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Sample records for popular herbal remedy

  1. Problems with herbal remedies in anticoagulated home care patients.

    PubMed

    Catania, P N

    1998-10-01

    The increasing popularity of alternative therapies, including herbal remedies, poses new challenges for home health care providers. The cost of herbal remedy use now exceeds $1 billion annually in the United States and is expected to increase. The use of traditional medicine in combination with alternative therapy may lead to complications for patients and their caregivers as evidenced by the adverse effects of certain herbal products in patients who receive traditional anticoagulant or antiplatelet medication. PMID:10030196

  2. Herbal remedies and anticoagulant therapy.

    PubMed

    Samuels, Noah

    2005-01-01

    Herbal remedies, considered to be both safe and effective by most consumers, may interact with conventional drugs. Warfarin, a vitamin K antagonist originally derived from the sweet clover plant, has a narrow therapeutic window which can be monitored using prothrombin international normalized ratios (PT-INR). Many herbs can increase the risk for bleeding when combined with warfarin, either by augmenting the anticoagulant effects of the drug (with increased PT-INR levels) or through intrinsic anti-platelet properties (without altering PT-INR levels). The increased risk for bleeding among such patients may be difficult to predict, especially when formulas which contain many herbs are used. Further research into herb-drug interactions is warranted, as are guidelines for the use of herbal remedies by patients on chronic anticoagulation therapy. PMID:15630483

  3. Herbal remedies for asthma treatment: between myth and reality.

    PubMed

    Szelenyi, Istvan; Brune, Kay

    2002-04-01

    Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases worldwide. To treat this widespread disease there is a high prevalence of usage of herbal medicine. The use of plants is as old as humankind and it has been steadily increasing over the past 10 years. Plant-based remedies are now one of the most popular complementary treatments. Herbal supplements are receiving increasing exposure through media, including the Internet, in lay journals and more recently in the scientific press. Interest in herbal medicine has been facilitated by multiple factors, including the perception that pharmaceutical medications are expensive, overprescribed and may often be dangerous. Alternatively, herbal medicine is often perceived as being "natural" and therefore is considered safe. However, the scientific literature supporting the efficacy of herbal therapies is incomplete. There are few well-controlled studies that support the efficacy of herbal remedies in the treatment and clinical improvement of patients with asthma. Available scientific evidence has not yet confirmed the validity of their popular role in the treatment of asthma. The present review evaluates herbs and their efficacy in asthma to provide a balanced and objective view for the reader seeking information on herbal therapy PMID:12532195

  4. Herbal remedies, dietary supplements, and seizures.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Alok; Delanty, Norman

    2003-02-01

    The use of herbal remedies and dietary supplements is widespread throughout the world, and use may be increasing. These are taken for a wide range of perceived benefits, such as energy and memory enhancement and treatment of specific conditions. Individuals with and without epilepsy may use these substances and may not inform their treating physician unless specifically asked. Inquiry about herbal medicine and dietary supplement intake should now be part of routine clinical history taking. Anecdotal accounts suggest that some herbal substances may have anticonvulsant effect, but randomised double-blind controlled trails are lacking. Alternatively many herbals and dietary supplements may predispose to seizures in individuals without epilepsy and worsen seizure control in those with epilepsy. In this article, we review the potential anticonvulsant and proconvulsant effects of herbal remedies and dietary supplements and discuss the potential interaction between these herbal substances and conventional anticonvulsant medications. PMID:12558579

  5. Herbal remedies and supplements for weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... dangerous. Before using an over-the-counter or herbal diet remedy, talk with your health care provider. Nearly all over-the-counter supplements with claims of weight-loss properties contain some ...

  6. A guide to herbal remedies

    MedlinePlus

    ... and quality of their products. DO NOT give herbal supplements to children or use them if you are ... sites can help you learn more about specific herbal supplements: NIH MedlinePlus database of herbs and supplements -- www. ...

  7. Modulation of Cox-1, 5-, 12- and 15-Lox by Popular Herbal Remedies Used in Southern Italy Against Psoriasis and Other Skin Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bader, Ammar; Martini, Francesca; Schinella, Guillermo R; Rios, Jose L; Prieto, Jose M

    2015-01-01

    Acanthus mollis (Acanthaceae), Achillea ligustica, Artemisia arborescens and Inula viscosa (Asteraceae) are used in Southern Italy against psoriasis and other skin diseases that occur with an imbalanced production of eicosanoids. We here assessed their in vitro effects upon 5-, 12-, 15-LOX and COX-1 enzymes as well as NF?B activation in intact cells as their possible therapeutic targets. All methanol crude extracts inhibited both 5-LOX and COX-1 activities under 200?g/mL, without significant effects on the 12-LOX pathway or any relevant in vitro free radical scavenging activity. NF?B activation was prevented by all extracts but A. mollis. Interestingly, A. ligustica, A. arborescens and A. mollis increased the biosynthesis of 15(S)-HETE, an anti-inflammatory eicosanoid. A. ligustica (IC50?=?49.5?g/mL) was superior to Silybum marianum (IC50?=?147.8?g/mL), which we used as antipsoriatic herbal medicine of reference. Its n-hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions had also inhibitory effects on the LTB4 biosynthesis (IC50s?=?9.6, 20.3 and 68?g/mL, respectively) evidencing that the apolar extracts of A. ligustica are promising active herbal ingredients for future phytotherapeutical products targeting psoriasis. 2014 The Authors. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25278440

  8. Herbal remedies: adverse effects and drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Cupp, M J

    1999-03-01

    A growing number of Americans are using herbal products for preventive and therapeutic purposes. The manufacturers of these products are not required to submit proof of safety and efficacy to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration before marketing. For this reason, the adverse effects and drug interactions associated with herbal remedies are largely unknown. Ginkgo biloba extract, advertised as improving cognitive functioning, has been reported to cause spontaneous bleeding, and it may interact with anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents. St. John's wort, promoted as a treatment for depression, may have monoamine oxidase-inhibiting effects or may cause increased levels of serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine. Although St. John's wort probably does not interact with foods that contain tyramine, it should not be used with prescription antidepressants. Ephedrine-containing herbal products have been associated with adverse cardiovascular events, seizures and even death. Ginseng, widely used for its purported physical and mental effects, is generally well tolerated, but it has been implicated as a cause of decreased response to warfarin. Physicians must be alert for adverse effects and drug interactions associated with herbal remedies, and they should ask all patients about the use of these products. PMID:10088878

  9. Uranium concentrations in South African herbal remedies.

    PubMed

    Steenkamp, Vanessa; Stewart, Michael J; Chimuka, Luke; Cukrowska, Ewa

    2005-12-01

    South Africa contains some of the world's largest mineral deposits, which include uranium. Uranium is mined as a by-product of gold production. The uranium content of the surface soil and groundwater in South Africa has been measured and shows marked variation, depending on location. Herbal remedies are collected by traditional healers from many sites, some of which may be contaminated. Thirty herbal remedies were analyzed using a sensitive adsorptive stripping voltammetry method. Eight samples had levels below the limit of detection, but in five the levels were greatly elevated, showing concentrations above 40,000 ppb. The mean uranium concentration of the remainder of the specimens was of the order of 15,000 ppb. We have attempted to put these data into context by comparison with other studies of absorption of uranium by the oral route. PMID:16282800

  10. Distribution of Herbal Remedy Knowledge in Tabi, Yucatan, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Allison; Stepp, John Richard

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of herbal remedy knowledge among a group of people is studied for two main reasons: (1) to identify plants that are promising for pharmacological analysis, and (2) to examine the factors that lead to herbal remedy knowledge erosion as opposed to dynamism in the acquisition of knowledge. The goal of this particular study, which is aligned with the second reason, is to establish the variation in herbal remedy knowledge among the Yucatec Maya in Tabi, Yucatan, Mexico. Free listing and cultural consensus analysis revealed that knowledge about a few medicinal plants and herbal remedies was distributed widely among the Yucatec Maya in Tabi, whereas the majority of knowledge was idiosyncratic. This finding was consistent with other studies of herbal remedy knowledge distribution among indigenous groups in Latin America and Africa. Assessing patterns in the distribution of herbal remedy knowledge is an important next step in determining the degree of dynamism or erosion in knowledge acquisition and transmission in Tabi. PMID:23539665

  11. Introducing Experimental Design by Evaluating Efficacy of Herbal Remedies (Do Herbal Remedies Really Work?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert A.; Pontiggia, Laura; Waterman, Carrie; Lichtenwalner, Meghan

    2010-01-01

    This paper is based upon experiments developed as part of a Directed Research course designed to provide undergraduate biology students experience in the principles and processes of the scientific method used in biological research. The project involved the evaluation of herbal remedies used in many parts of the world in the treatment of diseases…

  12. Introducing Experimental Design by Evaluating Efficacy of Herbal Remedies (Do Herbal Remedies Really Work?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert A.; Pontiggia, Laura; Waterman, Carrie; Lichtenwalner, Meghan

    2010-01-01

    This paper is based upon experiments developed as part of a Directed Research course designed to provide undergraduate biology students experience in the principles and processes of the scientific method used in biological research. The project involved the evaluation of herbal remedies used in many parts of the world in the treatment of diseases

  13. Safety of Popular Herbal Supplements in Lactating Women.

    PubMed

    Amer, Marwa R; Cipriano, Gabriela C; Venci, Jineane V; Gandhi, Mona A

    2015-08-01

    The increasing popularity and use of dietary supplements has required health care professionals to become more knowledgeable of their properties, interactions, and adverse effects. The objectives of this review were to evaluate the safety of popular dietary supplements in breastfeeding mothers and the effects on the infants. Nine of the most popular herbal dietary supplements were identified based on the 2011 US market report of the top 10 selling botanicals and the most frequently received inquiries by the Ruth A. Lawrence Lactation Study Center at the University of Rochester Medical Center. Relevant publications were identified through June 2014 using PubMed and EMBASE; tertiary references, including the Drugs and Lactation Database and Natural Medicine Comprehensive Database, were also reviewed. These herbals include black cohosh, cranberry, echinacea, evening primrose, garlic, ginseng, melatonin, milk thistle, and St John's wort. Studies varied greatly with regard to study design, herbal intervention, and outcome measures. Findings suggested that dietary/herbal supplements have not been evaluated in high-quality clinical trials, and there is limited evidence supporting safety of use, particularly among lactating women. Therefore, it is essential for physicians to provide counseling for nursing mothers seeking information on dietary supplements, highlighting reliable safety profiles, inquiring about the potential benefits the patient is seeking, and assessing the patient's perception of this supplement during breastfeeding. More research and clinical trials are required in this area to guide the recommendations and expand our current knowledge of these products. PMID:25881578

  14. Autism: Pathophysiology and Promising Herbal Remedies.

    PubMed

    Bahmani, Mahmoud; Sarrafchi, Amir; Shirzad, Hedayatollah; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Autism is a comprehensive growth abnormality in which social skills, language, communication, and behavioral skills are developed with delay and as diversionary. The reasons for autism are unclear, but various theories of genetics, immunity, biological, and psychosocial factors have been proffered. In fact, autism is a complex disorder with distinct causes that usually co-occur. Although no medicine has been recognized to treat this disorder, pharmacological treatments can be effective in reducing its signs, such as self-mutilation, aggression, repetitive and stereotyped behaviors, inattention, hyperactivity, and sleeping disorders. Recently, complementary and alternative approaches have been considered to treat autism. Ginkgo biloba is one of the most effective plants with an old history of applications in neuropsychological disorders which recently is used for autism. The present review discusses the recent findings, pathophysiology, and etiology of autism and thereafter addresses the promising results of herbal remedies. PMID:26561063

  15. Herbal remedy clinical trials in the media: a comparison with the coverage of conventional pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Bubela, Tania; Boon, Heather; Caulfield, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    Background This study systematically compares newspaper coverage of clinical trials for herbal remedies, a popular type of complementary and alternative medicine, with clinical trials for pharmaceuticals using a comparative content analysis. This is a timely inquiry given the recognized importance of the popular press as a source of health information, the complex and significant role of complementary and alternative medicine in individual health-care decisions, and the trend toward evidence-based research for some complementary and alternative medical therapies. We searched PubMed for clinical trials, Lexis/Nexis for newspaper articles in the UK, US, Australia/New Zealand, and Factiva for Canadian newspaper articles from 1995 to 2005. We used a coding frame to analyze and compare 48 pharmaceutical and 57 herbal remedy clinical trials as well as 201 pharmaceutical and 352 herbal remedy newspaper articles. Results Herbal remedy clinical trials had similar Jadad scores to pharmaceutical trials but were significantly smaller and of shorter duration. The trials were mostly studies from Western countries and published in high-ranking journals. The majority of pharmaceutical (64%) and herbal remedy (53%) clinical trials had private sector funding involvement. A minority declared further author conflicts of interest. Newspaper coverage of herbal remedy clinical trials was more negative than for pharmaceutical trials; a result only partly explained by the greater proportion of herbal remedy clinical trials reporting negative results (P = 0.0201; χ2 = 7.8129; degrees of freedom = 2). Errors of omission were common in newspaper coverage, with little reporting of dose, sample size, location, and duration of the trial, methods, trial funding, and conflicts of interest. There was an under-reporting of risks, especially for herbal remedies. Conclusion Our finding of negative coverage of herbal remedy trials is contrary to the positive trends in most published research based primarily on anecdotal accounts. Our results highlight how media coverage is not providing the public with the information necessary to make informed decisions about medical treatments. Most concerning is the lack of disclosure of trial funding and conflicts of interest that could influence the outcome or reporting of trial results. This lack of reporting may impact the medical research community, which has the most to lose by way of public trust and respect. PMID:19036123

  16. Green Medicine: Traditional Mexican-American Herbal Remedies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Eliseo

    Traditional Mexican American herbal potions and remedies and their history are explained in an introductory book for the general reader. The importance of curanderismo, or green medicine, in Mexican and Mexican American cultures is explored. A brief history traces the herbal aspects of curanderismo through Mayan and Aztec cultures, the Spanish…

  17. Use of herbal remedies among patients undergoing hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Roozbeh, Jamshid; Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Heydari, Mojtaba

    2013-11-01

    This study aims to determine the prevalence, types, and associated factors for the use of herbal remedies in hemodialysis patients. Two hundred participants were selected by stratified sampling and were systematically interviewed. One hundred and twenty-six patients (63%) had used herbal remedies some time since their initiation of dialysis treatment. The users of herbal remedies had a significantly older age than nonusers, but no other significant differences were observed. The most prevalent complaints that led to herbal remedies use were gastroenterological complaints, flushing, and excessive thirst. Cichorium intybus, Borage officinalis, Mentha longifolia, and Matricaria recutita were the most prevalently used herbs in our patients. More study should be done on safety and efficacy of these herbs for hemodialysis patients. PMID:24241097

  18. [Herbal remedies in depression--state of the art].

    PubMed

    Szafrański, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Recent decades have seen development of research and an increased interest in the psychopharmacology of natural remedies. More than 20 herbal remedies have been identified that may potentially be applied in medicine as antidepressive, anxiety relieving or sleep-inducing agents. Patients often prefer to take herbal remedies and often take them on their own, without consulting a physician. The aim of the study is to present the state of the art concerning the use of natural remedies in the treatment of depression. Following a literature review, 7 herbal remedies for which preclinical and clinical trials suggest their antidepressive influence have been identified: hypericum, lavender, borage, roseroot, chamomile, saffron and ginseng. For two of these, i.e. hypericum and saffron extracts, antidepressive effect in subjects with mild or moderate depression has been confirmed in controlled randomized clinical trials. PMID:24946435

  19. Herbal remedies for psoriasis: what are our patients taking?

    PubMed

    Steele, Tace; Rogers, Cindy J; Jacob, Sharon E

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this study was to review and explore the top 15 currently used and the historically used herbal remedies in the treatment of psoriasis. Articles, press releases, message boards, product marketing sites, and patient education lines through the National Library of Medicine (www.pubmed.gov), National Psoriasis Foundation (www.psoriasis.org), Google (www.google. com), and Yahoo (www.yahoo.com) were reviewed. Despite widespread use of complementary and alternative medications, specifically herbals, there is limited scientific data regarding their benefits and interactions. Studies on the efficacy and side effect profiles of these remedies are needed. Additionally, both providers and patients need to be cognizant of both potential benefit distortion and adulteration of the herbal products. PMID:18286859

  20. Hepatitis after the use of germander, a herbal remedy.

    PubMed Central

    Laliberté, L; Villeneuve, J P

    1996-01-01

    The authors report two cases of hepatic injury associated with the ingestion of germander, a herbal medicine used to facilitate weight loss. In both patients, hepatitis characterized by asthenia, jaundice and a marked increase in serum amino-transferase levels occurred after 5 to 6 months of germander use. The jaundice disappeared within 8 weeks after germander use was stopped, and the overall outcome was favourable. The subsequent resumption of germander therapy by one patient was soon followed by the recurrence of hepatitis. Similar reports from France have led to the banning of germander in that country. Like several other herbal remedies, germander may be hepatotoxic, and many herbal medicines may not be as safe as the public generally assumes. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8646656

  1. Phytomedicine in Otorhinolaryngology and Pulmonology: Clinical Trials with Herbal Remedies

    PubMed Central

    Moghadam, Koosha Ghazi; Inanl?, Hasan Mete; Bazazy, Nazanin; Plinkert, Peter K.; Efferth, Thomas; Sertel, Serkan

    2012-01-01

    Phytomedicine has become an important alternative treatment option for patients in the Western world, as they seek to be treated in a holistic and natural way after an unsatisfactory response to conventional drugs. Ever since herbal remedies have been introduced in the Western world, clinicians have raised concerns over their efficacy and possible side-effects. A PubMed (Medline) search was performed covering the last five years (01/0704/12) and including 55 prospective clinical randomized control trials in the medical specialities Otorhinolaryngology and Pulmonology. In this review, we present evidence-based clinical data with herbal remedies and try to enlighten the question of efficacy and reliability of phytomedicine. PMID:24280678

  2. Herbal remedies for the treatment of periodontal disease--a patent review.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pramod; Ansari, Shahid H; Ali, Javed

    2009-11-01

    Periodontal diseases, if left unchecked, can lead to major health problems. There are a number of traditional herbal remedies for the treatment and management of diseases related to teeth, gum and oral hygiene. Use of clove oil is an age old remedy still practiced for periodontal problems. Our aim is to present an overall view of the current strategies adopted for the formulation and application of traditional herbal remedies. The article provides a review of the patents obtained on herbal remedies for the treatment of periodontal diseases. In addition, it also provides an overall view of potent herbal remedies widely used for periodontal diseases. PMID:19925444

  3. Perceived efficacy of herbal remedies by users accessing primary healthcare in Trinidad

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Yuri N; Morton-Gittens, Jamie; Basdeo, Luke; Blades, Alexander; Francis, Marie-Joanna; Gomes, Natalie; Janjua, Meer; Singh, Adelle

    2007-01-01

    Background The increasing global popularity of herbal remedies requires further investigation to determine the probable factors driving this burgeoning phenomenon. We propose that the users' perception of efficacy is an important factor and assessed the perceived efficacy of herbal remedies by users accessing primary health facilities throughout Trinidad. Additionally, we determined how these users rated herbal remedies compared to conventional allopathic medicines as being less, equally or more efficacious. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was undertaken at 16 randomly selected primary healthcare facilities throughout Trinidad during June-August 2005. A de novo, pilot-tested questionnaire was interviewer-administered to confirmed herbal users (previous or current). Stepwise multiple regression analysis was done to determine the influence of predictor variables on perceived efficacy and comparative efficacy with conventional medicines. Results 265 herbal users entered the study and cited over 100 herbs for the promotion of health/wellness and the management of specific health concerns. Garlic was the most popular herb (in 48.3% of the sample) and was used for the common cold, cough, fever, as 'blood cleansers' and carminatives. It was also used in 20% of hypertension patients. 230 users (86.8%) indicated that herbs were efficacious and perceived that they had equal or greater efficacy than conventional allopathic medicines. Gender, ethnicity, income and years of formal education did not influence patients' perception of herb efficacy; however, age did (p = 0.036). Concomitant use of herbs and allopathic medicines was relatively high at 30%; and most users did not inform their attending physician. Conclusion Most users perceived that herbs were efficacious, and in some instances, more efficacious than conventional medicines. We suggest that this perception may be a major contributing factor influencing the sustained and increasing popularity of herbs. Evidence-based research in the form of randomized controlled clinical trials should direct the proper use of herbs to validate (or otherwise) efficacy and determine safety. In the Caribbean, most indigenous herbs are not well investigated and this points to the urgent need for biomedical investigations to assess the safety profile and efficacy of our popular medicinal herbs. PMID:17286858

  4. Topical herbal remedies: research opportunities for plastic surgeons.

    PubMed

    Krajewski, Aleksandra; Garg, Manish; Chandawarkar, Rajiv Y

    2010-06-01

    The use of topical herbal remedies (THRs) among plastic surgery patients is rampant, sometimes indiscriminately, and expanding rapidly. Supporting scientific evidence is low, and most patients who use THRs believe firmly that being 'natural', these agents are 'safe'. The federal regulation of THRs is not uniform. The research potential of these remedies is underexplored, creating a vast opportunity for plastic surgeons to harvest its clinical benefits and help create a regulatory structure that promotes patient safety. This article delineates the critical aspects: essential steps in starting research in THRs, organisational structure to support this work including funding sources, intellectual property and patent protection, federal regulation and patient education and advocacy. These steps create a platform for plastic surgeons to pursue this research work and translate it into the clinical setting effectively. PMID:19398395

  5. A Manual of Cherokee Herbal Remedies: History, Information, Identification, Medicinal Healing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Patricia D.

    This thesis reports on the research of 25 plants, used as herbal remedies since the 1800s by the author's Native American ancestors (the Day family) and the Cherokee tribe. The plants were identified in four state parks in southwestern Indiana. Information sources included the research literature, articles on Cherokee herbal remedies, and…

  6. Antibacterial properties of common herbal remedies of the southwest.

    PubMed

    Romero, Christopher David; Chopin, Suzzette Fontenelle; Buck, Gregory; Martinez, Elvia; Garcia, Michelle; Bixby, Lisa

    2005-06-01

    Curanderismo, widely practiced in the southwest, is an alternative medical system that has been neglected by scientific research. This project analyzed the antibiotic properties of 23 common herbal remedies used in South Texas to treat wounds and infections. Ethanolic tinctures and aqueous extracts of each plant were prepared and applied to blank diffusion disks. These disks were desiccated and used in Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion susceptibility tests on three bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli. Control disks contained solvent only. The efficacy of the tinctures and aqueous extracts was compared to that of commercially prepared antibiotic diffusion disks. No inhibition was observed with the aqueous extracts. The various tincture-saturated disks produced zones of clearance ranging from 1 to 5 mm. Ten plants consistently inhibited bacterial growth of Staphylococcus aureus. None of the plants tested produced consistent inhibition of the two Gram-negative species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. No zones of clearance were produced by the solvent-only control disks. The zones of clearance produced by commercial antibiotics were, on average, larger and more uniform than those produced by the tincture disks. Thus, it appears that some of the herbal remedies used in folk medicine are potentially effective antibacterial agents against Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:15894135

  7. A Cases of Near-fatal Anaphylaxis: Parsley "Over-use" as an Herbal Remedy.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Sevket; Ucar, Ramazan; Caliskaner, Ahmet Zafer

    2014-12-01

    The use of herbal products in patients with allergic diseases is a special problem and still controversial. But, many people often use herbs to maintain good health. The patients use self-prescribed remedies as medications but do not inform their physicians about herbal use. Unfortunately, some herbal self-medications may have unexpected effects and interactions which may lead to fatal complications. In this report, we describe a female patient who suffered near-fatal anaphylaxis to parsley. PMID:25648063

  8. A Cases of Near-fatal Anaphylaxis: Parsley “Over-use” as an Herbal Remedy

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Sevket; Ucar, Ramazan; Caliskaner, Ahmet Zafer

    2014-01-01

    The use of herbal products in patients with allergic diseases is a special problem and still controversial. But, many people often use herbs to maintain good health. The patients use self-prescribed remedies as medications but do not inform their physicians about herbal use. Unfortunately, some herbal self-medications may have unexpected effects and interactions which may lead to fatal complications. In this report, we describe a female patient who suffered near-fatal anaphylaxis to parsley. PMID:25648063

  9. Management of insomnia: a place for traditional herbal remedies.

    PubMed

    2005-06-01

    (1) Insomnia should be treated first with non drug measures; this has traditionally involved the use of herbal remedies. (2) About 20 plants are approved in France in the production of medications 'traditionally used' for minor sleep disturbances. Virtually nothing is known of their efficacy or potential dangers. (3) Most of these plants are suspected of toxicity and should therefore be avoided, especially in view of their unproven efficacy. (4) Littleleaf linden, vervain, melissa and orange flower have no demonstrated efficacy but are safe and can therefore be used. Similarly, there are no scientific grounds for rejecting preparations based on hawthorn or passiflora. (5) Available data suggest that valerian extracts have a modest impact on subjective sleep quality; they are nevertheless more effective than a placebo. Valerian products that do not contain valepotriates have no apparent adverse effects. It is best to avoid high-titre alcoholic extracts and powdered valerian root, and to select aqueous extracts and low-titre hydro-alcoholic preparations. PMID:15984105

  10. Adverse effects of herbal drugs in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Ernst, E

    2000-11-01

    Herbal treatments are becoming increasingly popular, and are often used for dermatological conditions. Thus dermatologists should know about their potential to cause adverse events. This review is aimed at addressing this area in a semisystematic fashion. Some agents, particularly Chinese herbal creams, have been shown repeatedly to be adulterated with corticosteroids. Virtually all herbal remedies can cause allergic reactions and several can be responsible for photosensitization. Some herbal medicines, in particular Ayurvedic remedies, contain arsenic or mercury that can produce typical skin lesions. Other popular remedies that can cause dermatological side-effects include St John's Wort, kava, aloe vera, eucalyptus, camphor, henna and yohimbine. Finally, there are some herbal treatments used specifically for dermatological conditions, e.g. Chinese oral herbal remedies for atopic eczema, which have the potential to cause systemic adverse effects. It is concluded that adverse effects of herbal medicines are an important albeit neglected subject in dermatology, which deserves further systematic investigation. PMID:11069498

  11. Herbal Remedies for Functional Dyspepsia and Traditional Iranian Medicine Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Babaeian, Mahmoud; Naseri, Mohsen; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Ghaffari, Farzaneh; Emadi, Fatemeh; Feizi, Awat; Hosseini Yekta, Nafiseh; Adibi, Peyman

    2015-01-01

    Context: Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a functional gastro-intestinal disorder with high prevalence. Among various treatment options, treatment by complementary and alternative medicines especially herbal remedies also practiced. Traditional Iranian medicine (TIM), a valuable resource of valid applied studies of ancient Iranian scholars, recommends numerous medicinal plants to treat dyspepsia symptoms. In this study, through investigation of TIM references, we aimed to identify medicinal plants for treatment of digestion insufficiency. Evidence Acquisition: In this qualitative study, dyspepsia symptoms including fullness, early satiety, bloating, nausea, and belching were checked under reliable sources of traditional medicine. Then medicinal plants recommended for the treatment of the symptoms were extracted from the books. Likewise, for investigating the pharmacological properties of medicinal plants used for the relieving of dyspepsia symptoms, electronic databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and some Iranian databases like SID and IranMedex were employed. Results: The study yielded 105 plants from 37 families which could treat various dyspepsia symptoms; fifty-seven plants, mainly from Apiaceae, Lamiaceae, Amaryllidaceae and Zingiberaceae had digestive effects. In this research, based on the information in TIM reference texts, we obtained 58 plants effective for bloating, 40 for nausea, 37 for appetite loss and 7 for belching. In human clinical trials conducted on medicinal plants effective for FD symptoms, 7 single plants were used. Conclusions: Finding the medicinal plants effective on digestion insufficiency based on TIM could suggest a better strategy for the relieving of dyspepsia symptoms. Traditional Iranian medicine prescribes medicinal plants based on each patient’s personal characteristics and practices multiple target therapies. PMID:26734483

  12. Adrenal suppression following herbal remedy for rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Premkumar, Balasekar; Murthy, Muppavarapu Srinivasa; Rajagopal, Karuppasamy; Nagaprabu, Vadivelmurugan Nagasubramani; Ponugupati, Sree Madhuri

    2015-01-01

    A patient suffering from rheumatoid arthritis who had extreme adrenal suppression as a result of chronic use of herbal medicines presented with complications of adrenal suppression such as muscle weakness. He also had psychiatric disturbances such as confusion and suicidal tendency. Steroids in the herbal medication were found and hence there exists a need for investigation into their safety and efficacy. PMID:25969663

  13. Adrenal suppression following herbal remedy for rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Premkumar, Balasekar; Murthy, Muppavarapu Srinivasa; Rajagopal, Karuppasamy; Nagaprabu, Vadivelmurugan Nagasubramani; Ponugupati, Sree Madhuri

    2015-01-01

    A patient suffering from rheumatoid arthritis who had extreme adrenal suppression as a result of chronic use of herbal medicines presented with complications of adrenal suppression such as muscle weakness. He also had psychiatric disturbances such as confusion and suicidal tendency. Steroids in the herbal medication were found and hence there exists a need for investigation into their safety and efficacy. PMID:25969663

  14. Consumption of herbal remedies and dietary supplements amongst patients hospitalized in medical wards

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Lee H; Elias, Mazen; Ron-Avraham, Gilat; Biniaurishvili, Ben Zion; Madjar, Magali; Kamargash, Irena; Braunstein, Rony; Berkovitch, Matitiahu; Golik, Ahuva

    2007-01-01

    What is already known about this subject In general, use of herbal remedies and supplements is constantly rising in the western population and this may be potentially dangerous due to adverse effects and drug–herb interactions. All information up to now has been derived from the general population or outpatients. There are no publications on the rate of consumption of herbals in inpatients, or the awareness of the medical team of this fact. What this study adds Approximately 25% of patients hospitalized in internal medicine wards consume some kind of herbal or dietary supplement.Consumption is associated with higher income, nonsmoking and benign prostatic hypertrophy.The medical team was aware of the consumption in only 23% of the cases, and all drug–herbal interactions which we discovered were missed by the medical team. Aims Herbal remedies may have adverse effects and potentially serious interactions with some commonly prescribed conventional medications. Little is known about consumption of herbal remedies and dietary supplements by hospitalized patients. The aim was to evaluate the rate of consumption and characterize the patients hospitalized in internal medicine departments who consume herbal remedies and dietary supplements. Also, to assess the medical teams' awareness and assess the percentage of patients with possible drug–herb interactions. Methods Patients hospitalized in the medical wards of two hospitals in Israel were interviewed about their use of herbal remedies or dietary supplements. The medical records were searched for evidence that the medical team had knowledge of the use of herbal remedies or dietary supplements. Results Two hundred and ninety-nine hospitalized medical patients were interviewed. Of the participants, 26.8% were herbal or dietary supplement consumers (HC). On multivariate analysis the only variates associated with herbal or dietary supplement consumption were the hospital [odds ratio (OR) 2.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.29, 6.52], income (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.15, 1.05), smoking habits (OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.05, 0.55) and benign prostatic hypertrophy (OR 4.64, 95% CI 1.3, 16.5). Ninety-four percent of the patients had not been asked specifically of herbal consumption by the medical team. Only 23% of the hospital's medical files of the HC patients had any record of the use of herbal or dietary supplements. Seven possible drug–herbal interactions were encountered (7.1%). The most serious was an interaction between camomile tea and ciclosporin. Conclusions Herbal remedy consumption is common amongst patients hospitalized in internal medicine wards and is often overlooked by the medical team. Patients and doctors should be more aware of the possible adverse effects and of the potential of herb–drug interactions. PMID:17425631

  15. Use of herbal remedies by multiple sclerosis patients: a nation-wide survey in Italy.

    PubMed

    Loraschi, A; Bellantonio, P; Bortolon, F; Capra, R; Cavalla, P; Costantino, G; Lugaresi, A; Martinelli, V; Marrosu, M G; Patti, F; Rottoli, M; Salvetti, M; Sola, P; Solaro, C; Klersy, C; Marino, F; Zaffaroni, M; Cosentino, M

    2016-04-01

    Though recent progress in multiple sclerosis (MS) treatment is remarkable, numerous unmet needs remain to be addressed often inducing patients to look for complementary and alternative medicines (CAM), especially herbal remedies (HR). HR use, scarcely investigated in MS, may cause adverse reactions (AR) and interfere with conventional treatment. We performed a survey aimed at evaluating use and attitudes towards HR and factor associated to HR use. Other CAM use and attitudes have been investigated as well. Multiple-choice questionnaires were distributed to MS out patients attending 14 Italian referral Centers. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify HR use determinants. Present/past HR use for either MS or other diseases was reported in 35.6 % of 2419 cases (95 % CI 36.0-40.0 %). CAM use was reported in 42.5 % of cases. Independent predictors of HR use were represented by higher education, geographic area, dissatisfaction with conventional treatment of diseases other than MS and benefit perception from CAM use. Both HR and CAM use were not always disclosed to the healthcare professional. In conclusion, HR and other CAM appear to be popular among MS patients. The involvement of the healthcare professionals appears to be scarce with potential risk of AR or interference with conventional treatments. PMID:26895323

  16. Herbal Remedies: The Design of a New Course in Pharmacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouzi, Samir A.

    1996-01-01

    A new pharmacy course developed at Northeast Louisiana University School of Pharmacy trains pharmacy students in use of herbs as self-selected over-the-counter products. Emphases are on use of herbal preparations by the general public as alternative therapies, safety and efficacy of herbs and other phytomedicinals, and the pharmacist's role in…

  17. The impact of herbal remedies on adverse effects and quality of life in HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Bepe, Nyasha; Madanhi, Nathan; Mudzviti, Tinashe; Gavi, Samuel; Maponga, Charles Chiedza; Morse, Gene D

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Use of herbal remedies among HIV-infected individuals in Africa increased in the past decade, mainly due to traditional beliefs and at times inconsistent access to antiretroviral drugs. In Zimbabwe, accessibility and availability of antiretroviral drugs has increased in recent years; however, the use of herbal remedies remains high. This study was conducted to determine the impact of concomitant use of herbal remedies with antiretroviral drugs on adverse events and on quality of life. Methodology A convenient sample of HIV positive patients at Parirenyatwa group of hospitals' Family Care Clinic (Harare, Zimbabwe) was enrolled. A questionnaire was used to collect data on the adverse event experiences of the patients using herbal remedies for their HIV, as well as the types of herbal remedy used. Quality of life index was measured using an HIV/AIDS targeted quality of life (HAT-QOL) tool developed by the World Health Organization. Results Abdominal pain (odds ratio = 2.7, p-value = 0.01) and rash (odds ratio = 2.5, p-value = 0.02) had significant associations with using herbal remedies during antiretroviral therapy. Improved quality of life index was not significantly associated with herbal remedy use during antiretroviral therapy. Conclusions There is evidence to suggest that some traditional herbal remedies used in Zimbabwe may increase incidence of certain types of adverse events when used in combination with antiretroviral drugs. Use of herbal drugs in combination with antiretroviral therapy does not significantly improve quality of life index in comparison to antiretroviral drug use only. PMID:21330740

  18. Determination of Oxalate Content in Herbal Remedies and Dietary Supplements Based on Plant Extracts.

    PubMed

    Siener, Roswitha; López-Mesas, Montserrat; Valiente, Manuel; Blanco, Francisco

    2016-02-01

    Lifestyle, especially diet, is a prominent risk factor that affects the formation of calcium oxalate stones. Urinary oxalate excretion is directly related to the amount of oral intake and intestinal absorption rate of oxalate. This work evaluated the possibility of increasing oxalate ingestion, which could lead to secondary hyperoxaluria, associated with the intake of herbal remedies and dietary supplements containing plant extracts. A wide variety of 17 commercially available drugs and dietary supplements were analyzed using ion chromatography. The results showed remarkable differences in oxalate contents of the extracts. Total oxalate concentrations ranged from 0.03 to 2.2 mg/g in solid samples and from 0.005 to 0.073 mg/mL in liquid samples. The selected herbal remedies and dietary supplements containing plant extracts represent only a low risk for calcium oxalate stone formers, if the recommended daily dose is not exceeded. PMID:26670692

  19. Involvement of liver in diabetes mellitus: herbal remedies.

    PubMed

    Thent, Z C; Das, S

    2014-01-01

    Liver disease is considered as one of the major complications in oxidative stress disorders like diabetes mellitus (DM). DM presents with deterioration in carbohydrate metabolism which is characterized with chronic hyperglycemia. The organ which involves in glucose or carbohydrate metabolism and is most likely to be affected is the liver. Deterioration in liver architecture and metabolism in DM, are considered as common findings. In the present review both biochemical and histological changes occurring in diabetic liver are conferred in detail. To counteract the oxidative stress disorders and its untoward complications, antioxidant or herbs have emerged as alternative medicine. The present review focuses on several herbs with antioxidant properties towards diabetic liver disease such as Liquorice, Pelargonium gravenolens, Momordica charantia, Propolis from bee hives, Dihar, Curcuma Longa, Tinospora cordifolia, Kangen-karyu, Parsley, Chard, Green tea Catechins and Piper sarmentosum (P.s). The herbs or the compounds present in herbs have potential to improve the liver metabolism and maintain the integrity of liver tissue in DM. The review also opens the door for effective use of herbal products for complications involved in the diabetic liver disease. PMID:25203338

  20. Low Potency Homeopathic Remedies and Allopathic Herbal Medicines: Is There an Overlap?

    PubMed Central

    Csupor, Dezső; Boros, Klára; Hohmann, Judit

    2013-01-01

    Classical homeopathy is based on the therapeutic application of highly diluted homeopathic stocks. The indications of such medicines are determined by proving, i.e. by applying the remedies in healthy subjects. However, there are several complex homeopathic medicinal products on the market with approved therapeutic indications. The efficacy of these medicines has been assessed in clinical trials on patients. There is no upper limit of dosing for such homeopathic remedies, and these products often contain undiluted mother tincture. The aim of our study was to compare an allopathic herbal medicine and a homeopathic product containing undiluted mother tincture based on the same plant. Two products (an allopathic herbal medicine and a homeopathic product) containing Vitex agnus-castus extract were analyzed by HPLC-DAD for their agnuside and casticin contents. The agnuside content of the allopathic product was approximately four times higher, while the amount of casticin was in the same order of magnitude. Our experiments revealed the presence of active ingredients in allopathic quantity in a homeopathic preparation, highlighting the controversy between the principles of classical and practice of contemporary homeopathy. According to the principles of classical homeopathy these remedies cannot be considered as homeopathic remedies but rather as (allopathic) herbal ones. This phenomenon necessitates a case-by-case approach towards the possible adverse effects and drug interactions of homeopathics in the daily medical practice. Homeopathic products containing active agents in allopathic doses should be treated the same way as allopathic medicines from the point of view of quality assurance and pharmacovigilance. PMID:24019954

  1. Herbal plants and plant preparations as remedial approach for viral diseases.

    PubMed

    Ganjhu, Rajesh Kumar; Mudgal, Piya Paul; Maity, Hindol; Dowarha, Deepu; Devadiga, Santhosha; Nag, Snehlata; Arunkumar, Govindakarnavar

    2015-12-01

    Herbal plants, plant preparations and phytoconstituents have proved useful in attenuating infectious conditions and were the only remedies available, till the advent of antibiotics (many being of plant origin themselves). Among infectious diseases, viral diseases in particular, remain the leading cause of death in humans globally. A variety of phytoconstituents derived from medicinal herbs have been extensively studied for antiviral activity. Based on this rationale, an online search was performed, which helped to identify a large number of plant species harboring antiviral molecules. These herbal sources have been reported individually or in combinations across a large number of citations studied. Activities against rabies virus, Human immunodeficiency virus, Chandipura virus, Japanese Encephalitis Virus, Enterovirus, Influenza A/H1N1 and other influenza viruses were discovered during the literature search. This review includes all such plant species exhibiting antiviral properties. The review also encompasses composition and methodologies of preparing various antiviral formulations around the globe. An elaborate section on the formulations filed for patent registration, along with non-patented formulations, has also been included in this article. To conclude, herbal sources provide researchers enormous scope to explore and bring out viable alternatives against viral diseases, considering non-availability of suitable drug candidates and increasing resistance to existing drug molecules for many emerging and re-emerging viral diseases. PMID:26645032

  2. A Critical Approach to Evaluating Clinical Efficacy, Adverse Events and Drug Interactions of Herbal Remedies.

    PubMed

    Izzo, Angelo A; Hoon-Kim, Sung; Radhakrishnan, Rajan; Williamson, Elizabeth M

    2016-05-01

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses represent the uppermost ladders in the hierarchy of evidence. Systematic reviews/meta-analyses suggest preliminary or satisfactory clinical evidence for agnus castus (Vitex agnus castus) for premenstrual complaints, flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) for hypertension, feverfew (Tanacetum partenium) for migraine prevention, ginger (Zingiber officinalis) for pregnancy-induced nausea, ginseng (Panax ginseng) for improving fasting glucose levels as well as phytoestrogens and St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) for the relief of some symptoms in menopause. However, firm conclusions of efficacy cannot be generally drawn. On the other hand, inconclusive evidence of efficacy or contradictory results have been reported for Aloe vera in the treatment of psoriasis, cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) in cystitis prevention, ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) for tinnitus and intermittent claudication, echinacea (Echinacea spp.) for the prevention of common cold and pomegranate (Punica granatum) for the prevention/treatment of cardiovascular diseases. A critical evaluation of the clinical data regarding the adverse effects has shown that herbal remedies are generally better tolerated than synthetic medications. Nevertheless, potentially serious adverse events, including herb-drug interactions, have been described. This suggests the need to be vigilant when using herbal remedies, particularly in specific conditions, such as during pregnancy and in the paediatric population. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26887532

  3. Efficacy and Safety Assessment of T. Angelica Herbal Tonic, a Phytomedicinal Product Popularly Used in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Esimone, Charles O.; Akah, Peter A.; Nworu, Chukwuemeka S.

    2011-01-01

    T. Angelica Herbal Tonic (TAHT) is a herbal product indicated for indigestion and constipation and highly patronized in Nigeria. In this study, the efficacy and safety of the herbal tonic in relation to the label claims were assessed. The effect on peristalsis in mice was evaluated by the charcoal meal model and in vitro using guinea pig ileum. The effects of TAHT on behavior, fertility, birth and organ weights were also determined. Teratogenic potential and reproductive toxicity were studied in pregnant rats. Acute toxicity studies showed that at doses above 5000 mg kg−1, the herbal tonic did not cause lethality and produced no signs of intoxication in mice. The study did not show any gross behavioral changes in mice treated with 1000 mg kg−1 of TAHT as compared with the negative control treatment. TAHT (400 mg kg−1) exhibited a dose-dependent enhancement in the gastrointestinal tract motility in mice when compared with the negative control. At concentrations up to 300 μg mL−1, TAHT did not cause any significant effect on acetylcholine, histamine and nicotine-evoked contractions of guinea pig ileum preparation. It took an average of 31.25 ± 4.52 days for the TAHT-treated animals to litter, which is significantly (P < .05) different from the 55 ± 4.51 days recorded for the control treatment group. TAHT exhibited a modest fertility-promoting effect and showed lack of abortifacient and teratogenic properties in the study. Generally, the results of this study showed some favorable pharmacological effects of TAHT in animals which may authenticate some of the label claims. PMID:19812180

  4. The potential impact of the use of homeopathic and herbal remedies on monitoring the safety of prescription products.

    PubMed

    Woodward, K N

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the possibility that adverse reactions and drug interactions arising from the use of homeopathic and herbal medicines could lead to confusion when adverse reactions to conventional medicines are reported. An extensive literature review was conducted on the occurrence of adverse reactions and drug interactions following the use of homeopathic or herbal remedies, and the potential for these to confound adverse event reporting to conventional medicines considered. The survey demonstrates the potential for herbal remedies and homeopathic products, to produce adverse drug reactions or drug interactions, and shows the scope for potential for confusion with those arising from conventional medicines. There is a need for greater awareness that adverse reactions apparently due to a conventional medicine, might in reality be due to a herbal medicine or a drug interaction between a herbal medicine and a conventional drug, particularly when a health professional is unaware of the extent of a patient's self-medication with alternative therapies. PMID:16004184

  5. The roles of herbal remedies in survival and quality of life among long-term breast cancer survivors - results of a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Few data exist on survival or health-related quality of life (QOL) related to herbal remedy use among long-term breast cancer survivors. The objective of this report is to examine whether herbal remedy use is associated with survival or the health-related QOL of these long-term breast cancer survivors. Methods In 1999-2000, we collected the information of herbal remedy use and QOL during a telephone interview with 371 Los Angeles Non-Hispanic/Hispanic white women who had survived more than 10 years after breast cancer diagnosis. QOL was measured using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaire. Patients were followed for mortality from the baseline interview through 2007. 299 surviving patients completed a second telephone interview on QOL in 2002-2004. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards methods to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for mortality and applied multivariable linear regression models to compare average SF-36 change scores (follow-up - baseline) between herbal remedy users and non-users. Results Fifty-nine percent of participants were herbal remedy users at baseline. The most commonly used herbal remedies were echinacea, herbal teas, and ginko biloba. Herbal remedy use was associated with non-statistically significant increases in the risks for all-cause (44 deaths, RR = 1.28, 95% CI = 0.62-2.64) and breast cancer (33 deaths, RR = 1.78, 95% CI = 0.72-4.40) mortality. Both herbal remedy users' and non-users' mental component summary scores on the SF-36 increased similarly from the first survey to the second survey (P = 0.16), but herbal remedy users' physical component summary scores decreased more than those of non-users (-5.7 vs. -3.2, P = 0.02). Conclusions Our data provide some evidence that herbal remedy use is associated with poorer survival and a poorer physical component score for health-related QOL among women who have survived breast cancer for at least 10 years. These conclusions are based on exploratory analyses of data from a prospective study using two-sided statistical tests with no correction for multiple testing and are limited by few deaths for mortality analysis and lack of information on when herbal remedy use was initiated or duration of or reasons for use. PMID:21645383

  6. Mass spectrometric analysis of pharmaceutical adulterants in products labeled as botanical dietary supplements or herbal remedies: a review.

    PubMed

    Vaclavik, Lukas; Krynitsky, Alexander J; Rader, Jeanne I

    2014-11-01

    The increased availability and use of botanical dietary supplements and herbal remedies among consumers has been accompanied by an increased frequency of adulteration of these products with synthetic pharmaceuticals. Unscrupulous producers may add drugs and analogues of various classes, such as phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors, weight loss, hypoglycemic, antihypertensive and anti-inflammatory agents, or anabolic steroids, to develop or intensify biological effects of dietary supplements or herbal remedies. The presence of such adulterated products in the marketplace is a worldwide problem and their consumption poses health risks to consumers. Analytical methods that allow rapid and reliable testing of dietary supplements for the presence of synthetic drugs are needed to address such fraudulent practices. Mass spectrometry (MS) and hyphenated techniques such as liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) have become primary tools in this endeavor. The present review critically assesses the role and summarizes the applications of MS in the analysis of pharmaceutical adulterants in botanical dietary supplements and herbal remedies. The uses of MS techniques in detection, confirmation, and quantification of known pharmaceutical adulterants as well as in screening for and structure elucidation of unexpected adulterants and novel designer drugs are discussed. PMID:25270866

  7. Pharmaceutical preparation of Saubhagya Shunthi Churna: A herbal remedy for puerperal women

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Khushbu; Dwivedi, Manjari; Kumar, Neeraj

    2010-01-01

    Background: In the last few decades, there has been exponential growth in the field of herbal remedies. Pharmacopoeial preparations like avleha or paka (semi-solid), swarasa (expressed juice), kalka (mass), him (cold infusion) and phanta (hot infusion), kwatha (decoction) and churna (powder) form the backbone of Ayurvedic formulations. Newer guidelines for standardization, manufacture, and quality control, and scientifically rigorous research will be necessary for traditional treatments. This traditional knowledge can serve as powerful search engine that will greatly facilitate drug discovery. Purpose: The aim of the present study is to standardize Saubhagya Shunthi Paka in churna (powder) form. The powder form makes this traditional drug more stable for long-term storage and hence, easier to preserve. Materials and Methods: Saubhagya Shunthi Paka is an ayurvedic formulation containing Shunthi (Zingiber officinalis) as one of its chief ingredients. The basic preparation of this drug is a semisolid. We checked the microbial load and nutrient values (using International Standard IS and Association of Official Analytical chemists AOAC methods) Results: The powdered form of Saubhagya Shunthi Churna yielded a weight loss of approximately 17.64% of the total weight of ingredients. The total energy of Churna (calculated based on nutrient content) was found higher over Paka. Conclusion: Saubhagya Shunthi Churna may be a good therapeutic and dietary medicine for Indian women, which may be easily prepared at home. PMID:20532094

  8. Prenatal exposure of a girl with autism spectrum disorder to 'horsetail' (Equisetum arvense) herbal remedy and alcohol: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder in which the interactions of genetic, epigenetic and environmental influences are thought to play a causal role. In humans, throughout embryonic and fetal life, brain development is exquisitely susceptible to injury caused by exposure to toxic chemicals present in the environment. Although the use of herbal supplements during pregnancy is relatively common, little information is available on their association with fetal neurodevelopment. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report in the literature to associate a new plausible mechanism of neurodevelopmental toxicity with a case of autism spectrum disorder through a vitamin deficiency potentiated by concomitant use of herbal supplements and ethanol exposure. Case presentation We describe the pediatric environmental history of a three-year-old Caucasian girl with an autism spectrum disorder. We utilized her pediatric environmental history to evaluate constitutional, genetic, and environmental factors pertinent to manifestation of neurodevelopment disorders. Both parents reported prenatal exposure to several risk factors of interest. A year prior to conception the mother began a weight loss diet and ingested 1200 mg/day of 'horsetail' (Equisetum arvense) herbal remedies containing thiaminase, an enzyme that with long-term use can lead to vitamin deficiency. The mother reported a significant weight loss during the pregnancy and a deficiency of B-complex vitamins. Thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency could have been potentiated by the horsetail's thiaminase activity and ethanol exposure during pregnancy. No other risk factors were identified. Conclusions A detailed and careful pediatric environmental history, which includes daily intake, herbal remedies and ethanol exposure, should be obtained from all patients with autism spectrum disorder. Maternal consumption of ethanol and of herbal supplements with suspected or potential toxicity should be avoided during pregnancy. The prospective parents should perform preconception planning before pregnancy. PMID:21453474

  9. Herbal Medicine: Is it an Alternative or an Unknown? A Brief Review of Popular Herbals Used by Patients in a Pain and Symptom Management Practice Setting.

    PubMed

    Leak

    1999-01-01

    This article will briefly discuss herbals frequently used by patients in a pain and symptom management practice setting with regard to common indications, potential side effects, and drug interactions, as well as a review of available research on each substance. An overview of the regulatory morass that continues to surround the herbal products industry will be presented. The author will examine possible ethic implications of providing care to patients utilizing alternative therapies. Future developments and studies in the field of herbal therapies will be considered. PMID:10998678

  10. The popular herbal antimalarial, extract of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta, is potently cytotoxic.

    PubMed

    Ansah, Charles; Gooderham, Nigel J

    2002-12-01

    The aqueous root extract of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta (CSE) is a popular antimalarial in West African ethnomedicine. Cryptolepine (CLP), the major alkaloid of the plant, is a cytotoxic DNA intercalator that has promise as an anticancer agent. To date the aqueous root extract, the traditional antimalarial formulation, has not been evaluated for toxicity. In this study, we have examined the in vitro toxicity of CSE and CLP using V79 cells, a Chinese hamster lung fibroblast frequently used to assess genetic toxicity, and a number of organ-specific human cancer cell lines. CSE and CLP caused a dose- and time-dependent reduction in viability of the V79 cell line. Flow cytometric analysis of CSE- and CLP-treated (24 h) asynchronously growing V79 cells using propidium iodide (PI) staining revealed an accumulation of cells (up to 55%) in the sub-G1 phase of the cell cycle, indicative of cell death. The V79 cells and almost all the organ-specific human cancer cell lines exposed to CSE and CLP were profoundly growth inhibited, as measured in a clonogenicity assay. In a V79 cell mutation assay (hprt gene), CSE (5-50 microg/ml) only induced mutation at the highest dose employed (mutation frequency approximately 4 and 38 mutant clones per 10(6) cells for control and CSE, respectively), but CLP (0.5-5.0 microM) was not mutagenic. These results indicate that CSE and CLP are very cytotoxic and may be weak mammalian mutagens and/or clastogens. The poor genotoxicity of CSE and CLP coupled with their potent cytotoxic action support their anticancer potential. PMID:12441369

  11. Herbal Supplements and Hepatotoxicity: A Short Review.

    PubMed

    Haslan, Haszianaliza; Suhaimi, Farihah Haji; Das, Srijit

    2015-10-01

    Herbal products have gained popularity over the past few decades. The reasons attributed to the rise in popularity are cheaper costs, easy availability, patient compliance and fewer side effects. However, liver toxicity following consumption of herbal remedies is on the increase. Thus, there is an urgent need to understand the mechanism of action of the herbal supplements on the liver. Occasionally, herbal supplements may also interact with conventional drugs. The present review focusses on a few herbs such as Aloe barbadensis, Atractylis gummifera, Centella asiatica, Mitragyna speciosa, Morinda citrifolia, Larea tridentata, Symphytum officinale, Teucrium chamaedrys and Xanthium strumarium, which are reported to cause hepatotoxicity in humans and animals. Prior knowledge on hepatotoxicity caused by herbs may be beneficial for clinicians and medical practitioners. PMID:26669124

  12. Use of Network Centrality Measures to Explain Individual Levels of Herbal Remedy Cultural Competence among the Yucatec Maya in Tabi, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Allison

    2011-01-01

    Common herbal remedy knowledge varies and is transmitted among individuals who are connected through a social network. Thus, social relationships have the potential to account for some of the variation in knowledge. Cultural consensus analysis (CCA) and social network analysis (SNA) were used together to study the association between intracultural variation in botanical remedy knowledge and social relationships in Tabi, Yucatan, Mexico. CCA, a theory of culture as agreement, was used to assess the competence of individuals in a domain of herbal remedies by measuring individual competence scores within that domain. There was a weak but positive association between these competence scores and network centrality scores. This association disappeared when age was included in the model. People in Tabi, who have higher competence in herbal remedies tend to be older and more centrally located in the herbal remedy inquiry network. The larger implication of the application of CCA and SNA for understanding the acquisition and transmission of cultural knowledge is also explored. PMID:21909235

  13. Phenacetin isolated from Bursera grandifolia, a herbal remedy with antipyretic properties.

    PubMed

    Velázquez, Francisco; Manríquez, Ricardo; Maya, Leticia; Barrientos, Lucia; López-Dellamary, Fernando

    2009-11-01

    Bursera grandifolia and other related species have been used in traditional herbal medicine in Mexico and other Latin American countries for their analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory properties. From the chloroform extract of leaves of B. grandifolia, a substance was isolated and identified as phenacetin, a well known compound with widely tested analgesic and antipyretic properties. The structural identity of the compound was elucidated on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic evidence and by comparison with an authentic sample. PMID:19967994

  14. Chinese Herbalism

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Richard

    1984-01-01

    Chinese herbalism dates back to 2852 B.C. More than 2,600 herbs and thousands of herbal formulae are used to treat illness. Classical theories of Chinese medicine are integrated with the Taoist philosophy, whereby the universe is composed of two basic forces: a positive one called yang, and a negative one called yin. Illness is thought to occur when there is too much yang (tonification) or too much yin (sedation) in the body and herbal medicines are therefore intended either to tonify or to sedate the body so that balance is restored. Since 1954, some Chinese herbal remedies have been scientifically analyzed and tested. Several have been proven effective in treating a variety of diseases and conditions. PMID:21283498

  15. New Finding of an Anti-TB Compound in the Genus Marsypopetalum (Annonaceae) from a Traditional Herbal Remedy of Laos

    PubMed Central

    Elkington, Bethany G.; Sydara, Kongmany; Newsome, Andrew; Hwang, Chang Hwa; Lankin, David C.; Simmler, Charlotte; Napolitano, José G.; Ree, Richard; Graham, James G.; Gyllenhaal, Charlotte; Bouamanivong, Somsanith; Souliya, Onevilay; Pauli, Guido F.; Franzblau, Scott G.; Soejarto, Djaja Djendoel

    2014-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance There is widespread use of traditional herbal remedies in the Lao PDR (Laos). It is common practice to treat many diseases with local plants. This research project documented and analysed some of these traditional remedies used to treat symptoms of tuberculosis (TB). Materials and methods This research was executed by interviewing healers about plants used traditionally to treat the symptoms of TB. Samples of some of the plants were collected, and extracts of 77 species were submitted to various in vitro assays in order to determine the amount of growth inhibition of virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (Mtb), as opposed to other microbes and mammalian Vero cells. Results Interviews took place with 58 contemporary healers in 5 different provinces about plants currently used, giving a list of 341 plants. Bioassay-guided fractionation was performed on Marsypopetalum modestum (Pierre) B. Xue & R.M.K. Saunders (Annonaceae), leading to the isolation of dipyrithione, an anti-mycobacterial compound isolated for the first time from the genus Marsypopetalum through this research. Conclusions This research has helped to increase awareness of Laos’ rich diversity of medicinal plants and will hopefully provide incentive to preserve the undeveloped forested areas that remain, which still hold a wealth of medical information for future discoveries. PMID:24333958

  16. Herbal Remedies Used by Selected Migrant Farmworkers in El Paso, Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poss, Jane; Pierce, Rebecca; Prieto, Veronica

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about the use of complementary and alternative medicine among the approximately 1.6 million migrant farmworkers in the United States. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the use of medicinal plants and natural remedies among a convenience sample of 100 migrant farmworkers living temporarily in a migrant worker center in El…

  17. Herbal Remedies Used by Selected Migrant Farmworkers in El Paso, Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poss, Jane; Pierce, Rebecca; Prieto, Veronica

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about the use of complementary and alternative medicine among the approximately 1.6 million migrant farmworkers in the United States. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the use of medicinal plants and natural remedies among a convenience sample of 100 migrant farmworkers living temporarily in a migrant worker center in El

  18. Pathway-focused bioassays and transcriptome analysis contribute to a better activity monitoring of complex herbal remedies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Transcriptome analysis in combination with pathway-focused bioassays is suggested to be a helpful approach for gaining deeper insights into the complex mechanisms of action of herbal multicomponent preparations in living cells. The polyherbalism based concept of Tibetan and Ayurvedic medicine considers therapeutic efficacy through multi-target effects. A polyherbal Indo-Tibetan preparation, Padma 28, approved by the Swiss drug authorities (Swissmedic Nr. 58436), was applied to a more detailed dissection of mechanism of action in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Cell-free and cell-based assays were employed to evaluate the antioxidant capacity. Genome-wide expression profiling was done by applying Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Affymetrix arrays. Pathway- and network-oriented analysis elucidated the affected biological processes. The results were validated using reporter gene assays and quantitative real-time PCR. Results To reveal the direct radical scavenging effects of the ethanolic extract of the Indo-Tibetan polyherbal remedy Padma 28, an in vitro oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay (ORAC) was employed, which resulted in a peroxyl-radical scavenging activity of 2006 ± 235 μmol TE/g. Furthermore, the antioxidant capacity of Padma 28 was analysed in living HepG2 cells, by measuring its scavenging potential against radical induced ROS. This formulation showed a considerable antioxidant capacity by significantly reducing ROS levels in a dose-dependent manner. Integrated transcriptome analysis revealed a major influence on phase I and phase II detoxification and the oxidative stress response. Selected target genes, such as heme oxygenase 1, were validated in qPCR experiments. Network analysis showed 18 interrelated networks involved in important biological functions such as drug and bio-molecule metabolism, molecular transport and cellular communication. Some molecules are part of signaling cascades that are active during development and morphogenesis or are involved in pathological conditions and inflammatory response. Conclusions The identified molecular targets and pathways suggest several mechanisms that underlie the biological activity of the preparation. Although extrapolation of these findings to the in vivo situation is not possible, the results obtained might be the basis for further investigations and new hypotheses to be tested. This study demonstrates the potential of the combination of focused and unbiased research strategies in the mode of action analysis of multicomponent herbal mixtures. PMID:23445205

  19. Traditional Herbal Remedies for Burn Wound Healing in Canon of Avicenna

    PubMed Central

    Aliasl, Jale; Khoshzaban, Fariba

    2013-01-01

    Burns are a worldwide problem. The incidence of severe burns has been higher than the combined incidence of tuberculosis and HIV infections. Throughout history there have been many different treatments prescribed for burns. The Canon is the masterpiece of Avicenna’s medical books. The Canon includes a description of 785 simple drugs. Avicenna believed in burn treatment, which follows two goals. The first goal is prevention of blistering and the second goal is treatment of the burn wound after it has created blisters, cold drugs are suitable for the first goal and dry drugs with moderate in cold and hot qualities are better for second goal, this study reviewed remedies for burn wounds in Canon.

