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Sample records for poor verbal fluency

  1. Elevated peripheral cytokines characterize a subgroup of people with schizophrenia displaying poor verbal fluency and reduced Broca's area volume

    PubMed Central

    Fillman, S G; Weickert, T W; Lenroot, R K; Catts, S V; Bruggemann, J M; Catts, V S; Weickert, C S

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies on schizophrenia have detected elevated cytokines in both brain and blood, suggesting neuroinflammation may contribute to the pathophysiology in some cases. We aimed to determine the extent to which elevated peripheral cytokine messenger RNA (mRNA) expression: (1) characterizes a subgroup of people with schizophrenia and (2) shows a relationship to cognition, brain volume and/or symptoms. Forty-three outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and matched healthy controls were assessed for peripheral cytokine mRNAs (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-18), intelligence quotient, memory and verbal fluency, symptom severity and cortical brain volumes integral to language (that is, Broca's and Wernicke's areas). IL-1β mRNA levels were 28% increased in schizophrenia compared with controls (t(82)=2.64, P<0.01). Using a two-step clustering procedure, we identified a subgroup of people displaying relatively elevated cytokine mRNA levels (17/43 people with schizophrenia and 9/42 controls). Individuals with schizophrenia in the elevated cytokine subgroup performed significantly worse than the low-cytokine subgroup on verbal fluency (F(1,40)=15.7, P<0.001). There was a 17% volume reduction of the left pars opercularis (POp) (Broca's area) in patients with elevated cytokines compared with patients with lower cytokines (F(1,29)=9.41, P=0.005). Negative linear relationships between IL-1β mRNA levels and both verbal fluency and left POp volume were found in schizophrenia. This study is among the first to link blood biomarkers of inflammation with both cognitive deficits and brain volume reductions in people with schizophrenia, supporting that those with elevated cytokines represent a neurobiologically meaningful subgroup. These findings raise the possibility that targeted anti-inflammatory treatments may ameliorate cognitive and brain morphological abnormalities in some people with schizophrenia. PMID:26194183

  2. Elevated peripheral cytokines characterize a subgroup of people with schizophrenia displaying poor verbal fluency and reduced Broca's area volume.

    PubMed

    Fillman, S G; Weickert, T W; Lenroot, R K; Catts, S V; Bruggemann, J M; Catts, V S; Weickert, C S

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies on schizophrenia have detected elevated cytokines in both brain and blood, suggesting neuroinflammation may contribute to the pathophysiology in some cases. We aimed to determine the extent to which elevated peripheral cytokine messenger RNA (mRNA) expression: (1) characterizes a subgroup of people with schizophrenia and (2) shows a relationship to cognition, brain volume and/or symptoms. Forty-three outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and matched healthy controls were assessed for peripheral cytokine mRNAs (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-18), intelligence quotient, memory and verbal fluency, symptom severity and cortical brain volumes integral to language (that is, Broca's and Wernicke's areas). IL-1β mRNA levels were 28% increased in schizophrenia compared with controls (t(82)=2.64, P<0.01). Using a two-step clustering procedure, we identified a subgroup of people displaying relatively elevated cytokine mRNA levels (17/43 people with schizophrenia and 9/42 controls). Individuals with schizophrenia in the elevated cytokine subgroup performed significantly worse than the low-cytokine subgroup on verbal fluency (F(1,40)=15.7, P<0.001). There was a 17% volume reduction of the left pars opercularis (POp) (Broca's area) in patients with elevated cytokines compared with patients with lower cytokines (F(1,29)=9.41, P=0.005). Negative linear relationships between IL-1β mRNA levels and both verbal fluency and left POp volume were found in schizophrenia. This study is among the first to link blood biomarkers of inflammation with both cognitive deficits and brain volume reductions in people with schizophrenia, supporting that those with elevated cytokines represent a neurobiologically meaningful subgroup. These findings raise the possibility that targeted anti-inflammatory treatments may ameliorate cognitive and brain morphological abnormalities in some people with schizophrenia. PMID:26194183

  3. Semantic and Phonemic Verbal Fluency in Blinds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nejati, Vahid; Asadi, Anoosh

    2010-01-01

    A person who has suffered the total loss of a sensory system has, indirectly, suffered a brain lesion. Semantic and phonologic verbal fluency are used for evaluation of executive function and language. The aim of this study is evaluation and comparison of phonemic and semantic verbal fluency in acquired blinds. We compare 137 blinds and 124…

  4. What do verbal fluency tasks measure? Predictors of verbal fluency performance in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Zeshu; Janse, Esther; Visser, Karina; Meyer, Antje S.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the contributions of verbal ability and executive control to verbal fluency performance in older adults (n = 82). Verbal fluency was assessed in letter and category fluency tasks, and performance on these tasks was related to indicators of vocabulary size, lexical access speed, updating, and inhibition ability. In regression analyses the number of words produced in both fluency tasks was predicted by updating ability, and the speed of the first response was predicted by vocabulary size and, for category fluency only, lexical access speed. These results highlight the hybrid character of both fluency tasks, which may limit their usefulness for research and clinical purposes. PMID:25101034

  5. Non-Verbal and Verbal Fluency in Prodromal Huntington's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Robins Wahlin, Tarja-Brita; Luszcz, Mary A.; Wahlin, Åke; Byrne, Gerard J.

    2015-01-01

    Background This study examines non-verbal (design) and verbal (phonemic and semantic) fluency in prodromal Huntington's disease (HD). An accumulating body of research indicates subtle deficits in cognitive functioning among prodromal mutation carriers for HD. Methods Performance was compared between 32 mutation carriers and 38 non-carriers in order to examine the magnitude of impairment across fluency tasks. The predicted years to onset (PYTO) in mutation carriers was calculated by a regression equation and used to divide the group according to whether onset was predicted as less than 12.75 years (HD+CLOSE; n = 16) or greater than 12.75 years (HD+DISTANT; n = 16). Results The results indicate that both non-verbal and verbal fluency is sensitive to subtle impairment in prodromal HD. HD+CLOSE group produced fewer items in all assessed fluency tasks compared to non-carriers. HD+DISTANT produced fewer drawings than non-carriers in the non-verbal task. PYTO correlated significantly with all measures of non-verbal and verbal fluency. Conclusion The pattern of results indicates that subtle cognitive deficits exist in prodromal HD, and that less structured tasks with high executive demands are the most sensitive in detecting divergence from the normal range of functioning. These selective impairments can be attributed to the early involvement of frontostriatal circuitry and frontal lobes. PMID:26955384

  6. Verbal Fluency: Language or Executive Function Measure?

    PubMed

    Whiteside, Douglas M; Kealey, Tammy; Semla, Matthew; Luu, Hien; Rice, Linda; Basso, Michael R; Roper, Brad

    2016-01-01

    Measures of phonemic and semantic verbal fluency, such as FAS and Animal Fluency (Benton, Hamsher, & Sivan, 1989), are often thought to be measures of executive functioning (EF). However, some studies (Henry & Crawford, 2004a , 2004b , 2004c ) have noted there is also a language component to these tasks. The current exploratory factor-analytic study examined the underlying cognitive structure of verbal fluency. Participants were administered language and EF measures, including the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (FAS version), Animal Fluency, Boston Naming Test (BNT), Vocabulary (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III), Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test (WCST, perseverative responses), and Trail-Making Test-Part B (TMT-B). A 2-factor solution was found with the 1st factor, language, having significant loadings for BNT and Vocabulary, while the second factor was labeled EF because of significant loading from the WCST and TMT-B. Surprisingly, FAS and Animal Fluency loaded exclusively on to the language factor and not EF. The current results do not exclude EF as a determinant of verbal fluency, but they do suggest that language processing is the critical component for this task, even without significant aphasic symptoms. Thus, the results indicated that both letter (phonemic) and category (semantic) fluency are related to language, but the relationship to EF is not supported by the results. PMID:26111011

  7. Action verbal fluency in Parkinson's patients.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Inês Tello; Ferreira, Joaquim J; Coelho, Miguel; Rosa, Mario M; Castro-Caldas, Alexandre

    2015-06-01

    We compared the performance of 31 non-demented Parkinson's disease (PD) patients to 61 healthy controls in an action verbal fluency task. Semantic and phonemic fluencies, cognitive impairment and behavioural dysfunction were also assessed. The mean disease duration of PD was 9.8 years (standard deviation (SD) = 6.13). There were no age (U = 899.5, p = 0.616), gender(chi-square = 0.00, p = 1.00) or literacy (U = 956, p = 0.96) differences between the two groups. A significant difference was observed between the two groups in the action verbal fluency task (U = 406.5, p < 0.01) that was not found in the other fluency tasks. The education level was the only biographical variable that influenced the action (verb) fluency outcomes, irrespective of disease duration. Our findings suggest a correlation between the disease mechanisms in PD and a specific verb deficit, support the validity of the action (verb) fluency as an executive function measure and suggest that this task provides unique information not captured with traditional executive function tasks. PMID:26083889

  8. Evaluating lexical characteristics of verbal fluency output in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Juhasz, Barbara J.; Chambers, Destinee; Shesler, Leah W.; Haber, Alix; Kurtz, Matthew M.

    2012-01-01

    Standardized lexical analysis of verbal output has not been applied to verbal fluency tasks in schizophrenia. Performance of individuals with schizophrenia on both a letter (n=139) and semantic (n=137) fluency task was investigated. The lexical characteristics (word frequency, age-of-acquisition, word length, and semantic typicality) of words produced were evaluated and compared to those produced by a healthy control group matched on age, gender, and WAIS-III vocabulary scores (n=20). Overall, individuals with schizophrenia produced fewer words than healthy controls, replicating past research (see Bokat and Goldberg, 2003). Words produced in the semantic fluency task by individuals with schizophrenia were, on average, earlier acquired and more typical of the category. In contrast, no differences in lexical characteristics emerged in the letter fluency task. The results are informative regarding how individuals with schizophrenia access their mental lexicons during the verbal fluency task. PMID:22809852

  9. Personality Traits Prospectively Predict Verbal Fluency in a Lifespan Sample

    PubMed Central

    Sutin, Angelina R.; Terracciano, Antonio; Kitner-Triolo, Melissa H.; Uda, Manuela; Schlessinger, David; Zonderman, Alan B.

    2011-01-01

    In a community-dwelling sample (N=4,790; age range 14–94), we examined whether personality traits prospectively predicted performance on a verbal fluency task. Open, extraverted, and emotionally stable participants had better verbal fluency. At the facet level, dispositionally happy and self-disciplined participants retrieved more words; those prone to anxiety and depression and those who were deliberative retrieved fewer words. Education moderated the association between Conscientiousness and fluency such that participants with lower education performed better on the fluency task if they were also conscientious. Age was not a moderator at the domain level, indicating that the personality-fluency associations were consistent across the lifespan. A disposition towards emotional vulnerability and being less open, less happy, and undisciplined may be detrimental to cognitive performance. PMID:21707179

  10. Verbal and nonverbal fluency in Spanish-speaking children.

    PubMed

    Matute, Esmeralda; Rosselli, Monica; Ardila, Alfredo; Morales, Guadalupe

    2004-01-01

    Fluency measures are commonly used in clinical developmental neuropsychology to assess executive functions. Little is known about the effect of age on performance in these tests. This article analyzes the effect of age on measures of verbal (semantic and phonologic) and nonverbal (semantic and nonsemantic) fluency in 171 children (81 boys, 90 girls) between ages 6 and 15. Participants were selected from public and private schools in Guadalajara and Tijuana, Mexico. A significant age effect was found on all tests but no interaction between age and type of test was found. Significant correlations among the 4 fluency tasks ranged from.36 to.46. Results are consistent with the findings of normative studies carried out in other countries and support the cross-language validity of verbal fluency tests. PMID:15456689

  11. [Spanish verbal fluency. Normative data in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Butman, J; Allegri, R F; Harris, P; Drake, M

    2000-01-01

    Letter and category fluency tasks are used to assess semantic knowledge, retrieval ability, and executive functioning. The original normative data have been obtained mainly from English speaking populations; there are few papers on norms in other languages. The purpose of this study was to collect normative scores in Argentina and to evaluate the effects of sex, age, education and cognitive status on the letter and category fluency tasks, in 266 healthy Spanish-speaking participants (16 to 86 years). Mean education span was 12.8 +/- 4 years. In each subject a neuropsychological battery (Minimental State Exam, Signoret Memory Battery, Boston Naming Test and Trail Making Test) was carried out as well as category fluency (naming animals in one minute) and letter fluency (words beginning with letter "p" in one minute). The sample was arranged into a group of subjects with less than 45 years and further groups up to 10 more years, until 75 years (or more) with three different levels of education. Significant effects were found for age, education, and Minimental State Exam on performance of both fluencies. Mean performance scores are presented for each group to be used in Argentina. PMID:11188892

  12. Picture Naming and Verbal Fluency in Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler-Kashi, Deena; Schwartz, Richard G.; Cleary, Miranda

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In the present study, the authors examined lexical naming in children with cochlear implants (CIs). The goal was to determine whether children with CIs have deficits in lexical access and organization as revealed through reaction time in picture-naming and verbal fluency (VF) experiments. Method: Children with CIs (n = 20, ages 7-10) were…

  13. Verbal Fluency and Verbal Short-Term Memory in Adults with Down Syndrome and Unspecified Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavroussi, Panayiota; Andreou, Georgia; Karagiannopoulou, Dimitra

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine verbal fluency and verbal short-term memory in 12 adults with Down syndrome (DS) and 12 adults with Intellectual Disability (ID) of unspecified origin, matched for receptive vocabulary and chronological age. Participants' performance was assessed on two conditions of a verbal fluency test, namely, semantic…

  14. Effect of Language Proficiency and Executive Control on Verbal Fluency Performance in Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Lin; Luk, Gigi; Bialystok, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    We use a time-course analysis to examine the roles of vocabulary size and executive control in bilinguals' verbal fluency performance. Two groups of bilinguals and a group of monolingual adults were tested in English with verbal fluency subtests from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System. The two bilingual groups were equivalent in their…

  15. Differential effects of deep brain stimulation on verbal fluency.

    PubMed

    Ehlen, Felicitas; Schoenecker, Thomas; Kühn, Andrea A; Klostermann, Fabian

    2014-07-01

    We aimed at gaining insights into principles of subcortical lexical processing. Therefore, effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in different target structures on verbal fluency (VF) were tested. VF was assessed with active vs. inactivated DBS in 13 and 14 patients with DBS in the vicinity of the thalamic ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM) and, respectively, of the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Results were correlated to electrode localizations in postoperative MRI, and compared to those of 12 age-matched healthy controls. Patients' VF performance was generally below normal. However, while activation of DBS in the vicinity of VIM provoked marked VF decline, it induced subtle phonemic VF enhancement in the vicinity of STN. The effects correlated with electrode localizations in left hemispheric stimulation sites. The results show distinct dependencies of VF on DBS in the vicinity of VIM vs. STN. Particular risks for deterioration occur in patients with relatively ventromedial thalamic electrodes. PMID:24815947

  16. Hemodynamic response in a geographical word naming verbal fluency test.

    PubMed

    Marino, Julian; Redondo, Santiago; Luna, Fernando G; Sanchez, Luis M; Torres, Gustavo Foa

    2014-01-01

    Functional hemodynamic response was studied in a new Verbal Fluency Task (VFT) that demanded the production of geographical words while fMRI data was obtained. Participants completed 7 trials with a total duration of 2 min. 20 s. Four simple arithmetic subtraction trials were alternated with 3 geographical naming trials. Each trial had a duration of 20 s. Brain activity was contrasted between both conditions and significant differences (p < .05, Family Wise Error correction) were observed in the prefrontal medial gyrus, typically associated with word retrieval and phonological awareness, and in the parahippocampal gyrus, posterior cingulate cortex and lingual gyrus, areas related to spatial cognition. These results indicate that geographic VFT could be incorporated into a browser of cognitive processes using VFT considering its specific relationship with spatial cognition. Further investigations are proposed, taking special interest in the gender variable and eliminating phonological restrictions, because the evoked Argentinean cities and towns ended in a consonant letter. PMID:25012096

  17. What Causes the Bilingual Disadvantage in Verbal Fluency? The Dual-Task Analogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoval, Tiffany C.; Gollan, Tamar H.; Ferreira, Victor S.; Salmon, David P.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the consequences of bilingualism for verbal fluency by comparing bilinguals to monolinguals, and dominant versus non-dominant-language fluency. In Experiment 1, bilinguals produced fewer correct responses, slower first response times and proportionally delayed retrieval, relative to monolinguals. In Experiment 2, similar results…

  18. Proficiency and Control in Verbal Fluency Performance across the Lifespan for Monolinguals and Bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Friesen, Deanna C.; Luo, Lin; Luk, Gigi; Bialystok, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    The verbal fluency task is a widely used neuropsychological test of word retrieval efficiency. Both category fluency (e.g., list animals) and letter fluency (e.g., list words that begin with F) place demands on semantic memory and executive control functions. However letter fluency places greater demands on executive control than category fluency, making this task well-suited to investigating potential bilingual advantages in word retrieval. Here we report analyses on category and letter fluency for bilinguals and monolinguals at four ages, namely, 7-year-olds, 10-year-olds, young adults, and older adults. Three main findings emerged: 1) verbal fluency performance improved from childhood to young adulthood and remained relatively stable in late adulthood; 2) beginning at 10-years-old, the executive control requirements for letter fluency were less effortful for bilinguals than monolinguals, with a robust bilingual advantage on this task emerging in adulthood; 3) an interaction among factors showed that category fluency performance was influenced by both age and vocabulary knowledge but letter fluency performance was influenced by bilingual status. PMID:25642427

  19. Taste perception analysis using a semantic verbal fluency task

    PubMed Central

    Ghemulet, Maria; Baskini, Maria; Messinis, Lambros; Mouza, Eirini; Proios, Hariklia

    2014-01-01

    A verbal fluency (VF) task is a test used to examine cognitive perception. The main aim of this study was to explore a possible relationship between taste perception in the basic taste categories (sweet, salty, sour, and bitter) and subjects’ taste preferences, using a VF task in healthy and dysphagic subjects. In addition, we correlated the results of the VF task with body mass index (BMI). The hypothesis is that categorical preferences would be consistent with the number of verbal responses. We also hypothesized that higher BMI (>30 kg/m2) would correlate with more responses in either some or all four categories. VF tasks were randomly administered. Analysis criteria included number of verbally produced responses, number of clusters, number of switches, number and type of errors, and VF consistency with taste preferences. Sixty Greek-speaking individuals participated in this study. Forty-three healthy subjects were selected with a wide range of ages, sex, and education levels. Seventeen dysphagic patients were then matched with 17 healthy subjects according to age, sex, and BMI. Quantitative one-way analysis of variance (between groups as well as repeated measures), post hoc, and chi-square, and qualitative analyses were performed. In the healthy subjects’ group, the differences among the mean number of responses for the four taste categories were statistically significant. When comparing the two matched groups of healthy and dysphagic subjects, there were no statistically significant differences in the mean number of responses in the four basic taste categories. However, for both groups, most responses were generated in the following descending order: sweet, salty, sour, and bitter. The bitter category presented the majority of errors for both groups. Obese subjects produced a greater mean number of responses for the “sweet,” “sour,” and “bitter” categories; conversely, underweight subjects produced a larger mean number of responses for the

  20. Partly segregated cortico-subcortical pathways support phonologic and semantic verbal fluency: A lesion study.

    PubMed

    Chouiter, Leila; Holmberg, Josefina; Manuel, Aurelie L; Colombo, Françoise; Clarke, Stephanie; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Spierer, Lucas

    2016-08-01

    Verbal fluency refers to the ability to generate as many words as possible in a limited time interval, without repetition and according to either a phonologic (each word begins with a given letter) or a semantic rule (each word belongs to a given semantic category). While current literature suggests the involvement of left fronto-temporal structures in fluency tasks, whether the same or distinct brain areas are necessary for each type of fluency remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis for an involvement of partly segregated cortico-subcortical structures between phonologic and semantic fluency by examining with a voxel-based lesion symptom mapping approach the effects of brain lesions on fluency scores corrected for age and education level in a group of 191 unselected brain-damaged patients with a first left or right hemispheric lesion. There was a positive correlation between the scores to the two types of fluency, suggesting that common mechanisms underlie the word generation independent of the production rule. The lesion-symptom mapping revealed that lesions to left basal ganglia impaired both types of fluency and that left superior temporal, supramarginal and rolandic operculum lesions selectively impaired phonologic fluency and left middle temporal lesions impaired semantic fluency. Our results corroborate current neurocognitive models of word retrieval and production, and refine the role of cortical-subcortical interaction in lexical search by highlighting the common executive role of basal ganglia in both types of verbal fluency and the preferential involvement of the ventral and dorsal language pathway in semantic and phonologic fluency, respectively. PMID:27217213

  1. Verbal fluency deficits and altered lateralization of language brain areas in individuals genetically predisposed to schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Bhojraj, Tejas S; Francis, Alan N; Rajarethinam, Rajaprabhakaran; Eack, Shaun; Kulkarni, Shreedhar; Prasad, Konasale M; Montrose, Debra M; Dworakowski, Diana; Diwadkar, Vaibhav; Keshavan, Matcheri S

    2016-01-01

    Alterations of verbal fluency may correlate with deficits of gray matter volume and hemispheric lateralization of language brain regions like the pars triangularis (PT) in schizophrenia. Examining non-psychotic individuals at high genetic risk (HR) for schizophrenia may clarify if these deficits represent heritable trait markers or state dependent phenomena. We assessed adolescent and young adult HR subjects (N=60) and healthy controls (HC; N=42) using verbal fluency tests and Freesurfer to process T1-MRI scans. We hypothesized volumetric and lateralization alterations of the PT and their correlation with verbal fluency deficits. HR subjects had letter verbal fluency deficits (controlling for IQ), left PT deficits (p=.00), (controlling ICV) and reversal of the L>R PT asymmetry noted in HC. Right Heschl’s (p=.00), left supramarginal (p=.00) and right angular gyrii (p=.02) were also reduced in HR subjects. The L>R asymmetry of the Heschl’s gyrus seen in HC was exaggerated and asymmetries of L>R of supramarginal and R>L of angular gyri, seen in HC were attenuated in HR subjects. L>R asymmetry of the PT predicted better verbal fluency across the pooled HR and HC groups. Young relatives of schizophrenia patients have verbal fluency deficits, gray matter volume deficits and reversed asymmetry of the pars triangularis. A reversed structural asymmetry of the PT in HR subjects may impair expressive language abilities leading to verbal f;uency deficits. Volumetric deficits and altered asymmetry in inferior parietal and Heschl’s gyrii may accompany genetic liability to schizophrenia. PMID:19840895

  2. Trait Anxiety Modulates Brain Activity during Performance of Verbal Fluency Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Gawda, Barbara; Szepietowska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Trait anxiety is thought to be associated with pathological anxiety, and a risk factor for psychiatric disorders. The present study examines the brain mechanisms associated with trait anxiety during the performing of verbal fluency tasks. The aim is to show how trait anxiety modulates executive functions as measured by verbal fluency, and to explore the link between verbal fluency and anxiety due to the putative negative biases in high-anxious individuals. Seven tasks of verbal fluency were used: letter “k,” “f,” verbs, “animals,” “vehicles,” “joy,” and “fear.” The results of 35 subjects (whole sample), and 17 subjects (nine men, eight women) selected from the whole sample for the low/high-anxious groups on the basis of Trait Anxiety scores were analyzed. The subjects were healthy, Polish speaking, right-handed and aged from 20 to 35 years old. fMRI (whole-brain analysis with FWE corrections) was used to show the neural signals under active participation in verbal fluency tasks. The results confirm that trait anxiety slightly modulates neural activation during the performance of verbal fluency tasks, especially in the more difficult tasks. Significant differences were found in brain activation during the performance of more complex tasks between individuals with low anxiety and those with high anxiety. Greater activation in the right hemisphere, frontal gyri, and cerebellum was found in people with low anxiety. The results reflect better integration of cognitive and affective capacities in individuals with low anxiety. PMID:26903827

  3. Shall we use non-verbal fluency in schizophrenia? A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Romina; Trappeniers, Julie; Lefebvre, Laurent

    2014-05-30

    Over the last few years, numerous studies have attempted to explain fluency impairments in people with schizophrenia, leading to heterogeneous results. This could notably be due to the fact that fluency is often used in its verbal form where semantic dimensions are implied. In order to gain an in-depth understanding of fluency deficits, a non-verbal fluency task - the Five-Point Test (5PT) - was proposed to 24 patients with schizophrenia and to 24 healthy subjects categorized in terms of age, gender and schooling. The 5PT involves producing as many abstract figures as possible within 1min by connecting points with straight lines. All subjects also completed the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) while those with schizophrenia were further assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Results show that the 5PT evaluation differentiates patients from healthy subjects with regard to the number of figures produced. Patients׳ results also suggest that the number of figures produced is linked to the "overall executive functioning" and to some inhibition components. Although this study is a first step in the non-verbal efficiency research field, we believe that experimental psychopathology could benefit from the investigations on non-verbal fluency. PMID:24636246

  4. Basal Ganglia Structures Differentially Contribute to Verbal Fluency: Evidence from Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Infected Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thames, April D.; Foley, Jessica M.; Wright, Matthew J.; Panos, Stella E.; Ettenhofer, Mark; Ramezani, Amir; Streiff, Vanessa; El-Saden, Suzie; Goodwin, Scott; Bookheimer, Susan Y.; Hinkin, Charles H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The basal ganglia (BG) are involved in executive language functions (i.e., verbal fluency) through their connections with cortical structures. The caudate and putamen receive separate inputs from prefrontal and premotor cortices, and may differentially contribute to verbal fluency performance. We examined BG integrity in relation to…

  5. Semantic Pattern Analysis for Verbal Fluency Based Assessment of Neurological Disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Sukumar, Sreenivas R; Ainsworth, Keela C; Brown, Tyler C

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present preliminary results of semantic pattern analysis of verbal fluency tests used for assessing cognitive psychological and neuropsychological disorders. We posit that recent advances in semantic reasoning and artificial intelligence can be combined to create a standardized computer-aided diagnosis tool to automatically evaluate and interpret verbal fluency tests. Towards that goal, we derive novel semantic similarity (phonetic, phonemic and conceptual) metrics and present the predictive capability of these metrics on a de-identified dataset of participants with and without neurological disorders.

  6. Verbal Versus Figural Fluency Tests in Currently Ill and Weight Restored Anorexia Nervosa Patients.

    PubMed

    Heled, Eyal; Hoofien, Dan; Bachar, Eytan; Ebstein, Richard P

    2016-05-01

    Fluency tests allow domain-specific assessment of verbal and non-verbal executive functions (EF) comparison and also enable utilizing of both quantitative and qualitative scoring methods. Thirty-five currently ill anorexia nervosa patients (PANs), 33 weight-restored patients (WRAN) and 47 healthy controls (HCs) were administered the word fluency test and the five-point test. Results show that WRANs tended to perseverate more than HCs in the verbal-fluency test. In addition, PANs produced significantly less correct figures and perseverated more than HCs and WRANs; HCs used more strategy methods than PANs and WRANs. Additionally, a positive correlation was found in the HC group between the total number of words in the verbal phonemic test and the number of designs produced and the number of correct designs. No such correlations were found in both anorexia groups. In conclusion, there is a differentiation between verbal and non-verbal EF in PANs and WRANs, showing a deficiency in the non-verbal domain. These findings may contribute to our understanding of the cognitive nature of the disorder. PMID:26206112

  7. Emotional Verbal Fluency: A New Task on Emotion and Executive Function Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Sass, Katharina; Fetz, Karolina; Oetken, Sarah; Habel, Ute; Heim, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The present study introduces “Emotional Verbal Fluency” as a novel (partially computerized) task, which is aimed to investigate the interaction between emotionally loaded words and executive functions. Verbal fluency tasks are thought to measure executive functions but the interaction with emotional aspects is hardly investigated. In the current study, a group of healthy subjects (n = 21, mean age 25 years, 76% females) were asked to generate items that are either part of a semantic category (e.g., plants, toys, vehicles; standard semantic verbal fluency) or can trigger the emotions joy, anger, sadness, fear and disgust. The results of the task revealed no differences between performance on semantic and emotional categories, suggesting a comparable task difficulty for healthy subjects. Hence, these first results on the comparison between semantic and emotional verbal fluency seem to highlight that both might be suitable for examining executive functioning. However, an interaction was found between the category type and repetition (first vs. second sequence of the same category) with larger performance decrease for semantic in comparison to emotional categories. Best performance overall was found for the emotional category “joy” suggesting a positivity bias in healthy subjects. To conclude, emotional verbal fluency is a promising approach to investigate emotional components in an executive task, which may stimulate further research, especially in psychiatric patients who suffer from emotional as well as cognitive deficits. PMID:25379243

  8. The Relationship Between Educational Years and Phonemic Verbal Fluency (PVF) and Semantic Verbal Fluency (SVF) Tasks in Spanish Patients Diagnosed With Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder, and Psychotic Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    García-Laredo, Eduardo; Maestú, Fernando; Castellanos, Miguel Ángel; Molina, Juan D.; Peréz-Moreno, Elisa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Semantic and verbal fluency tasks are widely used as a measure of frontal capacities. It has been well described in literature that patients affected by schizophrenic and bipolar disorders present a worse execution in these tasks. Some authors have also noted the importance of educational years. Our objective is to analyze whether the effect of cognitive malfunction caused by apathology is superior to the expected effect of years of education in phonemic verbal fluency (PVF) and semantic verbal fluency (SVF) task execution. A total of 62 individuals took part in this study, out of which 23 were patients with schizophrenic paranoid disorder, 11 suffered from bipolar disorder with psychotic symptomatology, 13 suffered from bipolar disorder without psychotic symptomatology, and 15 participants were nonpathological individuals. All participants were evaluated with the PVF and SVF tests (animals and tools). The performance/execution results were analyzed with a mixed-model ANCOVA, with educational years as a covariable. The effect of education seems to be more determined by PVF FAS tests than by SVF. With PVF FAS tasks, the expected effect of pathology disappears when the covariable EDUCATION is introduced. With SVF tasks, the effect continues to be significant, even though the EDUACTION covariable dims such effect. These results suggest that SVF tests (animals category) are better evaluation tools as they are less dependent on the patients’ education than PVF FAS tests. PMID:26426640

  9. The Effects of Divided Attention on Speech Motor, Verbal Fluency, and Manual Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dromey, Christopher; Shim, Erin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to evaluate aspects of the "functional distance hypothesis," which predicts that tasks regulated by brain networks in closer anatomic proximity will interfere more with each other than tasks controlled by spatially distant regions. Speech, verbal fluency, and manual motor tasks were examined to ascertain whether…

  10. Long-Term Effect of Prefrontal Lobotomy on Verbal Fluency in Patients with Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stip, Emmanuel; Bigras, Marie-Josee.; Mancini-Marie, Adham; Cosset, Marie-Eve.; Black, Deborah; Lecours, Andre-Roch

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the long-term effects of bilateral prefrontal leukotomy on lexical abilities in schizophrenia subjects. Method: We compared performances of leukotomized (LSP), non-leukotomized schizophrenia patients (NLSP) and normal controls, using a test of verbal fluency. Multiple case and triple comparison design were…

  11. Differential Prefrontal and Frontotemporal Oxygenation Patterns during Phonemic and Semantic Verbal Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tupak, Sara V.; Badewien, Meike; Dresler, Thomas; Hahn, Tim; Ernst, Lena H.; Herrmann, Martin J.; Fallgatter, Andreas J.; Ehlis, Ann-Christine

    2012-01-01

    Movement artifacts are still considered a problematic issue for imaging research on overt language production. This motion-sensitivity can be overcome by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). In the present study, 50 healthy subjects performed a combined phonemic and semantic overt verbal fluency task while frontal and temporal cortex…

  12. Studying Orientations and Performance on Verbal Fluency Tasks in a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreou, Eleni; Andreou, Georgia; Vlachos, Filippos

    2005-01-01

    Previous research has shown that studying orientations are important factors in determining academic performance. The main purpose of this study was to investigate how Greek students' approaches to studying in combination with gender, academic discipline, and professional degree in English affect performance on verbal fluency tasks in English as a…

  13. Verbal Fluency in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Clustering and Switching Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begeer, Sander; Wierda, Marlies; Scheeren, Anke M.; Teunisse, Jan-Pieter; Koot, Hans M.; Geurts, Hilde M.

    2014-01-01

    This study highlights differences in cognitive strategies in children and adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorders (n = 52) on a verbal fluency task (naming as many words as possible (e.g. animals) within 60 s). The ability to form clusters of words (e.g. farm animals like "cow-horse-goat") or to switch between unrelated…

  14. Isolated left posterior insular infarction and convergent roles in verbal fluency, language, memory, and executive function

    PubMed Central

    Ruthirago, Doungporn; DeToledo, John C.

    2016-01-01

    The posterior insular cortex—a complex structure interconnecting various brain regions for different functions—is a rare location for ischemic stroke. We report a patient with isolated left posterior insular infarction who presented with multiple cognitive impairment, including impairment in semantic and phonemic verbal fluency. PMID:27365876

  15. Analysis of Verbal Fluency Ability in Alzheimer's Disease: The Role of Clustering, Switching and Semantic Proximities

    PubMed Central

    Weakley, Alyssa; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    The underlying nature of verbal fluency deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD) was investigated in this study. Participants were 48 individuals with AD and 48 cognitively healthy older adults. Fluency performance on letter and category tasks was analyzed across two 30-s intervals for total words produced, mean cluster size, and total switches. Compared with the control group, AD participants produced fewer words and switches on both fluency tasks and had a reduced category cluster size. The AD group was differentially impaired on category compared with letter fluency and produced more repetitive responses but fewer category exemplars than controls on the category task. A multidimensional scaling approach revealed that AD participants' semantic maps were similar to controls. Overall, the data suggest that executive abilities involving search and retrieval processes and a reduced availability of semantically related words contributed to the AD group's poorer performance despite similar temporal recall and organizational patterns. PMID:24687588

  16. Verbal fluency in focal epilepsy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Metternich, B; Buschmann, F; Wagner, K; Schulze-Bonhage, A; Kriston, L

    2014-06-01

    Testing of verbal fluency is currently part of standard presurgical neuropsychological assessment for patients with focal epilepsy. However, to date no systematic review has been conducted on semantic (SVF) and phonemic verbal fluency (PVF) in this patient group. The present review compares verbal fluency between healthy control subjects and subgroups of adult presurgical patients with focal epilepsy according to lateralisation and localisation of the dysfunction. PubMed was searched with a comprehensive search string. Abstracts of all studies and full-texts of potentially relevant studies were screened. Study quality was assessed by independent raters according to predefined criteria. 39 studies were included. Meta-analyses were performed to compare SVF and PVF across groups of patients with temporal (TLE) and frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) as well as healthy controls (HC). Both patients with left- and right sided TLE were impaired on SVF and PVF compared to HC. Patients with left-sided TLE were slightly more impaired than patients with right-sided TLE. Patients with FLE showed a larger impairment in PVF than patients with TLE, whereas on SVF there was no difference between FLE and TLE. For TLE comparisons the study pool seems to have been sufficient, whereas more studies are needed to verify results for FLE. Semantic verbal fluency might not differentiate between FLE and TLE. While verbal fluency impairment was anticipated, especially in left-sided TLE and FLE patients, the impairment in patients with right-sided TLE was larger than expected. Results are discussed with regard to neuropsychological theory and practice. PMID:24667998

  17. Verbal Fluency and Early Memory Decline: Results from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Kimberly Diggle; Koscik, Rebecca L; LaRue, Asenath; Clark, Lindsay R; Hermann, Bruce; Johnson, Sterling C; Sager, Mark A

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the relationship between phonemic and semantic (category) verbal fluency and cognitive status in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention (WRAP), a longitudinal cohort enriched for family history of Alzheimer's disease. Participants were 283 WRAP subjects (age 53.1[6.5] years at baseline); who had completed three waves of assessment, over ∼6 years and met psychometric criteria either for "cognitively healthy" (CH) or for psychometric amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) using an approach that did not consider fluency scores. CH and aMCI groups differed significantly on phonemic total scores, category total scores, phonemic switching, and category mean cluster size. These results suggest that measures of both phonemic and semantic fluency yield lower scores in persons with evidence of psychometric aMCI compared with those who are CH. Differences have not previously been reported in a group this young, and provide evidence for the importance of including multiple verbal fluency tests targeting preclinical Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26025231

  18. A novel frontal pathway underlies verbal fluency in primary progressive aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Mesulam, Marsel M.; Jakobsen, Estrid; Malik, Farah; Martersteck, Adam; Wieneke, Christina; Thompson, Cynthia K.; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Dell’Acqua, Flavio; Weintraub, Sandra; Rogalski, Emily

    2013-01-01

    The frontal aslant tract is a direct pathway connecting Broca’s region with the anterior cingulate and pre-supplementary motor area. This tract is left lateralized in right-handed subjects, suggesting a possible role in language. However, there are no previous studies that have reported an involvement of this tract in language disorders. In this study we used diffusion tractography to define the anatomy of the frontal aslant tract in relation to verbal fluency and grammar impairment in primary progressive aphasia. Thirty-five patients with primary progressive aphasia and 29 control subjects were recruited. Tractography was used to obtain indirect indices of microstructural organization of the frontal aslant tract. In addition, tractography analysis of the uncinate fasciculus, a tract associated with semantic processing deficits, was performed. Damage to the frontal aslant tract correlated with performance in verbal fluency as assessed by the Cinderella story test. Conversely, damage to the uncinate fasciculus correlated with deficits in semantic processing as assessed by the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. Neither tract correlated with grammatical or repetition deficits. Significant group differences were found in the frontal aslant tract of patients with the non-fluent/agrammatic variant and in the uncinate fasciculus of patients with the semantic variant. These findings indicate that degeneration of the frontal aslant tract underlies verbal fluency deficits in primary progressive aphasia and further confirm the role of the uncinate fasciculus in semantic processing. The lack of correlation between damage to the frontal aslant tract and grammar deficits suggests that verbal fluency and grammar processing rely on distinct anatomical networks. PMID:23820597

  19. The effects of focal anterior and posterior brain lesions on verbal fluency.

    PubMed

    Stuss, D T; Alexander, M P; Hamer, L; Palumbo, C; Dempster, R; Binns, M; Levine, B; Izukawa, D

    1998-05-01

    Seventy-four patients with focal brain lesions were compared to a neurologically normal control group on tasks of letter-based and category-based list generation. When patients were divided only by right frontal, left frontal, or nonfrontal lesion sites, the pattern of fluency impairments confirmed prior claims. When more precise lesion sites within the frontal lobes were compared between groups classified based on their fluency performance, much more specific brain-behavior relations were uncovered. Damage to the right dorsolateral cortical or connecting striatal regions, the right posterior area, or the medial inferior frontal lobe of either hemisphere did not significantly affect letter-based fluency performance. Superior medial frontal damage, right or left, resulted in moderate impairment. Patients with left dorsolateral and/or striatal lesions were most impaired. Left parietal damage led to performance relatively equivalent to the superior medial and left dorsolateral groups. The same lesion sites produced impairments in category based fluency, but so did lesions of right dorsolateral and inferior medial regions. Task analysis and correlations with other measures revealed that different cognitive processes related to different brain regions underlie performance on verbal fluency tests. PMID:9623001

  20. Brain correlates of verbal fluency in subthreshold psychosis assessed by functional near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Holper, L; Aleksandrowicz, A; Müller, M; Ajdacic-Gross, V; Haker, H; Fallgatter, A J; Hagenmuller, F; Rössler, W; Kawohl, W

    2015-10-01

    The prevalence of subthreshold psychotic symptoms in the general population has gained increasing interest as a possible precursor of psychotic disorders. The goal of the present study was to evaluate whether neurobiological features of subthreshold psychotic symptoms can be detected using verbal fluency tasks and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). A large data set was obtained from the Zurich Program for Sustainable Development of Mental Health Services (ZInEP). Based on the SCL-90-R subscales 'Paranoid Ideation' and 'Psychoticism' a total sample of 188 subjects was assigned to four groups with different levels of subthreshold psychotic symptoms. All subjects completed a phonemic and semantic verbal fluency task while fNIRS was recorded over the prefrontal and temporal cortices. Results revealed larger hemodynamic (oxy-hemoglobin) responses to the phonemic and semantic conditions compared to the control condition over prefrontal and temporal cortices. Subjects with high subthreshold psychotic symptoms exhibited significantly reduced hemodynamic responses in both conditions compared to the control group. Further, connectivity between prefrontal and temporal cortices revealed significantly weaker patterns in subjects with high subthreshold psychotic symptoms compared to the control group, possibly indicating less incisive network connections associated with subthreshold psychotic symptoms. The present findings provide evidence that subthreshold forms of psychotic symptoms are associated with reduced hemodynamic responses and connectivity in prefrontal and temporal cortices during verbal fluency that can be identified using fNIRS. PMID:26277535

  1. Associations between depressive symptoms and fronto-temporal activities during a verbal fluency task in patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Shenghong; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Miura, Akihiko; Iwata, Masaaki; Nagata, Izumi; Kaneko, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Though depressive symptoms are common in patients with schizophrenia, they are often left untreated and are associated with a high relapse rate, suicidal ideation, increased mortality, reduced social adjustment, and poor quality of life. The present study aims to elucidate the association between depressive symptoms and fronto-temporal activities during a cognitive task in patients with schizophrenia. The fronto-temporal activities of 41 Japanese patients with schizophrenia was evaluated during a verbal fluency task using 52-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the depression/anxiety component of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) five-factor model. The depression/anxiety component of the PANSS five-factor model was negatively correlated with activities of the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), right dorsolateral PFC, and left temporal regions. Our findings suggest that reduced fronto-temporal activities on NIRS during a verbal fluency task is related to depressive symptom severity in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:27465466

  2. Age-related changes in functional network connectivity associated with high levels of verbal fluency performance.

    PubMed

    Marsolais, Yannick; Perlbarg, Vincent; Benali, Habib; Joanette, Yves

    2014-09-01

    The relative preservation of receptive language abilities in older adults has been associated with adaptive changes in cerebral activation patterns, which have been suggested to be task-load dependent. However, the effects of aging and task demands on the functional integration of neural networks contributing to speech production abilities remain largely unexplored. In the present functional neuroimaging study, data-driven spatial independent component analysis and hierarchical measures of integration were used to explore age-related changes in functional connectivity among cortical areas contributing to semantic, orthographic, and automated word fluency tasks in healthy young and older adults, as well as to assess the effect of age and task demands on the functional integration of a verbal fluency network. The results showed that the functional integration of speech production networks decreases with age, while at the same time this has a marginal effect on behavioral outcomes in high-performing older adults. Moreover, a significant task demand/age interaction was found in functional connectivity within the anterior and posterior subnetworks of the verbal fluency network. These results suggest that local changes in functional integration among cortical areas supporting lexical speech production are modulated by age and task demands. PMID:25014614

  3. Can Word Puzzles be Tailored to Improve Different Dimensions of Verbal Fluency? A Report of an Intervention Study.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Mike; Spillane, Katie; Cully, James; Navarro-Pardo, Esperanza; Moret-Tatay, Carmen

    2016-08-17

    Verbal fluency is commonly used as a proxy measure of executive functioning, as it involves cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control. Previous research has demonstrated that crosswords can be a useful means of improving verbal fluency, results consistent with the cognitive reserve hypothesis; the form of verbal fluency affected has, however, differed across studies. The present study sought to assess the extent to which it was possible to target phonemic (PVF) and semantic verbal fluency (SVF) separately through word puzzles designed to focus on semantic/thematic and structural clues respectively. Fifty-three university students were randomly assigned to one of three groups: semantic/thematic, structural, or a daily diary control group. They were assessed on PVF and SVF at baseline, and immediately following a four-week intervention. Age, sex, and depression scores were controlled for. A 2 × 3 mixed ANCOVA showed that the structural group improved significantly more in PVF during the intervention period than did the semantic/thematic or control groups, with the improvement linked to improved switching performance. The effect size was large. No significant difference in improvement in SVF emerged, although the effect size was moderate. The findings support the notion that it is possible to improve specific forms of verbal fluency through tailored brief word-puzzle interventions. PMID:27224052

  4. A coordinate-based ALE functional MRI meta-analysis of brain activation during verbal fluency tasks in healthy control subjects

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The processing of verbal fluency tasks relies on the coordinated activity of a number of brain areas, particularly in the frontal and temporal lobes of the left hemisphere. Recent studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study the neural networks subserving verbal fluency functions have yielded divergent results especially with respect to a parcellation of the inferior frontal gyrus for phonemic and semantic verbal fluency. We conducted a coordinate-based activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis on brain activation during the processing of phonemic and semantic verbal fluency tasks involving 28 individual studies with 490 healthy volunteers. Results For phonemic as well as for semantic verbal fluency, the most prominent clusters of brain activation were found in the left inferior/middle frontal gyrus (LIFG/MIFG) and the anterior cingulate gyrus. BA 44 was only involved in the processing of phonemic verbal fluency tasks, BA 45 and 47 in the processing of phonemic and semantic fluency tasks. Conclusions Our comparison of brain activation during the execution of either phonemic or semantic verbal fluency tasks revealed evidence for spatially different activation in BA 44, but not other regions of the LIFG/LMFG (BA 9, 45, 47) during phonemic and semantic verbal fluency processing. PMID:24456150

  5. Discordant cerebral lateralisation for verbal fluency is not an artefact of attention: evidence from MzHd twins.

    PubMed

    Gurd, Jennifer M; Cowell, Patricia E

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated how the brain structure-function relationships between covert and overt verbal fluency in monozygotic handedness discordant (MzHd) twins relates to broader attentional measures. Evidence presented here shows that the structure-function correlation demonstrated between functional cerebral lateralisation and corpus callosum widths 22-39, contiguous with Broca's area and the middle frontal gyri (Gurd et al. in Brain Struct Funct 218:491-509, 2013), is not an artefact of attention. Twenty-five pairs of female MzHd twins performed a verbal switching task titrated for number of switches. The paradigm permits calculation of switch rates and costs. The switch rate and cost varied as a function of number of switches (1, 2, 3). There were no differences in any measure in relation to right-left handedness in twin pairs. This was supported by large and significant within-twin pair correlations. Atypical functional lateralisation of inferior and middle frontal lobes does not appear to be associated with better or worse performance on verbal task-switching. Discordant lateralisation for verbal fluency does not predict behavioural performance profiles in MzHd twins. This evidence is compatible with a view that attentional components of verbal fluency task performance may have significant heritable components. It does not indicate that neural correlates of frontal cerebral laterality for verbal fluency in MzHd twins are significantly accountable for by heritable components. PMID:24092462

  6. Rapid improvement in verbal fluency and aphasia following perispinal etanercept in Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Tobinick, Edward L; Gross, Hyman

    2008-01-01

    Background Recent clinical studies point to rapid and sustained clinical, cognitive, and behavioral improvement in both Alzheimer's disease and primary progressive aphasia following weekly perispinal administration of etanercept, a TNF-alpha inhibitor that acts by blocking the binding of this cytokine to its receptors. This outcome is concordant with recent basic science studies suggesting that TNF-alpha functions in vivo as a gliotransmitter that regulates synaptic function in the brain. We hypothesized that perispinal etanercept had the potential to improve verbal function in Alzheimer's disease, so we included several standarized measures of verbal ability to evaluate language skills in a clinical trial of perispinal etanercept for Alzheimer's disease. Methods This was a prospective, single-center, open-label, pilot study, in which 12 patients with mild-to-severe Alzheimer's disease were administered etanercept, 25–50 mg, weekly by perispinal administration for six months. Two additional case studies are presented. Results Two-tailed, paired t-tests were conducted comparing baseline performance to 6-month performance on all neuropsychological measures. Test batteries included the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition, Adult Version; Logical Memory I and II(WMS-LM-II) from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Abbreviated; the Comprehensive Trail Making Test (TMT); Boston Naming Test; and letter(FAS) and category verbal fluency. All measures revealed a significant effect except for the Boston Naming Test and the TMT-4, with WMS-LM-II being marginally significant at p = .05. The FAS test for letter fluency was most highly significant with a p < 0.0007. In addition, rapid improvement in verbal fluency and aphasia in two patients with dementia, beginning minutes after perispinal etanercept administration, is documented. Conclusion In combination with the previously reported results of perispinal etanercept in Alzheimer's disease and primary progressive aphasia, these

  7. Verbal Fluency Output in Children Aged 7-16 as a Function of the Production Criterion: Qualitative Analysis of Clustering, Switching Processes, and Semantic Network Exploitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauzeon, H.; Lestage, P.; Raboutet, C.; N'Kaoua, B.; Claverie, B.

