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1

Clinicopathologic and Prognostic Characteristics of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryBackground: Triple-negative breast cancer (estrogen receptor (ER)-, progesterone receptor (PR)-, and HER2-negative) is a rare subtype with a poor prognosis. However, the clinicopathologic and prognostic characteristics of triple-negative breast cancer remain undetermined. Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemical staining was adopted to examine the expressions of ER, PR, p53, C-erbB-2 (HER2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)

Xing-song Tian; Ming-hua Cong; Wen-hong Zhou; Jian Zhu; Yue-zhi Chen; Qi Liu

2008-01-01

2

Accelerated fractionation radiotherapy for hospitalized glioblastoma multiforme patients with poor prognostic factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The standard 6 week course of post-operative radiotherapy for glioblastoma multiforme (astrocytoma grade IV) is lengthy, considering the poor prognosis. The standard schedule is especially unsuitable for hospitalized patients and for those with poor prognostic factors (such as old age and poor performance status) since their survival is particularly short. In order to improve the survival — treatment time ratio,

J. Carlos Hernandez; Yosh Maruyama; Robert Yaes; Hong W. Chin

1990-01-01

3

YKL-40 expression could be a poor prognostic marker in the breast cancer tissue.  

PubMed

YKL-40 is a glycoprotein involved in cellular growth, migration, and the inflammatory process. Elevation in serum levels of YKL-40 has been associated with worse prognosis in various cancers, including breast cancer. Given that the clinical significance of YKL-40 expression in breast cancer tissue is unclear, we aimed to determine the prognostic value of YKL-40 expression in breast cancer tissue using immunohistochemistry. We performed tissue microarray (TMA) analysis of 425 breast cancer tissues collected during operation. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to measure expression of YKL-40 and several breast cancer biomarkers, such as aldehyde dehyadrogenase1, TGF-beta, and Gli-1 as well as hormonal receptor and Her-2/neu status. Statistical analysis of the relationship of YKL-40 expression with clinicopathological characteristics was performed for 390 TMA samples. YKL-40 was expressed to varying degrees in 84.9% of breast cancer tissues. YKL-40 expression was correlated with estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor negativity and was positively correlated with TGF-beta and Gli-1 expression. Strong YKL-40 expression was associated with a larger proportion of Her-2/neu-enriched and basal-like tumors. The results of this study demonstrate that YKL-40 expression in breast cancer tissues is associated with hormone receptor negativity and Her-2/neu-enriched molecular subtypes of breast cancer, and therefore could be considered a poor prognostic predictor. PMID:23918300

Kang, Eun Joo; Jung, Hoiseon; Woo, Ok Hee; Park, Kyong Hwa; Woo, Sang Uk; Yang, Dae Sik; Kim, Ae-Ree; Lee, Jae-Bok; Kim, Yeul Hong; Kim, Jun Suk; Seo, Jae Hong

2014-01-01

4

High DNA methyltransferase DNMT3B levels: a poor prognostic marker in acute myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

It has been recently shown that DNA methyl transferase overexpression is correlated with unfavourable prognosis in human malignancies while methylation deregulation remains a hallmark that defines acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The oncogenic transcription factor EVI1 is involved in methylation deregulation and its overexpression plays a major role for predicting an adverse outcome. Moreover, the identification of DNMT3A mutations in AML patients has recently been described as a poor prognostic indicator. In order to clarify relationship between these key actors in methylation mechanisms and their potential impact on patient outcomes, we analysed 195 de novo AML patients for the expression of DNMT3A, 3B (and its non-catalytic variant 3B(NC)) and their correlations with the outcome and the expression of other common prognostic genetic biomarkers (EVI1, NPM1, FLT3ITD/TKD and MLL) in adult AML. The overexpression of DNMT3B/3B(NC) is (i) significantly correlated with a shorter overall survival, and (ii) inversely significantly correlated with event-free survival and DNMT3A expression level. Moreover, multivariate analysis showed that a high expression level of DNMT3B/3B(NC) is statistically a significant independent poor prognostic indicator. This study represents the first report showing that the overexpression of DNMT3B/3B(NC) is an independent predictor of poor survival in AML. Its quantification should be implemented to the genetic profile used to stratify patients for therapeutical strategies and should be useful to identify patients who may benefit from therapy based on demethylating agents. PMID:23251566

Hayette, Sandrine; Thomas, Xavier; Jallades, Laurent; Chabane, Kaddour; Charlot, Carole; Tigaud, Isabelle; Gazzo, Sophie; Morisset, Stéphane; Cornillet-Lefebvre, Pascale; Plesa, Adriana; Huet, Sarah; Renneville, Aline; Salles, Gilles; Nicolini, Franck Emmanuel; Magaud, Jean-Pierre; Michallet, Mauricette

2012-01-01

5

Pre-Treatment Anemia Is a Poor Prognostic Factor in Soft Tissue Sarcoma Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Anemia refers to low hemoglobin (Hb) levels, represents a common symptom and complication in cancer patients and was reported to negatively influence survival in patients with various malignancies. In the present study, we aimed to explore the prognostic impact of pre-operative Hb levels on clinical outcome in a large cohort of soft tissue sarcoma (STS) patients after curative surgery. Methods Retrospective data from 367 STS patients, which were operated between 1998 and 2013, were included in the study. Cut-off levels for anemia were defined as Hb<13 g/dl in males and Hb<12 g/dl in females according to the current WHO guidelines. The impact of pre-operative Hb levels on cancer-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) was assessed using Kaplan-Meier curves. Additionally, Hb levels were compared for the prognostic influence on CSS and OS applying univariate and multivariate Cox proportional models. Results Hb level was associated with established prognostic factors, including age, tumor grade, size and depth (p<0.05). Kaplan-Meier curves showed that low Hb levels were significantly associated with decreased CSS and OS in STS patients (p<0.001 for both endpoints, log-rank test). In multivariate analysis, we found an independent association between low Hb levels and poor CSS and OS (HR?=?0.46, Cl 95%?=?0.25–0.85, p?=?0.012; HR?=?0.34, Cl 95%?=?0.23–0.51, p<0.001). Conclusion The present data underline a negative prognostic impact of low pre-operative Hb levels on clinical outcome in STS patients. Thus, Hb levels may provide an additional and cost-effective tool to discriminate between STS patients that are at high risk of mortality. PMID:25207808

Szkandera, Joanna; Gerger, Armin; Liegl-Atzwanger, Bernadette; Stotz, Michael; Samonigg, Hellmut; Ploner, Ferdinand; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Leithner, Andreas; Pichler, Martin

2014-01-01

6

Clinical characteristics and prognostic analysis of triple-negative breast cancer patients.  

PubMed

It is well-established that triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a subtype of breast cancer, characterized by a poor prognosis and aggressive biological behavior. However, the available relevant data on TNBC in non-Western populations are limited. In order to analyze the clinicopathological and molecular biological characteristics and observe survival and prognostic factors, 972 breast cancer patients (156 of whom had TNBC) who received treatment at the First Affiliated Hospital of Medical School of Xi'an Jiaotong University and the First Hospital of China Medical University, between January, 2004 and January, 2007 were retrospectively evaluated. In the univariate analysis, tumor size, TNM stage, axillary lymph node status and recurrence or metastasis were identified as prognostic factors for 7-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Our multivariate Cox's regression analysis demonstrated that tumor size and axillary lymph node status were significant prognostic factors for 7-year DFS and OS. Notably, tumor subgroup (TNBC vs. non-TNBC) was a significant prognostic factor associated with 7-year DFS and OS in breast cancer. It was suggested that TNBC exhibited a worse 7-year survival compared with that in non-TNBC patients, most likely due to its more aggressive behavior and insensitivity to specific therapy. PMID:24649341

Yuan, Na; Meng, Min; Liu, Caigang; Feng, Lu; Hou, Lei; Ning, Qian; Xin, Guohong; Pei, Li; Gu, Shanzhi; Li, Xiao; Zhao, Xinhan

2014-03-01

7

Netrin-1 Expression Is an Independent Prognostic Factor for Poor Patient Survival in Brain Metastases  

PubMed Central

The multifunctional molecule netrin-1 is upregulated in various malignancies and has recently been presented as a major general player in tumorigenesis leading to tumor progression and maintenance in various animal models. However, there is still a lack of clinico-epidemiological data related to netrin-1 expression. Therefore, the aim of our study was to elucidate the association of netrin-1 expression and patient survival in brain metastases since those constitute one of the most limiting factors for patient prognosis. We investigated 104 brain metastases cases for netrin-1 expression using in-situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry with regard to clinical parameters such as patient survival and MRI data. Our data show that netrin-1 is strongly upregulated in most cancer subtypes. Univariate analyses revealed netrin-1 expression as a significant factor associated with poor patient survival in the total cohort of brain metastasis patients and in sub-entities such as non-small cell lung carcinomas. Interestingly, many cancer samples showed a strong nuclear netrin-1 signal which was recently linked to a truncated netrin-1 variant that enhances tumor growth. Nuclear netrin-1 expression was associated with poor patient survival in univariate as well as in multivariate analyses. Our data indicate both total and nuclear netrin-1 expression as prognostic factors in brain metastases patients in contrast to other prognostic markers in oncology such as patient age, number of brain metastases or Ki67 proliferation index. Therefore, nuclear netrin-1 expression constitutes one of the first reported molecular biomarkers for patient survival in brain metastases. Furthermore, netrin-1 may constitute a promising target for future anti-cancer treatment approaches in brain metastases. PMID:24647424

Harter, Patrick N.; Zinke, Jenny; Scholz, Alexander; Tichy, Julia; Zachskorn, Cornelia; Kvasnicka, Hans M.; Goeppert, Benjamin; Delloye-Bourgeois, Céline; Hattingen, Elke; Senft, Christian; Steinbach, Joachim P.; Plate, Karl H.; Mehlen, Patrick; Schulte, Dorothea; Mittelbronn, Michel

2014-01-01

8

Colorectal signet-ring cell carcinoma: benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy but a poor prognostic factor.  

PubMed

Colorectal signet-ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) has been associated with poor survival compared with mucinous adenocarcinoma (MC) and the more common adenocarcinoma (AC). Efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy in SRCC has never been assessed. This study analyzes the prognostic impact of SRCC and determines whether colonic SRCC patients benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy equally compared with MC and AC patients. Data on 196,757 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients in the period 1989-2010 was included in this Dutch nationwide population-based study. Five-year relative survival estimates were calculated and multivariate relative survival analyses using a multiple regression model of relative excess risk (RER) were performed. SRCC was found in 1,972 (1.0%) patients. SRCC patients presented more frequently with stage III or IV disease than AC patients (75.2% vs. 43.6%, p < 0.0001) and SRCC was more frequently found in the proximal colon (57.7 vs. 32.0%, p < 0.0001). SRCC patients had a poor 5-year relative survival of 30.8% (95% CI 28.1-33.6%) in the colon and 19.5% (95% CI 14.7-24.8%) in the rectum compared with 56.8% (95% CI 56.4-57.1%) and 58.5% (95% CI 57.9-59.1%) for AC. This survival difference was found in stage II, but was most prominent in stage III. Compared with AC, there was no significant interaction between SRCC and adjuvant chemotherapy (RER 1.10, 95% CI 0.81-1.51), suggesting a comparable benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy in AC and SRCC. In conclusion, the prognostic impact of SRCC is dismal in both colon and rectal cancer patients, but adjuvant chemotherapy is associated with improved survival in AC, MC, and SRCC patients. PMID:24841868

Hugen, Niek; Verhoeven, Rob H; Lemmens, Valery E; van Aart, Carola J; Elferink, Marloes A; Radema, Sandra A; Nagtegaal, Iris D; de Wilt, Johannes H

2015-01-15

9

Low serum miR-19a expression as a novel poor prognostic indicator in multiple myeloma.  

PubMed

Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most common hematologic malignancy characterized by the clonal expansion of plasma cells. Despite continuing advances, novel biomarkers are needed for diagnosis and prognosis of MM. In our study, we characterized the diagnostic and prognostic potential of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in MM. Serum miRNA levels were analyzed in 108 newly diagnosed symptomatic MM patients and 56 healthy donors (HDs). Our analysis identified 95 dysregulated miRNAs in newly diagnosed MM patients. Of the 95 dysregulated miRNAs, dysregulation of miR-19a, miR-92a, miR-214-3p, miR-135b-5p, miR-4254, miR-3658 and miR-33b was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR). Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that a combination of miR-19a and miR-4254 can distinguish MM from HD with a sensitivity of 91.7% and specificity of 90.5%. Decreased expression of miR-19a was positively correlated with international staging system advancement, del(13q14) and 1q21 amplification. Furthermore, downregulation of miR-19a resulted in significantly decreased progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Our analysis indicated that the poor prognostic correlation of miR-19a expression was independent of genetic abnormalities in MM. Multivariate analysis revealed that miR-19a was a significant predictor of shortened PFS and OS. Interestingly, although miR-19a levels portend a poor prognosis, patients with low miR-19a levels had an improved response to bortezomib compared to those with high miR-19a profile. Patients with downregulated miR-19a experienced a significantly extended survival upon bortezomib-based therapy. These data demonstrate that the expression patterns of serum microRNAs are altered in MM, and miR-19a levels are a valuable prognostic marker to identify high-risk MM. PMID:25220540

Hao, Mu; Zang, Meirong; Wendlandt, Erik; Xu, Yan; An, Gang; Gong, Dasen; Li, Fei; Qi, Fang; Zhang, Yanru; Yang, Ye; Zhan, Fenghuang; Qiu, Lugui

2015-04-15

10

PICT1 expression is a poor prognostic factor in non-small cell lung cancer  

PubMed Central

PICT1 is a key regulator of the MDM2–TP53 pathway. High mRNA expression levels of PICT1 are associated with poor prognosis in several cancers with wild-type TP53. In this study, we identified the PICT1 protein expression profile in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with wild-type TP53 in the nucleolus and cytoplasm, and revealed the relationship between PICT1 expression and patient clinicopathological factors. PICT1 expression in the tumor cells of 96 NSCLC patients with wild-type TP53 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Forty-three of 96 (44.8%) NSCLC samples were positive for nucleolar PICT1, while 40/96 (41.7%) NSCLC samples were positive for cytoplasmic PICT1. There was no correlation between nucleolar PICT1 expression and clinicopathological factors. However, cytoplasmic PICT1 expression was significantly correlated with sex, smoking history, differentiation, lymphatic invasion and pathological stage. In multivariate analysis, lymphatic invasion was significantly associated with cytoplasmic PICT1 expression (hazard ratio: 5.02, P = 0.026). We scrutinized PICT1 expression in samples of NSCLC with wild-type TP53, and showed a correlation between cytoplasmic PICT1 expression and several clinicopathological factors in these patients. Our results indicate that cytoplasmic PICT1 expression is a poor prognostic factor and is associated with tumor progression via lymphatic invasion in these patients.

Okamura, Kyoko; Takayama, Koichi; Kawahara, Kohichi; Harada, Taishi; Nishio, Miki; Otsubo, Kohei; Ijichi, Kayo; Kohno, Mikihiro; Iwama, Eiji; Fujii, Akiko; Ota, Keiichi; Koga, Takaomi; Okamoto, Tatsuro; Suzuki, Akira; Nakanishi, Yoichi

2014-01-01

11

Primary Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma of the Stomach: Clinicopathological Characteristics and Prognostic Factors in Iranian Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Primary Gastric Lymphoma (PGL) is an uncommon malignancy with various histological subtypes and treatment outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential prognostic factors and clinicopathological characteristics of Iranian patients with PGL. Methods The clinicopathological characteristics of 60 patients with PGL were retrospectively reviewed from 2001 to 2012. The patients underwent various combinations of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery. We evaluated multiple potential prognostic factors and their associations with patient survival rate. Results According to the results, Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) and Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT) were two predominant histological subtypes. The majority of cases were diagnosed with stage I tumor in the distal part of the stomach. The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 60% and 70%, respectively. It was revealed that poor World Health Organization (WHO) performance status, presence of B symptoms, and International Prognostic Index (IPI) score?3 were significantly associated with decreased patient survival. Conclusion Most of the patients with PGL in early stage have a favorable prognosis.

Hosseini, Sare; Dehghan, Parvaneh

2014-01-01

12

Overexpression of stathmin 1 is a poor prognostic biomarker in non-small cell lung cancer.  

PubMed

Stathmin 1 (STMN1), a major microtubule-depolymerizing protein, is involved in cell cycle progression and cell motility. However, the clinical significance of STMN1 expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has not been determined. The expression pattern of STMN1 mRNA was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) in 37 cases of NSCLC and in the corresponding non-tumor tissue samples. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry was performed to detect STMN1 protein expression in 113 primary NSCLC tissues. The functional role of STMN1 in lung cancer cell lines was evaluated by small interfering RNA-mediated depletion followed by analyses of cell proliferation and invasion. We found that the STMN1 mRNA and protein levels in NSCLC tissues were significantly higher than those in the corresponding non-tumor tissues (P<0.001). In addition, increased STMN1 expression was correlated with poor tumor differentiation (P<0.001), large tumor size (P=0.022), advanced N stage (P=0.033), and advanced TNM stage (P<0.001). Kaplan-Meier analysis indicates that NSCLC patients with higher STMN1 expression showed significantly worse survival. Moreover, multivariate analysis indicates that higher STMN1 protein expression was an independent prognostic factor of disease-specific survival (HR 2.247, 95%CI 1.320-3.825, P=0.003). Finally, the knockdown of STMN1 in lung cancer cells resulted in a decrease in cellular proliferation and invasion. Our findings suggest that STMN1 may have an important role in NSCLC progression and could serve as a potential prognostic marker for patients with NSCLC. PMID:25384122

Nie, Wei; Xu, Mi-Die; Gan, Lu; Huang, Hai; Xiu, Qingyu; Li, Bing

2015-01-01

13

Normal karyotype is a poor prognostic factor in myeloid leukemia of Down syndrome: a retrospective, international study  

PubMed Central

Myeloid leukemia of Down syndrome has a better prognosis than sporadic pediatric acute myeloid leukemia. Most cases of myeloid leukemia of Down syndrome are characterized by additional cytogenetic changes besides the constitutional trisomy 21, but their potential prognostic impact is not known. We, therefore, conducted an international retrospective study of clinical characteristics, cytogenetics, treatment, and outcome of 451 children with myeloid leukemia of Down syndrome. All karyotypes were centrally reviewed before assigning patients to subgroups. The overall 7-year event-free survival for the entire cohort was 78% (±2%), with the overall survival rate being 79% (±2%), the cumulative incidence of relapse 12% (±2%), and the cumulative incidence of toxic death 7% (±1%). Outcome estimates showed large differences across the different cytogenetic subgroups. Based on the cumulative incidence of relapse, we could risk-stratify patients into two groups: cases with a normal karyotype (n=103) with a higher cumulative incidence of relapse (21%±4%) than cases with an aberrant karyotype (n=255) with a cumulative incidence of relapse of 9% (±2%) (P=0.004). Multivariate analyses revealed that white blood cell count ?20×109/L and age >3 years were independent predictors for poor event-free survival, while normal karyotype independently predicted inferior overall survival, event-free survival, and relapse-free survival. In conclusion, this study showed large differences in outcome within patients with myeloid leukemia of Down syndrome and identified novel prognostic groups that predicted clinical outcome and hence may be used for stratification in future treatment protocols. PMID:23935021

Blink, Marjolein; Zimmermann, Martin; von Neuhoff, Christine; Reinhardt, Dirk; de Haas, Valerie; Hasle, Henrik; O’Brien, Maureen M.; Stark, Batia; Tandonnet, Julie; Pession, Andrea; Tousovska, Katerina; Cheuk, Daniel K.L.; Kudo, Kazuko; Taga, Takashi; Rubnitz, Jeffrey E.; Haltrich, Iren; Balwierz, Walentyna; Pieters, Rob; Forestier, Erik; Johansson, Bertil; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M.; Zwaan, C. Michel

2014-01-01

14

Luminal membrane expression of mesothelin is a prominent poor prognostic factor for gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Background: Mesothelin is expressed in various types of malignant tumour, and we recently reported that expression of mesothelin was related to an unfavourable patient outcome in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. In this study, we examined the clinicopathological significance of the mesothelin expression in gastric cancer, especially in terms of its association with the staining pattern. Methods: Tissue specimens from 110 gastric cancer patients were immunohistochemically examined. The staining proportion and intensity of mesothelin expression in tumour cells were analysed, and the localisation of mesothelin was classified into luminal membrane and/or cytoplasmic expression. Results: Mesothelin was positive in 49 cases, and the incidence of mesothelin expression was correlated with lymph-node metastasis. Furthermore, luminal membrane staining of mesothelin was identified in 16 cases, and the incidence of luminal membrane expression was also correlated with pT factor, pStage, lymphatic permeation, blood vessel permeation, recurrence, and poor patient outcome. Multivariate analysis showed that luminal membrane expression of mesothelin was an independent predictor of overall patient survival. Conclusion: We described that the luminal membrane expression of mesothelin was a reliable prognostic factor in gastric cancer, suggesting the functional significance of membrane-localised mesothelin in the aggressive behaviour of gastric cancer cells. PMID:22644300

Einama, T; Homma, S; Kamachi, H; Kawamata, F; Takahashi, K; Takahashi, N; Taniguchi, M; Kamiyama, T; Furukawa, H; Matsuno, Y; Tanaka, S; Nishihara, H; Taketomi, A; Todo, S

2012-01-01

15

Tumor-infiltrating mast cells in colorectal cancer as a poor prognostic factor.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to investigate the clinical/prognostic significance of tumor-infiltrating mast cells (TIMs) in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). TIM infiltration in 325 stage I to III CRC specimens was detected by immunohistochemistry. The optimal cutpoint of TIM density was assessed by the X-tile program. TIM infiltration in CRC was significantly higher than in normal colorectal tissues. According to the X-tile program, the cutpoint for high TIM infiltration in CRC was determined when TIM density was more than 8.0 per high-power field. Correlation analysis between TIM density and clinicopathological variables demonstrated that TIM infiltration was significantly associated with gender, nodal status, and American Joint Committee on Cancer stage. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that high TIM infiltration was a risk factor for both overall survival and disease-free survival. Taken together, high TIM infiltration can be an independent and useful biomarker for predicting the poor survival of patients with CRC. PMID:22649166

Wu, Xianrui; Zou, Yifeng; He, Xiaosheng; Yuan, Ruixue; Chen, Yufeng; Lan, Nan; Lian, Lei; Wang, Fengwei; Fan, Xinjuan; Zeng, Yang; Ke, Jia; Wu, Xiaojian; Lan, Ping

2013-04-01

16

The Glasgow Prognostic Score Predicts Poor Survival in Cisplatin-Based Treated Patients with Metastatic Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Several inflammation-based prognostic scoring systems, including Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS), neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) have been reported to predict survival in many malignancies, whereas their role in metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remains unclear. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical value of these prognostic scoring systems in a cohort of cisplatin-based treated patients with metastatic NPC. Methods Two hundred and eleven patients with histologically proven metastatic NPC treated with first-line cisplatin-based chemotherapy were retrospectively evaluated. Demographics, disease-related characteristics and relevant laboratory data before treatment were recorded. GPS, NLR and PLR were calculated as described previously. Response to first-line therapy and survival data were also collected. Survival was analyzed in Cox regressions and stability of the models was examined by bootstrap resampling. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) was calculated to compare the discriminatory ability of each scoring system. Results Among the above three inflammation-based prognostic scoring systems, GPS (P<0.001) and NLR (P?=?0.019) were independently associated with overall survival, which showed to be stable in a bootstrap resampling study. The GPS consistently showed a higher AUC value at 6-month (0.805), 12-month (0.705), and 24-month (0.705) in comparison with NLR and PLR. Further analysis of the association of GPS with progression-free survival showed GPS was also associated independently with progression-free survival (P<0.001). Conclusions Our study demonstrated that the GPS may be of prognostic value in metastatic NPC patients treated with cisplatin-based palliative chemotherapy and facilitate individualized treatment. However a prospective study to validate this prognostic model is still needed. PMID:25393117

Weng, Hui-wen; Li, He-ping; Ye, Sheng

2014-01-01

17

Sex therapy for erectile dysfunction: Characteristics of couples, treatment outcome, and prognostic factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outcome and prognostic factors were studied in 36 couples who entered sex therapy because of the male partners' erectile dysfunction. Treatment was completed by two thirds. Noncompletion was associated with lower socioeconomic status, the female partner having a history of psychiatric treatment, pretreatment poorer motivation of the male partner, poor communication in the general relationship, and less sexual pleasure experienced

Keith Hawton; Jose Catalan; Joan Fagg

1992-01-01

18

Aberrant phenotypic expression of CD15 and CD56 identifies poor prognostic acute promyelocytic leukemia patients.  

PubMed

Limited information is available on the relationship between expression of some additional aberrant phenotypic features and outcome of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) patients. Here, we set out to assess the frequency of CD15 and CD56 expression, and their prognostic value in a large series of APL patients. One hundred and fourteen adult patients consecutively diagnosed with PML/RAR?-positive APL and homogeneously treated with the AIDA induction schedule at a single institution were included in the study. Twelve (10.5%) and 9 (8%) of the 114 patients expressed CD15 and CD56, respectively. CD15 expression identified a subset of patients with a classic morphologic subtype (92%), a prevalent association with a bcr1 expression (67%) with an unexpectedly higher frequency of relapses (42% vs 20% for the CD15- patients, p=0.03) and a low overall survival (OS) (median OS at 5 years 58% vs 85% for the CD15- patients, p=0.01). CD56 expression was detected only in patients with a classic morphologic subtype, a prevalent bcr3 expression (67%), high incidence of differentiation syndrome (55%), higher frequency of relapse (34% vs 20% for the CD56- population, p=0.04) and a low OS (60% vs 85% for the CD56- population p=0.02). We hereby confirm the negative prognostic value of CD56 and we show that the same applies also to cases expressing CD15. These aberrant markers may be considered for the refinement of risk-adapted therapeutic strategies in APL patients. PMID:24296270

Breccia, Massimo; De Propris, Maria Stefania; Minotti, Clara; Stefanizzi, Caterina; Raponi, Sara; Colafigli, Gioia; Latagliata, Roberto; Guarini, Anna; Foà, Robin

2014-02-01

19

[Ventricular tachycardia under stress : Characteristic symptom or prognostic relevance?].  

PubMed

Exercise-induced ventricular tachycardia (EIVT) is typical and quite common in patients with long QT-Syndrome (LQTS) or catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT). Although patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) experience EIVT infrequently, the occurrence of EIVT is of great prognostic value in these patients. The following overview will introduce these cardiomyopathies and highlight the importance of their EIVT. PMID:24100620

Biermann, Jürgen; Faber, Thomas S

2013-12-01

20

Silenced B-cell receptor response to autoantigen in a poor-prognostic subset of chronic lymphocytic leukemia  

PubMed Central

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells express auto/xeno antigen-reactive antibodies that bind to self-epitopes and resemble natural IgM antibodies in their repertoire. One of the antigenic structures recognized is oxidation-induced malonedialdehyde that is present on low-density lipoprotein, apoptotic blebs, and on certain microbes. The poor-prognostic stereotyped subset #1 (Clan I IGHV genes-IGKV1(D)-39) express IgM B-cell receptors that bind oxidized low-density lipoprotein. In this study, we have used for the first time this authentic cognate antigen for analysis of downstream B-cell receptor-signal transduction events, since it is more faithful to B-cell physiology than anti-IgM. Multivalent oxidized low-density lipoprotein showed specific binding to subset #1 IgM/IgD B-cell receptors, whereas native low-density lipoprotein did not. The antigen binding induced prompt receptor clustering followed by internalization. However, the receptor-signal transduction was silenced, revealing no Ca2+ mobilization or cell-cycle entry, while phosphorylated extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 basal levels were high and could not be elevated further by oxidized low-density lipoprotein. Interestingly, B-cell receptor responsiveness was recovered after 48-h culture in the absence of antigen in half of the cases. Toll-like receptor 9-ligand was found to breach the B-cell receptor-signaling incompetence in 5 of 12 cases pointing to intra-subset heterogeneity. Altogether, this study supports B-cell receptor unresponsiveness to cognate self-antigen on its own in poor-prognostic subset #1 chronic lymphocytic leukemia, indicating that these cells proliferate by other mechanisms that may override B-cell receptor silencing brought about in a context of self-tolerance/anergy. These novel findings have implications for the understanding of chronic lymphocytic leukemia pathobiology and therapy. PMID:25085355

Bergh, Ann-Charlotte; Evaldsson, Chamilly; Pedersen, Lone Bredo; Geisler, Christian; Stamatopoulos, Kostas; Rosenquist, Richard; Rosén, Anders

2014-01-01

21

Human papillomavirus 18 as a poor prognostic factor in stage I-IIA cervical cancer following primary surgical treatment  

PubMed Central

Objective This study evaluates the effect of the specific human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype as a prognostic factor in stage I-IIA cervical cancer patients following primary surgical treatment. Methods The medical records of 116 cervical cancer patients treated with primary surgical treatment were reviewed. The HPV genotypes were categorized into following groups: negative and unclassified, HPV 16, HPV 18, and other high risk (HPV 31, 33, 35, 45, 51, 52, 56, and 58). Results Among the HPV genotypes, HPV 16 predominated (40.52%), followed by intermediate risk and unclassified (25%), HPV 18, 45, and 56 (17.24%) and negative (17.24%). In univariate analysis, HPV genotypes (P=0.03), parametrial spread (P=0.02), depth of invasion (DOI) (P<0.01) and lymph-vascular space invasion (P=0.02) were significantly associated with progression free survival (PFS). In multivariate analysis, HPV 18 (hazard ratio [HR], 5.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.29 to 20.90; P=0.02) and ?one half of DOI (HR, 5.4; 95% CI, 1.08 to 27.31; P=0.04) were significantly associated with PFS. HPV genotypes are not significantly associated with overall survival. Conclusion HPV 18 was a poor prognostic factor for the PFS in stage I-IIA cervical cancer patients following primary surgical treatment. Careful long-term observation and regular exams are recommended for cervical cancer patients with HPV 18 compared to those with other HPV genotypes. PMID:25469338

Yang, Sun-Hye; Kong, Su-Kyoung; Lim, So-Yi; Park, Chan-Yong

2014-01-01

22

Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 Overexpression in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: An Independent Poor Prognosticator That Enhances Cell Growth  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: As a key component of polycomb-repressive complex 2, enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) represses target genes through histone methylation and is frequently overexpressed and associated with poor prognosis in common carcinomas. For the first time, we reported EZH2 expression and its biological and clinical significance in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods and Materials: In NPC cell lines and specimens, endogenous expression of EZH2 mRNA and protein was determined by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting, respectively. To analyze the effect on cell growth, stable silencing of EZH2 was established in EZH2-expressing TW02 NPC cells with RNA interference. EZH2 immunolabeling was assessable for 89 primary NPC biopsy samples and correlated with clinicopathological variables, disease-specific survival (DSS), and overall survival (OS). Results: Growth activity of TW02 cells was significantly suppressed (p < 0.001) with stable EZH2 silencing. Compared with normal nasopharyngeal tissue, expression levels of EZH2 transcript and protein were apparently upregulated in NPC specimens. As a continuous variable, higher EZH2 expression preferentially occurred in NPCs of T3 to T4 stages (p = 0.03) and significantly predicted inferior DSS (p = 0.0010) and OS (p = 0.004). The prognostic implications for DSS (p = 0.010) and OS (p = 0.006) still remained valid when using the median ({>=}60%) of EZH2 immunolabeling index to dichotomize the cohort. In the multivariate model, higher EZH2 expression was an independent adverse factor of both DSS (p = 0.012) and OS (p = 0.011), along with American Joint Committee on Cancer Stages III to IV (p = 0.024 for DSS, p = 0.017 for OS). Conclusion: At least partly through promoting cell growth, EZH2 implicates disease progression, confers tumor aggressiveness, and represents an independent adverse prognosticator in patients with NPC.

Hwang, Chung-Feng [Department of Otolaryngology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Kaohsiung Chang Gung Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Huang, Hsuan-Ying [Kaohsiung Chang Gung Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Department of Pathology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chang-Han [Department of Otolaryngology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Kaohsiung Chang Gung Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Center for Translational Research in Biomedical Sciences, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chien, Chih-Yen; Hsu, Yao-Chung [Department of Otolaryngology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Kaohsiung Chang Gung Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Li, Chien-Feng [Department of Pathology, Chi-Mei Medical Center, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biomedical Science, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); and others

2012-02-01

23

Association of Nuclear Localization of a Long Interspersed Nuclear Element-1 Protein in Breast Tumors with Poor Prognostic Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Within healthy human somatic cells, retrotransposition by long interspersed nuclear element-1 (also known as LINE-1 or L1) is thought to be held in check by a variety of mechanisms, including DNA methylation and RNAi. The expression of L1-ORF1 protein, which is rarely found in normal tissue, was assayed using antibodies with a variety of clinical cancer specimens and cancer cell lines. L1-ORF1p expression was detected in nearly all breast tumors that the authors examined, and the protein was also present in a high percentage of ileal carcinoids, bladder, and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, as well as in a smaller percentage of prostate and colorectal tumors. Tumors generally demonstrated cytoplasmic L1-ORF1p; however, in several breast cancers, L1-ORF1p was nuclear. Patients with breast tumors displaying nuclear L1-ORF1p had a greater incidence of both local recurrence and distal metastases and also showed poorer overall survival when compared with patients with tumors displaying cytoplasmic L1-ORF1p. These data suggest that expression of L1-ORF1p is widespread in many cancers and that redistribution from cytoplasm to nucleus could be a poor prognostic indicator during breast cancer. High expression and nuclear localization of L1-ORF1p may result in a higher rate of L1 retrotransposition, which could increase genomic instability. PMID:20948976

Harris, Chris R.; Normart, Robin; Yang, Qifeng; Stevenson, Elizabeth; Haffty, Bruce G.; Ganesan, Shridar; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Levine, Arnold J.; Tang, Laura H.

2010-01-01

24

Association of Fascin and matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression with poor prognostic parameters in breast carcinoma of Egyptian women  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background The effects of fascin on cell invasiveness involve changes in cell motility and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity. Previous studies on the prognostic value of fascin and MMP-9 in breast carcinoma revealed conflicting results. To date, no immunohistochemical studies have been performed to assess the possible association between them in breast carcinoma. This study is designed to correlate their expression with prognostic parameters in breast carcinoma and assess the relationship between them. Methods Immunohistochemical expression of fascin and MMP-9 was evaluated semi quantitatively in 67 cases of breast carcinoma regarding the percentage of positive cells. Chi square test and Fisher’s exact test were used to examine the relationship between categorical variables. Kappa statistics was used to compute the measure of agreement between two investigational methods. Results Fascin and MMP-9 expressions were detected in 43.28% and 50.75% of breast carcinomas (respectively). Regarding the normal breast tissue, fascin expression was observed in myoepithelial cells and luminal cells of few ducts and acini. However, normal tissue showed negative MMP-9 expression. A significant relationship was observed between fascin and MMP-9 expression and lymph node metastases (p = 0.001 and 0.002 respectively), advanced tumor stage (p = 0.004 and 0.005 respectively), estrogen receptor negative (p = 0.002 and 0.005 respectively), progesterone receptor negative (p = 0.001 and 0.003 respectively) hormonal status and molecular subtypes (p = 0.0007 and 0.014 respectively). A significant strong agreement was detected between fascin and MMP-9 expression (p = 0.0001). More intense immunostaining of fascin and MMP-9 was observed at the invasive fronts compared with other areas of the tumor. Moreover, a significant moderate agreement between fascin and MMP-9 was found regarding the site of predominant intensity. Conclusion Fascin and MMP-9 proteins are associated with parameters of poor prognosis in breast cancer. The significant strong agreement between the two markers supports the role of fascin in cell invasiveness by activating matrix proteases besides increasing cell motility. Both proteins may represent potential therapeutic targets for patients with breast cancer especially those with hormone receptor–negative status. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1421167695121127. PMID:24993803

2014-01-01

25

The clinicopathologic characteristics and prognostic significance of triple-negativity in node-negative breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Triple-negative (TN) breast cancer, which is defined as being negative for the estrogen receptor (ER), the progesterone receptor (PR), and the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2), represents a subset of breast cancer with different biologic behaviour. We investigated the clinicopathologic characteristics and prognostic indicators of lymph node-negative TN breast cancer. METHODS: Medical records were reviewed from patients

Jiyoung Rhee; Sae-Won Han; Do-Youn Oh; Jee Hyun Kim; Seock-Ah Im; Wonshik Han; In Ae Park; Dong-Young Noh; Yung-Jue Bang; Tae-You Kim

2008-01-01

26

Clinicopathologic characteristics and prognostic value of various histological types in advanced gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

The prognostic value of histological types in gastric cancer is not well defined. This study aims to clarify the clinicopathologic features of various WHO histological types and their prognostic significance in advanced gastric cancer (AGC). We retrospectively reviewed 741 patients with gastric cancer in our hospital from 1997 to 2007. The AGC (741 cases) were divided into five histological types: well-differentiated carcinoma (WD), moderately differentiated carcinoma (MD), poorly differentiated carcinoma (PD), mucinous carcinoma (MC), and signet ring cell carcinoma (SRC). The various AGC histological types presented significant differences in their clinical and tumor features. The five-year survival rates of patients with WD, MD, PD, MC, and SRC were 87.1%, 57.1%, 50.6%, 62.7%, and 43.4%, respectively (P=0.012). Multivariate analysis showed that cell differentiation, age, depth of invasion, and lymph node metastasis were independent prognostic factors in AGC, whereas MC and SRC were not. Cell differentiation is related to tumor aggression or patient stage. Advanced stage SRC carcinoma had more aggressive features and worse prognosis than the other types. MC carcinoma survival is correlated with the stage at diagnosis. The degree of cell differentiation is an important predictor of survival in AGC. PMID:25337210

Zu, Hongliang; Wang, Huiling; Li, Chunfeng; Xue, Yingwei

2014-01-01

27

Clinical, pathological and prognostic characteristics of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms in China: a retrospective study  

PubMed Central

Background Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NENs) are rare neuroendocrine tumors, and lack of data in Asian populations especially in China. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the clinical, pathological and prognostic characteristics of GEP-NENs in China. Methods We collected clinical and pathological data of 168 patients diagnosed with GEP-NENs and treated at the First and Second Affiliated Hospitals of Dalian Medical University between January 2003 and December 2012. Kaplan-Meier method and log rank analysis was used to analyze the prognostic significance of clinical and pathological characteristics. Results Mean age was 51.83?±?14.03 and the male-to-female ratio was 1.5:1. Primary sites were the rectum (58.93%), pancreas (13.69%), stomach (9.52%), duodenum (5.36%), colon (4.76%), appendix (4.76%), ileum (2.38%) and jejunum (0.60%). Most patients (95.83%) presented non-functional tumors with non-specific symptoms such as abdominal or back pain (29.17%) and gastrointestinal bleeding (25.60%). Based on the 2010 World Health Organization (WHO) classification, patients were diagnosed with neuroendocrine tumor (NET) (24.40%) or neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) (7.14%). The estimated mean survival was 8.94?±?0.28 years (95% CI: 8.40-9.48). Male gender, young age, small tumor size and NET tumor type were favorable prognostic factors. Conclusion Chinese GEP-NENs patients present characteristics that are similar to American and European patients. However, there is an urgent need to establish a national database for understanding the clinical and epidemiological features of GEP-NENs in China. PMID:25001493

2014-01-01

28

Prolonged radiation time and low nadir hemoglobin during postoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy are both poor prognostic factors with synergistic effect on locally advanced head and neck cancer patients  

PubMed Central

Background Anemia, a common complication of head and neck cancer treatment, is regarded as a poor prognostic factor. We evaluated the impact of low hemoglobin (Hb) levels, measured at different time points, on a consecutive cohort of patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (LA-SCCHN) who underwent postoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Materials and methods From 2002 to 2009, 140 patients were enrolled and reviewed retrospectively. Preoperative (pre-op Hb), pre-CCRT Hb, and nadir Hb during CCRT were measured and recorded. The three Hb parameters were analyzed against several well-established pathologic risk factors and radiation-associated variables. Prognostic impacts were investigated with multivariate analysis by Cox proportional hazards model. Results On Cox regression analysis, significantly higher risk of death was associated with pre-op Hb ?13 g/dL (hazard ratio [HR] =1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1–3.1; P=0.023), nadir Hb ?11 g/dL (HR =1.9; 95% CI, 1.1–3.3; P=0.020), radiation treatment time (RTT) >7 weeks (HR =1.9; 95% CI, 1.1–3.3; P=0.022), and multiple positive lymph nodes (HR =2.1; 95% CI, 1.2–3.7; P=0.010), after adjusting for primary tumor site and pathologic lymphovascular invasion. Patients with poor prognosticators including low nadir Hb ?11 g/dL and RTT >7 weeks had a higher risk of death (HR =4.0; 95% CI =1.6–10.2; P=0.004). Conclusion In the treatment setting of LA-SCCHN patients who underwent postoperative CCRT, coexistance of lower nadir Hb during CCRT and prolonged RTT resulted in reduced survival. PMID:25670907

Su, Nai-Wen; Liu, Chung-Ji; Leu, Yi-Shing; Lee, Jehn-Chuan; Chen, Yu-Jen; Chang, Yi-Fang

2015-01-01

29

miR-224 overexpression is a strong and independent prognosticator of short-term relapse and poor overall survival in colorectal adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

Colorectal adenocarcinoma constitutes the most frequent form of colorectal cancer and a serious cause of cancer?related deaths. The expression of multiple miRNAs, including miR-224, is deregulated in colorectal adenocarcinoma. The aim of this study was the investigation of the prognostic value of miR-224 in colorectal adenocarcinoma. For this purpose, total RNA was isolated from 115 colorectal adenocarcinomas and 66 adjacent non-cancer mucosae. Total RNA (2 µg) was polyadenylated and reverse transcribed. A quantitative PCR method based on SYBR?Green chemistry was developed and applied for the quantification of miR-224 levels, followed by extensive biostatistical analysis. miR-224 levels in malignant colorectal adenocarcinomas ranged between 1.81 and 187.75 RQU (miR-224 copies/1,000 SNORD48 copies) with a median of 34.27, and were significantly elevated, compared to miR-224 levels in adjacent non-cancer mucosae (p<0.001). Enhanced miR-224 expression constitutes a rather strong prognosticator in colorectal adenocarcinoma, predicting short-term relapse and poor overall survival in these patients (p=0.012 and p=0.005, respectively), independent of established clinicopathological parameters. In conclusion, miR-224 is significantly upregulated in malignant colorectal tumors compared to adjacent non-cancer mucosae, and its enhanced expression constitutes an independent predictor of short-term relapse and poor overall survival in colorectal adenocarcinoma patients. PMID:25420464

Adamopoulos, Panagiotis G; Kontos, Christos K; Rapti, Stamatia-Maria; Papadopoulos, Iordanis N; Scorilas, Andreas

2015-02-01

30

Primary gastric non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in Chinese patients: clinical characteristics and prognostic factors  

PubMed Central

Background Optimal management and outcome of primary gastric lymphoma (PGL) have not been well defined in the rituximab era. This study aimed to analyze the clinical characteristics, prognostic factors, and roles of different treatment modalities in Chinese patients with PGL. Methods The clinicopathological features of 83 Chinese patients with PGL were retrospectively reviewed. Staging was performed according to the Lugano staging system for gastrointestinal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Results The predominant pathologic subtype among Chinese patients with PGL in our study was diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), followed by mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Among the 57 patients with gastric DLBCL, 20 patients (35.1%) were classified as the germinal center B cell-like (GCB) subtype and 37 patients (64.9%) as the non-GCB subtype. The 83 patients had a five-year overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) of 52% and 59%, respectively. Cox regression analysis showed that stage-modified international prognostic index (IPI) and performance status (PS) were independent predictors of survival. In the 67 B-cell lymphoma patients who received chemotherapy, 36 patients treated with rituximab (at least 3 cycles) had a mean OS of 72 months (95% CI 62-81) versus 62 months (95% CI 47-76) for patients without rituximab treatment (P = 0.021). Conclusion The proportion of Chinese gastric DLBCL cases with non-GCB subtype was higher than the GCB subtype. Stage-modified IPI and PS were effective prognostic factors in Chinese patients with PGL. Our data suggested that primary gastric B-cell lymphoma might have an improved outcome with rituximab in addition to chemotherapy. More studies are necessary, preferentially large prospective randomized clinical trials to obtain more information on the impact of the rituximab in the primary gastric B-cell lymphoma. PMID:20604963

2010-01-01

31

Immunohistochemical and Molecular Characteristics with Prognostic Significance in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is an aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma with marked biologic heterogeneity. We analyzed 100 cases of DLBCL to evaluate the prognostic value of immunohistochemical markers derived from the gene expression profiling-defined cell origin signature, including MYC, BCL2, BCL6, and FOXP1 protein expression. We also investigated genetic alterations in BCL2, BCL6, MYC and FOXP1 using fluorescence in situ hybridization and assessed their prognostic significance. BCL6 rearrangements were detected in 29% of cases, and BCL6 gene alteration (rearrangement and/or amplification) was associated with the non-germinal center B subtype (non-GCB). BCL2 translocation was associated with the GCB phenotype, and BCL2 protein expression was associated with the translocation and/or amplification of 18q21. MYC rearrangements were detected in 15% of cases, and MYC protein expression was observed in 29% of cases. FOXP1 expression, mainly of the non-GCB subtype, was demonstrated in 37% of cases. Co-expression of the MYC and BCL2 proteins, with non-GCB subtype predominance, was observed in 21% of cases. We detected an association between high FOXP1 expression and a high proliferation rate as well as a significant positive correlation between MYC overexpression and FOXP1 overexpression. MYC, BCL2 and FOXP1 expression were significant predictors of overall survival. The co-expression of MYC and BCL2 confers a poorer clinical outcome than MYC or BCL2 expression alone, whereas cases negative for both markers had the best outcomes. Our study confirms that DLBCL, characterized by the co-expression of MYC and BCL2 proteins, has a poor prognosis and establishes a significant positive correlation with MYC and FOXP1 over-expression in this entity. PMID:24887414

Bellas, Carmen; García, Diego; Vicente, Yolanda; Kilany, Linah; Abraira, Victor; Navarro, Belen; Provencio, Mariano; Martín, Paloma

2014-01-01

32

Tumor deposit is a poor prognostic indicator in patients who underwent simultaneous resection for synchronous colorectal liver metastases  

PubMed Central

Background Tumor deposits are one of the important influencing factors among the different editions of Tumor, Node, Metastasis classification. Incidence and prognosis of tumor deposits in stage I, II, and III colorectal cancer patients has been explored. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of tumor deposits in stage IV colorectal cancer patients who underwent simultaneous resection for synchronous colorectal liver metastases (SCRLM). Methods Clinicopathological and outcome data of 146 consecutive SCRLM patients who underwent simultaneous R0 resection between July 2003 and July 2013 were collected from our prospectively established SCRLM database. The prognostic value of tumor deposits was evaluated by Kaplan–Meier and Cox regression analysis. Results Tumor deposits were detected in 41.8% (61/146) of these SCRLM patients. Tumor deposits were significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis and nerve invasion of the primary tumors (P=0.002, P=0.041; respectively). The Kaplan–Meier survival analysis revealed that the overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) of SCRLM patients with tumor deposits were significantly poorer than those with no tumor deposits (P=0.039, P=0.001; respectively). And with multivariate analysis, we found that positive tumor deposits were significantly associated with shorter DFS independent of lymph node status (P=0.002). Subgroup analysis found that of the 57 SCRLM patients with negative lymph node status, the OS and DFS of patients with positive tumor deposits were significantly shorter than those with negative tumor deposits (P=0.002 and P=0.031, respectively). Of the 89 patients with positive lymph node status, the OS of patients with tumor deposits was not significantly different than those without tumor deposits (P=0.965); however, the DFS of patients with tumor deposits was significantly shorter than those with no tumor deposits (P=0.034). Conclusion Tumor deposits may be an independent adverse prognostic factor in SCRLM patients who underwent simultaneous R0 resection. PMID:25653544

Lin, Qi; Wei, Ye; Ren, Li; Zhong, Yunshi; Qin, Chunzhi; Zheng, Peng; Xu, Pingping; Zhu, Dexiang; Ji, Meiling; Xu, Jianmin

2015-01-01

33

TP53 Pro72 allele potentially increases the poor prognostic significance of TP53 mutation in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.  

PubMed

Previous studies have investigated the associations between TP53 mutations and codon 72 polymorphisms and prognosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). However, the joint effect of TP53 mutations and TP53 codon 72 polymorphisms on CLL prognosis remains uncertain. We used direct sequencing to detect TP53 mutations and codon 72 genotype in 207 patients with CLL. The Pro/Pro genotype was associated with an increased incidence of TP53 mutations and deletion, but had no apparent effect on biological tumor behavior or clinical response. Compared to patients with wild-type p53, patients with TP53 mutations and the Pro72 allele (Arg/Pro + Pro/Pro genotypes) were associated with unmutated immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region status and chemorefractoriness. Overall survival (OS) in the entire patient group was differed significantly between patients with TP53 mutations and either the Pro72 allele or Arg/Arg homozygotes (P = 0.014). Notably, patients with TP53 mutation and the Pro72 allele experienced a 23.7-fold increase in hazard ratio (95% CI 3.38-165.9; P = 0.001) for OS compared with patients with wild-type p53 and those with the Arg/Arg genotype. The TP53 Pro72 allele potentially increases the prognostic significance of TP53 mutations in CLL. PMID:24615009

Dong, Hua-Jie; Fang, Cheng; Wang, Li; Fan, Lei; Xu, Ji; Wu, Jia-Zhu; Lu, Ting-Xun; Li, Jian-Yong; Xu, Wei

2014-04-01

34

Clinical characteristics and prognostic factors in dogs with histiocytic sarcomas in Japan.  

PubMed

Canine histiocytic sarcoma (HS) is a rare neoplasm that originates from dendritic cells or macrophages, and there have been a number of cases experienced in Japan. To identify the characteristics and prognostic variables that determine outcome in dogs with HS in Japan, medical records of 73 dogs with HS were retrospectively analyzed. Signalment, clinical signs, complete blood count (CBC), blood chemistry profiles, treatment, response to treatment and overall survival (OS) were analyzed. Diagnosis of HS was determined histologically in 44 cases and cytologically in 29 cases. The most frequently diagnosed breeds were Flat-Coated Retrievers (n=16, odds ratio [OR] 62.0), Pembroke Welsh corgis (n=15, OR 9.7) and Bernese Mountain dogs (n=14, OR 45.0). Median survival time for all dogs in this study was 43 days. In the dogs that received no treatment or only symptomatic treatment, the median OS was 12 days (range 2-254 days) compared with that of dogs that received surgical treatment and/or chemotherapy (85 days, range 4-360 days). Univariate analysis identified anemia, thrombocytopenia, hypoalbuminemia, hypoproteinemia and not receiving antitumor treatment (chemotherapy and/or surgery) as factors significantly associated with shorter OS. Multivariate analysis confirmed that platelet counts, localized/disseminated lesional pattern and whether the dog received antitumor treatment were significantly predictive of survival. PMID:24441652

Takahashi, Masashi; Tomiyasu, Hirotaka; Hotta, Eri; Asada, Hajime; Fukushima, Kenjiro; Kanemoto, Hideyuki; Fujino, Yasuhito; Ohno, Koichi; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Tsujimoto, Hajime

2014-05-01

35

Clinical Characteristics and Prognostic Factors in Dogs with Histiocytic Sarcomas in Japan  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Canine histiocytic sarcoma (HS) is a rare neoplasm that originates from dendritic cells or macrophages, and there have been a number of cases experienced in Japan. To identify the characteristics and prognostic variables that determine outcome in dogs with HS in Japan, medical records of 73 dogs with HS were retrospectively analyzed. Signalment, clinical signs, complete blood count (CBC), blood chemistry profiles, treatment, response to treatment and overall survival (OS) were analyzed. Diagnosis of HS was determined histologically in 44 cases and cytologically in 29 cases. The most frequently diagnosed breeds were Flat-Coated Retrievers (n=16, odds ratio [OR] 62.0), Pembroke Welsh corgis (n=15, OR 9.7) and Bernese Mountain dogs (n=14, OR 45.0). Median survival time for all dogs in this study was 43 days. In the dogs that received no treatment or only symptomatic treatment, the median OS was 12 days (range 2–254 days) compared with that of dogs that received surgical treatment and/or chemotherapy (85 days, range 4–360 days). Univariate analysis identified anemia, thrombocytopenia, hypoalbuminemia, hypoproteinemia and not receiving antitumor treatment (chemotherapy and/or surgery) as factors significantly associated with shorter OS. Multivariate analysis confirmed that platelet counts, localized/disseminated lesional pattern and whether the dog received antitumor treatment were significantly predictive of survival. PMID:24441652

TAKAHASHI, Masashi; TOMIYASU, Hirotaka; HOTTA, Eri; ASADA, Hajime; FUKUSHIMA, Kenjiro; KANEMOTO, Hideyuki; FUJINO, Yasuhito; OHNO, Koichi; UCHIDA, Kazuyuki; NAKAYAMA, Hiroyuki; TSUJIMOTO, Hajime

2014-01-01

36

Clinical characteristics, prognostic factors, and outcomes of adult patients with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.  

PubMed

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare clinical syndrome characterized by the activation of the mononuclear phagocytic system. The diagnosis of HLH in adults is challenging not only because the majority of the reported data are from pediatric patients, but also because HLH occurs in many disease entities. This study reports the clinical and laboratory findings and prognostic factors of adult HLH in a large cohort managed at a single medical center from 2003 to 2014. Seventy-three patients met the HLH-2004 diagnostic criteria. The median age was 51 years (range, 18-82 years); 41 (56.2%) were male. Patients manifested fever, cytopenias, and elevated ferritin in >85% of cases. Likely causes of HLH were as follows: 30 (41.1%) infections, 21 (28.8%) malignancies, 5 (6.8%) attributed to autoimmune disorders, 1 (1.4%) primary immunodeficiency, 2 (2.7%) post solid organ transplantation, and 13 (17.8%) idiopathic. The median overall survival was 7.67 months. Patients with malignancy-associated HLH had a markedly worse survival compared with patients with non-malignancy-associated HLH (median overall survival 1.13 vs. 46.53 months, respectively; P?poor survival. Ferritin >50,000 µg/L correlated with 30-day mortality. Survival after a diagnosis of HLH is dismal, especially among those with malignancy-associated HLH. The development of a registry for adults with HLH would improve our understanding of this syndrome, validate diagnostic criteria, and help develop effective treatment strategies. Am. J. Hematol. 90:220-224, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25469675

Otrock, Zaher K; Eby, Charles S

2015-03-01

37

Fractal Characteristics of May-Grünwald-Giemsa Stained Chromatin Are Independent Prognostic Factors for Survival in Multiple Myeloma  

PubMed Central

Background The use of computerized image analysis for the study of nuclear texture features has provided important prognostic information for several neoplasias. Recently fractal characteristics of the chromatin structure in routinely stained smears have shown to be independent prognostic factors in acute leukemia. In the present study we investigated the influence of the fractal dimension (FD) of chromatin on survival of patients with multiple myeloma. Methodology We analyzed 67 newly diagnosed patients from our Institution treated in the Brazilian Multiple Myeloma Study Group. Diagnostic work-up consisted of peripheral blood counts, bone marrow cytology, bone radiograms, serum biochemistry and cytogenetics. The International Staging System (ISS) was used. In every patient, at least 40 digital nuclear images from diagnostic May-Grünwald-Giemsa stained bone marrow smears were acquired and transformed into pseudo-3D images. FD was determined by the Minkowski-Bouligand method extended to three dimensions. Goodness-of-fit of FD was estimated by the R2 values in the log-log plots. The influence of diagnostic features on overall survival was analyzed in Cox regressions. Patients that underwent autologous bone marrow transplantation were censored at the day of transplantation. Principal Findings Median age was 56 years. According to ISS, 14% of the patients were stage I, 39% were stage II and 47% were stage III. Additional features of a bad prognosis were observed in 46% of the cases. When stratifying for ISS, both FD and its goodness-of-fit were significant prognostic factors in univariate analyses. Patients with higher FD values or lower goodness-of-fit showed a worse outcome. In the multivariate Cox-regression, FD, R2, and ISS stage entered the final model, which showed to be stable in a bootstrap resampling study. Conclusions Fractal characteristics of the chromatin texture in routine cytological preparations revealed relevant prognostic information in patients with multiple myeloma. PMID:21698234

Ferro, Daniela P.; Falconi, Monica A.; Adam, Randall L.; Ortega, Manoela M.; Lima, Carmen P.; de Souza, Carmino A.; Lorand-Metze, Irene; Metze, Konradin

2011-01-01

38

A phase III randomized trial of postoperative pelvic irradiation in stage IB cervical carcinoma with poor prognostic features: Follow-up of a gynecologic oncology group study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate, in a phase III randomized trial, whether postoperative external-beam irradiation to the standard pelvic field improves the recurrence-free interval and overall survival (OS) in women with Stage IB cervical cancers with negative lymph nodes and certain poor prognostic features treated by radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients had Stage IB cervical cancer with negative lymph nodes but with 2 or more of the following features: more than one third (deep) stromal invasion, capillary lymphatic space involvement, and tumor diameter of 4 cm or more. The study group included 277 patients: 137 randomized to pelvic irradiation (RT) and 140 randomized to observation (OBS). The planned pelvic dose was from 46 Gy in 23 fractions to 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions. Results: Of the 67 recurrences, 24 were in the RT arm and 43 were in the OBS arm. The RT arm showed a statistically significant (46%) reduction in risk of recurrence (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.54, 90% confidence interval [CI] = 0.35 to 0.81, p = 0.007) and a statistically significant reduction in risk of progression or death (HR = 0.58, 90% CI = 0.40 to 0.85, p = 0.009). With RT, 8.8% of patients (3 of 34) with adenosquamous or adenocarcinoma tumors recurred vs. 44.0% (11 of 25) in OBS. Fewer recurrences were seen with RT in patients with adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous histologies relative to others (HR for RT by histology interaction = 0.23, 90% CI = 0.07 to 0.74, p = 0.019). After an extensive follow-up period, 67 deaths have occurred: 27 RT patients and 40 OBS patients. The improvement in overall survival (HR = 0.70, 90% CI = 0.45 to 1.05, p = 0.074) with RT did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions: Pelvic radiotherapy after radical surgery significantly reduces the risk of recurrence and prolongs progression-free survival in women with Stage IB cervical cancer. RT appears to be particularly beneficial for patients with adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous histologies. Circumstances that may have influenced the overall survival differences are considered.

Rotman, Marvin [Department of Radiation Oncology, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States)]. E-mail: mrotman@downstate.edu; Sedlis, Alexander [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Piedmonte, Marion R. [Gynecologic Oncology Group Statistical and Data Center, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States); Bundy, Brian [Gynecologic Oncology Group Statistical and Data Center, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States); Lentz, Samuel S. [Section on Gynecologic Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Muderspach, Laila I. [Women's and Children's Hospital, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Zaino, Richard J. [Department of Pathology, Milton S. Hershey Medical Center of Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, PA (United States)

2006-05-01

39

Parent-Adolescent Discrepancies in Perceived Parenting Characteristics and Adolescent Developmental Outcomes in Poor Chinese Families.  

PubMed

We examined the relationships between parent-adolescent discrepancies in perceived parenting characteristics (indexed by parental responsiveness, parental demandingness, and parental control) and adolescent developmental outcomes (indexed by achievement motivation and psychological competence) in poor families in Hong Kong. A sample of 275 intact families having at least one child aged 11-16 experiencing economic disadvantage were invited to participate in the study. Fathers and mothers completed the Parenting Style Scale and Chinese Parental Control Scale, and adolescents completed the Social-Oriented Achievement Motivation Scale and Chinese Positive Youth Development Scale in addition to paternal and maternal Parenting Style Scale and Chinese Parental Control Scale. Results indicated that parents and adolescents had different perceptions of parental responsiveness, parental demandingness, and paternal control, with adolescents generally perceived lower levels of parenting behaviors than did their parents. While father-adolescent discrepancy in perceived paternal responsiveness and mother-adolescent discrepancy in perceived maternal control negatively predicted adolescent achievement motivation, mother-adolescent discrepancy in perceptions of maternal responsiveness negatively predicted psychological competence in adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage. The present findings provided support that parent-child discrepancies in perceived parenting characteristics have negative impacts on the developmental outcomes of adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage. The present study addresses parent-child discrepancies in perceived parental behaviors as "legitimate" constructs, and explores their links with adolescent psychosocial development, which sheds light for researchers and clinical practitioners in helping the Chinese families experiencing economic disadvantage. PMID:24482569

Leung, Janet T Y; Shek, Daniel T L

2014-01-01

40

High grade neuroendocrine lung tumors: pathological characteristics, surgical management and prognostic implications.  

