Sun Wook; Kim, Sung Yong; Kim, Han Jo; Bae, Sang Byung

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Somatic mutations of the chromatin remodeling AT-rich interactive domain 1A (SWI-like) gene (ARID1A) have been identified in many human cancers, including breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nuclear expression of ARID1A in breast cancers by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and to correlate the findings to clinicopathologic variables including prognostic significance. Methods IHC was performed on tissue microarrays of 476 cases of breast cancer. Associations between ARID1A expression and clinicopathologic characteristics and molecular subtype were retrospectively analyzed. Results Low expression of ARID1A was found in 339 of 476 (71.2%) cases. Low expression of ARID1A significantly correlated with positive lymph node metastasis (p=0.027), advanced pathologic stage (p=0.001), low Ki-67 labeling index (p=0.003), and negative p53 expression (p=0.017). The ARID1A low expression group had significantly shorter disease-free and overall survival than the ARID1A high expression group (p<0.001 and p<0.001, respectively). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that low expression of ARID1A was a significant independent predictive factor for poor disease-free and overall survival in patients with breast cancer (disease-free survival: hazard ratio, 0.38, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.20-0.73, p=0.004; overall survival: hazard ratio, 0.11, 95% CI, 0.03-0.46, p=0.003). In patients with luminal A type disease, patients with low ARID1A expression had significantly shorter disease-free and overall survival rates than patients with high ARID1A expression (p=0.022 and p=0.018, respectively). Conclusion Low expression of ARID1A is an independent prognostic factor for disease-free and overall survival in breast cancer patients and may be associated with luminal A type disease. Although the biologic function of ARID1A in breast cancer remains unknown, low expression of ARID1A can provide valuable prognostic information. PMID:26770240

  18. Copy number gain of PIK3CA and MET is associated with poor prognosis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Brauswetter, Diána; Dános, Kornél; Gurbi, Bianka; Félegyházi, Éva Fruzsina; Birtalan, Ede; Meggyesházi, Nóra; Krenács, Tibor; Tamás, László; Peták, István

    2016-05-01

    The incidence of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas is still growing, and the long-term prognosis of advanced disease remains poor. Only a fraction of head and neck cancers are sensitive to the EGFR-inhibitor cetuximab, which is the only registered targeted therapy available today. In several cancers, gene copy number alterations of MET and PIK3CA have been found to be prognostic and predictive for therapy response. The aim of this study was to systematically analyze in head and neck cancers the pathological characteristics and prognostic significance of copy number changes of MET and PIK3CA genes. MET and PIK3CA copy numbers were analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization in tumor samples of 152 patients. Expression of EGFR, p16, and Ki67 was studied by immunohistochemistry. High polysomy of PIK3CA (chromosome 3) was found in 20 % of cases and amplification in 4.5 %. Regarding MET, 35 % of cases showed low or high polysomy of the gene (chromosome 7), while no intra-chromosomal amplification of MET was detected. PIK3CA copy number gain (high polysomy or amplification) was significantly associated with shorter disease-specific survival, larger tumor volume, and lower p16 expression. MET copy number gain (low or high polysomy) in tumors was significantly associated with shorter disease-specific survival and lower level of EGFR. PIK3CA and MET may play an important role in oncogenesis of certain specific subtypes of head and neck cancer. There is an urgent need for the development of novel targeted therapies against these tumors associated with poor prognosis. PMID:26832731

  19. Requirements Flowdown for Prognostics and Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, Kai; Saxena, Abhinav; Roychoudhury, Indranil; Celaya, Jose R.; Saha, Bhaskar; Saha, Sankalita

    2012-01-01

    Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) principles have considerable promise to change the game of lifecycle cost of engineering systems at high safety levels by providing a reliable estimate of future system states. This estimate is a key for planning and decision making in an operational setting. While technology solutions have made considerable advances, the tie-in into the systems engineering process is lagging behind, which delays fielding of PHM-enabled systems. The derivation of specifications from high level requirements for algorithm performance to ensure quality predictions is not well developed. From an engineering perspective some key parameters driving the requirements for prognostics performance include: (1) maximum allowable Probability of Failure (PoF) of the prognostic system to bound the risk of losing an asset, (2) tolerable limits on proactive maintenance to minimize missed opportunity of asset usage, (3) lead time to specify the amount of advanced warning needed for actionable decisions, and (4) required confidence to specify when prognosis is sufficiently good to be used. This paper takes a systems engineering view towards the requirements specification process and presents a method for the flowdown process. A case study based on an electric Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (e-UAV) scenario demonstrates how top level requirements for performance, cost, and safety flow down to the health management level and specify quantitative requirements for prognostic algorithm performance.

  20. Prognostic Analysis of the Tactical Quiet Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Hively, Lee M

    2008-09-01

    The U.S. Army needs prognostic analysis of mission-critical equipment to enable condition-based maintenance before failure. ORNL has developed and patented prognostic technology that quantifies condition change from noisy, multi-channel, time-serial data. This report describes an initial application of ORNL's prognostic technology to the Army's Tactical Quiet Generator (TQG), which is designed to operate continuously at 10 kW. Less-than-full power operation causes unburned fuel to accumulate on internal components, thereby degrading operation and eventually leading to failure. The first objective of this work was identification of easily-acquired, process-indicative data. Two types of appropriate data were identified, namely output-electrical current and voltage, plus tri-axial acceleration (vibration). The second objective of this work was data quality analysis to avoid the garbage-in-garbage-out syndrome. Quality analysis identified more than 10% of the current data as having consecutive values that are constant, or that saturate at an extreme value. Consequently, the electrical data were not analyzed further. The third objective was condition-change analysis to indicate operational stress under non-ideal operation and machine degradation in proportion to the operational stress. Application of ORNL's novel phase-space dissimilarity measures to the vibration power quantified the rising operational stress in direct proportion to the less-than-full-load power. We conclude that ORNL's technology is an excellent candidate to meet the U.S. Army's need for equipment prognostication.

  1. Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance Prognostics Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harp, Janicce Leshay

    2014-01-01

    The project implements prognostics capabilities to predict when a component, system or subsystem will no longer meet desired functional or performance criteria, called the "end of life." The capability also provides an assessment of the "remaining useful life" of a hardware component.

  2. Inducible nitric oxide synthase, nitrotyrosine and apoptosis in gastric adenocarcinomas and their correlation with a poor survival

    PubMed Central

    Li, Long-Gang; Xu, Hui-Mian

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To detect the presence of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nitrotyrosine (NT) and apoptosis in gastric adenocarcinomas and their possible correlations with the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of gastric adenocarcinoma. METHODS: Sixty-six specimens of gastric adenocarcinoma and corresponding adjacent normal gastric tissues were studied. Immunohistochemistry was employed to localize iNOS and NT protein and an immunohistochemical scoring system was used. The occurrence of apoptotic cell death (apoptotic index [AI]) was analyzed by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL) method. RESULTS: Results showed that iNOS expression was detected at an intermediate or high level in 41 of 66 (62%) specimens of gastric adenocarcinoma. NT expression was 58%. Neither of them was found in the normal gastric tissues; there were significant positive correlations among iNOS expression, NT expression and AI. Many clinicopathologic characteristics of gastric adenocarcinoma, such as tumor size, depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis and TNM staging, were related to iNOS and NT expressions (P<0.05). In 66 surviving patients, the 5-year survival rate of 41 patients who had tumors with intermediate or high iNOS expressions and high AIs (4.09%; 19.96%) was significantly lower than that of 25 patients who had tumors with negative or low iNOS expressions and low AIs (0.79%; 47.14%) (P = 0.001). COX’s multivariate analysis revealed that the iNOS expression was identified as one of the significant independent prognostic factors predictive of a poor survival (relative risk [RR] = 2.69). CONCLUSION: NO produced by iNOS may play a stronger role in promoting gastric adenocarcinoma growth than in suppressing its growth. iNOS and NT expressions by gastric adenocarcinoma may correlate with a poor survival. PMID:15849807

  3. Imaging features of poorly controlled congenital adrenal hyperplasia in adults.

    PubMed

    Kok, H K; Sherlock, M; Healy, N A; Doody, O; Govender, P; Torreggiani, W C

    2015-09-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a genetic autosomal recessive condition most frequently as a result of a mutation in the 21-hydroxylase enzyme gene. Patients with poorly controlled CAH can manifest characteristic imaging findings as a result of adrenocorticotrophic hormone stimulation or the effects of cortisol precursor excess on various target organs. We present a spectrum of imaging findings encountered in adult patients with poorly treated CAH, with an emphasis on radiological features and their clinical relevance. PMID:26133223

  4. Serum HE4: An Independent Prognostic Factor in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lamy, Pierre-Jean; Plassot, Carine; Pujol, Jean-Louis

    2015-01-01

    Human epididymis secretory protein 4 (HE4) is a secreted glycosylated protein encoded by the WAP four-disulfide core domain 2 (WFDC2) gene, located on a chromosome 20 segment that is frequently amplified in many cancers. This study aimed at determining serum HE4 prognostic value in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), following the REMARK guidelines. Serum samples from 346 consecutive patients with histologically proven and previously untreated NSCLC and 41 patients with benign pulmonary disease were collected at the Montpellier-Nimes Academic Hospital. Work-up investigations performed to determine the disease characteristics and treatment algorithms were congruent with international guidelines. HE4 levels in serum were measured with an ELISA test (Fujirebio Diagnostics) that uses two monoclonal antibodies, 2H5 and 3D8, against the C-WFDC domain of HE4. The area under the ROC curve (i.e., overall ability of HE4 to discriminate between controls and patients) was 0.78 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.738–0.821; z test P <0.0001). Serum HE4 levels were significantly higher in patients with worse performance status, advanced TNM stage and positive nodal status. In the Cox model, overall survival was shorter in patients with high pretreatment serum HE4 (above 140 pmol/L) than in patients with serum H4 level ≤ 140 pmol/L [median survival: 17.7 weeks (95% CI, 11.9 to 24.9) and 46.4 weeks (95% CI, 38.6 to 56.3), respectively; hazard ratio: 1.48 (95% CI, 1.12 to 1.95) for high HE4; adjusted P = 0.0057]. High serum HE4 level at diagnosis is an independent determinant of poor prognosis in NSCLC. PMID:26030627

  5. Radiotherapy of brain metastases from breast cancer: Treatment results and prognostic factors

    PubMed Central

    KÜHNÖL, JULIA; KÜHNÖL, CASPAR; VORDERMARK, DIRK

    2016-01-01

    Brain metastases (BM) from breast cancer are associated with high morbidity and a poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to analyse the role of radiotherapy in treatment of BM from breast cancer in the context of modern local therapy modalities, current systemic treatment options and prognostic factors. A retrospective analysis of 86 consecutive female patients treated with radiotherapy for BM from breast cancer between 2000 and 2010 was conducted. Patient and treatment characteristics were registered and survival data calculated. All patients received whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) with a median dose of 36 Gy, and 19 patients were treated with an additional boost; this included fractionated schemes (median dose, 18 Gy) and radiosurgery (5 and 17 Gy). The median overall survival time from the start of WBRT was 4.1 months in the present cohort. Patients receiving a boost survived 19.7 months in comparison to 3.1 months for patients treated with WBRT alone (P<0.001). Other factors that improved overall survival, based on a univariate analysis, were dose of WBRT and number of BM. There was no statistical evidence for the influence of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status on survival in the current study. The administration of boost treatment following WBRT was also identified as a significant factor influencing survival on multivariate analysis (P=0.030). In conclusion, radiotherapy affects the survival time of patients with BM from breast cancer. In particular, the implementation of boost treatment following WBRT in selected patients seems to extend survival time. PMID:27123095

  6. Prognostic value of caveolin-1 in genitourinary cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jia-Ming; Cheng, Si-Hang; Liu, Xiao-Xiao; Xia, Chao; Wang, Wei-Wen; Ma, Xue-Lei

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to obtain the most comprehensive picture to date of the prognostic value of caveolin-1 (Cav-1) in genitourinary carcinoma by meta-analyzing all eligible studies in PubMed and EMBASE. Data on patient clinical characteristics, cancer-specific survival (CSS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were extracted. The meta-analysis included 6 articles on prostate cancer, 5 on renal cancer, 1 on bladder cancer and 1 on transition cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract. Two studies examining the association of ELISA-measured Cav-1 levels in serum with RFS in 621 patients with prostate cancer gave a combined hazard ratio (HR) of 1.25 (95% CI 0.36 to 4.36). The other 4 studies on prostate cancer examined the association of immunohistochemically determined Cav-1 levels in cancerous tissue with RFS and gave a combined HR of 1.83 (95% CI 1.36 to 2.47). Three studies on renal cancer examining the association of Cav-1 levels with CSS gave a multivariate HR of 1.98 (95% CI 1.35 to 2.90). The single studies on bladder carcinoma and upper urinary tract carcinoma gave, respectively, a multivariate HR of 2.28 (95% CI 1.09 to 4.74) for the relationship of Cav-1 levels to DFS, and a multivariate HR of 5.08 (95% CI 1.799 to 14.342) for the relationship of Cav-1 levels to CSS. This meta-analysis of available evidence suggests that elevated Cav-1 levels in serum can predict poor survival in patients with genitourinary cancer, which may help identify high-risk patients earlier and guide clinical decision-making. PMID:26884999

  7. Prognostic significance of aromatase and estrogen receptor beta expression in EGFR wild-type lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Kazumi; Shimizu, Kimihiro; Kakegawa, Seiichi; Ohtaki, Yoichi; Nagashima, Toshiteru; Kaira, Kyoichi; Horiguchi, Jun; Oyama, Tetsunari; Takeyoshi, Izumi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Based on recent findings of aromatase and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) expression in non-small-cell lung cancer, we assessed the clinicopathological and prognostic significance of aromatase and ERβ expression and their relationship to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation in lung adenocarcinoma. Materials and methods: We evaluated 150 resected primary lung adenocarcinoma specimens. Expression of aromatase, ERα, ERβ, progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) was evaluated by immunostaining, and EGFR and KRAS mutations were analyzed. Overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Expression of aromatase, ERα, ERβ, PR, and HER2 was detected in 88.0%, 1.3%, 79.3%, 2.7%, and 39.3% of specimens, respectively. In patients with EGFR wild-type lung adenocarcinoma, high aromatase expression was an independent predictor of poor OS (hazard ratio [HR]=2.638; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.173-5.936; P=.019) and RFS (HR=2.505; 95% CI, 1.154-5.434; P=.020). Positive ERβ expression was also an independent predictor of poor RFS (HR=4.013; 95% CI, 1.219-13.207; P=.022). Furthermore, high aromatase expression was a significant predictor of poor survival only in females (OS, P=.010; RFS, P=.007), whereas positive ERβ expression was an important predictor of poor survival only in males (OS, P=.073; RFS, P=.051). No prognostic significance was observed in patients with EGFR mutations. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that EGFR wild-type lung adenocarcinoma is an estrogen-dependent carcinoma, and aromatase expression and ERβ expression are potent prognostic markers for EGFR wild-type lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:27069542

  8. Seven poor clusters of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beers, T. C.; Geller, M. J.; Huchra, J. P.; Latham, D. W.; Davis, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    The measurement of 83 new redshifts from galaxies in the region of seven of the poor clusters of galaxies identified by Morgan et al (1975) and Albert et al (1977) has been followed by an estimation of cluster masses through the application of both the virial theorem and the projected mas method. For each system, these two estimates are consistent. For the two clusters with highest X-ray luminosities, the line-of-sight velocity dispersions are about 700 km/sec, while for the five other clusters, the dispersions are of the order of less than about 370 km/sec. The D or cD galaxy in each poor cluster is at the kinematic center of each system.

  9. The use of transcranial magnetic stimulation in diagnosis, prognostication and treatment evaluation in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Marion; Macdonell, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Despite advances in brain imaging which have revolutionised the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS), current imaging techniques have limitations, including poor correlation with clinical disability and prognosis. There is growing evidence that electrophysiological techniques may provide complementary functional information which can aid in diagnosis, prognostication and perhaps even monitoring of treatment response in patients with MS. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is an underutilised technique with potential to assist diagnosis, predict prognosis and provide an objective surrogate marker of clinical progress and treatment response. This review explores the existing body of evidence relating to the use of TMS in patients with MS, outlines the practical aspects and scope of TMS testing and reviews the current evidence relating to the use of TMS in diagnosis, disease classification, prognostication and response to symptomatic and disease-modifying therapies. PMID:26346791

  10. A simple and effective prognostic staging system based on clinicopathologic features of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Huabang; Jiang, Xiaolan; Li, Qiaomei; Hu, Jingyi; Zhong, Zhengrong; Wang, Hao; Wang, Hui; Yang, Bing; Hu, Heping

    2015-01-01

    Incidence and mortality of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) are increasing. However, its prognostic predictive system associated with outcome after surgery remains poorly defined. In this study, we conducted retrospective survival analyses in a primary cohort of 370 patients who underwent partial hepatectomy for ICC (2005 and 2009). We found that seven variables were significantly independent predictors for overall survival (OS): serum prealbumin (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.447; p = 0.015), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (HR: 1.438; p = 0.009), carcinoembryonic antigen (HR: 1.732; p = 0.002), tumor number (HR: 1.781; p < 0.001), vascular invasion (HR: 1.784; p < 0.001), regional lymphatic metastasis (HR: 2.003; p < 0.001) and local extrahepatic metastasis (HR: 1.506; p = 0.008). Using these independent predictors, we created a simple clinicopathologic prognostic staging system for predicting survival of ICC patients after resection. The validity of the prognostic staging system was prospectively assessed in 115 patients who underwent partial hepatectomy between January 2010 and December 2010 at the same institution. The prognostic power was quantified using likelihood ratio test and Akaike information criteria. Compared with the 6th and 7th AJCC staging systems, the new staging system in the primary cohort had a higher predictive accuracy for OS in terms of homogeneity and discriminatory ability. In the validation cohort, the homogeneity and discrimination of the new staging system were also superior to the two other staging systems. Conclusions: The new staging system based on clinicopathologic features may provide relatively higher accuracy in prognostic prediction for ICC patients after tumor resection. PMID:26175951

  11. Clinical and prognostic analysis of second primary squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chuanzheng; Hu, Zedong; Zhong, Zhaoming; Jiang, Yue; Sun, Ruimei; Fei, Jimin; Xi, Yan; Li, Xiaojiang; Song, Ming; Li, Wenhui; Li, Qiuli

    2014-10-01

    We have investigated the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the tongue after definitive radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and evaluated the effect of common therapeutic regimens for these patients. We retrospectively reviewed follow-up data for patients whose nasopharyngeal carcinoma had been treated by radiotherapy, and selected the 68 who had then developed SCC of the tongue, in the border of the tongue in half, and in the dorsum in 25 (37%). Eight of the 68 patients had clinical lymph node metastasis (12%), and 45 presented with stage I-II disease at the time of the diagnosis of the SCC (66%). Resection or radiotherapy alone was an effective treatment for patients with stage I-II SCC of the tongue, but patients with stage III-IV disease had a poor prognosis, despite being given multidisciplinary treatment. Multivariate analysis showed that the risk factors that independently influenced the survival of these patients were use of alcohol, recurrence of their nasopharyngeal carcinoma, the latency period, and the clinical TNM stage. Tongue SCC after radiotherapy was generally at an early stage and commonly occurred on the border or the dorsum of the tongue, with few lymph node metastases. Resection or radiotherapy is an effective treatment, and the risk factors that independently influenced the survival of patients indicate that improving the technique of radiotherapy and close follow-up after nasopharyngeal cancer are vitally important. PMID:25085271

  12. Patient-Specific Data Fusion Defines Prognostic Cancer Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Markowetz, Florian

    2011-01-01

    Different data types can offer complementary perspectives on the same biological phenomenon. In cancer studies, for example, data on copy number alterations indicate losses and amplifications of genomic regions in tumours, while transcriptomic data point to the impact of genomic and environmental events on the internal wiring of the cell. Fusing different data provides a more comprehensive model of the cancer cell than that offered by any single type. However, biological signals in different patients exhibit diverse degrees of concordance due to cancer heterogeneity and inherent noise in the measurements. This is a particularly important issue in cancer subtype discovery, where personalised strategies to guide therapy are of vital importance. We present a nonparametric Bayesian model for discovering prognostic cancer subtypes by integrating gene expression and copy number variation data. Our model is constructed from a hierarchy of Dirichlet Processes and addresses three key challenges in data fusion: (i) To separate concordant from discordant signals, (ii) to select informative features, (iii) to estimate the number of disease subtypes. Concordance of signals is assessed individually for each patient, giving us an additional level of insight into the underlying disease structure. We exemplify the power of our model in prostate cancer and breast cancer and show that it outperforms competing methods. In the prostate cancer data, we identify an entirely new subtype with extremely poor survival outcome and show how other analyses fail to detect it. In the breast cancer data, we find subtypes with superior prognostic value by using the concordant results. These discoveries were crucially dependent on our model's ability to distinguish concordant and discordant signals within each patient sample, and would otherwise have been missed. We therefore demonstrate the importance of taking a patient-specific approach, using highly-flexible nonparametric Bayesian methods. PMID:22028636

  13. Distinct prognostic values of ALDH1 isoenzymes in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shaokun; Xue, Weiping; Huang, Xiaobo; Yu, Xiaoli; Luo, Ming; Huang, Ying; Liu, Yimin; Bi, Zhuofei; Qiu, Xingsheng; Bai, Shoumin

    2015-04-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1), also known as aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, is composed of six enzymes that are expressed at high levels in stem cells and are involved in the regulation of stem cell function. Increased ALDH1 activity has been found in the stem cell populations of leukemia and some solid tumors including breast cancer (BC). However, which ALDH1's isoenzymes are contributing to ALDH1 activity has not been determined. In addition, the prognostic value of individual ALDH1 isoenzyme is not clear. In the current study, we investigated the prognostic value of ALDH1 isoenzymes in BC patients through "the Kaplan-Meier plotter" (KM plotter) database, in which updated gene expression data and survival information are from a total of 3455 BC patients. ALDH1A1 messenger RNA (mRNA) high expression was found to be correlated to worsen overall survival (OS) for all BC patients. ALDH1A2 and ALDH1L1 mRNA high expressions were found to be correlated to better OS for all BC patients. Both of ALDH1A3 and ALDH1B1 mRNA high expressions were not found to be correlated to OS for all BC patients. These results strongly support that ALDH1A1 was only a biomarker for predicting poor survival of BC patients among ALDH1 isoenzymes. ALDH1A1 might be a major contributor of ALDH1 activity in BC, since only ALDH1A1 mRNA high expression was found to be significantly correlated to worsen OS for all BC patients. PMID:25582316

  14. Prognostic Typing in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hartveit, F.

    1971-01-01

    Infiltrating breast carcinomas in which recurrence takes place 10 years or more after operation are reported to contain tumour cells of characteristic morphology. The cytological features of these tumour cells form the basis of the system of classification described here. Three cytological types are recognized, prognosis being best in type III. Typing is carried out on specimens stained with haematoxylin and eosin. The results of typing were reproducible in over 90% of cases and independent of the histology of the lesion. Correlation to survival time was shown in a total of 222 cases. ImagesFIG. 1 PMID:4107964

  15. Evaluation of Minichromosome Maintenance Protein 7 and c-KIT as Prognostic Markers in Feline Cutaneous Mast Cell Tumours.

