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Sample records for population accidentally exposed

  1. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to fallout radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Conard, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Particularly important has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

  2. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to fallout radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Conard, R.A.

    1991-12-31

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Particularly important has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

  3. Mathematical model for predicting the probability of acute mortality in a human population exposed to accidentally released airborne radionuclides. Final report for Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Filipy, R.E.; Borst, F.J.; Cross, F.T.; Park, J.F.; Moss, O.R.; Roswell, R.L.; Stevens, D.L.

    1980-05-01

    A mathematical model was constructed for the purpose of predicting the fraction of human population which would die within 1 year of an accidental exposure to airborne radionuclides. The model is based on data from laboratory experiments with rats, dogs and baboons, and from human epidemiological data. Doses from external, whole-body irradiation and from inhaled, alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides are calculated for several organs. The probabilities of death from radiation pneumonitis and from bone marrow irradiation are predicted from doses accumulated within 30 days of exposure to the radioactive aerosol. The model is compared with existing similar models under hypothetical exposure conditions. Suggestions for further experiments with inhaled radionuclides are included. 25 refs., 16 figs., 13 tabs.

  4. Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation, January 1983-December 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, W.H.; Engle, J.R.; Harper, J.A.; Heotis, P.M.; Scott, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    March 1, 1984, was the 30th anniversary of the Bravo thermonuclear test that resulted in the accidental exposure of the populations of Rongelap and Utirik atolls to radioactive fallout. The chronicling of the medical events resulting from that exposure is continued in this report, which covers the period from January 1983 through December 1984. An updated listing of all relevant publications from the Medical Department Brookhaven National Laboratory, is presented in the Reference Section. Thirty years of observation continue to show no detectable increase in mortality in the exposed population as a result of that exposure. The survival curves of the high-exposure Rongelap group, the low-exposure Utirik population, and an unexposed group of Rongelap people matched by age and sex to the exposed Rongelap group in 1957 continue to be similar. 89 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation: January 1980-December 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, W.H.; Harper, J.A.; Rittmaster, R.S.; Heotis, P.M.; Scott, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    This report updates, for 1980 through 1982, the results of continuing medical surveillance of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to radioactive fallout in March 1954. The originally exposed Marshallese population comprised 64 persons on Rongelap Atoll who each received, on the average, an estimated 190 rads of absorbed external gamma radiation, 18 on Ailingnae Atoll who received 110 rads, and 159 on Utirik who received 11 rads. There were, in addition, 3 persons in utero on Rongelap, 1 person in utero on Ailingnae, and 8 persons in utero on Utirik who are considered exposed. The recipients of primary medical care include exposed and comparison populations as well as a rather large number of additional beneficiaries who are seen on a humanitarian basis of practical need and resource availability. In recent years, about 1400 people have been seen annually. This report, however, deals with four clearly defined groups: the remaining individuals who were exposed to radioactive fallout on Rongelap, Ailingnae, and Utirik in 1954 (including those in utero), and a comparison population of individuals from Rongelap who were unexposed. The number of persons now in each exposure category are 51, 12, 116, and 137, respectively. 100 references, 4 figures, 5 tables. (ACR)

  6. A mathematical model for predicting the probability of acute mortality in a human population exposed to accidentally released airborne radionuclides. Final report for Phase I of the project: early effects of inhaled radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Filipy, R.E.; Borst, F.J.; Cross, F.T.; Park, J.F.; Moss, O.R.

    1980-06-01

    The report presents a mathematical model for the purpose of predicting the fraction of human population which would die within 1 year of an accidental exposure to airborne radionuclides. The model is based on data from laboratory experiments with rats, dogs and baboons, and from human epidemiological data. Doses from external, whole-body irradiation and from inhaled, alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides are calculated for several organs. The probabilities of death from radiation pneumonitis and from bone marrow irradiation are predicted from doses accumulated within 30 days of exposure to the radioactive aerosol. The model is compared with existing similar models under hypothetical exposure conditions. Suggestions for further experiments with inhaled radionuclides are included.

  7. Serologic markers for hepatitis B among Marshallese accidentally exposed to fallout radiation in 1954

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, W.H.; Fields, H.A.; Engle, J.R.; Hadler, S.C.