PubMed

Among non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC), large cell carcinoma (LCC) is credited of significant adverse prognosis. Its neuroendocrine subtype has even a poorer diagnosis, with long-term survival similar to small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Our purpose was to review the surgical characteristics of those tumors. The clinical records of patients who underwent surgery for lung cancer in two French centers from 1980 to 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. We more particularly focused on patients with LCC or with high grade neuroendocrine lung tumors. High grade neuroendocrine tumors were classified as pure large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (pure LCNEC), NSCLC combined with LCNEC (combined LCNEC), and SCLC combined with LCNEC (combined SCLC). There were 470 LCC and 155 high grade neuroendocrine lung tumors, with no difference concerning gender, mean age, smoking habits. There were significantly more exploratory thoracotomies in LCC, and more frequent postoperative complications in high grade neuroendocrine lung tumors. Pathologic TNM and 5-year survival rates were similar, with 5-year ranging from 34.3% to 37.6% for high grade neuroendocrine lung tumors and LCC, respectively. Induction and adjuvant therapy were not associated with an improved prognosis. The subgroups of LCNEC (pure NE, combined NE) and combined SCLC behaved similarly, except visceral pleura invasion, which proved more frequent in combined NE and less frequent in combined SCLC. Survival analysis showed a trend toward a lower 5-year survival in case of combined SCLC. Therefore, LCC, LCNEC and combined SCLC share the same poor prognosis, but surgical resection is associated with long-term survival in about one third of patients. PMID:23769675

Grand, Bertrand; Cazes, Aurélie; Mordant, Pierre; Foucault, Christophe; Dujon, Antoine; Guillevin, Elizabeth Fabre; Barthes, Françoise Le Pimpec; Riquet, Marc

2013-09-01

41

Physical Mechanism for the Intermediate Characteristic Stellar Mass in the Extremely Metal-poor Environments  

E-print Network

If a significant fraction of metals is in dust, star-forming cores with metallicity higher than a critical value ~10^{-6}-10^{-5}Z_sun are able to fragment by dust cooling, thereby producing low-mass cores. Despite being above the critical metallicity, a metallicity range is found to exist around 10^{-5}-10^{-4}Z_sun where low-mass fragmentation is prohibited. In this range, three-body H_2 formation starts at low (~100K) temperature and thus the resulting heating causes a dramatic temperature jump, which makes the central part of the star-forming core transiently hydrostatic and thus highly spherical. With little elongation, the core does not experience fragmentation in the subsequent dust-cooling phase. The minimum fragmentation mass is set by the Jeans mass just before the H_2 formation heating, and its value can be as high as ~10M_sun. For metallicity higher than ~10^{-4}Z_sun, H_2 formation is almost completed by the dust-surface reaction before the onset of the three-body reaction, and low-mass star formation becomes possible. This mechanism might explain the higher characteristic mass of metal-poor stars than in the solar neighborhood presumed from the statistics of carbon-enhanced stars.

T. Tsuribe; K. Omukai

2008-02-07

42

Clinical characteristics, pathological distribution, and prognostic factors in non-Hodgkin lymphoma of Waldeyer's ring: nationwide Korean study  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims In Asia, the incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) has increased in recent decades. Waldeyer's ring (WR) is the most common site of NHL involving the head and neck. In this study, the pathological distribution of WR-NHL and its clinical features were analyzed retrospectively. Methods From January 2000 through December 2010, we analyzed the medical records of 328 patients from nine Korean institutions who were diagnosed with WR-NHL. Results The study group comprised 197 male and 131 female patients with a median age of 58 years (range, 14 to 89). The rate of localized disease (stage I/II) was 64.9%, and that of low-risk disease (low/low-intermediate, as defined by the International Prognostic Index) was 76.8%. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL; 240 patients, 73.2%) was the most common pathologic subtype, followed by peripheral T-cell lymphoma (14 patients, 4.3%) and nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma (14 patients, 4.3%). WR-NHL occurred most frequently in the tonsils (199 patients, 60.6%). Extranodal involvement was greater with the T-cell subtype (20 patients, 42.5%) compared with the B-cell subtype (69 patients, 24.5%). Multivariate analyses showed that age ? 62 years, T-cell subtype, and failure to achieve complete remission were significant risk factors for overall survival. Conclusions DLBCL was found to have a higher incidence in Korea than those incidences reported by other WR-NHL studies. T-cell lymphoma occurred more frequently than did follicular lymphoma. T-cell subtype, age ? 62 years, and complete remission failure after first-line treatment were significant poor prognostic factors for overall survival according to the multivariate analysis. PMID:24851070

Lee, Seong Jun; Suh, Cheol Won; Lee, Soon Il; Kim, Won Seog; Lee, Won Sik; Kim, Hyo Jung; Choi, Chul Won; Kim, Jin Seok

2014-01-01

43

Elevated Serum Vitamin B12 Levels in Association With Tumor Markers as the Prognostic Factors Predictive for Poor Survival in Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevated blood vitamin B12 (VitB12) level has recently been identified as a prognostic indicator for advanced cancer patients. The predictive value of blood VitB12 for survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. Our objective was to examine the determinants of elevated serum VitB12 levels and their associations with prognosis of patients with HCC. The cohort study included 90

Ching-Yih Lin; Chang-Sheng Kuo; Chin-Li Lu; Meng-Ying Wu; Rwei-Fen Syu Huang

2010-01-01

44

PDGFRA amplification is common in pediatric and adult high-grade astrocytomas and identifies a poor prognostic group in IDH1 mutant glioblastoma  

PubMed Central

High-grade astrocytomas (HGAs), corresponding to WHO grades III (AA) and IV (GBM), are biologically aggressive and their molecular classification is increasingly relevant to clinical management. PDGFRA amplification is common in HGAs, although its prognostic significance remains unclear. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), the most sensitive technique for detecting PDGFRA copy number gains, we determined PDGFRA amplification status in 123 pediatric and 263 adult HGAs. A range of PDGFRA FISH patterns were identified and cases were scored as non-amplified (normal and polysomy) or amplified (low-level and high-level). PDGFRA amplification was frequent in pediatric (29.3%) and adult (20.9%) tumors. Amplification was not prognostic in pediatric HGAs. In adult tumors diagnosed initially as GBM, the presence of combined PDGFRA amplification and IDH1R132H mutation was a significant independent prognostic factor (p=0.01). In HGAs, PDGFRA amplification is common and can manifest as high-level and focal or low-level amplifications. Our data indicate that the latter is more prevalent than previously reported with copy number averaging techniques. To our knowledge, this is the largest survey of PDGFRA status in adult and pediatric HGAs and suggests PDGFRA amplification increases with grade and is associated with a less favorable prognosis in IDH1 mutant de novo GBMs. PMID:23438035

Phillips, Joanna J.; Aranda, Derick; Ellison, David W.; Judkins, Alexander R.; Croul, Sidney E.; Brat, Daniel J.; Ligon, Keith L.; Horbinski, Craig; Venneti, Sriram; Zadeh, Gelareh; Santi, Mariarita; Zhou, Shengmei; Appin, Christina L.; Sioletic, Stefano; Sullivan, Lisa M.; Martinez-Lage, Maria; Robinson, Aaron E.; Yong, William H.; Cloughesy, Timothy; Lai, Albert; Phillips, Heidi S.; Marshall, Roxanne; Mueller, Sabine; Haas-Kogan, Daphne A.; Molinaro, Annette M.; Perry, Arie

2013-01-01

45

Gut transport characteristics in herbivorous and carnivorous serrasalmid fish from ion-poor Rio Negro water.  

PubMed

Three closely related characids, Tambaqui (omnivore), black Piranha (carnivore), and Pacu (herbivore), all Serrasalmidae, inhabit the ion-poor, acidic Rio Negro. We compared O2-consumption and N excretion rates in vivo, and sodium, chloride, glucose, and ammonia transport characteristics of gut sac preparations in vitro. The Pacu had a significantly higher weight-specific oxygen consumption, and a lower N/Q ratio than the omnivorous Tambaqui, and a significantly lower urea-N excretion rate than the carnivorous black Piranha, suggesting N-limitation in the herbivorous Pacu. With a value of 2.62 ± 0.15, gut to fork length ratio in the Pacu was about 2.5 times higher than in the black Piranha, and 2.0 times higher than in the Tambaqui. Anterior intestinal activities of three enzymes involved in N-fixation for amino acid synthesis (glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamate-oxaloacetate transferase, and glutamate-pyruvate transferase) were generally greatest in the carnivore and lowest in the herbivore species. In all three species, sodium, chloride, glucose, and ammonia were taken up at high rates from the intestine, resulting in an isosmotic fluid flux. Comparing the area-specific fluid flux of the anterior, mid, and posterior gut sections, no difference was detected between the three sections of the Pacu, while in the Tambaqui, it was highest in the anterior section, and in the black Piranha highest in the middle section. Overall, the area-specific uptake rates for sodium, chloride, glucose, and ammonia of anterior, mid, and posterior sections were similar in all three species, indicating that there is no difference in the area-specific transport rates associated with trophic position. The net ammonia uptake flux from gut interior was not significantly different from the net ammonia efflux to the serosal fluid, so that the ammonia removed from the intestine by the mucosal epithelium was quantitatively transferred through the tissue to the serosal side in all three species. Thus, metabolic activity of gut tissue did not significantly influence the net ammonia transfer. Due to the much higher gut to fork length ratio, the overall transport capacity of the gut of the herbivorous Pacu by far exceeded the transport capacity of their carnivorous and omnivorous relatives, thus compensating for the lower digestibility and the low Na(+), Cl(-), and N-content of the plant diet. Accordingly, in order to cope with the more difficult digestible plant material and the very low nitrogen content of plants, herbivorous fish have not evolved more effective area-specific transport capacities, but rather have increased the length of the gut. PMID:25528145

Pelster, Bernd; Wood, Chris M; Speers-Roesch, Ben; Driedzic, William R; Almeida-Val, Vera; Val, Adalberto

2015-02-01

46

Physical Characteristics of the RR Lyrae Stars in the Very Metal Poor Globular Cluster NGC 5053  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physical characteristics of the 10 RR Lyrae stars in the very metal-poor globular cluster NGC 5053 are derived from photometry of ~1000 B and V CCD frames acquired from 1994 to 2002 with the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory 1.8 m Plaskett Telescope. Revised pulsation periods and light curves, mean magnitudes, colors, amplitudes, and Fourier parameters are presented. Periods accurate to <~10-5 days are now known for all 10 RR Lyrae stars. Using times of maximum light dating back to Baade's original 1923-1927 observations, period change rates, dP/dt, accurate to <~0.07 days Myr-1, have been derived for the 10 stars. Seven stars have increasing periods, and three have decreasing periods, with the estimated period change rates for V1, V2, V9, and V10 being very close to zero. The mean dP/dt is equal to 0.04+/-0.04 days Myr-1 and is consistent with Lee's evolutionary model predictions for a cluster with horizontal-branch type ~0.5. Mean B - V colors range from 0.20 to 0.40 and are more consistent with near-zero reddening than alternative higher estimates. A reddening EB-V=0.018+/-0.003 is derived from the 1998 SFD maps. Mean effective temperatures vary from 6040 K (V10) to 7290 K (V6), with 2.6<=logg<=3.1. Visual and bolometric absolute magnitudes, bolometric corrections, and luminosities are derived using Fourier methods and using intensity- and magnitude-averaged mean magnitudes. Mean locations of the stars in the H-R diagram tend to progress from hotter, lower L stars to cooler, higher L stars and are consistent with theoretical blue and red edges of the instability strip. Masses estimated assuming zero reddening and Dorman's oxygen-enhanced models range from 0.68 Msolar (V6) to 0.78 Msolar (V10) for the 10 stars. The mean metal abundance for NGC 5053 derived using the Jurcsik-Kovács method lies significantly higher than the range -2.3 to -2.6 dex determined using other, more well established methods. This finding supports recent suggestions that metallicities derived from Fourier-based [Fe/H] calibrations need to be revised downward by at least 0.3 dex for RR Lyrae stars with very low metal abundances.

Nemec, James M.

2004-04-01

47

Metaplastic breast cancer: histologic characteristics, prognostic factors and systemic treatment strategies  

PubMed Central

Metaplastic breast cancer (MBC) is a rare subtype of invasive breast cancer that tends to have an aggressive clinical presentation as well as a variety of distinct histologic designations. Few systemic treatment options are available for MBC, as it has consistently shown a suboptimal response to standard chemotherapy regimens. These characteristics result in a worse overall prognosis for patients with MBC compared to those with standard invasive breast cancer. Due to its rarity, data focusing on MBC is limited. This review will discuss the clinical presentation, breast imaging findings, histologic and molecular characteristics of MBC as well as potential future research directions. PMID:24499560

2013-01-01

48

Non-aneurysmal non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage: patient characteristics, clinical outcome and prognostic factors based on a single-center experience in 125 patients  

PubMed Central

Background Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is mainly caused by ruptured cerebral aneurysms but in up to 15% of patients with SAH no bleeding source could be identified. Our objective was to analyze patient characteristics, clinical outcome and prognostic factors in patients suffering from non-aneurysmal SAH. Methods From 1999 to 2009, data of 125 patients with non-aneurysmal SAH were prospectively entered into a database. All patients underwent repetitive cerebral angiography. Outcome was assessed according to the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) (mRS 0–2 favorable vs. 3–6 unfavorable). Also, patients were divided in two groups according to the distribution of blood in the CT scan (perimesencephalic and non-perimesencephalic SAH). Results 106 of the 125 patients were in good WFNS grade (I-III) at admission (85%). Overall, favorable outcome was achieved in 104 of 125 patients (83%). Favorable outcome was associated with younger age (P?poor admission status was the only independent predictor of unfavorable outcome in the multivariate analysis. Patients with a non-perimesencephalic SAH have an increased risk of a worse neurological outcome. These patients should be monitored attentively. PMID:24986457

2014-01-01

49

Poor sleepers who do not complain of insomnia: Myths and realities about psychological and lifestyle characteristics of older good and poor sleepers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychological adjustment, lifestyle, and sleep parameters were investigated in 634 older community residents. Participants were divided into three categories: good sleepers, poor sleepers experiencing high distress, and poor sleepers experiencing minimal distress. Results indicate that (1) highly distressed poor sleepers manifested an anxious, depressed, negative cognitive-affective set; (2) many coped well with age related changes in sleep quality—they resembled good

Catherine S. Fichten; Laura Creti; Rhonda Amsel; William Brender; Nettie Weinstein; Eva Libman

1995-01-01

50

Lymphatic and blood vessels in basal and triple-negative breast cancers: characteristics and prognostic significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basal and triple-negative breast cancer phenotypes are characterised by unfavourable biological behaviour and outcome. Although certain studies have examined their pathological and molecular profile, the vascular characteristics of lymphatic and blood vessels have not been examined. Immunohistochemical staining with podoplanin, CD34 and CD31 was used to examine lymphatic and microvessel density, as well as vascular invasion in 197 basal-like and

Rabab A A Mohammed; Ian O Ellis; Ali M Mahmmod; E Claire Hawkes; Andrew R Green; Emad A Rakha; Stewart G Martin

2011-01-01

51

Are multiple physical symptoms a poor prognostic factor or just a marker of depression severity? Secondary analysis of the GenPod trial  

PubMed Central

Background Using data from the GenPod trial this study investigates: (i) if depressed individuals with multiple physical symptoms have a poorer response to antidepressants before and after adjustment for baseline Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II); and (ii) if reboxetine is more effective than citalopram in depression with multiple physical symptoms. Methods Linear regression models were used to estimate differences in mean BDI-II score at 6 and 12 weeks. Results Before adjusting for baseline BDI-II, the difference in mean BDI-II score between no and multiple physical symptoms was 4.5 (95% CI 1.87, 7.14) at 6 weeks, 4.51 (95% CI 1.60, 7.42) at 12 weeks. After adjustment for baseline BDI-II, there was no evidence of a difference in outcome according to physical symptoms with a difference in mean BDI-II of 2.17 (95% CI ?0.39, 4.73) at 6 weeks and 2.43 (95% CI ?0.46, 5.32) at 12 weeks. There was no evidence that reboxetine was more effective than citalopram in those with multiple physical symptoms at 6 (P=0.18) or 12 weeks (P=0.24). Limitations Differential non-adherence between treatment arms has the potential to bias estimates of treatment efficacy. Conclusion Multiple physical symptoms predict response to antidepressants, but not after adjustment for baseline depression severity. Physical symptoms could be a marker of severe depression rather than an independent prognostic factor and depression should be considered in patients with multiple physical symptoms. Treatment with reboxetine conferred no advantage over citalopram in those with physical symptoms, and it is less well tolerated. PMID:24836086

Green, Amy; Crawford, Andrew; Button, Katherine S.; Wiles, Nicola; Peters, Tim J.; Nutt, David; Lewis, Glyn

2014-01-01

52

High density of tryptase-positive mast cells in human colorectal cancer: a poor prognostic factor related to protease-activated receptor 2 expression  

PubMed Central

Tryptase(+) mast cells (MCs), abundant in the invasive front of tumours, contribute to tissue remodelling. Indeed, protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) activation by MC-tryptase is considered an oncogenic event in colorectal cancer (CRC). Recently, we have suggested NHERF1 as a potential new marker in CRC. In this study, we aimed to determine the distribution of tryptase(+) MCs and PAR-2 and to examine the relationship between PAR-2 and NHERF1, investigating their reputed usefulness as tumour markers. We studied a cohort of 115 CRC specimens including primary cancer (C) and adjacent normal mucosa (NM) by immunohistochemical double staining, analyzing the protein expression of MC-tryptase, PAR-2 and cytoplasmic NHERF1. MC density was higher in NM than in C. Tumours with high TNM stage and poor grade showed the highest MC density. A higher PAR-2 immunoreactivity characterized tumours most infiltrated by MCs compared with samples with low MC density. Furthermore, PAR-2 overexpression was associated with advanced TNM stage, poor grade and lymphovascular invasion (LVI). A positive correlation existed between tryptase(+) MC density and PAR-2 expression. Cytoplasmic NHERF1 was higher in C than in NM and overexpressing tumours resulted associated with nodal and distant metastases, poor grade and LVI. PAR-2 correlated with cytoplasmic NHERF1 and the PAR-2(+)/cytoplasmic NHERF1(+) expression immunophenotype identified tumours associated with unfavourable prognosis and aggressive clinical parameters. Our data indicate that the high density of tryptase(+) MCs at invasive margins of tumours was associated with advanced stages of CRC and was strongly correlated with PAR-2 expression. PMID:23991686

Malfettone, Andrea; Silvestris, Nicola; Saponaro, Concetta; Ranieri, Girolamo; Russo, Antonio; Caruso, Stefano; Popescu, Ondina; Simone, Giovanni; Paradiso, Angelo; Mangia, Anita

2013-01-01

53

Analysis of prognostic factors and comparison of prognostic scores in peripheral T cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified: a single-institution study of 105 Chinese patients.  

PubMed

Peripheral T cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS) is a heterogeneous subtype of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. This study aims to better define the prognostic factors and compare the predictive value of the prognostic scores in Chinese patients with PTCL-NOS. One hundred and five patients diagnosed as PTCL-NOS from our institution were retrospectively studied and grouped according to four previously described prognostic scores [International Prognostic Index (IPI), Prognostic Index for PTCL-NOS (PIT), modified PIT (m-PIT), and International PTCL Project (IPTCLP)]. In addition to clinical parameters, peripheral lymphopenia and thrombocytopenia, serum Epstein-Barr virus positivity, and tumor Ki-67 were significantly associated with poor disease outcome. Multivariate analysis revealed that age >60 years, poor performance status, elevated lactic dehydrogenase, and bone marrow involvement were independent adverse variables for survival. All prognostic scores were successful for survival estimation. Risk subgroups in IPI and PIT could be further discriminated by platelet count (IPTCLP factor) and Ki-67 (m-PIT factor), respectively. Together, patient- and tumor-specific characteristics may be incorporated in risk stratification of PTCL-NOS patients. The prognostic scores could be mutually active to improve their predictive value of disease outcome. PMID:25193354

Xu, Pengpeng; Yu, Dong; Wang, Li; Shen, Yang; Shen, Zhixiang; Zhao, Weili

2015-02-01

54

Class III ?-tubulin overexpression within the tumor microenvironment is a prognostic biomarker for poor overall survival in ovarian cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant carboplatin/paclitaxel  

PubMed Central

Critics have suggested that neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) followed by interval debulking may select for resistant clones or cancer stem cells when compared to primary cytoreduction. ?-tubulins are chemotherapeutic targets of taxanes and epothilones. Class III ?-tubulin overexpression has been linked to chemoresistance and hypoxia. Herein, we describe changes in class III ?-tubulin in patients with advanced ovarian carcinoma in response to NACT, in relationship to clinical outcome, and between patients who underwent NACT versus primary debulking; we characterize in vitro chemosensitivity to paclitaxel/patupilone of cell lines established from this patient population, and class III ?-tubulin expression following repeated exposure to paclitaxel. Using immunohistochemistry, we observed among 22 paired specimens obtained before/after NACT decreased expression of class III ?-tubulin following therapy within stroma (p=0.07), but not tumor (p=0.63). Poor median overall survival was predicted by high levels of class III ?-tubulin in both tumor (HR 3.66 [1.11,12.05], p=0.03) and stroma (HR 4.53 [1.28,16.1], p=0.02). Class III ?-tubulin expression by quantitative-real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction was higher among patients who received NACT (n=12) compared to primary cytoreduction (n=14) (mean±SD fold-change: 491.2±115.9 vs 224.1±55.66, p=0.037). In vitro subculture with paclitaxel resulted in class III ?-tubulin upregulation, however, cell lines that overexpressed class III ?-tubulin remained sensitive to patupilone. Overexpression of class III ?-tubulin in patients dispositioned to NACT may thus identify an intrinsically aggressive phenotype, and predict poor overall survival and paclitaxel resistance. Decreases in stromal expression may represent normalization of the tumor microenvironment following therapy. Epothilones warrant study for patients who have received neoadjuvant carboplatin and paclitaxel. PMID:24005572

Roque, Dana M.; Buza, Natalia; Glasgow, Michelle; Bellone, Stefania; Bortolomai, Ileana; Gasparrini, Sara; Cocco, Emiliano; Ratner, Elena; Silasi, Dan-Arin; Azodi, Masoud; Rutherford, Thomas J.; Schwartz, Peter E.; Santin, Alessandro D.

2013-01-01

55

Predicting outcome after traumatic brain injury: development and international validation of prognostic scores based on admission characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability. A reliable prediction of outcome on admission is of great clinical relevance. We aimed to develop prognostic models with readily available traditional and novel predictors.\\u000aMETHODS & FINDINGS: Prospectively collected individual patient data were analyzed from 11 studies. We considered predictors available at admission in logistic regression

Ewout W. Steyerberg; Nino Mushkudiani; Pablo Perel; Isabella Butcher; Juan Lu; Gillian S. McHugh; Gordon D. Murray; Anthony Marmarou; Ian Roberts; J. Dik F. Habbema; Andrew I. R. Maas

2008-01-01

56

Clinical characteristics and prognostic significance of 92 cases of patients with primary mixed-histology lung cancer  

PubMed Central

Mixed-histology primary lung cancer is a rare type of lung cancer, where data regarding epidemiology, clinical features and prognosis of survival are limited. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical characteristics of patients with mixed-histology lung tumors, and to investigate the association between clinical characteristics, treatment and prognosis. Between January, 1999 and September, 2008, 1,842 patients were diagnosed with primary lung tumors. Of these, 92 presented a mixed histological pattern. Patient clinical characteristics, clinical tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging, diagnostic methods, treatment and survival data were collected in order to be retrospectively analyzed. Differences between the frequencies were examined using the ?2 test and survival rates using the Kaplan-Meier method. The log-rank test was used to compare the survival curves and a probability value <5% (P<0.05) was considered to indicate a statistically significant difference. Of the 92 lung cancer patients (4.99%) with a mixed histological pattern, most were adenosquamous carcinomas. Patients included 75 men and 17 women with a mean age of 56 years. Most cases were in late stage and 64 patients had metastasis. The 1-, 2- and 3-year survival of 52 mixed-histology and 54 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with resection who were successfully followed up, was 63.5, 23.1, 9.6 and 81.5, 48.1, 27.7% (P=0.013). The median survival time of mixed-histology lung cancer patients treated with surgery plus adjuvant therapy and surgery alone was 22 and 12 months, respectively (P=0.002). Mixed-histology lung cancer is characterized by higher malignancy and poor prognosis. However, surgery plus adjuvant therapy is able to prolong survival, compared to surgery alone. PMID:24649262

DENG, PENGBO; HU, CHENGPING; ZHOU, LIHUA; LI, YUANYUAN; HUANG, LI

2013-01-01

57

Loss of Estrogen-Regulated microRNA Expression Increases HER2 Signaling and Is Prognostic of Poor Outcome in Luminal Breast Cancer.  

PubMed

Among the genes regulated by estrogen receptor (ER) are miRNAs that play a role in breast cancer signaling pathways. To determine whether miRNAs are involved in ER-positive breast cancer progression to hormone independence, we profiled the expression of 800 miRNAs in the estrogen-dependent human breast cancer cell line MCF7 and its estrogen-independent derivative MCF7:2A (MCF7:2A) using NanoString. We found 78 miRNAs differentially expressed between the two cell lines, including a cluster comprising let-7c, miR99a, and miR125b, which is encoded in an intron of the long noncoding RNA LINC00478. These miRNAs are ER targets in MCF7 cells, and nearby ER binding and their expression are significantly decreased in MCF7:2A cells. The expression of these miRNAs was interrogated in patient samples profiled in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Among luminal tumors, these miRNAs are expressed at higher levels in luminal A versus B tumors. Although their expression is uniformly low in luminal B tumors, they are lost only in a subset of luminal A patients. Interestingly, this subset with low expression of these miRNAs had worse overall survival compared with luminal A patients with high expression. We confirmed that miR125b directly targets HER2 and that let-7c also regulates HER2 protein expression. In addition, HER2 protein expression and activity are negatively correlated with let-7c expression in TCGA. In summary, we identified an ER-regulated miRNA cluster that regulates HER2, is lost with progression to estrogen independence, and may serve as a biomarker of poor outcome in ER(+) luminal A breast cancer patients. Cancer Res; 75(2); 436-45. ©2014 AACR. PMID:25388283

Bailey, Shannon T; Westerling, Thomas; Brown, Myles

2015-01-15

58

Primary Tumor Vascularity, HIF-1? and VEGF expression in vulvar squamous cell carcinomas: their relationships with clinicopathological characteristics and prognostic impact  

PubMed Central

Background Increased vascularity is a crucial event in the tumor progression and has prognostic significance in various cancers. However, the ultimate role of angiogenesis in the pathogenesis and clinical outcome of vulvar carcinoma patients is still not settled. Methods Tumor vascularity using CD34 stained slides measured by Chalkley counting method as well as hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1? and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) immunoexpression was examined in 158 vulvar squamous cell carcinomas. Associations between vascular Chalkley count, HIF-1? and VEGF expression and clinicopathological factors and clinical outcome were evaluated. Results High CD34 Chalkley count was found to correlate with larger tumor diameter (P = 0.002), deep invasion (P < 0.001) and HIF-1? (P = 0.04), whereas high VEGF expression correlate significantly with poor tumor differentiation (P = 0.007). No significant association between CD34 Chalkley counts and VEGF expression and disease-specific survival was observed. High HIF-1? expression showed better disease specific survival in both univariate and multivariate analyses (P = 0.001). Conclusions A significant association between high tumor vascularity and larger tumor size as well as deeper tumor invasion suggests an important role of angiogenesis in the growth and progression of vulvar carcinomas. HIF-1? expression in vulvar carcinomas was a statistically independent prognostic factor. PMID:24165149

2013-01-01

59

High BAALC expression associates with other molecular prognostic markers, poor outcome, and a distinct gene-expression signature in cytogenetically normal patients younger than 60 years with acute myeloid leukemia: a Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BAALC expression is considered an inde- pendent prognostic factor in cytogeneti- cally normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN- AML), but has yet to be investigated together with multiple other established prognostic molecular markers in CN- AML. We analyzed BAALC expression in 172 primary CN-AML patients younger than 60 years of age, treated similarly on CALGB protocols. High BAALC expres- sion was

Christian Langer; Michael D. Radmacher; Amy S. Ruppert; Susan P. Whitman; Peter Paschka; Krzysztof Mrozek; Claudia D. Baldus; Tamara Vukosavljevic; Chang-Gong Liu; Mary E. Ross; Bayard L. Powell; Albert de la Chapelle; Jonathan E. Kolitz; Richard A. Larson; Guido Marcucci; Clara D. Bloomfield

60

A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Diagnostic and Prognostic Serum Biomarkers of Colorectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Our systematic review summarizes the evidence concerning the accuracy of serum diagnostic and prognostic tests for colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods The databases MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched iteratively to identify the relevant literature for serum markers of CRC published from 1950 to August 2012. The articles that provided adequate information to meet the requirements of the meta-analysis of diagnostic and prognostic markers were included. A 2-by-2 table of each diagnostic marker and its hazard ratio (HR) and the confidence interval (CI) of each prognostic marker was directly or indirectly extracted from the included papers, and the pooled sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic marker and the pooled HR and the CI of the prognostic marker were subsequently calculated using the extracted data. Results In total, 104 papers related to the diagnostic markers and 49 papers related to the prognostic serum markers of CRC were collected, and only 19 of 92 diagnostic markers were investigated in more than two studies, whereas 21 out of 44 prognostic markers were included in two or more studies. All of the pooled sensitivities of the diagnostic markers with >?=?3 repetitions were less than 50%, and the meta-analyses of the prognostic markers with more than 3 studies were performed, VEGF with highest (2.245, CI: 1.347–3.744) and MMP-7 with lowest (1.099, CI: 1.018–1.187)) pooled HRs are presented. Conclusions The quality of studies addressing the diagnostic and prognostic accuracy of the tests was poor, and the results were highly heterogeneous. The poor characteristics indicate that these tests are of little value for clinical practice. PMID:25105762

Liu, Zhongyu; Zhang, Yingchong; Niu, Yulong; Li, Ke; Liu, Xin; Chen, Huijuan; Gao, Chunfang

2014-01-01

61

Conceptualizing prognostic awareness in advanced cancer: a systematic review.  

PubMed

This systematic review synthesizes the complex literature on prognostic awareness in cancer. A total of 37 studies examining cancer patients' understanding of their prognosis were included. Prognostic awareness definitions and assessment methods were inconsistent across studies. A surprisingly high percentage of patients (up to 75%) were unaware of their poor prognosis, and in several studies, even their cancer diagnosis (up to 96%), particularly in studies conducted outside of North America. This review highlights surprisingly low rates of prognostic awareness in patients with advanced cancer as well as discrepancies in prognostic awareness assessment, suggesting the need for empirically validated measures of prognostic awareness. PMID:24157936

Applebaum, Allison J; Kolva, Elissa A; Kulikowski, Julia R; Jacobs, Jordana D; DeRosa, Antonio; Lichtenthal, Wendy G; Olden, Megan E; Rosenfeld, Barry; Breitbart, William

2014-09-01

62

A prognostic index in primary breast cancer.  

PubMed Central

From a multiple-regression analysis of prognostic factors and survival in a series of 387 patients with primary breast cancer, a prognostic index has been constructed, based on lymph-node stage, tumour size and pathological grade. This index is more discriminating than lymph-node stage alone, and enables a larger group of patients to be identified with a very poor prognosis. PMID:7073932

Haybittle, J. L.; Blamey, R. W.; Elston, C. W.; Johnson, J.; Doyle, P. J.; Campbell, F. C.; Nicholson, R. I.; Griffiths, K.

1982-01-01

63

Village characteristics and health of rural Chinese older adults: examining the CHARLS Pilot Study of a rich and poor province.  

PubMed

Community (or village) characteristics have received growing attention as researchers have sought factors affecting health. This study examines the association between a variety of environmental, economic, and social village characteristics and health of Chinese older rural adults with health measured in terms of physical limitations. The Chinese Health and Retirement Longitudinal Survey (CHARLS) Pilot Study data were used. Older villagers from a low-income province (Gansu) and a relatively wealthy province (Zhejiang) were surveyed between July and September, 2008. The sample included 1267 respondents in 73 villages age 45 and older. The relationship between a variety of village characteristics and physical limitations of older adults was examined using negative binomial regression (NBR) with standard errors adjusted to account for non-independence of respondents in a village. A comparison of means/percentages shows that Gansu and Zhejiang were significantly different on the dependent and most independent variables. The NBR models show that at the personal-level, decreased risk of physical limitations was associated with being male, less than 60 years old, married, higher in education, and higher in household expenditures (proxy for income). At the village-level, decreased risk of limitations was associated with a continuous supply of electricity, not using coal in the household, the existence of a sewage system, low cost of electricity, and village wealth. Decreased risk of physical limitations was also associated with various characteristics of China's New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS), an insurance program for rural older adults. Policy implications for improved health of rural older adults include: (1) continued use of China's NCMS, (2) establishment of village sewage systems, (3) ending the use of coal in the home, and (4) increased educational opportunities focused on health. PMID:24331884

Yeatts, Dale E; Pei, Xiaomei; Cready, Cynthia M; Shen, Yuying; Luo, Hao; Tan, Junxin

2013-12-01

64

General Characteristics and Prognostic Factors of Pneumonia Cases Developed During Pandemic (H1N1) Influenza-A Virus Infection in Turkey  

PubMed Central

Objective: Unlike seasonal influenza, seen in previous years, the strain identified in the 2009 influenza-A pandemic involved high mortality. In this study, prognostic factors and general characteristics of pneumonia cases developed in Turkey during the H1N1 pandemic between October 2009 and January 2010 were analyzed. Study Design: Multicenter retrospective study. Material and Methods: This multicentric retrospective study was conducted between August and October 2010 and patients’ data were collected by means of standard forms. Results: The study included 264 pneumonia cases, collected from 14 different centers. Mean age was 47.5±18.6 years. Nineteen patients (7.2%) were pregnant or had a new birth and comorbid diseases were detected in 52.3% of all patients. On admission, 35 (13.8%) cases had altered mental status. Overall, 32.6% were treated in intensive care units (ICU) and invasive/non-invasive mechanical ventilation was performed in 29.7%. The mean duration of ICU stay was 2.9±6.2 and total hospital stay was 12.0±9.4 days. Mortality rate was 16.8% (43-cases). The length of ICU treatment, total hospital stay, and mortality were significantly higher in H1N1-confirmed patients. Mortality was significantly higher in patients with dyspnea, cyanosis, and those who had altered mental status on admission. Patients who died had significantly higher rate of peripheral blood neutrophils, lower platelet counts, higher BUN, and lower SaO2 levels. Conclusion: This study showed that pneumonia developed during H1N1 pandemic in our country had resulted in a high mortality. Mortality was especially high among patients with cyanosis, altered mental state and those with lower SaO2. PMID:25207072

Özlu, Tevfik; Bülbül, Y?lmaz; Ta?bakan, Sezai; K?l?ç, Hatice; Kuyucu, Tülin; Y?ld?z, Tekin; Özdemir, Tarkan; Duru, Serap; Öztuna, Funda; Ad?güzel, Nalan; Sa?lam, Leyla; Co?kun, Ay?in ?akar; Örnek, Tacettin; Gündüz, Gazi; Filiz, Ayten; Özdemir, Levent; Okumu?, Gülfer

2013-01-01

65

Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prognosis of follicular lymphomas (FL) is heterogeneous and numerous treatments may be proposed. A validated prognostic index (PI) would help in evalu- ating and choosing these treatments. Characteristics at diagnosis were col- lected from 4167 patients with FL diag- nosed between 1985 and 1992. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to propose a PI. This index was then tested

Philippe Solal-Celigny; Pascal Roy; Philippe Colombat; Josephine White; Jim O. Armitage; Reyes Arranz-Saez; Wing Y. Au; Monica Bellei; Pauline Brice; Dolores Caballero; Bertrand Coiffier; Eulogio Conde-Garcia; Chantal Doyen; Massimo Federico; Richard I. Fisher; Javier F. Garcia-Conde; Cesare Guglielmi; Michael LeBlanc; Andrew T. Lister; Armando Lopez-Guillermo; Peter McLaughlin; Noel Milpied; Nicolas Mounier; Stephen J. Proctor; Ama Rohatiner; Paul Smith; Umberto Vitolo; Pier-Luigi Zinzani; Emanuele Zucca; Emili Montserrat; J. Bernard; Hopital H. Mondor; M. D. Anderson; CHU L. Huriez

2004-01-01

66

Clinical characteristics of Merkel cell carcinoma at diagnosis in 195 patients: the AEIOU features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive skin cancer with a mortality of 33%. Advanced disease at diagnosis is a poor prognostic factor, suggesting that earlier detection may improve outcome. No systematic analysis has been published to define the clinical features that are characteristic of MCC. Objective: We sought to define the clinical characteristics present at diagnosis to identify

Michelle Heath; Natalia Jaimes; Bianca Lemos; Arash Mostaghimi; Linda C. Wang; Pablo F. Penas; Paul Nghiem

67

Prognostic factors in ovarian cancer.  

PubMed

The improvement in the treatment of ovarian cancer is based on the recognition of the prognostic factors. The 5-year survival rate of 174 patients with epithelial ovarian malignancies after primary operation at the University Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Ljubljana and treated with adjuvant therapy at the Institute of Oncology in Ljubljana in the period 1970-1980 was 29.3% (56% for stage I, 36% for stage II, 23% for stage III and 4.5% for stage IV). The amount of residual tumor after the primary operation was prognostically very important (5-year survival in stage III in cases of residual tumor less than 2 cm is 46.6%, in tumor greater than 2 cm only 18.6%). The histological type of tumor, considering the stage, was not important prognostically. On the contrary the grade of differentiation was prognostically very important even in advanced cases: 5 year survival for stage III in cases of well differentiated serous tumors was 61%, in moderately and poorly differentiated cases it was only 7%. Younger patients have better prognosis than older ones, because the tumors are better differentiated, too. Since ovarian cancers are diagnosed too late in 65% of cases in advanced stages, today all efforts should be focussed on early diagnosis, which is probably the only factors that can lead to the dramatic fall of the mortality rate. PMID:2170137

Rakar, S; Kovacic, J; Cavic, M; Lukanovic, A; Mozina, A

1990-01-01

68

Incorporating prognostic imaging biomarkers into clinical practice  

PubMed Central

Abstract A prognostic imaging biomarker can be defined as an imaging characteristic that is objectively measurable and provides information on the likely outcome of the cancer disease in an untreated individual and should be distinguished from predictive imaging biomarkers and imaging markers of response. A range of tumour characteristics of potential prognostic value can be measured using a variety imaging modalities. However, none has currently been adopted into routine clinical practice. This article considers key examples of emerging prognostic imaging biomarkers and proposes an evaluation framework that aims to demonstrate clinical efficacy and so support their introduction into the clinical arena. With appropriate validation within an established evaluation framework, prognostic imaging biomarkers have the potential to contribute to individualized cancer care, in some cases reducing the financial burden of expensive cancer treatments by facilitating their more rational use. PMID:24060808

Miles, Kenneth A.

2013-01-01

69

Prognostics for Microgrid Components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prognostics is the science of predicting future performance and potential failures based on targeted condition monitoring. Moving away from the traditional reliability centric view, prognostics aims at detecting and quantifying the time to impending failures. This advance warning provides the opportunity to take actions that can preserve uptime, reduce cost of damage, or extend the life of the component. The talk will focus on the concepts and basics of prognostics from the viewpoint of condition-based systems health management. Differences with other techniques used in systems health management and philosophies of prognostics used in other domains will be shown. Examples relevant to micro grid systems and subsystems will be used to illustrate various types of prediction scenarios and the resources it take to set up a desired prognostic system. Specifically, the implementation results for power storage and power semiconductor components will demonstrate specific solution approaches of prognostics. The role of constituent elements of prognostics, such as model, prediction algorithms, failure threshold, run-to-failure data, requirements and specifications, and post-prognostic reasoning will be explained. A discussion on performance evaluation and performance metrics will conclude the technical discussion followed by general comments on open research problems and challenges in prognostics.

Saxena, Abhinav

2012-01-01

70

What do we mean by validating a prognostic model?  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Prognostic models are used in medicine for investigating patient outcome in relation to patient and disease characteristics. Such models do not always work well in practice, so it is widely recommended that they need to be validated. The idea of validating a prognostic model is generally taken to mean establishing that it works satisfactorily for patients other than those

Douglas G. Altman; Patrick Royston

2000-01-01

71

On Applying the Prognostic Performance Metrics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prognostics performance evaluation has gained significant attention in the past few years. As prognostics technology matures and more sophisticated methods for prognostic uncertainty management are developed, a standardized methodology for performance evaluation becomes extremely important to guide improvement efforts in a constructive manner. This paper is in continuation of previous efforts where several new evaluation metrics tailored for prognostics were introduced and were shown to effectively evaluate various algorithms as compared to other conventional metrics. Specifically, this paper presents a detailed discussion on how these metrics should be interpreted and used. Several shortcomings identified, while applying these metrics to a variety of real applications, are also summarized along with discussions that attempt to alleviate these problems. Further, these metrics have been enhanced to include the capability of incorporating probability distribution information from prognostic algorithms as opposed to evaluation based on point estimates only. Several methods have been suggested and guidelines have been provided to help choose one method over another based on probability distribution characteristics. These approaches also offer a convenient and intuitive visualization of algorithm performance with respect to some of these new metrics like prognostic horizon and alpha-lambda performance, and also quantify the corresponding performance while incorporating the uncertainty information.

Saxena, Abhinav; Celaya, Jose; Saha, Bhaskar; Saha, Sankalita; Goebel, Kai

2009-01-01

72

Metrics for Offline Evaluation of Prognostic Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prognostic performance evaluation has gained significant attention in the past few years. Currently, prognostics concepts lack standard definitions and suffer from ambiguous and inconsistent interpretations. This lack of standards is in part due to the varied end-user requirements for different applications, time scales, available information, domain dynamics, etc. to name a few. The research community has used a variety of metrics largely based on convenience and their respective requirements. Very little attention has been focused on establishing a standardized approach to compare different efforts. This paper presents several new evaluation metrics tailored for prognostics that were recently introduced and were shown to effectively evaluate various algorithms as compared to other conventional metrics. Specifically, this paper presents a detailed discussion on how these metrics should be interpreted and used. These metrics have the capability of incorporating probabilistic uncertainty estimates from prognostic algorithms. In addition to quantitative assessment they also offer a comprehensive visual perspective that can be used in designing the prognostic system. Several methods are suggested to customize these metrics for different applications. Guidelines are provided to help choose one method over another based on distribution characteristics. Various issues faced by prognostics and its performance evaluation are discussed followed by a formal notational framework to help standardize subsequent developments.

Saxena, Abhinav; Celaya, Jose; Saha, Bhaskar; Saha, Sankalita; Goebel, Kai

2010-01-01

73

A Comparison of Systemic Inflammation-Based Prognostic Scores in Patients on Regular Hemodialysis  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Systemic inflammation-based prognostic scores have prognostic power in patients with cancer, independently of tumor stage and site. Although inflammatory status is associated with mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients, it remains to be determined as to whether these composite scores are useful in predicting clinical outcomes. Methods We calculated the 6 prognostic scores [Glasgow prognostic score (GPS), modified GPS (mGPS), neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet lymphocyte ratio (PLR), prognostic index (PI) and prognostic nutritional index (PNI), which have been established as a useful scoring system in cancer patients. We enrolled 339 patients on regular HD (age: 64 ± 13 years; time on HD: 129 ± 114 months; males/females = 253/85) and followed them for 42 months. The area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve was used to determine which scoring system was more predictive of mortality. Results Elevated GPS, mGPS, NLR, PLR, PI and PNI were all associated with total mortality, independent of covariates. If GPS was raised, mGPS, NLR, PLR and PI were also predictive of all-cause mortality and/or hospitalization. GPS and PNI were associated with poor nutritional status. Using overall mortality as an endpoint, the area under the curve (AUC) was significant for a GPS of 0.701 (95% CI: 0.637-0.765; p < 0.01) and for a PNI of 0.616 (95% CI: 0.553-0.768; p = 0.01). However, AUC for hypoalbuminemia (<3.5 g/dl) was comparable to that of GPS (0.695, 95% CI: 0.632-0.759; p < 0.01). Conclusion GPS, based on serum albumin and highly sensitive C-reactive protein, has the most prognostic power for mortality prediction among the prognostic scores in HD patients. However, as the determination of serum albumin reflects mortality similarly to GPS, other composite combinations are needed to provide additional clinical utility beyond that of albumin alone in HD patients. PMID:24403910

Kato, Akihiko; Tsuji, Takayuki; Sakao, Yukitoshi; Ohashi, Naro; Yasuda, Hideo; Fujimoto, Taiki; Takita, Takako; Furuhashi, Mitsuyoshi; Kumagai, Hiromichi

2013-01-01

74

Loss of CDX2 expression is associated with poor prognosis in colorectal cancer patients  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the clinicopathologic characteristics and prognostic implications associated with loss of CDX2 expression in colorectal cancers (CRCs). METHODS: We immunohistochemically evaluated CDX2 expression in 713 CRCs and paired our findings to clinicopathologic and molecular characteristics of each individual. Endpoints included cytokeratin 7 and CK20 expression, microsatellite instability, CpG island methylator phenotype, and KRAS and BRAF mutation statuses. Univariate and multivariate survival analysis was performed to reveal the prognostic value of CDX2 downregulation. RESULTS: CDX2 expression was lost in 42 (5.9%) patients. Moreover, loss of CDX2 expression was associated with proximal location, infiltrative growth, advanced T, N, M and overall stage. On microscopic examination, loss of CDX2 expression was associated with poor differentiation, increased number of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, luminal serration and mucin production. Loss of CDX2 expression was also associated with increased CK7 expression, decreased CK20 expression, CpG island methylator phenotype, microsatellite instability and BRAF mutation. In a univariate survival analysis, patients with loss of CDX2 expression showed worse overall survival (P < 0.001) and progression-free survival (P < 0.001). In a multivariate survival analysis, loss of CDX2 expression was an independent poor prognostic factor of overall survival [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.72, 95%CI: 1.04-2.85, P = 0.034] and progression-free survival (HR = 1.94, 95%CI: 1.22-3.07, P = 0.005). CONCLUSION: Loss of CDX2 expression is associated with aggressive clinical behavior and can be used as a prognostic marker in CRCs.

Bae, Jeong Mo; Lee, Tae Hun; Cho, Nam-Yun; Kim, Tae-You; Kang, Gyeong Hoon

2015-01-01

75

Prognostic factors and survival in patients with gastric stump cancer  

PubMed Central

AIM: To elucidate the clinicopathological characteristics and prognostic factors of gastric stump cancer (GSC). METHODS: The clinical data for 92 patients with GSC were collected at Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center. The prognostic factors were analyzed with Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: GSC tended to occur within 25 years following the primary surgery, when the initial disease is benign, whereas it primarily occurred within the first 15 years post-operation for gastric cancer. Patients with regular follow-up after primary surgery had a better survival rate. The multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that Borrmann type?I/II (HR = 3.165, 95%CI: 1.055-9.500, P = 0.040) and radical resection (HR = 1.780, 95%CI: 1.061-2.987, P = 0.029) were independent prognostic factors for GSC. The overall 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates of the 92 patients were 78.3%, 45.6% and 27.6%, respectively. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates of those undergoing radical resection were 79.3%, 52.2%, and 37.8%, respectively. The 5-year survival rates for stages?I, II, III, and IV were 85.7%, 47.4%, 16.0%, and 13.3%, respectively (P = 0.005). CONCLUSION: The appearance of GSC occurs sooner in patients with primary malignant cancer than in patients with a primary benign disease. Therefore, close follow-up is necessary. The overall survival of patients with GSC is poor, and curative resection can improve their prognosis.

Huang, Hua; Wang, Wei; Chen, Zhong; Jin, Jie-Jie; Long, Zi-Wen; Cai, Hong; Liu, Xiao-Wen; Zhou, Ye; Wang, Ya-Nong

2015-01-01

76

THE IMMIGRANT POOR AND THE RESIDUAL POOR.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

AN ANALYSIS OF THE LIVES OF THE POOR IN AMERICA WILL SHOW DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE IMMIGRANT (AND REFUGEE) POOR AND THE RESIDUAL POOR (NEGROES, PUERTO RICANS, LATIN AMERICANS, INDIANS, AND OTHERS). THE IMMIGRANT POOR WERE ACCULTURATED AND ABSORBED INTO THE MAINSTREAM OF AMERICAN LIFE WITHIN THREE GENERATIONS, WHEREAS THE RESIDUAL POOR HAVE BEEN…

SEGALMAN, RALPH

77

Arteriopathy, D-Dimer, and The Risk of Poor Neurologic Outcome in Childhood-Onset Arterial Ischemic Stroke  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess whether acute findings of cerebral arteriopathy, large infarct, and acutely elevated plasma D-dimer levels are independently prognostic of poor long-term neurologic outcome as measured at ?1 year in children with arterial ischemic stroke (AIS). Study design Sixty-one patients with childhood-onset (i.e., >28 days of life) AIS were enrolled in a single-institution cohort study at Children’s Hospital Colorado between February 2006 and June 2011. Data on demographic and diagnostic characteristics, antithrombotic treatments, and outcomes were systematically collected. Results Cerebral arteriopathy and D-dimer levels >500 ng/mL (a measure of coagulation activation) were identified acutely in 41% and 31% of the cohort, respectively. Anticoagulation was administered in the acute, sub-acute, and chronic periods post-event in 40%, 43%, and 28% of children. When not receiving anticoagulation, patients were routinely treated with aspirin 2–5 mg/kg once-daily for a minimum of one year. Death, major bleeding (including intracranial hemorrhage [ICH]), and recurrent AIS were infrequent. Pediatric Stroke Outcome Measure at one year demonstrated poor outcome in 54%. Acute cerebral arteriopathy and elevated D-dimer were identified as putative prognostic factors for poor outcome; after adjustment for D-dimer, arteriopathy was an independent prognostic indicator (OR=19.0, 95%CI=1.6–229.8; P=0.02). Conclusions Arteriopathy and coagulation activation are highly prevalent acutely in childhood AIS. Although recurrent AIS and ICH were infrequent in our cohort, one-half of children experienced a poor neurologic outcome at one year, the risk for which was increased by acute arteriopathy. Substantiation of these findings in multi-institutional cohort studies is warranted, toward prognostic stratification in childhood-onset AIS. PMID:23260102

Goldenberg, Neil A.; Jenkins, Sarah; Jack, Jessica; Armstrong-Wells, Jennifer; Fenton, Laura Z.; Stence, Nicholas V.; Oleszek, Joyce; Boada, Richard; Wilkening, Greta N.; Wilkinson, Charles; Soep, Jennifer B.; Miyamoto, Shelley D.; Bajaj, Lalit; Mourani, Peter M.; Manco-Johnson, Marilyn J.; Bernard, Timothy J.

2014-01-01

78

Congenital Aniridia: Long-term Clinical Course, Visual Outcome, and Prognostic Factors  

PubMed Central

Purpose To describe the clinical course of congenital aniridia and to evaluate prognostic factors for visual outcome after long-term follow-up. Methods The medical records of 120 eyes from 60 patients with congenital aniridia were retrospectively reviewed. The prevalence and clinical course of ophthalmic characteristics, systemic disease, refractive errors, and visual acuity were assessed. Prognostic factors for final visual outcomes were analyzed. Results Aniridic keratopathy developed in 82 (69%) of 119 eyes. Macular hypoplasia was observed in 70 eyes of 35 patients (91%). Cataract was observed in 63 of 120 eyes (53%). Nystagmus was present in 41 patients (68% of 60 patients) at the initial visit but decreased in five patients (8% of 60 patients). Ocular hypertension was detected in 19 eyes (20% of 93 eyes), six (32% of 19 eyes) of which developed secondarily after cataract surgery. The mean changes in spherical equivalent and astigmatism during the follow-up period were -1.10 and 1.53 diopter, respectively. The mean final visual acuity was 1.028 logarithm of minimal angle of resolution. Nystagmus and ocular hypertension were identified as prognostic factors for poor visual outcome. Conclusions Identification of nystagmus and ocular hypertension was important to predict final visual outcome. Based on the high rate of secondary ocular hypertension after cataract surgery, careful management is needed. PMID:25435751

Chang, Ji Woong; Kim, Jeong Hun; Kim, Seong-Joon

2014-01-01

79

Quasi-stationary and blocking anticyclones in the Euro-Atlantic sector: characteristics, prognostic capacity, and their relationship with snow cover  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Catalog of quasi-stationary and blocking anticyclones through analysis of daily synoptic maps for the period from 1949 through 2009 for blocking anticyclones over the territory of the Euro-Atlantic sector was created. Spatial and temporal characteristics of quasi-stationary and blocking anticyclones were investigated on the basis of created catalog data. Test experiments with hydrodynamical model PLAV of Hydrometeorological Centre of Russia and INM RAS were conducted to verify the ability of the model to reproduce the main synoptic processes which are responsible for formation of long duration anomalous weather conditions. Preliminary results showed that the predictability of the model has been increased during blocking period and 10-20 days afterward under condition of persistence of intensive and long-life, more than 10 days, blocking anticyclones over 1st naturally synoptic region. Simulation of short-life anticyclones in the model is not successful. Using a composite analysis, the relationship between characteristics of snow cover and the conditions of blocking processes was examined. Statistical significance test was applied to composite difference maps at each point of grid with purpose of identification statistically significant anomalies of SWE. This analysis identified the areas in which the snow cover characteristics are sensitive to the occurrence of the blocking anticyclones. Long-term variability of snow cover characteristics versus variability of duration in days blocking situations during winter season have been analyzed as well. Comparative analysis of location of the snow cover southern border on the territory of the first synoptical region for periods of high and low anticyclonic quasi-stationary circulation activity during winter season has not revealed statistically significant difference in location of the snow cover border. This work is partially supported by RFBR grant N09-05-13570-ofi-c

Khan, Valentina; Tischenko, Vladimir; Vilfand, Roman

2010-05-01

80

Prognostic Factors in Myelodysplastic Syndromes  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Background: Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are clonal disorders of hematopoietic stem cell and are characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis with normo- or hyper cellular bone marrow and cytopenia(s).The natural evolution of the disease consists of bone marrow failure (leading to infectious and hemorrhagic episodes or anemia related complications) and transformation to acute myeloid leukemia. Because MDSs display remarkable clinical, pathologic, and cytogenetic heterogeneity, with variable evolution and survival ranging from months to years, the predictive factors of prognosis have a key role in optimal therapeutic decisions. The purpose of this paper is to analyze prognostic factors within a group of patients diagnosed with myelodysplastic syndromes. The prognostic factors taken into account are: the number and depth of cytopenias, percentage of bone marrow blasts, cytogenetic abnormalities, intensity of anemia and transfusional dependence. These factors are related to overall survival, leukemia free survival, bone marrow failure complications, leukemic evolution, treatment decisions and the response to treatment. Material and method: The study group comprises of 119 patients diagnosed with de novo MDS, between 2008 and 2011 in the Hematology Department of Coltea Clinical Hospital. In this monitoring period the patients were stratified according to the FAB (French-American-British) morphologic classification. Results: This study revealed that the outcomes of patients with MDS is influenced by the percentage of bone marrow blasts at diagnosis, the number and severity of hematopoietic lineage affected by cytopenia and by the presence of chromosomal abnormalities. Conclusions: The studied prognostic factors have predictive value in terms of survival, leukemic transformation, treatment response and development of bone marrow failure-related characteristic complications. PMID:23483702

TRIANTAFYLLIDIS, Irina; CIOBANU, Anca; STANCA, Oana; LUPU, Anca Roxana

2012-01-01

81

Prognostic and Therapeutic Implications of Sentinel Lymphonodectomy and S-Staging in Merkel Cell Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare but very aggressive neuroendocrine neoplasm of the skin with a high propensity for early lymph node metastasis and subsequent distant spread. Optimal treatment and prognostic factors are poorly defined. Objective: The purpose of this study is to assess the prognostic and therapeutic relevance of sentinel lymphonodectomy in MCC. Methods: Five patients with

I. Düker; H. Starz; D. Bachter; B.-R. Balda

2001-01-01

82

The prognostic value of the fracture level in the treatment of Gartland type III supracondylar humeral fracture in children.  

PubMed

A small proportion of children with Gartland type III supracondylar humeral fracture (SCHF) experience troubling limited or delayed recovery after operative treatment. We hypothesised that the fracture level relative to the isthmus of the humerus would affect the outcome. We retrospectively reviewed 230 children who underwent closed reduction and percutaneous pinning (CRPP) for their Gartland type III SCHFs between March 2003 and December 2012. There were 144 boys and 86 girls, with the mean age of six years (1.1 to 15.2). The clinico-radiological characteristics and surgical outcomes (recovery of the elbow range of movement, post-operative angulation, and the final Flynn grade) were recorded. Multivariate analysis was employed to identify prognostic factors that influenced outcome, including fracture level. Multivariate analysis revealed that a fracture below the humeral isthmus was significantly associated with poor prognosis in terms of the range of elbow movement (p < 0.001), angulation (p = 0.001) and Flynn grade (p = 0.003). Age over ten years was also a poor prognostic factor for recovery of the range of elbow movement (p = 0.027). This is the first study demonstrating a subclassification system of Gartland III fractures with prognostic significance. This will guide surgeons in peri-operative planning and counselling as well as directing future research aimed at improving outcomes. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:134-40. PMID:25568427

Kang, S; Kam, M; Miraj, F; Park, S-S

2015-01-01

83

Prognostics of Power MOSFET  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper demonstrates how to apply prognostics to power MOSFETs (metal oxide field effect transistor). The methodology uses thermal cycling to age devices and Gaussian process regression to perform prognostics. The approach is validated with experiments on 100V power MOSFETs. The failure mechanism for the stress conditions is determined to be die-attachment degradation. Change in ON-state resistance is used as a precursor of failure due to its dependence on junction temperature. The experimental data is augmented with a finite element analysis simulation that is based on a two-transistor model. The simulation assists in the interpretation of the degradation phenomena and SOA (safe operation area) change.

Celaya, Jose Ramon; Saxena, Abhinav; Vashchenko, Vladislay; Saha, Sankalita; Goebel, Kai Frank

2011-01-01

84

Prognostic Value of Colorectal Cancer Biomarkers  

PubMed Central

Despite the large amount of data in cancer biology and many studies into the likely survival of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, knowledge regarding the issue of CRC prognostic biomarkers remains poor. The Tumor-Node-Metastasis (TNM) staging system continues to be the most powerful and reliable predictor of the clinical outcome of CRC patients. The exponential increase of knowledge in the field of molecular genetics has lead to the identification of specific alterations involved in the malignant progression. Many of these genetic alterations were proposed as biomarkers which could be used in clinical practice to estimate CRC prognosis. Recently there has been an explosive increase in the number of putative biomarkers able to predict the response to specific adjuvant treatment. In this review we explore and summarize data concerning prognostic and predictive biomarkers and we attempt to shed light on recent research that could lead to the emergence of new biomarkers in CRC. PMID:24212797

Bianchi, Paolo; Laghi, Luigi; Delconte, Gabriele; Malesci, Alberto

2011-01-01

85

Prognostic features of renal sarcomas (Review)  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present review was to evaluate the prognostic features of primary sarcomas of the kidney. A literature review was conducted using a number of databases, including Medline (PubMed) and Scopus, for studies published between January 1992 and December 2013. Of the studies published in English, those describing the prognostic features of primary sarcomas of the kidney were recorded. The electronic search was limited to the following keywords: Sarcoma, renal sarcoma, prognosis, diagnosis, immunohistochemistry, genetic and survey. Subsequent to the search, no review articles and/or meta-analyses associated with the prognosis of primary sarcomas of the kidney were identified. In total, 31 studies, which consisted of case studies, case series and studies concerned with the overall prognosis of urological soft-tissue sarcomas, were reviewed. Primary sarcoma of the kidney has a poor prognosis compared with other sarcomas of the urogenital system. In addition to the surgical excision of renal sarcomas, pathological, molecular and genetic prognostic factors are also considered. Due to the small number of cases, previous studies have not randomized the prognostic features of primary sarcomas of the kidney. The elucidation of the so-called ‘chaotic’ genetic and molecular basis of renal sarcomas will help to predict patient prognoses. Surgical excision is the most significant parameter for determining the prognosis of sarcomas of the kidney. However, sarcomas also exhibit prognostic features that are based upon pathological, genetic and molecular factors. The present review suggests that additional factors may be important in predicting the prognosis of patients with renal sarcomas, and that clinicians should plan treatment and follow-up regimens according to these factors. PMID:25663853

ÖZTÜRK, HAKAN

2015-01-01

86

Analysis of clinicopathological features and prognostic factors of desmoplastic small round cell tumor.  