    2004-01-01

    Developmental changes in children's verbal fluency were explored in this study. One hundred and forty children aged from 7 to 16 completed four verbal fluency tasks, each with a different the production criterion (letter, sound, semantic, and free). The age differences were analyzed both in terms of number of words produced, and clustering,…

  8. Marginal neurofunctional changes in high-performing older adults in a verbal fluency task.

    PubMed

    Marsolais, Yannick; Methqal, Ikram; Joanette, Yves

    2015-01-01

    The maintenance of a high level of performance in aging has often been associated with changes in cerebral activations patterns for various cognitive components. However, relatively few studies have investigated this phenomenon in light of lexical speech production abilities, which have not been systematically found to benefit from neurofunctional reorganization during verbal fluency tasks. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess overt self-paced semantic and orthographic verbal fluency tasks performed by healthy younger and older adults within a mixed block/event-related fMRI design. Behavioral results indicated similarly high levels of performance between tasks and age groups, while whole brain analysis revealed significant task-related differences in patterns of brain activity, but no significant effect of age or task-by-age interaction across the speech conditions. Only local activity differences were found between age groups. These marginal neurofunctional changes in high-performing older adults are discussed in terms of task demands. PMID:25461916

  9. Top-down computerized cognitive remediation in schizophrenia: a case study of an individual with impairment in verbal fluency.

    PubMed

    Masson, Marjolaine; Wykes, Til; Maziade, Michel; Reeder, Clare; Gariépy, Marie-Anne; Roy, Marc-André; Ivers, Hans; Cellard, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this case study was to assess the specific effect of cognitive remediation for schizophrenia on the pattern of cognitive impairments. Case A is a 33-year-old man with a schizophrenia diagnosis and impairments in visual memory, inhibition, problem solving, and verbal fluency. He was provided with a therapist delivered cognitive remediation program involving practice and strategy which was designed to train attention, memory, executive functioning, visual-perceptual processing, and metacognitive skills. Neuropsychological and clinical assessments were administered at baseline and after three months of treatment. At posttest assessment, Case A had improved significantly on targeted (visual memory and problem solving) and nontargeted (verbal fluency) cognitive processes. The results of the current case study suggest that (1) it is possible to improve specific cognitive processes with targeted exercises, as seen by the improvement in visual memory due to training exercises targeting this cognitive domain; (2) cognitive remediation can produce improvements in cognitive processes not targeted during remediation since verbal fluency was improved while there was no training exercise on this specific cognitive process; and (3) including learning strategies in cognitive remediation increases the value of the approach and enhances participant improvement, possibly because strategies using verbalization can lead to improvement in verbal fluency even if it was not practiced. PMID:25949840

  10. The Role of Verbal Working Memory in Second Language Reading Fluency and Comprehension: A Comparison of English and Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pae, Hye K.; Sevcik, Rose A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the respective contribution of verbal working memory, which was operationalized as immediate digit and sentence recall, to bilingual children's reading fluency and comprehension in the first language (L1) and second language (L2). Fifty children from two international sites took part in this study: One group was English-Korean…

  11. Impaired generation of new subcategories and switching in a semantic verbal fluency test in older adults with mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Bertola, Laiss; Cunha Lima, Maria Luiza; Romano-Silva, Marco A.; de Moraes, Edgar N.; Diniz, Breno Satler; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F.

    2014-01-01

    The semantic verbal fluency task is broadly used in the neuropsychological assessment of elderly subjects. Even some studies have identified differences in verbal fluency clustering and switching measures between subjects with normal aging and a clinical condition such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease, the results are not always consistent. This study aimed to compare clustering and switching measures of an animal's semantic verbal fluency task among normal controls (NC, n = 25), amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI; n = 25), amnestic multiple domain Mild Cognitive Impairment (a+mdMCI; n = 25) and Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 25) Brazilian subjects. The analyses were executed considering three (unifying the MCI subtypes) and four groups. As the data were not normally distributed, we carried out non-parametric tests (Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests) to evaluate the differences in performance in the measures of the verbal fluency test among the groups. The comparison demonstrated that the groups differed in the total of correct words produced, number of clusters and switching but the measure of new subcategories was the only with significant difference among the NC and all the clinical groups. The measure of new subcategories is the number of original subcategories inside the higher category of animals that the subject produced, such as farm, domestic, African animals. Our results indicate that semantic memory impairment is a visible and recent deficit that occurs even in non-demented subjects with very MCI and the implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25071550

  12. The Improvement of Verbal Fluency in the Elderly: The Effects of Practice on the Set Test and an Alternate Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Sarah J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examined the effects of prior practice on the Set Test (ST), a test of verbal fluency, in 30 geriatric patients assigned to specific or nonspecific practice groups or a control. Results showed a significant improvement for the practice groups from days 1 to 2. (JAC)

  13. Cognition and the corpus callosum: verbal fluency, visuospatial ability, and language lateralization related to midsagittal surface areas of callosal subregions.

    PubMed

    Hines, M; Chiu, L; McAdams, L A; Bentler, P M; Lipcamon, J

    1992-02-01

    Normal volunteers (28 women), 20-45 years old, completed tests of visuospatial ability, verbal fluency, and language lateralization, and the midsagittal surface areas of the splenium, isthmus, midregion, and genu of the corpus callosum were measured from inversion recovery magnetic resonance images. Multivariate statistics were used to analyze patterns of correlations. Verbal fluency correlated positively with the area of the splenium and with the area of a posterior callosal factor defined largely by the splenium. The posterior callosum, particularly the splenium, also correlated negatively with language lateralization. There were no other consistent brain-behavior relationships. These results are relevant to understanding factors involved in the development of cognitive characteristics that show sex differences and to understanding the neural basis of language lateralization and verbal abilities. PMID:1554435

  14. Neural systems supporting lexical search guided by letter and semantic category cues: a self-paced overt response fMRI study of verbal fluency.

    PubMed

    Birn, Rasmus M; Kenworthy, Lauren; Case, Laura; Caravella, Rachel; Jones, Tyler B; Bandettini, Peter A; Martin, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Verbal fluency tasks have been widely used to evaluate language and executive control processes in the human brain. FMRI studies of verbal fluency, however, have used either silent word generation (which provides no behavioral measure) or cued generation of single words in order to contend with speech-related motion artifacts. In this study, we use a recently developed paradigm design to investigate the neural correlates of verbal fluency during overt, free recall, word generation so that performance and brain activity could be evaluated under conditions that more closely mirror standard behavioral test demands. We investigated verbal fluency to both letter and category cues in order to evaluate differential involvement of specific frontal and temporal lobe sites as a function of retrieval cue type, as suggested by previous neuropsychological and neuroimaging investigations. In addition, we incorporated both a task switching manipulation and an automatic speech condition in order to modulate the demand placed on executive functions. We found greater activation in the left hemisphere during category and letter fluency tasks, and greater right hemisphere activation during automatic speech. We also found that letter and category fluency tasks were associated with differential involvement of specific regions of the frontal and temporal lobes. These findings provide converging evidence that letter and category fluency performance is dependent on partially distinct neural circuitry. They also provide strong evidence that verbal fluency can be successfully evaluated in the MR environment using overt, self-paced, responses. PMID:19632335

  15. Neural systems supporting lexical search guided by letter and semantic category cues: A self-paced overt response fMRI study of verbal fluency

    PubMed Central

    Birn, Rasmus M.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Case, Laura; Caravella, Rachel; Jones, Tyler B.; Bandettini, Peter A.; Martin, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Verbal fluency tasks have been widely used to evaluate language and executive control processes in the human brain. FMRI studies of verbal fluency, however, have used either silent word generation (which provides no behavioral measure) or cued generation of single words in order to contend with speech-related motion artifacts. In this study, we use a recently developed paradigm design to investigate the neural correlates of verbal fluency during overt, free recall, word generation so that performance and brain activity could be evaluated under conditions that more closely mirror standard behavioral test demands. We investigated verbal fluency to both letter and category cues in order to evaluate differential involvement of specific frontal and temporal lobe sites as a function of retrieval cue type, as suggested by previous neuropsychological and neuroimaging investigations. In addition, we incorporated both a task switching manipulation and an automatic speech condition in order to modulate the demand placed on executive functions. We found greater activation in the left hemisphere during category and letter fluency tasks, and greater right hemisphere activation during automatic speech. We also found that letter and category fluency tasks were associated with differential involvement of specific regions of the frontal and temporal lobes. These findings provide converging evidence that letter and category fluency performance is dependent on partially distinct neural circuitry. They also provide strong evidence that verbal fluency can be successfully evaluated in the MR environment using overt, self-paced, responses. PMID:19632335

  16. Effects of Self-Monitoring Training on Reading Accuracy and Fluency of Poor Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolic-Vehovec, Svjetlana

    2002-01-01

    The effect of the self-monitoring training on reading accuracy and fluency of second-grade poor readers was examined. The participants were assigned in one experimental and three control groups. The experimental group was reinforced with token-economy for self-correction and fluent reading. One control group practiced reading without feedback, the…

  17. Individual variability in verbal fluency correlates with γ-aminobutyric acid concentration in the left inferior frontal gyrus.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Tomoya; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2016-09-01

    A particular feature of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), which is considered a central region for language processing, is leftward functional/anatomical asymmetry. However, previous studies have not clearly shown lateralization of neurotransmitters in the cortical regions. Using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we measured γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations in the bilateral IFG. To evaluate individual variability in linguistic performance, we further used a verbal fluency test. Although GABA+/creatine (Cr) values were not different between the left and the right IFG, we found a significant correlation between category fluency scores and GABA+/Cr values in the left IFG. No correlation was found between letter fluency scores and GABA+/Cr values. We also confirmed that the result was independent of the references used (Cr and H2O). Our results show a new physiological basis of linguistic performance as well as leftward asymmetry of the IFG. PMID:27454241

  18. Prefrontal Hemodynamic Functions during a Verbal Fluency Task in Blepharospasm Using Multi-Channel NIRS.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chen-Yu; Wang, Yong-Jun; Zhang, Xiao-Qian; Liu, Xiao-Min; Ren, Xia-Jin; Ma, Xiang-Yun; Sun, Jing-Jing; Feng, Kun; Sun, Gao-Xiang; Xu, Bo; Liu, Po-Zi

    2016-01-01

    Blepharospasm (BSP) has a morbidity of 16 to 133 per million and is characterized by orbicularis oculi spasms. BSP can severely impact daily life. However, to date, its pathophysiology has not been clearly demonstrated. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a portable, non-invasive, and high time resolution apparatus used to measure cerebral blood flow. This study aimed to investigate the hemodynamic response patterns of BSP patients and determine whether BSP alone can be an attributional factor to influence the function of the prefrontal area using a verbal fluency task (VFT) and NIRS. Twenty-three BSP patients (10 males and 13 females) and 13 healthy controls (HC; five males and eight females) matched by gender and education were examined using NIRS. BSP patients were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of depression and anxiety symptoms. A covariance analysis was conducted to analyze differences between the three groups and reduce the influence of different ages and educational levels. Bonferroni was used to process the post hoc test. The bilateral orbitofrontal area (ch36, 39, and 41; P<0.01) exhibited a lower activation in BSP patients without psychiatric symptoms compared with HC. This study is the first report to identify the prefrontal function in BSP using NIRS. Our findings indicate that BSP alone may cause a hypoactive hemodynamic performance in the prefrontal cortex in the absence of psychiatric symptoms. These findings provide evidence to support novel pathophysiological mechanisms of BSP. PMID:26942579

  19. Prefrontal Hemodynamic Functions during a Verbal Fluency Task in Blepharospasm Using Multi-Channel NIRS

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Qian; Liu, Xiao-Min; Ren, Xia-Jin; Ma, Xiang-Yun; Sun, Jing-Jing; Feng, Kun; Sun, Gao-Xiang; Xu, Bo; Liu, Po-Zi

    2016-01-01

    Blepharospasm (BSP) has a morbidity of 16 to 133 per million and is characterized by orbicularis oculi spasms. BSP can severely impact daily life. However, to date, its pathophysiology has not been clearly demonstrated. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a portable, non-invasive, and high time resolution apparatus used to measure cerebral blood flow. This study aimed to investigate the hemodynamic response patterns of BSP patients and determine whether BSP alone can be an attributional factor to influence the function of the prefrontal area using a verbal fluency task (VFT) and NIRS. Twenty-three BSP patients (10 males and 13 females) and 13 healthy controls (HC; five males and eight females) matched by gender and education were examined using NIRS. BSP patients were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of depression and anxiety symptoms. A covariance analysis was conducted to analyze differences between the three groups and reduce the influence of different ages and educational levels. Bonferroni was used to process the post hoc test. The bilateral orbitofrontal area (ch36, 39, and 41; P<0.01) exhibited a lower activation in BSP patients without psychiatric symptoms compared with HC. This study is the first report to identify the prefrontal function in BSP using NIRS. Our findings indicate that BSP alone may cause a hypoactive hemodynamic performance in the prefrontal cortex in the absence of psychiatric symptoms. These findings provide evidence to support novel pathophysiological mechanisms of BSP. PMID:26942579

  20. Graph analysis of verbal fluency test discriminate between patients with Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment and normal elderly controls

    PubMed Central

    Bertola, Laiss; Mota, Natália B.; Copelli, Mauro; Rivero, Thiago; Diniz, Breno Satler; Romano-Silva, Marco A.; Ribeiro, Sidarta; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F.

    2014-01-01

    Verbal fluency is the ability to produce a satisfying sequence of spoken words during a given time interval. The core of verbal fluency lies in the capacity to manage the executive aspects of language. The standard scores of the semantic verbal fluency test are broadly used in the neuropsychological assessment of the elderly, and different analytical methods are likely to extract even more information from the data generated in this test. Graph theory, a mathematical approach to analyze relations between items, represents a promising tool to understand a variety of neuropsychological states. This study reports a graph analysis of data generated by the semantic verbal fluency test by cognitively healthy elderly (NC), patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment—subtypes amnestic (aMCI) and amnestic multiple domain (a+mdMCI)—and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Sequences of words were represented as a speech graph in which every word corresponded to a node and temporal links between words were represented by directed edges. To characterize the structure of the data we calculated 13 speech graph attributes (SGA). The individuals were compared when divided in three (NC—MCI—AD) and four (NC—aMCI—a+mdMCI—AD) groups. When the three groups were compared, significant differences were found in the standard measure of correct words produced, and three SGA: diameter, average shortest path, and network density. SGA sorted the elderly groups with good specificity and sensitivity. When the four groups were compared, the groups differed significantly in network density, except between the two MCI subtypes and NC and aMCI. The diameter of the network and the average shortest path were significantly different between the NC and AD, and between aMCI and AD. SGA sorted the elderly in their groups with good specificity and sensitivity, performing better than the standard score of the task. These findings provide support for a new methodological frame to assess the

  1. Graph analysis of verbal fluency test discriminate between patients with Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment and normal elderly controls.

    PubMed

    Bertola, Laiss; Mota, Natália B; Copelli, Mauro; Rivero, Thiago; Diniz, Breno Satler; Romano-Silva, Marco A; Ribeiro, Sidarta; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F

    2014-01-01

    Verbal fluency is the ability to produce a satisfying sequence of spoken words during a given time interval. The core of verbal fluency lies in the capacity to manage the executive aspects of language. The standard scores of the semantic verbal fluency test are broadly used in the neuropsychological assessment of the elderly, and different analytical methods are likely to extract even more information from the data generated in this test. Graph theory, a mathematical approach to analyze relations between items, represents a promising tool to understand a variety of neuropsychological states. This study reports a graph analysis of data generated by the semantic verbal fluency test by cognitively healthy elderly (NC), patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment-subtypes amnestic (aMCI) and amnestic multiple domain (a+mdMCI)-and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Sequences of words were represented as a speech graph in which every word corresponded to a node and temporal links between words were represented by directed edges. To characterize the structure of the data we calculated 13 speech graph attributes (SGA). The individuals were compared when divided in three (NC-MCI-AD) and four (NC-aMCI-a+mdMCI-AD) groups. When the three groups were compared, significant differences were found in the standard measure of correct words produced, and three SGA: diameter, average shortest path, and network density. SGA sorted the elderly groups with good specificity and sensitivity. When the four groups were compared, the groups differed significantly in network density, except between the two MCI subtypes and NC and aMCI. The diameter of the network and the average shortest path were significantly different between the NC and AD, and between aMCI and AD. SGA sorted the elderly in their groups with good specificity and sensitivity, performing better than the standard score of the task. These findings provide support for a new methodological frame to assess the strength of

  2. Imitated Prosodic Fluency Predicts Reading Comprehension Ability in Good and Poor High School Readers

    PubMed Central

    Breen, Mara; Kaswer, Lianne; Van Dyke, Julie A.; Krivokapić, Jelena; Landi, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have established a relationship between beginning readers' silent comprehension ability and their prosodic fluency, such that readers who read aloud with appropriate prosody tend to have higher scores on silent reading comprehension assessments. The current study was designed to investigate this relationship in two groups of high school readers: Specifically Poor Comprehenders (SPCs), who have adequate word level and phonological skills but poor reading comprehension ability, and a group of age- and decoding skill-matched controls. We compared the prosodic fluency of the two groups by determining how effectively they produced prosodic cues to syntactic and semantic structure in imitations of a model speaker's production of syntactically and semantically varied sentences. Analyses of pitch and duration patterns revealed that speakers in both groups produced the expected prosodic patterns; however, controls provided stronger durational cues to syntactic structure. These results demonstrate that the relationship between prosodic fluency and reading comprehension continues past the stage of early reading instruction. Moreover, they suggest that prosodically fluent speakers may also generate more fluent implicit prosodic representations during silent reading, leading to more effective comprehension. PMID:27486409

  3. Imitated Prosodic Fluency Predicts Reading Comprehension Ability in Good and Poor High School Readers.

    PubMed

    Breen, Mara; Kaswer, Lianne; Van Dyke, Julie A; Krivokapić, Jelena; Landi, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have established a relationship between beginning readers' silent comprehension ability and their prosodic fluency, such that readers who read aloud with appropriate prosody tend to have higher scores on silent reading comprehension assessments. The current study was designed to investigate this relationship in two groups of high school readers: Specifically Poor Comprehenders (SPCs), who have adequate word level and phonological skills but poor reading comprehension ability, and a group of age- and decoding skill-matched controls. We compared the prosodic fluency of the two groups by determining how effectively they produced prosodic cues to syntactic and semantic structure in imitations of a model speaker's production of syntactically and semantically varied sentences. Analyses of pitch and duration patterns revealed that speakers in both groups produced the expected prosodic patterns; however, controls provided stronger durational cues to syntactic structure. These results demonstrate that the relationship between prosodic fluency and reading comprehension continues past the stage of early reading instruction. Moreover, they suggest that prosodically fluent speakers may also generate more fluent implicit prosodic representations during silent reading, leading to more effective comprehension. PMID:27486409

  4. Semantic organization in children with cochlear implants: computational analysis of verbal fluency

    PubMed Central

    Kenett, Yoed N.; Wechsler-Kashi, Deena; Kenett, Dror Y.; Schwartz, Richard G.; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Faust, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Cochlear implants (CIs) enable children with severe and profound hearing impairments to perceive the sensation of sound sufficiently to permit oral language acquisition. So far, studies have focused mainly on technological improvements and general outcomes of implantation for speech perception and spoken language development. This study quantitatively explored the organization of the semantic networks of children with CIs in comparison to those of age-matched normal hearing (NH) peers. Method: Twenty seven children with CIs and twenty seven age- and IQ-matched NH children ages 7–10 were tested on a timed animal verbal fluency task (Name as many animals as you can). The responses were analyzed using correlation and network methodologies. The structure of the animal category semantic network for both groups were extracted and compared. Results: Children with CIs appeared to have a less-developed semantic network structure compared to age-matched NH peers. The average shortest path length (ASPL) and the network diameter measures were larger for the NH group compared to the CIs group. This difference was consistent for the analysis of networks derived from animal names generated by each group [sample-matched correlation networks (SMCN)] and for the networks derived from the common animal names generated by both groups [word-matched correlation networks (WMCN)]. Conclusions: The main difference between the semantic networks of children with CIs and NH lies in the network structure. The semantic network of children with CIs is under-developed compared to the semantic network of the age-matched NH children. We discuss the practical and clinical implications of our findings. PMID:24032018

  5. Development of a Screening Algorithm for Alzheimer's Disease Using Categorical Verbal Fluency

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hyeon; Park, Jae Young; Kim, Tae Hui; Lee, Jung Jae; Lee, Seok Bum; Park, Joon Hyuk; Yoon, Jong Chul; Kim, Jeong Lan; Ryu, Seung-Ho; Jhoo, Jin Hyeong; Lee, Dong Young; Kim, Ki Woong

    2014-01-01

    We developed a weighted composite score of the categorical verbal fluency test (CVFT) that can more easily and widely screen Alzheimer's disease (AD) than the mini-mental status examination (MMSE). We administered the CVFT using animal category and MMSE to 423 community-dwelling mild probable AD patients and their age- and gender-matched cognitively normal controls. To enhance the diagnostic accuracy for AD of the CVFT, we obtained a weighted composite score from subindex scores of the CVFT using a logistic regression model: logit (case)  = 1.160+0.474× gender +0.003× age +0.226× education level – 0.089× first-half score – 0.516× switching score -0.303× clustering score +0.534× perseveration score. The area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) for AD of this composite score AD was 0.903 (95% CI = 0.883 – 0.923), and was larger than that of the age-, gender- and education-adjusted total score of the CVFT (p<0.001). In 100 bootstrapped re-samples, the composite score consistently showed better diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity and specificity for AD than the total score. Although AUC for AD of the CVFT composite score was slightly smaller than that of the MMSE (0.930, p = 0.006), the CVFT composite score may be a good alternative to the MMSE for screening AD since it is much briefer, cheaper, and more easily applicable over phone or internet than the MMSE. PMID:24392109

  6. Higher Endogenous Estrogens Predict Four Year Decline in Verbal Fluency in Postmenopausal Women: The Rancho Bernardo Study

    PubMed Central

    Laughlin, Gail A.; Kritz-Silverstein, Donna; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Despite overwhelming biological plausibility, evidence for a protective effect of estrogen on cognitive function in postmenopausal women is inconsistent. This study examines the association between endogenous estrogen levels and subsequent four-year decline in cognitive function test performance in community-dwelling older women. DESIGN Longitudinal cohort study PARTICIPANTS 343 postmenopausal women (median age 70 yrs) MEASUREMENTS Between 1984 and 1987, serum for measurement of sex hormones was obtained along with relevant covariates. Cognitive function was assessed in 1988–91 and again in 1992–96 using the Category Fluency test, the Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE) and Trail Making Test B (Trails B). RESULTS Women in the highest tertile of estrone and bioavailable estradiol had, respectively, 1.75 (95% CI 1.02, 3.07) and 1.79 (95% CI 1.04, 3.10) higher odds of 4 year decline in Category Fluency, a test of frontal lobe function, compared to those in the lowest tertile, independent of age and education. The 20% of women with highest tertile levels of both estrone and bioavailable estradiol had a two-fold higher odds of verbal fluency loss (OR=2.17; 95% CI 1.21, 3.89) Adjustment for testosterone levels or for obesity-related factors associated with high endogenous estrogens (higher BMI, waist girth, and triglycerides, and lower HDL cholesterol) did not alter results. Neither estrogen was associated with change in MMSE or Trails B scores. CONCLUSIONS Higher endogenous estrogen levels were associated with greater decline in verbal fluency in postmenopausal women. This association was not explained by elevated androgens or by obesity or obesity-related factors. PMID:19508596

  7. Semantic Verbal Fluency in Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder: Relationship with Chronological Age and IQ

    PubMed Central

    Pastor-Cerezuela, Gemma; Fernández-Andrés, Maria-Inmaculada; Feo-Álvarez, Mireia; González-Sala, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    We administered a semantic verbal fluency (SVF) task to two groups of children (age range from 5 to 8): 47 diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD Group) and 53 with typical development (Comparison Group), matched on gender, chronological age, and non-verbal IQ. Four specific indexes were calculated from the SVF task, reflecting the different underlying cognitive strategies used: clustering (component of generativity and lexical-semantic access), and switching (executive component, cognitive flexibility). First, we compared the performance of the two groups on the different SVF task indicators, with the ASD group scoring lower than the Comparison Group, although the difference was greater on switching than on clustering. Second, we analyzed the relationships between the different SVF measures and chronological age, verbal IQ and non-verbal IQ. While in the Comparison Group chronological age was the main predictor of performance on the SVF task, in the ASD Group verbal IQ was the best predictor. In the children with ASD, therefore, greater linguistic competence would be associated with better performance on the SVF task, which should be taken into account in speech therapies designed to achieve improvements in linguistic generativity and cognitive flexibility. PMID:27379002

  8. Semantic Verbal Fluency in Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder: Relationship with Chronological Age and IQ.

    PubMed

    Pastor-Cerezuela, Gemma; Fernández-Andrés, Maria-Inmaculada; Feo-Álvarez, Mireia; González-Sala, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    We administered a semantic verbal fluency (SVF) task to two groups of children (age range from 5 to 8): 47 diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD Group) and 53 with typical development (Comparison Group), matched on gender, chronological age, and non-verbal IQ. Four specific indexes were calculated from the SVF task, reflecting the different underlying cognitive strategies used: clustering (component of generativity and lexical-semantic access), and switching (executive component, cognitive flexibility). First, we compared the performance of the two groups on the different SVF task indicators, with the ASD group scoring lower than the Comparison Group, although the difference was greater on switching than on clustering. Second, we analyzed the relationships between the different SVF measures and chronological age, verbal IQ and non-verbal IQ. While in the Comparison Group chronological age was the main predictor of performance on the SVF task, in the ASD Group verbal IQ was the best predictor. In the children with ASD, therefore, greater linguistic competence would be associated with better performance on the SVF task, which should be taken into account in speech therapies designed to achieve improvements in linguistic generativity and cognitive flexibility. PMID:27379002

  9. Functional connectivity during phonemic and semantic verbal fluency test: a multi-channel near infrared spectroscopy study (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chun-Jung; Sun, Chia-Wei; Chou, Po-Han; Chuang, Ching-Cheng

    2016-03-01

    Verbal fluency tests (VFT) are widely used neuropsychological tests of frontal lobe and have been frequently used in various functional brain mapping studies. There are two versions of VFT based on the type of cue: the letter fluency task (LFT) and the category fluency task (CFT). However, the fundamental aspect of the brain connectivity across spatial regions of the fronto-temporal regions during the VFTs has not been elucidated to date. In this study we hypothesized that different cortical functional connectivity over bilateral fronto-temporal regions can be observed by means of multi-channel fNIRS in the LFT and the CFT respectively. Our results from fNIRS (ETG-4000) showed different patterns of brain functional connectivity consistent with these different cognitive requirements. We demonstrate more brain functional connectivity over frontal and temporal regions during LFT than CFT, and this was in line with previous brain activity studies using fNIRS demonstrating increased frontal and temporal region activation during LFT and CFT and more pronounced frontal activation by the LFT.

  10. Semantic Verbal Fluency Pattern, Dementia Rating Scores and Adaptive Behavior Correlate With Plasma Aβ42 Concentrations in Down Syndrome Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hoyo, Laura Del; Xicota, Laura; Sánchez-Benavides, Gonzalo; Cuenca-Royo, Aida; de Sola, Susana; Langohr, Klaus; Fagundo, Ana B.; Farré, Magí; Dierssen, Mara; de la Torre, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is an intellectual disability (ID) disorder in which language and specifically, verbal fluency are strongly impaired domains; nearly all adults show neuropathology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), including amyloid deposition by their fifth decade of life. In the general population, verbal fluency deficits are considered a strong AD predictor being the semantic verbal fluency task (SVFT) a useful tool for enhancing early diagnostic. However, there is a lack of information about the association between the semantic verbal fluency pattern (SVFP) and the biological amyloidosis markers in DS. In the current study, we used the SVFT in young adults with DS to characterize their SVFP, assessing total generated words, clustering, and switching. We then explored its association with early indicators of dementia, adaptive behavior and amyloidosis biomarkers, using the Dementia Questionnaire for Persons with Intellectual Disability (DMR), the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition (ABAS-II), and plasma levels of Aβ peptides (Aβ40 and Aβ42), as a potent biomarker of AD. In DS, worse performance in SVFT and poorer communication skills were associated with higher plasma Aβ42 concentrations, a higher DMR score and impaired communication skills (ABAS–II). The total word production and switching ability in SVFT were good indicators of plasma Aβ42 concentration. In conclusion, we propose the SVFT as a good screening test for early detection of dementia and amyloidosis in young adults with DS. PMID:26635555

  11. Semantic Verbal Fluency Pattern, Dementia Rating Scores and Adaptive Behavior Correlate With Plasma Aβ42 Concentrations in Down Syndrome Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Hoyo, Laura Del; Xicota, Laura; Sánchez-Benavides, Gonzalo; Cuenca-Royo, Aida; de Sola, Susana; Langohr, Klaus; Fagundo, Ana B; Farré, Magí; Dierssen, Mara; de la Torre, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is an intellectual disability (ID) disorder in which language and specifically, verbal fluency are strongly impaired domains; nearly all adults show neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), including amyloid deposition by their fifth decade of life. In the general population, verbal fluency deficits are considered a strong AD predictor being the semantic verbal fluency task (SVFT) a useful tool for enhancing early diagnostic. However, there is a lack of information about the association between the semantic verbal fluency pattern (SVFP) and the biological amyloidosis markers in DS. In the current study, we used the SVFT in young adults with DS to characterize their SVFP, assessing total generated words, clustering, and switching. We then explored its association with early indicators of dementia, adaptive behavior and amyloidosis biomarkers, using the Dementia Questionnaire for Persons with Intellectual Disability (DMR), the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition (ABAS-II), and plasma levels of Aβ peptides (Aβ40 and Aβ42), as a potent biomarker of AD. In DS, worse performance in SVFT and poorer communication skills were associated with higher plasma Aβ42 concentrations, a higher DMR score and impaired communication skills (ABAS-II). The total word production and switching ability in SVFT were good indicators of plasma Aβ42 concentration. In conclusion, we propose the SVFT as a good screening test for early detection of dementia and amyloidosis in young adults with DS. PMID:26635555

  12. Influence of Verbal Working Memory Depends on Vocabulary: Oral Reading Fluency in Adolescents with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, L. Todd; Rouhani, Parisa

    2012-01-01

    Most research on dyslexia to date has focused on early childhood, while comparatively little is known about the nature of dyslexia in adolescence. The current study had two objectives. The first was to investigate the relative contributions of several cognitive and linguistic factors to connected-text oral reading fluency in a sample of…

  13. A Case Study Using SAFMEDS to Promote Fluency with Skinner's Verbal Behavior Terms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockwell, Fawna; Eshlelman, John

    2010-01-01

    Using a deck of 60 Say All Fast a Minute Every Day Shuffled (SAFMEDS) cards, a learner established a fluent verbal repertoire related to the key terms of Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior. This learner was required to see the phrase printed on the front of the card and to say the term printed on the back. Regular timings were recorded…

  14. Training reading fluency among poor readers of German: many ways to the goal.

    PubMed

    Huemer, Sini; Landerl, Karin; Aro, Mikko; Lyytinen, Heikki

    2008-12-01

    Outcomes of two training programs aimed at improving reading speed for 39 German-speaking poor readers in grades 2 and 4 were evaluated. During a 6-week training period, a specific target for children in a computer group was to improve reading of word-initial consonant clusters by practice in associating an orthographic unit with a corresponding phonological unit. Children in a paired reading group read books with an adult tutor. The results showed that, in reading words in which the computer-trained sublexical items were included, both groups exhibited similar improvement. A post hoc analysis suggested that computer training was associated with better reading skills with respect to the trained sublexical items; however, this improvement did not show large generalization effects to the words with the sublexical items. The paired reading group showed a more rapid gain in global word reading fluency than the computer group. Neither of the groups improved their pseudoword reading. PMID:18777137

  15. Performance of psychiatric diagnostic groups on measures and strategies of verbal fluency.

    PubMed

    Helmes, Edward; Hall, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of cognitive deficits in people with psychiatric disorders can increase our understanding of those disorders. Here we contrast the performance of 5 diagnostic groups (n = 120; schizophrenia, mild-to-moderate and moderate-to-severe depression, panic disorder, and healthy controls) on word and letter fluency tasks using 3 scoring systems (Abwender, Swan, Bowerman, & Connolly, 2001 ; Raskin, Silwinski, & Brood, 1992 ; Troyer, Moscovitch, & Winocur, 1997 ) that differ in complexity to determine what system best differentiates diagnostic groups. The 3 scoring methods differ in the range of cognitive strategies assessed and how strategies are defined. Groups with schizophrenia and major depression were hypothesized to show greater deficits in fluency than groups with panic disorder and healthy controls. Results showed that the group with schizophrenia had the lowest level of fluency regardless of scoring method, with the group with severe major depression also showing deficits. The healthy control and panic disorder groups, and unexpectedly, the mild-to-moderate depression group showed few, if any, deficits. The scoring method proposed by Abwender et al. ( 2001 ) proved to be most comprehensive and sensitive to group differences. PMID:26571034

  16. Reduced dorsolateral prefrontal cortical hemodynamic response in adult obsessive-compulsive disorder as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy during the verbal fluency task

    PubMed Central

    Hirosawa, Rikuei; Narumoto, Jin; Sakai, Yuki; Nishida, Seiji; Ishida, Takuya; Nakamae, Takashi; Takei, Yuichi; Fukui, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Background Near-infrared spectroscopy has helped our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms of psychiatric disorders and has advantages including noninvasiveness, lower cost, and ease of use compared with other imaging techniques, like functional magnetic resonance imaging. The verbal fluency task is the most common and well established task used to assess cognitive activation during near-infrared spectroscopy. Recent functional neuroimaging studies have shown that the orbitofrontal cortex and other brain regions, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, may play important roles in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This study aimed to evaluate hemodynamic responses in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in patients with OCD using near-infrared spectroscopy during the verbal fluency task and to compare these with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex responses in healthy controls. Methods Twenty patients with OCD and 20 controls matched for age, gender, handedness, and estimated intelligence quotient participated in this study. The verbal fluency task was used to elicit near-infrared spectroscopic activation and consisted of a 30-second pre-task, followed by three repetitions of a 20-second verbal fluency task (total 60 seconds), followed by a 70-second post-task period. The near-infrared spectroscopy experiment was conducted on the same day as surveys of obsessive-compulsive symptoms, depression, and anxiety. Z-scores for changes in the concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin were compared between the OCD patients and controls in 14 channels set over the left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and frontopolar areas. Results During the verbal fluency task, significant task-related activation was detected in both the OCD group and the controls. Changes in oxygenated hemoglobin concentration in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were significantly smaller in the OCD group than in the controls, but were not statistically

  17. Poor Phonemic Discrimination Does Not Underlie Poor Verbal Short-Term Memory in Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purser, Harry R. M.; Jarrold, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome tend to have a marked impairment of verbal short-term memory. The chief aim of this study was to investigate whether phonemic discrimination contributes to this deficit. The secondary aim was to investigate whether phonological representations are degraded in verbal short-term memory in people with Down syndrome…

  18. Duration of Untreated Psychosis and Brain Function during Verbal Fluency Testing in First-Episode Schizophrenia: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Po-Han; Lin, Wei-Hao; Lin, Chih-Chien; Hou, Po-Hsun; Li, Wan-Rung; Hung, Chia-Chun; Lin, Ching-Po; Lan, Tsuo-Hung; Chan, Chin-Hong

    2015-01-01

    A longer duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) has been associated with poor clinical outcomes in patients with schizophrenia (SZ); however, it remains unclear whether this is due to neurotoxic effects of psychosis. The purpose of this study was to use near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to investigate the influence of DUP on brain function using two verbal fluency tests (VFTs) in patients with first-episode SZ (FES). A total of 28 FES patients and 29 healthy controls (HC) underwent NIRS during VFTs. Group comparisons of cortical activity were made using two-tailed t-tests and the false discovery rate method. We then examined the associations between DUP and hemodynamic changes in each channel to identify any effects of DUP on brain cortical activity. During the letter VFT, the HC group exhibited significantly greater cortical activations over bilateral frontotemporal regions compared to FES patients. However, this distinction was not observed while performing a category version of the VFT. In addition, no associations between DUP and brain cortical activity were observed in the FES group during either VFT. In conclusion, we did not find an association between DUP and frontotemporal cortical activities. This might be because neurodevelopmental disturbances result in neurocognitive deficits long before psychotic symptoms onset. PMID:26656662

  19. Performance of Verbal Fluency as an Endophenotype in Patients with Familial versus Sporadic Schizophrenia and Their Parents

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Sugai; Deng, Wei; Wang, Qiang; Ma, Xiaohong; Li, Mingli; Brown, Matthew R. G.; Hu, Xun; Li, Xinmin; Greenshaw, Andrew J.; Li, Tao

    2016-01-01

    What’s the neurocognitive deficit as an endophenotype to familial schizophrenia? Here, we investigate the neurocognitive endophenotype in first-episode patients with familial schizophrenia (FS) and sporadic schizophrenia (SS), and their parents. 98 FS patients and their 105 parents; 190 SS patients and their 207 parents; 195 controls matched with patients, and 190 controls matched with the patients’ parents, were assessed with the short version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised in China (WAIS-RC), the immediate and delayed logical memory tests from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised in China (WMS-RC), the Verbal Fluency Test (VFT), the Trail Making Test Parts A and B-Modified (TMA, TMB-M), and the Modified Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST-M). The results showed that with age, gender, and education as covariates, after controlling for false discovery rates, the FS group and their parent group performed worse than the SS group and their parent group on VFT. No significant differences were found for other neurocognitive tests between the FS and SS patient groups, and their respective parent groups. Our findings suggest the patients with familial and sporadic schizophrenia and their respective parent groups may have a different genetic predisposition in relation to a cognitive endophenotype. PMID:27581658

  20. Spatial distributions of hemoglobin signals from superficial layers in the forehead during a verbal-fluency task

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohno, Satoru; Hoshi, Yoko

    2016-06-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) signals originate in hemoglobin changes in both the superficial layer of the head and the brain. Under the assumption that the changes in the blood flow in the scalp are spatially homogeneous in the region of interest, a variety of methods for reducing the superficial signals has been proposed. To clarify the spatial distributions of the superficial signals, the superficial signals from the forehead during a verbal-fluency task were investigated by using ten source-detector pairs separated by 5 mm, whereas fNIRS signals were also detected from two source-detector pairs separated by 30 mm. The fNIRS signals strongly correlated with the superficial signals at some channels on the forehead. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed on the temporal cross-correlation coefficients for two channels of both the NIRS signals, and the analysis results demonstrate spatially heterogeneous distributions and network structures of the superficial signals from within the forehead. The results also show that the assumption stated above is invalid for homogeneous superficial signals from any region of interest of 15-mm diameter or larger on the forehead. They also suggest that the spatially heterogeneous distributions may be attributable to vascular networks, including supraorbital, supratrochlear, and superficial temporal vessels.

  1. Increased neural activity during overt and continuous semantic verbal fluency in major depression: mainly a failure to deactivate.

    PubMed

    Backes, Heidelore; Dietsche, Bruno; Nagels, Arne; Stratmann, Mirjam; Konrad, Carsten; Kircher, Tilo; Krug, Axel

    2014-10-01

    Major depression is associated with impairments in semantic verbal fluency (VF). However, the neural correlates underlying dysfunctional cognitive processing in depressed subjects during the production of semantic category members still remain unclear. In the current study, an overt and continuous semantic VF paradigm was used to examine these mechanisms in a representative sample of 33 patients diagnosed with a current episode of unipolar depression and 33 statistically matched healthy controls. Subjects articulated words in response to semantic category cues while brain activity was measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Compared to controls, patients showed poorer task performance. On the neural level, a group by condition interaction analysis, corrected for task performance, revealed a reduced task-related deactivation in patients in the right parahippocampal gyrus, the right fusiform gyrus, and the right supplementary motor area. An additional and an increased task-related activation in patients were observed in the right precentral gyrus and the left cerebellum, respectively. These results indicate that a failure to suppress potentially interfering activity from inferior temporal regions involved in default-mode network functions and visual imagery, accompanied by an enhanced recruitment of areas implicated in speech initiation and higher-order language processes, may underlie dysfunctional cognitive processing during semantic VF in depression. The finding that patients with depression demonstrated both decreased performance and aberrant brain activation during the current semantic VF task demonstrates that this paradigm is a sensitive tool for assessing brain dysfunctions in clinical populations. PMID:24557502

  2. Performance of Verbal Fluency as an Endophenotype in Patients with Familial versus Sporadic Schizophrenia and Their Parents.