    PubMed

    Dobromylskyj, M J; Rasotto, R; Melville, K; Smith, K C; Berlato, D

    2015-11-01

    Mast cell tumours (MCTs) are a common skin tumour in cats, but there is currently no histological grading system or reliable prognostic marker for this species (unlike the situation for dogs). This study utilized a set of 71 feline cutaneous MCTs with known clinical outcomes to assess the potential of various prognostic markers, including the cellular proliferation marker minichromosome maintenance protein (MCM)-7, mitotic index and various KIT labelling characteristics, including KIT positivity, KIT labelling pattern and KIT immunoreactivity score (IS). Of the factors studied, the mitotic index and the KIT labelling pattern were the only features associated significantly with survival times, while the proliferation marker MCM7 and the KIT IS were not. The study also highlights the variability of KIT labelling characteristics between tumours, which may prevent use of this marker as a diagnostic and prognostic tool. PMID:26385324

  16. Expression profile and prognostic value of glypican-3 in post-operative South Korean hepatocellular carcinoma patients.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Yejoo; Kim, Haeryoung; Jang, Eun Sun; Hong, Sukho; Kim, Jin Wook; Yoon, Yoo-Seok; Cho, Jai Young; Han, Ho-Seong; Jeong, Sook-Hyang

    2016-03-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients commonly experience poor overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) after curative surgical resection. Glypican-3 (GPC3) has been suggested as a prognostic biomarker for post-operative survival. However, few to none of these studies have included South Korean patients. This study aimed to determine GPC3 expression rate, clinical correlation, and post-operative prognostic value in South Korean HCC patients who underwent curative surgical resection. Surgically resected tissues from 185 HCC patients were collected and assembled into tissue microarrays (TMAs), which were stained for GPC3 by immunohistochemistry. GPC3 expression rates were correlated with clinicopathological information, and survival analyses were performed to assess the prognostic value of GPC3. GPC3 expression was present in 153 patients (82.7%). GPC3-positive patients were younger with higher frequencies of microvascular invasion and higher AFP levels than GPC3-negative patients. There was no significant difference in survival between GPC3-negative and GPC3-positive patients. Based on multivariate analysis, GPC3 expression was not a prognostic marker for post-operative survival. In South Korean HCC patients, GPC3 expression was more frequent in HCCs with aggressive features, but it was not an independent prognostic biomarker. PMID:26764243

  17. A new biologic prognostic model based on immunohistochemistry predicts survival in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Anamarija M.; Cardesa-Salzmann, Teresa M.; Meyer, Paul N.; Colomo, Luis; Smith, Lynette M.; Fu, Kai; Greiner, Timothy C.; Delabie, Jan; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Rimsza, Lisa; Jaffe, Elaine S.; Ott, German; Rosenwald, Andreas; Braziel, Rita M.; Tubbs, Raymond; Cook, James R.; Staudt, Louis M.; Connors, Joseph M.; Sehn, Laurie H.; Vose, Julie M.; López-Guillermo, Armando; Campo, Elias; Chan, Wing C.

    2012-01-01

    Biologic factors that predict the survival of patients with a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, such as cell of origin and stromal signatures, have been discovered by gene expression profiling. We attempted to simulate these gene expression profiling findings and create a new biologic prognostic model based on immunohistochemistry. We studied 199 patients (125 in the training set, 74 in the validation set) with de novo diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with rituximab and CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) or CHOP-like therapies, and immunohistochemical stains were performed on paraffin-embedded tissue microarrays. In the model, 1 point was awarded for each adverse prognostic factor: nongerminal center B cell–like subtype, SPARC (secreted protein, acidic, and rich in cysteine) < 5%, and microvascular density quartile 4. The model using these 3 biologic markers was highly predictive of overall survival and event-free survival in multivariate analysis after adjusting for the International Prognostic Index in both the training and validation sets. This new model delineates 2 groups of patients, 1 with a low biologic score (0-1) and good survival and the other with a high score (2-3) and poor survival. This new biologic prognostic model could be used with the International Prognostic Index to stratify patients for novel or risk-adapted therapies. PMID:22740447

  18. A new biologic prognostic model based on immunohistochemistry predicts survival in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Perry, Anamarija M; Cardesa-Salzmann, Teresa M; Meyer, Paul N; Colomo, Luis; Smith, Lynette M; Fu, Kai; Greiner, Timothy C; Delabie, Jan; Gascoyne, Randy D; Rimsza, Lisa; Jaffe, Elaine S; Ott, German; Rosenwald, Andreas; Braziel, Rita M; Tubbs, Raymond; Cook, James R; Staudt, Louis M; Connors, Joseph M; Sehn, Laurie H; Vose, Julie M; López-Guillermo, Armando; Campo, Elias; Chan, Wing C; Weisenburger, Dennis D

    2012-09-13

    Biologic factors that predict the survival of patients with a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, such as cell of origin and stromal signatures, have been discovered by gene expression profiling. We attempted to simulate these gene expression profiling findings and create a new biologic prognostic model based on immunohistochemistry. We studied 199 patients (125 in the training set, 74 in the validation set) with de novo diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with rituximab and CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) or CHOP-like therapies, and immunohistochemical stains were performed on paraffin-embedded tissue microarrays. In the model, 1 point was awarded for each adverse prognostic factor: nongerminal center B cell-like subtype, SPARC (secreted protein, acidic, and rich in cysteine) < 5%, and microvascular density quartile 4. The model using these 3 biologic markers was highly predictive of overall survival and event-free survival in multivariate analysis after adjusting for the International Prognostic Index in both the training and validation sets. This new model delineates 2 groups of patients, 1 with a low biologic score (0-1) and good survival and the other with a high score (2-3) and poor survival. This new biologic prognostic model could be used with the International Prognostic Index to stratify patients for novel or risk-adapted therapies. PMID:22740447

  19. Prognostic factors in anal squamous carcinoma: a multivariate analysis of clinical, pathological and flow cytometric parameters in 235 cases.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, N A; Scholefield, J H; Love, S B; England, J; Northover, J M

    1990-06-01

    Clinical, pathological and flow cytometric parameters have been analysed by univariate and multivariate analysis to define those parameters of important prognostic influence in 235 cases of surgically treated squamous carcinoma of the anus and perianal skin. Patients had been treated by anorectal excision (166 patients) or by local excision (69). Analyses were carried out on five data sets--the two surgical subgroups, two groups distinguished by site of tumour and on all 235 patients. Univariate analysis showed many parameters to be of prognostic influence, although histological typing of tumours into the more common histological subtypes was of no prognostic value. Parameters of independent prognostic significance in multivariate analysis were those indicating depth of spread, inguinal lymph node involvement and DNA-ploidy. In this study the subdivision of the rarer types of anal canal tumour, such as mucoepidermoid carcinoma, microcystic squamous carcinoma and small cell anaplastic carcinoma, was relevant confirming that these tumours have a poor prognosis. It is now felt that surgery should not be employed as primary treatment in most cases of anal cancer and the results of this study have to be interpreted with caution when applied to patients treated with radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that the most useful prognostic information can be gleaned from accurate clinical staging and an assessment of DNA-ploidy status. PMID:2376397

  20. Significance of Tumor Length as Prognostic Factor for Esophageal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zeybek, Arife; Erdoğan, Abdullah; Gülkesen, Kemal Hakan; Ergin, Makbule; Sarper, Alpay; Dertsiz, Levent; Demircan, Abid

    2013-01-01

    Our study indicated the relationship between tumor length and clinicopathologic characteristics as well as long-term survival in esophageal cancer. A total of 116 patients who underwent curative surgery for thoracic esophageal cancer with standard lymphadenectomy in 2 fields between 2000 and 2010 were included in the study. The medical records of these patients were retrospectively reviewed. The patients with tumor length ≥3 cm had a highly significant difference in the involvement of adventitia and lymph node stations. The patients with tumor length ≤3 cm had significantly lower rates of involvement of the adventitia and lymph node stations. Tumor length could have a significant impact on both the overall survival and disease-free survival of patients with resected esophageal carcinomas and may provide additional prognostic value to the current tumor, node, and metastasis staging system before patients receive any cancer-specific treatment. PMID:23971777

  1. Biological subtypes of breast cancer: Prognostic and therapeutic implications

    PubMed Central

    Yersal, Ozlem; Barutca, Sabri

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous complex of diseases, a spectrum of many subtypes with distinct biological features that lead to differences in response patterns to various treatment modalities and clinical outcomes. Traditional classification systems regarding biological characteristics may have limitations for patient-tailored treatment strategies. Tumors with similar clinical and pathological presentations may have different behaviors. Analyses of breast cancer with new molecular techniques now hold promise for the development of more accurate tests for the prediction of recurrence. Gene signatures have been developed as predictors of response to therapy and protein gene products that have direct roles in driving the biology and clinical behavior of cancer cells are potential targets for the development of novel therapeutics. The present review summarizes current knowledge in breast cancer molecular biology, focusing on novel prognostic and predictive factors. PMID:25114856

  2. Monocarboxylate Transporters 1–4 in NSCLC: MCT1 Is an Independent Prognostic Marker for Survival

    PubMed Central

    Eilertsen, Marte; Andersen, Sigve; Al-Saad, Samer; Kiselev, Yury; Donnem, Tom; Stenvold, Helge; Pettersen, Ingvild; Al-Shibli, Khalid; Richardsen, Elin; Busund, Lill-Tove; Bremnes, Roy M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) 1–4 are lactate transporters crucial for cancers cells adaption to upregulated glycolysis. Herein, we aimed to explore their prognostic impact on disease-specific survival (DSS) in both cancer and tumor stromal cells in NSCLC. Methods Tissue micro arrays (TMAs) were constructed, representing both cancer and stromal tumor tissue from 335 unselected patients diagnosed with stage I–IIIA NSCLC. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the expression of MCT1-4. Results In univariate analyses; ↓MCT1 (P = 0.021) and ↑MCT4 (P = 0.027) expression in cancer cells, and ↑MCT1 (P = 0.003), ↓MCT2 (P = 0.006), ↓MCT3 (P = 0.020) expression in stromal cells correlated significantly with a poor DSS. In multivariate analyses; ↓MCT1 expression in cancer cells (HR: 1.9, CI 95%: 1.3–2.8, P = 0.001), ↓MCT2 (HR: 2.4, CI 95%: 1.5–3.9, P<0.001), ↓MCT3 (HR: 1.9, CI 95%: 1.1–3.5, P = 0.031) and ↑MCT1 expression in stromal cells (HR: 1.7, CI 95%: 1.1–2.7, P = 0.016) were significant independent poor prognostic markers for DSS. Conclusions We provide novel information of MCT1 as a candidate marker for prognostic stratification in NSCLC. Interestingly, MCT1 shows diverging, independent prognostic impact in the cancer cell and stromal cell compartments. PMID:25225794

  3. Prognostic utility of Hyams histological grading and Kadish-Morita staging systems for esthesioneuroblastoma outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bell, Diana; Saade, Rami; Roberts, Dianna; Ow, Thomas J; Kupferman, Michael; DeMonte, Franco; Hanna, Ehab Y

    2015-03-01

    Esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB) is derived from the specialized olfactory neuroepithelium. Hyams grading and Kadish staging have been used to prognosticate and to guide treatment decisions. In this study, we sought to validate the prognostic utility of these systems in a large ENB cohort. We retrospectively analyzed the records of patients with ENB who had been evaluated and treated at our institution. The association of grade and stage with prognostic outcome was assessed; the Kaplan-Meier estimator was used to generate 5-year OS and DFS curves. Out of 124 cases we identified, 121 were assessed for grading and 109 for staging. Review of the tissue samples revealed that 62 % of tumors were low grade (I/II) and 21 % were high grade (III/IV); 17 % of tumors were metastasis. The OS rate was 75 % at 5 years. The DFS was 60 % at 5 years. The OS was significantly worse for metastatic ENB (low-grade ENB vs metastatic ENB p = 0.01598); the DFS was significantly worse for high grade versus low grade ENB. Of the 109 cases that had been staged, 16 % were stage A, 33 % stage B, 43 % stage C, and 8 % stage D. In the A, B, and C groups, there were no significant differences between recurrence, distant metastasis, or 5-year survival rates. Statistical significance was not reached with the T, N, M and overall staging system. Age cutoff of 65 years reliably predicted OS. High grade of ENB was significantly associated with poor outcome, while advanced stage was not associated with poor outcome in this large cohort. Grading should certainly be considered in prognostication and treatment decisions for ENB. PMID:24806334

  4. Distributed Prognostic Health Management with Gaussian Process Regression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Sankalita; Saha, Bhaskar; Saxena, Abhinav; Goebel, Kai Frank

    2010-01-01

    Distributed prognostics architecture design is an enabling step for efficient implementation of health management systems. A major challenge encountered in such design is formulation of optimal distributed prognostics algorithms. In this paper. we present a distributed GPR based prognostics algorithm whose target platform is a wireless sensor network. In addition to challenges encountered in a distributed implementation, a wireless network poses constraints on communication patterns, thereby making the problem more challenging. The prognostics application that was used to demonstrate our new algorithms is battery prognostics. In order to present trade-offs within different prognostic approaches, we present comparison with the distributed implementation of a particle filter based prognostics for the same battery data.

  5. Interleukin-6 as a Prognostic Biomarker in Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Hung-Wen; Kuo, Chen-Ling; Huang, Ching-Shan; Tseng, Wan-Min; Lin, Ching-Po

    2015-01-01

    Background Interleukin-6 (IL-6), a proinflammatory cytokine, was found to surge in the cerebral spinal fluid after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We hypothesized that the plasma level of IL-6 could be an independent biomarker in predicting clinical outcome of patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysm. Methods We prospectively included 53 consecutive patients treated with platinum coil embolization of the ruptured intracranial aneurysm. Plasma IL-6 levels were measured in the blood samples at the orifices of the aneurysms and from peripheral veins. The outcome measure was the modified Rankin Scale one month after SAH. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the associations between the plasma IL-6 levels and the neurological outcome. Results Significant risk factors for the poor outcome were old age, low Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) on day 0, high Fisher grades, and high aneurysmal and venous IL-6 levels in univariate analyses. Aneurysmal IL-6 levels showed modest to moderate correlations with GCS on day 0, vasospasm grade and Fisher grade. A strong correlation was found between the aneurysmal and the corresponding venous IL-6 levels (ρ = 0.721; P<0.001). In the multiple logistic regression models, the poor 30-day mRS was significantly associated with high aneurysmal IL-6 level (OR, 17.97; 95% CI, 1.51–214.33; P = 0.022) and marginally associated with high venous IL-6 level (OR, 12.71; 95% CI, 0.90–180.35; P = 0.022) after adjusting for dichotomized age, GCS on day 0, and vasospasm and Fisher grades. Conclusions The plasma level of IL-6 is an independent prognostic biomarker that could be used to aid in the identification of patients at high-risk of poor neurological outcome after rupture of the intracranial aneurysm. PMID:26176774

  6. Deregulation of COMMD1 Is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Taskinen, Minna; Louhimo, Riku; Koivula, Satu; Chen, Ping; Rantanen, Ville; Holte, Harald; Delabie, Jan; Karjalainen-Lindsberg, Marja-Liisa; Björkholm, Magnus; Fluge, Øystein; Pedersen, Lars Møller; Fjordén, Karin; Jerkeman, Mats; Eriksson, Mikael; Hautaniemi, Sampsa; Leppä, Sirpa

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite improved survival for the patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the prognosis after relapse is poor. The aim was to identify molecular events that contribute to relapse and treatment resistance in DLBCL. Methods We analysed 51 prospectively collected pretreatment tumour samples from clinically high risk patients treated in a Nordic phase II study with dose-dense chemoimmunotherapy and central nervous system prophylaxis with high resolution array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and gene expression microarrays. Major finding was validated at the protein level immunohistochemically in a trial specific tissue microarray series of 70, and in an independent validation series of 146 patients. Results We identified 31 genes whose expression changes were strongly associated with copy number aberrations. In addition, gains of chromosomes 2p15 and 18q12.2 were associated with unfavourable survival. The 2p15 aberration harboured COMMD1 gene, whose expression had a significant adverse prognostic impact on survival. Immunohistochemical analysis of COMMD1 expression in two series confirmed the association of COMMD1 expression with poor prognosis. Conclusion COMMD1 is a potential novel prognostic factor in DLBCLs. The results highlight the value of integrated comprehensive analysis to identify prognostic markers and genetic driver events not previously implicated in DLBCL. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01502982 PMID:24625556

  7. Why are the many poor?

    PubMed

    Townsend, P

    1986-01-01

    In this article the author restates the same arguments put forward in the first Fabian Tract of 1884 entitled Why Are the Many Poor? Today, mass poverty is still the central problem facing the British nation and all nations. The only long-term remedy is to restrict the power and wealth of the rich, to dismantle the present structures of social privilege, and to build social institutions based on fair allocation of wealth and on social equality. The public debate of one hundred years ago on the connections between poverty and wealth is revived in this article. PMID:3957507

  8. Bile duct invasion can be an independent prognostic factor in early stage hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Ye-Rang; Kim, Hyeyoung; Lee, Jeong-Moo; Yi, Nam-Joon; Suh, Kyung-Suk

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), bile duct invasion occurs far more rarely than vascular invasion and is not well characterized. In addition, the pathologic finding of bile duct invasion is not considered an independent prognostic factor for HCC following surgery. In this study, we determined the characteristics of HCC with bile duct invasion, and assessed the clinical significance of bile duct invasion. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 363 patients who underwent hepatic resection for HCC at Seoul National University Hospital (SNUH) from January 2009 to December 2011. Preoperative, operative, and pathological data were collected. The risk factors for recurrence and survival were analyzed. Subsequently, the patients were divided into 2 groups according to disease stage (American Joint Committee on Cancer/International Union Against Cancer 7th edition): early stage (T1 and 2) and advanced stage (T3 and 4) group; and risk factors in the sub-groups were analyzed. Results Among 363 patients, 13 showed bile duct invasion on pathology. Patients with bile duct invasion had higher preoperative total bilirubin levels, greater microvascular invasion, and a higher death rate than those without bile duct invasion. In multivariate analysis, bile duct invasion was not an independent prognostic factor for survival for the entire cohort, but, was an independent prognostic factor for early stage. Conclusions Bile duct invasion accompanied microvascular invasion in most cases, and could be used as an independent prognostic factor for survival especially in early stage HCC (T1 and T2). PMID:26693236

  9. The Impact of Various Platelet Indices as Prognostic Markers of Septic Shock

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xuezhong; Guo, Shigong; Ji, Xu; Sun, Tongwen; Lan, Chao; Lavergne, Valery; Ghannoum, Marc; Li, Li

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Platelet indices, including mean platelet volume (MPV), are readily available blood tests, although their prognostic value in patients with septic shock has not been fully explored. Current evidence has found contradictory results. This study aims to explore the behavior of platelet indices in septic shock and their clinical prognostic value. Methods Charts of septic shock patients from January to December 2012 in a tertiary medical center in Northern China were reviewed retrospectively. Platelet indices were recorded during the first five consecutive days after admission, as well as the penultimate and the last day of hospital stay. The data were compared between surviving and non-surviving patients. Results A total of 124 septic shock patients were enrolled. Thirty-six of the patients survived and 88 of them expired. MPV in the non-survivor group was higher than that of the survivor group, especially on the last day. PDW and PLCR showed increased trends, while PCT and PLT decreased in the non-survivor group. Among the PLT indices, MPV had the highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (0.81) with a precision rate of 75.6% at a cut-off of 10.5.Compared with other more usual septic shock prognostic markers, MPV is second only to lactate for the highest area under the curve. Conclusion A statistically significant difference was seen between survivors and non-survivors for platelet indices which make them easily available and useful prognostic markers for patients in septic shock. PMID:25118886

  10. Clinical Features and Prognostic Factors of Hodgkins Lymphoma: A Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    K?l?kap, Saadettin; Bar??ta, ?brahim; lger, ?kran; elik, ?smail; Selek, U?ur; Y?ld?z, Ferah; Kars, Ay?e; z???k, Yavuz; Tekuzman, Glten

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hodgkins lymphoma (HL) is a B cell lymphoma characterized by the presence of Reed-Sternberg cells. HL comprises 1% of all cancer cases and 14% of all lymphoma cases. Aims: We designed a retrospective study to investigate the clinical features and prognostic factors of HL patients diagnosed at an experienced oncology centre. Study Design: Retrospective study. Methods: Demographic characteristics, histopathological and clinical features, treatment modalities and response to treatment were obtained from hospital records. Dates of initial diagnosis, remission and relapse, last visit and death were recorded for survival analyses. Results: We analysed data of 391 HL patients (61% male, 39% female; mean age 35.715.1 years). The most common classical HL histological subtype was nodular sclerosing HL (NSHL) (42.7%). The most common stage was II 50.4%. The most common chemotherapy regimen was doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine (ABVD) (70.6%). Five and 10-year survival rates were 90% and 84%, respectively. Early-stage patients with good prognostic factors had better overall and relapse-free survival rates. The presence of B symptoms, albumin level, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance score, and LDH were prognostic factors that affect the survival in both univariate and multivariate analyses. Conclusion: This is the first study that demonstrates the demographic, clinical and prognostic features of HL patients in Turkey, and provides a general picture of the HL patients in our country. PMID:25207097