  20. Ethnoveterinary herbal remedies used by farmers in four north-eastern Swiss cantons (St. Gallen, Thurgau, Appenzell Innerrhoden and Appenzell Ausserrhoden)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Very few ethnoveterinary surveys have been conducted in central Europe. However, traditional knowledge on the use of medicinal plants might be an option for future concepts in treatment of livestock diseases. Therefore the aim of this study was to document and analyse the traditional knowledge and use of homemade herbal remedies for livestock by farmers in four Swiss cantons. Methods Research was conducted in 2012. Fifty farmers on 38 farms were interviewed with the aid of semistructured interviews. Detailed information about the plants used and their mode of preparation were documented as well as dosage, route of administration, category of use, origin of knowledge, frequency of use, and satisfaction with the treatment. Results In total, 490 homemade remedies were collected. Out of these, 315 homemade remedies contained only one plant species (homemade single species herbal remedies, HSHR), which are presented in this paper. Seventy six species from 44 botanical families were mentioned. The most HSHR were quoted for the families of Asteraceae, Polygonaceae and Urticaceae. The plant species with the highest number of HSHRs were Matricaria recutita L., Calendula officinalis L., Rumex obtusifolius L. and Urtica dioica L. For each HSHR, one to eight different applications were enumerated. A total of 428 applications were documented, the majority of which were used to treat cattle. The main applications were in treatment of skin afflictions and sores, followed by gastrointestinal disorders and metabolic dysfunctions. Topical administration was most frequently used, followed by oral administration. In nearly half of the cases the knowledge on preparing and using herbal remedies was from forefathers and relatives. More than one third of the applications were used more than ten times during the last five years, and in about sixty percent of the cases, the last application was during the last year preceding the interviews. Conclusions Traditional knowledge of farmers about the use of medicinal plants to treat livestock exists in north-eastern Switzerland. Homemade herbal remedies based on this knowledge are being used. The interviewed farmers were satisfied with the outcome of the applications. PMID:24685062

  1. Inhibitory Effect of Herbal Remedy PERVIVO and Anti-Inflammatory Drug Sulindac on L-1 Sarcoma Tumor Growth and Tumor Angiogenesis in Balb/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Skopiński, P.; Bałan, B. J.; Kocik, J.; Zdanowski, R.; Lewicki, S.; Niemcewicz, M.; Gawrychowski, K.; Skopińska-Różewska, E.; Stankiewicz, W.

    2013-01-01

    Anticancer activity of many herbs was observed for hundreds of years. They act as modifiers of biologic response, and their effectiveness may be increased by combining multiple herbal extracts . PERVIVO, traditional digestive herbal remedy, contains some of them, and we previously described its antiangiogenic activity. Numerous studies documented anticancer effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. We were the first to show that sulindac and its metabolites inhibit angiogenesis. In the present paper the combined in vivo effect of multicomponent herbal remedy PERVIVO and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sulindac on tumor growth, tumor angiogenesis, and tumor volume in Balb/c mice was studied. These effects were checked after grafting cells collected from syngeneic sarcoma L-1 tumors into mice skin. The strongest inhibitory effect was observed in experimental groups treated with PERVIVO and sulindac together. The results of our investigation showed that combined effect of examined drugs may be the best way to get the strongest antiangiogenic and antitumor effect. PMID:23935247

  2. Plant Sources of Chinese Herbal Remedies: Effects on Pratylenchus vulnus and Meloidogyne javanica.

    PubMed

    Ferris, H; Zheng, L

    1999-09-01

    More than 500 plant species, used alone or in combination, are documented in Chinese traditional medicine to have activity against helminth and micro-invertebrate pests of humans. We subjected 153 candidate medicines or their plant sources to multilevel screening for effectiveness against plant-parasitic nematodes. For extracts effective in preliminary screens, we determined time-course and concentration-response relationships. Seventy-three of the aqueous extracts of medicines or their plant sources killed either Meloidogyne javanica juveniles or Pratylenchus vulnus (mixed stages), or both, within a 24-hour exposure period. Of 64 remedies reported as antihelminthics, 36 were effective; of 21 classi- fied as purgatives, 13 killed the nematodes; of 29 indicated as generally effective against pests, 13 killed the nematodes. Sources of extracts effective against one or both species of plant-parasitic nematodes are either the whole plant or vegetative, storage or reproductive components of the plants. Effective plants include both annuals and perennials, range from grasses and herbs to woody trees, and represent 46 plant families. PMID:19270895

  3. Plant Sources of Chinese Herbal Remedies: Effects on Pratylenchus vulnus and Meloidogyne javanica

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, H.; Zheng, L.

    1999-01-01

    More than 500 plant species, used alone or in combination, are documented in Chinese traditional medicine to have activity against helminth and micro-invertebrate pests of humans. We subjected 153 candidate medicines or their plant sources to multilevel screening for effectiveness against plant-parasitic nematodes. For extracts effective in preliminary screens, we determined time-course and concentration-response relationships. Seventy-three of the aqueous extracts of medicines or their plant sources killed either Meloidogyne javanica juveniles or Pratylenchus vulnus (mixed stages), or both, within a 24-hour exposure period. Of 64 remedies reported as antihelminthics, 36 were effective; of 21 classi- fied as purgatives, 13 killed the nematodes; of 29 indicated as generally effective against pests, 13 killed the nematodes. Sources of extracts effective against one or both species of plant-parasitic nematodes are either the whole plant or vegetative, storage or reproductive components of the plants. Effective plants include both annuals and perennials, range from grasses and herbs to woody trees, and represent 46 plant families. PMID:19270895

  4. A natural herbal remedy modulates angiogenic activity of bronchoalveolar lavage cells from sarcoidosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Radomska-Leśniewska, Dorota M.; Skopińska-Różewska, Ewa; Demkow, Urszula; Jóźwiak, Jarosław; Sobiecka, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory disease with abnormally high angiogenic activity of inflammatory cells. Reumaherb preparation consisting of three herbs: Echinacea purpurea, Harpagophytum procumbens, and Filipendula ulmaria, and it exerts anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and analgesic activity and stimulates regenerative and immunological processes. The aim of this paper was to estimate the effect of Reumaherb on immunological angiogenesis induced by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells collected from six patients with sarcoidosis and grafted into Balb/c mice skin. After grafting, the animals were fed for three days with 0.6 or 1.2 mg of Reumaherb (calculated from recommended human daily dose) daily, suspended in 40 µl of water, or 40 µl of water alone (control group). A significant reduction of newly formed blood vessels was obtained in four cases for 1.2 mg and in three cases for 0.6 mg daily dose of this remedy. Thus, we hypothesise that Reumaherb promotes anti-angiogenic activity and may potentially be used in diseases associated with excessive blood vessel formation. PMID:27095919

  5. A natural herbal remedy modulates angiogenic activity of bronchoalveolar lavage cells from sarcoidosis patients.

    PubMed

    Radomska-Leśniewska, Dorota M; Skopińska-Różewska, Ewa; Demkow, Urszula; Jóźwiak, Jarosław; Sobiecka, Małgorzata; Bałan, Barbara Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory disease with abnormally high angiogenic activity of inflammatory cells. Reumaherb preparation consisting of three herbs: Echinacea purpurea, Harpagophytum procumbens, and Filipendula ulmaria, and it exerts anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and analgesic activity and stimulates regenerative and immunological processes. The aim of this paper was to estimate the effect of Reumaherb on immunological angiogenesis induced by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells collected from six patients with sarcoidosis and grafted into Balb/c mice skin. After grafting, the animals were fed for three days with 0.6 or 1.2 mg of Reumaherb (calculated from recommended human daily dose) daily, suspended in 40 µl of water, or 40 µl of water alone (control group). A significant reduction of newly formed blood vessels was obtained in four cases for 1.2 mg and in three cases for 0.6 mg daily dose of this remedy. Thus, we hypothesise that Reumaherb promotes anti-angiogenic activity and may potentially be used in diseases associated with excessive blood vessel formation. PMID:27095919

  6. Safety of Traditional Arab Herbal Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Bashar; Azaizeh, Hassan; Abu-Hijleh, Ghassan; Said, Omar

    2006-01-01

    Herbal remedies are widely used for the treatment and prevention of various diseases and often contain highly active pharmacological compounds. Many medicinal herbs and pharmaceutical drugs are therapeutic at one dose and toxic at another. Toxicity related to traditional medicines is becoming more widely recognized as these remedies become popular in the Mediterranean region as well as worldwide. Most reports concerning the toxic effects of herbal medicines are associated with hepatotoxicity although reports of other toxic effects including kidney, nervous system, blood, cardiovascular and dermatologic effects, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity have also been published in the medical literature. This article presents a systematic review on safety of traditional Arab medicine and the contribution of Arab scholars to toxicology. Use of modern cell biological, biochemical, in vitro and in vivo techniques for the evaluation of medicinal plants safety is also discussed. PMID:17173106

  7. Untargeted metabolomics: an emerging approach to determine the composition of herbal products.

    PubMed

    Commisso, Mauro; Strazzer, Pamela; Toffali, Ketti; Stocchero, Matteo; Guzzo, Flavia

    2013-01-01

    Natural remedies, such as those based on traditional Chinese medicines, have become more popular also in western countries over the last 10 years. The composition of these herbal products is largely unknown and difficult to determine. Moreover, since plants respond to their environment changing the metabolome, the composition of plant material can vary depending on the plant growth conditions. However, there is a growing need of a deeper knowledge on such natural remedies also in view of the growing number of reports of toxicity following the consumption of herbal supplements. Untargeted metabolomics is a useful approach for the simultaneous analysis of many compounds in herbal products. In particular, liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS) can determine presence, amount and sometime structures of plant metabolites in complex herbal mixtures, with significant advantages over techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). PMID:24688688

  8. Untargeted metabolomics: an emerging approach to determine the composition of herbal products

    PubMed Central

    Commisso, Mauro; Strazzer, Pamela; Toffali, Ketti; Stocchero, Matteo; Guzzo, Flavia

    2013-01-01

    Natural remedies, such as those based on traditional Chinese medicines, have become more popular also in western countries over the last 10 years. The composition of these herbal products is largely unknown and difficult to determine. Moreover, since plants respond to their environment changing the metabolome, the composition of plant material can vary depending on the plant growth conditions. However, there is a growing need of a deeper knowledge on such natural remedies also in view of the growing number of reports of toxicity following the consumption of herbal supplements. Untargeted metabolomics is a useful approach for the simultaneous analysis of many compounds in herbal products. In particular, liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS) can determine presence, amount and sometime structures of plant metabolites in complex herbal mixtures, with significant advantages over techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). PMID:24688688

  9. Bleeding risks of herbal, homeopathic, and dietary supplements: a hidden nightmare for plastic surgeons?

    PubMed

    Wong, Wendy W; Gabriel, Allen; Maxwell, G Patrick; Gupta, Subhas C

    2012-03-01

    The utilization of complementary and alternative medicine has increased tremendously in the last two decades. Herbal products, homeopathic medicines, and dietary supplements are extremely popular and are available without a prescription (which likely contributes to their popularity). Despite their "natural" characteristics, these remedies have the potential to cause bleeding in patients who undergo surgery. The high use of these supplements among cosmetic surgery patients, coupled with increasing reports of hematomas associated with herbal and homeopathic medicines, prompted the authors to conduct a comprehensive review focused on bleeding risks of such products in an effort to raise awareness among plastic surgeons. This review focuses on 19 herbs, three herbal formulas, two herbal teas, and several other supplements that can cause bleeding perioperatively and postoperatively. In addition to being aware of such adverse effects, plastic surgeons must adequately screen all patients and educate them on the possible dangers associated with these treatments. PMID:22395325

  10. [Herbal drugs: from traditional use to regulation].

    PubMed

    Federici, Elena; Multari, Giuseppina; Gallo, Francesca Romana; Palazzino, Giovanna

    2005-01-01

    Herbal preparations have been used for centuries as the main therapeutic means. In Italy there is an ancient tradition of using herbal remedies, which became extremely important from the 16th to the 18th century. Nowadays multinational companies invest great resources on herbal drugs and preparations. This article focuses on herbal medicines, herbal products, and food supplements. Moreover the European legislation on traditional medicinal plants and food supplements is analysed and discussed. PMID:16037650

  11. Treatment of food anaphylaxis with traditional Chinese herbal remedies – from mouse model to human clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review To describe the development of a novel treatment for food allergy, named the food allergy herbal formula-2 (FAHF-2), that is based on Traditional Chinese Medicine. Recent findings FAHF-2 has proven to be safe and effective for the treatment of food allergies in murine models of peanut and multiple food allergies. These results are accompanied by evidence of favorable immune modulation, and the effects are persistent after discontinuation of treatment. Early clinical trials demonstrate the safety and tolerability of this formula in subjects with food allergies. An on-going Phase II clinical trial will evaluate the efficacy of FAHF-2 in protecting individuals from allergen-induced allergic reactions during oral food challenges. Summary FAHF-2 is an herbal formula that has a high safety profile and has shown to prevent anaphylaxis in murine models of food allergy. Similar findings in clinical trials could bring a novel treatment for food allergies. PMID:23799334

  12. In vitro anti-plasmodial activity of three herbal remedies for malaria in Ghana: Adenia cissampeloides (Planch.) Harms., Termina liaivorensis A. Chev, and Elaeis guineensis Jacq

    PubMed Central

    Annan, Kofi; Sarpong, K.; Asare, C.; Dickson, R.; Amponsah, KI.; Gyan, B.; Ofori, M.; Gbedema, SY.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Herbal remedies of Adenia cissampeloides, Terminalia ivorensis, and Elaeis guineensis among others have been used in Ghana for the treatment of various ailments including malaria. However, most of these remedies have not been scientifically investigated. Objective: This study, therefore, seeks to investigate the anti-plasmodial activity of these plants. Materials and Methods: The ethanolic extracts of A. cissampeloides stem, T. ivorensis stem bark, and E. guineensis leaves were tested for in vitro anti-plasmodial activity against chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Thin blood films were used to assess the level of parasitemia and growth inhibition of the extracts. Results: The IC 50 of A. cissampeloides, T. ivorensis, and E. guineensis were 8.521, 6.949, and 1.195 μg/ml, respectively, compared to artesunate with IC50 of 0.031 μg/ml. Conclusion: The result of this study appears to confirm the folkloric anti-malarial use these plants. PMID:23225967

  13. Use of Herbal Products and Potential Interactions in Patients With Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tachjian, Ara; Maria, Viqar; Jahangir, Arshad

    2010-01-01

    More than 15 million people in the United States consume herbal remedies or high-dose vitamins. The number of visits to providers of complementary and alternative medicine exceeds those to primary care physicians, for annual out-of-pocket costs of $30 billion. Use of herbal products forms the bulk of treatments, particularly by elderly persons who also consume multiple prescription medications for comorbid conditions, which increases the risk of adverse herb-drug-disease interactions. Despite the paucity of scientific evidence supporting the safety or efficacy of herbal products, their widespread promotion in the popular media and the unsubstantiated health care claims about their efficacy drive consumer demand. In this review, we highlight commonly used herbs and their interactions with cardiovascular drugs. We also discuss health-related issues of herbal products and suggest ways to improve their safety to better protect the public from untoward effects. PMID:20152556

  14. Plant Sources of Chinese Herbal Remedies: Laboratory Efficacy, Suppression of Meloidogyne javanica in Soil, and Phytotoxicity Assays

    PubMed Central

    Zasada, I. A.; Ferris, H.; Zheng, L.

    2002-01-01

    Extracts of Chinese herbal medicines from plants representing 13 families were tested for their ability to suppress plant-parasitic nematodes. Effective concentration (EC50 and EC90) levels for 18 of the extracts were determined in laboratory assays with Meloidogyne javanica juveniles and all stages of Pratylenchus vulnus. Efficacy of 17 extracts was tested against M. javanica in soil. Generally, EC50 and EC90 values determined in the laboratory were useful indicators for application rates in the soil. Extracts tested from plants in the Liliaceae reduced galling of tomato by M. javanica and were not phytotoxic. Similarly, isothiocyanate-yielding plants in the Brassicaceae suppressed root galling without phytotoxicity. Other plant extracts, including those from Azadirachta indica, Nerium oleander, and Hedera helix, suppressed root galling but were phytotoxic at the higher concentrations tested. Many of these plant sources have been tested elsewhere. Inconsistency in results across studies points to the need for identification of active components and for determination of concentration levels of these components when plant residues or extracts are applied to soil. PMID:19265919

  15. Anti-Microbial Evaluation of a Herbal Dental Remedy Stem Bark of Nuclea latifolia-Family Rubiaceae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abiodun, Falodun; Igwe, A.; Osahon, Obasuyi

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the stem bark of Nuclea latifolia used as a dentrifice by the local populace. The crude powdered sample was evaluated for the chemical and antimicrobial effects. The methanolic and chloroform extracts were subjected to different organisms of clinical isolates Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus varidans, Staphylococcus aerues, Penicillum nonatum, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) were also obtained. The results of the study revealed significant antibacterial effect of the extracts. The study thus justifies the ethno medicinal use of the plant as a dental remedy.

  16. Toxic hepatitis induced by a herbal medicine: Tinospora crispa.

    PubMed

    Langrand, J; Regnault, H; Cachet, X; Bouzidi, C; Villa, A F; Serfaty, L; Garnier, R; Michel, S

    2014-01-01

    Herbal remedies are becoming increasingly popular in many countries. Tinospora species (Menispermaceae) is commonly used as a herbal medicine in South Asia, but very few toxic effects have been described. We report a case of acute hepatitis associated with chronic use of high doses of Tinospora crispa. A 49-year-old male with chronic low back pain bought a herbal medicine at a market in Vietnam that was supposed to be Tinospora crispa, and started to take 10 pellets per day. He had no medical history and did not take any other drugs or toxins. Four weeks later; he developed dark urine and pale stools, associated with asthenia and right hypochondrial pain. Two months after starting treatment, he was referred to the hepatology department with jaundice. Blood tests showed aspartate aminotransferase: 1.169 IU/l, alanine aminotransferase: 2.029 IU/l, total bilirubin: 20.47 mg/dl, direct bilirubin: 13.29 mg/dl, and ?-glutamyltransferase: 243 IU/l. Viral and autoimmune hepatitis were eliminated. Upper abdominal ultrasound was normal. Histopathological findings were consistent with a toxic reaction. The herbal medicine was stopped on admission and the patient fully recovered without treatment, with normal liver function 2 months after the acute episode. Tinospora crispa was clearly identified in the pellets by microscopic analysis of the botanical characters combined with chromatographic fingerprints. The use of herbal medicines containing Tinospora crispa can induce toxic hepatitis. Recovery can be complete after discontinuation. This case highlights the risk associated with traditional herbal remedies. PMID:24867504

  17. Herbal Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... for its scent, flavor, or therapeutic properties. Herbal medicines are one type of dietary supplement. They are ... and fresh or dried plants. People use herbal medicines to try to maintain or improve their health. ...

  18. Herbal Medicine and Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Applications and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Martin, Robert C. G.

    2011-01-01

    Use of herbal medicine in the treatment of liver cancer has a long tradition. The compounds derived from the herb and herbal composites are of considerable interest among oncologists. In the past, certain herbal compounds and herbal composite formulas have been studied through in vitro and in vivo as an anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) agent, enhancing our knowledge about their biologic functions and targets. However there is a significant distinction between the herbal medicine and the herbal production even though both are the plant-based remedies used in the practice. In this article, for the sake of clarity, the effective herbal compounds and herbal composite formulas against HCC are discussed, with emphasizing the basic conceptions of herbal medicine in order to have a better understanding of the prevention and treatment of HCC by herbal active compounds and herbal composite formulas. PMID:21799681

  19. Quality of herbal medicines: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junhua; Wider, Barbara; Shang, Hongcai; Li, Xuemei; Ernst, Edzard

    2012-01-01

    The popularity of herbal medicines has risen worldwide. This increase in usage renders safety issues important. Many adverse events of herbal medicines can be attributed to the poor quality of the raw materials or the finished products. Different types of herbal medicines are associated with different problems. Quality issues of herbal medicines can be classified into two categories: external and internal. In this review, external issues including contamination (e.g. toxic metals, pesticides residues and microbes), adulteration and misidentification are detailed. Complexity and non-uniformity of the ingredients in herbal medicines are the internal issues affecting the quality of herbal medicines. Solutions to the raised problems are discussed. The rigorous implementation of Good Agricultural and Collection Practices (GACP) and Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) would undoubtedly reduce the risk of external issues. Through the use of modern analytical methods and pharmaceutical techniques, previously unsolved internal issues have become solvable. Standard herbal products can be manufactured from the standard herbal extracts. PMID:22305255

  20. A review of plant-derived and herbal approaches to the treatment of sexual dysfunctions.

    PubMed

    Rowland, David L; Tai, Wendi

    2003-01-01

    Despite the increasing availability of effective conventional medical treatments, plant-derived and herbal remedies continue to provide a popular alternative for men and women seeking to improve their sex life. Nevertheless, the efficacy of most herbal agents in treating sexual problems remains uncertain. Therapists and consumers alike would benefit from an increased understanding of commonly used herbal agents on the market, their purported or supported effects, and their potential side effects. To this end, we cataloged the major prosexual herbal agents currently sold in several representative health food stores. We also specify the sexual problem purportedly ameliorated by each herbal agent. Finally, we evaluate eight herbal agents commonly promoted for the treatment of sexual problems. This evaluation includes a review of the research supporting the use, efficacy, dose, adverse effects, contraindications, and possible mechanism of action of each. We conclude by commenting on the quality of current research, pointing out gaps in our knowledge, and noting the need for rigorous research and product control to adequately address questions regarding the efficacy of these agents. PMID:12851124

  1. Herbal medicine-related hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Stournaras, Evangelos; Tziomalos, Konstantinos

    2015-09-01

    Herbal medicine products represent a common therapeutic approach in the East and are gaining increasing popularity in Western countries. They are unjustifiably considered to be side-effect free; on the contrary, severe toxicity, including catastrophic hepatic injury has been reported in association with their use. Vigilance is required from both physicians and the general public. Physicians should always suspect herbal medicines when evaluating a patient with unexplained liver injury. Regulation standards for herbal products need to be reconsidered, so that the efficacy and safety of these products have been clearly demonstrated before they enter the markets. PMID:26380043

  2. Herbal medicine-related hepatotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Stournaras, Evangelos; Tziomalos, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Herbal medicine products represent a common therapeutic approach in the East and are gaining increasing popularity in Western countries. They are unjustifiably considered to be side-effect free; on the contrary, severe toxicity, including catastrophic hepatic injury has been reported in association with their use. Vigilance is required from both physicians and the general public. Physicians should always suspect herbal medicines when evaluating a patient with unexplained liver injury. Regulation standards for herbal products need to be reconsidered, so that the efficacy and safety of these products have been clearly demonstrated before they enter the markets. PMID:26380043

  3. Inhibitory Effect on β-Hexosaminidase Release from RBL-2H3 Cells of Extracts and Some Pure Constituents of Benchalokawichian, a Thai Herbal Remedy, Used for Allergic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Juckmeta, Thana; Thongdeeying, Pakakrong; Itharat, Arunporn

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Benchalokawichian (BCW), a Thai traditional herbal formulation, has long been used as antipyretic and to treat skin disorders. It comprises roots from five herbs: Ficus racemosa, Capparis micracantha, Clerodendrum petasites, Harrisonia perforata, and Tiliacora triandra. This polyherbal remedy has recently been included in the Thailand National List of Essential Medicines (Herbal Products list). Methodology. A Bioassay-guided fractionation technique was used to evaluate antiallergy activities of crude extracts, and those obtained by the multistep column chromatography isolation of pure compounds. Inhibitory effect on the release of β-hexosaminidase from RBL-2H3 cells was used to determine antiallergic activity. Results. Two pure compounds from BCW formulation showed higher antiallergic activity than crude or semipure extracts. Pectolinarigenin showed the highest antiallergic activity, followed by O-methylalloptaeroxylin, with IC50 values of 6.3 μg/mL and 14.16 μg/mL, respectively. Moreover, the highest activities of pure compounds were significantly higher than chlorpheniramine (16.2 μg/mL). Conclusions. This study provides some support for the use of BCW in reducing itching and treatment of other skin allergic disorders. The two isolated constituents exhibited high antiallergic activity and it is necessary to determine their mechanism of action. Further phytochemical and safety studies of pure compounds are required before development of these as antiallergy commercial remedies. PMID:25580152

  4. A reappraisal of herbal medicinal products.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Sarah; Da-Costa-Rocha, Ines; Lawrence, M Jayne; Cable, Colin; Heinrich, Michael

    Complementary and alternative medicine is increasingly popular, and encompasses a number of systems and therapies based on diverse theories and practices, such as homoeopathy, traditional herbalism, reiki, ayurvedic medicine and traditional Chinese medicine. While many are based on metaphysical concepts for which there is no sound evidence, for herbal medicines there is a rational, scientific basis and increasing clinical evidence. This article suggests herbal medicines should no longer be considered part of CAM, but instead sit alongside conventional medicines. PMID:23155905

  5. Drug safety aspects of herbal medicinal products.

    PubMed

    Wegener, T; Deitelhoff, B; Silber-Mankowsky, A

    2015-06-01

    There are numerous statements in the literature suggesting that the safety of herbal products or herbal medicinal products is inadequately considered. Despite the presence of risk, the potential is commonly underestimated as herbals are considered to be natural substances. It is necessary to consider the different categories of herbal products in the market. On one hand there are authorised herbal medicinal products (HMPs) which have adhered to the requirements to present data on quality, efficacy and safety. On the other hand there are products falling outside the use of marketing authorisations as for remedies. In the European Union (EU), HMPs are subject to an ambitious and comprehensive risk management system as for chemically defined drugs, which react effectively to risk concerns with scientific methods, as has been shown in the past. The established methods of pharmacovigilance and risk management favour the authorisation of herbal preparations for medicinal purposes as proprietary medicinal drugs. PMID:26183727

  6. A novel 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inhibitor contained in saiboku-to, a herbal remedy for steroid-dependent bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Homma, M; Oka, K; Niitsuma, T; Itoh, H

    1994-04-01

    To identify the inhibitor of prednisolone metabolism contained in Saiboku-To, we conducted in-vitro experiments of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11 beta-HSD), using rat liver homogenate and cortisol as a typical substrate. We studied the effects of ten herbal constituents on 11 beta-HSD. Five herbal extracts showed inhibitory activity with Glycyrrhiza glabra > Perillae frutescens > Zizyphus vulgaris > Magnolia officinalis > Scutellaria baicalensis. This suggests that unknown 11 beta-HSD inhibitors are contained in four herbs other than G. glabra which contains a known inhibitor, glycyrrhizin (and glycyrrhetinic acid). Seven chemical constituents which have been identified as the major urinary products of Saiboku-To in healthy and asthmatic subjects were studied; magnolol derived from M. officinalis showed the most potent inhibition of the enzyme (IC50, 1.8 x 10(-4) M). Although this activity was less than that of glycyrrhizin, the inhibition mechanism (non-competitive) was different from a known competitive mechanism. These results suggest that magnolol might contribute to the inhibitory effects of Saiboku-To on prednisolone metabolism through inhibition of 11 beta-HSD. PMID:8051615

  7. Pharmacovigilance of Herbal Products in India

    PubMed Central

    Wal, P; Wal, A; Gupta, S; Sharma, G; Rai, AK

    2011-01-01

    Herbal formulations being widely accepted therapeutic agents as antidiabetics, antiarthritics, hepatoprotectives, cough remedies, memory enhancers, and adaptogens. The commonest myth regarding herbal medicines is that these medicines are completely safe, and can therefore be safely consumed by the patient on his/her own, without a physician's prescription. This belief has led to large-scale self-medication by people all over the world, often leading to disappointing end-results, side-effects, or unwanted after-effects. There is an increasing awareness at several levels of the need to develop pharmacovigilance practices for herbal medicines. The current model of pharmacovigilance and its associated tools have been developed in relation to synthetic drugs, and applying these methods to monitoring the safety of herbal medicines presents unique challenges in addition to those described for conventional medicines. Several problems relate to the ways in which herbal medicines are named, perceived, sourced, and utilized. This may be because of differences in the use of nonorthodox drugs (e.g., herbal remedies) which may pose special toxicological problems, when used alone or in combination with other drugs. The purpose of pharmacovigilance is to detect, assess, and understand, and to prevent the adverse effects or any other possible drug-related problems, related to herbal, traditional, and complementary medicines. PMID:21897669

  8. Comparison of "herbal highs" composition.

    PubMed

    Zuba, Dariusz; Byrska, Bogumila; Maciow, Martyna

    2011-04-01

    Popularity of new psychoactive substances, known as legal highs or herbal highs, is continuously growing. These products are typically sold via internet and in so-called head shops. The aim of this study was to identify active ingredients of herbal highs and to compare their chemical composition. Twenty-nine various products seized by the police in one of the "head shops" were analysed. Herbal mixtures (0.2 g) were prepared by ultrasonic-assisted extraction with 2.0 ml of ethanol for 2 h. The extracts were analysed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The main active compounds of the herbal mixtures were synthetic cannabinoids: JWH-018, JWH-073 and cannabicyclohexanol (CP-47,497-C8-homolog). Their content differed between the products; some contained only one cannabinoid whereas the others contained two or more. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis revealed that chemical composition of many products was very similar. The similarity was connected with their flavour and not the common name. This statement was true for the synthetic cannabinoids, other potential agonists of cannabinoid receptors (amides of fatty acids) and ingredients of natural origin and confirms that herbal highs are a threat to human health because the purchaser has no information on their real composition. PMID:21318244

  9. Herbal medicines--a cautionary tale.

    PubMed

    Gray, Sophie; West, Lance M

    2012-06-01

    We report an extensive intra-operative bleed which may have occurred as a result of the patient taking a herbal medicine. The patient underwent orthognathic surgery as a part of his orthodontic treatment, and lost approximately 3.5 litres of blood during the procedure. Preoperative blood tests were normal; the patient took no prescription medications and an appendectomy had been performed without incident. To aid healing, however, the patient had taken arnica the day before his operation. A concise literature review is presented which outlines the causes of surgical bleeding and discusses some of the bleeding concerns that herbal medicine use may raise for clinicians. Herbal medicines may contribute to unexplained surgical bleeding in the absence of other causative factors; it would therefore be useful to include an enquiry about the taking of herbal remedies at the history-taking stage for dental and maxillofacial surgical procedures. PMID:22788052

  10. Time to Talk: What You Should Know about 5 Popular Herbs (Evening Primrose Oil, St. John's Wort, Fenugreek, Echinacea, ....

    MedlinePlus

    ... evidence available about the safety or effectiveness of herbal supplements varies quite a bit. In some cases, there ... vera . Here are 5 tips about these popular herbal supplements: Evening Primrose Oil. Although evening primrose oil has ...

  11. Herbal Medicines: Malaysian Women's Knowledge and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Kim Sooi, Law

    2013-01-01

    This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study among Malay women admitted in the antenatal and postnatal ward to determine the prevalence and use of herbal medicines during pregnancy and elemental analysis in the most popular herbs. A total of 460 women were surveyed. Herbal medicine use during pregnancy was 34.3%, while 73% utilized herbal medicines during labor, because of a belief that it may shorten and ease labor. The most commonly used herbal medicines in pregnancy were Anastatica hierochuntica L. (60.1%) followed by coconut oil (35.4%). The majority of women (89.2%) used only one type of herbal medicines and took one capsule/glass (38%) per day. Herbal medicines use by pregnant women is largely unsupervised (81%), with most women getting information from their parents (60.7%) and buying the products directly from traditional midwives (32.2%) and 77% agreed upon its efficacy and safety. From the 460 respondents, 89.8% women were in the low end of the herbs knowledge. There was a significant difference found between knowledge score and income (P < 0.05). Microdiffraction analysis revealed significant presence of carbon, oxygen, silica, calcium, magnesium, aluminium, potassium, zinc, and iron that were found in Anastatica hierochuntica L. and proved to have good benefits for pregnancy. PMID:24093047

  12. Herbal medicines for the management of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Li, George Q; Kam, Antony; Wong, Ka H; Zhou, Xian; Omar, Eshaifol A; Alqahtani, Ali; Li, Kong M; Razmovski-Naumovski, Valentina; Chan, Kelvin

    2012-01-01

    Herbal medicines have been used in the management of diabetes in traditional medicine. This chapter reviews recent findings of the most popular herbs reported to treat diabetes through their relevant mechanistic pathways. These include increased insulin secretion, improvement in insulin sensitivity, enhanced glucose uptake by adipose and muscle tissues, inhibition of glucose absorption from intestine, inhibition of glucose production from hepatocytes and anti-inflammatory activities. The pharmacological activities have highlighted the potential efficacy of these herbal medicines in the management of diabetes. PMID:23393692

  13. A review of the status of Western herbal medicine in Australia.

    PubMed

    Wohlmuth, Hans; Oliver, Chris; Nathan, Pradeep J

    2002-01-01

    Western herbal medicine is the most widely used form of herbal medicine in Australia although Ayurvedic and Chinese herbal medicines are becoming better known. The agricultural production and manufacture of locally grown herbs is, with some exceptions, relatively underdeveloped, as is the research and development of indigenous flora. However, the use of herbal medicine is increasingly becoming mainstream with retail sales of herbal products in Australia estimated to be 200 million dollars. Concurrent with the increase in popularity of herbal medicine with health consumers have come advances in herbal medicine education and regulation. Although small by European standards, research into herbal medicines is increasing, mainly through industry and University-based initiatives. PMID:15277095

  14. Impact of Chinese Herbal Medicine on American Society and Health Care System: Perspective and Concern

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Winston I.; Lu, Dominic P.

    2014-01-01

    Many Americans, not completely satisfied with traditional western medicine, have turned to alternative and complementary medicine which explains the increasing popularity of the herbal products and the Chinese herbal medicine. The lack of government regulations and the increasing advertisements by the manufactures have created an impression to the common public that the natural herbal remedies are inherently safer and cheaper than conventional medicine. The skyrocketing rise of healthcare cost and the adverse reaction and side effects incurred from the prescribed drugs have both reinforced such an impression. Herbs in the USA and in many European countries have been prepared as capsules, tablets, teas, lozenges, juice extracts, tincture, and ointments. Most of the herbs are administered as a single herb in the USA and Europe. However, the traditional Chinese herbal medicine contains multiple active ingredients from various herbs and is prepared as concoctions by simmering them for hours to produce pharma-therapeutic properties useful for the treatment of a particular disease. Those prepared concoctions are taken gingerly with specific treatment purposes. In the USA and some European counties, herbs are distributed and labeled as dietary supplements and are taken by many individuals for a long period of time creating some medical and dental complex problems among them, especially in terms of anesthesia-surgery complications. This paper provides insight into basic differences in how herbs are prepared before administration to the patients in China versus a single unprepared herb sold in the USA and Europe. Also addressed are the interdisciplinary issues with health professionals, the proper regulations for better quality control of imported herbs, and the proper warning on the labels of the herbs. PMID:24719641

  15. Hepatotoxic slimming aids and other herbal hepatotoxins.

    PubMed

    Chitturi, Shivakumar; Farrell, Geoffrey C

    2008-03-01

    Perceptions of safety and/or cultural mores prompt individuals to seek herbal slimming aids in preference to conventional dietary, physical activity and medication-based protocols. In recent years, terpenoid-containing dietary supplements have been implicated in causing severe and sometimes fatal hepatotoxicity. Teucrium polium (germander) was the first of these herbal products to be clearly linked to cases of acute liver failure. Subsequently, similar hepatotoxicity has been observed with other members of the Teucrium genus. While diterpenoid-derived reactive metabolites are central to germander hepatotoxicity, it may also be that the hepatic effects of compounds such as Sho-saiko-to, Centella asiatica and Black cohosh are linked to their triterpenoid content. Other non-terpenoid-containing herbal remedies marketed for weight reduction have been causally associated with significant liver injury. Important among these are preparations containing N-nitrosofenfluramine, usnic acid and ephedra alkaloids. Finally, we review recent data on known and emerging hepatotoxins such as Boh-Gol-Zhee, Kava, pyrrolizidine alkaloids and Shou-Wu-Pian. Better public and physician awareness through health education, early recognition and management of herbal toxicity and tighter regulation of complementary/alternative medicine systems are required to minimize the dangers of herbal product use. PMID:18318821

  16. Use of herbal supplements for overactive bladder.

    PubMed

    Chughtai, Bilal; Kavaler, Elizabeth; Lee, Richard; Te, Alexis; Kaplan, Steven A; Lowe, Franklin

    2013-01-01

    Anticholinergics, specifically antimuscarinic agents, are the most common medications prescribed for overactive bladder (OAB). The most common side effects of these agents are dry mouth and constipation, although other more concerning effects include changes in blood pressure, pulse rate, or heart rhythm when treatment is initiated. Herbal treatments are an increasingly popular alternative for treating OAB. A 2002 survey of US adults aged ≥ 18 years conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention indicated that 74.6% of those with OAB had used some form of complementary and alternative medicine. The World Health Organization estimates that 80% of the world's population presently uses herbal medicine for some aspect of primary health care. Women were more likely than men to use complementary and alternative medicine. The authors review the most commonly used herbal medications for OAB. PMID:24223020

  17. Acute liver injury associated with the use of herbal preparations containing glucosamine: three case studies

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Aileen; Dillon, John

    2009-01-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicines is becoming increasingly popular in Western society. As a result the number of reported adverse reactions is increasing. Glucosamine is a herbal remedy commonly used to ease joint pain in osteoarthritis, and only two previous reports of hepatotoxicity have been published in the scientific literature. The present report describes three patients who developed acute liver injury following exposure to glucosamine; one patient made a complete recovery on cessation of ingestion, the second developed chronic hepatitis and the third died following progression to fulminant hepatic failure. A diagnosis of glucosamine-induced hepatotoxicity was made based on the temporal relationship between onset of liver injury and glucosamine ingestion, exclusion of all other potential aetiologies and, in the two surviving cases, improvement in condition on withdrawal of the supplement. PMID:21887162

  18. Herbal Products and Your Anesthestic

    MedlinePlus

    Using Herbal Products Safely The dietary and herbal supplement industry is unregulated. Safety and effectiveness are largely unstudied. To use an herbal product as safely as possible: • C onsult your doctor first. • ...

  19. Herbal Products and Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... products and supplements you use. These products can cause problems with surgery, including bleeding problems with anesthesia. You should stop using herbal health products or supplements at least ...

  20. Use of a Brine Shrimp Assay to Study Herbal Teas in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opler, Annette; Mizell, Rebecca; Robert, Alexander; Cervantes-Cervantes, Miguel; Kincaid, Dwight; Kennelly, Edward J.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces a brine shrimp assay to demonstrate the effects of the biological activity of herbal remedies. Describes two protocols, one using aqueous extracts and the other using methanol extracts. (Contains 21 references.) (YDS)

  1. Herbal medicine: women's views, knowledge and interaction with doctors: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, Kathryn A; Jolly, Kate B; Greenfield, Sheila M

    2006-01-01

    Background There is growing concern that serious interactions are occurring between prescribed/over the counter and herbal medicines and that there is a lack of disclosure of herbal use by patients to doctors. This study explores women's perspectives about the safety of herbal remedies, herb-drug interactions and communication with doctors about herbal medicines. Methods Qualitative, cross-sectional study, with purposive sampling which took place in Cheshire, UK. Eighteen in depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with female herbal medicine users aged 18 years and above. Results The large majority did not inform their GPs of their use of herbal medicines. This was due to lack of physician enquiry, perception of importance and fear of a negative response. Several women were not aware that herbal remedies could interact with prescribed or over the counter medicines. Of the women who had experienced adverse effects none had reported them, believing them of low importance. Conclusion The women had little knowledge about herb-drug interactions and rarely disclosed use of herbal medicines to their doctor. Doctors' communication and openness regarding herbal medicines needs to improve and there should be increased access to accurate information on herbal medicines in the public and health care domain. PMID:17156416

  2. Herbal Product Education in United States Pharmacy Schools: Core or Elective Program?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackowiak, Elaine D.; Parikh, Ami; Freely, Joshua

    2001-01-01

    Examined extent of use and knowledge of herbal drugs by pharmacy students through a print survey completed by a convenience sample of culturally diverse students. Found a low knowledge level about popular herbal products; individual scores were affected by ethnicity, work experience, family tradition, and sources of information. Concluded that

  3. Herbal drugs for diabetic treatment: an updated review of patents.

    PubMed

    Wais, Mohd; Nazish, Iram; Samad, Abdus; Beg, Sarwer; Abusufyan, S; Ajaj, S Ajaz; Aqil, Mohd

    2012-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrine disorder, affecting 16 million individuals in the United States and 200 million worldwide. Despite the use of advanced synthetic drugs for the treatment, use of herbal remedies is gaining higher importance because of synthetic drugs have drawbacks and limitations. The herbal drugs with antidiabetic activity are extensively formulated commercially because of easy availability, affordability and less side effects as compared to the synthetic antidiabetic drugs. Antidiabetic herbal formulations (AHF) are considered to be more effective for the management of diabetes. There are around 600 herbal drug manufacturers in India of which almost all manufacturers are developing AHF in addition to others. Till date, no article is published to give detailed information of the patents on AHF. Thus, this review article undertake the attempt for providing updated information on the type of diabetes and patented AHF which will enhance the existing knowledge of the researchers. PMID:22353000

  4. The in vitro drug interaction potential of dietary supplements containing multiple herbal components.

    PubMed

    Foti, Robert S; Wahlstrom, Jan L; Wienkers, Larry C

    2007-02-01

    Herbal-based remedies are widely used as alternative treatments for a number of ailments. In addition, the use of products that contain both single and multiple herbal constituents is becoming increasingly common. The work described in this report examined the in vitro drug interaction potential for a commonly used herbal cold remedy reported to contain a mixture of eight herbal components. Experiments conducted in human liver microsomes exhibited significant inhibition (<10% of control activity remaining) of multiple cytochrome P450 (P450) isoforms, including CYP2B6, CYP2C9, and CYP2D6, by the herbal mixture. In an attempt to explain the observed P450 inhibition by the herbal mixture, individual active components were obtained and tested for inhibitory potency. Inhibition of multiple P450 activities by a single constituent, luteolin, was observed. Conversely, inhibition of a single isoform by several herbal components was noted for CYP2B6. Based on the data presented, it is concluded that mixtures of herbal components may exhibit multiple modes of P450 inhibition, indicating the potential for complex herbal-drug interaction scenarios to occur. PMID:17093003

  5. Herbal medicine in the treatment of liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Stickel, F; Schuppan, D

    2007-04-01

    Herbal drugs have become increasingly popular and their use is widespread. Licensing regulations and pharmacovigilance regarding herbal products are still incomplete and clearcut proof of their efficacy in liver diseases is sparse. Nevertheless, a number of herbals show promising activity including silymarin for antifibrotic treatment, phyllantus amarus in chronic hepatitis B, glycyrrhizin to treat chronic viral hepatitis, and a number of herbal combinations from China and Japan that deserve testing in appropriate studies. Apart from therapeutic properties, reports are accumulating about liver injury after the intake of herbals, including those advertised for liver diseases. Acute and/or chronic liver damage occurred after ingestion of some Chinese herbs, herbals that contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids, germander, greater celandine, kava, atractylis gummifera, callilepsis laureola, senna alkaloids, chaparral and many others. Since the evidence supporting the use of botanicals to treat chronic liver diseases is insufficient and only few of them are well standardised and free of potential serious side effects, most of these medications are not recommended outside clinical trials. Particularly with regard to the latter, adequately powered randomised-controlled clinical trials with well-selected end points are needed to assess the role of herbal therapy for liver diseases. PMID:17331820

  6. Attitude and use of herbal medicines among pregnant women in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The use of herbal medicines among pregnant women in Nigeria has not been widely studied. Methods Opinion of 595 pregnant women in three geopolitical zones in Nigeria on the use of herbal medicines, safety on usage, knowledge of potential effects of herbal remedies on the fetus and potential benefits or harms that may be derived from combining herbal remedies with conventional therapies were obtained using a structured questionnaire between September 2007 and March 2008. Descriptive statistics and Fisher's exact tests were used at 95% confidence level to evaluate the data obtained. Level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Results More than two-third of respondents [67.5%] had used herbal medicines in crude forms or as pharmaceutical prepackaged dosage forms, with 74.3% preferring self-prepared formulations. Almost 30% who were using herbal medicine at the time of the study believed that the use of herbal medicines during pregnancy is safe. Respondents' reasons for taking herbal medications were varied and included reasons such as herbs having better efficacy than conventional medicines [22.4%], herbs being natural, are safer to use during pregnancy than conventional medicines [21.1%], low efficacy of conventional medicines [19.7%], easier access to herbal medicines [11.2%], traditional and cultural belief in herbal medicines to cure many illnesses [12.5%], and comparatively low cost of herbal medicines [5.9%]. Over half the respondents, 56.6% did not support combining herbal medicines with conventional drugs to forestall drug-herb interaction. About 33.4% respondents believed herbal medicines possess no adverse effects while 181 [30.4%] were of the opinion that adverse/side effects of some herbal medicines could be dangerous. Marital status, geopolitical zones, and educational qualification of respondents had statistically significant effects on respondents views on side effects of herbal medicines [p < 0.05)] while only geopolitical zones and educational qualifications seemed to have influence on respondents' opinion on the harmful effects of herbal medicines to the fetus [p < 0.05]. Conclusion The study emphasized the wide spread use of herbal medicines by pregnant women in Nigeria highlighting an urgent need for health care practitioners and other health care givers to be aware of this practice and make efforts in obtaining information about herb use during ante-natal care. This will help forestall possible interaction between herbal and conventional medicines. PMID:20043858

  7. [Herbal medicine in womens' life cycle].

    PubMed

    Ben-Arye, Eran; Oren, Amnon; Ben-Arie, Alon

    2006-10-01

    Women use herbs and other traditional and complementary modalities to treat various ailments throughout their life circle. This article reviewed 19 randomized controlled trials, which studied efficacy and safety of various herbs in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome (PMS), nausea and vomiting in the first trimester of pregnancy and menopausal hot flushes. Preliminary data support the efficacy of Chaste tree fruit (Vitex agnus) in the treatment of PMS, Ginger (Zingiber officinale) in the treatment of hyperemesis gravidarum and (Cimicifuga racemosa) in the treatment of menopausal hot flushes. Additional and more rigorous studies are warranted in order to support the efficacy and safety of these herbal remedies. PMID:17111709

  8. Risks and benefits of commonly used herbal medicines in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez-Fragoso, Lourdes Reyes-Esparza, Jorge; Burchiel, Scott W. Herrera-Ruiz, Dea; Torres, Eliseo

    2008-02-15

    In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we also raise concerns about the safety of these agents, which have not been fully assessed. Although numerous randomized clinical trials of herbal medicines have been published and systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these studies are available, generalizations about the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines are clearly not possible. Recent publications have also highlighted the unintended consequences of herbal product use, including morbidity and mortality. It has been found that many phytochemicals have pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs. The present review is limited to some herbal medicines that are native or cultivated in Mexico and that have significant use. We discuss the cultural uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological, and toxicological properties of the following plant species: nopal (Opuntia ficus), peppermint (Mentha piperita), chaparral (Larrea divaricata), dandlion (Taraxacum officinale), mullein (Verbascum densiflorum), chamomile (Matricaria recutita), nettle or stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), passionflower (Passiflora incarnata), linden flower (Tilia europea), and aloe (Aloe vera). We conclude that our knowledge of the therapeutic benefits and risks of some herbal medicines used in Mexico is still limited and efforts to elucidate them should be intensified.

  9. Risks and benefits of commonly used herbal medicines in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Fragoso, Lourdes; Reyes-Esparza, Jorge; Burchiel, Scott W; Herrera-Ruiz, Dea; Torres, Eliseo

    2008-02-15

    In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we also raise concerns about the safety of these agents, which have not been fully assessed. Although numerous randomized clinical trials of herbal medicines have been published and systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these studies are available, generalizations about the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines are clearly not possible. Recent publications have also highlighted the unintended consequences of herbal product use, including morbidity and mortality. It has been found that many phytochemicals have pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs. The present review is limited to some herbal medicines that are native or cultivated in Mexico and that have significant use. We discuss the cultural uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological, and toxicological properties of the following plant species: nopal (Opuntia ficus), peppermint (Mentha piperita), chaparral (Larrea divaricata), dandlion (Taraxacum officinale), mullein (Verbascum densiflorum), chamomile (Matricaria recutita), nettle or stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), passionflower (Passiflora incarnata), linden flower (Tilia europea), and aloe (Aloe vera). We conclude that our knowledge of the therapeutic benefits and risks of some herbal medicines used in Mexico is still limited and efforts to elucidate them should be intensified. PMID:18037151

  10. Challenges and guidelines for clinical trial of herbal drugs

    PubMed Central

    Parveen, Abida; Parveen, Bushra; Parveen, Rabea; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2015-01-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) has defined herbal medicines as finished labeled medicinal product that contain an active ingredient, aerial, or underground parts of the plant or other plant material or combinations. According to a report of WHO, about 80% of the world population is reported to rely on traditional medicine for their primary health care needs. Even in the developed countries, complementary or alternative medicine is gaining popularity. A report of a global survey on national policy on traditional medicine and regulation of herbal medicines indicated that about 50 countries including China, Japan, and Germany already have their national policy and laws on regulations of traditional medicines. Herbal drugs possess a long history of its use and better patient tolerance. These are cheaper and easily available in countries like India due to rich agro culture conditions. However, reckless utilization of resources threatens the sustainability of several plant species. Traditional medicines are governed by the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of 1940 and the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules of 1945. In 1959, the Government of India amended the Drugs and Cosmetics Act to include drugs that are derived from traditional Indian medicine. In 1993, the guidelines for the safety and efficacy of herbal medicines developed by an expert committee directed that the procedures laid down by the office of the Drug Controller General of India for allopathic drugs should be followed for all traditional and herbal products to enter into clinical trials for any therapeutic condition. However, there are certain loop holes in the clinical trials of herbal drugs as the lack of stringent bylaws and regulations. Hence, a deep insight of important challenges and major regulatory guidelines for clinical trial of herbal drugs and botanicals is discussed in the present communication. There is lack of scientific evidence to evaluate safety and efficacy of herbal drugs. The quality of the trial drug has to be tested for batch-to-batch uniformity of the active constituents. It is very difficult to have active and control groups with identical color, smell and taste of the herbal drug, which cannot be imitated while manufacturing a placebo. These challenges can be reduced or overcome by applying most recent methodologies and guidelines for clinical trials. Since the quality control of herbal medicines is complicated and difficult, relevant and appropriate requirements should be established for the assessment of safety and efficacy for different categorized herbal medicines to reduce cost and expenditure. And, efforts should be made for the integration of traditional medicine into national healthcare systems. Different challenges and regulatory guidelines discussed for the clinical trial of herbal drugs will be useful for various industries for considering it before going ahead for clinical trial of their product. PMID:26681895

  11. Cytochrome P450 enzyme mediated herbal drug interactions (Part 2).

    PubMed

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon; Phopin, Kamonrat; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2014-01-01

    To date, a number of significant herbal drug interactions have their origins in the alteration of cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity by various phytochemicals. Among the most noteworthy are those involving St. John's wort and drugs metabolized by human CYP3A4 enzyme. This review article is the continued work from our previous article (Part 1) published in this journal (Wanwimolruk and Prachayasittikul, 2014[ref:133]). This article extends the scope of the review to six more herbs and updates information on herbal drug interactions. These include black cohosh, ginseng, grape seed extract, green tea, kava, saw palmetto and some important Chinese medicines are also presented. Even though there have been many studies to determine the effects of herbs and herbal medicines on the activity of CYP, most of them were in vitro and in animal studies. Therefore, the studies are limited in predicting the clinical relevance of herbal drug interactions. It appeared that the majority of the herbal medicines have no clear effects on most of the CYPs examined. For example, the existing clinical trial data imply that black cohosh, ginseng and saw palmetto are unlikely to affect the pharmacokinetics of conventional drugs metabolized by human CYPs. For grape seed extract and green tea, adverse herbal drug interactions are unlikely when they are concomitantly taken with prescription drugs that are CYP substrates. Although there were few clinical studies on potential CYP-mediated interactions produced by kava, present data suggest that kava supplements have the ability to inhibit CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 significantly. Therefore, caution should be taken when patients take kava with CYP1A2 or CYP2E1 substrate drugs as it may enhance their therapeutic and adverse effects. Despite the long use of traditional Chinese herbal medicines, little is known about the potential drug interactions with these herbs. Many popularly used Chinese medicines have been shown in vitro to significantly change the activity of human CYP. However, with little confirming evidence from clinical studies, precaution should be exercised when patients are taking Chinese herbal medicines concomitantly with drugs that are CYP substrates. Currently there is sufficient evidence to indicate that herbal drug interactions can occur and may lead to serious clinical consequence. Further clinical trial research should be conducted to verify these herbal drug interactions. Education on herbal drug interactions and communication with patients on their use of herbal products is also important. PMID:26417310

  12. Cytochrome P450 enzyme mediated herbal drug interactions (Part 2)

    PubMed Central

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon; Phopin, Kamonrat; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2014-01-01

    To date, a number of significant herbal drug interactions have their origins in the alteration of cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity by various phytochemicals. Among the most noteworthy are those involving St. John's wort and drugs metabolized by human CYP3A4 enzyme. This review article is the continued work from our previous article (Part 1) published in this journal (Wanwimolruk and Prachayasittikul, 2014[ref:133]). This article extends the scope of the review to six more herbs and updates information on herbal drug interactions. These include black cohosh, ginseng, grape seed extract, green tea, kava, saw palmetto and some important Chinese medicines are also presented. Even though there have been many studies to determine the effects of herbs and herbal medicines on the activity of CYP, most of them were in vitro and in animal studies. Therefore, the studies are limited in predicting the clinical relevance of herbal drug interactions. It appeared that the majority of the herbal medicines have no clear effects on most of the CYPs examined. For example, the existing clinical trial data imply that black cohosh, ginseng and saw palmetto are unlikely to affect the pharmacokinetics of conventional drugs metabolized by human CYPs. For grape seed extract and green tea, adverse herbal drug interactions are unlikely when they are concomitantly taken with prescription drugs that are CYP substrates. Although there were few clinical studies on potential CYP-mediated interactions produced by kava, present data suggest that kava supplements have the ability to inhibit CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 significantly. Therefore, caution should be taken when patients take kava with CYP1A2 or CYP2E1 substrate drugs as it may enhance their therapeutic and adverse effects. Despite the long use of traditional Chinese herbal medicines, little is known about the potential drug interactions with these herbs. Many popularly used Chinese medicines have been shown in vitro to significantly change the activity of human CYP. However, with little confirming evidence from clinical studies, precaution should be exercised when patients are taking Chinese herbal medicines concomitantly with drugs that are CYP substrates. Currently there is sufficient evidence to indicate that herbal drug interactions can occur and may lead to serious clinical consequence. Further clinical trial research should be conducted to verify these herbal drug interactions. Education on herbal drug interactions and communication with patients on their use of herbal products is also important. PMID:26417310

  13. Challenges and guidelines for clinical trial of herbal drugs.

    PubMed

    Parveen, Abida; Parveen, Bushra; Parveen, Rabea; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2015-01-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) has defined herbal medicines as finished labeled medicinal product that contain an active ingredient, aerial, or underground parts of the plant or other plant material or combinations. According to a report of WHO, about 80% of the world population is reported to rely on traditional medicine for their primary health care needs. Even in the developed countries, complementary or alternative medicine is gaining popularity. A report of a global survey on national policy on traditional medicine and regulation of herbal medicines indicated that about 50 countries including China, Japan, and Germany already have their national policy and laws on regulations of traditional medicines. Herbal drugs possess a long history of its use and better patient tolerance. These are cheaper and easily available in countries like India due to rich agro culture conditions. However, reckless utilization of resources threatens the sustainability of several plant species. Traditional medicines are governed by the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of 1940 and the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules of 1945. In 1959, the Government of India amended the Drugs and Cosmetics Act to include drugs that are derived from traditional Indian medicine. In 1993, the guidelines for the safety and efficacy of herbal medicines developed by an expert committee directed that the procedures laid down by the office of the Drug Controller General of India for allopathic drugs should be followed for all traditional and herbal products to enter into clinical trials for any therapeutic condition. However, there are certain loop holes in the clinical trials of herbal drugs as the lack of stringent bylaws and regulations. Hence, a deep insight of important challenges and major regulatory guidelines for clinical trial of herbal drugs and botanicals is discussed in the present communication. There is lack of scientific evidence to evaluate safety and efficacy of herbal drugs. The quality of the trial drug has to be tested for batch-to-batch uniformity of the active constituents. It is very difficult to have active and control groups with identical color, smell and taste of the herbal drug, which cannot be imitated while manufacturing a placebo. These challenges can be reduced or overcome by applying most recent methodologies and guidelines for clinical trials. Since the quality control of herbal medicines is complicated and difficult, relevant and appropriate requirements should be established for the assessment of safety and efficacy for different categorized herbal medicines to reduce cost and expenditure. And, efforts should be made for the integration of traditional medicine into national healthcare systems. Different challenges and regulatory guidelines discussed for the clinical trial of herbal drugs will be useful for various industries for considering it before going ahead for clinical trial of their product. PMID:26681895

  14. Constipation and herbal medicine

    PubMed Central

    Iizuka, Norio; Hamamoto, Yoshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Constipation is characterized by a variety of bowel symptoms such as difficulty passing stool, hard stool, and a feeling of incomplete evacuation. The multifactorial causes of constipation limit the clinical efficacy of current conventional treatments that use a single drug that acts through only one pathway. To complement the shortcomings of the current Western medical model and provide a complete holistic approach, herbal medicines capable of targeting multiple organs and cellular sites may be used. In Japan, many herbs and herbal combinations have traditionally been used as foods and medicines. Currently, Japanese physicians use standardized herbal combinations that provide consistent and essential quality and quantity. This review highlights representative Japanese herbal medicines (JHMs), Rhei rhizoma-based JHMs including Daiokanzoto and Mashiningan, and Kenchuto-based JHMs including Keishikashakuyakuto and Daikenchuto, which coordinate the motility of the alimentary tract. This review provides a framework to better understand the clinical and pharmacological efficacies of JHMs on constipation according to the unique theory of Japanese traditional medicine, known as Kampo medicine. PMID:25904866

  15. Immunomodulation of Autoimmune Arthritis by Herbal CAM.

    PubMed

    Venkatesha, Shivaprasad H; Rajaiah, Rajesh; Berman, Brian M; Moudgil, Kamal D

    2011-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a debilitating autoimmune disease of global prevalence. The disease is characterized by synovial inflammation leading to cartilage and bone damage. Most of the conventional drugs used for the treatment of RA have severe adverse reactions and are quite expensive. Over the years, increasing proportion of patients with RA and other immune disorders are resorting to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for their health needs. Natural plant products comprise one of the most popular CAM for inflammatory and immune disorders. These herbal CAM belong to diverse traditional systems of medicine, including traditional Chinese medicine, Kampo, and Ayurvedic medicine. In this paper, we have outlined the major immunological pathways involved in the induction and regulation of autoimmune arthritis and described various herbal CAM that can effectively modulate these immune pathways. Most of the information about the mechanisms of action of herbal products in the experimental models of RA is relevant to arthritis patients as well. The study of immunological pathways coupled with the emerging application of genomics and proteomics in CAM research is likely to provide novel insights into the mechanisms of action of different CAM modalities. PMID:21234398

  16. Immunomodulation of Autoimmune Arthritis by Herbal CAM

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesha, Shivaprasad H.; Rajaiah, Rajesh; Berman, Brian M.; Moudgil, Kamal D.