    1986-10-01

    At least one serologic marker of prior hepatitis B infection (hepatitis B surface antigen, antibody to surface antigen, or antibody to core antigen) was found in 91.7% of 314 Marshallese tested. The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigenemia (3.3%) in a subpopulation that had resided on Rongelap Atoll at the time of accidental exposure to radioactive fallout from a thermonuclear test in 1954 did not differ significantly from the prevalence in a selected unexposed population (10.5%).

  8. Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation: January 1988 through December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, J.E.; Heotis, P.M.; Scott, W.A.; Adams, W.H.

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to disseminate information concerning the medical status of 253 Marshallese exposed to fallout radiation in 1954. This report discusses the medical care provided and the medical findings for the years 1988-1991. Details of the BRAVO thermonuclear accident that caused the exposure have been published, and a 1955 article in the Journal of the American Medical Association describing the acute medical effects in the exposed population remains a definitive and relevant description of events. Participation in the Marshall Islands Medical Program by the exposed Marshallese is voluntary. In the spring and fall of each year, medical surveillance is provided to exposed and unexposed cohorts. Examinations performed include: a cancer-related examination as defined by the American Society, an annual thyroid examination and thyroid function testing, serum prolactin testing looking for pituitary tumors, annual blood counts to include platelets, and evaluation for paraneoplastic evidence of neoplasms. This report details the medical program, medical findings, and thyroid surgery findings. Deaths (4 exposed and 10 nonexposed) that occurred during the reporting period are discussed. There is a mild but relatively consistent depression of neutrophil, lymphocyte, and platelet concentrations in the blood of the exposed population. This depression appears to be of no clinical significance. Thyroid hypofunction, either clinical or biochemical, has been documented as a consequence of radiation exposure in 14 exposed individuals. Previously, one other exposed person was diagnosed with basal cell carcinoma. During this reporting period, a thyroid nodule was identified in an individual who was in utero during the exposure. Upon pathologic review, the nodule was diagnosed as occult papillary carcinoma.

  9. [Protection of the Croatian population from accidental radioactive contamination of the food chain].

    PubMed

    Lokobauer, N; Franić, Z; Bauman, A

    1993-03-01

    The paper indicates the importance of investigating radionuclide translocation in the human food chain, and the contribution of selected food components in total exposure of the population after accidental radioactive contamination. Data on radioactive contamination and risk assessment of the Croatian population after the Chernobyl nuclear accident are given and possibilities of decontamination of food chain components are discussed. Literature data on radionuclide removal from the human food chain are compared to the results of own investigations. Emphasis is placed on biologically most important radionuclides, 131I, 90Sr, 137Cs, and the most effective means of protection are sought. The preventive measures following a nuclear accident should be based on the cost-benefit principle i.e. the damage from applying radiation protection measures should not exceed the benefit from possible dose reduction. PMID:8347101

  10. Urban "accidental" wetlands mediate water quality and heat exposure for homeless populations in a desert city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palta, M.

    2015-12-01

    In urban settings where humans interact in complex ways with ecosystems, there may be hidden or unanticipated benefits (services) or harm (disservices) conferred by the built environment. We examined interactions of a highly vulnerable population, the homeless, with urban waterways and wetlands in the desert city of Phoenix, Arizona, U.S.A. Climate change models project increases in heat, droughts, and extreme floods for the southwestern U.S. These projected changes pose a number of problems for sustainability and quality of future water supply, and the ability of human populations to mitigate heat stress and avoid fatalities. Urban wetlands that are created "accidentally" (by water pooling in abandoned areas of the landscape) have many structural (e.g., soils and hydrology) and functional (e.g., high denitrification) elements that mimic natural, unaltered aquatic systems. Accidental wetland systems in the dry bed of the Salt River, fed by storm and waste water from urban Phoenix, are located within economically depressed sections of the city, and show the potential for pollutant and heat mitigation. We used a mixed-method socio-ecological approach to examine wetland ecosystem functions and the ways in which homeless populations utilize Salt River wetlands for ecosystem services. Interviews and trash surveys indicated that homeless people are accessing and utilizing the wetlands as a source of running water, for sanitary and heat mitigation services, and for recreation and habitation. Environmental monitoring demonstrated that the wetlands can provide a reliable source of running water, nutrient and pathogen removal, heat mitigation, and privacy, but they may also pose a health risk to individuals coming in contact with the water through drinking or bathing. Whether wetlands provided a net benefit vs. harm varied according to site, season, and particular service, and several tradeoffs were identified. For example, heat is highest during the summer storm season