PubMed

Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a relatively uncommon and highly aggressive malignancy in young males. It is associated with a poor outcome, due in part to missed diagnosis. To characterize the clinical pathological features of DSRCT in Chinese patients and to find out the characteristics of treatment and prognostic factors, the authors collected and analyzed the clinical information of 48 cases. A total of 48 cases of DSRCT between March 1995 and March 2012 were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. The clinical information, histological results and survival data of the patients were collected. Median age was 26.96?±?14.09 years with a range of 6-66 years. Thirty-three patients (68.75%) were seen before 30 years old, and 15 patients (31.25%) were diagnosed after 30 years old. The male-to-female ratio is 3.36 :1. Among them, 37 cases presented with tumors in the abdominal or pelvic cavity; the other 11 cases had extra-abdominal tumors. The most common symptoms were abdominal pain (19/48, 39.58%) and palpable mass (12/48, 25.00%). The percentage of patients received surgery, complete surgery, and chemotherapy was 79.17%, 37.50%, and 52.08%, respectively. Median follow-up duration was 2.67 years. Median overall survival for all patients was 24.33 months (95% CI: 9.74-38.92 months) and median event-free survival for all patients was 8.00 months (95% CI: 5.13-10.89 months). Univariate analysis revealed that surgery, effective debulking surgery, chemotherapy and any two or more combined therapeutics were significant prognostic factors for longer overall survival (p?prognostic factor. Standard therapy for DSRCT consists of combination of surgical resection and postoperative chemotherapy. Complete surgery is an independent prognostic factor and should be further investigated. PMID:23921888

Zhang, Jinnan; Xu, Haiyan; Ren, Fang; Yang, Yijin; Chen, Bin; Zhang, Fengchun

2014-01-01

87

Detection of dicentric chromosome (9;20) in paediatric B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: prognostic significance.  

PubMed

The dicentric chromosome (9;20) (dic(9;20)) is described in 2 % of childhood B-acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is the most reliable method to identify dic(9;20) when compared with conventional cytogenetics. To define the prognostic importance of dic(9;20), we evaluated treatment response and patient survival. This was a retrospective study in three French university centres. Patients' clinical and laboratory characteristics and treatment response are described. Nine children with dic(9;20) have been identified since 1995. All patients had at least one poor prognostic feature either among the clinical features, the initial laboratory results or in the initial treatment response: central nervous system involvement (2/9), high median leucocyte count (?50 G/L) (8/9) and poor response to prednisone (2/9). All patients were in complete cytological remission after induction therapy but only three had a good molecular response with minimal residual disease (MRD) <10(-3). Five out of nine patients relapsed and two died, 4 and 12 months after diagnosis, respectively. The event-free survival rate in this population was 44 % (95 % confidence interval (CI)?=?0.09-0.79) and overall survival 78 % (95 % CI?=?0.51-1.05). In this population, dic(9;20) is associated with a relatively poor prognosis. Patients showing dic(9;20), whether this cytogenetic abnormality is associated with other poor prognostic factors or not, should be identified at the outset in order to be offered a more intensive treatment protocol. PMID:25193356

Letouzey, Mathilde; Penther, Dominique; Roche-Lestienne, Catherine; Nelken, Brigitte; Devoldère, Catherine; Vannier, Jean-Pierre; Schneider, Pascale

2015-02-01

88

Significance Analysis of Prognostic Signatures  

PubMed Central

A major goal in translational cancer research is to identify biological signatures driving cancer progression and metastasis. A common technique applied in genomics research is to cluster patients using gene expression data from a candidate prognostic gene set, and if the resulting clusters show statistically significant outcome stratification, to associate the gene set with prognosis, suggesting its biological and clinical importance. Recent work has questioned the validity of this approach by showing in several breast cancer data sets that “random” gene sets tend to cluster patients into prognostically variable subgroups. This work suggests that new rigorous statistical methods are needed to identify biologically informative prognostic gene sets. To address this problem, we developed Significance Analysis of Prognostic Signatures (SAPS) which integrates standard prognostic tests with a new prognostic significance test based on stratifying patients into prognostic subtypes with random gene sets. SAPS ensures that a significant gene set is not only able to stratify patients into prognostically variable groups, but is also enriched for genes showing strong univariate associations with patient prognosis, and performs significantly better than random gene sets. We use SAPS to perform a large meta-analysis (the largest completed to date) of prognostic pathways in breast and ovarian cancer and their molecular subtypes. Our analyses show that only a small subset of the gene sets found statistically significant using standard measures achieve significance by SAPS. We identify new prognostic signatures in breast and ovarian cancer and their corresponding molecular subtypes, and we show that prognostic signatures in ER negative breast cancer are more similar to prognostic signatures in ovarian cancer than to prognostic signatures in ER positive breast cancer. SAPS is a powerful new method for deriving robust prognostic biological signatures from clinically annotated genomic datasets. PMID:23365551

Beck, Andrew H.; Knoblauch, Nicholas W.; Hefti, Marco M.; Kaplan, Jennifer; Schnitt, Stuart J.; Culhane, Aedin C.; Schroeder, Markus S.; Risch, Thomas; Quackenbush, John; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin

2013-01-01

89

New prognostic model for extranodal natural killer/T cell lymphoma, nasal type.  

PubMed

Extranodal natural killer/T cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTL) is an aggressive disease with a poor prognosis, requiring risk stratification in affected patients. We designed a new prognostic model specifically for ENKTL to identify high-risk patients who need more aggressive therapy. We retrospectively reviewed 158 patients who were newly diagnosed with ENKTL. The estimated 5-year overall survival rate was 39.4 %. Independent prognostic factors included total protein (TP) <60 g/L, fasting blood glucose (FBG) >100 mg/dL, and Korean Prognostic Index (KPI) score ?2. We constructed a new prognostic model by combining these prognostic factors: group 1 (64 cases (41.0 %)), no adverse factors; group 2 (58 cases (37.2 %)), one adverse factor; and group 3 (34 cases (21.8 %)), two or three adverse factors. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rates of these groups were 66.7, 23.0, and 5.9 %, respectively (p?prognostic model had a better prognostic value than did the KPI model alone (p?prognostic model for ENKTL, including the newly identified prognostic indicators, TP and FBG, demonstrated a balanced distribution of patients into different risk groups with better prognostic discrimination compared with the KPI model alone. PMID:24782120

Cai, Qingqing; Luo, Xiaolin; Zhang, Guanrong; Huang, Huiqiang; Huang, Hui; Lin, Tongyu; Jiang, Wenqi; Xia, Zhongjun; Young, Ken H

2014-09-01

90

Poor Americans: How the Poor White Live.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contents of this book include the following essays which originally appeared in "Transaction" magazine: (1) "Poor Americans: an introduction," Marc Pilisuk and Phyllis Pilisuk; (2) "How the white poor live," Marc Pilisuk and Phyllis Pilisuk; (3) "The culture of poverty," Oscar Lewis; (4) "Life in Appalachia--the case of Hugh McCaslin," Robert…

Pilisuk, Marc; Pilisuk, Phyllis

91

Special considerations in prognostic research in cancer involving genetic polymorphisms  

PubMed Central

Analysis of genetic polymorphisms may help identify putative prognostic markers and determine the biological basis of variable prognosis in patients. However, in contrast to other variables commonly used in the prognostic studies, there are special considerations when studying genetic polymorphisms. For example, variable inheritance patterns (recessive, dominant, codominant, and additive genetic models) need to be explored to identify the specific genotypes associated with the outcome. In addition, several characteristics of genetic polymorphisms, such as their minor allele frequency and linkage disequilibrium among multiple polymorphisms, and the population substructure of the cohort investigated need to be accounted for in the analyses. In addition, in cancer research due to the genomic differences between the tumor and non-tumor DNA, differences in the genetic information obtained using these tissues need to be carefully assessed in prognostic studies. In this article, we review these and other considerations specific to genetic polymorphism by focusing on genetic prognostic studies in cancer. PMID:23773794

2013-01-01

92

Tumor-associated inflammation as a potential prognostic tool in BRCA1/2-associated breast cancer.  

PubMed

The prognosis of BRCA1/2-associated breast cancer partly depends on histologic characteristics. Most of these breast cancers, however, are poorly differentiated. BRCA1-associated cancers are mainly negative for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Consequently, the use of these histologic features for risk stratification in BRCA1/2 breast cancer is limited. We assessed the prognostic value of additional histologic features, including tumor-associated inflammation and tumor-associated stroma in BRCA1/2 breast cancer patients. From the Rotterdam Family Cancer Clinic database, we collected demographics, tumor characteristics, and follow-up data from female BRCA1/2 breast cancer patients. Tumor samples were centrally reviewed including histologic subtype, differentiation grade, tumor-associated inflammation density, amount of tumor-associated stroma, and intratumor necrosis. The impact of these factors on recurrence-free survival (RFS) was evaluated using univariate and multivariate Cox regression, adjusted for established prognostic features and year of diagnosis. We included 138 BRCA1 and 37 BRCA2 breast cancer patients. Median follow-up after diagnosis was 9.7 years. Independent prognostic factors for RFS were tumor size (hazard ratio [HR], 2.47 for >2 versus ?2 cm; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.10-5.57), tumor-associated inflammation (HR, 0.18 for moderate/marked versus absent/mild; 95% CI, 0.05-0.61), and intratumor necrosis (HR, 2.60 for presence versus absence; 95% CI, 1.12-6.05). Established prognostic factors as nodal status and differentiation grade were not significantly related to RFS. Subgroup analyses of 138 BRCA1 and 118 triple-negative breast cancer cases showed similar results. Tumor-associated inflammation density was the strongest predictor for RFS in this series of BRCA1/2 breast cancer patients. This provides a potential risk stratification tool that can easily be implemented in routine histologic examination. PMID:25522926

van Verschuer, Victorien M T; Hooning, Maartje J; van Baare-Georgieva, Radka D; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Timmermans, Anne M; Koppert, Linetta B; Verhoog, Leon C; Martens, John W M; Seynaeve, Caroline; van Deurzen, Carolien H M

2015-02-01

93

Prognostic categorization of intensive care septic patients  

PubMed Central

Sepsis is one of the leading worldwide causes of morbidity and mortality in critically-ill patients. Prediction of outcome in patients with sepsis requires repeated clinical interpretation of the patients’ conditions, clinical assessment of tissue hypoxia and the use of severity scoring systems, because the prognostic categorization accuracy of severity scoring indices alone, is relatively poor. Generally, such categorization depends on the severity of the septic state, ranging from systemic inflammatory response to septic shock. Now, there is no gold standard for the clinical assessment of tissue hypoxia which can be achieved by both global and regional oxygen extractabilities, added to prognostic pro-inflammatory mediators. Because the technology used to identify the genetic make-up of the human being is rapidly advancing, the structure of 30 000 genes which make-up the human DNA bank is now known. This would allow easy prognostic categorization of critically-ill patients including those suffering from sepsis. The present review spots lights on the main severity scoring systems used for outcome prediction in septic patients. For morbidity prediction, it discusses the Multiple Organ Dysfunction score, the sequential organ failure assessment score, and the logistic organ dysfunction score. For mortality/survival prediction, it discusses the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation scores, the Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System, the Simplified acute physiology score and the Mortality Probability Models. An ideal severity scoring system for prognostic categorization of patients with systemic sepsis is far from being reached. Scoring systems should be used with repeated clinical interpretation of the patients’ conditions, and the assessment of tissue hypoxia in order to attain satisfactory discriminative performance and calibration power. PMID:24701404

Moemen, Mohamed Ezzat

2012-01-01

94

Antihistamines and other prognostic factors for adverse outcome in hyperemesis gravidarum  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study is to determine the frequency of adverse perinatal outcome in women with hyperemesis gravidarum and identify prognostic factors. Study design This is a case-control study in which outcomes of first pregnancies were compared between 254 women with hyperemesis gravidarum treated with intravenous fluids and 308 controls. Prognostic factors were identified by comparing the clinical profile of patients with hyperemesis gravidarum with a normal and an adverse pregnancy outcome. Binary responses were analyzed using either a Chi-square or Fisher exact test and continuous responses were analyzed using a t-test. Results Women with hyperemesis gravidarum have over a 4-fold increased risk of poor outcome including preterm birth and lower birth weight (p < 0.0001). Among maternal characteristics, only gestational hypertension had an influence on outcome (p < 0.0001). Treatment as an outpatient and/or by alternative medicine (acupuncture/acupressure/Bowen massage) was associated with a positive outcome (p < 0.0089). Poor outcomes were associated with early start of symptoms (p < 0.019), and treatment with methylprednisolone (p < 0.0217), promethazine (p < 0.0386), and other antihistamines [diphenhy- dramine (Benadryl), dimenhydrinate (Gravol), doxylamine (Unisom), hydroxyzine (Vistaril/Atarax), doxylamine and pyridoxine (Diclectin/Bendectin)] (p < 0.0151) independent of effectiveness. Among these medications, only the other antihistamines were prescribed independent of severity: they were effective in less than 20% of cases and were taken by almost 50% of patients with an adverse outcome. Conclusion Poor outcomes are significantly greater in women with HG and are associated with gestational hypertension, early symptoms, and antihistamine use. Given these results, there is an urgent need to address the safety and effectiveness of medications containing antihistamines in women with severe nausea of pregnancy. PMID:23751910

Fejzo, Marlena S.; Magtira, Aromalyn; Schoenberg, Frederic Paik; MacGibbon, Kimber; Mullin, Patrick; Romero, Roberto; Tabsh, Khalil

2014-01-01

95

Sterilizing the Poor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that freedom for the middle classes may mean vulnerability for the poor. The enthusiasm for sterilization may be so intense as to deprive the poor of their right not to be sterilized. (Author/AM)

Rothman, Sheila M.

1977-01-01

96

Preoperative radiotherapy for rectal adenocarcinoma: Which are strong prognostic factors?  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: This retrospective 12-year study evaluated the prognostic value of initial and postoperative staging of rectal tumors. Methods and Materials: Between 1985 and 1996, 297 patients were treated with preoperative radiotherapy (39 Gy in 13 fractions) and surgery for Stage T2-T4N0-N1M0 rectal adenocarcinoma. Pretreatment staging included a clinical examination and endorectal ultrasonography (EUS) since 1988. Clinical staging was performed by digital rectal examination and rigid proctoscopy. EUS was performed in 236 patients. Postoperative staging was performed by examination of the pathologic specimen. Results: The median follow-up was 49 months. The overall 5-year survival rate was 67%, with a local failure rate of 9%. The rate of sphincter preservation was 65%. The clinical examination findings were strong prognostic factor for both cT stage (p < 0.001) and cN stage (p < 0.006) but had poor specificity for cN stage (only 25 lymph nodes detected). In both univariate and multivariate analyses, EUS had a statistically significant prognostic value for uT (p < 0.014) but not for uN (p < 0.47) stage. In contrast, pT and pN stages were strong prognostic factors (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: Pretreatment staging, including clinical examination and EUS, seemed accurate enough to present a high prognostic value for the T stage. EUS was insufficient to stage lymph node involvement. Owing to its lack of specificity, uN stage was not a reliable prognostic factor. An improvement in N staging is necessary and essential. Despite downstaging, postoperative staging remained a very strong prognostic factor for both T and N stages.

Chapet, Olivier [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Pierre-Benite (France)]. E-mail: ochapet@med.umich.edu; Romestaing, Pascale [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Pierre-Benite (France); Mornex, Francoise [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Pierre-Benite (France); Souquet, Jean-Christophe [Department of Gastroenterology, Croix Rousse Hospital, Lyon (France); Favrel, Veronique [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Pierre-Benite (France); Ardiet, Jean-Michel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Pierre-Benite (France); D'Hombres, Anne [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Pierre-Benite (France); Gerard, Jean-Pierre [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Pierre-Benite (France)

2005-04-01

97

Rictor is an independent prognostic factor for endometrial carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Early-stage endometrial carcinoma (EC) patients have a high cure rate; however, those with high-risk factors may have poor prognosis. Thus, there is an urgent need for searching for new prognostic molecules to more accurately predict survival of patients. We detected the Rictor mRNA expression level in 30 fresh EC tissue and 17 normal endometrial tissue samples with real-time quantitative RT-PCR and Rictor protein expression level in 134 (test cohort) and 115 (validation cohort) paraffin tissue samples by immunohistochemistry, analyzed the correlation between variables and overall survival (OS) using Cox proportional hazards regression, compared the prognostic accuracy of Rictor with other clinicopathological risk factors by logistic regression. The results showed that Rictor mRNA expression of EC is higher than that of normal endometrium; Rictor protein expression level was closely correlated with FIGO stage, grade and vascular invasion in both cohorts; a univariate analysis showed that the pathological type, stage, grade, vascular invasion, lymphatic metastasis and Rictor were predictors of OS in both cohorts; furthermore, multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis indicated that vascular invasion and Rictor were independent prognostic factors for EC in both cohorts; an ROX curve comparison showed that the area under the curve (AUC) for Rictor combined with other clinicopathological prognostic factors was higher than any individual factor or other clinicopathological prognostic factors’ combination. Based on the above data, we concluded that Rictor is an independent prognostic factor for EC. It combined with other clinicopathological risk factors was a stronger prognostic model than individual risk factor or their combination. PMID:24966915

Wen, Shan-Yun; Li, Chang-Hua; Zhang, Yan-Li; Bian, Yu-Hai; Ma, Li; Ge, Qiu-Lin; Teng, Yin-Cheng; Zhang, Zhi-Gang

2014-01-01

98

The Prognostic Significance of Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) are activated fibroblasts in the cancer stroma and play an important role in cancer progression. Some reports have indicated the correlation between the expression of CAF markers and adverse prognosis in several cancers. However, no reports have studied CAF phenotype and its clinical relevance in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Methods We investigated CAF phenotype of ESCC based on histology and immunohistochemical expressions of five CAF markers such as fibroblast activation protein (FAP), smooth muscle actin (SMA), fibroblast-specific protein-1 (FSP1), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR?), and PDGFR? in 116 ESCC tissue samples. Besides, we also examined the correlation of the CAF phenotype with clinical relevance as well as other cancer-microenvironment related factors. Results Histologically immature CAF phenotype was correlated with poor prognosis (p<0.001) and associated with increased microvessel density, increased tumor associated macrophages, and epithelial to mesenchymal transition. CAF markers were characteristically expressed in stromal fibroblast close to tumor cells and the expression pattern of 5 CAF markers was highly heterogeneous in every individual cases. Of five CAF markers, SMA, FSP1, and PDGFR? were unfavorable prognostic indicators of ESCC. The number of positive CAF markers was greater in ESCC with immature CAFs than in those with mature ones. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that histologic classification of CAF phenotype is a reliable and significant prognostic predictor in ESCC. CAF markers have the potential to be diagnostic and therapeutic targets in ESCC. PMID:24945657

Ha, Sang Yun; Yeo, So-Young; Xuan, Yan-hiua; Kim, Seok-Hyung

2014-01-01

99

Long-term follow-up and prognostic factors for advanced thymic carcinoma.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term survival outcomes in patients with advanced thymic carcinoma and identify prognostic factors influencing the survival.We retrospectively analyzed 90 consecutive patients with pathologically confirmed advanced thymic carcinoma (Masaoka III and IV) in our institute, from December 2000 to 2012. Age, sex, clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, Masaoka and tumor node metastasis staging, pathologic grade, and treatment modalities were analyzed to identify prognostic factors associated with the progress-free survival (PFS) and the overall survival (OS) rates. Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS, version 19.0 (SPSS, Inc, Chicago, IL).A total of 73 (81.1%) male and 17 (18.9%) female patients participated in the study. The median follow-up time was 75 months (range, 20-158 months). The 5-year PFS and OS rates were 23.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 14.6%-33.8%) and 35.7% (95% CI, 25.1%-46.4%), respectively. The multivariate Cox regression model analysis showed that factors improving the PFS were the normal lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level (P?prognostic of OS.Long-term follow-up of the advanced thymic carcinoma showed poor outcomes of PFS and OS. LDH, Masaoka stage, and RT affected the PFS, and LDH, T stage, and pathologic grade seemed to affect the OS. Establishing a better staging system for predicting outcomes would be warranted. PMID:25526488

Wu, Jun-Xin; Chen, Hui-Qin; Shao, Ling-Dong; Qiu, Su-Fang; Ni, Qian-Yu; Zheng, Bu-Hong; Wang, Jie-Zhong; Pan, Jian-Ji; Li, Jin-Luan

2014-12-01

100

Acute Escherichia coli Mastitis in Dairy Cattle: Diagnostic Parameters Associated with Poor Prognosis  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT This study aimed to identify the diagnostic characteristics associated with poor prognosis and mortality in dairy cows with acute clinical Escherichia coli mastitis. On 17 dairy farms, 24 dairy cows with acute E. coli mastitis that had received therapeutic treatment were categorized into 2 groups by outcome: 17 cows that recovered (survivors) and 7 cows that died or were euthanized (non-survivors). Two days after onset of acute E. coli mastitis, dysstasia was observed in non-survivors, but not in survivors. Compared with survivors, significantly increased hematocrit (HCT) values and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations, and significantly decreased antithrombin activity and platelet counts were found in non-survivors on days 2 and 3 after therapy. Dysstasia, associated with decreased antithrombin activity and platelet counts, and with increased HCT and NEFA concentrations, was considered to be the major prognostic indicator associated with high mortality after therapeutic treatment in acute E. coli mastitis. PMID:25056677

HAGIWARA, Seiichi; MORI, Kouichiro; OKADA, Hiroyuki; OIKAWA, Shin; NAGAHATA, Hajime

2014-01-01

101

Acute Escherichia coli Mastitis in Dairy Cattle: Diagnostic Parameters Associated with Poor Prognosis.  

PubMed

This study aimed to identify the diagnostic characteristics associated with poor prognosis and mortality in dairy cows with acute clinical Escherichia coli mastitis. On 17 dairy farms, 24 dairy cows with acute E. coli mastitis that had received therapeutic treatment were categorized into 2 groups by outcome: 17 cows that recovered (survivors) and 7 cows that died or were euthanized (non-survivors). Two days after onset of acute E. coli mastitis, dysstasia was observed in non-survivors, but not in survivors. Compared with survivors, significantly increased hematocrit (HCT) values and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations, and significantly decreased antithrombin activity and platelet counts were found in non-survivors on days 2 and 3 after therapy. Dysstasia, associated with decreased antithrombin activity and platelet counts, and with increased HCT and NEFA concentrations, was considered to be the major prognostic indicator associated with high mortality after therapeutic treatment in acute E. coli mastitis. PMID:25056677

Hagiwara, Seiichi; Mori, Kouichiro; Okada, Hiroyuki; Oikawa, Shin; Nagahata, Hajime

2014-12-01

102

Impact of the International Prognostic Scoring System cytogenetic risk groups on the outcome of patients with primary myelodysplastic syndromes undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation from human leukocyte antigen-identical siblings: a retrospective analysis of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation-Chronic Malignancies Working Party.  

PubMed

Acquired chromosomal abnormalities are important prognostic factors in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes treated with supportive care and with disease-modifying therapeutic interventions, including allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. To assess the prognostic impact of cytogenetic characteristics after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation accurately, we investigated a homogeneous group of 523 patients with primary myelodysplastic syndromes who have received stem cells from human leukocyte antigen-identical siblings. Overall survival at five years from transplantation in good, intermediate, and poor cytogenetic risk groups according to the International Prognostic Scoring System was 48%, 45% and 30%, respectively (P<0.01). Both the disease status (complete remission vs. not in complete remission) and the morphological classification at transplant in the untreated patients were significantly associated with probability of overall survival and relapse-free survival (P<0.01). The cytogenetic risk groups have no prognostic impact in untreated patients with refractory anemia ± ringed sideroblasts (P=0.90). However, combining the good and intermediate cytogenetic risk groups and comparing them to the poor-risk group showed within the other three disease-status-at-transplant groups a hazard ratio of 1.86 (95%CI: 1.41-2.45). In conclusion, this study shows that, in a large series of patients with primary myelodysplastic syndromes, poor-risk cytogenetics as defined by the standard International Prognostic Scoring System is associated with a relatively poor survival after allogeneic stem cell transplantation from human leukocyte antigen-identical siblings except in patients who are transplanted in refractory anemia/refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts stage before progression to higher myelodysplastic syndrome stages. PMID:25085359

Onida, Francesco; Brand, Ronald; van Biezen, Anja; Schaap, Michel; von dem Borne, Peter A; Maertens, Johan; Beelen, Dietrich W; Carreras, Enric; Alessandrino, Emilio P; Volin, Liisa; Kuball, Jürgen H E; Figuera, Angela; Sierra, Jorge; Finke, Jürgen; Kröger, Nicolaus; de Witte, Theo

2014-10-01

103

Impact of the International Prognostic Scoring System cytogenetic risk groups on the outcome of patients with primary myelodysplastic syndromes undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation from human leukocyte antigen-identical siblings: a retrospective analysis of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation-Chronic Malignancies Working Party  

PubMed Central

Acquired chromosomal abnormalities are important prognostic factors in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes treated with supportive care and with disease-modifying therapeutic interventions, including allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. To assess the prognostic impact of cytogenetic characteristics after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation accurately, we investigated a homogeneous group of 523 patients with primary myelodysplastic syndromes who have received stem cells from human leukocyte antigen-identical siblings. Overall survival at five years from transplantation in good, intermediate, and poor cytogenetic risk groups according to the International Prognostic Scoring System was 48%, 45% and 30%, respectively (P<0.01). Both the disease status (complete remission vs. not in complete remission) and the morphological classification at transplant in the untreated patients were significantly associated with probability of overall survival and relapse-free survival (P<0.01). The cytogenetic risk groups have no prognostic impact in untreated patients with refractory anemia ± ringed sideroblasts (P=0.90). However, combining the good and intermediate cytogenetic risk groups and comparing them to the poor-risk group showed within the other three disease-status-at-transplant groups a hazard ratio of 1.86 (95%CI: 1.41–2.45). In conclusion, this study shows that, in a large series of patients with primary myelodysplastic syndromes, poor-risk cytogenetics as defined by the standard International Prognostic Scoring System is associated with a relatively poor survival after allogeneic stem cell transplantation from human leukocyte antigen-identical siblings except in patients who are transplanted in refractory anemia/refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts stage before progression to higher myelodysplastic syndrome stages. PMID:25085359

Onida, Francesco; Brand, Ronald; van Biezen, Anja; Schaap, Michel; von dem Borne, Peter A.; Maertens, Johan; Beelen, Dietrich W.; Carreras, Enric; Alessandrino, Emilio P.; Volin, Liisa; Kuball, Jürgen H.E.; Figuera, Angela; Sierra, Jorge; Finke, Jürgen; Kröger, Nicolaus; de Witte, Theo

2014-01-01

104

Prognostic value of nuclear DNA content in papillary thyroid carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prognostic value of nuclear DNA content in papillary thyroid carcinoma was studied retrospectively in 90 patients. Eighty survived for at least 10 years, and 10 died, of papillary thyroid carcinoma, between 6 months and 12 years after diagnosis. Clinical data as well as morphological tumor characteristics were examined. DNA measurements in morphologically identified single tumor cells were performed either

Kenneth Cohn; Martin Bfickdahl; Gun Forsslund; Gert Auer; Göran Lundell; Torsten Löwhagen; Eva Tallroth; Jan-Silvester Willems; Anders Zetterberg; Per-Ola Granberg

1984-01-01

105

Prognostic and health management for aircraft electrical power supply system  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the electrical power supply system analysis, a system of prognostic and health management (PHM) for the electrical power supply system is presented. The PHM system can accomplish the condition assessment of the key characteristics and device in the electrical power supply system without additional test equipment. The condition of rotating rectifier, contact resistance and so on can be

Haiyang Pan; Ensheng Dong; Yilin Jiang; Ping Zhang

2012-01-01

106

Progression-Free Survival: An Important Prognostic Marker for Long-Term Survival of Small Cell Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an extremely aggressive tumor with a poor clinical course. Although many efforts have been made to improve patients' survival rates, patients who survive longer than 2 years after chemotherapy are still very rare. We examined the baseline characteristics of patients with long-term survival rates in order to identify the prognostic factors for overall survivals. Methods A total of 242 patients with cytologically or histologically diagnosed SCLC were enrolled into this study. The patients were categorized into long- and short-term survival groups by using a survival cut-off of 2 years after diagnosis. Cox's analyses were performed to identify the independent factors. Results The mean patient age was 65.66 years, and 85.5% were males; among the patients, 61 of them (25.2%) survived longer than 2 years. In the multivariate analyses, CRP (hazard ratio [HR], 2.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25-6.06; p=0.012), TNM staging (HR, 3.29; 95% CI, 1.59-6.80; p=0.001), and progression-free survival (PFS) (HR, 11.14; 95% CI, 2.98-41.73; p<0.001) were independent prognostic markers for poor survival rates. Conclusion In addition to other well-known prognostic factors, this study discovered relationships between the long-term survival rates and serum CRP levels, TNM staging, and PFS. In situations with unfavorable conditions, the PFS would be particularly helpful for managing SCLC patients. PMID:24920948

Park, Myoung-Rin; Park, Yeon-Hee; Choi, Jae-Woo; Park, Dong-Il; Chung, Chae-Uk; Moon, Jae-Young; Park, Hee-Sun; Jung, Sung-Soo; Kim, Ju-Ock; Kim, Sun-Young

2014-01-01

107

Diagnostic and prognostic role of infrared thermography.  

PubMed

A series of 469 breast cancer studied by physical examination (PE), mammography (M) and infrared thermography (TH) is discussed. Follow-up was performed up to 5 years later. The poor diagnostic role of TH is proven for the low sensitivity in the total series (0.47) and, particularly, in T1 cancers (0.26). TH does not increase significantly the cumulative sensitivity (0.98 vs. 0.97 in the total series). Its limited advantage is offset by the great number of useless biopsies due to TH false positive. A correlation between TH pattern and prognosis is evident only when TH is considered independently from other reliable prognostic indicators such as the T or N categories. If survival curves are stratified by T or N or if a multivariate analysis based on TH, T and N variables is performed, all correlations between TH pattern and prognosis disappear; for this reason the use of TH as a prognostic indicator in the clinical practice is disregarded. PMID:3671800

Ciatto, S; Palli, D; Rosselli del Turco, M; Catarzi, S

1987-10-01

108

Rich Donors, Poor Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The shifting ideological winds of foreign aid donors have driven their policy towards governments in poor countries. Donors supported state-led development policies in poor countries from the 1940s to the 1970s; market and private-sector driven reforms during the 1980s and 1990s; and returned their attention to the state with an emphasis on…

Thomas, M. A.

2012-01-01

109

Inference in `poor` languages  

SciTech Connect

Languages with a solvable implication problem but without complete and consistent systems of inference rules (`poor` languages) are considered. The problem of existence of finite complete and consistent inference rule system for a ``poor`` language is stated independently of the language or rules syntax. Several properties of the problem arc proved. An application of results to the language of join dependencies is given.

Petrov, S.

1996-10-01

110

AC133 expression associated with poor prognosis in stage II colorectal cancer.  

PubMed

Identification of high-risk prognostic markers for stage II colorectal cancer (CRC) is currently a big challenge. CD133 is one of the most commonly used CRC stem cell markers. However, its specificity is controversial. Recent studies have demonstrated that the AC133 epitope of CD133, not the CD133 protein, is responsible for cancer stem cell identification. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of AC133 expression in stage II CRC. Two antibodies against CD133, including AC133 and Ab19898, were compared for their expression characteristics. AC133 was chosen for further immunohistochemical assessment on 176 stage II CRC primary tumors with at least 12 examined lymph nodes. The cutoff value for positive rate of AC133 expression was determined by ROC curve analysis. AC133 was analyzed for correlations with clinicopathological and prognostic parameters. The results indicated that AC133 was negative in adjacent noncancerous colorectal mucosa while positive in 116 cases (65.9 %) of primary tumors. AC133 expression was significantly correlated with preoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen level (p = 0.006) and tumor differentiation grade (p = 0.019). Furthermore, high AC133 expression was identified as a significant predictor for poor disease-free survival and overall survival at both univariate (p = 0.009, 0.013, respectively) and multivariate levels (p = 0.022, 0.026, respectively). Our data suggest that AC133 is an independent adverse prognostic factor and a potential marker for survival classification in stage II CRC patients. PMID:23322518

Ying, Xiaofang; Wu, Jiangxue; Meng, Xiangqi; Zuo, Yufang; Xia, Qing; Chen, Jinou; Feng, Yanfen; Liu, Ranyi; Li, Liren; Huang, Wenlin

2013-03-01

111

CYR61 overexpression associated with the development and poor prognosis of ovarian carcinoma.  

PubMed

Cysteine-rich 61 (CYR61) has been proven to be an oncogene with potential predictive and prognostic implications in a variety of human cancers. However, the expression pattern of CYR61 and its role in ovarian carcinoma remains largely unknown. In this study, the mRNA and protein levels of CYR61 in normal ovaries and ovarian carcinoma tissues were evaluated using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting. Compared to normal ovarian tissues, the mRNA and protein levels of CYR61 were significantly higher in ovarian carcinoma tissues. Moreover, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, Spearman's rank correlation, Kaplan-Meier plots, and the Cox proportional hazards regression model were used to investigate the potential association of the CYR61 protein with the development of ovarian carcinoma in an ovarian carcinoma cohort. Based on ROC curve analysis, high expression of CYR61 was defined as a tumor in which more than 70 % of cells were positively stained. Based on this cutoff value, high expression of CYR61 was detected in 51.5 % of invasive carcinomas, 35.3 % of borderline tumors, 25.9 % of cystadenomas, and 20 % in the normal ovaries. In ovarian carcinomas, CYR61 overexpression was associated with advanced FIGO stage. Univariate survival analysis on the ovarian carcinoma cohorts showed that overexpression of CYR61 was associated with poor survival of ovarian cancer patients. Multivariate analysis suggested that the protein level of CYR61 was an independent and significant prognostic factor for ovarian carcinoma. Our results suggest that the CYR61 protein is an important and independent biomarker for prognostic implications of ovarian carcinoma. PMID:25048722

Shen, Huimin; Cai, Muyan; Zhao, Shanshan; Wang, Huan; Li, Mengxiong; Yao, Shuzhong; Jiang, Nan

2014-08-01

112

Low expression of RSK4 predicts poor prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death all over the world. Ribosomal s6 kinase4 (RSK4), an X-linked gene, firstly was found as to be a potential tumor suppressive gene in a variety of cancers and is widely participated in signaling pathway. However its role in CRC is unclear. This study is to explore the correlation between the protein expression of RSK4 and clinical pathologic characteristics in colorectal tumors, which might serve as a prognostic determinant of colorectal cancers. Methods: Biopsies of 103 colorectal cancer and 46 matched adjacent noncancerous tissues were collected for analysis of RSK4 protein by immunohistochemistry. The correlation between RSK4 protein expression and the clinical pathological features of colorectal cancers were evaluated by Chi-square test and Fisher’s exact test. The survival rates were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method, and the relationship between prognostic factors and patient survival was analyzed by the Cox proportional hazard models. Results: RSK4 was conversely correlated with some pathological classifications (P<0.05 for N, G and clinical staging), and there were no statistically significant differences in age, CEA expression in blood, CA199 and tumors t-staging (x2 test, P>0.05 for all categories) respectively. Furthermore, patients with high protein level of RSK4 showed prolonged overall survivals (P<0.05). Moreover, multivariate analysis showed that low expression level of RSK is an independent risk factor for high mortality in colorectal cancer. Conclusions: Low RSK4 expression is correlated with advanced clinical pathologic classifications and is a poor overall survival in colorectal cancer patients. These findings suggest that RSK4 may serve as a useful marker in prognostic evaluation for patients with colorectal cancer. PMID:25197367

Cai, Jun; Ma, Hong; Huang, Fang; zhu, Dichao; Zhao, Lei; Yang, Yudan; Bi, Jianping; Zhang, Tao

2014-01-01

113

Homogeneous Datasets of Triple Negative Breast Cancers Enable the Identification of Novel Prognostic and Predictive Signatures  

PubMed Central

Background Current prognostic gene signatures for breast cancer mainly reflect proliferation status and have limited value in triple-negative (TNBC) cancers. The identification of prognostic signatures from TNBC cohorts was limited in the past due to small sample sizes. Methodology/Principal Findings We assembled all currently publically available TNBC gene expression datasets generated on Affymetrix gene chips. Inter-laboratory variation was minimized by filtering methods for both samples and genes. Supervised analysis was performed to identify prognostic signatures from 394 cases which were subsequently tested on an independent validation cohort (n?=?261 cases). Conclusions/Significance Using two distinct false discovery rate thresholds, 25% and <3.5%, a larger (n?=?264 probesets) and a smaller (n?=?26 probesets) prognostic gene sets were identified and used as prognostic predictors. Most of these genes were positively associated with poor prognosis and correlated to metagenes for inflammation and angiogenesis. No correlation to other previously published prognostic signatures (recurrence score, genomic grade index, 70-gene signature, wound response signature, 7-gene immune response module, stroma derived prognostic predictor, and a medullary like signature) was observed. In multivariate analyses in the validation cohort the two signatures showed hazard ratios of 4.03 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.71–9.48; P?=?0.001) and 4.08 (95% CI 1.79–9.28; P?=?0.001), respectively. The 10-year event-free survival was 70% for the good risk and 20% for the high risk group. The 26-gene signatures had modest predictive value (AUC?=?0.588) to predict response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, however, the combination of a B-cell metagene with the prognostic signatures increased its response predictive value. We identified a 264-gene prognostic signature for TNBC which is unrelated to previously known prognostic signatures. PMID:22220191

Karn, Thomas; Pusztai, Lajos; Holtrich, Uwe; Iwamoto, Takayuki; Shiang, Christine Y.; Schmidt, Marcus; Müller, Volkmar; Solbach, Christine; Gaetje, Regine; Hanker, Lars; Ahr, Andre; Liedtke, Cornelia; Ruckhäberle, Eugen; Kaufmann, Manfred; Rody, Achim

2011-01-01

114

Pro-Poor Tourism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the Overseas Development Institute (ODI), an independent, UK-based, think tank, this site contains a selection of resources related to pro-poor tourism (PPT). Different than "sustainable tourism" and related initiatives, PPT is defined simply as "tourism that generates net benefits for the poor." At this site, visitors can learn more about PPT and read case studies, a report, a policy briefing, working papers, and other publications.

115

Inflation and the Poor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using polling data for 31,869 households in 38 countries and allowing for country effects, we show that the poor are more likely than the rich to mention inflation as a top national concern. This result survives several robustness checks. We also find direct measures of improvements in well-being of the poor--the change in their share in national income, the percent

William Easterly; Stanley Fischer

2001-01-01

116

Prognostic Factors in Hodgkin Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is among the neoplastic diseases that has the best long-term outcome after cytotoxic treatment. Cure rates approach 80–90%; however, 15–20% of patients will be resistant to therapy (primary refractory) or relapse after treatment. Prognostic factors should help to stratify treatment according to the risk profile and identify patients at risk for failure. Significance of prognostic factors partly depends on the efficacy of the treatments administered, since new effective therapies can variably counterbalance the adverse effects of some unfavorable clinical determinants. As a consequence, some prognostic factors thought to be important in the past may become meaningless when modern successful therapies are used. Therefore, the value of prognostic factors has to be updated periodically, and then adapted to new emerging biomarkers. Besides the prognostic role of PET imaging, tissue and circulating biomarkers, as the number of tumor-infiltrating macrophages, cytokine and chemokine levels and profiling of circulating nucleic acids (DNA and microRNAs) have shown promise. PMID:25045461

Cuccaro, Annarosa; Bartolomei, Francesca; Cupelli, Elisa; Galli, Eugenio; Giachelia, Manuela; Hohaus, Stefan

2014-01-01

117

The prognostic value of body mass index and standard exercise testing in male Veterans with congestive heart failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the prognostic characteristics of body mass index (BMI) and standard exercise test variables in a consecutive series of patients with mild to moderate congestive heart failure (CHF) referred for standard exercise tests. Background: Controversy exists regarding the prognostic importance of BMI, etiology, and exercise test variables in patients with CHF. Methods: All patients referred for evaluation at

Lynette W. Lissin; Andre J. Gauri; Victor F. Froelicher; Afshin Ghayoumi; Jonathan Myers; John Giacommini

2002-01-01

118

Towards Prognostics of Electrolytic Capacitors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A remaining useful life prediction algorithm and degradation model for electrolytic capacitors is presented. Electrolytic capacitors are used in several applications ranging from power supplies on critical avionics equipment to power drivers for electro-mechanical actuators. These devices are known for their low reliability and given their criticality in electronics subsystems they are a good candidate for component level prognostics and health management research. Prognostics provides a way to assess remaining useful life of a capacitor based on its current state of health and its anticipated future usage and operational conditions. In particular, experimental results of an accelerated aging test under electrical stresses are presented. The capacitors used in this test form the basis for a remaining life prediction algorithm where a model of the degradation process is suggested. This preliminary remaining life prediction algorithm serves as a demonstration of how prognostics methodologies could be used for electrolytic capacitors.

Celaya, Jose R.; Kulkarni, Chetan; Biswas, Gautam; Goegel, Kai

2011-01-01

119

A Survey of Artificial Intelligence for Prognostics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated Systems Health Management includes as key elements fault detection, fault diagnostics, and failure prognostics. Whereas fault detection and diagnostics have been the subject of considerable emphasis in the Artificial Intelligence (AI) community in the past, prognostics has not enjoyed the same attention. The reason for this lack of attention is in part because prognostics as a discipline has only

Mark Schwabacher; Kai Goebel

120

and the Epistemology of Prognostic  

E-print Network

Divination and the Epistemology of Prognostic Sciences in the Middle Ages Divination Fate, Freedom wissenschaftstheoretischen Anforderungen an den Prognose-Begriff herauszuarbeiten. Divination and the Epistemology established themselves. The aim of the upcoming workshop is to examine the epistemology of the mentioned

Fiebig, Peter

121

Prognostics in Battery Health Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we examine prognostics and health management (PHM) issues using battery health management of Gen 2 cells, an 18650-size lithium-ion cell, as a test case. We will show where advanced regression, classification, and state estimation algorithms have an important role in the solution of the problem and in the data collection scheme for battery health management that we

Kai Goebel; Bhaskar Saha; Abhinav Saxena; Jose R. Celaya; Jon P. Christophersen

2008-01-01

122

Sensor Systems for Prognostics and Health Management  

PubMed Central

Prognostics and health management (PHM) is an enabling discipline consisting of technologies and methods to assess the reliability of a product in its actual life cycle conditions to determine the advent of failure and mitigate system risk. Sensor systems are needed for PHM to monitor environmental, operational, and performance-related characteristics. The gathered data can be analyzed to assess product health and predict remaining life. In this paper, the considerations for sensor system selection for PHM applications, including the parameters to be measured, the performance needs, the electrical and physical attributes, reliability, and cost of the sensor system, are discussed. The state-of-the-art sensor systems for PHM and the emerging trends in technologies of sensor systems for PHM are presented. PMID:22219686

Cheng, Shunfeng; Azarian, Michael H.; Pecht, Michael G.

2010-01-01

123

A Prognostic Model to Predict Clinical Outcomes with First-Line Gemcitabine-Based Chemotherapy in Advanced Pancreatic Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Our aim was to devise a prognostic model for advanced pancreatic cancer based on clinical parameters. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 298 patients who received gemcitabine-based chemotherapy from January 1999 to November 2008. Results: The median survival of all patients was 7 months [95% confidence interval (CI) 6.2–7.8]. Multivariate analysis revealed poor prognostic factors for overall

Jun Ho Yi; Jeeyun Lee; Se Hoon Park; Kyu Taek Lee; Jong Kyun Lee; Kwang Hyuck Lee; Dong Wook Choi; Seong-Ho Choi; Jin-Seok Heo; Do Hoon Lim; Young Suk Park; Ho Yeong Lim; Won Ki Kang; Joon Oh Park

2011-01-01

124

Prognostic factors for patients with liver metastases from breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary\\u000a Background  The prognosis of patients with liver metastases from breast cancer is commonly poor. After initial diagnosis of hepatic metastases,\\u000a a median survival time of 1–20 months can be expected. The definition of prognostic factors for such patients may influence\\u000a therapeutic decisions. In particular, the characterization of patients who can expect long-term survival could assist in optimizing\\u000a treatment.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We retrospectively studied

Michael H. R. Eichbaum; Margarete Kaltwasser; Thomas Bruckner; Thomas M. de Rossi; Andreas Schneeweiss; Christof Sohn

2006-01-01

125

Identification of Common Prognostic Gene Expression Signatures with Biological Meanings from Microarray Gene Expression Datasets  

PubMed Central

Numerous prognostic gene expression signatures for breast cancer were generated previously with few overlap and limited insight into the biology of the disease. Here we introduce a novel algorithm named SCoR (Survival analysis using Cox proportional hazard regression and Random resampling) to apply random resampling and clustering methods in identifying gene features correlated with time to event data. This is shown to reduce overfitting noises involved in microarray data analysis and discover functional gene sets linked to patient survival. SCoR independently identified a common poor prognostic signature composed of cell proliferation genes from six out of eight breast cancer datasets. Furthermore, a sequential SCoR analysis on highly proliferative breast cancers repeatedly identified T/B cell markers as favorable prognosis factors. In glioblastoma, SCoR identified a common good prognostic signature of chromosome 10 genes from two gene expression datasets (TCGA and REMBRANDT), recapitulating the fact that loss of one copy of chromosome 10 (which harbors the tumor suppressor PTEN) is linked to poor survival in glioblastoma patients. SCoR also identified prognostic genes on sex chromosomes in lung adenocarcinomas, suggesting patient gender might be used to predict outcome in this disease. These results demonstrate the power of SCoR to identify common and biologically meaningful prognostic gene expression signatures. PMID:23029298

Yao, Jun; Zhao, Qi; Yuan, Ying; Zhang, Li; Liu, Xiaoming; Yung, W. K. Alfred; Weinstein, John N.

2012-01-01

126

Abundances in Very Metal-Poor Stars  

E-print Network

Metal-poor stars provide information on the characteristics and chemical evolution of the halo population of the Galaxy, the first epoch of star formation and Galaxy formation (not just locally but with relevance to high-redshift objects), and big bang nucleosynthesis. This review looks at recent developments in this subject.

Sean G. Ryan

2000-01-13

127

A gene expression signature identifies two prognostic subgroups of basal breast cancer.  

PubMed

Prognosis of basal breast cancers is poor but heterogeneous. Medullary breast cancers (MBC) display a basal profile, but a favorable prognosis. We hypothesized that a previously published 368-gene expression signature associated with MBC might serve to define a prognostic classifier in basal cancers. We collected public gene expression and histoclinical data of 2145 invasive early breast adenocarcinomas. We developed a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier based on this 368-gene list in a learning set, and tested its predictive performances in an independent validation set. Then, we assessed its prognostic value and that of six prognostic signatures for disease-free survival (DFS) in the remaining 2034 samples. The SVM model accurately classified all MBC samples in the learning and validation sets. A total of 466 cases were basal across other sets. The SVM classifier separated them into two subgroups, subgroup 1 (resembling MBC) and subgroup 2 (not resembling MBC). Subgroup 1 exhibited 71% 5-year DFS, whereas subgroup 2 exhibited 50% (P = 9.93E-05). The classifier outperformed the classical prognostic variables in multivariate analysis, conferring lesser risk for relapse in subgroup 1 (HR = 0.52, P = 3.9E-04). This prognostic value was specific to the basal subtype, in which none of the other prognostic signatures was informative. Ontology analysis revealed effective immune response (IR), enhanced tumor cell apoptosis, elevated levels of metastasis-inhibiting factors and low levels of metastasis-promoting factors in the good-prognosis subgroup, and a more developed cell migration system in the poor-prognosis subgroup. In conclusion, based on this 368-gene SVM model derived from an MBC signature, basal breast cancers were classified in two prognostic subgroups, suggesting that MBC and basal breast cancers share similar molecular alterations associated with aggressiveness. This signature could help define the prognosis, adapt the systemic treatment, and identify new therapeutic targets. PMID:20490655

Sabatier, Renaud; Finetti, Pascal; Cervera, Nathalie; Lambaudie, Eric; Esterni, Benjamin; Mamessier, Emilie; Tallet, Agnès; Chabannon, Christian; Extra, Jean-Marc; Jacquemier, Jocelyne; Viens, Patrice; Birnbaum, Daniel; Bertucci, François

2011-04-01

128

Overexpression of NDRG1 is an indicator of poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatocellular carcinoma is a highly lethal cancer that typically has poor prognosis. Prognostic markers can help in its clinical management and in understanding the biology of poor prognosis. Through an earlier gene expression study, we identified N-Myc downregulated gene 1 (NDRG1) to be significantly highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma compared to nontumor liver. As NDRG1 is a differentiation-related gene with

Mei-Sze Chua; Hongbo Sun; Siu T Cheung; Veronica Mason; John Higgins; Douglas T Ross; Sheung T Fan; Samuel So

2007-01-01

129

Analytic prognostic for petrochemical pipelines  

E-print Network

Pipelines tubes are part of vital mechanical systems largely used in petrochemical industries. They serve to transport natural gases or liquids. They are cylindrical tubes and are submitted to the risks of corrosion due to high PH concentrations of the transported liquids in addition to fatigue cracks due to the alternation of pressure-depression of gas along the time, initiating therefore in the tubes body micro-cracks that can propagate abruptly to lead to failure. The development of the prognostic process for such systems increases largely their performance and their availability, as well decreases the global cost of their missions. Therefore, this paper deals with a new prognostic approach to improve the performance of these pipelines. Only the first mode of crack, that is, the opening mode, is considered.

Jaoude, Abdo Abou; El-Tawil, Khaled; Noura, Hassan; Ouladsine, Mustapha

2012-01-01

130

Analytic prognostic for petrochemical pipelines  

E-print Network

Pipelines tubes are part of vital mechanical systems largely used in petrochemical industries. They serve to transport natural gases or liquids. They are cylindrical tubes and are submitted to the risks of corrosion due to high PH concentrations of the transported liquids in addition to fatigue cracks due to the alternation of pressure-depression of gas along the time, initiating therefore in the tubes body micro-cracks that can propagate abruptly to lead to failure. The development of the prognostic process for such systems increases largely their performance and their availability, as well decreases the global cost of their missions. Therefore, this paper deals with a new prognostic approach to improve the performance of these pipelines. Only the first mode of crack, that is, the opening mode, is considered.

Abdo Abou Jaoude; Seifedine Kadry; Khaled El-Tawil; Hassan Noura; Mustapha Ouladsine

2012-12-25

131

Towards Prognostics for Electronics Components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electronics components have an increasingly critical role in avionics systems and in the development of future aircraft systems. Prognostics of such components is becoming a very important research field as a result of the need to provide aircraft systems with system level health management information. This paper focuses on a prognostics application for electronics components within avionics systems, and in particular its application to an Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT). This application utilizes the remaining useful life prediction, accomplished by employing the particle filter framework, leveraging data from accelerated aging tests on IGBTs. These tests induced thermal-electrical overstresses by applying thermal cycling to the IGBT devices. In-situ state monitoring, including measurements of steady-state voltages and currents, electrical transients, and thermal transients are recorded and used as potential precursors of failure.

Saha, Bhaskar; Celaya, Jose R.; Wysocki, Philip F.; Goebel, Kai F.

2013-01-01

132

Molecular profiling related to poor prognosis in thyroid carcinoma. Combining gene expression data and biological information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Undifferentiated and poorly differentiated thyroid tumors are responsible for more than half of thyroid cancer patient deaths in spite of their low incidence. Conventional treatments do not obtain substantial benefits, and the lack of alternative approaches limits patient survival. Additionally, the absence of prognostic markers for well-differentiated tumors complicates patient-specific treatments and favors the progression of recurrent forms. In order

C Montero-Conde; J M Martín-Campos; E Lerma; G Gimenez; J L Martínez-Guitarte; N Combalía; D Montaner; X Matías-Guiu; J Dopazo; A de Leiva; M Robledo; D Mauricio

2008-01-01

133

Hyperuricaemia predicts poor outcome in patients with mild to moderate chronic heart failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIn severe chronic heart failure (CHF) elevated serum levels of uric acid (UA) predict poor survival. This study investigates whether hyperuricaemia (defined as serum UA level ?6.5 mg\\/dL) extends its prognostic value on population with less advanced CHF.

Ewa A. Jankowska; Beata Ponikowska; Jacek Majda; Robert Zymlinski; Mieczyslaw Trzaska; Krzysztof Reczuch; Ludmila Borodulin-Nadzieja; Waldemar Banasiak; Piotr Ponikowski

2007-01-01

134

Characterization of Desmoglein Expression in the Normal Prostatic Gland. Desmoglein 2 Is an Independent Prognostic Factor for Aggressive Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose The expression of desmogleins (DSGs), which are known to be crucial for establishing and maintaining the cell-cell adhesion required for tissue integrity, has been well characterized in the epidermis and hair follicle; however, their expression in other epithelial tissues such as prostate is poorly understood. Although downregulation of classical cadherins, such as E-cadherin, has been described in prostate cancer tissue samples, the expression of desmogleins has only been previously reported in prostate cancer cell lines. In this study we characterized desmoglein expression in normal prostate tissues, and further investigated whether Desmoglein 2 (DSG2) expression specifically can serve as a potential clinical prognostic factor for patients diagnosed with primary prostate cancer. Experimental Design We utilized immunofluorescence to examine DSG2 expression in normal prostate (n?=?50) and in a clinically well-characterized cohort of prostate cancer patients (n?=?414). Correlation of DSG2 expression with clinico-pathological characteristics and biochemical recurrence was analyzed to assess its clinical significance. Results These studies revealed that DSG2 and DSG4 were specifically expressed in prostatic luminal cells, whereas basal cells lack their expression. In contrast, DSG1 and DSG3 were not expressed in normal prostate epithelium. Further analyses of DSG2 expression in prostate cancer revealed that reduced levels of this biomarker were a significant independent marker of poor clinical outcome. Conclusion Here we report for the first time that a low DSG2 expression phenotype is a useful prognostic biomarker of tumor aggressiveness and may serve as an aid in identifying patients with clinically significant prostate cancer. PMID:24896103

Barber, Alison G.; Castillo-Martin, Mireia; Bonal, Dennis M.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Christiano, Angela M.; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos

2014-01-01

135

Prognostic Indexes for Brain Metastases: Which Is the Most Powerful?  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to compare the prognostic indexes (PIs) of patients with brain metastases (BMs) treated with whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) using an artificial neural network. This analysis is important, because it evaluates the prognostic power of each PI to guide clinical decision-making and outcomes research. Methods and Materials: A retrospective prognostic study was conducted of 412 patients with BMs who underwent WBRT between April 1998 and March 2010. The eligibility criteria for patients included having undergone WBRT or WBRT plus neurosurgery. The data were analyzed using the artificial neural network. The input neural data consisted of all prognostic factors included in the 5 PIs (recursive partitioning analysis, graded prognostic assessment [GPA], basic score for BMs, Rotterdam score, and Germany score). The data set was randomly divided into 300 training and 112 testing examples for survival prediction. All 5 PIs were compared using our database of 412 patients with BMs. The sensibility of the 5 indexes to predict survival according to their input variables was determined statistically using receiver operating characteristic curves. The importance of each variable from each PI was subsequently evaluated. Results: The overall 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rate was 22%, 10.2%, and 5.1%, respectively. All classes of PIs were significantly associated with survival (recursive partitioning analysis, P < .0001; GPA, P < .0001; basic score for BMs, P = .002; Rotterdam score, P = .001; and Germany score, P < .0001). Comparing the areas under the curves, the GPA was statistically most sensitive in predicting survival (GPA, 86%; recursive partitioning analysis, 81%; basic score for BMs, 79%; Rotterdam, 73%; and Germany score, 77%; P < .001). Among the variables included in each PI, the performance status and presence of extracranial metastases were the most important factors. Conclusion: A variety of prognostic models describe the survival of patients with BMs to a more or less satisfactory degree. Among the 5 PIs evaluated in the present study, GPA was the most powerful in predicting survival. Additional studies should include emerging biologic prognostic factors to improve the sensibility of these PIs.

Arruda Viani, Gustavo, E-mail: gusviani@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Marilia Medical School, Marilia, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Bernardes da Silva, Lucas Godoi; Stefano, Eduardo Jose [Department of Radiation Oncology, Marilia Medical School, Marilia, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2012-07-01

136

Diagnostic and Prognostic Implications of a Serum miRNA Panel in Oesophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background and Aim Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are potential biomarkers for cancer detection; however, little is known about their prognostic impact on oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The current study aims to uncover novel miRNAs for prognostic biomarkers in ESCC patients. Patients and Methods We initially screened the expression of 754 serum miRNAs using TaqMan Low Density Array in two pooled samples respectively from 28 ESCC and 28 normal controls. Markedly upregulated miRNAs in ESCC and some miRNAs reported to be differently expressed in ESCC tissue were then validated individually by RT-qPCR in another 83 patients and 83 controls arranged in two phases. The changes of the selected miRNAs during the esophagectomy and their prognostic value were examined. Results Seven serum miRNAs were found to be significantly higher in ESCC than in controls; namely, miR-25, miR-100, miR-193-3p, miR-194, miR-223, miR-337-5p and miR-483-5p (P<0.0001), and the area under the receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) for the seven-miRNA panel was 0.83 (95% CI 0.75–0.90). Most of these miRNAs declined markedly in postoperative samples versus preoperative samples (P<0.05). Moreover, high level of miR-25 was significantly correlated with shorter overall survival in patients (P?=?0.027). Cox regression analysis identified lymph node metastasis, miR-25 and miR-100 as the independent risk factors for overall survival (hazard ratio (HR) 2.98 [1.36–6.55], P?=?0.006; HR 3.84 [1.02–14.41], P?=?0.029; HR 4.18 [1.21–14.50], P?=?0.024, respectively). Conclusion The seven serum miRNAs could potentially serve as novel biomarkers for ESCC; moreover, specific miRNAs such as miR-25 and miR-100 can predict poor survival in ESCC. PMID:24651474

Liu, Yuxiu; Li, Demin; Zhou, Xiaojun; Zhang, Yanni; Chen, Xi; Wang, Junjun; Zen, Ke; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Zhang, Chunni

2014-01-01

137

Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura/hemolytic uremic syndrome (TTP/HUS): treatment outcome, relapses, prognostic factors. A single-center experience of 48 cases.  