    2011-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a debilitating autoimmune disease of global prevalence. The disease is characterized by synovial inflammation leading to cartilage and bone damage. Most of the conventional drugs used for the treatment of RA have severe adverse reactions and are quite expensive. Over the years, increasing proportion of patients with RA and other immune disorders are resorting to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for their health needs. Natural plant products comprise one of the most popular CAM for inflammatory and immune disorders. These herbal CAM belong to diverse traditional systems of medicine, including traditional Chinese medicine, Kampo, and Ayurvedic medicine. In this paper, we have outlined the major immunological pathways involved in the induction and regulation of autoimmune arthritis and described various herbal CAM that can effectively modulate these immune pathways. Most of the information about the mechanisms of action of herbal products in the experimental models of RA is relevant to arthritis patients as well. The study of immunological pathways coupled with the emerging application of genomics and proteomics in CAM research is likely to provide novel insights into the mechanisms of action of different CAM modalities. PMID:21234398

  17. Popular Culture and English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holbrook, Hilary Taylor

    1987-01-01

    Explores the origins and elements of popular culture--noting that English instruction and popular culture need not be mutually exclusive, and that selected materials from popular culture may serve goals of the English curriculum without compromising them. (NKA)

  18. Herbal products begin to attract the attention of brand-name drug companies.

    PubMed Central

    Cottrell, K

    1996-01-01

    Many Canadians are interested in alternative medicine, and burgeoning public interest in herbal remedies has not gone unnoticed by Canada's drug companies. McNeil Consumer Products recently began selling a migraine prophylaxis made from the plant feverfew. Physicians who would like to see herbal medications subjected to outcome studies and quality-control standards, with evidence of risks and benefits being made available to consumers, welcome the interest the companies are showing. Meanwhile, physicians and pharmacists are trying to respond to consumer demand by increasing their own knowledge about herbal medications. PMID:8800080

  19. Popular Culture and Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Ray B., Ed.; Ambrosetti, Ronald J., Ed.

    The seven essays in this publication, including four read at the fall 1969 American Studies Association meeting, attempt to present both the nature of popular culture study and a guide for teachers of popular culture courses. Papers are (1) "Popular Culture: Notes toward a Definition" by Ray B. Browne; (2) "Can Popular Culture Save American…

  20. A review of herbal medicines in wound healing.

    PubMed

    Maver, Tina; Maver, Uroš; Stana Kleinschek, Karin; Smrke, Dragica M; Kreft, Samo

    2015-07-01

    Herbs have been integral to both traditional and non-traditional forms of medicine dating back at least 5000 years. The enduring popularity of herbal medicines may be explained by the perception that herbs cause minimal unwanted side effects. More recently, scientists increasingly rely on modern scientific methods and evidence-based medicine to prove efficacy of herbal medicines and focus on better understanding of mechanisms of their action. However, information concerning quantitative human health benefits of herbal medicines is still rare or dispersed, limiting their proper valuation. Preparations from traditional medicinal plants are often used for wound healing purposes covering a broad area of different skin-related diseases. Herbal medicines in wound management involve disinfection, debridement, and provision of a suitable environment for aiding the natural course of healing. Here we report on 22 plants used as wound healing agents in traditional medicine around the world. The aim of this review is therefore to review herbal medicines, which pose great potential for effective treatment of minor wounds. PMID:25808157

  1. Use of herbal therapies among midlife Mexican women.

    PubMed

    Zenk, S N; Shaver, J L; Peragallo, N; Fox, P; Chávez, N

    2001-09-01

    The cultural traditions of Mexican women living in the United States make it likely that some women promote their health and manage their symptoms using various herbal therapies, yet we know little about this phenomenon. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare midlife Mexican women living in the U.S. who were or were not using herbal therapies with regard to the extent of their acculturation, beliefs about herbs, and factors associated with their utilization of health services. A convenience sample of 30 Mexican women between the ages of 40 and 56 years completed face-to-face interviews in either English or Spanish. Nearly half reported using herbal therapies. With the exception of positive beliefs about herbs, we found few differences between herbal users and nonusers on acculturation or access to, and satisfaction with, health services. Although acculturation did not appear to influence whether the women used herbal therapies, it did relate to the types of herbs selected. Women most commonly reported using herbs popular in traditional Mexican culture, including manzanilla (chamomile), savila (aloe vera), ajo (garlic), uña de gato (cat's claw), and yerba buena (spearmint). PMID:12141849

  2. [Herbals and herbal nutritional products hepatotoxicity].

    PubMed

    Mengual-Moreno, Edgardo; Lizarzábal-García, Maribel; Hernández-Rincón, Ileana; Barboza-Nobrega, María De Freitas

    2015-09-01

    Herbs and other botanicals have been used in different cultures with medicinal and dietary purposes for centuries. Contrary to the belief of being natural and safe products, their hepatotoxic potential is recognized in several studies worldwide, and represent a health problem that deserves greater attention. The reported prevalence of hepatotoxicity associated with botanicals is variable and depends on various factors such as population, period and design of the study. There have been reports of a total of 60 products with herbal medicinal and dietary purposes, which may cause liver damage; however, the pathophysiological mechanisms involved are not fully elucidated. Their clinical and histological features, not unlike liver injury associated with drugs in most patients, have a pattern of hepatocellular injury. Diagnosis is by exclusion, and represents a clinical challenge. It is essential the clinical suspicion and the differential diagnosis with other acute and chronic conditions. Hence, future researches are aimed at improving existing diagnostic methods and introducing new toxicological, genetic and immunological technologies. Treatment is complex and presents a challenge for the specialist, as there are no antidotes. Management based on the discontinued use of the product and in the symptomatic treatment, decreases the progression to an acute fulminant hepatic failure. PMID:26710547

  3. DNA barcoding detects contamination and substitution in North American herbal products

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Herbal products available to consumers in the marketplace may be contaminated or substituted with alternative plant species and fillers that are not listed on the labels. According to the World Health Organization, the adulteration of herbal products is a threat to consumer safety. Our research aimed to investigate herbal product integrity and authenticity with the goal of protecting consumers from health risks associated with product substitution and contamination. Methods We used DNA barcoding to conduct a blind test of the authenticity for (i) 44 herbal products representing 12 companies and 30 different species of herbs, and (ii) 50 leaf samples collected from 42 herbal species. Our laboratory also assembled the first standard reference material (SRM) herbal barcode library from 100 herbal species of known provenance that were used to identify the unknown herbal products and leaf samples. Results We recovered DNA barcodes from most herbal products (91%) and all leaf samples (100%), with 95% species resolution using a tiered approach (rbcL + ITS2). Most (59%) of the products tested contained DNA barcodes from plant species not listed on the labels. Although we were able to authenticate almost half (48%) of the products, one-third of these also contained contaminants and or fillers not listed on the label. Product substitution occurred in 30/44 of the products tested and only 2/12 companies had products without any substitution, contamination or fillers. Some of the contaminants we found pose serious health risks to consumers. Conclusions Most of the herbal products tested were of poor quality, including considerable product substitution, contamination and use of fillers. These activities dilute the effectiveness of otherwise useful remedies, lowering the perceived value of all related products because of a lack of consumer confidence in them. We suggest that the herbal industry should embrace DNA barcoding for authenticating herbal products through testing of raw materials used in manufacturing products. The use of an SRM DNA herbal barcode library for testing bulk materials could provide a method for 'best practices? in the manufacturing of herbal products. This would provide consumers with safe, high quality herbal products. PMID:24120035

  4. Herbal medicine, Chaplin, and "The Kid".

    PubMed

    Pandolfi, Maurizio; Zilletti, Lucilla

    2012-06-01

    At variance with other largely safe complementary alternative medicines like homeopathy and acupuncture, which only carry the risk of inducing patients to shun effective treatment, herbal remedies are real, albeit impure, drugs and therefore fully capable of producing undesirable consequences if misused. The advantages they offer are uncertain since genuine evidence of efficacy and effectiveness is present in only a few cases. A result of this imbalance is that studies in this field are considerably more meaningful when they deal with untoward effects than with therapeutic uses. This disproportion has suggested to us the curious similarity with the situation portrayed in the film "The Kid" where the essential task of the protagonist (Chaplin) is to repair the windows his stone-throwing child has just broken. PMID:22560379

  5. Preclinical Models for Investigation of Herbal Medicines in Liver Diseases: Update and Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Hor-Yue; San-Marina, Serban; Wang, Ning; Hong, Ming; Li, Sha; Li, Lei; Cheung, Fan; Wen, Xiao-Yan; Feng, Yibin

    2016-01-01

    Liver disease results from a dynamic pathological process associated with cellular and genetic alterations, which may progress stepwise to liver dysfunction. Commonly, liver disease begins with hepatocyte injury, followed by persistent episodes of cellular regeneration, inflammation, and hepatocyte death that may ultimately lead to nonreversible liver failure. For centuries, herbal remedies have been used for a variety of liver diseases and recent studies have identified the active compounds that may interact with liver disease-associated targets. Further study on the herbal remedies may lead to the formulation of next generation medicines with hepatoprotective, antifibrotic, and anticancer properties. Still, the pharmacological actions of vast majority of herbal remedies remain unknown; thus, extensive preclinical studies are important. In this review, we summarize progress made over the last five years of the most commonly used preclinical models of liver diseases that are used to screen for curative herbal medicines for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, liver fibrosis/cirrhosis, and liver. We also summarize the proposed mechanisms associated with the observed liver-protective, antifibrotic, and anticancer actions of several promising herbal medicines and discuss the challenges faced in this research field. PMID:26941826

  6. Ethnobotanical survey of cooling herbal drinks from southern China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Liáng chá (“cooling tea”, “herbal tea” or “cool tisane” in Chinese) are herbal drinks widely produced in southern China and consumed by billions of people worldwide to prevent and treat internal heat as well as a range of associated health conditions. Globalization and renewed interest in botanical remedies has attracted growing attention in cooling herbal drinks by industry, scientists and consumers. However, there is a knowledge gap on the plant species used and commercialized for cooling herbal drinks in southern China and their associated ethnobotanical use, habitat and conservation status. This is the first study to document plant species used and commercialized as liáng chá in southern China’s Lingnan region and associated ethnomedical function, preparation methods, habitat and conservation status. Methods Three hundred market surveys were conducted between 2010-2012 in the largest herbal drink producing region of China to record plants used for liáng chá and to document knowledge on their medicinal function, habitat and conservation status. Product samples and voucher specimens were collected for taxonomic identification. Results All informants harvest and cultivate plants for preparing herbal drinks for their medicinal, cultural and economic values. A total of 222 ethnotaxa corresponded to 238 botanical taxa (species, varieties or subspecies) belonging to 86 families and 209 genera were recorded as liáng chá to treat health conditions in the study area. Recorded remedies consisted of one or several plant species to treat conditions classified into 27 major health conditions with clearing internal heat being the most common medicinal function. The habitat types of plants documented for use as liáng chá include 112 wild harvested species, 51 species that are either wild harvested or cultivated, 57 cultivated species, and 2 naturalized species. According to China’s Red List and CITES on conservation status, one of these species is endangered, one species is critically endangered, eight species are vulnerable, one is listed in CITES II, three are listed in Regional Red Data Book and the remaining 224 species are in the least concerned conservation category. Conclusions The liáng chá industry of southern China reflects the plant species richness and cultural diversity of the region. Future research on safety and efficacy of herbal drinks as well as ecological and cultural conservation efforts are needed for the sustainable growth of China’s botanical industry. PMID:24354903

  7. Ancient Egyptian herbal wines

    PubMed Central

    McGovern, Patrick E.; Mirzoian, Armen; Hall, Gretchen R.

    2009-01-01

    Chemical analyses of ancient organics absorbed into pottery jars from the beginning of advanced ancient Egyptian culture, ca. 3150 B.C., and continuing for millennia have revealed that a range of natural products—specifically, herbs and tree resins—were dispensed by grape wine. These findings provide chemical evidence for ancient Egyptian organic medicinal remedies, previously only ambiguously documented in medical papyri dating back to ca. 1850 B.C. They illustrate how humans around the world, probably for millions of years, have exploited their natural environments for effective plant remedies, whose active compounds have recently begun to be isolated by modern analytical techniques. PMID:19365069

  8. Herbal hepatotoxicity: a critical review

    PubMed Central

    Teschke, Rolf; Frenzel, Christian; Glass, Xaver; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel

    2013-01-01

    This review deals with herbal hepatotoxicity, identical to herb induced liver injury (HILI), and critically summarizes the pitfalls associated with the evaluation of assumed HILI cases. Analysis of the relevant publications reveals that several dozens of different herbs and herbal products have been implicated to cause toxic liver disease, but major quality issues limit the validity of causality attribution. In most of these reports, discussions around quality specifications regarding herbal products, case data presentations and causality assessment methods prevail. Though the production of herbal drugs is under regulatory surveillance and quality aspects are normally not a matter of concern, low quality of the less regulated herbal supplements may be a critical issue considering product batch variability, impurities, adulterants and herb misidentifications. Regarding case data presentation, essential diagnostic information is often lacking, as is the use of valid and liver specific causality assessment methods that also consider alternative diseases. At present, causality is best assessed by using the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale ( CIOMS) in its original or updated form, which should primarily be applied prospectively by the treating physician when evaluating a patient rather than retrospectively by regulatory agencies. To cope with these problems, a common quality approach by manufacturers, physicians and regulatory agencies should strive for the best quality. We propose steps for improvements with impact on future cases of liver injury by herbs, herbal drugs and herbal supplements. PMID:22831551

  9. Alternative Remedies

    MedlinePlus

    ... or remedies that are not part of the traditional medical treatment prescribed by their healthcare professional. Using this type of alternative therapy along with traditional treatments is called complementary medicine . Alternative remedies can ...

  10. New Perspectives on How to Discover Drugs from Herbal Medicines: CAM's Outstanding Contribution to Modern Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Si-Yuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Gao, Si-Hua; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Zhang, Shuo-Feng; Tang, Min-Ke; Sun, Jian-Ning; Han, Yi-Fan; Fong, Wang-Fun; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2013-01-01

    With tens of thousands of plant species on earth, we are endowed with an enormous wealth of medicinal remedies from Mother Nature. Natural products and their derivatives represent more than 50% of all the drugs in modern therapeutics. Because of the low success rate and huge capital investment need, the research and development of conventional drugs are very costly and difficult. Over the past few decades, researchers have focused on drug discovery from herbal medicines or botanical sources, an important group of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapy. With a long history of herbal usage for the clinical management of a variety of diseases in indigenous cultures, the success rate of developing a new drug from herbal medicinal preparations should, in theory, be higher than that from chemical synthesis. While the endeavor for drug discovery from herbal medicines is “experience driven,” the search for a therapeutically useful synthetic drug, like “looking for a needle in a haystack,” is a daunting task. In this paper, we first illustrated various approaches of drug discovery from herbal medicines. Typical examples of successful drug discovery from botanical sources were given. In addition, problems in drug discovery from herbal medicines were described and possible solutions were proposed. The prospect of drug discovery from herbal medicines in the postgenomic era was made with the provision of future directions in this area of drug development. PMID:23634172

  11. HPTLC in Herbal Drug Quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinde, Devanand B.; Chavan, Machindra J.; Wakte, Pravin S.

    For the past few decades, compounds from natural sources have been gaining importance because of the vast chemical diversity they offer. This has led to phenomenal increase in the demand for herbal medicines in the last two decades and need has been felt for ensuring the quality, safety, and efficacy of herbal drugs. Phytochemical evaluation is one of the tools for the quality assessment, which include preliminary phytochemical screening, chemoprofiling, and marker compound analysis using modern analytical techniques. High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) has been emerged as an important tool for the qualitative, semiquantitative, and quantitative phytochemical analysis of the herbal drugs and formulations. This includes developing TLC fingerprinting profiles and estimation of biomarkers. This review has an attempt to focus on the theoretical considerations of HPTLC and some examples of herbal drugs and formulations analyzed by HPTLC.

  12. Traditional Chinese Medicine and herbal hepatotoxicity: a tabular compilation of reported cases.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf; Zhang, Li; Long, Hongzhu; Schwarzenboeck, Alexander; Schmidt-Taenzer, Wolfgang; Genthner, Alexander; Wolff, Albrecht; Frenzel, Christian; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) with its focus on herbal use became popular worldwide. Treatment was perceived as safe, with neglect of rare adverse reactions including liver injury. To compile worldwide cases of liver injury by herbal TCM, we undertook a selective literature search in the PubMed database and searched for the items Traditional Chinese Medicine, TCM, Traditional Asian Medicine, and Traditional Oriental Medicine, also combined with the terms herbal hepatotoxicity or herb induced liver injury. The search focused primarily on English-language case reports, case series, and clinical reviews. We identified reported hepatotoxicity cases in 77 relevant publications with 57 different herbs and herbal mixtures of TCM, which were further analyzed for causality by the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) scale, positive reexposure test results, or both. Causality was established for 28/57 different herbs or herbal mixtures, Bai Xian Pi, Bo He, Ci Wu Jia, Chuan Lian Zi, Da Huang, Gan Cao, Ge Gen, Ho Shou Wu, Huang Qin, Hwang Geun Cho, Ji Gu Cao, Ji Xue Cao, Jin Bu Huan, Jue Ming Zi, Jiguja, Kudzu, Ling Yang Qing Fei Keli, Lu Cha, Rhen Shen, Ma Huang, Shou Wu Pian, Shan Chi, Shen Min, Syo Saiko To, Xiao Chai Hu Tang, Yin Chen Hao, Zexie, and Zhen Chu Cao. In conclusion, this compilation of liver injury cases establishes causality for 28/57 different TCM herbs and herbal mixtures, aiding diagnosis for physicians who care for patients with liver disease possibly related to herbal TCM. PMID:25536637

  13. Herbal product use in non-HIV and HIV-positive Hispanic patients.

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, José O.; González-Stuart, Armando; Ortiz, Melchor; Rodríguez, José C.; Anaya, Jaime P.; Meza, Armando

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: The primary endpoint of this study was to determine the prevalence of herbal product use by a sample of Mexican-American patients in the El Paso, TX region. Even though medicinal plants are popularly assumed to be a safe and natural alternative to conventional medications, some herbal products may pose a potential health risk to the consumer. Currently, there are few studies related to herbal use by Mexican Americans and none in HIV patients living on the U.S./México border. METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted in hospitals and clinics throughout the El Paso region area. A semistructured interview was conducted by trained bilingual interviewers. A 45-item bilingual questionnaire was used to collect the information. RESULTS: A total of 439 non-HIV patients as well as 35 patients afflicted with HIV participated in the study. Seventy-nine percent (347/439) of non-HIV and 71% (25/35) of HIV patients reported using herbal products. The percentages of herbal use among the two groups did not show any statistically significant differences (p=0.29), and both groups reflected that herbal products are commonly used. CONCLUSIONS: The use of herbal products was very common among non-HIV (79%) and HIV-positive (71%) Mexican-Americans patients in the El Paso region. PMID:16396061

  14. Drug interactions with herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shaojun; Klotz, Ulrich

    2012-02-01

    In recent years, the issue of herbal medicine-drug interactions has generated significant concern. Such interactions can increase the risk for an individual patient, especially with regard to drugs with a narrow therapeutic index (e.g. warfarin, ciclosporin and digoxin). The present article summarizes herbal medicine-drug interactions involving mainly inhibition or induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes and/or drug transporters. An increasing number of in vitro and animal studies, case reports and clinical trials evaluating such interactions have been reported, and the majority of the interactions may be difficult to predict. Potential pharmacodynamic and/or pharmacokinetic interactions of commonly used herbal medicines (black cohosh, garlic, Ginkgo, goldenseal, kava, milk thistle, Panax ginseng, Panax quinquefolius, saw palmetto and St John's wort) with conventional drugs are presented, and sometimes the results are contradictory. Clinical implications of herbal medicine-drug interactions depend on a variety of factors, such as the co-administered drugs, the patient characteristics, the origin of the herbal medicines, the composition of their constituents and the applied dosage regimens. To optimize the use of herbal medicines, further controlled studies are urgently needed to explore their potential for interactions with conventional drugs and to delineate the underlying mechanisms. PMID:22257149

  15. The Popular Culture Explosion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Ray B.; Madden, David

    Popular culture is defined here as anything produced by and/or dissembled by the mass media or mass production or transportation, either directly or indirectly, and that reaches the majority of the people. This sampler from mass magazines, intended for use in the study of popular culture, includes fiction from "Playboy"; articles on cars, Johnny…

  16. Popular Music Performance Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginocchio, John

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the creation and content of a high school course on popular music performance. Describes how the teacher decided on aspects of the course, such as student background, transcription exercises, the student report on a popular music artist, and opportunities for performance. Reflects on what the teacher learned from the experience. (CMK)

  17. Popular Chat Day Q & A

    MedlinePlus

    ... Day / Popular Chat Day Q & A Popular Chat Day Q & A Read students most popular questions about ... New Order Free Materials National Drugs & Alcohol Chat Day Chat Day Participant FAQs Popular Chat Day Q & ...

  18. Popular Chat Day Q & A

    MedlinePlus

    ... Day / Popular Chat Day Q & A Popular Chat Day Q & A Read students’ most popular questions about ... New Order Free Materials National Drugs & Alcohol Chat Day Chat Day Participant FAQs Popular Chat Day Q & ...

  19. Cyclosporine and herbal supplement interactions.

    PubMed

    Colombo, D; Lunardon, L; Bellia, G

    2014-01-01

    Cyclosporine (CyA) is a well-known immunosuppressant with a narrow therapeutic window. Its bioavailability is affected by many other traditional drugs and herbal extracts. Cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 and protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp) are involved in CyA bioavailability. Interactions of CyA with herbal extracts are not well known, but, given their increased concomitant use, it is important to know which extracts, many of which are commonly self-prescribed, can affect CyA blood concentrations. Decreased CyA blood concentration has been shown with St John's wort in case reports and, in vivo animal studies, with ginger, liquorice, scutellariae radix, and quercetin. Increased CyA concentration has been reported in patients with grapefruit juice, chamomile, or berberine, and with cannabidiol or resveratrol in animal studies. Effects of Echinacea and Serenoa repens on CyA levels have not been shown consistently, but concomitant use should be avoided. Although findings from animal studies cannot be directly translated into humans, avoiding concomitant use of herbal extracts is prudent until human clinical studies have ruled out any possible interaction. Clinicians should interview their patients carefully about their use of herbal supplements before CyA administration, and those receiving CyA should be warned about possible interactions between herbal preparations and CyA. PMID:24527031

  20. Cyclosporine and Herbal Supplement Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, D.; Lunardon, L.; Bellia, G.

    2014-01-01

    Cyclosporine (CyA) is a well-known immunosuppressant with a narrow therapeutic window. Its bioavailability is affected by many other traditional drugs and herbal extracts. Cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 and protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp) are involved in CyA bioavailability. Interactions of CyA with herbal extracts are not well known, but, given their increased concomitant use, it is important to know which extracts, many of which are commonly self-prescribed, can affect CyA blood concentrations. Decreased CyA blood concentration has been shown with St John's wort in case reports and, in vivo animal studies, with ginger, liquorice, scutellariae radix, and quercetin. Increased CyA concentration has been reported in patients with grapefruit juice, chamomile, or berberine, and with cannabidiol or resveratrol in animal studies. Effects of Echinacea and Serenoa repens on CyA levels have not been shown consistently, but concomitant use should be avoided. Although findings from animal studies cannot be directly translated into humans, avoiding concomitant use of herbal extracts is prudent until human clinical studies have ruled out any possible interaction. Clinicians should interview their patients carefully about their use of herbal supplements before CyA administration, and those receiving CyA should be warned about possible interactions between herbal preparations and CyA. PMID:24527031

  1. Comparison of the in vitro Effect of Chemical and Herbal Mouthwashes on Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Talebi, Somayeh; Sabokbar, Azar; Riazipour, Majid; Saffari, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: During the recent decades research has focused to find scientific evidence for the effects of herbal medicines. Researchers are interested in herbal remedies for medication and aim to substitute herbal material instead of chemical formula with limited side effects for human being. Objectives: The aim of the current study was to compare the in vitro effect of herbal and chemical mouthwashes against Candida albicans. Materials and Methods: In this research, we used a standard strain of C. albicans, PTCC 5027. The suspension was made by a fresh culture of C. albicans (24 hours) and the optical density (turbidity equating to a McFarland standard of 0.5) was read at 530 nm. The C. albicans suspension was cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar plate. Next, two wells were filled with mouthwashes and after incubation at 30ºC for 24 hours, the inhibition zone was measured. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of mouthwashes were determined. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software, independent T-tests and one-sided variance analysis (ANOVA-one way). Results: Based on these findings on agar diffusion with (P = 0.764), MIC and MFC tests (P = 0.879), there were no significant differences between the antifungal effect of herbal and chemical mouthwashes. Conclusions: This study showed that, chemical mouthwashes acted better than herbal mouthwashes and among different chemical mouthwashes, Oral B was most effective. PMID:25741429

  2. Risks and Benefits of Commonly used Herbal Medicines in México

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Fragoso, Lourdes; Reyes-Esparza, Jorge; Burchiel, Scott; Herrera-Ruiz, Dea; Torres, Eliseo

    2008-01-01

    In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we also raise concerns about the safety of these agents, which have not been fully assessed. Although numerous randomized clinical trials of herbal medicines have been published and systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these studies are available, generalizations about the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines are clearly not possible. Recent publications have also highlighted the unintended consequences of herbal product use, including morbidity and mortality. It has been found that many phytochemicals have pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs. The present review is limited to some herbal medicine that are native or cultivated in Mexico and that have significant use. We discuss the cultural uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological and toxicological properties of the following following plant species: Nopal (Opuntia ficus), Peppermint (Mentha piperita), Chaparral (Larrea divaricata), Dandlion (Taraxacum officinale), Mullein (Verbascum densiflorum), Chamomile (Matricaria recutita), Nettle or Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica), Passionflower (Passiflora incarmata), Linden Flower (Tilia europea), and Aloa (Aloa vera). We conclude that our knowledge of the therapeutic benefits and risks of some herbal medicines used in Mexico is still limited and efforts to elucidate them should be intensified. PMID:18037151

  3. Herbal Medicine - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Herbal Medicine URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih. ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Herbal Medicine - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  4. Remedial English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Dorothy, Ed.

    1980-01-01

    The focus of this journal edition is remedial writing instruction in high school and college. Articles in the journal are: "The Remedial Student is Different," by Karl K. Taylor; "Writing Apprehension: (I) Combating Fear of Failure," by Donna K. Gorrell; "Writing Apprehension: (II) Where Does Fear of Writing Come From?," by Charles R. Duke; "One…

  5. A screening for antimicrobial activities of Caribbean herbal remedies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The TRAMIL program aims to understand, validate and expand health practices based on the use of medicinal plants in the Caribbean, which is a “biodiversity hotspot” due to high species endemism, intense development pressure and habitat loss. The antibacterial activity was examined for thirteen plant species from several genera that were identified as a result of TRAMIL ethnopharmacological surveys or were reported in ethnobotanical accounts from Puerto Rico. The aim of this study was to validate the traditional use of these plant species for the treatment of bacterial infections, such as conjunctivitis, fever, otitis media and furuncles. Methods An agar disc diffusion assay was used to examine five bacterial strains that are associated with the reported infections, including Staphylococcus saprophyticus (ATCC 15305), S. aureus (ATCC 6341), Escherichia coli (ATCC 4157), Haemophilus influenzae (ATCC 8142), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 7700) and Proteus vulgaris (ATCC 6896), as well as the fungus Candida albicans (ATCC 752). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values were determined for each of the extracts that showed inhibitory activity. Results The decoctions of Pityrogramma calomelanos, Tapeinochilus ananassae, and Syzygium jambos, as well as the juice of Gossypium barbadense, showed > 20% growth inhibition against several bacteria relative to the positive control, which was the antibiotic Streptomycin. Extracts with the best antimicrobial activities were S. jambos that showed MIC = 31 μg/mL and MBC = 1.0 mg/mL against P. vulgaris and T. ananassae that showed MIC = 15 μg/mL against S. aureus. Conclusion This report confirms the traditional use of P. calomelanos for the treatment of kidney infections that are associated with stones, as well as the antimicrobial and bactericidal effects of T. ananassae against P. vulgaris and S. saprophyticus and the effects of S. jambos against S. aureus and S. saprophyticus. PMID:23731467

  6. Traditional herbal remedies that influence cell adhesion molecule activity.

    PubMed

    Spelman, K; Aldag, R; Hamman, A; Kwasnik, E M; Mahendra, M A; Obasi, T M; Morse, J; Williams, E J

    2011-04-01

    Many traditional medicines have demonstrated immune activity, however, research has largely neglected their effects on cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). This review reports on extracts from 37 medicinal plant species, similar to or replicating traditional preparations, that up- or downregulate either gene or protein activity of CAMs. The majority of the investigations were in vitro, primarily of the immunoglobulin superfamily of CAMs, specifically intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and secondarily on the integrin (CD11b or MAC-1) and selectin (E-selectin and P-selectin) families of CAMs. The following plant species have demonstrated modulation of multiple CAMs: Artemisia asiatica, Boswellia serrata, Canscora decussata, Cinnamomum povectum, Dehaasia incrassate, Ganoderma lucidum, Ginkgo biloba, Hypericum perforatum, Juglans regia, Lycopus lucidus, Panax notoginseng, Rheum undulatum, Salvia miltiorrhiza. Many other species have documented activity on one CAM. Currently there are limited in vivo/ex vivo investigations, including a clinical trial on Mahonia aquifolium. Although further evidence is needed, the data suggest that the reviewed botanical medicines may have the potential to provide therapeutic potential in disease processes involving CAMs. Additionally, the reported success of many of these plant extracts by traditional cultures and modern phytotherapists may involve the modulation of CAMs. PMID:21105177

  7. Current status of herbal product: Regulatory overview

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    A review of the regulatory status of herbal drugs/products was done for few countries forming part of Asia, Africa, America, Europe, and Australia, to understand various categories under which the trade of herbal products is permitted and their premarketing requirements. A critical assessment was done, to know the hindrances in the process of harmonization of herbal products. It has been found that there is a lack of harmonization in the regulatory requirements of herbal products internationally, besides the issues of availability of herbs and their conservation. These are hindering the international trade and growth of the herbal products segment. PMID:26681886

  8. Current status of herbal product: Regulatory overview.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    A review of the regulatory status of herbal drugs/products was done for few countries forming part of Asia, Africa, America, Europe, and Australia, to understand various categories under which the trade of herbal products is permitted and their premarketing requirements. A critical assessment was done, to know the hindrances in the process of harmonization of herbal products. It has been found that there is a lack of harmonization in the regulatory requirements of herbal products internationally, besides the issues of availability of herbs and their conservation. These are hindering the international trade and growth of the herbal products segment. PMID:26681886

  9. Veterinary herbal medicines in India

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Shruti; Pandey, Manoj Kumar; Prakash, Jai; Sharma, Alok; Singh, Gyanendra Nath

    2015-01-01

    India has a rich and diversified flora. It is seen that synthetic drugs could pose serious problems, are toxic and costly. In contrast to this, herbal medicines are relatively nontoxic, cheaper and are eco-friendly. Moreover, the people have used them for generations. They have also been used in day-to-day problems of healthcare in animals. 25% of the drugs prescribed worldwide come from plants. Almost 75% of the medicinal plants grow naturally in different states of India. These plants are known to cure many ailments in animals like poisoning, cough, constipation, foot and mouth disease, dermatitis, cataract, burning, pneumonia, bone fractures, snake bites, abdominal pains, skin diseases etc. There is scarce review of such information (veterinary herbals) in the literature. The electronic and manual search was made using various key words such as veterinary herbal, ethno-veterinary medicines etc. and the content systematically arranged. This article deals with the comprehensive review of 45 medicinal plant species that are official in Indian Pharmacopoeia (IP) 2014. The botanical names, family, habitat, plant part used and pharmacological actions, status in British Pharmacopoeia 2014, USP 36 are mentioned. Also, a relationship between animal and human dose, standardization and regulatory aspects of these selected veterinary herbals are provided. PMID:26392714

  10. Veterinary herbal medicines in India.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Shruti; Pandey, Manoj Kumar; Prakash, Jai; Sharma, Alok; Singh, Gyanendra Nath

    2015-01-01

    India has a rich and diversified flora. It is seen that synthetic drugs could pose serious problems, are toxic and costly. In contrast to this, herbal medicines are relatively nontoxic, cheaper and are eco-friendly. Moreover, the people have used them for generations. They have also been used in day-to-day problems of healthcare in animals. 25% of the drugs prescribed worldwide come from plants. Almost 75% of the medicinal plants grow naturally in different states of India. These plants are known to cure many ailments in animals like poisoning, cough, constipation, foot and mouth disease, dermatitis, cataract, burning, pneumonia, bone fractures, snake bites, abdominal pains, skin diseases etc. There is scarce review of such information (veterinary herbals) in the literature. The electronic and manual search was made using various key words such as veterinary herbal, ethno-veterinary medicines etc. and the content systematically arranged. This article deals with the comprehensive review of 45 medicinal plant species that are official in Indian Pharmacopoeia (IP) 2014. The botanical names, family, habitat, plant part used and pharmacological actions, status in British Pharmacopoeia 2014, USP 36 are mentioned. Also, a relationship between animal and human dose, standardization and regulatory aspects of these selected veterinary herbals are provided. PMID:26392714

  11. Unique Aspects of Herbal Whole System Research

    PubMed Central

    Zick, Suzanna M.; Schwabl, Herbert; Flower, Andrew; Lac, Dip; Chakraborty, Bibhas; Hirschkorn, Kristine

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Whole systems of healthcare offer unique methodological and theoretical challenges for researchers. Herbalism has its own set of methodological and philosophical research issues, which are beyond those presented for whole system research, in general. Methods An International Society for Complementary Medicine Research (ISCMR) workshop was presented on, “Challenges in Herbal Whole Systems Research”. Starting from a definition of herbalism the most important challenges to herbal whole system research (HWSR) were elicited with inputs from both the workshop presenters and the audience. Results Five major challenges unique to herbal whole systems research were identified: (1) Defining herbalists and herbalism; (2) role of natural products industry in herbal research; (3) designing placebos and delivering active herbal treatments as are given by herbalists; (4) researching the herb as a living entity; and (5) designing trials to investigate and develop multi-component herbal therapies. Conclusions To design studies of herbalism requires unique methods and theoretical frameworks. Solutions to these methodological challenges need to be addressed to conduct research that examines herbal systems of medicine versus conducting trials on individual herbs given out of their original therapeutic context. PMID:19272580

  12. HPTLC Fingerprint Analysis: A Quality Control for Authentication of Herbal Phytochemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram, Mauji; Abdin, M. Z.; Khan, M. A.; Jha, Prabhakar

    Authentication and consistent quality are the basic requirement for Indian traditional medicine (TIM), Chinese traditional herbal medicine (TCHM), and their commercial products, regardless of the kind of research conducted to modernize the TIM and TCHM. The complexities of TIM and TCHM challenge the current official quality control mode, for which only a few biochemical markers were selected for identification and quantitative assay. Referring too many unknown factors existed in TIM and TCHM, it is impossible and unnecessary to pinpoint qualitatively and quantitatively every single component contained in the herbal drug. Chromatographic fingerprint is a rational option to meet the need for more effective and powerful quality assessment to TIM and TCHM. The optimized chromatographic fingerprint is not only an alternative analytical tool for authentication, but also an approach to express the various pattern of chemical ingredients distribution in the herbal drugs and preserve such "database" for further multifaced sustainable studies. Analytical separation techniques, for example, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (MS) were among the most popular methods of choice used for quality control of raw material and finished herbal product. Fingerprint analysis approach using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) has become the most potent tool for quality control of herbal medicines because of its simplicity and reliability. It can serve as a tool for identification, authentication, and quality control of herbal drugs. In this chapter, attempts are being made to expand the use of HPTLC and at the same time create interest among prospective researcher in herbal analysis. The developed method can be used as a quality control tool for rapid authentication from a wide variety of herbal samples. Some examples demonstrated the role of fingerprinting in quality control and assessment.

  13. Simultaneous determination of the inhibitory potency of herbal extracts on the activity of six major cytochrome P450 enzymes using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and automated online extraction.

    PubMed

    Unger, Matthias; Frank, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    Here we describe a liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) method with automated online extraction (LC/LC/MS) to simultaneously determine the in vitro inhibitory potency of herbal extracts on six major human drug-metabolising cytochrome P450 enzymes. Substrates were incubated with a commercially available mixture of CYP1A2/2C8/2C9/2C19/2D6 and 3A4 from baculovirus-infected insect cells and the resulting metabolites were quantified with LC/LC/MS using electrospray ionisation in the selected ion monitoring mode. Consistent inhibitory activities were obtained for known inhibitors and plant extracts using the enzyme/substrate cocktail and the individual enzymes/substrates. Popular herbal remedies including devil's claw root (Harpagophytum procumbens), feverfew herb (Tanacetum parthenium), fo-ti root (Polygonum multiflorum), kava-kava root (Piper methysticum), peppermint oil (Mentha piperita), eucalyptus oil (Eucalyptus globulus), red clover blossom (Trifolium pratense) and grapefruit juice (GJ; Citrus paradisi) could be identified as inhibitors of the applied CYP enzymes with IC(50) values between 20 and 1000 microg/mL. PMID:15384148

  14. Popular Music in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Georgette

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the recent concern over the imbalanced international flow of cultural products into Taiwan--such as films, television programs, and news from developed to developing nations--as it has fed the apprehension that imported popular music may have socialized Taiwanese audiences with alien values and ethics. (JD)

  15. Most Popular Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Roger

    1973-01-01

    Foothill College owes its tremendous popularity to the fact that it neither fits into the tradition of the modern movement of architectural art, with its in-group language of heroic forms constructed in brute concrete, nor the more esoteric world that sees high art in commercial strip development and A & P parking lots. (Author)

  16. Television: Polysemy and Popularity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiske, John

    1986-01-01

    Argues that television programs must be polysemic to achieve popularity because of the wide variety of subcultures represented in the television audience. Analyzes two scenes from "Hart to Hart" to demonstrate the textual devices that bear the dominant ideology and those that resist it. (JD)

  17. Popularity in Wonderland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nist, J.S.

    Specialists in the field of children's literature, who publish research and decide on awards for individual books, should give serious study to what children themselves choose to read. Among the children's books that were not originally awarded top honors by critics but that have proved extremely popular with children are the Oz books by L. Frank…

  18. A review of experimental research on herbal compounds in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue; Hong, Yan-Long; Xu, De-Sheng; Feng, Yi; Zhao, Li-Jie; Ruan, Ke-Feng; Yang, Xiu-Juan

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common form of motor neuron disease worldwide, leading to progressive muscle atrophy and paralysis. The limited success of conventional treatment for ALS has prompted investigations into complementary and alternative therapies. Herbal remedies provide good prospects of ALS prevention and treatment, with advantages such as multiple targets, multiple links, and few side effects. Studies in vitro and in vivo have shown that herbs have a great potential for treatment of ALS, with therapeutic effects against oxidative stress, excitatory amino acid toxicity, neuroinflammation, and calcium cytotoxicity. Active monomers or ingredients extracted from herbs are considered promising candidates for ALS. Therefore, we review recent experimental research on monomers and compounds isolated from herbal remedies for preventing and treating ALS. PMID:23519768

  19. A review of experimental research on herbal compounds in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Zhang X; Hong YL; Xu DS; Feng Y; Zhao LJ; Ruan KF; Yang XJ

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common form of motor neuron disease worldwide, leading to progressive muscle atrophy and paralysis. The limited success of conventional treatment for ALS has prompted investigations into complementary and alternative therapies. Herbal remedies provide good prospects of ALS prevention and treatment, with advantages such as multiple targets, multiple links, and few side effects. Studies in vitro and in vivo have shown that herbs have a great potential for treatment of ALS, with therapeutic effects against oxidative stress, excitatory amino acid toxicity, neuroinflammation, and calcium cytotoxicity. Active monomers or ingredients extracted from herbs are considered promising candidates for ALS. Therefore, we review recent experimental research on monomers and compounds isolated from herbal remedies for preventing and treating ALS.

  20. Chinese herbal medicines for hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhao Lan; Liu, Jian Ping; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Wu, Qiong; Ruan, Yao; Lewith, George; Visconte, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Background Hypercholesterolemia is an important key contributory factor for ischemic heart disease and is associated with age, high blood pressure, a family history of hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes. Chinese herbal medicines have been used for a long time as lipid-lowering agents. Objectives To assess the effects of Chinese herbal medicines on hypercholesterolemia. Search strategy We searched the following databases: The Cochrane Library (issue 8, 2010), MEDLINE (until July 2010), EMBASE (until July 2010), Chinese BioMedical Database (until July 2010), Traditional Chinese Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (until July 2010), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (until July 2010), Chinese VIP Information (until July 2010), Chinese Academic Conference Papers Database and Chinese Dissertation Database (until July 2010), and Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (until July 2010). Selection criteria We considered randomized controlled clinical trials in hypercholesterolemic participants comparing Chinese herbal medicines with placebo, no treatment, and pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. We resolved any disagreements with this assessment through discussion and a decision was achieved based by consensus. We assessed trials for the risk of bias against key criteria: random sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding of participants, incomplete outcome data, selective outcome reporting and other sources of bias. Main results We included 22 randomized trials (2130 participants). The mean treatment duration was 2.3 ± 1.3 months (ranging from one to six months). Twenty trials were conducted in China and 18 trials were published in Chinese. Overall, the risk of bias of included trials was high or unclear. Five different herbal medicines were evaluated in the included trials, which compared herbs with conventional medicine in six comparisons (20 trials), or placebo (two trials). There were no outcome data in any of the trials on cardiovascular events and death from any cause. One trial each reported well-being (no significant differences) and economic costs. No serious adverse events were observed. Xuezhikang was the most commonly used herbal formula investigated. A significant effect on total cholesterol (two trial, 254 participants) was shown in favor of Xuezhikang when compared with inositol nicotinate (mean difference (MD) −0.90 mmol/L, 95% confidence interval (CI) −1.13 to −0.68) . Authors’ conclusions Some herbal medicines may have cholesterol-lowering effects. Our findings have to be interpreted with caution due to high or unclear risk of bias of the included trials. PMID:21735427

  1. HERBAL THERAPY USE BY CANCER PATIENTS: A LITERATURE REVIEW ON CASE REPORTS

    PubMed Central

    Olaku, Oluwadamilola; White, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine use is common among cancer patients. In many surveys, herbal medicines are among the most commonly used group of treatments. Herbal remedies are believed by the general public to be safe, cause less side effects and less likely to cause dependency. The authors performed a literature review to assess which herbal approaches have had associated cancer case reports and determine which of these have been studied in prospective research. Eighteen case reports of patients having apparent antitumour effects from herbal therapy and 21 case reports of toxic effects of herbs used by cancer patients were identified. Clinicaltrials.gov and MEDLINE (via PubMed) were searched for each of the herbal products identified in these reports. Clinical trials in cancer populations were identified for green tea extracts or compounds (n = 34), phytoestrogens (n=27), mistletoe (n =8), Ganoderma lucidum (n=1), Noni (n = 1) and Silymarin (n = 1). Daikenchuto, PC-SPES, Nyoshinsan/TJ and Saw palmetto have also been studied prospectively. In conclusion, some of the herbs with promising case report findings have undergone prospective clinical investigations but many others have either not yet been explored or the results have not been reported in English. Unconventional therapies, such as herbs and minerals, used in ancient medical traditions have led to the identification of active anticancer agents. Mechanisms to support prospective research with such approaches are discussed. PMID:21185719

  2. The growing use of herbal medicines: issues relating to adverse reactions and challenges in monitoring safety

    PubMed Central

    Ekor, Martins

    2014-01-01

    The use of herbal medicinal products and supplements has increased tremendously over the past three decades with not less than 80% of people worldwide relying on them for some part of primary healthcare. Although therapies involving these agents have shown promising potential with the efficacy of a good number of herbal products clearly established, many of them remain untested and their use are either poorly monitored or not even monitored at all. The consequence of this is an inadequate knowledge of their mode of action, potential adverse reactions, contraindications, and interactions with existing orthodox pharmaceuticals and functional foods to promote both safe and rational use of these agents. Since safety continues to be a major issue with the use of herbal remedies, it becomes imperative, therefore, that relevant regulatory authorities put in place appropriate measures to protect public health by ensuring that all herbal medicines are safe and of suitable quality. This review discusses toxicity-related issues and major safety concerns arising from the use of herbal medicinal products and also highlights some important challenges associated with effective monitoring of their safety. PMID:24454289

  3. Herbal interactions with cardiovascular drugs.

    PubMed

    Awang, Dennis V C; Fugh-Berman, Adriane

    2002-07-01

    The prevalence of herb-drug interactions has been exaggerated. Nonetheless, some herbs, including garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, and St John's wort, can have a significant influence on concurrently administered drugs. Herbal medicines may mimic, decrease, or increase the action of prescribed drugs. This can be especially important for drugs with narrow therapeutic windows and in sensitive patient populations such as older adults, the chronically ill, and those with compromised immune systems. PMID:12597263

  4. Herbal Medicine Research in Taiwan*

    PubMed Central

    Kaphle, Krishna; Wu, Leang-Shin; Yang, Nai-Yen Jack; Lin, Jen-Hsou

    2006-01-01

    Of all the countries in the world, why did you choose Taiwan to pursue your study? It is a question that I (comments of the first author) have answered a thousand times. My first visit to a laboratory at National Taiwan University opened my eyes to the possibilities of herbal medicine research, especially in the area of veterinary medicine. It became my ambition to link the knowledge of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Ayurveda from the Indian subcontinent and their integration with other systems of medicine, including Western medicine (WM), to achieve the concept of Sustainable Medicine, firstly for animals and then for humans. The Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA) has implemented a technology development program to quickly establish the key technologies, and this is a moment of opportunity for Taiwan's traditional herbal medicine industry to upgrade and transform itself. This paper, initially intended to be a student's narration, has evolved into a multi-author treatise on the present state and likely future scenario of herbal medicine research in Taiwan. PMID:16550238

  5. Herbal medicine research in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Kaphle, Krishna; Wu, Leang-Shin; Yang, Nai-Yen Jack; Lin, Jen-Hsou

    2006-03-01

    Of all the countries in the world, why did you choose Taiwan to pursue your study? It is a question that I (comments of the first author) have answered a thousand times. My first visit to a laboratory at National Taiwan University opened my eyes to the possibilities of herbal medicine research, especially in the area of veterinary medicine. It became my ambition to link the knowledge of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Ayurveda from the Indian subcontinent and their integration with other systems of medicine, including Western medicine (WM), to achieve the concept of Sustainable Medicine, firstly for animals and then for humans. The Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA) has implemented a technology development program to quickly establish the key technologies, and this is a moment of opportunity for Taiwan's traditional herbal medicine industry to upgrade and transform itself. This paper, initially intended to be a student's narration, has evolved into a multi-author treatise on the present state and likely future scenario of herbal medicine research in Taiwan. PMID:16550238

  6. Constituents and tissue affinities in herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Tillotson, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Western-trained researchers and clinicians can better understand herbal medicine if they master at least a basic set of essential concepts used by herbal practitioners to describe how herbs work. Constituents, such as carotenoids and flavonoids, can all be used to develop a basis for imputed herb actions. Tissue affinity is also an important concept shared by all herb traditions, which can enhance clinical results and illuminate traditional herbal use. PMID:22432461

  7. Biosparging used in aquifer remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Weymann, D.F.

    1995-05-01

    Air sparging is a popular technology for remediating hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. However, the effectiveness of a sparging system depends on data collected from a well-designed pilot test. There are few established protocols for conducting reliable pilot tests. Air sparging typically is defined as the introduction of air below the water table to promote site remediation. The remediation process associated with sparging may be physical, biological or both. In the physical process, volatile contaminants are transferred from the aqueous phase to the gaseous phase and removed via the injected air stream. The biological process involves delivery of supplemental oxygen to promote aerobic respiration. Biosparging refers to air injection at pressures and flow rates sufficient to deliver supplemental oxygen, but less than those required to volatilize significant contamination. Evidence indicates properly designed sparging systems significantly enhance both biodegradation and volatilization. Determining the potential success of sparging at a particular site requires a pilot test to determine site conditions.

  8. Traditional Herbal Medicine for the Control of Tropical Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Na-Bangchang, Kesara; Karbwang, Juntra

    2014-01-01

    Throughout history, traditional herbal medicine has afforded a rich repository of remedies with diverse chemical structures and bioactivities against several health disorders. A common issue of herbal medicine is the limitation of information on their pharmacological activities and their active constituents. Traditionally, the use of herbal medicine has been based on empirical treatment and passed on from generation to generation with information available only in local journals. This prevents several herbal medicines from being developed to their full potential. The presentation will focus on research and development of Atractylodes lancea (Thunb) DC. (AL: family Compositae) as a potential chemotherapeutic for cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), the bile duct cancer commonly found in Southeast Asia. The dried rhizome of AL is a medicinal plant used in Chinese (Cang Zhu), Japan (So-jutsu) and Thai (Khod-Kha-Mao) traditional medicine for its various pharmacological properties including anticancer, anti-inflammation and antimicrobial activities, activities on central nervous, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal systems. The major constituents in the essential oils from AL rhizome are ?-eudesmol, hinesol and atractylon. Preliminary investigation has demonstrated its promising anti-CCA activity both in vitro and animal (Opisthorchis viverrini/dimethylnitrosamine-induced CCA in hamsters and CCAxenografted nude mice) models with high selectivity index comparing with the standard drug, 5-fluorouracil. It also showed virtually no toxicity with only minimal CNS effects on locomotor activity at the maximum dose of 5,000 mg/kg body weight. Studies are underway to identify active constituent(s) which contribute to anti-CCA activity as well as its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. The main research interest of my research group is the discovery and development of traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of two important tropical diseases, cholangiocarcinoma and malaria. As the time is quite limited, I am going to give you the summary of the conceptual framework and highlight some important findings which will illustrate how different approaches have been used or applied for the discovery of the promising candidates for these two diseases. PMID:25425945

  9. A REVIEW OF THE BIOACTIVITY OF SOUTH AFRICAN HERBAL TEAS: ROOIBOS (ASPALATHUS LINEARIS) AND HONEYBUSH (CYCLOPIA INTERMEDIA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) and honeybush (Cyclopia intermedia) are popular tisanes in their native South Africa and have a growing worldwide market. Both herbal teas are used traditionally for medicinal purposes and are rich in polyphenols with rooibos a rare source of the dietary dihydrochalcon...

  10. Self-emulsifying drug delivery system and the applications in herbal drugs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Lanying; Zhang, Manhong; Pang, Yue; Li, Zhaoming; Zhao, Aili; Feng, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Herbal drugs have been used for thousands of years in the east and have had a recent resurgence in popularity among consumers in the west. However, most of herbal drug are poorly soluble and have hydrophobic properties and poor distribution, leading to reduced bioavailability and hence decreased treatment efficacy, requiring repeated administration or increased dose. In the past few decades, considerable attention has been focused on the development of self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) for herbal drugs. SEDDS is isotropic and thermodynamically stable solutions consisting of oil, surfactant, co-surfactant and drug that can spontaneously form oil-in-water micro/nanoemulsion when mixed with water under gentle stirring. The formulation can be a viable alternative to classical formulations to take advantage of their lipophilic nature and to solve their problems of poor solubility, poor bioavailability, low oral absorption and instability. The mechanism of self-emulsification, solubility studies, construction of phase diagram, optimization and characterization of herbal drugs-loaded SEDDS formulation and in situ absorption evaluation of herbal drugs in rat intestine are presented in our article. PMID:24321014

  11. Toxic remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Stephen M.; Schonberg, Russell G.; Fadness, David R.

    1994-01-01

    What is disclosed is a novel toxic waste remediation system designed to provide on-site destruction of a wide variety of hazardous organic volatile hydrocarbons, including but not limited to halogenated and aromatic hydrocarbons in the vapor phase. This invention utilizes a detoxification plenum and radiation treatment which transforms hazardous organic compounds into non-hazardous substances.

  12. An overview of herbal supplement utilization with particular emphasis on possible interactions with dental drugs and oral manifestations.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Abebe W

    2003-01-01

    Herbal medication in the United States is a popular form of therapy. This paper provides an overview of the utilization of herbal supplements with particular emphasis on possible interactions with oral health drugs and oral manifestations. Herbal supplements are regulated by the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA), which limits their regulation by the U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA). A number of studies indicate that there is a progressive increase in the utilization of herbal supplements. The majority of consumers of these products are white, middle-aged women who have some college education. Many of the consumers use pharmaceutical drugs concurrently, but most do not inform their health-care providers about their use of herbal supplements. Various herbal supplements have been reported or are suspected to interact with certain oral health drugs, the most important one being 1) bromelain, cayenne, chamomile, feverfew, dong quai, eleuthro/Seberian ginseng, garlic, ginkgo, ginger, ginseng and licorice interacting with aspirin; 2) aloe latex, ephedra, ginseng, rhubarb, cascara sagrada, licorice, and senna interacting with corticosteriods; 3) kava, St. John's wort, chamomile, and valerian interacting with central nervous system (CNS) depressant drugs; and 4) herbs acting on the gastrointestinal system, altering the absorption of several orally administered drugs. Further, the use of some herbal supplements has been reported to be associated with oral manifestations, including aphthous ulcers, lip and tongue irritation, and swelling with feverfew; gingival bleeding with feverfew and ginkgo; tongue numbness with echinacea; xerostomia with St. John's wort; oral and lingual dyskinesia with kava; and salivation with yohimbe. These potential effects of herbal supplements in conjunction with factors related to regulation restrictions suggest that the use of these products may be associated with various adverse reactions that can affect oral health and treatment. Dental hygienists should inform themselves about herbal supplements in order to offer appropriate oral health care to individuals who take these substances.

  13. An overview of herbal supplement utilization with particular emphasis on possible interactions with dental drugs and oral manifestations.

    PubMed

    Abebe, Worku

    2003-01-01

    Herbal medication in the United States is a popular form of therapy. This paper provides an overview of the utilization of herbal supplements with particular emphasis on possible interactions with oral health drugs and oral manifestations. Herbal supplements are regulated by the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA), which limits their regulation by the U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA). A number of studies indicate that there is a progressive increase in the utilization of herbal supplements. The majority of consumers of these products are white, middle-aged women who have some college education. Many of the consumers use pharmaceutical drugs concurrently, but most do not inform their health-care providers about their use of herbal supplements. Various herbal supplements have been reported or are suspected to interact with certain oral health drugs, the most important one being 1) bromelain, cayenne, chamomile, feverfew, dong quai, eleuthro/Seberian ginseng, garlic, ginkgo, ginger, ginseng and licorice interacting with aspirin; 2) aloe latex, ephedra, ginseng, rhubarb, cascara sagrada, licorice, and senna interacting with corticosteriods; 3) kava, St. John's wort, chamomile, and valerian interacting with central nervous system (CNS) depressant drugs; and 4) herbs acting on the gastrointestinal system, altering the absorption of several orally administered drugs. Further, the use of some herbal supplements has been reported to be associated with oral manifestations, including aphthous ulcers, lip and tongue irritation, and swelling with feverfew; gingival bleeding with feverfew and ginkgo; tongue numbness with echinacea; xerostomia with St. John's wort; oral and lingual dyskinesia with kava; and salivation with yohimbe. These potential effects of herbal supplements in conjunction with factors related to regulation restrictions suggest that the use of these products may be associated with various adverse reactions that can affect oral health and treatment. Dental hygienists should inform themselves about herbal supplements in order to offer appropriate oral health care to individuals who take these substances. PMID:12704968

  14. Popular perceptions of Galileo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobel, Dava

    2010-01-01

    Among the most persistent popular misperceptions of Galileo is the image of an irreligious scientist who opposed the Catholic Church and was therefore convicted of heresy-was even excommunicated, according to some accounts, and denied Christian burial. In fact, Galileo considered himself a good Catholic. He accepted the Bible as the true word of God on matters pertaining to salvation, but insisted Scripture did not teach astronomy. Emboldened by his discovery of the Medicean Moons, he took a stand on Biblical exegesis that has since become the official Church position.

  15. Herb-Drug Pharmacokinetic Interactions: Transport and Metabolism of Indinavir in the Presence of Selected Herbal Products.

    PubMed

    Calitz, Carlemi; Gouws, Chrisna; Viljoen, Joe; Steenekamp, Jan; Wiesner, Lubbe; Abay, Efrem; Hamman, Josias

    2015-01-01

    Patients receiving anti-retroviral drug treatment are sometimes simultaneously taking herbal remedies, which may result in pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions. This study aimed to determine if pharmacokinetic interactions exist between selected commercially available herbal products (i.e., Linctagon Forte(®), Viral Choice(®) and Canova(®)) and indinavir in terms of in vitro transport and metabolism. Bi-directional transport of indinavir was evaluated across Caco-2 cell monolayers in the presence and absence of the selected herbal products and verapamil (positive control). Metabolism of indinavir was determined in LS180 cells in the presence and absence of the selected herbal products as well as ketoconazole (positive control). The secretory transport of indinavir increased in a concentration dependent way in the presence of Linctagon Forte(®) and Viral Choice(®) when compared to that of indinavir alone. Canova(®) only slightly affected the efflux of indinavir compared to that of the control group. There was a pronounced inhibition of the metabolism of indinavir in LS180 cells over the entire concentration range for all the herbal products investigated in this study. These in vitro pharmacokinetic interactions indicate the selected herbal products may affect indinavir's bioavailability, but the clinical significance needs to be confirmed with in vivo studies before final conclusions can be made. PMID:26690396

  16. Tetracyclic triterpenoids in herbal medicines and their activities in diabetes and its complications.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Kaiser; Alqahtani, Ali; Kim, Moon-Sun; Cho, Jun-Lae; Cui, Pei H; Li, Chun Guang; Groundwater, Paul W; Li, George Q

    2015-01-01

    Tetracyclic triterpenoids, including the dammarane, cucurbitane, cycloartane, lanostane and protostane groups, is a class of triterpenoids widely distributed in various medicinal plants, particularly those commonly used for the treatment of diabetes and its complications, such as Panax ginseng, Panax quinquefolium, Panax notoginseng, Gynostemma pentaphyllum, Astragalus membranaceus, Momordica charantia, and Ganoderma lucidum. This review highlights recent findings on the chemistry and bioactivities of tetracyclic triterpenoids from these plants and other popular herbal medicines. PMID:26088353

  17. Bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Kesarwani, Kritika; Gupta, Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the use of herbal medicines has been increased all over the world due to their therapeutic effects and fewer adverse effects as compared to the modern medicines. However, many herbal drugs and herbal extracts despite of their impressive in-vitro findings demonstrates less or negligible in-vivo activity due to their poor lipid solubility or improper molecular size, resulting in poor absorption and hence poor bioavailability. Nowadays with the advancement in the technology, novel drug delivery systems open the door towards the development of enhancing bioavailability of herbal drug delivery systems. For last one decade many novel carriers such as liposomes, microspheres, nanoparticles, transferosomes, ethosomes, lipid based systems etc. have been reported for successful modified delivery of various herbal drugs. Many herbal compounds including quercetin, genistein, naringin, sinomenine, piperine, glycyrrhizin and nitrile glycoside have demonstrated capability to enhance the bioavailability. The objective of this review is to summarize various available novel drug delivery technologies which have been developed for delivery of drugs (herbal), and to achieve better therapeutic response. An attempt has also been made to compile a profile on bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin with the mechanism of action (wherever reported) and studies on improvement in drug bioavailability, exhibited particularly by natural compounds. PMID:23620848

  18. Herbal Supplements: Considerations for the Athletic Trainer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winterstein, Andrew P.; Storrs, Cordial M.