    PubMed

    Liang, Sugai; Deng, Wei; Wang, Qiang; Ma, Xiaohong; Li, Mingli; Brown, Matthew R G; Hu, Xun; Li, Xinmin; Greenshaw, Andrew J; Li, Tao

    2016-01-01

    What's the neurocognitive deficit as an endophenotype to familial schizophrenia? Here, we investigate the neurocognitive endophenotype in first-episode patients with familial schizophrenia (FS) and sporadic schizophrenia (SS), and their parents. 98 FS patients and their 105 parents; 190 SS patients and their 207 parents; 195 controls matched with patients, and 190 controls matched with the patients' parents, were assessed with the short version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised in China (WAIS-RC), the immediate and delayed logical memory tests from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised in China (WMS-RC), the Verbal Fluency Test (VFT), the Trail Making Test Parts A and B-Modified (TMA, TMB-M), and the Modified Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST-M). The results showed that with age, gender, and education as covariates, after controlling for false discovery rates, the FS group and their parent group performed worse than the SS group and their parent group on VFT. No significant differences were found for other neurocognitive tests between the FS and SS patient groups, and their respective parent groups. Our findings suggest the patients with familial and sporadic schizophrenia and their respective parent groups may have a different genetic predisposition in relation to a cognitive endophenotype. PMID:27581658

  3. Towards a ternary NIRS-BCI: single-trial classification of verbal fluency task, Stroop task and unconstrained rest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schudlo, Larissa C.; Chau, Tom

    2015-12-01

    Objective. The majority of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) brain-computer interface (BCI) studies have investigated binary classification problems. Limited work has considered differentiation of more than two mental states, or multi-class differentiation of higher-level cognitive tasks using measurements outside of the anterior prefrontal cortex. Improvements in accuracies are needed to deliver effective communication with a multi-class NIRS system. We investigated the feasibility of a ternary NIRS-BCI that supports mental states corresponding to verbal fluency task (VFT) performance, Stroop task performance, and unconstrained rest using prefrontal and parietal measurements. Approach. Prefrontal and parietal NIRS signals were acquired from 11 able-bodied adults during rest and performance of the VFT or Stroop task. Classification was performed offline using bagging with a linear discriminant base classifier trained on a 10 dimensional feature set. Main results. VFT, Stroop task and rest were classified at an average accuracy of 71.7% ± 7.9%. The ternary classification system provided a statistically significant improvement in information transfer rate relative to a binary system controlled by either mental task (0.87 ± 0.35 bits/min versus 0.73 ± 0.24 bits/min). Significance. These results suggest that effective communication can be achieved with a ternary NIRS-BCI that supports VFT, Stroop task and rest via measurements from the frontal and parietal cortices. Further development of such a system is warranted. Accurate ternary classification can enhance communication rates offered by NIRS-BCIs, improving the practicality of this technology.

  4. The Differential Contributions of Auditory-Verbal and Visuospatial Working Memory on Decoding Skills in Children Who Are Poor Decoders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, Katie Ellen

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the differential contribution of auditory-verbal and visuospatial working memory (WM) on decoding skills in second- and fifth-grade children identified with poor decoding. Thirty-two second-grade students and 22 fifth-grade students completed measures that assessed simple and complex auditory-verbal and visuospatial memory,…

  5. The role of working memory and verbal fluency in autobiographical memory in early Alzheimer's disease and matched controls.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Maxwell J; Cifelli, Alberto; Garrard, Peter; Caine, Diana; Jones, Fergal W

    2015-11-01

    Retrieval of autobiographical memories (AMs) is important for "sense of self". Previous research and theoretical accounts suggest that working memory (WM) and semantic and phonemic fluency abilities facilitate the hierarchical search for, and reliving of past, personal events in the mind's eye. However, there remains a lack of consensus as to the nature of the relationships between these cognitive functions and the truly episodic aspects of AM. The present study therefore aimed to explore the associations between these variables in a sample with a wide range of cognitive abilities. The study incorporated a between-groups component, and a correlational component with multiple regression. Participants with Alzheimer's disease (n=10) and matched healthy controls (n=10) were assessed on measures of semantic and episodic AM search and retrieval, auditory and spatial WM, and semantic and phonemic fluency. The AD group produced less episodic AM content compared to controls. Semantic fluency predicted episodic AM retrieval independent of age effects but there were no significant relationships between measures of phonemic fluency, WM and episodic AM. The results suggest that the ability to maintain hierarchical search of the semantic knowledge-base is important for truly episodic reliving, and interventions for people with AM impairment might therefore benefit from incorporating structured, individualised external memory-aids to facilitate AM search and retrieval. PMID:26443928

  6. Intellectual Abilities That Discriminate Good and Poor Problem Solvers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Ruth Ann

    1981-01-01

    This study compared good and poor fourth-grade problem solvers on a battery of 19 "reference" tests for verbal, induction, numerical, word fluency, memory, perceptual speed, and simple visualization abilities. Results suggest verbal, numerical, and especially induction abilities are important to successful mathematical problem solving. (MP)

  7. Training Reading Fluency among Poor Readers of German: Many Ways to the Goal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huemer, Sini; Landerl, Karin; Aro, Mikko; Lyytinen, Heikki

    2008-01-01

    Outcomes of two training programs aimed at improving reading speed for 39 German-speaking poor readers in grades 2 and 4 were evaluated. During a 6-week training period, a specific target for children in a "computer group" was to improve reading of word-initial consonant clusters by practice in associating an orthographic unit with a corresponding…

  8. Functional MRI, resting state fMRI, and DTI for predicting verbal fluency outcome following resective surgery for temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Osipowicz, Karol; Sperling, Michael R; Sharan, Ashwini D; Tracy, Joseph I

    2016-04-01

    OBJECT Predicting cognitive function following resective surgery remains an important clinical goal. Each MRI neuroimaging technique can potentially provide unique and distinct insight into changes that occur in the structural or functional organization of "at-risk" cognitive functions. The authors tested for the singular and combined power of 3 imaging techniques (functional MRI [fMRI], resting state fMRI, diffusion tensor imaging) to predict cognitive outcome following left (dominant) anterior temporal lobectomy for intractable epilepsy. METHODS The authors calculated the degree of deviation from normal, determined the rate of change in this measure across the pre- and postsurgical imaging sessions, and then compared these measures for their ability to predict verbal fluency changes following surgery. RESULTS The data show that the 3 neuroimaging techniques, in a combined model, can reliably predict cognitive outcome following anterior temporal lobectomy for medically intractable temporal lobe epilepsy. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that these 3 imaging modalities can be used effectively, in an additive fashion, to predict functional reorganization and cognitive outcome following anterior temporal lobectomy. PMID:26406797

  9. Reduced prefrontal activation during a verbal fluency task in Chinese-speaking patients with schizophrenia as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Quan, Wenxiang; Wu, Tongning; Li, Zhaohua; Wang, Yuduo; Dong, Wentian; Lv, Bin

    2015-04-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been applied to examine the possible functional alternations during the performance of cognitive tasks in schizophrenia. With this technique, previous studies have observed that patients with schizophrenia are often associated with reduced brain activation in the prefrontal cortex during the verbal fluency task (VFT) of the English version or the Japanese version. However, it remains unclear whether there is a brain functional impairment in Chinese-speaking patients with schizophrenia. In this study, we designed a Chinese version of the VFT and performed a multichannel NIRS study in a large group of patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. We investigated brain activation during the task period of the Chinese version of the VFT within a schizophrenia group and a healthy group, respectively, and compared the relative changes between the two groups. Our results confirmed that Chinese-speaking patients with schizophrenia had significantly lower brain activation in the prefrontal cortex and superior temporal cortex when compared with healthy controls. Such findings based on the NIRS data provided us reliable evidences about brain functional deficits in the Chinese-speaking patients with schizophrenia. PMID:25542372

  10. Fluency Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasinski, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Although reading fluency has been dismissed and overlooked as an important component of effective reading instruction, the author makes that case that fluency continues to be essential for success in learning to read. Moreover, many students who struggle in reading manifest difficulties in reading fluency. After defining reading fluency, the…

  11. Frontal and right temporal activations correlate negatively with depression severity during verbal fluency task: a multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Noda, Takamasa; Yoshida, Sumiko; Matsuda, Taro; Okamoto, Nagahisa; Sakamoto, Kota; Koseki, Shunsuke; Numachi, Yotaro; Matsushima, Eisuke; Kunugi, Hiroshi; Higuchi, Teruhiko

    2012-07-01

    Multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a noninvasive, on-the-spot, functional neuroimaging technique allowing detection of the spatiotemporal characteristics of brain activity. Previous NIRS studies indicated the oxy-hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) increase during a verbal fluency task (VFT) is attenuated in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) as compared with healthy controls. However, the possible relationship between depression symptom severity and oxy-Hb change on NIRS has not yet been elucidated. To examine this relationship, we recruited 30 patients with MDD and 30 age-, gender- and intelligence quotient-matched controls. All underwent NIRS during VFT. As expected, the oxy-Hb increase during the task was significantly smaller in patients than in controls. After false discovery rate correction using 31 channels, the mean increase in oxy-Hb during the task showed a significant negative correlation with the total score of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression 21-item version (ch25: rho = -.56; FDR-corrected p: .001). When each item of the HAM-D21 was examined individually, insomnia early in 9 channels (rho = -.63 to -.46; FDR corrected p: .000-.014), work and activity in 2 channels (rho = -.61 to -.57; FDR corrected p: .001 to .003) and psychomotor retardation in 12 channels (rho = -.70 to -.44; FDR corrected p: .000-.018) showed significant negative correlations with the mean oxy-Hb increase in the right frontal temporal region. Although it is possible that our results were affected by medication, these data suggest reduced right frontal temporal activation on NIRS during VFT is related to the symptom severity of MDD. PMID:22572569

  12. Association of decreased prefrontal hemodynamic response during a verbal fluency task with EGR3 gene polymorphism in patients with schizophrenia and in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Yukika; Takizawa, Ryu; Koike, Shinsuke; Kinoshita, Akihide; Satomura, Yoshihiro; Kawasaki, Shingo; Yamasue, Hidenori; Tochigi, Mamoru; Kakiuchi, Chihiro; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Yamada, Kazuo; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2014-01-15

    The early growth response 3 (EGR3) gene is an immediate early gene that is expressed throughout the brain and has been suggested as a potential susceptibility gene for schizophrenia (SZ). EGR3 impairment is associated with various neurodevelopmental dysfunctions, and some animal studies have reported a role for EGR3 function in the prefrontal cortex. Therefore, EGR3 genotype variation may be reflected in prefrontal function. By using multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in an imaging genetics approach, we tested for an association between the EGR3 gene polymorphism and prefrontal hemodynamic response during a cognitive task in patients with SZ. We assessed 73 chronic patients with SZ and 73 age-, gender-, and genotype-matched healthy controls (HC) who provided written informed consent. We used NIRS to measure changes in prefrontal oxygenated hemoglobin concentration (oxyHb) during the letter version of a verbal fluency task (VFT). Statistical comparisons were performed among EGR3 genotype subgroups (rs35201266, GG/GA/AA). The AA genotype group showed significantly smaller oxyHb increases in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during the VFT than the GG and GA genotype groups; this was true for both patients with SZ and HC. Our findings provide in vivo human evidence of a significant influence of EGR3 polymorphisms on prefrontal hemodynamic activation level in healthy adults and in patients with SZ. Genetic variation in EGR3 may affect prefrontal function through neurodevelopment. This study illustrates the usefulness of NIRS in imaging genetics investigations on psychiatric disorders. PMID:23962955

  13. A computational linguistic measure of clustering behavior on semantic verbal fluency task predicts risk of future dementia in the nun study.

    PubMed

    Pakhomov, Serguei V S; Hemmy, Laura S

    2014-06-01

    Generative semantic verbal fluency (SVF) tests show early and disproportionate decline relative to other abilities in individuals developing Alzheimer's disease. Optimal performance on SVF tests depends on the efficiency of using clustered organization of semantically related items and the ability to switch between clusters. Traditional approaches to clustering and switching have relied on manual determination of clusters. We evaluated a novel automated computational linguistic approach for quantifying clustering behavior. Our approach is based on Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) for computing strength of semantic relatedness between pairs of words produced in response to SVF test. The mean size of semantic clusters (MCS) and semantic chains (MChS) are calculated based on pairwise relatedness values between words. We evaluated the predictive validity of these measures on a set of 239 participants in the Nun Study, a longitudinal study of aging. All were cognitively intact at baseline assessment, measured with the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) battery, and were followed in 18-month waves for up to 20 years. The onset of either dementia or memory impairment were used as outcomes in Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age and education and censored at follow-up waves 5 (6.3 years) and 13 (16.96 years). Higher MCS was associated with 38% reduction in dementia risk at wave 5 and 26% reduction at wave 13, but not with the onset of memory impairment. Higher [+1 standard deviation (SD)] MChS was associated with 39% dementia risk reduction at wave 5 but not wave 13, and association with memory impairment was not significant. Higher traditional SVF scores were associated with 22-29% memory impairment and 35-40% dementia risk reduction. SVF scores were not correlated with either MCS or MChS. Our study suggests that an automated approach to measuring clustering behavior can be used to estimate dementia risk in cognitively normal

  14. Caregiver-Child Verbal Interactions in Child Care: A Buffer against Poor Language Outcomes when Maternal Language Input is Less

    PubMed Central

    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Bratsch-Hines, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that high quality child care can buffer young children against poorer cognitive and language outcomes when they are at risk for poorer language and readiness skills. Most of this research measured the quality of parenting and the quality of the child care with global observational measures or rating scales that did not specify the exact maternal or caregiver behaviors that might be causally implicated in the buffering of these children from poor outcomes. The current study examined the actual language by the mother to her child in the home and the verbal interactions between the caregiver and child in the child care setting that might be implicated in the buffering effect of high quality childcare. The sample included 433 rural children from the Family Life Project who were in child care at 36 months of age. Even after controlling for a variety of covariates, including maternal education, income, race, child previous skill, child care type, the overall quality of the home and quality of the child care environment; observed positive caregiver-child verbal interactions in the child care setting interacted with the maternal language complexity and diversity in predicting children’s language development. Caregiver-child positive verbal interactions appeared to buffer children from poor language outcomes concurrently and two years later if children came from homes where observed maternal language complexity and diversity during a picture book task was less. PMID:24634566

  15. Caregiver-Child Verbal Interactions in Child Care: A Buffer against Poor Language Outcomes when Maternal Language Input is Less.

    PubMed

    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Bratsch-Hines, Mary E

    2013-12-01

    Recent research has suggested that high quality child care can buffer young children against poorer cognitive and language outcomes when they are at risk for poorer language and readiness skills. Most of this research measured the quality of parenting and the quality of the child care with global observational measures or rating scales that did not specify the exact maternal or caregiver behaviors that might be causally implicated in the buffering of these children from poor outcomes. The current study examined the actual language by the mother to her child in the home and the verbal interactions between the caregiver and child in the child care setting that might be implicated in the buffering effect of high quality childcare. The sample included 433 rural children from the Family Life Project who were in child care at 36 months of age. Even after controlling for a variety of covariates, including maternal education, income, race, child previous skill, child care type, the overall quality of the home and quality of the child care environment; observed positive caregiver-child verbal interactions in the child care setting interacted with the maternal language complexity and diversity in predicting children's language development. Caregiver-child positive verbal interactions appeared to buffer children from poor language outcomes concurrently and two years later if children came from homes where observed maternal language complexity and diversity during a picture book task was less. PMID:24634566

  16. Semantic fluency and phonemic fluency: regression-based norms for the Portuguese population.

    PubMed

    Cavaco, Sara; Gonçalves, Alexandra; Pinto, Cláudia; Almeida, Eduarda; Gomes, Filomena; Moreira, Inês; Fernandes, Joana; Teixeira-Pinto, Armando

    2013-05-01

    The main goal of this study was to produce adjusted normative data for the Portuguese population on two verbal fluency measures: the semantic fluency test (animals category) and the phonemic fluency test (letters M, R, and P). The study included 950 community-dwelling individuals (624 women and 326 men) aged between 18 and 98 (mean = 57.8, SD = 19.0), who had educational backgrounds ranging from 0 to 20 years (mean = 8.8, SD = 5.2). The results showed that age and education were significantly associated with semantic fluency and phonemic fluency performance. These demographic characteristics accounted for 42% of the semantic fluency and between 23% and 31% of the phonemic fluency performance variance. No significant sex effects were found. The normative data are presented as regression-based algorithms to adjust test scores for age and education, with subsequent correspondence between adjusted scores and percentile distribution. PMID:23341434

  17. On Which Abilities Are Category Fluency and Letter Fluency Grounded? A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of 53 Alzheimer's Dementia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bizzozero, Ilaria; Scotti, Stefania; Clerici, Francesca; Pomati, Simone; Laiacona, Marcella; Capitani, Erminio

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims In Alzheimer's dementia (AD), letter fluency is less impaired than category fluency. To check whether category fluency and letter fluency depend differently on semantics and attention, 53 mild AD patients were given animal and letter fluency tasks, two semantic tests (the Verbal Semantic Questionnaire and the BORB Association Match test), and two attentional tests (the Stroop Colour-Word Interference test and the Digit Cancellation test). Methods We conducted a LISREL confirmatory factor analysis to check the extent to which category fluency and letter fluency tasks were related to semantics and attention, viewed as latent variables. Results Both types of fluency tasks were related to the latent variable Semantics but not to the latent variable Attention. Conclusions Our findings warn against interpreting the disproportionate impairment of AD patients on category and letter fluency as a contrast between semantics and attention. PMID:23885263

  18. Analysis of Speech Fluency in Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Natalia Freitas; Sampaio, Adriana; Goncalves, Oscar F.; Giacheti, Celia Maria

    2011-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder, often referred as being characterized by dissociation between verbal and non-verbal abilities, although the number of studies disputing this proposal is emerging. Indeed, although they have been traditionally reported as displaying increased speech fluency, this topic has not been…

  19. A Comparison of the Intellectual Abilities of Good and Poor Problem Solvers: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Ruth Ann

    This study examined a selected sample of fourth-grade students who had been previously identified as good or poor problem solvers. The pupils were compared on variables considered as "reference tests" for Verbal, Induction, Numerical, Word Fluency, Memory, Spatial Visualization, and Perceptual Speed abilities. The data were compiled to indicate…

  20. Brain energy metabolism in Alzheimer's disease: 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT imaging during verbal fluency and role of astrocytes in the cellular mechanism of 99mTc-HMPAO retention.

    PubMed

    Slosman, D O; Ludwig, C; Zerarka, S; Pellerin, L; Chicherio, C; de Ribaupierre, A; Annoni, J M; Bouras, C; Herrmann, F; Michel, J P; Giacobini, E; Magistretti, P J

    2001-10-01

    The central hypothesis of the study which has been carried out as part of the NRP38 program, is that perturbations of brain energy metabolism are critically involved in the neurodegeneration occurring in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and that they may correlate with early cognitive dysfunctioning. In the present multidisciplinary study we set out to monitor brain energy metabolism using FDG-PET and HMPAO-SPECT imaging in a cohort of individuals over 65 years of age, drawn from the general population. HMPAO-SPECT imaging, which is a simpler and more widely accessible imaging procedure than FDG-PET, was performed under basal conditions and during the performance of a cognitive task (verbal fluency test). Three groups were studied. Two groups (groups I and II) included individuals age 65 or more, with no cognitive impairment and carrying an APOE4 positive or APOE4 negative phenotype, respectively; a third group (group III) included patients with clinical signs of AD. Each subject entering the study underwent an FDG-PET, an HMPAO-SPECT and an extensive battery of neuropsychological tests which assess various aspects of cognitive functioning, with a strong emphasis on working memory, divided attention and executive functions. A total of 101 participants were submitted to brain imaging and neuropsychological testing. Among these, 60 participants received the same set of imaging and neuropsychological tasks 24-36 months after the first set (phase II). In this article, we present a preliminary analysis performed on ten subjects from groups I and II and nine subjects from group III: activation (verbal fluency task) induced a specific pattern of increase in HMPAO retention (including BA 9/10, BA 18 bilaterally and right BA 17). In contrast to controls, in nine AD subjects no significant differences in HMPAO retention were observed when comparing activation and basal conditions. The cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie the retention of HMPAO, the tracer used for single

  1. Linguistic and Cultural Factors Associated with Phonemic Fluency Performance in Bilingual Hispanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Verbal fluency tasks are used extensively in clinical settings because of their sensitivity to a wide variety of disorders, including cognitive decline and dementia, and their usefulness in differential diagnoses. However, the effects of bilingualism on neuropsychological assessment, and verbal fluency in particular, are currently not completely…

  2. Genetic Architecture of Verbal Abilities in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoekstra, Rosa A.; Bartels, Meike; van Leeuwen, Marieke; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2009-01-01

    The etiology of individual differences in general verbal ability, verbal learning and letter and category fluency were examined in two independent samples of 9- and 18-year-old twin pairs and their siblings. In both age groups, we observed strong familial resemblance for general verbal ability and moderate familial resemblance for verbal learning,…

  3. Neonatal mortality in India's rural poor: Findings of a household survey and verbal autopsy study in Rajasthan, Bihar and Odisha.

    PubMed

    Dogra, Vishal; Khanna, Rajesh; Jain, Anuradha; Kumar, Ajay M V; Shewade, Hemant D; Majumdar, Suman S

    2015-06-01

    In 2011, Save the Children India launched a project for the disadvantaged population of Rajasthan, Bihar and Odisha. As a baseline activity, neonatal deaths during January-December 2012 were investigated using modified verbal autopsy tool in six sub-district-level administrative units (blocks) adopting 30-cluster sample survey approach. Our study reported a total of 189 neonatal deaths of which 50% occurred at home and 39% happened on Day 1. About half of the deaths occurred in blocks from Bihar. High number of neonatal deaths belonged to households that were below poverty line (64%) and other disadvantaged classes (46%); among mothers who were illiterate (65%), <20 years of age (54%) and during their first-order births (36%). Birth asphyxia was a major cause of neonatal deaths across all blocks. These findings indicate need for easy and early access to transport services, specialized neonatal care and advocacy targeted towards increasing community awareness. PMID:25825343

  4. Word Retrieval Ability on Phonemic Fluency in Typically Developing Children.

    PubMed

    John, Sunila; Rajashekhar, Bellur; Guddattu, Vasudeva

    2016-01-01

    Verbal fluency tasks are simple behavioral measures useful in assessing word retrieval abilities. Among the verbal fluency tasks, the utility of the Phonemic Fluency Task in children has received less attention. As the task is dependent on phonemic characteristics of each language, there is a great need for understanding its developmental trend. The present study, therefore, aims to delineate the performance on phonemic fluency in typically developing Malayalam-speaking children. Verbal fluency performance on 2 tasks of phonemic fluency was tested using a cross-sectional study design among 1,015 school-going Malayalam-speaking typically developing children aged 5 to 15 years old. Performance with respect to word productivity and clustering-switching measures was analyzed. The effect of age, gender, and tasks on the outcome measures were investigated in the present study. Study findings revealed a positive influence of age with no statistically significant gender effects. Children employed both task-discrepant and task-consistent organizational strategies during tasks of phonemic fluency, dependent purely on the Malayalam language. Future research focusing on developmental trends across different languages is vital for enhancing the task's clinical sensitivity and specificity among childhood disorders. PMID:26980155

  5. Assessing Basic Fact Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kling, Gina; Bay-Williams, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors share a variety of ways to formatively assess basic fact fluency. The define fluency, raise some issues related to timed testing, and then share a collection of classroom-tested ideas for authentic fact fluency assessment. This article encourages teachers to try a variety of alternative assessments from this sampling,…

  6. The differing roles of the frontal cortex in fluency tests

    PubMed Central

    Shallice, Tim; Bozzali, Marco; Cipolotti, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Fluency tasks have been widely used to tap the voluntary generation of responses. The anatomical correlates of fluency tasks and their sensitivity and specificity have been hotly debated. However, investigation of the cognitive processes involved in voluntary generation of responses and whether generation is supported by a common, general process (e.g. fluid intelligence) or specific cognitive processes underpinned by particular frontal regions has rarely been addressed. This study investigates a range of verbal and non-verbal fluency tasks in patients with unselected focal frontal (n = 47) and posterior (n = 20) lesions. Patients and controls (n = 35) matched for education, age and sex were administered fluency tasks including word (phonemic/semantic), design, gesture and ideational fluency as well as background cognitive tests. Lesions were analysed by standard anterior/posterior and left/right frontal subdivisions as well as a finer-grained frontal localization method. Thus, patients with right and left lateral lesions were compared to patients with superior medial lesions. The results show that all eight fluency tasks are sensitive to frontal lobe damage although only the phonemic word and design fluency tasks were specific to the frontal region. Superior medial patients were the only group to be impaired on all eight fluency tasks, relative to controls, consistent with an energization deficit. The most marked fluency deficits for lateral patients were along material specific lines (i.e. left—phonemic and right—design). Phonemic word fluency that requires greater selection was most severely impaired following left inferior frontal damage. Overall, our results support the notion that frontal functions comprise a set of specialized cognitive processes, supported by distinct frontal regions. PMID:22669082

  7. Phonological Fluency Strategy of Switching Differentiates Relapsing-Remitting and Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Messinis, L.; Kosmidis, M. H.; Vlahou, C.; Malegiannaki, A. C.; Gatzounis, G.; Dimisianos, N.; Karra, A.; Kiosseoglou, G.; Gourzis, P.; Papathanasopoulos, P.

    2013-01-01

    The strategies used to perform a verbal fluency task appear to be reflective of cognitive abilities necessary for successful daily functioning. In the present study, we explored potential differences in verbal fluency strategies (switching and clustering) used to maximize word production by patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) versus patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS). We further assessed impairment rates and potential differences in the sensitivity and specificity of phonological versus semantic verbal fluency tasks in discriminating between those with a diagnosis of MS and healthy adults. We found that the overall rate of impaired verbal fluency in our MS sample was consistent with that in other studies. However, we found no differences between types of MS (SPMS, RRMS), on semantic or phonological fluency word production, or the strategies used to maximize semantic fluency. In contrast, we found that the number of switches differed significantly in the phonological fluency task between the SPMS and RRMS subtypes. The clinical utility of semantic versus phonological fluency in discriminating MS patients from healthy controls did not indicate any significant differences. Further, the strategies used to maximize performance did not differentiate MS subgroups or MS patients from healthy controls. PMID:23401793

  8. Strategy Effects on Word Searching in Japanese Letter Fluency Tests: Evidence from the NIRS Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatta, Takeshi; Kanari, Ayano; Mase, Mitsuhito; Nagano, Yuko; Shirataki, Tatsuaki; Hibino, Shinji

    2009-01-01

    Strategy effects on word searching in the Japanese letter fluency test were investigated using the Near-infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS). Participants were given a Japanese letter fluency test and they were classified into two types of strategy users, based on analysis of their recorded verbal responses. One group, AIUEO-order strategy users, employed…

  9. Phonological fluency strategy of switching differentiates relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Messinis, L; Kosmidis, M H; Vlahou, C; Malegiannaki, A C; Gatzounis, G; Dimisianos, N; Karra, A; Kiosseoglou, G; Gourzis, P; Papathanasopoulos, P

    2013-01-01

    The strategies used to perform a verbal fluency task appear to be reflective of cognitive abilities necessary for successful daily functioning. In the present study, we explored potential differences in verbal fluency strategies (switching and clustering) used to maximize word production by patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) versus patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS). We further assessed impairment rates and potential differences in the sensitivity and specificity of phonological versus semantic verbal fluency tasks in discriminating between those with a diagnosis of MS and healthy adults. We found that the overall rate of impaired verbal fluency in our MS sample was consistent with that in other studies. However, we found no differences between types of MS (SPMS, RRMS), on semantic or phonological fluency word production, or the strategies used to maximize semantic fluency. In contrast, we found that the number of switches differed significantly in the phonological fluency task between the SPMS and RRMS subtypes. The clinical utility of semantic versus phonological fluency in discriminating MS patients from healthy controls did not indicate any significant differences. Further, the strategies used to maximize performance did not differentiate MS subgroups or MS patients from healthy controls. PMID:23401793

  10. Improving Speaking Fluency for International Teaching Assistants by Increasing Input

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorsuch, Greta J.

    2011-01-01

    One challenge for many international teaching assistants (ITAs) is improving their spoken English fluency after arrival in the U.S.A. It may be argued that poor fluency, with its hallmarks of slow speech rate, false starts, and particularly pauses that violate phrasal boundaries, account for the failure of many ITAs to be certified by their…

  11. Attentional Regulation in Young Twins with Probable Stuttering, High Nonfluency, and Typical Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felsenfeld, Susan; van Beljsterveldt, Catharina Eugenie Maria; Boomsma, Dorret Irene

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Using a sample of 20,445 Dutch twins, this study examined the relationship between speech fluency and attentional regulation in children. A secondary objective was to identify etiological overlap between nonfluency and poor attention using fluency-discordant twin pairs. Method: Three fluency groups were created at age 5 using a parent…

  12. Analysis of speech fluency in Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Natalia Freitas; Sampaio, Adriana; Gonçalves, Oscar F; Giacheti, Célia Maria

    2011-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder, often referred as being characterized by dissociation between verbal and non-verbal abilities, although the number of studies disputing this proposal is emerging. Indeed, although they have been traditionally reported as displaying increased speech fluency, this topic has not been fully addressed in research. In previous studies carried out with a small group of individuals with WS, we reported speech breakdowns during conversational and autobiographical narratives suggestive of language difficulties. In the current study, we characterized the speech fluency profile using an ecologically based measure--a narrative task (story generation) was collected from a group of individuals with WS (n = 30) and typically developing group (n = 39) matched in mental age. Oral narratives were elicited using a picture stimulus--the cookie theft picture from Boston Diagnosis Aphasia Test. All narratives were analyzed according to typology and frequency of fluency breakdowns (non-stuttered and stuttered disfluencies). Oral narratives in WS group differed from typically developing group, mainly due to a significant increase in the frequency of disfluencies, particularly in terms of hesitations, repetitions and pauses. This is the first evidence of disfluencies in WS using an ecologically based task (oral narrative task), suggesting that these speech disfluencies may represent a significant marker of language problems in WS. PMID:21624815

  13. An Examination of the Relation of Nonsense Word Fluency Initial Status and Gains to Reading Outcomes for Beginning Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fien, Hank; Park, Yonghan; Baker, Scott K.; Smith, Jean L. Mercier; Stoolmiller, Mike; Kame'enui, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    A theory-based approach was used to investigate the relations among Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF) initial skill status in the fall of first grade, NWF growth across the school year, and end-of-year oral reading fluency and reading comprehension (RC) skill. Hypotheses were anchored to Perfetti's verbal efficiency theory and the role of automaticity…

  14. Degree of Conversational Code-Switching Enhances Verbal Task Switching in Cantonese-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yim, Odilia; Bialystok, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    The study examined individual differences in code-switching to determine the relationship between code-switching frequency and performance in verbal and non-verbal task switching. Seventy-eight Cantonese-English bilinguals completed a semi-structured conversation to quantify natural code-switching, a verbal fluency task requiring language…

  15. Improving oral reading fluency with a peer-mediated intervention.

    PubMed

    Hofstadter-Duke, Kristi L; Daly, Edward J

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of an experimentally derived, peer-delivered reading intervention on the oral reading fluency of a first-grade student who had been referred for poor reading fluency. Same-grade peers were trained to lead the target student through a structured intervention protocol based on the results of a brief experimental analysis. Results indicated that reading improvements were obtained and are discussed in terms of selecting efficient interventions for use by peers. PMID:21941397

  16. Differential Impacts of Age of Acquisition on Letter and Semantic Fluency in Alzheimer’s Disease Patients and Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sailor, Kevin M.; Zimmerman, Molly E.; Sanders, Amy E.

    2013-01-01

    The degree to which the typical age of acquisition (AoA) of words and word frequency have separable influences on verbal production tasks has been strongly debated. To examine the overlap between these factors in verbal fluency tasks, the performance of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients (N=34) and normal elderly controls (N=36) was compared on semantic (e.g., vegetables) and letter (e.g. words that begin with F) fluency tasks. These comparisons revealed that words generated for the semantic fluency task had an earlier AoA while words generated for the letter fluency task had a higher word frequency.. Differences in AoA between AD patients and controls were larger for semantic than letter fluency. These results suggest that AoA has an effect on verbal production that is independent of word frequency and that AoA has a semantic locus. PMID:21851152

  17. Ver al Fluency of Hispanic, Black and White Children on TAT and TEMAS, A New Thematic Apperception Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costantino, Giuseppe; Malgady, Robert G.

    1983-01-01

    Compares verbal fluency of 156 K-6 urban children (72 Hispanic, 41 Black, 43 White) using the Thematic Apperception Test and two versions of TEMAS, a new thematic apperception test using minority or nonminority characters, cultural themes, and urban backgrounds. Finds females more verbally fluent and Hispanics/Blacks more fluent on TEMAS. (MH)

  18. Fluency with Basic Addition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garza-Kling, Gina

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, learning basic facts has focused on rote memorization of isolated facts, typically through the use of flash cards, repeated drilling, and timed testing. However, as many experienced teachers have seen, "drill alone does not develop mastery of single-digit combinations." In contrast, a fluency approach to learning basic addition…

  19. Fluency Variation in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Andrade, Claudia Regina Furquim; Martins, Vanessa De Oliveira

    2007-01-01

    The Speech Fluency Profile of fluent adolescent speakers of Brazilian Portuguese, were examined with respect to gender and neurolinguistic variations. Speech samples of 130 male and female adolescents, aged between 12;0 and 17;11 years were gathered. They were analysed according to type of speech disruption; speech rate; and frequency of speech…

  20. Putting the Fun Back into Fluency Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Mary Ann; Gregory, Anne E.

    2011-01-01

    Based on recent research in fluency instruction, the authors present a scenario in which a teacher focuses her fluency instruction on authentic fluency tasks based in performance. Beginning with establishing a student-friendly definition of fluency and culminating with student engagement in fun fluency activities, this article explores the…

  1. Fluency effects in recognition memory: are perceptual fluency and conceptual fluency interchangeable?

    PubMed

    Lanska, Meredith; Olds, Justin M; Westerman, Deanne L

    2014-01-01

    On a recognition memory test, both perceptual and conceptual fluency can engender a sense of familiarity and elicit recognition memory illusions. To date, perceptual and conceptual fluency have been studied separately but are they interchangeable in terms of their influence on recognition judgments? Five experiments compared the effect of perceptual and conceptual fluency on recognition. The results suggest that under standard intentional encoding instructions participants were influenced by conceptual and perceptual fluency manipulations to a similar degree (Experiments 1a and 1b). When the perceptual features of the stimuli were emphasized during encoding, the perceptual fluency manipulation had a stronger influence on recognition memory decisions than the conceptual fluency manipulation (Experiment 2). Enhanced conceptual processing at encoding served to nullify the influence of both perceptual and conceptual fluency on the test (Experiment 3). The nature of the test instructions also influenced the relative contribution of perceptual versus conceptual fluency manipulations to the recognition judgment. In Experiment 4, the influence of conceptual fluency was larger when the recognition instructions were meaning based (a synonym recognition test) than with standard recognition instructions. Collectively, the results suggest that the relative contribution of perceptual and conceptual fluency depends on both encoding and test factors. PMID:24001021

  2. An Exploratory Study of a Color Association Exercise for the Assessment of Verbal Creative Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britt, Morris F.

    A Color Association Exercise (CAE) with four scales (Originality, Abstraction, Fluency, and Elaboration) was devised to assess verbal creative ability. When administered to 173 adolescent students, the Color Association Exercise appeared to have only moderate potential as an assessment technique for verbal creative ability. Abstraction and…

  3. Word retrieval ability on semantic fluency task in typically developing Malayalam-speaking children.

    PubMed

    John, Sunila; Rajashekhar, Bellur

    2014-03-01

    Word-retrieval abilities in children can be assessed using word generation or verbal fluency task. The ability to retrieve is related to the individual's ability to retrieve associated words from the mental lexicon in an organized manner. The present study focuses on the developmental aspects of semantic fluency in 1,015 Malayalam-speaking children in the age range of 5 years to 15 years across both genders. The study revealed a developmental trend in the mean total number of correct word scores, number of clusters generated, and switching scores; however, mean cluster size did not show any statistically significant variation. Further, the scores did not vary across genders. Overall, the study indicated a linear developmental trend during verbal fluency with the increase in complexity of strategy use. PMID:23320414

  4. Aspects of Fluency in Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uppstad, Per Henning; Solheim, Oddny Judith

    2007-01-01

    The notion of "fluency" is most often associated with spoken-language phenomena such as stuttering. The present article investigates the relevance of considering fluency in writing. The basic argument for raising this question is empirical--it follows from a focus on difficulties in written and spoken language as manifestations of different…

  5. Self-Adjusting Fluency Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Phillip

    1998-01-01

    Presents a rationale and methodology for a self-adjusting "fluency sensitive" approach to working with children who exhibit overt speech-fluency interruptions and a minimal amount of avoidance behavior. The approach emphasizes repeated experiences of volitional increases and decreases in loudness and pauses. Case examples demonstrate how several…

  6. Australian Curriculum Linked Lessons. Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurrell, Derek

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Derek Hurrell, points out that while it's easy to fall into the impression that the proficiency strand "Fluency" is all about knowing basic number facts in all its many and splendid ways. He add it is easy to overlook, that within Fluency there are requirements that are based in Algebra; Measurement and Geometry; and…

  7. Using Kindergarten Number Sense to Predict Calculation Fluency in Second Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locuniak, Maria N.; Jordan, Nancy C.

    2008-01-01

    Children's number sense in kindergarten was used to predict their calculation fluency in second grade (N = 198). Using block entry regression, usual predictors of age, reading, memory, and verbal and spatial cognition were entered in the first block and number sense measures were added in the second block. Number sense measures contributed a…

  8. Productivity, Fluency, and Grammaticality Measures from Narratives: Potential Indicators of Language Proficiency?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilstra, Janet; McMaster, Kristen

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify potential general outcome indicators (GOIs) of language proficiency. Brief narratives were elicited from 45 kindergarten, first-grade, and third-grade children using single-picture scenes and a standardized protocol. Measures of language productivity, verbal fluency, and grammaticality were examined for…

  9. On the (Elusive) Role of Oral Motor-Movements in Fluency-Based Memory Illusions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerman, Deanne L.; Klin, Celia M.; Lanska, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that the ease with which a stimulus is processed affects many different types of evaluative judgments. Recently, it has been proposed that for verbal stimuli the effect of fluency on such judgments is mediated by the muscles that are involved in speech (Topolinski & Strack, 2009, 2010). Evidence for this claim can be…

  10. Using kindergarten number sense to predict calculation fluency in second grade.

    PubMed

    Locuniak, Maria N; Jordan, Nancy C

    2008-01-01

    Children's number sense in kindergarten was used to predict their calculation fluency in second grade (N = 198). Using block entry regression, usual predictors of age, reading, memory, and verbal and spatial cognition were entered in the first block and number sense measures were added in the second block. Number sense measures contributed a significant amount of variance over and above the more general predictors (26%-42%). Uniquely predictive subareas were active memory for numbers, number knowledge, and number combinations, with number combinations standing out as the strongest single predictor. Number sense screening in kindergarten, using "at-risk" versus "not-at-risk" criteria, successfully ruled out 84% of the children who did not go on to have calculation fluency difficulties and positively identified 52% of the children who later showed fluency difficulties. The relation of early number skills to later calculation fluency has important implications for math screening and intervention. PMID:18768776

  11. False fame prevented: avoiding fluency effects without judgmental correction.

    PubMed

    Topolinski, Sascha; Strack, Fritz

    2010-05-01

    Three studies show a way to prevent fluency effects independently of judgmental correction strategies by identifying and procedurally blocking the sources of fluency variations, which are assumed to be embodied in nature. For verbal stimuli, covert pronunciations are assumed to be the crucial source of fluency gains. As a consequence, blocking such pronunciation simulations through a secondary oral motor task decreased the false-fame effect for repeatedly presented names of actors (Experiment 1) as well as prevented increases in trust due to repetition for brand names and names of shares in the stock market (Experiment 2). Extending this evidence beyond repeated exposure, we demonstrated that blocking oral motor simulations also prevented fluency effects of word pronunciation on judgments of hazardousness (Experiment 3). Concerning the realm of judgment correction, this procedural blocking of (biasing) associative processes is a decontamination method not considered before in the literature, because it is independent of exposure control, mood, motivation, and post hoc correction strategies. The present results also have implications for applied issues, such as advertising and investment decisions. PMID:20438220

  12. Fluency Effects in Recognition Memory: Are Perceptual Fluency and Conceptual Fluency Interchangeable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanska, Meredith; Olds, Justin M.; Westerman, Deanne L.

    2014-01-01

    On a recognition memory test, both perceptual and conceptual fluency can engender a sense of familiarity and elicit recognition memory illusions. To date, perceptual and conceptual fluency have been studied separately but are they interchangeable in terms of their influence on recognition judgments? Five experiments compared the effect of…

  13. Image Ambiguity and Fluency

    PubMed Central

    Jakesch, Martina; Leder, Helmut; Forster, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Ambiguity is often associated with negative affective responses, and enjoying ambiguity seems restricted to only a few situations, such as experiencing art. Nevertheless, theories of judgment formation, especially the “processing fluency account”, suggest that easy-to-process (non-ambiguous) stimuli are processed faster and are therefore preferred to (ambiguous) stimuli, which are hard to process. In a series of six experiments, we investigated these contrasting approaches by manipulating fluency (presentation duration: 10ms, 50ms, 100ms, 500ms, 1000ms) and testing effects of ambiguity (ambiguous versus non-ambiguous pictures of paintings) on classification performance (Part A; speed and accuracy) and aesthetic appreciation (Part B; liking and interest). As indicated by signal detection analyses, classification accuracy increased with presentation duration (Exp. 1a), but we found no effects of ambiguity on classification speed (Exp. 1b). Fifty percent of the participants were able to successfully classify ambiguous content at a presentation duration of 100 ms, and at 500ms even 75% performed above chance level. Ambiguous artworks were found more interesting (in conditions 50ms to 1000ms) and were preferred over non-ambiguous stimuli at 500ms and 1000ms (Exp. 2a - 2c, 3). Importantly, ambiguous images were nonetheless rated significantly harder to process as non-ambiguous images. These results suggest that ambiguity is an essential ingredient in art appreciation even though or maybe because it is harder to process. PMID:24040172

  14. Cortical thinning in the anterior cingulate cortex predicts multiple sclerosis patients' fluency performance in a lateralised manner

    PubMed Central

    Geisseler, Olivia; Pflugshaupt, Tobias; Bezzola, Ladina; Reuter, Katja; Weller, David; Schuknecht, Bernhard; Brugger, Peter; Linnebank, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is as an important feature of Multiple Sclerosis (MS), and might be even more relevant to patients than mobility restrictions. Compared to the multitude of studies investigating memory deficits or basic cognitive slowing, executive dysfunction is a rarely studied cognitive domain in MS, and its neural correlates remain largely unexplored. Even rarer are topological studies on specific cognitive functions in MS. Here we used several structural MRI parameters – including cortical thinning and T2 lesion load – to investigate neural correlates of executive dysfunction, both on a global and a regional level by means of voxel- and vertex-wise analyses. Forty-eight patients with relapsing-remitting MS and 48 healthy controls participated in the study. Five executive functions were assessed, i.e. verbal and figural fluency, working memory, interference control and set shifting. Patients scored lower than controls in verbal and figural fluency only, and displayed widespread cortical thinning. On a global level, cortical thickness independently predicted verbal fluency performance, when controlling for lesion volume and central brain atrophy estimates. On a regional level, cortical thinning in the anterior cingulate region correlated with deficits in verbal and figural fluency and did so in a lateralised manner: Left-sided thinning was related to reduced verbal – but not figural – fluency, whereas the opposite pattern was observed for right-sided thinning. We conclude that executive dysfunction in MS patients can specifically affect verbal and figural fluency. The observed lateralised clinico-anatomical correlation has previously been described in brain-damaged patients with large focal lesions only, for example after stroke. Based on focal grey matter atrophy, we here show for the first time comparable lateralised findings in a white matter disease with widespread pathology. PMID:26759784

  15. Verbal Fluency, Semantics, Context and Symptom Complexes in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Adam P.; Chenery, Helen J.; Dart, Catriona M.; Doan, Binh; Tan, Mildred; Copland, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Lexical-semantic access and retrieval was examined in 15 adults diagnosed with schizophrenia and matched controls. This study extends the literature through the inclusion of multiple examinations of lexical-semantic production within the same patient group and through correlating performance on these tasks with various positive and negative…

  16. Specialty Board on Fluency Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... or large groups of speech-language pathologists. Speech-language pathologists who are Board Certified Specialists in Fluency may be found on this ... Membership Software Powered by YourMembership.com ® :: Legal

  17. Brazilian Normative Data on Letter and Category Fluency Tasks: Effects of Gender, Age, and Geopolitical Region.

    PubMed

    Hazin, Izabel; Leite, Gilmara; Oliveira, Rosinda M; Alencar, João C; Fichman, Helenice C; Marques, Priscila D N; de Mello, Claudia Berlim

    2016-01-01

    Verbal fluency is a basic function of language that refers to the ability to produce fluent speech. Despite being an essentially linguistic function, its measurements are also used to evaluate executive aspects of verbal behavior. Performance in verbal fluency (VF) tasks varies according to age, education, and cognitive development. Neurodevelopmental disorders that affect the functioning of frontal areas tend to cause lower performance in VF tasks. Despite the relative consensus that has been reached in terms of the use of VF tasks for the diagnosis of dyslexia and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, few studies have considered regional variations in Brazil. The present study sought to provide normative data on VF tasks in children by considering gender, age, education, and geopolitical region of origin with auxiliary purposes in neuropsychological diagnosis of disorders that occur with executive changes The study included 298 participants, 7-10 years of age of both genders, who performed three letter fluency tasks and three category fluency tasks. The data were subjected to correlational and variance analyses, with age and gender as factors. No effect of gender on the children's performance was found. However, significant differences between age groups were observed, with better performance in letter tasks in older children and better performance in letter tasks compared with category tasks. Significant regional differences in performance on the letter VF task were observed. These results reinforce the importance of regional normative data in countries with high regional cultural variations, such as Brazil. PMID:27242598

  18. Brazilian Normative Data on Letter and Category Fluency Tasks: Effects of Gender, Age, and Geopolitical Region

    PubMed Central

    Hazin, Izabel; Leite, Gilmara; Oliveira, Rosinda M.; Alencar, João C.; Fichman, Helenice C.; Marques, Priscila d. N.; de Mello, Claudia Berlim

    2016-01-01

    Verbal fluency is a basic function of language that refers to the ability to produce fluent speech. Despite being an essentially linguistic function, its measurements are also used to evaluate executive aspects of verbal behavior. Performance in verbal fluency (VF) tasks varies according to age, education, and cognitive development. Neurodevelopmental disorders that affect the functioning of frontal areas tend to cause lower performance in VF tasks. Despite the relative consensus that has been reached in terms of the use of VF tasks for the diagnosis of dyslexia and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, few studies have considered regional variations in Brazil. The present study sought to provide normative data on VF tasks in children by considering gender, age, education, and geopolitical region of origin with auxiliary purposes in neuropsychological diagnosis of disorders that occur with executive changes The study included 298 participants, 7–10 years of age of both genders, who performed three letter fluency tasks and three category fluency tasks. The data were subjected to correlational and variance analyses, with age and gender as factors. No effect of gender on the children's performance was found. However, significant differences between age groups were observed, with better performance in letter tasks in older children and better performance in letter tasks compared with category tasks. Significant regional differences in performance on the letter VF task were observed. These results reinforce the importance of regional normative data in countries with high regional cultural variations, such as Brazil. PMID:27242598

  19. Associative Verbal Encoding (a/v/e): A Measure of Language Performance and Its Relationship to Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickelson, Norma I.