PubMed

The thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura/ hemolytic uremic syndrome (TTP/HUS) is a rare disorder characterized by microangiopathic hemolysis and thrombocytopenia. We have undertaken a retrospective analysis of the clinical characteristics, treatment outcome, and prognosis of 48 patients diagnosed and treated in our institution during a 13-year period. Among our patients 22 (46%) had fever, 35 (73%) neurological abnormalities, and 22 (46%) renal impairment at presentation of the syndrome. All patients were treated with a multimodality regimen including plasma exchange, steroids, antiplatelet agents, and IgG infusion. Of the 48 patients, 41 achieved complete remission, two had a partial response, and five had no response and died of progressive disease. Within a median follow-up period of 40 months, ten of the 41 patients who had achieved remission relapsed, most of them within the first 2 years, and nine of these responded promptly to plasma exchange therapy. Eight deaths were observed, seven of refractory disease and one in fourth relapse. The analysis of prognostic factors revealed advanced age and severe renal impairment (creatinine levels above 2 mg%) as the only parameters associated with treatment failure and poor outcome. However, none of the pretreatment characteristics proved to be of prognostic value regarding the probability of relapse. In conclusion, TTP/HUS represent a syndrome of variable clinical expression and aggressiveness. The use of a multimodality regimen in our series produced a high response rate. Nevertheless, the early identification, based on clinical characteristics, of poor-prognosis cases that probably need more or alternative forms of treatment is an issue that remains to be elucidated in prospective trials. PMID:10741917

Dervenoulas, J; Tsirigotis, P; Bollas, G; Pappa, V; Xiros, N; Economopoulos, T; Pappa, M; Mellou, S; Kostourou, A; Papageorgiou, E; Raptis, S A

2000-02-01

138

Alpha B-crystallin correlates with poor survival in colorectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Alpha B-crystallin (CRYAB) is primarily found as major structural proteins of the ocular lens and is a principal member of the small heat shock protein (HSP) family. So far, CRYAB has been suggested to play critical roles in the development of several kinds of human cancers. However, the association between CRYAB expression and clinicopathological characteristics of colorectal cancer (CRC) has not been elucidated yet. In the present study, one-step quantitative PCR reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis of 18 samples of CRC and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis with 100 cases of CRC sample in tissue microarrays (TMA) were employed to evaluate the expression of CRYAB in CRC. The results suggested that CRYAB expression in the mRNA and protein levels was significantly higher in CRC tissues than in corresponding non-cancerous tissues (P < 0.05 and P = 0.014, respectively). The expression of CRYAB protein in CRC was significantly associated with distant metastasis (P = 0.040) and overall survival (P = 0.003). Kaplan-Meier method and multivariate survival analysis indicated that high expression of CRYAB (P = 0.040) and distant metastasis (P = 0.005) showed significant correlations with poor prognosis of CRC patients. The data imply that CRYAB expression is correlated with substantial clinical characteristics of CRC, and it may be identified as an unfavorable prognostic factor for CRC. PMID:25337251

Shi, Chuanbing; He, Zhenyu; Hou, Ning; Ni, Yijiang; Xiong, Lin; Chen, Pingsheng

2014-01-01

139

Prognostic value of HER2-positive circulating tumor cells in patients with metastatic breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Backgrounds  The presence of ?5 circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in 7.5 ml blood is a poor prognostic marker in metastatic breast cancer\\u000a (MBC). However, the role of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status in CTCs is not known.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We prospectively assessed the prognostic value of this parameter for patients with MBC who started a new line of systemic\\u000a therapy. The

Naoki Hayashi; Seigo Nakamura; Yasuharu Tokuda; Yuji Shimoda; Hiroshi Yagata; Atsushi Yoshida; Hidekazu Ota; Gabriel N. Hortobagyi; Massimo Cristofanilli; Naoto T. Ueno

140

Prognostic factors in retroperitoneal fibrosis  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study is to evaluate effective prognostic factors in the evolution of patients with retroperitoneal fibrosis and to establish the validity of fractal analysis in determining the disease severity in these patients. Material and Methods: This study included 19 patients (M/F: 5/14) treated for idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis and bilateral obstructive renal failure between Jan 2004–Dec 2008. Patients were identified retrospectively, searching for patients diagnosed with IRF, after retroperitoneal biopsy or, in most cases the diagnosis rested on radiological findings, especially CT, with identification of a retroperitoneal mass, the absence of other demonstrable renal or ureteric disease or any other pathology that could explain the findings. CT was very useful in describing the retroperitoneal mass around the aorta and inferior vena cava, the extent of the lesion and for monitoring the response to surgical treatment during the follow–up. The data were evaluated about medical history, physical examination findings, laboratory tests (serum urea and creatinine, blood sugar, sodium, potassium, bicarbonate levels, serum pH, uric acid, haematocrit, white blood cell count), imaging methods (renal ultrasound, abdominal CT–scan, MRI). At admission all patients had active disease with obstructive renal failure and underwent bilateral ureteric stenting in order to normalize the BUN levels. After normalizing of BUN levels, ureterolysis and omental wrapping was performed. Postoperatively, ureteric stents were removed after 1 month and remission of renal disfunction was obtained in approximately 5 months (range 2–10 months). All patients were followed for at least 1 year. Patients were regularly checked every 3 months. Results: Of the 19 patients, there were 5 men and 14 women. The median age at diagnosis of RF was 50 years (range 42–64 years). The most frequent presenting symptoms were back or abdominal pain, weakness, weight loss, oligoanuria, arterial hypertension and mild fever. The duration of symptoms before diagnosis ranged from 6 to 18 months. At presentation all patients had active disease, presenting renal dysfunction with a median serum creatinine of 5.18 mg/dl (range 1–15.4 mg/dl). Most of the patients had moderate bilateral hydronephrosis (2nd degree hydronephrosis). In our study, all patients had excellent prognosis, with full recovery of renal function in 78% of cases (15 patients). The fractal dimension of the fibrosis mass contour correlates with level of renal function impairment. Even more, the fractal dimension seems to slightly variate between CT evaluations (1.30±0.1), suggesting a non aggressive pattern of extension of the fibrotic mass characteristic for benign lesions. Conclusions: The imaging parameters did not predict the disease severity, except the increase in fractal dimension of fibrosis surface area. Efficacy of bilateral ureteric stenting in improving renal function is limited in most of the cases. Dispite the level of renal function impairment at admission, full recovery can be achieved after bilateral ureteric stenting/nephrostomy and ureterolisis. PMID:20302193

Sinescu, I; Mirvald, C; Chibelean, C; Gîngu, C; Avram, D; Hîrza, M; Manu, M; Lazar, R; Savu, C; Udrea, A

2010-01-01

141

Nottingham Prognostic Index in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: a reliable prognostic tool?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  A breast cancer prognostic tool should ideally be applicable to all types of invasive breast lesions. A number of studies\\u000a have shown histopathological grade to be an independent prognostic factor in breast cancer, adding prognostic power to nodal\\u000a stage and tumour size. The Nottingham Prognostic Index has been shown to accurately predict patient outcome in stratified\\u000a groups with a follow-up

André Albergaria; Sara Ricardo; Fernanda Milanezi; Vítor Carneiro; Isabel Amendoeira; Daniella Vieira; Jorge Cameselle-Teijeiro; Fernando Schmitt

2011-01-01

142

Expression of Lewis X is associated with poor prognosis in triple-negative breast cancer.  

PubMed

The Lewis X (Le(X)) antigen is a prognostic marker in certain solid tumors and has been proposed as a therapeutic target. Immunohistochemical analyses were performed to retrospectively examine the prognostic impact of Le(X) expression in 158 patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Twenty-three (14.5%) patients were Le(X)-positive. Multivariate analysis showed that Le(X) positivity was an independent poor prognostic factor for recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) (P = .037 and P = .024, respectively). Le(X) expression was a prognostic factor for survival in stage I/II and stage III TNBCs. Subgroup analysis according to age showed that Le(X) positivity was only associated with poor RFS and OS in younger patients with TNBC (age < 50 years) (P < .001 and P < .001, respectively). Our results suggest that Le(X) expression is an independent prognostic factor for RFS and OS in younger patients with TNBC. PMID:23690116

Koh, Young Wha; Lee, Hee Jin; Ahn, Jin-Hee; Lee, Jong Won; Gong, Gyungyub

2013-06-01

143

Distilling the Verification Process for Prognostics Algorithms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of prognostics and health management (PHM) systems is to ensure system safety, and reduce downtime and maintenance costs. It is important that a PHM system is verified and validated before it can be successfully deployed. Prognostics algorithms are integral parts of PHM systems. This paper investigates a systematic process of verification of such prognostics algorithms. To this end, first, this paper distinguishes between technology maturation and product development. Then, the paper describes the verification process for a prognostics algorithm as it moves up to higher maturity levels. This process is shown to be an iterative process where verification activities are interleaved with validation activities at each maturation level. In this work, we adopt the concept of technology readiness levels (TRLs) to represent the different maturity levels of a prognostics algorithm. It is shown that at each TRL, the verification of a prognostics algorithm depends on verifying the different components of the algorithm according to the requirements laid out by the PHM system that adopts this prognostics algorithm. Finally, using simplified examples, the systematic process for verifying a prognostics algorithm is demonstrated as the prognostics algorithm moves up TRLs.

Roychoudhury, Indranil; Saxena, Abhinav; Celaya, Jose R.; Goebel, Kai

2013-01-01

144

Trace elements as tumor biomarkers and prognostic factors in breast cancer: a study through energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence  

PubMed Central

Background The application and better understanding of traditional and new breast tumor biomarkers and prognostic factors are increasing due to the fact that they are able to identify individuals at high risk of breast cancer, who may benefit from preventive interventions. Also, biomarkers can make possible for physicians to design an individualized treatment for each patient. Previous studies showed that trace elements (TEs) determined by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) techniques are found in significantly higher concentrations in neoplastic breast tissues (malignant and benign) when compared with normal tissues. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of TEs, determined by the use of the Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) technique, as biomarkers and prognostic factors in breast cancer. Methods By using EDXRF, we determined Ca, Fe, Cu, and Zn trace elements concentrations in 106 samples of normal and breast cancer tissues. Cut-off values for each TE were determined through Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis from the TEs distributions. These values were used to set the positive or negative expression. This expression was subsequently correlated with clinical prognostic factors through Fisher’s exact test and chi-square test. Kaplan Meier survival curves were also evaluated to assess the effect of the expression of TEs in the overall patient survival. Results Concentrations of TEs are higher in neoplastic tissues (malignant and benign) when compared with normal tissues. Results from ROC analysis showed that TEs can be considered a tumor biomarker because, after establishing a cut-off value, it was possible to classify different tissues as normal or neoplastic, as well as different types of cancer. The expression of TEs was found statistically correlated with age and menstrual status. The survival curves estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method showed that patients with positive expression for Cu presented a poor overall survival (p?prognostic factors for breast cancer. The element copper also showed statistical correlation with overall survival. PMID:22534013

2012-01-01

145

A novel prognostic factor for hepatocellular carcinoma: protein disulfide isomerase  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) has been implicated in the survival and progression of some cancer cells, by compensating for endoplasmic reticulum stress by upregulating the protein-folding capacity. However, its prognostic role in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not been investigated. Methods We collected HCC tissues from 83 HCC patients who underwent surgical resection for an immunohistochemical study of PDI. Overall survival (OS) was measured from the date of surgical resection until the date of death from any cause. Radiological progression was evaluated using the modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors in an independent radiological assessment. Results PDI expression was found to be increased in human HCC compared to adjacent nontumor tissues. Increased immunopositivity for PDI was associated with a high Edmondson-Steiner grade (p = 0.028). Univariate analysis of patients who had undergone surgical resection for HCC showed that tumor PDI upregulation is a significant risk factor for poor OS (p = 0.016; hazard ratio [HR], 1.980) and time to progression (TTP; p = 0.007; HR, 1.971). Multivariate analyses revealed that high PDI expression was an independent predictor of a shorter TTP (p = 0.015; HR, 1.865) and poor OS (p = 0.012; HR, 2.069). Conclusions Upregulated PDI expression is associated with aggressive clinicopathological features of HCC; thus, PDI might serve as an independent prognostic factor and a potential therapeutic target for HCC patients. PMID:25228833

Yu, Su Jong; Won, Jae-Kyung; Ryu, Han Suk; Choi, Won-Mook; Cho, Hyeki; Cho, Eun-Ju; Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Kim, Yoon Jun; Suh, Kyung-Suk; Jang, Ja-June; Kim, Chung Yong; Lee, Hyo-Suk; Cho, Kwang-Hyun

2014-01-01

146

Germline BRCA Mutations Are Associated With Higher Risk of Nodal Involvement, Distant Metastasis, and Poor Survival Outcomes in Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose To analyze the baseline clinicopathologic characteristics of prostate tumors with germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutations and the prognostic value of those mutations on prostate cancer (PCa) outcomes. Patients and Methods This study analyzed the tumor features and outcomes of 2,019 patients with PCa (18 BRCA1 carriers, 61 BRCA2 carriers, and 1,940 noncarriers). The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analysis were used to evaluate the associations between BRCA1/2 status and other PCa prognostic factors with overall survival (OS), cause-specific OS (CSS), CSS in localized PCa (CSS_M0), metastasis-free survival (MFS), and CSS from metastasis (CSS_M1). Results PCa with germline BRCA1/2 mutations were more frequently associated with Gleason ? 8 (P = .00003), T3/T4 stage (P = .003), nodal involvement (P = .00005), and metastases at diagnosis (P = .005) than PCa in noncarriers. CSS was significantly longer in noncarriers than in carriers (15.7 v 8.6 years, multivariable analyses [MVA] P = .015; hazard ratio [HR] = 1.8). For localized PCa, 5-year CSS and MFS were significantly higher in noncarriers (96% v 82%; MVA P = .01; HR = 2.6%; and 93% v 77%; MVA P = .009; HR = 2.7, respectively). Subgroup analyses confirmed the poor outcomes in BRCA2 patients, whereas the role of BRCA1 was not well defined due to the limited size and follow-up in this subgroup. Conclusion Our results confirm that BRCA1/2 mutations confer a more aggressive PCa phenotype with a higher probability of nodal involvement and distant metastasis. BRCA mutations are associated with poor survival outcomes and this should be considered for tailoring clinical management of these patients. PMID:23569316

Castro, Elena; Goh, Chee; Olmos, David; Saunders, Ed; Leongamornlert, Daniel; Tymrakiewicz, Malgorzata; Mahmud, Nadiya; Dadaev, Tokhir; Govindasami, Koveela; Guy, Michelle; Sawyer, Emma; Wilkinson, Rosemary; Ardern-Jones, Audrey; Ellis, Steve; Frost, Debra; Peock, Susan; Evans, D. Gareth; Tischkowitz, Marc; Cole, Trevor; Davidson, Rosemarie; Eccles, Diana; Brewer, Carole; Douglas, Fiona; Porteous, Mary E.; Donaldson, Alan; Dorkins, Huw; Izatt, Louise; Cook, Jackie; Hodgson, Shirley; Kennedy, M. John; Side, Lucy E.; Eason, Jacqueline; Murray, Alex; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Easton, Douglas F.; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Eeles, Rosalind

2013-01-01

147

HMGA2 is associated with epithelial–mesenchymal transition and can predict poor prognosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Objective High-mobility group protein 2 (HMGA2) and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated proteins play key roles in cancer progression and metastasis. However, the clinical significance of HMGA2 and its relationship with EMT markers in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is unclear. This study aimed to assess the clinicopathological significance and prognostic value of HMGA2, E-cadherin, and vimentin in NPC. Methods Using immunohistochemistry, HMGA2, E-cadherin, and vimentin expression levels were evaluated in NPC (n=124) and non-tumoral inflammatory nasopharynx (n=20) tissues. The association of HMGA2 and EMT markers with clinicopathological characteristics and relationships between the protein levels and overall survival were analyzed. Results Compared with non-tumorous tissues, HMGA2 and vimentin levels were markedly increased in NPC tissues, whereas decreased E-cadherin levels were observed (P<0.001). Moreover, HMGA2 expression was positively correlated with vimentin levels (r=0.431, P<0.001) and negatively correlated with E-cadherin amounts (r=?0.413, P<0.001) in NPC tissues. The expression of all three proteins correlated significantly with tumor N stage, TNM stage, and 2-year metastasis. Furthermore, significant correlations were found for T stage, N stage, TNM stage, HMGA2, E-cadherin, and vimentin (all P<0.013) with poor prognosis (univariate analysis). However, multivariate analyses showed that only HMGA2 (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.683, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.185–6.077, P=0.018) and N stage (HR: 7.892, 95% CI: 2.731–22.807, P<0.001) were independent predictors of poor prognosis. Conclusion These results demonstrated that HMGA2, an independent prognostic factor, may promote NPC progression and metastasis, and is significantly associated with EMT proteins. Therefore, HMGA2 may be considered a potential therapeutic target in NPC.

Xia, You-You; Yin, Li; Tian, Hao; Guo, Wen-Jie; Jiang, Ning; Jiang, Xue-Song; Wu, Jing; Chen, Meng; Wu, Jian-Zhong; He, Xia

2015-01-01

148

Phosphorylated p38, a negative prognostic biomarker, complements TNM staging prognostication in colorectal cancer.  

PubMed

Phosphorylated p38 (p-p38) played a pivotal role in the regulation of disease progression and correlated with tumor prognosis. Here, we characterized the prognostic effect of p-p38 in colorectal cancer (CRC). Three hundred and sixteen CRC patients in stages I-III were recruited in this study. P-p38 expression was semi-quantitatively evaluated using tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry staining. Overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), local failure-free survival (LFFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) of patient subgroups, segregated by p-p38 expression level and clinical stage, were compared using Kaplan-Meier analysis. We found that p-p38 was overexpressed in 48.1 % (152/316) CRC tissues, whereas low or deficiently expressed in normal adjacent epithelia. Overexpression of p-p38 predicted poor OS (P?prognostic factor for CRC. Complementing TNM staging with p-p38 might refine the risk definition more accurately for a subset of patients. PMID:25056534

Fan, Xin-Juan; Wan, Xiang-Bo; Fu, Xin-Hui; Wu, Pei-Huang; Chen, Dian-Ke; Wang, Pu-Ning; Jiang, Li; Wang, Dao-Hai; Chen, Zhi-Ting; Huang, Yan; Wang, Jian-Ping; Wang, Lei

2014-10-01

149

Diagnostic and prognostic significance of serum miR-24-3p in HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to explore the diagnostic and prognostic value of serum microRNAs (miRNAs) in hepatitis B viral (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We retrospectively analyzed clinical data of 84 consecutive patients with HBV-related HCC who underwent curative resection. Additionally, we enrolled 46 healthy controls and 31 patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). Serum levels of miR-155-5p, miR-24-3p, miR-490-3p, miR-210-3p, and miR-335-5p were measured. Associations of serum miRNAs with clinicopathological factors were evaluated. Receiver operating characteristic curves were established for discriminating HCC patients from CLD patients, and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were examined by the Kaplan-Meier method. Prognostic factors were determined by multivariate Cox analysis. Consequently, serum miR-24-3p levels were significantly greater in HCC patients than healthy controls and CLD patients. Serum miR-24-3p was significantly associated with vascular invasion in HCC patients. Serum miR-24-3p discriminated HCC patients from CLD, with an AUC of 0.636 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.524-0.748]. Combined serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and miR-24-3p had an increased AUC of 0.834 (95 % CI 0.745-0.923; P < 0.001). Elevated serum miR-24-3p was an independent poor prognostic factor for OS and DFS of HCC patients. In conclusion, the combination of serum miR-24-3p and AFP improves the diagnostic accuracy for HCC prediction compared to each biomarker alone. High serum miR-24-3p level is an independent predictor of poor OS and DFS in patients with HBV-related HCC. PMID:25129312

Meng, Fan-Long; Wang, Wei; Jia, Wei-Dong

2014-09-01

150

Reduced NKX2.1 Expression Predicts Poor Prognosis of Gastric Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Thyroid transcription factor-1 (NKX2.1/TITF-1) is a member of the thyroid tissue-specific transcription factor family that has been proven to be closely associated with many human diseases. Recently, it was reported that NKX2.1 expression is lost or reduced in some human cancers such as lung cancer and thyroid cancer. However, there was insufficient data to suggest that NKX2.1 functionality could be used as a prognostic factor. Therefore, this study aims to investigate NKX2.1 expression and its prognostic significance in primary gastric carcinoma. Then, we attempted to investigate if NKX2.1 expression was related to the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of gastric carcinoma (GC)patients. The expression levels of NKX2.1 were analyzed in tissue samples from 205 gastric carcinoma patients by real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR), Western blotting, and immunohistochemical staining(IHC). Our qRT-PCR results showed that the expression of NKX2.1 mRNA was reduced in tumor tissue samples compared with that in matched adjacent non-tumor tissue samples (P<0.001); this finding was confirmed by Western blot analysis (P<0.001). Our immunohistochemical staining data indicated that NKX2.1 expression was significantly decreased in 87 of 205 (42.4%) gastric carcinoma cases. Kaplan-Meier survival curves revealed that the decreased expression of NKX2.1 was significantly associated with poor prognosis in gastric carcinoma patients (P<0.001). Multivariate Cox analysis identified NKX2.1 expression as an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (P?=?0.005). Furthermore, the functions of Nkx2.1 were analyzed with respect to the proliferation, migration, and invasion of GC cell lines. Our data suggest that NKX2.1 may function as a tumor suppressor in primary gastric carcinoma and that its reduced expression independently predicts an unsatisfactory prognosis in gastric carcinoma patients. PMID:25478793

Chen, Yong-Ming; Huang, Chun-Yu; Li, Yuan-Fang

2014-01-01

151

Hybrid Bearing Prognostic Test Rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Glenn Research Center has developed a new Hybrid Bearing Prognostic Test Rig to evaluate the performance of sensors and algorithms in predicting failures of rolling element bearings for aeronautics and space applications. The failure progression of both conventional and hybrid (ceramic rolling elements, metal races) bearings can be tested from fault initiation to total failure. The effects of different lubricants on bearing life can also be evaluated. Test conditions monitored and recorded during the test include load, oil temperature, vibration, and oil debris. New diagnostic research instrumentation will also be evaluated for hybrid bearing damage detection. This paper summarizes the capabilities of this new test rig.

Dempsey, Paula J.; Certo, Joseph M.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Dimofte, Florin

2005-01-01

152

Prognostic impact of p16 and p21 on gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors  

PubMed Central

Aberrant expression of the cell cycle kinase inhibitors, p16 and p21, has been associated with poor prognosis in a number of human malignancies. These proteins may also be involved in the development and progression of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs). The present study aimed to investigate protein levels of p16 and p21 in GEP-NETs and to evaluate their clinical significance. p16 and p21 protein expression was tested immunohistochemically in the tissue samples of 68 GEP-NETs. The association between expression and clinicopathological characteristics and overall survival was assessed. Low expression of p16 (no positive nuclear staining) was found in 37 (54%) cases and high p21 expression (?5% positive nuclear staining) was detected in 23 (34%) cases. Low p16 protein levels indicated a poorer prognosis for patients graded as G2 subgroup in the univariate analysis (relative risk, 4.4; 95% CI, 1.8–10.6). No significant correlation was found between the expression of p21 and any of the clinicopathological variables. The present study indicates a prognostic relevance for p16 immunoreactivity. Low levels of p16 protein were associated with a shorter survival in the G2 subgroup of GEP-NETs. p21 protein expression was not identified to be useful as a predictive indicator in GEP-NETs. PMID:24260058

LIU, SHUZHENG; CHANG, YUXI; MA, JIE; LI, XU; LI, XIAOHONG; FAN, JINHU; HUANG, RONG; DUAN, GUANGCAI; SUN, XIBIN

2013-01-01

153

A population based analysis of prognostic factors in advanced biliary tract cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Data regarding prognostic factors in advanced biliary tract cancer (BTC) remains scarce. The aim of this study was to review our institutional experience with cisplatin and gemcitabine in advanced BTC as well as to evaluate potential prognostic factors for overall survival (OS). Material and methods Consecutive patients with advanced BTC who initiated palliative chemotherapy with cisplatin and gemcitabine from 2009 to 2012 at the BC Cancer Agency were identified using the pharmacy database. Clinicopathologic variables and treatment outcome were retrospectively collected. Potential prognostic factors were assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results A total of 106 patients were included in the analysis. Median OS was 8.5 months (95% CI: 6.5-10.5). On univariate analysis, poor ECOG performance status (ECOG PS) at diagnosis, primary tumor location (extra-hepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and unknown biliary cancer), and sites of advanced disease (extra-hepatic metastasis) were significantly associated with worse OS (P<0.001, 0.036 and 0.034, respectively). Age, gender, CA19-9, CEA, hemoglobin, neutrophil count, and prior stent were not significantly associated with OS. On multivariate analysis, ECOG PS 2/3 was the only predictor of poor OS (P<0.001), while primary location (P=0.089) and sites of advanced disease (P=0.079) had a non-significant trend towards prognostic significance. Conclusions In this population based analysis, a poorer performance status was significantly prognostic of worse OS. Although not significant in our analysis, primary tumor location and sites of advanced disease may also have prognostic relevance. PMID:25436121

Renouf, Daniel; Lim, Howard

2014-01-01

154

Prognostic health management for avionic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maintenance of aircraft electronic systems has traditionally been performed in reaction to reported failures or through periodic system replacements. Recent changes in weapons platform acquisition and support requirements have spurred interest in application of prognostic health management (PHM) concepts developed for mechanical systems to electronic systems. The approach, development, and validation of prognostics for two types of electronic equipment are

Rolf F. Orsagh; Douglas W. Brown; Patrick W. Kalgren; Carl S. Byington; Andrew J. Hess; Thomas Dabney

2006-01-01

155

Distributed Prognostics based on Structural Model Decomposition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Within systems health management, prognostics focuses on predicting the remaining useful life of a system. In the model-based prognostics paradigm, physics-based models are constructed that describe the operation of a system and how it fails. Such approaches consist of an estimation phase, in which the health state of the system is first identified, and a prediction phase, in which the health state is projected forward in time to determine the end of life. Centralized solutions to these problems are often computationally expensive, do not scale well as the size of the system grows, and introduce a single point of failure. In this paper, we propose a novel distributed model-based prognostics scheme that formally describes how to decompose both the estimation and prediction problems into independent local subproblems whose solutions may be easily composed into a global solution. The decomposition of the prognostics problem is achieved through structural decomposition of the underlying models. The decomposition algorithm creates from the global system model a set of local submodels suitable for prognostics. Independent local estimation and prediction problems are formed based on these local submodels, resulting in a scalable distributed prognostics approach that allows the local subproblems to be solved in parallel, thus offering increases in computational efficiency. Using a centrifugal pump as a case study, we perform a number of simulation-based experiments to demonstrate the distributed approach, compare the performance with a centralized approach, and establish its scalability. Index Terms-model-based prognostics, distributed prognostics, structural model decomposition ABBREVIATIONS

Daigle, Matthew J.; Bregon, Anibal; Roychoudhury, I.

2014-01-01

156

Utility of Hippocrates’ prognostic aphorism to predict death in the modern era: prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine if one of Hippocrates’ aphorisms, identifying good cognition and good appetite as two prognostic factors, predicts death in community living older adults in the modern era. Design Secondary analysis of an existing population based cohort study. Setting Manitoba Study of Health and Aging. Participants 1751 community living adults aged more than 65 enrolled in the Manitoba Study of Health and Aging in 1991 and followed over five years. Main outcome measure Time to death. Methods We recreated the hippocratic prognosticator using an item that measures appetite drawn from the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-depression subscale, and the mini-mental state examination, with a score of >25 being considered as normal. People with normal cognition and appetite were compared with those with either poor cognition or poor appetite. We constructed Cox regression models, adjusted for age, sex, education, and functional status. Results The prognostic aphorism predicted death, with an unadjusted hazard ratio of 2.37 (95% confidence interval 1.93 to 2.88) and a hazard ratio of 1.71 (1.37 to 2.12) adjusted for age, sex, and education. Both poor appetite and poor cognition predicted death. The sensitivity and specificity were not, however, sufficient for the measure to be used alone. Conclusion An aphorism devised by Hippocrates millennia ago can predict death in the modern era. PMID:25512328

Montgomery, Patrick R

2014-01-01

157

Monocarboxylate Transporters 1–4 in NSCLC: MCT1 Is an Independent Prognostic Marker for Survival  

PubMed Central

Introduction Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) 1–4 are lactate transporters crucial for cancers cells adaption to upregulated glycolysis. Herein, we aimed to explore their prognostic impact on disease-specific survival (DSS) in both cancer and tumor stromal cells in NSCLC. Methods Tissue micro arrays (TMAs) were constructed, representing both cancer and stromal tumor tissue from 335 unselected patients diagnosed with stage I–IIIA NSCLC. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the expression of MCT1-4. Results In univariate analyses; ?MCT1 (P?=?0.021) and ?MCT4 (P?=?0.027) expression in cancer cells, and ?MCT1 (P?=?0.003), ?MCT2 (P?=?0.006), ?MCT3 (P?=?0.020) expression in stromal cells correlated significantly with a poor DSS. In multivariate analyses; ?MCT1 expression in cancer cells (HR: 1.9, CI 95%: 1.3–2.8, P?=?0.001), ?MCT2 (HR: 2.4, CI 95%: 1.5–3.9, P<0.001), ?MCT3 (HR: 1.9, CI 95%: 1.1–3.5, P?=?0.031) and ?MCT1 expression in stromal cells (HR: 1.7, CI 95%: 1.1–2.7, P?=?0.016) were significant independent poor prognostic markers for DSS. Conclusions We provide novel information of MCT1 as a candidate marker for prognostic stratification in NSCLC. Interestingly, MCT1 shows diverging, independent prognostic impact in the cancer cell and stromal cell compartments. PMID:25225794

Eilertsen, Marte; Andersen, Sigve; Al-Saad, Samer; Kiselev, Yury; Donnem, Tom; Stenvold, Helge; Pettersen, Ingvild; Al-Shibli, Khalid; Richardsen, Elin; Busund, Lill-Tove; Bremnes, Roy M.

2014-01-01

158

Prognostic significance of karyotype in de novo adult acute myeloid leukemia. The BGMT group.  

PubMed

A group of 201 adult patients, 127 younger and 74 older than 55 years, with de novo acute myeloid leukemia were investigated to determine the prognostic significance of karyotype on early death (toxic or aplastic death occurring before hematopoietic recovery), drug resistance, continuous complete remission (CCR) and survival probabilities at 5 years. A good prognostic impact was found for t(8;21), t(15;17) and inv(16). The best factor proved to be t(8;21) (5-year survival probability: 50%), followed by t(15;17) (5-year survival probability: 39%) and by inv(16) (5-year survival probability: 43%). An intermediate outcome was found in patients with trisomy 8 (27% alive at 5 years) and in patients with numerical abnormalities other than -7 and +8 (33% in CCR and 62% alive at 5 years). Normal karyotypes had a different prognostic impact according to age: intermediate in young and good in older patients. A poor outcome was observed among patients with del(5q)/-5 (median survival: 1 month), with 11q23 rearrangements (median survival: 1.5 months) and with del(7q)/-7 (median survival: 10 months). The 'other structural change' group was also found to be a poor risk population (5-year survival probability: 5%) whereas complex karyotypes were predictive of short survivals only in older patients. Conversely, del(7q)/-7 and +8 as secondary changes, had no prognostic impact. PMID:7658718

Dastugue, N; Payen, C; Lafage-Pochitaloff, M; Bernard, P; Leroux, D; Huguet-Rigal, F; Stoppa, A M; Marit, G; Molina, L; Michallet, M

1995-09-01

159

Diagnostic and prognostic gene expression signatures in 177 soft tissue sarcomas: hypoxia-induced transcription profile signifies metastatic potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Soft tissue sarcoma (STS) diagnosis is challenging because of a multitude of histopathological subtypes, different genetic characteristics, and frequent intratumoral pleomorphism. One-third of STS metastasize and current risk-stratification is suboptimal, therefore, novel diagnostic and prognostic markers would be clinically valuable. We assessed the diagnostic and prognostic value of array-based gene expression profiles using 27 k cDNA microarrays in 177,

Princy Francis; Heidi Maria Namløs; Christoph Müller; Patrik Edén; Josefin Fernebro; Jeanne-Marie Berner; Bodil Bjerkehagen; Måns Åkerman; Pär-Ola Bendahl; Anna Isinger; Anders Rydholm; Ola Myklebost; Mef Nilbert

2007-01-01

160

Posttreatment cut-off levels of squamous cell carcinoma antigen as a prognostic factor in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer treated with radiotherapy  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of the present study was to assess prognostic factors for patients with locally advanced cervical cancer treated with radiotherapy as the primary treatment and to assess the posttreatment cut-off levels of squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag) to predict three-year overall survival (OS) rates. Methods One hundred and twenty-eight patients with cervical squamous cell carcinoma (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics [FIGO] stage IIB-IVA) treated using radiotherapy or concurrent chemoradiotherapy were identified. Of these patients, 116 who had SCC-Ag levels >1.5 ng/mL prior to treatment were analyzed retrospectively. Results Median age was 68 years (range, 27 to 79 years). The complete response rate was 70.7% and the three-year OS rate was 61.1%. The median levels of pretreatment and posttreatment SCC-Ag were 11.5 ng/mL (range, 1.6 to 310.0 ng/mL) and 0.9 ng/mL (range, 0.4 to 41.0 ng/mL), respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that pretreatment anemia (p=0.041), pelvic lymph node metastasis (p=0.016) and posttreatment SCC-Ag levels (p=0.001) were independent prognostic factors for three-year OS. The SCC-Ag level cut-off point for three-year OS rates, calculated using a receiver operating characteristic curve, was 1.15 ng/mL (sensitivity, 80.0%; specificity, 74.0%). Conclusion Pretreatment anemia and pelvic lymph node metastasis are poor prognostic factors in locally advanced cervical cancer. Furthermore, posttreatment SCC-Ag levels <1.15 ng/mL predicted better three-year OS rates. PMID:24167666

Furukawa, Naoto; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Asakawa, Isao

2013-01-01

161

Cell-surface-bound circulating DNA as a prognostic factor in lung cancer.  

PubMed

Since the mortality of lung cancer patients remains very high, development of prognostic methods essential for efficient therapy is an immediate task. This study was designed to assess the value of circulating DNA (cirDNA) in blood as a prognostic marker in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. The average concentration of cirDNA in plasma was shown to be similar in healthy donors and lung cancer patients. However, the concentration of cell-surface-bound circulating DNA (csb-cirDNA) in lung cancer patients is significantly lower than that found in healthy donors (P < 0.0001) and correlates with a poor prognosis of tumor disease. Quantification of the cell-surface-bound DNA in blood of untreated patients allows persons with a poor prognosis of tumor disease to be detected with 94% sensitivity and 50% specificity. PMID:18837949

Tamkovich, Svetlana N; Litviakov, Nikolai V; Bryzgunova, Olga E; Dobrodeev, Aleksey Yu; Rykova, Elena Yu; Tuzikov, Sergey A; Zav'ialov, Aleksandr A; Vlassov, Valentin V; Cherdyntseva, Nadezhda V; Laktionov, Pavel P

2008-08-01

162

High CD133 Expression in the Nucleus and Cytoplasm Predicts Poor Prognosis in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of Prominin-1 (CD133) in cancer cells and its potential value as a prognostic indicator of survival in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods. Cancerous tissues and matched normal tissues adjacent to the carcinoma from 239 NSCLC patients were obtained immediately after surgery. Immunohistochemistry of tissue microarrays was used to characterize the expression of CD133 in NSCLC and adjacent tissues. The correlation of CD133 expression with clinical characteristics and prognosis was determined by statistical analysis. Results. CD133 protein expression levels in both the cytoplasm and nucleus were significantly higher in NSCLC tissues compared with corresponding peritumoral tissue (P < 0.05). CD133 expression in the nucleus of NSCLC cells was related to tumor diameter (P = 0.027), tumor differentiation (P < 0.001), and TNM stage (P = 0.007). Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox regression analyses revealed that high CD133 expression in the nucleus was an independent predictor of poor prognosis of NSCLC, as was high cytoplasmic CD133 expression (P < 0.001). Conclusion. Our findings provide the first evidence that high expression of CD133 in both the nucleus and cytoplasm is associated with poor prognosis in NSCLC.

Zhu, Huijun; Feng, Jian; Ni, Songshi; Huang, Jianfei

2015-01-01

163

An Integrated Approach for Gear Health Prognostics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, an integrated approach for gear health prognostics using particle filters is presented. The presented method effectively addresses the issues in applying particle filters to gear health prognostics by integrating several new components into a particle filter: (1) data mining based techniques to effectively define the degradation state transition and measurement functions using a one-dimensional health index obtained by whitening transform; (2) an unbiased l-step ahead RUL estimator updated with measurement errors. The feasibility of the presented prognostics method is validated using data from a spiral bevel gear case study.

He, David; Bechhoefer, Eric; Dempsey, Paula; Ma, Jinghua

2012-01-01

164

Implementation and evaluation of prognostic representations of the optical diameter of snow in the  

E-print Network

Implementation and evaluation of prognostic representations of the optical diameter of snow Grenoble 1, LGGE, Grenoble, France A good representation of snow metamorphism processes within snowpack models is crucial, since the characteristics of snow grains have a significant impact on many

Ribes, Aurélien

165

Remaining useful life prognostic estimation for aircraft subsystems or components: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The techniques of remaining useful life (RUL) estimation are playing a more and more important role in aircraft safety and condition based maintenance. This paper gives an overview of RUL prognostic estimation approaches applied to aircraft subsystems or components. Existing RUL estimation approaches are categorized into three types, namely model-based approaches, data-driven approaches and fusion approaches and their characteristics are

Chen Xiongzi; Yu Jinsong; Tang Diyin; Wang Yingxun

2011-01-01

166

Spinal Epidural Abscess—Experience with 46 Patients and Evaluation of Prognostic Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Spinal epidural abscess is a rare infectious disorder, often with a delayed diagnosis, and associated with significant morbidity and mortality rates. We conducted a retrospective study to define its clinical characteristics and to evaluate its prognostic factors.Methods: The medical charts of 46 patients (36 men and 10 women) with spinal epidural abscess over a 10-year period (from July 1991

H.-J. Tang; H.-J. Lin; Y.-C. Liu; C.-M. Li

2002-01-01

167

Differential Prognostic Indicators for Locoregional Recurrence, Distant Recurrence, and Death of Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Objective. To explore prognostic characteristics for locoregional recurrence, distant recurrence, and mortality in patients with breast cancer. Methods. A 5-year retrospective review of patients was conducted in two university affiliated hospitals in the north of Thailand. Prognostic characteristics and clinical outcomes were retrieved from medical registry. Death was verified by the civil database from the Ministry of Interior, direct telephone contact, or by prepaid postcard. Data were analyzed by stratified Cox's regression proposed by Lunn & McNeil, in which multiple-typed outcomes were analyzed in a single multivariable model. Results. The assembled cohort comprised 829 patients. Under the multivariable analysis, 7 prognostic characteristics were significant prognostic indicators. Positive axillary lymph nodes >3 and presence of lymphovascular invasion (LVI) increased locoregional recurrence, while disease stage 3, positive axillary lymph nodes >3, and radiotherapy increase distant recurrence. Hormonal therapy reduced the distant recurrence. Pathological tumor size >2?cm, disease stage 3, positive axillary lymph nodes >3, and presence of LVI increased, while hormonal therapy and chemotherapy reduced death. Conclusions. Clinical characteristic reflecting tumor invasions increased locoregional recurrence, distant recurrence, or death, while hormonal therapy and chemotherapy reduced such risks. The effect of radiation remained inconclusive but may increase the risk of distant recurrence. PMID:24377049

Puttisri, Adisorn; Pamarapa, Asani; Moollaor, Jirause; Tawichasri, Chamaiporn

2013-01-01

168

Clinicopathological and prognostic significance of circulating tumor cells in patients with gastric cancer: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

The prognostic significance of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) in patients with gastric cancer (GC) is controversial. The aims of our meta-analysis are to assess its correlation with clinicopathological characteristics and prognostic significance in GC. PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane database, the Science citation index, the CNKI database and the references of relevant studies were systematically searched (up to November, 2013). Using the random-effect model, the meta-analysis was completed with odds ratio (OR), risk ratio, hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) as effect values. Twenty-six studies containing 2,566 patients with GC were analyzed. The overall analysis showed that the incidence difference of tumor cells (CTCs/DTCs) was significant when comparing the stage I/II group to the stage III/IV group (OR = 0.36, CI [0.23, 0.56]), the Lauren diffuse group to the intestinal group (OR = 2.06, CI [1.06, 4.00]), the poorly differentiated group to the well/moderate group (OR = 1.65, CI [1.10, 2.50]), the lymphatic involvement positive group to the positive group (OR = 2.92, CI [1.00, 8.55]). The detection of CTCs/DTCs was significantly related with the disease-free survival of patients (HR = 3.42, CI [2.39, 4.91]) and the detection of CTCs in peripheral blood was significantly related with the overall survival of patients (HR = 2.13, CI [1.13, 4.03]). Our meta-analysis indicates that detection of CTCs/DTCs is associated with prognosis for patients with GC and thus could act as a basis for GC staging. PMID:24803400

Huang, Xuanzhang; Gao, Peng; Sun, Jingxu; Chen, Xiaowan; Song, Yongxi; Zhao, Junhua; Xu, Huimian; Wang, Zhenning

2015-01-01

169

Serum peptidomic profiling identifies a minimal residual disease detection and prognostic biomarker for patients with acute leukemia  

PubMed Central

The evaluation of minimal residual disease (MRD) in acute leukemia (AL) is currently recognized as a potential critical tool to assess the response and relapse rate of treatments. The present study investigated serum peptides from patients with AL to identify biomarkers that would be useful in providing clinical evaluations and independent prognostic information. The patterns of serum peptides from 123 patients with AL and 49 healthy controls were analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Furthermore, diagnostic models of differential peptides were established using the support vector machine (SVM) algorithm to discriminate between the AL patients and healthy controls or between the AL patients with various degrees of remission. Finally, the peptides were applied to evaluate the prognosis of the affected patients. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC), analyzed using the SVM algorithm to distinguish between the AL patients and healthy controls, was 0.921. The AUC of the models for distinguishing between the newly-diagnosed AL patients and those in AL-hematological complete remission (HCR) and between the AL-HCR patients from those in AL-molecular remission (MR), was 0.824 and 0.919, respectively. A short serum peptide of m/z 4625 was identified to decrease in density in parallel with an increase in the degree of remission, which was used to monitor the MRD level. The intensity of the m/z 4625 peptide was significantly correlated with a poor overall survival (OS). The m/z 4625 peptide was identified to be a partial fragment of SERPINA3. The serum peptide pattern is high in sensitivity and specificity and may be used to discriminate between AL patients with various degrees of remission. The m/z 4625 peptide may be used to monitor the MRD levels and provide independent prognostic information in patients with AL. PMID:24179540

SONG, WEI; WANG, NA; LI, WEI; WANG, GUANJUN; HU, JIFAN; HE, KUN; LI, YAN; MENG, YING; CHEN, NAIFEI; WANG, SHAOXIN; HU, LINGYUN; XU, BIN; WANG, JIE; LI, AILING; CUI, JIUWEI

2013-01-01

170

Midkine as a prognostic biomarker in oral squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate serum midkine (S-MK) concentrations as a prognostic tumour marker in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We measured S-MK concentrations in patients with OSCC and healthy volunteers. In addition, we performed real-time quantitative reverse transcription–PCR analysis and immunohistochemistry with fresh tumour samples. To determine whether S-MK concentrations have prognostic value, we performed survival analyses with clinical information by using the log-rank test. Serum midkine concentrations were significantly higher in patients with OSCC than in healthy controls (P<0.001). Serum midkine concentrations were also significantly increased in early-stage OSCC compared with those of healthy individuals (P<0.001). In addition, immunohistochemistry allowed identification of overexpressed MK protein in OSCC tissues. MK mRNA showed higher expression in OSCC samples compared with normal mucosal samples. Patients in high S-MK groups showed a significantly lower 5-year survival rate compared with patients in low S-MK groups (P<0.05). The increased S-MK concentrations in early-stage OSCC were strongly associated with poor survival. Serum midkine concentrations may thus be a useful marker not only for cancer screening but also for predicting prognosis of OSCC patients. PMID:18682710

Ota, K; Fujimori, H; Ueda, M; Shiniriki, S; Kudo, M; Jono, H; Fukuyoshi, Y; Yamamoto, Y; Sugiuchi, H; Iwase, H; Shinohara, M; Ando, Y

2008-01-01

171

Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarkers in Melanoma  

PubMed Central

Melanoma is a lethal melanocytic neoplasm. Unfortunately, the histological diagnosis can be difficult at times. Distinguishing ambiguous melanocytic neoplasms that are benign nevi from those that represent true melanoma is important both for treatment and prognosis. Diagnostic biomarkers currently used to assist in the diagnosis of melanoma are usually specific only for melanocytic neoplasms and not necessarily for their ability to metastasize. Traditional prognostic biomarkers include depth of invasion and mitotic count. Newer diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers utilize immunohistochemical staining as well as ribonucleic acid, micro-ribonucleic acid, and deoxyribonucleic acid assays and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Improved diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers are of increasing importance in the treatment of melanoma with the development of newer and more targeted therapies. Herein, the authors review many of the common as well as newer diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers used in melanoma. PMID:25013535

Leininger, Jennifer; Hamby, Carl; Safai, Bijan

2014-01-01

172

Prognostic Significance of DNA and Histone Methylation  

Cancer.gov

Nutritional Science Research Group Recently Funded Projects Prognostic Significance of DNA and Histone Methylation Principal Investigator: Piyathilake, Chandrika J Institution: University of Alabama at Birmingham   NCI/DCP Program Director: Ross, Sharon

173

Clinical Characteristics of Labyrinthine Concussion  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Inner ear symptoms like hearing loss, dizziness or tinnitus are often developed after head trauma, even in cases without inner ear destruction. This is also known as labyrinthine concussion. The purpose of this study is to determine the clinical manifestations, characteristics of audiometry and prognostic factors of these patients. Materials and Methods We reviewed the medical records of the 40 patients that had been diagnosed as labyrinthine concussion from 1996 to 2007. We studied the hearing levels in each frequency and classified them according to type and degree of hearing loss. Rates of hearing improvement were evaluated according to age, sex, hearing loss type, degree and presence of dizziness or tinnitus. To find out any correlation between hearing improvement and these factors, we used ?2 test or Fisher's exact test. Results Bilateral hearing loss was observed in 22 patients, and unilateral hearing loss in 18 patients. There were 4 (6.5%) ascending, 34 (54.8%) descending, 24 (38.7%) flat type hearing loss, which indicated hearing loss was greater in high frequencies than low frequencies. Among 62 affected ears, 20 (32.3%) gained improvement, and it was achieved mainly in low frequencies. There were only 2 ears with dizziness in 20 improved ears and among 20 dizziness accompanied ears, also only 2 ears were improved. Conclusions High frequencies are more vulnerable to trauma than low frequencies. The hearing gain is obtained mainly in low frequencies, and association with dizziness serves poor prognosis. PMID:24653897

Choi, Mi Suk; Yeon, Je Yeob; Choi, Young Seok; Kim, Jisung; Park, Soo Kyoung

2013-01-01

174

Serum Endocan as a Novel Prognostic Biomarker in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Endocan is a vascular endothelium-derived factor regulated by angiogenic factors. The aim of this study was to determine whether serum endocan levels are prognostic for survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Serum endocan levels were measured in 64 HCC patients who were naïve to treatment, eight apparently healthy subjects, and 68 patients with liver cirrhosis; the latter two groups served as controls. Prognostic factors for the survival of HCC patients were examined using a Cox proportional hazards model. The median serum endocan levels were 1.145 ng/mL (range, 0.93-1.68 ng/mL) in healthy subjects, 1.93 ng/mL (range, 0.45-8.47 ng/mL) in liver cirrhosis patients, and 3.73 ng/mL (range, 0.74-10.95 ng/mL) in HCC patients (P = 0.0001). In HCC patients, elevated serum endocan levels were significantly associated with poor hepatic function (P = 0.015), a greater number of tumors (P = 0.034), and vascular invasion (P = 0.043). The median follow-up period was 23.0 months, and 33 HCC patients died during follow up. Multivariate analysis showed that serum endocan levels ? 2.20 ng/mL (hazard ratio 2.36, 95% confidence interval 1.22-5.36, P = 0.008) as well as elevated serum ?-fetoprotein and des-?-carboxy prothrombin levels were independent prognostic biomarkers for poor survival. The combination of serum endocan and these two additional markers was significantly predictive of worse survival (P < 0.0001). Thus, serum endocan may be a prognostic biomarker for survival in HCC patients, and the combination of serum endocan, ?-fetoprotein, and des-?-carboxy prothrombin levels can result in better prognostic stratification of these patients. PMID:24665346

Ozaki, Kazuaki; Toshikuni, Nobuyuki; George, Joseph; Minato, Takahiro; Matsue, Yasuhiro; Arisawa, Tomiyasu; Tsutsumi, Mikihiro

2014-01-01

175

Immunohistochemical analysis of RTKs expression identified HER3 as a prognostic indicator of gastric cancer.  

PubMed

Standard treatment in Japan for the 13th Japanese Gastric Cancer Association stage II/III advanced gastric cancer is postoperative adjuvant S-1 administration after curative surgery. High expression of receptor type tyrosine kinases (RTKs) has repeatedly represented poor prognosis for cancers. However it has not been demonstrated whether RTKs have prognostic relevance for stage II/III gastric cancer with standard treatment. Tumor tissues were obtained from 167 stage II/III advanced gastric cancer patients who underwent curative surgery and received postoperative S-1 chemotherapy from 2000 to 2010. Expression of the RTKs including EGFR, HER2, HER3, IGF-1R, and EphA2 was analyzed using immunohistochemistry (IHC). Analysis using a multivariate proportional hazard model identified the most significant RTKs that represented independent prognostic relevance. When tumor HER3 expression was classified into IHC 1+/2+ (n = 98) and IHC 0 (n = 69), the cumulative 5-year Relapse Free Survival (5y-RFS) was 56.5 and 82.9%, respectively (P = 0.0034). Significant prognostic relevance was similarly confirmed for IGF-1R (P = 0.014), and EGFR (P = 0.030), but not for EphA2 or HER2 expression. Intriguingly, HER3 expression was closely correlated with IGF-1R (P < 0.0001, R = 0.41), and EphA2 (P < 0.0001, R = 0.34) expression. Multivariate proportional hazard model analysis identified HER3 (IHC 1+/2+) (HR; 1.53, 95% CI, 1.11-2.16, P = 0.0078) as the sole RTK that was a poor prognostic factor independent of stage. Of the 53 patients who recurred, 40 patients (75.5%) were HER3-positive. Thus, of the RTKs studied, HER3 was the only RTK identified as an independent prognostic indicator of stage II/III advanced gastric cancer with standard treatment. PMID:25455899

Ema, Akira; Yamashita, Keishi; Ushiku, Hideki; Kojo, Ken; Minatani, Naoko; Kikuchi, Mariko; Mieno, Hiroaki; Moriya, Hiromitsu; Hosoda, Kei; Katada, Natsuya; Kikuchi, Shiro; Watanabe, Masahiko

2014-12-01

176

Vehicle Integrated Prognostic Reasoner (VIPR) Metric Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document outlines a set of metrics for evaluating the diagnostic and prognostic schemes developed for the Vehicle Integrated Prognostic Reasoner (VIPR), a system-level reasoner that encompasses the multiple levels of large, complex systems such as those for aircraft and spacecraft. VIPR health managers are organized hierarchically and operate together to derive diagnostic and prognostic inferences from symptoms and conditions reported by a set of diagnostic and prognostic monitors. For layered reasoners such as VIPR, the overall performance cannot be evaluated by metrics solely directed toward timely detection and accuracy of estimation of the faults in individual components. Among other factors, overall vehicle reasoner performance is governed by the effectiveness of the communication schemes between monitors and reasoners in the architecture, and the ability to propagate and fuse relevant information to make accurate, consistent, and timely predictions at different levels of the reasoner hierarchy. We outline an extended set of diagnostic and prognostics metrics that can be broadly categorized as evaluation measures for diagnostic coverage, prognostic coverage, accuracy of inferences, latency in making inferences, computational cost, and sensitivity to different fault and degradation conditions. We report metrics from Monte Carlo experiments using two variations of an aircraft reference model that supported both flat and hierarchical reasoning.

Cornhill, Dennis; Bharadwaj, Raj; Mylaraswamy, Dinkar

2013-01-01

177

Bone Scan Index as a prognostic imaging biomarker during androgen deprivation therapy  

PubMed Central

Background Bone Scan Index (BSI) is a quantitative measurement of tumour burden in the skeleton calculated from bone scan images. When analysed at the time of diagnosis, it has been shown to provide prognostic information on survival in men with metastatic prostate cancer (PCa). In this study, we evaluated the prognostic value of BSI during androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Methods Prostate cancer patients who were at high risk of a poor outcome and who had undergone bone scan at the time of diagnosis and during ADT were recruited from two university hospitals for a retrospective study. BSI at baseline and follow-up were calculated using an automated software package (EXINIbonebsi). Associations between BSI, other prognostic biomarkers and overall survival (OS) were evaluated using a Cox proportional hazards regression model. Results One hundred forty-six PCa patients were included in the study. A total of 102 patient deaths were registered, with a median survival time after the follow-up bone scan of 2.4 years (interquartile range (IQR) =0.8 to 4.4). Both at baseline and during ADT, BSI was significantly associated with OS in univariate and multivariate analyses. When BSI was added to a prognostic base model including age, prostate-specific antigen, clinical tumour stage and Gleason score, the concordance index increased from 0.73 to 0.77 (p =0.0005) at baseline and from 0.77 to 0.82 (p <0.0001) during ADT. Conclusions Automated BSI during ADT is an independent prognostic indicator of OS in PCa patients with bone metastasis. It represents an emerging imaging biomarker that can be used in a prognostic model for risk stratification of PCa patients at the time of diagnosis and at later stages of the disease. BSI could then help physicians identify patients who could benefit from more aggressive therapies. PMID:25386390

2014-01-01

178

Surgical Outcomes and Prognostic Factors of T4 Gastric Cancer Patients without Distant Metastasis  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate surgical outcomes and prognostic factors for T4 gastric cancer treated with curative resection. Methods Between January 1994 and December 2008, 94 patients diagnosed with histological T4 gastric carcinoma and treated with curative resection were recruited. Patient characteristics, surgical complications, survival, and prognostic factors were analyzed. Results Postoperative morbidity and mortality were 18.1% and 2.1%, respectively. Multivariate analysis indicated lymph node metastasis (hazard ratio, 2.496; 95% confidence interval, 1.218–5.115; p?=?0.012) was independent prognostic factor. Conclusions For patients with T4 gastric cancer, lymph node metastasis was associated with poorer survival. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy or aggressive adjuvant chemotherapy after radical resection was strongly recommended for these patients. PMID:25211331

Xiao, Long-bin; Wu, Wen-hui; Yang, Shi-bin; Li, Wen-feng

2014-01-01

179

Classification of patients with breast cancer according to Nottingham Prognostic Index highlights significant differences in immunohistochemical marker expression  

PubMed Central

Background Prognosis and treatment of patients with breast carcinoma of no special type (NST) is dependent on a few established parameters, such as tumor size, histological grade, lymph node stage, expression of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER-2/neu, and proliferation index. The original Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI) employs a three-tiered classification system that stratifies patients with breast cancer into good, moderate, and poor prognostic groups. The aim of our study was to use robust immunohistochemical methodology for determination of ER, PR, HER-2/neu, Ki-67, p53, and Bcl-2, and to observe differences in the expression of these markers when patients are stratified according to the original, three-tiered Nottingham Prognostic Index. Methods Paraffin blocks from 120 patients diagnosed with breast carcinoma, NST, were retrieved from our archive. Cases included in the study were female patients previously treated with modified radical mastectomy and axillary dissection. Results Our study demonstrates that expression of markers of good prognosis, such as ER, PR, and Bcl-2, is seen with higher frequency in good and moderate NPI groups. In contrast, overexpression of HER-2/neu, a marker of adverse prognosis, is more frequent in moderate and poor NPI groups. High proliferation index, as measured by Ki-67, is seen in moderate and poor NPI groups, whereas low proliferation index is seen in good NPI groups. Conclusions These data confirm that the original, three-tiered NPI statistically correlates with the expression of prognostic immunohistochemical markers in breast carcinoma NST. PMID:25082024

2014-01-01

180

Educational attainment in poor comprehenders  

PubMed Central

To date, only one study has investigated educational attainment in poor (reading) comprehenders, providing evidence of poor performance on national UK school tests at age 11 years relative to peers (Cain and Oakhill, 2006). In the present study, we adopted a longitudinal approach, tracking attainment on such tests from 11 years to the end of compulsory schooling in the UK (age 16 years). We aimed to investigate the proposal that educational weaknesses (defined as poor performance on national assessments) might become more pronounced over time, as the curriculum places increasing demands on reading comprehension. Participants comprised 15 poor comprehenders and 15 controls; groups were matched for chronological age, nonverbal reasoning ability and decoding skill. Children were identified at age 9 years using standardized measures of nonverbal reasoning, decoding and reading comprehension. These measures, along with a measure of oral vocabulary knowledge, were repeated at age 11 years. Data on educational attainment were collected from all participants (n = 30) at age 11 and from a subgroup (n = 21) at 16 years. Compared to controls, educational attainment in poor comprehenders was lower at ages 11 and 16 years, an effect that was significant at 11 years. When poor comprehenders were compared to national performance levels, they showed significantly lower performance at both time points. Low educational attainment was not evident for all poor comprehenders. Nonetheless, our findings point to a link between reading comprehension difficulties in mid to late childhood and poor educational outcomes at ages 11 and 16 years. At these ages, pupils in the UK are making key transitions: they move from primary to secondary schools at 11, and out of compulsory schooling at 16. PMID:24904464

Ricketts, Jessie; Sperring, Rachael; Nation, Kate

2014-01-01

181

Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor expression is correlated with poor prognosis in patients with osteosarcoma  

PubMed Central

The prognosis of patients with osteosarcoma with distant metastasis and local recurrence remains poor. Increased expression of polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) in tumor tissue has been detected in various types of cancer. However, the clinical significance of pIgR in osteosarcoma has yet to be elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the prognostic value of pIgR in patients with osteosarcoma following surgical resection. pIgR expression was assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis in cryopreserved osteosarcoma tissues from 22 patients, as well as using immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded osteosarcoma tissues from 136 patients. The association between pIgR expression, clinicopathological factors and long-term prognosis was retrospectively examined in these 136 patients. The prognostic significance of negative or positive pIgR expression in osteosarcoma was assessed using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and log-rank tests. Univariate analysis indicated that patients with positive pIgR osteosarcoma tissue expression had a significantly worse overall survival (OS) compared with patients with negative pIgR osteosarcoma expression. Multivariate analysis revealed that positive pIgR expression in osteosarcoma tissues was an independent prognostic factor for OS following surgical resection (P<0.001). Furthermore, positive pIgR expression was significantly associated with poor prognosis in patients with osteosarcoma. These findings indicate that pIgR may be a novel predictor for poor prognosis in patients with osteosarcoma following surgical resection. PMID:24699841

WANG, XUANWEI; DU, JINGYU; GU, PENGCHENG; JIN, RILONG; LIN, XIANGJIN

2014-01-01

182

Clinical significance of cytogenetic aberrations in bone marrow of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: prognostic significance and relevance to histologic involvement  

PubMed Central

Background Although knowledge of the genetics of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has been increasing, little is known about the characteristics and prognostic significance of cytogenetic abnormalities and the clinical utility of cytogenetic studies performed on bone marrow (BM) specimens. To investigate the significance of isolated cytogenetic aberrations in the absence of histologic BM involvement, we assessed the implication of cytogenetic staging and prognostic stratification by a retrospective multicenter analysis of newly diagnosed DLBCL patients. Methods We analyzed cytogenetic and clinical data from 1585 DLBCL patients whose BM aspirates had been subjected to conventional karyotyping for staging. If available, interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) data were also collected from patients. Results Histologic BM involvement were found in 259/1585 (16.3%) patients and chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 192 (12.1%) patients (54 patients with single abnormalities and 138 patients with 2 or more abnormalities). Isolated cytogenetic aberrations (2 or more abnormalities) without histologic involvement were found in 21 patients (1.3%). Two or more cytogenetic abnormalities were associated with inferior overall survival (OS) compared with a normal karyotype or single abnormality in both patients with histologic BM involvement (5-year OS, 16.5% vs. 52.7%; P < 0.001) and those without BM involvement (31.8% vs. 66.5%; P < 0.001). This result demonstrated that BM cytogenetic results have a significant prognostic impact that is independent of BM histology. The following abnormalities were most frequently observed: rearrangements involving 14q32, 19q13, 19p13, 1p, 3q27, and 8q24; del(6q); dup(1q); and trisomy 18. In univariate analysis, several specific abnormalities including abnormalities at 16q22-q24, 6p21-p25, 12q22-q24, and -17 were associated with poor prognosis. Multivariate analyses performed for patients who had either chromosomal abnormalities or histologic BM involvement, revealed IPI high risk, ? 2 cytogenetic abnormalities, and several specific chromosomal abnormalities, including abnormalities at 19p13, 12q22-q24, 8q24, and 19q13 were significantly associated with a worse prognosis. Conclusions We suggest that isolated cytogenetic aberrations can be regarded as BM involvement and cytogenetic evaluation of BM improves staging accuracy along with prognostic information for DLBCL patients. PMID:24220305

2013-01-01

183

Is BPPV a Prognostic Factor in Idiopathic Sudden Sensory Hearing Loss?  

PubMed Central

Objectives The prognostic significance of vertigo in patients with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) remains a matter of debate because vertigo is associated with many different vestibular disorders. The purpose of this study is to determine the role of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) as a prognostic factor in patients with SSNHL. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of 298 patients with SSNHL. Hearing outcomes were evaluated by assessments of pre-treatment hearing and hearing gain. Comparative multivariate analyses between prognostic factors and hearing outcome were conducted. Results Thirty-eight (12.7%) SSNHL patients were found to also have BPPV. BPPV showed significant negative prognostic factors in hearing outcome on multivariate analysis (odds ratio, 0.15). In comparison to average pure tone audiometry (PTA), patients diagnosed with SSNHL with BPPV exhibited poorer hearing in pre- and post-treatment PTA compared to SSNHL without BPPV. Old age (>60 years), pre-treatment hearing, and canal paresis were significant outcome predictors. Conclusion BPPV in SSNHL patients, representing definitive vestibular damage, was closely related to poor prognosis. PMID:21217960

Lee, No Hee

2010-01-01

184

Circulating Endothelial Cells and Procoagulant Microparticles in Patients with Glioblastoma: Prognostic Value  

PubMed Central

Aim Circulating endothelial cells and microparticles are prognostic factors in cancer. However, their prognostic and predictive value in patients with glioblastoma is unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential prognostic value of circulating endothelial cells and microparticles in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma treated with standard radiotherapy and concomitant temozolomide. In addition, we have analyzed the methylation status of the MGMT promoter. Methods Peripheral blood samples were obtained before and at the end of the concomitant treatment. Blood samples from healthy volunteers were also obtained as controls. Endothelial cells were measured by an immunomagnetic technique and immunofluorescence microscopy. Microparticles were quantified by flow cytometry. Microparticle-mediated procoagulant activity was measured by endogen thrombin generation and by phospholipid-dependent clotting time. Methylation status of MGMT promoter was determined by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Results Pretreatment levels of circulating endothelial cells and microparticles were higher in patients than in controls (p<0.001). After treatment, levels of microparticles and thrombin generation decreased, and phospholipid-dependent clotting time increased significantly. A high pretreatment endothelial cell count, corresponding to the 99th percentile in controls, was associated with poor overall survival. MGMT promoter methylation was present in 27% of tumor samples and was associated to a higher overall survival (66 weeks vs 30 weeks, p<0.004). Conclusion Levels of circulating endothelial cells may have prognostic value in patients with glioblastoma. PMID:23922679

Reynés, Gaspar; Vila, Virtudes; Fleitas, Tania; Reganon, Edelmiro; Font de Mora, Jaime; Jordá, María; Martínez-Sales, Vicenta

2013-01-01

185

On the joint use of propensity and prognostic scores in estimation of the average treatment effect on the treated: a simulation study.  