    2001-01-01

    Examines common herbal supplements, exploring potential risks associated with herbal use and providing recommendations to athletic trainers regarding patient care issues. Data from searches of the MEDLINE, SPORT Discus, CINAHL, and Academic Search Elite databases indicate that athletes must understand that natural does not equal safe, and most…

  19. DNA Barcoding and Pharmacovigilance of Herbal Medicines.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Hugo J; Ichim, Mihael C; Newmaster, Steven G

    2015-07-01

    Pharmacovigilance of herbal medicines relies on the product label information regarding the ingredients and the adherence to good manufacturing practices along the commercialisation chain. Several studies have shown that substitution of plant species occurs in herbal medicines, and this in turn poses a challenge to herbal pharmacovigilance as adverse reactions might be due to adulterated or added ingredients. Authentication of constituents in herbal medicines using analytical chemistry methods can help detect contaminants and toxins, but are often limited or incapable of detecting the source of the contamination. Recent developments in molecular plant identification using DNA sequence data enable accurate identification of plant species from herbal medicines using defined DNA markers. Identification of multiple constituent species from compound herbal medicines using amplicon metabarcoding enables verification of labelled ingredients and detection of substituted, adulterated and added species. DNA barcoding is proving to be a powerful method to assess species composition in herbal medicines and has the potential to be used as a standard method in herbal pharmacovigilance research of adverse reactions to specific products. PMID:26076652

  20. Bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin: an overview.

    PubMed

    Kesarwani, Kritika; Gupta, Rajiv; Mukerjee, Alok

    2013-04-01

    Recently, the use of herbal medicines has been increased all over the world due to their therapeutic effects and fewer adverse effects as compared to the modern medicines. However, many herbal drugs and herbal extracts despite of their impressive in-vitro findings demonstrates less or negligible in-vivo activity due to their poor lipid solubility or improper molecular size, resulting in poor absorption and hence poor bioavailability. Nowadays with the advancement in the technology, novel drug delivery systems open the door towards the development of enhancing bioavailability of herbal drug delivery systems. For last one decade many novel carriers such as liposomes, microspheres, nanoparticles, transferosomes, ethosomes, lipid based systems etc. have been reported for successful modified delivery of various herbal drugs. Many herbal compounds including quercetin, genistein, naringin, sinomenine, piperine, glycyrrhizin and nitrile glycoside have demonstrated capability to enhance the bioavailability. The objective of this review is to summarize various available novel drug delivery technologies which have been developed for delivery of drugs (herbal), and to achieve better therapeutic response. An attempt has also been made to compile a profile on bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin with the mechanism of action (wherever reported) and studies on improvement in drug bioavailability, exhibited particularly by natural compounds. PMID:23620848

  1. Herbal Supplements: Considerations for the Athletic Trainer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winterstein, Andrew P.; Storrs, Cordial M.

    2001-01-01

    Examines common herbal supplements, exploring potential risks associated with herbal use and providing recommendations to athletic trainers regarding patient care issues. Data from searches of the MEDLINE, SPORT Discus, CINAHL, and Academic Search Elite databases indicate that athletes must understand that natural does not equal safe, and most

  2. Use of Herbal Treatments in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    LOUIK, Carol; GARDINER, Paula; KELLEY, Katherine; MITCHELL, Allen A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Interest in herbal treatments has increased without data on safety, efficacy, or rates of use in pregnancy. We examined antenatal herbal and natural product use among mothers of nonmalformed infants in five geographic centers. Study Design We used data on nonmalformed infants from the Slone Epidemiology Center’s case-control surveillance program for birth defects to examine rates and predictors of herbal use. Exposures were identified through maternal interview. In addition to overall use, five categories based on traditional uses and two natural product categories were created; topical products and herbal-containing mulitivitamins were excluded. Results Among 4,866 mothers of nonmalformed infants, 282 (5.8%) reported use of herbal or natural treatments. Use varied by study center, and increased with increasing age. Conclusion Although rates of use are low, there remains a need for investigation of the safety of these products. Given sparse data on efficacy, even small risks might well outweigh benefits. PMID:20452484

  3. Spices, herbal xenobiotics and the stomach: Friends or foes?

    PubMed Central

    Mofleh, Ibrahim Abdulkarim Al

    2010-01-01

    Spices and herbal remedies have been used since ancient times to treat a variety of disorders. It has been experimentally demonstrated that spices, herbs, and their extracts possess antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic, lipid-lowering, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, antimutagenic and anticancer activities, besides their gastroprotective and anti-ulcer activities. Despite a number of reports on the toxicity of herbs and spices, they are generally accepted as safer alternatives to conventional therapy against gastric ulcers. To this end, it is also believed, that excessive consumption of spices may favor the pathogenesis of gastric and duodenal ulcer and some studies have substantiated this common perception. Based on various in vivo experiments and clinical studies, on the effects of spices and herbs on gastric ulcers, it has indeed been shown that certain spices do possess remarkable anti-ulcer properties mediated by antisecretory, cytoprotective, antioxidant, and anti-Helicobacter pylori effects and mechanisms regulated by nitric oxide, prostaglandins, non-protein sulfhydryl molecules and epidermal growth factor expression. Accordingly, their consumption may attenuate and help prevent peptic ulcer disease. In the present review, the beneficial effects of spices and herbal nutritive components on the gastric mucosa are discussed against the paradigm of their deleterious potential. PMID:20533590

  4. [The herbals and floristic albums of Eliza Orzeszkowa].

    PubMed

    Kuźnicka, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    In many of her literary works, the writer and columnist Eliza Orzeszkowa (1841-1910), who was twice nominated for the Nobel Prize in literature (1905, 1909), depicted the life of the Polish society in the eastern lands of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the second half of the 19th century. A great lover of nature, Orzeszkowa appreciated the botanical knowledge of the local rural population in the vicinities of Grodno. She combined attempts to master that knowledge with her other great passion, that of investigating folk culture, and was always ready to listen to what women who were village herbalists had to tell her about medicinal plants, and about the customs and legends connected with the medical practices based on herbal remedies. She then passed on the information to botanists for scientific verification. Orzeszkowa's naturalist and ethnographic fascinations led her to write a cycle of articles on "The people and flowers on the Niemen river", published in 1888-1891 in the ethnographic-tourist magazine "Wisła". This collection of articles has been analysed not only by historians of literature, but also, since 1985, by historians of science. The first analysis was conducted at the Section for the History of Pharmacy of the Institute of the History of Science of the Polish Academy of Sciences. This yielded Ewa Kamińska's study: Ziołoznawstwo i ziołolecznictwo w publikacjach etnograficznych Elizy Orzeszkowej [The knowledge of herbs and medicine based on herbal remedies in the ethnographic publications of Eliza Orzeszkowa] published as part of the Institute's Historia leków naturalnych [History of natural medicines], ed. Barbara Kuźnicka, vol. I: Zródła do dziejów etnofarmacji polskiej [Sources for the history of Polish ethnopharmacy], Warszawa 1996, pp.25-88. The subject-matter of the publication aroused much interest among historians of pharmacy from Poznań. The first sign of that interest could be seen in the article by Jan Majewski and Sławoj Kucharski entitled Pasje pisarki [The writer's passions], published in 1998 in "Gazeta Farmaceutyczna" [Pharmaceutical Journal] and illustrated with pages from the herbal created by Orzeszkowa. One of the authors, Jan Majewski, has found also other herbal-albums, kept, among other places, at the Museum of the Marist Fathers near London, and in the archival collections of the Ossolineum publishing house. A major surprise was connected with the discovery of a herbal that had the features of genuine botanical documentation. The title page of the herbal, which was discovered (by Jan Majewski and Sławoj Kucharski ) at Poznań, in the collections of the Poznań Society of the Friends of Science, carries the inscription: Zielnik Elizy Orzeszkowej. Z pól, lak i lasów, nadniemeńskich miejscowości, Miniewicze, Ponizany, Hledowicze, Kowszów, Poniemuń, Horny, Kołpaki [The Herbal of Eliza Orzeszkowa. From the fields, meadows and woods of localities on the Niemen river, Miniewicze, Ponizany, Hledowicze, Kowszów, Poniemuń, Horny, Kołpaki]. The value of the herbal for the history of botany has been appreciated by Anna Maria Kielak, the author of a beautiful bibliophile publication entitled Zielnik Elizy Orzeszkowej nieznany zabytek botaniczny przechowywany w zbiorach Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk. [The herbal of Eliza Orzeszkowa. An unknown botanical aabytek kept in the collections of the Poznań Society of the Friends of Science], Poznań 2004, pp. 151. The author has presented Eliza Orzeszkowa's biography, as well as her botanical and ethnographic passions. She has also made a list of the plants mentioned in the herbal, as well as appendices containing Orzeszkowa's correspondence with botanists. The author also describes the artistic albums composed by Orzeszkowa from dried herbs. PMID:17333878

  5. Global herbal medicine: a critique.

    PubMed

    Jagtenberg, Tom; Evans, Sue

    2003-04-01

    Herbal medicine finds itself at a crossroads. If it continues to become mainstreamed in a commodity-driven health industry, its focus will change from craft-based tradition to globalized industry. On the other hand, if the fundamental importance of tradition to indigenous and nonindigenous medicine is respected, ecologic and cultural issues arise. Central here are the issues associated with control of both land and culture. Many indigenous cultures and their local ecologies are currently threatened by globalization. Historically, successful large corporations have neither respected the environment nor easily acknowledged indigenous claims to land and intellectual property, so no easy resolution of these conflicts seems likely. Our case study of Mapuche medicine allows us to explore the social and cultural conflicts that many practising herbalists experience. We argue that because of the basic contradictions involved, the protection of cultures and ecologies that underpin the discipline must be made a clear priority. We argue that local cultural traditions are clearly at odds with a globalizing herbal industry. PMID:12804085

  6. Pharmacovigilance on sexual enhancing herbal supplements

    PubMed Central

    Bhagavathula, Akshaya Srikanth; Elnour, Asim Ahmed; Shehab, Abdulla

    2015-01-01

    The use of herbal medicines continues to expand rapidly across world and many people show positive interest to use herbal products for their health. The safety of herbal supplements has become a globally major concern in national and international health authorities due to increasing adverse events and adulterations. It is difficult to analyze herbal products that cause adverse events due to lack of sufficient information and expertise. Inadequate regulatory measures, weak quality control system and uncontrolled distribution channels are some of reasons that enhance the informal pharmaceutical market. In recent years, the unfulfilled desire for sex has been a subject that has aroused increasing public interest with respect to improve sexual functions. The use of herbal medicines substantially increased due to escalated prevalence and impact of sexual problems worldwide and estimates predicting the incidence to raise over 320 million by year 2025. The various reasons to use herbal supplements in men may be due to experiencing changes in erectile dysfunction (ED) due to certain medical conditions such as diabetes and hypertension and bodily changes as a normal part of life and aging. There is a lack of adequate evidence, no impetus to evaluate and absence of any regulatory obligations to undertake rigorous testing for safety and efficacy of herbal supplements before they sold over-the-counter (OTC). Pharmacovigilance on herbal supplements is still not well established. Sexual enhancing herbals are on demand in men health but informal adulteration is growing issue of concern. Recently, increase in use of herbal supplements for erectile dysfunction has laid a path for many illegal compositions. This paper explores facts and evidences that were observed in different countries attempting to demonstrate the importance of strengthening regulatory system to strengthen the application of pharmacovigilance principles on sexual enhancing supplements. We hereby explore the problem of sexual herbal supplements from pharmacovigilance perspectives. We provide insights into the various concerns and call for collaboration to resolve the problem. We highly recommend to include herbal medicines in national pharmacovigilance systems and to establish comprehensive national pharmacovigilance program to raise the awareness about herbal medicines particularly those used in enhancing sexual desire. PMID:26903775

  7. Pharmacovigilance on sexual enhancing herbal supplements.

    PubMed

    Bhagavathula, Akshaya Srikanth; Elnour, Asim Ahmed; Shehab, Abdulla

    2016-01-01

    The use of herbal medicines continues to expand rapidly across world and many people show positive interest to use herbal products for their health. The safety of herbal supplements has become a globally major concern in national and international health authorities due to increasing adverse events and adulterations. It is difficult to analyze herbal products that cause adverse events due to lack of sufficient information and expertise. Inadequate regulatory measures, weak quality control system and uncontrolled distribution channels are some of reasons that enhance the informal pharmaceutical market. In recent years, the unfulfilled desire for sex has been a subject that has aroused increasing public interest with respect to improve sexual functions. The use of herbal medicines substantially increased due to escalated prevalence and impact of sexual problems worldwide and estimates predicting the incidence to raise over 320 million by year 2025. The various reasons to use herbal supplements in men may be due to experiencing changes in erectile dysfunction (ED) due to certain medical conditions such as diabetes and hypertension and bodily changes as a normal part of life and aging. There is a lack of adequate evidence, no impetus to evaluate and absence of any regulatory obligations to undertake rigorous testing for safety and efficacy of herbal supplements before they sold over-the-counter (OTC). Pharmacovigilance on herbal supplements is still not well established. Sexual enhancing herbals are on demand in men health but informal adulteration is growing issue of concern. Recently, increase in use of herbal supplements for erectile dysfunction has laid a path for many illegal compositions. This paper explores facts and evidences that were observed in different countries attempting to demonstrate the importance of strengthening regulatory system to strengthen the application of pharmacovigilance principles on sexual enhancing supplements. We hereby explore the problem of sexual herbal supplements from pharmacovigilance perspectives. We provide insights into the various concerns and call for collaboration to resolve the problem. We highly recommend to include herbal medicines in national pharmacovigilance systems and to establish comprehensive national pharmacovigilance program to raise the awareness about herbal medicines particularly those used in enhancing sexual desire. PMID:26903775

  8. Safety of herbal supplements: a guide for cardiologists.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Pieter A; Ernst, E

    2010-08-01

    Many patients use herbal supplements to treat chronic cardiovascular conditions and often combine herbal ingredients with cardiovascular medications. However, physicians do not reliably elicit a history of herbal use from their patients and may overlook herbal supplements' adverse effects. Although often considered harmless by patients, herbal supplements may cause adverse cardiovascular effects from an herbal ingredient, a contaminant, or an herb-drug interaction. Herbal stimulants, including bitter orange, ephedra, caffeine, guarana, maté, kola, areca, lobelia, khat, and others are the most common category of herbal therapies to cause cardiovascular effects. However, dozens of other herbal ingredients have also been linked to adverse cardiovascular events. In addition to listed ingredients, herbal supplements may become contaminated at a number of stages during production. Pesticides, heavy metals, bacteria, and pharmaceutical agents have been detected in herbal supplements. Supposedly "herbal" products that are adulterated with prescription anorectics, antidepressants, diuretics, phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors along with other medications have been identified throughout Europe, North America, and Asia. All of these adulterants have potential cardiovascular effects. Herbal interactions with a variety of cardiovascular medications may also lead to adverse events. Herbal ingredients may cause pharmacokinetic as well as pharmacodynamic herb-drug interactions. We review clinically relevant patterns of adverse cardiovascular reactions to herbal supplements, and we provide resources and recommendations for practicing cardiologists evaluating patients with suspected herbal adverse effects. PMID:20633025

  9. Evaluation of Herbal and Dietary Supplement Resource Term Coverage

    PubMed Central

    Manohar, Nivedha; Adam, Terrance J.; Pakhomov, Serguei V.; Melton, Genevieve B.; Zhang, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is increasingly popular in places like North America and Europe where western medicine is primarily practiced. People are consuming herbal and dietary supplements along with western medications simultaneously. Sometimes, supplements and drugs react with one another via antagonistic or potentiation actions of the drug or supplement resulting in an adverse event. Unfortunately, it is not easy to study drug-supplement interactions without a standard terminology to describe herbal and dietary supplements. This pilot study investigated coverage of supplement databases to one another as well as coverage by the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) and RxNorm for supplement terms. We found that none of the supplement databases completely covers supplement terms. UMLS, MeSH, SNOMED CT, RxNorm and NDF-RT cover 54%, 40%, 32%, 22% and 14% of supplement concepts, respectively. NDF-RT provides some value for grouping supplements into drug classes. Enhancing our understanding of the gap between the traditional biomedical terminology systems and supplement terms could lead to the development of a comprehensive terminology resources for supplements, and other secondary uses such as better detection and extraction of drug-supplement interactions. PMID:26262159

  10. Historical Perspective of Traditional Indigenous Medical Practices: The Current Renaissance and Conservation of Herbal Resources

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Si-Yuan; Gao, Si-Hua; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Chen, Hou-Qi; Zhang, Shuo-Feng; Tang, Min-Ke; Sun, Jian-Ning; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, increasing numbers of people have been choosing herbal medicines or products to improve their health conditions, either alone or in combination with others. Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal “renaissance” occurs all over the world. According to the World Health Organization, 75% of the world's populations are using herbs for basic healthcare needs. Since the dawn of mankind, in fact, the use of herbs/plants has offered an effective medicine for the treatment of illnesses. Moreover, many conventional/pharmaceutical drugs are derived directly from both nature and traditional remedies distributed around the world. Up to now, the practice of herbal medicine entails the use of more than 53,000 species, and a number of these are facing the threat of extinction due to overexploitation. This paper aims to provide a review of the history and status quo of Chinese, Indian, and Arabic herbal medicines in terms of their significant contribution to the health promotion in present-day over-populated and aging societies. Attention will be focused on the depletion of plant resources on earth in meeting the increasing demand for herbs. PMID:24872833

  11. Historical perspective of traditional indigenous medical practices: the current renaissance and conservation of herbal resources.

    PubMed

    Pan, Si-Yuan; Litscher, Gerhard; Gao, Si-Hua; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Chen, Hou-Qi; Zhang, Shuo-Feng; Tang, Min-Ke; Sun, Jian-Ning; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, increasing numbers of people have been choosing herbal medicines or products to improve their health conditions, either alone or in combination with others. Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal "renaissance" occurs all over the world. According to the World Health Organization, 75% of the world's populations are using herbs for basic healthcare needs. Since the dawn of mankind, in fact, the use of herbs/plants has offered an effective medicine for the treatment of illnesses. Moreover, many conventional/pharmaceutical drugs are derived directly from both nature and traditional remedies distributed around the world. Up to now, the practice of herbal medicine entails the use of more than 53,000 species, and a number of these are facing the threat of extinction due to overexploitation. This paper aims to provide a review of the history and status quo of Chinese, Indian, and Arabic herbal medicines in terms of their significant contribution to the health promotion in present-day over-populated and aging societies. Attention will be focused on the depletion of plant resources on earth in meeting the increasing demand for herbs. PMID:24872833

  12. Emerging Trends of Herbal Care in Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Gunjan; Jalaluddin, Md.; Rout, Purnendu; Mohanty, Rajat; Dileep, C.L.

    2013-01-01

    Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal ‘renaissance’ is happening all over the globe. The herbal products, today, symbolize safety, in contrast to the synthetics that are regarded as unsafe to humans and the environment. A herb, botanically speaking, is any plant that lacks the woody tissue which is characteristic of shrubs or trees. More specifically, herbs are plants which are used medicinally or for their flavour or scent. Herbs with medicinal properties are a useful and an effective source of treatment for various disease processes. Herbal extracts have been successfully used in dentistry as tooth cleaning and antimicrobial plaque agents. The use of herbal medicines continues to expand rapidly across the world. Many people take herbal medicines or herbal products now for their health care in different national healthcare settings. Herbal extracts have been used in dentistry for reducing inflammation, as antimicrobial plaque agents, for preventing release of histamine and as antiseptics, antioxidants, antimicrobials, antifungals, antibacterials, antivirals and analgesics. They also aid in healing and are effective in controlling microbial plaque in gingivitis and periodontitis, thereby improving immunity. PMID:24086929

  13. Unsafe and potentially safe herbal therapies.

    PubMed

    Klepser, T B; Klepser, M E

    1999-01-15

    Unsafe and potentially safe herbal therapies are discussed. The use of herbal therapies is on the rise in the United States, but most pharmacists are not adequately prepared educationally to meet patients' requests for information on herbal products. Pharmacists must also cope with an environment in which there is relatively little regulation of herbal therapies by FDA. Many herbs have been identified as unsafe, including borage, calamus, coltsfoot, comfrey, life root, sassafras, chaparral, germander, licorice, and ma huang. Potentially safe herbs include feverfew, garlic, ginkgo, Asian ginseng, saw palmetto, St. John's wort, and valerian. Clinical trials have been used to evaluate feverfew for migraine prevention and rheumatoid arthritis; garlic for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and infections; ginkgo for circulatory disturbances and dementia; ginseng for fatigue and cancer prevention; and saw palmetto for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Also studied in formal trials have been St. John's wort for depression and valerian for insomnia. The clinical trial results are suggestive of efficacy of some herbal therapies for some conditions. German Commission E, a regulatory body that evaluates the safety and efficacy of herbs on the basis of clinical trials, cases, and other scientific literature, has established indications and dosage recommendations for many herbal therapies. Pharmacists have a responsibility to educate themselves about herbal therapies in order to help patients discern the facts from the fiction, avoid harm, and gain what benefits may be available. PMID:10030529

  14. Requirements on efficacy of herbal medicinal products.

    PubMed

    Claeson, Per

    2014-12-01

    Based on the regulatory requirements on efficacy documentation in the European Union, the herbal medicinal products have been grouped into the following sections: (i) Herbal medicinal products for which the efficacy is demonstrated by results of a "full" set of clinical trials that are in conformity with the relevant guidelines of the therapeutic area in question. This regulatory pathway to obtain a marketing authorisation for a new medicinal product (new chemical entity) is open to herbal medicinal products, but the examples are in reality few. (ii) Herbal medicinal products which have a "well-established medicinal use with a recognised efficacy and an acceptable level of safety" in the European Union. Results of new and product specific clinical trials are not required to obtain a marketing authorisation for products that fulfil these criteria, but a substantial clinical experience must be documented and sufficient scientific data on efficacy must be publicly available. (iii) "Traditional" herbal medicinal products, that do not fulfil the efficacy requirements for a marketing authorisation, but for which a medicinal use of at least 30 years including 15 years in the European Union can be documented. Traditional herbal medicinal products can only be registered with therapeutic indications that are considered safe for use without the supervision of a physician. After briefly reviewing the regulatory requirements on efficacy documentation of herbal medicinal products in the European Union, some concluding remarks on the past and future developments in the area are made. PMID:25043782

  15. Chamomile: A herbal medicine of the past with bright future.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Janmejai K; Shankar, Eswar; Gupta, Sanjay

    2010-11-01

    Chamomile is one of the most ancient medicinal herbs known to mankind. It is a member of Asteraceae/Compositae family and represented by two common varieties viz. German Chamomile (Chamomilla recutita) and Roman Chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile). The dried flowers of chamomile contain many terpenoids and flavonoids contributing to its medicinal properties. Chamomile preparations are commonly used for many human ailments such as hay fever, inflammation, muscle spasms, menstrual disorders, insomnia, ulcers, wounds, gastrointestinal disorders, rheumatic pain, and hemorrhoids. Essential oils of chamomile are used extensively in cosmetics and aromatherapy. Many different preparations of chamomile have been developed, the most popular of which is in the form of herbal tea consumed more than one million cups per day. In this review we describe the use of chamomile in traditional medicine with regard to evaluating its curative and preventive properties, highlight recent findings for its development as a therapeutic agent promoting human health. PMID:21132119

  16. Chamomile: A herbal medicine of the past with bright future

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Janmejai K; Shankar, Eswar; Gupta, Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Chamomile is one of the most ancient medicinal herbs known to mankind. It is a member of Asteraceae/Compositae family and represented by two common varieties viz. German Chamomile (Chamomilla recutita) and Roman Chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile). The dried flowers of chamomile contain many terpenoids and flavonoids contributing to its medicinal properties. Chamomile preparations are commonly used for many human ailments such as hay fever, inflammation, muscle spasms, menstrual disorders, insomnia, ulcers, wounds, gastrointestinal disorders, rheumatic pain, and hemorrhoids. Essential oils of chamomile are used extensively in cosmetics and aromatherapy. Many different preparations of chamomile have been developed, the most popular of which is in the form of herbal tea consumed more than one million cups per day. In this review we describe the use of chamomile in traditional medicine with regard to evaluating its curative and preventive properties, highlight recent findings for its development as a therapeutic agent promoting human health. PMID:21132119

  17. Traditional remedies and food supplements. A 5-year toxicological study (1991-1995).

    PubMed

    Shaw, D; Leon, C; Kolev, S; Murray, V

    1997-11-01

    Since 1991, the Medical Toxicology Unit (MTU) at Guys' Hospital, London, has been assessing the toxicological problems associated with the use of traditional and herbal remedies and dietary supplements. This assessment was carried out by evaluating reports to the National Poisons Information Service (London) [NPIS(L)] which provides emergency information to medical professionals. Relevant telephone enquiries to NPIS(L) were identified. Further case details were obtained by follow-up questionnaire, clinical consultation, toxicological analysis of samples from patients and/or products and botanical identification of plant material. Of 1297 symptomatic enquiries evaluated there was a possible/confirmed association in 785 cases. Case series have been identified which substantiate previous reports, including liver problems following the use of Chinese herbal medicine for skin disorders, allergic reactions to royal jelly and propolis and heavy metal poisoning caused by remedies from the Indian subcontinent. Although the overall risk to public health appears to be low, certain groups of traditional remedies have been associated with a number of potentially serious adverse effects. Considering the extent of use of herbal remedies and food supplements a comprehensive surveillance system for monitoring the adverse health effects of these products is essential. Surveillance of a large population is needed for the complex task of identifying the uncommon and unpredictable adverse effects which are potentially serious. In the UK, the Medicines Control Agency responded to the MTU report by recognising the need for vigilance and by incorporating adverse reactions reporting on unlicensed herbal remedies into their drug reaction monitoring function. As a further step to safeguard the patients/consumers an effective single regulatory system is required which would ensure the safety and quality of all herbal remedies and food supplements available in the UK. PMID:9391777

  18. Novel approaches in herbal cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Chanchal, Deep; Swarnlata, Saraf

    2008-06-01

    Nutracosmetics are an emerging class of health and beauty aid products that combine the benefits of nutracosmetical ingredients with the elegance, skin feel, and delivery systems of cosmetics. Herbs and spices have been used in maintaining and enhancing human beauty because herbs have many beneficial properties, such as sunscreen, antiaging, moisturizing, antioxidant, anticellulite, and antimicrobial effects. As compared with synthetic cosmetic products, herbal products are mild, biodegradable, and have low toxicity profile. To enhance these properties, research is being done in the development of newer approaches, which could improve both the aesthetic appeal and performance of a cosmetic product. In this respect, the approaches studied and discussed include liposomes, phytosomes, transferosomes, nanoemulsions, nanoparticles, microemulsions, nanocrystals, and cubosomes. PMID:18482010

  19. Herbal haemorrhoidal cream for haemorrhoids.

    PubMed

    Gurel, Ebru; Ustunova, Savas; Ergin, Bulent; Tan, Nur; Caner, Metin; Tortum, Osman; Demirci-Tansel, Cihan

    2013-10-31

    Although hemorrhoids are one of the most common diseases in the world, the exact etiology underlying the development of hemorrhoids is not clear. Many different ointments are currently used to treat hemorrhoids; however, there is little evidence of the efficacy of these treatments to support their use. The aim of this study was to compare different herbal creams used for the treatment of hemorrhoids. Twenty-eight male Wistar albino rats, 6-8 weeks old and weighing 160-180 g, were used in this study as 1-control, 2-croton oil, 3-croton oil+fig leaves+artichoke leaves+walnut husks and 4-croton oil+fig leaves+artichoke leaves+walnut husks+horse chestnut fruit. After 3 days of croton oil application, rats were treated with 0.1 ml of cream or saline twice a day for 15 days by syringe. Tissue and blood samples were collected for histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical studies. Statistical significance was determined using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's multiple comparison tests. Croton oil administration resulted in severe inflammation. The third group showed partial improvement in inflammation; however, the greatest degree of improvement was seen in the fourth group, and some recovered areas were observed. Myeloperoxidase immunoreactivity was found to be decreased in the third and fourth groups compared to the second group. Additionally, biochemical analyses (Myeloperoxidase, Malondyaldehyde, nitrate/nitrite and nitrotyrosine levels and Superoxide Dismutase activity) were in agreement with the histological and immunohistochemical results. In conclusion, croton oil causes inflammation in the anal area and results in hemorrhoids. Treatment with our herbal hemorrhoid creams demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects in this model. PMID:24032710

  20. Juggling Popularity and Quality: Literary Excellence vs. Popular Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genco, Barbara A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Three librarians--Barbara A. Genco from Brooklyn, New York; Eleanor K. MacDonald from Beverly Hills, California; and Betsy Hearne from Chicago, Illinois--share their perspectives on where popular literature should fit into library material selection and children's reading diets. Popular literature is defined as primarily that which has first

  1. Complementary and alternative medicine in inflammatory bowel diseases: what is the future in the field of herbal medicine?

    PubMed

    Gilardi, Daniela; Fiorino, Gionata; Genua, Marco; Allocca, Mariangela; Danese, Silvio

    2014-09-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine is wide-spread not only in Eastern countries, but also in the Western world. Despite the increasing evidence on the harmful effects induced by several naturopathic/homeopathic products, patients seem to appreciate these remedies, in particular because they consider them to be absolutely safe. This same phenomenon is common among inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. As a result there is a significant request for scientific data to evaluate both the efficacy and safety of these remedies, and to support the use of such medications as adjuvant treatments to biological and synthetic drugs. We aimed to review the current evidence on efficacy and safety of some natural products that are believed to be effective in inflammatory bowel disease. Further perspectives for the clinical use of herbal products and strategies for improving knowledge about herbal products in IBD are also discussed. PMID:24813226

  2. Pharmacokinetic interactions between herbal medicines and prescribed drugs: focus on drug metabolic enzymes and transporters.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qiang; Liu, Kexin

    2014-01-01

    Herbal medicines have been widely used for thousands of years, and now are gaining continued popularity worldwide as a complementary or alternative treatment for a variety of diseases, rehabilitation and health care. Since herbal medicines contain more than one pharmacologically active ingredient and are commonly used with many prescribed drugs, there are potential herb-drug interactions. A variety of reported herb-drug interactions are of pharmacokinetic origin, arising from the effects of herbal medicines on metabolic enzymes and/or transporters. Such an alteration in metabolism or transport can result in changes in absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (e.g., induction or inhibition of metabolic enzymes, and modulation of uptake and efflux transporters), leading to changed pharmacokinetics of the concomitantly prescribed drugs. Pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions have more clinical significance as pharmacokinetic parameters such as the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC), the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) or the elimination half-life (t1/2) of the concomitant drug alter. This review summarizes the mechanism underlying herb-drug interactions and the approaches to identify the interactions, and discusses pharmacokinetic interactions of eight widely used herbal medicines (Ginkgo biloba, ginseng, garlic, black cohosh, Echinacea, milk thistle, kava, and St. John's wort) with conventional drugs, using various in vitro, animal in vivo, and clinical studies. The increasing understanding of pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions will make health care professionals and patients pay more attention to the potential interactions. PMID:25705905

  3. Herbal Medicine in the United States: Review of Efficacy, Safety, and Regulation

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Herbal products have gained increasing popularity in the last decade, and are now used by approximately 20% of the population. Herbal products are complex mixtures of organic chemicals that may come from any raw or processed part of a plant, including leaves, stems, flowers, roots, and seeds. Under the current law, herbs are defined as dietary supplements, and manufacturers can therefore produce, sell, and market herbs without first demonstrating safety and efficacy, as is required for pharmaceutical drugs. Although herbs are often perceived as “natural” and therefore safe, many different side effects have been reported owing to active ingredients, contaminants, or interactions with drugs. Results Unfortunately, there is limited scientific evidence to establish the safety and efficacy of most herbal products. Of the top 10 herbs, 5 (ginkgo, garlic, St. John’s wort, soy, and kava) have scientific evidence suggesting efficacy, but concerns over safety and a consideration of other medical therapies may temper the decision to use these products. Conclusions Herbal products are not likely to become an important alternative to standard medical therapies unless there are changes to the regulation, standardization, and funding for research of these products. PMID:18415652

  4. Preparation of hydrogels for atopic dermatitis containing natural herbal extracts by gamma-ray irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Youn-Mook; An, Sung-Jun; Kim, Hae-Kyoung; Kim, Yun-Hye; Youn, Min-Ho; Gwon, Hui-Jeong; Shin, Junhwa; Nho, Young-Chang

    2009-07-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a familial and chronic inflammatory pruritic skin disease that affects a large number of children and adults in industrialized countries. It is known that one of the prominent features of AD and chronic pruritus is partially due to the histamine released from mast cell. In this work, hydrogel patches with natural herbal extracts were prepared by "freezing and thawing", and a gamma irradiation. It showed eminent healing results as a consequence of long-term moisturizing effects and natural herbal extracts on atopic wounds. Besides its non-toxicity and human harmlessness, it can be easily attached to or detached from the skin without any trace and help patients to feel refreshment when attached. Based on this work, the hydrogel patches we made can be potentially used as an alternative remedy for not only pruritus in AD, but other dermatitis.

  5. Rational quality assessment procedure for less-investigated herbal medicines: Case of a Congolese antimalarial drug with an analytical report.

    PubMed

    Tshitenge, Dieudonné Tshitenge; Ioset, Karine Ndjoko; Lami, José Nzunzu; Ndelo-di-Phanzu, Josaphat; Mufusama, Jean-Pierre Koy Sita; Bringmann, Gerhard

    2016-04-01

    Herbal medicines are the most globally used type of medical drugs. Their high cultural acceptability is due to the experienced safety and efficiency over centuries of use. Many of them are still phytochemically less-investigated, and are used without standardization or quality control. Choosing SIROP KILMA, an authorized Congolese antimalarial phytomedicine, as a model case, our study describes an interdisciplinary approach for a rational quality assessment of herbal drugs in general. It combines an authentication step of the herbal remedy prior to any fingerprinting, the isolation of the major constituents, the development and validation of an HPLC-DAD analytical method with internal markers, and the application of the method to several batches of the herbal medicine (here KILMA) thus permitting the establishment of a quantitative fingerprint. From the constitutive plants of KILMA, acteoside, isoacteoside, stachannin A, and pectolinarigenin-7-O-glucoside were isolated, and acteoside was used as the prime marker for the validation of an analytical method. This study contributes to the efforts of the WHO for the establishment of standards enabling the analytical evaluation of herbal materials. Moreover, the paper describes the first phytochemical and analytical report on a marketed Congolese phytomedicine. PMID:27010420

  6. Popular Music: An Ongoing Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutietta, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    Addresses tendencies to force popular music into existing school music program formats, rather than include it as a form with its own musical integrity and authenticity. Urges music teachers not to dismiss popular music or turn it into elevator music. (CH)

  7. Rethinking Popular Culture and Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Elizabeth, Ed.; Sensoy, Ozlem, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Rethinking Popular Culture and Media" is a provocative collection of articles that begins with the idea that the "popular" in classrooms and in the everyday lives of teachers and students is fundamentally political. This anthology includes outstanding articles by elementary and secondary public school teachers, scholars, and activists who…

  8. Rethinking Popular Culture and Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Elizabeth, Ed.; Sensoy, Ozlem, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Rethinking Popular Culture and Media" is a provocative collection of articles that begins with the idea that the "popular" in classrooms and in the everyday lives of teachers and students is fundamentally political. This anthology includes outstanding articles by elementary and secondary public school teachers, scholars, and activists who

  9. Technology, Sound and Popular Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Steve

    The ability to record sound is power over sound. Musicians, producers, recording engineers, and the popular music audience often refer to the sound of a recording as something distinct from the music it contains. Popular music is primarily mediated via electronics, via sound, and not by means of written notes. The ability to preserve or modify…

  10. Popular Culture and Democratic Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolby, Nadine

    2003-01-01

    A literature review explores how scholars have approached the study of popular culture--as text or lived experience. Examines the concepts of youth culture, individual agency, and cultural citizenship. Argues that the importance of popular culture lies in its role as a site for democratic practice. (Contains 88 reference notes.) (SK)

  11. New Dimensions in Popular Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nye, Russel B., Ed.

    This document contains fifteen essays which study some of the didactic, moralistic literature which was popular in nineteenth century America, and speculate about the culture from which the literature evolved. The essays include "Millions of Moral Little Books: Sunday School Books in Their Popular Context"; "Nineteenth Century Gift Books: A…

  12. American Civilization--Popular Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Carol F.

    This syllabus introduces the purposes and organization of a course on Popular Culture as evidence of American civilization offered at Meramec Community College. The guide first presents a rationale for the study of popular culture and then lists course requirements; discusses techniques such as comparative analysis and psychoanalytic investigation…

  13. Herbal Medicine for Anxiety, Depression and Insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lei; Liu, Changhong; Wang, Yicun; Wang, Pu; Li, Yuxin; Li, Bingjin

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety and insomnia are very common. These well-known forms of psychiatric disorders have been affecting many people from all around the world. Herb alone, as well as herbal formula, is commonly prescribed for the therapies of mental illnesses. Since various adverse events of western medication exist, the number of people who use herbs to benefit their health is increasing. Over the past decades, the exploration in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has received much attention. Literatures showed a variety of herbal mechanisms of action used for the therapy of depression, anxiety and insomnia, involving re-uptake of monoamines, affecting neuroreceptor binding and channel transporter activity, modulating neuronal communication or hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis (HPA) etc. Nonetheless, a systematic review on herbal pharmacology in depression, anxiety and insomnia is still lacking. This review has been performed to further identify modes of action of different herbal medicine, and thus provides useful information for the application of herbal medicine. PMID:26412068

  14. Acute liver injury associated with a newer formulation of the herbal weight loss supplement Hydroxycut.

    PubMed

    Araujo, James L; Worman, Howard J

    2015-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of herbal and dietary supplements (HDS), serious cases of hepatotoxicity have been reported. The popular herbal weight loss supplement, Hydroxycut, has previously been implicated in acute liver injury. Since its introduction, Hydroxycut has undergone successive transformations in its formulation; yet, cases of liver injury have remained an ongoing problem. We report a case of a 41-year-old Hispanic man who developed acute hepatocellular liver injury with associated nausea, vomiting, jaundice, fatigue and asterixis attributed to the use of a newer formulation of Hydroxycut, SX-7 Clean Sensory. The patient required hospitalisation and improved with supportive therapy. Despite successive transformations in its formulation, potential liver injury appears to remain an ongoing problem with Hydroxycut. Our case illustrates the importance of obtaining a thorough medication history, including HDS, regardless of new or reformulated product marketing efforts. PMID:25948859

  15. Herbal and dietary supplement hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Victor J

    2009-11-01

    Herbal and dietary supplements (HDS) are commonly used in the United States and throughout the world. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act and public standards set through the U.S. Pharmacopeia provide regulatory framework for these products. These regulations help to ensure the safety of grandfathered and new HDS coming onto the market, and the opportunity to identify and take action against unsafe products that have been distributed. The clinical patterns of presentation and severity of HDS-associated hepatotoxicity can be highly variable, even for the same product. In addition, accurate causality assessment in cases of suspected HDS hepatotoxicity is confounded by infrequent ascertainment of product intake by healthcare providers, under-reporting of HDS use by patients, the ubiquity of HDS and the complexity of their components, and the possibility for product adulteration. Additional measures to prevent HDS-induced hepatotoxicity include greater consumer and provider awareness, increased spontaneous reporting, and reassessment of regulations regarding the manufacturing, distribution, and marketing of these products. PMID:19826971

  16. High performance thin layer chromatography fingerprinting, phytochemical and physico-chemical studies of anti-diabetic herbal extracts

    PubMed Central

    Itankar, Prakash R.; Sawant, Dattatray B.; Tauqeer, Mohd.; Charde, Sonal S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Herbal medicines have gained increasing popularity in the last few decades, and this global resurgence of herbal medicines increases their commercial value. However, this increasing demand has resulted in a decline in their quality, primarily due to a lack of adequate regulations pertaining to herbal medicines. Aim: To develop an optimized methodology for the standardization of herbal raw materials. Materials and Methods: The present study has been designed to examine each of the five herbal anti-diabetic drugs, Gymnema sylvester R. Br., Pterocarpus marsupium Roxburgh., Enicostema littorale Blume., Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels. and Emblica officinalis Gaertn. The in-house extracts and marketed extracts were evaluated using physicochemical parameters, preliminary phytochemical screening, quantification of polyphenols (Folin–Ciocalteu colorimetric method) and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprint profiling with reference to marker compounds in plant extracts. Results: All the plants mainly contain polyphenolic compounds and are quantified in the range of 3.6–21.72% w/w. E. officinalis contain the highest and E. littorale contain the lowest content of polyphenol among plant extracts analyzed. HPTLC fingerprinting showed that the in-house extracts were of better quality than marketed extracts. Conclusion: The results obtained from the study could be utilized for setting limits for the reference phytoconstituents (biomarker) for the quality control and quality assurance of these anti-diabetic drugs. PMID:27011722

  17. Evidence of effectiveness of herbal antiinflammatory drugs in the treatment of painful osteoarthritis and chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Chrubasik, J E; Roufogalis, B D; Chrubasik, S

    2007-07-01

    Treatment with herbal medicines is very popular in Europe. In order to get information on the evidence of effectiveness of oral herbal medicines in the treatment of pain in the joints or lower back, OVID(MEDLINE), PUBMED and COCHRANE COLLABORATION LIBRARY were searched back to 1985 for systematic reviews. The level of evidence of effectiveness was defined as strong - at least two confirmatory studies demonstrating a clinical relevant effect, moderate - one confirmatory study with a clinical relevant effect and/or multiple exploratory studies of good quality; otherwise the evidence was insufficient or conflicting in the case of inconsistent findings. Fifteen systematic reviews were identified. The evidence of effectiveness was strong for a proprietary unsaponifiable avocado soybean fraction and Harpagophytum preparations containing > 50 mg harpagoside in the daily dosage, moderate for ginger and a proprietary rose hip and seed powder, insufficient for Boswellia serrata gum resin and other herbal preparations and inconsistent for a proprietary willow bark extract. Further rigorous studies are required to confirm the usefulness of herbal medicines in the treatment of osteoarthritic complaints and chronic low back pain in order to enable acceptance of the herbal medicines into the treatment guidelines. PMID:17444576

  18. Recent advances in herbal medicines treating Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Xu-Zhao; Zhang, Shuai-Nan; Liu, Shu-Min; Lu, Fang

    2013-01-01

    Herbal medicines have attracted considerable attention in recent years, which are used to treat Parkinson's disease (PD) in China based on traditional Chinese medicine or modern pharmacological theories. We summarized and analyzed the anti-Parkinsonian activities of herbal medicines and herbal formulations investigated in PD models and provide future references for basic and clinical investigations. All the herbal medicines and herbal formulations were tested on PD models in vitro and in vivo. The relevant compounds and herbal extracts with anti-Parkinsonian activities were included and analyzed according to their genera or pharmacological activities. A total of 38 herbal medicines and 11 herbal formulations were analyzed. The relevant compounds, herbal extracts and formulations were reported to be effective on PD models by modulating multiple key events or signaling pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of PD. The plant species of these herbal medicines belong to 24 genera and 18 families, such as Acanthopanax, Alpinia and Astragalus, etc. These herbal medicines can be an alternative and valuable source for anti-Parkinsonian drug discovery. The plant species in these genera and families may be the most promising candidates for further investigation and deserve further consideration in clinical trials. Active components in some of the herbal extracts and the compatibility law of herbal formulations remain to be further investigated. PMID:23266574

  19. Medicinal plants and dementia therapy: herbal hopes for brain aging?

    PubMed

    Perry, Elaine; Howes, Melanie-Jayne R

    2011-12-01

    An escalating "epidemic" of diseases like Alzheimer's has not yet been met by effective symptomatic treatments or preventative strategies. Among a few current prescription drugs are cholinesterase inhibitors including galantamine, originating from the snowdrop. Research into ethnobotanicals for memory or cognition has burgeoned in recent years. Based on a multi-faceted review of medicinal plants or phytochemicals, including traditional uses, relevant bioactivities, psychological and clinical evidence on efficacy and safety, this overview focuses on those for which there is promising clinical trial evidence in people with dementia, together with at least one other of these lines of supporting evidence. With respect to cognitive function, such plants reviewed include sage, Ginkgo biloba, and complex mixtures of other traditional remedies. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) challenge carers and lead to institutionalization. Symptoms can be alleviated by some plant species (e.g., lemon balm and lavender alleviate agitation in people with dementia; St John's wort treats depression in the normal population). The ultimate goal of disease prevention is considered from the perspective of limited epidemiological and clinical trial evidence to date. The potential value of numerous plant extracts or chemicals (e.g., curcumin) with neuroprotective but as yet no clinical data are reviewed. Given intense clinical need and carer concerns, which lead to exploration of such alternatives as herbal medicines, the following research priorities are indicated: investigating botanical agents which enhance cognition in populations with mild memory impairment or at earliest disease stages, and those for BPSD in people with dementia at more advanced stages; establishing an ongoing authoritative database on herbal medicine for dementia; and further epidemiological and follow up studies of promising phytopharmaceuticals or related nutraceuticals for disease prevention. PMID:22070157

  20. Monitoring of herbal mixtures potentially containing synthetic cannabinoids as psychoactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Dresen, Sebastian; Ferreirós, Nerea; Pütz, Michael; Westphal, Folker; Zimmermann, Ralf; Auwärter, Volker

    2010-10-01

    Herbal mixtures like 'Spice' with potentially bioactive ingredients were available in many European countries since 2004 and are still widely used as a substitute for cannabis, although merchandized as 'herbal incense'. After gaining a high degree of popularity in 2008, big quantities of these drugs were sold. In December 2008, synthetic cannabinoids were identified in the mixtures which were not declared as ingredients: the C(8) homolog of the non-classical cannabinoid CP-47,497 (CP-47,497-C8) and a cannabimimetic aminoalkylindole called JWH-018. In February 2009, a few weeks after the German legislation put these compounds and further pharmacologically active homologs of CP-47,497 under control, another cannabinoid appeared in 'incense' products: the aminoalkylindole JWH-073. In this paper, the results of monitoring of commercially available 'incense' products from June 2008 to September 2009 are presented. In this period of time, more than 140 samples of herbal mixtures were analyzed for bioactive ingredients and synthetic cannabimimetic substances in particular. The results show that the composition of many products changed repeatedly over time as a reaction to prohibition and prosecution of resellers. Therefore neither the reseller nor the consumer of these mixtures can predict the actual content of the 'incense' products. As long as there is no possibility of generic definitions in the controlled substances legislation, further designer cannabinoids will appear on the market as soon as the next legal step has been taken. This is affirmed by the recent identification of the aminoalkylindoles JWH-250 and JWH-398. As further cannabinoids can be expected to occur in the near future, a continuous monitoring of these herbal mixtures is required. The identification of the synthetic opioid O-desmethyltramadol in a herbal mixture declared to contain 'kratom' proves that the concept of selling apparently natural products spiked with potentially dangerous synthetic chemicals/pharmaceuticals is a continuing trend on the market of 'legal highs'. PMID:20857386

  1. Popular Culture in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allender, Dale

    2004-01-01

    Traditional and innovative elements such as bells and music with quick pacing accented by a voice that students could recognize is used to effortlessly bring students to the classroom. Popular culture is shown to work well using classroom examples.

  2. Early societies popularize scientific research.

    PubMed

    Hackmann, W D

    1983-01-01

    Private scientific societies, popular in the eighteenth century, supported and encouraged research on such devices as the electrostatic generator and the Leyden jar, paving the way for later electrophysiological research. PMID:6358812

  3. Essential concepts and vocabulary in herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Tillotson, Alan Keith

    2008-01-01

    Western-trained scientists and physicians can better understand herbal medicine if they learn the basic terminologies and essential concepts used by herbal practitioners around the globe to describe how herbs work on the body. Specific and general chemical actions, pharmacokinetics, and plant constituents (such as carotenoids and flavonoids) can all be used to understand how herbs work. Other important tools for understanding herbal medicine include organoleptic methods (personal sensory based information), such as heating and cooling effects, tastes, and physically felt actions. Tissue affinity is also an important method, one aspect of which is tissue-specific antioxidant effects. In addition, broad concepts from the Oriental traditions--such as the Chinese Yin and Yang, and the Ayurvedic Vata, Pitta, and Kapha--can and have been effectively used to organize and focus understanding and guide treatment. PMID:22436100

  4. Herbal medicines as adjuvants for cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Calway, Tyler; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, many patients, including cancer patients, concurrently take prescription drugs and herbal supplements. Co-administration of prescription medicines and herbal supplements may have negative outcomes via pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions. However, multiple constituents in botanicals may also yield beneficial pharmacological activities. Botanicals could possess effective anticancer compounds that may be used as adjuvants to existing chemotherapy to improve efficacy and/or reduce drug-induced toxicity. Herbal medicines, such as ginseng, potentiated the effects of chemotherapeutic agents via synergistic activities, supported by cell cycle evaluations, apoptotic observations, and computer-based docking analysis. Since botanicals are nearly always administrated orally, the role of intestinal microbiota in metabolizing ginseng constituents is presented. Controlled clinical studies are warranted to verify the clinical utility of the botanicals in cancer chemoprevention. PMID:22809022

  5. Treatment of rosacea with herbal ingredients.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jessica

    2006-01-01

    Since rosacea is a chronic disease and many patients find prescription therapies unsatisfactory, they frequently turn to herbal ingredients for relief of their persistent facial redness. The most useful and frequently used herbal compounds include licorice, feverfew, green tea, oatmeal, lavender, chamomile, tea tree oil, and camphor oil. The utility of most of these herbs is based on their purported anti-inflammatory properties. Some of these herbs have proven effects, many have potential benefits, and some may aggravate rosacea. Due to the fact that many patients fail to inform their physicians about their use of herbal ingredients, dermatologists should be aware of what patients may be using and be able to advise them about the efficacy of these ingredients or the potential for adverse effects. PMID:16468289

  6. Popular Culture and the Teaching of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donelson, Ken, Ed.

    1975-01-01

    This issue of the "Arizona English Bulletin" contains 38 articles related to popular culture and the teaching of English. The articles discuss such topics as language in the popular arts, establishing a popular culture library, defining sexism in popular culture, detective literature and its uses in the traditional classroom, popular literature as…

  7. Herbal pharmacology and medical therapy in the People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Lasagna, L

    1975-12-01

    A scientific delegation visited the People's Republic of China for the purpose of assessing the current status of herbal pharmacology and medicine there. China is attempting to wed traditional and Western medicine so as to take advantage of the potential contributions of both. This wedding seems possible at the empiric level despite theoretical contradictions. Traditional remedies are widely prescribed, but the actual impact of such medication on disease is difficult to assess, because of the failure of the Chinese up until now to evaluate such remedies by modern clinical trial methodology. All Western drugs are readily available in China, and indeed are manufactured for export as well as for use within the country. The current chinese approach to the patient-doctor relation, and some novel ideas with regard to both medical and surgical therapy pose provocative questions for Western physicians. PMID:1200537

  8. Exploring scientifically proven herbal aphrodisiacs

    PubMed Central

    Kotta, Sabna; Ansari, Shahid H.; Ali, Javed

    2013-01-01

    Procreation was an important moral and religious issue and aphrodisiacs were sought to ensure both male and female potency. Sexual dysfunction is an inability to achieve a normal sexual intercourse, including premature ejaculation, retrograded, retarded or inhibited ejaculation, erectile dysfunction, arousal difficulties (reduced libido), compulsive sexual behavior, orgasmic disorder, and failure of detumescence. The introduction of the first pharmacologically approved remedy for impotence, Viagra (sildenafil) in 1990s caused a wave of public attention, propelled in part by heavy advertising. The search for such substances dates back millennia. An aphrodisiac is an agent (food or drug) that arouses sexual desire. The hunt for natural supplement from medicinal plants is being intensified mainly because of its fewer side effects. In this review, we have mentioned the pharmacologically tested (either in man or animal or in both) aphrodisiac plants, which have claimed for its uses. PMID:23922450

  9. Safety concerns of herbal products and traditional Chinese herbal medicines: Dehydopyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many countries, including the United States, herbal supplements, tisanes and vegetable products including traditional Chinese medicines are largely unregulated and their content is not registered, monitored or verified. Consequently potent plant toxins including dehydopyrrolizidine alkaloids and...

  10. Recipes and general herbal formulae in books: causes of herbal poisoning.

    PubMed

    Chong, Y K; Ching, C K; Ng, S W; Tse, M L; Mak, Tony W L

    2014-08-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine is commonly used locally, not only for disease treatment but also for improving health. Many people prepare soups containing herbs or herbal decoctions according to recipes and general herbal formulae commonly available in books, magazines, and newspapers without consulting Chinese medicine practitioners. However, such practice can be dangerous. We report five cases of poisoning from 2007 to 2012 occurring as a result of inappropriate use of herbs in recipes or general herbal formulae acquired from books. Aconite poisoning due to overdose or inadequate processing accounted for three cases. The other two cases involved the use of herbs containing Strychnos alkaloids and Sophora alkaloids. These cases demonstrated that inappropriate use of Chinese medicine can result in major morbidity, and herbal formulae and recipes containing herbs available in general publications are not always safe. PMID:25104008

  11. The influence of traditional herbal formulas on cytokine activity.

    PubMed

    Burns, J J; Zhao, Lijun; Taylor, Ethan Will; Spelman, Kevin

    2010-11-28

    Many of the botanical "immunomodulators", a class of herbal medicines widely recognized in traditional medical systems such as Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Ayurvedic Medicine, alter immune function and may offer clinically relevant therapeutics or leads to therapeutics. Many of these traditional remedies are prepared from combinations of medicinal plants which may influence numerous molecular pathways. These effects may differ from the sum of effects from the individual plants and therefore, research demonstrating the effects of the formula is crucial for insights into the effects of traditional remedies. In this review we surveyed the primary literature for research that focused on combinations of medicinal plants and effects on cytokine activity. The results demonstrate that many extracts of herb mixtures have effects on at least one cytokine. The most commonly studies cytokines were IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF and IFN-γ. The majority of the formulas researched derived from TCM. The following formulas had activity on at least three cytokines; Chizukit N, CKBM, Daeganghwal-tang, Food Allergy Formula, Gamcho-Sasim-Tang, Hachimi-jio-gan, Herbkines, Hochuekki, Immune System Formula, Jeo-Dang-Tang, Juzen-taiho-to, Kakkon-to, Kan jang, Mao-Bushi-Saishin-to, MSSM-002, Ninjin-youei-to, PG201, Protec, Qing-huo-bai-du-yin, Qingfu Guanjieshu, Sambucol Active Defense, Seng-fu-tang, Shin-Xiao-Xiang, Tien Hsien, Thuja formula, Unkei-to, Vigconic, Wheeze-relief-formula, Xia-Bai-San, Yangyuk-Sanhwa-Tang, Yi-fey Ruenn-hou, and Yuldahansotang. Of the western based combinations, formulas with Echinacea spp. were common and showed multiple activities. Numerous formulas demonstrated activity on both gene and protein expression. The research demonstrates that the reviewed botanical formulas modulate cytokine activity, although the bulk of the research is in vitro. Therapeutic success using these formulas may be partially due to their effects on cytokines. Further study of phytotherapy on cytokine related diseases/syndromes is necessary. PMID:19818374

  12. Herbal Energizers: Speed By Any Other Name.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Andrew P.

    This guide focuses on over-the-counter (OTC) stimulants sold to high school aged athletes and dieters as "herbal energizers," food supplements, and fatigue reducers. While advertising often makes them appear healthful and harmless, all of these stimulants belong in the class "sympathomimetic amines," so called because they mimic the sympathetic…

  13. Online sources of herbal product information.

    PubMed

    Owens, Christopher; Baergen, Ralph; Puckett, Derek

    2014-02-01

    Herbal products are commonly used to treat clinical conditions and are often purchased online without the supervision of a healthcare provider. The use of herbals remains controversial because of widespread exaggerated claims of clinical efficacy and safety. We conducted an online search of 13 common herbals (including black cohosh, echinacea, garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, kava, saw palmetto, and St John's wort) and reviewed the top 50 Web sites for each using a Google search. We analyzed clinical claims, warnings, and other safety information. A total of 1179 Web sites were examined. Less than 8% of retail sites provided information regarding potential adverse effects, drug interactions, and other safety information; only 10.5% recommended consultation with a healthcare professional. Less than 3% cited scientific literature to accompany their claims. Key safety information is still lacking from many online sources of herbal information. Certain nonretail site types may be more reliable, but physicians and other healthcare professionals should be aware of the variable quality of these sites to help patients make more informed decisions. PMID:24290486

  14. Chinese Herbal Medicines - Manufacturing Flaws and Misuse.

    PubMed

    Fraser, D B; Wen, W C

    1998-12-01

    Chinese herbal medicines are mixtures of botanical, mineral, and/or animal products. The medicines are either prepared by a herbalist for a specific patient or available over the counter in ready to use or decoct formulations. The number of literature references with regard to adverse effects from Chinese herbal medicines has grown dramatically in the last decade along with the increased use of these treatments. These adverse effects can be attributed to a variety of reasons. Intentional adulteration of herbal medicines with pharmaceuticals to substantiate medicinal claims has resulted in a number of serious adverse effects, including some fatal cases. Cases of metal intoxication have been reported from their use as active ingredients or their presence as contaminants. Substituting a more toxic herb for a benign one, either by misidentification or for economic gain, can also result in adverse effects. Variability in the natural products from differences in growing, harvesting, and storage conditions affects the concentration of active components. Changes in these concentrations make consistent dosing a problem, especially for those herbs with a low therapeutic index. Because the causes of adverse effects from Chinese herbal medicines are varied, each incident must be thoroughly investigated to determine the causes, the potential public health risks, and the ways to avoid similar incidences in the future. PMID:26255715

  15. Assessing herbal products with health claims.

    PubMed

    Lapenna, Silvia; Gemen, Raymond; Wollgast, Jan; Worth, Andrew; Maragkoudakis, Petros; Caldeira, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Herbs, herbal extracts, or phytochemicals are broadly used as foods, drugs, and as traditional medicines. These are well regulated in Europe, with thorough controls on both safety and efficacy or validity of health claims. However, the distinction between medicines and foods with health claims is not always clear. In addition, there are several cases of herbal products that claim benefits that are not scientifically demonstrated. This review details the European Union (EU) legislative framework that regulates the approval and marketing of herbal products bearing health claims as well as the scientific evidence that is needed to support such claims. To illustrate the latter, we focus on phytoecdysteroid (PE)-containing preparations, generally sold to sportsmen and bodybuilders. We review the limited published scientific evidence that supports claims for these products in humans. In addition, we model the in silico binding between different PEs and human nuclear receptors and discuss the implications of these putative bindings in terms of the mechanism of action of this family of compounds. We call for additional research to validate the safety and health-promoting properties of PEs and other herbal compounds, for the benefit of all consumers. PMID:24915414

  16. A Prairie Pharmacy: An Introduction to Herbalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Susan A.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a laboratory activity to teach medical biology to undergraduate nonmajor business students. Uses herbalism as the theme concept to integrate subjects, such as anatomy, physiology, medical theory, and terminology. Includes topics, such as herb collection, medicine preparation, and herb storage. (SOE)

  17. Traditional herbal medicine in Far-west Nepal: a pharmacological appraisal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Plant species have long been used as principal ingredients of traditional medicine in far-west Nepal. The medicinal plants with ethnomedicinal values are currently being screened for their therapeutic potential but their data and information are inadequately compared and analyzed with the Ayurveda and the phytochemical findings. Methods The present study evaluated ethnomedicinal plants and their uses following literature review, comparison, field observations, and analysis. Comparison was made against earlier standard literature of medicinal plants and ethnomedicine of the same area, the common uses of the Ayurveda and the latest common phytochemical findings. The field study for primary data collection was carried out from 2006-2008. Results The herbal medicine in far-west Nepal is the basis of treatment of most illness through traditional knowledge. The medicine is made available via ancient, natural health care practices such as tribal lore, home herbal remedy, and the Baidhya, Ayurveda and Amchi systems. The traditional herbal medicine has not only survived but also thrived in the trans-cultural environment with its intermixture of ethnic traditions and beliefs. The present assessment showed that traditional herbal medicine has flourished in rural areas where modern medicine is parsimoniously accessed because of the high cost and long travel time to health center. Of the 48 Nepalese medicinal plants assessed in the present communication, about half of the species showed affinity with the common uses of the Ayurveda, earlier studies and the latest phytochemical findings. The folk uses of Acacia catechu for cold and cough, Aconitum spicatum as an analgesic, Aesculus indica for joint pain, Andrographis paniculata for fever, Anisomeles indica for urinary affections, Azadirachta indica for fever, Euphorbia hirta for asthma, Taxus wallichiana for tumor control, and Tinospora sinensis for diabetes are consistent with the latest pharmacological findings, common Ayurvedic and earlier uses. Conclusions Although traditional herbal medicine is only a primary means of health care in far-west Nepal, the medicine has been pursued indigenously with complementing pharmacology and the Ayurveda. Therefore, further pharmacological evaluation of traditional herbal medicine deserves more attention. PMID:21144003

  18. Herbal products in Canada. How safe are they?

    PubMed Central

    Kozyrskyj, A.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine existing evidence and inform family physicians about issues concerning herbal product use in Canada. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: The Canadian Food and Drug Act and findings of an Expert Advisory Committee on Herbs and Botanical Preparations were consulted to provide an overview of the issues regarding herbal product regulation in Canada. Case reports of herbal toxicity were identified to illustrate some of the hazards of herbal products, and references provided to guide health professional in searching the literature for clinical trials that evaluate these drugs' efficacy. MAIN FINDINGS: Herbal products not registered as drugs in Canada are sold as foods and are exempt from the drug review process that evaluates product efficacy and safety. This places the public at risk of unwanted effects from the use of herbal products that are adulterated with other substances and of forgoing effective conventional therapy. Moreover, consumers are exposed to a plethora of information portraying herbal products as harmless. Some progress has been made to address these concerns by facilitating the registration of herbal products as drugs. CONCLUSIONS: Most herbal products that were evaluated were unsafe or ineffective, or no information was available to evaluate their efficacy. Despite the perception that herbal products are innocuous, family physicians need to be aware that herbal therapy can be harmful in order to help their patients make informed choices. Images p699-a PMID:9111986

  19. Popular Education in Solidarity Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Melo Neto, José Francisco; da Costa, Francisco Xavier Pereira

    2015-01-01

    This article seeks to show the relation between popular education and solidarity economy in experiences of solidarity economy enterprises in Brazil. It is based on diverse experiences which have occurred in various sectors of this economy, highlighting those experiences which took place in João Pessoa with the creation of a Cooperative of Workers…

  20. Popular Education in Solidarity Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Melo Neto, Jos Francisco; da Costa, Francisco Xavier Pereira

    2015-01-01

    This article seeks to show the relation between popular education and solidarity economy in experiences of solidarity economy enterprises in Brazil. It is based on diverse experiences which have occurred in various sectors of this economy, highlighting those experiences which took place in Joo Pessoa with the creation of a Cooperative of Workers

  1. Readers' Knowledge of Popular Genre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Peter; Bortolussi, Marisa

    2009-01-01

    This research examined readers' knowledge of popular genres. Participants wrote short essays on fantasy, science fiction, or romance. The similarities among the essays were measured using latent semantic analysis (LSA) and were then analyzed using multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis. The clusters and scales were interpreted by searching…

  2. Popular Music in Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christenson, Peter G.; Roberts, Donald F.

    This paper examines young adolescents' involvement with popular music and the health implications of that involvement. Initial discussion explores three central concepts: music media, adolescence, and mass media effects. A summary of research on music media in adolescence is offereed in two sections discussing exposure to, and gratifications and…

  3. Teaching the French Popular Front.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Irwin M.

    1987-01-01

    Examines the French Popular Front of 1936 as a vehicle to investigate the turbulent decade of the 1930s. Reviews current historiography and discusses various facets of Leon Blum's government, examining the interrelationship of major economic and political forces. Concludes that the French Left still faces Blum's dilemma of implementing socialism…

  4. Popular Fiction as Liberal Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stowe, William W.

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes popular fiction, particularly the detective novel, using Ruth Rendell's "An Unkindness of Ravens" as an example. Calls detective fiction political literature and claims that it gives readers a chance to affirm or criticize the dynamics of the confrontation of society and crime. (SRT)

  5. Popularity Ends at Grade 12!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimm, Sylvia B.

    1988-01-01

    This presentation of a speech to gifted teenagers discusses the pressures of giftedness. It focuses on the demands placed on gifted teenagers by others and by themselves, their need to develop self-confidence, their uniqueness and yet similarities with others, the balance between creativity and conformity, and the unimportance of popularity. (JDD)

  6. Herbal Hepatotoxicity: Clinical Characteristics and Listing Compilation.

    PubMed

    Frenzel, Christian; Teschke, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Herb induced liver injury (HILI) and drug induced liver injury (DILI) share the common characteristic of chemical compounds as their causative agents, which were either produced by the plant or synthetic processes. Both, natural and synthetic chemicals are foreign products to the body and need metabolic degradation to be eliminated. During this process, hepatotoxic metabolites may be generated causing liver injury in susceptible patients. There is uncertainty, whether risk factors such as high lipophilicity or high daily and cumulative doses play a pathogenetic role for HILI, as these are under discussion for DILI. It is also often unclear, whether a HILI case has an idiosyncratic or an intrinsic background. Treatment with herbs of Western medicine or traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) rarely causes elevated liver tests (LT). However, HILI can develop to acute liver failure requiring liver transplantation in single cases. HILI is a diagnosis of exclusion, because clinical features of HILI are not specific as they are also found in many other liver diseases unrelated to herbal use. In strikingly increased liver tests signifying severe liver injury, herbal use has to be stopped. To establish HILI as the cause of liver damage, RUCAM (Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method) is a useful tool. Diagnostic problems may emerge when alternative causes were not carefully excluded and the correct therapy is withheld. Future strategies should focus on RUCAM based causality assessment in suspected HILI cases and more regulatory efforts to provide all herbal medicines and herbal dietary supplements used as medicine with strict regulatory surveillance, considering them as herbal drugs and ascertaining an appropriate risk benefit balance. PMID:27128912

  7. Herbal Hepatotoxicity: Clinical Characteristics and Listing Compilation

    PubMed Central

    Frenzel, Christian; Teschke, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Herb induced liver injury (HILI) and drug induced liver injury (DILI) share the common characteristic of chemical compounds as their causative agents, which were either produced by the plant or synthetic processes. Both, natural and synthetic chemicals are foreign products to the body and need metabolic degradation to be eliminated. During this process, hepatotoxic metabolites may be generated causing liver injury in susceptible patients. There is uncertainty, whether risk factors such as high lipophilicity or high daily and cumulative doses play a pathogenetic role for HILI, as these are under discussion for DILI. It is also often unclear, whether a HILI case has an idiosyncratic or an intrinsic background. Treatment with herbs of Western medicine or traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) rarely causes elevated liver tests (LT). However, HILI can develop to acute liver failure requiring liver transplantation in single cases. HILI is a diagnosis of exclusion, because clinical features of HILI are not specific as they are also found in many other liver diseases unrelated to herbal use. In strikingly increased liver tests signifying severe liver injury, herbal use has to be stopped. To establish HILI as the cause of liver damage, RUCAM (Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method) is a useful tool. Diagnostic problems may emerge when alternative causes were not carefully excluded and the correct therapy is withheld. Future strategies should focus on RUCAM based causality assessment in suspected HILI cases and more regulatory efforts to provide all herbal medicines and herbal dietary supplements used as medicine with strict regulatory surveillance, considering them as herbal drugs and ascertaining an appropriate risk benefit balance. PMID:27128912

  8. Duct Remediation Program: Remediation operations and implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Beckman, T.d.; Davis, M.M.; Karas, T.M.