    This study examined the assumption that language expression and reading performance are related processes. Subjects included a total of 676 nine-year-old children of heterogeneous socioeconomic status, intelligence, and achievement levels. Verbal fluency was defined as being a measure of associative verbal encoding (a/v/e), wherein children give…

  20. Verbal processing deficits in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Stevens, A A; Donegan, N H; Anderson, M; Goldman-Rakic, P S; Wexler, B E

    2000-08-01

    The authors reported that a subgroup of schizophrenic patients performed well on a tone serial position task but was impaired on an auditory word serial position task (Wexler, Stevens, Bowers, Cerniak, & Goldman-Rakic, 1998). This study assessed 30 schizophrenic and 32 controls (matched for comparable tone discrimination) on 4 versions of the verbal serial position tasks and 2 tone serial position tasks. Patients performed poorly on all verbal tasks but performed comparably to controls when tones served as stimuli. Proactive interference and visual presentation further compounded the verbal deficits. Deficits persisted with pronounceable nonword stimuli. These findings provide evidence of specific deficits in language-related processing, although the authors could not rule out the possibility that the differential effects that were observed between the tone and word tasks, and particularly among the verbal tasks, may result from differing discriminating power of the different tests. PMID:11016116

  1. Oral Reading Fluency as a Predictor of Silent Reading Fluency at Secondary and Postsecondary Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seok, Soonhwa; DaCosta, Boaventura

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated oral reading fluency as a predictor of silent reading fluency at the secondary and postsecondary levels. Several measures were used, including the Gray Oral Reading Test, the Test of Silent Word Reading Fluency, the Test of Silent Contextual Reading Fluency, and the Reading Observation Scale. A total of 223 students…

  2. Workplace in fluency management: factoring the workplace into fluency management.

    PubMed

    Cassar, M C; Neilson, M D

    1997-01-01

    This article addresses competency-based standards and guidelines for the involvement of speech-language pathologists in the workplace of clients who stutter. It advocates broadening customary practices in stuttering treatment and suggests that speech-language pathologists should extend their scope of service delivery to the workplace. It presents a sequence for the collaborative involvement of the employer and other workplace members and proposes strategies for evaluating workplace based fluency programs. Issues of fluency management, transfer, maintenance, and efficacy are discussed in the workplace context. Also addressed is workplace communication as well as such factors as stereotypes, discrimination, and resistance to change which may impinge on workplace intervention. It is argued that structured intervention, transfer, and generalization within a collaborative workplace framework facilitates best practice for the fluency clinician and more appropriate outcomes for the diversity of clients who stutter. PMID:9434336

  3. Verbal Understanding and Pavlovian Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonneau, François

    2004-01-01

    The behavioral processes through which people react appropriately to verbal descriptions remain poorly understood. I argue here that these processes are Pavlovian. Common objections to a Pavlovian account of symbolic behavior evidence a lack of familiarity with the relevant data or misunderstandings of operant theory. Although much remains to be…

  4. The Effects of Student and Text Characteristics on the Oral Reading Fluency of Middle-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Amy E.; Tolar, Tammy D.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Francis, David

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of student characteristics (sight word reading efficiency, phonological decoding, verbal knowledge, level of reading ability, grade, gender) and text features (passage difficulty, length, genre, and language and discourse attributes) on the oral reading fluency of a sample of middle-school students in Grades 6-8 (N =…

  5. Effects of Generation Mode in fMRI Adaptations of Semantic Fluency: Paced Production and Overt Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basho, Surina; Palmer, Erica D.; Rubio, Miguel A.; Wulfeck, Beverly; Muller, Ralph-Axel

    2007-01-01

    Verbal fluency is a widely used neuropsychological paradigm. In fMRI implementations, conventional unpaced (self-paced) versions are suboptimal due to uncontrolled timing of responses, and overt responses carry the risk of motion artifact. We investigated the behavioral and neurofunctional effects of response pacing and overt speech in semantic…

  6. Why Reading Fluency Should Be Hot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasinski, Timothy V.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores problems that have surfaced in the teaching of reading fluency and how teachers and reading coaches can resolve those problems. Specific issues addressed include reading fluency being defined as reading fast and instruction that is focused on having students read fast, reading fluency viewed as solely and oral reading…

  7. Are Poor Chinese Text Comprehenders Also Poor in Written Composition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guan, Connie Qun; Ye, Feifei; Meng, Wanjin; Leong, Che Kan

    2013-01-01

    We studied the performance in three genres of Chinese written composition (narration, exposition, and argumentation) of 158 grade 4, 5, and 6 poor Chinese text comprehenders compared with 156 good Chinese text comprehenders. We examined text comprehension and written composition relationship. Verbal working memory (verbal span working memory and…

  8. Musical practice and cognitive aging: two cross-sectional studies point to phonemic fluency as a potential candidate for a use-dependent adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Fauvel, Baptiste; Groussard, Mathilde; Mutlu, Justine; Arenaza-Urquijo, Eider M.; Eustache, Francis; Desgranges, Béatrice; Platel, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    Because of permanent use-dependent brain plasticity, all lifelong individuals' experiences are believed to influence the cognitive aging quality. In older individuals, both former and current musical practices have been associated with better verbal skills, visual memory, processing speed, and planning function. This work sought for an interaction between musical practice and cognitive aging by comparing musician and non-musician individuals for two lifetime periods (middle and late adulthood). Long-term memory, auditory-verbal short-term memory, processing speed, non-verbal reasoning, and verbal fluencies were assessed. In Study 1, measures of processing speed and auditory-verbal short-term memory were significantly better performed by musicians compared with controls, but both groups displayed the same age-related differences. For verbal fluencies, musicians scored higher than controls and displayed different age effects. In Study 2, we found that lifetime period at training onset (childhood vs. adulthood) was associated with phonemic, but not semantic, fluency performances (musicians who had started to practice in adulthood did not perform better on phonemic fluency than non-musicians). Current frequency of training did not account for musicians' scores on either of these two measures. These patterns of results are discussed by setting the hypothesis of a transformative effect of musical practice against a non-causal explanation. PMID:25346684

  9. Predicting speech fluency and naming abilities in aphasic patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jasmine; Marchina, Sarah; Norton, Andrea C.; Wan, Catherine Y.; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2013-01-01

    There is a need to identify biomarkers that predict degree of chronic speech fluency/language impairment and potential for improvement after stroke. We previously showed that the Arcuate Fasciculus lesion load (AF-LL), a combined variable of lesion site and size, predicted speech fluency in patients with chronic aphasia. In the current study, we compared lesion loads of such a structural map (i.e., AF-LL) with those of a functional map [i.e., the functional gray matter lesion load (fGM-LL)] in their ability to predict speech fluency and naming performance in a large group of patients. The fGM map was constructed from functional brain images acquired during an overt speaking task in a group of healthy elderly controls. The AF map was reconstructed from high-resolution diffusion tensor images also from a group of healthy elderly controls. In addition to these two canonical maps, a combined AF-fGM map was derived from summing fGM and AF maps. Each canonical map was overlaid with individual lesion masks of 50 chronic aphasic patients with varying degrees of impairment in speech production and fluency to calculate a functional and structural lesion load value for each patient, and to regress these values with measures of speech fluency and naming. We found that both AF-LL and fGM-LL independently predicted speech fluency and naming ability; however, AF lesion load explained most of the variance for both measures. The combined AF-fGM lesion load did not have a higher predictability than either AF-LL or fGM-LL alone. Clustering and classification methods confirmed that AF lesion load was best at stratifying patients into severe and non-severe outcome groups with 96% accuracy for speech fluency and 90% accuracy for naming. An AF-LL of greater than 4 cc was the critical threshold that determined poor fluency and naming outcomes, and constitutes the severe outcome group. Thus, surrogate markers of impairments have the potential to predict outcomes and can be used as a

  10. A Neuropsychological Study of Personality: Trait Openness in Relation to Intelligence, Fluency, and Executive Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Schretlen, David J.; van der Hulst, Egberdina J.; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Gordon, Barry

    2010-01-01

    Openness is a personality trait that has been linked to intelligence and divergent thinking. DeYoung, Peterson, and Higgins (2005) theorized that trait Openness depends on dopamine function, especially in the prefrontal cortex. We tested their theory in 335 healthy adults by hypothesizing that individual differences in Openness would correlate more strongly with performance on tests of executive function than on tests of intelligence and fluency. However, Openness correlated more strongly with verbal/crystallized intelligence (Gc; r=0.44) than with executive functioning (r=0.16) and fluency (r=0.24). Further, the partial correlation between Openness and Gc increased from r=0.26 among young adults to r=0.53 among elderly adults. These findings suggest that Openness is more closely associated with the acquisition of broad verbal intellectual skills and knowledge than with executive abilities localized to a specific brain region or neurotransmitter system. PMID:20408002

  11. Assessment of Multiplication Fact Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Marilyn Sue; Usnick, Virginia

    2011-01-01

    This project had two major goals: to determine the usefulness of individually-administered interview process to access elementary students' fluency with basic multiplication facts, and to determine whether a developmental sequence found in Australian mathematics education literature applied to elementary students in the United States. Students in…

  12. Word Fluency: A Task Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laine, Matti

    It is suggested that models of human problem solving are useful in the analysis of word fluency (WF) test performance. In problem-solving terms, WF tasks would require the subject to define and clarify the conditions of the task (task acquisition), select and employ appropriate strategies, and monitor one's performance. In modern neuropsychology,…

  13. Information fluency: Where to start

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viele, Pat

    2012-09-01

    There are many different definitions of information literacy, but perhaps the best succinct and comprehensive definition is: Information literacy (or fluency) is a set of abilities requiring individuals to "recognize when information is needed and have the ability to locate, evaluate, and use effectively the needed information." This skill set will be invaluable throughout life in making informed decisions.

  14. Listening Is Behaving Verbally

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlinger, Henry D.

    2008-01-01

    As we celebrate the 50th anniversary of the publication of B. F. Skinner's "Verbal Behavior", it may be important to reconsider the role of the listener in the verbal episode. Although by Skinner's own admission, "Verbal Behavior" was primarily about the behavior of the speaker, his definition of verbal behavior as "behavior reinforced through the…

  15. Predictors of reading fluency in Italian orthography: evidence from a cross-sectional study of primary school students.

    PubMed

    Tobia, Valentina; Marzocchi, Gian Marco

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the role of linguistic and visuospatial attentional processes in predicting reading fluency in typical Italian readers attending primary school. Tasks were administered to 651 children with reading fluency z scores > -1.5 standard deviation to evaluate their phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), verbal short-term memory, vocabulary, visual search skills, verbal-visual recall, and visual-spatial attention. Hybrid models combining confirmatory factor analysis and path analysis were used to evaluate the data obtained from younger (first and second grade) and older (third-fifth grade) children, respectively. The results showed that phonological awareness and RAN played a significant role among younger children, while also vocabulary, verbal short-term memory, and visuospatial attention were significant factors among older children. PMID:23883297

  16. Some verbal behavior about verbal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Salzinger, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    Beginning with behavior analysts' tendency to characterize verbal behavior as “mere” verbal behavior, the author reviews his own attempt to employ it to influence both his staff and policies of our government. He then describes its role in psychopathology, its effect on speakers in healing themselves and on engendering creativity. The paper ends by calling to our attention the role of verbal behavior in the construction of behavior analysis. PMID:22478393

  17. On terms and procedures: Fluency

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kent R.; Layng, T. V. Joe

    1996-01-01

    Fluency is a metaphor for flowing, effortless, well-practiced, and accurate performance. Current practice in fluency building involves increasing the frequency of free-operant performances. Free-operant performance is defined as continuous responding in the presence of discriminative stimuli that are either varied or not varied from response to response. Free-operant performance is also distinguished from discrete-trial performance. Frequency-building procedures are also described, including defining the learning channel and stimulus control topography of a component performance (called a pinpoint), selecting an appropriate timing period, and displaying stimuli so that no performance ceilings occur. During frequency building, frequencies of pinpoints are continuously charted on standard celeration charts. Frequencies are increased to empirically derived performance standards, or aims, that predict retention, endurance, stability, application, and adduction of performance. Frequency is also described as a dimension of performance, not simply its measurement. Frequency building is described as possibly facilitating contingency adduction. PMID:22478264

  18. Reading Fluency beyond English: Investigations into Reading Fluency in Turkish Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildirim, Kasim; Rasinski, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Reading fluency is one of the underlying factors of successful language curricula and it is also one of the defining characteristics of good readers. A lack of fluency is a common characteristic of struggling readers. There is a growing body of research that demonstrates proficiency in reading fluency is important for success in learning to read…

  19. The Relationship between Reading Fluency, Writing Fluency, and Reading Comprehension in Suburban Third-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Mary Leonard

    2010-01-01

    The topic of reading fluency is of great importance in education today. Research has shown a significant positive relationship between reading fluency and reading comprehension. However, little is known about writing fluency and its connection with reading comprehension. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between reading…

  20. Phonemic fluency and brain connectivity in age-related macular degeneration: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Whitson, Heather E; Chou, Ying-Hui; Potter, Guy G; Diaz, Michele T; Chen, Nan-Kuei; Lad, Eleonora M; Johnson, Micah A; Cousins, Scott W; Zhuang, Jie; Madden, David J

    2015-03-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of blindness in developed nations, has been associated with poor performance on tests of phonemic fluency. This pilot study sought to (1) characterize the relationship between phonemic fluency and resting-state functional brain connectivity in AMD patients and (2) determine whether regional connections associated with phonemic fluency in AMD patients were similarly linked to phonemic fluency in healthy participants. Behavior-based connectivity analysis was applied to resting-state, functional magnetic resonance imaging data from seven patients (mean age=79.9±7.5 years) with bilateral AMD who completed fluency tasks prior to imaging. Phonemic fluency was inversely related to the strength of functional connectivity (FC) among six pairs of brain regions, representing eight nodes: left opercular portion of inferior frontal gyrus (which includes Broca's area), left superior temporal gyrus (which includes part of Wernicke's area), inferior parietal lobe (bilaterally), right superior parietal lobe, right supramarginal gyrus, right supplementary motor area, and right precentral gyrus. The FC of these reference links was not related to phonemic fluency among 32 healthy individuals (16 younger adults, mean age=23.5±4.6 years and 16 older adults, mean age=68.3±3.4 years). Compared with healthy individuals, AMD patients exhibited higher mean connectivity within the reference links and within the default mode network, possibly reflecting compensatory changes to support performance in the setting of reduced vision. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that phonemic fluency deficits in AMD reflect underlying brain changes that develop in the context of AMD. PMID:25313954

  1. Phonemic Fluency and Brain Connectivity in Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Ying-hui; Potter, Guy G.; Diaz, Michele T.; Chen, Nan-kuei; Lad, Eleonora M.; Johnson, Micah A.; Cousins, Scott W.; Zhuang, Jie; Madden, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of blindness in developed nations, has been associated with poor performance on tests of phonemic fluency. This pilot study sought to (1) characterize the relationship between phonemic fluency and resting-state functional brain connectivity in AMD patients and (2) determine whether regional connections associated with phonemic fluency in AMD patients were similarly linked to phonemic fluency in healthy participants. Behavior-based connectivity analysis was applied to resting-state, functional magnetic resonance imaging data from seven patients (mean age=79.9±7.5 years) with bilateral AMD who completed fluency tasks prior to imaging. Phonemic fluency was inversely related to the strength of functional connectivity (FC) among six pairs of brain regions, representing eight nodes: left opercular portion of inferior frontal gyrus (which includes Broca's area), left superior temporal gyrus (which includes part of Wernicke's area), inferior parietal lobe (bilaterally), right superior parietal lobe, right supramarginal gyrus, right supplementary motor area, and right precentral gyrus. The FC of these reference links was not related to phonemic fluency among 32 healthy individuals (16 younger adults, mean age=23.5±4.6 years and 16 older adults, mean age=68.3±3.4 years). Compared with healthy individuals, AMD patients exhibited higher mean connectivity within the reference links and within the default mode network, possibly reflecting compensatory changes to support performance in the setting of reduced vision. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that phonemic fluency deficits in AMD reflect underlying brain changes that develop in the context of AMD. PMID:25313954

  2. Verbal Reports as Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ericsson, K. Anders; Simon, Herbert A.

    1980-01-01

    Accounting for verbal reports requires explication of the mechanisms by which the reports are generated and influenced by experimental factors. We discuss different cognitive processes underlying verbalization and present a model of how subjects, when asked to think aloud, verbalize information from their short-term memory. (Author/GDC)

  3. Fluency Instruction. Research-Based Best Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasinski, Timothy Ed.; Blachowicz, Camille Ed.; Lems, Kristin Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Because fluency instruction was identified, only recently, as a cornerstone literacy subject--it is still unfamiliar terrain for many teachers. This volume fills a crucial gap by offering a thorough, authoritative examination of what reading fluency is--and how it should be taught. Contributing authors, who include the field's leading authorities,…

  4. Oral Reading Fluency in Second Language Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Eun Hee

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the role of oral reading fluency in second language reading. Two hundred and fifty-five high school students in South Korea were assessed on three oral reading fluency (ORF) variables and six other reading predictors. The relationship between ORF and other reading predictors was examined through an exploratory factor…

  5. Visual perception can account for the close relation between numerosity processing and computational fluency

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xinlin; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Yiyun; Cui, Jiaxin; Chen, Chuansheng

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that numerosity processing (e.g., comparison of numbers of dots in two dot arrays) is significantly correlated with arithmetic performance. Researchers have attributed this association to the fact that both tasks share magnitude processing. The current investigation tested an alternative hypothesis, which states that visual perceptual ability (as measured by a figure-matching task) can account for the close relation between numerosity processing and arithmetic performance (computational fluency). Four hundred and twenty four third- to fifth-grade children (220 boys and 204 girls, 8.0–11.0 years old; 120 third graders, 146 fourth graders, and 158 fifth graders) were recruited from two schools (one urban and one suburban) in Beijing, China. Six classes were randomly selected from each school, and all students in each selected class participated in the study. All children were given a series of cognitive and mathematical tests, including numerosity comparison, figure matching, forward verbal working memory, visual tracing, non-verbal matrices reasoning, mental rotation, choice reaction time, arithmetic tests and curriculum-based mathematical achievement test. Results showed that figure-matching ability had higher correlations with numerosity processing and computational fluency than did other cognitive factors (e.g., forward verbal working memory, visual tracing, non-verbal matrix reasoning, mental rotation, and choice reaction time). More important, hierarchical multiple regression showed that figure matching ability accounted for the well-established association between numerosity processing and computational fluency. In support of the visual perception hypothesis, the results suggest that visual perceptual ability, rather than magnitude processing, may be the shared component of numerosity processing and arithmetic performance. PMID:26441740

  6. Environmental contributions to preschoolers' semantic fluency.

    PubMed

    Kavé, Gitit; Shalmon, Moran; Knafo, Ariel

    2013-01-01

    Semantic fluency was examined in Hebrew-speaking 5-year-old monozygotic and dizygotic twins (N = 396, 198 pairs), 22% of them with mother-reported speech-related problems. There were positive correlations of similar magnitudes among monozygotic, same-sex dizygotic, and opposite-sex dizygotic twins. Analyses showed no genetic effects, alongside significant shared (39%) and non-shared environmental (61%) effects on fluency scores. The presence of speech-related problems in one twin affected the fluency score of the co-twin. A multivariate regression analysis revealed that parental education and length of stay at daycare significantly predicted fluency scores. We suggest that semantic fluency performance is highly affected by environmental factors at age 5 although genetic effects might emerge later on. PMID:23278934

  7. The effect of motoric fluency on metamemory.

    PubMed

    Susser, Jonathan A; Mulligan, Neil W

    2015-08-01

    Prior research has demonstrated that certain types of fluency can influence memory predictions, with more fluent processing being associated with greater memory confidence. However, no study has systematically examined whether this pattern extends to the fluency of motoric output. The current study investigated the effect of a motoric-fluency manipulation of hand dominance on judgments of learning (JOLs) and memory performance. Participants predicted better memory for fluently written than nonfluently written stimuli despite no differences in actual recall. A questionnaire-based study suggested that the effect of motoric fluency on predictions was not due to peoples' a priori beliefs about memory. These findings are consistent with other fluency effects on JOLs. PMID:25413684

  8. Transcranial direct current stimulation over Broca's region improves phonemic and semantic fluency in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Z; Pisoni, A; Papagno, C

    2011-06-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can be proficiently used to modulate attentional and cognitive functions. For instance, in the language domain there is evidence that tDCS can fasten picture naming in both healthy individuals and aphasic patients, or improve grammar learning. In this study, we investigated whether tDCS can be used to increase healthy subjects' performance in phonemic and semantic fluency tasks, that are typically used in clinical assessment of language. Ten healthy individuals performed a semantic and a phonemic fluency task following anodal tDCS applied over Broca's region. Each participant underwent a real and a sham tDCS session. Participants were found to produce more words following real anodal tDCS both in the phonemic and in the semantic fluency. Control experiments ascertained that this finding did not depend upon unspecific effects of tDCS over levels of general arousal or attention or upon participants' expectations. These data confirm the efficacy of tDCS in transiently improving language functions by showing that anodal stimulation of Broca's region can enhance verbal fluency. Implications of these results for the treatment of language functions in aphasia are considered. PMID:21477637

  9. The Use of Profanity During Letter Fluency Tasks in Frontotemporal Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ringman, John M.; Kwon, Eunice; Flores, Deborah L.; Rotko, Carol; Mendez, Mario F.; Lu, Po

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess whether the production of profanity during letter fluency testing distinguishes frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Background Alterations in language and social behavior typify FTD spectrum disorders. Nonetheless, in can be difficult to distinguish pathologically-defined frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) from AD clinically. Assessing verbal fluency by having patients generate as many words as they can beginning with specific letters in a given period of time can yield diverse information of diagnostic utility. Method Words produced during FAS letter fluency testing were reviewed and instances of the use of "f*ck", "*ss", and "sh*t" and other words felt to be inappropriate were sought. The frequency of these words was compared between clinically diagnosed FTD and AD patients using chi-square tests. Results We found that 6/32 (18.8%) patients with FTD generated the word "f*ck" during the "F" trial as opposed to none of 38 patients with AD (p = 0.007). Patients who said "f*ck" had diagnoses of either behavioral variant FTD (3/15), progressive non-fluent aphasia (2/8), or semantic dementia (1/3). Conclusions Though the specific neuropathology in these cases is uncertain, generation of "f*ck" during letter fluency testing appears to have utility in differentiating FTD from AD. PMID:20829665

  10. Impaired Verb Fluency: A Sign of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostberg, Per; Fernaeus, Sven-Erik; Hellstrom, Ake; Bogdanovic, Nenad; Wahlund, Lars Olof

    2005-01-01

    We assessed verb fluency vs. noun and letter-based fluency in 199 subjects referred for cognitive complaints including Subjective Cognitive Impairment, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer's disease. ANCOVAs and factor analyses identified verb, noun, and letter-based fluency as distinct tasks. Verb fluency performance in Mild Cognitive…

  11. Fluency Interventions for Developmental Readers: Repeated Readings and Wide Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ari, Omer

    2011-01-01

    Despite recent findings that show fluency deficits in developmental readers, the field of developmental reading remains remiss in fluency instruction. This article provides a summary intended to increase college reading teachers' understanding of reading fluency and fluency instruction. In addition, included are the step-by-step procedures of…

  12. Effectiveness of Corrective Reading on Reading Comprehension and Fluency in At-Risk Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Barbara Jean Alexander

    2012-01-01

    One of the greatest predictors and characteristics of a high school dropout has been poor reading skills. Students with low achievement levels in reading by the end of third grade are at greater risk of becoming a dropout. The study sought to determine whether the Corrective Reading Program impacted reading comprehension and fluency skills of…

  13. The Effects of Student and Text Characteristics on the Oral Reading Fluency of Middle-Grade Students

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Amy E.; Tolar, Tammy D.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Francis, David

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of student characteristics (sight word reading efficiency, phonological decoding, verbal knowledge, level of reading ability, grade, gender) and text features (passage difficulty, length, genre, and language and discourse attributes) on the oral reading fluency of a sample of middle-school students in Grades 6–8 (N = 1,794). Students who were struggling (n = 704) and typically developing readers (n = 1,028) were randomly assigned to read five 1-min passages from each of 5 Lexile bands (within student range of 550 Lexiles). A series of multilevel analyses showed that student and text characteristics contributed uniquely to oral reading fluency rates. Student characteristics involving sight word reading efficiency and level of decoding ability accounted for more variability than reader type and verbal knowledge, with small, but statistically significant effects of grade and gender. The most significant text feature was passage difficulty level. Interactions involving student text characteristics, especially attributes involving overall ability level and difficulty of the text, were also apparent. These results support views of the development of oral reading fluency that involve interactions of student and text characteristics and highlight the importance of scaling for passage difficulty level in assessing individual differences in oral reading fluency. PMID:24567659

  14. Principal Component Analysis Study of Visual and Verbal Metaphoric Comprehension in Children with Autism and Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mashal, Nira; Kasirer, Anat

    2012-01-01

    This research extends previous studies regarding the metaphoric competence of autistic and learning disabled children on different measures of visual and verbal non-literal language comprehension, as well as cognitive abilities that include semantic knowledge, executive functions, similarities, and reading fluency. Thirty seven children with…

  15. Developmental, Component-Based Model of Reading Fluency: An Investigation of Predictors of Word-Reading Fluency, Text-Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal was to expand our understanding of text-reading fluency (efficiency or automaticity): how its relation to other constructs (e.g., word-reading fluency, reading comprehension) changes over time and how it is different from word-reading fluency and reading comprehension. The study examined (a) developmentally changing relations…

  16. Fluency Idol: Using Pop Culture to Engage Students and Boost Fluency Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calo, Kristine M.; Woolard-Ferguson, Taylor; Koitz, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    This article shares an oral reading practice that develops children's fluency skills, with a particular emphasis on performance reading and prosody. The authors share their experiences with Fluency Idol! as a way to engage young children by tapping into pop culture. The practice emphasizes repeated readings, feedback, practice, and…

  17. The Relationship between L1 Fluency and L2 Fluency Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derwing, Tracey M.; Munro, Murray J.; Thomson, Ronald I.; Rossiter, Marian J.

    2009-01-01

    A fundamental question in the study of second language (L2) fluency is the extent to which temporal characteristics of speakers' first language (L1) productions predict the same characteristics in the L2. A close relationship between a speaker's L1 and L2 temporal characteristics would suggest that fluency is governed by an underlying trait. This…

  18. A Comparison of Two Reading Fluency Methods: Repeated Readings to a Fluency Criterion and Interval Sprinting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostewicz, Douglas E.; Kubina, Richard M., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Teachers have used the method of repeated readings to build oral reading fluency in students with and without special needs. A new fluency building intervention called interval sprinting uses shorter timing intervals (i.e., sprints) across a passage. This study used an alternating treatment design to compare repeated readings and interval…

  19. Putting Fluency on a Fitness Plan: Building Fluency's Meaning-Making Muscles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcell, Barclay

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an historical framework of fluency assessment and instruction, while at the same time advocating for a broader definition of fluency itself. Practical suggestions are made that seek to align reading rate and accuracy, alongside expression and comprehension, with the goal of developing "real" readers.

  20. Monitoring Early Reading Development in First Grade: Word Identification Fluency Versus Nonsense Word Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L.

    2004-01-01

    This study contrasts the validity of 2 early reading curriculum-based measurement (CBM) measures: word identification fluency and nonsense word fluency. At-risk children (n = 151) were assessed (a) on criterion reading measures in the fall and spring of first grade and (b) on the 2 CBM measures each week for 7 weeks and twice weekly for an…

  1. Developing Reading Fluency in EFL: How Assisted Repeated Reading and Extensive Reading Affect Fluency Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taguchi, Etsuo; Takayasu-Maass, Miyoko; Gorsuch, Greta J.

    2004-01-01

    Extensive research on reading in a first language has shown the critical role fluency plays in successful reading. Fluency alone, however, does not guarantee successful reading. Cognitive and metacognitive reading strategies and schemata that readers utilize also play important roles in constructing meaning from text. Most research, however,…

  2. Verbal Communication among Alzheimer’s Disease Patients, their Caregivers, and Primary Care Physicians during Primary Care Office Visits

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Karen L.; Lingler, Jennifer H.; Schulz, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Objective Primary care visits of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) often involve communication among patients, family caregivers, and primary care physicians (PCPs). The objective of this study was to understand the nature of each individual’s verbal participation in these triadic interactions. Methods To define the verbal communication dynamics of AD care triads, we compared verbal participation (percent of total visit speech) by each participant in patient/caregiver/PCP triads. Twenty three triads were audio taped during a routine primary care visit. Rates of verbal participation were described and effects of patient cognitive status (MMSE score, verbal fluency) on verbal participation were assessed. Results PCP verbal participation was highest at 53% of total visit speech, followed by caregivers (31%) and patients (16%). Patient cognitive measures were related to patient and caregiver verbal participation, but not to PCP participation. Caregiver satisfaction with interpersonal treatment by PCP was positively related to caregiver’s own verbal participation. Conclusion Caregivers of AD patients and PCPs maintain active, coordinated verbal participation in primary care visits while patients participate less. Practice Implications Encouraging verbal participation by AD patients and their caregivers may increase the AD patient’s active role and caregiver satisfaction with primary care visits. PMID:19395224

  3. Listening is behaving verbally.

    PubMed

    Schlinger, Henry D

    2008-01-01

    As we celebrate the 50th anniversary of the publication of B. F. Skinner's Verbal Behavior, it may be important to reconsider the role of the listener in the verbal episode. Although by Skinner's own admission, Verbal Behavior was primarily about the behavior of the speaker, his definition of verbal behavior as "behavior reinforced through the mediation of other persons" (1957, p. 2) focused on the behavior of the listener. But because many of the behaviors of the listener are fundamentally no different than other discriminated operants, they may not appropriately be termed listening. Even Skinner noted that the behavior of the listener often goes beyond simply mediating consequences for the speaker's behavior, implying that the listener engages in a repertoire of behaviors that is itself verbal. In the present article I suggest that listening involves subvocal verbal behavior. I then describe some of the forms and functions of the listener's verbal behavior (including echoic and intraverbal behavior) and conclude that there may be no functional distinction between speaking and listening. PMID:22478508

  4. Listening Is Behaving Verbally

    PubMed Central

    Schlinger, Henry D

    2008-01-01

    As we celebrate the 50th anniversary of the publication of B. F. Skinner's Verbal Behavior, it may be important to reconsider the role of the listener in the verbal episode. Although by Skinner's own admission, Verbal Behavior was primarily about the behavior of the speaker, his definition of verbal behavior as “behavior reinforced through the mediation of other persons” (1957, p. 2) focused on the behavior of the listener. But because many of the behaviors of the listener are fundamentally no different than other discriminated operants, they may not appropriately be termed listening. Even Skinner noted that the behavior of the listener often goes beyond simply mediating consequences for the speaker's behavior, implying that the listener engages in a repertoire of behaviors that is itself verbal. In the present article I suggest that listening involves subvocal verbal behavior. I then describe some of the forms and functions of the listener's verbal behavior (including echoic and intraverbal behavior) and conclude that there may be no functional distinction between speaking and listening. PMID:22478508

  5. The Role of Reading Fluency in Children's Text Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Cañizo, Marta; Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Cuetos, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Understanding a written text requires some higher cognitive abilities that not all children have. Some children have these abilities, since they understand oral texts; however, they have difficulties with written texts, probably due to problems in reading fluency. The aim of this study was to determine which aspects of reading fluency are related to reading comprehension. Four expositive texts, two written and two read by the evaluator, were presented to a sample of 103 primary school children (third and sixth grade). Each text was followed by four comprehension questions. From this sample we selected two groups of participants in each grade, 10 with good results in comprehension of oral and written texts, and 10 with good results in oral and poor in written comprehension. These 40 subjects were asked to read aloud a new text while they were recorded. Using Praat software some prosodic parameters were measured, such as pausing and reading rate (number and duration of the pauses and utterances), pitch and intensity changes and duration in declarative, exclamatory, and interrogative sentences and also errors and duration in words by frequency and stress. We compared the results of both groups with ANOVAs. The results showed that children with less reading comprehension made more inappropriate pauses and also intersentential pauses before comma than the other group and made more mistakes in content words; significant differences were also found in the final declination of pitch in declarative sentences and in the F0 range in interrogative ones. These results confirm that reading comprehension problems in children are related to a lack in the development of a good reading fluency. PMID:26640452

  6. Altered Frontal Lateralization Underlies the Category Fluency Deficits in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Michael K; Sze, Sophia L; Woo, Jean; Kwok, Timothy; Shum, David H K; Yu, Ruby; Chan, Agnes S

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have been consistently found to have category fluency deficits. However, little is known about the neural basis of these deficits. A diversity of neuroimaging studies has revealed left-lateralized prefrontal activations due to verbal processing and control functions during the performance of category fluency tasks. Given the reports of structural and functional abnormalities in the prefrontal cortices in individuals with MCI, it is conceivable that these individuals would also exhibit altered prefrontal activation patterns during a category fluency task. The present study aimed to investigate the prefrontal dynamics during the category fluency task in older adults with MCI by using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Twenty-six older adults with MCI were compared with 26 older adults with normal cognition (NC) who were matched in age, gender, handedness, and educational level. All participants performed a category fluency task while the prefrontal dynamics were recorded. The results showed that the MCI group generated fewer unique words, made fewer switches between subcategories, and generated fewer new subcategories than did the NC group. Importantly, the NIRS results showed that the NC group exhibited a left lateralization of frontal activations during the category fluency task, while the MCI group did not exhibit such a lateralization. Furthermore, there was a significant positive correlation between the category fluency performance and the extent of lateralization, suggesting that the category fluency deficits in the MCI group could be related to frontal dysfunction. That is, the rightward shift of frontal activations in the MCI group may reflect the presence of cortical reorganization in which the contralateral regions (i.e., the right hemisphere) are recruited to take over the function that is declining in the specialized regions (i.e., the left hemisphere). Our lateralization finding may serve as an objective

  7. Altered Frontal Lateralization Underlies the Category Fluency Deficits in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Michael K.; Sze, Sophia L.; Woo, Jean; Kwok, Timothy; Shum, David H. K.; Yu, Ruby; Chan, Agnes S.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have been consistently found to have category fluency deficits. However, little is known about the neural basis of these deficits. A diversity of neuroimaging studies has revealed left-lateralized prefrontal activations due to verbal processing and control functions during the performance of category fluency tasks. Given the reports of structural and functional abnormalities in the prefrontal cortices in individuals with MCI, it is conceivable that these individuals would also exhibit altered prefrontal activation patterns during a category fluency task. The present study aimed to investigate the prefrontal dynamics during the category fluency task in older adults with MCI by using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Twenty-six older adults with MCI were compared with 26 older adults with normal cognition (NC) who were matched in age, gender, handedness, and educational level. All participants performed a category fluency task while the prefrontal dynamics were recorded. The results showed that the MCI group generated fewer unique words, made fewer switches between subcategories, and generated fewer new subcategories than did the NC group. Importantly, the NIRS results showed that the NC group exhibited a left lateralization of frontal activations during the category fluency task, while the MCI group did not exhibit such a lateralization. Furthermore, there was a significant positive correlation between the category fluency performance and the extent of lateralization, suggesting that the category fluency deficits in the MCI group could be related to frontal dysfunction. That is, the rightward shift of frontal activations in the MCI group may reflect the presence of cortical reorganization in which the contralateral regions (i.e., the right hemisphere) are recruited to take over the function that is declining in the specialized regions (i.e., the left hemisphere). Our lateralization finding may serve as an objective

  8. Silent Reading Fluency and Comprehension in Bilingual Children

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Beth A.; Wallot, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on reading fluency by bilingual primary school students, and the relation of text fluency to their reading comprehension. Group differences were examined in a cross-sectional design across the age range when fluency is posed to shift from word-level to text-level. One hundred five bilingual children from primary grades 3, 4, and 5 were assessed for English word reading and decoding fluency, phonological awareness, rapid symbol naming, and oral language proficiency with standardized measures. These skills were correlated with their silent reading fluency on a self-paced story reading task. Text fluency was quantified using non-linear analytic methods: recurrence quantification and fractal analyses. Findings indicate that more fluent text reading appeared by grade 4, similar to monolingual findings, and that different aspects of fluency characterized passage reading performance at different grade levels. Text fluency and oral language proficiency emerged as significant predictors of reading comprehension.

  9. Fluency Expresses Implicit Knowledge of Tonal Symmetry

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Xiaoli; Li, Fengying; Qiao, Fuqiang; Guo, Xiuyan; Dienes, Zoltan

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were twofold. First, we sought to establish whether tonal symmetry produces processing fluency. Second, we sought to explore whether symmetry and chunk strength express themselves differently in fluency, as an indication of different mechanisms being involved for sub- and supra-finite state processing. Across two experiments, participants were asked to listen to and memorize artificial poetry showing a mirror symmetry (an inversion, i.e., a type of cross serial dependency); after this training phase, people completed a four-choice RT task in which they were presented with new artificial poetry. Participants were required to identify the stimulus displayed. We found that symmetry sped up responding to the second half of strings, indicating a fluency effect. Furthermore, there was a dissociation between fluency effects arising from symmetry vs. chunk strength, with stronger fluency effects for symmetry rather than chunks in the second half of strings. Taken together, we conjecture a divide between finite state and supra-finite state mechanisms in learning grammatical sequences. PMID:26869960

  10. Fluency Expresses Implicit Knowledge of Tonal Symmetry.

    PubMed

    Ling, Xiaoli; Li, Fengying; Qiao, Fuqiang; Guo, Xiuyan; Dienes, Zoltan

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were twofold. First, we sought to establish whether tonal symmetry produces processing fluency. Second, we sought to explore whether symmetry and chunk strength express themselves differently in fluency, as an indication of different mechanisms being involved for sub- and supra-finite state processing. Across two experiments, participants were asked to listen to and memorize artificial poetry showing a mirror symmetry (an inversion, i.e., a type of cross serial dependency); after this training phase, people completed a four-choice RT task in which they were presented with new artificial poetry. Participants were required to identify the stimulus displayed. We found that symmetry sped up responding to the second half of strings, indicating a fluency effect. Furthermore, there was a dissociation between fluency effects arising from symmetry vs. chunk strength, with stronger fluency effects for symmetry rather than chunks in the second half of strings. Taken together, we conjecture a divide between finite state and supra-finite state mechanisms in learning grammatical sequences. PMID:26869960

  11. The differential effects of fluency due to repetition and fluency due to color contrast on judgments of truth.

    PubMed

    Silva, Rita R; Garcia-Marques, Teresa; Mello, Joana

    2016-09-01

    Two experiments contrast the effects of fluency due to repetition and fluency due to color contrast on judgments of truth, after participants learn to associate high levels of fluency with falseness (i.e., a reversal of the fluency-truth link). Experiment 1 shows that the interpretation of fluency as a sign of truth is harder to reverse when learning is promoted with repetition rather than with perceptual fluency. Experiment 2 shows that when color contrast and repetition are manipulated orthogonally, the reversal of the truth effect learned with color contrast does not generalize to repetition. These results suggest specificities in the processing experiences generated by different sources of fluency, and that their influences can be separated in contexts that allow the contrast of their distinctive features. We interpret and discuss these results in light of the research addressing the convergence vs. dissociation of the effects elicited by different fluency sources. PMID:26224218

  12. Brisk and Effective Fluency Instruction for Small Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Judith K.

    2012-01-01

    Fluency is known as the bridge between phonics and comprehension. Teachers of reading provide high-quality instruction in phonics and decoding strategies, usually in a small-group format, but may be unsure how to insert fluency instruction into the small-group lesson. This article presents key concepts in fluency instruction and a description of…

  13. Reading Fluency in the Middle and Secondary Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paige, David D.; Magpuri-Lavell, Theresa

    2014-01-01

    In this article we discuss the specifics of reading fluency and provide suggestions for identifying when reading is fluent and when it is not. We then discuss the important role that reading fluency plays in the attainment of literacy achievement and briefly review research results that highlight the relationship between fluency and comprehension.…

  14. Potential Applications of Behavioral Fluency for Students With Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubina, Jr., Richard M.; Wolfe, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    Curricula for students with autism do not take into account levels of learning such as behavioral fluency. Behavioral fluency addresses accuracy as well as speed of response. We posit that fluency increases the functionality of skills for students with autism and should be systematically programmed into a curriculum. To discuss the application of…

  15. A Synthesis of Fluency Interventions for Secondary Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wexler, Jade; Vaughn, Sharon; Edmonds, Meaghan; Reutebuch, Colleen Klein

    2008-01-01

    Previous research studies examining the effects of fluency interventions on the fluency and comprehension outcomes for secondary struggling readers are synthesized. An extensive search of the professional literature between 1980 and 2005 yielded a total of 19 intervention studies that provided fluency interventions to secondary struggling readers…

  16. The Perception of Fluency in Native and Nonnative Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosker, Hans Rutger; Quené, Hugo; Sanders, Ted; de Jong, Nivja H.

    2014-01-01

    Where native speakers supposedly are fluent by default, nonnative speakers often have to strive hard to achieve a nativelike fluency level. However, disfluencies (such as pauses, fillers, repairs, etc.) occur in both native and nonnative speech and it is as yet unclear how fluency raters weigh the fluency characteristics of native and nonnative…

  17. The Evaluation of Second Language Fluency and Foreign Accent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chen-Huei

    2011-01-01

    What is second language fluency? What is a foreign accent? Is it possible for an adult second language learner to speak fluently with a heavy accent or vice versa? What factors contribute to the perception of fluency and a foreign accent? What acoustic attributes correlate with the perception of fluency and a foreign accent? To answer these…

  18. Fluency: A Review of Developmental and Remedial Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Melanie R.; Stahl, Steven A.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews theory and research relating to fluency instruction and development. Found that fluency instruction is generally effective; assisted approaches seem to be more effective than unassisted approaches; repetitive approaches do not seem to hold a clear advantage over nonrepetitive approaches; and effective fluency instruction moves beyond…

  19. The European Clinical Specialization on Fluency Disorders (ECSF)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggers, Kurt; Leahy, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    The European Clinical Specialization on Fluency Disorders (ECSF) project consists of one-year post-qualification fluency specialization training and a harmonized graduate fluency program. It was developed by eight European universities/colleges to provide the means whereby graduates would meet comparable standards of competence to practice in the…

  20. Relations among Oral Reading Fluency, Silent Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension: A Latent Variable Study of First-Grade Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Suk; Wagner, Richard K.; Foster, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we examined oral and silent reading fluency and their relations with reading comprehension. In a series of structural equation models with latent variables using data from 316 first-grade students, (a) silent and oral reading fluency were found to be related yet distinct forms of reading fluency, (b) silent reading fluency…

  1. Characteristics of Fluency and Speech in Two Families With High Incidences of Stuttering

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Frances J.; Braun, Allen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study presents data from 2 families with high incidence of stuttering, comparing methods of phenotype assignment and exploring the presence of other fluency disorders and corresponding speech characteristics. Method Three methods for assigning phenotype of stuttering were used: self-identification, family identification, and expert identification. Agreement on which individuals were assigned by each of these methods was studied. Multiple measures of fluency and speech production were obtained. Results Self-reports and descriptions of blocking rather than self-identification as a person who stutters demonstrated the best agreement with expert identification of stuttering. Family identification showed poor agreement with both expert and self-identification of stuttering. Using binary categories of fluent or stuttering, 90% of individuals in 1 family were classified by expert consensus. Only 70% of the other family could be similarly categorized. Experts required 2 other categories, cluttering and other fluency disorders, to fully characterize dysfluency within this family. These 2 families also demonstrated differences in speech production. Conclusion Some families with high incidence of stuttering may also have high incidence of other fluency disorders and other speech-production difficulties. This finding may have ramifications for genetic studies, including criteria for defining phenotype and collapsing data across multiple families. PMID:26126023

  2. Predictors of response to intervention of word reading fluency in Dutch.

    PubMed

    Scheltinga, Femke; van der Leij, Aryan; Struiksma, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of rapid digit naming, phonological memory, letter sound naming, and orthographic knowledge to the prediction of responsiveness to a school-based, individual intervention of word reading fluency problems of 122 Dutch second and third graders whose reading scores were below the 10th percentile in comparison with the normative group. Degree of responsiveness was determined by comparison of a pre- and posttest measure of word reading fluency with a 6-month interval. At posttest, 38% of the children had improved their reading scores above the 10th percentile. Maintenance scores revealed no significant growth on average, confirming that word reading fluency skills of poor readers are hard to remediate. Except rapid digit naming, none of the measures predicted responsiveness after controlling for the autoregressive effect of initial performance on fluency of word reading. A large part of the variance remained unexplained, supporting the advantage of a response-to-intervention approach above traditional psychometric testing to identify severe reading disabilities. PMID:20032286

  3. The Effects of a Reader's Theater Instructional Intervention on Second Grade Students' Reading Fluency and Comprehension Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Diane D.