PubMed

Propensity and prognostic score methods seek to improve the quality of causal inference in non-randomized or observational studies by replicating the conditions found in a controlled experiment, at least with respect to observed characteristics. Propensity scores model receipt of the treatment of interest; prognostic scores model the potential outcome under a single treatment condition. While the popularity of propensity score methods continues to grow, prognostic score methods and methods combining propensity and prognostic scores have thus far received little attention. To this end, we performed a simulation study that compared subclassification and full matching on a single estimated propensity or prognostic score with three approaches combining the estimated propensity and prognostic scores: full matching on a Mahalanobis distance combining the estimated propensity and prognostic scores (FULL-MAHAL); full matching on the estimated prognostic propensity score within propensity score calipers (FULL-PGPPTY); and subclassification on an estimated propensity and prognostic score grid with 5?×?5 subclasses (SUBCLASS(5*5)). We considered settings in which one, both, or neither score model was misspecified. The data generating mechanisms varied in the degree of linearity and additivity in the true treatment assignment and outcome models. FULL-MAHAL and FULL-PGPPTY exhibited strong to superior performance in root mean square error terms across all simulation settings and scenarios. Methods combining propensity and prognostic scores were no less robust to model misspecification than single-score methods even when both score models were incorrectly specified. Our findings support the joint use of propensity and prognostic scores in estimation of the average treatment effect on the treated. PMID:24151187

Leacy, Finbarr P; Stuart, Elizabeth A

2014-09-10

186

Evaluating Algorithm Performance Metrics Tailored for Prognostics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prognostics has taken a center stage in Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) where it is desired to estimate Remaining Useful Life (RUL) of the system so that remedial measures may be taken in advance to avoid catastrophic events or unwanted downtimes. Validation of such predictions is an important but difficult proposition and a lack of appropriate evaluation methods renders prognostics meaningless. Evaluation methods currently used in the research community are not standardized and in many cases do not sufficiently assess key performance aspects expected out of a prognostics algorithm. In this paper we introduce several new evaluation metrics tailored for prognostics and show that they can effectively evaluate various algorithms as compared to other conventional metrics. Specifically four algorithms namely; Relevance Vector Machine (RVM), Gaussian Process Regression (GPR), Artificial Neural Network (ANN), and Polynomial Regression (PR) are compared. These algorithms vary in complexity and their ability to manage uncertainty around predicted estimates. Results show that the new metrics rank these algorithms in different manner and depending on the requirements and constraints suitable metrics may be chosen. Beyond these results, these metrics offer ideas about how metrics suitable to prognostics may be designed so that the evaluation procedure can be standardized. 1

Saxena, Abhinav; Celaya, Jose; Saha, Bhaskar; Saha, Sankalita; Goebel, Kai

2009-01-01

187

Prognostic DNA Methylation Markers for Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

Prostate cancer (PC) is the most commonly diagnosed neoplasm and the third most common cause of cancer-related death amongst men in the Western world. PC is a clinically highly heterogeneous disease, and distinction between aggressive and indolent disease is a major challenge for the management of PC. Currently, no biomarkers or prognostic tools are able to accurately predict tumor progression at the time of diagnosis. Thus, improved biomarkers for PC prognosis are urgently needed. This review focuses on the prognostic potential of DNA methylation biomarkers for PC. Epigenetic changes are hallmarks of PC and associated with malignant initiation as well as tumor progression. Moreover, DNA methylation is the most frequently studied epigenetic alteration in PC, and the prognostic potential of DNA methylation markers for PC has been demonstrated in multiple studies. The most promising methylation marker candidates identified so far include PITX2, C1orf114 (CCDC181) and the GABRE~miR-452~miR-224 locus, in addition to the three-gene signature AOX1/C1orf114/HAPLN3. Several other biomarker candidates have also been investigated, but with less stringent clinical validation and/or conflicting evidence regarding their possible prognostic value available at this time. Here, we review the current evidence for the prognostic potential of DNA methylation markers in PC. PMID:25238417

Strand, Siri H.; Orntoft, Torben F.; Sorensen, Karina D.

2014-01-01

188

Prognostic factors in tongue cancer – relative importance of demographic, clinical and histopathological factors  

PubMed Central

The incidence of and mortality from squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the tongue have increased during the recent decades in the Western world. Much effort has been made to predict tumour behaviour, but we still lack specific prognostic indicators. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relative importance of the known demographic, clinical and histological factors in a homogeneous population-based group of patients with SCC of the mobile tongue. The demographic and clinical factors were reviewed retrospectively from primary and tertiary care patient files. Histological prognostic factors were determined from pre-treatment biopsies. The TNM stage was found to be the most important prognostic factor. In particular, local spread outside the tongue rather than spread to regional lymph nodes was related to poor prognosis. Several demographic and histopathological factors were closely related to TNM stage. When the cases were divided into stage I–II carcinomas and stage III–IV carcinomas, it appeared that the patient’s older age (> 65 years), a high malignancy score and an absence of overexpressed p53 protein were associated with a poorer prognosis in stage I–II carcinomas. Such cases may require more aggressive treatment. Among patients with stage III–IV carcinomas, heavy use of alcohol was significantly associated with a poor disease-specific survival time. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10944601

Kantola, S; Parikka, M; Jokinen, K; Hyrynkangs, K; Soini, Y; Alho, O-P; Salo, T

2000-01-01

189

The management of poor performance  

PubMed Central

Identification of poor performance is in an integral part of government policy. The suggested approach for the identification of such problems, advocated by the General Medical Council, is that of appraisal. However, traditionally, there has been a reluctance to deal with poor performers, as all doctors have made mistakes and are usually only too ready to forgive and be non?critical of colleagues. The problems are widespread, and 6% of the senior hospital workforce in any 5?year period may have problems. PMID:17308213

Mayberry, John F

2007-01-01

190

Instructions for use Prognostic Implication of Histological Oligodendroglial  

E-print Network

Instructions for use #12;Prognostic Implication of Histological Oligodendroglial Tumor Component, suggesting that the histological identification of oligodendroglial tumor component, even partially to the prognostic value of histological oligodendroglial tumor component; in addition, our results might offer

Tachizawa, Kazuya

191

Prognostic Factors in Childhood Leukemia (ALL or AML)  

MedlinePLUS

... for childhood leukemias Prognostic factors in childhood leukemia (ALL or AML) Certain differences among patients that affect ... myelogenous leukemia (AML). Prognostic factors for children with ALL Different systems are used to classify childhood ALL ...

192

DGKI Methylation Status Modulates the Prognostic Value of MGMT in Glioblastoma Patients Treated with Combined Radio-Chemotherapy with Temozolomide  

PubMed Central

Background Consistently reported prognostic factors for glioblastoma (GBM) are age, extent of surgery, performance status, IDH1 mutational status, and MGMT promoter methylation status. We aimed to integrate biological and clinical prognostic factors into a nomogram intended to predict the survival time of an individual GBM patient treated with a standard regimen. In a previous study we showed that the methylation status of the DGKI promoter identified patients with MGMT-methylated tumors that responded poorly to the standard regimen. We further evaluated the potential prognostic value of DGKI methylation status. Methods 399 patients with newly diagnosed GBM and treated with a standard regimen were retrospectively included in this study. Survival modelling was performed on two patient populations: intention-to-treat population of all included patients (population 1) and MGMT-methylated patients (population 2). Cox proportional hazard models were fitted to identify the main prognostic factors. A nomogram was developed for population 1. The prognostic value of DGKI promoter methylation status was evaluated on population 1 and population 2. Results The nomogram-based stratification of the cohort identified two risk groups (high/low) with significantly different median survival. We validated the prognostic value of DGKI methylation status for MGMT-methylated patients. We also demonstrated that the DGKI methylation status identified 22% of poorly responding patients in the low-risk group defined by the nomogram. Conclusions Our results improve the conventional MGMT stratification of GBM patients receiving standard treatment. These results could help the interpretation of published or ongoing clinical trial outcomes and refine patient recruitment in the future. PMID:25233099

Idbaih, Ahmed; Vauleon, Elodie; Marie, Yannick; Menei, Philippe; Boniface, Rachel; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Karayan-Tapon, Lucie; Quillien, Veronique; Sanson, Marc; de Tayrac, Marie; Delattre, Jean-Yves; Mosser, Jean

2014-01-01

193

CD25 expression status improves prognostic risk classification in AML independent of established biomarkers: ECOG phase 3 trial, E1900  

PubMed Central

We determined the prognostic relevance of CD25 (IL-2 receptor-?) expression in 657 patients (? 60 years) with de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treated in the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group trial, E1900. We identified CD25POS myeloblasts in 87 patients (13%), of whom 92% had intermediate-risk cytogenetics. CD25 expression correlated with expression of stem cell antigen CD123. In multivariate analysis, controlled for prognostic baseline characteristics and daunorubicin dose, CD25POS patients had inferior complete remission rates (P = .0005) and overall survival (P < .0001) compared with CD25NEG cases. In a subset of 396 patients, we integrated CD25 expression with somatic mutation status to determine whether CD25 impacted outcome independent of prognostic mutations. CD25 was positively correlated with internal tandem duplications in FLT3 (FLT3-ITD), DNMT3A, and NPM1 mutations. The adverse prognostic impact of FLT3-ITDPOS AML was restricted to CD25POS patients. CD25 expression improved AML prognostication independent of integrated, cytogenetic and mutational data, such that it reallocated 11% of patients with intermediate-risk disease to the unfavorable-risk group. Gene expression analysis revealed that CD25POS status correlated with the expression of previously reported leukemia stem cell signatures. We conclude that CD25POS status provides prognostic relevance in AML independent of known biomarkers and is correlated with stem cell gene-expression signatures associated with adverse outcome in AML. PMID:22855599

Gönen, Mithat; Sun, Zhuoxin; Figueroa, Maria E.; Patel, Jay P.; Abdel-Wahab, Omar; Racevskis, Janis; Ketterling, Rhett P.; Fernandez, Hugo; Rowe, Jacob M.; Tallman, Martin S.; Melnick, Ari; Levine, Ross L.

2012-01-01

194

Fractal dimension of chromatin is an independent prognostic factor for survival in melanoma  

PubMed Central

Background Prognostic factors in malignant melanoma are currently based on clinical data and morphologic examination. Other prognostic features, however, which are not yet used in daily practice, might add important information and thus improve prognosis, treatment, and survival. Therefore a search for new markers is desirable. Previous studies have demonstrated that fractal characteristics of nuclear chromatin are of prognostic importance in neoplasias. We have therefore investigated whether the fractal dimension of nuclear chromatin measured in routine histological preparations of malignant melanomas could be a prognostic factor for survival. Methods We examined 71 primary superficial spreading cutaneous melanoma specimens (thickness ? 1 mm) from patients with a minimum follow up of 5 years. Nuclear area, form factor and fractal dimension of chromatin texture were obtained from digitalized images of hematoxylin-eosin stained tissue micro array sections. Clark's level, tumor thickness and mitotic rate were also determined. Results The median follow-up was 104 months. Tumor thickness, Clark's level, mitotic rate, nuclear area and fractal dimension were significant risk factors in univariate Cox regressions. In the multivariate Cox regression, stratified for the presence or absence of metastases at diagnosis, only the Clark level and fractal dimension of the nuclear chromatin were included as independent prognostic factors in the final regression model. Conclusion In general, a more aggressive behaviour is usually found in genetically unstable neoplasias with a higher number of genetic or epigenetic changes, which on the other hand, provoke a more complex chromatin rearrangement. The increased nuclear fractal dimension found in the more aggressive melanomas is the mathematical equivalent of a higher complexity of the chromatin architecture. So, there is strong evidence that the fractal dimension of the nuclear chromatin texture is a new and promising variable in prognostic models of malignant melanomas. PMID:20525386

2010-01-01

195

The Modified Glasgow Prognostic Scores as a Predictor in Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma Treated with R-CHOP Regimen  

PubMed Central

Purpose The modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS) consisting of serum C-reactive protein and albumin levels, shows significant prognostic value in several types of tumors. We evaluated the prognostic significance of mGPS in 285 patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), retrospectively. Materials and Methods According to mGPS classification, 204 patients (71.5%) had an mGPS of 0, 57 (20%) had an mGPS of 1, and 24 (8.5%) had an mGPS of 2. Results Our study found that high mGPS were associated with poor prognostic factors including older age, extranodal involvement, advanced disease stage, unfavorable International Prognostic Index scores, and the presence of B symptoms. The complete response (CR) rate after 3 cycles of R-CHOP chemotherapy was higher in patients with mGPS of 0 (53.8%) compared to those with mGPS of 1 (33.3%) or 2 (25.0%) (p=0.001). Patients with mGPS of 0 had significantly better overall survival (OS) than those with mGPS=1 and those with mGPS=2 (p=0.036). Multivariate analyses revealed that the GPS score was a prognostic factor for the CR rate of 3 cycle R-CHOP therapy (p=0.044) as well as OS (p=0.037). Conclusion mGPS can be considered a potential prognostic factor that may predict early responses to R-CHOP therapy in DLBCL patients. PMID:25323893

Kim, Yundeok; Kim, Soo Jeong; Hwang, Dohyu; Jang, Jieun; Hyun, Shin-Young; Kim, Yu Ri; Kim, Jin Seok; Min, Yoo Hong

2014-01-01

196

Does Immigration Harm the Poor?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores what "The New Americans: Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration" study by the National Research Council actually says about the effects of immigration, considering the negative wage effects of immigration on the poor and the fact that immigration is not the benefit to the economy it once was thought to be. (SLD)

Camarota, Steven A.

1998-01-01

197

Prognostic value of tumour-associated macrophages in canine mammary tumours.  

PubMed

Tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) have already been associated in human breast cancer to a poor prognosis. As a part of a tumoural microenvironment, TAMs have an important contribution influencing neoplastic progression. Hitherto, in canine mammary tumours (CMT) the prognostic value of TAMs has not been reported. In this study, MAC387 immunohistochemical expression was evaluated in 59 CMTs (20 benign and 39 malignant). The TAM value was significantly higher in malignant than benign CMT (P?=?0.011). In malignant CMT, TAMs were associated with skin ulceration (P?=?0.022), histological type (P?=?0.044), nuclear grade (P?=?0.031) and tubular differentiation (P?=?0.042). The survival analysis revealed a significant association between tumours with higher levels of TAMs and the decrease in overall survival (P?=?0.030). TAMs have proven to have a prognostic value. These findings suggest the future possibility of using TAMs as a novel therapeutic target in CMT. PMID:22533625

Raposo, T; Gregório, H; Pires, I; Prada, J; Queiroga, F L

2014-03-01

198

Squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina: natural history, treatment modalities and prognostic factors.  

PubMed

Squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina accounts for less than 2% of all gynecologic malignancies. Surgery has a role in selected cases only. The standard treatment is radiotherapy, external beam radiation and/or brachytherapy, depending on the extent, thickness, location and morphology of the lesion. The role of chemotherapy is still under evaluation. Radiotherapy obtained 5-year overall survival rates ranged from 35% to 78%, with severe late complication rates of 9.4-23.1%. Tumor stage is the strongest prognostic factor. Tumor size >4cm, tumor location outside the upper third of the vagina, and old age at presentation are additional predictors of poor survival in most papers, whereas the prognostic value of histological grade, prior hysterectomy, and hemoglobin levels is controversial. High-risk HPV DNA and low MIB-1 index are associated with better clinical outcome. Because of the rarity of this tumor, future multicenter studies would be strongly warranted. PMID:25476235

Gadducci, Angiolo; Fabrini, Maria Grazia; Lanfredini, Nora; Sergiampietri, Claudia

2014-10-01

199

Coronary thrombus in patients undergoing primary PCI for STEMI: Prognostic significance and management  

PubMed Central

Acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) usually results from coronary atherosclerotic plaque disruption with superimposed thrombus formation. Detection of coronary thrombi is a poor prognostic indicator, which is mostly proportional to their size and composition. Particularly, intracoronary thrombi impair both epicardial blood flow and myocardial perfusion, by occluding major coronary arteries and causing distal embolization, respectively. Thus, although primary percutaneous coronary intervention is the preferred treatement strategy in STEMI setting, the associated use of adjunctive antithrombotic drugs and/or percutaneous thrombectomy is crucial to optimize therapy of STEMI patients, by improving either angiographical and clinical outcomes. This review article will focus on the prognostic significance of intracoronary thrombi and on current antithrombotic pharmacological and interventional strategies used in the setting of STEMI to manage thrombotic lesions. PMID:24976910

Vecchio, Sabine; Varani, Elisabetta; Chechi, Tania; Balducelli, Marco; Vecchi, Giuseppe; Aquilina, Matteo; Ricci Lucchi, Giulia; Dal Monte, Alessandro; Margheri, Massimo

2014-01-01

200

Monosomal and complex karyotypes as prognostic parameters in patients with International Prognostic Scoring System higher risk myelodysplastic syndrome treated with azacitidine  

PubMed Central

Background Azacitidine (AZA) is standard care for patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) who have not had allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Chromosomal abnormalities (CA) including complex karyotype (CK) or monosomal karyotype (MK) are associated with clinical outcome in patients with MDS. Methods We investigated which prognostic factors including CAs would predict clinical outcomes in patients with International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) higher risk MDS treated with AZA, retrospectively. CK was defined as the presence of three or more numerical or structural CAs. MK was defined as the presence of two or more distinct autosomal monosomies or single autosomal monosomy with at least one additional structural CA. Results A total of 243 patients who treated with AZA, were enrolled. CK was present in 124 patients and MK was present in 90 patients. Bone marrow blasts ?15% and CK were associated with poorer response (P=0.038, P=0.007) and overall survival (OS) (P<0.001, P<0.001) independently. Although MK in CK group was not associated with prognosis, non-MK status in non-CK group reflected favorable OS (P=0.005). The group including >3 CAs was associated with poorer OS (group including <3 CAs vs. only three CAs, P=0.001; group with >3 CAs vs. only three CAs, P=0.001). Conclusion CK was an important prognostic parameter associated with worse outcome. MK may predict poor survival in only non-CK status. The higher number of CAs was associated with poorer survival.

Hwang, Kyung-Lim; Song, Moo-Kon; Shin, Ho-Jin; Na, Hae-Jung; Shin, Dong-Hun; Kim, Joong-Keun; Moon, Joon-Ho; Ahn, Jae-Sook; Song, Ik-Chan; Hong, Junshik; Lee, Gyeong-won

2014-01-01

201

EMMPRIN co-expressed with matrix metalloproteinases predicts poor prognosis in patients with osteosarcoma.  

PubMed

Several studies have focused on the relationships between the expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) and the prognosis of patients with malignant tumors. However, few of these have investigated the expression of EMMPRIN in osteosarcoma. We examined expression levels of EMMPRIN immunohistochemically in 53 cases of high-grade osteosarcoma of the extremities and analyzed the correlation of its expression with patient prognosis. The correlation between matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and EMMPRIN expression and the prognostic value of co-expression were also analyzed. Staining positivity for EMMPRIN was negative in 7 cases, low in 17, moderate in 19, and strong in 10. The overall and disease-free survivals (OS and DFS) in patients with higher EMMPRIN expression (strong-moderate) were significantly lower than those in the lower (weak-negative) group (0.037 and 0.024, respectively). In multivariate analysis, age (P=0.004), location (P=0.046), and EMMPRIN expression (P=0.038) were significant prognostic factors for overall survival. EMMPRIN expression (P=0.024) was also a significant prognostic factor for disease-free survival. Co-expression analyses of EMMPRIN and MMPs revealed that strong co-expression of EMMPRIN and membrane-type 1 (MT1)-MMP had a poor prognostic value (P=0.056 for DFS, P=0.006 for OS). EMMPRIN expression and co-expression with MMPs well predict the prognosis of patients with extremity osteosarcoma, making EMMPRIN a possible therapeutic target in these patients. PMID:24481662

Futamura, Naohisa; Nishida, Yoshihiro; Urakawa, Hiroshi; Kozawa, Eiji; Ikuta, Kunihiro; Hamada, Shunsuke; Ishiguro, Naoki

2014-06-01

202

Prognosis Research Strategy (PROGRESS) 2: prognostic factor research.  

PubMed

Prognostic factor research aims to identify factors associated with subsequent clinical outcome in people with a particular disease or health condition. In this article, the second in the PROGRESS series, the authors discuss the role of prognostic factors in current clinical practice, randomised trials, and developing new interventions, and explain why and how prognostic factor research should be improved. PMID:23393429

Riley, Richard D; Hayden, Jill A; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Moons, Karel G M; Abrams, Keith; Kyzas, Panayiotis A; Malats, Núria; Briggs, Andrew; Schroter, Sara; Altman, Douglas G; Hemingway, Harry

2013-01-01

203

Prognostic Impact of Lymphocytes in Soft Tissue Sarcomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThe purpose of this study was to clarify the prognostic significance of lymphocyte infiltration in soft tissue sarcomas (STS). Prognostic markers in potentially curable STS should guide therapy after surgical resection. The immune status at the time of resection may be important, but the prognostic significance of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes is controversial as the immune system has conflicting roles during

Sveinung W. Sorbye; Thomas Kilvaer; Andrej Valkov; Tom Donnem; Eivind Smeland; Khalid Al-Shibli; Roy M. Bremnes; Lill-Tove Busund; Niels Olsen Saraiva Câmara

2011-01-01

204

Poor Theory Notes Toward a Manifesto  

E-print Network

Poor Theory Notes Toward a Manifesto Poor theory is less a theory than a way of proceeding. Poor theory proposes to find ways of making the most of limited resources. Poor theory uses the tools at hand. Poor theory suggests the need to `work around' intransigent problems, when clear solutions

Loudon, Catherine

205

Prognostic factors in anal squamous carcinoma: a multivariate analysis of clinical, pathological and flow cytometric parameters in 235 cases.  

PubMed

Clinical, pathological and flow cytometric parameters have been analysed by univariate and multivariate analysis to define those parameters of important prognostic influence in 235 cases of surgically treated squamous carcinoma of the anus and perianal skin. Patients had been treated by anorectal excision (166 patients) or by local excision (69). Analyses were carried out on five data sets--the two surgical subgroups, two groups distinguished by site of tumour and on all 235 patients. Univariate analysis showed many parameters to be of prognostic influence, although histological typing of tumours into the more common histological subtypes was of no prognostic value. Parameters of independent prognostic significance in multivariate analysis were those indicating depth of spread, inguinal lymph node involvement and DNA-ploidy. In this study the subdivision of the rarer types of anal canal tumour, such as mucoepidermoid carcinoma, microcystic squamous carcinoma and small cell anaplastic carcinoma, was relevant confirming that these tumours have a poor prognosis. It is now felt that surgery should not be employed as primary treatment in most cases of anal cancer and the results of this study have to be interpreted with caution when applied to patients treated with radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that the most useful prognostic information can be gleaned from accurate clinical staging and an assessment of DNA-ploidy status. PMID:2376397

Shepherd, N A; Scholefield, J H; Love, S B; England, J; Northover, J M

1990-06-01

206

Percentage of smudge cells determined on routine blood smears is a novel prognostic factor in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.  

PubMed

Recently developed molecular prognostic tests in patients with early Binet stage chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) are costly and often require a high level of technologic expertise. Recent data give evidence for the prognostic relevance of the percentage of smudge cells in B-CLL. In our study we analysed the prognostic potential of this novel marker in a cohort of 100 CLL patients. The percentage of smudge cells ranged from 0% to 70% (median 21%). Patients with 20% smudge cells. Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified percentages of smudge cells, stage according to Binet and CD38 expression as independent prognostic markers. The percentage of smudge cells was significantly lower in CD38+, ZAP-70+ and unmutated IgVH patients. Combined analysis of smudge cell percentages with CD38 expression provided complementary prognostic information identifying three patient subgroups with good, intermediate and poor prognosis. Comparing gene expression profiles in a subset of 12 patients we identified eight differentially expressed genes in groups with high vs. low percentage of smudge cells suggesting a role of these differentially expressed genes, especially for Tribbles homolog 2 (Trib2), in the disease progression of high risk CLL patients. In conclusion, our data confirm previous studies showing that the simple and inexpensive microscopic detection of smudge cells on blood smears prepared for routine diagnostic purposes is a novel independent factor predicting overall survival in CLL. PMID:20353875

Johansson, P; Eisele, L; Klein-Hitpass, L; Sellmann, L; Dührsen, U; Dürig, J; Nückel, H

2010-07-01

207

Are poor Chinese text comprehenders also poor in written composition?  

PubMed

We studied the performance in three genres of Chinese written composition (narration, exposition, and argumentation) of 158 grade 4, 5, and 6 poor Chinese text comprehenders compared with 156 good Chinese text comprehenders. We examined text comprehension and written composition relationship. Verbal working memory (verbal span working memory and operation span working memory) and different levels of linguistic tasks-morphological sensitivity (morphological compounding and morphological chain), sentence processing (syntax construction and syntax integrity), and text comprehension (narrative and expository texts)-were used to predict separately narrative, expository, and argumentation written compositions in these students. Grade for grade, the good text comprehenders outperformed the poor text comprehenders in all tasks, except for morphological chain. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed differential contribution of the tasks to different genres of writing. In particular, text comprehension made unique contribution to argumentation writing in the poor text comprehenders. Future studies should ask students to read and write parallel passages in the same genre for better comparison and incorporate both instructional and motivational variables. PMID:23666849

Guan, Connie Qun; Ye, Feifei; Meng, Wanjin; Leong, Che Kan

2013-10-01

208

Prognostic Implications of Primary Tumor Resection in Stage IVB Colorectal Cancer in Elderly Patients  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of this study was to identify prognostic factors in stage IVB colorectal cancer in elderly patients, focusing on the influence of treatment modalities, including palliative chemotherapy and primary tumor resection. Methods A cohort of 64 patients aged over 65 years who presented with stage IVB colorectal cancer at the Gangneung Asan Hospital between July 1, 2001, and December 31, 2009, was analyzed. Demographics, tumor location, tumor grade, performance status, levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and distant metastatic site at diagnosis were analyzed. Using the treatment histories, we analyzed the prognostic implications of palliative chemotherapy and surgical resection of the primary tumor retrospectively. Results The cohort consisted of 30 male (46.9%) and 34 female patients (53.1%); the median age was 76.5 years. Primary tumor resection was done on 28 patients (43.8%); 36 patients (56.2%) were categorized in the nonresection group. The median survival times were 12.43 months in the resection group and 3.58 months in the nonresection group (P < 0.001). Gender, level of CEA, level of AST, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, tumor location, and presence of liver metastasis also showed significant differences in overall survival. On multivariate analysis, male gender, higher level of CEA, higher AST level, and no primary tumor resection were independent poor prognostic factors. In particular, nonresection of the primary tumor was the most potent/poor prognostic factor in the elderly-patient study group (P = 0.001; 95% confidence interval, 2.33 to 21.99; hazard ratio, 7.16). Conclusion In stage IVB colorectal cancer in elderly patients, resection of the primary tumor may enhance survival. PMID:25210686

Ahn, Heui-June; Oh, Ho-Suk; Ahn, Yongchel; Lee, Sang Jin; Kim, Hyun Joong; Kim, Moon Ho; Eom, Dae-Woon; Kwak, Jae Young; Han, Myoung Sik

2014-01-01

209

Expression and prognostic role of SKIP in human breast carcinoma.  

PubMed

Ski-interacting protein (SKIP) is a nuclear hormone receptor-interacting cofactor, interactions with the proto-oncogene Ski, appears to modulate a number of signalling pathways involved in control of cell proliferation and differentiation, and may play a critical role in oncogenesis. In the present study, to investigate the potential roles of SKIP in breast cancer, expression patterns, interaction and the correlation with clinical/prognostic factors of SKIP and Ki-67 were examined among patients with breast cancer. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis were performed for SKIP in 85 breast carcinoma samples. The data were correlated with clinicopathological features. The univariate and multivariate survival analyses were also performed to determine their prognostic significance. We found that SKIP was over expressed in breast carcinoma as compared with the adjacent normal tissues. High expression of SKIP was positively associated with histological grade (P = 0.01) and Ki-67 (P = 0.004). Univariate analysis showed that SKIP expression was associated with a poor prognosis (P = 0.006). While in vitro, following release of breast cancer cell lines from serum starvation, the expression of SKIP was up-regulated, whereas p27 was down-regulated. In addition, we employed small interfering RNA (siRNA) technique to knock down SKIP expression and observed it effects on MDA-MB-231 cells growth. SKIP depletion by siRNA inhibited cell proliferation, blocked S phase and decreased cyclin A and cyclin B levels. On the basis of these results, we suggested that SKIP overexpression was involved in the pathogenesis of breast cancer, which might serve as a future target for breast cancer. PMID:24150787

Liu, Xiaobing; Ni, Qichao; Xu, Junfei; Sheng, Chenyi; Wang, Qingqing; Chen, Jinpeng; Yang, Shuyun; Wang, Hua

2014-04-01

210

Prognostic value of AgNOR counting.  

PubMed

The prognostic significance of the argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) in tumour pathology is still a matter of debate. A prospective study was performed in a series of renal cell carcinomas to clarify the prognostic value of AgNOR counting. Sections from 21 renal cell carcinomas were stained in 1990 with the method of Ploton. Black dots within the nucleus from 200 tumour cells were counted: the mean AgNOR count for the whole series was 6.13, the median 5.94 and the SD 1.78. Patients were then followed up for at least 6 years or to death: at the time of the survival analysis (June 1996), 13 patients were alive without evidence of recurrence or metastasis, 6 had died of the disease and 2 of myocardial infarction. All the patients with 5.94 AgNORs per cell or fewer were alive at 6-year follow-up, while only 60% of patients with more than 5.94 AgNORs per cell survived (p=0.01). In the multivariate analysis, only AgNOR count (p=0.015) retained an independent prognostic significance. With the limitation due to the small number of cases, this prospective study clearly indicates that AgNOR count has a significant prognostic role, at least in renal cell carcinoma. PMID:21590133

Pich, A; Margaria, E; Chiusa, L; Formiconi, A

1997-01-01

211

Prognostic Analysis of the Tactical Quiet Generator  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Army needs prognostic analysis of mission-critical equipment to enable condition-based maintenance before failure. ORNL has developed and patented prognostic technology that quantifies condition change from noisy, multi-channel, time-serial data. This report describes an initial application of ORNL's prognostic technology to the Army's Tactical Quiet Generator (TQG), which is designed to operate continuously at 10 kW. Less-than-full power operation causes unburned fuel to accumulate on internal components, thereby degrading operation and eventually leading to failure. The first objective of this work was identification of easily-acquired, process-indicative data. Two types of appropriate data were identified, namely output-electrical current and voltage, plus tri-axial acceleration (vibration). The second objective of this work was data quality analysis to avoid the garbage-in-garbage-out syndrome. Quality analysis identified more than 10% of the current data as having consecutive values that are constant, or that saturate at an extreme value. Consequently, the electrical data were not analyzed further. The third objective was condition-change analysis to indicate operational stress under non-ideal operation and machine degradation in proportion to the operational stress. Application of ORNL's novel phase-space dissimilarity measures to the vibration power quantified the rising operational stress in direct proportion to the less-than-full-load power. We conclude that ORNL's technology is an excellent candidate to meet the U.S. Army's need for equipment prognostication.

Hively, Lee M [ORNL

2008-09-01

212

Prognostic Health Management of Aircraft Power Generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, prognostic tools are developed to detect the onset of electrical failures in an aircraft power generator, and to predict the generator's remaining useful life (RUL). Focus is on the rotor circuit since failure mode, effects, and criticality analysis (FMECA) studies indicate that it is a high priority candidate for condition monitoring. A signature feature is developed and

Todd D. Batzel; David C. Swanson

2009-01-01

213

Intelligent prognostics system design and implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an intelligent prognostics system JPS) for semiconductor and TFT-LCD manufacturing. The IPS comprises several generic embedded devices (GEDs) and remote clients. The GED can be easily embedded into various types of equipment to acquire equipment engineering data and meet the specification requirements of Interface A for supporting semiconductor industry equipment engineering capabilities. Furthermore, the GED has an

Yu-Chuan Su; Fan-Tien Cheng; Min-Hsiung Hung; Hsien-Cheng Huang

2006-01-01

214

Prognostic Factors in Cervical Human Papillomavirus Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

.3% regressed spontaneously, and clinical progression was detected in 14.8%. To establish the prognostic factors associated with the clinical course of cervical HPV infections, the Cox propor- tional hazards regression model was applied . In the analysis, five variables were included : age, PAP-smear class, grade of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), HPV type, and colpo- scopic appearance at the first

V. KATAJA; S. SYRJANEN; R. MANTYJARVI; M. YLISKOSKI; S. SAARIKOSKI; K. SYRJANEN

1992-01-01

215

High levels of SIRT1 expression enhance tumorigenesis and associate with a poor prognosis of colorectal carcinoma patients.  

PubMed

SIRT1, a NAD(+) dependent class III deacetylase, takes part in many important biological processes. Previous studies show that SIRT1 is overexpressed in some cancers and plays an essential role in tumorigenesis. However, the association between SIRT1 and colorectal cancer (CRC) is still unclear. We found that many CRC specimens had strong SIRT1 expression, which had an obvious correlation with poor prognosis of CRC patients. Meanwhile, SIRT1 expression had a co-localization with CD133, a current universal marker to characterize colorectal cancer stem cells (CSCs). In vitro studies also revealed that SIRT1 was overexpressed in colorectal CSC-like cells. Moreover, SIRT1 deficiency decreased percentage of CD133(+) cells, attenuated the abilities of colony and sphere formation, and inhibited tumorigenicity in vivo in CRC cells. Further study demonstrated that the expressions of several stemness-associated genes, including Oct4, Nanog, Cripto, Tert and Lin28, were reduced by SIRT1 knockdown in CRC cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that SIRT1 plays a crucial role in keeping the characteristics of CSCs cells. SIRT1 is a potential independent prognostic factor of CRC patients after tumor resection with curative intent, and will contribute to providing a promising new approach to target at CSCs in CRC treatment. PMID:25500546

Chen, Xiaojing; Sun, Kai; Jiao, Shufan; Cai, Ning; Zhao, Xue; Zou, Hanbing; Xie, Yuexia; Wang, Zhengshi; Zhong, Ming; Wei, Lixin

2014-01-01

216

High levels of SIRT1 expression enhance tumorigenesis and associate with a poor prognosis of colorectal carcinoma patients  

PubMed Central

SIRT1, a NAD+ dependent class III deacetylase, takes part in many important biological processes. Previous studies show that SIRT1 is overexpressed in some cancers and plays an essential role in tumorigenesis. However, the association between SIRT1 and colorectal cancer (CRC) is still unclear. We found that many CRC specimens had strong SIRT1 expression, which had an obvious correlation with poor prognosis of CRC patients. Meanwhile, SIRT1 expression had a co-localization with CD133, a current universal marker to characterize colorectal cancer stem cells (CSCs). In vitro studies also revealed that SIRT1 was overexpressed in colorectal CSC-like cells. Moreover, SIRT1 deficiency decreased percentage of CD133+ cells, attenuated the abilities of colony and sphere formation, and inhibited tumorigenicity in vivo in CRC cells. Further study demonstrated that the expressions of several stemness-associated genes, including Oct4, Nanog, Cripto, Tert and Lin28, were reduced by SIRT1 knockdown in CRC cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that SIRT1 plays a crucial role in keeping the characteristics of CSCs cells. SIRT1 is a potential independent prognostic factor of CRC patients after tumor resection with curative intent, and will contribute to providing a promising new approach to target at CSCs in CRC treatment. PMID:25500546

Chen, Xiaojing; Sun, Kai; Jiao, Shufan; Cai, Ning; Zhao, Xue; Zou, Hanbing; Xie, Yuexia; Wang, Zhengshi; Zhong, Ming; Wei, Lixin

2014-01-01

217

Diagnosing the Poor Performance of Self-Worth Protective Students: A Product of Future Outcome Uncertainty, Evaluative Threat, or Both?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self-worth protective students characteristically perform well on some occasions yet on other occasions they perform poorly. In this study, two accounts of the poor performance of self-worth protective students are assessed. The first is that their poor performance is an outcome of evaluative threat. The second is that their poor performance is an…

Thompson, Ted; Parker, Cathryn

2007-01-01

218

Significance of tumor length as prognostic factor for esophageal cancer.  

PubMed

Our study indicated the relationship between tumor length and clinicopathologic characteristics as well as long-term survival in esophageal cancer. A total of 116 patients who underwent curative surgery for thoracic esophageal cancer with standard lymphadenectomy in 2 fields between 2000 and 2010 were included in the study. The medical records of these patients were retrospectively reviewed. The patients with tumor length 3 cm had a highly significant difference in the involvement of adventitia and lymph node stations. The patients with tumor length 3 cm had significantly lower rates of involvement of the adventitia and lymph node stations. Tumor length could have a significant impact on both the overall survival and disease-free survival of patients with resected esophageal carcinomas and may provide additional prognostic value to the current tumor, node, and metastasis staging system before patients receive any cancer-specific treatment. PMID:23971777

Zeybek, Arife; Erdo?an, Abdullah; Gülkesen, Kemal Hakan; Ergin, Makbule; Sarper, Alpay; Dertsiz, Levent; Demircan, Abid

2013-01-01

219

Significance of Tumor Length as Prognostic Factor for Esophageal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Our study indicated the relationship between tumor length and clinicopathologic characteristics as well as long-term survival in esophageal cancer. A total of 116 patients who underwent curative surgery for thoracic esophageal cancer with standard lymphadenectomy in 2 fields between 2000 and 2010 were included in the study. The medical records of these patients were retrospectively reviewed. The patients with tumor length ?3 cm had a highly significant difference in the involvement of adventitia and lymph node stations. The patients with tumor length ?3 cm had significantly lower rates of involvement of the adventitia and lymph node stations. Tumor length could have a significant impact on both the overall survival and disease-free survival of patients with resected esophageal carcinomas and may provide additional prognostic value to the current tumor, node, and metastasis staging system before patients receive any cancer-specific treatment. PMID:23971777

Zeybek, Arife; Erdo?an, Abdullah; Gülkesen, Kemal Hakan; Ergin, Makbule; Sarper, Alpay; Dertsiz, Levent; Demircan, Abid

2013-01-01

220

The Poor Cartographer: Graph Coloring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners help a poor cartographer color in the countries on a map, making sure each country is colored a different color than any of its neighbors. Through this exercise, learners discover the "has-to-be" rule and the value of place-holders. This activity reveals the complexity of graph coloring algorithms in computer science. Variations, extensions, background information, and solutions are included in the PDF.

Bell, Tim; Witten, Ian; Fellows, Mike

1995-01-01

221

Stage-dependent prognostic impact of molecular signatures in clear cell renal cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Purpose To enhance prognostic information of protein biomarkers for clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs), we analyzed them within prognostic groups of ccRCC harboring different tumor characteristics of this clinically and molecularly heterogeneous tumor entity. Methods Tissue microarrays from 145 patients with primary ccRCC were immunohistochemically analyzed for VHL (von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor), Ki67 (marker of proliferation 1), p53 (tumor protein p53), p21 (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A), survivin (baculoviral IAP repeat containing 5), and UEA-1 (Ulex europaeus agglutinin I) to assess microvessel-density. Results When analyzing all patients, nuclear staining of Ki67 (hazard ratio [HR] 1.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04–1.12) and nuclear survivin (nS; HR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01–1.08) were significantly associated with disease-specific survival (DSS). In the cohort of patients with advanced localized or metastasized ccRCC, high staining of Ki67, p53 and nS predicted shorter DSS (Ki67: HR 1.07, 95% CI 1.02–1.11; p53: HR 1.05, 95% CI 1.01–1.09; nS: HR 1.08, 95% CI 1.02–1.14). In organ-confined ccRCC, patients with high p21-staining had a longer DSS (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.92–0.99). In a multivariate model with stepwise backward elimination, tumor size and p21-staining showed a significant association with DSS in patients with “organ-confined” ccRCCs. The p21-staining increased the concordance index of tumor size from 0.75 to 0.78. In patients with “organ-confined” ccRCC, no disease-related deaths occurred in the group with p21-expression below the threshold of 32.5% p21-positive cells (log rank test: P=0.002). Conclusion The prognostic information of the studied protein biomarkers depended on anatomic tumor stages, which displayed different acquired biological tumor characteristics. Analysis of prognostic factors within different clinical ccRCC groups could help to enhance their prognostic power. The p21-staining was an independent prognostic factor and increased prognostic accuracy in a predictive model in “organ-confined” ccRCC. PMID:24833908

Weber, Thomas; Meinhardt, Matthias; Zastrow, Stefan; Wienke, Andreas; Erdmann, Kati; Hofmann, Jörg; Fuessel, Susanne; Wirth, Manfred P

2014-01-01

222

Prognostic factors for disability claim duration due to musculoskeletal symptoms among self-employed persons  

PubMed Central

Background Employees and self-employed persons have, among others, different personal characteristics and different working conditions, which may influence the prognosis of sick leave and the duration of a disability claim. The purpose of the current study is to identify prognostic factors for the duration of a disability claim due to non-specific musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) among self-employed persons in the Netherlands. Methods The study population consisted of 276 self-employed persons, who all had a disability claim episode due to MSD with at least 75% work disability. The study was a cohort study with a follow-up period of 12 months. At baseline, participants filled in a questionnaire with possible individual, work-related and disease-related prognostic factors. Results The following prognostic factors significantly increased claim duration: age > 40 years (Hazard Ratio 0.54), no similar symptoms in the past (HR 0.46), having long-lasting symptoms of more than six months (HR 0.60), self-predicted return to work within more than one month or never (HR 0.24) and job dissatisfaction (HR 0.54). Conclusions The prognostic factors we found indicate that for self-employed persons, the duration of a disability claim not only depends on the (history of) impairment of the insured, but also on age, self-predicted return to work and job satisfaction. PMID:22192533

2011-01-01

223

A Probabilistic Model to Investigate the Properties of Prognostic Tools for Falls.  

PubMed

Background: Falls are a prevalent and burdensome problem in the elderly. Tools for the assessment of fall risk are fundamental for fall prevention. Clinical studies for the development and evaluation of prognostic tools for falls show high heterogeneity in the settings and in the reported results. Newly developed tools are susceptible to over-optimism. Objectives: This study proposes a probabilistic model to address critical issues about fall prediction through the analysis of the properties of an ideal prognostic tool for falls. Methods: The model assumes that falls occur within a population according to the Greenwood and Yule scheme for accident-proneness. Parameters for the fall rate distribution are estimated from counts of falls of four different epidemiological studies. Results: We obtained analytic formulas and quantitative estimates for the predictive and discriminative properties of the ideal prognostic tool. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) ranges between about 0.80 and 0.89 when prediction on any fall is made within a follow-up of one year. Predicting on multiple falls results in higher AUC. Conclusions: The discriminative ability of current validated prognostic tools for falls is sensibly lower than what the proposed ideal perfect tool achieves. A sensitivity analysis of the predictive and discriminative properties of the tool with respect to study settings and fall rate distribution identifies major factors that can account for the high heterogeneity of results observed in the literature. PMID:25377164

Palumbo, P; Palmerini, L; Chiari, L

2014-11-01

224

The Impact of Various Platelet Indices as Prognostic Markers of Septic Shock  

PubMed Central

Introduction Platelet indices, including mean platelet volume (MPV), are readily available blood tests, although their prognostic value in patients with septic shock has not been fully explored. Current evidence has found contradictory results. This study aims to explore the behavior of platelet indices in septic shock and their clinical prognostic value. Methods Charts of septic shock patients from January to December 2012 in a tertiary medical center in Northern China were reviewed retrospectively. Platelet indices were recorded during the first five consecutive days after admission, as well as the penultimate and the last day of hospital stay. The data were compared between surviving and non-surviving patients. Results A total of 124 septic shock patients were enrolled. Thirty-six of the patients survived and 88 of them expired. MPV in the non-survivor group was higher than that of the survivor group, especially on the last day. PDW and PLCR showed increased trends, while PCT and PLT decreased in the non-survivor group. Among the PLT indices, MPV had the highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (0.81) with a precision rate of 75.6% at a cut-off of 10.5.Compared with other more usual septic shock prognostic markers, MPV is second only to lactate for the highest area under the curve. Conclusion A statistically significant difference was seen between survivors and non-survivors for platelet indices which make them easily available and useful prognostic markers for patients in septic shock. PMID:25118886

Yu, Xuezhong; Guo, Shigong; Ji, Xu; Sun, Tongwen; Lan, Chao; Lavergne, Valery; Ghannoum, Marc; Li, Li

2014-01-01

225

Gene expression profiling for the investigation of soft tissue sarcoma pathogenesis and the identification of diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive biomarkers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soft tissue sarcomas are malignant neoplasms derived from mesenchymal tissues. Their pathogenesis is poorly understood and\\u000a there are few effective treatment options for advanced disease. In the past decade, gene expression profiling has been applied\\u000a to sarcomas to facilitate understanding of sarcoma pathogenesis and to identify diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive markers.\\u000a In this paper, we review this body of work

Andrew H. Beck; Robert B. West; Matt van de Rijn

2010-01-01

226

Melt extrusion with poorly soluble drugs.  

PubMed

Melt extrusion (ME) over recent years has found widespread application as a viable drug delivery option in the drug development process. ME applications include taste masking, solid-state stability enhancement, sustained drug release and solubility enhancement. While ME can result in amorphous or crystalline solid dispersions depending upon several factors, solubility enhancement applications are centered around generating amorphous dispersions, primarily because of the free energy benefits they offer. In line with the purview of the current issue, this review assesses the utility of ME as a means of enhancing solubility of poorly soluble drugs/chemicals. The review describes major processing aspects of ME technology, definition and understanding of the amorphous state, manufacturability, analytical characterization and biopharmaceutical performance testing to better understand the strength and weakness of this formulation strategy for poorly soluble drugs. In addition, this paper highlights the potential advantages of employing a fusion of techniques, including pharmaceutical co-crystals and spray drying/solvent evaporation, facilitating the design of formulations of API exhibiting specific physico-chemical characteristics. Finally, the review presents some successful case studies of commercialized ME based products. PMID:23178213

Shah, Sejal; Maddineni, Sindhuri; Lu, Jiannan; Repka, Michael A

2013-08-30

227

Stanniocalcin 2 expression predicts poor prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have shown that the expression level of stanniocalcin 2 (STC2) is associated with tumor progression. However, to date, the association between STC2 and clinicopathological factors in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not been investigated. The clinical significance of STC2 was investigated in 30 fresh HCC samples using western blot analysis and in 240 HCC tissues using immunohistochemical analysis. The level of STC2 in cancerous tissue was higher than in the matched non-cancerous tissues. Using immunohistochemistry, the STC2-positive group exhibited a higher incidence of lymph node metastasis and venous invasion compared with the STC2-negative group. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that the positive expression of STC2 correlated with poor overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival of HCC patients (P<0.01). STC2 expression was observed to be an independent prognostic factor for OS in HCC patients by multivariate analysis (hazard ratio, 2.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.04–5.89; P=0.013). These data suggest that STC2 expression may be a useful indicator of poor prognosis in HCC patients. PMID:25289096

ZHANG, ZHEN-HAI; WU, YA-GUANG; QIN, CHENG-KUN; RONG, ZHONG-HOU; SU, ZHONG-XUE; XIAN, GUO-ZHE

2014-01-01

228

Carbon-rich, extremely metal-poor Population II stars  

E-print Network

A significant fraction of very metal-poor stars have unexpectedly high carbon abundances. I recap on their discovery, describe the results of high-resolution spectroscopic studies of their composition, and consider possible origins. It is now clear that at least two, and possibly three different explanations are needed for their general characteristics.

Sean G. Ryan

2002-11-27

229

MYC regulation of a "poor-prognosis" metastatic cancer cell state.  

PubMed

Gene expression signatures are used in the clinic as prognostic tools to determine the risk of individual patients with localized breast tumors developing distant metastasis. We lack a clear understanding, however, of whether these correlative biomarkers link to a common biological network that regulates metastasis. We find that the c-MYC oncoprotein coordinately regulates the expression of 13 different "poor-outcome" cancer signatures. In addition, functional inactivation of MYC in human breast cancer cells specifically inhibits distant metastasis in vivo and invasive behavior in vitro of these cells. These results suggest that MYC oncogene activity (as marked by "poor-prognosis" signature expression) may be necessary for the translocation of poor-outcome human breast tumors to distant sites. PMID:20133671

Wolfer, Anita; Wittner, Ben S; Irimia, Daniel; Flavin, Richard J; Lupien, Mathieu; Gunawardane, Ruwanthi N; Meyer, Clifford A; Lightcap, Eric S; Tamayo, Pablo; Mesirov, Jill P; Liu, X Shirley; Shioda, Toshi; Toner, Mehmet; Loda, Massimo; Brown, Myles; Brugge, Joan S; Ramaswamy, Sridhar

2010-02-23

230

Prognostic Significance and Treatment Implications of Minimal Residual Disease Studies in Philadelphia-Negative Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia  

PubMed Central

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is curable in about 40–50% of adult patients, however this is subject to ample variations owing to several host- and disease-related prognostic characteristics. Currently, the study of minimal residual disease (MRD) following induction and early consolidation therapy stands out as the most sensitive individual prognostic marker to define the risk of relapse following the achievement of remission, and ultimately that of treatment failure or success. Because substantial therapeutic advancement is now being achieved using intensified pediatric-type regimens, MRD analysis is especially useful to orientate stem cell transplantation choices. These strategic innovations are progressively leading to greater than 50% cure rates. PMID:25237475

Spinelli, Orietta; Tosi, Manuela; Peruta, Barbara; Montalvo, Marie Lorena Guinea; Maino, Elena; Scattolin, Anna Maria; Parolini, Margherita; Viero, Piera; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Bassan, Renato

2014-01-01

231

Prognostics for Electronics Components of Avionics Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electronics components have and increasingly critical role in avionics systems and for the development of future aircraft systems. Prognostics of such components is becoming a very important research filed as a result of the need to provide aircraft systems with system level health management. This paper reports on a prognostics application for electronics components of avionics systems, in particular, its application to the Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT). The remaining useful life prediction for the IGBT is based on the particle filter framework, leveraging data from an accelerated aging tests on IGBTs. The accelerated aging test provided thermal-electrical overstress by applying thermal cycling to the device. In-situ state monitoring, including measurements of the steady-state voltages and currents, electrical transients, and thermal transients are recorded and used as potential precursors of failure.

Celaya, Jose R.; Saha, Bhaskar; Wysocki, Philip F.; Goebel, Kai F.

2009-01-01

232

Prognostic role of neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate cancer, putting together the pieces of the puzzle  

PubMed Central

Neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation is a common feature in prostate cancer (PC). The clinical significance of this phenomenon is controversial; however preclinical and clinical data are in favor of an association with poor prognosis and early onset of a castrate resistant status. NE PC cells do not proliferate, but they can stimulate the proliferation of the exocrine component through the production of paracrine growth factors. The same paracrine signals may favor the outgrowth of castrate adapted tumors through androgen receptor dependent or independent mechanisms. Noteworthy, NE differentiation in PC is not a stable phenotype, being stimulated by several agents including androgen deprivation therapy, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. The proportion of NE positive PC, therefore, is destined to increase during the natural history of the disease. This may complicate the assessment of the prognostic significance of this phenomenon. The majority of clinical studies have shown a significant correlation between NE differentiation and disease prognosis, confirming the preclinical rationale. In conclusion the NE phenotype is a prognostic parameter in PC. Whether this phenomenon is a pure prognostic factor or whether it can influence the prognosis by favoring the onset of a castrate resistance status is a matter of future research. PMID:24198620

Berruti, Alfredo; Vignani, Francesca; Russo, Lucianna; Bertaglia, Valentina; Tullio, Mattia; Tucci, Marcello; Poggio, Massimiliano; Dogliotti, Luigi

2010-01-01

233

Prognostic significance of interleukin 17 in cancer: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

The prognostic value of Interleukin 17 (IL-17) in cancer patients is currently under debate and remains inconclusive. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the role of IL-17 as a prognostic marker in cancer. Hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were combined to measure the effective value of IL-17 expression on prognosis. Nineteen eligible studies enrolling 2390 patients were identified. We found expression of IL-17 was not significantly correlated with overall survival (OS) in cancer (HR=1.29, 95% Cl: 0.94-1.76; P=0.12). Furthermore, compared to the data from our analysis that high expression of IL-17 predicted poor OS in both non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) (HR=2.30; 95% CI: 1.45-3.64; P<0.001; I2=0%) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (HR=2.02; 95% CI: 1.44-2.83; P<0.001; I2=0%), high expression of IL-17 was associated with favorable OS in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) (HR=0.63; 95% CI: 0.51-0.79; P<0.001; I2=0%). This meta-analysis showed that IL-17 has the potential to become a novel prognostic marker in HCC, NSCLC and ESCC. It could potentially help to monitor patients’ prognosis and assess therapeutic efficacy in clinical treatment. PMID:25419357

Zhang, Xiao; Weng, Wenhao; Xu, Wen; Wang, Yulan; Yu, Wenjun; Tang, Xun; Ma, Lifang; Pan, Qiuhui; Wang, Jiayi; Sun, Fenyong

2014-01-01

234

Prognostic biomarkers for prediction of recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma: Current status and future prospects  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide, with region specific etiologies. Despite improvements made in the diagnosis of HCC, the prognosis of HCC patients remains poor due to the high recurrence rate of HCC. There is an urgent need for development of prognostic biomarkers to predict the risk of recurrence in HCC patients after “curative” treatment. Such stratification may aid in patient management and development of personalized medicine for HCC treatment. Omics based studies facilitate the study of global changes in biomolecules in a disease in a high throughput manner, and hence are well poised to understand the complex changes which led to HCC recurrence. The quantitative nature of data obtained from omics based studies allow for development of prognostic biomarkers based on changes in gene, protein and metabolite expression. In this review, we surveyed the application of transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics in the study of HCC recurrence. We summarised the data in the literature from these three fields of studies that claimed to be prognostic for HCC recurrence. We critiqued on the limitations of each area of research and the challenges faced in translating the research results for clinical application in predicting HCC recurrence. PMID:24696598

Lee, Seow Chong; Tan, Hwee Tong; Chung, Maxey Ching Ming

2014-01-01

235

Drug holiday as a prognostic factor of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw  

PubMed Central

Objectives To identify post-treatment prognostic factors for medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ). Materials and Methods We evaluated 54 MRONJ patients who visited the Department of Dentistry, Ajou University Hospital, from May 2007 to March 2014. Twenty-one patients were surgically managed with debridement or sequestrectomy and 33 patients were conservatively managed using antibiotics. Correlations of age, sex, stage, bisphosphonate duration and type, and drug holiday with the prognosis of MRONJ were investigated. Correlations were verified by logistic regression analysis and t-tests with a significance level of 0.05. Results Clinical outcomes were evaluated on the basis of both clinical and radiographic findings. Twelve out of 21 surgically managed patients showed a favorable prognosis and nine patients relapsed. Thirty-one of the 33 conservatively managed patients showed no specific change in prognosis, and two patients worsened. Statistical analyses of the conservative management group did not reveal any correlation of the above factors with the prognosis of conservative management. Drug holiday was the only prognostic factor in the surgical management group (P=0.031 in logistic regression analysis, P=0.004 in t-test). Conclusion Drug holiday is a prognostic factor in the surgical management of MRONJ. Because the drug holiday in the patients of the poor prognosis group occurred 1.5 to 4 months prior to surgical management, we recommend a drug holiday more than 4 months before surgery. PMID:25368832

Kim, Yoon Ho; Lee, Ho Kyung; Song, Seung Il

2014-01-01

236

Prognostic and predictive response factors in colorectal cancer patients: Between hope and reality  

PubMed Central

Colorectal cancer (CRC) represents one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide. It is the second leading cause of cancer death in Western Countries. In the last decade the survival of patients with metastatic CRC has improved dramatically. Due to the advent of new drugs (irinotecan and oxaliplatin) and target therapies (i.e., bevacizumab, cetuximab and panitumab), the median overall survival has risen from about 12 mo in the mid nineties to 30 mo recently. Many questions needing of right collocations and more clearness still exist regarding the prognostic factors and the predictive factors of response to therapy. Despite advances in dosing and scheduling of chemotherapy in both adjuvant and advanced settings, and a greater emphasis on early detection, the outlook still remains poor for most patients. Molecular analyses have shown that the natural history of all CRCs is not the same. Individual patients with same stage tumours may have different long term prognosis and response to therapy. In addition, some prognostic variables are likely to be more important than others. Here we review the role of prognostic factors and predictive factors according to the recently published English literature. PMID:25386053

De Divitiis, Chiara; Nasti, Guglielmo; Montano, Massimo; Fisichella, Rossella; Iaffaioli, Rosario Vincenzo; Berretta, Massimiliano

2014-01-01

237

The prognostic value of HER-2/neu overexpression in colorectal cancer: evidence from 16 studies.  

PubMed

Human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER-2/neu) plays an important role in the progression of several types of cancer. Numerous studies examining the relationship between HER-2 overexpression and prognostic impact in patients with colorectal cancer have yielded inconclusive results. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the prognostic value of HER-2 expression on the survival, which compared the positive and negative expressions of HER-2 in patients of the available studies. Hazard ratios (HRs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were pooled in terms of disease-specific or overall survival. A detailed search was made in PubMed for relevant original articles published in English. Finally, a total of 18 studies with 16 colorectal cancer patients were involved. Overexpression of HER-2 was negatively related to survival in colorectal cancer patients with the pooled HR of 1.05 (95% CI 0.78-1.31, P = 0.000). In conclusion, the finding from this present meta-analysis suggested that HER-2 overexpression was not related to poor prognostic of colorectal cancer. PMID:25077923

Wu, Sheng-Wen; Ma, Cong-Chao; Yang, Yu

2014-11-01

238

A structured approach to neurologic prognostication in clinical cardiac arrest trials.  

PubMed

Brain injury is the dominant cause of death for cardiac arrest patients who are admitted to an intensive care unit, and the majority of patients die after withdrawal of life sustaining therapy (WLST) based on a presumed poor neurologic outcome. Mild induced hypothermia was found to decrease the reliability of several methods for neurological prognostication. Algorithms for prediction of outcome, that were developed before the introduction of mild hypothermia after cardiac arrest, may have affected the results of studies with hypothermia-treated patients. In previous trials on neuroprotection after cardiac arrest, including the pivotal hypothermia trials, the methods for prognostication and the reasons for WLST were not reported and may have had an effect on outcome. In the Target Temperature Management trial, in which 950 cardiac arrest patients have been randomized to treatment at 33°C or 36°C, neuroprognostication and WLST-decisions are strictly protocolized and registered. Prognostication is delayed to at least 72 hours after the end of the intervention period, thus a minimum of 4.5 days after the cardiac arrest, and is based on multiple parameters to account for the possible effects of hypothermia. PMID:23759121

Cronberg, Tobias; Horn, Janneke; Kuiper, Michael A; Friberg, Hans; Nielsen, Niklas

2013-01-01

239

Identification of intrinsic subtype-specific prognostic microRNAs in primary glioblastoma  

PubMed Central

Background Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant type of glioma. Integrated classification based on mRNA expression microarrays and whole–genome methylation subdivides GBM into five subtypes: Classical, Mesenchymal, Neural, Proneural-CpG island methylator phenotype (G-CIMP) and Proneural-non G-CIMP. Biomarkers that can be used to predict prognosis in each subtype have not been systematically investigated. Methods In the present study, we used Cox regression and risk-score analysis to construct respective prognostic microRNA (miRNA) signatures in the five intrinsic subtypes of primary glioblastoma in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset. Results Patients who had high-risk scores had poor overall survival compared with patients who had low-risk scores. The prognostic miRNA signature for the Mesenchymal subtype (four risky miRNAs: miR-373, miR-296, miR-191, miR-602; one protective miRNA: miR-223) was further validated in an independent cohort containing 41 samples. Conclusion We report novel diagnostic tools for deeper prognostic sub-stratification in GBM intrinsic subtypes based upon miRNA expression profiles and believe that such signature could lead to more individualized therapies to improve survival rates and provide a potential platform for future studies on gene treatment for GBM. PMID:24438238

2014-01-01

240

Prognostic and predictive response factors in colorectal cancer patients: between hope and reality.  