    1992-11-01

    Plutonium holdup material has accumulated in the process ventilation duct systems at Rocky Flats. Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) measurements identified ducts containing this material. The Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board and the Department of Energy established the criteria for remediation of these ducts. A remediation team was assembled and a program plan created. This program plan included activities such as fissile material accumulation identification, criticality safety assessments, radiation dose determinations, facility safety evaluations, prevention of future accumulation, and removal of holdup material. Several operational considerations had to be evaluated in determining completion of remediation.

  9. The use of herbal medicines during breastfeeding: a population-based survey in Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Main concerns for lactating women about medications include the safety of their breastfed infants and the potential effects of medication on quantity and quality of breast milk. While medicine treatments include conventional and complementary medicines, most studies to date have focused on evaluating the safety aspect of conventional medicines. Despite increasing popularity of herbal medicines, there are currently limited data available on the pattern of use and safety of these medicines during breastfeeding. This study aimed to identify the pattern of use of herbal medicines during breastfeeding in Perth, Western Australia, and to identify aspects which require further clinical research. Methods This study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire validated through two pilot studies. Participants were 18 years or older, breastfeeding or had breastfed in the past 12 months. Participants were recruited from various community and health centres, and through advertising in newspapers. Simple descriptive statistics were used to summarise the demographic profile and attitudes of respondents, using the SPSS statistical software. Results A total of 304 questionnaires from eligible participants were returned (27.2% response rate) and analysed. Amongst the respondents, 59.9% took at least one herb for medicinal purposes during breastfeeding, whilst 24.3% reported the use of at least one herb to increase breast milk supply. Most commonly used herbs were fenugreek (18.4%), ginger (11.8%), dong quai (7.9%), chamomile (7.2%), garlic (6.6%) and blessed thistle (5.9%). The majority of participants (70.1%) believed that there was a lack of information resources, whilst 43.4% perceived herbal medicines to be safer than conventional medicines. Only 28.6% of users notified their doctor of their decision to use herbal medicine(s) during breastfeeding; 71.6% had previously refused or avoided conventional medicine treatments due to concerns regarding safety of their breastfed infants. Conclusions The use of herbal medicines is common amongst breastfeeding women, while information supporting their safety and efficacy is lacking. This study has demonstrated the need for further research into commonly used herbal medicines. Evidence-based information should be available to breastfeeding women who wish to consider use of all medicines, including complementary medicines, to avoid unnecessary cessation of breastfeeding or compromising of pharmacotherapy. PMID:24219150

  10. [Amphibians in Spanish popular medicine and the pharmacopoeia of Pliny and Dioscorides].

    PubMed

    Vallejo, José Ramón; González, José Antonio

    2015-12-01

    This article presents a list of medical remedies based on the use of amphibians in Spanish popular medicine and in the classical world. It provides an overview of bibliography relative to folklore studies, ethnographic work and research on social or medical anthropology. It documents a total of 113 remedies and the use of nine species of amphibians, two from the family of caudates (urodeles) and seven anurans. Most of these remedies are based on the popular "preconception" about the influence of amphibians and healing by transmitting an illness to a living creature. The traditional use of certain threatened species is emphasized, an issue to bear in mind in decision-making in the field of conservation biology and environmental education. PMID:25831480

  11. Evaluation of embryotoxicity for major components of herbal extracts using the chick embryonic heart micromass and mouse D3 embryonic stem cell systems.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Omar J; Latif, Muhammad Liaque; Pratten, Margaret K

    2016-01-01

    Herbal remedies are often used during the early stages of pregnancy, being considered 'harmless' and 'natural'. There are insufficient data regarding their potential embryotoxicity. The main components of selected herbs, including 6-gingerol from ginger, Ginkgolide A and Ginkgolide B from gingko biloba and Ginsenoside Rg1 from ginseng, have been investigated using chick embryonic heart micromass and Mouse D3 embryonic stem cells. The potential effects were evaluated via alteration in contractility, cell viability, and cell protein content. The myocytes in both systems were also demonstrated by immunocytochemistry using a specific cardiomyocyte marker (α-actinin). For 6-gingerol, Ginkgolide A, Ginkgolide B and Ginsenoside Rg1 in both methods, at moderate to high concentrations, there were alterations in the values for the endpoints. These data indicate that herbal remedies used in the first trimester of pregnancy might not be safe for fetal development. PMID:26708230

  12. Systematic review of herbals as potential anti-inflammatory agents: Recent advances, current clinical status and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Beg, Sarwar; Swain, Suryakanta; Hasan, Hameed; Barkat, M Abul; Hussain, Md Sarfaraz

    2011-01-01

    Many synthetic drugs reported to be used for the treatment of inflammatory disorders are of least interest now a days due to their potential side effects and serious adverse effects and as they are found to be highly unsafe for human assistance. Since the last few decades, herbal drugs have regained their popularity in treatment against several human ailments. Herbals containing anti-inflammatory activity (AIA) are topics of immense interest due to the absence of several problems in them, which are associated with synthetic preparations. The primary objective of this review is to provide a deep overview of the recently explored anti-inflammatory agents belonging to various classes of phytoconstituents like alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoids, steroids, polyphenolic compounds, and also the compounds isolated from plants of marine origin, algae and fungi. Also, it enlists a distended view on potential interactions between herbals and synthetic preparations, related adverse effects and clinical trials done on herbals for exploring their AIA. The basic aim of this review is to give updated knowledge regarding plants which will be valuable for the scientists working in the field of anti-inflammatory natural chemistry. PMID:22279370

  13. Oyaksungisan, a Traditional Herbal Formula, Inhibits Cell Proliferation by Induction of Autophagy via JNK Activation in Human Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Nam-Hui; Jung, Young Pil; Kim, Aeyung; Ma, Choong Je; Cho, Won-Kyung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2013-01-01

    Oyaksungisan (OY) is a traditional herbal formula broadly used to treat beriberi, vomiting, diarrhea, and circulatory disturbance in Asian countries from ancient times. The effect of OY on cancer, however, was not reported until now. In this study, we have demonstrated that OY inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell death via modulating the autophagy on human colon cancer cells. In HCT116 cells, OY increased the ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I, a marker of autophagy, and treatment with 3-MA, an inhibitor of autophagy, and considerably reduced the formation of autophagosomes. In addition, OY regulated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades; especially, JNK activation was closely related with autophagy effect by OY in HCT116 cells. Our results indicate that autophagy induction is responsible for the antiproliferative effect by OY, despite the weak apoptosis induction in HCT116 cells. In conclusion, OY might have a potential to be developed as an herbal anticancer remedy. PMID:23573119

  14. Oyaksungisan, a Traditional Herbal Formula, Inhibits Cell Proliferation by Induction of Autophagy via JNK Activation in Human Colon Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Yim, Nam-Hui; Jung, Young Pil; Kim, Aeyung; Ma, Choong Je; Cho, Won-Kyung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2013-01-01

    Oyaksungisan (OY) is a traditional herbal formula broadly used to treat beriberi, vomiting, diarrhea, and circulatory disturbance in Asian countries from ancient times. The effect of OY on cancer, however, was not reported until now. In this study, we have demonstrated that OY inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell death via modulating the autophagy on human colon cancer cells. In HCT116 cells, OY increased the ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I, a marker of autophagy, and treatment with 3-MA, an inhibitor of autophagy, and considerably reduced the formation of autophagosomes. In addition, OY regulated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades; especially, JNK activation was closely related with autophagy effect by OY in HCT116 cells. Our results indicate that autophagy induction is responsible for the antiproliferative effect by OY, despite the weak apoptosis induction in HCT116 cells. In conclusion, OY might have a potential to be developed as an herbal anticancer remedy. PMID:23573119

  15. Herbal medicines in Hawaii from tradition to convention.

    PubMed

    Norton, S A

    1998-01-01

    The stories of kava and chaulmoogra demonstrate the importance of herbal products in ancient and recent Hawaiian medicine. Kava is a psychoactive beverage that has been used ceremonially for millennia throughout the Pacific. It is a nonfermented depressant that causes tranquil intoxication in which thoughts and memory remain clear. Its broad pharmacologic activity led to use in Hawaii to treat skin disorders and later in Germany to treat gonorrhea. Kava is now available outside the Pacific basin as a relaxant, emerging as a popular, albeit deritualized, natural product. In the late 19th century, the main treatment for leprosy was chaulmoogra, extracted from Hydnocarpus seeds. Chaulmoogra had been a traditional treatment for skin diseases in Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine. Chaulmoogra from Asian markets was expensive and usually adulterated so the USDA decided to plant Hydnocarpus in Hawaii. Joseph Rock, a botanist at University of Hawaii, trekked through southeast Asia collecting fresh seeds to plant on Oahu. Rock's trees provided chaulmoogra for leprosy patients on Molokai and elsewhere until it was replaced by dapsone. Chaulmoogra, once the treatment for leprosy worldwide, is now nearly forgotten; kava, once poorly known outside the Pacific, is now a widely-used alternative medicine. Hawaii will probably continue its role in the transition of plants from traditional use to conventional use. PMID:9509742

  16. Herbal Compounds and Toxins Modulating TRP Channels

    PubMed Central

    Vriens, Joris; Nilius, Bernd; Vennekens, Rudi

    2008-01-01

    Although the benefits are sometimes obvious, traditional or herbal medicine is regarded with skepticism, because the mechanism through which plant compounds exert their powers are largely elusive. Recent studies have shown however that many of these plant compounds interact with specific ion channels and thereby modulate the sensing mechanism of the human body. Especially members of the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels have drawn large attention lately as the receptors for plant-derived compounds such as capsaicin and menthol. TRP channels constitute a large and diverse family of channel proteins that can serve as versatile sensors that allow individual cells and entire organisms to detect changes in their environment. For this family, a striking number of empirical views have turned into mechanism-based actions of natural compounds. In this review we will give an overview of herbal compounds and toxins, which modulate TRP channels. PMID:19305789

  17. Herbal hepatotoxicity and WHO global introspection method.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf; Eickhoff, Axel; Wolff, Albrecht; Frenzel, Christian; Schulze, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Herbal hepatotoxicity is a rare but highly disputed disease because numerous confounding variables may complicate accurate causality assessment. Case evaluation is even more difficult when the WHO global introspection method (WHO method) is applied as diagnostic algorithm. This method lacks liver specificity, hepatotoxicity validation, and quantitative items, basic qualifications required for a sound evaluation of hepatotoxicity cases. Consequently, there are no data available for reliability, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value. Its scope is also limited by the fact that it cannot discriminate between a positive and a negative causality attribution, thereby stimulating case overdiagnosing and overreporting. The WHO method ignores uncertainties regarding daily dose, temporal association, start, duration, and end of herbal use, time to onset of the adverse reaction, and course of liver values after herb discontinuation. Insufficiently considered or ignored are comedications, preexisting liver diseases, alternative explanations upon clinical assessment, and exclusion of infections by hepatitis A-C, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV). We clearly prefer as alternative the scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences) which is structured, quantitative, liver specific, and validated for hepatotoxicity. In conclusion, causality of herbal hepatotoxicity is best assessed by the liver specific CIOMS scale validated for hepatotoxicity rather than the obsolete WHO method that is liver unspecific and not validated for hepatotoxicity. CIOMS based assessments will ensure the correct diagnosis and exclude alternative diagnosis that may require other specific therapies. PMID:23293189

  18. Safety concerns of herbal products and traditional Chinese herbal medicines: dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acid.

    PubMed

    Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Brown, Ammon W; Welch, Kevin D

    2015-12-01

    In many countries, including the United States, herbal supplements, tisanes and vegetable products, including traditional Chinese medicines, are largely unregulated and their content is not registered, monitored or verified. Consequently, potent plant toxins including dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids and other potential carcinogens can contaminate these products. As herbal and food supplement producers are left to their own means to determine the safety and purity of their products prior to marketing, disturbingly often good marketing practices currently in place are ignored and content is largely undocumented. Historical examples of poisoning and health issues relating to plant material containing dehydopyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acids were used as examples to demonstrate the risk and potential toxicity of herbal products, food supplements, or traditional medicines. More work is needed to educate consumers of the potential risk and require the industry to be more responsible to verify the content and insure the safety of their products. PMID:26152912

  19. Herbal Drug Regulation and Commercialization: An Indian Industry Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Manchikanti, Padmavati

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To assess the constraints for Indian herbal drug industry with respect to manufacturing and commercialization of herbal medicines. Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to obtain primary data on challenges faced during production, commercialization, and marketing approval for traditional or herbal drugs in India and abroad. Responses were collected from 150 companies by email, telephone, and in-person interviews from June 2009 to August 2010 and were analyzed to draw appropriate conclusions. Results: The survey result showed that differing regulatory requirements and the limited market in foreign countries are the major hindrances for exporting. Standardization and quality control of raw materials and herbal formulations emerged as the major challenge for Indian herbal drug manufacturing firms. Insufficient regulatory guidelines, particularly guidelines for good manufacturing practices; nonimplementation of good agricultural and collection practices; and weak implementation of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of 1940 are considered major drawbacks for the Indian herbal industry. Conclusions: Proper implementation of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of 1940, development of more elaborate guidelines on quality control aspects, and development of marker-based standards are needed to produce safe and effective herbal medicines in India. Because evidence-based studies are becoming increasingly essential for establishing the safety and efficacy of herbal products in the domestic and export market, more focus should be placed on scientific and technological advancement in the field of herbal medicine. Regulatory harmonization becomes essential to mitigate the delays in commercialization across countries. PMID:23829812

  20. Challenges and patenting strategies for Chinese herbal medicine

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Patents for Chinese herbal medicines can be difficult to obtain. When the active ingredients of an herbal formula are known, danfang (single herb prescriptions) is better protected with quantified composition claims. When the active ingredients are unknown, 'product by processing', 'method of processing', 'method of administration' and 'new use claims' are often powerful tools to distinguish a traditional danfang from 'the prior art'. Additional patents may also be filed continuously in the product development process. Existing patents for fufang (composite prescriptions) are primarily drafted to protect traditional herbal formulations. More efforts are needed to protect various herbal combinations and their multiple applications. PMID:20637103

  1. Herbal modulation of P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shufeng; Lim, Lee Yong; Chowbay, Balram

    2004-02-01

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is a 170 kDa phosphorylated glycoprotein encoded by human MDR1 gene. It is responsible for the systemic disposition of numerous structurally and pharmacologically unrelated lipophilic and amphipathic drugs, carcinogens, toxins, and other xenobiotics in many organs, such as the intestine, liver, kidney, and brain. Like cytochrome P450s (CYP3A4), Pgp is vulnerable to inhibition, activation, or induction by herbal constituents. This was demonstrated by using an ATPase assay, purified Pgp protein or intact Pgp-expressing cells, and proper probe substrates and inhibitors. Curcumin, ginsenosides, piperine, some catechins from green tea, and silymarin from milk thistle were found to be inhibitors of Pgp, while some catechins from green tea increased Pgp-mediated drug transport by heterotropic allosteric mechanism, and St. John's wort induced the intestinal expression of Pgp in vitro and in vivo. Some components (e.g., bergamottin and quercetin) from grapefruit juice were reported to modulate Pgp activity. Many of these herbal constituents, in particular flavonoids, were reported to modulate Pgp by directly interacting with the vicinal ATP-binding site, the steroid-binding site, or the substrate-binding site. Some herbal constituents (e.g., hyperforin and kava) were shown to activate pregnane X receptor, an orphan nuclear receptor acting as a key regulator of MDR1 and many other genes. The inhibition of Pgp by herbal constituents may provide a novel approach for reversing multidrug resistance in tumor cells, whereas the stimulation of Pgp expression or activity has implication for chemoprotective enhancement by herbal medicines. Certain natural flavonols (e.g., kaempferol, quercetin, and galangin) are potent stimulators of the Pgp-mediated efflux of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)-anthracene (a carcinogen). The modulation of Pgp activity and expression by these herb constituents may result in altered absorption and bioavailability of drugs that are Pgp substrates. This is exemplified by increased oral bioavailability of phenytoin and rifampin by piperine and decreased bioavailability of indinavir, tacrolimus, cyclosporine, digoxin, and fexofenadine by coadministered St. John's wort. However, many of these drugs are also substrates of CYP3A4. Thus, the modulation of intestinal Pgp and CYP3A4 represents an important mechanism for many clinically important herb-drug interactions. Further studies are needed to explore the relative role of Pgp and CYP3A4 modulation by herbs and the mechanism for the interplay of these two important proteins in herb-drug interactions. PMID:15072439

  2. Archaeoastronomical Concepts in Popular Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupp, Edwin C.

    Broad public embrace of archaic astronomy probably began in the eighteenth century with awareness of the summer solstice sunrise's affiliation with Stonehenge. Since that time, Stonehenge has retained an astronomical mystique that attracts crowds mobilized by the monument's supposed cosmic purpose. They are committed to witness prehistoric heritage operating in real time and with enduring function. More recently, mass media have intermittently thrown a spotlight on new archaeoastronomical discoveries. While the details, ambiguities, and nuances of disciplined study of astronomy in antiquity do not usually infiltrate popular culture, some astronomical alignments, celestial events, sky-tempered symbols, and astral narratives have become well known and referenced in popular culture. Places and relics that command public interest with astronomical connotations are transformed into cultural icons and capture visitors on a quest for the authenticity the past is believed to possess. Monuments and ideas that successfully forge a romantic bond with the past and inspire an imagined sense of sharing the experience, perspective, and wisdom of antiquity persist in the cultural landscape.

  3. Noninsect Arthropods in Popular Music.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Joseph R

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of noninsect arthropods in popular music was examined in order to explore human attitudes toward these species, especially as compared to insects. Crustaceans were the most commonly referenced taxonomic group in artist names, album titles and cover art, followed by spiders and scorpions. The surprising prevalence of crustaceans may be related to the palatability of many of the species. Spiders and scorpions were primarily used for shock value, as well as totemic qualities of strength and ferocity. Spiders were the most abundant group among song titles, perhaps because of their familiarity to the general public. Three noninsect arthropod album titles were found from the early 1970s, then none appear until 1990. Older albums are difficult to find unless they are quite popular, and the resurgence of albums coincides with the rise of the internet. After 1990, issuance of such albums increased approximately linearly. Giant and chimeric album covers were the most common of themes, indicating the use of these animals to inspire fear and surprise. The lyrics of select songs are presented to illustrate the diversity of sentiments present, from camp spookiness to edibility. PMID:26467627

  4. Noninsect Arthropods in Popular Music

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Joseph R.

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of noninsect arthropods in popular music was examined in order to explore human attitudes toward these species, especially as compared to insects. Crustaceans were the most commonly referenced taxonomic group in artist names, album titles and cover art, followed by spiders and scorpions. The surprising prevalence of crustaceans may be related to the palatability of many of the species. Spiders and scorpions were primarily used for shock value, as well as totemic qualities of strength and ferocity. Spiders were the most abundant group among song titles, perhaps because of their familiarity to the general public. Three noninsect arthropod album titles were found from the early 1970s, then none appear until 1990. Older albums are difficult to find unless they are quite popular, and the resurgence of albums coincides with the rise of the internet. After 1990, issuance of such albums increased approximately linearly. Giant and chimeric album covers were the most common of themes, indicating the use of these animals to inspire fear and surprise. The lyrics of select songs are presented to illustrate the diversity of sentiments present, from camp spookiness to edibility. PMID:26467627

  5. Was There Really a Popular Science "Boom"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewenstein, Bruce V.

    1987-01-01

    Traces the major developments and trends in contemporary popular science. Identifies magazines, television shows, and newspaper sections devoted to popular science and discusses their status and impact. Comments on the rise, fall, and future of the "science boom." (ML)

  6. Herbal medicine use in pregnancy: results of a multinational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) is growing in the general population. Herbal medicines are used in all countries of the world and are included in the top CAM therapies used. Methods A multinational study on how women treat disease and pregnancy-related health ailments was conducted between October 2011 and February 2012 in Europe, North and South America and Australia. In this study, the primary aim was to determine the prevalence of herbal medicine use in pregnancy and factors related to such use across participating countries and regions. The secondary aim was to investigate who recommended the use of herbal medication in pregnancy. Results There were 9,459 women from 23 countries participating in the study. Of these, 28.9% reported the use of herbal medicines in pregnancy. Most herbal medicines were used for pregnancy-related health ailments such as cold and nausea. Ginger, cranberry, valerian and raspberry were the most commonly used herbs in pregnancy. The highest reported rate of herbal use medicines was in Russia (69%). Women from Eastern Europe (51.8%) and Australia (43.8%) were twice as likely to use an herbal medicine versus other regions. Women using herbal medicines were characteristically having their first child, non-smokers, using folic acid and consuming some alcohol in pregnancy. Also, women who were currently students and women with an education other than a high school degree were more likely to use herbal medicines than other women. Although 1 out of 5 women stated that a physician had recommended the herbal use, most women used herbal medicine in pregnancy on their own initiative. Conclusions In this multinational study herbal medicine use in pregnancy was high although there were distinct differences in the herbs and users of herbal medicines across regions. Most commonly the women self-medicated with herbal medicine to treat pregnancy-related health ailments. More knowledge regarding the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in pregnancy is warranted. PMID:24330413

  7. SEDIMENT ASSESSMENT AND REMEDIATION PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediments (ARCS) is an integrated program for the development and testing of assessment and remedial action alternatives for contaminated sediments. Information from ARCS program activities will be used to guide the development of Remedi...

  8. Antihistamines, Decongestants, and Cold Remedies

    MedlinePlus

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Antihistamines, Decongestants, and Cold Remedies Antihistamines, Decongestants, and Cold Remedies Patient Health ... Trinalin®. What should I look for in a “cold” remedy? Decongestants and/or antihistamines are the principal ...

  9. Could EU herbal monographs contribute to Malta's treatment armamentarium?

    PubMed

    Micallef, B; Attard, E; Serracino-Inglott, A; Borg, J J

    2015-03-15

    Ten years have passed since Directive 2004/24/EC regulating herbal medicinal products across the EU were published. The directive created the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products within the European Medicines Agency whose remit includes the creation and publishing of official EU monographs on herbal medicinal products. These monographs include the official uses of the products and their evidence for efficacy and safety. To this effect, we are interested in analysing the potential impact herbal product EU monographs could have on the therapeutic treatment options available for prescribers in Malta. Therefore our aim was two-fold. First, to rationalise the spread of indications of the herbal substances listed in the community herbal monograph inventory and subsequently determine if these herbal substances could potentially contribute to the treatment options available in our local scenario (Malta). 128 EU monographs were analysed resulting in a total of 230 indications which subsequently codified into 42 unique ATC codes. The Malta Medicines List contains 1456 unique ATC codes. Comparative analysis of the Malta Medicines List revealed that the 21 therapeutic areas had 4 or less pharmaceutically used substances (5th level ATC codes) registered and therefore in our opinion are areas with limited therapeutic choice. The following 4 therapeutic areas, A05 bile and liver therapy, A13 tonics, A15 appetite stimulants and D03 preparations for treatment of wounds and ulcers, could potentially benefit from the registration of herbal medicinal products according to the EU herbal monographs. If such registration is effected the aforementioned areas would no longer be considered limited because more than 4 therapeutic choices would be available to prescribers. This study is the first study across the EU to analyse the potential impact of published EU herbal monographs on therapeutic coverage in an EU member state and confirms the notion that herbal products could potentially increase the treatment options available in areas where few medical products have been registered due to Malta's small market size. PMID:25837278

  10. Designing Clinical Remediation Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oleszewski, Susan C.

    1989-01-01

    Elements and considerations in the provision of effective remediation for optometry students not achieving in clinical competence are discussed. Remediation of technical, cognitive, and noncognitive skills are included. A course in professional communication offered by the Pennsylvania College of Optometry is described. (MSE)

  11. Spanish Federation of Popular Universities (FEUP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano, Isabel Garcia-Longoria

    2006-01-01

    This article features the Spanish Popular Universities, which are defined as "a project of cultural development that acts in the municipality, whose objective is to promote social participation, education, training, and culture in order to improve life quality" (Federation of Popular Education Universities, 2000). A century of history of Popular

  12. Mass Media and the Popular Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rissover, Fredric; Birch, David C.

    This anthology consists of journalistic essays on each of these popular arts: advertising, journalism, cartoons, radio and television, photography and motion pictures, popular literature, popular music, and public education. Examples of most of the art forms are also included. The book is aimed at junior college students. Its purpose is to…

  13. A Study of Egocentrism and Popularity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karmos, Joseph S.; Milcic, Diane

    1978-01-01

    Investigates egocentrism and the relationship between egocentrism and popularity in grades 1 through 5. Teachers' ability to rate students' popularity was studied, and sex differences for egocentrism scores were also examined. Egocentrism was measured by a test based on work done by Jean Piaget and popularity defined by a teacher's rating scale…

  14. The Popularity of Middle School Bullies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thunfors, Peter; Cornell, Dewey

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the peer popularity of middle school students involved in bullying. Bullying was assessed by peer report using the School Climate Bullying Survey (SCBS) and popularity was assessed through peer nominations from a student roster. In a sample of 379 middle school students, bullies were among the most popular students in the…

  15. History of America: A Popular Music Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilcoat, George W.

    The study of popular music can be an effective method of examining social and cultural life. Popular music emphasizes the variety of human existence, goals, outlooks, and biases. A pervading theme in popular American music between 1959 and 1984 has been the theme of "America." Over 200 songs reflect personal, social, and political concerns about…

  16. Popular Culture in the Junior College Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonergan, David; Ayers, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    Popular culture is extremely influential in both academe and society at large. However, formal disciplinary study of popular culture lags far behind that influence. Anthropology, film studies, history, musicology, and sociology are only some of the disciplines that frequently include popular culture as a research focus. This article advises on how…

  17. Mass Media and the Popular Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rissover, Fredric; Birch, David C.

    This anthology consists of journalistic essays on each of these popular arts: advertising, journalism, cartoons, radio and television, photography and motion pictures, popular literature, popular music, and public education. Examples of most of the art forms are also included. The book is aimed at junior college students. Its purpose is to

  18. Popular Music Pedagogy: Peer Learning in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebler, Don

    2008-01-01

    The inclusion of popular music as a content area in music education is not uncommon. The musicological study of popular music is well established in higher education, and even the practice of popular music is becoming more common in both secondary education and the post-compulsory sector. However, when this occurs, it is likely to be taught in…

  19. EIT and the Popular Imagination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurman, J. B.

    2005-01-01

    The Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope on board SOHO, designed and built by Principal Investigator Jean-Pierre Delaboudiniere and his French/Belgan/US team, has produced numerous scientific breakthroughs, and has become both the standard coronal finder telescope and the determinant of whether halo coronal mass ejections are earthward-directed. Due to the dramatic nature of the images produced by EIT over the last nearly ten years, those images have been adopted worldwide in a manner no one could have foreseen before the launch of SOHO. I examine a small sample of the many scientific, commercial, and cultural uses of EIT imagery from the last decade in order to demonstrate how well-visualized, scientific imagery can first penetrate and then become an accepted part of the popular imagination.

  20. Communicating meteorology through popular music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Sally; Aplin, Karen; Jenkins, Katie; Mander, Sarah; Walsh, Claire; Williams, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies of weather-inspired classical music showed that all forms of music (as well as visual arts and literature) reflect the significance of the environment in society. Here we quantify the extent to which weather has inspired popular musicians, and how weather is represented in English-language pop music. Our work is in press at Weather. Over 750 songs have been identified which were found to refer to meteorological phenomena, mainly in their lyrics, but also in the title of the song, name of the band or songwriter and occasionally in the song's music or sound effects. Over one third of the songs analysed referred to either sun or rain, out of a possible 20 weather categories. It was found that artists use weather to describe emotion, for example, to mirror the changes in a relationship. In this context, rain was broadly seen negatively, and might be used to signify the end of a relationship. Rain could also be perceived in a positive way, such as in songs from more agricultural communities. Wind was the next most common weather phenomenon, but did not represent emotions as much as sun or rain. However, it was the most frequently represented weather type in the music itself, such as in instrumental effects, or non-verbally in choruses. From the limited evidence available, we found that artists were often inspired by a single weather event in writing lyrics, whereas the outcomes were less clearly identifiable from longer periods of good or bad weather. Some artists were influenced more by their environment than others, but they were often inspired to write many songs about their surroundings as part of every-day life, rather than weather in particular. Popular singers and songwriters can therefore emotionally connect their listeners to the environment; this could be exploited to communicate environmental science to a broad audience.

  1. Effects of herbal and non-herbal toothpastes on plaque and gingivitis: A clinical comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Tatikonda, Aravind; Debnath, Surangama; Chauhan, Vivek Singh; Chaurasia, Vishwajit Rampratap; Taranath, M; Sharma, Akanksha Manmohan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Presence of plaque may be the culprit for dental caries, gingivitis, periodontal problems, and halitosis. Many mechanical aids are practiced worldwide to remove or control plaque, including tooth brushes, dental floss, mouth rinses, and dentifrices. The objective of this clinical study was to investigate the effectiveness of herbal toothpaste (Dabur Red) in controlling plaque and gingivitis, as compared to conventional (non-herbal) dentifrice (Pepsodent). Materials and Methods: In this study, 30 subjects aged 35–43 years with established gingivitis and at least 20 natural teeth, and having a probing depth <3 mm were investigated. After the washout period, plaque and gingival index (PI and GI, respectively) scores were assessed at days 0 and 30. Differences between groups were compared with Mann–Whitney U test and the mean scores of PI and GI by Wilcoxon test. Statistical difference between the weights of dentifrices tubes on days 0 and 30 was evaluated by Student's t-test. Results: At the end of 30 days of the study, there was statistically significant difference between both the groups for plaque and gingival scores. Conclusion: After 30 days of trial, both test and control groups showed effective reduction of plaque and gingivitis, which was statistically significant. No adverse reactions to dentifrices products were observed during the trial. It was concluded that herbal dentifrice was as effective as non-herbal dentifrices in the control of plaque and gingivitis. PMID:25558453

  2. Alternative Medicine and Herbal Use among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Susan K.; Blanchard, Anita

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the predictors of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and herbal supplement use among university students. They investigated demographic factors, trait affectivity, symptom reports, and individuals' worries about modernity as potential contributors to use of CAM and herbals. The authors surveyed 506…

  3. Alternative Medicine and Herbal Use among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Susan K.; Blanchard, Anita

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the predictors of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and herbal supplement use among university students. They investigated demographic factors, trait affectivity, symptom reports, and individuals' worries about modernity as potential contributors to use of CAM and herbals. The authors surveyed 506

  4. Diagnosis of public programs focused on herbal medicines in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Ely Eduardo Saranz; Bandeira, Mary Anne Medeiros; de Oliveira, Anselmo Gomes

    2011-07-01

    The present study is aimed to diagnose the current public programs focused on herbal medicines in Brazil by means of in loco visits to 10 programs selected by means of questionnaires sent to 124 municipalities that count on herbal medicine services. The main purpose of the implementation of program programs is related to the development of medicinal herbs. 70% of them are intended for the production of herbal medicines and 50% are aimed to ensure the access of the population to medicinal plants and or herbal medicines. The initiative of the implementation of these programs was related to the managers (60%). The difficulties in this implementation were due to the lack of funding (100%) of the programs. In 60% of the programs, the physicians did not adhere to herbal medicine services due to the lack of knowledge of the subject. Training courses were proposed (80%) to increase the adhesion of prescribers to the system. Some municipalities use information obtained from patients to assess the therapeutic efficiency of medicinal plants and herbal medicines. Of the programs underway, cultivation of medicinal plants was observed in 90% and 78% of them adopt quality control. In most programs, this control is not performed in accordance with the legal requirements. The programs focused on medicinal plants and herbal medicines implemented in Brazil face some chronic problems of infrastructure, management, operational capacity and self-sustainability, which can be directly related to the absence of a national policy on medicinal plants and herbal medicines. PMID:21834244

  5. Remediation of lead and cadmium-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Salama, Ahmed K; Osman, Khaled A; Gouda, Neama Abdel-Razeek

    2016-01-01

    The research was designated to study the ability of plants to bio-accumulate, translocate and remove the heavy metals, lead and cadmium from contaminated soil. The herbal plant ryegrass, Lolium multiflorum was investigated as a bio-accumulator plant for these metals. The translocation of these heavy metals in the herbal plant was compared considering root to shoot transport and redistribution of metals in the root and shoot system. The trace metal contents from root and shoot parts were determined using atomic absorption spectrometer. The results showed that the percent of lead and cadmium transferred to ryegrass plant were averaged as 51.39, and 74.57%, respectively, while those remained in the soil were averaged as 48.61 and 25.43% following 60 days of treatment. The soil-plant transfer index in root and shoot system of ryegrass was found to be 0.32 and 0.20 for lead, and 0.50 and 0.25 for cadmium. These findings indicated that the herbal plant ryegrass, Lolium multiflorum is a good accumulator for cadmium than lead. The soil-plant transfer factor (the conc. of heavy metal in plant to the conc. in soil) indicated that the mechanism of soil remedy using the investigated plant is phytoextraction where the amounts of heavy metals transferred by plant roots into the above ground portions were higher than that remained in the soil. The method offers green technology solution for the contamination problem since it is effective technology with minimal impact on the environment and can be easily used for soil remedy. PMID:26515924

  6. Evaluation of herbal coccidiostat 'Coxynil' in broiler.

    PubMed

    Kurkure, N V; Kolte, S W; Bhandarkar, A G; Kalorey, D R

    2006-09-01

    Anticoccidial efficacy of "Coxynil" a polyherbal preparation was tested against Eimeria tenella in broilers. Body weight of birds challenged with E. tenella in Coxynil treated groups was higher as compared to Coxynil untreated. Oocyst out put, lesion score, HI titres against New Castle disease virus were significantly higher in Coxynil supplemented groups in comparison to Coxynil un-supplemented groups. Examination of ceaca of the birds, revealed that the Coxynil interfered with life cycle of coccidia. The typical second generation schizonts were absent in ceacal section of Coxynil treated groups. The results indicate that Coxynil is effective herbal coccidiostat. PMID:16999029

  7. Antiviral Natural Products and Herbal Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Liang-Tzung; Hsu, Wen-Chan; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Viral infections play an important role in human diseases, and recent outbreaks in the advent of globalization and ease of travel have underscored their prevention as a critical issue in safeguarding public health. Despite the progress made in immunization and drug development, many viruses lack preventive vaccines and efficient antiviral therapies, which are often beset by the generation of viral escape mutants. Thus, identifying novel antiviral drugs is of critical importance and natural products are an excellent source for such discoveries. In this mini-review, we summarize the antiviral effects reported for several natural products and herbal medicines. PMID:24872930

  8. The practitioner's perspective: introduction to Ayurvedic herbalism.

    PubMed

    Khalsa, Karta Purkh Singh

    2007-01-01

    Ayurveda, the indigenous holistic healing system of India, is a holistic approach to health and lifestyle management that incorporates diet, exercise, life activity routines, psychotherapeutic practices, massage and botanical medicine. Ayurveda focuses on prevention, applying techniques of self-care to restore health balance quickly and effectively. Ayurveda is one of the four large, long-practiced ethnic herbal medicine systems with large extant literatures (along with Western, Chinese and Unani). It affords valuable clinical insights in its own right. Acquiring a basis in Ayurveda will enhance access to south Asian herbs and indigenous medicinal preparations. PMID:18928138

  9. DNA Microarrays in Herbal Drug Research

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, Preeti; Joshi, Kalpana; Patwardhan, Bhushan

    2006-01-01

    Natural products are gaining increased applications in drug discovery and development. Being chemically diverse they are able to modulate several targets simultaneously in a complex system. Analysis of gene expression becomes necessary for better understanding of molecular mechanisms. Conventional strategies for expression profiling are optimized for single gene analysis. DNA microarrays serve as suitable high throughput tool for simultaneous analysis of multiple genes. Major practical applicability of DNA microarrays remains in DNA mutation and polymorphism analysis. This review highlights applications of DNA microarrays in pharmacodynamics, pharmacogenomics, toxicogenomics and quality control of herbal drugs and extracts. PMID:17173108

  10. Potential Health Risk of Herbal Distillates and Decoctions Consumption in Shiraz, Iran.

    PubMed

    Moore, F; Akhbarizadeh, R; Keshavarzi, B; Tavakoli, F

    2015-10-01

    Concentration of 26 elements in 16 different herbal distillates and 5 herbal decoctions, were determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The elemental content of five raw herbal materials used for making decoctions and seven distilled and boiled residues were also evaluated by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The results indicated that herbal products display a wide range of elemental concentrations. Compared with world health regulations, the concentrations of the elements in herbal distillates and decoctions did not exceed the recommended limits. The analysis of herbal extracts did not show a significant transfer of toxic elements during decoction preparation. Comparison of elemental content among fresh herbal material and herbal distillate and decoction of the same herb showed that, besides the elemental abundance of herbal organs, the ionic potential of elements also play an important role in elemental content of herbal products. Based on the results of the research, it seems that most health benefits attributed to herbal products (especially herbal distillates) are more related to their organic compounds rather than elemental composition. Calculated hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) were used to evaluate the noncarcinogenic health risk from individual and combined metals via daily consumption of 100 ml of herbal distillates and 250 ml of herbal decoctions. Both HQs and HI through consumption of herbal distillates and herbal decoctions (except Valerian) were below 1. Apparently, daily consumption of herbal distillates and decoctions at the indicated doses poses no significant health risk to a normal adult. PMID:25778835

  11. Toward Predicting Popularity of Social Marketing Messages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Bei; Chen, Miao; Kwok, Linchi

    Popularity of social marketing messages indicates the effectiveness of the corresponding marketing strategies. This research aims to discover the characteristics of social marketing messages that contribute to different level of popularity. Using messages posted by a sample of restaurants on Facebook as a case study, we measured the message popularity by the number of "likes" voted by fans, and examined the relationship between the message popularity and two properties of the messages: (1) content, and (2) media type. Combining a number of text mining and statistics methods, we have discovered some interesting patterns correlated to "more popular" and "less popular" social marketing messages. This work lays foundation for building computational models to predict the popularity of social marketing messages in the future.

  12. Therapeutic Applications of Herbal Medicines for Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Shu-Yi; Wei, Wen-Chi; Jian, Feng-Yin; Yang, Ning-Sun

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal herbs and their derivative phytocompounds are being increasingly recognized as useful complementary treatments for cancer. A large volume of clinical studies have reported the beneficial effects of herbal medicines on the survival, immune modulation, and quality of life (QOL) of cancer patients, when these herbal medicines are used in combination with conventional therapeutics. Here, we briefly review some examples of clinical studies that investigated the use of herbal medicines for various cancers and the development of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in this emerging research area. In addition, we also report recent studies on the biochemical and cellular mechanisms of herbal medicines in specific tumor microenvironments and the potential application of specific phytochemicals in cell-based cancer vaccine systems. This review should provide useful technological support for evidence-based application of herbal medicines in cancer therapy. PMID:23956768

  13. Safety of herbal medicine in treatment of weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Najafian, Jamshid; Abdar-Esfahani, Morteza; Arab-Momeni, Morteza; Akhavan-Tabib, Afshan

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Obesity is a common health problem in both developed and developing countries. There are many unconventional therapies, including herbal medicine, to treat this condition. Some people believe that herbal medicines are safe. This case and review is about adverse complication of treating obesity with some herbal medicine. CASE REPORT A 19 year old male with sever obesity (120 kg) used green tea (15 cups of green tea per day) and an intensive dietary regimen to lose weight. He lost 30 kg after 2 months. At that time, one day after usual exercise he suddenly lost consciousness due to left ventricular fibrillation. CONCLUSION Use of herbal medicine for weight reduction is not always safe. Moreover, for some herbal medicine the risk is sufficient to shift the risk-bene?t balance against the use that medicine. PMID:24963315

  14. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Chinese Herbal Formula Sini Tang in Myocardial Infarction Rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiangang; Peter, Karoline; Shi, Dazhuo; Zhang, Lei; Dong, Guoju; Zhang, Dawu; Breiteneder, Heimo; Bauer, Rudolf; Ma, Yan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory profiling of the Chinese herbal formula Sini Tang (SNT) in myocardial infarction (MI) rats. SNT, a decoction consisting of four herbs: Aconitum carmichaelii, Cinnamomum cassia, Zingiber officinale, and Glycyrrhiza uralensis, was characterized as a remedy to treat syndromes corresponding to heart failure and MI in China. Potential biomarkers, which reflect the extent of myocardial necrosis and correlate with cardiac outcomes following MI, such as atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1β (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β) were determined in plasma, serum, and in myocardial tissue of MI rats after treatment with SNT. Our data indicate that SNT decreased significantly the levels of hs-CRP, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in MI rats. SNT decreased the expression of ANP levels in plasma and increased the vascular active marker nitric oxide, which limits vascular inflammation. In addition, SNT could decrease the expression of endothelin-1 levels in rat plasma post-MI. Our data suggest that the Chinese herbal formula SNT has the potential to improve cardiac function after MI. SNT may be a candidate for treating MI and its associated inflammatory responses. PMID:24723959

  15. New Perspectives on Chinese Herbal Medicine (Zhong-Yao) Research and Development

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Si-Yuan; Chen, Si-Bao; Dong, Hong-Guang; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Dong, Ji-Cui; Long, Zhi-Xian; Fong, Wang-Fun; Han, Yi-Fan; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic chemical drugs, while being efficacious in the clinical management of many diseases, are often associated with undesirable side effects in patients. It is now clear that the need of therapeutic intervention in many clinical conditions cannot be satisfactorily met by synthetic chemical drugs. Since the research and development of new chemical drugs remain time-consuming, capital-intensive and risky, much effort has been put in the search for alternative routes for drug discovery in China. This narrative review illustrates various approaches to the research and drug discovery in Chinese herbal medicine. Although this article focuses on Chinese traditional drugs, it is also conducive to the development of other traditional remedies and innovative drug discovery. PMID:21785622

  16. Cognitive remediation in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Yoshio; Keshavan, Matcheri

    2012-12-01

    Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia are pervasive, severe, and largely independent of the positive and negative symptoms of the illness. These deficits are increasingly considered to be core features of schizophrenia with evidence that the extent of cognitive impairment is the most salient predictor of daily functioning. Unfortunately, current schizophrenia treatment has been limited in addressing the cognitive deficits of the illness. Alterations in neuroplasticity are hypothesized to underpin these cognitive deficits, though preserved neuroplasticity may offer an avenue towards cognitive remediation. Key neuroplastic principles to consider in designing remediation interventions include ensuring sufficient intensity and duration of remediation programs, "bottom-up" training that proceeds from simple to complex cognitive processes, and individual tailoring of remediation regimens. We discuss several cognitive remediation programs, including cognitive enhancement therapy, which embrace these principles to target neurocognitive and social cognitive improvements and which havebeen demonstrated to be effective in schizophrenia. Future directions in cognitive remediation research include potential synergy with pharmacologic treatment, non-invasive stimulation techniques, and psychosocial interventions, identification of patient characteristics that predict outcome with cognitive remediation, and increasing the access to these interventions in front-line settings. PMID:23430145

  17. Herbal medicine use among patients with chronic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tulunay, Munevver; Aypak, Cenk; Yikilkan, Hulya; Gorpelioglu, Suleyman

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is commonly used all over the world, and herbal medicines are the most preferred ways of CAM. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of herbal medicine use among patients with chronic diseases. Methodology: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from April 2014 to December 2014 among patients who had been diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HT), and hyperlipidemia (HL) in Family Medicine Department of Dışkapı Yıldırım Beyazıt Training and Research Hospital, in Ankara. A questionnaire about herbal drug use was applied by face to face interview to the participants. Results: A total of 217 patients were included in this study. The mean age of the participants was 56.6 ± 9.7 years (55 male and 162 female). The rate of herbal medicine use was 29%. Herbal medicine use among female gender was significantly higher (P = 0.040). Conventional medication use was found to be lower among herbal medicine consumers. There was no relationship between herbal medicine use and type of chronic disease, living area, and occupation or education level. Most frequently used herbs were lemon (39.6%) and garlic (11.1%) for HT, cinnamon (12.7%) for DM, and walnut (6.3%) for HL. Conclusions: In this study, herbal medicine use was found to be higher among patients who had been diagnosed with chronic diseases. Therefore, physicians should be aware of herbal medicine usage of their patients and inform them about the effectivity and side effects of herbal medicines. PMID:26401410

  18. Unconventional cancer remedies.

    PubMed Central

    Danielson, K J; Stewart, D E; Lippert, G P

    1988-01-01

    Unproven and disproven remedies continue to abound for illnesses for which conventional treatment is only partially effective. This is particularly true with cancer, for which up to 50% of patients may be receiving unorthodox therapy. This article examines unconventional cancer remedies, their adverse effects, their common factors and the basis for their appeal, as well as what motivates and characterizes patients who choose these treatments. Also discussed is an approach that may be used by the conventional physician for patients who are likely to seek unorthodox treatment. This approach will help patients make the best decision about their treatment and protect them from the hazards of unconventional remedies. PMID:3285984

  19. Antioxidant screening of medicinal herbal teas.

    PubMed

    Speisky, Hernán; Rocco, Claudia; Carrasco, Catalina; Lissi, Eduardo A; López-Alarcón, Camilo

    2006-06-01

    Herbal tea consumption is deeply and widely rooted amongst South-American populations. In view of the involvement of oxygen- and nitrogen-reactive species in the ethiogenesis of several diseases, the antioxidant properties of some of the herbal teas most commonly consumed in the southern regions was assessed in vitro. Around one-third of the 13 examined herbs, displayed a substantially higher ability to scavenge ABTS(+.) radicals (TEAC assay), and to quench the pro-oxidant species, hypochlorite (HClO) and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). Amongst the tested herbs, teas prepared from Haplopappus baylahuen, Rosa moschata and Peumus boldus showed the highest TEAC and HClO-quenching activities. These herbs were around 5- to 7-fold more potent than the least active herbs. Based on the TEAC assay, 150 mL of tea prepared from H. baylahuen, R. moschata and P. boldus would be equivalent to around 200 mg of Trolox). Teas from H. baylahuen and P. boldus were also found to be particularly potent in quenching HClO. In the ONOO(-) assay, H. baylahuen and Buddleia globosa showed the highest activities. The results obtained suggest that the regular consumption of teas prepared from some of these herbs may be useful potentially to provide the organism with molecules capable of protecting the gastrointestinal tract against certain pathologically relevant oxidant species. PMID:16619353

  20. Herbal medicine: the science of the art.

    PubMed

    Walker, Ann F

    2006-05-01

    In the last 50 years science has provided new perspectives on the ancient art of herbal medicine. The present article discusses ways in which the evidence base for the professional use of 'Western' herbal medicine, as therapy to treat disease, known as phytotherapy, can be strengthened and developed. The evidence base for phytotherapy is small and lags behind that for the nutritional sciences, mainly because phytochemicals are ingested as complex mixtures that are incompletely characterised and have only relatively recently been subject to scientific scrutiny. While some methodologies developed for the nutritional sciences can inform phytotherapy research, opportunities for observational studies are more limited, although greater use could be made of patient case notes. Randomised clinical trials of single-herb interventions are relatively easy to undertake and increasing numbers of such studies are being published. Indeed, enough data are available on three herbs (ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) and saw palmetto (Serenoa repens)) for meta-analyses to have been undertaken. However, phytotherapy is holistic therapy, using lifestyle advice, nutrition and individually-prescribed mixtures of herbs aimed at reinstating homeostasis. While clinical experience shows that this approach is applicable to a wide range of conditions, including chronic disease, evidence of its efficacy is scarce. Strategies for investigating the full holistic approach of phytotherapy and its main elements are discussed and illustrated through the author's studies at the University of Reading. PMID:16672075

  1. [Development of cough-relieving herbal teas].

    PubMed

    Puodziūniene, Gene; Janulis, Valdimaras; Milasius, Arvydas; Budnikas, Vytautas

    2005-01-01

    Cough-relieving medicinal herbs in tea are used from ancient times. Mucilage present in them or secretion produced under the influence of the active substances covers the oral and throat mucosa soothing its irritability and relieving dry, tiresome cough. It is known that the mixtures of medicinal herbs (Specias) have a complex influence on the human organism and the rational combination of medicinal herbs can improve their curative action and decrease the undesirable side effects. Having summarized the properties of those medicinal herbs we decided to create two formulations of cough-relieving herbal tea. The first formulation consists of marshmallow roots, liquorice roots and lime flowers, the second -- of marshmallow roots, Iceland moss and lime flowers. The methods for identification and assay of the active substances in the compounds were applied. The purity of the mixtures was regulated by limitation of the loss on drying, total ash, microbial contamination, contamination with radionuclides, heavy metals, pesticides and foreign matter. The expiry date of both cough-relieving herbal teas was approved to be 2 years. PMID:15998989

  2. [Seguro popular: achievements and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Chertorivski-Woldenberg, Salomón

    2011-01-01

    Healthcare systems are organized following one of two basic models: social security systems, which link access to health services to labor status, and national health systems, which grant access to health as a citizen's right. Mexico adopted, since the institutionalization of social security and healthcare services in 1943, a mixed system. Social security institutions covered the salaried workers and public assistance was granted to the remaining of the population. At the beginning of the XXI century the Mexican health system entered a crisis as the conditions to expand health coverage through social security were not met and public assistance services were insufficient. In order to address these developments, the Healthcare Social Protection System was founded (2004) as a mechanism to effectively guarantee every person's right to health as established after the constitutional amendment of article fourth in 1983. Seguro Popular is the mechanism that through federal and states' contributions seeks to financially protect the population without access to social security's health services, and thus prevent impoverishment due to out of pocket and catastrophic health expenditures. PMID:22116179

  3. The Role of Popularity Goal in Early Adolescents' Behaviors and Popularity Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawes, Molly; Xie, Hongling

    2014-01-01

    The effect of popularity goal on the use of 3 popularity-related behaviors and later popularity status was examined in a diverse sample of 314 6th-grade students (176 girls and 138 boys) in both fall (Time 1) and spring (Time 2) semesters. Popularity goal and the use of popularity-driven behaviors (e.g., "I change the way I dress in order to…

  4. The Role of Popularity Goal in Early Adolescents' Behaviors and Popularity Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawes, Molly; Xie, Hongling

    2014-01-01

    The effect of popularity goal on the use of 3 popularity-related behaviors and later popularity status was examined in a diverse sample of 314 6th-grade students (176 girls and 138 boys) in both fall (Time 1) and spring (Time 2) semesters. Popularity goal and the use of popularity-driven behaviors (e.g., "I change the way I dress in order to

  5. Safety Assessment of Mainstream Smoke of Herbal Cigarette

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Min; Lim, Heung Bin

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the increase in price of cigarettes in Korea, herbal cigarettes have received increasing attention as a non-smoking aid; however, its safety has hardly been studied. We analyzed some of the toxic components in the mainstream smoke of herbal cigarettes, performed a mutagenicity test on smoke condensates for safety assessment, and compared the results with the corresponding values of a general cigarette with the same tar content. Herbal cigarette “A” was smoked using automatic smoking machine under ISO conditions in a manner similar to general cigarette “T”. The tar content measured was higher than that inscribed on the outside of a package. The mainstream smoke of herbal cigarette “A” did not contain detectable levels of tobacco-specific nitrosamines and nicotine. Carbon monoxide and benzo(α)pyrene contents in herbal cigarette “A” were higher than those in the general cigarette “T”. The phenolic contents such as hydroquinone, resorcinol, and catechol in herbal cigarette “A” were higher than those in the general cigarette “T”, but cresol contents in herbal cigarette “A” were lower than those in the general cigarette “T”. The content of aromatic amines such as 4-aminobiphenyl in herbal cigarette “A” was higher than that in the general cigarette “T”; however, this difference was not statistically significant. On the other hand, 1-aminonaphthalene, 2-aminonaphthalene, and 3-aminobiphenyl contents in herbal cigarette “A” were lower than those in the general cigarette “T”. The smoke condensates of herbal cigarette “A” exhibited a higher mutagenic potential than the condensates from the general cigarette “T” at the same concentration. We concluded that the mainstream smoke of herbal cigarette contains some toxic components, the smoke condensates of herbal cigarettes are mutagenic similar to general cigarette because of combustion products, and that the evaluation of the chemical and biological safety of all types of herbal cigarettes available on the market. PMID:25874032

  6. Remedial Parathyroid Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Udelsman, Robert; Donovan, Patricia Irvin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To review the outcomes in 130 consecutive remedial explorations for primary hyperparathyroidism. Summary Background Data: Remedial surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism is challenging and requires meticulous preoperative evaluation and imaging to expedite a focused surgical exploration that has traditionally been performed under general anesthesia. This prospective series of 130 consecutive remedial operations for primary hyperparathyroidism selectively used minimally invasive techniques and tested the hypothesis that these techniques could improve outcomes. Methods: Between 1990 and 2005, 1090 patients were evaluated and explored for primary hyperparathyroidism. Of these, 130 remedial explorations were performed in 128 patients who underwent either conventional exploration under general anesthesia (n = 107) or minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (n = 23) employing cervical block anesthesia, directed exploration, and curative confirmation with the rapid intraoperative parathyroid hormone assay. Results: The sensitivity of preoperative imaging were: Sestamibi (79%), ultrasound (74%), MRI (47%), CT (50%), venous localization (93%), and ultrasound guided parathyroid fine needle aspiration (78%). The cure rate in the conventional remedial group (n = 107) was 94% and was associated with a mean length of stay of 1.6 ± 0.2 days. Remedial exploration employing minimally invasive techniques (n = 23) resulted in a cure rate of 96% and a mean length of stay of 0.4 ± 0.1 days. Complications were rare in both remedial groups. These results were almost identical to those achieved in 960 unexplored patients. Conclusions: Remedial parathyroid surgery can be accomplished with acceptable cure and complication rates. Minimally invasive techniques can achieve outcomes that are similar to those obtained in unexplored patients. PMID:16926573

  7. Herbal Medicine in the Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Fei; Yadav, Praveen Kumar; Ju, Liu Zhan

    2012-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a refractory, chronic, and nonspecific disease occurred usually in the rectum and the entire colon. The etiopathology is probably related to dysregulation of the mucosal immune response toward the resident bacterial flora together with genetic and environmental factors. Several types of medications are used to control the inflammation or reduce symptoms. Herbal medicine includes a wide range of practices and therapies outside the realms of conventional Western medicine. However, there are limited controlled evidences indicating the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicines, such as aloe vera gel, wheat grass juice, Boswellia serrata, and bovine colostrum enemas in the treatment of UC. Although herbal medicines are not devoid of risk, they could still be safer than synthetic drugs. The potential benefits of herbal medicine could lie in their high acceptance by patients, efficacy, relative safety, and relatively low cost. Patients worldwide seem to have adopted herbal medicine in a major way, and the efficacy of herbal medicine has been tested in hundreds of clinical trials in the management of UC. The evidences on herbal medicine are incomplete, complex, and confusing, and certainly associated with both risks and benefits. There is a need for further controlled clinical trials of the potential efficacy of herbal medicine approaches in the treatment of UC, together with enhanced legislation to maximize their quality and safety. PMID:22249085

  8. Herbal medicine in the treatment of ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Ke, Fei; Yadav, Praveen Kumar; Ju, Liu Zhan

    2012-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a refractory, chronic, and nonspecific disease occurred usually in the rectum and the entire colon. The etiopathology is probably related to dysregulation of the mucosal immune response toward the resident bacterial flora together with genetic and environmental factors. Several types of medications are used to control the inflammation or reduce symptoms. Herbal medicine includes a wide range of practices and therapies outside the realms of conventional Western medicine. However, there are limited controlled evidences indicating the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicines, such as aloe vera gel, wheat grass juice, Boswellia serrata, and bovine colostrum enemas in the treatment of UC. Although herbal medicines are not devoid of risk, they could still be safer than synthetic drugs. The potential benefits of herbal medicine could lie in their high acceptance by patients, efficacy, relative safety, and relatively low cost. Patients worldwide seem to have adopted herbal medicine in a major way, and the efficacy of herbal medicine has been tested in hundreds of clinical trials in the management of UC. The evidences on herbal medicine are incomplete, complex, and confusing, and certainly associated with both risks and benefits. There is a need for further controlled clinical trials of the potential efficacy of herbal medicine approaches in the treatment of UC, together with enhanced legislation to maximize their quality and safety. PMID:22249085

  9. Importance of novel drug delivery systems in herbal medicines

    PubMed Central

    Devi, V. Kusum; Jain, Nimisha; Valli, Kusum S.