    2011-01-01

    An estimated 75% of students who are poor readers in third grade continue to be lower achieving readers in ninth grade. The National Reading Panel has identified fluency as a prominent cause of reading comprehension problems which ultimately affect overall reading development. The purpose of this study was to test the theoretical framework of…

  4. The Role of Reading Disability Risk and Environmental Protective Factors in Students' Reading Fluency in Grade 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiuru, Noona; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Niemi, Pekka; Poskiparta, Elisa; Ahonen, Timo; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the role of reading disability (RD) risk and environmental protective factors in reading fluency in grade 4. The sample consisted of 538 Finnish-speaking students. Kindergarten measures included the students' risk for RD based on poor achievement in phonological awareness and letter knowledge as well as information on the…

  5. The Effect of Short Vowelization on Curriculum-Based Measurement of Reading Fluency and Comprehension in Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir; Al-Hmouz, Hanan; Kenana, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    This study facilitates the use of Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) to investigate the effect of short vowels on oral reading fluency (ORF) and silent reading comprehension in Arabic orthography. A total sample of 131 fifth-grade students (89 skilled readers and 42 poor readers) participated in the study. Two kinds of CBM probes were…

  6. Achieving Fluency: Special Education and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennell, Francis

    2011-01-01

    "Achieving Fluency" presents the understandings that all teachers need to play a role in the education of students who struggle: those with disabilities and those who simply lack essential foundational knowledge. This book serves teachers and supervisors by sharing increasingly intensive instructional interventions for struggling students on…

  7. A Math Fact Fluency Intervention with Scaffolding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasko, Sharla Nichols; Leach, Ryan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the effectiveness of a flash card intervention for fluency in basic math facts. The rate of recall of addition facts was assessed for an, 8-year-old third grader who had ADHD. The tutoring program involved a structured flashcard drill with systematic reinforcement. A scaffold was built in to the intervention…

  8. Information Fluency: Critically Examining IT Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reffell, Pete; Whitworth, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Discusses information technology (IT) education in United Kingdom universities and considers the use of IT to foster more critical and foundational faculties. Investigates the potential impact of this approach using the critical theory of Jurgen Habermas and his concept of colonization, and discusses IT and society and computer fluency.…

  9. Building Fluency through the Repeated Reading Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    For the last two years the author has used Repeated Reading (RR) to teach reading fluency in English as a Foreign Language classrooms in colleges and universities in Japan. RR is a method where the student reads and rereads a text silently or aloud from two to four times to reach a predetermined level of speed, accuracy, and comprehension. RR…

  10. Reading Together: A Successful Reading Fluency Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Chase; Mohr, Kathleen A. J.; Rasinski, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    The article describes a reading fluency intervention called Reading Together that combines the method of repeated readings (Samuels, 1979) and the Neurological Impress Method (Heckelman, 1969). Sixteen volunteers from various backgrounds were recruited and trained to deliver the Reading Together intervention to struggling readers in third through…

  11. Epistemic Fluency and Constructivist Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Donald; Collins, Allan

    1995-01-01

    Introduces epistemic game theory as a framework for thinking about the design of "constructivist" learning environments, and offers examples and suggestions for epistemic games in classrooms. Discusses epistemic complexity, epistemic game theory, the development of epistemic fluency, and the role of technology in the development of epistemic…

  12. An Experimental Analysis of Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Kevin M.; Wickstrom, Katherine F.; Noltemeyer, Amity L.; Brown, Shelaina M.; Schuka, Jeffrey R.; Therrien, William J.

    2009-01-01

    The experimental analysis of academic responding has emerged as one approach to strengthening decisions related to problem analysis and treatment design. This study provided an example of how both brief and extended assessments can be used within a data based, problem solving approach to addressing reading fluency concerns. For six children with…

  13. Promoting Decimal Number Sense and Representational Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suh, Jennifer M.; Johnston, Chris; Jamieson, Spencer; Mills, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    The abstract nature of mathematics requires the communication of mathematical ideas through multiple representations, such as words, symbols, pictures, objects, or actions. Building representational fluency involves using mathematical representations flexibly and being able to interpret and translate among these different models and mathematical…

  14. Teacher Acceptability of Oral Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Sarah Stebbe

    2013-01-01

    Many schools are adopting a Response to Intervention (RTI) model to support and evaluate learning (Fuchs & Fuchs, 2006). Universal screening and progress monitoring are two essential components of RTI that generally support improved student outcomes (Shinn, 2007). In many schools, teachers collect and use a tool called oral reading fluency for…

  15. Discussion, Collaborative Knowledge Work and Epistemic Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodyear, Peter; Zenios, Maria

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues for an action-oriented conception of learning in higher education: one which marries higher order learning (coming to understand) with apprenticeship in knowledge work. It introduces epistemic tasks, forms and fluency as constructs that are useful in giving a more precise meaning to ideas about collaboration in knowledge…

  16. Behavioral fluency: Evolution of a new paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Binder, Carl

    1996-01-01

    Behavioral fluency is that combination of accuracy plus speed of responding that enables competent individuals to function efficiently and effectively in their natural environments. Evolving from the methodology of free-operant conditioning, the practice of precision teaching set the stage for discoveries about relations between behavior frequency and specific outcomes, notably retention and maintenance of performance, endurance or resistance to distraction, and application or transfer of training. The use of frequency aims in instructional programming by Haughton and his associates led to formulation of empirically determined performance frequency ranges that define fluency. Use of fluency-based instructional methods has led to unprecedented gains in educational cost effectiveness, and has the potential for significantly improving education and training in general. This article traces the development of concepts, procedures, and findings associated with fluency and discusses their implications for instructional design and practice. It invites further controlled research and experimental analyses of phenomena that may be significant in the future evolution of educational technology and in the analysis of complex behavior. PMID:22478257

  17. Assessing Fluency: Are the Criteria Fair?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liyanage, Indika; Gardner, Rod

    2013-01-01

    In formal assessments of second-language speakers' fluency, the criteria used frequently fail to differentiate between real disfluency and interactionally effective practices, while superficially disfluent, that help with communication and are used by first language speakers. In this study, we focused on pausing, silences and self-repairs in the…

  18. Using Songs to Strengthen Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Pooja; Laud, Leslie E.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the use of songs with lyrics to increase the reading fluency rates of three middle school students. In the first condition, students heard fluent reading modeled, read regular passages repeatedly and then received feedback on accuracy, phrasing and expression. After that, students received the same intervention, except that…

  19. Verbal Processing Speed and Executive Functioning in Long-Term Cochlear Implant Users

    PubMed Central

    Pisoni, David B.; Kronenberger, William G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to report how verbal rehearsal speed (VRS), a form of covert speech used to maintain verbal information in working memory, and another verbal processing speed measure, perceptual encoding speed, are related to 3 domains of executive function (EF) at risk in cochlear implant (CI) users: verbal working memory, fluency-speed, and inhibition-concentration. Method EF, speech perception, and language outcome measures were obtained from 55 prelingually deaf, long-term CI users and matched controls with normal hearing (NH controls). Correlational analyses were used to assess relations between VRS (articulation rate), perceptual encoding speed (digit and color naming), and the outcomes in each sample. Results CI users displayed slower verbal processing speeds than NH controls. Verbal rehearsal speed was related to 2 EF domains in the NH sample but was unrelated to EF outcomes in CI users. Perceptual encoding speed was related to all EF domains in both groups. Conclusions Verbal rehearsal speed may be less influential for EF quality in CI users than for NH controls, whereas rapid automatized labeling skills and EF are closely related in both groups. CI users may develop processing strategies in EF tasks that differ from the covert speech strategies routinely employed by NH individuals. PMID:25320961

  20. The Relations Among Oral and Silent Reading Fluency and Comprehension in Middle School: Implications for Identification and Instruction of Students With Reading Difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Denton, Carolyn A.; Barth, Amy E.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Wexler, Jade; Vaughn, Sharon; Cirino, Paul T.; Romain, Melissa; Francis, David J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relations among oral and silent reading fluency and reading comprehension for students in Grades 6 to 8 (n = 1,421) and the use of fluency scores to identify middle school students who are at risk for failure on a high-stakes reading test. Results indicated moderate positive relations between measures of fluency and comprehension. Oral reading fluency (ORF) on passages was more strongly related to reading comprehension than ORF on word lists. A group-administered silent reading sentence verification test approximated the classification accuracy of individually administered ORF passages. The correlation between a maze task and comprehension was weaker than has been reported for elementary students. The best predictor of a high-stakes reading comprehension test was the previous year’s administration of the grade-appropriate test; fluency and verbal knowledge measures accounted for only small amounts of unique variance beyond that accounted for by the previous year’s administration. PMID:21637727

  1. Learning Channels and Verbal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Fan-Yu; Kubina, Richard M., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews the basics of learning channels and how specification of stimuli can help enhance verbal behavior. This article will define learning channels and the role of the ability matrix in training verbal behavior.

  2. From Letter Names to Word Reading: The Nascent Role of Sublexical Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchey, Kristen D.; Speece, Deborah L.

    2006-01-01

    Information processing theory suggests that sublexical fluency skills are important to word reading development, but there are few supportive data. This study investigated if sublexical fluency (letter name fluency, letter sound fluency, and phoneme segmentation fluency) contributed to the development of word reading and spelling in 92…

  3. Verbal problem-solving difficulties in autism spectrum disorders and atypical language development.

    PubMed

    Alderson-Day, Ben

    2014-12-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) adopt less efficient strategies than typically developing (TD) peers on the Twenty Questions Task (TQT), a measure of verbal problem-solving skills. Although problems with the TQT are typically associated with executive dysfunction, they have also been reported in children who are deaf, suggesting a role for atypical language development. To test the contribution of language history to ASD problem solving, TQT performance was compared in children with high-functioning autism (HFA), children with Asperger syndrome (AS) and TD children. The HFA group used significantly less efficient strategies than both AS and TD children. No group differences were evident on tests of question understanding, planning or verbal fluency. Potential explanations for differences in verbal problem-solving skill are discussed with reference to the development of inner speech and use of visual strategies in ASD. PMID:25346354

  4. Aging and Fluency Based Illusions in Recognition Memory

    PubMed Central

    Thapar, Anjali; Westerman, Deanne L.

    2009-01-01

    We examined age related differences in susceptibility to fluency-based memory illusions. The results from two experiments, using two different methods to enhance the fluency of recognition test items, revealed that older and younger adults did not differ significantly in terms of their overall susceptibility to this type of memory illusion. Older and younger adults were also similar in that perceptual fluency did not influence recognition memory responses when there was a mismatch in the sensory modality of the study and test phases. Likewise, a more conceptual fluency manipulation influenced recognition memory responses in both older and younger adults regardless of the match in modality. Overall, the results indicate that older adults may not be more vulnerable than younger adults to fluency-based illusions of recognition memory. Moreover, younger and older adults appear to be comparable in their sensitivity to factors that modulate the influence of fluency on recognition decisions. PMID:19739915

  5. Conceptual fluency increases recollection: behavioral and electrophysiological evidence

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Li, Bingbing; Gao, Chuanji; Xu, Huifang; Guo, Chunyan

    2015-01-01

    It is widely established that fluency can contribute to recognition memory. Previous studies have found that enhanced fluency increases familiarity, but not recollection. The present study was motivated by a previous finding that conceptual priming affected recollection. We used event-related potentials to investigate the electrophysiological correlates of these effects with conceptually related two-character Chinese words. We found that previous conceptual priming effects on conceptual fluency only increased the incidence of recollection responses. We also found that enhanced conceptual fluency was associated with N400 attenuation, which was also correlated with the behavioral indicator of recollection. These results suggest that the N400 effect might be related to the impact of conceptual fluency on recollection recognition. These study findings provide further evidence for the relationship between fluency and recollection. PMID:26175678

  6. Verbal dyspraxia and galactosemia.

    PubMed

    Webb, Amy Leigh; Singh, Rani H; Kennedy, Mary Jane; Elsas, Louis J

    2003-03-01

    Classical galactosemia is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from deficient galactose-1-phosphateuridyl transferase (GALT) activity. Verbal dyspraxia is an unusual outcome in galactosemia. Here we validated a simplified breath test of total body galactose oxidation against genotype and evaluated five potential biochemical risk indicators for verbal dyspraxia in galactosemia: cumulative percentage dose (CUMPCD) of (13)CO(2) in breath, mean erythrocyte galactose-1-phosphate, highest erythrocyte galactose-1-phosphate, mean urinary galactitol, and erythrocyte GALT activity. Thirteen controls and 42 patients with galactosemia took a (13)C-galactose bolus, and the (CUMPCD) of (13)CO(2) in expired air was determined. Patients with <5% CUMPCD had mutant alleles that severely impaired human GALT enzyme catalysis. Patients with > or =5% CUMPCD had milder mutant human GALT alleles. Twenty-four patients consented to formal speech evaluation; 15 (63%) had verbal dyspraxia. Dyspraxic patients had significantly lower CUMPCD values (2.84 +/- 5.76% versus 11.51 +/- 7.67%; p < 0.008) and significantly higher mean erythrocyte galactose-1-phosphate (3.38 +/- 0.922 mg/dL versus 1.92 +/- 1.28 mg/dL; p = 0.019) and mean urinary galactitol concentrations (192.4 +/- 75.8 mmol/mol creatinine versus 122.0 +/- 56.4; p = 0.048) than patients with normal speech. CUMPCD values <5%, mean erythrocyte galactose-1-phosphate levels >2.7 mg/dL, and mean urinary galactitol levels >135 mmol/mol creatinine were associated with dyspraxic outcome with odds ratios of 21, 13, and 5, respectively. We conclude that total body oxidation of galactose to CO(2) in expired air reflects genotype and that this breath test is a sensitive predictor of verbal dyspraxia in patients with galactosemia. PMID:12595586

  7. Mathematics as verbal behavior.

    PubMed

    Marr, M Jackson

    2015-04-01

    "Behavior which is effective only through the mediation of other persons has so many distinguishing dynamic and topographical properties that a special treatment is justified and indeed demanded" (Skinner, 1957, p. 2). Skinner's demand for a special treatment of verbal behavior can be extended within that field to domains such as music, poetry, drama, and the topic of this paper: mathematics. For centuries, mathematics has been of special concern to philosophers who have continually argued to the present day about what some deem its "special nature." Two interrelated principal questions have been: (1) Are the subjects of mathematical interest pre-existing in some transcendental realm and thus are "discovered" as one might discover a new planet; and (2) Why is mathematics so effective in the practices of science and engineering even though originally such mathematics was "pure" with applications neither contemplated or even desired? I argue that considering the actual practice of mathematics in its history and in the context of acquired verbal behavior one can address at least some of its apparent mysteries. To this end, I discuss some of the structural and functional features of mathematics including verbal operants, rule-and contingency-modulated behavior, relational frames, the shaping of abstraction, and the development of intuition. How is it possible to understand Nature by properly talking about it? Essentially, it is because nature taught us how to talk. PMID:25595115

  8. Signals voice biofeedback for speech fluency disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jose Francisco; Fernandez-Ramos, Raquel; Romero-Sanchez, Jorge; Rios, Francisco

    2003-04-01

    The knowledge about mechanisms of voice production as well as the parameters obtaining, allow us to present solutions for coding, transmission and establishment of properties to distinguish between the responsible physiological mechanisms. In this work, we are interested in the evaluation of syllabic Sequences in Continuous Speech. We keep in mind this evaluation is very interesting and useful for Foniatrics and Logopaedia applications focus on the measurement and control of Speech Fluency. Moreover, we are interested in studying and evaluating sequential programming and muscular coordination. In this way, the main objective of our work is focus on the study of production mechanisms, model, evaluation methods and introduction of a reliable algorithm to catalogue and classify the phenomena of rythm and speech fluency. In this paper, we present an algorithm for syllabic analysis based on Short Time Energy concept. Firstly, the algorithm extracts the temporary syllabic intervals of speech and silence, and then compared with normality intervals. Secondly, it proceeds to feedback in real time to the patient luminous and acoustic signals indicating the degree of mismatching with the normality model. This methodology is useful to improve fluency disorder. We present an ASIC microelectronic solution for the syllabic analyser and a portable prototype to be used in a clinic level as much as individualized tool for the patient.

  9. If memory serves, will language? Later verbal accessibility of early memories.

    PubMed

    Bauer, P J; Kroupina, M G; Schwade, J A; Dropik, P L; Wewerka, S S

    1998-01-01

    Of major interest to those concerned with early mnemonic process and function is the question of whether early memories likely encoded without the benefit of language later are accessible to verbal report. In the context of a controlled laboratory study, we examined this question in children who were 16 and 20 months at the time of exposure to specific target events and who subsequently were tested for their memories of the events after a delay of either 6 or 12 months (at 22-32 months) and then again at 3 years. At the first delayed-recall test, children evidenced memory both nonverbally and verbally. Nonverbal mnemonic expression was related to age at the time of test; verbal mnemonic expression was related to verbal fluency at the time of test. At the second delayed-recall test, children evidenced continued accessibility of their early memories. Verbal mnemonic expression was related to previous mnemonic expression, both nonverbal and verbal, each of which contributed unique variance. The relevance of these findings on memory for controlled laboratory events for issues of memory for traumatic experiences is discussed. PMID:9886220

  10. Individual differences in verbal creative thinking are reflected in the precuneus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qun-Lin; Xu, Ting; Yang, Wen-Jing; Li, Ya-Dan; Sun, Jiang-Zhou; Wang, Kang-Cheng; Beaty, Roger E; Zhang, Qing-Lin; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Qiu, Jiang

    2015-08-01

    There have been many structural and functional imaging studies of creative thinking, but combining structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) investigations with respect to creative thinking is still lacking. Thus, the aim of the present study was to explore the associations among inter-individual verbal creative thinking and both regional homogeneity and cortical morphology of the brain surface. We related the local functional homogeneity of spontaneous brain activity to verbal creative thinking and its dimensions--fluency, originality, and flexibility--by examining these inter-individual differences in a large sample of 268 healthy college students. Results revealed that people with high verbal creative ability and high scores for the three dimensions of creativity exhibited lower regional functional homogeneity in the right precuneus. Both cortical volume and thickness of the right precuneus were positively associated with individual verbal creativity and its dimensions. Moreover, originality was negatively correlated with functional homogeneity in the left superior frontal gyrus and positively correlated with functional homogeneity in the right occipito-temporal gyrus. In contrast, flexibility was positively correlated with functional homogeneity in the left superior and middle occipital gyrus. These findings provide additional evidence of a link between verbal creative thinking and brain structure in the right precuneus--a region involved in internally--focused attention and effective semantic retrieval-and further suggest that local functional homogeneity of verbal creative thinking has neurobiological relevance that is likely based on anatomical substrates. PMID:26150204

  11. Why Verbalization of Non-Verbal Memory Reduces Recognition Accuracy: A Computational Approach to Verbal Overshadowing

    PubMed Central

    Hatano, Aya; Ueno, Taiji; Kitagami, Shinji; Kawaguchi, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Verbal overshadowing refers to a phenomenon whereby verbalization of non-verbal stimuli (e.g., facial features) during the maintenance phase (after the target information is no longer available from the sensory inputs) impairs subsequent non-verbal recognition accuracy. Two primary mechanisms have been proposed for verbal overshadowing, namely the recoding interference hypothesis, and the transfer-inappropriate processing shift. The former assumes that verbalization renders non-verbal representations less accurate. In contrast, the latter assumes that verbalization shifts processing operations to a verbal mode and increases the chance of failing to return to non-verbal, face-specific processing operations (i.e., intact, yet inaccessible non-verbal representations). To date, certain psychological phenomena have been advocated as inconsistent with the recoding-interference hypothesis. These include a decline in non-verbal memory performance following verbalization of non-target faces, and occasional failures to detect a significant correlation between the accuracy of verbal descriptions and the non-verbal memory performance. Contrary to these arguments against the recoding interference hypothesis, however, the present computational model instantiated core processing principles of the recoding interference hypothesis to simulate face recognition, and nonetheless successfully reproduced these behavioral phenomena, as well as the standard verbal overshadowing. These results demonstrate the plausibility of the recoding interference hypothesis to account for verbal overshadowing, and suggest there is no need to implement separable mechanisms (e.g., operation-specific representations, different processing principles, etc.). In addition, detailed inspections of the internal processing of the model clarified how verbalization rendered internal representations less accurate and how such representations led to reduced recognition accuracy, thereby offering a computationally

  12. Why Verbalization of Non-Verbal Memory Reduces Recognition Accuracy: A Computational Approach to Verbal Overshadowing.

    PubMed

    Hatano, Aya; Ueno, Taiji; Kitagami, Shinji; Kawaguchi, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Verbal overshadowing refers to a phenomenon whereby verbalization of non-verbal stimuli (e.g., facial features) during the maintenance phase (after the target information is no longer available from the sensory inputs) impairs subsequent non-verbal recognition accuracy. Two primary mechanisms have been proposed for verbal overshadowing, namely the recoding interference hypothesis, and the transfer-inappropriate processing shift. The former assumes that verbalization renders non-verbal representations less accurate. In contrast, the latter assumes that verbalization shifts processing operations to a verbal mode and increases the chance of failing to return to non-verbal, face-specific processing operations (i.e., intact, yet inaccessible non-verbal representations). To date, certain psychological phenomena have been advocated as inconsistent with the recoding-interference hypothesis. These include a decline in non-verbal memory performance following verbalization of non-target faces, and occasional failures to detect a significant correlation between the accuracy of verbal descriptions and the non-verbal memory performance. Contrary to these arguments against the recoding interference hypothesis, however, the present computational model instantiated core processing principles of the recoding interference hypothesis to simulate face recognition, and nonetheless successfully reproduced these behavioral phenomena, as well as the standard verbal overshadowing. These results demonstrate the plausibility of the recoding interference hypothesis to account for verbal overshadowing, and suggest there is no need to implement separable mechanisms (e.g., operation-specific representations, different processing principles, etc.). In addition, detailed inspections of the internal processing of the model clarified how verbalization rendered internal representations less accurate and how such representations led to reduced recognition accuracy, thereby offering a computationally

  13. The Relationship between Uncinate Fasciculus White Matter Integrity and Verbal Memory Proficiency in Children

    PubMed Central

    Schaeffer, David J.; Krafft, Cynthia E.; Schwarz, Nicolette F.; Chi, Lingxi; Rodrigue, Amanda L.; Pierce, Jordan E.; Allison, Jerry D.; Yanasak, Nathan E.; Liu, Tianming; Davis, Catherine L.; McDowell, Jennifer E.

    2014-01-01

    During childhood, verbal learning and memory are important for academic performance. Recent fMRI studies have reported on the functional correlates of verbal memory proficiency, but few have reported the underlying structural correlates. The present study sought to test the relationship between fronto-temporal white matter integrity and verbal memory proficiency in children. Diffusion weighted images were collected from 17 Black children (age 8–11 years) who also completed the California Verbal Learning Test. To index white matter integrity, fractional anisotropy values were calculated for bilateral uncinate fasciculus. The results revealed that low anisotropy values corresponded to poor verbal memory, whereas high anisotropy values corresponded to significantly better verbal memory scores. These findings suggest that a greater degree of myelination and cohesiveness of axonal fibers in uncinate fasciculus underlie better verbal memory proficiency in children. PMID:24949818

  14. Deriving semantic structure from category fluency: clustering techniques and their pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Voorspoels, Wouter; Storms, Gert; Longenecker, Julia; Verheyen, Steven; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Elvevåg, Brita

    2013-01-01

    Assessing verbal output in category fluency tasks provides a sensitive indicator of cortical dysfunction. The most common metrics are the overall number of words produced and the number of errors. Two main observations have been made about the structure of the output, first that there is a temporal component to it with words being generated in spurts, and second that the clustering pattern may reflect a search for meanings such that the ‘clustering’ is attributable to the activation of a specific semantic field in memory. A number of sophisticated approaches to examining the structure of this clustering have been developed, and a core theme is that the similarity relations between category members will reveal the mental semantic structure of the category underlying an individual’s responses, which can then be visualized by a number of algorithms, such as MDS, hierarchical clustering, ADDTREE, ADCLUS or SVD. Such approaches have been applied to a variety of neurological and psychiatric populations, and the general conclusion has been that the clinical condition systematically distorts the semantic structure in the patients, as compared to the healthy controls. In the present paper we explore this approach to understanding semantic structure using category fluency data. On the basis of a large pool of patients with schizophrenia (n=204) and healthy control participants (n=204), we find that the methods are problematic and unreliable to the extent that it is not possible to conclude that any putative difference reflects a systematic difference between the semantic representations in patients and controls. Moreover, taking into account the unreliability of the methods, we find that the most probable conclusion to be made is that no difference in underlying semantic representation exists. The consequences of these findings to understanding semantic structure, and the use of category fluency data, in cortical dysfunction are discussed. PMID:24275165

  15. A cross-cultural investigation of inhibitory control, generative fluency, and anxiety symptoms in Romanian and Russian preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Cheie, Lavinia; Veraksa, Aleksander; Zinchenko, Yuri; Gorovaya, Alexandra; Visu-Petra, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The current study focused on the early development of inhibitory control in 5- to 7-year-old children attending kindergarten in two Eastern-European countries, Romania and Russia. These two countries share many aspects of child-rearing and educational practices, previously documented to influence the development of inhibitory control. Using the Lurian-based developmental approach offered by the Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment battery, the study aimed to contribute to cross-cultural developmental neuropsychology by exploring (a) early interrelationships between subcomponents of inhibitory control (response suppression and attention control) and generative fluency (verbal and figural) in these two cultures, as well as (b) the predictive value of external factors (culture and maternal education) and individual differences (age, gender, nonverbal intelligence, trait anxiety) on inhibitory control and fluency outcomes in children from both countries. First, findings in both culture samples suggest that even at this young age, the construct of inhibitory control cannot be considered a unitary entity. Second, differences in maternal education were not predictive of either inhibitory control or fluency scores. However, children's attention control performance varied as a function of culture, and the direction of these cultural effects differed by whether the target outcome involved performance accuracy versus efficiency as an output. Findings also confirmed the previously documented intensive developmental improvement in preschoolers' inhibitory control during this period, influencing measures of response suppression and particularly attention control. Finally, the results further stress the importance of individual differences effects in trait anxiety on attention control efficiency across cultures. PMID:24479756

  16. Language Non-Selective Syntactic Activation in Early Bilinguals: The Role of Verbal Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanoudaki, Eirini; Thierry, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that bilinguals presented with words in one of their languages spontaneously and automatically activate lexical representations from their other language. However, such effects, found in varied experimental contexts, both in behavioural and psychophysiological investigations, have been essentially limited to the…

  17. Contribution of NIRS to the Study of Prefrontal Cortex for Verbal Fluency in Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahlaoui, Karima; Di Sante, Gabriele; Barbeau, Joannie; Maheux, Manon; Lesage, Frederic; Ska, Bernadette; Joanette, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Healthy aging is characterized by a number of changes on brain structure and function. Several neuroimaging studies have shown an age-related reduction in hemispheric asymmetry on various cognitive tasks, a phenomenon captured by Cabeza (2002) in the Hemispheric Asymmetry Reduction in Older Adults (HAROLD) model. Although this phenomenon is…

  18. Programming for Generalization of Oral Reading Fluency Using Computer-Assisted Instruction and Changing Fluency Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Starr E.; Cartledge, Gwendolyn; Gibson, Lenwood, Jr.; Robinson-Ervin, Porsha

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a supplemental repeated reading intervention delivered through a computer-assisted instruction (CAI) program on the oral reading fluency (ORF), comprehension, and generalization of second graders who were at risk for reading failure. Six students received the Read Naturally Software Edition (RNSE) treatment…

  19. Can Fluency Be Interpreted as Novelty? Retraining the Interpretation of Fluency in Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olds, Justin M.; Westerman, Deanne L.

    2012-01-01

    Stimuli that are processed fluently tend to be regarded as more familiar and are more likely to be classified as old on a recognition test compared with less fluent stimuli. Recently it was shown that the standard relationship between fluency and positive recognition judgments can be reversed if participants are trained that previously studied…

  20. Perceptual Fluency, Auditory Generation, and Metamemory: Analyzing the Perceptual Fluency Hypothesis in the Auditory Modality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besken, Miri; Mulligan, Neil W.

    2014-01-01

    Judgments of learning (JOLs) are sometimes influenced by factors that do not impact actual memory performance. One recent proposal is that perceptual fluency during encoding affects metamemory and is a basis of metacognitive illusions. In the present experiments, participants identified aurally presented words that contained inter-spliced silences…

  1. Fluency Training in the ESL Classroom: An Experimental Study of Fluency Development and Proceduralization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jong, Nel; Perfetti, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates the role of speech repetition in oral fluency development. Twenty-four students enrolled in English-as-a-second-language classes performed three training sessions in which they recorded three speeches, of 4, 3, and 2 min, respectively. Some students spoke about the same topic three times, whereas others spoke about…

  2. Promoting Gains in Reading Fluency: A Comparison of Three Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeVasseur, Valerie Marciarille; Macaruso, Paul; Shankweiler, Donald

    2008-01-01

    On the ground that reading fluency entails appropriate phrasing or prosody as well as facile word recognition, we investigated the effectiveness of text-based and word-based repeated readings procedures for promoting fluency of reading aloud and comprehension in second-grade children. Repeated readings of text printed with spaces between phrases…

  3. How Important Is Reading Skill Fluency for Comprehension?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walczyk, Jeffrey J.; Griffith-Ross, Diana A.

    2007-01-01

    Some important approaches to reading instruction and assessment, as well as influential theories of reading, are based on the assumption that reading fluency is necessary for good comprehension. However, this may not always be the case. This article takes another look at the relationship between word reading fluency and comprehension. It also…

  4. When Two Sources of Fluency Meet One Cognitive Mindset

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reggev, Niv; Hassin, Ran R.; Maril, Anat

    2012-01-01

    Fluency, the subjective experience of ease associated with information processing, has been shown to affect a host of judgments. Previous research has typically focused on specific factors that affect the use of a single, specific fluency source. In the present study we examine how cognitive mindsets, or processing modes, moderate fluency…

  5. Fluency and Its Teaching. Modern Languages in Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillot, Marie-Noelle

    This book addresses what kind of analysis of spoken language is appropriate to the assessment and fostering of fluency at the various stages of a student's development. It is easy to define fluency in general terms, but it is difficult to discern what linguistic and paralinguistic options are involved. This book begins by exploring perceptions of…

  6. Fluency Does Not Express Implicit Knowledge of Artificial Grammars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Ryan B.; Dienes, Zoltan

    2010-01-01

    It is commonly held that implicit knowledge expresses itself as fluency. A perceptual clarification task was used to examine the relationship between perceptual processing fluency, subjective familiarity, and grammaticality judgments in a task frequently used to produce implicit knowledge, artificial grammar learning (AGL). Four experiments…

  7. Educator Assessment: Accent as a Measure of Fluency in Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Patricia Lavon; Allen, Ann

    2013-01-01

    This analysis examines Arizona's English fluency evaluation initiative, which aims to address the fluency standards for teachers of English Language Learners (ELLs) set forth in the 2001 No Child Left Behind Act. The authors deploy a sociolinguistic framework to consider what components of teachers' language are being evaluated by the…

  8. The Relationship between Letter Fluency Measures and Arabic GPA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hmouz, Hanan

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated two widely-used early literacy skill's indicators in reflecting growth in first-grade language achievement skills. It compared two curriculum-based assessments of letter knowledge: Letter Naming Fluency (LNF) and Letter Sound Fluency (LSF) in the Arabic language. A sample of 125 first-grade students, 100 average…

  9. Embodied Memory Judgments: A Case of Motor Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Shu-Ju; Gallo, David A.; Beilock, Sian L.

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that perceptual and conceptual fluency can influence episodic memory judgments. Here, the authors asked whether fluency arising from the motor system also impacts recognition memory. Past research has shown that the perception of letters automatically activates motor programs of typing actions in skilled typists. In this study,…

  10. Laughing through Rereadings: Using Joke Books to Build Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Molly

    2009-01-01

    The author explores how the use of joke books can promote fluency in young readers. One young girl's fluency improved measurably, and her engagement and motivation to read the particular kind of text involved played a significant role. (Contains 2 tables.)

  11. Human and Automated Assessment of Oral Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolaños, Daniel; Cole, Ron A.; Ward, Wayne H.; Tindal, Gerald A.; Hasbrouck, Jan; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a comprehensive approach to fully automated assessment of children's oral reading fluency (ORF), one of the most informative and frequently administered measures of children's reading ability. Speech recognition and machine learning techniques are described that model the 3 components of oral reading fluency: word accuracy,…

  12. Reading Fluency and Self-Efficacy: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Sandra L. Nes

    2005-01-01

    In this case study, reading fluency was examined within the context of a paired reading instructional intervention. Additionally, this study explored reader self perceptions and the nature of the lived experience of reading for a less skilled reader. A single subject changing criterion design was employed. Baseline reading fluency data were…

  13. Linguistic Skills and Speaking Fluency in a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Jong, Nivja H.; Steinel, Margarita P.; Florijn, Arjen; Schoonen, Rob; Hulstijn, Jan H.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how individual differences in linguistic knowledge and processing skills relate to individual differences in speaking fluency. Speakers of Dutch as a second language ("N" = 179) performed eight speaking tasks, from which several measures of fluency were derived such as measures for pausing, repairing, and speed…

  14. What Oral Text Reading Fluency Can Reveal about Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veenendaal, Nathalie J.; Groen, Margriet A.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2015-01-01

    Text reading fluency--the ability to read quickly, accurately and with a natural intonation--has been proposed as a predictor of reading comprehension. In the current study, we examined the role of oral text reading fluency, defined as text reading rate and text reading prosody, as a contributor to reading comprehension outcomes in addition to…

  15. Easy moves: Perceptual fluency facilitates approach-related action.

    PubMed

    Carr, Evan W; Rotteveel, Mark; Winkielman, Piotr

    2016-06-01

    It is well established that processing fluency impacts preference judgments and physiological reactions indicative of affect. Yet, little is known about how fluency influences motivation-related action. Here, we offer a novel demonstration that fluency facilitates action-tendencies related to approach. Four experiments investigated this action effect, its boundary conditions, and concomitant affective responses. Experiment 1 found faster approach movements (reaction times [RTs] to initiate arm flexion) to perceptually fluent stimuli when participants acted to rapidly classify stimuli as either "good" or "bad." Experiment 2 eliminated this fluency effect on action when participants performed nonaffective classifications ("living" or "nonliving"), even though fluency robustly enhanced liking judgments. Experiment 3 demonstrated that fluency can also facilitate approach action that is not immediate, as long as the delayed action involves affective classification. This experiment also found that fluent stimuli elicit genuine hedonic responses, as reflected in facial electromyography (fEMG) activity over zygomaticus "smiling" muscle. Experiment 4 replicated the physiological (fEMG) evidence for hedonic responses to fluent stimuli, but similar to Experiment 2, we observed no fluency effects on actions involving nonaffective classification. The current studies offer the first evidence that perceptual fluency can facilitate approach-related movements, when such movements are embedded in the context of affective decisions. Generally, these results suggest that variations in processing dynamics can flexibly and implicitly shape action-tendencies. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26751628

  16. Fluency Remediation in Dyslexic Children: Does Age Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tressoldi, Patrizio E.; Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Brenbati, Federica; Donini, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis whether older dyslexic children may obtain fewer gains on fluency and accuracy with respect to their younger peers after specific remediation. Changes in accuracy and fluency of a group of children with a diagnosis of dyslexia attending third and fourth grades were compared with those obtained by a group of…

  17. Corporate Versus Academic Perceptions of the Need for Language Fluency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vande Berg, Camille Kennedy

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the academic emphasis on students acquiring fluency in a second language to foster their advancement in the business world of international commerce. Notes that human resource experts in U.S.-based international corporations often give a low priority to linguistic fluency and emphasize the need for cultural expertise. (Seven references)…

  18. What Research Has to Say about Fluency Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, S. Jay, Ed.; Farstrup, Alan E., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    The editors of "What Research Has to Say about Reading Instruction" present the most recent research on fluency and show how it can be put into practice. A resource for classroom teachers and teacher educators alike, the reader-friendly text offers a range of expert perspectives on the key aspects of fluency such as: (1) history and definitions;…

  19. Modelling Second Language Performance: Integrating Complexity, Accuracy, Fluency, and Lexis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skehan, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Complexity, accuracy, and fluency have proved useful measures of second language performance. The present article will re-examine these measures themselves, arguing that fluency needs to be rethought if it is to be measured effectively, and that the three general measures need to be supplemented by measures of lexical use. Building upon this…

  20. Developing Reading Fluency: A Study of Extensive Reading in EFL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwahori, Yurika

    2008-01-01

    Due to the great interest of practitioners on reading fluency in first language (L1) and second language (L2) English classroom settings, fluency has become a hot topic. A number of studies have suggested that an extensive reading (ER) program can lead to improvement of L2 learners' reading rate; however, studies about high school students are…

  1. Fluency Training. NetNews . Volume 4, Number 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LDA of Minnesota, 2004

    2004-01-01

    In the past, researchers believed that reading fluency developed as a result of good word recognition skills; however, it is now believed that fluency must be explicitly taught and practiced orally in order to develop. Readers who are not fluent in reading will be less motivated to practice, have more difficulty learning academic content, and…

  2. A Comparison of Group-Oriented Contingencies for Addition Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Thomas J.; Duhon, Gary J.; Shutte, Greg; Rowland, Julie E.

    2016-01-01

    Math fact fluency is critical for understanding complex mathematics. Explicit timing interventions have shown promise for improving math fluency, and they may benefit from being paired with group-oriented contingencies. Further, investigations of independent and dependent group-oriented contingencies would help to identify their relative…

  3. Improving Multiplication Fact Fluency by Choosing between Competing Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Helen C.; Gemmink, Michelle; Broens-Paffen, Marije; Kirschner, Paul A.; Jolles, Jelle

    2015-01-01

    Developing fluency in arithmetic facts is instrumental to mathematics learning. This study compares the effects of two practice conditions on children's fluency in simple multiplication facts. Third and fourth graders in the Netherlands (N = 282) practised in either a conventional "recall" condition where they produced answers to…

  4. Strategic Key Word Instruction: Increasing Fluency in Connected Expository Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, Gail; Lambert, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of preteaching key words on fluency in connected text were examined with three third-grade general education participants. Researchers used a multiple base-line design (i.e., Baseline and Wordlist Intervention) and found that preteaching increased fluency in connected text written above the participant's instructional level of reading…

  5. Training for Fluency and Generalization of Math Facts Using Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musti-Rao, Shobana; Lynch, Tom Liam; Plati, Erin

    2015-01-01

    As American students struggle with basic mathematical skills, the importance of math fact fluency has gained the attention of educators and researchers. Generalization of math fact fluency is also important for the transfer of skills to other settings and formats, assisting students in the completion of more varied and complicated math tasks. This…

  6. Connected Text Reading and Differences in Text Reading Fluency in Adult Readers

    PubMed Central

    Wallot, Sebastian; Hollis, Geoff; van Rooij, Marieke

    2013-01-01

    The process of connected text reading has received very little attention in contemporary cognitive psychology. This lack of attention is in parts due to a research tradition that emphasizes the role of basic lexical constituents, which can be studied in isolated words or sentences. However, this lack of attention is in parts also due to the lack of statistical analysis techniques, which accommodate interdependent time series. In this study, we investigate text reading performance with traditional and nonlinear analysis techniques and show how outcomes from multiple analyses can used to create a more detailed picture of the process of text reading. Specifically, we investigate reading performance of groups of literate adult readers that differ in reading fluency during a self-paced text reading task. Our results indicate that classical metrics of reading (such as word frequency) do not capture text reading very well, and that classical measures of reading fluency (such as average reading time) distinguish relatively poorly between participant groups. Nonlinear analyses of distribution tails and reading time fluctuations provide more fine-grained information about the reading process and reading fluency. PMID:23977177

  7. Perceptual fluency, auditory generation, and metamemory: analyzing the perceptual fluency hypothesis in the auditory modality.

    PubMed

    Besken, Miri; Mulligan, Neil W

    2014-03-01

    Judgments of learning (JOLs) are sometimes influenced by factors that do not impact actual memory performance. One recent proposal is that perceptual fluency during encoding affects metamemory and is a basis of metacognitive illusions. In the present experiments, participants identified aurally presented words that contained inter-spliced silences (the generate condition) or that were intact, a manipulation analogous to visual generation manipulations. The generate condition produced lower perceptual fluency as assessed by both accuracy and identification latency. Consistent with the perceptual fluency hypothesis, the less fluent, generate condition produced lower JOLs than the intact condition. However, actual memory performance was greater in the generation than intact condition in free recall (Experiment 1) and recognition (Experiment 3). The negative effect of generation on JOLs occurred for both aggregate and item-by-item JOLs, but in the latter case, the positive generation effect in actual memory performance was reduced or eliminated (as also occurs with visual generation tasks; Experiments 2 and 4). Furthermore, the decrease in perceptual fluency produced by the generation manipulation was correlated with the decrease in JOLs for this condition (Experiment 5). The negative effect of generation on JOLs persisted even when participants were warned that the generation condition produces equal or greater memory performance compared to the intact condition (Experiment 6). The results are in accord with the perceptual fluency hypothesis and show that this metamemory illusion is related to objective measures of perceptual difficulty. With regard to actual memory performance, this novel auditory generation manipulation produces results consistent with those produced in the visual modality. PMID:24016138

  8. Verbal risk in communicating risk

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, J.C.; Reno, H.W.

    1993-03-01

    When persons in the waste management industry have a conversation concerning matters of the industry, thoughts being communicated are understood among those in the industry. However, when persons in waste management communicate with those outside the industry, communication may suffer simply because of poor practices such as the use of jargon, euphemisms, acronyms, abbreviations, language usage, not knowing audience, and public perception. This paper deals with ways the waste management industry can communicate risk to the public without obfuscating issues. The waste management industry should feel obligated to communicate certain meanings within specific contexts and, then, if the context changes, should not put forth a new, more appropriate meaning to the language already used. Communication of the waste management industry does not have to be provisional. The authors suggest verbal risks in communicating risk can be reduced significantly or eliminated by following a few basic communication principles. The authors make suggestions and give examples of ways to improve communication with the general public by avoiding or reducing jargon, euphemisms, and acronyms; knowing the audience; avoiding presumptive knowledge held by the audience; and understanding public perception of waste management issues.

  9. Verbalizing Facial Memory: Criterion Effects in Verbal Overshadowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clare, Joseph; Lewandowsky, Stephan

    2004-01-01

    This article investigated the role of the recognition criterion in the verbal overshadowing effect (VOE). In 3 experiments, people witnessed an event, verbally described a perpetrator, and then attempted identification. The authors found in Experiment 1, which included a "not present" response option and both perpetrator-present (PP) and…

  10. A synthesis of fluency interventions for secondary struggling readers

    PubMed Central

    Vaughn, Sharon; Edmonds, Meaghan; Reutebuch, Colleen Klein

    2012-01-01

    Previous research studies examining the effects of fluency interventions on the fluency and comprehension outcomes for secondary struggling readers are synthesized. An extensive search of the professional literature between 1980 and 2005 yielded a total of 19 intervention studies that provided fluency interventions to secondary struggling readers and measured comprehension and/or fluency outcomes. Findings revealed fluency outcomes were consistently improved following interventions that included listening passage previewing such as listening to an audiotape or adult model of good reading before attempting to read a passage. In addition, there is preliminary evidence that there may be no differential effects between repeated reading interventions and the same amount of non-repetitive reading with older struggling readers for increasing reading speed, word recognition, and comprehension. PMID:22485066

  11. A Longitudinal Investigation of Early Reading and Language Skills in Children with Poor Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation, Kate; Cocksey, Joanne; Taylor, Jo S. H.; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Poor comprehenders have difficulty comprehending connected text, despite having age-appropriate levels of reading accuracy and fluency. We used a longitudinal design to examine earlier reading and language skills in children identified as poor comprehenders in mid-childhood. Method: Two hundred and forty-two children began the study at…

  12. Modeling Elementary Aged Students' Fluency Growth in Written Expression: Predicting Fluency Growth for Girls and Boys in General Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truckenmiller, Adrea J.