  11. Prognostic value of magnetic resonance imaging-detected cranial nerve invasion in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, X; Liu, L-Z; Mao, Y-P; Chen, L; Tang, L-L; Zhou, G-Q; Sun, Y; Yue, D; Lin, A-H; Li, L; Ma, J

    2014-01-01

    Background: We previously reported that magnetic resonance imaging evidence of cranial nerve invasion was an unfavourable prognostic factor in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. However, the prognostic value of this evidence in nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy remains unknown. Methods: We retrospectively analysed 749 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients who underwent intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Results: Cranial nerve invasion was observed in 299 (39.9%) patients with T3–4 disease. In T3–4 nasopharyngeal carcinoma, magnetic resonance imaging-detected cranial nerve invasion was associated with inferior 5-year overall survival, distant metastasis-free survival, and locoregional relapse-free survival (P=0.002, 0.003, and 0.012, respectively). Multivariate analyses confirmed that cranial nerve invasion was an independent prognostic factor for distant metastasis-free survival (hazard ratio, 1.927; P=0.019) and locoregional relapse-free survival (hazard ratio, 2.605; P=0.032). Furthermore, the receiver-operating characteristic curves verified that the predictive validity of T classifications was significantly improved when combined with magnetic resonance imaging-detected cranial nerve invasion in terms of death, distant metastasis, and locoregional recurrence (P=0.015, 0.021 and 0.008, respectively). Conclusions: Magnetic resonance imaging-detected cranial nerve invasion is an independent adverse prognostic factor in nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy. PMID:24496459

  12. Clinicopathological characteristics, treatment and outcomes in uterine carcinosarcoma and grade 3 endometrial cancer patients: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective Uterine carcinosarcoma (UCS) shared the same staging system with endometrial carcinoma in the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics 2009. The aim of the present study was to compare the clinicopathological and prognostic characteristics between UCS and grade 3 endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (G3EC). Methods A retrospective analysis of 60 UCS and 115 G3EC patients with initial treatment at the Department of Gynecology in the Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center between February 2006 and August 2013. Chi-square analysis was used to compare differences between variables. Prognostic factors were determined using univariate/multivariate analysis, and the survival rates were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method. The Cox regression model was used to assess the independent prognostic factor. Results UCS had significantly worse overall survival (OS) compared with G3EC. Carcinosarcoma subtype was an independent factor (hazard ratio [HR], 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0 to 5.8; p=0.039), stratified based on stage. Compared with G3EC, UCS patients had a greater incidence of ascites fluid (55.0% vs. 15.7%, p<0.001) and adnexal involvement (20.0% vs. 8.7%, p=0.048) and larger median tumor volume (4.6 cm vs. 4.0 cm, p=0.046). Subgroup analysis of the prognostic factors revealed that UCS patients exhibited worse OS than G3EC patients in such specific subgroups as patients at younger ages, with postmenopausal status, without ascites fluid, with early stage diseases, without vagina invasion, without lymph node metastases and receiving adjuvant chemo/radiotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy with chemotherapy was predictive of better survival in UCS patients compared with chemotherapy or radiotherapy alone (5-year OS, 71.0% vs. 35.8%, p=0.028). Multivariate Cox regression revealed that tumor mesenchymal component (HR, 4.6; 95% CI, 1.4 to 15.8; p=0.014) was an independent prognostic factor for UCS, whereas advanced stages (HR, 5.9; 95% CI, 1.0 to 33.9; p=0.046) and ascites fluid (HR, 5.1; 95% CI, 1.1 to 22.7; p=0.032) were independently correlated with poor prognosis for G3EC patients. Conclusion The distinctions in both clinicopathological and prognostic characteristics between UCS and G3EC suggest that this subtype should be treated separately from high-risk epithelial endometrial carcinoma. PMID:26463439

  13. Comparison of Prognostic and Diagnostic Approaches to Modeling Evapotranspiration in the Nile River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, M.; Anderson, M. C.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Crow, W. T.; Hain, C.; Ozdogan, M.; Chun, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Actual evapotranspiration (ET) can be estimated using both prognostic and diagnostic modeling approaches, providing independent yet complementary information for hydrologic applications. Both approaches have advantages and disadvantages. When provided with temporally continuous atmospheric forcing data, prognostic models offer continuous sub-daily ET information together with the full set of water and energy balance fluxes and states (i.e. soil moisture, runoff, sensible and latent heat). On the other hand, the diagnostic modeling approach provides ET estimates over regions where reliable information about available soil water is not known (e.g., due to irrigation practices or shallow ground water levels not included in the prognostic model structure, unknown soil texture or plant rooting depth, etc). Prognostic model-based ET estimates are of great interest whenever consistent and complete water budget information is required or when there is a need to project ET for climate or land use change scenarios. Diagnostic models establish a stronger link to remote sensing observations, can be applied in regions with limited or questionable atmospheric forcing data, and provide valuable observation-derived information about the current land-surface state. Analysis of independently obtained ET estimates is particularly important in data poor regions. Such comparisons can help to reduce the uncertainty in the modeled ET estimates and to exclude outliers based on physical considerations. The Nile river basin is home to tens of millions of people whose daily life depends on water extracted from the river Nile. Yet the complete basin scale water balance of the Nile has been studied only a few times, and the temporal and the spatial distribution of hydrological fluxes (particularly ET) are still a subject of active research. This is due in part to a scarcity of ground-based station data for validation. In such regions, comparison between prognostic and diagnostic model output may be a valuable model evaluation tool. Motivated by the complementary information that exists in prognostic and diagnostic energy balance modeling, as well as the need for evaluation of water consumption estimates over the Nile basin, the purpose of this study is to 1) better describe the conceptual differences between prognostic and diagnostic modeling, 2) present the potential for diagnostic models to capture important hydrologic features that are not explicitly represented in prognostic model, 3) explore the differences in these two approaches over the Nile Basin, where ground data are sparse and transnational data sharing is unreliable. More specifically, we will compare output from the Noah prognostic model and the Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) diagnostic model generated over ground truth data-poor Nile basin. Preliminary results indicate spatially, temporally, and magnitude wise consistent flux estimates for ALEXI and NOAH over irrigated Delta region, while there are differences over river-fed wetlands.

  14. Mutations in residues of TP53 that directly contact DNA predict poor outcome in human primary breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Berns, E. M.; van Staveren, I. L.; Look, M. P.; Smid, M.; Klijn, J. G.; Foekens, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    The tumour-suppressor gene TP53 is frequently mutated in breast tumours, and the majority of the mutations are clustered within the core domain, the region involved in DNA binding. We searched for alterations in this central domain of the TP53gene in 222 human breast cancer specimens using polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation analysis (PCR-SSCA) followed by sequencing. TP53 gene mutations were observed in 66 tumours (31%), including three tumours that contain two mutations. Fifty-four (78%) of these mutations were missense point mutations, one was a nonsense mutation and four were deletions and/or insertions causing disruption of the protein reading frame, whereas four mutations were either silent or a polymorphism (at codon 213; n = 6). Interestingly, the majority of missense mutations were observed at codon 248. The outcome has been related with patient and tumour characteristics, and with prognosis in 177 patients who were eligible for analysis of both relapse-free and overall survival (median survival for patients alive was 115 months). There was no significant association between the frequency of TP53 mutations and menopausal or nodal status, or tumour size. In a Cox univariate analysis, TP53 gene mutation was significantly associated with poor relapse-free survival (RFS: P = 0.02) but not with overall survival (OS: P = 0.07). In a Cox multivariate analysis, including classical prognostic factors, TP53 gene mutation independently predicted poor RFS and OS (RHR = 1.8 and 1.6 respectively). Unexpectedly, the median relapse-free survival of patients with a polymorphism at codon 213 or with a silent mutation was shorter (median 11 months) than the median relapse-free survival of patients with or without a TP53 gene mutation (median 34 or 48 months respectively). In an exploratory subset analysis, mutations in codons that directly contact DNA were related with the poorest relapse-free (P < 0.05) and overall survival (P < 0.02). These data imply that in the analysis of the prognostic value of TP53, the type of mutation and its biological function should be considered. PMID:9569050

  15. Melt extrusion with poorly soluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sejal; Maddineni, Sindhuri; Lu, Jiannan; Repka, Michael A

    2013-08-30

    Melt extrusion (ME) over recent years has found widespread application as a viable drug delivery option in the drug development process. ME applications include taste masking, solid-state stability enhancement, sustained drug release and solubility enhancement. While ME can result in amorphous or crystalline solid dispersions depending upon several factors, solubility enhancement applications are centered around generating amorphous dispersions, primarily because of the free energy benefits they offer. In line with the purview of the current issue, this review assesses the utility of ME as a means of enhancing solubility of poorly soluble drugs/chemicals. The review describes major processing aspects of ME technology, definition and understanding of the amorphous state, manufacturability, analytical characterization and biopharmaceutical performance testing to better understand the strength and weakness of this formulation strategy for poorly soluble drugs. In addition, this paper highlights the potential advantages of employing a fusion of techniques, including pharmaceutical co-crystals and spray drying/solvent evaporation, facilitating the design of formulations of API exhibiting specific physico-chemical characteristics. Finally, the review presents some successful case studies of commercialized ME based products. PMID:23178213

  16. Prognostics for Electronics Components of Avionics Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Celaya, Jose R.; Saha, Bhaskar; Wysocki, Philip F.; Goebel, Kai F.

    2009-01-01

    Electronics components have and increasingly critical role in avionics systems and for the development of future aircraft systems. Prognostics of such components is becoming a very important research filed as a result of the need to provide aircraft systems with system level health management. This paper reports on a prognostics application for electronics components of avionics systems, in particular, its application to the Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT). The remaining useful life prediction for the IGBT is based on the particle filter framework, leveraging data from an accelerated aging tests on IGBTs. The accelerated aging test provided thermal-electrical overstress by applying thermal cycling to the device. In-situ state monitoring, including measurements of the steady-state voltages and currents, electrical transients, and thermal transients are recorded and used as potential precursors of failure.

  17. [Prognostic factors of early breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Almagro, Elena; González, Cynthia S; Espinosa, Enrique

    2016-02-19

    Decision about the administration of adjuvant therapy for early breast cancer depends on the evaluation of prognostic factors. Lymph node status, tumor size and grade of differentiation are classical variables in this regard, and can be complemented by hormonal receptor status and HER2 expression. These factors can be combined into prognostic indexes to better estimate the risk of relapse or death. Other factors are less important. Gene profiles have emerged in recent years to identify low-risk patients who can forgo adjuvant chemotherapy. A number of profiles are available and can be used in selected cases. In the future, gene profiling will be used to select patients for treatment with new targeted therapies. PMID:25726309

  18. Livestock services and the poor.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, V; Redmond, E

    2004-04-01

    This paper reviews the economic framework for the delivery of livestock services to the poor. It is argued that the demand for livestock products is likely to increase rapidly and the ability of the poor to participate in the opportunities presented by this growth is linked critically to the availability of good service support, both on the input and output side. Governments therefore have a responsibility to supply the necessary public goods (including the institutions and legal frameworks), and the market infrastructure for facilitating the emergence of efficient markets for livestock services. The paper further argues that the dynamics of public policy in developing countries are much more complex than the simple application of economic logic. It is the larger political economy that often dictates policy choices. It is therefore important to integrate political economy and governance issues into the economic debate on livestock service delivery. The paper also reviews the context in which the markets for livestock services will need to function. Different countries are facing very different sets of issues, and the identification of possible interventions in livestock service markets would require careful field research and analysis. In this context, the paper suggests the elements of a research agenda for the next few years. PMID:15080541

  19. Fulfilling Work's Promise: Policies To Increase Incomes of the Rural Working Poor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Isaac; Greenstein, Robert

    Poverty is an important antecedent factor affecting education. One of the most striking characteristics of rural poverty is the extent to which the rural poor work. About 65% of poor nonmetro families have at least one worker, compared to 54% of poor metro families. This report focuses on federal and state policy reforms that would assure poor…

  20. Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography Features of Breast Malignancies with Different Sizes: Correlation with Prognostic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Li-Xia; Liu, Hui; Wei, Qing; Xu, Guang; Wu, Jian; Xu, Hui-Xiong; Wu, Rong; Pu, Huan

    2015-01-01

    This study was to investigate the correlation between contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) characteristics with prognostic factors in breast cancers with different sizes. A retrospective analysis of CEUS characteristics of 104 pathologically proven malignant lesions from 104 women was conducted. Lesions were divided into two groups according to their size measured by US (Group 1: maximum diameter ≤20 mm; Group 2: maximum diameter >20 mm). Features including enhancement degree, order and pattern, enlargement of the enhancement area, and penetrating vessels on CEUS were evaluated. Pathologic prognostic factors, including estrogen and progesterone receptor status, and the expression of c-erb-B2, p53, Ki-67, and VEGF were assessed. Comparison of enhancement pattern parameters between Group 1 and Group 2 showed statistically significant differences (P < 0.0001). A significant correlation was found between enlargement of the enhancement area and ER positivity in Group 1 (P = 0.032). In Group 2 the absence of penetrating vessels was significantly associated with VEGF negativity (P = 0.022) and ER negativity (P = 0.022). Centripetal enhancement reflected VEGF negativity (P = 0.033) in lesions with diameter >20 mm. Thus, breast cancers with different sizes show different CEUS features; small breast cancers show homogeneous enhancement pattern while cancers with diameter >20 mm show homogeneous enhancement pattern. Some CEUS characteristics of differently sized breast cancers could be correlated with prognostic factors, which may be useful in prognosis assessment. PMID:26881202

  1. APACHE II Score, Rather Than Cardiac Function, May Predict Poor Prognosis in Patients With Stress-Induced Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Joe, Byung-Hyun; Jo, Uk; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Park, Chang-Bum; Hwang, Hui-Jeong; Sohn, Il-Suk; Jin, Eun-Sun; Cho, Jin-Man; Park, Jeong-Hwan

    2012-01-01

    While the disease course of stress-induced cardiomyopathy (SIC) is usually benign, it can be fatal. The prognostic factors to predict poorer outcome are not well established, however. We analyzed the Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score to assess its value for predicting poor prognosis in patients with SIC. Thirty-seven consecutive patients with SIC were followed prospectively during their hospitalization. Clinical factors, including APACHE II score, coronary angiogram, echocardiography and cardiac enzymes at presentation were analyzed. Of the 37 patients, 27 patients (73%) were women. The mean age was 66.1 ± 15.6 yr, and the most common presentation was chest pain (38%). Initial echocardiographic left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) was 42.5% ± 9.3%, and the wall motion score index (WMSI) was 1.9 ± 0.3. Six patients (16%) expired during the follow-up period of hospitalization. Based on the analysis of characteristics and clinical factors, the only predictable variable in prognosis was APACHE II score. The patients with APACHE II score greater than 20 had tendency to expire than the others (P = 0.001). Based on present study, APACHE II score more than 20, rather than cardiac function, is associated with mortality in patients with SIC. PMID:22219614

  2. High levels of SIRT1 expression enhance tumorigenesis and associate with a poor prognosis of colorectal carcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaojing; Sun, Kai; Jiao, Shufan; Cai, Ning; Zhao, Xue; Zou, Hanbing; Xie, Yuexia; Wang, Zhengshi; Zhong, Ming; Wei, Lixin

    2014-01-01

    SIRT1, a NAD+ dependent class III deacetylase, takes part in many important biological processes. Previous studies show that SIRT1 is overexpressed in some cancers and plays an essential role in tumorigenesis. However, the association between SIRT1 and colorectal cancer (CRC) is still unclear. We found that many CRC specimens had strong SIRT1 expression, which had an obvious correlation with poor prognosis of CRC patients. Meanwhile, SIRT1 expression had a co-localization with CD133, a current universal marker to characterize colorectal cancer stem cells (CSCs). In vitro studies also revealed that SIRT1 was overexpressed in colorectal CSC-like cells. Moreover, SIRT1 deficiency decreased percentage of CD133+ cells, attenuated the abilities of colony and sphere formation, and inhibited tumorigenicity in vivo in CRC cells. Further study demonstrated that the expressions of several stemness-associated genes, including Oct4, Nanog, Cripto, Tert and Lin28, were reduced by SIRT1 knockdown in CRC cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that SIRT1 plays a crucial role in keeping the characteristics of CSCs cells. SIRT1 is a potential independent prognostic factor of CRC patients after tumor resection with curative intent, and will contribute to providing a promising new approach to target at CSCs in CRC treatment. PMID:25500546

  3. Vehicle Integrated Prognostic Reasoner (VIPR) Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bharadwaj, Raj; Mylaraswamy, Dinkar; Cornhill, Dennis; Biswas, Gautam; Koutsoukos, Xenofon; Mack, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    A systems view is necessary to detect, diagnose, predict, and mitigate adverse events during the flight of an aircraft. While most aircraft subsystems look for simple threshold exceedances and report them to a central maintenance computer, the vehicle integrated prognostic reasoner (VIPR) proactively generates evidence and takes an active role in aircraft-level health assessment. Establishing the technical feasibility and a design trade-space for this next-generation vehicle-level reasoning system (VLRS) is the focus of our work.

  4. Supplementary Prognostic Variables for Pleural Mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Giroux, Dorothy; Kennedy, Catherine; Ruffini, Enrico; Cangir, Ayten K.; Rice, David; Asamura, Hisao; Waller, David; Edwards, John; Weder, Walter; Hoffmann, Hans; van Meerbeeck, Jan P.; Rusch, Valerie W.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The staging system for malignant pleural mesothelioma is controversial. To revise this system, the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer Staging Committee developed an international database. This report analyzes prognostic variables in a surgical population, which are supplementary to previously published CORE variables (stage, histology, sex, age, and type of procedure). Methods: Supplementary prognostic variables were studied in three scenarios: (1) all data available, that is, patient pathologically staged and other CORE variables available (2) only clinical staging available along with CORE variables, and (3) only age, sex, histology, and laboratory parameters are known. Survival was analyzed by Kaplan–Meier, prognostic factors by log rank and stepwise Cox regression modeling after elimination of nonsignificant variables. p value less than 0.05 was significant. Results: A total of 2141 patients with best tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) stages (pathologic with/without clinical staging) had nonmissing age, sex, histology, and type of surgical procedure. Three prognostic models were defined. Scenario A (all parameters): best pathologic stage, histology, sex, age, type of surgery, adjuvant treatment, white blood cell count (WBC) (≥15.5 or not), and platelets (≥400 k or not) (n = 550). Scenario B (no surgical staging): clinical stage, histology, sex, age, type of surgery, adjuvant treatment, WBC, hemoglobin (<14.6 or not), and platelets (n = 627). Scenario C (limited data): histology, sex, age, WBC, hemoglobin, and platelets (n = 906). Conclusion: Refinement of these models could define not only the appropriate patient preoperatively for best outcomes after cytoreductive surgery but also stratify surgically treated patients after clinical and pathologic staging who do or do not receive adjuvant therapy. PMID:24807157

  5. What Number of Oocytes Is Appropriate for Defining Poor Ovarian Response?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seul Ki; Lee, Jung Ryeol; Suh, Chang Suk; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study attempted to derive an objective and sophisticated definition of poor ovarian response (POR). Materials and Methods A total of 176 consecutive in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles (137 patients) with conventional ovarian stimulation during 2009 to 2012 were studied by retrospective analysis. Optimal oocyte number (total or mature) was determined by statistics-based (distribution of oocyte number) and prognosis-based approaches (prediction for IVF outcome). Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis was used to show what number of oocytes could predict IVF pregnancy and whether clinical and laboratory variables could predict newly defined POR. Results The 25th percentile of the distribution corresponded to total oocytes ≤2 and mature oocyte ≤1. The cut-off values for the prediction of IVF outcomes were total oocytes >5 and mature oocyte >1. Considering the incidence of POR (34.1%), a reasonable definition of POR was decided as total oocytes ≤2 or mature oocyte ≤1. For the prediction of this new definition, the extreme cut-off value (by setting a false positive rate of 5%) of serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) was ≤0.76 ng/mL, which was better than serum follicle stimulating hormone or age. A new simple definition of POR was derived as total oocytes ≤2 or mature oocyte ≤1 in a previous cycle or a serum AMH level of ≤0.76 ng/mL. When this simple criterion was re-applied to our data, the predictive performance was similar to the Bologna criteria. Conclusion We here propose a new definition of POR, which is simple and supported by statistical and prognostic analyses. PMID:25683999

  6. Lymph node metastases and elevated postoperative calcitonin: Predictors of poor survival in medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Siironen, Pivi; Hagstrm, Jaana; Menp, Hanna O; Louhimo, Johanna; Arola, Johanna; Haglund, Caj

    2016-03-01

    Background Total thyroidectomy is the treatment of choice for medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), but the extent of neck dissection is controversial. Lymph node metastases, distant metastases, and old age are known predictors of poor survival. Patients Patients treated for primary MTC at Helsinki University Hospital from 1990 to 2009 were included (n?=?54). Their clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcome were analysed retrospectively, these patients were followed until death or their last follow-up date. Results At last follow-up (3.4-23 years), of 54 MTC patients, 19 (35%) were disease-free, 17 (32%) were alive with disease, and 12 (22%) had died of MTC; six patients died of unrelated causes (11%). All disease-free patients were node negative and had normal postoperative calcitonin level. Of 19 disease-free patients, only four (21%) had undergone lymph node dissection. All patients who died of MTC were Stage IV at diagnosis and died with distant metastases. Disease-specific five-and 10-year survival was 84% and 76.2%. Advanced T-stage (p?=?0.004), lymph node metastases (p?prognostic factors. Patients with lymph node metastasis and/or elevated postoperative calcitonin with present treatments cannot become disease-free, but most of them can live a long life with metastasis. PMID:26339947

  7. Mortality after hip fracture with vertebral compression fracture is poor.

    PubMed

    Imai, Norio; Endo, Naoto; Hoshino, Tadashi; Suda, Ken; Miyasaka, Dai; Ito, Tomoyuki

    2016-01-01

    Due to the increasing elderly population, the prevalence of osteoporotic hip fractures in Japanese patients continues to rise. It is well established that patients with either hip fracture or both symptomatic and asymptomatic morphometric vertebral compression fracture (VCF) have a poor health prognosis compared with the general population. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively investigate vertebral fracture rates among patients with hip fracture and their influence on mortality. We examined 182 cases of osteoporotic hip fracture in patients admitted to our institution between January 2009 and May 2011. The average age at the time of fracture was 85 years. Radiographs of the lumbar spine were obtained from all of the participants and the lateral spinal radiographs were examined for evidence of VCF. The patients were classified into two groups, those with VCF and those without. A VCF was identified in approximately 78 % of the patients. The mortality rate 1 year after the hip fracture was approximately 22 % and it was significantly higher in patients with VCF. Through multivariate statistics we found that VCF, post-operative complication, loss of ambulation after operation and medication for osteoporosis were statistically significant. In other words, VCF, post-operative complication and loss of ambulation were considered to be poor prognostic factors and medication for osteoporosis was likely to improve the prognosis. We concluded that the risk of mortality after hip fracture is significantly greater in patients who also have VCF compared to patients without VCF, and that medication for osteoporosis is likely to improve prognosis. PMID:25501699

  8. A Distributed Approach to System-Level Prognostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daigle, Matthew J.; Bregon, Anibal; Roychoudhury, Indranil

    2012-01-01

    Prognostics, which deals with predicting remaining useful life of components, subsystems, and systems, is a key technology for systems health management that leads to improved safety and reliability with reduced costs. The prognostics problem is often approached from a component-centric view. However, in most cases, it is not specifically component lifetimes that are important, but, rather, the lifetimes of the systems in which these components reside. The system-level prognostics problem can be quite difficult due to the increased scale and scope of the prognostics problem and the relative Jack of scalability and efficiency of typical prognostics approaches. In order to address these is ues, we develop a distributed solution to the system-level prognostics problem, based on the concept of structural model decomposition. The system model is decomposed into independent submodels. Independent local prognostics subproblems are then formed based on these local submodels, resul ting in a scalable, efficient, and flexible distributed approach to the system-level prognostics problem. We provide a formulation of the system-level prognostics problem and demonstrate the approach on a four-wheeled rover simulation testbed. The results show that the system-level prognostics problem can be accurately and efficiently solved in a distributed fashion.