PubMed

Colorectal cancer (CRC) represents one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide. It is the second leading cause of cancer death in Western Countries. In the last decade the survival of patients with metastatic CRC has improved dramatically. Due to the advent of new drugs (irinotecan and oxaliplatin) and target therapies (i.e., bevacizumab, cetuximab and panitumab), the median overall survival has risen from about 12 mo in the mid nineties to 30 mo recently. Many questions needing of right collocations and more clearness still exist regarding the prognostic factors and the predictive factors of response to therapy. Despite advances in dosing and scheduling of chemotherapy in both adjuvant and advanced settings, and a greater emphasis on early detection, the outlook still remains poor for most patients. Molecular analyses have shown that the natural history of all CRCs is not the same. Individual patients with same stage tumours may have different long term prognosis and response to therapy. In addition, some prognostic variables are likely to be more important than others. Here we review the role of prognostic factors and predictive factors according to the recently published English literature. PMID:25386053

De Divitiis, Chiara; Nasti, Guglielmo; Montano, Massimo; Fisichella, Rossella; Iaffaioli, Rosario Vincenzo; Berretta, Massimiliano

2014-11-01

241

Prognosis of aggressive lymphomas: a study of five prognostic models with patients included in the LNH-84 regimen.  

PubMed

Four prognostic models described for aggressive malignant lymphomas and the classical Ann Arbor staging system were used to compare the survival of 737 patients treated with the LNH-84 regimen. The aim of the study was to determine the optimal prognostic system at the time of diagnosis. Three institutions have described these models after multivariate analyses: the Dana Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI1 and DFCI2), the MD Anderson Hospital (MDAH), and the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC). The models were constructed with the following variables: performance status, LDH level, and tumor extension. The latter is the most difficult to assess: it was considered as the number of extranodal sites and the diameter of the largest mass in DFCI1, stage and the diameter of the largest mass in DFCI2, the number of extranodal and extensive nodal sites in MDAH, and the number of nodal sites and their localization in MSKCC. Univariate studies with LNH-84 regimen patients showed all these variables to have major prognostic significance (logrank tests: P less than 10(-4)). All five prognostic systems divided patients into three subgroups: good, intermediate, and poor prognosis. Logrank analyses of survival showed highly significant differences (X2 greater than 90 and P less than 10(-6)) between the subgroups. No gross difference was found between the models, and none was better than the others. A new, internationally accepted prognostic system for the expression and comparison of treatment results in aggressive malignant lymphomas should include major univariate prognostic parameters and must be reliable and easy to use in clinical practice. Until such time, stage or LDH level are the best alternatives. PMID:2752133

Coiffier, B; Lepage, E

1989-08-01

242

Vehicle Integrated Prognostic Reasoner (VIPR) Final Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A systems view is necessary to detect, diagnose, predict, and mitigate adverse events during the flight of an aircraft. While most aircraft subsystems look for simple threshold exceedances and report them to a central maintenance computer, the vehicle integrated prognostic reasoner (VIPR) proactively generates evidence and takes an active role in aircraft-level health assessment. Establishing the technical feasibility and a design trade-space for this next-generation vehicle-level reasoning system (VLRS) is the focus of our work.

Bharadwaj, Raj; Mylaraswamy, Dinkar; Cornhill, Dennis; Biswas, Gautam; Koutsoukos, Xenofon; Mack, Daniel

2013-01-01

243

Supplementary Prognostic Variables for Pleural Mesothelioma  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The staging system for malignant pleural mesothelioma is controversial. To revise this system, the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer Staging Committee developed an international database. This report analyzes prognostic variables in a surgical population, which are supplementary to previously published CORE variables (stage, histology, sex, age, and type of procedure). Methods: Supplementary prognostic variables were studied in three scenarios: (1) all data available, that is, patient pathologically staged and other CORE variables available (2) only clinical staging available along with CORE variables, and (3) only age, sex, histology, and laboratory parameters are known. Survival was analyzed by Kaplan–Meier, prognostic factors by log rank and stepwise Cox regression modeling after elimination of nonsignificant variables. p value less than 0.05 was significant. Results: A total of 2141 patients with best tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) stages (pathologic with/without clinical staging) had nonmissing age, sex, histology, and type of surgical procedure. Three prognostic models were defined. Scenario A (all parameters): best pathologic stage, histology, sex, age, type of surgery, adjuvant treatment, white blood cell count (WBC) (?15.5 or not), and platelets (?400 k or not) (n = 550). Scenario B (no surgical staging): clinical stage, histology, sex, age, type of surgery, adjuvant treatment, WBC, hemoglobin (<14.6 or not), and platelets (n = 627). Scenario C (limited data): histology, sex, age, WBC, hemoglobin, and platelets (n = 906). Conclusion: Refinement of these models could define not only the appropriate patient preoperatively for best outcomes after cytoreductive surgery but also stratify surgically treated patients after clinical and pathologic staging who do or do not receive adjuvant therapy. PMID:24807157

Giroux, Dorothy; Kennedy, Catherine; Ruffini, Enrico; Cangir, Ayten K.; Rice, David; Asamura, Hisao; Waller, David; Edwards, John; Weder, Walter; Hoffmann, Hans; van Meerbeeck, Jan P.; Rusch, Valerie W.

2014-01-01

244

Prognostic implication of gene mutations on overall survival in the adult acute myeloid leukemia patients receiving or not receiving allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantations.  

PubMed

Several gene mutations have been shown to provide clinical implications in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, the prognostic impact of gene mutations in the context of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) remains unclear. We retrospectively evaluated the clinical implications of 8 gene mutations in 325 adult AML patients; 100 of them received allo-HSCT and 225 did not. The genetic alterations analyzed included NPM1, FLT3-ITD, FLT3-TKD, CEBPA, RUNX1, RAS, MLL-PTD, and WT1. In patients who did not receive allo-HSCT, older age, higher WBC count, higher lactate dehydrogenase level, unfavorable karyotype, and RUNX1 mutation were significantly associated with poor overall survival (OS), while CEBPA double mutation (CEBPA(double-mut)) and NPM1(mut)/FLT3-ITD(neg) were associated with good outcome. However, in patients who received allo-HSCT, only refractory disease status at the time of HSCT and unfavorable karyotype were independent poor prognostic factors. Surprisingly, RUNX1 mutation was an independent good prognostic factor for OS in multivariate analysis. The prognostic impact of FLT3-ITD or NPM1(mut)/FLT3-ITD(neg) was lost in this group of patients receiving allo-HSCT, while CEBPA(double-mut) showed a trend to be a good prognostic factor. In conclusion, allo-HSCT can ameliorate the unfavorable influence of some poor-risk gene mutations in AML patients. Unexpectedly, the RUNX1 mutation showed a favorable prognostic impact in the context of allo-HSCT. These results need to be confirmed by further studies with more AML patients. PMID:25260824

Chou, Sheng-Chieh; Tang, Jih-Luh; Hou, Hsin-An; Chou, Wen-Chien; Hu, Fu-Chang; Chen, Chien-Yuan; Yao, Ming; Ko, Bor-Sheng; Huang, Shang-Yi; Tsay, Woei; Chen, Yao-Chang; Tien, Hwei-Fang

2014-11-01

245

Cancer Patients’ Understanding of Prognostic Information  

PubMed Central

Prognostic information is necessary for cancer patients to be fully informed about the likely course of their disease. This information is needed for practical planning and treatment decisions. This study sought to examine how cancer patients understand the prognosis information available to them. The setting is an urban safety net hospital. Six focus groups with cancer patients (N=39) were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim then analyzed using phases of content analysis. Participants in all groups discussed the prognosis almost exclusively in terms of mortality and reported that their physicians and nurses mostly provided prognostic information in terms of months or years for survival. This finding held across all cancer types and stages. Patients tend to think of prognosis information as being only estimated limited survival and find the idea upsetting. Due to this view on prognosis, patients need further explanation regarding where the prognosis information comes from and what prognostic information can tell them in order to make use of it. PMID:24402976

Dumenci, Levent; Siminoff, Laura A.; Matsuyama, Robin K.

2014-01-01

246

Child Health: Reaching the Poor  

PubMed Central

In most countries, rates of mortality and malnutrition among children continue to decline, but large inequalities between poor and better-off children exist, both between and within countries. These inequalities, which appear to be widening, call into question the strategies for child mortality reduction relied upon to date. We review (1) what is known about the causes of socioeconomic inequalities in child health and where programs aimed at reducing inequalities may be most effectively focused and (2) what is known about the success of actual programs in narrowing these inequalities. We end with lessons learned: the need for better evidence, but most of all for a new approach to improving the health of all children that is evidence based, broad, and multifaceted. PMID:15117689

Wagstaff, Adam; Bustreo, Flavia; Bryce, Jennifer; Claeson, Mariam

2004-01-01

247

[Drug access in poor countries].  

PubMed

As a responsible player in the global pharmaceutical industry, Sanofi-Aventis recognizes its special responsibility to provide poor countries with access to drugs and vaccines. This is a key component of the Group's approach to sustainable development. As such, the Access to Medicines department draws on Sanofi-Aventis' expertise in order to address major public health issues, starting with the treatment of malaria, tuberculosis, sleeping sickness, leishmaniasis and epilepsy, as well as access to vaccines. The department has four main activities: research and development of new drugs; improvement of existing treatments; information, communication and education of patients and healthcare professionals; and development of a differential pricing and distribution policy adapted to patients' income, with a "no profit-no loss" equilibrium. PMID:18666459

Sebbag, Robert

2007-11-01

248

Evaluation of prognostic factors in liver-limited metastatic colorectal cancer: a preplanned analysis of the FIRE-1 trial  

PubMed Central

Background: Liver-limited disease (LLD) denotes a specific subgroup of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients. Patients and Methods: A total of 479 patients with unresectable mCRC from an irinotecan-based randomised phase III trial were evaluated. Patients with LLD and non-LLD and hepatic resection were differentiated. Based on baseline patient characteristic, prognostic factors for hepatic resection were evaluated. Furthermore, prognostic factors for median overall survival (OS) were estimated via Cox regression in LLD patients. Results: Secondary liver resection was performed in 38 out of 479 patients (resection rate: 7.9%). Prognostic factors for hepatic resection were LLD, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), node-negative primary, alkaline phosphatase (AP) and Karnofsky performance status (PS). Median OS was significantly increased after hepatic resection (48 months), whereas OS in LLD (17 months) and non-LLD (19 months) was comparable in non-resected patients. With the inapplicability of Koehne's risk classification in LLD patients, a new score based on only the independent prognostic factors LDH and white blood cell (WBC) provided markedly improved information on the outcome. Conclusion: Patients undergoing hepatic resection showed favourable long-term survival, whereas non-resected LLD patients and non-LLD patients did not differ with regard to progression-free survival and OS. The LDH levels and WBC count were confirmed as prognostic factors and provide a useful and simple score for OS-related risk stratification also in LLD. PMID:23963138

Giessen, C; Fischer von Weikersthal, L; Laubender, R P; Stintzing, S; Modest, D P; Schalhorn, A; Schulz, C; Heinemann, V

2013-01-01

249

Serving the world's poor, profitably.  

PubMed

By stimulating commerce and development at the bottom of the economic pyramid, multi-nationals could radically improve the lives of billions of people and help create a more stable, less dangerous world. Achieving this goal does not require MNCs to spearhead global social-development initiatives for charitable purposes. They need only act in their own self-interest. How? The authors lay out the business case for entering the world's poorest markets. Fully 65% of the world's population earns less than $2,000 per year--that's 4 billion people. But despite the vastness of this market, it remains largely untapped. The reluctance to invest is easy to understand, but it is, by and large, based on outdated assumptions of the developing world. While individual incomes may be low, the aggregate buying power of poor communities is actually quite large, representing a substantial market in many countries for what some might consider luxury goods like satellite television and phone services. Prices, and margins, are often much higher in poor neighborhoods than in their middle-class counterparts. And new technologies are already steadily reducing the effects of corruption, illiteracy, inadequate infrastructure, and other such barriers. Because these markets are in the earliest stages of economic development, revenue growth for multi-nationals entering them can be extremely rapid. MNCs can also lower costs, not only through low-cost labor but by transferring operating efficiencies and innovations developed to serve their existing operations. Certainly, succeeding in such markets requires MNCs to think creatively. The biggest change, though, has to come from executives: Unless business leaders confront their own preconceptions--particularly about the value of high-volume, low-margin businesses--companies are unlikely to master the challenges or reap the rewards of these developing markets. PMID:12227146

Prahalad, C K; Hammond, Allen

2002-09-01

250

Lupus anticoagulant as a prognostic marker in systemic lupus erythematosus.  

PubMed

To evaluate the prognostic significance of lupus anticoagulant (LA), 37 SLE patients with LA and 37 age- and sex-matched SLE patients without LA were followed up for a median of 22 years, of which 16 years (median) after the initial LA-testing. Deep venous thrombosis was observed in 20 (54%) patients with LA. Of these patients, 90% had the first episode within 8 years after the onset of SLE symptoms, as compared to only one of the six LA-negative patients with deep venous thrombosis (P 0.0001). Cerebral artery occlusions were more common in patients with LA (P 0.016), but typically appeared as a late phenomenon. Nephritis or neuropsychiatric manifestations, previously associated with a poor outcome in SLE, did not correlate with the presence of LA. However, higher mortality was associated with both LA (P 0.021) and a history of deep venous thrombosis (P 0.004), as well as with nephritis (P 0.038). The most common cause of death in both LA positives and negatives was vascular occlusion. In conclusion, it appears that the first episode of deep venous thrombosis in patients with LA is typically seen early in the course of disease, and that LA and a history of deep venous thrombosis are both associated with increased mortality. PMID:8339126

Jouhikainen, T; Stephansson, E; Leirisalo-Repo, M

1993-07-01

251

The floating knee: epidemiology, prognostic indicators & outcome following surgical management  

PubMed Central

Background Floating Knee injuries are complex injuries. The type of fractures, soft tissue and associated injuries make this a challenging problem to manage. We present the outcome of these injuries after surgical management. Methods 29 patients with floating knee injuries were managed over a 3 year period. This was a prospective study were both fractures of the floating knee injury were surgically fixed using different modalities. The associated injuries were managed appropriately. Assessment of the end result was done by the Karlstrom criteria after bony union. Results The mechanism of injury was road traffic accident in 27/29 patients. There were 38 associated injuries. 20/29 patients had intramedullary nailing for both fractures. The complications were knee stiffness, foot drop, delayed union of tibia and superficial infection. The bony union time ranged from 15 – 22.5 weeks for femur fractures and 17 – 28 weeks for the tibia. According to the Karlstrom criteria the end results were Excellent – 15, Good – 11, Acceptable – 1 and Poor – 3. Conclusion The associated injuries and the type of fracture (open, intra-articular, comminution) are prognostic indicators in the Floating knee. Appropriate management of the associated injuries, intramedullary nailing of both the fractures and post operative rehabilitation are necessary for good final outcome. PMID:18271992

Rethnam, Ulfin; Yesupalan, Rajam S; Nair, Rajagopalan

2007-01-01

252

Prognostic role of lymph node metastasis in early gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Objective To clarify the relationship between clinicopathological features and lymph node metastasis and to propose the potential indications of lymph node metastasis for prognosis in early gastric cancer (EGC) patients. Methods We retrospectively observed 226 EGC patients with lymph node resection, and analyzed the associations between lymph node metastasis and clinicopathological parameters using the chi-square test in univariate analysis and logistic regression analysis in multivariate analysis. Overall survival analysis was determined using the Kaplan-Meier and log-rank test. We conducted multivariate prognosis analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model. Results Of all the EGC patients, 7.5% (17/226) were histologically shown to have lymph node metastasis. The differentiation, lymphovascular invasion and depth of invasion were independent risk factors for lymph node metastasis in EGC. The 5- and 10-year survival rates were significantly lower in patients with lymph node metastasis than in those without and the patients also had shorter progress-free survival time. Lymph node metastasis and tumor size were independent prognostic factors for EGC. The status of the lymph nodes was a significant factor in predicting recurrence or metastasis after surgery. Conclusions The undifferentiated carcinoma and lymphovascular and/or submucosal invasion were associated with a higher incidence of lymph node metastasis in EGC patients, whom need to perform subsequent D2 lymphadenectomy or laparoscopic lymph node dissection and more rigorous follow-up or additional chemotherapy/radiation after D2 gastrectomy for poor prognosis and high recurrence/metastasis rate. PMID:24826060

Zheng, Zhixue; Liu, Yiqiang; Bu, Zhaode; Zhang, Lianhai; Li, Ziyu; Du, Hong

2014-01-01

253

The Prognostic Significance of HbF in Childhood Haematological Malignancies.  

PubMed

The degree of increase in foetal haemoglobin (HbF) synthesis in haematological malignancies may be associated with the degree of malignancy. The aim of the present study was to quantify HbF levels in various childhood haematological malignancies and also, to ascertain its prognostic significance by comparing the results with the already established standard prognostic factors. Newly diagnosed cases of haematological malignancies in the paediatric age group were included in the study. HbF levels were estimated in each case of the study group along with HbF levels of control group comprising healthy children of same age group. The estimation was done by HPLC and Modified Betke's method. 50 cases of newly diagnosed haematological malignancies were studied out of which most of the cases were of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) [n = 30(60 %)] followed by acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) [n = 8(16 %)], Hodgkin's lymphoma [n = 7(14%)], non-Hodgkin's lymphoma [n = 5(10 %)]. Raised HbF levels were found in 43.3 % cases of ALL (13/30) and 37.5 % cases of AML (3/8). No significant rise in HbF level was found in cases of lymphomas. There was correlation between raised HbF level and poor prognostic factors in cases of ALL but no such correlation was found in cases of AML. HbF levels are often elevated in childhood leukaemias as compared to childhood lymphomas. Thus, the concentration of HbF in acute childhood leukaemia may be considered as a prognostic factor. PMID:25548456

Mallick, Debjani; Karmakar, Rupam; Barui, Gopinath; Gon, Sonia; Chakrabarti, Sudipta

2015-03-01

254

Prognostic value of bone marrow involvement by clonal immunoglobulin gene rearrangements in follicular lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Aims We aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of routine use of PCR amplification of immunoglobulin gene rearrangements in bone marrow (BM) staging in patients with follicular lymphoma (FL). Methods Clonal rearrangements were assessed by immunoglobulin heavy and light-chain gene rearrangement analysis in BM aspirates from 96 patients diagnosed with FL and related to morphological detection of BM involvement in biopsies. In 71 patients, results were also compared with concurrent flow cytometry analysis. Results BM involvement was detected by PCR in 34.4% (33/96) of patients. The presence of clonal rearrangements by PCR was associated with advanced clinical stage (I–III vs IV; p<0.001), high FL International Prognostic Index (FLIPI) score (0–1, 2 vs ?3; p=0.003), and detection of BM involvement by morphology and flow cytometry analysis (p<0.001 for both). PCR-positive patients had a significantly poorer survival than PCR-negative patients (p=0.001, log-rank test). Thirteen patients positive by PCR but without morphologically detectable BM involvement, had significantly poorer survival than patients with negative morphology and negative PCR result (p=0.002). The poor survival associated with BM involvement by PCR was independent of the FLIPI score (p=0.007, Cox regression). BM involvement by morphology or flow cytometry did not show a significant impact on survival. Conclusions Our results showed that routine use of PCR-based clonality analysis significantly improved the prognostic impact of BM staging in patients with FL. BM involvement by PCR was also an independent adverse prognostic factor. PMID:25233852

Berget, Ellen; Helgeland, Lars; Liseth, Knut; Løkeland, Turid; Molven, Anders; Vintermyr, Olav Karsten

2014-01-01

255

New prognostic factors and scoring system for patients with skeletal metastasis  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to update a previous scoring system for patients with skeletal metastases, that was proposed by Katagiri et al. in 2005, by introducing a new factor (laboratory data) and analyzing a new patient cohort. Between January 2005 and January 2008, we treated 808 patients with symptomatic skeletal metastases. They were prospectively registered regardless of their treatments, and the last follow-up evaluation was performed in 2012. There were 441 male and 367 female patients with a median age of 64 years. Of these patients, 749 were treated nonsurgically while the remaining 59 underwent surgery for skeletal metastasis. A multivariate analysis was conducted using the Cox proportional hazards model. We identified six significant prognostic factors for survival, namely, the primary lesion, visceral or cerebral metastases, abnormal laboratory data, poor performance status, previous chemotherapy, and multiple skeletal metastases. The first three factors had a larger impact than the remaining three. The prognostic score was calculated by adding together all the scores for individual factors. With a prognostic score of ?7, the survival rate was 27% at 6 months, and only 6% at 1 year. In contrast, patients with a prognostic score of ?3 had a survival rate of 91% at 1 year, and 78% at 2 years. Comparing the revised system with the previous one, there was a significantly lower number of wrongly predicted patients using the revised system. This revised scoring system was able to predict the survival rates of patients with skeletal metastases more accurately than the previous system and may be useful for selecting an optimal treatment. PMID:25044999

Katagiri, Hirohisa; Okada, Rieko; Takagi, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Mitsuru; Murata, Hideki; Harada, Hideyuki; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Asakura, Hirofumi; Ogawa, Hirofumi

2014-01-01

256

Macrophages as independent prognostic factors in small T1 breast cancers.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is the second leading cause of death by cancer in women in the United States. The occurrence of high numbers of macrophages in the tumor stroma has been associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis in breast and other solid malignancies. However, macrophage numbers in tumors have not been validated as a prognostic factor in clinical practice. The present analysis was designed as a pilot study aimed at determining whether the presence of CD68+ macrophages is an independent prognostic factor in small T1 estrogen receptor (ER)+ breast cancers across three different ethnic groups, i.e. African-American, Latina and Caucasian women. A retrospective pilot analysis of 30 T1 breast cancer cases encompassing these three ethnic groups was carried out. African-American and Latina women present with less incidence but more aggressive breast cancer disease and, therefore, proportionally higher death rates. Using immuno-histochemistry, we sought to identify whether there was any association between the presence and density of CD68+ macrophages and standard prognostic markers with overall survival in these groups. Our data revealed that overall survival did not differ significantly for the occurrence or density of CD68+ macrophages in T1 ER+ tumors. There were also no significant differences in overall survival for the occurrence of CD68+ macrophages across ethnicities, although macrophage numbers were significantly higher in tumors from African-American and Latina than in Caucasian patients. Importantly, but not surprisingly, the absence of the progesterone receptor was associated very strongly with decreased overall survival. This pilot project shows that CD68+ macrophages are not pivotal in determining tumor prognosis in early T1 breast cancers. New studies are presently being conducted to assess the value of different macrophage markers and macrophage activation profiles as prognostic factors in breast cancers of different clinical stages, using a larger number of patients among these three different ethnicities. PMID:23076599

Carrio, Roberto; Koru-Sengul, Tulay; Miao, Feng; Glück, Stefan; Lopez, Omar; Selman, Yamil; Alvarez, Consuelo; Milikowski, Clara; Gomez, Carmen; Jorda, Merce; Nadji, Mehrad; Torroella-Kouri, Marta

2013-01-01

257

The Tumor Border Configuration of Colorectal Cancer as a Histomorphological Prognostic Indicator  

PubMed Central

Histomorphological features of colorectal cancers (CRC) represent valuable prognostic indicators for clinical decision making. The invasive margin is a central feature for prognostication shaped by the complex processes governing tumor–host interaction. Assessment of the tumor border can be performed on standard paraffin sections and shows promise for integration into the diagnostic routine of gastrointestinal pathology. In aggressive CRC, an extensive dissection of host tissue is seen with loss of a clear tumor–host interface. This pattern, termed “infiltrative tumor border configuration” has been consistently associated with poor survival outcome and early disease recurrence of CRC-patients. In addition, infiltrative tumor growth is frequently associated with presence of adverse clinicopathological features and molecular alterations related to aggressive tumor behavior including BRAFV600 mutation. In contrast, a well-demarcated “pushing” tumor border is seen frequently in CRC-cases with low risk for nodal and distant metastasis. A pushing border is a feature frequently associated with mismatch-repair deficiency and can be used to identify patients for molecular testing. Consequently, assessment of the tumor border configuration as an additional prognostic factor is recommended by the AJCC/UICC to aid the TNM-classification. To promote the assessment of the tumor border configuration in standard practice, consensus criteria on the defining features and method of assessment need to be developed further and tested for inter-observer reproducibility. The development of a standardized quantitative scoring system may lay the basis for verification of the prognostic associations of the tumor growth pattern in multivariate analyses and clinical trials. This article provides a comprehensive review of the diagnostic features, clinicopathological associations, and molecular alterations associated with the tumor border configuration in early stage and advanced CRC. PMID:24600585

Koelzer, Viktor H.; Lugli, Alessandro

2014-01-01

258

Increased expression of SOX4 is a biomarker for malignant status and poor prognosis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to analyze the expression of sex-determining region Y-related high mobility group box 4 (SOX4) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and its correlation with clinicopathologic characteristics, including the survival of NSCLC patients. To observe initially the expression status of SOX4 in lung squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma at gene expression omnibus. The expression of SOX4 mRNA and protein was examined in NSCLC tissues and normal lung tissues through real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Meanwhile, the relationship of SOX4 expression levels with clinical characteristics of 168 NSCLC patients was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the association between SOX4 expression and prognosis of NSCLC patients. In our results, SOX4 expression was increased in NSCLC tissues compared with paired normal lung tissues in microarray data (GSE3268). SOX4 mRNA and protein expression were markedly higher in NSCLC tissues than in normal lung tissues (P = 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively). Using immunohistochemistry, high levels of SOX4 protein were positively correlated with status of differentiated degree (high vs. middle, P = 0.004; high vs. low, P < 0.001), clinical stage (I-II vs. III-IV, P < 0.001), T classification (T1-T2 vs. T3-T4, P = 0.004), N classification (N0-N1 vs. N2-N3, P = 0.002), and M classification (M0 vs. M1, P = 0.011) in NSCLC. Moreover, the higher level of SOX4 expression was markedly correlated with poor overall survival in NSCLC patients (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis suggested that increased SOX4 expression was a poor independent prognostic predictor for NSCLC patients (P = 0.002). In conclusion, SOX4 plays an important role on NSCLC progression and prognosis and may serve as a convictive prognostic biomarker for NSCLC patients. PMID:25567207

Wang, Dingmiao; Hao, Ting; Pan, Yang; Qian, Xiaowei; Zhou, Daixing

2015-04-01

259

Tumor signatures of PTHLH overexpression, high serum calcium, and poor prognosis were observed exclusively in clear cell but not non clear cell renal carcinomas  

PubMed Central

High serum calcium (Ca) due to aberrant secretion of tumor parathyroid hormone-like hormone (PTHLH) is a well-known paraneoplastic sign and is associated with poor prognosis in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, the status of serum Ca and tumor PTHLH expression have not been verified using the 2004 World Health Organization (WHO) renal tumor classification. We retrospectively reviewed corrected serum Ca levels at initial onset (n = 683) and/or as of recurrence (n = 71) in patients with RCC. We also examined a total of 623 renal parenchymal tumor samples for PTHLH mRNA expressions by quantitative real-time PCR. High serum Ca concomitant with PTHLH overexpression in tumors was observed exclusively in clear cell RCC but not in other non clear cell subtype tumors, including papillary, chromophobe, collecting-duct, unclassified, and other rare subtype RCCs or in benign oncocytomas and angiomyolipomas. In clear cell RCC, PTHLH expression was significantly high in male patients, and was associated with a symptomatic presentation, higher grade, and higher stage cases, whereas it was not associated with VHL gene status. Univariate analyses demonstrated that high PTHLH expression was strongly associated with poor outcome both in overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) for patients who underwent standard nephrectomy. Further multivariate Cox analyses revealed that the PTHLH expressions remained as independent prognostic parameters for OS but not for DFS. These data suggest that the previously characterized tumor signatures of high serum Ca due to high PTHLH expression and poor prognosis are clear cell RCC-specific features, whereas these characteristics are rare in non clear cell RCCs. PMID:24861371

Yao, Masahiro; Murakami, Takayuki; Shioi, Koichi; Mizuno, Nobuhiko; Ito, Hiroki; Kondo, Keiichi; Hasumi, Hisashi; Sano, Futoshi; Makiyama, Kazuhide; Nakaigawa, Noboru; Kishida, Takeshi; Nagashima, Yoji; Yamanaka, Shoji; Kubota, Yoshinobu

2014-01-01

260

Increased polycomb-group oncogene Bmi1 expression correlates with poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Recent studies have identified polycomb-group gene Bmi-1 as oncogene in the generation of mouse pre-cell lymphomas, and overexpression\\u000a of Bmi-1 has been found in several human tumor with the disease progress and poor prognosis of the cancer patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In present study, we investigated Bmi-1 expression and its prognostic significance in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by performing\\u000a immunohistochemical analysis, using a total

Hui Wang; Ke Pan; Hua-kun Zhang; De-sheng Weng; Jun Zhou; Jian-jun Li; Wei Huang; Hai-feng Song; Min-shan Chen; Jian-chuan Xia

2008-01-01

261

Stress testing on silicon carbide electronic devices for prognostics and health management.  

SciTech Connect

Power conversion systems for energy storage and other distributed energy resource applications are among the drivers of the important role that power electronics plays in providing reliable electricity. Wide band gap semiconductors such as silicon carbide (SiC) and gallium nitride (GaN) will help increase the performance and efficiency of power electronic equipment while condition monitoring (CM) and prognostics and health management (PHM) will increase the operational availability of the equipment and thereby make it more cost effective. Voltage and/or temperature stress testing were performed on a number of SiC devices in order to accelerate failure modes and to identify measureable shifts in electrical characteristics which may provide early indication of those failures. Those shifts can be interpreted and modeled to provide prognostic signatures for use in CM and/or PHM. Such experiments will also lead to a deeper understanding of basic device physics and the degradation mechanisms behind failure.

Kaplar, Robert James; Brock, Reinhard C.; Marinella, Matthew; King, Michael Patrick; Smith, Mark A.; Atcitty, Stanley

2011-01-01

262

Rural Poor Target of Increased Research Interest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes significant problems that are specific to rural poor and particularly devastating to poor Blacks. Lack of jobs and the farm crisis are the main causes of rural poverty. Discusses funding for research and need for future studies. (JS)

Farrell, Charles S.

1989-01-01

263

Inflammatory and microRNA Gene Expression as Prognostic Classifiers of Barrett's Associated Esophageal Adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Purpose Esophageal cancer is one of the most aggressive and deadly forms of cancer; highlighting the need to identify biomarkers for early detection and prognostic classification. Our recent studies have identified inflammatory gene and microRNA signatures derived from tumor and nontumor tissues as prognostic biomarkers of hepatocellular, lung, and colorectal adenocarcinoma. Here, we examine the relationship between expression of these inflammatory genes and miRNA expression in esophageal adenocarcinoma and patient survival. Experimental Design We measured the expression of 23 inflammation-associated genes in tumors and adjacent normal tissues from 93 patients (58 Barrett's and 35 Sporadic adenocarcinomas) by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. These data were used to build an inflammatory risk model, based on multivariate Cox regression, to predict survival in a training cohort (n=47). We then determined if this model could predict survival in a cohort of 46 patients. Expression data for miRNA-375 was available for these patients and was combined with inflammatory gene expression. Results IFN?, IL-1?, IL-8, IL-21, IL-23, and PRG expression in tumor and nontumor samples were each associated with poor prognosis based on Cox regression ([Z-score]>1.5) and therefore, were used to generate an inflammatory risk score (IRS). Patients with a high IRS had poor prognosis compared to those with a low IRS in the training (P=0.002) and test (P=0.012) cohorts. This association was stronger in the group with Barrett's history. When combining with miRNA-375, the combined IRS/miR signature was an improved prognostic classifier than either one alone. Conclusion Transcriptional profiling of inflammation-associated genes and miRNA expression in resected esophageal Barrett's associated adenocarcinoma tissues may have clinical utility as predictors of prognosis. PMID:20947516

Nguyen, Giang Huong; Schetter, Aaron J.; Chou, David B.; Bowman, Elise D.; Zhao, Ronghua; Hawkes, Jason E.; Mathe, Ewy A.; Kumamoto, Kensuke; Zhao, Yiqiang; Budhu, Anuradha; Hagiwara, Nobutoshi; Wang, Xin Wei; Miyashita, Masao; Casson, Alan G.; Harris, Curtis C.

2010-01-01

264

Expression of cyclin kinase subunit 2 in human breast cancer and its prognostic significance  

PubMed Central

Cyclin kinase subunit 2 (CKS2) protein is a small cyclin-dependent kinase-interacting protein, which is essential for the first metaphase/anaphase transition of mammalian meiosis. CKS2 is up-regulated in various malignancies, suggesting that CKS2 maybe an oncogene. However, data on its expression pattern and clinical relevance in breast cancer are unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate CKS2 expression and its prognostic significance in breast cancer. The CKS2 expression was examined at mRNA and protein levels by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting analysis in paired breast cancer tissues and the adjacent normal tissues. The expression of CKS2 protein in 126 specimens of breast cancer was determined by immunohistochemistry assay. The relations between CKS2 expression and clinicopathological features were analyzed. The result show the expression of CKS2 mRNA and protein was higher in breast cancer than the adjacent normal tissues. Compared with adjacent normal breast tissues, Overexpression of CKS2 was detected in 56.3% (71/126) patients. Overexpression of CKS2 was significantly associated with large tumor size (P = 0.035), poor cellular differentiation (P = 0.016), lack expression of progesterone receptor (P = 0.006), and decreased overall survival (P = 0.001). In multivariate analysis, CKS2 expression was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (Hazard ratio [HR] = 3.404, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.482-7.818; P = 0.004). CKS2 is up-regulated in breast cancer and associated with large tumor size, lack expression of progesterone receptor, poor tumor differentiation and survival. CKS2 may serve as a good prognostic indicator for patients with breast cancer.

Wang, Jiani; Xu, Lihua; Liu, Yu; Chen, Jianning; Jiang, Hua; Yang, Shaojiang; Tan, Huo

2014-01-01

265

Prognostic value of LAMP3 and TP53 overexpression in benign and malignant gastrointestinal tissues  

PubMed Central

Lysosomal associated membrane protein 3 (LAMP3) is a newly identified tumor-specific protein. It is a downstream target gene of tumor suppressor TP53 and its expression has been associated with hypoxia-induced metastasis and poor overall survival in cervical and breast cancers. However, little is known of LAMP3 protein expression in gastrointestinal cancer and its prognostic value. We determined protein expression of LAMP3 and TP53 in both gastric (n=750) and colorectal (n=479) tissues by immunohistochemistry analysis on tissue microarray (TMA), their expression was correlated with patients' clinical parameters. LAMP3 and TP53 protein expression was significantly higher in cancerous tissues compared to normal and benign tissues. In both gastric and colorectal cancers, high LAMP3 protein expression (LAMP3+) was significantly associated with tumor stage (P=0.014 and P<0.001). No correlation between LAMP3 and TP53 expression was observed. Patients with high LAMP3 expression but not high TP53 expression had a poor overall survival (for gastric cancer P<0.001, CI: 1.762-4.567; for colorectal cancer P=0.036, CI: 1.062-5.980). Our data suggest that epithelial LAMP3 expression is an independent prognostic marker for gastrointestinal cancer. PMID:25362357

Zhu, Huijun; Mei, Haijun; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Shu; Huang, Jianfei

2014-01-01

266

Low CA II expression is associated with tumor aggressiveness and poor prognosis in gastric cancer patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Carbonic anhydrase II is present in normal gastric mucosa; thus, this study aimed to investigate whether its expression persisted in neoplastic gastric tissues, as well as its prognostic value for gastric cancer patients. Methods: The protein CA II expression pattern was retrospectively analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 181 gastric cancer patients who had undergone gastrectomy. The relationship between the CA II expression level and clinicopathological parameters was investigated. Survival analysis according to CA II expression was measured by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to evaluate the prognostic value of CA II expression. Results: CA II expression was significantly decreased in gastric cancer tissues compared with normal stomach mucosa. Low expression was significantly associated with tumor size, depth of invasion, lymph node involvement, distant metastasis and TNM stage, and it predicted poor survival in gastric cancer patients. Moreover, CA II was an independent prognosis indicator for the overall survival of gastric cancer patients. Conclusions: The down-regulation of CA II expression was observed in gastric cancer and may serve as an independent prognostic factor for the overall survival of gastric cancer patients. PMID:25400751

Hu, Xiaotong; Huang, Zhongting; Liao, Zhongcai; He, Chao; Fang, Xiao

2014-01-01

267

Loss of stromal caveolin-1 expression in colorectal cancer predicts poor survival  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the clinicopathological signi?cance and prognostic value of caveolin-1 (CAV-1) in both tumor and stromal cells in colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: A total of 178 patients with CRC were included in this study. The correlation between CAV-1 expression and clinicopathologic features and survival was studied. RESULTS: CAV-1 expression was detected in tumor and stromal cells. The expression of stromal CAV-1 was closely associated with histological type (P = 0.022), pathologic tumor-node-metastasis stage (P = 0.047), pathologic N stage (P = 0.035) and recurrence (P = 0.000). However, tumor cell CAV-1 did not show any correlation with clinical parameters. Additionally, the loss of stromal CAV-1 expression was associated with shorter disease-free survival (P = 0.000) and overall survival (P = 0.000). Multivariate analysis revealed that the loss of stromal CAV-1 expression was an independent prognostic factor for both overall survival (P = 0.014) and disease-free survival (P = 0.006). CONCLUSION: The loss of stromal CAV-1 expression in CRC was associated with poor prognosis and could be a prognostic factor for CRC patients.

Zhao, Zhi; Han, Fang-Hai; Yang, Shi-Bin; Hua, Li-Xin; Wu, Jian-Hai; Zhan, Wen-Hua

2015-01-01

268

Elevated ALCAM shedding in colorectal cancer correlates with poor patient outcome  

PubMed Central

Molecular biomarkers of cancer are needed to assist histological staging in the selection of treatment, outcome risk stratification, and patient prognosis. This is particularly important for patients with early-stage disease. We demonstrate that shedding of the extracellular domain of ALCAM (Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule) is prognostic for outcome in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Previous reports on the prognostic value of ALCAM expression in CRC have been contradictory and inconclusive. This study clarifies the prognostic value of ALCAM by visualizing ectodomain shedding using a dual stain that detects both the extracellular and the intracellular domains in formalin-fixed tissue. Using this novel assay, 105 primary colorectal cancers patients and 12 normal mucosa samples were evaluated. ALCAM shedding, defined as detection of the intracellular domain in the absence of the corresponding extracellular domain, was significantly elevated in CRC patients and correlated with reduced survival. Conversely, retention of intact ALCAM was associated with improved survival, thereby confirming that ALCAM shedding is associated with poor patient outcome. Importantly, analysis of stage II CRC patients demonstrated that disease-specific survival is significantly reduced for patients with elevated ALCAM shedding (p=0.01, HR 3.0) suggesting that ALCAM shedding can identify patients with early stage disease at risk of rapid progression. PMID:23539446

Hansen, Amanda G.; Freeman, Tanner J.; Arnold, Shanna A.; Starchenko, Alina; Jones-Paris, Celestial R.; Gilger, Michael A.; Washington, Mary K.; Fan, Kang-Hsien; Shyr, Yu; Beauchamp, Robert D.; Zijlstra, Andries

2013-01-01

269

Prognostic factors in jejuno-ileal atresia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Primarily to study morbidity and mortality in jejuno-ileal atresias (JIA) and prognostic factors for outcome. Secondarily\\u000a to look at the incidence of reintervention.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Retrospective review of 63 patients diagnosed with JIA over a 30-year period (1975–2005).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Sixty-three patients (34 male) of mean gestational age 36 weeks and mean birth weight 2,858 g with JIA were studied. There\\u000a were 14 type I, 14

Sathyaprasad C. Burjonrappa; Elise Crete; Sarah Bouchard

2009-01-01

270

Prognostic impact of pulmonary artery systolic pressure in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis.  

PubMed

Baseline pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a predictor of poor outcomes in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS). Surgical aortic valve replacement is thought to alleviate PH. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic impact of PH in patients who underwent transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). An observational cohort study was conducted using prospectively collected data on 277 consecutive patients with severe AS who underwent TAVR at the Mayo Clinic (Rochester, Minnesota) from November 1, 2008, to June 31, 2013. Clinical and echocardiographic data, pulmonary function characteristics, and outcomes stratified by tertiles of pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) were analyzed. From 277 patients who underwent TAVR, 251 patients had PASP assessment at baseline. Those in the highest PASP tertile (PASP ?49 mm Hg) had more severe chronic lung disease and worse diastolic dysfunction. Being in the highest PASP tertile was an independent predictor of long-term mortality (hazard ratio 2.88, 95% confidence interval 1.15 to 7.23). Patients in the highest PASP tertile had longer lengths of hospital stay, while other short-term outcomes (30-day mortality and readmission, stroke, prolonged ventilation, and reoperation for bleeding) were similar across PASP tertiles. TAVR was associated with a decrease in PASP in the highest PASP tertile at 1 week after the procedure (-8 ± 14 mm Hg) and at 3 months (-7 ± 15 mm Hg) compared with baseline. In conclusion, among patients with severe AS who underwent TAVR, higher baseline PASP was strongly associated with diastolic dysfunction and chronic lung disease. Patients with higher baseline PASP tolerated TAVR relatively well in the early postprocedural phase, with diminished long-term survival. PH should not disqualify patients with severe AS from consideration for TAVR. PMID:25260946

Bishu, Kalkidan; Suri, Rakesh M; Nkomo, Vuyisile T; Kane, Garvan C; Greason, Kevin L; Reeder, Guy S; Mathew, Verghese; Holmes, David R; Rihal, Charanjit S; Melduni, Rowlens M

2014-11-15

271

CONCEPT OF PROGNOSTIC MODEL ASSESSMENT OF TOXIC CHEMICAL FATE  

EPA Science Inventory

Prognostic assessment provides information on environmental behavior of chemicals when no direct information exists. The utility of this method of analysis depends on the way in which the prognostic modeling tools are used. When the environment and the properties of the chemical ...

272

The prognostic importance of anemia in patients with heart failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposePhysiologic studies have suggested that anemia could adversely affect the cardiovascular condition of patients with heart failure. Yet, the prognostic importance of this treatable condition is not well established by epidemiologic studies. We sought to determine the prognostic value of hematocrit level in a cohort of elderly patients hospitalized with heart failure.

Mikhail Kosiborod; Grace L Smith; Martha J Radford; JoAnne M Foody; Harlan M Krumholz

2003-01-01

273

Systematic review of prognostic models in traumatic brain injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability world-wide. The ability to accurately predict patient outcome after TBI has an important role in clinical practice and research. Prognostic models are statistical models that combine two or more items of patient data to predict clinical outcome. They may improve predictions in TBI patients. Multiple prognostic models

Pablo Perel; Phil Edwards; Reinhard Wentz; Ian Roberts

2006-01-01

274

Engraftment Syndrome following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation predicts poor outcomes  

PubMed Central

Engraftment syndrome (ES), characterized by fever, rash, pulmonary edema, weight gain, liver and renal dysfunction, and/or encephalopathy, occurs at the time of neutrophil recovery following hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). In this study, we evaluated the incidence, clinical features, risk factors, and outcomes of ES in children and adults undergoing first-time allogeneic HCT. Among 927 patients, 119 (13%) developed ES at a median of 10 days (interquartile range 9–12) post-HCT. ES patients experienced significantly higher cumulative incidence of grade 2–4 acute GVHD at day 100 (75% vs. 34%, p<0.001) and higher non-relapse mortality at 2 years (38% vs. 19%, p<0.001), compared with non-ES patients, resulting in lower overall survival at 2 years (38% vs. 54%, p<0.001). There was no significant difference in relapse at 2 years (26% vs. 31%, p=0.772). ST2, IL2R?, and TNFR1 plasma biomarker levels were significantly elevated in ES patients. Our results illustrate the clinical significance and prognostic impact of ES on allogeneic HCT outcomes. Despite early recognition of the syndrome and prompt institution of corticosteroid therapy, outcomes in ES patients were uniformly poor. This study suggests the need for a prospective approach of collecting clinical features combined with correlative laboratory analyses to better characterize ES. PMID:24892262

Chang, Lawrence; Frame, David; Braun, Thomas; Gatza, Erin; Hanauer, David A.; Zhao, Shuang; Magenau, John M.; Schultz, Kathryn; Tokala, Hemasri; Ferrara, James L.M.; Levine, John E.; Reddy, Pavan; Paczesny, Sophie; Choi, Sung Won

2014-01-01

275

The Prognostic Value of 18F-FDG PET/CT for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Treated with Transarterial Chemoembolization (TACE)  

PubMed Central

18F-Fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT can be used to monitor the biological behavior of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Baseline PET/CT has prognostic value in HCC patients, but there is litter knowledge of the PET/CT changes after treatment. We evaluated 27 HCC patients treated with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) from June 2011 to July 2012, and we investigated the prognostic value of PET/CT. Patients were followed up with regular clinical and laboratory examinations and contrast-enhanced spiral computed tomography (CT). Furthermore, PET/CT assessments were collected and analyzed before (range 1~15 d) and after the first month of TACE (range, 27~45d). We tested the prognostic value of the tumor standardized uptake value (TSUV) and normal liver SUV(LSUV) according to the VOI (volume of interest). The SUVs were used to assess the relationship between the treatment response and survival. To assess their prognostic value, we evaluated the areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of different SUVs for predicting survival. Finally, the median overall survival (OS) and time to progression (TTP) for 27 patients were 15.4 months (95%CI, 3.3-27.5 months) and 11.4 months (95%CI, 6.7-16.1 months), respectively. The ?TSUVmax%, based on the VOI, had the highest discriminative prognostic value and the cutoff PET/CT response was 0.1 with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 95.2%. The OS was significantly better in the PET/CT response group than in the PET/CT non-response group (p=0.025). In conclusion, an early interim PET/CT after TACE may have prognostic value for HCC patients treated with TACE, and the ?TSUVmax% may help in determining the HCCs viability in patients with high baseline and follow-up18F-FDG uptake. PMID:24883123

Ma, Wenhui; Jia, Jia; Wang, Shengjun; Bai, Wei; Yi, Jingwei; Bai, Ming; Quan, Zhiyong; Yin, Zhanxin; Fan, Daiming; Wang, Jing; Han, Guohong

2014-01-01

276

2020 Focus briefs on the world's poor and hungry people  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contents: 1.The Changing Profile of Poverty in the World\\/Shaohua Chen and Martin Ravallion. 2.Characteristics and Causes of Severe Poverty and Hunger\\/Akhter U. Ahmed, Ruth Vargas Hill, Lisa C. Smith, and Tim Frankenberger. 3.The Poorest and Hungry: Looking Below the Line\\/Akhter U. Ahmed, Ruth Vargas Hill, and Doris M. Wiesmann. 4.Mapping Where the Poor Live\\/Todd Benson, Michael Epprecht, and Nicholas Minot

2007-01-01

277

Nuclear matrix proteins in well and poorly differentiated human breast cancer cell lines.  

PubMed

The nuclear matrix, besides providing the structural support of the nucleus, is involved in various cellular functions of the nucleus. Nuclear matrix proteins (NMPs), which are both tissue- and cell type-specific, are altered with transformation and state of differentiation. Furthermore, NMPs have been identified as informative markers of disease states. Here, the NMP profiles from human breast cancer cell lines and breast tumours were analyzed using two-dimension gel electrophoresis. We identified NMPs that are associated with well and poorly differentiated human breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Five NMPs (NMBC 1-5) were found to be exclusive for well-differentiated human breast cancer cells, while one NMP (NMBC-6) was found to be present only in poorly differentiated human breast cancer cells. The identification of these proteins suggests the potential use of nuclear matrix proteins as prognostic indicators. PMID:9215523

Samuel, S K; Minish, T M; Davie, J R

1997-07-01

278

Ploidy and DNA index as prognostic factors in resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma – a review of the literature  

PubMed Central

In Poland, pancreatic cancer is the seventh most common cause of cancer-related death amongst men and the sixth amongst women. Pancreatic cancer has an extremely poor prognosis. Radical surgery still remains the only way of curing pancreatic cancer, and this is possible to perform in just 20% of cases, i.e. those that present localised disease upon diagnosis. An average survival of ?20 months post-resection and adjuvant chemotherapy has been observed in 10–15% of patients with tumours limited to the pancreas at the time of presentation. It is necessary to define strong prognostic factors to determine individual treatment and prognosis. In this paper we submit a review of the literature concerning the prognostic impact of the ploidy and the DNA index on the survival of patients who underwent resection of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. However, the presented studies have produced conflicting results. Pancreatic cancer still remains a great challenge in medicine. PMID:25653724

Tuchalska-Czuro?, Julia

2014-01-01

279

Prognostic Impact of Deletions of Derivative Chromosome 9 in Patients With Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Treated With Nilotinib or Dasatinib  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Deletions of derivative chromosome 9 are a poor prognostic factor in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) treated with hydroxyurea, interferon, or stem cell transplantation. Imatinib may overcome the adverse prognostic impact of deletions of derivative chromosome 9. METHODS A study was undertaken to investigate the prognostic impact of deletions of derivative chromosome 9 in 353 patients with CML receiving the second generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) nilotinib (n = 161) or dasatinib (n = 192). RESULTS Deletion of derivative chromosome 9 status was determined in 245 (69%). Twenty-eight (11%) patients, 22 in chronic phase, 4 in accelerated phase, and 2 in blast phase, carried deletions of derivative chromosome 9, including 17 receiving nilotinib and 11 receiving dasatinib (P = .47). Overall survival (OS) at 24 months was similar between patients with or without deletions of derivative chromosome 9 (70% vs 71%, P = .76). For patients in chronic phase, no significant differences in overall major cytogenetic response (77% vs 82%, P = .57) or complete cytogenetic response (77% vs 81%, P = .71) rates were observed between patients with or without deletions of derivative chromosome 9. At 24 months, patients with CML in chronic phase without deletions of derivative chromosome 9 had improved event-free survival (EFS) (88% vs 66%, P = .07) and OS (96% vs 82%; P = .08) compared with those carrying deletions of derivative chromosome 9. However, multivariate analysis established second-line versus frontline second generation TKI therapy as the only adverse prognostic factor for EFS and increased bone marrow blast burden and older age as independent adverse prognostic factors for OS. CONCLUSIONS Deletions of derivative chromosome 9 do not appear to be an in dependent risk factor for survival among patients with CML in chronic phase receiving second generation TKIs. PMID:21523765

Quintás-Cardama, Alfonso; Kantarjian, Hagop; Shan, Jianqin; Jabbour, Elias; Abruzzo, Lynne V.; Verstovsek, Srdan; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; O'Brien, Susan; Cortes, Jorge

2015-01-01

280

Predicting stabilizing treatment outcomes for complex posttraumatic stress disorder and dissociative identity disorder: an expertise-based prognostic model.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to develop an expertise-based prognostic model for the treatment of complex posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID). We developed a survey in 2 rounds: In the first round we surveyed 42 experienced therapists (22 DID and 20 complex PTSD therapists), and in the second round we surveyed a subset of 22 of the 42 therapists (13 DID and 9 complex PTSD therapists). First, we drew on therapists' knowledge of prognostic factors for stabilization-oriented treatment of complex PTSD and DID. Second, therapists prioritized a list of prognostic factors by estimating the size of each variable's prognostic effect; we clustered these factors according to content and named the clusters. Next, concept mapping methodology and statistical analyses (including principal components analyses) were used to transform individual judgments into weighted group judgments for clusters of items. A prognostic model, based on consensually determined estimates of effect sizes, of 8 clusters containing 51 factors for both complex PTSD and DID was formed. It includes the clusters lack of motivation, lack of healthy relationships, lack of healthy therapeutic relationships, lack of other internal and external resources, serious Axis I comorbidity, serious Axis II comorbidity, poor attachment, and self-destruction. In addition, a set of 5 DID-specific items was constructed. The model is supportive of the current phase-oriented treatment model, emphasizing the strengthening of the therapeutic relationship and the patient's resources in the initial stabilization phase. Further research is needed to test the model's statistical and clinical validity. PMID:21240739

Baars, Erik W; van der Hart, Onno; Nijenhuis, Ellert R S; Chu, James A; Glas, Gerrit; Draijer, Nel

2011-01-01

281

Pre-operative prognostic nutritional index predicts the outcomes for triple-negative breast cancer.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether pre-operative prognostic nutritional index (PNI), an indicator of nutritional and immunological status, has an impact on the long-term outcomes in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients. This retrospective study reviewed the medical records of 382 TNBC patients who had suffered from mastectomy. Pre-operative PNI was calculated as 10?×?serum albumin (g/dl)?+?0.005?×?total lymphocyte count (per mm(3)). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to determine the optimal cutoff value of PNI. The correlations of PNI value with clinicopathological features were analyzed and the univariate and multivariate analysis were applied to identify the prognostic factors. The results showed that pre-operative PNI value was significantly related to advanced tumor status such as N stage (p?=?0.011), T stage (p?=?0.015), and recurrence incidents (p?=?0.001). Survival analysis identified PNI as an independent prognostic factor for TNBC. Patients with higher PNI value had better 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and 5-year overall survival (OS) than those with lower PNI value (DFS, p?=?0.007; OS, p?=?0.011). Taken together, our results suggest that the pre-operative PNI can be used as a simple and useful marker for predicting the long-term outcomes of TNBC patients. PMID:25172099

Yang, Zhengjun; Zhang, Bin; Hou, Likun; Xie, Yegong; Cao, Xuchen

2014-12-01

282

Improvement of CRB-65 as a prognostic tool in adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) often require hospitalisation. CRB-65 is a simple and useful scoring system to predict mortality. However, prognostic factors such as underlying disease and blood oxygenation are not included despite their potential to increase the performance of CRB-65. Methods The study included 1172 consecutive patients (830 inpatients, 342 outpatients) with CAP. Mortality, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve with 95% CI were calculated. Prognostic accuracy was evaluated after adding coexisting illnesses according to the Pneumonia Severity Index (malignancy, heart failure, hepatic, renal and cerebrovascular disease) and pulse oximetry (SpO2). Results Mean age was 65?years, 30-day mortality 7% (inpatients 9%, outpatients 1%). Addition of one point for the presence of ?1 coexisting condition and one point for SpO2 <90% increased the area under the ROC curve of CRB-65 from 0.82 (95% CI 0.77 to 0.85) to 0.87 (95% CI 0.84 to 0.90; p<0.0001). Conclusions Modification of CRB-65 by including hypoxaemia and presence of specified underlying diseases increased the scoring system’s prognostic accuracy while retaining its independence of laboratory tests. DS CRB-65 may have the potential to further facilitate site of care decision for patients with CAP. PMID:25478185

Dwyer, Richard; Hedlund, Jonas; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta; Kalin, Mats

2014-01-01

283

The search for stable prognostic models in multiple imputed data sets  

PubMed Central

Background In prognostic studies model instability and missing data can be troubling factors. Proposed methods for handling these situations are bootstrapping (B) and Multiple imputation (MI). The authors examined the influence of these methods on model composition. Methods Models were constructed using a cohort of 587 patients consulting between January 2001 and January 2003 with a shoulder problem in general practice in the Netherlands (the Dutch Shoulder Study). Outcome measures were persistent shoulder disability and persistent shoulder pain. Potential predictors included socio-demographic variables, characteristics of the pain problem, physical activity and psychosocial factors. Model composition and performance (calibration and discrimination) were assessed for models using a complete case analysis, MI, bootstrapping or both MI and bootstrapping. Results Results showed that model composition varied between models as a result of how missing data was handled and that bootstrapping provided additional information on the stability of the selected prognostic model. Conclusion In prognostic modeling missing data needs to be handled by MI and bootstrap model selection is advised in order to provide information on model stability. PMID:20846460

2010-01-01

284

Prognostic models for the early care of trauma patients: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Early identification of major trauma may contribute to timely emergency care and rapid transport to an appropriate health-care facility. Several prognostic trauma models have been developed to improve early clinical decision-making. Methods We systematically reviewed models for the early care of trauma patients that included 2 or more predictors obtained from the evaluation of an adult trauma victim, investigated their quality and described their characteristics. Results We screened 4 939 records for eligibility and included 5 studies that derivate 5 prognostic models and 9 studies that validate one or more of these models in external populations. All prognostic models intended to change clinical practice, but none were tested in a randomised clinical trial. The variables and outcomes were valid, but only one model was derived in a low-income population. Systolic blood pressure and level of consciousness were applied as predictors in all models. Conclusions The general impression is that the models perform well in predicting survival. However, there are many areas for improvement, including model development, handling of missing data, analysis of continuous measures, impact and practicality analysis. PMID:21418599

2011-01-01

285

Numb Promotes Cell Proliferation and Correlates with Poor Prognosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Numb is an evolutionary conserved protein that plays critical roles in cell fate determination, cell adhesion, cell migration and a number of signaling pathways, but evidence for a substantial involvement of Numb in HCC has remained unclear. The present study was aimed to investigate the clinical and prognostic significance of Numb and its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methodology The expression of Numb was detected in 107 cases of clinical paraffin-embedded hepatocellular carcinoma tissues,5 matched paris of fresh tissues and six hepatocellular cell lines by immunohistochemistry with clinicopathological analyses,RT-PCR or Western blot. Moreover, loss of function and gain of function assays were performed to evaluate the effect of Numb on cell proliferation in vitro. Conclusions We found that Numb was obviously up-regulated in HCC tissues and cell lines (p<0.05). The Numb up-regulation correlated significantly with poor prognosis, and Numb status was identified as an independent prognostic factor. Over-expression of Numb increased proliferation in SMMC-7721 and BEL-7402 cells, while knock-down of Numb showed the opposite effect. Our study indicates that Numb up-regulation significantly correlates with cell proliferation and poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma patients. It may be a useful biomarker for therapeutic strategy in hepatocellular carcinoma treatment. PMID:24770339

Chen, Bin; Nie, Jing; Peng, Bao-Gang

2014-01-01

286

Prognostic value of CD44 expression in non-small cell lung cancer: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background: CD44 is a potentially interesting prognostic marker and therapeutic target in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Although the expression of CD44 has been reported to correlate with poor prognosis of NSCLC in most literatures, some controversies still exist. Since the limited patient numbers within independent studies, here we performed a meta-analysis to clarify the correlations between CD44 expression and prognosis and clinicopathological features in NSCLC. Methods: Relevant literatures were identified using PubMed, EMBASE and CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure) databases (up to February 2014). Data from eligible studies were extracted and included into meta-analysis using a random effects model. Studies were pooled. Summary hazard ratios (HR) and clinical parameters were calculated. Results: We performed a final analysis of 1772 patients from 23 evaluable studies for Prognostic Value and 2167 patients from 28 evaluable studies for clinicopathological features. Our study shows that the pooled hazard ratio (HR) of overexpression CD44-V6 for overall survival in NSCLC was 1.63 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20-2.21] by univariate analysis and 1.29 (95% CI: 0.71-2.37) by multivariate analysis.The pooled HR of overexprssion panCD44 for overall survival in NSCLC was 1.53 (95% CI: 0.58-4.04) by univariate analysis and 3.00 (95% CI: 1.53-5.87) by multivariate analysis. Overexpression of CD44-V6 is associated with tumor differentiation (poor differentiation, OR = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.12-2.45), tumor histological type [squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), OR = 2.6, 95% CI: 1.63-5.02], clinical TMN stage (TMN stage III, OR = 2.22, 95% CI: 1.44-3.43) and lymph node metastasis (N1-3, 3.52, 95% CI: 2.08-5.93) in patients with NSCLC. However, there was no significant association between CD44-V6 and tumor size [T category, OR = 1.42, 95% CI: 0.73-2.78]. Conclusion: Our meta-analysis showed that CD44-V6 is an efficient prognostic factor for NSCLC. Overexpression of CD44-V6 was significantly associated with tumor differentiation, tumor histological type, clinical TMN stage and lymph node metastasis. However, there was no significant association between CD44-V6 and tumor size. Large prospective studies are now needed to confirm the clinical utility of CD44 as an independent prognostic marker. PMID:25120740

Luo, Zhuang; Wu, Rong-Rong; Lv, Liang; Li, Peng; Zhang, Li-Yan; Hao, Qing-Lin; Li, Wei

2014-01-01

287

Vasculogenic mimicry is a prognostic factor for postoperative survival in patients with glioblastoma.  

PubMed

A previous report has confirmed the existence and clinical significance of vasculogenic mimicry (VM) in glioma. However, its conclusions about the negative clinical significance of VM in glioblastoma are based on a small group of patients and, thus, might be unconvincing. The aim of the present study was to reevaluate the clinical significance of VM in glioblastoma. Patients were classified as VM-positive or VM-negative according to CD34 and periodic acid-Schiff staining. The association between VM and the clinical characteristics of the patients was analyzed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to identify the independent prognostic factors for overall survival using the Cox regression hazard model. Survival times were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log-rank test. Of all 86 glioblastomas, 23 were found to have VM. The presence of VM in glioblastoma was not associated with gender, age, Karnofsky performance status, hydrocephalus, tumor burden, microvessel density, tumor relapse, or the extent of tumor resection. The univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that VM is an independent prognostic factor for overall survival. The median survival time for patients with VM was 11.17 months compared with 16.10 months for those without VM (P = 0.017). In addition to VM, an age of 65 years or older, a KPS of 60 or less, a large tumor burden are significant prognostic factors for patient survival. Our data suggest that VM might be an independent adverse prognostic factor in newly diagnosed GBM, further prospective studies are needed to answer this question. PMID:23417321

Wang, Shi-Yong; Ke, Yi-Quan; Lu, Guo-Hui; Song, Zhen-Hua; Yu, Li; Xiao, Sha; Sun, Xin-Lin; Jiang, Xiao-Dan; Yang, Zhi-Lin; Hu, Chang-Chen

2013-05-01

288

Time Estimation in Good and Poor Sleepers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time estimation was examined in 148 older good and poor sleepers in analogue and naturalistic sleep settings. On analogue\\u000a tasks, both “empty” time and time listening to an audiobook were overestimated by both good and poor sleepers. There were\\u000a no differences between groups. “Empty” time was experienced as “dragging.” In the sleep setting, most poor sleepers underestimated\\u000a nocturnal sleep and

Catherine S. Fichten; Laura Creti; Rhonda Amsel; Sally Bailes; Eva Libman

2005-01-01

289

[Epidemiology, prognostic data of cardiac arrest in 2014].  