    2010-01-01

    Novel drug delivery system is a novel approach to drug delivery that addresses the limitations of the traditional drug delivery systems. Our country has a vast knowledge base of Ayurveda whose potential is only being realized in the recent years. However, the drug delivery system used for administering the herbal medicine to the patient is traditional and out-of-date, resulting in reduced efficacy of the drug. If the novel drug delivery technology is applied in herbal medicine, it may help in increasing the efficacy and reducing the side effects of various herbal compounds and herbs. This is the basic idea behind incorporating novel method of drug delivery in herbal medicines. Thus it is important to integrate novel drug delivery system and Indian Ayurvedic medicines to combat more serious diseases. For a long time herbal medicines were not considered for development as novel formulations owing to lack of scientific justification and processing difficulties, such as standardization, extraction and identification of individual drug components in complex polyherbal systems. However, modern phytopharmaceutical research can solve the scientific needs (such as determination of pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action, site of action, accurate dose required etc.) of herbal medicines to be incorporated in novel drug delivery system, such as nanoparticles, microemulsions, matrix systems, solid dispersions, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles and so on. This article summarizes various drug delivery technologies, which can be used for herbal actives together with some examples. PMID:22228938

  10. A Quantitative Documentation of the Composition of Two Powdered Herbal Formulations (Antimalarial and Haematinic) Using Ethnomedicinal Information from Ogbomoso, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ogunkunle, Adepoju Tunde Joseph; Oyelakin, Tosin Mathew; Enitan, Abosede Oluwaseyi; Oyewole, Funmilayo Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The safety of many African traditional herbal remedies is doubtful due to lack of standardization. This study therefore attempted to standardize two polyherbal formulations from Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria, with respect to the relative proportions (weight-for-weight) of their botanical constituents. Information supplied by 41 local herbal practitioners was statistically screened for consistency and then used to quantify the composition of antimalarial (Maloff-HB) and haematinic (Haematol-B) powdered herbal formulations with nine and ten herbs, respectively. Maloff-HB contained the stem bark of Enantia chlorantha Oliv. (30.0), Alstonia boonei De Wild (20.0), Mangifera indica L. (10.0), Okoubaka aubrevillei Phelleg & Nomand (8.0), Pterocarpus osun Craib (4.0), root bark of Calliandra haematocephala Hassk (10.0), Sarcocephalus latifolius (J. E. Smith) E. A. Bruce (8.0), Parquetina nigrescens (Afz.) Bullock (6.0), and the vines of Cassytha filiformis L. (4.0), while Haematol-B was composed of the leaf sheath of Sorghum bicolor Moench (30.0), fruit calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (20.0), stem bark of Theobroma cacao L. (10.0), Khaya senegalensis (Desr.) A. Juss (5.5), Mangifera indica (5.5), root of Aristolochia ringens Vahl. (7.0), root bark of Sarcocephalus latifolius (5.5), Uvaria chamae P. Beauv. (5.5), Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Lam.) Zepern & Timler (5.5), and seed of Garcinia kola Heckel (5.5). In pursuance of their general acceptability, the two herbal formulations are recommended for their pharmaceutical, phytochemical, and microbial qualities. PMID:24701246

  11. A quantitative documentation of the composition of two powdered herbal formulations (antimalarial and haematinic) using ethnomedicinal information from ogbomoso, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogunkunle, Adepoju Tunde Joseph; Oyelakin, Tosin Mathew; Enitan, Abosede Oluwaseyi; Oyewole, Funmilayo Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The safety of many African traditional herbal remedies is doubtful due to lack of standardization. This study therefore attempted to standardize two polyherbal formulations from Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria, with respect to the relative proportions (weight-for-weight) of their botanical constituents. Information supplied by 41 local herbal practitioners was statistically screened for consistency and then used to quantify the composition of antimalarial (Maloff-HB) and haematinic (Haematol-B) powdered herbal formulations with nine and ten herbs, respectively. Maloff-HB contained the stem bark of Enantia chlorantha Oliv. (30.0), Alstonia boonei De Wild (20.0), Mangifera indica L. (10.0), Okoubaka aubrevillei Phelleg & Nomand (8.0), Pterocarpus osun Craib (4.0), root bark of Calliandra haematocephala Hassk (10.0), Sarcocephalus latifolius (J. E. Smith) E. A. Bruce (8.0), Parquetina nigrescens (Afz.) Bullock (6.0), and the vines of Cassytha filiformis L. (4.0), while Haematol-B was composed of the leaf sheath of Sorghum bicolor Moench (30.0), fruit calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (20.0), stem bark of Theobroma cacao L. (10.0), Khaya senegalensis (Desr.) A. Juss (5.5), Mangifera indica (5.5), root of Aristolochia ringens Vahl. (7.0), root bark of Sarcocephalus latifolius (5.5), Uvaria chamae P. Beauv. (5.5), Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Lam.) Zepern & Timler (5.5), and seed of Garcinia kola Heckel (5.5). In pursuance of their general acceptability, the two herbal formulations are recommended for their pharmaceutical, phytochemical, and microbial qualities. PMID:24701246

  12. The availability and validity of safety information of over the counter herbal products for use in diabetes in Sri Lanka: A cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Medagama, Arjuna Bandara; Widanapahirana, Heshan; Prasanga, Tharindu

    2015-01-01

    Aims: There is an increase of over-the-counter (OTC) herbal products for use in diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety information provided with OTC herbal remedies intended for diabetic patients in Sri Lanka and to assess the completeness of the information provided. Methods: Inclusion criteria consisted of OTC herbal remedies meant for use in diabetes. They were bought from local Sri Lankan supermarkets and non-ayurvedic pharmacies and product information regarding the risk of hypoglycemia, precautions for use, adverse events, dose, and interactions were assessed using a scoring system. The accuracy of the information was then compared against published data. Results: 11 products fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Five products contained a single constituent and five contained more than one. None had complete and accurate safety information according to our criteria. None specifically warned against the risk of hypoglycemia. 9 out of 11 products (81.8%) carried ≤3 items of the five essential factual information we expected. Hypoglycemic coma, gastrointestinal symptoms, hepatotoxicity, carcinogenesis, and interactions causing elevated drug levels of Carbamazepine were some of the safety information that was missing. Conclusions: Key safety information was absent in most products. Regulation of sale, provision of key safety information and adverse event reporting should be a priority. PMID:26649230

  13. Popularizing dissent: A civil society perspective.

    PubMed

    Motion, Judy; Leitch, Shirley; Weaver, C Kay

    2015-05-01

    This article theorizes civil society groups' attempts to popularize opposition to genetic modification in New Zealand as deliberative interventions that seek to open up public participation in science-society governance. In this case, the popularization strategies were designed to intensify concerns about social justice and democratic incursions, mobilize dissent and offer meaningful mechanisms for navigating and participating in public protest. Such civic popularization efforts, we argue, are more likely to succeed when popularity and politicization strategies are judiciously integrated to escalate controversy, re-negotiate power relations and provoke agency and action. PMID:25394361

  14. Prevention of cadmium bioaccumulation by herbal adaptogens

    PubMed Central

    Bharavi, K.; Reddy, A. Gopala; Rao, G.S.; Kumar, P. Ravi; Kumar, D. Srinivas; Prasadini, P. Prabhu

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of various herbal adaptogens such as shade-dried powders of Withania somnifera, Ocimum sanctum, Asperagus recemosus, Andrographis paniculata, Asphaltum panjabinum (Shilajith), Gymnema sylvestre, Spirulina platensis, and Panex ginseng on cadmium (Cd)-induced oxidative stress and its accumulation in broiler chicken. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 male broiler chicks of day old age were randomly assigned to 10 equal groups. Group 1 birds were fed with basal diet throughout the experiment (1–42 days). Group 2–10 chicks were fed with basal diet containing cadmium at 100 ppm from day 1 to day 28 (4 weeks). From 29th to 42nd day (2 weeks), basal diet alone was fed to group 2 chicks which acted as toxic control and group 3–10 birds were fed with feed containing 0.1% powder of W. somnifera, O. sanctum, Aspe. recemosus, An. paniculata, Asph. panjabinum (Shilajith), G. sylvestre, S. platensis, and P. ginseng, respectively. Body weight gain, levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants such as reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation markers such as thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS), liver functional markers such as serum alanine transaminase (ALT), kidney functional markers such as blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine and concentration of cadmium in liver and kidney were investigated. Results: Body weight gains were significantly decreased in birds of groups 2–10 compared to group 1 at the end of 4th week. Supplementation of various medicinal herbs in feed after 4th week significantly improved the body weight gain compared to that in group 2 chicks. The increase in TBARS and decrease in GSH concentrations of liver and kidney tissues in cadmium intoxicated birds were significantly reversed by the above-said herbs. The liver and kidney functional markers were also restored to normal levels. Highest concentration of cadmium was found accumulated in kidney, followed by liver in birds of group 2. Herbal supplementation in groups 3–10 prevented Cd bioaccumulation which was most evident in liver, followed by kidney. Conclusions: Administration of herbal adaptogens at the rate of 0.1% in feed significantly prevented the bioaccumulation of Cd and reversed the Cd-induced oxidative tissue damage. PMID:21455421

  15. Chemical Adulterants in Herbal Medicinal Products: A Review.

    PubMed

    Calahan, Jacob; Howard, Dylan; Almalki, Ahmad J; Gupta, Mahabir P; Calderón, Angela I

    2016-04-01

    Many herbal medicinal products have been found to contain synthetic prescription drugs as chemical adulterants. This has become evident by the number of toxicity cases and adverse reactions reported in which casualties were reported via analytical techniques that detected the presence of chemical adulterants in them, which could be responsible for their toxicity. The adulteration of herbal medicinal products with synthetic drugs continues to be a serious problem for regulatory agencies. This review provides up to date information on cases of toxicity, major chemical adulterants in herbal medicinal products, and current analytical techniques used for their detection. PMID:27054916

  16. Cytochrome P450 enzyme mediated herbal drug interactions (Part 1).

    PubMed

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2014-01-01

    It is well recognized that herbal supplements or herbal medicines are now commonly used. As many patients taking prescription medications are concomitantly using herbal supplements, there is considerable risk for adverse herbal drug interactions. Such interactions can enhance the risk for an individual patient, especially with regard to drugs with a narrow therapeutic index such as warfarin, cyclosporine A and digoxin. Herbal drug interactions can alter pharmacokinetic or/and pharmacodynamic properties of administered drugs. The most common pharmacokinetic interactions usually involve either the inhibition or induction of the metabolism of drugs catalyzed by the important enzymes, cytochrome P450 (CYP). The aim of the present article is to provide an updated review of clinically relevant metabolic CYP-mediated drug interactions between selected herbal supplements and prescription drugs. The commonly used herbal supplements selected include Echinacea, Ginkgo biloba, garlic, St. John's wort, goldenseal, and milk thistle. To date, several significant herbal drug interactions have their origins in the alteration of CYP enzyme activity by various phytochemicals. Numerous herbal drug interactions have been reported. Although the significance of many interactions is uncertain but several interactions, especially those with St. John's wort, may have critical clinical consequences. St. John's wort is a source of hyperforin, an active ingredient that has a strong affinity for the pregnane xenobiotic receptor (PXR). As a PXR ligand, hyperforin promotes expression of CYP3A4 enzymes in the small intestine and liver. This in turn causes induction of CYP3A4 and can reduce the oral bioavailability of many drugs making them less effective. The available evidence indicates that, at commonly recommended doses, other selected herbs including Echinacea, Ginkgo biloba, garlic, goldenseal and milk thistle do not act as potent or moderate inhibitors or inducers of CYP enzymes. A good knowledge of the mechanisms of herbal drug interactions is necessary for assessing and minimizing clinical risks. These processes help prediction of interactions between herbal supplements and prescription drugs. Healthcare professionals should remain vigilant for potential interactions between herbal supplements/medicines and prescription drugs, especially for drugs with a narrow therapeutic index are used. PMID:26417265

  17. Cytochrome P450 enzyme mediated herbal drug interactions (Part 1)

    PubMed Central

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2014-01-01

    It is well recognized that herbal supplements or herbal medicines are now commonly used. As many patients taking prescription medications are concomitantly using herbal supplements, there is considerable risk for adverse herbal drug interactions. Such interactions can enhance the risk for an individual patient, especially with regard to drugs with a narrow therapeutic index such as warfarin, cyclosporine A and digoxin. Herbal drug interactions can alter pharmacokinetic or/and pharmacodynamic properties of administered drugs. The most common pharmacokinetic interactions usually involve either the inhibition or induction of the metabolism of drugs catalyzed by the important enzymes, cytochrome P450 (CYP). The aim of the present article is to provide an updated review of clinically relevant metabolic CYP-mediated drug interactions between selected herbal supplements and prescription drugs. The commonly used herbal supplements selected include Echinacea, Ginkgo biloba, garlic, St. John's wort, goldenseal, and milk thistle. To date, several significant herbal drug interactions have their origins in the alteration of CYP enzyme activity by various phytochemicals. Numerous herbal drug interactions have been reported. Although the significance of many interactions is uncertain but several interactions, especially those with St. John’s wort, may have critical clinical consequences. St. John’s wort is a source of hyperforin, an active ingredient that has a strong affinity for the pregnane xenobiotic receptor (PXR). As a PXR ligand, hyperforin promotes expression of CYP3A4 enzymes in the small intestine and liver. This in turn causes induction of CYP3A4 and can reduce the oral bioavailability of many drugs making them less effective. The available evidence indicates that, at commonly recommended doses, other selected herbs including Echinacea, Ginkgo biloba, garlic, goldenseal and milk thistle do not act as potent or moderate inhibitors or inducers of CYP enzymes. A good knowledge of the mechanisms of herbal drug interactions is necessary for assessing and minimizing clinical risks. These processes help prediction of interactions between herbal supplements and prescription drugs. Healthcare professionals should remain vigilant for potential interactions between herbal supplements/medicines and prescription drugs, especially for drugs with a narrow therapeutic index are used. PMID:26417265

  18. Acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gary C; Ramanathan, Vivek S; Law, David; Funchain, Pauline; Chen, George C; French, Samuel; Shlopov, Boris; Eysselein, Viktor; Chung, David; Reicher, Sonya; Pham, Binh V

    2010-01-01

    We report three cases of patients with acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements. One patient took Hydroxycut while the other two took Herbalife supplements. Liver biopsies for all patients demonstrated findings consistent with drug-induced acute liver injury. To our knowledge, we are the first institute to report acute liver injury from both of these two types of weight-loss herbal supplements together as a case series. The series emphasizes the importance of taking a cautious approach when consuming herbal supplements for the purpose of weight loss. PMID:21173910

  19. Acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gary C; Ramanathan, Vivek S; Law, David; Funchain, Pauline; Chen, George C; French, Samuel; Shlopov, Boris; Eysselein, Viktor; Chung, David; Reicher, Sonya; Pham, Binh V

    2010-11-27

    We report three cases of patients with acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements. One patient took Hydroxycut while the other two took Herbalife supplements. Liver biopsies for all patients demonstrated findings consistent with drug-induced acute liver injury. To our knowledge, we are the first institute to report acute liver injury from both of these two types of weight-loss herbal supplements together as a case series. The series emphasizes the importance of taking a cautious approach when consuming herbal supplements for the purpose of weight loss. PMID:21173910

  20. Herbal Excipients in Novel Drug Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Shirwaikar, A.; Shirwaikar, Annie; Prabu, S. Lakshmana; Kumar, G. Aravind

    2008-01-01

    The use of natural excipients to deliver the bioactive agents has been hampered by the synthetic materials. However advantages offered by these natural excipients are their being non-toxic, less expensive and freely available. The performance of the excipients partly determines the quality of the medicines. The traditional concept of the excipients as any component other than the active substance has undergone a substantial evolution from an inert and cheap vehicle to an essential constituent of the formulation. Excipients are any component other than the active substance(s) intentionally added to formulation of a dosage form. This article gives an overview of herbal excipients which are used in conventional dosage forms as well as novel drug delivery systems. PMID:20046764

  1. Hepatotoxicity induced by herbal and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Victor J; Lucena, M Isabel

    2014-05-01

    Herbals and dietary supplements (HDS) can cause hepatotoxicity. Regulation of HDS varies across the globe. In the United States, it is defined by a law that is now two decades old. More recent regulatory approaches in Europe still do not require testing for premarket safety. The true incidence of hepatotoxicity from HDS is unknown. The presentation is most often with a hepatocellular enzyme pattern, and the outcomes can be severe, leading to transplantation in some circumstances. The diagnosis of hepatotoxicity due to HDS is made in the same way as for drugs. However, patients often must be coaxed into revealing a history of use. No causality assessment approach is perfectly suited for hepatotoxicity from HDS, but the Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method is most used. Future endeavors must focus on defining epidemiology, establishing an accepted nomenclature, and identifying culprit ingredients, predisposing host factors, and useful biomarkers for injury. PMID:24879982

  2. Popular Music in American History. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, William, Jr.

    This student book encourages an understanding of U.S. history through song, and of American song through history. The book is organized in two main parts, the first focuses on the nature of popular music. It examines "What is Popular Music?" and looks at pop themes, lyrics, melodies, rhythm, the composer, performer, and publisher. The second part…

  3. Using Popular Culture to Teach Quantitative Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillyard, Cinnamon

    2007-01-01

    Popular culture provides many opportunities to develop quantitative reasoning. This article describes a junior-level, interdisciplinary, quantitative reasoning course that uses examples from movies, cartoons, television, magazine advertisements, and children's literature. Some benefits from and cautions to using popular culture to teach…

  4. Popular Adult Education: The Bolivian Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luft, Murray

    A discussion paper on popular adult non-formal education in rural Bolivia, based on four months of 1982 fieldwork, focuses on the nature of popular education and its meaning in a contemporary Bolivian context, program methods and operational strategies employed, outcomes and impacts on peasant participants (many of them Indians), and problems and…

  5. Popular Magazines Discuss Online Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diodato, Virgil

    1984-01-01

    Examines 55 articles from 25 popular magazines such as "Better Homes and Gardens,""Business Week,""Popular Mechanics," and "Working Woman" and discusses purpose of the articles, consumer oriented online services, libraries and information centers, databases, and publishers and intermediaries. A list of the articles is appended. (EJS)

  6. Design and Teach a Popular Music Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Randolph D.

    1991-01-01

    Offers ideas on how to develop a course on popular music. Notes the importance of obtaining prior administrative support. Identifies materials, techniques, books, films, and community resources. Suggests several classroom projects, incorporating popular music history and music activities. Lists books, periodicals, and videotaped materials for…

  7. Popular Music and the Instrumental Ensemble.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boespflug, George

    1999-01-01

    Discusses popular music, the role of the musical performer as a creator, and the styles of jazz and popular music. Describes the pop ensemble at the college level, focusing on improvisation, rehearsals, recording, and performance. Argues that pop ensembles be used in junior and senior high school. (CMK)

  8. Substance Use in Popular Movies and Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Donald F.; Henriksen, Lisa; Christenson, Peter G.

    This study examines the frequency and nature of substance use in the most popular movie rentals and songs of 1996 and 1997. The intent was to determine the accuracy of public perceptions about extensive substance use in media popular among youth. Because teenagers are major consumers of movies and music, there is concern about the potential for…

  9. Anthropology and Popular Culture: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Jack

    The study of popular culture in the United States is an appropriate anthropological endeavor, as evidenced in a case study of the volcanic eruption of Mt. St. Helens in Oregon. By examining its popular arts, anthropologists gain understanding of the culture and its people. For example, an analysis of reactions to the Mt. St. Helens eruption…

  10. Teaching Personality Theories Using Popular Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leck, Kira

    2006-01-01

    Previously, psychology instructors have used popular music to illustrate psychological concepts in the classroom. In this study, students enrolled in a personality theories class heard 13 popular songs that demonstrated various concepts. Students then selected and analyzed their own songs that contained elements of personality theories. Test…

  11. Traditional herbal remedies used for the treatment of urinary schistosomiasis in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Ndamba, J; Nyazema, N; Makaza, N; Anderson, C; Kaondera, K C

    1994-04-01

    A total of 286 traditional healers, 85% of them registered with the Zimbabwe National Traditional Healers' Association (ZINATHA), in five administrative provinces of Zimbabwe, were interviewed to assess their knowledge about the signs and symptoms of urinary schistosomiasis. Information on the names of plants used to treat Schistosoma haematobium infections was solicited. Haematuria was mentioned by 99% of the traditional healers to be the most obvious sign of S. haematobium infection. General body weakness, increased urinary frequency and pain on micturition also were reported to be some of the signs of infection. Eight plant materials were identified as the most commonly used for the treatment of S. haematobium. The plants were identified and parts collected to investigate their antischistosomal properties. The plant materials were prepared according to the guidelines of the traditional healers and their efficacy determined by administering the crude extracts orally to hamsters infected with S. haematobium cercariae. The results obtained suggested that plant extracts from Abrus precatorius (Leguminosae), Pterocarpus angolensis (Leguminosae) and Ozoroa insignis (Anacardiaceae) were lethal to adult schistosomes. PMID:8072305

  12. Artemisinin and the antimalarial endoperoxides: from herbal remedy to targeted chemotherapy.

    PubMed Central

    Meshnick, S R; Taylor, T E; Kamchonwongpaisan, S

    1996-01-01

    Artemisinin and its derivatives are endoperoxide-containing compounds which represent a promising new class of antimalarial drugs. In the presence of intraparasitic iron, these drugs are converted into free radicals and other electrophilic intermediates which then alkylate specific malaria target proteins. Combinations of available derivatives and other antimalarial agents show promise both as first-line agents and in the treatment of severe disease. PMID:8801435

  13. Potent antimalarial activity of the alkaloid nitidine, isolated from a Kenyan herbal remedy.

    PubMed Central

    Gakunju, D M; Mberu, E K; Dossaji, S F; Gray, A I; Waigh, R D; Waterman, P G; Watkins, W M

    1995-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of extracts of Toddalia asiatica, a plant used by the Pokot tribe of Kenya to treat fevers, has yielded the alkaloid nitidine as the major antimalarial component. Fractions containing nitidine have in vitro 50% inhibitory concentrations against Plasmodium falciparum in the range of 9 to 108 ng/ml for a range of chloroquine-susceptible and -resistant strains. The results show a lack of cross-resistance between chloroquine and nitidine. PMID:8592987

  14. Protective effects of Korean herbal remedy against oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myung-Sunny; Kwon, Dae Young; Cho, Hye-Jin; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2006-03-01

    Ondamtanggagambang (ODG) has been used as a prescription for psychological anxiety and depression in Korean medicine. In this study, we found that ODG have protective effects against oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes. Pretreatment with ODG extract prevented H2O2 and ZnCl2-induced cell damage in H9c2 cardiomyocytes, whereas simultaneous treatment of ODG extract did not. The protective effect of ODG extract on oxidative stress-induced damage was suppressed significantly by heme oxygenase (HO) inhibitors, zinc protoporphyrin-IX (ZnPP-IX, p < 0.01) and tin protoporphyrin-IX (SnPP-IX, p < 0.01) in H9c2 cells. ODG stimulation of cells strongly induced the expression of HO-1 protein. Taken together, it is suggested that ODG-induced expression of HO-1 may have a beneficial role in cardiomyocytes under oxidative stress. PMID:16521115

  15. Anti-fungal and anti-bacterial activity of some herbal remedies from Tanzania.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Hugo J; Kool, Anneleen; Broberg, Anders; Mziray, William R; Hedberg, Inga; Levenfors, Jolanta J

    2005-01-15

    Plants are not only important to the millions of people to whom traditional medicine serves as the only opportunity for health care and to those who use plants for various purposes in their daily lives, but also as a source of new pharmaceuticals. During interviews with the Pare people from Northeastern Tanzania, 29 plants that are used for medicinal purposes as well as 41 plants used for non-medicinal purposes were reported. Six medicinally used plants were selected for bioactivity analysis. Extracts of Coccinia adoensis, Cineraria grandiflora, Pavonia urens, Marattia fraxinea, Clutia abyssinica var. usambarica, and Vangueria infausta were made using ethyl acetate, methanol, cold water and boiling water. The antimicrobial activity was tested on Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Fusarium culmorum, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas syringae, and Erwinia amylovora. All plants showed activity against several test organisms. PMID:15619565

  16. Remediation; An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, J.

    1988-09-01

    The U.SD. government began committing the nation legally and financially in the last decade to the ultimate remediation of virtually all of the hazardous wastes that were produced in the past and remain to threaten human health and the environment, all that continue to be generated, and all that will be created in the future. Whether engendered by acts of God or human industry, the laws and regulations mandate, hazardous wastes and the threats they pose will be removed or rendered harmless. As mobilization for tackling the monumental task implied by those commitments has progressed, key concepts have changed in meaning. The remedy of remediation once literally meant burying our hazardous waste problems in landfills, for example, a solution now officially defined as the least desirable-although still commonly chosen - course of action. The process of identifying hazardous substances and determining in what quantities they constitute health and environmental hazards continues apace. As measurement technologies become increasingly precise and capable to detecting more 9s to the right of the decimal point, acceptable levels of emissions into the air and concentrations in the ground or water are reduced. This article is intended as a sketch of where the national commitment of remediation currently stands, with examples of implications for both generators of hazardous wastes and those who have entered-or seek to enter-the rapidly growing business of remediation.

  17. Effect of Korean Herbal Medicine Combined with a Probiotic Mixture on Diarrhea-Dominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seul-Ki; Seo, Jae-Gu; Chung, Won-Seok; Ryu, Bongha; Kim, Jinsung; Yeo, Inkwon; Lee, Beom-Joon; Lee, Jin-Moo

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Although combination therapy with herbal medicine and probiotics is gaining popularity for controlling diarrhea-dominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS) symptoms, few studies have investigated its clinical effects. Materials and Methods. Fifty-three patients with D-IBS were randomly allocated into 1 of the following 4 groups: herbal medicine (Gwakhyangjeonggisan; GJS) plus probiotics (Duolac7S; DUO), GJS plus placebo DUO, placebo GJS plus DUO, and placebo GJS plus placebo DUO. The study period consisted of a 2-week run-in, 8 weeks of administration, and 2 weeks of follow-up. The primary outcomes were weekly adequate relief (AR) of overall IBS symptoms and the proportion of responders (PR) during the administration period. The secondary outcomes included individual IBS symptoms, stool assessment, and quality of life. Changes of intestinal microbiota and intestinal permeability were also analyzed. Results and Discussion. Weekly AR was not different among the 4 groups throughout the treatment period. However, the 3 treatment groups exhibited significant improvements in PR compared to the findings in the placebo group. In the intestinal microbiota assessment, herbal medicine and probiotics synergistically increased beneficial bacteria counts. Conclusion. Combination therapy with herbal medicine and probiotics appears to relieve overall IBS symptoms by synergistically increasing beneficial intestinal microbe counts. PMID:24381638

  18. Study and application of herbal disinfectants in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhao-Bin

    2004-12-01

    Disinfection means killing or removing pathogenic microorganisms in media to realize a harmless process. A disinfectant, which is also referred to as a disinfection medicine in relevant regulations, is the medicine used to kill microorganisms for the purpose of disinfection. The disinfectants prepared from plants (including traditional Chinese herbal medicines) and the extracts thereof are called herbal disinfectants. China has a long history of using herbal disinfectants. As early as in 533 A.D., the use of Cornel to sterilize well water was recorded in Necessary Techniques for Qi People by Jia Enxie of the Beiwei Dynasty. During the Dragon Boat Festival, people often use fumigants made of traditional Chinese herbal medicines like Chinese Atractylodes, Argy Wormwood Leaf and Red Arsenic Sulfide to smoke their houses, so as to ward off plagues and drive away evils. In fact this is now a kind of disinfection practice. PMID:15745254

  19. Fungi associated with herbal drug plants during storage.

    PubMed

    Efuntoye, M O

    Samples of sundried herbal drug plant parts stored for sale were purchased from four herbal markets located in Ibadan, Nigeria. The plant parts were analysed for mycoflora associated with their storage. Fungal colony counts ranged from 0.60 x 10(2) to 3.50 x 10(2) within the period of the survey. Twenty eight fungal species were isolated with the species of Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Fusarium moniliforme, Trichoderma viride, Penicillium expansum and Mucor fragilis being the dominant ones. There were marked differences between the flora obtained on fresh plant parts and those stored for sale. The results obtained showed that herbal drug plant pieces stored for sale in the markets are hazardous for human health. There is therefore the need for some form of quality control and decontamination before they are used for herbal drug preparations. PMID:9208479

  20. [Research on the citation of Herbal in Dongeuibogam].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yongzhi; Dang, Zhizheng

    2014-07-01

    Dongeuibogam is the most prestigious traditional medical book in Korea, written by Heo Joon, who codified it by picking the essence of Chinese traditional medical books before the Ming Dynasty and some other ancient Chinese books and sorted them out. Among the citations of this book, those marked as"Herbal" is more complicated. We made a preliminary research on the citations of such Herbal, from their distribution, sources, citation manners, pharmacological features, to find that 23 rolls of main text to include citations of Herbal in each roll. We also found that most Herbal referred by Heo Joon come from Zheng lei ben cao (Classified Materia Medica), and a few of the contents are mixed with the contents of other medical books. Heo Joon abstracted and modified the citations from the source literature, embodying his ideas of pursuing conciseness and practicability. PMID:25429883

  1. Toxic heavy metals and undeclared drugs in Asian herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Edzard

    2002-03-01

    Asian herbal medicines are currently used by large sections of the population. Because they are not regulated as medicines and are freely available to everyone, serious safety concerns might be associated with these herbal medicines. In this article, evidence suggesting that some Asian herbal medicines contain toxic heavy metals or undeclared prescription drugs is reviewed. In particular, Indian and Chinese preparations have been implicated. Although adulteration with drugs is by definition fraudulent, the inclusion of heavy metals could be either intentional for alleged medicinal purposes or accidental. Evidence from various countries implies that toxic heavy metals and undeclared prescription drugs in Asian herbal medicines might constitute a serious health problem. However, the majority of the data is anecdotal and insufficient to define prevalence figures. Ways ought to be found to maximize consumer safety. PMID:11879681

  2. Are herbal mouthwash efficacious over chlorhexidine on the dental plaque?

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Devanand; Nayan, Swapna; Tippanawar, Harshad K.; Patil, Gaurav I.; Jain, Ankita; Momin, Rizwan K.; Gupta, Rajendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To compare the effect of herbal extract mouthwash and chlorhexidine mouthwash on the dental plaque level. Materials and Methods: The subjects (60 healthy medical students aged ranges between 20 and 25 years) were randomly divided into two groups, that is, the herbal group and the chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash group. The data were collected at the baseline and 3 days. The plaque was disclosed using erythrosine disclosing agent and their scores were recorded using the Quigley and Hein plaque index modified by Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman. Statistical analysis was carried out later to compare the effect of all the two groups. Results: Our result showed that the chlorhexidine group shows a greater decrease in plaque score followed by herbal extract, but the result was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: The results indicate that herbal mouthwash may prove to be an effective agent owing to its ability to reduce plaque level, especially in low socioeconomic strata. PMID:26130940

  3. Internet websites selling herbal treatments for erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Thurairaja, R; Barrass, B; Persad, R

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the safety and reliability of internet websites selling and providing medical information regarding herbal substitutes for Viagra. Using keywords 'Herbal' and 'Viagra', websites selling and providing medical information regarding herbal substitutes were identified. The top 50 sequential sites were assessed for safety and reliability against the Health on the Net (HON) criteria. Medically trained staff provided information in only 21% of the sites yet just 24% stated that the information was not a replacement for medical advice. No sites warned patients about erectile dysfunction (ED)-associated cardiovascular disease. In all, 88 and 70% of sites indicated drug efficacy and ingredients but only 36 and 21% provided contraindications and side effects, respectively. All sites fell short of the HON requirements. In conclusion, acquiring medical information and herbal substitutes for ED from the internet is convenient and easy. However, patients should be cautious as safety and reliability of this approach is poor. PMID:15510178

  4. [Hepatotoxicity of dietary supplements and herbals is mostly unknown].

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Claire; Semb, Synne; Kromann-Andersen, Hans

    2011-08-22

    The use of herbals and dietary supplements is considerable and increasing. Several cases of serious hepatotoxic side effects and a wide range of clinical manifestations have been described. As toxic hepatitis often arises in an unpredictable and dose-independent manner, diagnosis may be difficult. Increased public awareness of the potential risks of herbals and dietary supplements is desirable in order to ensure that suspected adverse effects and interactions are formally reported. PMID:21867654

  5. Immunosuppressive activity of an aqueous Viola tricolor herbal extract

    PubMed Central

    Sauer, Barbara; Huber, Roman; Gruber, Christian W.; Gründemann, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Heartsease (Viola tricolor L.), a member of the Violaceae family, has a long history as a medicinal plant and has been documented in the Pharmacopoeia of Europe. Due to its anti-inflammatory properties it is regarded as a traditional remedy against skin diseases, for example for the treatment of scabs, itching, ulcers, eczema or psoriasis, and it is also used in the treatment of inflammation of the lungs and chest such as bronchitis or asthma. Because T-cells play an important role in the pathological process of inflammatory diseases we investigated the effect of an aqueous Viola extract on lymphocyte functions and explored the ‘active’ principle of the extract using bioactivity-guided fractionation. Material and Methods An aqueous Viola extract was prepared by C18 solid-phase extraction. Effects on proliferation of activated lymphocytes (using the cell membrane permeable fluorescein dye CFSE), apoptosis and necrosis (using annexin V and propidium iodide staining), interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor expression (using fluorochrome-conjugated antibodies) and IL-2 cytokine secretion (using an ELISA-based bead array system) were measured by flow cytometry. Influence on lymphocyte polyfunctionality was characterized by Viola extract-induced production of IFN-γ and TNF-α, as well as its influence on lymphocyte degranulation activity. Fractionation and phytochemical analysis of the extract were performed by RP-HPLC and mass spectrometry. Results The aqueous Viola extract inhibited proliferation of activated lymphocytes by reducing IL-2 cytokine secretion without affecting IL-2 receptor expression. Similarly, effector functions were affected as indicated by the reduction of IFN-γ and TNF-α production; degranulation capacity of activated lymphocytes remained unaffected. Bioassay-guided fractionation and phytochemical analysis of the extract led to identification of circular plant peptides, so called cyclotides, as bioactive components. Conclusion An aqueous Viola extract contains bioactive cyclotides, which inhibit proliferation of activated lymphocytes in an IL-2 dependent manner. The findings provide a rationale for use of herbal Viola preparations in the therapy of disorders related to an overactive immune system. However, further studies to evaluate its clinical potency and potential risks have to be performed. PMID:24216163

  6. Remedial design/remedial action strategy report

    SciTech Connect

    Dieffenbacher, R.G.

    1994-06-30

    This draft Regulatory Compliance Strategy (RCS) report will aid the ER program in developing and implementing Remedial Design/Remedial Action (RD/RA) projects. The intent of the RCS is to provide guidance for the implementation of project management requirements and to allow the implementation of a flexible, graded approach to design requirements depending on the complexity, magnitude, schedule, risk, and cost for any project. The RCS provides a functional management-level guidance document for the identification, classification, and implementation of the managerial and regulatory aspects of an ER project. The RCS has been written from the perspective of the ER Design Manager and provides guidance for the overall management of design processes and elements. The RCS does not address the project engineering or specification level of detail. Topics such as project initiation, funding, or construction are presented only in the context in which these items are important as sources of information or necessary process elements that relate to the design project phases.

  7. Synergism of Chinese Herbal Medicine: Illustrated by Danshen Compound

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xuefeng; Yao, Zhuoting; Li, Shengting; Sun, He

    2016-01-01

    The primary therapeutic effects of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) are based on the properties of each herb and the strategic combination of herbs in formulae. The herbal formulae are constructed according to Chinese medicine theory: the “Traditional Principles for Constructing Chinese Herbal Medicinal Formulae” and the “Principles of Combining Medicinal Substances.” These principles of formulation detail how and why multiple medicinal herbs with different properties are combined together into a single formula. However, the concept of herbal synergism in CHM still remains a mystery due to lack of scientific data and modern assessment methods. The Compound Danshen Formula (CDF) is a validated formula that has been used to treat a variety of diseases for hundreds of years in China and other countries. The CDF will be employed to illustrate the theory and principle of Chinese herbal medicine formulation. The aim of this review is to describe how Chinese herbal medicinal formulae are constructed according to Chinese medicine theory and to illustrate with scientific evidence how Chinese herbs work synergistically within a formula, thereby supporting Chinese medicine theory and practice. PMID:27190537

  8. A renaissance in herbal medicine identification: from morphology to DNA.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shilin; Pang, Xiaohui; Song, Jingyuan; Shi, Linchun; Yao, Hui; Han, Jianping; Leon, Christine

    2014-11-15

    Numerous adverse reactions have arisen following the use of inaccurately identified medicinal plant ingredients, resulting in conditions such as aristolochic acid nephropathy and herb-induced poisoning. This problem has prompted increased global concern over the safety of herbal medicines. DNA barcoding, a technique aiming at detecting species-specific differences in a short region of DNA, provides a powerful new tool for addressing this problem. A preliminary system for DNA barcoding herbal materials has been established based on a two-locus combination of ITS2+psbA-trnH barcodes. There are 78,847 sequences belonging to 23,262 species in the system, which include more than 95% of crude herbal drugs in pharmacopeia, such as those of China, Japan, Korea, India, USA, and Europe. The system has been widely used in traditional herbal medicine enterprises. This review summarizes recent key advances in the DNA barcoding of medicinal plant ingredients (herbal materia medica) as a contribution towards safe and efficacious herbal medicines. PMID:25087935

  9. Contamination of aflatoxins in herbal medicinal products in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tassaneeyakul, Wongwiwat; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Porasuphatana, Supatra; Bohm, Josef

    2004-08-01

    Twenty-eight herbal medicinal products from Thailand were investigated for aflatoxin (AF) contaminations by employing a specific HPLC assay for the determination of AFB1, B2, G1 and G2. The samples were extracted with 80% (v/v) methanol in water before further cleaned up with an immunoaffinity column and followed by the detection of AFs by using an electrochemically post-column derivatization with iodine and fluorescence detector. The extraction procedure was optimized in order to obtain the best recovery. The method was successfully carried out with all the herbal products diversified as to compositions and dosage forms. The results revealed that five (18%) of herbal samples were contaminated with detectable amount of the total AFs ranging from 1.7 to 14.3 ng/g. The association between particular herbal/plant and the AF contaminated could not be determined due to the low frequency of positive samples. The contaminated products were those in tablet (4) and capsule (1) dosage forms. It was possible that the original fungal infection of these products may have been derived from either the crude herbal or other ingredients making these preparations, such as starch. In conclusion, none of the AF contaminated level found was above the current legislative level permissible in Thailand (20 ng/g). A word of caution, however, exporting some high AF-contaminated herbal products to countries where more stringent permissable level of aflatoxins exist could result in trade Barriers. PMID:15518353

  10. Solutions Remediate Contaminated Groundwater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    During the Apollo Program, NASA workers used chlorinated solvents to clean rocket engine components at launch sites. These solvents, known as dense non-aqueous phase liquids, had contaminated launch facilities to the point of near-irreparability. Dr. Jacqueline Quinn and Dr. Kathleen Brooks Loftin of Kennedy Space Center partnered with researchers from the University of Central Florida's chemistry and engineering programs to develop technology capable of remediating the area without great cost or further environmental damage. They called the new invention Emulsified Zero-Valent Iron (EZVI). The groundwater remediation compound is cleaning up polluted areas all around the world and is, to date, NASA's most licensed technology.

  11. "One-shot" analysis of PDE-5 inhibitors and analogues in counterfeit herbal natural products using an LC-DAD-QTOF system.

    PubMed

    Bortolini, Claudio; Pivato, Antonio; Bogialli, Sara; Pastore, Paolo

    2015-08-01

    A highly selective and robust method for simultaneous screening and confirmation of target and non-target phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitor analogues within a single chromatographic run in counterfeit herbal products was developed. The protocol, based on an easy and rapid extraction with a water/acetonitrile 1 % formic acid solution, followed by sonication and centrifugation, exploits an LC-diode array detector-quadrupole-time-of-flight (DAD-QTOF) system. The extraction method was optimized both at high concentrations and at trace levels. These two situations are typically encountered in pharmaceutical formulations and herbal food supplements. Carryover effects, never reported before and occurring mainly for vardenafil, were overcome using a polymer-based column. An in-house validation was carried out using five blanks of different bulk matrices spiked with seven standard analytes, namely yohimbine, sildenafil, vardenafil, tadalafil, homosildenafil, pseudovardenafil and hydroxyhomovardenafil. Reliable quantitation was possible using a conventional standard solution for all the pharmaceutical and herbal samples considered, as matrix effects were eliminated. Accuracy ranged from 80.9 to 108.1 % with overall relative standard deviation (RSD) <11 % (N = 15), measured at 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0 μg/g. Limits of detection (LODs) obtained ensured the determination of cross contaminations at nanogram per gram levels. A database with 82 PDE-5 inhibitor analogues was implemented for automatic non-target analysis. Among the 26 samples of dietary supplements and herbal remedies bulk marketed for erectile dysfunctions, three samples were found to be contaminated with both registered and unregistered synthetic PDE-5 inhibitors, i.e. yohimbine, sildenafil, dimethylsildenafil and thiodimethylsildenafil or thiomethisosildenafil. The occurrence of such contaminations, both at trace levels and at pharmaceutical dosage, indicates the illicit use of synthetic PDE-5 analogues. Graphical Abstract Examples of pharmaceutical formulations and herbal natural products marketed for the erectile dysfunction. PMID:26072210

  12. Revitalizing Ernst Mach's Popular Scientific Lectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Euler, Manfred

    2007-06-01

    Compared to Ernst Mach's influence on the conceptual development of physics, his efforts to popularize science and his reflections on science literacy are known to a much lesser degree. The approach and the impact of Mach's popular scientific lectures are discussed in view of today's problems of understanding science. The key issues of Mach's popular scientific lectures, reconsidered in the light of contemporary science, still hold a high potential in fascinating a general audience. Moreover, Mach's grand theme, the relation of the physical to the psychical, is suited to contribute to a dialogue between different knowledge cultures, e.g. science and humanities.

  13. Cases of good and bad popularizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekkola, Marko

    2010-05-01

    Scientific articles in average are read by few people and the impact of individual paper in the society may remain small. A typical press release might not help much. Simultaneously popular science magazines are seeking for news, but by reading the same channels it is easy to end up printing yesterdaýs digital news in predictable format. Yet an author who knows how and what to popularize, may win thousands of readers and simultaneously help the popular science magazine to win the news competition.

  14. Compilation of a herbal medicine formulary for herbal substances in Malta and its usefulness amongst healthcare professionals

    PubMed Central

    Spiteri, Maria; Attard, Everaldo; Serracino-Inglott, Anthony; Azzopardi, Lilian M.

    2013-01-01

    Context Today, the use of herbal medicine for primary healthcare has increased considerably. Since local pharmacists graduate with little knowledge on herbal medicine, the majority are ill-equipped to provide pharmaceutical advice. Aims To develop and evaluate a herbal medicine formulary to aid healthcare professionals (HCPs) in the prescribing, dispensing and counselling responsibilities. Settings and Design Community pharmacies. Methods and Material Monographs on all herbal substances available locally were compiled into a formulary. The formulary was then distributed to all, 216, local pharmacies. Subsequently, a questionnaire was distributed to 55 pharmacists and 10 general practitioners (GPs). Statistical analysis used Descriptive statistical analysis. Results A total of 177 herbal monographs have been compiled and 612 herbal products listed. Thirty HCPs participated in the questionnaire. The formulary was found to be useful by all participants with 19 claiming to use it frequently and 7 quite frequently. Participants (n = 30) agree that the information contained within the formulary was found to be useful (26), the formulary helped them learn which HMPs are present in the local market (29), the formulary is user friendly (27), information included is up-to-date and well referenced (29) and that there is the need for a formulary of this kind in Malta (28). Conclusions The formulary was found to be a useful tool for HCPs leading to high quality, evidence-based prescribing together with enhanced monitoring and improved patient care. PMID:24023448

  15. Survival Benefit of Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine (A Herbal Formula for Invigorating Spleen) in Gastric Cancer Patients with Peritoneal Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ai-Guang; Zhao, Gang; Xu, Yan; Zhu, Xiao-Hong; Cao, Ni-Da; Zheng, Jian; Yang, Jin-Kun; Xu, Jian-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Objective. We evaluated the efficiency of traditional Chinese herbal medicine (a compound herbal formula for invigorating spleen) as a complementary and alternative therapy for gastric cancer patients with peritoneal metastasis. Methods. Between 2001 and 2012, 93 gastric cancer patients with peritoneal metastasis were enrolled in this study. The effect of traditional Chinese herbal medicine on their long-term outcome was investigated. Kaplan-Meier method was used to assess the difference in survival time, and Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to identify independent prognostic factors. Result. First-line palliative chemotherapy plus traditional Chinese herbal medicine was performed in 47 patients and the other 46 patients received chemotherapy alone. The overall survival was different between patients with and without traditional Chinese herbal medicine (12.0 versus 10.5 months; P = 0.046). According to the Cox proportional hazard model, first-line chemotherapy cycle (hazards ratio [HR] = 0.527; 95% CI = 0.323~0.860) and TCHM (hazards ratio [HR] = 0.644; 95% CI = 0.481~0.992) were selected as independent prognostic factors for survival. Conclusion. The results suggest that traditional Chinese herbal medicine could improve the prognosis of the gastric cancer patients with peritoneal metastasis. PMID:24723961

  16. Estimation of Potential Availability of Essential Oil in Some Brands of Herbal Teas and Herbal Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, Radosław; Baj, Tomasz; Kowalska, Grażyna; Pankiewicz, Urszula

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to estimate potential availability of essential oil in some brands of herbal products. Methods A comparison was performed on the basis of the essential oil yield in the unprocessed raw materials such as leaves of peppermint and lemon balm and inflorescence of chamomile as well as herbal tea bags and in dietary supplements. The yield of essential oil was determined by distillation. Essential oil was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Results It was found that the average potential availability of essential oils in the products such as dietary supplements for the doses recommended by the producers is lower than in the corresponding tea infusions: for peppermint formulations approximately 6-fold lower, for the formulations with lemon balm about 4-fold lower, and for the chamomile preparations about 3-fold lower. It was found that essential oils extracted from herbal teas have a similar chemical profile with characteristic deviations in the amount of individual components, which arise from the origin of the raw material. Discussion In contrast to homogenous pharmaceutical herbal mixtures consistent with, the Pharmacopoeia requirements, herbal teas (available in grocery stores) and dietary supplements are often out of control in terms of the yield and composition of the essential oil, which is primarily responsible for the health benefits and aromatic qualities of these products. Analysis of the composition of the dietary supplements showed that they contain on average significantly lower amounts of plant material compared to the herbal teas. PMID:26110869

  17. Remediation and Reuse of Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zihms, Stephanie; Switzer, Christine; Tarantino, Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    Links between contaminant remediation and impacts on soil properties have not been explored in a systematic way. Most remediation studies focus on the effectiveness of the remediation process. Contamination and remediation can have significant effects on soil properties and function. Considering that in most remediation cases the soil will be re-used in some way, it is important to understand the effects of the remediation process on soil properties and the post-remediation soil behaviour. This understanding can help to determine the best re-use of the soil and therefore improve post-remediation site development. Laboratory experiments on coal tar contaminated soil treated with smouldering remediation show that thermal treatments affect a variety of soil properties ranging from mineralogical composition, particle size distribution, and pH. Dynamic responses like permeability and shear strength are impacted as well and these responses are linked to the changes in soil properties. Soil permeability, capillary rise, and contact angle change dramatically after this remediation process, indicating some degree of hydrophobicity and significant implications for water movement through the post-remediation soil. The observed changes in permeability are linked to physical changes to the soil grain surface combined with small amounts (<1ppm) of coal tar and combustion product residue. Decoupling these effects is essential to understanding the extent of impact remediation processes have on long-term soil function. While chemical residue within the pores can be removed through "polishing" remediation steps, physical changes are likely to be permanent. Physical changes and chemical residue also have important implications with respect to the response of the soil under shear. These observed changes indicate that the remediated soil and its behaviour should be considered by remediation research. Monitoring of soil properties and behaviour during aggressive remediation can improve prediction of changes to infiltration rates and response to loading. These parameters are essential to effective and safe reuse of formerly contaminated brownfield sites.

  18. COST OF MTBE REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Widespread contamination of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in ground water has raised concerns about the increased cost of remediation of MTBE releases compared to BTEX-only sites. To evaluate these cost, cost information for 311 sites was furnished by U.S. EPA Office of Undergr...

  19. 2014 Ohio Remediation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Board of Regents, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In fulfillment of Ohio Revised Code 3333.041 (A) (1) the Chancellor has published a listing by school district of the number of the 2013 high school graduates who attended a state institution of higher education in academic year 2013-2014 and the percentage of each district's graduates required by the institution to enroll in a remedial course in…

  20. Modularizing Remedial Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    As remedial mathematics education has become an increasingly important topic of conversation in higher education. Mathematics departments have been put under increased pressure to change their programs to increase the student success rate. A number of models have been introduced over the last decade that represent a wide range of new ideas and…

  1. Developing Remedial Mathematics Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadowski, Barbara R.

    The paper describes strategies for remediating mathematics difficulties (particularly the process of regrouping or "borrowing" in whole number subtraction) in children. Three interrelated aspects of the process (the meaning of subtraction, understanding of non-standard numerals, and the function of the subtraction algorithm), are considered. The…

  2. Interaction between warfarin and Chinese herbal medicines

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Yan Ting; Ang, Xiang Ling; Zhong, Xi Ming; Khoo, Kei Siong

    2015-01-01

    In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), the human body is divided into Yin and Yang. Diseases occur when the Yin and Yang balance is disrupted. Different herbs are used to restore this balance, achieving the goal of treatment. However, inherent difficulties in designing experimental trials have left much of TCM yet to be substantiated by science. Despite that, TCM not only remains a popular form of medical treatment among the Chinese, but is also gaining popularity in the West. This phenomenon has brought along with it increasing reports on herb-drug interactions, beckoning the attention of Western physicians, who will find it increasingly difficult to ignore the impact of TCM on Western therapies. This paper aims to facilitate the education of Western physicians on common Chinese herbs and raise awareness about potential interactions between these herbs and warfarin, a drug that is especially susceptible to herb-drug interactions due to its narrow therapeutic range. PMID:25640094

  3. Interaction between warfarin and Chinese herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Chua, Yan Ting; Ang, Xiang Ling; Zhong, Xi Ming; Khoo, Kei Siong

    2015-01-01

    In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), the human body is divided into Yin and Yang. Diseases occur when the Yin and Yang balance is disrupted. Different herbs are used to restore this balance, achieving the goal of treatment. However, inherent difficulties in designing experimental trials have left much of TCM yet to be substantiated by science. Despite that, TCM not only remains a popular form of medical treatment among the Chinese, but is also gaining popularity in the West. This phenomenon has brought along with it increasing reports on herb-drug interactions, beckoning the attention of Western physicians, who will find it increasingly difficult to ignore the impact of TCM on Western therapies. This paper aims to facilitate the education of Western physicians on common Chinese herbs and raise awareness about potential interactions between these herbs and warfarin, a drug that is especially susceptible to herb-drug interactions due to its narrow therapeutic range. PMID:25640094

  4. Chinese Herbal Medicine-induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xin; Peng, Jing-Hua; Hu, Yi-Yang

    2014-01-01

    The widespread use of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) and the associated adverse reactions has attracted the attention of researchers and physicians. Reports have shown that several types of CHM can cause liver injury, with increasing numbers of cases reported every year. The difficulty in characterizing CHM-induced liver injury stems from clinical manifestations, diagnosis and pathogenesis. The clinical manifestations are varied, but gastrointestinal symptoms are the majority. The Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale is currently the most commonly used method for assessing causality in cases of medicine-induced liver injury with excellent sensitivity, specificity and predictive validity. However, the pathogenesis of CHM-induced liver injury is not well understood. The classic view encompasses a contribution from “toxic metabolites” that either elicit an immune response or directly affect cellular biochemical processes or functions. In addition, poor quality and inappropriate clinical use of CHMs contribute to safety concerns. To ensure the safe use of CHMs and decrease the number of hepatotoxic cases, clinicians, researchers and pharmaceutical companies should share responsibility by regulating clinical use, strengthening basic toxicology research and establishing a strict quality control system. PMID:26355537

  5. Phytotoxicity of composted herbal pharmaceutical industry wastes.

    PubMed

    Suthar, Surindra; Singh, Deepika

    2011-08-01

    This work demonstrates the phytotoxicity screening of composted herbal pharmaceutical industry waste (HPIW) using seed bioassay method. The composted industrial waste should be tested at lab scale prior to recommendation for land application. HPIW was mixed with soil to produce four treatments: T(1) (1:1), T(2) (1:2), T(3) (1:3), and T(4) (1:0) for toxicity screening using Pisum sativum seeds. After 72 h relative seed germination (RSG), relative root growth (RRG) and germination index (GI) were recorded. Seedlings were observed for further plant growth and tissue biochemistry (chlorophyll, soluble sugar, starch, carotenoid, and protein) estimation. RSG, RRG, and GI values were better in T(1) and T(2) than others. GI was in the ranges of 36.62 % (T(4)) to 170.38 % (T(2)). The seedling growth and biochemical parameters were better in seedling obtained from potting media containing low proportion of HPIW (i.e., T(1) and T(2)). Results clearly suggested that composted HPIW may be utilized effectively for crop production after dilution under sustainable farming system program. PMID:22648349

  6. Topical herbal therapies for treating osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Melainie; Chrubasik, Sigrun

    2014-01-01

    Background Before extraction and synthetic chemistry were invented, musculoskeletal complaints were treated with preparations from medicinal plants. They were either administered orally or topically. In contrast to the oral medicinal plant products, topicals act in part as counterirritants or are toxic when given orally. Objectives To update the previous Cochrane review of herbal therapy for osteoarthritis from 2000 by evaluating the evidence on effectiveness for topical medicinal plant products. Search methods Databases for mainstream and complementary medicine were searched using terms to include all forms of arthritis combined with medicinal plant products. We searched electronic databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL),MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, ISI Web of Science, World Health Organization Clinical Trials Registry Platform) to February 2013, unrestricted by language. We also searched the reference lists from retrieved trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of herbal interventions used topically, compared with inert (placebo) or active controls, in people with osteoarthritis were included. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, assessed the risk of bias of included studies and extracted data. Main results Seven studies (seven different medicinal plant interventions; 785 participants) were included. Single studies (five studies, six interventions) and non-comparable studies (two studies, one intervention) precluded pooling of results. Moderate evidence from a single study of 174 people with hand osteoarthritis indicated that treatment with Arnica extract gel probably results in similar benefits as treatment with ibuprofen (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) with a similar number of adverse events. Mean pain in the ibuprofen group was 44.2 points on a 100 point scale; treatment with Arnica gel reduced the pain by 4 points after three weeks: mean difference (MD) −3.8 points (95% confidence intervals (CI) −10.1 to 2.5), absolute reduction 4% (10% reduction to 3% increase). Hand function was 7.5 points on a 30 point scale in the ibuprofen-treated group; treatment with Arnica gel reduced function by 0.4 points (MD −0.4, 95% CI −1.75 to 0.95), absolute improvement 1% (6% improvement to 3% decline)). Total adverse events were higher in the Arnica gel group (13% compared to 8% in the ibuprofen group): relative risk (RR) 1.65 (95% CI 0.72 to 3.76). Moderate quality evidence from a single trial of 99 people with knee osteoarthritis indicated that compared with placebo, Capsicum extract gel probably does not improve pain or knee function, and is commonly associated with treatment-related adverse events including skin irritation and a burning sensation. At four weeks follow-up, mean pain in the placebo group was 46 points on a 100 point scale; treatment with Capsicum extract reduced pain by 1 point (MD −1, 95%CI −6.8 to 4.8), absolute reduction of 1%(7%reduction to 5% increase). Mean knee function in the placebo group was 34.8 points on a 96 point scale at four weeks; treatment with Capsicum extract improved function by a mean of 2.6 points (MD −2.6, 95% CI −9.5 to 4.2), an absolute improvement of 3% (10% improvement to 4% decline). Adverse event rates were greater in the Capsicum extract group (80% compared with 20% in the placebo group, rate ratio 4.12, 95% CI 3.30 to 5.17). The number needed to treat to result in adverse events was 2 (95% CI 1 to 2). Moderate evidence from a single trial of 220 people with knee osteoarthritis suggested that comfrey extract gel probably improves pain without increasing adverse events. At three weeks, the mean pain in the placebo group was 83.5 points on a 100 point scale. Treatment with comfrey reduced pain by a mean of 41.5 points (MD −41.5, 95% CI −48 to −34), an absolute reduction of 42% (34% to 48% reduction). Function was not reported. Adverse events were similar: 6%(7/110) reported adverse events in the comfrey group compared with 14% (15/110) in the placebo group (RR 0.47, 95% CI 0.20 to 1.10). Although evidence from a single trial indicated that adhesive patches containing Chinese herbal mixtures FNZG and SJG may improve pain and function, the clinical applicability of these findings are uncertain because participants were only treated and followed up for seven days. We are also uncertain if other topical herbal products (Marhame-Mafasel compress, stinging nettle leaf) improve osteoarthritis symptoms due to the very low quality evidence from single trials. No serious side effects were reported. Authors’ conclusions Although the mechanism of action of the topical medicinal plant products provides a rationale basis for their use in the treatment of osteoarthritis, the quality and quantity of current research studies of effectiveness are insufficient. Arnica gel probably improves symptoms as effectively as a gel containing non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, but with no better (and possibly worse) adverse event profile. Comfrey extract gel probably improves pain, and Capsicum extract gel probably will not improve pain or function at the doses examined in this review. Further high quality, fully powered studies are required to confirm the trends of effectiveness identifed in studies so far. PMID:23728701

  7. Moxibustion with Chinese herbal has good effect on allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Min, Cunyun; Peng, Congjian; Wei, Guojian; Huang, Xuhui; Fu, Tingting; Du, Yu; Wang, Changjun

    2015-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a chronic inflammatory disease of rhino-ocular mucosa, affecting up to 40% of population worldwide. Chinese herbal medicines and Acupuncture, adopted thousands of years in China, has good effect on allergic rhinitis. This study evaluates the effects of Moxibustion with Chinese herbal in treating patients with allergic rhinitis over a 1-year follow-up. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in a sample of 355 participants recruited from Guangdong general hospital of China. After baseline measurements, participants were randomly assigned to treatment-group or control group. Treatment group received Moxibustion with Chinese herbal. Control group received Loratadine. The main outcomes, including symptom severity and quality of life were measured using the Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ). Both moxibustion with Chinese herbal and Loratadine improve nose symptoms such as stuffy/blocked, sneezing, runny nose, itchy nose, sore nose and post-nasal drip in patients with AR. Symptoms fatigue, loss of taste, afraid of cold/wind and cold limb were improved significantly in moxibustion with Chinese herbal group. The mean quality of life scores decreased in both groups after treatment. Compare to control group, moxibustion with Chinese herbal is more effective than Loratadine in improving the quality of life in patients with AR. The results show moxibustion with Chinese herbal was effective to reduce symptoms and enhance quality of life in patients with allergic rhinitis. It is a simple, convenient and economic therapy for patients with AR. Further controlled trials of its effects in patients with allergic rhinitis are recommended. PMID:26629174

  8. Nutritional and herbal supplements for anxiety and anxiety-related disorders: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Over the past several decades, complementary and alternative medications have increasingly become a part of everyday treatment. With the rising cost of prescription medications and their production of unwanted side effects, patients are exploring herbal and other natural remedies for the management and treatment of psychological conditions. Psychological disorders are one of the most frequent conditions seen by clinicians, and often require a long-term regimen of prescription medications. Approximately 6.8 million Americans suffer from generalized anxiety disorder. Many also suffer from the spectrum of behavioural and physical side effects that often accompany its treatment. It is not surprising that there is universal interest in finding effective natural anxiolytic (anti-anxiety) treatments with a lower risk of adverse effects or withdrawal. Methods An electronic and manual search was performed through MEDLINE/PubMed and EBSCO. Articles were not discriminated by date of publication. Available clinical studies published in English that used human participants and examined the anxiolytic potential of dietary and herbal supplements were included. Data were extracted and compiled into tables that included the study design, sample population, intervention, control, length of treatment, outcomes, direction of evidence, and reported adverse events. Results A total of 24 studies that investigated five different CAM monotherapies and eight different combination treatments and involved 2619 participants met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. There were 21 randomized controlled trials and three open-label, uncontrolled observational studies. Most studies involved patients who had been diagnosed with either an anxiety disorder or depression (n = 1786). However, eight studies used healthy volunteers (n = 877) who had normal levels of anxiety, were undergoing surgery, tested at the upper limit of the normal range of a trait anxiety scale, had adverse premenstrual symptoms or were peri-menopausal, reported anxiety and insomnia, or had one month or more of elevated generalized anxiety. Heterogeneity and the small number of studies for each supplement or combination therapy prevented a formal meta-analysis. Of the randomized controlled trials reviewed, 71% (15 out of 21) showed a positive direction of evidence. Any reported side effects were mild to moderate. Conclusions Based on the available evidence, it appears that nutritional and herbal supplementation is an effective method for treating anxiety and anxiety-related conditions without the risk of serious side effects. There is the possibility that any positive effects seen could be due to a placebo effect, which may have a significant psychological impact on participants with mental disorders. However, based on this systematic review, strong evidence exists for the use of herbal supplements containing extracts of passionflower or kava and combinations of L-lysine and L-arginine as treatments for anxiety symptoms and disorders. Magnesium-containing supplements and other herbal combinations may hold promise, but more research is needed before these products can be recommended to patients. St. John's wort monotherapy has insufficient evidence for use as an effective anxiolytic treatment. PMID:20929532

  9. Remediation technologies for contaminated sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, L.M.

    1995-09-01

    Although soil and groundwater remediation has been conducted for many years, sediment remediation is still in its infancy. Regulatory agencies are now beginning to identify areas where contaminated sediments exist and evaluate their environmental impact. As these evaluations are completed, the projects must shift focus to how these sediments can be remediated. Also as the criteria for aquatic disposal of dredged sediments become more stringent, remediation technologies must be developed to address contaminated sediments generated by maintenance dredging.This report describes the various issues and possible technologies for sediment remediation.