  9. New prognostic markers in liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Di Martino, Vincent; Weil, Delphine; Cervoni, Jean-Paul; Thevenot, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Determining the prognosis of cirrhotic patients is not an easy task. Prognostic scores, like Child-Pugh and Model of End-stage Liver Disease scores, are commonly used by hepatologists, but do not always reflect superimposed events that may strongly influence the prognosis. Among them, bacterial intestinal translocation is a key phenomenon for the development of cirrhosis-related complications. Several biological variables (C-reactive protein, serum free cortisol, copeptin, von Willebrand factor antigen) are surrogates of inflammatory stress and have recently been identified as potential prognostic markers in cirrhotic patients. Most of these above mentioned markers were investigated in pilot studies with sometimes a modest sample size but allow us to catch a glimpse of the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to the worsening of cirrhosis. These new data should generate further well-designed studies to better assess the benefit for liver function of preventing intestinal bacterial translocation and microvascular thrombosis. The control of infection is vital and among all actors of immunity, vitamin D also appears to act as an anti-infective agent and therefore has probably a prognostic value. PMID:26019739

  10. LSD1 Overexpression Is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Basal-Like Breast Cancer, and Sensitivity to PARP Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Nagasawa, Satoi; Sedukhina, Anna S.; Nakagawa, Yuko; Maeda, Ichiro; Kubota, Manabu; Ohnuma, Shigeko; Tsugawa, Koichiro; Ohta, Tomohiko; Roche-Molina, Marta; Bernal, Juan A.; Narváez, Ana J.; Jeyasekharan, Anand D.; Sato, Ko

    2015-01-01

    LSD1, a lysine-specific histone demethylase, is overexpressed in several types of cancers and linked to poor outcomes. In breast cancer, the significance of LSD1 overexpression is not clear. We have performed an in silico analysis to assess the relationship of LSD1 expression to clinical outcome. We demonstrate that LSD1 overexpression is a poor prognostic factor in breast cancer, especially in basal-like breast cancer, a subtype of breast cancer with aggressive clinical features. This link is also observed in samples of triple negative breast cancer. Interestingly, we note that overexpression of LSD1 correlates with down-regulation of BRCA1 in triple negative breast cancer. This phenomenon is also observed in in vitro models of basal-like breast cancer, and is associated with an increased sensitivity to PARP inhibitors. We propose therefore that high expression levels of the demethylase LSD1 is a potential prognostic factor of poor outcome in basal-like breast cancer, and that PARP inhibition may be a therapeutic strategy of interest in this poor prognostic subtype with overexpression of LSD1. PMID:25679396

  11. Fascin expression [corrected] in glial tumors and its prognostic significance in glioblastomas.

    PubMed

    Gunal, Armagan; Onguru, Onder; Safali, Mukerrem; Beyzadeoglu, Murat

    2008-08-01

    Fascin is a -55 kDa-actin binding protein. Actin bundles rearranged by fascin proteins are concentrated in cell membrane protrusions and these protrusions provide motility of the cell. In this study, we evaluated fascin expression in glial tumors and its relation with histologic grade. Its prognostic value in glioblastomas (GBs) was also investigated. Seventy-six glial tumors including 44 glioblastomas with known survival time, 18 anaplastic astrocytomas (AAs), six diffuse astrocytomas (DAs), and eight pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) were examined immunohistochemically for fascin expression. Fascin was observed in the neurons of normal brain tissue and endothelium of vascular spaces in the glial tumors. Fascin expression was correlated with histologic grade in DAs. PAs expressed low levels of fascin. Half of the GBs showed high levels of fascin expression. In the GB group, overall survival was poor for cases with percentage of stained cells >50% having moderate or strong staining intensity. In GBs, overall survival was also poor for >50-year-old cases and cases that refused radiotherapy. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that age (>50 years, P=0.021) and higher level of fascin expression (immunohistochemical score >8, P=0.040) were independent poor prognostic factors. In conclusion, fascin expression levels are correlated with histologic grade and fascin overexpression may play an important role in the biologic behavior of glial astrocytic tumors and in the prognosis of GBs. PMID:18298442

  12. Prognostic factors in juvenile chronic granulocytic leukaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Owen, G.; Lewis, I. J.; Morgan, M.; Robinson, A.; Stevens, R. F.

    1992-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of the clinical and haematological characteristics of patients diagnosed as having juvenile chronic granulocytic leukaemia between 1971 and 1986 was carried out. Thirty-three children were identified who were between the ages of 18 weeks and 8.8 years at diagnosis. The disease was more frequent in boys than girls (23:10). The most common presenting symptoms were skin rash (58%) and bleeding manifestations (45%). All patients had some degree of splenomegaly and in 88% this was more than 3 centimetres below the costal margin. Hepatomegaly and lymphadenopathy were also frequent findings. Anaemia was common and leucocytosis an invariable finding with a white cell count above 50 x 10(9) 1-1 in 42%. Monocytosis was found in 78%. Haemoglobin F measurements were available in 31 children and above 10% in 22 (67%). No child had the Philadelphia chromosome or monosomy 7. Thirty children were treated with chemotherapy, with a variable degree of symptomatic improvement. Twenty-nine patients had died with a median survival time of 5 months. The commonest cause of death was complications of bone marrow failure and no child developed acute leukaemia. Presenting characteristics associated with a longer survival period were age less than 6 months (P = 0.02), female sex (P = 0.02), HbF less than 10% (P = 0.0004) and the absence of bleeding manifestations (P = 0.03). We conclude that the prognosis for children aged over 6 months, with a raised HbF level is very poor, and that, in the absence of possible bone marrow transplantation, consideration should be given to novel treatment approaches for these patients. PMID:1380283

  13. Development and Validation of a New Prognostic System for Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Spolverato, Gaya; Pawlik, Timothy M.; Huo, Teh-la; Lee, Yun-Hsuan; Frigo, Anna Chiara; Giacomin, Anna; Giannini, Edoardo G.; Ciccarese, Francesca; Piscaglia, Fabio; Rapaccini, Gian Lodovico; Caturelli, Eugenio; Zoli, Marco; Borzio, Franco; Cabibbo, Giuseppe; Sacco, Rodolfo; Morisco, Filomena; Biasini, Elisabetta; Foschi, Francesco Giuseppe; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Svegliati Baroni, Gianluca; Virdone, Roberto; Trevisani, Franco; Cillo, Umberto

    2016-01-01

    Background Prognostic assessment in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains controversial. Using the Italian Liver Cancer (ITA.LI.CA) database as a training set, we sought to develop and validate a new prognostic system for patients with HCC. Methods and Findings Prospective collected databases from Italy (training cohort, n = 3,628; internal validation cohort, n = 1,555) and Taiwan (external validation cohort, n = 2,651) were used to develop the ITA.LI.CA prognostic system. We first defined ITA.LI.CA stages (0, A, B1, B2, B3, C) using only tumor characteristics (largest tumor diameter, number of nodules, intra- and extrahepatic macroscopic vascular invasion, extrahepatic metastases). A parametric multivariable survival model was then used to calculate the relative prognostic value of ITA.LI.CA tumor stage, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status, Child–Pugh score (CPS), and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in predicting individual survival. Based on the model results, an ITA.LI.CA integrated prognostic score (from 0 to 13 points) was constructed, and its prognostic power compared with that of other integrated systems (BCLC, HKLC, MESIAH, CLIP, JIS). Median follow-up was 58 mo for Italian patients (interquartile range, 26–106 mo) and 39 mo for Taiwanese patients (interquartile range, 12–61 mo). The ITA.LI.CA integrated prognostic score showed optimal discrimination and calibration abilities in Italian patients. Observed median survival in the training and internal validation sets was 57 and 61 mo, respectively, in quartile 1 (ITA.LI.CA score ≤ 1), 43 and 38 mo in quartile 2 (ITA.LI.CA score 2–3), 23 and 23 mo in quartile 3 (ITA.LI.CA score 4–5), and 9 and 8 mo in quartile 4 (ITA.LI.CA score > 5). Observed and predicted median survival in the training and internal validation sets largely coincided. Although observed and predicted survival estimations were significantly lower (log-rank test, p < 0.001) in Italian than in Taiwanese patients, the ITA.LI.CA score maintained very high discrimination and calibration features also in the external validation cohort. The concordance index (C index) of the ITA.LI.CA score in the internal and external validation cohorts was 0.71 and 0.78, respectively. The ITA.LI.CA score’s prognostic ability was significantly better (p < 0.001) than that of BCLC stage (respective C indexes of 0.64 and 0.73), CLIP score (0.68 and 0.75), JIS stage (0.67 and 0.70), MESIAH score (0.69 and 0.77), and HKLC stage (0.68 and 0.75). The main limitations of this study are its retrospective nature and the intrinsically significant differences between the Taiwanese and Italian groups. Conclusions The ITA.LI.CA prognostic system includes both a tumor staging—stratifying patients with HCC into six main stages (0, A, B1, B2, B3, and C)—and a prognostic score—integrating ITA.LI.CA tumor staging, CPS, ECOG performance status, and AFP. The ITA.LI.CA prognostic system shows a strong ability to predict individual survival in European and Asian populations. PMID:27116206

  14. Nectin-2 and DDX3 are biomarkers for metastasis and poor prognosis of squamous cell/adenosquamous carcinomas and adenocarcinoma of gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Miao, Xiongying; Yang, Zhu-Lin; Xiong, Li; Zou, Qiong; Yuan, Yuan; Li, Jinghe; Liang, Lufeng; Chen, Meigui; Chen, Senlin

    2013-01-01

    The clinicopathological and biological characteristics of squamous cell/adenosquamous carcinoma (SC/ASC) of gallbladder have not been well documented because it is a rare subtype of gallbladder cancer. In this study, the protein expression of Nectin-2 and DDX3 in 46 SC/ASCs and 80 adenocarcinomas was measured using immunohistochemistry. We demonstrated that positive Nectin-2 and DDX3 expression was significantly associated with large tumor size, high TNM stage, and lymph node metastasis of SC/ASC and AC. Positive Nectin-2 and DDX3 expression was significantly associated with invasion and surgical curability of AC. Univariate Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that positive Nectin-2 and DDX3 expression, degree of differentiation, tumor size, TNM stage, invasion, lymph node metastasis, and surgical curability were significantly associated with post-operative survival in both SC/ASC and AC patients. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that positive Nectin-2 and DDX3 expression, degree of differentiation, tumor size, TNM stage, invasion, lymph node metastasis, and no surgical curability are independent poor-prognostic factors in both SC/ASC and AC patients. Our study suggested that positive Nectin-2 and DDx3 expression is closely correlated with clinical, pathological, and biological behaviors as well as poor-prognosis of gallbladder cancer. PMID:23330003

  15. Child Health: Reaching the Poor

    PubMed Central

    Wagstaff, Adam; Bustreo, Flavia; Bryce, Jennifer; Claeson, Mariam

    2004-01-01

    In most countries, rates of mortality and malnutrition among children continue to decline, but large inequalities between poor and better-off children exist, both between and within countries. These inequalities, which appear to be widening, call into question the strategies for child mortality reduction relied upon to date. We review (1) what is known about the causes of socioeconomic inequalities in child health and where programs aimed at reducing inequalities may be most effectively focused and (2) what is known about the success of actual programs in narrowing these inequalities. We end with lessons learned: the need for better evidence, but most of all for a new approach to improving the health of all children that is evidence based, broad, and multifaceted. PMID:15117689

  16. Co-expression of midkine and pleiotrophin predicts poor survival in human glioma.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jinyang; Lang, Bojuan; Wang, Xiongwei; Wang, Lei; Dong, Yuanxun; Hu, Huojun

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether co-expression of midkine (MK) and pleiotrophin (PTN) has prognostic relevance in human gliomas. Immunohistochemistry was used to investigate the expression of MK and PTN proteins in 168 patients with gliomas. The levels of MK and PTN mRNA in glioma tissues and paratumor tissues were evaluated in 45 paired cases by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed to assess prognostic significance. The expression levels of MK and PTN proteins in glioma tissue were both significantly higher (both p<0.001) than those in paratumor tissues on immunohistochemistry analysis, which was confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis. Additionally, the overexpression of either MK or PTN was significantly associated with the World Health Organization Grade (p=0.001 and 0.034, respectively), low Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) score (p=0.022 and 0.001, respectively), time to recurrence (p=0.043 and 0.011, respectively) and poor overall survival (p=0.018 and 0.001, respectively). Multivariate Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis revealed that increased expressions of MK and PTN were both independent prognostic factors for poor overall survival (p=0.030 and 0.022, respectively). Furthermore, the co-expression of MK and PTN was more significantly (p=0.003) associated with adverse prognosis in patients with gliomas than the respective expression of MK or PTN alone. To our knowledge, these findings are the first to indicate that the co-expression of MK and PTN is significantly correlated with prognosis in glioma patients, suggesting that the co-expression of these proteins may be used as both an early diagnostic and independent prognostic marker. PMID:25001988

  17. Serving the world's poor, profitably.

    PubMed

    Prahalad, C K; Hammond, Allen

    2002-09-01

    By stimulating commerce and development at the bottom of the economic pyramid, multi-nationals could radically improve the lives of billions of people and help create a more stable, less dangerous world. Achieving this goal does not require MNCs to spearhead global social-development initiatives for charitable purposes. They need only act in their own self-interest. How? The authors lay out the business case for entering the world's poorest markets. Fully 65% of the world's population earns less than $2,000 per year--that's 4 billion people. But despite the vastness of this market, it remains largely untapped. The reluctance to invest is easy to understand, but it is, by and large, based on outdated assumptions of the developing world. While individual incomes may be low, the aggregate buying power of poor communities is actually quite large, representing a substantial market in many countries for what some might consider luxury goods like satellite television and phone services. Prices, and margins, are often much higher in poor neighborhoods than in their middle-class counterparts. And new technologies are already steadily reducing the effects of corruption, illiteracy, inadequate infrastructure, and other such barriers. Because these markets are in the earliest stages of economic development, revenue growth for multi-nationals entering them can be extremely rapid. MNCs can also lower costs, not only through low-cost labor but by transferring operating efficiencies and innovations developed to serve their existing operations. Certainly, succeeding in such markets requires MNCs to think creatively. The biggest change, though, has to come from executives: Unless business leaders confront their own preconceptions--particularly about the value of high-volume, low-margin businesses--companies are unlikely to master the challenges or reap the rewards of these developing markets. PMID:12227146

  18. Sun exposure and melanoma prognostic factors

    PubMed Central

    GANDINI, SARA; MONTELLA, MAURIZIO; AYALA, FABRIZIO; BENEDETTO, LUCIA; ROSSI, CARLO RICCARDO; VECCHIATO, ANTONELLA; CORRADIN, MARIA TERESA; DE GIORGI, VINCENZO; QUEIROLO, PAOLA; ZANNETTI, GUIDO; GIUDICE, GIUSEPPE; BORRONI, GIOVANNI; FORCIGNANÒ, ROSACHIARA; PERIS, KETTY; TOSTI, GIULIO; TESTORI, ALESSANDRO; TREVISAN, GIUSTO; SPAGNOLO, FRANCESCO; ASCIERTO, PAOLO A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have reported an association between sun exposure and the increased survival of patients with cutaneous melanoma (CM). The present study analyzed the association between ultraviolet (UV) light exposure and various prognostic factors in the Italian Clinical National Melanoma Registry. Clinical and sociodemographic features were collected, as well as information concerning sunbed exposure and holidays with sun exposure. Analyses were performed to investigate the association between exposure to UV and melanoma prognostic factors. Between December 2010 and December 2013, information was obtained on 2,738 melanoma patients from 38 geographically representative Italian sites. A total of 49% of the patients were >55 years old, 51% were men, 50% lived in the north of Italy and 57% possessed a high level of education (at least high school). A total of 8 patients had a family history of melanoma and 56% had a fair phenotype (Fitzpatrick skin type I or II). Of the total patients, 29% had been diagnosed with melanoma by a dermatologist; 29% of patients presented with a very thick melanoma (Breslow thickness, >2 mm) and 25% with an ulcerated melanoma. In total, 1% of patients had distant metastases and 13% exhibited lymph node involvement. Holidays with sun exposure 5 years prior to CM diagnosis were significantly associated with positive prognostic factors, including lower Breslow thickness (P<0.001) and absence of ulceration (P=0.009), following multiple adjustments for factors such as sociodemographic status, speciality of doctor performing the diagnosis and season of diagnosis. Sunbed exposure and sun exposure during peak hours of sunlight were not significantly associated with Breslow thickness and ulceration. Holidays with sun exposure were associated with favorable CM prognostic factors, whereas no association was identified between sunbed use and sun exposure during peak hours of sunlight with favorable CM prognostic factors. However, the results of the present study do not prove a direct causal effect of sun exposure on melanoma prognosis, as additional confounding factors, including vitamin D serum levels, may have a role. PMID:27073541

  19. Poor Facial Affect Recognition among Boys with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, V. J.; Fee, R. J.; De Vivo, D. C.; Goldstein, E.

    2007-01-01

    Children with Duchenne or Becker muscular dystrophy (MD) have delayed language and poor social skills and some meet criteria for Pervasive Developmental Disorder, yet they are identified by molecular, rather than behavioral, characteristics. To determine whether comprehension of facial affect is compromised in boys with MD, children were given a…

  20. The prognostic impact of TERT promoter mutations in glioblastomas is modified by the rs2853669 single nucleotide polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Batista, Rui; Cruvinel-Carloni, Adriana; Vinagre, João; Peixoto, Joana; Catarino, Telmo A; Campanella, Nathalia Cristina; Menezes, Weder; Becker, Aline Paixão; de Almeida, Gisele Caravina; Matsushita, Marcus M; Clara, Carlos; Neder, Luciano; Viana-Pereira, Marta; Honavar, Mrinalini; Castro, Lígia; Lopes, José Manuel; Carvalho, Bruno; Vaz, Rui Manuel; Máximo, Valdemar; Soares, Paula; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel; Reis, Rui Manuel; Lima, Jorge

    2016-07-15

    Human hotspot TERT promoter (TERTp) mutations have been reported in a wide range of tumours. Several studies have shown that TERTp mutations are associated with clinicopathological features; in some instances, TERTp mutations were considered as biomarkers of poor prognosis. The rs2853669 SNP, located in the TERT promoter region, was reported to modulate the increased TERT expression levels induced by the recurrent somatic mutations. In this study we aimed to determine the frequency and prognostic value of TERTp mutations and TERT rs2853669 SNP in 504 gliomas from Portuguese and Brazilian patients. TERTp mutations were detected in 47.8% of gliomas (216/452). Glioblastomas (GBM) exhibited the highest frequency of TERTp mutations (66.9%); in this glioma subtype, we found a significant association between TERTp mutations and poor prognosis, regardless of the population. Moreover, in a multivariate analysis, TERTp mutations were the only independent prognostic factor. Our data also showed that the poor prognosis conferred by TERTp mutations was restricted to GBM patients carrying the rs2853669 A allele and not in those carrying the G allele. In conclusion, the presence of TERTp mutations was associated with worse prognosis in GBM patients, although such association depended on the status of the rs2853669 SNP. The status of the rs2853669 SNP should be taken in consideration when assessing the prognostic value of TERTp mutations in GBM patients. TERTp mutations and the rs2853669 SNP can be used in the future as biomarkers of glioma prognosis. PMID:26914704

  1. Particle filter-based prognostics: Review, discussion and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouin, Marine; Gouriveau, Rafael; Hissel, Daniel; Péra, Marie-Cécile; Zerhouni, Noureddine

    2016-05-01

    Particle filters are of great concern in a large variety of engineering fields such as robotics, statistics or automatics. Recently, it has developed among Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) applications for diagnostics and prognostics. According to some authors, it has ever become a state-of-the-art technique for prognostics. Nowadays, around 50 papers dealing with prognostics based on particle filters can be found in the literature. However, no comprehensive review has been proposed on the subject until now. This paper aims at analyzing the way particle filters are used in that context. The development of the tool in the prognostics' field is discussed before entering the details of its practical use and implementation. Current issues are identified, analyzed and some solutions or work trails are proposed. All this aims at highlighting future perspectives as well as helping new users to start with particle filters in the goal of prognostics.