PubMed

Epidemiological data on the incidence, the survival and the prognostic factors of cardiac arrest (CA) are often heterogeneous. However, recent advances in methodology and research have improved the knowledge on that topic. The prognosis of victims CA depends on the initial patient's characteristics, the circumstances of the CA and the quality of the management. As a result, the subsequent outcome of these patients relies on the efficiency of the chain of survival: prompt alert, bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation and early defibrillation, the advanced care life support provided by the emergency medical services and the integration of in-hospital care. Other parameters are also likely to influence the prognosis (such as the system of care or the environment) though their assessment remains incomplete. More important, factors potentially affecting the long-term outcome are currently very less investigated. Finally, despite the potential improvements in the management of these patients for some years now, the temporal trends of the overall survival appear fairly stable. The transition in the profile of patients could partly explain the absence of clear effect on survival. PMID:24890640

Dumas, Florence; Cariou, Alain

2014-01-01

290

Prognostic Relevance of Cytochrome c Oxidase in Primary Glioblastoma Multiforme  

PubMed Central

Patients with primary glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) have one of the lowest overall survival rates among cancer patients, and reliable biomarkers are necessary to predict patient outcome. Cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) promotes the switch from glycolytic to OXPHOS metabolism, and increased CcO activity in tumors has been associated with tumor progression after chemotherapy failure. Thus, we investigated the relationship between tumor CcO activity and the survival of patients diagnosed with primary GBM. A total of 84 patients with grade IV glioma were evaluated in this retrospective cohort study. Cumulative survival was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method and analyzed by the log-rank test, and univariate and multivariate analyses were performed with the Cox regression model. Mitochondrial CcO activity was determined by spectrophotometrically measuring the oxidation of cytochrome c. High CcO activity was detected in a subset of glioma tumors (?30%), and was an independent prognostic factor for shorter progression-free survival and overall survival [P?=?0.0087 by the log-rank test, hazard ratio?=?3.57 for progression-free survival; P<0.001 by the log-rank test, hazard ratio?=?10.75 for overall survival]. The median survival time for patients with low tumor CcO activity was 14.3 months, compared with 6.3 months for patients with high tumor CcO activity. High CcO activity occurs in a significant subset of high-grade glioma patients and is an independent predictor of poor outcome. Thus, CcO activity may serve as a useful molecular marker for the categorization and targeted therapy of GBMs. PMID:23593382

Griguer, Corinne E.; Cantor, Alan B.; Fathallah-Shaykh, Hassan M.; Gillespie, G. Yancey; Gordon, Amber S.; Markert, James M.; Radovanovic, Ivan; Clement-Schatlo, Virginie; Shannon, Chevis N.; Oliva, Claudia R.

2013-01-01

291

Prognostic impact of stress testing in coronary artery disease  

SciTech Connect

Observational data prospectively collected permit the examination of a complex set of decisions, including the decision not to perform any stress testing. Patients with or without previous myocardial infarction admitted for coronary evaluation and not submitted to any stress testing because of clinical reasons are at a higher risk for subsequent death. For prognostication, no test has been better validated than exercise electrocardiography: it can identify patients at low and high risk for future cardiac events among those without symptoms, with typical chest pain, and with previous myocardial infarction. In patients with triple-vessel disease, the results of exercise also allow those at low and high risk to be recognized. Both exercise radionuclide angiography and {sup 201}Tl scintigraphy (the latter in larger patient populations) have also demonstrated significant prognostic value on patients with or without previous myocardial infarction. Neither one has shown superiority to the other in prognostication. So far, they have been considered the only viable alternatives to exercise electrocardiography stress testing for diagnosis and prognostication. However, their costs limit their extensive application. Preliminary data suggest that intravenous dipyridamole echocardiography can be used for both diagnosis and prognostication of coronary artery disease; moreover, the prognostic information derived from dipyridamole echocardiography testing seems independent of and additive to that provided by exercise electrocardiography. Further prospective studies on larger patient populations are needed to better define the prognostic value of dipyridamole echocardiography testing.47 references.

Severi, S.; Michelassi, C. (CNR Clinical Physiology Institute, Pisa, (Italy))

1991-05-01

292

Analysis of Prognostic Factors and a Proposed New Classification for Invasive Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The characteristics of invasive type-intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (invasive IPMN) have not been fully explored\\u000a due to limited reports. Furthermore, a straightforward method is needed to describe its aggressiveness. The purpose of this\\u000a study was to investigate prognostic factors and to examine the clinical significance of percentage pancreatic volume occupied\\u000a by the invasive component in invasive IPMN.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Of 217 patients

Jin-Young Jang; Dae Wook Hwang; Min A. Kim; Mee-Joo Kang; Chang Sup Lim; Seung Eun Lee; Sun-Whe Kim

2011-01-01

293

The Prognostic Significance of Circulating Tumour Cells  

PubMed Central

One hundred and sixteen patients with proved cancer of the breast were followed up for five years to detect circulating tumour cells. Such cells were found in 61 patients, but, irrespective of the stage of the disease, the five-year survival rate in these was not significantly different from those in whom no tumour cells were found. The higher incidence of patients without circulating tumour cells in Stage I was not sufficient to influence the survival rate of the whole group. While the validity of the identification of these cells is questionable, the results of this study indicate that the presence or absence of tumour cells in the blood is of no prognostic significance. PMID:6017697

Webster, D. R.; Sabbadini, E.

1967-01-01

294

Clinical and Histopathological Prognostic Factors in Chondrosarcomas  

PubMed Central

Purpose. In an attempt to identify clinical and histopathological factors of prognostic importance in chondrosarcomas, 115 cases of malignant and borderline chondromatous tumours were reviewed. Patients/methods. Histopathological features tested for prognostic information as well as reproducibility included cellularity, nuclear pleomorphism, multinucleated cells, mitotic activity and grade. Eleven patients had a biopsy only, and a short survival (median 2.0 years); these were excluded from further analysis. The remaining 104 patients who had received intended curative treatment had a median survival of 14.7 years. Results. In univariate analysis, tumour size, extra-compartmental growth, surgical margin and sex were significantly correlated to recurrence-free survival (RFS); sex was marginally significant while age, site and pathological parameters were not significant. Overall survival (OAS) was likewise found to be independent of pathological features as well as site, size and surgical margin; but age, sex and extra-compartmental growth were statistically significant. However, when the same parameters were entered into a stepwise Cox (multivariate) analysis, only surgical margin, cellularity and pleomorphism were significantly related to RFS; margin, grade, pleomorphism and age to OAS. Overall inter-observer agreement on grade was relatively low: 0.54, with a Kappa value of 0.32. It was not better for the other histological parameters, with the exception of the mitotic count. However, acceptable values were achieved when the material was divided into low-grade (grade I and below) vs high-grade (grade II and III) lesions: overall agreement 0.79, Kappa 0.56. Discussion. Although the grading of chondrosarcomas is in need of improvement, its replacement by semiquantitative evaluation of individual histopathological parameters as performed in this study offers no advantage. Among the clinical parameters, only the adequacy of the surgical treatment and the patient's age appear to be important. PMID:18521200

Myhre-Jensen, Olaf; Schiødt, Torben; Jurik, Anne G.; Keller, Johnny; Mouridsen, Henning T.; Lund, Bjarne

1997-01-01

295

Renal tumors: diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers.  

PubMed

The International Society of Urological Pathology convened a consensus conference on renal cancer, preceded by an online survey, to address issues relating to the diagnosis and reporting of renal neoplasia. In this report, the role of biomarkers in the diagnosis and assessment of prognosis of renal tumors is addressed. In particular we focused upon the use of immunohistochemical markers and the approach to specific differential diagnostic scenarios. We enquired whether cytogenetic and molecular tools were applied in practice and asked for views on the perceived prognostic role of biomarkers. Both the survey and conference voting results demonstrated a high degree of consensus in participants' responses regarding prognostic/predictive markers and molecular techniques, whereas it was apparent that biomarkers for these purposes remained outside the diagnostic realm pending clinical validation. Although no individual antibody or panel of antibodies reached consensus for classifying renal tumors, or for confirming renal metastatic disease, it was noted from the online survey that 87% of respondents used immunohistochemistry to subtype renal tumors sometimes or occasionally, and a majority (87%) used immunohistochemical markers (Pax 2 or Pax 8, renal cell carcinoma [RCC] marker, panel of pan-CK, CK7, vimentin, and CD10) in confirming the diagnosis of metastatic RCC. There was consensus that immunohistochemistry should be used for histologic subtyping and applied before reaching a diagnosis of unclassified RCC. At the conference, there was consensus that TFE3 and TFEB analysis ought to be requested when RCC was diagnosed in a young patient or when histologic appearances were suggestive of the translocation subtype; whereas Pax 2 and/or Pax 8 were considered to be the most useful markers in the diagnosis of a renal primary. PMID:24025522

Tan, Puay Hoon; Cheng, Liang; Rioux-Leclercq, Nathalie; Merino, Maria J; Netto, George; Reuter, Victor E; Shen, Steven S; Grignon, David J; Montironi, Rodolfo; Egevad, Lars; Srigley, John R; Delahunt, Brett; Moch, Holger

2013-10-01

296

Superficial bladder cancer: survival and prognostic factors.  

PubMed

Two hundred and seventeen consecutive patients with superficial bladder cancer stages Ta-T1 were analyzed for survival and prognostic factors. The overall 5-year survival was 88 +/- 5.3%. Factors that impacted significantly on survival were: grade of anaplasia (GI 92 +/- 5.9% vs. GII 87 +/- 7.5% vs. GIII 68 +/- 20.7%; p = 0.01); increasing grade of anaplasia (98 +/- 1.9% vs. 55 +/- 15.6%; p less than 0.0001); progression in tumor stage (100% vs. 58 +/- 12.5%; p less than 0.0001); index of recurrences greater than 0.7 (100% vs. 71 +/- 10%; p less than 0.0001); the presence of urothelial dysplasia (98 +/- 1.7% vs. 77 +/- 9.8%; p less than 0.05); inflammatory infiltrate (90 +/- 7% vs. 83 +/- 7.3%; p less than 0.01), and residual tumor post-TUR (89 +/- 5.5% vs. 68 +/- 18.6%; p less than 0.001). Tumor stage did not impact on survival (p greater than 0.05). Using multivariate statistical analysis only the grade of anaplasia (p less than 0.0001) and increasing grade of anaplasia (p = 0.001) demonstrated significant prognostic value. Eight percent of patients died because of tumor progression. Of these patients, 87% were T1 and had concomitant urothelial dysplasia. Twenty-five percent had carcinoma in situ and the mean index of recurrence was 1.59. Seventy-five percent of patients dying because of tumor progression developed muscle-infiltrating cancer (greater than or equal to T2GIII) and 25% developed previously metastatic spread without evidence of local progression (T1GIII).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1823040

Sánchez de la Muela, P; Rosell, D; Agüera, L; De Castro, F; Isa, W; Robles, J E; Zudaire, J J; Berián, J M

1991-01-01

297

Elucidating Poor Decision-Making in a Rat Gambling Task  

PubMed Central

Although poor decision-making is a hallmark of psychiatric conditions such as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, pathological gambling or substance abuse, a fraction of healthy individuals exhibit similar poor decision-making performances in everyday life and specific laboratory tasks such as the Iowa Gambling Task. These particular individuals may provide information on risk factors or common endophenotypes of these mental disorders. In a rodent version of the Iowa gambling task – the Rat Gambling Task (RGT), we identified a population of poor decision makers, and assessed how these rats scored for several behavioral traits relevant to executive disorders: risk taking, reward seeking, behavioral inflexibility, and several aspects of impulsivity. First, we found that poor decision-making could not be well predicted by single behavioral and cognitive characteristics when considered separately. By contrast, a combination of independent traits in the same individual, namely risk taking, reward seeking, behavioral inflexibility, as well as motor impulsivity, was highly predictive of poor decision-making. Second, using a reinforcement-learning model of the RGT, we confirmed that only the combination of extreme scores on these traits could induce maladaptive decision-making. Third, the model suggested that a combination of these behavioral traits results in an inaccurate representation of rewards and penalties and inefficient learning of the environment. Poor decision-making appears as a consequence of the over-valuation of high-reward-high-risk options in the task. Such a specific psychological profile could greatly impair clinically healthy individuals in decision-making tasks and may predispose to mental disorders with similar symptoms. PMID:24339988

Seriès, Peggy; Marchand, Alain R.; Dellu-Hagedorn, Françoise

2013-01-01

298

Prognostic factors in soft tissue sarcoma.  

PubMed

Despite major advances in the knowledge of soft tissue sarcoma (STS) during the last decades, no significant improvement in survival has been observed. Detailed data on the prognosis of STS are crucial in order to identify patients who might benefit from more aggressive treatment. Such data can be obtained from properly designed databases; however, the validation of data is crucial in order to obtain valid, reliable results. Furthermore, the majority of prognostic studies in STS have been limited by potential selection bias, low power, and biased estimates due to the statistical methods used, e.g., dichotomizing continuous variables, censoring competing events, as well as not adjusting for important confounders. The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate the prognosis of STS patients using data from the Aarhus Sarcoma Registry (ASR), covering western Denmark in the period from 1979 to 2008. In study I, we systematically validated data in the ASR and evaluated the validity, including completeness of patient registration and accuracy of data. In study II, we investigated the prognostic impact of patient-, tumor-, and treatment-related factors on local recurrence and disease-specific mortality. These were analyzed in a competing risk model in which continuous variables were included as cubic splines and possible confounders were selected based on directed acyclic graphs. In study III, we examined the impact of comorbidity on overall and disease-specific mortality. In study IV, we compared mortality in patients with abnormal biomarkers to those with normal values, assessed the significance of adjusting for comorbidity, as well as constructed a prognostic biomarker score. In study V, we described the relative mortality, i.e., the mortality in STS patients compared with the mortality in a general population, and compared relative and disease-specific estimates. The mortality in the general population was determined using an individually age- and sex-matched comparison cohort. All five studies were conducted in western Denmark within a population of approximately 2.5 million. Individual linkage between the ASR and national registries was made possible by the unique Danish civil registration number. The National Patient Registry and the LABKA research database were used to obtain data on comorbidity and biomarkers. In studies II to V we used a time-to-event-analysis approach that included cumulative incidence functions as well as crude and confounder adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression. In study I, we established that the overall validity of data in the ASR, after validation, was satisfactory and that the ASR included 85.3% of sarcoma patients from western Denmark between 1979 and 2008. In study II, we found a five-year local recurrence and disease-specific mortality of 16% and 24%, respectively. We excluded depth as a prognostic factor, and established that age, duration of symptoms, tumor size, anatomical and compartmental location, as well as radiotherapy were important prognostic factors for disease-specific mortality. In study III, we found that the level of comorbidity before or at diagnosis was an independent prognostic factor for both overall and disease-specific mortality, even after adjustment for age. In study IV, we showed that pretreatment levels of albumin, hemoglobin, and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratios were independently correlated with disease-specific mortality, and that adjusting for comorbidity was significant. In study V, we found five- and ten-year relative mortalities of 32.8% and 36.0%, respectively. The mortality in patients with low-grade STS was not significantly increased compared with the general population. The five- and ten-year disease-specific mortalities were underestimated by 3.1 and 1.9 percentage points compared to the relative mortality, respectively. We showed that relative mortality provided an accurate method to differentiate between cancer-specific and non-cancer-specific deaths. In conclusion, we showed that the ASR is a valid source of population-based data on STS. Impro

Maretty-Nielsen, Katja

2014-11-01

299

Prognostic role of MR imaging in nonischemic myocardial disease.  

PubMed

The role of cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) imaging as a prognostic tool in patients with ischemic heart disease is well established. However, an increasing body of data now demonstrates that cardiac MR imaging can provide prognostic information in a variety of nonischemic and diffuse myocardial diseases including myocarditis, dilated and hypertrophic cardiomyopathies, sarcoidosis, amyloidosis, and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Cardiac MR imaging can also supply incremental information above established prognostic indicators, providing an additional tool for use in the prediction of disease progression, response to treatment, and risk stratification. PMID:25476677

Kallianos, Kimberly; Moraes, Gustavo L; Ordovas, Karen G

2015-02-01

300

[ES-IPO-97 treatment protocol for prognostically poor Ewing's sarcoma forms in children: results of implementation].  

PubMed

The paper shows the high efficiency and moderate toxicity of inductive treatment in children with Young sarcoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumors by ES-Ipo-97 protocol that includes alternate chemotherapy by the scheme: vincristine, 1.5 mg/m2/day, on days 1, 8, 15; adriamycin, 37.5 mg/m2/day, on days 1 and 2 as 24-hour infusion; cyclophosphanum, 2.1 g/m2/day, on days 1 and 2 (Block A); iphosphamide, 2.4 g/m2/day on days 1 to 5, etoposide, 100 mg/m2/day, on days 1-5 (Block B). It provides evidence for that this therapy is promising and awaits further developments. PMID:10961143

Ptushkina, E A; Ivanova, N M; Dolgopolov, I S; Izhogin, D G; Petrosian, A S; Glekov, I V; Durnov, L A; Mentkevich, G L

2000-01-01

301

Is Microsatellite Instability Really a Good Prognostic Factor of Colorectal Cancer?  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the clinicopathologic features of and the prognosis for colorectal cancers (CRCs) with microsatellite instabilities (MSIs). Methods Between 2006 and 2009, genotyping was performed on 245 patients with stage II/III CRCs to establish the MSI status. The clinicopathologic differences and the prognostic value of MSI were analyzed. The median follow-up period was 38 months (range, 7-68 months). Results Of the total 245 patients, 20 (8.2%) had MSI-high (H) and 225 (91.8%) had MSI-low (L) or stable (S) CRCs. Adjuvant chemotherapies were performed on 101 stage II (87.8%) and 107 stage III patients (82.3%). Patients with MSI-H CRCs more frequently had a family history of colon cancer (10% vs. 2.7%, P = 0.003), more frequently had a cancer located at the proximal colon (90.0% vs. 19.1%, P < 0.0001), and more often showed a mucinous phenotype or poor differentiation (35.0% vs. 7.1%, P = 0.001). Despite less frequent lymph node metastasis (25% vs. 55.6%, P = 0.01), the number of retrieved lymph nodes was higher (26.3 ± 13.1 vs. 20.7 ± 1.2, P = 0.04) in the MSI-H group. The overall survival and the disease-free survival (DFS) did not differ with respect to MSI status. However, in the stage II subgroup, the DFS for patients with MSI-H CRCs was significantly worse (72.2% vs. 90.7%, P = 0.03). The multivariate analysis performed on this subgroup revealed that MSI-H was an independent poor prognostic factor (adjusted hazard ratio, 4.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-15.6, P = 0.046). Conclusion MSI-H CRCs had distinct clinicopathologic features, and MSI-H was an independent poor prognostic factor in stage II CRCs. Considering the majority of stage II patients were administrated adjuvant chemotherapy, the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy for treating MSI CRCs might be different from that for treating MSI-L/S tumors. PMID:24639968

Shin, Ui Sup; Cho, Sang Sik; Park, Sun Hoo; Jee, Sun Hee; Jung, Eun-Joo; Hwang, Dae-Yong

2014-01-01

302

Computational analyses reveal a prognostic impact of TULP3 as a transcriptional master regulator in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is recognized world-wide as an aggressive disease with poor prognosis in patients with or without resection. Further knowledge about the biological mechanisms of PDAC is necessary to enable the identification of novel molecular markers and therapeutic targets for early diagnosis and improved treatment. Transcription factors are the final effectors of signaling pathways and regulate a number of cellular functions. Changes in their expression may contribute to cellular transformation and tumor progression. Thus, the aim of the present study was to identify the Master Regulators (MRs) of transcription potentially involved in PDAC disease. To achieve this goal, we utilized microarray data to correlate MR genes with the tumor phenotype. Analyses were performed with RTN, Limma, and Survival packages in the R environment. We identified Tubby-like protein 3 (TULP3) as a MR of transcription in PDAC samples. The prognostic value of TULP3 was assessed in three independent cohort analyses. Our data demonstrated that pancreatic cancer patients exhibiting high transcriptional levels of TULP3 showed a poor overall survival rate. High expression levels of TULP3 may play an essential role in pancreatic cancer progression and possibly lead to a poor clinical outcome. Our results highlight the potential use of TULP3 as a clinical prognostic biomarker for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. PMID:24668219

Sartor, I T S; Zeidán-Chuliá, F; Albanus, R D; Dalmolin, R J S; Moreira, J C F

2014-06-01

303

The Crisis of the Near Poor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the "missing class," the near poor whose incomes place them above the poverty line, but well below the middle class. Near-poor families with two parents and two children subsist on $20,000 to $40,000 a year, which disqualifies them for virtually all public subsidies, but is a far cry from what they need to be…

Newman, Katherine S.; Tan Chen, Victor

2007-01-01

304

Poor Rural Children Attract Close Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Growing up poor in isolated rural areas and small towns is qualitatively different from growing up poor in the city. Yet most of what experts know about the effects of poverty on children's development comes from studies conducted in big cities. Now, an ambitious project run by universities in Pennsylvania and North Carolina is putting what some…

Viadero, Debra

2008-01-01

305

Physical Properties of Luminous Dust Poor Quasars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We identify and characterize a population of luminous dust poor quasars at z<5, showing little IR emission from the dusty structure of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). This class of AGNs discovered at z>6, is yet poorly understood in terms of number evolution or of any dependence on physical properties. In order to better understand the observational features of luminous dust poor quasars, we searched for large area survey databases to compile a rest-frame UV to IR library of 41,000 optically selected type-1 quasars. After fitting the broad-band spectral energy distributions with accretion disk and dust model components, we find 0.6% of our sample to be hot dust poor under the NIR-to-optical flux ratio selection compatible with Jiang et al. (2010). The blue UV-optical continuum slope of dust poor quasars, together with the NIR-MIR luminosity correlations are presented. Next, we provide the number evolution of the dust poor fraction with redshift, for given bolometric luminosity. Also, we find the low BH mass and high Eddington ratio, to be connected with the dust poorness of AGNs. Finally, we provide models that explain the occurrence and physical properties of dust poor quasars, which is best explained as in a rapidly growing evolutionary state.

Jun, Hyunsung David; Im, M.

2014-01-01

306

ANGOC IN THE SERVICE OF THE POOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In 25 years of working with the poor, we at ANGOC have grown all too familiar with the problem of hunger. And from the beginning, we have taken the position that hunger, specifically the chronic kind that afflicts the poor, is less a problem of adequacy of global food supplies or stability of global stock levels and more a

Nathaniel Don; E. Marquez; Teresa L. Debuque

307

RAD51 overexpression is a negative prognostic marker for colorectal adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

RAD51 is the central protein in the homologous recombination pathway and is therefore of great relevance in terms of both therapy resistance as well as genomic stability. By using a tissue microarray analysis of 1,213 biopsies taken from colorectal adenocarcinomas (CRCs), we investigated whether RAD51 expression can be used as a prognostic marker as well as potential associations between this and the expression of other proteins known to be related to CRC. Strong RAD51 expression was observed in 1% of CRC, moderate in 11%, weak in 34% and no expression in 44%. No correlation was found between RAD51 expression and clinicopathological parameters. RAD51 expression correlated significantly (p = 0.001) with overall survival, with a median survival of 11 months for patients with strong, 46 with moderate, 76 with weak and 68 with negative expression. Multivariate analyses revealed that in addition to tumor stage (p < 0.0001) and nodal status (p < 0.0001), RAD51 expression is also an independent prognostic parameter (p = 0.011). Strong RAD51 expression was found to be associated with the loss of the two DNA mismatch repair proteins MSH (p = 0.0003), MLH (p = 0.002) and ?-catenin (p = 0.012) as well as with elevated p21 (p = 0.003) and EGFR expression (p = 0.0001). However, a correlation with overall survival could only be found for EGFR expression (p = 0.008), although no added benefit in risk stratification could be determined when evaluated together with RAD51. Overexpression of RAD51 is a predictor of poor outcome in CRC. This finding indicated the promise of future studies using RAD51 as a prognostic marker and therapeutic target. PMID:23065657

Tennstedt, Pierre; Fresow, Robert; Simon, Ronald; Marx, Andreas; Terracciano, Luigi; Petersen, Cordula; Sauter, Guido; Dikomey, Ekkehard; Borgmann, Kerstin

2013-05-01

308

Estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor are prognostic factors in soft tissue sarcomas.  

PubMed

Estrogen (ER) and progesterone receptor (PgR) regulate growth and cell differentiation upon ligand-dependent and ligand-independent activation. In breast cancer and gynecological tumors their expression are known predictors of endocrine therapy benefits and a favourable therapy-independent prognosis. In soft tissue sarcomas, their expression profile is poorly defined and their significance is uncertain. We investigated the prognostic impact of ER and PgR in non-gastrointestinal stromal tumor soft tissue sarcomas (non-GIST STSs). Tumor samples and clinical data from 249 patients with non-GIST STS were obtained, and tissue microarrays (TMAs) were constructed for each specimen. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to evaluate marker expression in tumor cells. In univariate analyses, the expression of neither ER nor PgR (P=0.333 and 0.067, respectively) were significant prognosticators in the total cohort. However, measured separately for each gender, ER positivity was a significant favourable indicator for disease specific survival (DSS) in women (P=0.017) while PgR positivity had inverse impact in men (P=0.001). Among the four possible coexpression profiles, ER-/PgR+ was significantly least favourable for survival in the univariate analysis (P<0.001). In the multivariate analysis, the ER-/PgR+ phenotype was an independent negative prognostic factor for DSS (HR=1.9, 95% CI=1.2-3.1, P=0.008) in addition to patient's nationality, tumor depth, histological entity, malignancy grade, metastasis at diagnosis, surgery and positive resection margins. The present findings indicate that ER and PgR have significant gender dependent impact on DSS in non-GIST STSs. PMID:21271213

Valkov, Andrej; Sorbye, Sveinung; Kilvaer, Thomas K; Donnem, Tom; Smeland, Eivind; Bremnes, Roy M; Busund, Lill-Tove

2011-04-01

309

A profile of prognostic and molecular factors in European and M?ori breast cancer patients  

PubMed Central

Background New Zealand M?ori have a poorer outcome from breast cancer than non-M?ori, yet prognostic data are sparse. The objective of this study was to quantify levels of prognostic factors in a cohort of self-declared M?ori and European breast cancer patients from Christchurch, New Zealand. Methods and Results Clinicopathological and survival data from 337 consecutive breast cancer patients (27 M?ori, 310 European) were evaluated. Fewer tumours were high grade in M?ori women than European women (p = 0.027). No significant ethnic differences were detected for node status, tumour type, tumour size, human epidermal growth factor receptor, oestrogen and progesterone receptor (ER/PR) status, or survival. In addition, tumour and serum samples from a sub-cohort of 14 M?ori matched to 14 NZ European patients were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for molecular prognostic factors. Significant correlations were detected between increased grade and increased levels of hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1?), glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1), microvessel density (MVD) and cytokeratins CK5/6 (p < 0.05). High nodal status correlated with reduced carbonic anhydrase IX (CA-IX). Negative ER/PR status correlated with increased GLUT-1, CA-IX and MVD. Within the molecular factors, increased HIF-1? correlated with raised GLUT-1, MVD and CK5/6, and CK5/6 with GLUT-1 and MVD (p < 0.05). The small number of patients in this sub-cohort limited discrimination of ethnic differences. Conclusions In this Christchurch cohort of breast cancer patients, M?ori women were no more likely than European women to have pathological or molecular factors predictive of poor prognosis. These data contrast with data from the North Island NZ, and suggest potential regional differences. PMID:20932344

2010-01-01

310

Disparities in breast cancer prognostic factors by race, insurance status, and education.  

PubMed

Black women are more likely to be diagnosed with advanced stage and other less favorable breast cancer prognostic factors than white women. The aim of this study was to examine the extent to which markers of socioeconomic position accounts for black-white differences in these factors. Our study included 193,969 women diagnosed with invasive breast cancers during 2004-2005 from the National Cancer Database, which represents about 72% of all patients with cancer treated in the United States. Compared to white women, black women are more likely to be diagnosed with breast tumors that are less differentiated (odds ratio (OR) = 2.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.44-2.66), hormone receptor negative (OR = 2.29, 95% CI 2.22-2.37), large (OR = 1.87, 95% CI 1.80-1.95), metastatic (OR = 1.89, 95% CI 1.78-2.00), and lymph node-positive (OR = 1.44, 95% CI 1.40-1.48). In multivariable analyses, adjustment for insurance and area-level educational attainment explained 31-39% of the differences in tumor size and metastasis, but only about 14% of the differences in grade and hormone receptors. After accounting for race and other covariates, uninsured women remained 3.66 (95% CI 3.30-4.07) times more likely to have metastasis and 2.37 (95% CI 2.17-2.58) times more likely to have large tumors compared to privately insured women. Similarly, the risk of having breast cancer with less favorable prognostic factors increased as area-level educational attainment decreased. Extending health insurance coverage to all women is likely to have an effect on reducing racial disparities in the development of breast cancers with poor prognostic factors. PMID:20506039

DeSantis, Carol; Jemal, Ahmedin; Ward, Elizabeth

2010-09-01

311

Prognostic Value of Long Non-Coding RNA HOTAIR in Various Cancers  

PubMed Central

Long non-coding RNA has been involved in cancer progression, and high HOX transcript antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR) is thought to be a poor prognostic indicator in tumorigenesis of multiple types of cancer. Hence, the present study further reveals its prognostic value in tumor malignancy. A systematic review of PubMed and Web of Science was carried out to select literatures relevant to the correlation between HOTAIR expression levels and clinical outcome of various tumors. Overall survival (OS), metastasis-free survival (MFS), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and disease-free survival (DFS) were subsequently analyzed. Data from studies directly reporting a hazard ratio (HR) and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) or a P value as well as survival curves were pooled in the current meta-analysis. A total of 2255 patients from 19 literatures almost published in 2011 or later were included in the analysis. The results suggest that HOTAIR was highly associated with HR for OS of 2.33 (95%CI?=?1.77-3.09, Pheterogeneity?=?0.016). Stratified analyses indicate that elevated levels of HOTAIR appears to be a powerful prognostic biomarker for patients with colorectal cancer (HR?=?3.02, 95CI%?=?1.84-4.95, Pheterogeneity?=?0.699) and esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (HR?=?2.24, 95CI%?=?1.67-3.01, Pheterogeneity?=?0.711), a similar effect was also observed in analysis method and specimen, except for ethnicity. In addition, Hazard ratios for up-regulation of HOTAIR for MFS, RFS, and DFS were 2.32 (P<0.001), 1.98 (P?=?0.369), and 3.29 (P?=?0.001), respectively. In summary, the high level of HOTAIR is intimately associated with an adverse OS in numerous cancers, suggesting that HOTAIR may act as a potential biomarker for the development of malignancies. PMID:25303230

Pan, Yuqin; Gao, Tianyi; Chen, Jie; Ying, Houqun; Liu, Xian; Wang, Feng; Xu, Yong; Wang, Shukui

2014-01-01

312

Identification of aurora kinase A as an unfavorable prognostic factor and potential treatment target for metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors  

PubMed Central

Although imatinib mesylate (IM) has revolutionized the management of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), drug resistance remains a challenge. Previous studies have shown that the expression of aurora kinase A (AURKA) predicts recurrence in patients with primary, surgically resected GISTs. The current study aimed to evaluate the significance of AURKA expression as an unfavorable prognostic marker for advanced GISTs, and provide evidence that AURKA could be a potential therapeutic target in GISTs. The prognostic significance of the expression of AURKA, along with other clinicopathological factors, was analyzed in a cohort of 99 IM-treated patients with advanced GISTs. The potential use of an inhibitor of AURKA as a therapeutic agent against GISTs was also tested in GIST cell lines. Among 99 enrolled patients, poor performance status, large tumor size, drug response, and AURKA overexpression were independent prognostic factors for poor progression-free survival (PFS). For overall survival (OS), only large tumor size and AURKA overexpression were identified as independent unfavorable factors. In an in vitro study, MLN8237, an AURKA inhibitor, inhibited growth of both IM-sensitive and IM-resistant GIST cells in a concentration-dependent manner, and exhibited synergistic cytotoxicity with IM in GIST cells. The inhibitory effect of MLN8237 in GIST cells could be attributed to the induction of G2/M arrest, apoptosis, and senescence. Our study shows that AURKA expression independently predicted poor PFS and OS in patients with advanced GISTs who were treated with IM. An AURKA inhibitor may have potential as a therapeutic agent for both IM-sensitive and IM-resistant GISTs. PMID:24901229

Chen, Yen-Yang; Cheng, Chi-Tung; Huang, Shih-Chiang; Chang, Ting-Wei; Yao, Fang-Yi; Lin, Yung-Chan; Wen, Yao-Shan; Chiang, Kun-Chun; Chen, Jen-Shi; Yeh, Ta-Sen; Tzeng, Cheng-Hwai; Chao, Ta-Chung; Fletcher, Jonathan A.

2014-01-01

313

Cytoplasmic Skp2 Expression Is Associated with p-Akt1 and Predicts Poor Prognosis in Human Breast Carcinomas  

PubMed Central

Background S-phase kinase protein 2 (Skp2), an oncogenic protein, is a key regulator in different cellular and molecular processes, through ubiquitin-proteasome degradation pathway. Increased levels of Skp2 are observed in various types of cancer and associated with poor prognosis. However, in human breast carcinomas, the underlying mechanism and prognostic significance of cytoplasmic Skp2 is still undefined. Methods To investigate the role of cytoplasmic Skp2 expression in human breast carcinomas, we immnohistochemically assessed cytoplasmic Skp2, p-Akt1, and p27 expression in 251 patients with invasive ductal carcinomas of the breast. Association of cytoplasmic Skp2 expression with p-Akt1 and p27 was analyzed as well as correspondence with other clinicopathological parameters. Disease-free survival and overall survival were determined based on the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression models. Results Cytoplasmic of Skp2 was detected in 165 out of 251 (65.7%) patients. Cytoplasmic Skp2 expression was associated with larger tumor size, more advanced histological grade, and positive HER2 expression. Increased cytoplasmic Skp2 expression correlated with p-Akt1 expression, with 54.2% (51/94) of low p-Akt1-expressing breast carcinomas, but 72.6% (114/157) of high p-Akt1-expressing breast carcinomas exhibiting cytoplasmic Skp2 expression. Elevated cytoplasmic Skp2 expression with low p-Akt1 expression was associated with poor disease-free and overall survival (DFS and OS), and Cox regression models demonstrated that cytoplasmic Skp2 expression was an independent prognostic marker for invasive breast carcinomas. Conclusion Cytoplasmic Skp2 expression is associated with aggressive prognostic factors, such as larger tumor size, and advanced histological grade of the breast cancers. Results demonstrate that combined cytoplasmic Skp2 and p-Akt1 expression may be prognostic for patients with invasive breast carcinomas, and cytoplasmic Skp2 may serve as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:23300741

Liu, Jing; Wei, Xiao-Long; Huang, Wen-He; Chen, Chun-Fa; Bai, Jing-Wen; Zhang, Guo-Jun

2012-01-01

314

Demographic and Prognostic Factors of 455 Patients with Acute Leukemia Admitted to Two Referral Hospitals in Tehran-Iran During Ten Years (2001-2011)  

PubMed Central

Background Global death toll of Acute Leukemia (AL), as a heterogeneous group of hematopoietic malignancies, is rather high, i.e. almost 74% of 300,000 new cases die every year. This reflects a poor prognosis of this malignancy in most parts of the world, where contemporary and rather complex remedies are not available. There are a few well documented reports about the epidemiologic features of AL at national level in Iran. This retrospective study demonstrates demographic and laboratory features of Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) and Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) patients admitted to the main referral oncology hospitals in the ex-Iran University of Medical Sciences in Tehran (Firoozgar and Rasoul-Akram hospitals) during the last decade (2001-2011). Methods Medical records of all patients admitted to the both hospitals diagnosed with AML and ALL were reviewed during the study period for demographic, biological and clinical characteristics at diagnosis. Results Four-hundred fifty five patients were diagnosed with AML and ALL, who admitted to the both hospitals during ten years, of whom 59.6 % (271 patients) were male. Fifty five percent of patients had AML and 44.6 % had ALL, both significantly dominated in men (p<0.001). AML patients died more significantly (p<0.05) and the most deaths occurred in older patients (p<0.001). Initial WBC count was significantly related to death (p= 0.001), where the least death (13%) occurred in the group with initial WBC between 5-10×103/?L and most of deceased had an initial WBC more than 10×103/?L. Logistic regression showed that age, fever and WBC were significant prognostic factors. Conclusion Demographic characteristics of AL patients were almost the same as other global reports. Most deaths occurred in older patients, those who had fever, and patients with higher WBC count at first admission, which warrants more investigations accurately and also improvements in hospital records.

Ayremlou, Parvin; Razavi, Seyed Mohsen; Solaymani-Dodaran, Masoud; Vakili, Masoud; Asadi-Lari, Mohsen

2012-01-01

315

The latest progress in research on triple negative breast cancer (TNBC): risk factors, possible therapeutic targets and prognostic markers  

PubMed Central

Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is one type of breast cancer (BC), which is defined as negative for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (Her2). Its origins and development seem to be elusive. And for now, drugs like tamoxifen or trastuzumab which specifically apply to ER, PR or Her2 positive BC seem unforeseeable in TNBC clinical treatment. Due to its extreme malignancy, high recurrence rate and poor prognosis, a lot of work on the research of TNBC is needed. This review aims to summarize the latest findings in TNBC in risk factors, possible therapeutic targets and possible prognostic makers. PMID:25276378

Jiao, Qingli; Shao, Guoli; Peng, Haoyu; Wang, Mengchuan; Ji, Shufeng; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Jian

2014-01-01

316

Oncological outcome and prognostic factors in the therapy of soft tissue sarcoma of the extremities.  

PubMed

Uniform conclusions about therapeutic concepts and survival time of bone and soft tissue sarcoma patients are difficult due to the heterogeneity of histological subtypes as well as the different responses to neoadjuvant therapy. The subject of this retrospective study was the analysis of tumour free survival, risk and prognostic factors of sarcoma patients treated by limb sparing techniques or amputation. We included 118 patients with soft tissue sarcoma of the extremities treated primarily or secondarily at our institution between 1990 and 2008 with a minimum follow-up of 12 months. Data about the tumour free survival time, operative techniques and potential prognostic factors were analysed. The tumour-specific and overall survival were significantly influenced by two factors: the grading and distant metastases present at time of diagnosis. Optimal multimodal therapeutic concepts at a specialized Cancer Center decreased the risk of local recurrence. The importance of optimal preoperative and surgical course concerning the oncological long term outcome was investigated. The decrease in local recurrence as a result of multimodal therapeutic concepts at a specialized Cancer Center was confirmed. To evaluate the individual prognosis of a patient, multiple factors have to be considered. Factors for a poor prognosis are primary metastasis, high-grade tumours and several histological entities (e.g. synovial sarcoma, not other specified). PMID:23589762

Ipach, Ingmar; Ingmar, Ipach; Wingert, Tobias; Tobias, Wingert; Kunze, Beate; Beate, Kunze; Kluba, Torsten; Torsten, Kluba

2012-11-01

317

[The determination of the sum potential amplitude for the prognostication of facial paresis of viral etiology].  

PubMed

In 29 patients with facial pareses of viral etiology the sum potential amplitude of the M. orbicularis oris was determined in a comparison of the two sides for prognostication purposes. If the sum potential amplitude is reduced by less than 70 per cent a return of good functions can be expected within 6-8 weeks. If the reduction of the sum potential amplitude lies between 70 and 95 per cent, a reliable prognosis is not possible, whereas with values below 95 per cent the paresis does not improve at all or hardly improves within 6-8 weeks. An evaluation of the returned function, about 1 year after the beginning of the paresis, i.e. at a time when the regeneration is basically completed, shows that all cases with an originally poor function (judged 6-8 weeks after onset of paresis) had changed into cases with a moderate function, and all cases with an originally moderate function had turned into cases with a good function. In another study concerning patients with idiopathic facial paresis the same method yielded results comparable to those of the above-mentioned study, so that the conclusion can be drawn that in the prognostication of the peripheral facial paresis by means of determining the sum potential amplitude-regardless of whether the facial paresis is of viral or idiopathic etiology-the same yardsticks have to be applied. PMID:134234

Mitschke, H; Mamoli, B; Neumann, H

1976-08-01

318

Prognostic significance of epidermal growth factor receptor in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.  

PubMed Central

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) content was determined by a radioligand receptor assay in 140 primary laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas (median value of 8.4 fmol mg-1 protein, range 0-169.9 fmol mg-1 protein). Cox univariate regression analysis using EGFR as a continuous variable showed that EGFR levels are directly associated with the risk of death (chi 2 = 14.56, P-value = 0.0001) and relapse (chi 2 = 7.77, P-value = 0.0053). A significant relationship between EGFR status and survival was observed at the different arbitrary cut-off values chosen (8, 16 and 20 fmol mg-1 protein). The cut-off value of 20 fmol mg-1 protein was the best prognostic discriminator. In fact, the 5 year survival was 81% for patients with EGFR- tumours compared with 25% for patients with EGFR+ tumours (P < 0.0001). The 5 year relapse-free survival was 77% for patients with EGFR- tumours compared with 24% for patients with EGFR+ tumours (P < 0.010). When clinicopathological parameters and EGFR status were examined in the multivariate analysis, T classification and EGFR status retained an independent prognostic value. In this study we demonstrated that high EGFR levels single out patients with poor prognosis in laryngeal cancer. PMID:8883413

Maurizi, M.; Almadori, G.; Ferrandina, G.; Distefano, M.; Romanini, M. E.; Cadoni, G.; Benedetti-Panici, P.; Paludetti, G.; Scambia, G.; Mancuso, S.

1996-01-01

319

Prognostic value of preoperative inflammatory markers in Chinese patients with breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Cancer-associated inflammation is a key determinant of disease progression and survival in most cancers. The aim of our study was to assess the predictive value of preoperative inflammatory markers, such as the neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet–lymphocyte ratio, red cell distribution width (RDW), and mean platelet volume, for survival in breast cancer patients. In total, 608 breast cancer patients operated on between January 2009 and December 2011 were included in this observational study. The association between preoperative inflammatory markers and survival outcomes was analyzed. Patients with high NLR (>2.57) or high RDW (>13.45%) showed a significantly lower overall survival rate than those with lower NLR (?2.57) or lower RDW (?13.45%). NLR and RDW, along with node stage and molecular subtypes, were independent prognostic factors. There was a significant survival difference according to NLR in the luminal A and triple-negative subtypes (93.3% versus 99.3%, P=0.001; 68.8% versus 95.1%, P=0.000, respectively). The triple-negative subtype was the only subtype in which higher RDW patients showed significantly poor prognosis (81.3% versus 95.5%, P=0.025). Pre-operation NLR and RDW is a convenient, easily measured prognostic indicator for patients with breast cancer, especially in patients with the triple-negative subtype. PMID:25328407

Yao, Minya; Liu, Yu; Jin, Hailong; Liu, Xiaojiao; Lv, Kezhen; Wei, Haiyan; Du, Chengyong; Wang, Shuqian; Wei, Bajin; Fu, Peifen

2014-01-01

320

SATB1 is an independent prognostic factor in radically resected upper gastrointestinal tract adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma is rising. While some progress has been made in treatment strategies, overall survival remains very poor for patients with adenocarcinoma in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Special AT-rich sequence binding protein 1 (SATB1) is a global genome organizer that has been demonstrated to promote aggressive tumor behavior in several different types of cancer, including gastric cancer. The prognostic value of SATB1 expression in esophageal cancer has, however, not yet been described. In this study, expression of SATB1 was examined by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays prepared from tissue samples from 175 patients with adenocarcinoma of the esophagus, cardia, or stomach and containing normal tissue, intestinal metaplasia, primary tumors, and metastases. A well-validated antibody was used. We found SATB1 to be an independent prognostic factor in patients with a radically resected tumor, correlating with shorter overall survival as well as with shorter recurrence-free survival. SATB1 expression was also found to be significantly lower in primary tumors associated with intestinal metaplasia than those without intestinal metaplasia. This observation is of potential biological interest as it has been proposed that intestinal metaplasia-associated tumors constitute a less aggressive phenotype. PMID:25326863

Hedner, Charlotta; Gaber, Alexander; Korkocic, Dejan; Nodin, Björn; Uhlén, Mathias; Kuteeva, Eugenia; Johannesson, Henrik; Jirström, Karin; Eberhard, Jakob

2014-12-01

321

Optimal management of pulmonary arterial hypertension: prognostic indicators to determine treatment course  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rapidly progressive pulmonary vascular disease with a multifactorial etiopathogenesis that can result in right-sided heart failure and death. A number of studies indicate that an early therapeutic intervention yields better results on disease progression as compared to delayed treatment. In this review, we will analyze treatment strategies that may be used for monitoring disease progression and for guiding treatment decisions. Several factors (ie, symptoms, functional class, exercise capacity as assessed by a walking test and cardiopulmonary stress testing, hemodynamic parameters, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and plasma levels of biochemical markers) have been prognostic of survival. These indicators may be used both at the time of diagnosis and during treatment follow-up. No resolutive therapy is currently available for PAH; however, in the last decade, the advent of specific pharmacological treatments has given new hope to patients suffering from this debilitating disease with a poor prognosis. Combination drug therapies offer increased benefits over monotherapy, and current guidelines recommend a sequential “add on” design approach for patients in functional class II–IV. The goal-oriented “treat to target” therapy sets the timing for treatment escalation in case of inadequate response to currently known prognostic indicators. To date, further longitudinal studies should be urgently conducted to identify new goals that may improve therapeutic strategies in order to optimize personalized treatment in PAH patients. PMID:25328398

Baldi, Fabiana; Fuso, Leonello; Arrighi, Eugenio; Valente, Salvatore

2014-01-01

322

Identifying Suitable Degradation Parameters for Individual-Based Prognostics  

SciTech Connect

The ultimate goal of most prognostic systems is accurate prediction of the remaining useful life of individual systems or components based on their use and performance. Traditionally, individual-based prognostic methods use a measure of degradation to make lifetime estimates. Degradation measures may include sensed measurements, such as temperature or vibration level, or inferred measurements, such as model residuals or physics-based model predictions. Often, it is beneficial to combine several measures of degradation into a single parameter. Parameter features such as trendability, monotonicity, and prognosability can be used to compare candidate prognostic parameters to determine which is most useful for individual-based prognosis. By quantifying these features for a given parameter, the metrics can be used with any traditional optimization technique to identify an appropriate parameter. This parameter may be used with a parametric extrapolation model to make prognostic estimates for an individual unit. The proposed methods are illustrated with an application to simulated turbofan engine data.

Coble, Jamie B.; Hines, Wes

2012-09-30

323

Roswell Park researchers find prognostic biomarker candidates for ovarian cancer  

Cancer.gov

Cancer researchers at Roswell Park Cancer Institute have identified two independent classes of novel candidate prognostic markers for ovarian cancer, advancing efforts to develop targeted therapies for the disease.

324

Prognostication in MF: from CBC to cytogenetics to molecular markers.  

PubMed

Myelofibrosis (MF) is a clonal stem cell disorder characterized by ineffective erythropoiesis and extramedullary hematopoiesis leading to progressive bone marrow failure, severe anemia, constitutional symptoms, hepatosplenomegaly, and thrombosis. MF can arise following a history of polycythemia vera (PV) or essential thrombocythemia (ET), or can present de novo as primary myelofibrosis (PMF). The disease course is variable with median survival ranging from months to years. Clinical and biological features such as advanced age, leukocytosis, anemia, transfusion dependence, and elevated inflammatory markers can impact prognosis in patients with PMF. Cytogenetic abnormalities and molecular markers such as JAK2 V617F, ASXL1, and CALR mutations have also been identified as prognostic variables. Several different scoring systems have been developed based on these prognostic factors. In this review, we will discuss the clinical, biological, molecular, and cytogenetic prognostic factors that have been identified in PMF, and the current prognostic models that have been developed to guide treatment decisions. PMID:25189726

Zhou, Amy; Oh, Stephen T

2014-06-01

325

The Prognostic Value of Plasma Soluble ST2 in Hospitalized Chinese Patients with Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Background sST2 has been shown to be a risk predictor in heart failure (HF). Our aim was to explore the characteristics and prognostic value of soluble ST2 (sST2) in hospitalized Chinese patients with HF. Methods and Results We consecutively enrolled 1528 hospitalized patients with HF. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis were used to assess the prognostic values of sST2. Adverse events were defined as all-cause death and cardiac transplantation. During a median follow-up of 19.1 months, 325 patients experienced adverse events. Compared with patients free of events, sST2 concentrations were significantly higher in patients with events (P<0.001). Univariable and multivariable Cox regression analyses showed sST2 concentrations were significantly associated with adverse events (per 1 log unit, adjusted hazard ratio 1.52, 95% confidence interval: 1.30 to 1.78, P<0.001). An sST2 concentration in the highest quartiles (>55.6 ng/mL) independently predicted events in comparison to the lowest quartile (?25.2 ng/mL) when adjusted by multivariable model. In ROC analysis, the area under the curve for sST2 was not different from that for NT-proBNP in short and longer term. Over time, sST2 also improved discrimination and reclassification of risk beyond NT-proBNP. Conclusions sST2 is a strong independent risk predictor in Chinese patients hospitalized with HF and can significantly provide additional prognostic value to NT-proBNP in risk prediction. PMID:25347817

Zhang, Rongcheng; Zhang, Yuhui; Zhang, Jian; An, Tao; Huang, Yan; Guo, Xiao; Januzzi, James L.; Cappola, Thomas P.; Yin, Shijie; Wang, Yunhong; Zhou, Qiong; Zou, Changhong; Ji, Shiming; Lv, Rong

2014-01-01

326

Behçet's disease: diagnostic and prognostic aspects of neurological involvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to describe clinical and prognostic aspects of neurological involvement in Behçet's disease (BD).\\u000a Patients referred for neurological evaluation fulfilled the criteria of the International Study Group for Behçet's Disease.\\u000a We analyzed disability and survival by the Kaplan-Meier method, using Kurtzke's Extended Disability Status Scale (modified\\u000a for BD) and the prognostic effect of demographic and clinical factors

Aksel Siva; Orhun H. Kantarci; Sabahattin Saip; Ayse Altintas; Vedat Hamuryudan; Civan Islak; Naci Koçer; Hasan Yazici

2001-01-01

327

Lifecycle Prognostics Architecture for Selected High-Cost Active Components  

SciTech Connect

There are an extensive body of knowledge and some commercial products available for calculating prognostics, remaining useful life, and damage index parameters. The application of these technologies within the nuclear power community is still in its infancy. Online monitoring and condition-based maintenance is seeing increasing acceptance and deployment, and these activities provide the technological bases for expanding to add predictive/prognostics capabilities. In looking to deploy prognostics there are three key aspects of systems that are presented and discussed: (1) component/system/structure selection, (2) prognostic algorithms, and (3) prognostics architectures. Criteria are presented for component selection: feasibility, failure probability, consequences of failure, and benefits of the prognostics and health management (PHM) system. The basis and methods commonly used for prognostics algorithms are reviewed and summarized. Criteria for evaluating PHM architectures are presented: open, modular architecture; platform independence; graphical user interface for system development and/or results viewing; web enabled tools; scalability; and standards compatibility. Thirteen software products were identified and discussed in the context of being potentially useful for deployment in a PHM program applied to systems in a nuclear power plant (NPP). These products were evaluated by using information available from company websites, product brochures, fact sheets, scholarly publications, and direct communication with vendors. The thirteen products were classified into four groups of software: (1) research tools, (2) PHM system development tools, (3) deployable architectures, and (4) peripheral tools. Eight software tools fell into the deployable architectures category. Of those eight, only two employ all six modules of a full PHM system. Five systems did not offer prognostic estimates, and one system employed the full health monitoring suite but lacked operations and maintenance support. Each product is briefly described in Appendix A. Selection of the most appropriate software package for a particular application will depend on the chosen component, system, or structure. Ongoing research will determine the most appropriate choices for a successful demonstration of PHM systems in aging NPPs.

N. Lybeck; B. Pham; M. Tawfik; J. B. Coble; R. M. Meyer; P. Ramuhalli; L. J. Bond

2011-08-01

328

Prognostic indicators associated with early mortality of wild raptors admitted to a wildlife rehabilitation centre in Spain.  

PubMed

Background: Assessment of the prognostic indicators of wildlife casualties is critical in wildlife rehabilitation practice, to optimize the use of economical resources, and to protect animal welfare. Few studies have been conducted in this field. Objective: To identify the prognostic indicators associated with raptor mortality during the first week of hospitalization. Animals and methods: Complete medical records of 1722 wild raptor cases admitted to a wildlife rehabilitation centre from 1995 to 2007 were used. Regression models were created to determine mortality-related factors for different variables (order, sex, body condition (BC), clinical signs, and available haematological and biochemical parameters). Results: In the bivariate analysis, the presence of nervous (OR = 11.9, 95%CI:5.1-27.6) or musculoskeletal (OR = 12.1, 95%CI:5.8-25.3) signs, a poor BC (OR = 32.9, 95%CI:19-81.2), and low values of packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin or total solids (TS), were all associated with early mortality. After adjusting variables in the multivariate model, BC was excluded due to co-linearity with other variables, and alteration of the nervous system was the only significant risk factor (OR = 4.0; 95%CI:1.9-8.8). In species specific analysis, poor prognosis was related to neurological signs in Athene noctua, poor BC in Strix aluco, trauma in Acciptiter nisus and Tyto alba, low PCV in Buteo buteo and Falco tinnunculus and low TS in Falco tinnunculus. Conclusions: Raptors with a poor BC, low values of PCV and those presenting with neurological signs, had the highest risk of dying in the first days of admittance. Thus, either medical care or humane euthanasia for poor prognosis should be performed to address animal welfare. PMID:25443779

Molina-López, Rafael A; Casal, Jordi; Darwich, Laila

2014-12-01

329

Diagnostic and Prognostic Models for Generator Step-Up Transformers  

SciTech Connect

In 2014, the online monitoring (OLM) of active components project under the Light Water Reactor Sustainability program at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) focused on diagnostic and prognostic capabilities for generator step-up transformers. INL worked with subject matter experts from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to augment and revise the GSU fault signatures previously implemented in the Electric Power Research Institute’s (EPRI’s) Fleet-Wide Prognostic and Health Management (FW-PHM) Suite software. Two prognostic models were identified and implemented for GSUs in the FW-PHM Suite software. INL and EPRI demonstrated the use of prognostic capabilities for GSUs. The complete set of fault signatures developed for GSUs in the Asset Fault Signature Database of the FW-PHM Suite for GSUs is presented in this report. Two prognostic models are described for paper insulation: the Chendong model for degree of polymerization, and an IEEE model that uses a loading profile to calculates life consumption based on hot spot winding temperatures. Both models are life consumption models, which are examples of type II prognostic models. Use of the models in the FW-PHM Suite was successfully demonstrated at the 2014 August Utility Working Group Meeting, Idaho Falls, Idaho, to representatives from different utilities, EPRI, and the Halden Research Project.

Vivek Agarwal; Nancy J. Lybeck; Binh T. Pham

2014-09-01

330

Prognostic relevance of AgNORs in tumor pathology.  

PubMed

The importance of the analysis of the silver-stained nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) for prognostic purposes in tumor pathology has been reviewed. Current available data from the literature demonstrate that the evaluation of the quantity of interphase AgNORs is an independent prognostic factor in several types of human tumors. Results of our investigations indicate that AgNORs are the most powerful variable predicting survival in patients with pharyngeal carcinoma, multiple myeloma, male breast and prostate carcinoma. The combination of AgNOR counts and histologic pattern allows the stratification of patients with multiple myeloma, pharyngeal and prostate carcinoma into low- and high-risk groups, which could benefit from different therapy. Moreover, AgNOR analysis predicts response to treatment in adult patients with acute myelogenous leukemia, and appears as an independent prognostic factor in a prospective study on renal cell carcinoma. Therefore, AgNOR analysis is a really important prognostic factor for several human neoplasias. The experimental and theoretical justifications for AgNORs as a prognostic factor are also reviewed, in particular the strict correlation between AgNOR quantity and tumor cell doubling time. Lastly, the lack of prognostic significance of AgNOR analysis in some circumstances is critically discussed. PMID:10588059

Pich, A; Chiusa, L; Margaria, E

2000-04-01

331

Prognostic stratification of colorectal cancer patients: current perspectives  

PubMed Central

Tumor staging according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer/Union for International Cancer Control tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) system is currently regarded as the standard for staging of patients with colorectal cancer. This system provides the strongest prognostic information for patients with early stage disease and those with advanced disease. For patients with intermediate levels of disease, it is less able to predict disease outcome. Therefore, additional prognostic markers are needed to improve the management of affected patients. Ideal markers are readily assessable on hematoxylin and eosin-stained tumor slides, and in this way are easily applicable worldwide. This review summarizes the histological features of colorectal cancer that can be used for prognostic stratification. Specifically, we refer to the different histological variants of colorectal cancer that have been identified, each of these variants carrying distinct prognostic significance. Established markers of adverse outcomes are lymphatic and venous invasion, as well as perineural invasion, but underreporting still occurs in the routine setting. Tumor budding and tumor necrosis are recent advances that may help to identify patients at high risk for recurrence. The prognostic significance of the antitumor inflammatory response has been known for quite a long time, but a lack of standardization prevented its application in routine pathology. However, scales to assess intra- and peritumoral inflammation have recently emerged, and can be expected to strengthen the prognostic significance of the pathology report. PMID:25061338

Schneider, Nora I; Langner, Cord

2014-01-01

332

Biochemical parameters as prognostic factors in prostatic adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

The serum levels of creatinine (CR), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP) and tartrate inhibitable acid phosphatase (TIAP) were related to Gleason score, TM-category, disease progression and survival in 325 prostatic adenocarcinoma patients followed up for over 12 years. Elevated serum levels of CR, ALP, ACP and TIAP were related to invasive and metastatic disease as well as with a high Gleason score. Elevated serum levels of CR, ALP, ACP and TIAP, all significantly predicted prognosis in a univariate analysis. In the M0 tumours, ACP and TIAP and TIAP had prognostic value, as they did in the T1-2M0 tumours respectively. Cox's multivariate analysis showed that serum creatinine level at diagnosis had independent prognostic value additional to the TM-classification, Gleason score and patient age. In the M0 tumours, ALP had independent prognostic significance additional to the T-category, Gleason score and patient age. In the T1-2M0 tumours, TIAP had independent prognostic value supplementary to the Gleason score, T-category and patient age, whereas in the T1M0 tumours, the gleason score was an independent prognostic parameter. The results indicate that these simple laboratory tests give important prognostic information in prostatic adenocarcinoma. PMID:7865237

Vesalainen, S; Lipponen, P; Talja, M; Syrjänen, K

1995-01-01

333

CD98 is a promising prognostic biomarker in biliary tract cancer.  

PubMed

CD98 has been described to play a crucial role in tumor progression and survival. However, the role of CD98 in biliary tract cancer remains unclear. We found that 36.7% of all patients with biliary tract cancer had a high CD98 expression. Statistical analysis using Spearman's rank correlation showed that CD98 was significantly correlated with L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1, r=0.562, P<0.001), Ki-67 (r=0.230, P=0.006) and CD34 (r=0.290, P=0.005). Multivariate analysis confirmed that a high CD98 expression was an independent prognostic factor for predicting poor outcome. CD98 is closely associated with tumor growth, biological aggressiveness, and survival of patients. With these data we proposed that CD98 expression is necessary for the development and pathogenesis of biliary tract cancer. PMID:25475870

Kaira, Kyoichi; Sunose, Yutaka; Oriuchi, Noboru; Kanai, Yoshikatsu; Takeyoshi, Izumi

2014-12-01

334

Prognostic implications of arrhythmias during primary percutaneous coronary interventions for ST-elevation myocardial infraction.  