  10. Plants as De-Worming Agents of Livestock in the Nordic Countries: Historical Perspective, Popular Beliefs and Prospects for the Future

    PubMed Central

    Waller, PJ; Bernes, G; Thamsborg, SM; Sukura, A; Richter, SH; Ingebrigtsen, K; Höglund, J

    2001-01-01

    Preparations derived from plants were the original therapeutic interventions used by man to control diseases (including parasites), both within humans and livestock. Development of herbal products depended upon local botanical flora with the result that different remedies tended to develop in different parts of the world. Nevertheless, in some instances, the same or related plants were used over wide geographic regions, which also was the result of communication and/or the importation of plant material of high repute. Thus, the Nordic countries have an ancient, rich and diverse history of plant derived anthelmintic medications for human and animal use. Although some of the more commonly used herbal de-wormers were derived from imported plants, or their products, many are from endemic plants or those that thrive in the Scandinavian environment. With the advent of the modern chemotherapeutic era, and the discovery, development and marketing of a seemingly unlimited variety of highly efficacious, safe synthetic chemicals with very wide spectra of activities, herbal remedies virtually disappeared from the consciousness – at least in the Western world. This attitude is now rapidly changing. There is a widespread resurgence in natural product medication, driven by major threats posed by multi-resistant pest, or disease, organisms and the diminishing public perceptions that synthetic chemicals are the panacea to health and disease control. This review attempts to provide a comprehensive account of the depth of historical Nordic information available on herbal de-wormers, with emphasis on livestock and to provide some insights on potentially rewarding areas of "re-discovery" and scientific evaluation in this field. PMID:11455900

  11. Plants as de-worming agents of livestock in the Nordic countries: historical perspective, popular beliefs and prospects for the future.

    PubMed

    Waller, P J; Bernes, G; Thamsborg, S M; Sukura, A; Richter, S H; Ingebrigtsen, K; Höglund, J

    2001-01-01

    Preparations derived from plants were the original therapeutic interventions used by man to control diseases (including parasites), both within humans and livestock. Development of herbal products depended upon local botanical flora with the result that different remedies tended to develop in different parts of the world. Nevertheless, in some instances, the same or related plants were used over wide geographic regions, which also was the result of communication and/or the importation of plant material of high repute. Thus, the Nordic countries have an ancient, rich and diverse history of plant derived anthelmintic medications for human and animal use. Although some of the more commonly used herbal de-wormers were derived from imported plants, or their products, many are from endemic plants or those that thrive in the Scandinavian environment. With the advent of the modern chemotherapeutic era, and the discovery, development and marketing of a seemingly unlimited variety of highly efficacious, safe synthetic chemicals with very wide spectra of activities, herbal remedies virtually disappeared from the consciousness--at least in the Western world. This attitude is now rapidly changing. There is a widespread resurgence in natural product medication, driven by major threats posed by multi-resistant pest, or disease, organisms and the diminishing public perceptions that synthetic chemicals are the panacea to health and disease control. This review attempts to provide a comprehensive account of the depth of historical Nordic information available on herbal de-wormers, with emphasis on livestock and to provide some insights on potentially rewarding areas of "re-discovery" and scientific evaluation in this field. PMID:11455900

  12. [Studies and safety evaluation of aflatoxins in herbal plants].

    PubMed

    Ledzion, Ewa; Rybińska, Krystyna; Postupolski, Jacek; Kurpińska-Jaworska, Jolanta; Szczesna, Małgorzata

    2011-01-01

    Herbs and herbal products are commonly used in food and pharmaceutical industries. The aim of this study was to test herbal plants for contamination with aflatoxins (AF), genotoxic, cancerogenic and hepatotoxic compounds which can cause immunotoxic and allergic effects as well as growth disorders. Aflatoxins were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with post column derivatization involving bromination with pyridinium hydrobromide perbromide (PBPB). Extracts was cleaned-up by immunoaffinity columns (IAC). The contents of aflatoxins B, B, G, and G, in more than 500 herbal plants samples mainly from Eastern Poland were investigated. Samples were supplied by manufacturers (herbal facilities) in 2006-2010 years. In all the evaluated samples the levels of aflatoxins above the detection limits of methods applied were not observed: for AF B1--0.2 microg/kg; AF B2--0.03 microg/kg; AF G1--0.3 microg/kg; AF G2--0.03 microg/kg (PN-EN 14123) and for AF B1--0.15 microg/kg (Ph. Eur.6, 2008:2.8.18). All the herbal plants tested for contamination with aflatoxins should be considered safe, which indicates that manufacturers used good manufacturing practices during drying and storage of raw materials. PMID:22435291

  13. Does herbal medicine reduce the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma?

    PubMed Central

    Rino, Yasushi; Yukawa, Norio; Yamamoto, Naoto

    2015-01-01

    Many herbal medicines are effective anti-inflammatory agents and may therefore suppress the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently, treatment with a single-tablet regimen containing ledipasvir and sofosbuvir resulted in high rates of sustained virologic response among patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection who did not respond to prior interferon-based treatment. Patients with chronic hepatitis C are expected to receive this treatment worldwide. However, many patients have hepatitis-like fatty liver and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. A strategy to prevent the development of HCC in this subgroup of patients is urgently required. Whether herbal medicines can suppress the development of HCC remains to be established. However, herbal medicines are effective anti-inflammatory agents and may inhibit the development of HCC. Clinical trials exploring the effectiveness of herbal medicines in the prevention and treatment of HCC are therefore warranted. The current lack of knowledge and of educational programs is a barrier to increasing the use of potentially effective herbal medicines and performing prospective clinical trials. PMID:26457019

  14. A bio-inspired herbal tea flavour assessment technique.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Nur Zawatil Isqi; Masnan, Maz Jamilah; Zakaria, Ammar; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md

    2014-01-01

    Herbal-based products are becoming a widespread production trend among manufacturers for the domestic and international markets. As the production increases to meet the market demand, it is very crucial for the manufacturer to ensure that their products have met specific criteria and fulfil the intended quality determined by the quality controller. One famous herbal-based product is herbal tea. This paper investigates bio-inspired flavour assessments in a data fusion framework involving an e-nose and e-tongue. The objectives are to attain good classification of different types and brands of herbal tea, classification of different flavour masking effects and finally classification of different concentrations of herbal tea. Two data fusion levels were employed in this research, low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. Four classification approaches; LDA, SVM, KNN and PNN were examined in search of the best classifier to achieve the research objectives. In order to evaluate the classifiers' performance, an error estimator based on k-fold cross validation and leave-one-out were applied. Classification based on GC-MS TIC data was also included as a comparison to the classification performance using fusion approaches. Generally, KNN outperformed the other classification techniques for the three flavour assessments in the low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. However, the classification results based on GC-MS TIC data are varied. PMID:25010697

  15. A Bio-Inspired Herbal Tea Flavour Assessment Technique

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Nur Zawatil Isqi; Masnan, Maz Jamilah; Zakaria, Ammar; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md

    2014-01-01

    Herbal-based products are becoming a widespread production trend among manufacturers for the domestic and international markets. As the production increases to meet the market demand, it is very crucial for the manufacturer to ensure that their products have met specific criteria and fulfil the intended quality determined by the quality controller. One famous herbal-based product is herbal tea. This paper investigates bio-inspired flavour assessments in a data fusion framework involving an e-nose and e-tongue. The objectives are to attain good classification of different types and brands of herbal tea, classification of different flavour masking effects and finally classification of different concentrations of herbal tea. Two data fusion levels were employed in this research, low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. Four classification approaches; LDA, SVM, KNN and PNN were examined in search of the best classifier to achieve the research objectives. In order to evaluate the classifiers' performance, an error estimator based on k-fold cross validation and leave-one-out were applied. Classification based on GC-MS TIC data was also included as a comparison to the classification performance using fusion approaches. Generally, KNN outperformed the other classification techniques for the three flavour assessments in the low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. However, the classification results based on GC-MS TIC data are varied. PMID:25010697

  16. Herbal and plant therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Triantafyllidi, Aikaterini; Xanthos, Theodoros; Papalois, Apostolos; Triantafillidis, John K.

    2015-01-01

    The use of herbal therapy in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing worldwide. The aim of this study was to review the literature on the efficacy of herbal therapy in IBD patients. Studies on herbal therapy for IBD published in Medline and Embase were reviewed, and response to treatment and remission rates were recorded. Although the number of the relevant clinical studies is relatively small, it can be assumed that the efficacy of herbal therapies in IBD is promising. The most important clinical trials conducted so far refer to the use of mastic gum, tormentil extracts, wormwood herb, aloe vera, triticum aestivum, germinated barley foodstuff, and boswellia serrata. In ulcerative colitis, aloe vera gel, triticum aestivum, andrographis paniculata extract and topical Xilei-san were superior to placebo in inducing remission or clinical response, and curcumin was superior to placebo in maintaining remission; boswellia serrata gum resin and plantago ovata seeds were as effective as mesalazine, whereas oenothera biennis had similar relapse rates as ω-3 fatty acids in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. In Crohn’s disease, mastic gum, Artemisia absinthium, and Tripterygium wilfordii were superior to placebo in inducing remission and preventing clinical postoperative recurrence, respectively. Herbal therapies exert their therapeutic benefit by different mechanisms including immune regulation, antioxidant activity, inhibition of leukotriene B4 and nuclear factor-kappa B, and antiplatelet activity. Large, double-blind clinical studies assessing the most commonly used natural substances should urgently be conducted. PMID:25830661

  17. The poisoning of 'awa: the non-traditional use of an ancient remedy.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Harriet Makia Awana; Lum, Kehaulani

    2004-09-01

    In the traditional practice of Native Hawaiians, 'awa (Piper methysticum) has long been revered as a medicine, a sacred plant central to religious ceremony, and a social drink. In the late 1990s, 'awa attracted global attention as an herbal alternative to existing pharmaceuticals for reducing stress, anxiety, pain and assorted ailments. Marketed since 1994 as a dietary supplement, within seven years 'awa had earned the title of a "superstar" and quickly became one of the top eight herbal remedies in an expanding $18 billion-plus herbal remedy industry. In one study, the plant was even argued to possess chemopreventive properties, when cancer incidence and kava consumption in Pacific island communities were correlated. In 2002, however, the remedy was banned in several European countries, after case reports of liver toxicity allegedly associated with its nontraditional use surfaced. In the United States (US), the Food and Drug Administration issued a consumer advisory leading several retailers to voluntarily withdraw products containing 'awa from their shelves. These actions have sent shock waves throughout Pacific Island communities seeking to derive economic benefit from a relatively new and little-regulated industry. Moreover, they threaten the vitality of centuries of Native Hawaiian cultural practice. Clinical studies advocating both sides of the safety debate have been published, as producers, marketers and users attempt to influence government action. At the same time, issues of cultural exploitation, religious freedom, traditional practice, and native intellectual property rights are absent from the debate, leaving the future of native practice hanging in the balance. Whether or not the herb's status is restored, the situation raises critical questions: Is 'awa toxic? Or, does the poison derive from its use outside of traditional practice? PMID:16281702

  18. [Mathematical exploration of essence of herbal properties based on "Three-Elements" theory].

    PubMed

    Jin, Rui; Zhao, Qian; Zhang, Bing

    2014-10-01

    Herbal property theory of traditional Chinese medicines is the theoretical guidance on authentication of medicinal plants, herborization, preparation of herbal medicines for decoction and clinical application, with important theoretical value and prac- tical significance. Our research team proposed the "three-element" theory for herbal properties for the first time, conducted a study by using combined methods of philology, chemistry, pharmacology and mathematics, and then drew the research conclusion that herbal properties are defined as the chemical compositions-based comprehensive expression with complex and multi-level (positive/negative) biological effects in specific organism state. In this paper, researchers made a systematic mathematical analysis in four aspects--the correlation between herbal properties and chemical component factors, the correlation between herbal properties and organism state fac- tor, the correlation between herbal properties and biological effect factor and the integration study of the three elements, proposed future outlook, and provided reference to mathematical studies and mathematical analysis of herbal properties. PMID:25751963

  19. Remediating munitions contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, P.J.; Comfort, S.D.

    1995-10-01

    The former Nebraska Ordnance Plant (NOP) at Mead, NE was a military loading, assembling, and packing facility that produced bombs, boosters and shells during World War II and the Korean War (1942-1945, 1950-1956). Ordnances were loaded with 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), amatol (TNT and NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}), tritonal (TNT and Al) and Composition B (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine [RDX] and TNT). Process waste waters were discharged into wash pits and drainage ditches. Soils within and surrounding these areas are contaminated with TNT, RDX and related compounds. A continuous core to 300 cm depth obtained from an NOP drainage ditch revealed high concentrations of TNT in the soil profile and substantial amounts of monoamino reduction products, 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4ADNT) and 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2ADNT). Surface soil contained TNT in excess of 5000 mg kg{sup -1} and is believed to contain solid phase TNT. This is supported by measuring soil solution concentrations at various soil to solution ratios (1:2 to 1:9) and obtaining similar TNT concentrations (43 and 80 mg L{sup -1}). Remediating munitions-contaminated soil at the NOP and elsewhere is of vital interest since many of the contaminants are carcinogenic, mutagenic or otherwise toxic to humans and the environment. Incineration, the most demonstrated remediation technology for munitions-containing soils, is costly and often unacceptable to the public. Chemical and biological remediation offer potentially cost-effective and more environmentally acceptable alternatives. Our research objectives are to: (a) characterize the processes affecting the transport and fate of munitions in highly contaminated soil; (b) identify effective chemical and biological treatments to degrade and detoxify residues; and (c) integrate these approaches for effective and practical remediation of soil contaminated with TNT, RDX, and other munitions residues.

  20. Remediation Technology Collaboration Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahoney, John; Olsen, Wade

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews programs at NASA aimed at development at Remediation Technology development for removal of environmental pollutants from NASA sites. This is challenging because there are many sites with different environments, and various jurisdictions and regulations. There are also multiple contaminants. There must be different approaches based on location and type of contamination. There are other challenges: such as costs, increased need for resources and the amount of resources available, and a regulatory environment that is increasing.

  1. Remedial Action Assessment System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1997-02-01

    RAAS1.1 is a software-based system designed to assist remediation professionals at each stage of the environmental analysis process. RAAS1.1 provides a template for environmental restoration analysis, and provides the user with key results at each step in the analysis. RAAS1.1 assists the user to develop a coherent and consistent site description, estimate baseline and residual risk to public health from the contaminated site, identify applicable environmental restoration technologies, and formulate feasible remedial response alternatives. Inmore » addition, the RAAS1.1 methodology allows the user to then assess and compare those remedial response alternatives across EPA criteria, including: compliance with objectives; short-term and long-term effectiveness; extent of treatment; and implementability of the technologies. The analytic methodology is segmented and presented in a standardized, concise, easy-to-use format that can be viewed on the personal computer screen, saved and further manipulated, or printed for later use. Each screen and analytic step is accessed via a user-friendly personal computer graphical interface. Intuitively-designed buttons, menus, and lists help the user focus in on the particular information and analysis component of interest; the corresponding results are presented in a format that facilitates their use in decision-making.« less

  2. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION

    SciTech Connect

    ROMINE, L.D.

    2006-02-01

    A systematic approach to closure planning is being implemented at the Hanford Site's Central Plateau to help achieve the goal of closure by the year 2035. The overall objective of Central Plateau remediation is to protect human health and the environment from the significant quantity of contaminated material that resulted from decades of plutonium production in support of the nation's defense. This goal will be achieved either by removing contaminants or placing the residual contaminated materials in a secure configuration that minimizes further migration to the groundwater and reduces the potential for inadvertent intrusion into contaminated sites. The approach to Central Plateau cleanup used three key concepts--closure zones, closure elements, and closure process steps--to create an organized picture of actions required to complete remediation. These actions were merged with logic ties, constraints, and required resources to produce an integrated time-phased schedule and cost profile for Central Plateau closure. Programmatic risks associated with implementation of Central Plateau closure were identified and analyzed. Actions to mitigate the most significant risks are underway while high priority remediation projects continue to make progress.

  3. Remediating MGP brownfields

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, B.R.

    1997-05-01

    Before natural gas pipelines became widespread in this country, gas fuel was produced locally in more than 5,000 manufactured gas plants (MGPs). The toxic wastes from these processes often were disposed onsite and have since seeped into the surrounding soil and groundwater. Although the MGPs--commonly called gas plants, gas-works or town gas plants--have closed and most have been demolished, they have left a legacy of environmental contamination. At many MGP sites, underground storage tanks were constructed of wood or brick, with process piping and equipment which frequently leaked. Waste materials often were disposed onsite. Releases of coal tars, oils and condensates produced within the plants contributed to a wide range of contamination from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, benzene and cyanide. Remediation of selected MGP sites has been sporadic. Unless the site has been identified as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) Superfund site, the regulatory initiative to remediate often remains with the state in which the MGP is located. A number of factors are working to change that picture and to create a renewed interest in MGP site remediation. The recent Brownfield Initiative by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is such an example.

  4. Oral herbal therapies for treating osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Melainie; Chrubasik, Sigrun

    2015-01-01

    Background Medicinal plant products are used orally for treating osteoarthritis. Although their mechanisms of action have not yet been elucidated in full detail, interactions with common inflammatory mediators provide a rationale for using them to treat osteoarthritic complaints. Objectives To update a previous Cochrane review to assess the benefits and harms of oral medicinal plant products in treating osteoarthritis. Search methods We searched electronic databases (CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, ISI Web of Science, World Health Organization Clinical Trials Registry Platform) to 29 August 2013, unrestricted by language, and the reference lists from retrieved trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of orally consumed herbal interventions compared with placebo or active controls in people with osteoarthritis were included. Herbal interventions included any plant preparation but excluded homeopathy or aromatherapy products, or any preparation of synthetic origin. Data collection and analysis Two authors used standard methods for trial selection and data extraction, and assessed the quality of the body of evidence using the GRADE approach for major outcomes (pain, function, radiographic joint changes, quality of life, withdrawals due to adverse events, total adverse events, and serious adverse events). Main results Forty-nine randomised controlled studies (33 interventions, 5980 participants) were included. Seventeen studies of confirmatory design (sample and effect sizes pre-specified) were mostly at moderate risk of bias. The remaining 32 studies of exploratory design were at higher risk of bias. Due to differing interventions, meta-analyses were restricted to Boswellia serrata (monoherbal) and avocado-soyabean unsaponifiables (ASU) (two herb combination) products. Five studies of three different extracts from Boswellia serrata were included. High-quality evidence from two studies (85 participants) indicated that 90 days treatment with 100 mg of enriched Boswellia serrata extract improved symptoms compared to placebo. Mean pain was 40 points on a 0 to 100 point VAS scale (0 is no pain) with placebo, enriched Boswellia serrata reduced pain by a mean of 17 points (95% confidence interval (CI) 8 to 26); number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) 2; the 95% CIs did not exclude a clinically significant reduction of 15 points in pain. Physical function was 33 points on the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) 0 to 100 point subscale (0 is no loss of function) with placebo, enriched Boswellia serrata improved function by 8 points (95% CI 2 to 14); NNTB 4. Assuming a minimal clinically important difference of 10 points, we cannot exclude a clinically important benefit in some people. Moderate-quality evidence (one study, 96 participants) indicated that adverse events were probably reduced with enriched Boswellia serrata (18/48 events versus 30/48 events with placebo; relative risk (RR) 0.60, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.92). Possible benefits of other Boswellia serrata extracts over placebo were confirmed in moderate-quality evidence from two studies (97 participants) of Boswellia serrata (enriched) 100 mg plus non-volatile oil, and low-quality evidence from small single studies of a 999 mg daily dose of Boswellia serrata extract and 250 mg daily dose of enriched Boswellia serrata. It was uncertain if a 99 mg daily dose of Boswellia serrata offered benefits over valdecoxib due to the very low-quality evidence from a small single study. It was uncertain if there was an increased risk of adverse events or withdrawals with Boswellia serrata extract due to variable reporting of results across studies. The studies reported no serious adverse events. Quality of life and radiographic joint changes were not measured. Six studies examined the ASU product Piasclidine®.Moderate-quality evidence from four studies (651 participants) indicated that ASU 300 mg produced a small and clinically questionable improvement in symptoms, and probably no increased adverse events compared to placebo after three to 12 months treatment. Mean pain with placebo was 40.5 points on a VAS 0 to 100 scale (0 is no pain), ASU 300 mg reduced pain by a mean of 8.5 points (95% CI 1 to 16 points); NNTB 8. ASU 300 mg improved function (standardised mean difference (SMD) −0.42, 95% CI −0.73 to −0.11). Function was estimated as 47 mm (0 to 100 mm scale, where 0 is no loss of function) with placebo, ASU 300 mg improved function by a mean of 7 mm (95% CI 2 to 12 mm); NNTB 5 (3 to 19). There were no differences in adverse events (5 studies, 1050 participants) between ASU (53%) and placebo (51%) (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.12); withdrawals due to adverse events (1 study, 398 participants) between ASU (17%) and placebo (15%) (RR 1.14, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.80); or serious adverse events (1 study, 398 participants) between ASU (40%) and placebo (33%) (RR 1.22, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.59). Radiographic joint changes, measured as change in joint space width (JSW) in two studies (453 participants) did not differ between ASU 300 mg treatment (−0.53 mm) and placebo (−0.65 mm); mean difference of −0.12 (95% CI −0.43 to 0.19). Moderate-quality evidence from a single study (156 participants) confirmed possible benefits of ASU 600 mg over placebo, with no increased adverse events. Low-quality evidence (1 study, 357 participants) indicated there may be no differences in symptoms or adverse events between ASU 300 mg and chondroitin sulphate. Quality of life was not measured. All other herbal interventions were investigated in single studies, limiting conclusions. No serious side effects related to any plant product were reported. Authors’ conclusions Evidence for the proprietary ASU product Piasclidine® in the treatment of osteoarthritis symptoms seems moderate to high for short term use, but studies over a longer term and against an apparently active control are less convincing. Several other medicinal plant products, including extracts of Boswellia serrata, show trends of benefits that warrant further investigation in light of the fact that the risk of adverse events appear low. There is no evidence that Piasclidine®significantly improves joint structure, and limited evidence that it prevents joint space narrowing. Structural changes were not tested for with any other herbal intervention. Further investigations are required to determine optimum daily doses producing clinical benefits without adverse events. PMID:24848732

  5. Chinese Herbal Products for Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Hung, I-Ling; Hung, Yu-Chiang; Wang, Lin-Yi; Hsu, Sheng-Feng; Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Tseng, Ying-Jung; Kuo, Chun-En; Hu, Wen-Long; Li, Tsai-Chung

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese herbal products (CHPs) have been described in ancient medicine systems as treatments for various stroke-associated ailments. This study is aimed to investigate the prescription patterns and combinations of CHPs for ischemic stroke in Taiwan. Prescriptions of CHPs for ischemic stroke were obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan. Every prescription with a leading diagnosis of ischemic stroke made during 2000-2010 was analyzed. Descriptive statistics were applied to the pattern of co-prescriptions. Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess demographic and risk factors that are correlated with CHP use. The dataset of inpatient claims data contained information on 15,896 subjects who experienced ischemic stroke from 2000 to 2010. There was an average of 5.82 CHPs in a single prescription for subjects with ischemic stroke. Bu-yang-huan-wu-tang (BYHWT) (40.32%) was by far the most frequently prescribed formula CHP for ischemic stroke, and the most commonly used combination of two-formula-CHP was BYHWT with Shu-jin-huo-xue-tang (SJHXT) (4.40%). Dan Shen (16.50%) was the most commonly used single CHP for ischemic stroke, and the most commonly used combination of two single CHPs was Shi Chang Pua with Yuan Zhi (4.79%). We found that BYHWT and Dan Shen were the most frequently prescribed formula and single CHP for ischemic stroke, respectively. These results provide information about individualized therapy and may contribute to further pharmacologic experiments and clinical trials. PMID:26477801

  6. [Study of changes in Chinese herbal medicine distribution channel].

    PubMed

    Lv, Hua; Yang, Guang; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-07-01

    Distribution channel of Chinese herbal medicines has been changing. From Han to Ming Dynasty, Chinese herbal medicine were mainly trafficked to urban by dealers or farmers; From the Ming Dynasty to the foundation of new China, distribution channels are primarily intermediated with township "bazaar" and national distribution center with fixed place and regularly trading hours. In the planned economy period, the state-owned herbal medicine company was the sole medium with monopoly nature. From the mid1980s to the end of last century, planned economy and market economy have been co-existing. Stepping into 21st century, producing area highlighted in the distribution channels. Presence or absence and rise or fall of different types of distribution market went throughout the changing process of distribution channels, which became an important clue. Changes were motivated by economical consideration of channel subject, which originated from commodity characteristic and social environment changes. PMID:25272514

  7. Influence of nanotechnology on herbal drugs: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, S. H.; Islam, Farha; Sameem, Mohd.

    2012-01-01

    Herbal medicines have been widely used all over the world since ancient times and have been recognized by physicians and patients for their better therapeutic value as they have fewer adverse effects as compared with modern medicines. Phytotherapeutics need a scientific approach to deliver the components in a sustained manner to increase patient compliance and avoid repeated administration. This can be achieved by designing novel drug delivery systems (NDDS) for herbal constituents. NDDSs not only reduce the repeated administration to overcome non-compliance, but also help to increase the therapeutic value by reducing toxicity and increasing the bioavailability. One such novel approach is nanotechnology. Nano-sized drug delivery systems of herbal drugs have a potential future for enhancing the activity and overcoming problems associated with plant medicines. Hence, integration of the nanocarriers as a NDDS in the traditional medicine system is essential to conflict more chronic diseases like asthma, diabetes, cancer, and others. PMID:23057000

  8. Perioperative considerations for the patient taking herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Sabar, R; Kaye, A D; Frost, E A

    2001-01-01

    There has been a significant increase in the proliferation and use of dietary supplements known as neutraceuticals. Since 1994, herbal products have been regulated by the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA), which does not require burden of proof to demonstrate premarketing safety and efficacy studies. Scientific literature and government policies have not adequately addressed this fast-emerging group of more than 20,000 health supplements. Lack of purity and standardization of these agents, combined with minimal education in traditional homeopathic medical education, has led to serious health-related problems including arrhythmias, cardiovascular compromise, strokes, and deaths. Even though 30% of our traditional medicines are derived from botanicals, most physicians are either unfamiliar or unwilling to develop any level of expertise with neutraceuticals. A review emphasizing perioperative considerations is provided of the history of herbal medicines, governmental policies, and specific herbal agent-drug interactions. PMID:11975777

  9. Properties of herbal extracts against Propionibacterium acnes for biomedical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Youn-Mook; Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Yong Soo; Shin, Young Min; Jeong, Sung In; Jo, Sun-Young; Gwon, Hui-Jeong; Park, Jong-seok; Nho, Young-Chang; Kim, Jong-Cheol; Kim, Seong-Jang; Shin, HeungSoo

    2012-10-01

    Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), one of the anaerobic bacterium, causes inflammatory acne. To find a novel medication for treating the inflammation caused by P. acnes, we investigated the anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of several herbal extracts against P. acnes. The aqueous extracts from five dried herbs, Phellodendron amurense Rupr., Paeonia lactiflora Pallas., Houttuynia cordata Thunb., Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., were prepared and mixed. In this experiment, 1 mg/ml of the herbal extract mixture caused a decrease in the growth of P. acnes and reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-8, IL-1β and IL-6, in human monocytic THP-1 cells treated with heat-killed P. acnes. Therefore, this herbal extract mixture may possess both anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities against P. acnes and can be a novel therapeutic agent for treating inflammatory acne.

  10. Development of a standardized and effect-optimized herbal extract of Wedelia chinensis for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chin-Hsien; Tzeng, Sheue-Fen; Hsieh, Shih-Chuan; Lin, Chih-Yu; Tsai, Chia-Jui; Chen, Yet-Ran; Yang, Yu-Chih; Chou, Ya-Wen; Lee, Ming-Ting; Hsiao, Pei-Wen

    2015-03-15

    Herbal medicine is a popular complementary or alternative treatment for prostate cancer. Wedelia chinensis has at least three active compounds, wedelolactone, luteolin, and apigenin synergistically inhibiting prostate cancer cell growth in vitro. Here, we report a systematic study to develop a standardized and effect-optimized herbal extract, designated as W. chinensis extract (WCE) to facilitate its future scientific validation and clinical use. Ethanolic extract of dried W. chinensis plant was further condensed, acid hydrolyzed, and enriched with preparative chromatography. The chemical compositions of multiple batches of the standardized preparation WCE were quantified by LC/MS/MS, and biological activities were analyzed by in vitro and in vivo assays. Furthermore, the pharmacokinetics of the holistic WCE were compared with the combination of the equivalent principal active compounds through oral administration. The results indicated that quantitative chemical assay and PSA (prostate-specific antigen)-reporter assay together are suitable to measure the quality and efficacy of a standardized Wedelia extract on a xenograft tumor model. The presence of minor concomitant compounds in WCE prolonged the systemic exposure to the active compounds, thus augmented the anti-tumor efficacy of WCE. In conclusion, a combination of LC/MS/MS and PSA reporter assay is suitable to qualify a standardized preparation of WCE. Furthermore, the pharmacokinetics and oral bioavailability of active compounds demonstrate that holistic WCE exerted additional pharmacological synergy beyond the multi-targeted therapeutic effects caused by more than one active compound. WCE merits a higher priority to be studied for use in prostate cancer treatment. PMID:25837279

  11. Prescription Drugs, Over-the-Counter Drugs, Supplements and Herbal Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... herbal products Prescription drugs, over-the-counter drugs, supplements and herbal products Now playing: E-mail to a friend ... care provider says it’s OK. Not all drugs, herbal products or supplements are safe to take during pregnancy. If you’ ...

  12. Space activities and global popular music culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessels, Allison Rae; Collins, Patrick

    During the "space age" era, space activities appear increasingly as a theme in Western popular music, as they do in popular culture generally. In combination with the electronics and tele-communications revolution, "pop/rock" music has grown explosively during the space age to become an effectively global culture. From this base a number of trends are emerging in the pattern of influences that space activities have on pop music. The paper looks at the use of themes and imagery in pop music; the role of space technology in the modern "globalization" of pop music; and current and future links between space activities and pop music culture, including how public space programmes are affected by its influence on popular attitudes.

  13. Evolution of popularity in given names

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Mi Jin; Jo, Woo Seong; Yi, Il Gu; Baek, Seung Ki; Kim, Beom Jun

    2016-02-01

    An individual's identity in a human society is specified by his or her name. Differently from family names, usually inherited from fathers, a given name for a child is often chosen at the parents' disposal. However, their decision cannot be made in a vacuum but affected by social conventions and trends. Furthermore, such social pressure changes in time, as new names gain popularity while some other names are gradually forgotten. In this paper, we investigate how popularity of given names has evolved over the last century by using datasets collected in Korea, the province of Quebec in Canada, and the United States. In each of these countries, the average popularity of given names exhibits typical patterns of rise and fall with a time scale of about one generation. We also observe that notable changes of diversity in given names signal major social changes.

  14. Herbal Medicines Induced Anticholinergic Poisoning in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Thomas Y. K.

    2016-01-01

    In the present review, the main objective was to report the incidence and causes of herbal medicines induced anticholinergic poisoning in Hong Kong during 1989–2012 and to emphasize the importance of pharmacovigilance, investigations and preventive measures. Relevant papers, official figures and unpublished data were obtained from Medline search, the Department of Health and the Drug and Poisons Information Bureau. In the New Territories East (where ~20% of the Hong Kong population lived), the incidence of herbal medicines induced anticholinergic poisoning during 1989–1993 was 0.09 per 100,000 population. There were no confirmed cases during 1994–1996. In the whole of Hong Kong, the incidence during 2000–June 2005 was 0.03 per 100,000 population. Contamination of Rhizoma Atractylodis (50%) and erroneous substitution (42%) were the main causes. The incidence during 2008–2012 was 0.06 per 100,000 population. Contamination of non-toxic herbs (50%) and erroneous substitution (41%) were the main causes. In Hong Kong, contamination of non-toxic herbs by tropane alkaloids and substitution of Flos Campsis by toxic Flos Daturae Metelis were the predominant causes of herbal medicines induced anticholinergic poisoning. Systematic studies along the supply chain are necessary to identify the likely sources of contamination. If erroneous substitution of Flos Campsis by Flos Daturae Metelis could be prevented, 40% of herbal medicines induced anticholinergic poisoning would not have occurred. Regular inspection of the retailer, continuing education for the staff in the herbal trade and repeated publicity measures will also be required. Pharmacovigilance of herbal medicines should help determine the incidence and causes of adverse reactions and monitor the effectiveness of preventive measures. PMID:26999208

  15. Herbal Medicines Induced Anticholinergic Poisoning in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2016-01-01

    In the present review, the main objective was to report the incidence and causes of herbal medicines induced anticholinergic poisoning in Hong Kong during 1989-2012 and to emphasize the importance of pharmacovigilance, investigations and preventive measures. Relevant papers, official figures and unpublished data were obtained from Medline search, the Department of Health and the Drug and Poisons Information Bureau. In the New Territories East (where ~20% of the Hong Kong population lived), the incidence of herbal medicines induced anticholinergic poisoning during 1989-1993 was 0.09 per 100,000 population. There were no confirmed cases during 1994-1996. In the whole of Hong Kong, the incidence during 2000-June 2005 was 0.03 per 100,000 population. Contamination of Rhizoma Atractylodis (50%) and erroneous substitution (42%) were the main causes. The incidence during 2008-2012 was 0.06 per 100,000 population. Contamination of non-toxic herbs (50%) and erroneous substitution (41%) were the main causes. In Hong Kong, contamination of non-toxic herbs by tropane alkaloids and substitution of Flos Campsis by toxic Flos Daturae Metelis were the predominant causes of herbal medicines induced anticholinergic poisoning. Systematic studies along the supply chain are necessary to identify the likely sources of contamination. If erroneous substitution of Flos Campsis by Flos Daturae Metelis could be prevented, 40% of herbal medicines induced anticholinergic poisoning would not have occurred. Regular inspection of the retailer, continuing education for the staff in the herbal trade and repeated publicity measures will also be required. Pharmacovigilance of herbal medicines should help determine the incidence and causes of adverse reactions and monitor the effectiveness of preventive measures. PMID:26999208

  16. Yokukan-san: a review of the evidence for use of this Kampo herbal formula in dementia and psychiatric conditions.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Hideki; Iyo, Masaomi; Ueda, Keigo; Han, Cheolsun; Hirasaki, Yoshiro; Namiki, Takao

    2014-01-01

    Japanese traditional herbal medicine (Kampo) has its origins in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It was introduced to Japan in the middle of the sixth century and has evolved over the past 1,400 years after combining with Japan's original folk remedies. While it retains some similarities to TCM, Kampo has evolved in Japan, resulting in a system of medicine that has many differences from TCM. Kampo medicine is considered to be very safe; in Japan, Kampo herbal formulas are manufactured by licensed pharmaceutical companies, prescribed by Western-trained medical doctors (usually as a freeze-dried extract), and have quality control standards similar to those of prescription drugs. The present study examined Yokukan-san (Yi-Gan San in TCM), a Kampo formula that has been used empirically in Japan for more than 400 years. Accumulating clinical trials have demonstrated Yokukan-san's efficacy in treating patients with behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, which has resulted in the Japanese Society of Neurology listing it in the Japanese Guidelines for the Management of Dementia 2010. Efficacy in other diseases and conditions, such as sleep disorders, tardive dyskinesia, aggression, and impulsivity has also been reported. This article reviews both clinical and basic studies of Yokukan-san, with the goal of clarifying its clinical indications. PMID:25246794

  17. Yokukan-san: a review of the evidence for use of this Kampo herbal formula in dementia and psychiatric conditions

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Hideki; Iyo, Masaomi; Ueda, Keigo; Han, Cheolsun; Hirasaki, Yoshiro; Namiki, Takao

    2014-01-01

    Japanese traditional herbal medicine (Kampo) has its origins in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It was introduced to Japan in the middle of the sixth century and has evolved over the past 1,400 years after combining with Japan’s original folk remedies. While it retains some similarities to TCM, Kampo has evolved in Japan, resulting in a system of medicine that has many differences from TCM. Kampo medicine is considered to be very safe; in Japan, Kampo herbal formulas are manufactured by licensed pharmaceutical companies, prescribed by Western-trained medical doctors (usually as a freeze-dried extract), and have quality control standards similar to those of prescription drugs. The present study examined Yokukan-san (Yi-Gan San in TCM), a Kampo formula that has been used empirically in Japan for more than 400 years. Accumulating clinical trials have demonstrated Yokukan-san’s efficacy in treating patients with behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, which has resulted in the Japanese Society of Neurology listing it in the Japanese Guidelines for the Management of Dementia 2010. Efficacy in other diseases and conditions, such as sleep disorders, tardive dyskinesia, aggression, and impulsivity has also been reported. This article reviews both clinical and basic studies of Yokukan-san, with the goal of clarifying its clinical indications. PMID:25246794

  18. Immunopharmacology of the main herbal supplements: a review.

    PubMed

    Amico, Angelo P; Terlizzi, Annamaria; Damiani, Sabino; Ranieri, Maurizio; Megna, Marisa; Fiore, Pietro

    2013-12-01

    It is debated whether the use of herbal supplements in endurance sports, in order to have a better performance, is correct or not, from the perspective of both as safety and as effectiveness. In this review we try to find out if the most common herbal supplements (Echinacea, Rhodiola, Ginseng) are effective in the improvement of performance or in the modulation of the immune system. According to the results of our review, the prevalent effect is adaptogenic rather than ergogenic, with a better tolerance of the exercise induced stress, related to enhancement of the whole immune system and decrease of the oxidative damage. PMID:24456264

  19. Liver injury induced by herbal complementary and alternative medicine.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Victor J; Seeff, Leonard B

    2013-11-01

    Herbal and dietary supplement use is common. Most marketed products consist of complex mixtures. Although they are perceived as safe, instances of hepatotoxicity attributable to these products underscore their potential for injury, but the exact component that is responsible for injury is difficult to discern. The lenient regulatory environment in the United States, which opens the possibility of adulteration and contamination, adds to the challenge of disease attribution. Although many different herbal and dietary supplements have been reported to cause liver injury, in the United States, products used for bodybuilding and weight loss are the most commonly implicated. PMID:24099027

  20. Ayurveda, malaria and the indigenous herbal tradition in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Silva, K T

    1991-01-01

    Using key informants and available records, the way in which inhabitants of purana villages in Nuwarakalaviya, Sri Lanka coped with malaria during the pre-DDT era is examined. This study found that the Nuwarakalaviya peasants responded to endemic malaria through a localized herbal tradition, which was to some extent independent of the scholarly ayurveda system common to the whole of South Asia. The relevant herbal tradition, consisting of a combination of antiparasite and antivector strategies using locally available natural resources, represented an effective adaptation to the local ecosystem. PMID:1887278

  1. Cryogenic grinding technology for traditional Chinese herbal medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shimo; Ge, Shuangyan; Huang, Zhongping; Wang, Qun; Zhao, Haoping; Pan, Huaiyu

    The fundamental principle of cryogenic grinding (cryogrinding) for Chinese herbal medicine is similar to that of grinding methods for conventional materials, but the compositions are very complex, containing aromatics of high volatility, oils and fats, which are easily oxidized. Using liquid nitrogen or liquid air as the cryogen, all of these thermosensitive Chinese herbal medicines can be ground below their brittle temperature. The colour and other properties of the products of cryo-grinding will not be changed and the flavour and nutrition of the medicines will not be lost.

  2. Ayurvedic herbal medicine and lead poisoning.

    PubMed

    Gunturu, Krishna S; Nagarajan, Priyadharsini; McPhedran, Peter; Goodman, Thomas R; Hodsdon, Michael E; Strout, Matthew P

    2011-01-01

    Although the majority of published cases of lead poisoning come from occupational exposures, some traditional remedies may also contain toxic amounts of lead. Ayurveda is a system of traditional medicine that is native to India and is used in many parts of world as an alternative to standard treatment regimens. Here, we report the case of a 58-year-old woman who presented with abdominal pain, anemia, liver function abnormalities, and an elevated blood lead level. The patient was found to have been taking the Ayurvedic medicine Jambrulin prior to presentation. Chemical analysis of the medication showed high levels of lead. Following treatment with an oral chelating agent, the patient's symptoms resolved and laboratory abnormalities normalized. This case highlights the need for increased awareness that some Ayurvedic medicines may contain potentially harmful levels of heavy metals and people who use them are at risk of developing associated toxicities. PMID:22185092

  3. Books and the popularization of science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchanan, R.

    1991-01-01

    This article discusses best-selling science books, the characteristics of the audience for popular science books, and the role of books within science popularization and science education. Best-selling science books have been rare, but generally readable. Regional books, also important sources of scientific information, aim at much smaller, far more price-sensitive audiences. Many successful regional, nontechnical science books are readable, heavily illustrated, and in some cases, cross-disciplinary. To increase the attentive audience for scientific information, improvement in science education is necessary, and the most efficacious role for scientific institutions may be the production of materials that can be easily incorporated into school curricula. ?? 1991 Springer.

  4. Astronomy Popularization via Sci-fi Movies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qingkang

    2015-08-01

    It is astronomers’ duty to let more and more young people know a bit astronomy and be interested in astronomy and appreciate the beauty and great achievements in astronomy. One of the most effective methods to popularize astronomy to young people nowadays might be via enjoying some brilliant sci-fi movies related to astronomy with some guidance from astronomers. Firstly, we will introduce the basic information of our selective course “Appreciation of Sci-fi Movies in Astronomy” for the non-major astronomy students in our University, which is surely unique in China, then we will show its effect on astronomy popularization based on several rounds of teaching.

  5. Abstracts of Popular Culture: A Quarterly Publication of International Popular Phenomena. Vol. 1:A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Ray B., Ed.

    Over 2100 articles concerned with popular culture, drawn from 188 American periodicals and a scattering of foreign publications, are scanned in this volume. Popular culture is defined as any aspect of life which is not academic or creative in the narrowest and most esoteric sense of the words. Thirty- to 150-word abstracts are provided of…

  6. Game-Based Remedial Instruction in Mastery Learning for Upper-Primary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Chun-Hung; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng; Chen, Yu-Liang; Liou, Pey-Yan; Chang, Maiga; Wu, Cheng-Hong; Yuan, Shyan-Ming

    2013-01-01

    The study examines the effectiveness of using computer games for after-school remedial mastery learning. We incorporated instructional materials related to "area of a circle" into the popular Monopoly game to enhance the performance of sixth-grade students learning mathematics. The program requires that students enter the answers to…

  7. Game-Based Remedial Instruction in Mastery Learning for Upper-Primary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Chun-Hung; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng; Chen, Yu-Liang; Liou, Pey-Yan; Chang, Maiga; Wu, Cheng-Hong; Yuan, Shyan-Ming

    2013-01-01

    The study examines the effectiveness of using computer games for after-school remedial mastery learning. We incorporated instructional materials related to "area of a circle" into the popular Monopoly game to enhance the performance of sixth-grade students learning mathematics. The program requires that students enter the answers to

  8. METABOLITE PROFILING OF ECHINACEA GENOTYPES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Echinacea extracts have historically been used as herbal remedies to treat colds, coughs and snake bites. Echinacea products are currently sold as a popular herbal-remedy used for general enhancement of the immune system. However, the genetic variation in metabolites has not been systematically ch...

  9. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    BERGMAN, T. B.; STEFANSKI, L. D.; SEELEY, P. N.; ZINSLI, L. C.; CUSACK, L. J.

    2012-09-19

    THE CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DEVELOP AN OPTIMAL SEQUENCE OF REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES IMPLEMENTING THE CERCLA DECISION ON THE CENTRAL PLATEAU. THE STUDY DEFINES A SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITIES THAT RESULT IN AN EFFECTIVE USE OF RESOURCES FROM A STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVE WHEN CONSIDERING EQUIPMENT PROCUREMENT AND STAGING, WORKFORCE MOBILIZATION/DEMOBILIZATION, WORKFORCE LEVELING, WORKFORCE SKILL-MIX, AND OTHER REMEDIATION/DISPOSITION PROJECT EXECUTION PARAMETERS.

  10. Electrokinetic remediation prefield test methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodko, Dalibor (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Methods for determining the parameters critical in designing an electrokinetic soil remediation process including electrode well spacing, operating current/voltage, electroosmotic flow rate, electrode well wall design, and amount of buffering or neutralizing solution needed in the electrode wells at operating conditions are disclosed These methods are preferably performed prior to initiating a full scale electrokinetic remediation process in order to obtain efficient remediation of the contaminants.

  11. Integrated in-situ remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Fustos, V.; Lieberman, P.

    1996-01-01

    This article presents an integrated approach to ex-situ and in-situ remediation. A sequence of processes, used successfully in their own right, but used synergistically in this approach, have achieved short-term, economic remediation. In addition the range of contaminants that can be treated is extended. The Process uses ozone, compressed oxygen, water vapor, heat, bioaugmentation and vapor extraction to remediate lower molecular weight hydrocarbons and higher molecular weight hydrocarbons. 3 figs.

  12. Electrokinetic remediation: Technology status

    SciTech Connect

    Acar, Y.B.; Alshawabkeh, A.; Gale, R.J.

    1995-10-01

    The demand to develop innovative and cost-effective in-situ remediation technologies in waste management stimulated the effort to employ conduction phenomena in soils using an electric field to remove chemical species from soils. This technique variably named as electrokinetic remediation, electro-reclamation, electrokinetic soil processing, electrochemical decontamination, electrorestoration or electrochemical soil processing uses low-level DC in the order of mA/cm{sub 2} of cross sectional area between the electrodes or an electric potential difference in the order of a few volts per cm across electrodes placed in the ground in an open flow arrangement. The low-level DC results in physico-chemical and hydrological changes in the soil mass leading to species transport by coupled and uncoupled conduction phenomena in the porous media. Electrolysis reactions prevail at the electrodes. The species input into the system at the electrodes (either by the electrolysis reactions, or through the cycling processing fluid) and the species in the pore fluid will be transported across the porous media by conduction phenomena in soils under electric fields. This transport coupled with sorption, precipitation and dissolution reactions comprise the fundamental mechanisms affecting the electrokinetic remediation process. Electrokinetics Inc. of Baton Rouge has completed large-scale pilot studies using spiked and naturally contaminated soil deposits under the USEPA SITE program. In collaboration with the US Army Waterways Experiment Station, Electrokinetics Inc. is currently carrying out a field study of extracting lead from soils at a Firing Range that belongs to the US Army. This demonstration study will be independently evaluated by the USEPA under the SITE program. The purpose of this paper is to present some of the recent developments in this technique and to outline the ongoing activities.

  13. Popular Education As Adult Education within Postmodernism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanage, Sherman M.

    1995-01-01

    Adult education must become popular education in both communal and personal terms to survive funding agencies' special power-interest hegemonies, traditional higher education models, and rampant economic materialism. This article discusses six modernist constructions of adult education, highlighting professionalization and specialization, and…

  14. Lyrical Commentaries: Learning from Popular Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, B. Lee

    1991-01-01

    Depicts ways popular song lyrics can stimulate discussion either in music, social studies, humanities, or language arts classes. Considers lyrics' ability to explain social, cultural, and political phenomena. Provides a chronological outline from 1962 correlating political events, personalities, songs, and the artists. songs. Identifies uses of…

  15. Teaching Theory through Popular Culture Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trier, James

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a pedagogical approach to teaching theory to pre-service teachers. This approach involves articulating academic texts that introduce theoretical ideas and tools with carefully selected popular culture texts that can be taken up to illustrate the elements of a particular theory. Examples of the theories…

  16. Using Popular Children's Films in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Elle; Croker, Stev; Harrison, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Watching films is a common activity for children outside of school, and incorporating popular films that contain scientific references has the potential to spark interest in the classroom. Clips rather than entire films can be used, as the children will maintain focus on the lesson objectives while being excited by the appeal of the film. The use…

  17. Bolivian Currents: Popular Participation and Indigenous Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudley, Mary Jo

    1997-01-01

    Describes the effects on indigenous communities of Bolivia's recent Popular Participation Laws, which relocated political and financial decision making to the municipal level; community efforts toward cultural maintenance and nonformal agricultural education; the activism of indigenous university students; and the dual discrimination suffered by…

  18. The Guide to Teaching with Popular Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Music Educators National Conference, Reston, VA.

    Popular music is often characterized as a short work with a prominent melody and simple chordal accompaniment. Yet, teaching with pop music in the era of standards-based curriculum can present challenges. These standards offer teachers a blueprint for teaching music performance, composition, improvisation, and the relationship of music to other…

  19. Predicting Bullying: Maladjustment, Social Skills and Popularity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postigo, Silvia; Gonzalez, Remedios; Mateu, Carmen; Montoya, Inmaculada

    2012-01-01

    In order to prevent bullying, research has characterised the adolescents involved in terms of their social skills, maladjustment and popularity. However, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the relationships between these variables and how these relationships predict bullying involvement. Moreover, the literature has focused on pure bullies

  20. Popular Literature: Its Compatibility with the Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Dorothy, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    This special journal issue contains nine articles on the subject of using popular literature in the classroom. Subjects covered in the articles include (1) using vernacular supernatural literature to teach the skills of literary analysis, (2) teaching Agatha Christie's "Curtain," (3) pairing the classics with detective fiction, (4) using fantasy…

  1. American Popular Music 1950-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonergan, David

    2011-01-01

    This article describes and discusses some of the chief resources in the study of post-World War II mainstream popular music. In addition to indicating major areas of research, it can serve as a guide to collection development in the discipline.

  2. Predicting Bullying: Maladjustment, Social Skills and Popularity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postigo, Silvia; Gonzalez, Remedios; Mateu, Carmen; Montoya, Inmaculada

    2012-01-01

    In order to prevent bullying, research has characterised the adolescents involved in terms of their social skills, maladjustment and popularity. However, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the relationships between these variables and how these relationships predict bullying involvement. Moreover, the literature has focused on pure bullies…

  3. Forecasting Popularity of Videos Using Social Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jie; van der Schaar, Mihaela; Liu, Jiangchuan; Li, Haitao

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a systematic online prediction method (Social-Forecast) that is capable to accurately forecast the popularity of videos promoted by social media. Social-Forecast explicitly considers the dynamically changing and evolving propagation patterns of videos in social media when making popularity forecasts, thereby being situation and context aware. Social-Forecast aims to maximize the forecast reward, which is defined as a tradeoff between the popularity prediction accuracy and the timeliness with which a prediction is issued. The forecasting is performed online and requires no training phase or a priori knowledge. We analytically bound the prediction performance loss of Social-Forecast as compared to that obtained by an omniscient oracle and prove that the bound is sublinear in the number of video arrivals, thereby guaranteeing its short-term performance as well as its asymptotic convergence to the optimal performance. In addition, we conduct extensive experiments using real-world data traces collected from the videos shared in RenRen, one of the largest online social networks in China. These experiments show that our proposed method outperforms existing view-based approaches for popularity prediction (which are not context-aware) by more than 30% in terms of prediction rewards.

  4. Popular Education and the Logics of Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwell, Elsie

    2011-01-01

    In this article, I compare two distinct uses of "Popular Education" that emerged in Tlaxcala in the wake of the Mexican Revolution. I examine archival and oral evidence to reconstruct the situated meanings and political rationales that led to the use of the term in each case, beyond their contrasting pedagogical content. In 1917, a revolutionary…

  5. Popular Media and the Teenage Sexual Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strover, Sharon

    A qualitative study examined how teenagers react to and interpret certain popular media messages. In addition it explored the relationship between content containing various sexual messages and teenagers' responses to those messages, with particular attention to the critical abilities this audience exhibits. Fifty male and female teenagers aged…

  6. Popular Education As Adult Education within Postmodernism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanage, Sherman M.

    1995-01-01

    Adult education must become popular education in both communal and personal terms to survive funding agencies' special power-interest hegemonies, traditional higher education models, and rampant economic materialism. This article discusses six modernist constructions of adult education, highlighting professionalization and specialization, and

  7. Popular Literature: Its Compatibility with the Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Dorothy, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    This special journal issue contains nine articles on the subject of using popular literature in the classroom. Subjects covered in the articles include (1) using vernacular supernatural literature to teach the skills of literary analysis, (2) teaching Agatha Christie's "Curtain," (3) pairing the classics with detective fiction, (4) using fantasy

  8. [Lawyers and Litigation in the Popular Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, John Paul, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    This issue of Focus on Law Studies contains the following articles: "T.V. Law: Image versus Reality" (Suzanne Frentz); "Teaching about Civil Rights in the 1990's" (Cynthia Hamilton); "A Social History of Black Lawyers in Popular Culture" (Ric Sheffield); "Will the Real Lawyers Please Stand Up!" (Susan Adair Dwyer-Shick); "Equality, 'Political…

  9. Memory for Frequency of Hearing Popular Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, James R.; And Others

    This experiment was designed to better understand the effects of individual differences, intent to learn, and stimulus familiarity on frequency judgment accuracy. Half of the participants in the study heard popular songs, and the other half listened to unfamiliar songs. Participants were subdivided into three more groups, introducing the "intent…

  10. Popular Education and the "Party Line"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boughton, Bob

    2013-01-01

    Popular education, by which is meant adult education within and in support of radical social movements, has become a major topic in academic adult education in recent times. This paper criticises the lack of attention paid in most of this writing to the history, theory and practice of revolutionary parties in the communist and socialist tradition.…

  11. Misreading Masculinity: Boys, Literacy, and Popular Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newkirk, Thomas

    This book takes an up-close and personal look at elementary school boys and their relationship to sports, movies, video games, and other avenues of popular culture. The book views these media not as enemies of literacy, but as resources "for" literacy. It contains a series of interviews with young boys and girls who describe the pleasure they take…

  12. Misreading Masculinity: Boys, Literacy, and Popular Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newkirk, Thomas

    This book takes an up-close and personal look at elementary school boys and their relationship to sports, movies, video games, and other avenues of popular culture. The book views these media not as enemies of literacy, but as resources "for" literacy. It contains a series of interviews with young boys and girls who describe the pleasure they take

  13. Popular Financial Reports: Accountability through Readability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Richard T.; Piotrowski, Craig L.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses colleges' use of popular financial reporting to make their annual financial reports more readable to citizens and legislators and to make their reports useful marketing and recruitment tools. Highlights research about financial reports and performance reporting conducted by the Governmental Accounting Standards Board. Describes the…

  14. Caveat Lector: Reviewing Popular Social Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hixson, Vivian Scott

    1981-01-01

    Discusses problems with reviews and criticisms of popular social science books: the quality and background of reviewers, the difficulty of distinguishing between fact and opinion, and the scarcity of competent reviewers. Analyzes reviews of Robert Ardrey's "African Genesis" and "The Territorial Imperative," Konrad Lorenz's "On Aggression," and…

  15. Is Being Popular a Risky Proposition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayeux, Lara; Sandstrom, Marlene J.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2008-01-01

    Longitudinal associations between social preference, perceived popularity, and risk behaviors (smoking, alcohol use, and sexual activity) were examined in a sample of high school students. Social preference did not predict any of the risk behaviors assessed, although the interaction between gender and social preference was predictive of sexual…

  16. Teaching Theory through Popular Culture Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trier, James

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a pedagogical approach to teaching theory to pre-service teachers. This approach involves articulating academic texts that introduce theoretical ideas and tools with carefully selected popular culture texts that can be taken up to illustrate the elements of a particular theory. Examples of the theories

  17. UWP 011: Popular Science and Technology Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrault, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    UWP 011: Popular Science & Technology Writing is a sophomore-level course designed as an introduction to rhetoric of science at UC Davis, a science-focused land-grant university. The course fulfills the general education requirements for written literacy and for topical breadth in arts and humanities. The catalog describes the course as…

  18. Stepfamily Strengths: A Review of Popular Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Marilyn; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Reviewed popular literature (self-help books, magazines, adolescent fiction) that identified stepfamily strengths. Potential strengths of stepfamily life were identified in all three sources. The primary focus of self-help literature and magazine articles, however, was on stepfamily problems. Concludes that adolescent fiction may be used to good…

  19. Understanding and Developing Black Popular Music Collections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, James Briggs

    1983-01-01

    Enumerates types of black popular music (work songs, spirituals, gospel music, blues, race records, rock and roll, soul, funk, disco, Caribbean, and African) and discusses collection development (current, retrospective, monographs, periodicals, sheet music, motion picture film, photographs, oral history), cataloging, and preservation. A 229-item…

  20. Gender and Cultural Consecration in Popular Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmutz, Vaughn; Faupel, Alison

    2010-01-01

    This research examines the gendered nature of cultural legitimacy and consecration in popular music. We explore two related questions. First, which factors affect the likelihood that female performers achieve consecrated status? Second, how are those decisions discursively legitimated? Using a mixed-methods research design, we find that in both…

  1. What Is Popular Music Studies? Some Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloonan, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Popular Music Studies (PMS) is now taught in over 20 higher education institutions (HEIs) in the UK and numerous others across the world. This article outlines the constituent parts of PMS in the UK and questions its status as a discipline in its own right. It concludes by arguing that, having established itself, PMS will need to deal with two key…

  2. A Comparison of "Popular Music Pedagogy" Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantie, Roger

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to interrogate discourses of "popular music pedagogy" in order to better understand music education practices generally and specifically those in the United States. Employing a conceptual framework based on the work of Jan Blommaert (2005), a content analysis was conducted on a sample of 81 articles related…

  3. Saxton soil remediation project

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, R.D.