  2. Prognostic significance of the mRNA expression of ERCC1, RRM1, TUBB3 and TYMS genes in patients with non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    SUN, SHENGJIE; SHI, WEIWEI; WU, ZHIYONG; ZHANG, GUOQING; YANG, BO; JIAO, SHUNCHANG

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the prognostic value of excision repair cross-complementing 1 (ERCC1), ribonucleotide reductase subunit M1 (RRM1), class III β-tubulin (TUBB3) and thymidylate synthase (TYMS) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy. The mRNA expression of these genes was assessed in 72 tumor tissue samples obtained following surgery, using multiplex branched-DNA technology. Subsequent to surgery, all 72 patients with NSCLC were treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. The expression of these five genes was analyzed and the correlation with clinical characteristics and patient survival was investigated. Among the 72 samples, the incidence rate of mRNA expression of ERCC1 was 38.9% (28/72), RRM1 was 55.6% (40/72), TUBB3 was 47.2% (34/72) and TYMS was 62.5% (45/72). The incidence rate of ERCC1 expression in adenocarcinoma (34.2%) was significantly lower than that in non-adenocarcinoma (44.1%; P<0.05). Furthermore, the incidence rates of TYMS and TUBB3 expression in the high-median differentiation tissue samples were significantly lower than those in the low differentiation tissue samples (P<0.05). When the correlation of gene expression and patient survival was analyzed, high expression of ERCC1, RRM1, TUBB3 or TYMS was found to be associated with poor prognosis (P<0.001, P=0.001, P=0.001 and P=0.001, respectively). ERCC1, RRM1, TUBB3 and TYMS are key factors involved in survival following surgical treatment in patients with NSCLC. The mRNA expression of these genes may have prognostic value for patients with NSCLC treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. PMID:26622418

  3. APOBEC family mutational signatures are associated with poor prognosis translocations in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Brian A; Wardell, Christopher P; Murison, Alex; Boyle, Eileen M; Begum, Dil B; Dahir, Nasrin M; Proszek, Paula Z; Melchor, Lorenzo; Pawlyn, Charlotte; Kaiser, Martin F; Johnson, David C; Qiang, Ya-Wei; Jones, John R; Cairns, David A; Gregory, Walter M; Owen, Roger G; Cook, Gordon; Drayson, Mark T; Jackson, Graham H; Davies, Faith E; Morgan, Gareth J

    2015-01-01

    We have sequenced 463 presenting cases of myeloma entered into the UK Myeloma XI study using whole exome sequencing. Here we identify mutations induced as a consequence of misdirected AID in the partner oncogenes of IGH translocations, which are activating and associated with impaired clinical outcome. An APOBEC mutational signature is seen in 3.8% of cases and is linked to the translocation mediated deregulation of MAF and MAFB, a known poor prognostic factor. Patients with this signature have an increased mutational load and a poor prognosis. Loss of MAF or MAFB expression results in decreased APOBEC3B and APOBEC4 expression, indicating a transcriptional control mechanism. Kataegis, a further mutational pattern associated with APOBEC deregulation, is seen at the sites of the MYC translocation. The APOBEC mutational signature seen in myeloma is, therefore, associated with poor prognosis primary and secondary translocations and the molecular mechanisms involved in generating them. PMID:25904160

  4. MicroRNA in pancreatic adenocarcinoma: predictive/prognostic biomarkers or therapeutic targets?

    PubMed Central

    Brunetti, Oronzo; Russo, Antonio; Scarpa, Aldo; Santini, Daniele; Reni, Michele; Bittoni, Alessandro; Azzariti, Amalia; Aprile, Giuseppe; Delcuratolo, Sabina; Signorile, Michele; Gnoni, Antonio; Palermo, Loredana; Lorusso, Vito; Cascinu, Stefano; Silvestris, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a tumor with a poor prognosis, short overall survival and few chemotherapeutic choices. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding, single-stranded RNAs of around 22 nucleotides involved in the pathogenic mechanisms of carcinogenesis and metastasis. They have been studied in many tumors in order to identify potential diagnostic, prognostic or therapeutic targets. In the current literature, many studies have analyzed the role of miRNAs in PDAC. In fact, the absence of appropriate biomarkers, the difficultly of early detection of this tumor, and the lack of effective chemotherapy in patients with unresectable disease have focused attention on miRNAs as new, interesting advance in this malignancy. In this review we analyzed the role of miRNAs in PDAC in order to understand the mechanisms of action and the difference between the onco-miRNA and the tumor suppressor miRNA. We also reviewed all the data related to the use of these molecules as predictive as well as prognostic biomarkers in the course of the disease. Finally, the possible therapeutic use of miRNAs or anti-miRNAs in PDAC is also discussed. In conclusion, although there is still no clinical application for these molecules in PDAC, it is our opinion that the preclinical evidence of the role of specific miRNAs in carcinogenesis, the possibility of using miRNAs as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers, and their potential therapeutic role, warrant future studies in PDAC. PMID:26259238

  5. A structured approach to neurologic prognostication in clinical cardiac arrest trials

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Brain injury is the dominant cause of death for cardiac arrest patients who are admitted to an intensive care unit, and the majority of patients die after withdrawal of life sustaining therapy (WLST) based on a presumed poor neurologic outcome. Mild induced hypothermia was found to decrease the reliability of several methods for neurological prognostication. Algorithms for prediction of outcome, that were developed before the introduction of mild hypothermia after cardiac arrest, may have affected the results of studies with hypothermia-treated patients. In previous trials on neuroprotection after cardiac arrest, including the pivotal hypothermia trials, the methods for prognostication and the reasons for WLST were not reported and may have had an effect on outcome. In the Target Temperature Management trial, in which 950 cardiac arrest patients have been randomized to treatment at 33°C or 36°C, neuroprognostication and WLST-decisions are strictly protocolized and registered. Prognostication is delayed to at least 72 hours after the end of the intervention period, thus a minimum of 4.5 days after the cardiac arrest, and is based on multiple parameters to account for the possible effects of hypothermia. PMID:23759121

  6. KIAA1522 is a novel prognostic biomarker in patients with non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi-Zhen; Yang, Hai; Cao, Jian; Jiang, Yan-Yi; Hao, Jia-Jie; Xu, Xin; Cai, Yan; Wang, Ming-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, no robust biomarkers have been applied to clinical practice to provide prognostic evaluation of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study aims to identify new potential prognostic biomarkers for NSCLC. In the present work, KIAA1522 is screened out from two independent GEO datasets as aberrantly up-regulated gene in NSCLC tissues. We evaluate KIAA1522 expression immunohistochemically in 583 NSCLC tissue samples and paired non-tumor tissues. KIAA1522 displays stronger staining in NSCLC cases than in adjacent normal lung tissues. Importantly, patients with KIAA1522 overexpression had a significantly shorter overall survival compared to those with low expression (P < 0.00001). Multivariate Cox regression analyses show that KIAA1522 is an independent prognostic indicator, even for early-stage NSCLCs (P = 0.00025, HR = 2.317, 95%CI: 1.477–3.635). We also found that high expression of KIAA1522 is a significant risk factor for decreased overall survival of the patients who received platinum-based chemotherapy. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and functional studies reveal that KIAA1522 is associated with oncogenic KRAS pathways. Taken together, high expression of KIAA1522 can be used as an independent biomarker for predication of poor survival and platinum-resistance of NSCLC patients, and aberrant KIAA1522 might be a new target for the therapy of the disease. PMID:27098511

  7. Clinical significance and prognostic value of Vav1 expression in Non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yao; Kong, Fan-Ming; Deng, Qi; Li, Jing-Yi; Cui, Rui; Pu, Ye-Di; Zhai, Qiong-Li; Jia, Ying-Jie; Li, Yu-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Vav1 has been reported to be involved in human cancers, however, the expression and clinical significance of Vav1 in NSCLC are not fully understood. In the present study, we examined the expression of Vav1 in 170 NSCLC patients who underwent radical resection by the immunohistochemical analyses. The association between the Vav1 expression and clinicopathological variables was analyzed. The multivariate Cox proportional hazards model was conducted to determine the prognostic value of Vav1 on the long-term survival. The results showed that the elevated Vav1 expression was correlated positively with lymph node metastasis (P<0.001), T stage (P<0.001) and poor histological differentiation (P<0.001). Patients with negative or low Vav1 expression had better prognoses than those with high Vav1 expression (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis indicated that Vav1 was independent prognostic factor for overall survival (OS) (HR 2.079, 95% CI 1.564 to 2.762, P<0.001) and disease-free survival (DFS) (HR 1.810, 95% CI 1.391 to 2.356, P<0.001). Our findings showed that overexpressed Vav1 was correlated with aggressive tumor behavior. Val1 was an independent factor for NSCLC prognosis, which may serve as a novel prognostic factor and potential target to improve the long-term outcome of NSCLC. PMID:26396925

  8. Prognostic and predictive response factors in colorectal cancer patients: Between hope and reality

    PubMed Central

    De Divitiis, Chiara; Nasti, Guglielmo; Montano, Massimo; Fisichella, Rossella; Iaffaioli, Rosario Vincenzo; Berretta, Massimiliano

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) represents one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide. It is the second leading cause of cancer death in Western Countries. In the last decade the survival of patients with metastatic CRC has improved dramatically. Due to the advent of new drugs (irinotecan and oxaliplatin) and target therapies (i.e., bevacizumab, cetuximab and panitumab), the median overall survival has risen from about 12 mo in the mid nineties to 30 mo recently. Many questions needing of right collocations and more clearness still exist regarding the prognostic factors and the predictive factors of response to therapy. Despite advances in dosing and scheduling of chemotherapy in both adjuvant and advanced settings, and a greater emphasis on early detection, the outlook still remains poor for most patients. Molecular analyses have shown that the natural history of all CRCs is not the same. Individual patients with same stage tumours may have different long term prognosis and response to therapy. In addition, some prognostic variables are likely to be more important than others. Here we review the role of prognostic factors and predictive factors according to the recently published English literature. PMID:25386053

  9. MicroRNA in pancreatic adenocarcinoma: predictive/prognostic biomarkers or therapeutic targets?

    PubMed

    Brunetti, Oronzo; Russo, Antonio; Scarpa, Aldo; Santini, Daniele; Reni, Michele; Bittoni, Alessandro; Azzariti, Amalia; Aprile, Giuseppe; Delcuratolo, Sabina; Signorile, Michele; Gnoni, Antonio; Palermo, Loredana; Lorusso, Vito; Cascinu, Stefano; Silvestris, Nicola

    2015-09-15

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a tumor with a poor prognosis, short overall survival and few chemotherapeutic choices. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding, single-stranded RNAs of around 22 nucleotides involved in the pathogenic mechanisms of carcinogenesis and metastasis. They have been studied in many tumors in order to identify potential diagnostic, prognostic or therapeutic targets. In the current literature, many studies have analyzed the role of miRNAs in PDAC. In fact, the absence of appropriate biomarkers, the difficultly of early detection of this tumor, and the lack of effective chemotherapy in patients with unresectable disease have focused attention on miRNAs as new, interesting advance in this malignancy. In this review we analyzed the role of miRNAs in PDAC in order to understand the mechanisms of action and the difference between the onco-miRNA and the tumor suppressor miRNA. We also reviewed all the data related to the use of these molecules as predictive as well as prognostic biomarkers in the course of the disease. Finally, the possible therapeutic use of miRNAs or anti-miRNAs in PDAC is also discussed. In conclusion, although there is still no clinical application for these molecules in PDAC, it is our opinion that the preclinical evidence of the role of specific miRNAs in carcinogenesis, the possibility of using miRNAs as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers, and their potential therapeutic role, warrant future studies in PDAC. PMID:26259238

  10. Reevaluation of glypican-3 as a prognostic marker in HCC using X-tile software.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chenwei; Wang, Xiaodong; Chen, Weilai; Tao, Chonglin; Xu, Xiaowu; Jin, Lingxiang; Chen, Yongping; Zhu, Lihe; Zhou, Lingli; Pan, Zhenzhen

    2015-01-01

    Glypican-3 (GPC3) is a widely used immunohistochemical marker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, its prognostic value is unclear. Immunohistochemical evaluation of GPC3 expression was performed on 300 postoperative HCC tissue samples with paired adjacent non-tumor tissues on tissue microarray sections. The integral optic density, representing the expression level of GPC3 in each HCC sample, was calculated using Image-Pro Plus. The outcome-based cut-point optimization was performed using X-tile software. GPC3 was highly expressed in HCC tissues compared with adjacent non-tumor tissues. The expression level of GPC3 was significantly correlated with overall survival (OS) and time to recurrence (TTR). The lower the level of GPC3 expression in HCC tissue, the poorer the observed prognosis. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that the expression level of GPC3 in HCC was an independent prognostic factor for both OS and TTR. In conclusion, GPC3 expression is an independent prognostic factor for postoperative HCC, and low expression levels of GPC3 in HCC may indicate poor outcome. PMID:25432695

  11. Drug holiday as a prognostic factor of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoon Ho; Lee, Ho Kyung; Song, Seung Il

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To identify post-treatment prognostic factors for medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ). Materials and Methods We evaluated 54 MRONJ patients who visited the Department of Dentistry, Ajou University Hospital, from May 2007 to March 2014. Twenty-one patients were surgically managed with debridement or sequestrectomy and 33 patients were conservatively managed using antibiotics. Correlations of age, sex, stage, bisphosphonate duration and type, and drug holiday with the prognosis of MRONJ were investigated. Correlations were verified by logistic regression analysis and t-tests with a significance level of 0.05. Results Clinical outcomes were evaluated on the basis of both clinical and radiographic findings. Twelve out of 21 surgically managed patients showed a favorable prognosis and nine patients relapsed. Thirty-one of the 33 conservatively managed patients showed no specific change in prognosis, and two patients worsened. Statistical analyses of the conservative management group did not reveal any correlation of the above factors with the prognosis of conservative management. Drug holiday was the only prognostic factor in the surgical management group (P=0.031 in logistic regression analysis, P=0.004 in t-test). Conclusion Drug holiday is a prognostic factor in the surgical management of MRONJ. Because the drug holiday in the patients of the poor prognosis group occurred 1.5 to 4 months prior to surgical management, we recommend a drug holiday more than 4 months before surgery. PMID:25368832

  12. KIAA1522 is a novel prognostic biomarker in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi-Zhen; Yang, Hai; Cao, Jian; Jiang, Yan-Yi; Hao, Jia-Jie; Xu, Xin; Cai, Yan; Wang, Ming-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, no robust biomarkers have been applied to clinical practice to provide prognostic evaluation of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study aims to identify new potential prognostic biomarkers for NSCLC. In the present work, KIAA1522 is screened out from two independent GEO datasets as aberrantly up-regulated gene in NSCLC tissues. We evaluate KIAA1522 expression immunohistochemically in 583 NSCLC tissue samples and paired non-tumor tissues. KIAA1522 displays stronger staining in NSCLC cases than in adjacent normal lung tissues. Importantly, patients with KIAA1522 overexpression had a significantly shorter overall survival compared to those with low expression (P < 0.00001). Multivariate Cox regression analyses show that KIAA1522 is an independent prognostic indicator, even for early-stage NSCLCs (P = 0.00025, HR = 2.317, 95%CI: 1.477-3.635). We also found that high expression of KIAA1522 is a significant risk factor for decreased overall survival of the patients who received platinum-based chemotherapy. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and functional studies reveal that KIAA1522 is associated with oncogenic KRAS pathways. Taken together, high expression of KIAA1522 can be used as an independent biomarker for predication of poor survival and platinum-resistance of NSCLC patients, and aberrant KIAA1522 might be a new target for the therapy of the disease. PMID:27098511

  13. A Linearized Prognostic Cloud Scheme in NASAs Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdaway, Daniel; Errico, Ronald M.; Gelaro, Ronald; Kim, Jong G.; Mahajan, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    A linearized prognostic cloud scheme has been developed to accompany the linearized convection scheme recently implemented in NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System data assimilation tools. The linearization, developed from the nonlinear cloud scheme, treats cloud variables prognostically so they are subject to linearized advection, diffusion, generation, and evaporation. Four linearized cloud variables are modeled, the ice and water phases of clouds generated by large-scale condensation and, separately, by detraining convection. For each species the scheme models their sources, sublimation, evaporation, and autoconversion. Large-scale, anvil and convective species of precipitation are modeled and evaporated. The cloud scheme exhibits linearity and realistic perturbation growth, except around the generation of clouds through large-scale condensation. Discontinuities and steep gradients are widely used here and severe problems occur in the calculation of cloud fraction. For data assimilation applications this poor behavior is controlled by replacing this part of the scheme with a perturbation model. For observation impacts, where efficiency is less of a concern, a filtering is developed that examines the Jacobian. The replacement scheme is only invoked if Jacobian elements or eigenvalues violate a series of tuned constants. The linearized prognostic cloud scheme is tested by comparing the linear and nonlinear perturbation trajectories for 6-, 12-, and 24-h forecast times. The tangent linear model performs well and perturbations of clouds are well captured for the lead times of interest.

  14. Prognostic role of copeptin after stroke: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyu-Sun; Kim, Hyun Jung; Chun, Hyoung-Joon; Kim, Jae Min; Yi, Hyeong-Joong; Cheong, Jin-Hwan; Kim, Choong-Hyun; Oh, Suck-Jun; Ko, Yong; Kim, Young-Soo; Bak, Koang-Hum; Ryu, Je-Il; Kim, Wonhee; Lim, Taeho; Ahn, Hyeong sik; Ahn, Il Min; Lee, Seon-Heui

    2015-01-01

    Copeptin, the C-terminal part of provasopressin, has emerged as a novel prognostic marker after hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the prognostic significance of plasma copeptin level on functional outcome and mortality in patients with acute stroke using a meta-analysis of the available evidence. Thirteen relevant studies from 2,746 patients were finally included in our study. An elevated plasma copeptin level was associated with an increased risk of unfavorable outcome and mortality after stroke (OR 1.77; 95% CI, 1.44–2.19 and OR 3.90; 95% CI 3.07–4.95, respectively). The result of the pooled measure on standardized mean difference (SMD) was that plasma copeptin levels were found to be significantly higher in patients who died compared to survivors (SMD 1.70; 95% CI, 1.36–2.03). A stratified analysis by study region showed significant differences in SMD of copeptin, and the heterogeneity among studies was significantly decreased. However, the positive association of copeptin with poor prognosis after stroke was consistent in each stratified analysis. The present meta-analysis suggests that early measurement of plasma copeptin could provide better prognostic information about functional outcome and mortality in patients with acute stroke. PMID:26119473

  15. Prognostic role of copeptin after stroke: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyu-Sun; Kim, Hyun Jung; Chun, Hyoung-Joon; Kim, Jae Min; Yi, Hyeong-Joong; Cheong, Jin-Hwan; Kim, Choong-Hyun; Oh, Suck-Jun; Ko, Yong; Kim, Young-Soo; Bak, Koang-Hum; Ryu, Je-Il; Kim, Wonhee; Lim, Taeho; Ahn, Hyeong Sik; Ahn, Il Min; Lee, Seon-Heui

    2015-01-01

    Copeptin, the C-terminal part of provasopressin, has emerged as a novel prognostic marker after hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the prognostic significance of plasma copeptin level on functional outcome and mortality in patients with acute stroke using a meta-analysis of the available evidence. Thirteen relevant studies from 2,746 patients were finally included in our study. An elevated plasma copeptin level was associated with an increased risk of unfavorable outcome and mortality after stroke (OR 1.77; 95% CI, 1.44-2.19 and OR 3.90; 95% CI 3.07-4.95, respectively). The result of the pooled measure on standardized mean difference (SMD) was that plasma copeptin levels were found to be significantly higher in patients who died compared to survivors (SMD 1.70; 95% CI, 1.36-2.03). A stratified analysis by study region showed significant differences in SMD of copeptin, and the heterogeneity among studies was significantly decreased. However, the positive association of copeptin with poor prognosis after stroke was consistent in each stratified analysis. The present meta-analysis suggests that early measurement of plasma copeptin could provide better prognostic information about functional outcome and mortality in patients with acute stroke. PMID:26119473

  16. Opposing prognostic roles of nuclear and cytoplasmic RACGAP1 expression in colorectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chung-Min; Sung, Wen-Wei; Lai, Hung-Wen; Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Yen, Hsu-Heng; Su, Tzu-Cheng; Chang, Wei-Hsiang; Chen, Chia-Yu; Ko, Jiunn-Liang; Chen, Chih-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Rac GTPase activating protein 1 (RACGAP1) plays a regulatory role in initiation of cytokinesis, control of cell growth and differentiation, and tumor malignancy, making it a potential prognostic biomarker. RACGAP1 is present in the nucleus, but a diffuse distribution in the cytoplasm also occurs. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of nuclear and cytoplasmic expression of RACGAP1 on clinical outcome to provide further evidence of a role in colorectal cancer. RACGAP1 expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 166 cancer specimens from primary colorectal cancer patients. The mean follow-up time after surgery was 5.4 years (range, 0.01-13.10 years). The prognostic value of RACGAP1 on overall survival was validated by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression models. RACGAP1 is expressed in colorectal specimen and is present in both the nucleus and cytoplasm in different amounts. Colorectal cancer patients had opposite prognoses depending on the site of RACGAP1 expression. Patients with high nuclear RACGAP1 expression had poor outcomes, whereas those with high cytoplasmic RACGAP1 expression had favorable prognosis (P = .003 and P = .001, respectively). Patients with low nuclear but high cytoplasmic RACGAP1 expression had better survival compared with those with other combinations (P < .001). We suggest that RACGAP1 expression levels in the nucleus and cytoplasm, determined by immunohistochemical staining, predict opposite clinical outcomes and that both could be independent prognostic markers for colorectal cancer. PMID:26508373

  17. Diagnosing the Poor Performance of Self-Worth Protective Students: A Product of Future Outcome Uncertainty, Evaluative Threat, or Both?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Ted; Parker, Cathryn