    2011-01-01

    Research on evidence-based writing intervention practices as well as reliable and valid assessments of elementary-aged students' writing fluency has been lacking compared to other academic areas (i.e., reading). Performance feedback interventions targeting writing fluency are gaining empirical support (Eckert et al., 2006); however, growth…

  13. Literacy Is "Not" Enough: 21st Century Fluencies for the Digital Age. The 21st Century Fluency Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crockett, Lee; Jukes, Ian; Churches, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Educating students to traditional literacy standards is no longer enough. If students are to thrive in their academic and 21st century careers, then independent and creative thinking hold the highest currency. The authors explain in detail how to add these new components of literacy: (1) Solution Fluency; (2) Information Fluency; (3) Creativity…

  14. A preliminary fMRI study of a novel self-paced written fluency task: observation of left-hemispheric activation, and increased frontal activation in late vs. early task phases

    PubMed Central

    Golestanirad, Laleh; Das, Sunit; Schweizer, Tom A.; Graham, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychological tests of verbal fluency are very widely used to characterize impaired cognitive function. For clinical neuroscience studies and potential medical applications, measuring the brain activity that underlies such tests with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is of significant interest—but a challenging proposition because overt speech can cause signal artifacts, which tend to worsen as the duration of speech tasks becomes longer. In a novel approach, we present the group brain activity of 12 subjects who performed a self-paced written version of phonemic fluency using fMRI-compatible tablet technology that recorded responses and provided task-related feedback on a projection screen display, over long-duration task blocks (60 s). As predicted, we observed robust activation in the left anterior inferior and medial frontal gyri, consistent with previously reported results of verbal fluency tasks which established the role of these areas in strategic word retrieval. In addition, the number of words produced in the late phase (last 30 s) of written phonemic fluency was significantly less (p < 0.05) than the number produced in the early phase (first 30 s). Activation during the late phase vs. the early phase was also assessed from the first 20 s and last 20 s of task performance, which eliminated the possibility that the sluggish hemodynamic response from the early phase would affect the activation estimates of the late phase. The last 20 s produced greater activation maps covering extended areas in bilateral precuneus, cuneus, middle temporal gyrus, insula, middle frontal gyrus and cingulate gyrus. Among these areas, greater activation was observed in the bilateral middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann area BA 9) and cingulate gyrus (BA 24, 32) likely as part of the initiation, maintenance, and shifting of attentional resources. Consistent with previous pertinent fMRI literature involving overt and covert verbal responses, these findings highlight

  15. Verbal Patterns in Dyadic Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayres, Joe; Ivie, Robert L.

    Selected aspects of Kenneth Burke's "dramatistic" model of symbolic interaction were operationalized to describe and compare verbal patterns in transactions between five pairs of friends and five pairs of strangers. Based on Altman and Taylor's social penetration theory, it was predicted that interactants would display verbal patterns unique to…

  16. Meaning: A Verbal Behavior Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenkron, Barry

    2004-01-01

    Although the verbal operants that comprise Skinner's account of verbal behavior provide a seemingly complete description of the behavior of the speaker with respect to what is ordinarily called the expression of meanings, it may be shown that the account is intrinsically deficient in describing the receptive behavior of listeners with regard to…

  17. What Do We Mean by Writing Fluency and How Can It Be Validly Measured?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdel Latif, Muhammad M. Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Fluency is an essential component in writing ability and development. Writing fluency research is important to researchers and teachers interested in facilitating students' written text production and in assessing writing. This calls for reaching a better understanding of writing fluency and how it should be measured. Although fluency is the…

  18. One-Minute Fluency Measures: Mixed Messages in Assessment and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deeney, Theresa A.

    2010-01-01

    Although they are valid and reliable, one-minute fluency measures are defining and capturing a reduced view of fluency as simply accuracy and rate in oral reading. Thus, they may lead astray our understanding of struggling readers' reading fluency development and instructional needs. Fluency is a complicated construct. The author discusses a…

  19. How Do Utterance Measures Predict Raters' Perceptions of Fluency in French as a Second Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Préfontaine, Yvonne; Kormos, Judit; Johnson, Daniel Ezra

    2016-01-01

    While the research literature on second language (L2) fluency is replete with descriptions of fluency and its influence with regard to English as an additional language, little is known about what fluency features influence judgments of fluency in L2 French. This study reports the results of an investigation that analyzed the relationship between…

  20. Are poor Chinese text comprehenders also poor in written composition?

    PubMed

    Guan, Connie Qun; Ye, Feifei; Meng, Wanjin; Leong, Che Kan

    2013-10-01

    We studied the performance in three genres of Chinese written composition (narration, exposition, and argumentation) of 158 grade 4, 5, and 6 poor Chinese text comprehenders compared with 156 good Chinese text comprehenders. We examined text comprehension and written composition relationship. Verbal working memory (verbal span working memory and operation span working memory) and different levels of linguistic tasks-morphological sensitivity (morphological compounding and morphological chain), sentence processing (syntax construction and syntax integrity), and text comprehension (narrative and expository texts)-were used to predict separately narrative, expository, and argumentation written compositions in these students. Grade for grade, the good text comprehenders outperformed the poor text comprehenders in all tasks, except for morphological chain. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed differential contribution of the tasks to different genres of writing. In particular, text comprehension made unique contribution to argumentation writing in the poor text comprehenders. Future studies should ask students to read and write parallel passages in the same genre for better comparison and incorporate both instructional and motivational variables. PMID:23666849

  1. The Effect of Topiramate Plasma Concentration on Linguistic Behavior, Verbal Recall and Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Marino, S.E.; Pakhomov, S.V.S.; Han, S.; Anderson, K.L.; Ding, M.; Eberly, L.E.; Loring, D.W.; Hawkins-Taylor, C.; Rarick, J.O.; Leppik, I.E.; Cibula, J.E.; Birnbaum, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    This is the first study of the effect of topiramate on linguistic behavior and verbal recall using a computational linguistics system for automated language and speech analysis to detect and quantify drug-induced changes in speech recorded during discourse level tasks. Healthy volunteers were administered a single, 100 mg oral dose of topiramate in two double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover studies. Subjects’ topiramate plasma levels ranged from 0.23–2.81ug/mL. We found a significant association between topiramate levels and impairment on measures of verbal fluency elicited during a picture description task, correct number of words recalled on a paragraph recall test, and reaction time recorded during a working memory task. Using the tools of clinical pharmacology and computational linguistics, we elucidated the relationship between the determinants of a drug’s disposition as reflected in plasma concentrations and their impact on cognitive functioning as reflected in spoken language discourse. PMID:22658432

  2. A Computerized Test of Design Fluency.

    PubMed

    Woods, David L; Wyma, John M; Herron, Timothy J; Yund, E William

    2016-01-01

    Tests of design fluency (DF) assess a participant's ability to generate geometric patterns and are thought to measure executive functions involving the non-dominant frontal lobe. Here, we describe the properties of a rapidly administered computerized design-fluency (C-DF) test that measures response times, and is automatically scored. In Experiment 1, we found that the number of unique patterns produced over 90 s by 180 control participants (ages 18 to 82 years) correlated with age, education, and daily computer-use. Each line in the continuous 4-line patterns required approximately 1.0 s to draw. The rate of pattern production and the incidence of repeated patterns both increased over the 90 s test. Unique pattern z-scores (corrected for age and computer-use) correlated with the results of other neuropsychological tests performed on the same day. Experiment 2 analyzed C-DF test-retest reliability in 55 participants in three test sessions at weekly intervals and found high z-score intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC = 0.79). Z-scores in the first session did not differ significantly from those of Experiment 1, but performance improved significantly over repeated tests. Experiment 3 investigated the performance of Experiment 2 participants when instructed to simulate malingering. Z-scores were significantly reduced and pattern repetitions increased, but there was considerable overlap with the performance of the control population. Experiment 4 examined performance in veteran patients tested more than one year after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Patients with mild TBI performed within the normal range, but patients with severe TBI showed reduced z-scores. The C-DF test reliably measures visuospatial pattern generation ability and reveals performance deficits in patients with severe TBI. PMID:27138985

  3. A Computerized Test of Design Fluency

    PubMed Central

    Woods, David L.; Wyma, John M.; Herron, Timothy J.; Yund, E. William

    2016-01-01

    Tests of design fluency (DF) assess a participant’s ability to generate geometric patterns and are thought to measure executive functions involving the non-dominant frontal lobe. Here, we describe the properties of a rapidly administered computerized design-fluency (C-DF) test that measures response times, and is automatically scored. In Experiment 1, we found that the number of unique patterns produced over 90 s by 180 control participants (ages 18 to 82 years) correlated with age, education, and daily computer-use. Each line in the continuous 4-line patterns required approximately 1.0 s to draw. The rate of pattern production and the incidence of repeated patterns both increased over the 90 s test. Unique pattern z-scores (corrected for age and computer-use) correlated with the results of other neuropsychological tests performed on the same day. Experiment 2 analyzed C-DF test-retest reliability in 55 participants in three test sessions at weekly intervals and found high z-score intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC = 0.79). Z-scores in the first session did not differ significantly from those of Experiment 1, but performance improved significantly over repeated tests. Experiment 3 investigated the performance of Experiment 2 participants when instructed to simulate malingering. Z-scores were significantly reduced and pattern repetitions increased, but there was considerable overlap with the performance of the control population. Experiment 4 examined performance in veteran patients tested more than one year after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Patients with mild TBI performed within the normal range, but patients with severe TBI showed reduced z-scores. The C-DF test reliably measures visuospatial pattern generation ability and reveals performance deficits in patients with severe TBI. PMID:27138985

  4. Verbal memory impairments in dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Kramer, J H; Knee, K; Delis, D C

    2000-01-01

    Although verbal memory deficits are frequently reported in reading disabled children, the specific mechanisms underlying these impairments have yet to be clearly defined. The present study used the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C) to assess verbal learning in 57 dyslexic children and 114 controls matched for gender, age, and WISC-R Vocabulary score. Three areas of verbal memory were investigated: Recall and recognition, use of learning strategies, and interference effects. The dyslexic group learned the list items more slowly, recalled fewer words on the last learning trial and the delayed trials, and performed less well on the recognition condition. Dyslexics and controls displayed similar vulnerability to interference, but group differences were evident in serial position effects. Taken together, our data suggest that dyslexics have less efficient rehearsal and encoding mechanisms, resulting in deficient encoding of new information, but normal retention and retrieval. PMID:14590570

  5. Elementary Reading Fluency and Comprehension: Do Laptops Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether a one-to-one laptop program had an effect on the reading-fluency and comprehension scores of fourth- and fifth-grade students over a half-year period. Pre- and post-test scores on the AIMSweb R-CBM fluency and Maze-CBM comprehension tests were collected for 1,048 students attending six diverse, high-poverty elementary…

  6. Developmental relations between reading fluency and reading comprehension: a longitudinal study from Grade 1 to Grade 2.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Suk; Wagner, Richard K; Lopez, Danielle

    2012-09-01

    From a developmental framework, relations among list reading fluency, oral and silent reading fluency, listening comprehension, and reading comprehension might be expected to change as children's reading skills develop. We examined developmental relations among these constructs in a latent-variable longitudinal study of first and second graders. Results showed that list reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension in Grade 1, but not in Grade 2, after accounting for text reading fluency (oral or silent) and listening comprehension. In contrast, text reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension in Grade 2, but not in Grade 1, after accounting for list reading fluency and listening comprehension. When oral reading fluency and silent reading fluency were compared, oral reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension after accounting for silent reading fluency in Grade 1, whereas silent reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension after accounting for oral reading fluency in Grade 2. PMID:22726256

  7. Dissociations Between Fluency And Agrammatism In Primary Progressive Aphasia.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Cynthia K; Cho, Soojin; Hsu, Chien-Ju; Wieneke, Christina; Rademaker, Alfred; Weitner, Bing Bing; Mesulam, M-Marsel; Weintraub, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Classical aphasiology, based on the study of stroke sequelae, fuses speech fluency and grammatical ability. Nonfluent (Broca's) aphasia often is accompanied by agrammatism; whereas in the fluent aphasias grammatical deficits are not typical. The assumption that a similar relationship exists in primary progressive aphasia (PPA) has led to the dichotomization of this syndrome into fluent and nonfluent subtypes. AIMS: This study compared elements of fluency and grammatical production in the narrative speech of individuals with PPA to determine if they can be dissociated from one another. METHOD: Speech samples from 37 individuals with PPA, clinically assigned to agrammatic (N=11), logopenic (N=20) and semantic (N=6) subtypes, and 13 cognitively healthy control participants telling the "Cinderella Story" were analyzed for fluency (i.e., words per minute (WPM) and mean length of utterance in words (MLU-W)) and grammaticality (i.e., the proportion of grammatically correct sentences, open-to-closed-class word ratio, noun-to-verb ratio, and correct production of verb inflection, noun morphology, and verb argument structure.) Between group differences were analyzed for each variable. Correlational analyses examined the relation between WPM and each grammatical variable, and an off-line measure of sentence production. OUTCOMES AND RESULTS: Agrammatic and logopenic groups both had lower scores on the fluency measures and produced significantly fewer grammatical sentences than did semantic and control groups. However, only the agrammatic group evinced significantly impaired production of verb inflection and verb argument structure. In addition, some semantic participants showed abnormal open-to-closed and noun-to-verb ratios in narrative speech. When the sample was divided on the basis of fluency, all the agrammatic participants fell in the nonfluent category. The logopenic participants varied in fluency but those with low fluency showed variable performance on

  8. Case report: Is verbal cognitive performance in bilingual neuropsychiatric patients test-language dependent?

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Mabel; Kratochvilova, Zuzana; Kuniss, Renata; Vorackova, Veronika; Dorazilova, Aneta; Fajnerova, Iveta

    2015-12-01

    Bilingualism (BL) is increasing around the world. Although BL has been shown to have a broad impact-both positive and negative-on language and cognitive functioning, cognitive models and standards are mainly based on monolinguals. If we take cognitive performance of monolinguals as a standard, then the performance of bilinguals might not be accurately estimated. The assessment of cognitive functions is an important part of both the diagnostic process and further treatment in neurological and neuropsychiatric patients. In order to identify the presence or absence of cognitive deficit in bilingual patients, it will be important to determine the positive and/or negative impact of BL properties on measured cognitive performance. However, research of the impact of BL on cognitive performance in neuropsychiatric patients is limited. This article aims to compare the influence of the language (dominant-L1, second-L2) used for assessment of verbal cognitive performance in two cases of bilingual neuropsychiatric patients (English/Czech). Despite the fact that the two cases have different diagnoses, similarities in working memory and verbal learning profiles for L1 and L2 were present in both patients. We expected L1 to have higher performance in all measures when compared with L2. This assumption was partially confirmed. As expected, verbal working memory performance was better when assessed in L1. In contrast, verbal learning showed the same or better performance in L2 when compared with L1. Verbal fluency and immediate recall results were comparable in both languages. In conclusion, the language of administration partially influenced verbal performance of bilingual patients. Whether the language itself influenced low performance in a given language or it was a result of a deficit requires further research. According to our results, we suggest that an assessment in both languages needs to be a component of reasonable cognitive assessment of bilingual patients. PMID:26663627

  9. The Role of Reading Fluency in Children’s Text Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Cañizo, Marta; Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Cuetos, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Understanding a written text requires some higher cognitive abilities that not all children have. Some children have these abilities, since they understand oral texts; however, they have difficulties with written texts, probably due to problems in reading fluency. The aim of this study was to determine which aspects of reading fluency are related to reading comprehension. Four expositive texts, two written and two read by the evaluator, were presented to a sample of 103 primary school children (third and sixth grade). Each text was followed by four comprehension questions. From this sample we selected two groups of participants in each grade, 10 with good results in comprehension of oral and written texts, and 10 with good results in oral and poor in written comprehension. These 40 subjects were asked to read aloud a new text while they were recorded. Using Praat software some prosodic parameters were measured, such as pausing and reading rate (number and duration of the pauses and utterances), pitch and intensity changes and duration in declarative, exclamatory, and interrogative sentences and also errors and duration in words by frequency and stress. We compared the results of both groups with ANOVAs. The results showed that children with less reading comprehension made more inappropriate pauses and also intersentential pauses before comma than the other group and made more mistakes in content words; significant differences were also found in the final declination of pitch in declarative sentences and in the F0 range in interrogative ones. These results confirm that reading comprehension problems in children are related to a lack in the development of a good reading fluency. PMID:26640452

  10. Teaching verbal behavior to pigeons

    PubMed Central

    Sundberg, Mark L.

    1985-01-01

    Pigeons were taught simple analogs of verbal behavior by replicating and extending the procedures presented by Michael, Whitley, and Hesse (1983). A student lab, connected to a course on the experimental analysis of behavior, was used to teach both the students and the pigeons new behavioral repertoires. Most of the 18 birds learned a simple stimulus-selection-based tact, as well as 2-3 topography-based tacts. Several pigeons learned to mand for reinforcers, and a few acquired some simple intraverbal responses. The student's learned the basic features of Skinner's analysis of verbal behavior, as well as several laboratory skills. Further work in this area is encouraged due to its potential contributions to the experimental analysis of verbal behavior, and to teaching language to the developmentally disabled, and other speech and language impaired individuals. PMID:22477488

  11. Verbal behavior: The other reviews.

    PubMed

    Knapp, T J

    1992-01-01

    The extensive attention devoted to Noam Chomsky's review of Verbal Behavior by B.F. Skinner has resulted in a neglect of more than a dozen other rewiews of the work. These are surveyed and found to be positive and congenial in tone, with many of the reviewers advancing his/her own analysis of speech and language. The dominant criticism of the book was its disregard of central or implicit processes and its lack of experimental data. An examination of the receptive history of Verbal Behavior offers a more balanced historical account than those which rely excessively on Chomsky's commentary. PMID:22477049

  12. How anxiety induces verbal hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Ratcliffe, Matthew; Wilkinson, Sam

    2016-01-01

    Verbal hallucinations are often associated with pronounced feelings of anxiety, and it has also been suggested that anxiety somehow triggers them. In this paper, we offer a phenomenological or 'personal-level' account of how it does so. We show how anxious anticipation of one's own thought contents can generate an experience of their being 'alien'. It does so by making an experience of thinking more like one of perceiving, resulting in an unfamiliar kind of intentional state. This accounts for a substantial subset of verbal hallucinations, which are experienced as falling within one's psychological boundaries and lacking in auditory qualities. PMID:26683229

  13. How anxiety induces verbal hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliffe, Matthew; Wilkinson, Sam

    2016-01-01

    Verbal hallucinations are often associated with pronounced feelings of anxiety, and it has also been suggested that anxiety somehow triggers them. In this paper, we offer a phenomenological or ‘personal-level’ account of how it does so. We show how anxious anticipation of one’s own thought contents can generate an experience of their being ‘alien’. It does so by making an experience of thinking more like one of perceiving, resulting in an unfamiliar kind of intentional state. This accounts for a substantial subset of verbal hallucinations, which are experienced as falling within one’s psychological boundaries and lacking in auditory qualities. PMID:26683229

  14. Neurophysiological evidence that perceptions of fluency produce mere exposure effects.

    PubMed

    Leynes, P Andrew; Addante, Richard J

    2016-08-01

    Recent exposure to people or objects increases liking ratings, the "mere exposure effect" (Zajonc in American Psychologist, 35, 117-123, 1968), and an increase in processing fluency has been identified as a potential mechanism for producing this effect. This fluency hypothesis was directly tested by altering the trial-by-trial image clarity (i.e., fluency) while Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded. In Experiment 1, clarity was altered across two trial blocks that each had homogenous trial-by-trial clarity, whereas clarity varied randomly across trials in Experiment 2. Blocking or randomizing image clarity across trials was expected to produce different levels of relative fluency and alter mere exposure effects. The mere exposure effect (i.e., old products liked more than new products) was observed when stimulus clarity remained constant across trials, and clear image ERPs were more positive than blurry image ERPs. Importantly, these patterns were reversed when clarity varied randomly across test trials, such that participants liked clear images more than blurry (i.e., no mere exposure effect) and clear image ERPs were more negative than blurry image ERPs. The findings provide direct experimental support from both behavioral and electrophysiological measures that, in some contexts, mere exposure is the product of top-down interpretations of fluency. PMID:27106854

  15. Semantic fluency and executive functions as candidate endophenotypes for the early diagnosis of schizophrenia in Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Hu, Maorong; Chen, Jindong; Li, Lehua; Zheng, Yingjun; Wang, Juan; Guo, Xiaofeng; Wu, Renrong; Zhao, Jingping

    2011-09-20

    Neurocognitive deficits are recognized as core features of schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to compare the cognitive performance of antipsychotic, drug-naive patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES patients) to their healthy siblings and to healthy controls from the Han Chinese population for exploring potential endophenotypes for the early detection of schizophrenia. A battery of cognitive assessment tools was used to measure seven cognitive domains in matched groups consisting of 56 subjects each. Cognitive tests included the grooved pegboard test (GPT), the category fluency test (CFT), the trail making test A (TMT-A), the Wechsler memory scale-III spatial span test (WMS-III SST), the Hopkins verbal learning test-revised (HVLT-R), the brief visuospatial memory test-revised (BVMT-R), the paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT), and the Wisconsin card sorting test-64 cards version (WCST-64). The performances of FEP patients were inferior to normal controls on all neuropsychological tests, while siblings were lower than healthy controls in many of the same tasks. Patients' performances were lower than siblings' on all tests except for the CFT, the WMS-III SST backward test, and four subtests of the WCST-64. Our data suggest that FEP patients exhibited pronounced impairment of fine motor skills, speed of processing, attention, verbal memory, visual memory, and executive function, while siblings exhibited deficits intermediate between those of schizophrenic patients and the control group. Semantic fluency function and executive function may be potential endophenotypes for the early diagnosis of schizophrenia. PMID:21827833

  16. Repeated Reading as a Method to Improve Reading Fluency for Struggling Adolescent Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerin, Anne; Murphy, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of a seven-week programme of repeated readings on the fluency levels of three struggling adolescent readers. The study focused from a broad conceptualization of fluency which recognizes that practice and assessment should address all components of fluency, i.e., prosody and comprehension, as well as rate and…

  17. Effects of Repeated Reading and Listening Passage Preview on Oral Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Kristine D.; Leader-Janssen, Elizabeth M.; Conley, Perry

    2013-01-01

    This case study examined the effectiveness of three fluency interventions (i.e., repeated reading, audio listening passage preview and teacher modeled listening passage preview) with a fifth grade student struggling with fluency skills. When compared to baseline, each intervention increased oral reading fluency by the end of the 7 weeks of…

  18. Reversing the Truth Effect: Learning the Interpretation of Processing Fluency in Judgments of Truth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unkelbach, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Repeated statements receive higher truth ratings than new statements. Given that repetition leads to greater experienced processing fluency, the author proposes that fluency is used in truth judgments according to its ecological validity. Thus, the truth effect occurs because people learn that fluency and truth tend to be positively correlated.…

  19. Mirror Asymmetry of Category and Letter Fluency in Traumatic Brain Injury and Alzheimer's Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capitani, Erminio; Rosci, Chiara; Saetti, Maria Cristina; Laiacona, Marcella

    2009-01-01

    In this study we contrasted the Category fluency and Letter fluency performance of 198 normal subjects, 57 Alzheimer's patients and 57 patients affected by traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim was to check whether, besides the prevalence of Category fluency deficit often reported among Alzheimer's patients, the TBI group presented the opposite…

  20. Reading Fluency: More than Automaticity? More than a Concern for the Primary Grades?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasinski, Timothy; Rikli, Andrew; Johnston, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Reading fluency has traditionally been viewed as a goal of reading that is taught and mastered in the elementary grades. In this article we challenge that notion by exploring the role of reading fluency as a contributor to reading proficiency and difficulty among intermediate and middle grade students. We assessed reading fluency development among…

  1. A Comparison of Independent, Interdependent, and Dependent Group Contingencies with Randomized Reinforcers to Increase Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alric, Jolie M.; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Theodore, Lea A.

    2007-01-01

    Fluency, or the rate at which a student reads, is developed in the early stages of literacy and has been shown to correlate with comprehension. A myriad of interventions have been developed to increase fluency. Group contingencies are one of these that in particular have shown some positive effects on reading fluency. Advantages to using them are…

  2. A Longitudinal Study of Novice-Level Changes in Fluency and Accuracy in Student Monologues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Robert W., III.

    2012-01-01

    Detailed research concerning the issue fluency, specifically relating to pauses, mean length runs, and fluency rates in Japanese EFL learners, is limited. Furthermore, the issue of tracking fluency gains has often been ignored, misunderstood or minimized in EFL educational research. The present study, which is based on six monologues conducted…

  3. The Effect of Goal-Line Presentation and Goal Selection on First-Grader Subtraction Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Thomas J.; Duhon, Gary J.; Hansen, Brooke; Rowland, Julie E.; Schutte, Greg; Williams, Joey

    2014-01-01

    Math proficiency is related to math calculation fluency. Explicit timing provides repeated practice for math fluency. It is enhanced through goal setting, graphic feedback, and rewards. Self-selected goals have potential to increase performance for math fluency. This study compared the effect of goal lines, and researcher goals versus…

  4. Understanding Oral Reading Fluency among Adults with Low Literacy: Dominance Analysis of Contributing Component Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellard, Daryl F.; Anthony, Jason L.; Woods, Kari L.

    2012-01-01

    This study extends the literature on the component skills involved in oral reading fluency. Dominance analysis was applied to assess the relative importance of seven reading-related component skills in the prediction of the oral reading fluency of 272 adult literacy learners. The best predictors of oral reading fluency when text difficulty was…

  5. Facilitating English-Language Learners' Oral Reading Fluency with Digital Pen Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chih-Ming; Tan, Chia-Chen; Lo, Bey-Jane

    2016-01-01

    Oral reading fluency is an indicator of overall reading competence. Many studies have claimed that repeated reading can promote oral reading fluency. Currently, novel Web- or computer-based reading technologies offer interactive digital materials that promote English oral reading fluency using the repeated reading strategy; however, paper-based…

  6. Silent Reading Fluency Using Underlining: Evidence for an Alternative Method of Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Katherine W.; Meisinger, Elizabeth B.; Louwerse, Max M.; D'Mello, Sidney K.

    2012-01-01

    Assessing silent reading fluency in classroom environments is challenging. This article reports on a method of assessing silent reading using underlining, an approach that solves many problems other silent reading fluency assessment measures face. This method computationally monitors readers' silent reading fluency by the speed they underline…

  7. Increasing Word Recognition with Racially Diverse Second-Grade Students Using Fluency-Oriented Reading Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Franklin Dickerson

    2012-01-01

    The author examined the effectiveness of 2 fluency-oriented reading programs on improving reading fluency for an ethnically diverse sample of second-grade students. The first approach is Fluency-Oriented Reading Instruction (S. A. Stahl & K. Heubach, 2005), which incorporates the repeated reading of a grade-level text over the course of an…

  8. Liberating the Arts: Promoting IT Fluency through the Pedagogy of Digital Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Kenneth Xavier, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Fluency in information technology (IT Fluency) is a component of life-long learning necessary for a Liberal Arts student's post-graduate success in the global and digital economy. While challenging, promoting IT fluency at Liberal Arts colleges can be achieved through the integration of digital storytelling pedagogy in existing humanities…

  9. Fluency in Learning to Read for Meaning: Going beyond Repeated Readings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, William Dee; Rupley, William H.; Rasinski, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of fluency development and focus on instructional approaches that are intended to improve fluency that go beyond the most frequently recommended strategy of repeated readings. Repeated reading is the most recognized approach for developing fluency, and although repeated readings have shown…

  10. Basic auditory processing is related to familial risk, not to reading fluency: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Hakvoort, Britt; van der Leij, Aryan; Maurits, Natasha; Maassen, Ben; van Zuijen, Titia L

    2015-02-01

    Less proficient basic auditory processing has been previously connected to dyslexia. However, it is unclear whether a low proficiency level is a correlate of having a familial risk for reading problems, or whether it causes dyslexia. In this study, children's processing of amplitude rise time (ART), intensity and frequency differences was measured with event-related potentials (ERPs). ERP components of interest are components reflective of auditory change detection; the mismatch negativity (MMN) and late discriminative negativity (LDN). All groups had an MMN to changes in ART and frequency, but not to intensity. Our results indicate that fluent readers at risk for dyslexia, poor readers at risk for dyslexia and fluent reading controls have an LDN to changes in ART and frequency, though the scalp activation of frequency processing was different for familial risk children. On intensity, only controls showed an LDN. Contrary to previous findings, our results suggest that neither ART nor frequency processing is related to reading fluency. Furthermore, our results imply that diminished sensitivity to changes in intensity and differential lateralization of frequency processing should be regarded as correlates of being at familial risk for dyslexia, that do not directly relate to reading fluency. PMID:25243992

  11. The role of emotional engagement and mood valence in retrieval fluency of mood incongruent autobiographical memory

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Jonathan; Meiran, Nachshon

    2014-01-01

    Background: Retrieval of opposite mood autobiographical memories serves emotion regulation, yet the factors influencing this ability are poorly understood. Methods: Three studies examined the effect of mood valence (sad vs. happy) and degree of emotional engagement on fluency of mood incongruent retrieval by manipulating emotional engagement and examining the effect of emotional film clips on the Fluency of Autobiographical Memory task. Results: Following both sad and happy film clips, participants who received emotionally engaging instructions exhibited a greater recall latency of the first opposite mood memory, and had generated less such memories than those receiving emotionally disengaging instructions (Studies 1 and 2). A happy mood induction resulted in recollection of fewer mood incongruent memories compared to a sad mood induction. Providing emotionally engaging instructions was found to specifically hinder mood incongruent retrieval, without impairing mood congruent retrieval (Study 3). Conclusion: High emotional engagement seems to impair the retrieval of mood incongruent memories. Being in a happy mood may also partially impair such retrieval. Implications regarding emotional regulation are discussed. PMID:24570671

  12. The Verbal Noun in Welsh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raney, Roslyn

    The Welsh verbal noun, a form spanning two grammatical categories much as the English "-ing" form does, is examined from the points of view of its dual role in Welsh grammar; its occurrence in the history of the Celtic language family; periphrastic tense constructions with "bod" ("be"), "gwneud" ("do"), and "darfod" ("happen"); periphrastic…

  13. Verbal Interaction in University Tutorials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgart, Neil

    1976-01-01

    An attempt was made to describe the verbal interaction of 29 university tutorial groups. Tutor roles were identified (reflexive judge, data input, stage setter, elaborator, probe, and cognitive engineer) and examined in relationship to student ratings of the sessions and use by students of different cognitive levels. Applications of the research…

  14. Teachers' Verbal Abuse: An Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2001-01-01

    In a case involving a somewhat sarcastic elementary teacher, a Pennsylvania Commonwealth Court reversed the state commissioner of education's affirmation of her dismissal based on persistent negligence. Results of teachers' alleged verbal abuse of students depends on the nature of the claim, not just specific evidence. (MLH)

  15. Linguistic Sources of Skinner's Verbal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Matos, Maria Amelia; da F. Passos, Maria de Lourdes R.

    2006-01-01

    Formal and functional analyses of verbal behavior have been often considered to be divergent and incompatible. Yet, an examination of the history of part of the analytical approach used in Verbal Behavior (Skinner, 1957/1992) for the identification and conceptualization of verbal operant units discloses that it corresponds well with formal analyses of languages. Formal analyses have been carried out since the invention of writing and fall within the scope of traditional grammar and structural linguistics, particularly in analyses made by the linguist Leonard Bloomfield. The relevance of analytical instruments originated from linguistic studies (which examine and describe the practices of verbal communities) to the analysis of verbal behavior, as proposed by Skinner, relates to the conception of a verbal community as a prerequisite for the acquisition of verbal behavior. A deliberately interdisciplinary approach is advocated in this paper, with the systematic adoption of linguistic analyses and descriptions adding relevant knowledge to the design of experimental research in verbal behavior. PMID:22478454

  16. Is fluency free-operant response-response chaining?

    PubMed Central

    Lindsley, Ogden R.

    1996-01-01

    This article briefly reviews behavioral fluency and its 10 products. Fluency development requires three of the four free-operant freedoms: the freedom to present stimuli at the learner's rhythm, the freedom to form the response, and the freedom to speed at the learner's maximum frequency. The article closes with several suggestions that fluent performing is really operant response-response (R-R) chaining, and recommends further controlled laboratory research on free-operant R-R chaining. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:22478259

  17. Feelings about Verbal Aggression: Justifications for Sending and Hurt from Receiving Verbally Aggressive Messages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Matthew M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Investigates whether receiving verbally aggressive messages was more hurtful depending on the source of the message; whether trait verbal aggression is justified; and whether the perceived hurt of verbally aggressive messages is related to a tendency to be verbally aggressive. Finds that messages from friends caused more hurt than messages from…

  18. Modeling individual differences in text reading fluency: a different pattern of predictors for typically developing and dyslexic readers

    PubMed Central

    Zoccolotti, Pierluigi; De Luca, Maria; Marinelli, Chiara V.; Spinelli, Donatella

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed at predicting individual differences in text reading fluency. The basic proposal included two factors, i.e., the ability to decode letter strings (measured by discrete pseudo-word reading) and integration of the various sub-components involved in reading (measured by Rapid Automatized Naming, RAN). Subsequently, a third factor was added to the model, i.e., naming of discrete digits. In order to use homogeneous measures, all contributing variables considered the entire processing of the item, including pronunciation time. The model, which was based on commonality analysis, was applied to data from a group of 43 typically developing readers (11- to 13-year-olds) and a group of 25 chronologically matched dyslexic children. In typically developing readers, both orthographic decoding and integration of reading sub-components contributed significantly to the overall prediction of text reading fluency. The model prediction was higher (from ca. 37 to 52% of the explained variance) when we included the naming of discrete digits variable, which had a suppressive effect on pseudo-word reading. In the dyslexic readers, the variance explained by the two-factor model was high (69%) and did not change when the third factor was added. The lack of a suppression effect was likely due to the prominent individual differences in poor orthographic decoding of the dyslexic children. Analyses on data from both groups of children were replicated by using patches of colors as stimuli (both in the RAN task and in the discrete naming task) obtaining similar results. We conclude that it is possible to predict much of the variance in text-reading fluency using basic processes, such as orthographic decoding and integration of reading sub-components, even without taking into consideration higher-order linguistic factors such as lexical, semantic and contextual abilities. The approach validity of using proximal vs. distal causes to predict reading fluency is discussed. PMID

  19. Do Verbal Descriptions Facilitate Visual Inferences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunen, Seth; Duncan, Edward M.

    1983-01-01

    The value of verbal labeling is shown by a study of fourth-grade, eighth-grade, and college students who were shown pictures accompanied by short verbal descriptions. Verbal descriptions increased correct recognitions and rejections of unrelated distractors, while increasing false recognition of related distractors. Results were consistent for all…

  20. Components of Verbal Intelligence. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    A theory of the components of verbal intelligence is developed and tested in this series of experiments. After reviewing alternative theoretical frameworks for understanding verbal intelligence, a componential theory of verbal comprehension is proposed. This theory specifies the information-processing components, context cues, and mediating…

  1. Assessment of Parental and Adolescent Verbal Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Rhydonia H.; And Others

    Verbal interactions between adolescents and their parents may affect adolescents' self-esteem and self-concept. The current development of an instrument, the Verbal Interaction Questionnaire (VIQ), was designed to measure adolescents' perceptions of their parents verbal interactions with them. Noting that the relationship between adolescents'…

  2. Linguistic Sources of Skinner's "Verbal Behavior"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matos, Maria Amelia; Passos, Maria de Lourdes R. da F.

    2006-01-01

    Formal and functional analyses of verbal behavior have been often considered to be divergent and incompatible. Yet, an examination of the history of part of the analytical approach used in "Verbal Behavior" (Skinner, 1957/1992) for the identification and conceptualization of verbal operant units discloses that it corresponds well with formal…

  3. Verbal Response Mode Use by Clients in Psychotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiles, William B.; Sultan, Faye E.

    1979-01-01

    Verbal behavior in transcripts of psychotherapy was coded according to Stile's taxonomy of verbal response modes. Therapists of different theoretical persuasions used different mixtures of verbal techniques. Common elements that make verbal interaction psychologically therapeutic lie in client behavior. (Author)

  4. Improving the Efficacy of First Grade Reading Screening: An Investigation of Word Identification Fluency with Other Early Literacy Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemens, Nathan H.; Shapiro, Edward S.; Thoemmes, Felix

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the accuracy of several early literacy measures that have been used in research and practice for first grade reading screening. A set of measures, Word Identification Fluency (WIF), Letter Naming Fluency, Phoneme Segmentation Fluency, and Nonsense Word Fluency, were administered as screening measures with 138 first grade…

  5. Exploring Utterance and Cognitive Fluency of L1 and L2 English Speakers: Temporal Measures and Stimulated Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahng, Jimin

    2014-01-01

    Although fluency constitutes an essential component of second language (L2) proficiency, there are mixed results and gaps in the literature on how L2 speakers' fluency differs from fluent speech production in a first language (L1). The research reported in this article investigated utterance fluency and cognitive fluency of L1 English…

  6. Effects of Computer-Assisted and Teacher-Led Fluency Instruction on Students at Risk for Reading Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenty, Nicole; Mulcahy, Candace; Washburn, Erin

    2015-01-01

    A quasi-experimental pretest/posttest group design was used to determine whether computer-assisted fluency instruction is as effective as print-based, teacher-led fluency instruction in improving fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension skills in third grade students experiencing delayed fluency development. Fifty participants were randomly assigned…

  7. Cogenerating fluency in urban science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavan, Sarah-Kate

    This critical ethnographic study employed the use of cogenerative dialogue (Roth & Tobin, 2002) as a means to allow participants of a science classroom to reflect on and transform classroom structures while at the same time create opportunities for all stakeholders to develop collective responsibility for teaching and learning. The research was situated in a science classroom in an inner city charter high school that was both a challenging place for the teacher (Jen Beers) and an oppressive place for the students as all struggled to reconcile issues related to power hierarchies and significant differences in social and cultural histories. As a result, cultural misinterpretations and the undervaluing of students' cultural capital served as a foundation for learning. This study examined the various fields and forms of practice that created opportunities for refining teaching practices and at the same time afforded the development of collective responsibility by addressing the roles, identities and agency of all classroom participants. Specifically, I asked the following questions: (1) How can co-generative dialogue can be used to involve all classroom participants in creating a learning community? (2) How does this shape the identities and roles of the participants who were involved? and (3) How do the changed roles and practices lead toward science fluency? The framework of cultural sociology, specifically the dialectical relationship of structure and agency, interaction ritual theory (Collins, 2003) and research on dispositions (Boykin, 1986), provided analytic tools to investigate the practices of the various stakeholders and the classroom structures as well as the historical and cultural contexts surrounding them. Multiple data resources such as field notes, videotape, interviews and artifacts were drawn on from two fields (the science classroom and cogenerative dialogues) to elicit and support findings at micro, meso and macroscopic levels. The major findings of

  8. Verbal and nonverbal predictors of language-mediated anticipatory eye movements.

    PubMed

    Rommers, Joost; Meyer, Antje S; Huettig, Falk

    2015-04-01

    During language comprehension, listeners often anticipate upcoming information. This can draw listeners' overt attention to visually presented objects before the objects are referred to. We investigated to what extent the anticipatory mechanisms involved in such language-mediated attention rely on specific verbal factors and on processes shared with other domains of cognition. Participants listened to sentences ending in a highly predictable word (e.g., "In 1969 Neil Armstrong was the first man to set foot on the moon") while viewing displays containing three unrelated distractor objects and a critical object, which was either the target object (e.g., a moon), an object with a similar shape (e.g., a tomato), or an unrelated control object (e.g., rice). Language-mediated anticipatory eye movements were observed to targets and to shape competitors. Importantly, looks to the shape competitor were systematically related to individual differences in anticipatory attention, as indexed by a spatial cueing task: Participants whose responses were most strongly facilitated by predictive arrow cues also showed the strongest effects of predictive language input on their eye movements. By contrast, looks to the target were related to individual differences in vocabulary size and verbal fluency. The results suggest that verbal and nonverbal factors contribute to different types of language-mediated eye movements. The findings are consistent with multiple-mechanism accounts of predictive language processing. PMID:25795276

  9. Predictors of longitudinal changes in memory, visuospatial, and verbal functioning in very old demented adults.

    PubMed

    Small, B J; Bäckman, L

    1998-01-01

    Longitudinal changes in memory, visuospatial and verbal functioning in a sample of demented persons were examined. The role of several demographic, psychometric, and biological indices in predicting the rate of cognitive deterioration was also investigated. The sample consisted of 31 very old (mean age at entry = 83.5 years, range = 75-95) persons with Alzheimer's disease (n = 22) and vascular dementia (n = 9) from a community-based study. Subjects were tested on two occasions separated by approximately 2.5 years. Results indicated significant longitudinal decline in verbal fluency and visuospatial ability, but only on 1 of 3 measures of episodic memory. Results from regression analyses indicated that a variety of putatively important variables, including age, gender, education, digit span, as well as a number of biological (vitamin B12, TSH), dementia etiology, and psychometric (digit span) indicators, exhibited no relationship to rate of memory, visuospatial, or verbal decline. The results suggest that the rate of cognitive deterioration in dementia is highly variable, and this variability in change appears to include a variety of characteristics. A possible reason thereof may be that the role of individual-difference variables for cognitive functioning in dementia is overshadowed by the pathogenetic process itself. PMID:9701677

  10. Phonological Memory Predicts Second Language Oral Fluency Gains in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Irena; Segalowitz, Norman; Freed, Barbara; Collentine, Joe

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between phonological memory and second language (L2) fluency gains in native English-speaking adults learning Spanish in two learning contexts: at their home university or abroad in an immersion context. Phonological memory (operationalized as serial nonword recognition) and Spanish oral fluency…

  11. Incorporating Movement with Fluency Instruction: A Motivation for Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peebles, Jodi L.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses two activities--Readers Theatre and Rhythm Walks--that encourage students to "get moving" with fluency instruction. Movement can be a motivating factor for struggling students, as well as a kinesthetic tool for conceptualizing the rhythm and flow of fluent reading while triggering brain function for optimal learning. Also…

  12. Oral Reading Fluency Testing: Pitfalls for Children with Speech Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howland, Karole; Scaler Scott, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    As school districts nationwide have moved toward data driven intervention, oral reading fluency measures have become a prevalent means to monitor progress by assessing the degree to which a child is becoming a fast (and therefore fluent) reader. This article reviews results of a survey of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) working with children…

  13. Rethinking Communicative Language Teaching: A Focus on Access to Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatbonton, Elizabeth; Segalowitz, Norman

    2005-01-01

    Although most teachers claim to practise communicative language teaching (CLT), many do not genuinely do so. In this paper, we examine some of the reasons for teachers' resistance to CLT use. We provide a theoretical analysis that focuses on one of the greatest challenges facing CLT methodology-how to promote automatic fluency within this…

  14. Reading Fluency: The Whole Is More than the Parts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzir, Tami; Kim, Youngsuk; Wolf, Maryanne; O'Brien, Beth; Kennedy, Becky; Lovett, Maureen; Morris, Robin

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relative contributions of phonological awareness, orthographic pattern recognition, and rapid letter naming to fluent word and connected-text reading within a dyslexic sample of 123 children in second and third grades. Participants were assessed on a variety of fluency measures and reading subskills. Correlations and…

  15. Writing Quality in Chinese Children: Speed and Fluency Matter

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Cathy Ming Wai; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Wagner, Richard K.; Zhang, Juan; Wong, Anita M. Y.; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    There were two goals of the present study. The first was to create a scoring scheme by which 9-year-old Chinese children’s writing compositions could be rated to form a total score for writing quality. The second was to examine cognitive correlates of writing quality at age 9 from measures administered at ages 6–9. Age 9 writing compositions were scored using a 7-element rubric; following confirmatory factor analyses, 5 of these elements were retained to represent overall writing quality for subsequent analyses. Measures of vocabulary knowledge, Chinese word dictation, phonological awareness, speed of processing, speeded naming, and handwriting fluency at ages 6–9 were all significantly associated with the obtained overall writing quality measure even when the statistical effect of age was removed. With vocabulary knowledge, dictation skill, age, gender, and phonological awareness included in a regression equation, 35% of the variance in age 9 writing quality was explained. With the variables of speed of processing, speeded naming, and handwriting fluency additionally included as a block, 12% additional variance in the equation was explained. In addition to gender, overall unique correlates of writing quality were dictation, speed of processing, and handwriting fluency, underscoring the importance of both general automaticity and specific writing fluency for writing quality development in children. PMID:25750486

  16. English Fluency via Computers at Yakima Tribal School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diessner, Rhet; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A project using Apple IIe processing stations and Apple Writer II software increased written English fluency for Native American students in grades 7-12 at the Yakima Tribal School. Thematic maturity did not increase, and students became reluctant to do handwritten work. (LFL)

  17. Research on ESL Composition Instruction: The Fluency-First Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rorschach, Elizabeth; Tillyer, Anthea; Verdi, Gail

    An experimental English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) program at City College (New York) is reported. The federally funded project investigated the effectiveness of an instructional method entitled "Fluency First" and based on whole language theories of learning. It requires large amounts of reading and writing, collaboration with peers, and…

  18. Commentary on New Metrics, Measures, and Uses for Fluency Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christ, Theodore J.; Ardoin, Scott P.