PubMed

The authors reviewed current knowledge on occurrence, clinical and prognostic significance, and management of sustained ventricular arrhythmias, atrial fibrillation and bradyarrhythmias in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). Cardiac arrhythmias worsen clinical course and prognosis in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary PCI. Sustained ventricular arrhythmias developing during or early after PCI and associated with mechanical restoration of coronary flow and reperfusion do not affect mortality, whereas those related to incomplete revascularization and ongoing ischemia are associated with poor prognosis. New-onset atrial fibrillation increases mortality and stroke rates in patients undergoing primary PCI. Among bradyarrhythmias, high-degree atrioventricular block is associated with short- and long-term mortality. Prompt and complete revascularization is the cornerstone of arrhythmia management. Arrhythmias related to reperfusion do not usually require specific treatment, whereas those because of ongoing ischemia, incomplete revascularization and presence of substrate require adequate management including nonpharmacological and pharmacological therapies. PMID:25479322

Durak, Ilker; Kudaiberdieva, Gulmira; Gorenek, Bulent

2015-01-01

335

Proteomics-based identification of ?-enolase as a potential prognostic marker in cholangiocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate the association of expression status of ?-enolase (ENO1) and clinicopathological outcomes of CCA patients. Design and methods Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry (MS) were used to compare differential expressed protein profiles of four human CCA cell lines and H69, a non-malignant biliary cell line, as a control. Immunohistochemical analysis was carried out in tissue-microarray of human CCA tissues (n = 301). Results We identified ENO1 in all CCA cell lines but not H69 by proteomics based. About 75% of patients with CCA showed over-expression of ENO1 in hyperplastic bile duct and the tumors compared with that in tumor-adjacent normal tissue counterparts. Moreover, over-expression of ENO1 is significantly associated with poor prognosis and tumor invasion of CCA patients. Conclusions ENO1 may serve as a prognostic marker to monitor the disease progression of these patients. PMID:22552009

Yonglitthipagon, Ponlapat; Pairojkul, Chawalit; Bhudhisawasdi, Vajarabhongsa; Mulvenna, Jason; Loukas, Alex; Sripa, Banchob

2012-01-01

336

Prognostic value of KRAS and BRAF mutations in curatively resected colorectal cancer  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the prognostic role of KRAS and BRAF mutations after adjustment for microsatellite instability (MSI) status in Japanese colorectal cancer (CRC) population. METHODS: We assessed KRAS and BRAF mutations and MSI status in 813 Japanese patients with curatively resected, stage?I-III CRC and examined associations of these mutations with disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) using uni- and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: KRAS and BRAF mutations were detected in 312 (38%) of 812 and 40 (5%) of 811 tumors, respectively. KRAS mutations occurred more frequently in females than in males (P = 0.02), while the presence of BRAF mutations was significantly associated with the female gender (P = 0.006), proximal tumor location (P < 0.001), mucinous or poorly differentiated histology (P < 0.001), and MSI-high tumors (P < 0.001). After adjusting for relevant variables, including MSI status, KRAS mutations were associated with poorer DFS (HR = 1.35; 95%CI: 1.03-1.75) and OS (HR = 1.46; 95%CI: 1.09-1.97). BRAF mutations were poor prognostic factors for DFS (HR = 2.20; 95%CI: 1.19-4.06) and OS (HR = 2.30; 95%CI: 1.15-4.71). Neither the BRAF by MSI interaction test nor the KRAS by MSI interaction test yielded statistically significant results for DFS and OS. CONCLUSION: KRAS and BRAF mutations are associated with inferior survival, independent of MSI status, in Japanese patients with curatively resected CRC. PMID:25632202

Kadowaki, Shigenori; Kakuta, Miho; Takahashi, Shuhei; Takahashi, Akemi; Arai, Yoshiko; Nishimura, Yoji; Yatsuoka, Toshimasa; Ooki, Akira; Yamaguchi, Kensei; Matsuo, Keitaro; Muro, Kei; Akagi, Kiwamu

2015-01-01

337

Prognostic relevance of induced and spontaneous apoptosis of disseminated tumor cells in primary breast cancer patients  

PubMed Central

Background An imbalance between cell proliferation and programmed cell death can result in tumor growth. Although most systemic cytotoxic agents induce apoptosis in tumor cells, a high apoptotic rate in primary breast cancer correlates with poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and the prognostic significance of apoptotic disseminated tumor cells (DTC) in the bone marrow (BM) of breast cancer patients who either underwent primary surgery or primary systemic chemotherapy (PST). Methods A total of 383 primary breast cancer patients with viable DTC in the BM were included into this study. Eighty-five patients were initially treated with primary systemic chemotherapy whereas 298 patients underwent surgery first. Detection of apoptotic DTC were performed by immunocytochemistry using the M30 antibody which detects a neo-epitope expressed after caspase cleavage of cytokeratin 18 during early apoptosis. The median follow up was 44 months (range 10–88 months). Results Eighty-two of 298 (27%) primary operated patients and 41 of 85 (48%) patients treated with primary systemic systemic therapy had additional apoptotic DTC (M30 positive). In the neoadjuvant group M30-positive patients were less likely to suffer relapse than those without apoptotic DTC (7% vs. 23% of the events, p?=?0.049). In contrast, the detection of apoptotic DTC in patients treated by primary surgery was significantly associated with poor overall survival (5% vs. 12% of the events, p?=?0.008). Conclusions Apoptotic DTC can be detected in breast cancer patients before and after systemic treatment. The presence of apoptotic DTC in patients with PST may be induced by the cytotoxic agents. Thus, both spontaneous and chemotherapy-induced apoptosis may have different prognostic significance. PMID:24894702

2014-01-01

338

Prognostic significance of the degree of extranodal extension in patients with penile carcinoma  

PubMed Central

This study sought to assess the prognostic significance of the degree of extranodal extension (ENE) and several other risk factors in pathological ENE penile carcinoma. We analyzed prospectively collected data on a consecutive series of 31 chemotherapy-naive patients with proven ENE who underwent therapeutic regional lymphadenectomy. Postoperative external radiotherapy was then performed. We studied the extent of ENE utilizing a novel grading system and correlated patient grades with their outcome measures. ENE was graded as 1 - if the capsule of the lymph node (LN) was ruptured less than one-third of its circumference or 2 - if the capsule was disrupted more than one-third of its circumference or the entire LN was disrupted. We estimated overall survival (OS) using the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate analysis was performed according to the Cox proportional hazards model using factors that were identified as statistically significant in univariate analysis. The incidence rate of ENE was 51.8% in patients with pathological node-positive carcinoma of the penis. The median OS and 5-year survival were 18 months (95% confidence interval (CI), 14.4–21.6) and 23%, respectively. Prognostic variables on univariate analysis were ENE grade 2, ?3 LNs with ENE, maximal LN ? 35 mm, ?5 positive LNs and pelvic LN involvement. On multivariate analysis, only ENE grade 2 remained associated with decreased OS (hazard ratio (HR): 6.50). In conclusion, patients with ENE have a poor outcome, and ENE grade 2 is an independent predictive factor of poor OS in patients with pathological ENE penile carcinoma. PMID:24480925

Wang, Jin-You; Zhu, Yao; Tang, Shao-Xian; Zhang, Hai-Liang; Qin, Xiao-Jian; Zhang, Shi-Lin; Dai, Bo; Ye, Ding-Wei

2014-01-01

339

Prognostic factors associated with the response to sunitinib in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Objective We investigated the prognostic clinicopathologic factors associated with overall survival (os) and progression-free survival (pfs) in the once-daily continuous administration of first-line sunitinib in a consecutive cohort of Turkish patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (rcc). Methods The study enrolled 77 Turkish patients with metastatic rcc who received sunitinib in a continuous once-daily dosing regimen between April 2006 and April 2011. Univariate analyses were performed using the log-rank test. Results Median follow-up was 18.5 months. In univariate analyses, poor pfs and os were associated with 4 of the 5 factors in the Memorial Sloan–Kettering Cancer Center (mskcc) score: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or higher, low hemoglobin, high corrected serum calcium, and high lactate dehydrogenase. In addition to those factors, hypoalbuminemia, more than 2 metastatic sites, liver metastasis, non–clear cell histology, and the presence of sarcomatoid features on pathology were also associated with poor pfs; and male sex, hypoalbuminemia, prior radiotherapy, more than 2 metastatic sites, lung metastasis, nuclear grade of 3 or 4 for the primary tumour, and the presence of sarcomatoid features were also associated with poorer os. The application of the mskcc model distinctly separated the pfs and os curves (p < 0.001). Conclusions Our study identified prognostic factors for pfs and os with the use sunitinib as first-line metastatic rcc therapy and confirmed that the mskcc model still appears to be valid for predicting survival in metastatic rcc in the era of molecular targeted therapy. PMID:24311955

Yildiz, I.; Sen, F.; Kilic, L.; Ekenel, M.; Ordu, C.; Kilicaslan, I.; Darendeliler, E.; Tunc, H.M.; Varol, U.; Bavbek, S.; Basaran, M.

2013-01-01

340

Constraining the Evolution of Poor Clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There currently exists no method by which to quantify the evolutionary state of poor clusters (PCs). Research by Broming & Fuse (2010) demonstrated that the evolution of Hickson compact groups (HCGs) are constrained by the correlation between the X-ray luminosities of point sources and diffuse gas. The current investigation adopts an analogous approach to understanding PCs. Plionis et al. (2009) proposed a theory to define the evolution of poor clusters. The theory asserts that cannibalism of galaxies causes a cluster to become more spherical, develop increased velocity dispersion and increased X-ray temperature and gas luminosity. Data used to quantify the evolution of the poor clusters were compiled across multiple wavelengths. The sample includes 162 objects from the WBL catalogue (White et al. 1999), 30 poor clusters in the Chandra X-ray Observatory archive, and 15 Abell poor clusters observed with BAX (Sadat et al. 2004). Preliminary results indicate that the cluster velocity dispersion and X-ray gas and point source luminosities can be used to highlight a weak correlation. An evolutionary trend was observed for multiple correlations detailed herein. The current study is a continuation of the work by Broming & Fuse examining point sources and their properties to determine the evolutionary stage of compact groups, poor clusters, and their proposed remnants, isolated ellipticals and fossil groups. Preliminary data suggests that compact groups and their high-mass counterpart, poor clusters, evolve along tracks identified in the X-ray gas - X-ray point source relation. While compact groups likely evolve into isolated elliptical galaxies, fossil groups display properties that suggest they are the remains of fully coalesced poor clusters.

Broming, Emma J.; Fuse, C. R.

2012-01-01

341

Cost valuation in resource-poor settings.  

PubMed

Methods of cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) have largely been developed for application in Western country settings. Little attention has been paid to the methodological issues in cost valuation in resource-poor settings, where failing exchange rates and severe market distortions require further clarifications of appropriate valuation methods. This paper links insights from social cost-benefit analysis with the current CEA guidelines to develop a more apt approach to cost valuation in resource-poor settings. PMID:15965037

Hutton, Guy; Baltussen, Rob

2005-07-01

342

SIRT1 expression is associated with a poor prognosis, whereas DBC1 is associated with favorable outcomes in gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

Clinical trials of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors as antitumor therapy have been conducted for gastric cancer. Expression of SIRT1, a class III HDAC, is related to poor prognosis in some malignancies. We investigated the correlation between SIRT1 expression and progression and prognosis of gastric cancers comparing with molecules linked to SIRT1 in order to better predict the efficacy of HDAC inhibitors in treating this disease. We evaluated SIRT1 expression by western blot in 51 cases and SIRT1, DBC1, acetylated H4K16 (H4K16Ac), acetylated H3K9 (H3K9Ac), and p53 by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 557 cases of gastric cancer. Western blotting showed that SIRT1 high expression related with statistics to advanced tumor progression, positive lymphatic invasion, positive venous invasion, and advanced stage but not to poor prognosis. IHC revealed that SIRT1 high expression correlated with worse clinico-pathological prognostic factors as same as in western blotting and related poor prognosis both by univariate and multivariate analyses. By the contrast, DBC1 and H4K16Ac were related to favorable prognostic factors and linked to favorable prognosis by univariate analysis but not by multivariate analysis. H3K16Ac correlated only favorable prognostic factors. Results of p53 were very similar to those of SIRT1. We found that SIRT1 high expression closely correlates with progression and prognosis in gastric cancer patients. And it was also indicated that SIRT1 acts as an oncogene by the results of DBC1, H4K16Ac, and H3K9Ac and might be a target molecule of HDAC inhibitor treatment for gastric cancer patients. PMID:25146318

Noguchi, Akira; Kikuchi, Keiji; Zheng, Huachuan; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Miyagi, Yohei; Aoki, Ichiro; Takano, Yasuo

2014-01-01

343

SIRT1 expression is associated with a poor prognosis, whereas DBC1 is associated with favorable outcomes in gastric cancer.  

PubMed

Clinical trials of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors as antitumor therapy have been conducted for gastric cancer. Expression of SIRT1, a class III HDAC, is related to poor prognosis in some malignancies. We investigated the correlation between SIRT1 expression and progression and prognosis of gastric cancers comparing with molecules linked to SIRT1 in order to better predict the efficacy of HDAC inhibitors in treating this disease. We evaluated SIRT1 expression by western blot in 51 cases and SIRT1, DBC1, acetylated H4K16 (H4K16Ac), acetylated H3K9 (H3K9Ac), and p53 by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 557 cases of gastric cancer. Western blotting showed that SIRT1 high expression related with statistics to advanced tumor progression, positive lymphatic invasion, positive venous invasion, and advanced stage but not to poor prognosis. IHC revealed that SIRT1 high expression correlated with worse clinico-pathological prognostic factors as same as in western blotting and related poor prognosis both by univariate and multivariate analyses. By the contrast, DBC1 and H4K16Ac were related to favorable prognostic factors and linked to favorable prognosis by univariate analysis but not by multivariate analysis. H3K16Ac correlated only favorable prognostic factors. Results of p53 were very similar to those of SIRT1. We found that SIRT1 high expression closely correlates with progression and prognosis in gastric cancer patients. And it was also indicated that SIRT1 acts as an oncogene by the results of DBC1, H4K16Ac, and H3K9Ac and might be a target molecule of HDAC inhibitor treatment for gastric cancer patients. PMID:25146318

Noguchi, Akira; Kikuchi, Keiji; Zheng, Huachuan; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Miyagi, Yohei; Aoki, Ichiro; Takano, Yasuo

2014-12-01

344

Damage Propagation Modeling for Aircraft Engine Prognostics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes how damage propagation can be modeled within the modules of aircraft gas turbine engines. To that end, response surfaces of all sensors are generated via a thermo-dynamical simulation model for the engine as a function of variations of flow and efficiency of the modules of interest. An exponential rate of change for flow and efficiency loss was imposed for each data set, starting at a randomly chosen initial deterioration set point. The rate of change of the flow and efficiency denotes an otherwise unspecified fault with increasingly worsening effect. The rates of change of the faults were constrained to an upper threshold but were otherwise chosen randomly. Damage propagation was allowed to continue until a failure criterion was reached. A health index was defined as the minimum of several superimposed operational margins at any given time instant and the failure criterion is reached when health index reaches zero. Output of the model was the time series (cycles) of sensed measurements typically available from aircraft gas turbine engines. The data generated were used as challenge data for the Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) data competition at PHM 08.

Saxena, Abhinav; Goebel, Kai; Simon, Don; Eklund, Neil

2008-01-01

345

Prognostics for advanced compressor health monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Axial flow compressors are subjected to demands for ever-increasing levels of pressure ratio at a compression efficiency that augments the overall cycle efficiency. However, unstable flow may develop in the compressor, which can lead to a stall or surge and subsequently to gas turbine failure resulting in significant downtime and cost to repair. To protect against these potential aerodynamic instabilities, compressors are typically operated with a stall margin. This means operating the compressor at less than peak pressure rise which results in a reduction in operating efficiency and performance. Therefore, it is desirable to have a reliable method to determine the state of a compressor by detecting the onset of a damaging event prior to its occurrence. In this paper, we propose a health monitoring scheme that gathers and combines the results of different diagnostic tools to maximize the advantages of each one while at the same time minimizing their disadvantages. This fusion scheme produces results that are better than the best result by any one tool used. In part this is achieved because redundant information is available that when combined correctly improves the estimate of the better tool and compensates for the shortcomings of the less capable tool. We discuss the usage of diagnostic information fusion for a compressor event coupled with proactive control techniques to support improved compressor performance while at the same time avoid the increased damage risk due to stall margin reduction. Discretized time to failure windows provide event prediction in a prognostic sense.

Krok, Michael J.; Goebel, Kai F.

2003-08-01

346

Elevated nuclear S100P expression is associated with poor survival in early breast cancer patients.  

PubMed

S100P - low molecular weight acidic protein has been shown to be involved in processes of proliferation, survival, angiogenesis, multidrug resistance and metastasis in various human malignancies. In breast cancer, S100P expression is associated with immortalization of neoplastic cells and aggressive tumour behaviour, indicating that this protein may have adverse prognostic value. We analyzed nuclear and cytoplasmic expression of S100P in 85 stage II breast cancer patients with a median follow up of 17 years. Immunohistochemical reactions were performed on paraffin sections of primary tumours, using monoclonal antibodies against S100P. We also studied prognostic value of S100P mRNA expression using the KM plotter which assessed the effect of 22,277 genes on survival in 2422 breast cancer patients. Moreover, the relationship was examined between expression of S100P in cells of four breast cancer cell lines and their sensitivity to the 11 most frequently applied cytotoxic drugs. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that higher expression of nuclear S100P (S100Pn) was typical for cases of a shorter overall survival and disease-free time. KM plotter analysis showed that elevated S100P expression was specific for cases of a relapse-free survival and distant metastases-free survival. No relationship could be documented between expression of S100P and sensitivity of breast cancer cells to cytostatic drugs. We demonstrated that a high S100Pn expression level was associated with poor survival in early stage breast cancer patients. Since preliminary data indicated that expression of S100P was up-regulated by activation of glucocorticoid receptor and several agents manifested potential to activate or inhibit S100P promoter activity, this protein might become a therapy target and warrants further studies with respect to its prognostic, predictive and potentially therapeutic value. PMID:23364898

Maciejczyk, Adam; ?acko, Aleksandra; Ekiert, Marcin; Jagoda, Ewa; Wysocka, Teresa; Matkowski, Rafa?; Ha?o?, Agnieszka; Györffy, Balázs; Lage, Hermann; Surowiak, Pawe?

2013-04-01

347

Overexpression of CD88 predicts poor prognosis in non-small-cell lung cancer.  

PubMed

CD88 (C5aR), a G-protein-coupled receptor, is well known as it functions in various inflammatory diseases, however, its role in tumorigenesis remains unclear. In this study we investigated the prognostic value of CD88 in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after surgical resection. Five NSCLC cell lines and one normal bronchial epithelial cell line were used to analyze the CD88 expression at the mRNA level. Then, the expression of CD88 and E-cadherin were further examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in tissue microarray (TMA) consisting of 208 cases of NSCLSs. Data revealed that CD88 expression was significantly higher in NSCLC cells than that in normal bronchial epithelial cells, and compared with the adjacent non-tumorous lung tissues, the CD88 protein overexpressed in NSCLC tissues. Furthermore, high levels of CD88 were found to be correlated with lymph node metastasis in NSCLC patients (p = 0.012). The 5-year overall survival of patients with CD88(high) was significantly lower than those in the CD88(low) group (p = 0.001), and multivariate analysis revealed that CD88 expression was an independent prognostic factor in patients' overall survival (HR = 1.614, 95% CI 1.082-2.407, p = 0.019). Finally, we confirmed the CD88 expression negatively correlated with E-cadherin expression (p < 0.001). Interference of CD88 expression impaired the migration of lung cancer cells and up-regulated the E-cadherin protein expression. Thus, our results indicate that CD88 is overexpressed in NSCLC. High levels of CD88 are associated with poor prognosis of NSCLC after resection and promote tumor metastasis via down-regulation of E-cadherin. CD88 can be a potential prognostic marker to screen patients for unfavorable prognosis. PMID:23706417

Gu, Jie; Ding, Jian-yong; Lu, Chun-lai; Lin, Zong-wu; Chu, Yi-wei; Zhao, Guang-yin; Guo, Jing; Ge, Di

2013-08-01

348

Slug is associated with poor survival in squamous cell carcinoma of the lung  

PubMed Central

We investigated the expression of slug in a large set of lung squamous and adenocarcinomas to determine common or dissimilar features in its expression in these two most common forms of lung cancer. To investigate slug related tumor spread we studied the expression of vimentin, claudin 1, MMP2 and MMP9 in these tumors and their relation to slug. Addition, cell invasion assays, mRNA analysis and zymographic tests were performed to study epitheliomesenchymal transition (EMT) related changes in slug blocked lung cell lines. According to the results slug expression did not significantly differ between squamous (SCC) and adenocarcinoma (AC) (P = 0.25). In SCC, slug associated with vimentin (P = 0.016). In AC, claudin 1 associated with MMP2 (P = 0.037). In SCC slug expression had a poor prognositic significance (P = 0.006) and it had independent prognostic value (P = 0.037). In AC MMP2 had a worsening impact on survival (P = 0.021) and it had independent prognostic value (P = 0.002). In cell invasion assays, slug knockdown inhibited the invasion and migration of BEAS-2B, SK-LU1 and SK-MES1 cell lines. The mRNA expression of claudin 1 was downregulated in SK-LU1 cell line. Both tumor cell lines expressed MMP2 and in SK-MES1 slug inhibited line MMP2 appeared to decrease. The results show that slug associated EMT is more pronounced in lung SCC than AC. Slug associated with vimentin in SCC and had an independent prognostic value in this tumor type. Forced slug inhibition might be one putative way of treatment of SCC of the lung. PMID:25337226

Merikallio, Heta; T, Taina Turpeenniemi-Hujanen; Pääkkö, Paavo; Mäkitaro, Riitta; Kaarteenaho, Riitta; Lehtonen, Siri; Salo, Sirpa; Salo, Tuula; Harju, Terttu; Soini, Ylermi

2014-01-01

349

Down-regulation of sirtuin 3 is associated with poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma after resection  

PubMed Central

Background Sirtuin 3 (Sirt3), one of the seven Sirtuins family members, plays critical roles in the progression of multiple cancer types. However, its role in the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not yet been investigated systematically. Methods The correlation of Sirtuins expression with prognosis of HCC was determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in a large HCC patient cohort (n?=?342). Expression of Sirt3 in tumoral and peritumoral tissues of HCC patients were further determined by western blotting (WB). Results IHC and WB studies both showed a decreased expression of Sirt3 in tumoral tissues compared with peritumoral tissues (P?=?0.003 for IHC, P?=?0.0042 for WB). Decreased expression of Sirt3 in both tumoral and peritumoral tissues was associated with increased recurrence probability and decreased overall survival rate by univariate analyses (intratumoral Sirt3: P?=?0.011 for TTR, P?=?0.001 for OS; peritumoral Sirt3: P?=?0.017 for TTR, P?=?0.023 for OS), the prognostic value was strengthened by multivariate analyses (intratumoral Sirt3: P?=?0.031 for TTR, P?=?0.001 for OS; peritumoral Sirt3: P?=?0.047 for TTR, P?=?0.031 for OS). Intratumoral Sirt3 also showed a favorable prognostic value in patients with BCLC stage A (TTR, P?=?0.011; OS, P?poor outcome in HCC, moreover, intratumoral Sirt3 was a favorable prognostic predictor in early stage patients. PMID:24774224

2014-01-01

350

Cross-National Validation of Prognostic Models Predicting Sickness Absence and the Added Value of Work Environment Variables.  

PubMed

Purpose To validate Dutch prognostic models including age, self-rated health and prior sickness absence (SA) for ability to predict high SA in Danish eldercare. The added value of work environment variables to the models' risk discrimination was also investigated. Methods 2,562 municipal eldercare workers (95 % women) participated in the Working in Eldercare Survey. Predictor variables were measured by questionnaire at baseline in 2005. Prognostic models were validated for predictions of high (?30) SA days and high (?3) SA episodes retrieved from employer records during 1-year follow-up. The accuracy of predictions was assessed by calibration graphs and the ability of the models to discriminate between high- and low-risk workers was investigated by ROC-analysis. The added value of work environment variables was measured with Integrated Discrimination Improvement (IDI). Results 1,930 workers had complete data for analysis. The models underestimated the risk of high SA in eldercare workers and the SA episodes model had to be re-calibrated to the Danish data. Discrimination was practically useful for the re-calibrated SA episodes model, but not the SA days model. Physical workload improved the SA days model (IDI = 0.40; 95 % CI 0.19-0.60) and psychosocial work factors, particularly the quality of leadership (IDI = 0.70; 95 % CI 053-0.86) improved the SA episodes model. Conclusions The prognostic model predicting high SA days showed poor performance even after physical workload was added. The prognostic model predicting high SA episodes could be used to identify high-risk workers, especially when psychosocial work factors are added as predictor variables. PMID:25134514

Roelen, Corné A M; Stapelfeldt, Christina M; Heymans, Martijn W; van Rhenen, Willem; Labriola, Merete; Nielsen, Claus V; Bültmann, Ute; Jensen, Chris

2014-08-19

351

Prognostic implications of estrogen receptor 1 and vascular endothelial growth factor A expression in primary gallbladder carcinoma  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the prognostic significance of estrogen receptor 1 (ER1) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) expression in primary gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) to identify new prognostic markers for this malignancy. METHODS: Using immunohistochemistry, we investigated ER1 and VEGF-A expression in 78 GBC and 78 cholelithiasis (CS) tissues. The results were correlated with clinicopathological features. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the relationship between ER1 and VEGF-A expression and patients’ prognosis. Further Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was also performed. RESULTS: ER1 and VEGF-A expression was significantly higher in GBC compared with CS (47/78 vs 28/78, P < 0.05; 51/78 vs 33/78, P < 0.05). ER1 expression was correlated with gender (P < 0.05) and VEGF-A expression was correlated with tumor differentiation in GBC patients (P < 0.05). In univariate analysis, age and tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage were factors associated with GBC prognosis (P < 0.05). Although there was no statistical difference between the expression of ER1 or VEGF-A and overall survival, the high expression of ER1 combined with VEGF-A predicted a poor prognosis for GBC patients (16.30 ± 1.87 vs 24.97 ± 2.09, log-rank P < 0.05). In multivariate analysis, combined expression of ER1 and VEGF-A and TNM stage were independent prognostic factors for GBC patients (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Combined expression of ER1 and VEGF-A is a potential prognostic marker for GBC patients. Clinical detection of ER1 and VEGF-A in surgically resected GBC tissues would provide an important reference for decision-making of postoperative treatment programs.

Zhang, Ling-Qiang; Xu, Xin-Sen; Wan, Yong; Song, Si-Dong; Wang, Rui-Tao; Chen, Wei; Wang, Zhi-Xin; Chang, Hu-Lin; Wei, Ji-Chao; Dong, Ya-Feng; Liu, Chang

2015-01-01

352

ARID1A: a potential prognostic factor for breast cancer.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to explore the expression of BAF250a protein in breast cancer and its association with the clinical and pathological characteristics and prognosis of breast cancer. The expression status of BAF250a protein was detected by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemical staining. The relationship between BAF250a proteins and clinicopathological parameters in 496 breast cancer specimens was analyzed. Western blot analysis showed that BAF250a protein had a lower expression in breast cancer specimens than in matched normal breast tissue (104.38?±?11.65 vs. 55.94?±?10.27; P?=?0.004, t test). Among the 496 enrolled breast cancer patients, BAF250a protein expression was absent in 324 (65.3 %). Universal and multiple analyses indicated that BAF250a protein expression loss was significantly related to histological grade, metastatic nodes, tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage, and the expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), c-erbB-2, and p53 (all P?prognostic factor (P?=?0.014). BAF250a protein might be a new potential target for breast cancer treatment. PMID:24430365

Zhao, Jing; Liu, Caigang; Zhao, Zuowei

2014-05-01

353

Long Noncoding RNA HOTAIR as an Independent Prognostic Marker in Cancer: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background HOTAIR, a newly discovered long intergenic noncoding RNA (lincRNA), has been reported to be aberrantly expressed in many types of cancers. This meta-analysis summarizes its potential role as a biomarker in malignancy. Methods A quantitative meta-analysis was performed through a systematic search in Pubmed, Medline and Web of Science for eligible papers on the prognostic impact of HOTAIR in cancer from inception to Feb. 28, 2014. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated to summarize the effect. Results Nineteen studies were included in the study, with a total of 2033 patients. A significant association was observed between high HOTAIR expression and poor overall survival (OS) in patients with cancer (pooled HR 2.22, 95% CI: 1.68–2.93). Place of residence (Asian or Western countries), type of cancer (digestive or non-digestive disease), sample size (more or less than 100), and paper quality (score more or less than 85%) did not alter the significant predictive value of HOTAIR in OS from various kinds of cancer but preoperative status did. By combining HRs from Cox multivariate analyses, we found that HOTAIR expression was an independent prognostic factor for cancer patients (pooled HR 2.26, 95% CI: 1.62–3.15). Subgroup analysis showed that HOTAIR abundance was an independent prognostic factor for cancer metastasis (HR 3.90, 95% CI: 2.25–6.74). For esophageal carcinoma, high HOTAIR expression was significantly associated with TNM stage (III/IV vs. I/II: OR 6.90, 95% CI: 2.81–16.9) without heterogeneity. In gastric cancer, HOTAIR expression was found to be significantly associated with lymph node metastases (present vs. absent: OR 4.47, 95% CI: 1.88–10.63) and vessel invasion (positive vs. negative: OR 2.88, 95% CI: 1.38–6.04) without obvious heterogeneity. Conclusions HOTAIR abundance may serve as a novel predictive factor for poor prognosis in different types of cancers in both Asian and Western countries. PMID:25157956

Yang, Guang; Gu, Fang; Li, Minrui; Zhong, Bihui; Hu, Jifan; Hoffman, Andrew; Chen, Minhu

2014-01-01

354

Outcome and prognostic indicators in 20 cats with surgically treated primary lung tumors.  

PubMed

The purpose of this retrospective study of 20 client-owned cats was to describe the clinical signs, surgical interventions, histological features, stage and treatments of primary lung tumors removed by surgical excision, and to determine which factors significantly influence survival. Any cat that underwent surgical resection of a primary lung tumor between 2000 and 2007 was included in the study. Patient records were reviewed and signalment, clinical signs, preoperative diagnostics, surgical findings and histopathological results recorded. Histological reports were reviewed and scored using World Health Organization criteria. The Kaplan-Meier test was used to evaluate each potential prognostic factor with survival. Twenty cats met the inclusion criteria. The presence of clinical signs (such as dyspnea) at the time of diagnosis (P = 0.032), pleural effusion (P = 0.046), stage M1 (P = 0.015), and moderately and poorly differentiated tumors on histopathology (P = 0.011) were factors that were significantly correlated with reduced survival times. The median survival time of the 20 cats was 11 days. Cats presenting with no clinical signs had a median survival time of 578 days post-surgery vs 4 days post-surgery when presented with clinical signs. Cats staged T1N0M0 lived longer than cats at other stages (P = 0.044). Of the cats that survived to the time of suture removal, median survival time was 64 days. The results indicate that the presence of clinical signs, pleural effusion, moderately and poorly differentiated tumors on histopathology, evidence of metastasis and any stage beyond T1N0M0 are negative prognostic indicators for cats with primary lung tumors. The findings demonstrate that cats that presented with clinical signs, pleural effusion, any stage other than T1N0M0, or moderately and poorly differentiated tumors on histopathology had a poor prognosis. Therefore, extensive preoperative diagnostics, including computed tomography scans, should be performed before considering surgical intervention in these cats. These findings may be used to guide therapeutic decision-making in cats diagnosed with primary lung tumors. PMID:24710595

Maritato, Karl C; Schertel, Eric R; Kennedy, Shawn C; Dudley, Robert; Lamm, Catherine; Barnhart, Matthew; Kass, Phillip

2014-12-01

355

High expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 indicates poor prognosis in human hilar cholangiocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

High expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) was found to be correlated with tumor progression and poor prognosis in a variety of carcinomas. However, few studies have investigated the role of MMP-9 in human hilar cholangiocarcinoma. In this study, a total of 58 patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma who underwent curative resection were included in this study. The expression of MMP-9 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry using the streptavidin peroxidase complex method. The correlation of MMP-9 overexpression with clinicopathological features and survival time of patients was investigated. The results showed that MMP-9 overexpression was prominent in cancer cells and mainly localized in the cytoplasm. MMP-9 overexpression was observed in 46.5% tumors, which showed no correlation with clinicopathological parameters. Patients with high MMP-9 expression had a significantly poorer overall survival rate than those with negative or low MMP-9 expression (P = 0.038). Multivariate analysis confirmed that MMP-9 overexpression was an independent prognostic factor (P = 0.007). In conclusion, overexpression of MMP-9 is a valuable independent prognostic indicator in hilar cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:25337264

Sun, Qi; Zhao, Chuanzong; Xia, Leizhou; He, Zhaobin; Lu, Zhihua; Liu, Chuan; Jia, Ming; Wang, Jiayong; Niu, Jun

2014-01-01

356

Prognostic relevance of cell proliferation in major salivary gland carcinomas  

PubMed Central

Summary Several proliferation markers, such as DNA ploidy, Ki67, MiB1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen have been shown to correlate with clinical course and prognosis in several epithelial tumours and lymphomas. In the present study, the prognostic relevance of these markers was evaluated in major salivary gland carcinomas. A sample of 36 cases out of 85 patients submitted to surgery for major salivary gland carcinomas at our institution between 1987 and 1997 were studied. The sample comprised 8 adenoid-cystic carcinomas, 6 ductal carcinomas, 11 mucoepidermoid carcinomas and 11 acinic cell carcinomas. Follow-up ranged from 1 to 12 years (mean 6.2). In some patients, DNA ploidy (euploid or aneuploid) was studied by flow cytometry. In others, proliferation activity was studied by means of monoclonal antibody MiB1, identifying cells in the proliferative cycle. In some patients, both techniques were used. Follow-up was related to these indices, TNM and stage. Even if ploidy suggested a favourable outcome in diploid cancer (13 favourable vs. 2 unfavourable) and poor outcome in aneuploid cancer (4 favourable vs. 5 unfavourable), the difference was not statistically significant with p = 0.06 in Fisher’s exact test. Instead, the proliferative tumour cell fraction, evaluated by MiB1, was statistically correlated with prognosis. Comparing survival curves by Log rank Test it yielded p = 0.007 using an MiB1 cut-off of 5. Applying a cut-off of 20 yielded p = 0.001. Of particular interest were MiB1 values in acinic cell carcinomas for which grading is challenging and lacks consensus. In our group of acinic cell carcinomas, survival correlated with values of MiB1 > or < 15 with p = 0.009 in Log rank test. In conclusion, despite a trend towards correlation between ploidy and prognosis, the present study yielded p = 0.06, whereas the proliferative fraction assessed by MiB1 was significantly correlated with outcomes. Indeed, “growth fraction” in acinic cell carcinomas may stratify different classes of risk. PMID:16450771

Vacchi Suzzi, M; Alessi, A; Bertarelli, C; Cancellieri, A; Procaccio, L; Dall’Olio, D; Laudadio, P

2005-01-01

357

Prognostic Significance of Immunoreactive Neutrophil Elastase in Human Breast Cancer: Long-Term Follow-Up Results in 313 Patients1  

PubMed Central

Objective We have measured the concentration of immunoreactive neutrophil elastase (ir-NE) in the tumor extracts of 313 primary human breast cancers. Sufficient time has elapsed, and we are now ready to analyze its prognostic value in human breast cancer. Methods ir-NE concentration in tumor extracts was determined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that enables a rapid measurement of both free-form ir-NE and the A1-protease inhibitor-complexed form of ir-NE. We analyzed the prognostic value of this enzyme in human breast cancer in univariate and multivariate analyses. Results Patients with breast cancer tissue containing a high concentration of ir-NE had poor survival compared to those with a low concentration of ir-NE at the cutoff point of 9.0 µg/100 mg protein (P = .0012), which had been previously determined in another group of 49 patients. Multivariate stepwise analysis selected lymph node status (P = .0004; relative risk = 1.46) and ir-NE concentration (P = .0013; relative risk = 1.43) as independent prognostic factors for recurrence. Conclusions Tumor ir-NE concentration is an independent prognostic factor in patients with breast cancer who undergo curative surgery. This enzyme may play an active role in tumor progression that leads to metastasis in human breast cancer. PMID:17401466

Akizuki, Miwa; Fukutomi, Takashi; Takasugi, Miyuki; Takahashi, Satoshi; Sato, Takashi; Harao, Michiko; Mizumoto, Takao; Yamashita, Jun-ichi

2007-01-01

358

Nuclear localizaiton of ?-catenin is associated with poor survival and chemo-/radioresistance in human cervical squamous cell cancer  

PubMed Central

Nuclear expression of ?-catenin has been suggested as an independent prognostic marker in a variety of cancers. The objective of this study was to investigate the clinicopathologic significance of nuclear ?-catenin expression in patients with cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). In this original research article, we detected nuclear ?-catenin expression in 29/171 CSCC tissues (17.0%). Patients without nuclear ?-catenin expression had a significantly better outcome than patients with nuclear ?-catenin expression (93.7% versus 82.7% P = 0.027). Furthermore, nuclear ?-catenin expression was predictive of prognosis in CSCC patients with early stage disease (FIGO stage I or tumor size ? 4 cm), with well/moderately differentiated tumors, or lymph node metastasis. Interestingly, nuclear ?-catenin expression correlated with poor outcome in patients who received postoperative chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Multivariate analysis suggested that nuclear ?-catenin expression is an independent prognostic indicator in CSCC. Our findings suggest that nuclear ?-catenin expression may be used as a prognostic biomarker in CSCC, especially for patients with early stage disease, well/moderately differentiated tumors, or lymph node metastasis. Moreover, nuclear ?-catenin expression has potential as a predictive marker of chemoresistance and radioresistance in CSCC. PMID:25120767

Zhang, Yanna; Liu, Bangzhong; Zhao, Qingyu; Hou, Teng; Huang, Xin

2014-01-01

359

Prognostic value of automatically detected early repolarization.  

PubMed

Early repolarization associated with sudden cardiac death is based on the presence of >1-mm J-point elevations in inferior and/or lateral leads with horizontal and/or downsloping ST segments. Automated electrocardiographic readings of early repolarization (AER) obtained in clinical practice, in contrast, are defined by ST-segment elevation in addition to J-point elevation. Nonetheless, such automated readings may cause alarm. We therefore assessed the prevalence and prognostic significance of AER in 211,920 patients aged 18 to 75 years. The study was performed at a tertiary medical center serving a racially diverse urban population with a large proportion of Hispanics (43%). The first recorded electrocardiogram of each individual from 2000 to 2012 was included. Patients with ventricular paced rhythm or acute coronary syndrome at the time of acquisition were excluded from the analysis. All automated electrocardiographic interpretations were reviewed for accuracy by a board-certified cardiologist. The primary end point was death during a median follow-up of 8.0 ± 2.6 years. AER was present in 3,450 subjects (1.6%). The prevalence varied significantly with race (African-Americans 2.2%, Hispanics 1.5%, and non-Hispanic whites 0.9%, p <0.01) and gender (male 2.4% vs female 0.6%, p <0.001). In a Cox proportional hazards model controlling for age, smoking status, heart rate, QTc, systolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, body mass index, and coronary artery disease, there was no significant difference in mortality regardless of race or gender (relative risk 0.98, 95% confidence interval 0.89 to 1.07). This was true even if J waves were present. In conclusion, AER was not associated with an increased risk of death, regardless of race or gender, and should not trigger additional diagnostic testing. PMID:25306428

Aagaard, Philip; Shulman, Eric; Di Biase, Luigi; Fisher, John D; Gross, Jay N; Kargoli, Faraj; Kim, Soo G; Palma, Eugen C; Ferrick, Kevin J; Krumerman, Andrew

2014-11-01

360

High expression of L-type amino acid transporter 1 as a prognostic marker in bile duct adenocarcinomas  

PubMed Central

Oncocytic L-type amino acid transporter (LAT) 1 may be a prognostic indicator and target of new molecular therapeutic agents against malignancies. To investigate whether LAT1 expression influence the outcomes of patients with bile duct cancer, the expression of LAT1, LAT2, CD98, and Ki-67 was investigated immunohistochemically in 134 surgically resected bile duct adenocarcinomas, including 84 distal extrahepatic bile duct adenocarcinomas, 21 hilar cholangiocarcinomas, 15 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas, and 14 ampullary adenocarcinomas. LAT1 expression was weakly correlated with CD98 expression and Ki-67 labeling index (LI). Kaplan–Meier analysis showed a significant difference in prognosis between patients with bile duct adenocarcinomas having LAT1-high and -low scores, whereas LAT2 and CD98 expression and Ki-67 LI were not predictive of poor prognosis. Prognosis tended to be worse in patients having tumors with LAT1-high/LAT2-low than LAT1-low/LAT2-high scores (P = 0.0686). Multivariable analyses revealed that LAT1 expression, surgical margin, pT stage were independent prognostic factors. In conclusion, aberrant overexpression of LAT1 in bile duct adenocarcinoma predicts poor prognosis, suggesting that LAT1 may be a potential target of anticancer therapy. PMID:24890221

Yanagisawa, Nobuyuki; Hana, Kiyomi; Nakada, Norihiro; Ichinoe, Masaaki; Koizumi, Wasaburo; Endou, Hitoshi; Okayasu, Isao; Murakumo, Yoshiki

2014-01-01

361

Expression of L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) as a prognostic and therapeutic indicator in multiple myeloma.  

PubMed

L-type amino-acid transporter 1 (LAT1) plays a key role in cell growth and survival. To determine the prognostic significance of LAT1 in multiple myeloma (MM), we investigated the expression of LAT1 and its functional subunit, 4Fc heavy chain (CD98), on myeloma cells by immunohistochemistry in 100 newly diagnosed MM patients. High expression (moderate or strong staining intensity) of LAT1 and CD98 was detected in 56% and 45% of patients, respectively. The LAT1 expression score was positively correlated with Ki-67 index (r = 0.631, P < 0.001), and there was a statistically significant difference in Durie-Salmon stage between patients with high and low LAT1 expression (P = 0.03). In 43 patients treated with melphalan and prednisolone, the overall response rate was significantly higher in the high LAT1 expression group (60.0%) than in the low LAT1 expression group (17.6%) (P = 0.03). Multivariate analysis confirmed that high expression of LAT1 was a significant prognostic factor for predicting poor overall survival independently from the International Staging System (both P = 0.01). Here, we show that the overexpression of LAT1 is significantly associated with high proliferation and poor prognosis in newly diagnosed MM patients. Thus, LAT1 may be a promising pathological marker for identifying high-risk MM. PMID:25220100

Isoda, Atsushi; Kaira, Kyoichi; Iwashina, Masanori; Oriuchi, Noboru; Tominaga, Hideyuki; Nagamori, Shushi; Kanai, Yoshikatsu; Oyama, Tetsunari; Asao, Takayuki; Matsumoto, Morio; Sawamura, Morio

2014-11-01

362

High expression of L-type amino acid transporter 1 as a prognostic marker in bile duct adenocarcinomas.  

PubMed

Oncocytic L-type amino acid transporter (LAT) 1 may be a prognostic indicator and target of new molecular therapeutic agents against malignancies. To investigate whether LAT1 expression influence the outcomes of patients with bile duct cancer, the expression of LAT1, LAT2, CD98, and Ki-67 was investigated immunohistochemically in 134 surgically resected bile duct adenocarcinomas, including 84 distal extrahepatic bile duct adenocarcinomas, 21 hilar cholangiocarcinomas, 15 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas, and 14 ampullary adenocarcinomas. LAT1 expression was weakly correlated with CD98 expression and Ki-67 labeling index (LI). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a significant difference in prognosis between patients with bile duct adenocarcinomas having LAT1-high and -low scores, whereas LAT2 and CD98 expression and Ki-67 LI were not predictive of poor prognosis. Prognosis tended to be worse in patients having tumors with LAT1-high/LAT2-low than LAT1-low/LAT2-high scores (P = 0.0686). Multivariable analyses revealed that LAT1 expression, surgical margin, pT stage were independent prognostic factors. In conclusion, aberrant overexpression of LAT1 in bile duct adenocarcinoma predicts poor prognosis, suggesting that LAT1 may be a potential target of anticancer therapy. PMID:24890221

Yanagisawa, Nobuyuki; Hana, Kiyomi; Nakada, Norihiro; Ichinoe, Masaaki; Koizumi, Wasaburo; Endou, Hitoshi; Okayasu, Isao; Murakumo, Yoshiki

2014-10-01

363

Incremental prognostic value of stress echocardiography as an adjunct to exercise electrocardiography after uncomplicated myocardial infarction  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To assess the prognostic value of stress echocardiography as an adjunct to exercise electrocardiography in patients with uncomplicated acute myocardial infarction.?DESIGN—496 patients underwent a maximum exercise ECG and pharmacological stress echocardiography (406 dobutamine and 90 dipyridamole) within 15 days of uncomplicated acute myocardial infarction and were followed for a mean of 25 months (range 1-74 months) for reinfarction, unstable angina, and cardiac death. Patients undergoing revascularisation were omitted.?RESULTS—Exercise ECG was positive in 162 patients (32.6%) and low threshold positive (< 100 W) in 91 (18%). Stress echocardiography was positive in 239 patients (48%) (194 with dobutamine and 45 with dipyridamole stress). The agreement between the two tests was 63% (? = 0.24, 95% confidence interval 0.15 to 0.33). Sixty nine spontaneous events occurred (14 cardiac deaths, 26 reinfarctions, and 29 with unstable angina requiring hospital admission), and 126 patients underwent revascularisation (39 coronary angioplasty and 87 bypass surgery). By receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, stress echocardiography provided incremental prognostic information compared with clinical data. A low threshold positive exercise ECG was associated with a worse outcome, but there was a fivefold increase in risk in patients with positive stress echocardiography who also had a high threshold (> 100 W) positive exercise ECG. Event-free survival of patients with both tests positive was significantly less than in patients with only one positive test or with both tests negative.?CONCLUSIONS—Stress echocardiography provides additional prognostic information after uncomplicated acute myocardial infarction, but the greatest gain is found in patients with a high threshold positive exercise ECG.???Keywords: risk stratification; myocardial infarction; stress echocardiography; exercise stress testing PMID:11250968

Bigi, R; Desideri, A; Galati, A; Bax, J; Coletta, C; Fiorentini, C; Fioretti, P

2001-01-01

364

Prognosis and prognostic factors of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease.  

PubMed

This is an overall review of the published literature in the past 100 years on the prognosis and prognostic factors of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease (LCPD). There were considerable limitations and inadequacies of the reported series. LCPD is not a common disease, and thus most reports were based on relatively small series collected retrospectively over a long period of time without clearly defined case selection, assessment, treatment, follow-up period, and outcome measures. Few studies, if any, would satisfy the strict definition of prognosis, which should only mean those prognostic factors derived from observation of the natural history of the disease-that is the uninterrupted progressive development of a disease that runs its course from onset-inception to resolution without any intervention or treatment. This review attempted to summarize from the mixed series of studies the generally described demographic, clinical, and radiologic prognostic factors of LCPD. The most important radiologic prognostic signs include the extent of femoral capital epiphysis involvement, the degree of metaphyseal changes, and lateral subluxation of femoral head and depend significantly on the time of assessment after the onset of the disease. More detailed discussions on prognostication based on the structured classification systems that have evolved in the past few decades would be described. PMID:21857429

Cheng, Jack Chun-yiu; Lam, Tsz Ping; Ng, Bobby Kin-wah

2011-09-01

365

External validation of a Cox prognostic model: principles and methods  

PubMed Central

Background A prognostic model should not enter clinical practice unless it has been demonstrated that it performs a useful role. External validation denotes evaluation of model performance in a sample independent of that used to develop the model. Unlike for logistic regression models, external validation of Cox models is sparsely treated in the literature. Successful validation of a model means achieving satisfactory discrimination and calibration (prediction accuracy) in the validation sample. Validating Cox models is not straightforward because event probabilities are estimated relative to an unspecified baseline function. Methods We describe statistical approaches to external validation of a published Cox model according to the level of published information, specifically (1) the prognostic index only, (2) the prognostic index together with Kaplan-Meier curves for risk groups, and (3) the first two plus the baseline survival curve (the estimated survival function at the mean prognostic index across the sample). The most challenging task, requiring level 3 information, is assessing calibration, for which we suggest a method of approximating the baseline survival function. Results We apply the methods to two comparable datasets in primary breast cancer, treating one as derivation and the other as validation sample. Results are presented for discrimination and calibration. We demonstrate plots of survival probabilities that can assist model evaluation. Conclusions Our validation methods are applicable to a wide range of prognostic studies and provide researchers with a toolkit for external validation of a published Cox model. PMID:23496923

2013-01-01

366

Phosphorylated Mnk1 and eIF4E Are Associated with Lymph Node Metastasis and Poor Prognosis of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a head and neck malignant tumor rare throughout most of the world but common in Southeast Asia, especially in Southern China. The phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) by MAP kinase-interacting kinases (Mnk) on Ser-209 promotes cellular proliferation, survival, malignant transformation and metastasis. However, whether the alterations of the expression of p-eIF4E and p-Mnk1 protein are associated with clinicopathologic/prognostic implication for NPC has not been reported. The purposes of the present study are to examine the expression of p-eIF4E and p-Mnk1 protein in NPC and non-cancerous nasopharyngeal epithelial tissues by immunohistochemistry and evaluate the association between the expression of p-eIF4E and p-Mnk1 protein and clinicopathological characteristics of NPC. The results showed that the positive percentage of p-Mnk1 and p-eIF4E proteins expression in NPC (83.5% and 75.4%, respectively) was significantly higher than that in non-cancerous nasopharyngeal epithelium (40.0% and 32.9%, respectively). The positive expression of p-eIF4E and p-Mnk1 in the NPC with cervical lymph node metastasis was significantly higher than those without lymph node metastasis. Additionally, p-eIF4E expression was more pronouncedly increased in metastatic NPC than the matched primary NPC. Increase of p-eIF4E and p-Mnk1 expression was significantly correlated inversely with overall survival. Spearman’s rank correlation test further showed that expression of p-Mnk1 was strongly positive correlated with expression of p-eIF4E in NPC. The expression of p-Mnk1 and p-eIF4E in NPC was proved to be the independent prognostic factors regardless of lymph node metastasis, clinical stages and combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy, histological type, age and gender by multivariate analysis. Taken together, high expression of p-Mnk1 and p-eIF4E might be novel valuable biomarkers to predict poor prognosis of NPC and therapeutic targets for developing the valid treatment strategies. PMID:24551240

Wen, Qiuyuan; Luo, Jiadi; Li, Duo; Huang, Donghai; Fan, Songqing

2014-01-01

367

Genomic Signatures Predict Poor Outcome in Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcomas and Leiomyosarcomas  

PubMed Central

Undifferentiated high-grade pleomorphic sarcomas (UPSs) display aggressive clinical behavior and frequently develop local recurrence and distant metastasis. Because these sarcomas often share similar morphological patterns with other tumors, particularly leiomyosarcomas (LMSs), classification by exclusion is frequently used. In this study, array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) was used to analyze 20 UPS and 17 LMS samples from untreated patients. The LMS samples presented a lower frequency of genomic alterations compared with the UPS samples. The most frequently altered UPS regions involved gains at 20q13.33 and 7q22.1 and losses at 3p26.3. Gains at 8q24.3 and 19q13.12 and losses at 9p21.3 were frequently detected in the LMS samples. Of these regions, gains at 1q21.3, 11q12.2-q12.3, 16p11.2, and 19q13.12 were significantly associated with reduced overall survival times in LMS patients. A multivariate analysis revealed that gains at 1q21.3 were an independent prognostic marker of shorter survival times in LMS patients (HR?=?13.76; P?=?0.019). Although the copy number profiles of the UPS and LMS samples could not be distinguished using unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis, one of the three clusters presented cases associated with poor prognostic outcome (P?=?0.022). A relative copy number analysis for the ARNT, SLC27A3, and PBXIP1 genes was performed using quantitative real-time PCR in 11 LMS and 16 UPS samples. Gains at 1q21-q22 were observed in both tumor types, particularly in the UPS samples. These findings provide strong evidence for the existence of a genomic signature to predict poor outcome in a subset of UPS and LMS patients. PMID:23825676

Silveira, Sara Martoreli; Villacis, Rolando Andre Rios; Marchi, Fabio Albuquerque; Barros Filho, Mateus de Camargo; Drigo, Sandra Aparecida; Neto, Cristovam Scapulatempo; Lopes, Ademar; da Cunha, Isabela Werneck; Rogatto, Silvia Regina

2013-01-01

368

[Antenatal prognostic factors in sacrococcygeal teratomas].  

PubMed

The authors report 5 cases of sacrococcygeal teratoma, 4 of which were diagnosed by routine ultrasonography. In view of the poor prognosis of sacrococcygeal teratomas discovered antenatally, certain ultrasonographic severity criteria have been defined. The following are felt to be relevant in this light of present knowledge: a tumour size greater than the biparietal diameter of the fetus at the time of diagnosis; rapid tumour growth. This latter parameter summarises in itself the criteria taken into account in the past: placentomegaly, hydramnios, anasarca. Colour coded Doppler should make it possible in the future to identify a group which might benefit from treatment in utero. PMID:8327820

Veschambre, P; Wartanian, R; Lebouvier, B; Rosenau, L; Lepinard, C; Denis, A

1993-05-01

369

[Prognostic value of EEG in acute posttraumatic coma (author's transl)].  

PubMed

To evaluate the prognostic power of a single EEG-record, the recordings of 50 patients with posttraumatic coma performed within 48 hours after the injury were compared with the outcome after 6 months. A 5-point scale comprising 2 EEG-patterns being notorious for their dismal prognostic significance (suppression bursts, alpha-coma) and changes of vigilance were used as a mean of visual assessment of the recordings. In 24 out of the 28 patients with a bad outcome, the EEG had shown the patterns of category I, II and III (suppression bursts, alpha coma, no changes of vigilance). Of the 22 patients with a good outcome, the EEG had been classified as IV or V (clearly discernible changes of vigilance, sleep patterns). Further findings of particular dismal prognostic significance were focal epileptic discharges, as 9 out of the 11 patients with this EEG pattern had not survived the posttraumatic coma for more than 6 months. PMID:6800765

Walser, H; Friedli, W; Glinz, W

1981-12-01

370

A Quest for Pro-Poor Globalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the opportunities offered by globalization can be large, the question is often raised whether the actual distribution of gains is fair and, in particular, whether the poor benefit proportionately less from globalization and could under some circumstances actually be hurt by it. The paper discusses channels and transmission mechanisms through which the process of globalization affects different aspects and

Machiko Nissanke; Erik Thorbecke

2006-01-01

371

Enabling poor rural people to overcome poverty  

E-print Network

Enabling poor rural people to overcome poverty New realities, new challenges: new opportunities for tomorrow's generation #12;"The Rural Poverty Report 2011 is a valuable contribution to the effort that it supports investment, innovation and risk-taking. I have high hopes that the Rural Poverty Report will help

372

Choosing among Alternative Programs for Poor Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests four criteria (efficiency, return on investment, incentives, and equity) for evaluating and comparing public programs for poor children, and provides an overview of information available on eight large federal programs using these criteria. Positive effects of some programs are noted, and policy recommendations the evidence supports are…

Currie, Janet M.

1997-01-01

373

The Other Poor: Rural Poverty and Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues that rural poverty remains relatively invisible because, although shameful, it is profitable, and the rural poor pose little threat to their suburban neighbors. This is illustrated via interrogation concerning a rural poultry plant fire. The paper examines implications of this case for foundations scholars and educational…

Books, Sue

1997-01-01

374

Resilient Parenting: Overcoming Poor Parental Bonding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study identified groups of mothers with varying patterns of adaptive functioning and bonds with their own parents. These patterns were related to mothers' parenting of their own children to understand how some mothers avoid repeating the cycle of poor parenting. Data from 210 new mothers were analyzed before hospital discharge about bonding…

Travis, Wendy J.; Combs-Orme, Terri

2007-01-01

375

EEG Power Spectra of Adolescent Poor Readers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Electroencephalographic power spectra were studied in two poor-reading adolescent groups (n=38), dysphonetic and phonetic. Significant Group x Hemisphere effects were found in the alpha and beta bands, with the phonetic group showing right greater than left asymmetry. Results suggest more circumscribed and mature processing in the phonetically…

Ackerman, Peggy T.; McPherson, W. Brian; Oglesby, D. Michael; Dykman, Roscoe A.

1998-01-01

376

From Many Lands. Voices of the Poor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book, the last volume in a three-part series, draws on a large-scale worldwide poverty study to present the views, experiences, and aspirations of poor people in 14 selected countries. In each country, interviews and discussion groups were held in 8-15 rural and urban communities that reflected the most prevalent poverty groups and the…

Narayan, Deepa, Ed.; Petesch, Patti, Ed.

377

Decreased expression of SEMA3A is associated with poor prognosis in gastric carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background/purpose: SEMA3A (semaphorin-3A), is a secreted protein that belongs to the semaphorin family and can function as both a chemoattractive agent or a chemorepulsive agent. SEMA3A has been shown to be a tumor suppressor in various cancers. This study investigated the expression of SEMA3A in gastric cancer and its prognostic value for gastric cancer patients. Methods: We examined the expression of SEMA3A in paired cancerous and matched adjacent noncancerous gastric mucosa tissues by real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blotting. In vitro, we evaluate the effects of SEMA3A on gastric cancer cell proliferation and migration by MTT, transwell and wound-healing assays. Furthermore, we analyzed SEMA3A expression in 128 patients who underwent resection procedures using immunohistochemistry. The relationships between the SEMA3A expression levels, the clinicopathological factors, and patient survival were investigated. Results: Our results revealed decreased SEMA3A mRNA (P = 0.0037) and protein (P = 0.033) expression in tumor tissue samples compared with matched adjacent non-tumorous tissue samples. Overexpression of SEMA3A inhibits gastric cancer cell proliferation and migration in vitro. Immunohistochemical staining data showed that SEMA3A expression was significantly decreased in 54.68% of gastric cancer cases. In addition, the chi-square test revealed that low SEMA3A expression was significantly correlated with poor differentiation (P = 0.015), Vascular invasion (P = 0.001), depth of invasion (P < 0.001), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.029), distant metastasis (P = 0.002) and advanced TNM stage (P = 0.003). SEMA3A expression was positively correlated with clinical TNM stage, that suggested the more advanced clinical TNM stage corresponding to the lower expression level of SEMA3A (rs = -0.322, P < 0.001) by Spearman rank correlation analysis. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated that low expression of SEMA3A was significantly correlated with a poor prognosis for gastric cancer patients (P < 0.001). The multivariate analysis revealed that SEMA3A expression was an independent prognostic factor of the overall survival rate of patients with gastric cancer. Conclusion: SEMA3A expression decreased significantly as gastric cancer progressed and metastasized, suggesting that SEMA3A might serve as a candidate tumor suppressor and a potential prognostic biomarker in gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:25197349

Tang, Chong; Gao, Xuesong; Liu, Hongbin; Jiang, Tian; Zhai, Xiaofeng

2014-01-01

378

Inconsistency of prognostic factors for post-chemotherapy nausea and vomiting.  

PubMed

A number of prognostic factors have been reported to influence the probability of developing nausea and vomiting after cytotoxic chemotherapy. This study used data collected in four randomized anti-emetic trials conducted by the Clinical Trials Group of the National Cancer Institute of Canada (NCIC-CTG) to assess the consistency of the effects of these prognostic factors. A total of 582 patients, all of whom had received moderately emetogenic chemotherapy for the first time, but who were assigned to different anti-emetics, were included in the analysis. The major findings was that the probability of post-chemotherapy nausea and vomiting was much more strongly influenced by the type of chemotherapy given and the type of anti-emetic used than by patient (e.g., age, gender) or environmental (e.g., treatment location, time of administration) characteristics. Further, patient-related factors had different, and sometimes opposite, effects in different anti-emetic and chemotherapy subgroups. Finally, the relative potency of anti-emetics appeared to vary with chemotherapy regimens. Implications of these findings for future studies are discussed. PMID:8032701

Pater, J; Slamet, L; Zee, B; Osoba, D; Warr, D; Rusthoven, J

1994-05-01

379

Multicenter Validation Study of a Prognostic Index for Portal Vein Tumor Thrombosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Purpose We previously reported on a staging system and prognostic index (PITH) for portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) at a single institution. The aim of this study is to validate the PITH staging system using data from patients at other institutions and to compare it with other published staging systems. Materials and Methods A total of 994 HCC patients with PVTT who were treated with RT between 1998 and 2011 by the Korean Radiation Oncology Group were analyzed retrospectively. All patients were staged using the Cancer of the Liver Italian Program (CLIP), Japanese Integrated Staging (JIS), Okuda, and PITH staging systems, and survival data were analyzed. The likelihood ratio, Akaike information criteria (AIC), time-dependent receiver operating characteristics, and prediction error curve analysis were used to determine discriminatory ability for comparison of staging systems. Results The median survival was 9.2 months. Compared with the other staging systems, the PITH score gave the highest values for likelihood ratio and lowest AIC values, demonstrating that PITH may be a better prognostic model. Although the values were not significant and differences were not exceptional, the PITH score showed slightly better performance with respect to time-dependent area under curve and integrated Brier score of prediction error curve. Conclusion The PITH staging system was validated in this multicenter retrospective study and showed better stratification ability in HCC