    2007-01-01

    Self-worth protective students characteristically perform well on some occasions yet on other occasions they perform poorly. In this study, two accounts of the poor performance of self-worth protective students are assessed. The first is that their poor performance is an outcome of evaluative threat. The second is that their poor performance is an…

  18. High expression of hexokinase domain containing 1 is associated with poor prognosis and aggressive phenotype in hepatocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zijian; Huang, Shanzhou; Wang, Huanyu; Wu, Jian; Chen, Dong; Peng, Baogang; Zhou, Qi

    2016-06-10

    Rapid progress and metastasis remain the major treatment failure modes of hepatocarcinoma (HCC). Unfortunately, the underlying molecular mechanisms of hepatoma cell proliferation and migration are poorly understood. Metabolic abnormalities play critical roles in tumorigenesis and progression. Hexokinase domain containing 1 (HKDC1) catalyzes the phosphorylation of glucose. However, the functions and mechanisms of HKDC1 in cancer remain unknown. In this study, real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting assays were used to detect the HKDC1 expression levels in HCC tissues and cell lines. The Oncomine™ Cancer Microarray Database was applied to analysis the correlations between HKDC1 expression and HCC clinical characteristics. MTT and Transwell migration assays were performed to determine the functions of HKDC1 in HCC cells. The effect of HKDC1 on Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was assessed using Western blotting assay. In this study, we found that HKDC1 expression levels were elevated in HCC tissues compared with the adjacent tissues. HCC patients with high expression levels of HKDC1 had poor overall survival (OS). Furthermore, higher HKDC1 levels also predicted a worse OS of patients within solitary, elevated pre-operated serum alpha fetoprotein (AFP) level and higher tumor diameter. Moreover, silencing HKDC1 suppressed HCC cells proliferation and migration in vitro. Downregulated HKDC1 expression repressed β-Catenin and c-Myc expression, which indicates that silencing HKDC1 may reduce proliferation and migration via inhibiting the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in HCC. In summary, HKDC1 provides further insight into HCC tumor progression and may provide a novel prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for HCC treatment. PMID:27155152

  19. Pyruvate Kinase M2 and Lactate Dehydrogenase A Are Overexpressed in Pancreatic Cancer and Correlate with Poor Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad, Goran Hamid; Olde Damink, S. W. M.; Malago, Massimo; Dhar, Dipok Kumar; Pereira, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer has a 5-year survival rate of less than 4%. Despite advances in diagnostic technology, pancreatic cancer continues to be diagnosed at a late and incurable stage. Accurate biomarkers for early diagnosis and to predict treatment response are urgently needed. Since alteration of glucose metabolism is one of the hallmarks of cancer cells, we proposed that pyruvate kinase type M2 (M2PK) and lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) enzymes could represent novel diagnostic markers and potential therapeutic targets in pancreatic cancer. In 266 tissue sections from normal pancreas, pancreatic cystic neoplasms, pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) and cancer, we evaluated the expression of PKM2, LDHA, Ki-67 and CD8+ by immunohistochemistry and correlated these markers with clinicopathological characteristics and patient survival. PKM2 and LDHA expression was also assessed by Western blot in 10 human pancreatic cancer cell lines. PKM2 expression increased progressively from cyst through PanIN to cancer, whereas LDHA was overexpressed throughout the carcinogenic process. All but one cell line showed high expression of both proteins. Patients with strong PKM2 and LDHA expression had significantly worse survival than those with weak PKM2 and/or LDHA expression (7.0 months vs. 27.9 months, respectively, p = 0.003, log rank test). The expression of both PKM2 and LDHA correlated directly with Ki-67 expression, and inversely with intratumoral CD8+ cell count. PKM2 was significantly overexpressed in poorly differentiated tumours and both PKM2 and LDHA were overexpressed in larger tumours. Multivariable analysis showed that combined expression of PKM2 and LDHA was an independent poor prognostic marker for survival. In conclusion, our results demonstrate a high expression pattern of two major glycolytic enzymes during pancreatic carcinogenesis, with increased expression in aggressive tumours and a significant adverse effect on survival. PMID:26989901

  20. High expression of UBE2C is associated with the aggressive progression and poor outcome of malignant glioma

    PubMed Central

    MA, RUIMIN; KANG, XIXIONG; ZHANG, GUOJUN; FANG, FANG; DU, YAMEI; LV, HONG

    2016-01-01

    Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2C (UBE2C) is a key regulator of cell cycle progression and is involved in the tumorigenesis of a variety of cancers. Previous studies have demonstrated that UBE2C is an important factor in the malignant progression of astrocytic tumors. However, the association between UBE2C expression and clinical prognosis of glioma patients has not been defined. In the present study, the expression of UBE2C in gliomas and non-cancerous brain tissues were detected by microarray and immunohistochemical analysis. The association between UBE2C expression and clinicopathological characteristics of the glioma patients was evaluated. The Kaplan-Meier method and multivariate Cox's proportional hazards model were used to analyze the survival time of the patients. The results demonstrated that the expression levels of UBE2C in anaplastic gliomas and glioblastoma (GBM) patients were significantly higher compared to low-grade gliomas, in microarray and immunohistochemistry analysis. A higher UBE2C expression was associated with a significantly decreased overall survival time in patients possessing anaplastic gliomas (P<0.01) and GBMs (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis of 80 GBM patients revealed that UBE2C expression was an independent prognostic factor. To the best of our knowledge, the present data suggest for the first time that UBE2C overexpression is strongly associated with an aggressive progression and poor outcome of malignant glioma. Therefore, UBE2C overexpression may be used as a predictor of poor prognosis in patients with malignant glioma.

  1. Decreased expression of RNA-binding motif protein 3 correlates with tumour progression and poor prognosis in urothelial bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Low nuclear expression of the RNA-binding motif protein 3 (RBM3) has previously been found to be associated with poor prognosis in several cancer forms e.g. breast, ovarian, colorectal, prostate cancer and malignant melanoma. The aim of this study was to examine the prognostic impact of RBM3 expression in urinary bladder cancer. Methods Immunohistochemical RBM3 expression was examined in tumours from 343 patients with urothelial bladder cancer. Chi-square and Spearman’s correlation tests were applied to explore associations between RBM3 expression and clinicopathological characteristics. The impact of RBM3 expression on disease-specific survival (DSS), 5-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) was assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards modelling. Results Reduced nuclear RBM3 expression was significantly associated with more advanced tumour (T) stage (p <0.001) and high grade tumours (p=0.004). Negative RBM3 expression was associated with a significantly shorter DSS (HR=2.55; 95% CI 1.68-3.86)) and 5-year OS (HR=2.10; 95% CI 1.56-2.82), also in multivariable analysis (HR=1.65; 95% CI 1.07-2.53 for DSS and HR=1.54; 95% CI 1.13-2.10 for 5-year OS). In patients with Ta and T1 tumours expressing reduced RBM3 levels, Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a significantly shorter PFS (p=0.048) and 5-year OS (p=0.006). Conclusion Loss of RBM3 expression is associated with clinically more aggressive tumours and an independent factor of poor prognosis in patients with urothelial bladder cancer and a potentially useful biomarker for treatment stratification and surveillance of disease progression. PMID:23565664

  2. [The prognostic criteria in the primary myelodysplastic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Tsvetaeva, N V; Zavadenko, M A; Popov, V Iu; Glasko, E N; Gorodnicheva, V F; Levina, A A; Pochtar', M E; Vinogradova, O Iu; Alisova, A M; Frank, G A; Khoroshko, N D

    1996-01-01

    Basing on computer processing of 126 primary clinical and laboratory parameters obtained from 92 patients with myelodysplasia and using multifactorial regression analysis, the authors have developed prognostic models of life span and probability of transformation into acute leukemia. The model of life span enabled recognition of 3 prognostic groups of myelodysplasia patients: of high (median 10 months), moderate (median 22 months) and low (median 35 months) risk. This makes it possible to prognosticate the disease and assume optimal therapeutic policy. PMID:8928070

  3. Evaluation of Uric Acid as a Prognostic Blood-Based Marker in a Large Cohort of Pancreatic Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Stotz, Michael; Szkandera, Joanna; Seidel, Julia; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Samonigg, Hellmut; Reitz, Daniel; Gary, Thomas; Kornprat, Peter; Schaberl-Moser, Renate; Hoefler, Gerald; Gerger, Armin; Pichler, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently, chemical blood parameters gain more attraction as potential prognostic parameters in pancreatic cancer (PC). In the present study we investigated the prognostic relevance of the uric acid (UA) level in blood plasma at the time of diagnosis for overall survival (OS) in a large cohort of patients with PC. Patients and Methods Data from 466 consecutive patients with ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas were evaluated retrospectively. Overall survival (OS) was analysed using the Kaplan-Meier method. To further evaluate the prognostic significance of the UA level, univariate and multivariate Cox regression models were calculated. Results None of the clinicopathological parameters (tumour grade, clinical stage, age, CA19-9 level, Karnofski Index (KI) or surgical resection) except gender was associated with UA level. In univariate analysis we observed the elevated UA level (<5.1 versus ≥5.1 mg/dl, p = 0.017) as poor prognostic factor for OS. In the multivariate analysis that included age, gender, tumour grade, tumour stage, surgical resection, CA19-9 level, the KI and UA level we confirmed the UA level as independent prognostic factor for OS (HR = 1.373%; CI = 1.077–1.751; p = 0.011). Conclusion In conclusion, we identified the UA level at time of diagnosis as an independent prognostic factor in PC patients. Our results indicate that the UA level might represent a novel and useful marker for patient stratification in PC management. PMID:25133546

  4. A new simplified comorbidity score as a prognostic factor in non-small-cell lung cancer patients: description and comparison with the Charlson's index

    PubMed Central

    Colinet, B; Jacot, W; Bertrand, D; Lacombe, S; Bozonnat, M-C; Daurès, J-P; Pujol, J-L

    2005-01-01

    Treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) might take into account comorbidities as an important variable. The aim of this study was to generate a new simplified comorbidity score (SCS) and to determine whether or not it improves the possibility of predicting prognosis of NSCLC patients. A two-step methodology was used. Step 1: An SCS was developed and its prognostic value was compared with classical prognostic determinants in the outcome of 735 previously untreated NSCLC patients. Step 2: the SCS reliability as a prognostic determinant was tested in a different population of 136 prospectively accrued NSCLC patients with a formal comparison between SCS and the classical Charlson comorbidity index (CCI). Prognosis was analysed using both univariate and multivariate (Cox model) statistics. The SCS summarised the following variables: tobacco consumption, diabetes mellitus and renal insufficiency (respective weightings 7, 5 and 4), respiratory, neoplastic and cardiovascular comorbidities and alcoholism (weighting=1 for each item). In step 1, aside from classical variables such as age, stage of the disease and performance status, SCS was a statistically significant prognostic variable in univariate analyses. In the Cox model weight loss, stage grouping, performance status and SCS were independent determinants of a poor outcome. There was a trend towards statistical significance for age (P=0.08) and leucocytes count (P=0.06). In Step 2, both SCS and well-known prognostic variables were found as significant determinants in univariate analyses. There was a trend towards a negative prognostic effect for CCI. In multivariate analysis, stage grouping, performance status, histology, leucocytes, lymphocytes, lactate dehydrogenase, CYFRA 21-1 and SCS were independent determinants of a poor prognosis. CCI was removed from the Cox model. In conclusion, the SCS, constructed as an independent prognostic factor in a large NSCLC patient population, is validated in another prospective population and appears more informative than the CCI in predicting NSCLC patient outcome. PMID:16234816

  5. The Prognostic Value of Tumor-Associated Macrophages in Leiomyosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Ganjoo, Kristen N.; Witten, Daniela; Patel, Manisha; Espinosa, Inigo; La, Trang; Tibshirani, Rob; van de Rijn, Matt; Jacobs, Charlotte; West, Robert B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction High numbers of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) have been associated with poor outcome in several solid tumors. In 2 previous studies, we showed that colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF1) is secreted by leiomyosarcoma (LMS) and that the increase in macrophages and CSF1 associated proteins are markers for poor prognosis in both gynecologic and nongynecologic LMS in a multicentered study. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the outcome of patients with LMS from a single institution according to the number of TAMs evaluated through 3 CSF1 associated proteins. Methods Patients with LMS treated at Stanford University with adequate archived tissue and clinical data were eligible for this retrospective study. Data from chart reviews included tumor site, size, grade, stage, treatment, and disease status at the time of last follow-up. The 3 CSF1 associated proteins (CD163, CD16, and cathepsin L) were evaluated by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and univariate Cox proportional hazards models were fit to assess the association of clinical predictors as well as CSF1 associated proteins with overall survival. Results A total of 52 patients diagnosed from 1983 to 2007 were evaluated. Univariate Cox proportional hazards models were fit to assess the significance of grade, size, stage, and the 3 CSF1 associated proteins in predicting OS. Grade, size, and stage were not significantly associated with survival in the full patient cohort, but grade and stage were significant predictors of survival in the gynecologic (GYN) LMS samples (P = 0.038 and P = 0.0164, respectively). Increased cathepsin L was associated with a worse outcome in GYN LMS (P = 0.049). Similar findings were seen with CD16 (P < 0.0001). In addition, CSF1 response enriched (all 3 stains positive) GYN LMS had a poor overall survival when compared with CSF1 response poor tumors (P = 0.001). These results were not seen in non-GYN LMS. Conclusions Our data form an independent confirmation of the prognostic significance of TAMs and the CSF1 associated proteins in LMS. More aggressive or targeted therapies could be considered in the subset of LMS patients that highly express these markers. PMID:23781555

  6. Outcome and Prognostic Factors of Radiation Therapy for Medulloblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Rieken, Stefan; Mohr, Angela; Habermehl, Daniel; Welzel, Thomas; Lindel, Katja; Witt, Olaf; Kulozik, Andreas E.; Wick, Wolfgang; Debus, Juergen; Combs, Stephanie E.

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate treatment outcome and prognostic factors after radiation therapy in patients with medulloblastomas (MB). Methods and Materials: Sixty-six patients with histologically confirmed MB were treated at University Hospital of Heidelberg between 1985 and 2009. Forty-two patients (64%) were pediatric ({<=}18 years), and 24 patients (36%) were adults. Tumor resection was performed in all patients and was complete in 47%. All patients underwent postoperative craniospinal irradiation (CSI) delivering a median craniospinal dose of 35.5 Gy with additional boosts to the posterior fossa up to 54.0 Gy. Forty-seven patients received chemotherapy, including 21 in whom chemotherapy was administered before CSI. Statistical analysis was performed using the log-rank test and the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Median follow-up was 93 months. Overall survival (OS) and local and distant progression-free survival (LPFS and DPFS) were 73%, 62%, and 77% at 60 months. Both local and distant recurrence predisposed for significantly reduced OS. Macroscopic complete tumor resection, desmoplastic histology and early initiation of postoperative radiation therapy within 28 days were associated with improved outcome. The addition of chemotherapy did not improve survival rates. Toxicity was moderate. Conclusions: Complete resection of MB followed by CSI yields long survival rates in both children and adults. Delayed initiation of CSI is associated with poor outcome. Desmoplastic histology is associated with improved survival. The role of chemotherapy, especially in the adult population, must be further investigated in clinical studies.

  7. Prognostic value of a 92-probe signature in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Akter, Salima; Choi, Tae Gyu; Nguyen, Minh Nam; Matondo, Abel; Kim, Jin-Hwan; Jo, Yong Hwa; Jo, Ara; Shahid, Muhammad; Jun, Dae Young; Yoo, Ji Youn; Nguyen, Ngoc Ngo Yen; Seo, Seong-Wook; Ali, Liaquat; Lee, Ju-Seog; Yoon, Kyung-Sik; Choe, Wonchae; Kang, Insug; Ha, Joohun; Kim, Jayoung; Kim, Sung Soo

    2015-01-01

    Clinical applications of gene expression signatures in breast cancer prognosis still remain limited due to poor predictive strength of single training datasets and appropriate invariable platforms. We proposed a gene expression signature by reducing baseline differences and analyzing common probes among three recent Affymetrix U133 plus 2 microarray data sets. Using a newly developed supervised method, a 92-probe signature found in this study was associated with overall survival. It was robustly validated in four independent data sets and then repeated on three subgroups by incorporating 17 breast cancer microarray datasets. The signature was an independent predictor of patients' survival in univariate analysis [(HR) 1.927, 95% CI (1.237–3.002); p < 0.01] as well as multivariate analysis after adjustment of clinical variables [(HR) 7.125, 95% CI (2.462–20.618); p < 0.001]. Consistent predictive performance was found in different multivariate models in increased patient population (p = 0.002). The survival signature predicted a late metastatic feature through 5-year disease free survival (p = 0.006). We identified subtypes within the lymph node positive (p < 0.001) and ER positive (p = 0.01) patients that best reflected the invasive breast cancer biology. In conclusion using the Common Probe Approach, we present a novel prognostic signature as a predictor in breast cancer late recurrences. PMID:25883221

  8. Cyclophilin A in Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysm: A Prognostic Biomarker.

    PubMed

    Kao, Hung-Wen; Lee, Kwo-Whei; Chen, Wei-Liang; Kuo, Chen-Ling; Huang, Ching-Shan; Tseng, Wan-Min; Liu, Chin-San; Lin, Ching-Po

    2015-09-01

    Cyclophilin A (CyPA), an oxidative stress-induced factor, was found to play an important role in the aneurysm formation. Our working hypothesis was that the plasma level of CyPA in ruptured intracranial aneurysm could predict the neurological outcome. From 2011 to 2013, a total of 36 patients with ruptured saccular intracranial aneurysm were recruited in our study. Before coil embolization, we draw blood samples at the orifice of a culprit aneurysm and in the remote peripheral vein for measurements of the CyPA levels. We utilized the modified Rankin scale 30 days after aneurysm rupture as the outcome measure. Generalized linear models were used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios of the poor neurological outcome given the presence of high plasma level of CyPA. The aneurysmal and venous CyPA levels were significantly associated with the initial clinical severity (P = 0.004 and 0.03, respectively) and 30-day outcome (P = 0.01 and 0.02, respectively). The aneurysmal CyPA levels modestly correlated with age and high Fisher grade (ρ = 0.39 and 0.41; P = 0.02 and 0.01, respectively). The aneurysmal CyPA levels strongly correlated with the venous counterpart (ρ = 0.89; P < 0.001). Patients with high levels of aneurysmal CyPA were 15.66 times (95% CI, 1.48-166.24; P = 0.02) more likely to have worse neurological outcome than those with the low levels after adjustment of the age, gender, and the documented confounding factors. High plasma level of CyPA is a significant prognostic biomarker for poor neurological outcome in patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysm. PMID:26426668

  9. Prospective multicenter comparison of proliferation and other prognostic factors in lymph node negative lobular invasive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Gudlaugsson, Einar; Skaland, Ivar; Janssen, Emiel A M; van Diest, Paul J; Voorhorst, Feja J; Kjellevold, Kjell; zur Hausen, Axel; Baak, Jan P A

    2010-05-01

    Evaluation of prognostic factors in lymph node negative (LNneg) invasive lobular cancers (ILCs). Prospective analysis of proliferation and other prognosticators in 121 LNneg ILCs (119 months median follow-up, range 19-181), without adjuvant chemotherapy. ILC subtype was assessed in accordance with WHO-2003 criteria. Immunohistochemical E-cadherin and estrogen receptor were used. With a median follow up time of 83 months (range 19-181), 30 of the 121 (25%) ILC patients developed distant metastases and 27 (22%) died. None of the cases classified as solid/pleomorphic lobular were E-cadherin or estrogen receptor positive, contrasting the other ILCs. The solid/alveolar ILCs (n = 17) had a worse survival (50%) than the other ILCs (n = 104; 83%, P < 0.0001). Mitotic activity index (MAI) (but not nuclear grade or tubule formation) was prognostic with a threshold 0-5 versus >5 (=MAI-5) (contrasting MAI < 10 vs. > or = 10 in breast cancers in general; 85 and 54% survival, P < 0.0001). In multivariate analysis only subtype and MAI but none of the other characteristics had independent prognostic value. Histologic subtype and MAI have independent prognostic value in node negative invasive lobular cancers. PMID:19568929

  10. Prognostic Impact of the 6th and 7th American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM Staging Systems on Esophageal Cancer Patients Treated With Chemoradiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Nomura, Motoo; Shitara, Kohei; Kodaira, Takeshi; Hatooka, Shunzo; Mizota, Ayako; Kondoh, Chihiro; Yokota, Tomoya; Takahari, Daisuke; Ura, Takashi; Muro, Kei

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: The new 7th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM staging system is based on pathologic data from esophageal cancers treated by surgery alone. There is no information available on evaluation of the new staging system with regard to prognosis of patients treated with chemoradiotherapy (CRT). The objective of this study was to evaluate the prognostic impact of the new staging system on esophageal cancer patients treated with CRT. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was performed on 301 consecutive esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients treated with CRT. Comparisons were made of the prognostic impacts of the 6th and 7th staging systems and the prognostic impacts of stage and prognostic groups, which were newly defined in the 7th edition. Results: There were significant differences between Stages I and III (p < 0.01) according to both editions. However, the 7th edition poorly distinguishes the prognoses of Stages III and IV (p = 0.36 by multivariate analysis) in comparison to the 6th edition (p = 0.08 by multivariate analysis), although these differences were not significant. For all patients, T, M, and gender were independent prognostic factors by multivariate analysis (p < 0.05). For the Stage I and II prognostic groups, survival curves showed a stepwise decrease with increase in stage, except for Stage IIA. However, there were no significant differences seen between each prognostic stage. Conclusions: Our study indicates there are several problems with the 7th TNM staging system regarding prognostic factors in patients undergoing CRT.