    2015-01-01

    Fluency and rate-based assessments, such as curriculum-based measurement, are frequently used to screen and evaluate student progress. The application of such measures are especially prevalent within special education and response to intervention models of prevention and early intervention. Although there is an extensive research and professional…

  19. Differentiated Phonics Lessons Effect on Fluency and School Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Margaret Quinlan

    2011-01-01

    This mixed-methods study investigates the effect of differentiated phonics lessons on reading fluency and examines the effect of these lessons on student and teacher perceptions of school culture. The study examines quantitative data on the effectiveness of the skill lessons. The qualitative findings examine the impact of the lessons on the…

  20. Specificity and Overlap in Skills Underpinning Reading and Arithmetical Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Daal, Victor; van der Leij, Aryan; Ader, Herman

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine unique and common causes of problems in reading and arithmetic fluency. 13- to 14-year-old students were placed into one of five groups: reading disabled (RD, n = 16), arithmetic disabled (AD, n = 34), reading and arithmetic disabled (RAD, n = 17), reading, arithmetic, and listening comprehension disabled…

  1. Teaching Phonological Accuracy and Communicative Fluency at Thai Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likitrattanaporn, Wannakarn

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the opinions of secondary level Thai teachers who teach English. Their perspectives were collected and compared concerning phonological accuracy practice, communicative fluency activities, authentic teaching techniques and determining appropriate ways to solve the problems of phonological teaching…

  2. Reading Fluency Instruction with Students Who Have Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Kathryn Wolff; Rupert, Jenny Hayes; Coleman-Martin, Mari Beth; Mezei, Peter J.; Calhoon, Mary Beth

    2007-01-01

    Although fluency instruction is an essential part of teaching reading, there is limited information on providing this type of instruction with students who have physical disabilities. This article examines three case studies across two students, one with cerebral palsy and the other with both arthrogryposis and spina bifida. In the first study,…

  3. Fluency Instruction: Research-Based Best Practices. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasinski, Timothy, Ed.; Blachowicz, Camille, Ed.; Lems, Kristin, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This accessible guide brings together well-known authorities to examine what reading fluency is and how it can best be taught. Teachers get a clear, practical roadmap for navigating the often confusing terrain of this crucial aspect of balanced literacy instruction. Innovative approaches to instruction and assessment are described and illustrated…

  4. Annotation and Analyses of Temporal Aspects of Spoken Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Heather

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the methodology adopted for transcribing and quantifying temporal fluency phenomena in a spoken L2 corpus (L2 English, French, and Italian by learners of different proficiency levels). The CHILDES suite is being used for transcription and analysis, and we have adapted the CHAT format in order to code disfluencies as precisely…

  5. Measuring Gains in Reading Ability with Passage Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Joseph R.; Zumeta, Rebecca; Dupree, Opio; Kent Johnson

    2005-01-01

    This study examined several aspects of Passage Reading Fluency (PRF) including performance variability across passages alternative designs for measuring PRF gain, and effects on PRF level from retesting with the same passages. Participants were 33 students from grades 2 to 10 attending a school for students with learning disabilities. PRF was…

  6. Effectiveness of Using iPads to Build Math Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Malley, Patricia; Jenkins, Sandi; Wesley, Brooke; Donehower, Claire; Rabuck, Deidre; Lewis, MEB.

    2013-01-01

    Research into integrating technology such as iPads into the curriculum for students with disabilities is still new. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the use of a basic math skill application on an iPad to increase basic math fluency. As part of a classwide academic intervention, the study was conducted with 10 students with…

  7. Reading Fluency Instruction for Students at Risk for Reading Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ring, Jeremiah J.; Barefoot, Lexie C.; Avrit, Karen J.; Brown, Sasha A.; Black, Jeffrey L.

    2013-01-01

    The important role of reading fluency in the comprehension and motivation of readers is well documented. Two reading rate intervention programs were compared in a cluster-randomized clinical trial of students who were considered at-risk for reading failure. One program focused instruction at the word level; the second program focused instruction…

  8. A Comparative Study of Small Group Fluency Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Melanie

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated the reading development of small groups of learners making the transition from intentional decoding to fluent reading. The research focused on the relative effectiveness of repeated and wide reading as a means of developing reading fluency. It also looked at the importance of expressive, or prosodic, reading in…

  9. Is Earlier Better? Mastery of Reading Fluency in Early Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Yonghan; Chaparro, Erin A.; Preciado, Jorge; Cummings, Kelli D.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The goal of the present study was to provide empirical evidence for the importance of mastering reading fluency in early schooling. Study participants were 1,322 students in 3rd grade in 42 schools in a northwestern state. These students were assessed using a battery of reading skill tests as well as comprehensive tests of more…

  10. Integrated Fluency Instruction: Three Approaches for Working with Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Melanie; Rasinski, Timothy; Zimmerman, Belinda

    2014-01-01

    Effective fluency instruction should focus on reading with understanding, rather than simply reading quickly or expressively. This article outlines three research-based instructional approaches that assist students in developing accurate, automatic word recognition and prosody; at the same time, they ensure learners attend to the text's meaning as…

  11. There Is More to Fluency than Speed and Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedrick, Wanda, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Fluency is another concept whose many definitions lead to widely differing practices. It is easy to understand that reading words on a page does not make a person fluent if they don't take away meaning from that reading. Hedrick asks that teachers and administrators examine policies that let speed and accuracy in reading substitute for meaning…

  12. Boosting Reading Fluency: An Intervention Case Study at Subword Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kairaluoma, Leila; Ahonen, Timo; Aro, Mikko; Holopainen, Leena

    2007-01-01

    This study is an intervention case study of fluency in Finnish-speaking children with dyslexia. Two 7-year-old children, a girl and a boy, were selected from the Jyvaskyla Longitudinal Study of Dyslexia. The intervention emphasised syllables as reading units, and proceeded from reading syllables to reading words and text. Letter knowledge, reading…

  13. Learning Ecologies for Technological Fluency: Gender and Experience Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Brigid

    2004-01-01

    The concern with a "digital divide" has been transformed from one defined by technological access to technological prowess--employing technologies for more empowered and generative uses such as learning and innovation. Participation in technological fluency-building activities among high school students in a community heavily involved in the…

  14. Improv and Ink: Increasing Individual Writing Fluency with Collaborative Improv

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMichele, Mary

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how short form/comedic improvisational theater impacts the development of writing fluency. Students in all disciplines need to be able to purposefully write, however by the time students reach high school many have already given up trying to express even their own thoughts in free writing. Two quasi-experimental action…

  15. A Comparison of Two Sight Word Reading Fluency Drill Formats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Maureen; Konrad, Moira; Joseph, Laurice M.; Luu, Ken C. T.

    2013-01-01

    The authors compared the effects of two sight word fluency drills (i.e., reading racetrack and list drills). They used a repeated acquisition design across 8 second-grade students identified as at risk for reading difficulties. More participants performed better when they read words on the reading racetrack than on the list; however, results were…

  16. Implementing Readers Theatre as an Approach to Classroom Fluency Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Chase; Rasinski, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how Readers Theatre was implemented as an engaging means for reading fluency instruction in a second-grade classroom. A weekly Readers Theatre format was utilized over the course of a school year. The format was added to the existing literacy program. Data collected during the school year revealed significant gains in…

  17. Automated Assessment of Speech Fluency for L2 English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Su-Youn

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation provides an automated scoring method of speech fluency for second language learners of English (L2 learners) based that uses speech recognition technology. Non-standard pronunciation, frequent disfluencies, faulty grammar, and inappropriate lexical choices are crucial characteristics of L2 learners' speech. Due to the ease of…

  18. Revamping Professional Development for Technology Integration and Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plair, Sandra Kay

    2008-01-01

    Despite federal legislation and national technology plans, making technology significant in K-12 classrooms has yet to happen. The difficulty lies in veteran teachers who struggle to gain technological fluency. Many identified barriers continue to prevail, not for lack of teachers' trying but because of the overwhelming nature of technology.…

  19. Using Research to Develop Computational Fluency in Young Mathematicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Loughlin, Tricia Ann

    2007-01-01

    This article describes one teacher's journey to improve her teaching of mathematics by conducting classroom-based inquiry to meet the specific mathematical needs in her second grade classroom. Her process to develop and improve computational fluency through research-based methods is detailed. (Contains 9 figures.)

  20. Paired Reading and Related Methods for Improving Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topping, Keith J.

    2014-01-01

    The initial vignette outlines some of the complexities of the use of Paired Reading (PR) in a real situation. A description of PR is followed by a brief summary of evaluation evidence. A number of related techniques are briefly described and the evidence for them considered. The utility of PR in relation to fluency is then discussed. The…

  1. Measurement of Phonated Intervals during Four Fluency-Inducing Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidow, Jason H.; Bothe, Anne K.; Andreatta, Richard D.; Ye, Jun

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Previous investigations of persons who stutter have demonstrated changes in vocalization variables during fluency-inducing conditions (FICs). A series of studies has also shown that a reduction in short intervals of phonation, those from 30 to 200 ms, is associated with decreased stuttering. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to…

  2. Teachers' and Students' Views of Reading Fluency: Issues of Consequential Validity in Adopting One-Minute Reading Fluency Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deeney, Theresa A.; Shim, Minsuk K.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we present results of a survey designed to understand teachers' (n = 77) and students' (n = 875) perceptions of purported negative consequences of using one-minute oral reading fluency (ORF) measures such as the "Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills" (DIBELS) ORF assessment and the "aimsweb Reading…

  3. Math Fluency Is Etiologically Distinct from Untimed Math Performance, Decoding Fluency, and Untimed Reading Performance: Evidence from a Twin Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrill, Stephen; Logan, Jessica; Hart, Sara; Vincent, Pamela; Thompson, Lee; Kovas, Yulia; Plomin, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined whether math fluency was independent from untimed math and from reading using 314 pairs of school-aged twins drawn from the Western Reserve Reading and Math Projects. Twins were assessed through a 90-min home visit at approximately age 10 and were reassessed in their homes approximately 1 year later. Results suggested that the…

  4. New Metrics, Measures, and Uses for Fluency Data: An Introduction to a Special Issue on the Assessment of Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biancarosa, Gina; Cummings, Kelli D.

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this special issue is to synthesize results from recent reading fluency research endeavors, and to link these findings to practical uses of reading curriculum-based measurement (R-CBM) tools. Taken together, the manuscripts presented in this issue discuss measurement work related to new metrics of indexing student reading…

  5. easyCBM[R] Slope Reliability: Letter Names, Word Reading Fluency, and Passage Reading Fluency. Technical Report #1111

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patarapichayatham, Chalie; Anderson, Daniel; Irvin, P. Shawn; Kamata, Akhito; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    Within a response to intervention (RTI) framework, students are administered multiple tests of equivalent difficulty. Changes in students' scores over time are then attributed to changes in learning. In the current study, we evaluated the reliability of score changes (i.e., slope) for the easyCBM[R] letter names, word reading fluency, and passage…

  6. The California Verbal Learning Test: psychometric characteristics and clinical application.

    PubMed

    Elwood, R W

    1995-09-01

    The California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) is a popular clinical and research test that claims to measure key constructs in cognitive psychology such as repetition learning, serial position effects, semantic organization, intrusions, and proactive interference. The psychometric characteristics of the CVLT are reviewed and related to the test's clinical utility. The utility of the CVLT is shown to be limited by its poor standardization and inflated norms. Further, the validity is limited because the CVLT uses multiple trials whereas the constructs it purports to measure are based on single-trial paradigms. The review proposes modifications to the CVLT and guidelines for its clinical use. It concludes that if the limitations of the CVLT are recognized, it can still make a useful contribution to the clinical assessment of verbal learning and memory. PMID:8653108

  7. Is Oral/Text Reading Fluency a “Bridge” to Reading Comprehension?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace; Park, Chea Hyeong; Wagner, Richard K.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we investigated developmental relations among word reading fluency, listening comprehension, and text reading fluency to reading comprehension in a relatively transparent language, Korean. A total of 98 kindergartners and 170 first graders in Korea were assessed on a series of tasks involving listening comprehension, word reading fluency, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension. Results from multigroup structural equation models showed that text reading fluency was a dissociable construct for both kindergartners and first graders. In addition, a developmental pattern emerged: listening comprehension was not uniquely related to text reading fluency for first graders, but not for kindergartners, over and above word reading fluency. In addition, text reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension for kindergartners, but not for first graders, after accounting for word reading fluency and listening comprehension. For first graders, listening comprehension dominated the relations. There were no differences in the pattern of relations for skilled and less skilled readers in first grade. Results are discussed from a developmental perspective for reading comprehension component skills including text reading fluency. PMID:25653474

  8. The impact of aging and hearing status on verbal short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Verhaegen, Clémence; Collette, Fabienne; Majerus, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the impact of hearing status on age-related decrease in verbal short-term memory (STM) performance. This was done by administering a battery of verbal STM tasks to elderly and young adult participants matched for hearing thresholds, as well as to young normal-hearing control participants. The matching procedure allowed us to assess the importance of hearing loss as an explanatory factor of age-related STM decline. We observed that elderly participants and hearing-matched young participants showed equal levels of performance in all verbal STM tasks, and performed overall lower than the normal-hearing young control participants. This study provides evidence for recent theoretical accounts considering reduced hearing level as an important explanatory factor of poor auditory-verbal STM performance in older adults. PMID:24007209

  9. Foetal antiepileptic drug exposure and verbal versus non-verbal abilities at three years of age

    PubMed Central

    Meador, Kimford J.; Baker, Gus A.; Browning, Nancy; Cohen, Morris J.; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Kalayjian, Laura A.; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D.; Pennell, Page B.; Privitera, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We previously reported that foetal valproate exposure impairs intelligence quotient. In this follow-up investigation, we examined dose-related effects of foetal antiepileptic drug exposure on verbal and non-verbal cognitive measures. This investigation is an ongoing prospective observational multi-centre study in the USA and UK, which has enrolled pregnant females with epilepsy on monotherapy from 1999 to 2004. The study seeks to determine if differential long-term neurodevelopmental effects exist across four commonly used drugs (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin and valproate). This report compares verbal versus non-verbal cognitive outcomes in 216 children who completed testing at the age of three years. Verbal and non-verbal index scores were calculated from the Differential Ability Scales, Preschool Language Scale, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration. Verbal abilities were lower than non-verbal in children exposed in utero to each drug. Preconceptional folate use was associated with higher verbal outcomes. Valproate was associated with poorer cognitive outcomes. Performance was negatively associated with valproate dose for both verbal and non-verbal domains and negatively associated with carbamazepine dose for verbal performance. No dose effects were seen for lamotrigine and phenytoin. Since foetal antiepileptic drug exposure is associated with lower verbal than non-verbal abilities, language may be particularly susceptible to foetal exposure. We hypothesize that foetal drug exposure may alter normal cerebral lateralization. Further, a dose-dependent relationship is present for both lower verbal and non-verbal abilities with valproate and for lower verbal abilities with carbamazepine. Preconceptional folate may improve cognitive outcomes. Additional research is needed to confirm these findings, extend the study to other drugs, define the risks associated with drug treatment for seizures in the neonates, and

  10. Stuttering, Induced Fluency, and Natural Fluency: A Hierarchical Series of Activation Likelihood Estimation Meta-Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Budde, Kristin S.; Barron, Daniel S.; Fox, Peter T.

    2015-01-01

    Developmental stuttering is a speech disorder most likely due to a heritable form of developmental dysmyelination impairing the function of the speech-motor system. Speech-induced brain-activation patterns in persons who stutter (PWS) are anomalous in various ways; the consistency of these aberrant patterns is a matter of ongoing debate. Here, we present a hierarchical series of coordinate-based meta-analyses addressing this issue. Two tiers of meta-analyses were performed on a 17-paper dataset (202 PWS; 167 fluent controls). Four large-scale (top-tier) meta-analyses were performed, two for each subject group (PWS and controls). These analyses robustly confirmed the regional effects previously postulated as “neural signatures of stuttering” (Brown 2005) and extended this designation to additional regions. Two smaller-scale (lower-tier) meta-analyses refined the interpretation of the large-scale analyses: 1) a between-group contrast targeting differences between PWS and controls (stuttering trait); and 2) a within-group contrast (PWS only) of stuttering with induced fluency (stuttering state). PMID:25463820

  11. Accelerating Decoding-Related Skills in Poor Readers Learning a Foreign Language: A Computer-Based Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Björn, Piia Maria; Leppänen, Paavo H. T.

    2013-01-01

    The results of Fast ForWord® training on English decoding-related skills were examined. Finnish fifth-grade students were identified as having reading fluency problems and poor skills in English as a foreign language learned at school and were randomly assigned to either a training group (TRG) or a control group. The TRG ("n"?=?13)…

  12. [Peculiarities of verbal activity in migraine patients].

    PubMed

    Latysheva, N V; Iakovlev, O N; Filatova, E G

    2003-01-01

    We applied associative verbal experiment to analyze verbal activity of migraineurs. A test group consisted of 49 patients with migraine, a control one--of 20 healthy people. Reliable decrease of free associations number, verbs and plants, semantic index and changes of non-productive association index and coefficient were observed. Average depression level, higher anxiety and negative correlations with indexes calculated were found. Verbal activity of migraineurs, their ability to concentrate and to control adequateness of task fulfillment were decreased. That was caused by pain, depression, anxiety and neurotization. Verbal activity is influenced by individual emotional features (calculated indexes do not correlate with the visual analogue scale). PMID:12938648

  13. Variability of kinematic graphomotor fluency in adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Duda, Thomas A; Casey, Joseph E; McNevin, Nancy

    2014-12-01

    Although graphomotor differences and variability of performance have been observed in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), no study has investigated whether this variability manifests in the kinematic graphomotor domain in adults with ADHD. Fourteen ADHD and 20 control participants wrote a novel grapheme and common word on a digitizing tablet 30 times each, with ADHD participants counterbalanced on and off stimulant medication. Variability of graphomotor fluency was significantly greater in ADHD versus control participants only in the novel writing task, both on, F(1,31)=5.988, p=.020, and off stimulant medication, F(1,32)=8.789, p=.006. Results suggest that motor control differences in ADHD are not limited to childhood and extend into adulthood. Given sufficient additional research, variability of kinematic graphomotor fluency may increase the sensitivity/specificity of differential diagnoses and/or represent a biomarker for ADHD. PMID:25457429

  14. Poor Americans: How the Poor White Live.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilisuk, Marc; Pilisuk, Phyllis

    Contents of this book include the following essays which originally appeared in "Transaction" magazine: (1) "Poor Americans: an introduction," Marc Pilisuk and Phyllis Pilisuk; (2) "How the white poor live," Marc Pilisuk and Phyllis Pilisuk; (3) "The culture of poverty," Oscar Lewis; (4) "Life in Appalachia--the case of Hugh McCaslin," Robert…

  15. Interpersonal Interactions in Instrumental Lessons: Teacher/Student Verbal and Non-Verbal Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhukov, Katie

    2013-01-01

    This study examined verbal and non-verbal teacher/student interpersonal interactions in higher education instrumental music lessons. Twenty-four lessons were videotaped and teacher/student behaviours were analysed using a researcher-designed instrument. The findings indicate predominance of student and teacher joke among the verbal behaviours with…

  16. Consonant Differentiation Mediates the Discrepancy between Non-verbal and Verbal Abilities in Children with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Key, A. P.; Yoder, P. J.; Stone, W. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate verbal communication disorders reflected in lower verbal than non-verbal abilities. The present study examined the extent to which this discrepancy is associated with atypical speech sound differentiation. Methods: Differences in the amplitude of auditory event-related…

  17. The Neural Correlates of Reading Fluency Deficits in Children

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Nicolas; Benjamin, Christopher; Minas, Jennifer; Gaab, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    Multiple studies have shown that individuals with a reading disability (RD) demonstrate deficits in posterior left-hemispheric brain regions during reading-related tasks. These studies mainly focused on reading sub-skills, and it remains debated whether such dysfunction is apparent during more ecologically valid reading skills, such as reading fluency. In this fMRI study, reading fluency was systematically varied to characterize neural correlates of reading fluency in 30 children with (RD) and without (typical developing children, TYP) a RD. Sentences were presented at constrained, comfortable, and accelerated speeds, which were determined based on individual reading speed. Behaviorally, RD children displayed decreased performance in several reading-related tasks. Using fMRI, we demonstrated that both TYP and RD children display increased activation in several components of the reading network during fluent reading. When required to read at an accelerated speed, RD children exhibited less activation in the fusiform gyrus (FG) compared with the TYP children. A region of interest analysis substantiated differences in the FG and demonstrated a relationship to behavioral reading performance. These results suggest that the FG plays a key role in fluent reading and that it can be modulated by speed. These results and their implications for remediation strategies should be considered in educational practice. PMID:24335032

  18. Group administration influences design but not written word fluency testing.

    PubMed

    Knepp, Michael M; Krafka, Erin R; Boulton, Ashley N; Myers, Morgan P

    2014-01-01

    Quicker assessments of right and left frontal lobe function, such as the examination of performance on design and language fluency tasks, respectively, lend themselves to a group administration setting. However, the influence of social facilitation factors on a dissociation model in these group settings is not well understood. One hundred college students (71 women) completed design and written word fluency tasks while sitting beside a faster or slower working confederate. Questionnaires related to trait worry, emotion regulation, state depression, anxiety and stress were completed following these tasks. Students in the fast condition produced significantly more unique designs, but there was no condition difference on written word fluency. This finding indicated that performance on a design task, which requires relative right frontal activation, may decrease if the subject is paired with a slow working confederate. High trait worriers demonstrated reduced performance on the design task (as indicated by higher design error ratios) but preserved performance on the word task. This supported a single dissociation in that performance on these tasks indicates compromised right hemisphere function and preserved left hemisphere function, respectively, in high trait worriers. PMID:24611866

  19. Impairments of Speech Fluency in Lewy Body Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ash, Sharon; McMillan, Corey; Gross, Rachel G.; Cook, Philip; Gunawardena, Delani; Morgan, Brianna; Boller, Ashley; Siderowf, Andrew; Grossman, Murray

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have examined connected speech in demented and non-demented patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). We assessed the speech production of 35 patients with Lewy body spectrum disorder (LBSD), including non-demented PD patients, patients with PD dementia (PDD), and patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), in a semi-structured narrative speech sample in order to characterize impairments of speech fluency and to determine the factors contributing to reduced speech fluency in these patients. Both demented and non-demented PD patients exhibited reduced speech fluency, characterized by reduced overall speech rate and long pauses between sentences. Reduced speech rate in LBSD correlated with measures of between-utterance pauses, executive functioning, and grammatical comprehension. Regression analyses related non-fluent speech, grammatical difficulty, and executive difficulty to atrophy in frontal brain regions. These findings indicate that multiple factors contribute to slowed speech in LBSD, and this is mediated in part by disease in frontal brain regions. PMID:22099969

  20. Constructs and Events in Verbal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fryling, Mitch J.

    2013-01-01

    Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior has been the subject of much controversy in recent years. While criticism has historically come from outside the field of behavior analysis, there are now well-articulated arguments against Skinner's analysis of verbal behavior from within the field as well. Recently, advocates of…

  1. Verbal and Nonverbal Communication of Facilitative Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tepper, Donald T., Jr.; Haase, Richard F.

    1978-01-01

    Verbal and nonverbal cues were studied in a multichannel communication paradigm to assess their effect on the communication of empathy, respect, and genuineness. Counselors and clients rated videotaped interactions between counselor and client, each portraying a different combination of verbal message, trunk lean, eye contact, vocal intonation,…

  2. Visual Cues, Verbal Cues and Child Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentini, Nadia

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses two strategies--visual cues (modeling) and verbal cues (short, accurate phrases) which are related to teaching motor skills in maximizing learning in physical education classes. Both visual and verbal cues are strong influences in facilitating and promoting day-to-day learning. Both strategies reinforce…

  3. Verbal and Nonverbal Predictors of Spelling Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadoski, Mark; Willson, Victor L.; Holcomb, Angelia; Boulware-Gooden, Regina

    2005-01-01

    Verbal and nonverbal predictors of spelling performance in Grades 1-12 were investigated using the national norming data from a standardized spelling test. Verbal variables included number of letters, phonemes, syllables, digraphs, blends, silent markers, r-controlled vowels, and the proportion of grapheme-phoneme correspondence. The nonverbal…

  4. Action, Verbal Response and Spatial Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ranxiao Frances

    2004-01-01

    Studies have shown that perception of distance, orientation and size can be dissociated from action tasks. The action system seems to possess more veridical, unbiased information than the perceptual/verbal system. The current study examines the nature of the distinction between action and verbal responses in a spatial reasoning task. Participants…

  5. Verbal Mediation and Satiation in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Harold; Smothergill, Daniel

    The study demonstrates: (1) the occurrence of verbal mediation with its facilitory effect, and (2) the interfering effect of verbal satiation on mediational processes in a three-state chaining paradigm. 40 preschool children were randomly assigned to either a control (no satiation) or an experimental (satiation) group. The subjects in the control…

  6. The Multidimensionality of Verbal Analogy Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullstadius, Eva; Carlstedt, Berit; Gustafsson, Jan-Eric

    2008-01-01

    The influence of general and verbal ability on each of 72 verbal analogy test items were investigated with new factor analytical techniques. The analogy items together with the Computerized Swedish Enlistment Battery (CAT-SEB) were given randomly to two samples of 18-year-old male conscripts (n = 8566 and n = 5289). Thirty-two of the 72 items had…

  7. The Multiple Control of Verbal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Jack; Palmer, David C.; Sundberg, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    Amid the novel terms and original analyses in Skinner's "Verbal Behavior", the importance of his discussion of multiple control is easily missed, but multiple control of verbal responses is the rule rather than the exception. In this paper we summarize and illustrate Skinner's analysis of multiple control and introduce the terms "convergent…

  8. Comprehension of Spatial Language in Williams Syndrome: Evidence for Impaired Spatial Representation of Verbal Descriptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laing, Emma; Jarrold, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Individuals with the rare genetic disorder, Williams syndrome, have an unusual cognitive profile with relatively good language abilities but poor non-verbal and spatial skills. This study explored the interaction between linguistic and spatial functioning in Williams syndrome by investigating individuals' comprehension of spatial language. A group…

  9. Keeping Timbre in Mind: Working Memory for Complex Sounds that Can't Be Verbalized

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golubock, Jason L.; Janata, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Properties of auditory working memory for sounds that lack strong semantic associations and are not readily verbalized or sung are poorly understood. We investigated auditory working memory capacity for lists containing 2-6 easily discriminable abstract sounds synthesized within a constrained timbral space, at delays of 1-6 s (Experiment 1), and…

  10. Attitudes and beliefs as verbal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Guerin, Bernard

    1994-01-01

    Attitudes and beliefs are analyzed as verbal behavior. It is argued that shaping by a verbal community is an essential part of the formation and maintenance of both attitudes and beliefs, and it is suggested that verbal communities mediate the important shift in control from events in the environment (attitudes and beliefs as tacts) to control by other words (attitudes and beliefs as intraverbals). It appears that both attitudes and beliefs are constantly being socially negotiated through autoclitic functions. That is, verbal communities reinforce (a) reporting general rather than specific attitudes and beliefs, (b) presentation of intraverbals as if they were tacts, and (c) presentation of beliefs as if they were attitudes. Consistency among and between attitudes, beliefs, and behavior is also contingent upon the reinforcing practices of verbal communities. Thus, attitudes and beliefs can be studied as social behavior rather than as private, cognitive processes. PMID:22478181

  11. Reality of auditory verbal hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Valkonen-Korhonen, Minna; Holi, Matti; Therman, Sebastian; Lehtonen, Johannes; Hari, Riitta

    2009-01-01

    Distortion of the sense of reality, actualized in delusions and hallucinations, is the key feature of psychosis but the underlying neuronal correlates remain largely unknown. We studied 11 highly functioning subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder while they rated the reality of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The subjective reality of AVH correlated strongly and specifically with the hallucination-related activation strength of the inferior frontal gyri (IFG), including the Broca's language region. Furthermore, how real the hallucination that subjects experienced was depended on the hallucination-related coupling between the IFG, the ventral striatum, the auditory cortex, the right posterior temporal lobe, and the cingulate cortex. Our findings suggest that the subjective reality of AVH is related to motor mechanisms of speech comprehension, with contributions from sensory and salience-detection-related brain regions as well as circuitries related to self-monitoring and the experience of agency. PMID:19620178

  12. Electrophysiological correlates associated with contributions of perceptual and conceptual fluency to familiarity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Li, Bingbing; Gao, Chuanji; Xiao, Xin; Guo, Chunyan

    2015-01-01

    The present research manipulated the fluency of unstudied items using masked repetition priming procedures during an explicit recognition test. Based on fluency-attribution accounts, which posit that familiarity can be driven by multiple forms of fluency, the relationship between masked priming-induced fluency and familiarity was investigated. We classified pictographic characters into High-Meaningfulness (High-M) and Low-Meaningfulness (Low-M) categories on the basis of subjective meaningfulness ratings and identified the distinct electrophysiological correlates of perceptual and conceptual fluency. The two types of fluency differed in associated ERP effects: 150–250 ms effects for perceptual fluency and FN400 effects for conceptual fluency. The ERPs of Low-M MP-same (items that were preceded by matching masked items) false alarms were more positive than correct rejections during 150–250 ms, whereas the ERPs of High-M MP-same false alarms were more positive than correct rejections during 300–500 ms. The topographic patterns of FN400 effects between High-M MP-same false alarms and Low-M MP-same false alarms were not different from those of High-M hits and Low-M hits. These results indicate that both forms of fluency can contribute to familiarity, and the neural correlates of conceptual fluency are not different from those of conceptual priming induced by prior study-phase exposure. We conclude that multiple neural signals potentially contribute to recognition memory, such as numerous forms of fluency differing in terms of their time courses. PMID:26097450

  13. Sterilizing the Poor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Sheila M.

    1977-01-01

    Suggests that freedom for the middle classes may mean vulnerability for the poor. The enthusiasm for sterilization may be so intense as to deprive the poor of their right not to be sterilized. (Author/AM)

  14. Employing task arrangements and verbal contingencies to promote verbalizations between retarded children.

    PubMed Central

    Mithaug, D E; Wolfe, M S

    1976-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of arranging task events for interdependence, to increase the probability of social responding. During task interdependence, the subjects, participating in dyads and a four-person group, obtained task materials (a puzzle piece) from their partner before completing their task (appropriately placing the puzzle piece). The verbal contingency required a verbal request to precede a subject's receiving a task material from his partner. The verbal contingency yoked with task interdependence made task completion contingent on the appropriate verbalization. The findings from two experiments suggested that task interdependence was sufficient to increase partner-directed verbalizations for three of the four subjects. When the verbal contingency was added, all subjects increased their requests and other verbalizations to partner. Applied to a four-person group, the verbal contingency yoked with varying levels of task interdependence correspondingly affected the pattern and level of group communications. The greater the task interdependence, i.e., the more members each subject depended on to complete his task, the more complex the social network of verbal contacts, and the higher the level of both requests and other verbalizations for the group. PMID:977517

  15. The Impact of Fluency Strategy Training on Iranian EFL Learners' Speech under Online Planning Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seifoori, Zohreh; Vahidi, Zahra

    2012-01-01

    The research findings reported on here confirm the facilitative role of pre-task planning on fluency and of online task planning on accuracy of speech. This quasi-experimental research was conducted to examine whether learners could be trained to attend to the fluency of their speech while planning online and whether such training might compensate…

  16. Note on the Scoring of Foreign Language Speaking and Writing Fluency Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, John B.

    The problem of determining relative weights for quantity and quality in scoring foreign language speaking and writing fluency tests is studied. French speaking and writing fluency tests were administered to students of French in several schools in England. Data from these tests was analyzed to support the suggestion that scoring formulas should…

  17. Repeated Reading for Developing Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension: The Case of EFL Learners in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorsuch, Greta; Taguchi, Etsuo

    2008-01-01

    Reading in a foreign or second language is often a laborious process, often caused by underdeveloped word recognition skills, among other things, of second and foreign language readers. Developing fluency in L2/FL reading has become an important pedagogical issue in L2 settings and one major component of reading fluency is fast and accurate word…

  18. Effects of a Mathematics Fluency Program on Mathematics Performance of Students with Challenging Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Todd; Hirn, Regina G.; Lingo, Amy S.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the effects of a fluency-building mathematics program called Great Leaps Math on fluency of basic addition mathematics facts zero to nine and word problem solving using a multiple probe design across participants. Three elementary students with challenging behaviors and mathematics difficulty participated in the…

  19. Developing Reading Fluency and Comprehension Using Repeated Reading: Evidence from Longitudinal Student Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorsuch, Greta; Taguchi, Etsuo

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, interest in reading fluency development in first language, and second and foreign language (L2/FL) settings has increased. Reading fluency, in which readers decode and comprehend at the same time, is critical to successful reading. Fluent readers are accurate and fast in their ability to recognize words, and in their use of…

  20. Event-Related Potential (ERP) Evidence for Fluency-Based Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leynes, P. Andrew; Zish, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the influence of perceptual fluency on recognition memory. Words were studied using a shallow encoding task to decrease the contribution of recollection on recognition. Fluency was manipulated by blurring half of the test probes. Clarity varied randomly across trials in one experiment and was grouped into two blocks…

  1. A Musical Approach to Reading Fluency: An Experimental Study in First-Grade Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leguizamon, Daniel F.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative, quasi-experimental study was to investigate the relationship between Kodaly-based music instruction and reading fluency in first-grade classrooms. Reading fluency and overall reading achievement were measured for 109 participants at mid-point in the academic year pre- and post treatment. Tests were carried out to…

  2. The Effect of Processing Fluency on Impressions of Familiarity and Liking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerman, Deanne L.; Lanska, Meredith; Olds, Justin M.

    2015-01-01

    Processing fluency has been shown to have wide-ranging effects on disparate evaluative judgments, including judgments of liking and familiarity. One account of such effects is the hedonic marking hypothesis (Winkielman, Schwarz, Fazendeiro, & Reber, 2003), which posits that fluency is directly linked to affective preferences via a positive…

  3. Insights into Fluency Instruction: Short- and Long-Term Effects of Two Reading Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Kuhn, Melanie R.; Morris, Robin D.; Morrow, Lesley Mandel; Meisinger, Elizabeth B.; Woo, Deborah Gee; Quirk, Matthew; Sevcik, Rose

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine short- and long-term effects of two instructional approaches designed to improve the reading fluency of second-grade children: Fluency-Oriented Reading Instruction (or FORI; Stahl & Heubach, 2005) and a wide reading approach (Kuhn et al., 2006). By the end of second grade, children in the wide reading…

  4. Oral Reading Fluency Development for Children with Emotional Disturbance or Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanzek, Jeanne; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Petscher, Yaacov

    2014-01-01

    This study used a large statewide database to examine the oral reading fluency development of second- and third-grade students with emotional disturbance or learning disabilities and their general education peers. Oral reading fluency measures were administered to 185,367 students without disabilities (general education), 2,146 students identified…

  5. Assessing an Institution-Wide Information Fluency Program: Commitment, Plan, and Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beile, Penny M.

    2007-01-01

    University of Central Florida faculty and administrators recently endorsed a library-initiated proposal to integrate information fluency across the curriculum. The information fluency proposal was drafted in response to a university-wide call for proposals for a quality enhancement plan, which is a requirement for reaffirmation by the…

  6. Making Sense of Nonsense Word Fluency: Determining Adequate Progress in Early First-Grade Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Roland H., III; Baker, Scott K.; Peyton, Julia A.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we examine the contribution of initial skill and slope of progress on alphabetic principle to end of first-grade reading outcomes. Initial skill and slope were measured using DIBELS Nonsense Word Fluency. Reading outcomes were measured at the end of first grade with DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency. Students in Oregon Reading First…

  7. Development of an Evidence-Based Reading Fluency Program for Adult Literacy Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Jane; Sabatini, John; Lentini, Jennifer; Holtzman, Steven; McNeil, Adjua

    2015-01-01

    Fluency is an essential part of skilled reading that has only recently begun to receive its deserved attention. However, programs that meaningfully engage adult learners in fluency training have not been widely explored in research. In this article, the authors describe an evidence-based adult Guided Repeated Reading program developed for…

  8. An Investigation into Multi-Level Components of Online Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkins, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a discussion of the results of a cross-sectional examination of linguistic variables that are predicted to influence L2 reading fluency. This study is part of a larger, longitudinal mixed-methods study into reading fluency development using online Timed Reading (TR) with participants from a mid-to-high level private university…

  9. Reader's Theater: An Alternative Tool to Develop Reading Fluency among Thai EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekwilai, Panya

    2014-01-01

    Fluency in reading is critical for becoming a successful reader and strongly correlates with reading comprehension. Fluency in reading refers to appropriate reading speed, accurate word recognition, appropriate phrasing, and appropriate expression when reading orally. Reader's Theater (RT) is a reading instructional method that requires readers to…

  10. Alternative Text Types to Improve Reading Fluency for Competent to Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasinski, Timothy V.; Rupley, William H.; Pagie, David D.; Nichols, William Dee

    2016-01-01

    This article offers instructional suggestions and strategies based on research and theoretical literature for developing reading fluency through the use of rhyming poetry and other texts beyond the narrative and informational texts that have been traditionally used for reading instruction. Readers' lack of fluency in reading can be a monumental…

  11. When Does Modality Matter? Perceptual versus Conceptual Fluency-Based Illusions in Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jeremy K.; Lloyd, Marianne E.; Westerman, Deanne L.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has shown that illusions of recognition memory based on enhanced perceptual fluency are sensitive to the perceptual match between the study and test phases of an experiment. The results of the current study strengthen that conclusion, as they show that participants will not interpret enhanced perceptual fluency as a sign of…

  12. Using an Intelligent Tutor and Math Fluency Training to Improve Math Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arroyo, Ivon; Royer, James M.; Woolf, Beverly P.

    2011-01-01

    This article integrates research in intelligent tutors with psychology studies of memory and math fluency (the speed to retrieve or calculate answers to basic math operations). It describes the impact of computer software designed to improve either strategic behavior or math fluency. Both competencies are key to improved performance and both…

  13. Examining the Relations between Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quirk, Matthew; Beem, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relations between reading fluency and comprehension among elementary school students (N = 171) in Grades 2, 3, and 5, all of whom were designated as English language learners (ELL) at some point in their educational careers. Although the overall relation between reading fluency and comprehension (r = 0.56) was consistent…

  14. The Development of Complexity, Accuracy and Fluency in the Written Production of L2 French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnarsson, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    The present longitudinal case study investigated the development of fluency, complexity and accuracy--and the possible relationships between them--in the written production of L2 French. We assessed fluency and complexity in five intermediate learners by means of conventional indicators for written L2 (cf. Wolfe-Quintero et al. 1998), while…

  15. A Cross-Sectional Study of Fluency and Reading Comprehension in Spanish Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calet, Nuria; Gutiérrez-Palma, Nicolás; Defior, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    The importance of prosodic elements is recognised in most definitions of fluency. Although speed and accuracy have been typically considered the constituents of reading fluency, prosody is emerging as an additional component. The relevance of prosody in comprehension is increasingly recognised in the latest studies. The purpose of this research is…

  16. The Contributions of Oral and Silent Reading Fluency to Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Katherine W.; Meisinger, Elizabeth B.; Louwerse, Max M.; D'Mello, Sidney

    2016-01-01

    Silent reading fluency has received limited attention in the school-based literatures across the past decade. We fill this gap by examining both oral and silent reading fluency and their relation to overall abilities in reading comprehension in fourth-grade students. Lower-level reading skills (word reading, rapid automatic naming) and vocabulary…

  17. Considering the Context and Texts for Fluency: Performance, Readers Theater, and Poetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Chase; Nageldinger, James

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the importance of teaching reading fluency and all of its components, including automaticity and prosody. The authors explain how teachers can create a context for reading fluency instruction by engaging students in reading performance activities. To support the instructional contexts, the authors suggest particular…

  18. The Relationship between Task Difficulty and Second Language Fluency in French: A Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Préfontaine, Yvonne; Kormos, Judit

    2015-01-01

    While there exists a considerable body of literature on task-based difficulty and second language (L2) fluency in English as a second language (ESL), there has been little investigation with French learners. This mixed methods study examines learner appraisals of task difficulty and their relationship to automated utterance fluency measures in…

  19. Increasing Reading Fluency in Elementary Students with Low Vision through Repeated Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, A. J.; Layton, C. A.

    1998-01-01

    Evaluation of the use of repeated readings to increase the reading fluency of four elementary students with low vision found the intervention was effective in improving all four students' reading fluency without adversely affecting error rates or comprehension. Students' improved reading rates also generalized to classroom reading. (DB)

  20. Identity Priming Consistently Affects Perceptual Fluency but Only Affects Metamemory When Primes Are Obvious

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Susser, Jonathan A.; Jin, Andy; Mulligan, Neil W.

    2016-01-01

    Perceptual fluency manipulations influence metamemory judgments, with more fluently perceived information judged as more memorable. However, it is not always clear whether this influence is driven by actual experienced processing fluency or by beliefs about memory. The current study used an identity-priming paradigm--in which words are preceded by…

  1. Voice and Fluency Changes as a Function of Speech Task and Deep Brain Stimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Lancker Sidtis, Diana; Rogers, Tiffany; Godier, Violette; Tagliati, Michele; Sidtis, John J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Speaking, which naturally occurs in different modes or "tasks" such as conversation and repetition, relies on intact basal ganglia nuclei. Recent studies suggest that voice and fluency parameters are differentially affected by speech task. In this study, the authors examine the effects of subcortical functionality on voice and fluency,…

  2. The Relationship between Computational Fluency and Student Success in General Studies Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegeman, Jennifer; Waters, Gavin

    2012-01-01

    Many developmental mathematics programs emphasize computational fluency with the assumption that this is a necessary contributor to student success in general studies mathematics. In an effort to determine which skills are most essential, scores on a computational fluency test were correlated with student success in general studies mathematics at…

  3. Computational Fluency Performance Profile of High School Students with Mathematics Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoon, Mary Beth; Emerson, Robert Wall; Flores, Margaret; Houchins, David E.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to develop a computational fluency performance profile of 224 high school (Grades 9-12) students with mathematics disabilities (MD). Computational fluency performance was examined by grade-level expectancy (Grades 2-6) and skill area (whole numbers: addition, subtraction, multiplication, division;…

  4. Math Fluency: Accuracy Versus Speed in Preoperational and Concrete Operational First and Second Grade Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos-Christian, Vanessa; Schleser, Robert; Varn, Mary E.

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive abilities as well as math fluency play an important role in mathematical skills. Understanding the relationship between cognitive abilities and mathematical skills is imperative to teaching effective arithmetic skills. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between cognitive ability and math fluency with 38 first and…

  5. Building Mathematical Fluency for Students with Disabilities or Students At-Risk for Mathematics Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Vanessa; Strozier, Shaunita D.; Flores, Margaret M.

    2014-01-01

    It is incredibly important for students who are at-risk for mathematics failure or who have a disability which hinders mathematical performance to improve in their mathematical achievement. One way to improve mathematical achievement is through building fluency in mathematics. Fluency in mathematics is the ability to solve problems automatically…

  6. Phase Transitions in Development of Writing Fluency from a Complex Dynamic Systems Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baba, Kyoko; Nitta, Ryo

    2014-01-01

    This study explored patterns in L2 writing development by focusing on one of the linguistic features of texts (fluency) from a complex dynamic systems perspective. It investigated whether two English-as-a-foreign-language university students would experience discontinuous change (phase transition) in their writing fluency through repetition of a…

  7. Fluency: A Necessary Ingredient in Comprehensive Reading Instruction in Inclusive Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ming, Kavin; Dukes, Charles

    2008-01-01

    There is a large collection of students who experience difficulty with the development of reading fluency and comprehension. Many students receive little to no benefit from non-systematic instructional methods. In order to become proficient readers many students need explicit instruction in fluency to serve as a building block to comprehension.…

  8. Potential of Text-Based Internet Chats for Improving Oral Fluency in a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Although a number of studies have reported on the positive effects of Internet chats in the second language classroom, to the best of my knowledge no studies to date have examined the effect of text-based chats on oral fluency development. This exploratory study addressed the above question by examining the oral fluency development of 34 English…

  9. Does Foreign Language Writing Benefit from Increased Lexical Fluency? Evidence from a Classroom Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Gelderen, Amos; Oostdam, Ron; van Schooten, Erik

    2011-01-01

    We report a classroom experiment directed at increasing lexical fluency in writing. Participants were 107 Dutch students in bilingual (EFL) education (Grades 10 and 11). According to current theories of writing such fluency allows writers to devote more attention to higher order aspects of text production, such as idea generation, selection and…

  10. How the Brain's Performance during Mathematics and Reading Fluency Tests Compare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze how participants' levels of hemoglobin as they performed mathematics fluency and reading fluency (reading comprehension) compare. We used Optical Topography (OT, helmet type brain-scanning system, also known as Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy or fNIRS) to measure levels of brain activity. A central…

  11. So Long, Robot Reader! A Superhero Intervention Plan for Improving Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcell, Barclay; Ferraro, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an engaging means for turning disfluent readers into prosody superstars. Each week students align with Poetry Power Man and his superhero friends to battle the evil Robot Reader and his sidekicks. The Fluency Foursome helps students adhere to the multidimensional aspects of fluency where expression and comprehension are…

  12. Increasing Reading Fluency Performance of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanway Kalis, Tara M.

    2012-01-01

    Reading fluency has been identified as one of the essential skills students must develop in order to learn to read. Fluency is also a critical factor in reading comprehension (National Reading Panel [NRP], 2000). Many students, however, lack the ability to read age-appropriate materials fluently, including students with emotional and behavioral…

  13. The Role of Input, Interaction and Output in the Development of Oral Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Shumei

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a research in the second Language acquisition (SLA) with its focus on the role of input, interaction and output in the development of oral fluency in the EFL context from both a theoretical point of view and a case study. Two instruments were used: tests of oral fluency and face-to-face interviews. The findings showed that non-native…

  14. Is Oral/Text Reading Fluency a "Bridge" to Reading Comprehension?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Suk; Park, Chea Hyeong; Wagner, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we investigated developmental relations among word reading fluency, listening comprehension, and text reading fluency to reading comprehension in a relatively transparent language, Korean. A total of 98 kindergartners and 170 first graders in Korea were assessed on a series of tasks involving listening comprehension, word…

  15. A Rose in Any Other Font Would Not Smell as Sweet: Effects of Perceptual Fluency on Categorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheimer, Daniel M.; Frank, Michael C.