    1995-12-31

    The Saxton Nuclear Experimental Facility (SNEF) consists of a 23-MW(thermal) pressurized light water thermal reactor located in south central Pennsylvania. The Saxton Nuclear Experimental Corporation (SNEC), a wholly owned subsidiary of the General Public Utilities (GPU) Corporation, is the licensee for the SNEF. Maintenance and decommissioning activities at the site are conducted by GPU Nuclear, also a GPU subsidiary and operator of the Three Mile Island and Oyster Creek nuclear facilities. The remediation and radioactive waste management of contaminated soils is described.

  4. [Exploration of influencing factors of price of herbal based on VAR model].

    PubMed

    Wang, Nuo; Liu, Shu-Zhen; Yang, Guang

    2014-10-01

    Based on vector auto-regression (VAR) model, this paper takes advantage of Granger causality test, variance decomposition and impulse response analysis techniques to carry out a comprehensive study of the factors influencing the price of Chinese herbal, including herbal cultivation costs, acreage, natural disasters, the residents' needs and inflation. The study found that there is Granger causality relationship between inflation and herbal prices, cultivation costs and herbal prices. And in the total variance analysis of Chinese herbal and medicine price index, the largest contribution to it is from its own fluctuations, followed by the cultivation costs and inflation. PMID:25751965

  5. Types of headache and those remedies in traditional persian medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zarshenas, Mohammad M.; Petramfar, Peyman; Firoozabadi, Ali; Moein, Mahmood Reza; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali

    2013-01-01

    The history of headache, as a common neurological complication, goes back to almost 9000 years ago. Many ancient civilizations present references to headaches and the coherent treatment strategies. Accordingly, several documents comprising headache complications embodying precise medical information stem from Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM) that can provide useful opportunities for more comprehensive treatment. We conducted a survey on headache through original important pharmacopeias and other important medical manuscripts of TPM which were written during 9th to 19th centuries and have derived all headache categories and herbal remedies. An extensive search of scientific data banks, such as Medline and Scopus, has also been exercised to find results relating to the anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive, and analgesic effects of denoted medicinal herbs. The concept of headache and treatments in TPM covers over 20 various types of headache and more than 160 different medicinal plants administered for oral, topical, and nasal application according to 1000 years of the subject documents. Nearly, 60% of remarked medicinal herbs have related anti-inflammatory or analgesic effects and some current headache types have similarities and conformities to those of traditional types. Beside historical approaches, there are many possible and available strategies that can lead to development of new and effective headache treatment from medicinal plants so that this study can provide beneficial information on clinical remedies based on centuries of experience in the field of headache which can stand as a new candidate for further investigations. PMID:23922452

  6. Remediating Remediation: From Basic Writing to Writing across the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    This article challenges faculty members and administrators to rethink current definitions of remediation. First year college students are increasingly placed into basic writing courses due to a perceived inability to use English grammar correctly, but it must be acknowledged that all students will encounter the need for remediation as they attempt…

  7. Current status of herbal drugs in India: an overview.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Ashok D B; Devasagayam, Thomas P A

    2007-07-01

    Herbal drugs constitute a major share of all the officially recognised systems of health in India viz. Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy and Naturopathy, except Allopathy. More than 70% of India's 1.1 billion population still use these non-allopathic systems of medicine. Currently, there is no separate category of herbal drugs or dietary supplements, as per the Indian Drugs Act. However, there is a vast experiential-evidence base for many of the natural drugs. This offers immense opportunities for Observational Therapeutics and Reverse Pharmacology. Evidence-based herbals are widely used in the diverse systems and manufactured, as per the pharmacopoeial guidelines, by a well-organised industry. Significant basic and clinical research has been carried out on the medicinal plants and their formulations, with the state-of-the-art methods in a number of Institutes/Universities. There are some good examples. Indian medicinal plants also provide a rich source for antioxidants that are known to prevent/delay different diseased states. The antioxidant protection is observed at different levels. The medicinal plants also contain other beneficial compounds like ingredients for functional foods. Hence, the global knowledge about Ayurveda and Indian herbals will hopefully be enhanced by information on the evidence-base of these plants. This will yield rich dividends in the coming years. PMID:18392106

  8. [Pharmacovigilance and herbal hepatotoxicity: critical aspects and solutions].

    PubMed

    Teschke, R; Schulze, J

    2013-02-01

    Under clinical aspects and in private practice liver diseases are rarely considered in causal connection with the use of herbal drugs and herbal dietary supplements, but in suspected cases a thorough clinical and regulatory causality assessment is mandatory. In initially assumed herbal hepatotoxicity and associated regulatory evaluations by the German regulatory agency, definitions for hepatotoxicity were consistently lacking, upon which causality assssment may have been based. For the description of a risk, even patients were included with lack of established temporal association between herbal use and the appearance the adverse drug reaction (ADR) or with unknown actual liver values, only slightly increased liver values, isolated increased γ-glutamyltransferase, or overt alternative causes including comedication. This continuously led to regulatory high initial case numbers, which were not fundamentally based on clinical and scientific criteria. Heavily debated is also the regulatory use of the WHO method for causality assessment purposes, because this liver unspecific algorithm is neither validated for liver injury nor for any common ADR; this approach therefore is obsolete for a reproducible causality evaluation. Instead, we urgently recommend to use the scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences), which is liver specific and validated for hepatotoxicity. This is the only way to circumvent future absolute unnecessary and redundant scientific discussions in the regulatory field. PMID:23361353

  9. Capacity for clinical research on herbal medicines in Africa.

    PubMed

    Willcox, Merlin; Siegfried, Nandi; Johnson, Quinton

    2012-06-01

    An electronic survey was used to assess the training needs of clinical and public health researchers who have been involved, and/or plan to become involved, in clinical trials of herbal medicines in Africa. Over 90 researchers were contacted through pre-existing networks, of whom 58 (64%) responded, from 35 institutions in 14 African countries. Over half (57%) had already been involved in a clinical trial of an herbal medicine, and gave information about a total of 23 trials that have already been completed. Of these, only five had been published, and only one had resulted in a licensed product. Fifty-four (54) of the researchers were planning to conduct a clinical trial of an herbal medicine in the future, and gave information about 54 possible trials. Respondents outlined the following most commonly encountered difficulties when conducting clinical trials: resource constraints (including lack of funding, equipment, staff, and infrastructure); social acceptance of the clinical trial (including difficulty recruiting enough patients, poor rapport with traditional healers, and willingness of biomedical staff to be involved); herbal medicine supply (including insufficient cultivation, production, and quality control); lack of trained staff; and logistical issues in conducting trials. The topics in which researchers were least confident were Intellectual Property Rights issues, statistical issues, and issues related to Good Clinical Practice guidelines. PMID:22784350

  10. Current Status of Herbal Drugs in India: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Vaidya, Ashok D.B.; Devasagayam, Thomas P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Herbal drugs constitute a major share of all the officially recognised systems of health in India viz. Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy and Naturopathy, except Allopathy. More than 70% of India’s 1.1 billion population still use these non-allopathic systems of medicine. Currently, there is no separate category of herbal drugs or dietary supplements, as per the Indian Drugs Act. However, there is a vast experiential-evidence base for many of the natural drugs. This offers immense opportunities for Observational Therapeutics and Reverse Pharmacology. Evidence-based herbals are widely used in the diverse systems and manufactured, as per the pharmacopoeial guidelines, by a well-organised industry. Significant basic and clinical research has been carried out on the medicinal plants and their formulations, with the state-of-the-art methods in a number of Institutes/Universities. There are some good examples. Indian medicinal plants also provide a rich source for antioxidants that are known to prevent/delay different diseased states. The antioxidant protection is observed at different levels. The medicinal plants also contain other beneficial compounds like ingredients for functional foods. Hence, the global knowledge about Ayurveda and Indian herbals will hopefully be enhanced by information on the evidence-base of these plants. This will yield rich dividends in the coming years. PMID:18392106

  11. HEAVY METAL CONTENT OF AYURVEDIC HERBAL MEDICINE PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Case reports of individuals taking Ayurvedic herbal medicine products (HMPs) suggest that they may contain lead, mercury, and/or arsenic. We analyzed the heavy metal content of Ayurvedic HMPs manufactured in India and Pakistan, available in South Asian grocery stores in the Bost...

  12. The use of Chinese herbal drugs in Islamic medicine.

    PubMed

    Heyadri, Mojtaba; Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Ayati, Mohammad Hosein; Quintern, Detlev; Nimrouzi, Majid; Heyadri, Mojtaba

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates some of the ways that Chinese medicine has been transferred to the Western world and to Islamic territories. During the Golden Age of Islam (8th to 13th century CE), the herbal drug trade promoted significant commercial and scientific exchange between China and the Muslim world. Chinese herbal drugs have been described by medieval Muslim medical scholars such as Tabari (870 CE), Rhazes (925 CE), Haly Abbas (982 CE), Avicenna (1037 CE) and Jurjani (1137 CE). The term al-sin (the Arabic word for China) is used 46 times in Avicenna's Canon of Medicine in reference to herbal drugs imported from China. Cinnamon (dar sini; "Chinese herb"), wild ginger (asaron), rhubarb (rivand-e sini), nutmeg (basbasa), incense tree wood (ood), cubeb (kababe) and sandalwood (sandal) were the most frequently mentioned Chinese herbs in Islamic medical books. There are also multiple similarities between the clinical uses of these herbs in both medical systems. It appears that Chinese herbal drugs were a major component of the exchange of goods and knowledge between China and the Islamic and later to the Western world amid this era. PMID:26559361

  13. Capacity for Clinical Research on Herbal Medicines in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Siegfried, Nandi; Johnson, Quinton

    2012-01-01

    Abstract An electronic survey was used to assess the training needs of clinical and public health researchers who have been involved, and/or plan to become involved, in clinical trials of herbal medicines in Africa. Over 90 researchers were contacted through pre-existing networks, of whom 58 (64%) responded, from 35 institutions in 14 African countries. Over half (57%) had already been involved in a clinical trial of an herbal medicine, and gave information about a total of 23 trials that have already been completed. Of these, only five had been published, and only one had resulted in a licensed product. Fifty-four (54) of the researchers were planning to conduct a clinical trial of an herbal medicine in the future, and gave information about 54 possible trials. Respondents outlined the following most commonly encountered difficulties when conducting clinical trials: resource constraints (including lack of funding, equipment, staff, and infrastructure); social acceptance of the clinical trial (including difficulty recruiting enough patients, poor rapport with traditional healers, and willingness of biomedical staff to be involved); herbal medicine supply (including insufficient cultivation, production, and quality control); lack of trained staff; and logistical issues in conducting trials. The topics in which researchers were least confident were Intellectual Property Rights issues, statistical issues, and issues related to Good Clinical Practice guidelines. PMID:22784350

  14. Antimicrobial effect of herbal dentifrices: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Sunitha, J.; Ananthalakshmi, R.; Jeeva, J. Sathiya; Jeddy, Nadeem; Dhakshininamoorthy, Subhashini; Muthu Meenakshi, R. M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was taken up to compare the antimicrobial effect of few herbal dentifrices against cariogenic organism such as Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus. Materials and Methods: This study was an in vitro model using the well method of microbial culture. Colgate total was used as the positive control and distilled water as the negative control. Dentifrices were prepared in 1:1 dilution using sterile distilled water. The standard strains were inoculated and incubated for 4 h. They were then lawn cultured. Wells were made using a standard template, and the dentifrices were placed in these wells Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney test were used for statistical analysis. Results: In case of S. mutans, the maximum antimicrobial effect among the six dentifrices was shown by Babool followed by Colgate Herbal. For L. acidophilus, the antimicrobial zone exhibited by all the six dentifrices were similar to the positive control. Conclusions: Babool and Colgate Herbal have more inhibitory effect against S. mutans than the other dentifrices of the group. Dabur Red, Colgate Herbal, and Himalaya are efficient against L. acidophilus. PMID:26538932

  15. The toxicity and pathology of selected dietary herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Dunnick, June K; Nyska, Abraham

    2013-02-01

    Toxicity studies were conducted by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) to provide information on the potential for toxicity from long-term use of commonly used herbal medicines. Here, we review the findings from these NTP toxicology/carcinogenesis 2-year rodent studies of 7 commonly used herbs. In these studies, the individual herb or herbal product was administered to F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice by oral administration for up to 2 years. The spectrum of carcinogenic responses ranged from no or equivocal evidence for carcinogenic activity (ginseng, milk thistle, and turmeric oleoresin) to a liver tumor response (ginkgo, goldenseal, kava), thyroid tumor response (ginkgo), or an intestinal tumor response (Aloe vera whole leaf nondecolorized extract). Different mechanisms may be involved in the occurrence of liver (ginkgo, goldenseal, and kava kava) and gastrointestinal toxicity (turmeric oleoresin and Aloe vera whole leaf nondecolorized extract), while the toxic lesion is the same. The results from these hazard identification toxicity/carcinogenesis studies along with those from ongoing National Institute of Health clinical trials of herbal medicines provide more complete information on the risks and benefits from herbal medicine use in the general population. PMID:23262639

  16. Hybrid analysis (barcode-high resolution melting) for authentication of Thai herbal products, Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall.ex Nees

    PubMed Central

    Osathanunkul, Maslin; Suwannapoom, Chatmongkon; Khamyong, Nuttaluck; Pintakum, Danupol; Lamphun, Santisuk Na; Triwitayakorn, Kanokporn; Osathanunkul, Kitisak; Madesis, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Andrographis paniculata Nees is a medicinal plant with multiple pharmacological properties. It has been used over many centuries as a household remedy. A. paniculata products sold on the markets are in processed forms so it is difficult to authenticate. Therefore buying the herbal products poses a high-risk of acquiring counterfeited, substituted and/or adulterated products. Due to these issues, a reliable method to authenticate products is needed. Materials and Methods: High resolution melting analysis coupled with DNA barcoding (Bar-HRM) was applied to detect adulteration in commercial herbal products. The rbcL barcode was selected to use in primers design for HRM analysis to produce standard melting profile of A. paniculata species. DNA of the tested commercial products was isolated and their melting profiles were then generated and compared with the standard A. paniculata. Results: The melting profiles of the rbcL amplicons of the three closely related herbal species (A. paniculata, Acanthus ebracteatus and Rhinacanthus nasutus) are clearly separated so that they can be distinguished by the developed method. The method was then used to authenticate commercial herbal products. HRM curves of all 10 samples tested are similar to A. paniculata which indicated that all tested products were contained the correct species as labeled. Conclusion: The method described in this study has been proved to be useful in aiding identification and/or authenticating A. paniculata. This Bar-HRM analysis has allowed us easily to determine the A. paniculata species in herbal products on the markets even they are in processed forms. SUMMARY We propose the use of DNA barcoding combined with High Resolution Melting analysis for authenticating of Andrographis paniculata products.The developed method can be used regardless of the type of the DNA template (fresh or dried tissue, leaf, and stem).rbcL region was chosen for the analysis and work well with our samplesWe can easily determine the A. paniculata species in herbal products tested. Abbreviations used: bp: Base pair, Tm: Melting temperature PMID:27041863

  17. Radical scavenging potentials of single and combinatorial herbal formulations in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ojiako, Okey A.; Chikezie, Paul C.; Ogbuji, Agomuo C.

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) are involved in deleterious/beneficial biological processes. The present study sought to investigate the capacity of single and combinatorial herbal formulations of Acanthus montanus, Emilia coccinea, Hibiscus rosasinensis, and Asystasia gangetica to act as superoxide radicals (SOR), hydrogen peroxide (HP), nitric oxide radical (NOR), hydroxyl radical (HR), and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical antagonists using in vitro models. The herbal extracts were single herbal formulations (SHfs), double herbal formulations (DHfs), triple herbal formulations (THfs), and a quadruple herbal formulation (QHf). The phytochemical composition and radical scavenging capacity index (SCI) of the herbal formulations were measured using standard methods. The flavonoids were the most abundant phytochemicals present in the herbal extracts. The SCI50 defined the concentration (μg/mL) of herbal formulation required to scavenge 50% of the investigated radicals. The SHfs, DHfs, THfs, and QHf SCI50 against the radicals followed the order HR > SOR > DPPH radical > HP > NOR. Although the various herbal formulations exhibited ambivalent antioxidant activities in terms of their radical scavenging capabilities, a broad survey of the results of the present study showed that combinatorial herbal formulations (DHfs, THfs, and QHf) appeared to exhibit lower radical scavenging capacities than those of the SHfs in vitro. PMID:27114938

  18. Soil Remediation Test

    SciTech Connect

    Manlapig, D. M.; Williamsws

    2002-04-01

    Soils contaminated with petroleum by-products can now be effectively remediated using a variety of technologies. Among these are in-situ bioremediation, land farming, and landfill/replacing of soil. The range of efficiencies and cost effectiveness of these technologies has been well documented. Exsorbet Plus is showing promise as an in-situ bioremediation agent. It is made of naturally grown Spaghnum Peat Moss which has been activated for encapsulation and blended with nitrogen-rich fertilizer. In its initial field test in Caracas, Venezuela, it was able to remediate crude oil-contaminated soil in 90 days at less than half of the cost of competing technologies. Waste Solutions, Corp and the US Department of Energy signed a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement to test Exsorbet Plus at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center near Casper, Wyoming. As part of the test, soil contaminated with crude oil was treated with Exsorbet Plus to aid the in-situ bioremediation process. Quantitative total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) measurements were acquired comparing the performance of Exsorbet Plus with an adjacent plot undergoing unaided in-situ bioremediation.

  19. Home Assessment and Remediation.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Charles S; Horner, W Elliott; Kennedy, Kevin; Grimes, Carl; Miller, J David

    2016-01-01

    Awareness of the relationship of fungi to asthma in indoor air is very old and well documented. There is substantial evidence that mold and dampness exacerbate asthma in sensitized individuals. Many governmental and nongovernmental organizations around the world have issued guidelines to the effect that the elimination of moisture intrusion and the removal of moldy items from living space can improve respiratory health. The process of home assessment for moisture and mold presence is discussed along with factors that can be used to guide fungal exposure reduction efforts. An approach to the assessment process itself is outlined, and common causes of moisture and mold damage are described. Points that should be included in a report resulting from a home assessment and rudimentary elements of report interpretation are discussed. Emphasis is that interpretation of sampling for moisture and fungal presence should be provided by the person performing the assessment. We conclude that multifaceted remediation contributes to fungal allergen avoidance. The use of an indoor environmental professional to generate evaluation reports and remediation activities can be a valuable contribution to an overall allergen avoidance strategy. PMID:27157934

  20. Recent progress of research on medicinal mushrooms, foods, and other herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Yang, Xiaoming; Huang, Rong; Zhou, Ting; Wu, Shou-Fang; Shi, Qian; Itokawa, Hideji

    2012-01-01

    This article will review selected herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine, including medicinal mushrooms (巴西蘑菇 bā xī mó gū; Agaricus blazei, 雲芝 yún zhī; Coriolus versicolor, 靈芝 líng zhī; Ganoderma lucidum, 香蕈 xiāng xùn; shiitake, Lentinus edodes, 牛樟芝 niú zhāng zhī; Taiwanofungus camphoratus), Cordyceps (冬蟲夏草 dōng chóng xià cǎo), pomegranate (石榴 shí liú; Granati Fructus), green tea (綠茶 lǜ chá; Theae Folium Non Fermentatum), garlic (大蒜 dà suàn; Allii Sativi Bulbus), turmeric (薑黃 jiāng huáng; Curcumae Longae Rhizoma), and Artemisiae Annuae Herba (青蒿 qīng hāo; sweet wormwood). Many of the discussed herbal products have gained popularity in their uses as dietary supplements for health benefits. The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011. PMID:24716120

  1. Recent progress of research on medicinal mushrooms, foods, and other herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan L; Yang, Xiaoming; Huang, Rong; Zhou, Ting; Wu, Shou-Fang; Shi, Qian; Itokawa, Hideji

    2012-04-01

    This article will review selected herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine, including medicinal mushrooms ( bā xī mó gū; Agaricus blazei, yún zhī; Coriolus versicolor, líng zhī; Ganoderma lucidum, xiāng xùn; shiitake, Lentinus edodes, niú zhāng zhī; Taiwanofungus camphoratus), Cordyceps ( dōng chóng xià cǎo), pomegranate ( shí liú; Granati Fructus), green tea ( lǜ chá; Theae Folium Non Fermentatum), garlic ( dà suàn; Allii Sativi Bulbus), turmeric ( jiāng huáng; Curcumae Longae Rhizoma), and Artemisiae Annuae Herba ( qīng hāo; sweet wormwood). Many of the discussed herbal products have gained popularity in their uses as dietary supplements for health benefits. The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011. PMID:24716120

  2. Efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer: A review

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Wei-Ping; Man, Hui-Bin; Man, Mao-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Gastric ulcer is a common disorder of the digestive system. Current therapeutic regimens largely rely on Western medicine. However, numerous studies have demonstrated that herbal medicines can effectively treat gastric ulcer in humans and various animal models via divergent mechanisms. This review updates the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer, and the mechanisms of their action in humans and animal models. Studies have demonstrated that the efficacy of herbal medicines is comparable or superior to that of drugs such as omeprazole or cimetidine in humans and animal models, and herbal medicines display fewer adverse effects. The mechanisms by which herbal medicines benefit gastric ulcer include stimulation of mucous cell proliferation, anti-oxidation, and inhibition of gastric acid secretion and H(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity. Some herbal medicines also exhibit antimicrobial properties. Utilization of herbal medicines could be a valuable alternative to treat gastric ulcer in humans effectively, with few adverse effects. PMID:25493014

  3. Brownfield landfill remediation under the Illinois EPA site remediation program

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, J.; Bruce, B.; Miller, J.; Wey, T.

    1999-07-01

    Brownfield type landfill remediation was completed at the Ft. Sheridan Historic Landmark District, a former Army Base Realignment and Closure Facility, in conjunction with the future development of 551 historic and new homes at this site. The project was completed during 1998 under the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (Illinois EPA) Site Remediation Program. This paper highlights the Illinois EPA's Site Remediation Program and the remediation of Landfills 3 and 4 at Fort Sheridan. The project involved removal of about 200,000 cubic yards of landfill waste, comprised of industrial and domestic refuse and demolition debris, and post-removal confirmation sampling of soils, sediment, surface water, and groundwater. The sample results were compared to the Illinois Risk-Based Cleanup levels for residential scenarios. The goal of the removal project was to obtain a No Further Remediation letter from the Illinois EPA to allow residential development of the landfill areas.

  4. Herbal bioactivation, molecular targets and the toxicity relevance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Wu; Serag, Erini S; Sneed, Kevin B; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2011-07-15

    There have been increasing reports on the adverse reactions associated with herbal consumption. For many of these adverse reactions, the underlying biochemical mechanisms are unknown, but bioactivation of herbal compounds to generate reactive intermediates have been implicated. This minireview updates our knowledge on metabolic activation of herbal compounds, molecular targets and the toxicity relevance. A number of studies have documented that some herbal compounds can be converted to toxic or even carcinogenic metabolites by Phase I [e.g. cytochrome P450s (CYPs)] and less frequently by Phase II enzymes. For example, aristolochic acids (AAs) in Aristolochia spp, which undergo reduction of the nitro group by hepatic CYP1A1/2 or peroxidases in extrahepatic tissues to generate highly reactive cyclic nitrenium ions. The latter can react with macromolecules (DNA and protein), resulting in activation of H-ras and myc oncogenes and gene mutation in renal cells and finally carcinogenesis of the kidneys. Teucrin A and teuchamaedryn A, two diterpenoids found in germander (Teuchrium chamaedrys) used as an adjuvant to slimming herbal supplements that caused severe hepatotoxicity, are converted by CYP3A4 to reactive epoxide which reacts with proteins such as CYP3A and epoxide hydrolase and inactivate them. Some naturally occurring alkenylbenzenes (e.g. safrole, methyleugenol and estragole) and flavonoids (e.g. quercetin) can undergo bioactivation by sequential 1-hydroxylation and sulfation, resulting in reactive intermediates capable of forming DNA adducts. Extensive pulegone metabolism generated p-cresol that is a glutathione depletory. The hepatotoxicity of kava is possibly due to intracellular glutathione depletion and/or quinone formation. Moreover, several herbal compounds including capsaicin from chili peppers, dially sulfone in garlic, methysticin and dihydromethysticin in kava, oleuropein in olive oil, and resveratrol found in grape seeds are mechanism-based (suicide) inhibitors of various CYPs. Together with advances of proteomics, metabolomics and toxicogenomics, an integrated systems toxicological approach may provide deep insights into mechanistic aspects of herb-induced toxicities, and contribute to bridging the relationships between herbal bioactivation, protein/DNA adduct formation and the toxicological consequences. PMID:21459083

  5. Pilot study investigating the ability of an herbal composite to alleviate clinical signs of respiratory dysfunction in horses with recurrent airway obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Wendy; Charch, Armen; Brewer, Dyanne; Clarke, Andrew F.

    2007-01-01

    Recurrent airway obstruction (RAO), known previously as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), is a debilitating respiratory condition that significantly contributes to lost training days and illness in racehorses. Herbs are becoming increasingly popular for the prophylaxis or treatment of the clinical signs of RAO despite a paucity of research on efficacy and safety. We evaluated the ability of an herbal composite containing garlic, white horehound, boneset, aniseed, fennel, licorice, thyme, and hyssop to reduce the clinical signs of RAO, hypothesizing that the product would safely reduce signs and would improve the inflammatory cell profile within the lungs. The composite was fed to 6 horses with symptomatic RAO for 21 d in a crossover manner. Ventigraphs were used to record respiratory rate and intrapleural pressure; the proportion of inflammatory cells in fluid aspirated from the trachea was determined. Blood biochemical and hematologic screening was conducted to identify possible adverse effects. Treatment with the composite did not result in statistically significant changes in any of the parameters evaluated. A trend to a decrease in respiratory rate (P = 0.1) and an increase in the proportion of macrophages (P = 0.1) was observed in the horses receiving the herbal composite compared with placebo. These data indicate a potential for the herbal composite to safely reduce the elevated respiratory rate in horses with RAO. Future research with a greater number of horses is warranted to further characterize the effect of this product on horses with RAO. PMID:17479778

  6. Pilot study investigating the ability of an herbal composite to alleviate clinical signs of respiratory dysfunction in horses with recurrent airway obstruction.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Wendy; Charch, Armen; Brewer, Dyanne; Clarke, Andrew F

    2007-04-01

    Recurrent airway obstruction (RAO), known previously as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), is a debilitating respiratory condition that significantly contributes to lost training days and illness in racehorses. Herbs are becoming increasingly popular for the prophylaxis or treatment of the clinical signs of RAO despite a paucity of research on efficacy and safety. We evaluated the ability of an herbal composite containing garlic, white horehound, boneset, aniseed, fennel, licorice, thyme, and hyssop to reduce the clinical signs of RAO, hypothesizing that the product would safely reduce signs and would improve the inflammatory cell profile within the lungs. The composite was fed to 6 horses with symptomatic RAO for 21 d in a crossover manner. Ventigraphs were used to record respiratory rate and intrapleural pressure; the proportion of inflammatory cells in fluid aspirated from the trachea was determined. Blood biochemical and hematologic screening was conducted to identify possible adverse effects. Treatment with the composite did not result in statistically significant changes in any of the parameters evaluated. A trend to a decrease in respiratory rate (P = 0.1) and an increase in the proportion of macrophages (P = 0.1) was observed in the horses receiving the herbal composite compared with placebo. These data indicate a potential for the herbal composite to safely reduce the elevated respiratory rate in horses with RAO. Future research with a greater number of horses is warranted to further characterize the effect of this product on horses with RAO. PMID:17479778

  7. Greco-Arab and Islamic Herbal-Derived Anticancer Modalities: From Tradition to Molecular Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Zaid, Hilal; Silbermann, Michael; Ben-Arye, Eran; Saad, Bashar

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of cancer is increasing in the developed countries and even more so in developing countries parallel to the increase in life expectancy. In recent years, clinicians and researchers advocate the need to include supportive and palliative care since the establishment of the diagnosis and throughout the duration of treatment, with the goal of improving patients' quality of life. This patient-centered approach in supportive care is also shared by various traditional and complementary medicine approaches. Traditional Arab-Islamic medicine offers a variety of therapeutic modalities that include herbal, nutritional, and spiritual approaches. Physicians and scholars, such as Avicenna (980–1037), Rhazes (965–915), Al Zahrawi (936–1013), and Ibn al Nafis (1218–1288) referred to cancer etiology in various medicinal texts and suggested both preventive and therapeutic remedies to alleviate suffering. This review presents research data related to the anticancer activities of herbs used in Arab-Islamic medicine and allude to their potential role in improving the quality of life of cancer patients. PMID:22203868

  8. Pathophysiology of kidney, gallbladder and urinary stones treatment with herbal and allopathic medicine: A review

    PubMed Central

    Alok, Shashi; Jain, Sanjay Kumar; Verma, Amita; Kumar, Mayank; Sabharwal, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants have been known for millennia and are highly esteemed all over the world as a rich source of therapeutic agents for the prevention of various ailments. Today large number of population suffers from kidney stone, gall stone and urinary calculi. Stone disease has gained increasing significance due to changes in living conditions i.e. industrialization and malnutrition. Changes in prevalence and incidence, the occurrence of stone types and stone location, and the manner of stone removal are explained. Medicinal plants are used from centuries due to its safety, efficacy, cultural acceptability and lesser side effects as compared to synthetic drugs. The present article deals with measures to be adopted for the potential of medicinal plants in stone dissolving activity. The problem of urinary stones or calculi is a very ancient one and many remedies have been employed during the ages these stones are found in all parts of the urinary tract, the kidney, the ureters and the urinary bladder and may vary considerably in size. In the present article, an attempt has been made to emphasis on herbal option for urinary stone.

  9. Maya medicine in the biological gaze: bioprospecting research as herbal fetishism.

    PubMed

    Nigh, Ronald

    2002-06-01

    The relationship of human societies to territory and natural resources is being drastically altered by a series of global agreements concerning trade, intellectual property, and the conservation and use of genetic resources. Through a characteristic style of collective appropriation of their tropical ecosystems, Maya societies have created local institutions for governing access to their common resources. However, new mechanisms of global governance require access to Maya biodiversity for world commercial interests. The Chiapas Highland Maya already face this prospect in the International Cooperative Biodiversity Group drug discovery project, which proposes to use Maya medical knowledge to screen plants for potential pharmaceuticals. The ethnobiological focus of the project emphasizes the naturalistic aspects of Maya medicine, primarily the use of herbal remedies. This biological gaze decontextualizes the situated knowledge of Maya healers, ignoring the cultural context in which they create and apply that knowledge. The search for raw materials for the production of universal medical technology results in symbolic violence to the cultural logic of Maya peoples. Only the full recognition of Maya peoples' collective rights to territory and respect for their local common-resource institutions will provide ultimate protection for their cultural and natural patrimony. PMID:12152634

  10. Efficacy and Tolerability of an Herbal Formulation for Weight Management

    PubMed Central

    Peerson, Jan; Mishra, Artatrana T.; Mathukumalli, Venkata Sadasiva Rao; Konda, Poorna Rajeswari

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The clinical effects and tolerability of a novel herbal formulation comprising the extracts of Sphaeranthus indicus and Garcinia mangostana were assessed in two similarly designed randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trials in 100 human subjects with a body mass index (BMI) between 30 and 40 kg/m2. Participants were randomized into two groups receiving either 400 mg of herbal blend twice daily or two identical placebo capsules. All subjects received three meals (2000 kcal/day) throughout the study and walked 5 days a week for 30 min. The primary outcome was reduction in body weight. Secondary outcomes were reduction in BMI and in waist and hip circumference. Serum glycemic, lipid, and adiponectin levels were also measured. Ninety-five subjects completed the trials, and data from these two studies were pooled and analyzed. At study conclusion (8 weeks), statistically significant reductions in body weight (5.2 kg; P<.0001), BMI (2.2 kg/m2; P<.0001), as well as waist (11.9 cm; P<.0001) and hip circumferences (6.3 cm; P=.0001) were observed in the herbal group compared with placebo. An increase in serum adiponectin concentration was also found in the herbal group versus placebo (P=.0008) at study conclusion along with reductions in fasting blood glucose (12.2%, P=.01), cholesterol (13.8%, P=.002), and triglyceride (41.6%, P<.0001) concentrations. No changes were seen across organ function panels, multiple vital signs, and no major adverse events were reported. The minor adverse events were equally distributed between the two groups. Our findings suggest that the herbal blend appears to be a well-tolerated and effective ingredient for weight management. PMID:23767862

  11. Review of Tumor Dormancy Therapy Using Traditional Oriental Herbal Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong-Ho; Koung, Fan-Pei; Cho, Chong-Kwan; Lee, Yeon-Weol; Yoo, Hwa-Seung

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Standard cancer therapy prolongs survival, but can be detrimental to the quality of life, compromise the immune system, and leave residual disease that can cause recurrence years or decades in the future. Tumor dormancy therapy is a novel therapeutic approach that may improve these shortcomings, promote quality of life, and prolong survival. The aim of this study was to analyze studies on dormancy therapy, especially studies using traditional Oriental herbal medicine, so as to evaluate the efficacy of dormancy therapy with traditional oriental herbal medicine. Methods: We conducted a systematic literature review using Scientific and Technical Information Integration Services (NDSL), PubMed, and RISS. We searched for clinical reports, papers, and books related to tumor metastasis, recurrence, immunotherapy, tumor dormancy, and traditional oriental herbal medicine with anticancer effects. Seventy-nine (79) experimental and clinical articles in both Korean and English were reviewed. This study was conducted from March 1, 2012 to May 31, 2012. Results: This approach, Tumor dormancy therapy, rather than seeking to remove the tumor, includes combination of low-dose chemotherapy, immunotherapy, immunosurveillance, and other methods to stabilize tumor growth and to enhance the host is immunity against disseminated tumor cells and thus to manage cancer as a chronic disease while maintaining quality of life. In particular, integrative use of Oriental herbal medicine has been shown to induce or maintain tumor dormancy, increase the effectiveness of conventional chemotherapy, improve quality of life, and prolong survival. Conclusion: Tumor dormancy therapy is a promising novel therapeutic approach that may be especially effective with Oriental herbal medicine. Further research is needed to determine its potential mechanisms and therapeutic applications. PMID:25780657

  12. Innovative Technologies for Chlorinated Solvent Remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennell, Kurt D.; Cápiro, Natalie L.

    2014-07-01

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * TRADITIONAL REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES (1980s) * RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF INNOVATIVE REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES (1990s-2000s) * CURRENT TRENDS IN CHLORINATED SOLVENT REMEDIATION (2010s) * CLOSING THOUGHTS * REFERENCES

  13. Bullying, Social Power and Heteronormativity: Girls' Constructions of Popularity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Neil; Owens, Larry

    2011-01-01

    Literature on girls' popularity posits a strong association between popularity, social power and bullying behaviours, some of which conflate the concepts "bully" and "popular". This study explores that association through links to concepts of popularity among girls in two demographically different high schools. Data are presented that were derived…

  14. Focus: Popular Culture, Censorship, Religion in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Donald, Ed.

    1976-01-01

    This issue of "Kansas English" contains four articles related to popular culture, censorship, and religion. "Popular Culture Studies: A Complement to the Humanities" by Michael Marsden, focuses on the relationship between popular culture studies and the humanities, including English. "Popular Couture: La Vie En Blue" by Richard Martin, examines…

  15. Lights, Camera, Action: Integrating Popular Film in the Health Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diez, Keri S.; Pleban, Francis T.; Wood, Ralph J.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the benefits as well as the important considerations that should be taken into account in integrating popular films in health education classes. Use of popular films in the classroom, termed "cinema education," is becoming increasingly popular in teaching health education. As a matter of convenience, popular films are easy…

  16. Lights, Camera, Action: Integrating Popular Film in the Health Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diez, Keri S.; Pleban, Francis T.; Wood, Ralph J.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the benefits as well as the important considerations that should be taken into account in integrating popular films in health education classes. Use of popular films in the classroom, termed "cinema education," is becoming increasingly popular in teaching health education. As a matter of convenience, popular films are easy

  17. Bullying, Social Power and Heteronormativity: Girls' Constructions of Popularity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Neil; Owens, Larry

    2011-01-01

    Literature on girls' popularity posits a strong association between popularity, social power and bullying behaviours, some of which conflate the concepts "bully" and "popular". This study explores that association through links to concepts of popularity among girls in two demographically different high schools. Data are presented that were derived

  18. The Popularity of P&P

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffins, Paul

    2006-01-01

    "Principles and Practices" (P&P), a real estate pre-licensing class, is one of the most popular courses in adult education, because it can literally be the key to the dual American dreams: striking it rich and owning a home. One of the things that makes the P&P class unique is that it is taught in so many different venues. The classes are often…

  19. Nebulous networks: Virginia Woolf and popular astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Holly Grace

    This study investigates Virginia Woolf's fascination with advances in astronomy and telescopic technologies of the 1920s and 30s. Grounded in the cultural studies of science, and the work of theorists such as Donna Haraway and Bruno Latour, the dissertation reconstructs the complex interconnections between Woolf's fiction and prose writing and an explosive popular interest in astronomy and cosmology. Woolf's aesthetic and political practices were shaped by emerging visualization technologies ranging from astronomical telescopes to the hand-held camera. While her writing provides a focus for this investigation, the dissertation offers close readings of fiction and essays by multiple British authors and science writers in the context of these converging phenomena. As a result of glimpsing tiny worlds through her own telescope, Virginia Woolf formulated a global aesthetic and a global politics. Gazing at the moon and stars reminded her that earth is a planet in space, and that earth's inhabitants must rely on this small, fragile globe for their future survival. The opening chapter establishes the cultural context for the study. In 1923, the American astronomer Edwin Hubble determined that the Andromeda galaxy was located far beyond the limits of the Milky Way, then believed to comprise the entire universe. Hubble's radical reconfiguration of the universe contributed to a pervasive sense, in the modern period, of a decentering and re-scaling of humans in the universe. In the chapters that follow, the dissertation offers readings of Woolf's novels and short fiction in relation to her fascination with astronomy and explores how the wildly popular British cosmologist and science writer, Sir James jeans, had a shaping effect on popular culture and on Woolf's narrative practices and pacifist politics. Despite his oblique connections to what became Bloomsbury, jeans and his popular science texts were to play a considerable role in Woolf's formulation of a global aesthetic.

  20. Alcohol brand appearances in US popular music.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Primack BA; Nuzzo E; Rice KR; Sargent JD

    2012-03-01

    AIMS: The average US adolescent is exposed to 34 references to alcohol in popular music daily. Although brand recognition is an independent, potent risk factor for alcohol outcomes among adolescents, alcohol brand appearances in popular music have not been assessed systematically. We aimed to determine the prevalence of and contextual elements associated with alcohol brand appearances in US popular music.DESIGN: Qualitative content analysis.SETTING: We used Billboard Magazine to identify songs to which US adolescents were most exposed in 2005-07. For each of the 793 songs, two trained coders analyzed independently the lyrics of each song for references to alcohol and alcohol brand appearances. Subsequent in-depth assessments utilized Atlas.ti to determine contextual factors associated with each of the alcohol brand appearances.MEASUREMENTS: Our final code book contained 27 relevant codes representing six categories: alcohol types, consequences, emotional states, activities, status and objects.FINDINGS: Average inter-rater reliability was high (κ = 0.80), and all differences were easily adjudicated. Of the 793 songs in our sample, 169 (21.3%) referred explicitly to alcohol, and of those, 41 (24.3%) contained an alcohol brand appearance. Consequences associated with alcohol were more often positive than negative (41.5% versus 17.1%, P < 0.001). Alcohol brand appearances were associated commonly with wealth (63.4%), sex (58.5%), luxury objects (51.2%), partying (48.8%), other drugs (43.9%) and vehicles (39.0%).CONCLUSIONS: One in five songs sampled from US popular music had explicit references to alcohol, and one-quarter of these mentioned a specific alcohol brand. These alcohol brand appearances are associated commonly with a luxury life-style characterized by wealth, sex, partying and other drugs.

  1. Update and Critique of Natural Remedies as Antidepressant Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Mischoulon, David

    2009-01-01

    SYNOPSIS The popularity of natural or “alternative” remedies to treat medical and psychiatric disorders has accelerated dramatically over the past decade, in the United States and worldwide. This article reviews the evidence for clinical efficacy, active ingredients, mechanisms of action, recommended dosages, and toxicities of the three best-studied putative natural antidepressants, St. John's Wort (hypericum), S-adenosyl methionine, and the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Despite growing evidence for efficacy and safety, more comprehensive studies are required before these remedies can be recommended as safe and effective alternatives or adjuncts to conventional psychotropic agents. There are limited data regarding safety in pregnancy and during lactation, and caution is therefore recommended in women who are pregnant or breastfeeding. PMID:19944301

  2. Cooperation and popularity in spatial games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Jin, Zhen; Wang, Zhen

    2014-11-01

    Selection of the competition opponent is crucial for the evolution of cooperation in evolutionary games. In this work, we introduce a simple rule, incorporating individual popularity via the single parameter α, to study how the selection of the potential strategy sources influences individual behavior traits. For positive α players with high popularity will be considered more likely, while for negative α the opposite holds. Setting α equal to zero returns the frequently adopted random selection of the opponent. We find that positive α (namely, adopting the strategy from a more popular player) promotes the emergence of cooperation, which is robust against different interaction networks and game classes. The essence of this boosting effect can be attributed to the fact: increasing α accelerates the microscopic organization of cooperator clusters to resist the exploitation of defectors. Moreover, we also demonstrated that the introduction of a new mechanism alters the impact of uncertainty by strategy adoption on the evolution of cooperation. We thus present a viable method of understanding the ubiquitous cooperative behaviors in nature and hope that it will inspire further studies to resolve social dilemmas.

  3. Explanatory Framework for Popular Physics Lectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapon, Shulamit; Ganiel, Uri; Eylon, Bat Sheva

    2007-11-01

    Popular physics lectures provide a `translation' that bridges the gap between the specialized knowledge that formal scientific content is based on, and the audience's informal prior knowledge. This paper presents an overview of a grounded theory explanatory framework for Translated Scientific Explanations (TSE) in such lectures, focusing on one of its aspects, the conceptual blending cluster. The framework is derived from a comparative study of three exemplary popular physics lectures from two perspectives: the explanations in the lecture (as artifacts), and the design of the explanation from the lecturer's point of view. The framework consists of four clusters of categories: 1. Conceptual blending (e.g. metaphor). 2. Story (e.g. narrative). 3. Content (e.g. selection of level). 4. Knowledge organization (e.g. structure). The framework shows how the lecturers customized the content of the presentation to the audience's knowledge. Lecture profiles based upon this framework can serve as guides for utilizing popular physics lectures when teaching contemporary physics to learners lacking the necessary science background. These features are demonstrated through the conceptual blending cluster.

  4. [Empacho: An historical review of popular Chilean childhood disease (1674-2014)].

    PubMed

    Campos Navarro, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    «Empacho» (abdominal pain and bloating), «mal de ojo» (evil eye), «los aires» (illnesses said to be caught by catching draughts), «el susto» or «espanto» (fright or panic), are the principal and most well-known popular Latin American illnesses. As regards empacho, the medical, historical and ethnographic information is extensive and detailed, since there documents recording it from the 16th century until recent times (2014), and in the case of Chile since 1674. For this review, 109 source documents from libraries in Chile, including some foreign ones, were consulted. It was found that the illness is known all over the country. It is a digestive system disorder caused by over-eating and the ingestion of products difficult to digest or indigestible, which cause problems in gastrointestinal transit. The most significant clinical data are gastralgia, diarrhoea or constipation, vomiting, fever, and other discomforts. The illness is treated at home, and if necessary, popular specialists are employed, with a visit to a qualified doctor being exceptional. There are many complex and combined treatments, which go from herbal products to ritual elements, not forgetting the so-called «quebradura del empacho». This review summary of empacho in Chile should enable the paediatrician to enter the world of popular knowledge and practices with the aim of improving the care of child patients and their families. It should also lead to the serious and systematic study of this nosological condition that will continue to exist in the future. PMID:26455698

  5. Finding Materials on American Popular Culture in the MSU Libraries: Popular Music, Television, Comics, Popular Fiction, Movies. How to Find Series No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Randall W., Comp.

    An introduction to popular culture materials in the Michigan State University Libraries, this combination library guide and bibliography presents finding tools for popular fiction, comic materials, popular music, movies, and television programming. It provides instruction on the use of the card catalog, suggested subject heading search terms, and

  6. Finding Materials on American Popular Culture in the MSU Libraries: Popular Music, Television, Comics, Popular Fiction, Movies. How to Find Series No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Randall W., Comp.

    An introduction to popular culture materials in the Michigan State University Libraries, this combination library guide and bibliography presents finding tools for popular fiction, comic materials, popular music, movies, and television programming. It provides instruction on the use of the card catalog, suggested subject heading search terms, and…

  7. Herbal bioactivation: the good, the bad and the ugly.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shufeng; Koh, Hwee-Ling; Gao, Yihuai; Gong, Zhi-yuan; Lee, Edmund Jon Deoon

    2004-01-01

    It has been well established that the formation of reactive metabolites of drugs is associated with drug toxicity. Similarly, there are accumulating data suggesting the role of the formation of reactive metabolites/intermediates through bioactivation in herbal toxicity and carcinogenicity. It has been hypothesized that the resultant reactive metabolites following herbal bioactivation covalently bind to cellular proteins and DNA, leading to toxicity via multiple mechanisms such as direct cytotoxicity, oncogene activation, and hypersensitivity reactions. This is exemplified by aristolochic acids present in Aristolochia spp, undergoing reduction of the nitro group by hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP1A1/2) or peroxidases in extrahepatic tissues to reactive cyclic nitrenium ion. The latter was capable of reacting with DNA and proteins, resulting in activation of H-ras oncogene, gene mutation and finally carcinogenesis. Other examples are pulegone present in essential oils from many mint species; and teucrin A, a diterpenoid found in germander (Teuchrium chamaedrys) used as an adjuvant to slimming diets. Extensive pulegone metabolism generated p-cresol that was a glutathione depletory, and the furan ring of the diterpenoids in germander was oxidized by CYP3A4 to reactive epoxide which reacts with proteins such as CYP3A and epoxide hydrolase. On the other hand, some herbal/dietary constituents were shown to form reactive intermediates capable of irreversibly inhibiting various CYPs. The resultant metabolites lead to CYP inactivation by chemical modification of the heme, the apoprotein, or both as a result of covalent binding of modified heme to the apoprotein. Some examples include bergamottin, a furanocoumarin of grapefruit juice; capsaicin from chili peppers; glabridin, an isoflavan from licorice root; isothiocyanates found in all cruciferous vegetables; oleuropein rich in olive oil; dially sulfone found in garlic; and resveratrol, a constituent of red wine. CYPs have been known to metabolize more than 95% therapeutic drugs and activate a number of procarcinogens as well. Therefore, mechanism-based inhibition of CYPs may provide an explanation for some reported herb-drug interactions and chemopreventive activity of herbs. Due to the wide use and easy availability of herbal medicines, there is increasing concern about herbal toxicity. The safety and quality of herbal medicine should be ensured through greater research, pharmacovigilance, greater regulatory control and better communication between patients and health professionals. PMID:14672753

  8. Source control strategy accelerates remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Garland, S.B. II; Hammond, R.

    1993-06-01

    Shallow land burial of ion-level radioactive wastes at ORNL has resulted in the release of contaminants into surrounding soil, groundwater, and surface water. Multiple contaminated areas occurring in close proximity make it difficult to relate contaminant releases to a specific site. To address this issue, similar and contiguous contaminated sites within the same drainage area have been combined into Waste Area Groupings. These Waste Area Groupings were prioritized and became the focus of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act remediation process. Since the majority of the groupings are in the White Oak Creek drainage basin, the remediation strategy is to control contaminant releases from these source areas first, followed by remediation of White Oak Creek. In planning the remediation program, it became clear that until the issues of ultimate land use and institutional control, waste treatment technologies, and waste disposal facilities are resolved, final remediation objectives cannot be defined and remedial alternatives cannot be evaluated. Consequently, instead of postponing remedial actions until these issues are resolved, a strategy to control the sources of contaminant release with a serie s of interim actions was developed. In the near term, this strategy reduces off-site risk by eliminating contaminant releases and controls on-site risk through institutional control. Source control will allow time to achieve consensus on long-term institutional control and land use issues to develop appropriate treatment technologies, and to construct the necessary disposal facilities without further environmental degradation.

  9. Y-12 Plant Remedial Action technology logic diagram. Volume I: Technology evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant Remedial Action Program addresses remediation of the contaminated groundwater, surface water and soil in the following areas located on the Oak Ridge Reservation: Chestnut Ridge, Bear Creek Valley, the Upper and Lower East Fork Popular Creek Watersheds, CAPCA 1, which includes several areas in which remediation has been completed, and CAPCA 2, which includes dense nonaqueous phase liquid wells and a storage facility. There are many facilities within these areas that are contaminated by uranium, mercury, organics, and other materials. This Technology Logic Diagram identifies possible remediation technologies that can be applied to the soil, water, and contaminants for characterization, treatment, and waste management technology options are supplemented by identification of possible robotics or automation technologies. These would facilitate the cleanup effort by improving safety, of remediation, improving the final remediation product, or decreasing the remediation cost. The Technology Logic Diagram was prepared by a diverse group of more than 35 scientists and engineers from across the Oak Ridge Reservation. Most are specialists in the areas of their contributions. 22 refs., 25 tabs.

  10. The legal framework governing the quality of (traditional) herbal medicinal products in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Kroes, Burt H

    2014-12-01

    In the European Union a complex regulatory framework is in place for the regulation of (traditional) herbal medicinal products. It is based on the principle that a marketing authorisation granted by the competent authorities is required for placing medicinal products on the market. The requirements and procedures for acquiring such a marketing authorisation are laid down in regulations, directives and scientific guidelines. This paper gives an overview of the quality requirements for (traditional) herbal medicinal products that are contained in European pharmaceutical legislation. Pharmaceutical quality of medicinal product is the basis for ensuring safe and effective medicines. The basic principles governing the assurance of the quality of medicinal products in the European Union are primarily defined in the amended Directive 2001/83/EC and Directive 2003/63/EC. Quality requirements of herbal medicinal products are also laid down in scientific guidelines. Scientific guidelines provide a basis for practical harmonisation of how the competent authorities of EU Member States interpret and apply the detailed requirements for the demonstration of quality laid down in regulations and directives. Detailed quality requirements for herbal medicinal products on the European market are contained in European Union (EU) pharmaceutical legislation. They include a system of manufacturing authorisations which ensures that all herbal medicinal products on the European market are manufactured/imported only by authorised manufacturers, whose activities are regularly inspected by the competent authorities. Additionally, as starting materials only active substances are allowed which have been manufactured in accordance with the GMP for starting materials as adopted by the Community. The European regulatory framework encompasses specific requirements for herbal medicinal products. These requirements are independent from the legal status. Thus, the same quality standards equally apply to herbal products based on clinical evidence and traditional herbal medicinal products. The basic principle is that the quality of herbal medicinal products is intrinsically associated with the quality standard of the herbal substances and/or herbal preparations. Furthermore, the herbal substance or herbal preparation in its entirety is regarded as the active substance. Consequently, a mere determination of the content of marker(s) or constituents with known therapeutic activity is not sufficient for the quality control of herbal medicinal products. Specific quality requirements include thorough product characterisation, adherence to the Good Agricultural and Collection Practices, good manufacturing practices and validated manufacturing process, e.g., raw material testing, in-process testing, fingerprint characterisation etc. Quality control of herbal medicinal products is primarily intended to define the quality of the herbal substance/preparation and herbal medicinal product rather than to establish full characterisation. PMID:25086408

  11. Functional herbal food ingredients used in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Pathirage Kamal; Li, Yunman

    2012-01-01

    From many reports it is clear that diabetes will be one of the major diseases in the coming years. As a result there is a rapidly increasing interest in searching new medicines, or even better searching prophylactic methods. Based on a large number of chemical and pharmacological research work, numerous bioactive compounds have been found in functional herbal food ingredients for diabetes. The present paper reviews functional herbal food ingredients with regards to their anti-diabetic active principles and pharmacological test results, which are commonly used in Asian culinary system and medical system and have demonstrated clinical or/and experimental anti-diabetic effectiveness. Our idea of reviewing this article is to give more attention to these functional food ingredients as targets medicinal foods in order to prevent or slow down the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:22654403

  12. Best Available Evidence in Cochrane Reviews on Herbal Medicine?

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Elyad; Vlachojannis, Julia; Cameron, Melainie; Chrubasik, Sigrun

    2013-01-01

    Cochrane reviews are considered by many to be the “gold standard” or the final word in medical conversation on a topic. We explored the eleven most relevant Cochrane reviews on herbal medicine and identified that frequently herbal medicines in the included studies had not been sufficiently well characterised. If data on the effects of the plant parts are unavailable, effects of co-active ingredients need to be considered and the plausibility of the study medications for the specific indications discussed. Effect sizes calculated from exploratory studies would be best used to determine the sample sizes required for future confirmatory studies, rather than as definitive reports of intervention effects. Reviews should be comprehensive, including discussion of putative adverse events and possible drug interactions. We suggest that the guidelines for preparing Cochrane reviews be revised and offer assistance in this task. PMID:23840246

  13. Determination of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in tea, herbal drugs and honey.

    PubMed

    Bodi, Dorina; Ronczka, Stefan; Gottschalk, Christoph; Behr, Nastassja; Skibba, Anne; Wagner, Matthias; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Preiss-Weigert, Angelika; These, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Honey was previously considered to be one of the main food sources of human pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) exposure in Europe. However, comprehensive analyses of honey and tea sampled in the Berlin retail market revealed unexpected high PA amounts in teas. This study comprised the analysis of 87 honey as well as 274 tea samples including black, green, rooibos, melissa, peppermint, chamomile, fennel, nettle, and mixed herbal tea or fruit tea. Total PA concentrations in tea ranged from < LOD to 5647 µg kg(-1), while a mean value of about 10 µg kg(-1) was found in honey samples. Additionally, herbal drugs were investigated to identify the source of PA in teas. Results suggest that PA in tea samples are most likely a contamination caused by co-harvesting of PA-producing plants. In some cases such as fennel, anise or caraway, it cannot be excluded that these plants are able to produce PA themselves. PMID:25222912

  14. Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of eastern Cuba.

    PubMed

    Cano, Juan Hernández; Volpato, Gabriele

    2004-02-01

    Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba. Traditional herbal mixtures in Eastern Cuba are investigated through interviews with 130 knowledgeable people and traditional healers of the provinces of Santiago de Cuba and Guantánamo. One hundred seventy plant species and other products are used in 199 formulas, galones being the more complex. Cocos nucifera L. (Arecaceae), Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae), Cissus sicyoides L. (Vitaceae), Erythroxylum havanense Jacq. (Erythroxylaceae) and Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl. (Verbenaceae) are the species most frequently cited. The ecological distribution of the taxa and cultural and anthropological aspects of mixtures are highlighted; particularly American and African influences that have shaped local knowledge about plant combinations are discussed. PMID:15013195

  15. Intestinal parasitosis in Nalout popularity, western Libya.

    PubMed

    Al Kilani, M K; Dahesh, S M; El Taweel, H A

    2008-04-01

    This paper studied gastrointestinal parasitosis in Nalout popularity. A hospital based study was done on a total of 800 stool samples from a private laboratory in Tigi city. The results showed an overall rate of 29.6%. Of these patients, 7.59% had double or triple parasitic infections. Children were more infected than adults. The parasites in a descending order were Entamoeba histolytica (21%), Enterobius vermicularis (7.5%), Giardia lamblia (2.5%), Balantidium coli (0.38%), and Hymenolepis nana (0.38%) A Sudanese immigrant employee had Strongyloides stercoralis larva in stool culture. PMID:19143135

  16. Health awareness and popularity of alternative medicines among people of Jamnagar town: A cross - sectional study.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Bijoya; Biswas, Prasanta Chatterjee; Pancholi, Jigisha

    2012-01-01

    By 2020, it is predicted that non-communicable diseases will be causing seven out of every 10 deaths in developing countries. Indian traditional medicine system with the concept of personalized therapy in Ayurveda has the potential to offer remedies to these challenging health issues. Integration of Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani, the three Indian systems of medicine (ISM), along with homoeopathic and allopathic systems of medicine to ensure health for all citizens across the country is the new Mantra of the Union health ministry. To tap the potentials of our indigenous medicine systems and other popular systems of medicine it is important to assess the awareness among people and make efforts to popularize them. The present study was therefore carried out to assess the awareness among 200 respondents with the help of a multiple choice questionnaire by the interview method. Convenience sampling technique was employed. The awareness about lifestyle, diet, oil consumption needs more vigorous attention as observed in this study. The most popular choice was found to be groundnut oil. Around 4% of the participants used more than one medium of cooking. Forty-two percent of the participants observed fast regularly. Twenty-three percent of the participants did not include any form of exercise in their daily routine while walking was the most popular form of exercise performed by 43%. By using multiple comparisons it was observed that the difference between i) Allopathy- Homeopathy, ii) Allopathy - Ayurvedic and iii) Ayurvedic- Homeopathy as 15.5263, 7.1053 and 8.4211, respectively, are significant at α = 0.05. A larger sample size encompassing various economic strata could be a better index of popularity of various alternative medicine systems existing in different sections of our society. PMID:23049181

  17. Acute Demyelinating Disease after Oral Therapy with Herbal Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Kostianovsky, Alex; Maskin, Patricio; Noriega, María M.; Soler, Cristina; Bonelli, Ignacio; Riley, Claire S.; O'Connor, Kevin C.; Saubidet, Cristi´n López; Alvarez, Paulino A.

    2011-01-01

    Central nervous system demyelinating processes such as multiple sclerosis and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis constitute a group of diseases not completely understood in their physiopathology. Environmental and toxic insults are thought to play a role in priming autoimmunity. The aim of the present report is to describe a case of acute demyelinating disease with fatal outcome occurring 15 days after oral exposure to herbal extracts. PMID:21738505

  18. Herbal medicine use in adults who experience anxiety: A qualitative exploration

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, Erica; Saliba, Anthony J.; Moran, Carmen C.

    2015-01-01

    Herbal medicine use is widespread and has been reported to be as high as 21% in people with anxiety disorders. Critical thematic analysis was used to explore beliefs and attitudes towards herbal medicines in adults experiencing anxiety. In-depth interviews were conducted with eight adults who experienced anxiety and used herbal medicines. Three major themes were found: Herbal medicines being different from pharmaceuticals, evidence and effectiveness, and barriers to herbal medicine use. Within these themes people held beliefs about the safety of natural treatments, valued anecdotes from friends and family as a form of evidence for self-prescribing, and described confusion about herbal medicines and their cost as barriers to using them as a treatment option. The findings will inform future research and provide guidance for health practitioners. PMID:26680418

  19. 10 CFR 205.199I - Remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Remedies. 205.199I Section 205.199I Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Notice of Probable Violation, Remedial Order, Notice of Proposed Disallowance, and Order of Disallowance § 205.199I Remedies. (a) A Remedial Order,...

  20. A Framework for Remediating Number Combination Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Powell, Sarah R.; Seethaler, Pamela M.; Fuchs, Douglas; Hamlett, Carol L.; Cirino, Paul T.; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces a framework for the remediation of number combination (NC) deficits. Research on the remediation of NC deficits is summarized, and research program studies are used to illustrate the 3 approaches to remediation. The Framework comprises a 2-stage system of remediation. The less intensive stage implementing 1 of 3…