  11. Notch2 as a promising prognostic biomarker for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cong; Li, Qingbao; Liu, Fang; Chen, Xuan; Liu, Bowen; Nesa, Effat Un; Guan, Shanghui; Han, Lihui; Tan, Bingxu; Wang, Nana; Wang, Xintong; Song, Qingxu; Jia, Yibin; Wang, Jianbo; Lu, Ming; Cheng, Yufeng

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to examine Notch2 expression in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients and to evaluate its prognostic potential. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blot analysis were utilized to investigate the Notch2 expression status and prognostic value. Furtherly, CCK8 and clonogenic assays were conducted to determine if Notch2 inhibition by shRNA could lead to a decrease in the proliferation and survival of ESCC cells. A notably higher Notch2 expression level was found in ESCC tissues at the mRNA (P < 0.0001) and protein levels (IHC: P = 0.004; western blot: P = 0.021). Log-rank analysis demonstrated that Notch2 overexpression was significantly associated with worse overall survival (OS) (29.1% vs. 49.1%; P = 0.013) and progression-free survival (PFS) (15.3% vs. 34.4%; P = 0.006) rates in ESCC patients. The multivariate analysis revealed Notch2 as an independent prognostic factor for OS and PFS (P = 0.002 and 0.006, resp.). Besides, in vitro assays showed that OD450 values and colony formations were significantly reduced in Notch2-shRNA group (all P < 0.0001). In conclusion, these results show that Notch2 is up-regulated in ESCC tissues and could serve as a promising biomarker for identifying individuals with poor prognostic potential. PMID:27158037

  12. Prognostic value of Diabetes in Patients with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Treated with Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hao; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Wen-Fei; Mao, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Fan; Guo, Rui; Liu, Li-Zhi; Lin, Ai-Hua; Sun, Ying; Ma, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The prognostic value of diabetes remains unknown in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 1489 patients with non-metastatic, histologically-proven NPC treated using IMRT. 81/1489 (5.4%) patients were diabetic, 168/1489 (11.3%) were prediabetic, and 1240/1489 (83.3%) were normoglycemic. The 4-year disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), loco-regional relapse-free survival (LRRFS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) rates were 77.1% vs. 82.4% (P = 0.358), 85.8% vs. 91.0% (P = 0.123), 90.9% vs. 91.7% (P = 0.884), and 85.5% vs. 89.2% (P = 0.445) for diabetic vs. normoglycemic patients, and 82.4% vs. 82.4% (P = 0.993), 88.7% vs. 91.0% (P = 0.285), 90.6% vs. 91.7% (P = 0.832) and 91.5% vs. 89.2% (P = 0.594) for preidabetic vs. normoglycemic patients. Multivariate analysis did not established diabetes as poor prognostic factors in NPC patients treated with IMRT (P = 0.332 for DFS, P = 0.944 for OS, P = 0.977 for LRRFS, P = 0.157 for DMFS), however, triglycerides and low density lipoprotein cholesterol were independent prognostic factors. In conclusion, diabetes does not appear to be a prognostic factor in NPC patients treated with IMRT, and attention should be paid to hyperglycemia-associated hyperlipaemia. PMID:26927312

  13. Expression and prognostic significance of contactin 1 in human hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guang-Yao; Huang, Mei; Pan, Ting-Ting; Jia, Wei-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Background CNTN1, a member of the CNTN family of neural cell-recognition molecules, is involved in tumor invasion and metastasis. Although the expression of CNTN1 has been reported in several human malignancies, the expression of CNTN1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its correlation with prognosis remain unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of CNTN1 and determine the clinicopathological parameters and prognostic value of CNTN1 in HCC patients. Materials and methods Quantitative real-time polymerase chain-reaction and Western blotting assays were performed to assess messenger RNA and protein levels of CNTN1 in 20 matched HCC specimens. The clinical and prognostic significance of CNTN1 in 90 cases of HCC was determined by immunohistochemistry. Results CNTN1 expression was higher in HCC compared to the expression found in adjacent tissues at both messenger RNA and protein levels (P<0.01). Notably, immunohistochemical results revealed that CNTN1 expression was significantly higher in HCC compared to adjacent tissues (54.4% vs 12.2%, P=0.01). Furthermore, positive CNTN1 expression was associated with tumor size, tumor capsulae, status of metastasis, and tumor–node–metastasis stage. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed that high CNTN1 was correlated with reduced overall survival (OS) rate (P<0.001) and disease-free survival (DFS) rate (P=0.001). Multivariate analysis identified CNTN1 as an independent poor prognostic factor of OS and DFS in HCC patients (P=0.007 and P=0.002, respectively). Conclusion Our results suggest that CNTN1 could play an important role in HCC and serve as an independent unfavorable prognostic factor for OS and DFS and a potential therapeutic target for HCC. PMID:26855587

  14. Plasma hyaluronic acid level as a prognostic and monitoring marker of metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Peng, Cike; Wallwiener, Markus; Rudolph, Anja; Ćuk, Katarina; Eilber, Ursula; Celik, Muhabbet; Modugno, Caroline; Trumpp, Andreas; Heil, Jörg; Marmé, Frederik; Madhavan, Dharanija; Nees, Juliane; Riethdorf, Sabine; Schott, Sarah; Sohn, Christof; Pantel, Klaus; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Yang, Rongxi; Burwinkel, Barbara

    2016-05-15

    Conventional tumor markers have limited value for prognostication and treatment monitoring in metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients and novel circulating tumor markers therefore need to be explored. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a major macropolysaccharide in the extracellular matrix and is reported to be associated with tumor progression. In our study, we investigated plasma HA level with respect to progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), as well as the treatment monitoring value in MBC patients. The prognostic value of plasma HA level was investigated in a discovery cohort of 212 MBC patients with 2.5-year follow-up and validated in an independent validation cohort of 334 patients with 5-year follow-up. The treatment monitoring value of plasma HA level was investigated in 61 MBC patients from discovery cohort who had been radiographically examined after first complete cycle of chemo therapy. We found a robust association between high plasma HA level and poor prognosis of MBC patients in both discovery (pPFS  = 7.92 × 10(-6) and pOS  = 5.27 × 10(-5) ) and validation studies (pPFS  = 3.66 × 10(-4) and pOS  = 1.43 × 10(-4) ). In the discovery cohort, the plasma HA level displayed independent prognostic value after adjusted for age and clinicopathological factors, with respect to PFS and OS. Further, the decrease of plasma HA level displayed good concordance with treatment response evaluated by radiographic examination (AUC = 0.79). Plasma HA level displays prognostic value, as well as treatment monitoring value for MBC patients. PMID:26686298

  15. Notch2 as a promising prognostic biomarker for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cong; Li, Qingbao; Liu, Fang; Chen, Xuan; Liu, Bowen; Nesa, Effat Un; Guan, Shanghui; Han, Lihui; Tan, Bingxu; Wang, Nana; Wang, Xintong; Song, Qingxu; Jia, Yibin; Wang, Jianbo; Lu, Ming; Cheng, Yufeng

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to examine Notch2 expression in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients and to evaluate its prognostic potential. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blot analysis were utilized to investigate the Notch2 expression status and prognostic value. Furtherly, CCK8 and clonogenic assays were conducted to determine if Notch2 inhibition by shRNA could lead to a decrease in the proliferation and survival of ESCC cells. A notably higher Notch2 expression level was found in ESCC tissues at the mRNA (P < 0.0001) and protein levels (IHC: P = 0.004; western blot: P = 0.021). Log-rank analysis demonstrated that Notch2 overexpression was significantly associated with worse overall survival (OS) (29.1% vs. 49.1%; P = 0.013) and progression-free survival (PFS) (15.3% vs. 34.4%; P = 0.006) rates in ESCC patients. The multivariate analysis revealed Notch2 as an independent prognostic factor for OS and PFS (P = 0.002 and 0.006, resp.). Besides, in vitro assays showed that OD450 values and colony formations were significantly reduced in Notch2-shRNA group (all P < 0.0001). In conclusion, these results show that Notch2 is up-regulated in ESCC tissues and could serve as a promising biomarker for identifying individuals with poor prognostic potential. PMID:27158037

  16. Prognostic value of Diabetes in Patients with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Treated with Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hao; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Wen-Fei; Mao, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Fan; Guo, Rui; Liu, Li-Zhi; Lin, Ai-Hua; Sun, Ying; Ma, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The prognostic value of diabetes remains unknown in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 1489 patients with non-metastatic, histologically-proven NPC treated using IMRT. 81/1489 (5.4%) patients were diabetic, 168/1489 (11.3%) were prediabetic, and 1240/1489 (83.3%) were normoglycemic. The 4-year disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), loco-regional relapse-free survival (LRRFS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) rates were 77.1% vs. 82.4% (P?=?0.358), 85.8% vs. 91.0% (P?=?0.123), 90.9% vs. 91.7% (P?=?0.884), and 85.5% vs. 89.2% (P?=?0.445) for diabetic vs. normoglycemic patients, and 82.4% vs. 82.4% (P?=?0.993), 88.7% vs. 91.0% (P?=?0.285), 90.6% vs. 91.7% (P?=?0.832) and 91.5% vs. 89.2% (P?=?0.594) for preidabetic vs. normoglycemic patients. Multivariate analysis did not established diabetes as poor prognostic factors in NPC patients treated with IMRT (P?=?0.332 for DFS, P?=?0.944 for OS, P?=?0.977 for LRRFS, P?=?0.157 for DMFS), however, triglycerides and low density lipoprotein cholesterol were independent prognostic factors. In conclusion, diabetes does not appear to be a prognostic factor in NPC patients treated with IMRT, and attention should be paid to hyperglycemia-associated hyperlipaemia. PMID:26927312

  17. Adverse Prognostic Impact of Bone Marrow Microvessel Density in Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nuri; Lee, Hyewon; Moon, Soo Young; Sohn, Ji Yeon; Hwang, Sang Mee; Yoon, Ok Jin; Youn, Hye Sun

    2015-01-01

    Background Angiogenesis is important for the proliferation and survival of multiple myeloma (MM) cells. Bone marrow (BM) microvessel density (MVD) is a useful marker of angiogenesis and is determined by immunohistochemical staining with anti-CD34 antibody. This study investigated the prognostic impact of MVD and demonstrated the relationship between MVD and previously mentioned prognostic factors in patients with MM. Methods The study included 107 patients with MM. MVD was assessed at initial diagnosis in a blinded manner by two hematopathologists who examined three CD34-positive hot spots per patient and counted the number of vessels in BM samples. Patients were divided into three groups according to MVD tertiles. Cumulative progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) curves, calculated by using Kaplan-Meier method, were compared among the three groups. Prognostic impact of MVD was assessed by calculating Cox proportional hazard ratio (HR). Results Median MVDs in the three groups were 16.8, 33.9, and 54.7. MVDs were correlated with other prognostic factors, including β2-microglobulin concentration, plasma cell percentage in the BM, and cancer stage according to the International Staging System. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that high MVD was an independent predictor of PFS (HR=2.57; 95% confidence interval, 1.22-5.42; P=0.013). PFS was significantly lower in the high MVD group than in the low MVD group (P=0.025). However, no difference was observed in the OS (P=0.428). Conclusions Increased BM MVD is a marker of poor prognosis in patients newly diagnosed with MM. BM MVD should be assessed at the initial diagnosis of MM. PMID:26354343

  18. Elevated expression of Cripto-1 correlates with poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jing; Guo, Zhi-xing; Xiao, Cheng-zuo; Zhang, Yong-fa; Jian, Pei-en; Wu, Xiao-liang; Shi, Ming; Guo, Rong-ping

    2015-01-01

    Cripto-1 could promote tumorigenesis in a wide range of carcinomas, yet little is known in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The expression of Cripto-1 and MMP-9 were assessed by immunohistochemistry in 205 HCC specimens. The correlation between Cripto-1 and MMP-9, clinicopathological/prognostic value in HCC was examined. Cripto-1 overexpression was correlated with larger tumor, TNM stage, BCLC stage and tumor recurrence. In multivariate analyses, Cripto-1 was an independent predictor for overall survival (OS) and time to recurrence (TTR). Cripto-1 expression was increased in TNM and BCLC stage-dependent manner. Cripto-1 overexpression was associated with poor prognosis in patients subgroups stratified by tumor size, tumor differentiation, TNM and BCLC stage. In addition, Cripto-1 was positively correlated with MMP-9 among 205 HCC samples. Patients with Cripto-1 upregulation had poor OS and shorter TTR in low and high aggressiveness groups. Furthermore, Cripto-1 had predictive validity for early and late recurrence in HCC patients. Combination of Cripto-1 and serum AFP was correlated with OS and TTR. In conclusion, Cripto-1 overexpression contributes to aggressiveness and poor prognosis of HCC. Cripto-1/AFP expression could be a potential prognostic biomarker for survival in HCC patients. PMID:26375669

  19. Prognostic significance of Glasgow prognostic score in patients with stage II colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Mao-Song; Huang, Jun-Xing; Yu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Glasgow prognostic score (GPS), one information based prognostic score, has been previously shown to be a prognostic factor in varieties cancers mostly in advanced tumors. This study aimed to explore its value in patients with relatively early stage colorectal cancer (CRC). A total of 99 CRC patients with stage II from 2005 to 2010 operated in our hospital were enrolled in this study. C-reactive protein (CRP), albumin (ALB), Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) score as well as a variety of biochemical variables before the operation was acquired from the database retrospectively. The value of GPS was calculated and its association with the clinical factors was further investigated. The prognostic significance was analyzed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Increased preoperative GPS was found associated with elevated carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and decreasing of KPS. Kaplan-Meier analysis and log-rank test revealed that a higher GPS predicted a higher risk of postoperative mortality in stage II CRC (P < 0.001). Furthermore, multivariate analysis demonstrated the GPS to be a risk factor for postoperative mortality (HR 3.215; P=0.025). The preoperative GPS might be a potential useful indicator for postoperative survival in patients with stage II CRC. PMID:26770545

  20. Prognostic variables and surgical management of foot melanoma: review of a 25-year institutional experience.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Omar M; Schaum, Julia C; Wolfe, Luke G; Brinster, Nooshin K; Neifeld, James P

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Cutaneous foot melanoma is rare, challenging to manage, and not adequately examined in the literature. This study evaluated the prognostic variables and surgical management of foot melanoma. Materials and Methods. Foot melanoma cases managed at an academic center from 1985 to 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Results. 46 patients were identified with a broad range of demographic characteristics. Overall recurrence was 32.6%: 19% acral lentiginous, 57% nodular, 66% superficial spreading, 30% melanoma unspecified, 50% severely atypical; 53% ulcerated, 23% nonulcerated; 29% on the dorsum of the foot, 17% heel, 60% ankle, 22% toe, 50% plantar; 0%?<1?mm thick, 47%?1-4?mm, 33% >4?mm. 13 had positive nodes, 4 (31%) of whom recurred. Prognostic factors and recurrence did not correlate, and survival was 96% with a median followup of 91 months. Conclusions. Aggressive management of foot melanoma may result in excellent long-term survival even following disease recurrence. PMID:22363851

  1. Stress testing on silicon carbide electronic devices for prognostics and health management.

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplar, Robert James; Brock, Reinhard C.; Marinella, Matthew; King, Michael Patrick; Smith, Mark A.; Atcitty, Stanley

    2011-01-01

    Power conversion systems for energy storage and other distributed energy resource applications are among the drivers of the important role that power electronics plays in providing reliable electricity. Wide band gap semiconductors such as silicon carbide (SiC) and gallium nitride (GaN) will help increase the performance and efficiency of power electronic equipment while condition monitoring (CM) and prognostics and health management (PHM) will increase the operational availability of the equipment and thereby make it more cost effective. Voltage and/or temperature stress testing were performed on a number of SiC devices in order to accelerate failure modes and to identify measureable shifts in electrical characteristics which may provide early indication of those failures. Those shifts can be interpreted and modeled to provide prognostic signatures for use in CM and/or PHM. Such experiments will also lead to a deeper understanding of basic device physics and the degradation mechanisms behind failure.

  2. Prognostic Factors in Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Atay, Gamze; Kayahan, Bahar; çınar, Betül çiçek; Saraç, Sarp; Sennaroğlu, Levent

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is still a complex and challenging process which requires clinical evidence regarding its etiology, treatment and prognostic factors. Therefore, determination of prognostic factors might aid in the selection of proper treatment modality. Aims: The aim of this study is to analyze whether there is correlation between SSNHL outcomes and (1) systemic steroid therapy, (2) time gap between onset of symptoms and initiation of therapy and (3) audiological pattern of hearing loss. Study Design: Retrospective chart review. Methods: Patients diagnosed at our clinic with SSNHL between May 2005 and December 2011 were reviewed. A detailed history of demographic features, side of hearing loss, previous SSNHL and/or ear surgery, recent upper respiratory tract infection, season of admission, duration of symptoms before admission and the presence of co-morbid diseases was obtained. Radiological and audiological evaluations were recorded and treatment protocol was assessed to determine whether systemic steroids were administered or not. Treatment started ≤5 days was regarded as “early” and >5 days as “delayed”. Initial audiological configurations were grouped as “upward sloping”, “downward sloping”, “flat” and “profound” hearing loss. Significant recovery was defined as thresholds improved to the same level with the unaffected ear or improved ≥30 dB on average. Slight recovery was hearing improvement between 10–30dB on average. Hearing recovery less than 10 dB was accepted as unchanged. Results: Among the 181 patients who met the inclusion criteria, systemic steroid was administered to 122 patients (67.4%), whereas 59 (32.6%) patients did not have steroids. It was found that steroid administration did not have any statistically significant effect in either recovered or unchanged hearing groups. Early treatment was achieved in 105 patients (58%) and 76 patients (42%) had delayed treatment. Recovery rates were no different in these two groups; however, when unchanged hearing rates were compared, it was statistically significantly lower in the early treatment group (p<0.05). When hearing outcomes were compared according to initial audiological pattern, significant recovery and unchanged hearing rates did not differ between groups; however, slight recovery rate was highest in the “flat” type audiological configuration (p<0.05). Conclusion: According to this patient series, oral steroid therapy does not have any influence on the outcomes of SSNHL. However, mid-frequency hearing loss of flat type and initiation of treatment earlier than 5 days from the onset of symptoms, seem to have positive prognostic effects. Further randomized controlled subject groups might contribute to determine prognostic factors of SSNHL. PMID:26966623

  3. Cellular prognostic markers in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Buonaguro, Luigi; Tagliamonte, Maria; Petrizzo, Annacarmen; Damiano, Elvira; Tornesello, Maria Lina; Buonaguro, Franco M

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the five big killers worldwide and is frequently associated with chronic hepatitis B and C virus (HBV and HCV) infections. Tumor microenvironment consists of a complex network of cells and factors that plays a key role in the tumor progression and prognosis. This is true also for HCC. Several studies have shown strikingly strong correlation between HCC clinical prognosis and intratumoral infiltration of cells affecting tumor growth, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis. None of such cells is yet validated for routine diagnostic and prognostic assessment. The present review aims at providing a state-of-the-art of such studies. PMID:26043213

  4. Prognostic/predictive factors in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Masood, Shahla

    2005-12-01

    This can be an exciting time for pathologists and cytopathologists as we refine or knowledge of prognostic/predictive factors in breast cancer. We can become more visible in our role as consultants to the other physicians, and more engaged in our role as re-searchers. Recent advances in computer science, coupled with the availability of new biological markers, now provide unique opportunities for us to expand our diagnostic abilities and also predict the biologic behavior of a given tumor. Thus, we must become more familiar with emerging concepts and technologies in different disciplines. PMID:16308094

  5. Prognostic Value of Circulating MicroRNA-210 Levels in Patients with Moderate to Severe Aortic Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Røsjø, Helge; Dahl, Mai Britt; Bye, Anja; Andreassen, Johanna; Jørgensen, Marit; Wisløff, Ulrik; Christensen, Geir; Edvardsen, Thor; Omland, Torbjørn

    2014-01-01

    Background Circulating micro-RNAs have been proposed as a novel class of cardiovascular (CV) biomarkers, but whether they meet analytical requirements and provide additional information to establish risk indices have not been established. miR-210 levels are increased in subjects with low VO2 max, which is a recognized risk factor in patients with aortic stenosis (AS), and we hypothesized that circulating miR-210 levels may be increased in patients with AS and associated with a poor prognosis. Methods We measured circulating miR-210 levels by real-time PCR in 57 patients with moderate to severe AS and in 10 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. The merit of miR-210 as a biomarker was assessed according to established criteria, including by comparing miR-210 levels with NT-proBNP and miR-22 levels, which is another miRNA biomarker candidate. Results All patients and control subjects had miR-210 levels within the range of detection (Cq<35) and the analytical variability was low. Circulating miR-210 levels were 2.0±0.2 [mean±SEM] fold increased in AS patients compared to controls (p = 0.002), whereas miR-22 levels were not differently expressed in the AS patients (0.12±0.06 fold increase, p = 0.45). The increase in miR-210 levels in AS patients was comparable to the increment in NT-proBNP levels: [AUC] 0.82 (95% CI 0.70–0.90) vs. 0.85 (0.75–0.93), respectively, p = 0.71. During a median follow-up of 1287 days, 15 patients (26%) died. There was a significant association between higher circulating levels of miR-210 and increased mortality during follow-up: hazard ratio [supra- vs. inframedian levels] 3.3 (95% CI 1.1–10.5), p = 0.039. Adjusting for other risk indices in multivariate analysis did not attenuate the prognostic merit of circulating miR-210 levels. Conclusion Circulating miR-210 levels are increased in patients with AS and provide independent prognostic information to established risk indices. Analytical characteristics were also excellent supporting the potential of micro-RNAs as novel CV biomarkers. PMID:24626394

  6. CD5-positive follicular lymphoma characterized by CD25, MUM1, low frequency of t(14;18) and poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, Hiroaki; Sato, Kensaku; Yoshida, Maki; Kimura, Yoshizo; Kiyasu, Junichi; Ichikawa, Ayako; Ishibashi, Yukinao; Arakawa, Fumiko; Nakamura, Yukihiko; Nakashima, Shinji; Niino, Daisuke; Sugita, Yasuo; Ohshima, Koichi

    2014-03-01

    CD5-positive follicular lymphoma (FL), although rare, has been described in a number of case reports. However, a statistically valid, clinicopathological comparison between CD5-positive FL and CD5-negative FL has never been performed because of its rarity. We statistically compared clinicopathological characteristics of 22 cases of CD5-positive FL, diagnosed by immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry and morphological findings, with those of 62 cases of FL without CD5 expression (control cases). CD5-positive FL patients showed a higher tendency of peripheral blood involvement (P = 0.076) and a higher frequency of CD25 expression (P = 0.0004) and MUM1 protein expression (P = 0.0008), and a lower frequency of t(14;18)(q32;q21) (P = 0.017). The overall survival (OS) curve of CD5-positive FL was significantly worse than that of control cases (P = 0.0266), although progression-free survival curves did not show a significant difference (P = 0.7899). Moreover, CD5 expression was shown to be an independent poor prognostic factor for OS in both univariate analysis [Hazard Ratio (HR), 3.63; P = 0.0464] and multivariate analysis (HR, 57.16; P = 0.0001). CD5-positive FL showed different clinicopathological characteristics from FL lacking CD5 expression. These results suggest that CD5-positive FL should be considered a different type of FL, and its clinicopathological management should be conducted differently. PMID:24698419

  7. Explaining the Role of Proximate Determinants on Fertility Decline among Poor and Non-Poor in Asian Countries

    PubMed Central

    Majumder, Nabanita; Ram, Faujdar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We examined the overall contributions of the poor and non-poor in fertility decline across the Asian countries. Further, we analyzed the direct and indirect factors that determine the reproductive behaviour of two distinct population sub-groups. Design Data from several new rounds of DHS surveys are available over the past few years. The DHS provides cross-nationally comparable and useful data on fertility, family planning, maternal and child health along with the other information. Six selected Asian countries namely: Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Nepal, Philippines, and Vietnam are considered for the purpose of the study. Three rounds of DHS surveys for each country (except Vietnam) are considered in the present study. Methods Economic status is measured by computing a “wealth index”, i.e. a composite indicator constructed by aggregating data on asset ownership and housing characteristics using principal components analysis (PCA). Computed household wealth index has been broken into three equal parts (33.3 percent each) and the lowest and the highest 33.3 percent is considered as poor and non-poor respectively. The Bongaarts model was employed to quantify the contribution of each of the proximate determinants of fertility among poor and non-poor women. Results Fertility reduction across all population subgroups is now an established fact despite the diversity in the level of socio-economic development in Asian countries. It is clear from the analysis that fertility has declined irrespective of economic status at varying degrees within and across the countries which can be attributed to the increasing level of contraceptive use especially among poor women. Over the period of time changing marriage pattern and induced abortion are playing an important role in reducing fertility among poor women. Conclusions Fertility decline among majority of the poor women across the Asian countries is accompanied by high prevalence of contraceptive use followed by changing marriage pattern and induced abortion. PMID:25689843

  8. Emergency Surgery Risky Business in Poor Countries

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158663.html Emergency Surgery Risky Business in Poor Countries Study points ... May 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- People who have emergency surgery in poor nations may be much likelier ...