    2008-01-01

    Fluency--the ease with which people process information--is a central piece of information we take into account when we make judgments about the world. Prior research has shown that fluency affects judgments in a wide variety of domains, including frequency, familiarity, and confidence. In this paper, we present evidence that fluency also plays a…

  16. Revisiting Assumptions about the Relationship of Fluent Reading to Comprehension: Spanish-Speakers' Text-Reading Fluency in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosson, Amy C.; Lesaux, Nonie K.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the growing body of research investigating the nature of text-reading fluency and its relationship to comprehension among monolingual children, very little is known about text-reading fluency for language minority (LM) learners reading in English. The present study investigated the nature of text-reading fluency--its relationship to…

  17. The Effects of Word Walls and Word Wall Activities on the Reading Fluency of First Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasmine, Joanne; Schiesl, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Reading fluency is the ability to read orally with speed and efficiency, including word recognition, decoding, and comprehension (Chard & Pikulski, 2005). Able readers achieve fluency as they recognize words with speed and build upon them to aid in comprehension (Pumfrey & Elliott, 1990). One way to help students achieve fluency is through the use…

  18. [Frequency-spatial organization of brain electrical activity in creative verbal thinking: role of the gender factor].

    PubMed

    Razumnikova, O M; Bryzgalova, A O

    2005-01-01

    Gender differences in EEG patterns associated with verbal creativity were studied by EEG mapping. The EEGs of 18 males and 21 females (right-handed university students) were recorded during a performance of Remote Associates Task (RAT) compared with the letter-fluency and simple associate's tasks. Gender differences were found in a factor structure of the indices of verbal thinking and a score of generating words was greater in women than men. No significant gender differences in originality of associations were revealed, however, gender-related differences in the EEG-patterns were found at the final and initial stages of RAT. In men, the beta2-power was increased in both hemispheres at the beginning of test. To the end of testing, the power of oscillations in the beta2 band increased only in the central part of the cortex. In women, the beta2-power was increased to a greater extent in the right than in the left hemisphere at the initial stage of task performance, whereas the final stage was characterized by a relative decrease in beta-activity in parietotemporal cortical regions and increase in the left prefrontal region. It is suggested that the verbal creative thinking in men is based mostly on "insight" strategy whereas women additionally involve the "intellectual" strategy. PMID:16217962

  19. Predicting short-term stock fluctuations by using processing fluency

    PubMed Central

    Alter, Adam L.; Oppenheimer, Daniel M.

    2006-01-01

    Three studies investigated the impact of the psychological principle of fluency (that people tend to prefer easily processed information) on short-term share price movements. In both a laboratory study and two analyses of naturalistic real-world stock market data, fluently named stocks robustly outperformed stocks with disfluent names in the short term. For example, in one study, an initial investment of $1,000 yielded a profit of $112 more after 1 day of trading for a basket of fluently named shares than for a basket of disfluently named shares. These results imply that simple, cognitive approaches to modeling human behavior sometimes outperform more typical, complex alternatives. PMID:16754871

  20. Relationship between Poor Sleep and Daytime Cognitive Performance in Young Adults with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limoges, Elyse; Bolduc, Christianne; Berthiaume, Claude; Mottron, Laurent; Godbout, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Poor sleep is a common feature in autism even though patients themselves do not necessarily complain. The impact of poor sleep on daytime cognitive functioning in autism is not well-known and we therefore investigated whether sleep in autism correlates with daytime cognitive performance. A battery of non-verbal tasks was administered, in the…

  1. Predictors of English fluency among Hmong refugees in Minnesota: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Westermeyer, J; Her, C

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess factors associated with later acquisition of English language fluency among Hmong refugees in Minnesota. Fluency in a society's lingua franca is a critical skill in psychosocial adaptation and mental health. A longitudinal study design was used, in which premigration and early postmigration factors were related to subsequent English fluency. The first group of 102 Hmong refugees located in Minnesota by the Immigration and Naturalization Service participated, and were interviewed in their homes. Hmong research assistants collected data using a questionnaire format at 1.5 years following resettlement in the U.S. Eight years later, two measures of English language competence were obtained: a self-assessment and an objective measure of English language fluency. Self-assessed fluency and performance on a brief English test showed good correlation. Greater English fluency on both measures was predicted by the following: younger age, male gender, education or vocational training in Laos prior to migration, occupation in Laos requiring literacy, study of English while in Asia, less proximity to other Hmong households in the U.S., any educational involvement in the U.S. (except English as a second language or ESL training), and not receiving welfare. Self-assessment of English fluency appeared to be a valid measure of competence in English. Demographic characteristics, certain premigration experiences, and early postmigration experiences predicted English fluency after 10 years in the U.S. ESL training was not associated with eventual English fluency on either self-assessment or objective testing. Recommendations are made to enhance English fluency, and hence the psychosocial adaptation of refuguees and other immigrants to the U.S. PMID:9225568

  2. Novice motor performance: better not to verbalize.

    PubMed

    Chauvel, Guillaume; Maquestiaux, François; Ruthruff, Eric; Didierjean, André; Hartley, Alan A

    2013-02-01

    Offline verbalization about a new motor experience is often assumed to positively influence subsequent performance. Here, we evaluated this presumed positive influence and whether it originates from declarative or from procedural knowledge using the explicit/implicit motor-learning paradigm. To this end, 80 nongolfers learned to perform a golf-putting task with high error rates (i.e., explicit motor learning), and thus relied on declarative knowledge, or low error rates (i.e., implicit motor learning), and thus relied on procedural knowledge. Afterward, they either put their memories of the previous motor experience into words or completed an irrelevant verbal task. Finally, they performed the putting task again. Verbalization did not improve novice motor performance: Putting was impaired, overall, and especially so for high-error learners. We conclude that declarative knowledge is altered by verbalization, whereas procedural knowledge is not. PMID:23073721

  3. Social Class Contrasts in Verbal Processing Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Millicent E.

    1977-01-01

    It was hypothesized that distinctive verbal processing styles would be characteristic of different social classes and different sexes, and that these differences could be largely explained by earlier socialization experiences. (BW)

  4. Verbal and Nonverbal Communication of Factory Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tway, Patricia

    1976-01-01

    Examines the verbal and nonverbal behavior patterns associated with two speech styles, one formal and the other informal, among factory workers. Available from: Mouton Publishers, Box 482, the Hague, Netherlands. (AM)

  5. Verbal Overshadowing and Face Recognition in Young and Old Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinlen, Thomas J.; Adams-Price, Carolyn E.; Henley, Tracy B.

    2007-01-01

    Verbal overshadowing has been found to disrupt recognition accuracy when hard-to-describe stimuli are used. The current study replicates previous research on verbal overshadowing with younger people and extends this research into an older population to examine the possible link between verbal expertise and verbal overshadowing. It was hypothesized…

  6. The Effect of Task Complexity on Functional Adequacy, Fluency and Lexical Diversity in Speaking Performances of Native and Non-Native Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Jong, Nivja H.; Steinel, Margarita P.; Florijn, Arjen F.; Schoonen, Rob; Hulstijn, Jan H.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how task complexity affected native and non-native speakers' speaking performance in terms of a measure of communicative success (functional adequacy), three types of fluency (breakdown fluency, speed fluency, and repair fluency), and lexical diversity. Participants (208 non-native and 59 native speakers of Dutch) carried…

  7. Rich Donors, Poor Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    The shifting ideological winds of foreign aid donors have driven their policy towards governments in poor countries. Donors supported state-led development policies in poor countries from the 1940s to the 1970s; market and private-sector driven reforms during the 1980s and 1990s; and returned their attention to the state with an emphasis on…

  8. Inference in `poor` languages

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, S.

    1996-10-01

    Languages with a solvable implication problem but without complete and consistent systems of inference rules (`poor` languages) are considered. The problem of existence of finite complete and consistent inference rule system for a ``poor`` language is stated independently of the language or rules syntax. Several properties of the problem arc proved. An application of results to the language of join dependencies is given.

  9. Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication and Coordination in Mission Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinkhuyzen, Erik; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    In this talk I will present some video-materials gathered in Mission Control during simulations. The focus of the presentation will be on verbal and non-verbal communication between the officers in the front and backroom, especially the practices that have evolved around a peculiar communications technology called voice loops.

  10. The Use and Frequency of Verbal and Non-Verbal Praise in Nurture Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bani, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Nurture groups are a form of provision for children with social, emotional, behavioural and learning difficulties. The study examines the interactions between children and staff--in particular, the frequency and effects of verbal and non-verbal praise--and discusses how this contributes to its effectiveness as a positive intervention instrument…

  11. Verbal and Non-Verbal Development in SLI Children after Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajaniemi, Nina; Suhonen, Eira; Kontu, Elina

    2010-01-01

    Of all the developmental difficulties that may be present in childhood, language impairment is probably the most common. It is of vast importance to prevent cumulative negative consequences of these impairments. The present study evaluates the effects of a language and activity-based intervention programme on verbal and non-verbal performance and…

  12. Foetal Antiepileptic Drug Exposure and Verbal versus Non-Verbal Abilities at Three Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meador, Kimford J.; Baker, Gus A.; Browning, Nancy; Cohen, Morris J.; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Kalayjian, Laura A.; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D.; Pennell, Page B.; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W.

    2011-01-01

    We previously reported that foetal valproate exposure impairs intelligence quotient. In this follow-up investigation, we examined dose-related effects of foetal antiepileptic drug exposure on verbal and non-verbal cognitive measures. This investigation is an ongoing prospective observational multi-centre study in the USA and UK, which has enrolled…

  13. Virtual Chironomia: A Multimodal Study of Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication in a Virtual World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhulsdonck, Gustav

    2010-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined the various aspects of multimodal use of non-verbal communication in virtual worlds during dyadic negotiations. Quantitative analysis uncovered a treatment effect whereby people with more rhetorical certainty used more neutral non-verbal communication; whereas people that were rhetorically less certain used more…

  14. An Annotated Bibliography of Verbal Behavior Articles Published Outside of The Analysis of Verbal Behavior: 2015.

    PubMed

    Lechago, Sarah A; Phillips, Lauren A

    2016-06-01

    An annotated bibliography is provided that summarizes journal articles on verbal behavior published outside of The Analysis of Verbal Behavior in 2015, the primary journal for scholarship in this area. Thirty such articles were identified and annotated as a resource for practitioners, researchers, and educators. PMID:27606222

  15. An Annotated Bibliography of Verbal Behavior Scholarship Published outside of "The Analysis of Verbal Behavior": 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, James E.; Nosik, Melissa R.; Lechago, Sarah A.; Phillips, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    This annotated bibliography summarizes journal articles on verbal behavior published outside of "The Analysis of Verbal Behavior," the primary journal for scholarship in this area. Seventeen such articles were published in 2014 and are annotated as a resource for practitioners, researchers, and educators.

  16. Effect of Training Different Classes of Verbal Behavior to Decrease Aberrant Verbal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandbakk, Monica; Arntzen, Erik; Gisnaas, Arnt; Antonsen, Vidar; Gundhus, Terje

    2012-01-01

    Inappropriate verbal behavior that is labeled "psychotic" is often described as insensitive to environmental contingencies. The purpose of the current study was to establish different classes of rational or appropriate verbal behavior in a woman with developmental disabilities and evaluate the effects on her psychotic or aberrant vocal verbal…

  17. Perception problems of the verbal scale.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Carrie; Spence, Danielle; Moxey, Linda; Jamieson, Allan

    2014-03-01

    Many forensic scientists use a verbal scale to describe the significance or weight to be attached to their opinion. Although there is a considerable amount of work in the field of psychology regarding people's perception of quantitative descriptors such as those used in the verbal scale, there has been no published work relating to the use of such descriptors in a forensic context. Our aim was to assess the extent to which the verbal expressions used by the expert in court are perceived and the extent to which they are differentiated by potential jurors. Four hundred volunteers were asked to indicate the level of strength they perceived from the use of the verbal scale characters within excerpts from purported expert witness statements. Although preliminary, these results show that there are serious misunderstandings of the verbal scale. It does not achieve the purpose for which it was created. The terms used are unlikely to be understood properly by lay people and it would appear that they are actually misunderstood. PMID:24630326

  18. Poorly controlled gout: who is doing poorly?

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Faith Li-Ann

    2016-01-01

    Gout, an inflammatory arthritis caused by the deposition of monosodium urate crystals, is commonly seen in primary care and specialist clinics. In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in gout due to advances in therapies and the understanding of pathophysiology, with new guidelines being published by international bodies. However, there is still a gap between the goals of treatment and actual day-to-day practice. Barriers that result in poorly controlled gout include patient factors such as lack of understanding of the disease, stigma and nonadherence to treatment, as well as physician factors such as knowledge gaps, inadequate use of allopurinol and lack of ownership of the disease. The medical profession needs to do more to bridge the gap through physician and patient education, identification of treatment targets with appropriate use of drugs, and dissemination of guidelines. PMID:27549096

  19. Poorly controlled gout: who is doing poorly?

    PubMed

    Chia, Faith Li-Ann

    2016-08-01

    Gout, an inflammatory arthritis caused by the deposition of monosodium urate crystals, is commonly seen in primary care and specialist clinics. In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in gout due to advances in therapies and the understanding of pathophysiology, with new guidelines being published by international bodies. However, there is still a gap between the goals of treatment and actual day-to-day practice. Barriers that result in poorly controlled gout include patient factors such as lack of understanding of the disease, stigma and nonadherence to treatment, as well as physician factors such as knowledge gaps, inadequate use of allopurinol and lack of ownership of the disease. The medical profession needs to do more to bridge the gap through physician and patient education, identification of treatment targets with appropriate use of drugs, and dissemination of guidelines. PMID:27549096

  20. Breaking the structuralist barrier. Literacy and numeracy with fluency.

    PubMed

    Johnson, K R; Layng, T V

    1992-11-01

    Behavior analysis is an example of a selection science, and behavioral programs that follow the tenets of selectionism, long advocated by B. F. Skinner, can have a large impact on social problems. This article describes the characteristics of selection sciences and their application in the Morningside Model of Generative Instruction, which addresses both adult literacy and children's learning and attention problems. School curricula are analyzed for their key component elements and underlying tool skills. Teaching procedures then establish and build these key components to fluency. New and complex repertoires then emerge with little or no instruction, producing curriculum leaps that allow students to make rapid academic advancement. Children typically gain more than two grade levels per school year, and adults advance two grades per month. PMID:1482008

  1. Google and the mind: predicting fluency with PageRank.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Thomas L; Steyvers, Mark; Firl, Alana

    2007-12-01

    Human memory and Internet search engines face a shared computational problem, needing to retrieve stored pieces of information in response to a query. We explored whether they employ similar solutions, testing whether we could predict human performance on a fluency task using PageRank, a component of the Google search engine. In this task, people were shown a letter of the alphabet and asked to name the first word beginning with that letter that came to mind. We show that PageRank, computed on a semantic network constructed from word-association data, outperformed word frequency and the number of words for which a word is named as an associate as a predictor of the words that people produced in this task. We identify two simple process models that could support this apparent correspondence between human memory and Internet search, and relate our results to previous rational models of memory. PMID:18031414

  2. Constructs and events in verbal behavior.

    PubMed

    Fryling, Mitch J

    2013-01-01

    Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior has been the subject of much controversy in recent years. While criticism has historically come from outside the field of behavior analysis, there are now well-articulated arguments against Skinner's analysis of verbal behavior from within the field as well. Recently, advocates of Skinner's analysis have attempted to respond to the critiques, particularly to those regarding Skinner's definition of verbal behavior articulated by proponents of relational frame theory. Specifically, it has been suggested that talk about definitions equates to making the essentialist error. This paper provides an overview of these issues in the context of understanding the role of constructs in science more generally. It will be argued that definitions are central to scientific progress, and are not only relevant to a functional analysis, but a central prerequisite to the pursuit of such an analysis. PMID:23814375

  3. Contribution of organizational strategy to verbal learning and memory in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Roth, Robert M; Wishart, Heather A; Flashman, Laura A; Riordan, Henry J; Huey, Leighton; Saykin, Andrew J

    2004-01-01

    Statistical mediation modeling was used to test the hypothesis that poor use of a semantic organizational strategy contributes to verbal learning and memory deficits in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Comparison of 28 adults with ADHD and 34 healthy controls revealed lower performance by the ADHD group on tests of verbal learning and memory, sustained attention, and use of semantic organization during encoding. Mediation modeling indicated that state anxiety, but not semantic organization, significantly contributed to the prediction of both learning and delayed recall in the ADHD group. The pattern of findings suggests that decreased verbal learning and memory in adult ADHD is due in part to situational anxiety and not to poor use of organizational strategies during encoding. PMID:14744190

  4. Phonemic Awareness Contributes to Text Reading Fluency: Evidence from Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Jane; Dix, Heather; Bontrager, Morgan; Dey, Rajarshi; Archer, Ana

    2013-01-01

    awareness and text reading fluency. This longitudinal study is the first to investigate this relationship by measuring eye movements during picture matching tasks and during silent sentence reading. Time spent…

  5. Category fluency performance in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: The influence of affective categories.

    PubMed

    Rossell, Susan L

    2006-02-28

    Semantic fluency (SF) and phonological fluency (PF) were examined in large groups of schizophrenia patients, bipolar patients and controls. As well as standard SF categories (animals and food), fluency to two affective categories, happy and fear was measured, i.e. participants were asked to produce as many words as they could that resulted in or are associated with fear or happiness. Schizophrenia patients showed SF and PF deficits. Bipolar patients showed PF deficits. Thus, PF is argued to be a good cognitive marker in both disorders. Severity of delusions was related to SF performance in all patients. The patient groups showed different patterns on the affective categories compared to controls: the bipolar patients were better and produced more words, especially to the happiness category, and the schizophrenia patients were impaired and produced less words. The results suggest an interesting interaction between psychotic illnesses, fluency and emotion. PMID:16376054

  6. Does the processing fluency of a syllabus affect the forecasted grade and course difficulty?

    PubMed

    Guenther, R Kim

    2012-06-01

    Processing fluency is known to affect a variety of cognitive assessments, but most research has not examined such effects in the context of a real-life experience. In the first experiment, college students, enrolled in either a statistics or cognitive psychology course, read a course syllabus which varied in the clarity of its font and frequency of its vocabulary. Based on the syllabus, students then forecasted their final course grade and the course's difficulty. Despite methodological similarity to other fluency experiments and adequate statistical power, there were no significant differences in forecasts across fluency conditions. Fluency may be discounted in a task which provides information that affects people's lives. This interpretation was bolstered by a second experiment whose participants were students in a statistics course. These students read the cognitive course's syllabus and forecasted better grades and less difficulty in the cognitive course when the font of the syllabus was more clear than unclear. PMID:22897096

  7. The Effect of Word Frequency on Judgments of Learning: Contributions of Beliefs and Processing Fluency

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Xiaoyu; Li, Ping; Li, Xinyu; Zhang, Yuchi; Cao, Wei; Cao, Liren; Li, Weijian

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that word frequency affects judgments of learning (JOLs). Specifically, people give higher JOLs for high-frequency (HF) words than for low-frequency (LF) words. However, the exact mechanism underlying this effect is largely unknown. The present study replicated and extended previous work by exploring the contributions of processing fluency and beliefs to the word frequency effect. In Experiment 1, participants studied HF and LF words and made immediate JOLs. The findings showed that participants gave higher JOLs for HF words than for LF ones, reflecting the word frequency effect. In Experiment 2a (measuring the encoding fluency by using self-paced study time) and Experiment 2b (disrupting perceptual fluency by presenting words in an easy or difficult font style), we evaluated the contribution of processing fluency. The findings of Experiment 2a revealed no significant difference in self-paced study time between HF and LF words. The findings of Experiment 2b showed that the size of word frequency effect did not decrease or disappear even when presenting words in a difficult font style. In Experiment 3a (a questionnaire-based study) and Experiment 3b (making pre-study JOLs), we evaluated the role of beliefs in this word frequency effect. The results of Experiment 3a showed that participants gave higher estimates for HF as compared to LF words. That is, they estimated that hypothetical participants would better remember the HF words. The results of Experiment 3b showed that participants gave higher pre-study JOLs for HF than for LF words. These results across experiments suggested that people’s beliefs, not processing fluency, contribute substantially to the word frequency effect on JOLs. However, considering the validation of the indexes reflecting the processing fluency in the current study, we cannot entirely rule out the possible contribution of processing fluency. The relative contribution of processing fluency and beliefs to word

  8. Using a Verbal Analysis of Lady Gaga's Applause as a Classroom Exercise for Teaching Verbal Behavior.

    PubMed

    Witts, Benjamin N; Arief, Icha; Hutter, Emily

    2016-06-01

    Learning Skinner's (1957) verbal behavior taxonomy requires extensive study and practice. Thus, novel classroom exercises might serve this goal. The present manuscript describes a classroom exercise in which two students analyzed Lady Gaga's song Applause in terms of its metaphorical arrangements. Through the exercise, students identified various verbal operants and their subtypes, including those seldom researched by the behavioral community (see Sautter and LeBlanc 2006, The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 22, 35-48), which helped them conclude that Lady Gaga's Applause is comprised of two themes: the artist taking control, and the artist-as-art. PMID:27606224

  9. Is it me? Verbal self-monitoring neural network and clinical insight in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Sapara, Adegboyega; Ffytche, Dominic H; Cooke, Michael A; Williams, Steven C R; Kumari, Veena

    2015-12-30

    Self-monitoring, defined as the ability to distinguish between self-generated stimuli from other-generated ones, is known to be impaired in schizophrenia. This impairment has been theorised as the basis for many of the core psychotic symptoms, in particular, poor clinical insight. This study aimed to investigate verbal self-monitoring related neural substrates of preserved and poor clinical insight in schizophrenia. It involved 40 stable schizophrenia outpatients, 20 with preserved and 20 with poor insight, and 20 healthy participants. All participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging with brain coverage covering key areas in the self-monitoring network during a verbal self-monitoring task. Healthy participants showed higher performance accuracy and greater thalamic activity than both preserved and poor insight patient groups. Preserved insight patients showed higher activity in the putamen extending into the caudate, insula and inferior frontal gyrus, compared to poor insight patients, and in the anterior cingulate and medial frontal gyrus, compared to healthy participants. Poor insight patients did not show greater activity in any brain area compared to preserved insight patients or healthy participants. Future studies may pursue therapeutic avenues, such as meta-cognitive therapies to promote self-monitoring or targeted stimulation of relevant brain areas, as means of enhancing insight in schizophrenia. PMID:26549744

  10. Is it me? Verbal self-monitoring neural network and clinical insight in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Sapara, Adegboyega; ffytche, Dominic H.; Cooke, Michael A.; Williams, Steven C.R.; Kumari, Veena

    2015-01-01

    Self-monitoring, defined as the ability to distinguish between self-generated stimuli from other-generated ones, is known to be impaired in schizophrenia. This impairment has been theorised as the basis for many of the core psychotic symptoms, in particular, poor clinical insight. This study aimed to investigate verbal self-monitoring related neural substrates of preserved and poor clinical insight in schizophrenia. It involved 40 stable schizophrenia outpatients, 20 with preserved and 20 with poor insight, and 20 healthy participants. All participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging with brain coverage covering key areas in the self-monitoring network during a verbal self-monitoring task. Healthy participants showed higher performance accuracy and greater thalamic activity than both preserved and poor insight patient groups. Preserved insight patients showed higher activity in the putamen extending into the caudate, insula and inferior frontal gyrus, compared to poor insight patients, and in the anterior cingulate and medial frontal gyrus, compared to healthy participants. Poor insight patients did not show greater activity in any brain area compared to preserved insight patients or healthy participants. Future studies may pursue therapeutic avenues, such as meta-cognitive therapies to promote self-monitoring or targeted stimulation of relevant brain areas, as means of enhancing insight in schizophrenia. PMID:26549744

  11. Structural Correlates of Semantic and Phonemic Fluency Ability in First and Second Languages

    PubMed Central

    Grogan, Alice; Green, David W.; Ali, Nilufa; Crinion, Jenny T.

    2009-01-01

    Category and letter fluency tasks are commonly used clinically to investigate the semantic and phonological processes central to speech production, but the neural correlates of these processes are difficult to establish with functional neuroimaging because of the relatively unconstrained nature of the tasks. This study investigated whether differential performance on semantic (category) and phonemic (letter) fluency in neurologically normal participants was reflected in regional gray matter density. The participants were 59 highly proficient speakers of 2 languages. Our findings corroborate the importance of the left inferior temporal cortex in semantic relative to phonemic fluency and show this effect to be the same in a first language (L1) and second language (L2). Additionally, we show that the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) and head of caudate bilaterally are associated with phonemic more than semantic fluency, and this effect is stronger for L2 than L1 in the caudate nuclei. To further validate these structural results, we reanalyzed previously reported functional data and found that pre-SMA and left caudate activation was higher for phonemic than semantic fluency. On the basis of our findings, we also predict that lesions to the pre-SMA and caudate nuclei may have a greater impact on phonemic than semantic fluency, particularly in L2 speakers. PMID:19293396

  12. Fluency-dependent cortical activation associated with speech production and comprehension in second language learners.

    PubMed

    Shimada, K; Hirotani, M; Yokokawa, H; Yoshida, H; Makita, K; Yamazaki-Murase, M; Tanabe, H C; Sadato, N

    2015-08-01

    This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated the brain regions underlying language task performance in adult second language (L2) learners. Specifically, we identified brain regions where the level of activation was associated with L2 fluency levels. Thirty Japanese-speaking adults participated in the study. All participants were L2 learners of English and had achieved varying levels of fluency, as determined by a standardized L2 English proficiency test, the Versant English Test (Pearson Education Inc., 2011). When participants performed the oral sentence building task from the production tasks administered, the dorsal part of the left inferior frontal gyrus (dIFG) showed activation patterns that differed depending on the L2 fluency levels: The more fluent the participants were, the more dIFG activation decreased. This decreased activation of the dIFG might reflect the increased automaticity of a syntactic building process. In contrast, when participants performed an oral story comprehension task, the left posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG) showed increased activation with higher fluency levels. This suggests that the learners with higher L2 fluency were actively engaged in post-syntactic integration processing supported by the left pSTG. These data imply that L2 fluency predicts neural resource allocation during language comprehension tasks as well as in production tasks. This study sheds light on the neural underpinnings of L2 learning by identifying the brain regions recruited during different language tasks across different modalities (production vs. comprehension). PMID:26026679

  13. Everything’s Relative? Relative Differences in Processing Fluency and the Effects on Liking

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Explanations of aesthetic pleasure based on processing fluency have shown that ease-of-processing fosters liking. What is less clear, however, is how processing fluency arises. Does it arise from a relative comparison among the stimuli presented in the experiment? Or does it arise from a comparison to an internal reference or standard? To address these questions, we conducted two experiments in which two ease-of-processing manipulations were applied: either (1) within-participants, where relative comparisons among stimuli varying in processing ease were possible, or (2) between-participants, where no relative comparisons were possible. In total, 97 participants viewed simple line drawings with high or low visual clarity, presented at four different presentation durations, and rated for felt fluency, liking, and certainty. Our results show that the manipulation of visual clarity led to differences in felt fluency and certainty regardless of being manipulated within- or between-participants. However, liking ratings were only affected when ease-of-processing was manipulated within-participants. Thus, feelings of fluency do not depend on the nature of the reference. On the other hand, participants liked fluent stimuli more only when there were other stimuli varying in ease-of-processing. Thus, relative differences in fluency seem to be crucial for liking judgments. PMID:26288314

  14. How Is RAN Related to Reading Fluency? A Comprehensive Examination of the Prominent Theoretical Accounts.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Timothy C; Spanoudis, George C; Georgiou, George K

    2016-01-01

    We examined the prominent theoretical explanations of the RAN-reading relationship in a relatively transparent language (Greek) in a sample of children (n = 286) followed from Grade 1 to Grade 2. Specifically, we tested the fit of eight different models, as defined by the type of reading performance predicted (oral vs. silent word reading fluency), the type of RAN tasks (non-alphanumeric vs. alphanumeric), and the RAN effects (direct vs. indirect). Working memory, attention, processing speed, and motor skills were used as "common cause" variables predicting both RAN and reading fluency and phonological awareness and orthographic processing were used as mediators of RAN's effects on reading fluency. The findings of both concurrent and longitudinal analyses indicated that RAN is a unique predictor of oral reading fluency, but not silent reading fluency. Using alphanumeric or non-alphanumeric RAN did not particularly affect the RAN-reading relationship. Both phonological awareness and orthographic processing partly mediated RAN's effects on reading fluency. Theoretical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:27605918

  15. Fingerspelling as a Novel Gateway into Reading Fluency in Deaf Bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Stone, Adam; Kartheiser, Geo; Hauser, Peter C; Petitto, Laura-Ann; Allen, Thomas E

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that American Sign Language (ASL) fluency has a positive impact on deaf individuals' English reading, but the cognitive and cross-linguistic mechanisms permitting the mapping of a visual-manual language onto a sound-based language have yet to be elucidated. Fingerspelling, which represents English orthography with 26 distinct hand configurations, is an integral part of ASL and has been suggested to provide deaf bilinguals with important cross-linguistic links between sign language and orthography. Using a hierarchical multiple regression analysis, this study examined the relationship of age of ASL exposure, ASL fluency, and fingerspelling skill on reading fluency in deaf college-age bilinguals. After controlling for ASL fluency, fingerspelling skill significantly predicted reading fluency, revealing for the first-time that fingerspelling, above and beyond ASL skills, contributes to reading fluency in deaf bilinguals. We suggest that both fingerspelling--in the visual-manual modality--and reading--in the visual-orthographic modality--are mutually facilitating because they share common underlying cognitive capacities of word decoding accuracy and automaticity of word recognition. The findings provide support for the hypothesis that the development of English reading proficiency may be facilitated through strengthening of the relationship among fingerspelling, sign language, and orthographic decoding en route to reading mastery, and may also reveal optimal approaches for reading instruction for deaf and hard of hearing children. PMID:26427062

  16. How Is RAN Related to Reading Fluency? A Comprehensive Examination of the Prominent Theoretical Accounts

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulos, Timothy C.; Spanoudis, George C.; Georgiou, George K.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the prominent theoretical explanations of the RAN-reading relationship in a relatively transparent language (Greek) in a sample of children (n = 286) followed from Grade 1 to Grade 2. Specifically, we tested the fit of eight different models, as defined by the type of reading performance predicted (oral vs. silent word reading fluency), the type of RAN tasks (non-alphanumeric vs. alphanumeric), and the RAN effects (direct vs. indirect). Working memory, attention, processing speed, and motor skills were used as “common cause” variables predicting both RAN and reading fluency and phonological awareness and orthographic processing were used as mediators of RAN's effects on reading fluency. The findings of both concurrent and longitudinal analyses indicated that RAN is a unique predictor of oral reading fluency, but not silent reading fluency. Using alphanumeric or non-alphanumeric RAN did not particularly affect the RAN-reading relationship. Both phonological awareness and orthographic processing partly mediated RAN's effects on reading fluency. Theoretical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:27605918

  17. Fingerspelling as a Novel Gateway into Reading Fluency in Deaf Bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Adam; Kartheiser, Geo; Hauser, Peter C.; Petitto, Laura-Ann; Allen, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that American Sign Language (ASL) fluency has a positive impact on deaf individuals’ English reading, but the cognitive and cross-linguistic mechanisms permitting the mapping of a visual-manual language onto a sound-based language have yet to be elucidated. Fingerspelling, which represents English orthography with 26 distinct hand configurations, is an integral part of ASL and has been suggested to provide deaf bilinguals with important cross-linguistic links between sign language and orthography. Using a hierarchical multiple regression analysis, this study examined the relationship of age of ASL exposure, ASL fluency, and fingerspelling skill on reading fluency in deaf college-age bilinguals. After controlling for ASL fluency, fingerspelling skill significantly predicted reading fluency, revealing for the first-time that fingerspelling, above and beyond ASL skills, contributes to reading fluency in deaf bilinguals. We suggest that both fingerspelling—in the visual-manual modality—and reading—in the visual-orthographic modality—are mutually facilitating because they share common underlying cognitive capacities of word decoding accuracy and automaticity of word recognition. The findings provide support for the hypothesis that the development of English reading proficiency may be facilitated through strengthening of the relationship among fingerspelling, sign language, and orthographic decoding en route to reading mastery, and may also reveal optimal approaches for reading instruction for deaf and hard of hearing children. PMID:26427062

  18. Impaired Verbal Short-Term Memory in down Syndrome Reflects a Capacity Limitation Rather than Atypically Rapid Forgetting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    M. Purser, H.R.; Jarrold, C.

    2005-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome suffer from relatively poor verbal short-term memory. Recent work has indicated that this deficit is not caused by problems of audition, speech, or articulatory rehearsal within the phonological loop component of Baddeley and Hitch's working memory model. Given this, two experiments were conducted to investigate…

  19. The Verbal World of the Lower-Class Three-Year-Old: A Pilot Study in Linguistic Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Vivian Maryann

    Concerned with educational problems associated with low socioeconomic status, this pilot study in linguistic ecology was designed to substitute hard data for speculation about the nature and frequency of verbal behavior in the world of the poor child. To avoid self-consciousness and any restrictions on movement of the subjects, a small…

  20. Poor school performance.

    PubMed

    Karande, Sunil; Kulkarni, Madhuri

    2005-11-01

    Education is one of the most important aspects of human resource development. Poor school performance not only results in the child having a low self-esteem, but also causes significant stress to the parents. There are many reasons for children to under perform at school, such as, medical problems, below average intelligence, specific learning disability, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, emotional problems, poor socio-cultural home environment, psychiatric disorders and even environmental causes. The information provided by the parents, classroom teacher and school counselor about the child's academic difficulties guides the pediatrician to form an initial diagnosis. However, a multidisciplinary evaluation by an ophthalmologist, otolaryngologist, counselor, clinical psychologist, special educator, and child psychiatrist is usually necessary before making the final diagnosis. It is important to find the reason(s) for a child's poor school performance and come up with a treatment plan early so that the child can perform up to full potential. PMID:16391452

  1. Verbal encoding deficits in a patient with a left retrosplenial lesion.

    PubMed

    McDonald, C R; Crosson, B; Valenstein, E; Bowers, D

    2001-01-01

    Over the past decade, memory impairments associated with retrosplenial damage have received increased attention among neuroscientists, although the exact role of the retrosplenial region in memory has not been clearly defined. Evidence from lesion studies and functional neuroimaging has implicated the retrosplenial region in verbal episodic memory, temporal ordering of information, and topographical memory. In addition, recent positron emission tomography studies have shown increased activation of the retrosplenial cortex during tasks involving both the encoding and retrieval of episodic information. The objective of this study was to define more clearly the nature of memory impairments observed in retrosplenial amnesia. A 47-year-old amnesic male with a left retrosplenial arteriovenous malformation was examined on neurocognitive tasks of automatic and directed encoding, temporal ordering of information, and remote memory. Despite normal performance on frontal cognitive tasks, intact memory for remote information, and a superior IQ, this individual exhibited a profound deficit in the encoding of information, evidenced by poor release from proactive interference, poor category clustering on word list recall, poor semantic encoding on a levels of processing task, and mild impairments in temporal ordering. These results imply that the retrosplenial region plays a role in the verbal encoding of information, which contributes to the profound verbal memory impairment reported in previous case studies of patients with retrosplenial damage. PMID:11744782

  2. Carry-over fluency induced by extreme prolongations: A new behavioral paradigm.

    PubMed

    Briley, P M; Barnes, M P; Kalinowski, J S

    2016-04-01

    Extreme prolongations, which can be generated via extreme delayed auditory feedback (DAF) (e.g., 250-500 ms) or mediated cognitively with timing applications (e.g., analog stopwatch) at 2 s per syllable, have long been behavioral techniques used to inhibit stuttering. Some therapies have used this rate solely to establish initial fluency, while others use extremely slowed speech to establish fluency and add other strategic techniques such as easy onsets and diaphragmatic breathing. Extreme prolongations generate effective, efficient, and immediate forward flowing fluent speech, removing the signature behaviors of discrete stuttering (i.e., syllable repetitions and audible and inaudible postural fixations). Prolonged use of extreme prolongations establishes carry-over fluency, which is spontaneous, effortless speech absent of most, if not all, overt and covert manifestations of stuttering. The creation of this immediate fluency and the immense potential of extreme prolongations to generate long periods of carry-over fluency have been overlooked by researchers and clinicians alike. Clinicians depart from these longer prolongation durations as they attempt to achieve the same fluent results at a near normal rate of speech. Clinicians assume they are re-teaching fluency and slow rates will give rise to more normal rates with less control, but without carry-over fluency, controls and cognitive mediation are always needed for the inherently unstable speech systems of persons who stutter to experience fluent speech. The assumption being that the speech system is untenable without some level of cognitive and motoric monitoring that is always necessary. The goal is omnipresent "near normal rate sounding fluency" with continuous mediation via cognitive and motoric processes. This pursuit of "normal sounding fluency" continues despite ever-present relapse. Relapse has become so common that acceptance of stuttering is the new therapy modality because relapse has come to be

  3. Working memory still needs verbal rehearsal.

    PubMed

    Lucidi, Annalisa; Langerock, Naomi; Hoareau, Violette; Lemaire, Benoît; Camos, Valérie; Barrouillet, Pierre

    2016-02-01

    The causal role of verbal rehearsal in working memory has recently been called into question. For example, the SOB-CS (Serial Order in a Box-Complex Span) model assumes that there is no maintenance process for the strengthening of items in working memory, but instead a process of removal of distractors that are involuntarily encoded and create interference with memory items. In the present study, we tested the idea that verbal working memory performance can be accounted for without assuming a causal role of the verbal rehearsal process. We demonstrate in two experiments using a complex span task and a Brown-Peterson paradigm that increasing the number of repetitions of the same distractor (the syllable ba that was read aloud at each of its occurrences on screen) has a detrimental effect on the concurrent maintenance of consonants whereas the maintenance of spatial locations remains unaffected. A detailed analysis of the tasks demonstrates that accounting for this effect within the SOB-CS model requires a series of unwarranted assumptions leading to undesirable further predictions contradicted by available experimental evidence. We argue that the hypothesis of a maintenance mechanism based on verbal rehearsal that is impeded by concurrent articulation still provides the simplest and most compelling account of our results. PMID:26446777

  4. Field Test of the Verbal Skills Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincaid, J. Peter; And Others

    A verbal skills curriculum program, designed for use with United States Navy recruits with deficiencies in English language listening and speaking skills was field tested at a recruit training station in Florida. The curriculum was self-paced and was composed of three learning modules: Navy-related vocabulary, grammatical structures, and language…

  5. Verbal Cues Facilitate Memory Retrieval during Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayne, Harlene; Herbert, Jane

    2004-01-01

    In three experiments, 18-month-olds were tested in a deferred imitation paradigm. Some infants received verbal information during the demonstration and at the time of the test (full narration), and some did not (empty narration). When tested after a 4-week delay, infants given full narration exhibited superior retention relative to infants given…

  6. Teaching Task Sequencing via Verbal Mediation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusch, Frank R.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Verbal sequence training was used to teach a moderately mentally retarded woman to sequence job-related tasks. Learning to say the tasks in the proper sequence resulted in the employee performing her tasks in that sequence, and the employee was capable of mediating her own work behavior when scheduled changes occurred. (Author/JDD)

  7. Validity of the Verbal Immediacy Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Rena Y.; Richmond, Virginia P.

    1995-01-01

    Outlines the development and use of the Verbal Immediacy Scale. Presents data that indicate it lacks both face and construct validity. Concludes that the scale may not be a valid operationalization of the immediacy construct, and even if it is, it generates a response set such that the meaning of the responses obtained is unknown. (SR)

  8. Verbal Memory and Phonological Processing in Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tijms, Jurgen

    2004-01-01

    This study examines whether two frequently reported causes of dyslexia, phonological processing problems and verbal memory impairments, represent a double-deficit or whether they are two expressions of the same deficit. Two-hundred-and-sixty-seven Dutch children aged 10-14 with dyslexia completed a list-learning task and several phonological…

  9. The Attentional Boost Effect with Verbal Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Spataro, Pietro; Picklesimer, Milton

    2014-01-01

    Study stimuli presented at the same time as unrelated targets in a detection task are better remembered than stimuli presented with distractors. This attentional boost effect (ABE) has been found with pictorial (Swallow & Jiang, 2010) and more recently verbal materials (Spataro, Mulligan, & Rossi-Arnaud, 2013). The present experiments…

  10. Verbal Artistry: A Case for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henne, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    This article expands our understanding of how language-minoritized children's communicative competence interrelates with schooling. It features a verbal performance by a young Native American girl. A case is made for greater empirical specification of the real extent of children's non-school-sanctioned communicative competence. The case disrupts…

  11. Assessing Pragmatics: DCTS and Retrospective Verbal Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltrán-Palanques, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Assessing pragmatic knowledge in the instructed setting is seen as a complex but necessary task, which requires the design of appropriate research methodologies to examine pragmatic performance. This study discusses the use of two different research methodologies, namely those of Discourse Completion Tests/Tasks (DCTs) and verbal reports. Research…

  12. Retinoblastoma and Superior Verbal IQ Scores?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Michael; Hill, Eileen; Hill, John

    2010-01-01

    Experienced teachers have long asserted that children blind from retinoblastoma (Rb), a rare cancer of the eye, are of above average intelligence. To test this hypothesis, standardized verbal intelligence tests were administered to a sample of 85 children and adults, all diagnosed with the early infancy form of this condition. For 42 of the Rb…

  13. The Setswana i(n) Verbal Prefix.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chebanne, Andy M.

    The Setswana language possesses a verbal prefix that, according to some grammarians of the language such as D. T. Cole, is categorized as the reflexive prefix, closely allied to objectival concords. If the morphology suggests that this morpheme be characterized as a reflexive object prefix, it does not always give expected results in its semantic…

  14. Verbal Reports: How Readers Process Unfamiliar Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marr, Mary Beth

    With the use of verbal report strategies, a study was conducted to examine (1) the types of comprehension strategies readers use to process familiar and less familiar texts and (2) the differential use of think aloud strategies by average and below average readers. Subjects were 15 tenth grade male students in upstate New York. Two weeks prior to…

  15. Verbal Cueing as a Behavior Change Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prieto, Alfonso G.; Rutherford, Robert B., Jr.

    A study involving four boys (9 to 14 years old) labeled as emotionally handicapped was conducted to examine the effect of a verbal cueing technique (involving an illogical statement which evokes psychological reactance) on behaviorally disordered children. Illogical statements made by the teacher produced positive change in target behaviors (such…

  16. Ace the Verbal on the SAT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meierding, Loren

    2005-01-01

    Many students are not accepted in to certain colleges and universities because of low SAT scores. Loren Meierding has written Ace the Verbal on the SAT to help students with minimal preparation do well by improving their vocabulary and use better techniques for finding the answers to the questions. This book provides strategies needed to score…

  17. Verbal Word Choice of Effective Reading Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Kelly A.

    2013-01-01

    Humans are fragile beings easily influenced by the verbal behaviors of others. Spoken words can have a multitude of effects on an individual, and the phrases and statements teachers use in their classrooms on a daily basis have the potential to be either detrimental or inspirational. As increasing numbers of students arrive at schools from broken…

  18. Evidence against Decay in Verbal Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberauer, Klaus; Lewandowsky, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    The article tests the assumption that forgetting in working memory for verbal materials is caused by time-based decay, using the complex-span paradigm. Participants encoded 6 letters for serial recall; each letter was preceded and followed by a processing period comprising 4 trials of difficult visual search. Processing duration, during which…

  19. Dissociating Verbal and Nonverbal Audiovisual Object Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hocking, Julia; Price, Cathy J.

    2009-01-01

    This fMRI study investigates how audiovisual integration differs for verbal stimuli that can be matched at a phonological level and nonverbal stimuli that can be matched at a semantic level. Subjects were presented simultaneously with one visual and one auditory stimulus and were instructed to decide whether these stimuli referred to the same…

  20. General Outcome Measures for Verbal Operants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubina, Richard M., Jr.; Wolfe, Pamela; Kostewicz, Douglas E.

    2009-01-01

    A general outcome measure (GOM) can be used to show progress towards a long-term goal. GOMs should sample domains of behavior across ages, be sensitive to change over time, be inexpensive and easy to use, and facilitate decision making. Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior may benefit from the development of GOM. To develop GOM, we…