  9. Continuous Amplitude-Integrated Electroencephalographic Monitoring Is a Useful Prognostic Tool for Hypothermia-Treated Cardiac Arrest Patients

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Sang Hoon; Shon, Young-Min; Kim, Young-Min; Kim, Han Joon; Youn, Chun Song; Kim, Soo Hyun; Choi, Seung Pill; Kim, Seok Chan

    2015-01-01

    Background— Modern treatments have improved the survival rate following cardiac arrest, but prognostication remains a challenge. We examined the prognostic value of continuous electroencephalography according to time by performing amplitude-integrated electroencephalography on patients with cardiac arrest receiving therapeutic hypothermia. Methods and Results— We prospectively studied 130 comatose patients treated with hypothermia from September 2010 to April 2013. We evaluated the time to normal trace (TTNT) as a neurological outcome predictor and determined the prognostic value of burst suppression and status epilepticus, with a particular focus on their time of occurrence. Fifty-five patients exhibited a cerebral performance category score of 1 to 2. The area under the curve for TTNT was 0.97 (95% confidence interval, 0.92–0.99), and the sensitivity and specificity of TTNT<24 hours after resuscitation as a threshold for predicting good neurological outcome were 94.6% (95% confidence interval, 84.9%–98.9%) and 90.7% (95% confidence interval, 81.7%–96.2%), respectively. The threshold displaying 100% specificity for predicting poor neurological outcome was TTNT>36 hours. Burst suppression and status epilepticus predicted poor neurological outcome (positive predictive value of 98.3% and 96.4%, respectively). The combination of these factors predicted a negative outcome at a median of 6.2 hours after resuscitation (sensitivity and specificity of 92.0% and 96.4%, respectively). Conclusions— A TTNT<24 hours was associated with good neurological outcome. The lack of normal trace development within 36 hours, status epilepticus, and burst suppression were predictors of poor outcome. The combination of these negative predictors may improve their prognostic performance at an earlier stage. PMID:26269576

  10. Involvement of Difference in Decrease of Hemoglobin Level in Poor Prognosis of Stage I and II Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Implication in Outcome of Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Jin; Tao Yalan; Li Guo; Yi Wei; Xia Yunfei

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and the difference in its decrease during treatment on outcome of radiotherapy (RT) alone for patients with Stage I and II nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods and Materials: A total of 572 patients with Stage I-II nasopharyngeal carcinoma with RT alone between January 2001 and December 2004 were retrospectively analyzed. Patient characteristics, tumor variables, and Hb level, including pre-RT Hb, mid-RT Hb, and dynamic change of Hb between pre- and post- RT and its difference in decrease ( White-Up-Pointing-Small-Triangle Hb) were subjected to univariate and multivariable analysis to identify factors that predict disease-specific survival (DSS), local regional recurrence-free survival (LRFS), and metastases-free survival (MFS). Results: The 5-year DSS was poorer in the Hb continuous decrease group than in the Hb noncontinuous decrease group (84% vs. 89%; p = 0.008). There was poorer 5-year DSS in patients with White-Up-Pointing-Small-Triangle Hb of >11.5 g/L than in those with White-Up-Pointing-Small-Triangle Hb of {<=}11.5 g/L (82% vs. 89%; p = 0.001), and poorer LRFS (79% vs. 83%; p = 0.035). Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that Hb decrease difference with greater than 11.5 g/L was an independent prognostic factor for DSS and LRFS. Conclusions: The difference in decrease of Hb level during the course of radiation treatment appeared as a poor prognostic factor in Stage I and II nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients.

  11. H19 serves as a diagnostic biomarker and up-regulation of H19 expression contributes to poor prognosis in patients with gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, J S; Wang, Y F; Zhang, X Q; Lv, J M; Li, Y; Liu, X X; Xu, T P

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidences indicate that dysregulated long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are implicated in cancer tumorigenesis and progression and might be used as diagnosis and prognosis biomarker, or potential therapeutic targets. LncRNA H19 has been reported to be upregulated in diverse human cancers; however, its clinical significance in gastric cancer (GC) remains elusive. Expression levels of H19 in 128 pairs of GC and adjacent normal tissues, GC cell lines and GC juices compared to their corresponding controls were detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and Kaplan-Meier analysis were constructed to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic values. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed using the Cox proportional hazard analysis. H19 expression was remarkably increased in GC tissues and cell lines compared with that in the normal control, and its up-regulation was significantly correlated to invasion depth (P < 0.001), advanced TNM stage (P = 0.002) and regional lymph nodes metastasis (P < 0.001) in GC. H19 levels were robust in differentiating GC tissues from controls [area under the curve (AUC) = 0.697; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.636-0.752, p<0.01]. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that increased H19 expression contributed to poor overall survival (P = 0.017) and disease-free survival (P = 0.024) of patients. A multivariate survival analysis also indicated that H19 could be an independent prognostic marker. The levels of H19 in gastric juice from gastric patients were significantly higher than those from normal subjects (P = 0.034). Furthermore, knockdown of H19 expression by siRNA could inhibit cell migration and invasion in GC cells partly via regulating E-cadherin protein expression. H19 might serve as a promising biomarker for early detection and prognosis prediction of GC. PMID:26774144

  12. High GINS2 transcript level predicts poor prognosis and correlates with high histological grade and endocrine therapy resistance through mammary cancer stem cells in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ming; Zhou, Yinghui; Yang, Xiangmin; Tang, Juan; Wei, Ding; Zhang, Yang; Jiang, Jian-Li; Chen, Zhi-Nan; Zhu, Ping

    2014-11-01

    GINS2, a subunit of the GINS complex, is overexpressed in lung adenocarcinoma and metastatic breast tumor; however, its prognostic power and possible molecular mechanisms in breast cancer (BC) remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to explore the function of GINS2 in BC. The association between GINS2 transcript level and the clinical outcome of BC patients were estimated using Kaplan-Meier plots, multivariate cox regression analysis, forest plots, and receiver operating characteristics curves. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was performed to explore the mechanisms underlying the effects of the GINS2 transcript. High GINS2 transcript level was correlated with poor relapse free survival (log-rank P ≤ 0.001 in six cohorts; forest plot: total n = 1,420, total RR = 1.72, 95% CI 1.45-2.03; multivariate cox regression analysis: n = 906, HR 2.36, 95% CI 1.88-2.97), and distant metastasis free survival (log-rank P < 0.01 in 3 cohorts; forest plot: total n = 691, total RR 1.91, 95% CI 1.36-2.67; multivariate cox regression analysis: n = 442, HR 2.43, 95% CI 1.70-3.47). BC patients with higher GINS2 transcript levels showed poorer tamoxifen efficacy in a dose-dependent manner. GINS2 expression was significantly downregulated under mutated p53-depleted condition in MDA-468 and MDA-MB-231 cells, upregulated in mammary cancer stem cells (MaCSCs) (P = 0.003), and correlated with upregulated genes in mammary stem cells (GSEA: P < 0.01). Our study, for the first time, demonstrates that GINS2 is an independent prognostic marker and is associated with lung metastasis, histological grade, and endocrine therapy resistance in BC patients, which may attribute to mutant p53 and MaCSCs. PMID:25348432

  13. Technical Needs for Prototypic Prognostic Technique Demonstration for Advanced Small Modular Reactor Passive Components

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Coble, Jamie B.; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Mitchell, Mark R.; Wootan, David W.; Berglin, Eric J.; Bond, Leonard J.; Henager, Charles H.

    2013-05-17

    This report identifies a number of requirements for prognostics health management of passive systems in AdvSMRs, documents technical gaps in establishing a prototypical prognostic methodology for this purpose, and describes a preliminary research plan for addressing these technical gaps. AdvSMRs span multiple concepts; therefore a technology- and design-neutral approach is taken, with the focus being on characteristics that are likely to be common to all or several AdvSMR concepts. An evaluation of available literature is used to identify proposed concepts for AdvSMRs along with likely operational characteristics. Available operating experience of advanced reactors is used in identifying passive components that may be subject to degradation, materials likely to be used for these components, and potential modes of degradation of these components. This information helps in assessing measurement needs for PHM systems, as well as defining functional requirements of PHM systems. An assessment of current state-of-the-art approaches to measurements, sensors and instrumentation, diagnostics and prognostics is also documented. This state-of-the-art evaluation, combined with the requirements, may be used to identify technical gaps and research needs in the development, evaluation, and deployment of PHM systems for AdvSMRs. A preliminary research plan to address high-priority research needs for the deployment of PHM systems to AdvSMRs is described, with the objective being the demonstration of prototypic prognostics technology for passive components in AdvSMRs. Greater efficiency in achieving this objective can be gained through judicious selection of materials and degradation modes that are relevant to proposed AdvSMR concepts, and for which significant knowledge already exists. These selections were made based on multiple constraints including the analysis performed in this document, ready access to laboratory-scale facilities for materials testing and measurement, and potential synergies with other national laboratory and university partners.

  14. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio is an independent prognostic factor in patients with peripheral T-cell lymphoma, unspecified.

    PubMed

    Beltran, Brady E; Aguilar, Christian; Quiñones, Pilar; Morales, Domingo; Chavez, Julio C; Sotomayor, Eduardo M; Castillo, Jorge J

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) encompasses a group of rare and aggressive lymphomas. PTCL, unspecified (PTCLU) is the most common subtype of PTCL, and carries a poor prognosis. The International Prognostic Index (IPI) and the Prognostic Index for PTCLU (PIT) scoring systems are powerful risk-stratification tools in patients with PTCL. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a prognostic factor in PTCLU. We retrospectively studied 83 patients with diagnosis of PTCLU. In the univariate analysis, NLR ≥ 4 was associated with worse overall survival (HR 3.96, 95% CI 1.92-8.17; p < 0.001). In the multivariate analysis, NLR ≥ 4 was independently associated with worse overall survival after adjustment for the PIT score (HR 4.30, 95% CI 1.90-9.69; p < 0.001), and for the IPI score (HR 2.60, 95% CI 1. 12-6.04; p = 0.03). Our study suggests the NLR could be helpful in refining the survival prognostication in patients with PTCLU. PMID:25926063

  15. Prognostic significance of HIV-associated oral lesions and their relation to therapy.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Warren; Hodgson, T A; Reichart, P A; Sherson, W; Nittayananta, W; Nittayannanta, S W; Axell, T E

    2002-01-01

    The oral manifestations of HIV infection have been considered to be of value in assessing disease progression in the developed world. However, the potential use of oral lesions as prognostic markers in resource-poor countries has yet to be fully investigated. There is reasonably compelling evidence in the developed world for an association between oral lesions and viral load. However, the true nature of this association is less clear and there are few data available from the developing world. With the introduction of HAART, a change in prevalence of the oral manifestations of HIV infection has been observed, including regression of oral candidiasis, Kaposi's sarcoma and oral hairy leukoplakia. However, oral condylomata and herpes simplex virus infection appear to persist with HMRT therapy. Further research in partnership with resource-poor countries is required to document disease progression and the associated oral lesions in both adults and children. PMID:12164643

  16. Prognostic value of body mass index before treatment for laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhao-Qu; Zou, Lan; Liu, Tian-Run; Yang, An-Kui

    2015-01-01

    Objective Patients with head and neck cancer often suffer from malnutrition. This study aims to investigate the influence of body mass index (BMI) on the prognosis of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). Methods A total of 473 patients with LSCC initially treated at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center between January 2005 and July 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Survival analysis was performed by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression model. Results Low BMI before treatment was significantly associated with poor overall survival in patients with LSCC (P<0.001). BMI was an independent prognostic factor for patients with LSCC. Conclusion Leanness before treatment was associated with poor prognosis in patients with LSCC. Good nutritional status is favorable to improve survival in patients with LSCC. PMID:26779376

  17. Prognostic impact of persistent cytogenetic abnormalities at complete remission in adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Short, Nicholas J; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Jabbour, Elias J; O'Brien, Susan M; Faderl, Stefan; Burger, Jan A; Garris, Rebecca; Qiao, Wei; Huang, Xuelin; Jain, Nitin; Konopleva, Marina; Kadia, Tapan M; Daver, Naval; Borthakur, Gautam; Cortes, Jorge E; Ravandi, Farhad

    2016-06-01

    In acute myelogenous leukemia, the persistent detection of abnormal cytogenetics at complete remission (ACCR) is associated with inferior outcomes. However, the prognostic significance of ACCR in adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is unknown. We evaluated 272 adult patients with ALL and abnormal cytogenetics at baseline who were treated with frontline induction chemotherapy, achieved complete remission (CR) and had cytogenetic analysis performed at the time of CR. ACCR was observed in 26 patients (9.6%). Median relapse-free survival was 22 months (95% CI, 12 months to not reached) for patients with ACCR vs. 48 months (range, 30-125 months) in patients with normal cytogenetics at CR (NCCR; P = 0.31). Median overall survival also did not differ significantly between the ACCR (99 months [range, 17 months to not reached]) and NCCR groups (67 months [range, 47 months to not reached], P = 0.86). The specificity of ACCR for minimal residual disease (MRD) positivity by multi-parameter flow cytometry (MFC) was 43%, and there was overall poor correlation between these two methods for the detection of residual disease. When patients were stratified by MRD status, the presence or absence of persistent cytogenetic abnormalities at CR did not add additional prognostic information. This study suggests that there is poor association between MRD assessment by MFC and the presence or absence of cytogenetic abnormalities at CR in adult patients with ALL. ACCR was not associated with adverse outcomes in ALL and did not add additional prognostic information when MRD status by MFC was known. Am. J. Hematol. 91:385-389, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26800008

  18. Prediction of surgical outcome in compressive cervical myelopathy: A novel clinicoradiological prognostic score

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Rishi Anil; Srivastava, Sudhir Kumar; Bhosale, Sunil Krishna; Nemade, Pradip Sharad

    2016-01-01

    Context: Preoperative severity of myelopathy, age, and duration of symptoms have been shown to be highly predictive of the outcome in compressive cervical myelopathy (CCM). The role of radiological parameters is still controversial. Aims: Define the prognostic factors in CCM and formulate a prognostic score to predict the outcome following surgery in CCM. Settings and Design: Retrospective. Materials and Methods: This study included 78 consecutive patients with CCM treated surgically. The modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA) scale was used to quantify severity of myelopathy at admission and at 12-month follow-up. The outcome was defined as good if the patient had mJOA score ≥16 and poor if the score was <16. Age, sex, duration of symptoms, comorbidities, intrinsic hand muscle wasting (IHMW), diagnosis, surgical technique, Torg ratio, instability on dynamic radiographs, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal intensity changes were assessed. Statistics: Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) (version 20.0) was used for statistical analysis. The association was assessed amongst variables using logistic regression analysis. Parameters having a statistically significant correlation with the outcome were included in formulating a prognostic score. Results: Severity of myelopathy, IHMW, age, duration, diabetes, and instability on radiographs were predictive of the outcome with a P value <0.01. Genders, diagnosis, surgical procedure, Torg ratio, and intensity changes on MRI were not significantly related to the outcome. A 8-point scoring system was devised incorporating the significant clinicoradiological parameters, and it was found that nearly all patients (97.82%) with a score below 5 had good outcome and all patients (100%) with a score above 5 had poor outcome. The outcome is difficult to predict with a score of 5. Conclusions: Clinical parameters are better predictors of the outcome as compared to radiological findings, following surgery in CCM. A simple scoring system based on clinicoradiological parameters is suggested in this paper to predict the outcome following surgery in cases of CCM. PMID:27217653

  19. Prognostic markers and tumour growth kinetics in melanoma patients progressing on vemurafenib.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Heike; Fisher, Rosalie; Martin-Liberal, Juan; Edmonds, Kim; Hughes, Peta; Khabra, Komel; Gore, Martin; Larkin, James

    2016-04-01

    The BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib is an effective drug in patients with BRAF mutant metastatic melanoma, but resistance occurs after a median of 6 months. The anti-CTLA4-antibody, ipilimumab, is a standard first-line and second-line treatment option in Europe, with a median time to response of 2-3 months, but some patients show rapid clinical deterioration before that. The aim of this analysis was to identify prognostic markers for survival after failure of vemurafenib treatment to identify patients who have a sufficient life expectancy to respond to new immunotherapy treatments. We retrospectively analysed 101 consecutive unselected patients treated with vemurafenib for metastatic melanoma at a single institution. The association between clinical parameters and death within 3 months after cessation of vemurafenib (n=69) was assessed by binary logistic and Cox regression. Of the patients, 45% died within 3 months of progression on vemurafenib. Elevated baseline serum lactate dehydrogenase, absence of normalization of serum lactate dehydrogenase on vemurafenib therapy, performance status of at least 2 at progression and time from primary tumour to metastatic disease less than 5 years were identified as poor prognostic markers. In an exploratory tumour growth kinetics analysis (n=16), we found that following cessation of vemurafenib, approximately a third each showed a stable, decelerated or accelerated rate of tumour growth. Patients with these poor prognostic markers are unlikely to have sufficient life expectancy to complete ipilimumab treatment after failure with vemurafenib. Consideration needs to be given to the elective use of immunotherapy before patients become resistant to vemurafenib. This requires prospective randomized evaluation. Our tumour growth kinetics analysis requires confirmation; however, it may suggest that intermittent vemurafenib treatment should be investigated in clinical trials. PMID:26684061

  20. Prognostic factors in soft tissue sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Maretty-Nielsen, Katja

    2014-11-01

    Despite major advances in the knowledge of soft tissue sarcoma (STS) during the last decades, no significant improvement in survival has been observed. Detailed data on the prognosis of STS are crucial in order to identify patients who might benefit from more aggressive treatment. Such data can be obtained from properly designed databases; however, the validation of data is crucial in order to obtain valid, reliable results. Furthermore, the majority of prognostic studies in STS have been limited by potential selection bias, low power, and biased estimates due to the statistical methods used, e.g., dichotomizing continuous variables, censoring competing events, as well as not adjusting for important confounders. The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate the prognosis of STS patients using data from the Aarhus Sarcoma Registry (ASR), covering western Denmark in the period from 1979 to 2008. In study I, we systematically validated data in the ASR and evaluated the validity, including completeness of patient registration and accuracy of data. In study II, we investigated the prognostic impact of patient-, tumor-, and treatment-related factors on local recurrence and disease-specific mortality. These were analyzed in a competing risk model in which continuous variables were included as cubic splines and possible confounders were selected based on directed acyclic graphs. In study III, we examined the impact of comorbidity on overall and disease-specific mortality. In study IV, we compared mortality in patients with abnormal biomarkers to those with normal values, assessed the significance of adjusting for comorbidity, as well as constructed a prognostic biomarker score. In study V, we described the relative mortality, i.e., the mortality in STS patients compared with the mortality in a general population, and compared relative and disease-specific estimates. The mortality in the general population was determined using an individually age- and sex-matched comparison cohort. All five studies were conducted in western Denmark within a population of approximately 2.5 million. Individual linkage between the ASR and national registries was made possible by the unique Danish civil registration number. The National Patient Registry and the LABKA research database were used to obtain data on comorbidity and biomarkers. In studies II to V we used a time-to-event-analysis approach that included cumulative incidence functions as well as crude and confounder adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression. In study I, we established that the overall validity of data in the ASR, after validation, was satisfactory and that the ASR included 85.3% of sarcoma patients from western Denmark between 1979 and 2008. In study II, we found a five-year local recurrence and disease-specific mortality of 16% and 24%, respectively. We excluded depth as a prognostic factor, and established that age, duration of symptoms, tumor size, anatomical and compartmental location, as well as radiotherapy were important prognostic factors for disease-specific mortality. In study II