  11. Assessment of retrospective dose estimation, with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), of six victims previously exposed to accidental ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing-Jie; Lu, Xue; Zhao, Xiao-Tao; Feng, Jiang-Bin; Lü, Yu-Min; Jiang, En-Hai; Zhang, Shu-Lan; Chen, De-Qing; Jia, Ting-Zhen; Liang, Li

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the use of the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) translocation assay for retrospective dose estimation of acute accidental exposure to radiation in the past. Reciprocal translocation analysis by FISH with three whole-chromosome probes was performed on normal peripheral blood samples. Samples were irradiated with 0-5Gy (60)Co γ-rays in vitro, and dose-effect curves were established. FISH-based translocation analyses for six accident victims were then performed, and biological doses were estimated retrospectively by comparison with the dose-effect curves. Reconstructed doses by FISH were compared with estimated doses obtained by analysis of di-centrics performed soon after exposure, or with dose estimates from tooth-enamel electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) data obtained at the same time as the FISH analysis. Follow-up FISH analyses for an adolescent victim were performed. Results showed that dose-effect curves established in the present study follow a linear-quadratic model, regardless of the background translocation frequency. Estimated doses according to two dose-effect curves for all six victims were similar. FISH dose estimations of three adult victims exposed to accidental radiation less than a decade prior to analysis (3, 6, or 7 years ago) were consistent with those estimated with tooth-enamel EPR measurements or analyses of di-centrics. Estimated doses of two other adult victims exposed to radiation over a decade prior to analysis (16 or 33 years ago) were underestimated and two to three times lower than the values obtained from analysis of di-centrics or tooth-enamel EPR. Follow-up analyses of the adolescent victim showed that doses estimated by FISH analysis decrease rapidly over time. Therefore, the accuracy of dose estimates by FISH is acceptable only when analysis is performed less than 7 years after exposure. Measurements carried out more than a decade after exposure through FISH analysis resulted in

  12. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidently exposed to fallout radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Conard, R.A.

    1992-09-01

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical Team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Noteworthy has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

  13. Genetic Predisposition for Dermal Problems in Hexavalent Chromium Exposed Population

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Priti; Bihari, Vipin; Agarwal, Sudhir K.; Goel, Sudhir K.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the effect of genetic susceptibility on hexavalent chromium induced dermal adversities. The health status of population was examined from the areas of Kanpur (India) having the elevated hexavalent chromium levels in groundwater. Blood samples were collected for DNA isolation to conduct polymorphic determination of genes, namely: NQO1 (C609T), hOGG1 (C1245G), GSTT1, and GSTM1 (deletion). Symptomatic exposed subjects (n = 38) were compared with asymptomatic exposed subjects (n = 108) along with asymptomatic controls (n = 148) from a non contaminated reference community. Exposed symptomatic group consisted of 36.8% subjects who were GSTM1 null genotyped as compared to asymptomatic where only 19.4% subjects were null. The exposed subjects with GSTM1 null genotype were more susceptible to dermal adversities in comparison with wild genotyped subjects (OR = 2.42; 95% CI = 1.071–5.451). Age, smoking, gender or duration of residence were not found to have any confounding effect towards this association. Association with other genes was not statistically significant, nonetheless, possible contribution by these genes cannot be ruled out. In conclusion, variation in the polymorphic status of GSTM1 gene may influence dermal outcomes among residents from Cr(VI) contaminated areas. Further studies are therefore, needed to examine these observations among different population groups. PMID:22919465

  14. Pattern of Fractures in Non-Accidental Injuries in the Pediatric Population in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Raveendran, Rakesh; Mahadev, Arjandas

    2014-01-01

    Background Fractures as a result of non-accidental injuries (NAI) are not uncommon among children. The purpose of our study was to describe the incidence, demographic characteristics, and associated risk factors in patients with NAI in a multiethnic Asian cohort. Methods A retrospective record review of patients admitted to our hospital between September 2007 and 2009 with the diagnosis of NAI was conducted. Results A total of 978 children were reported with suspicion of NAI. Among them, 570 patients (58.28%) were diagnosed with NAI. Fractures were observed in 35 children (6.14%). NAI fractures were highest among female infants (73.3%). The biological father was the most common known perpetrator of NAI (n = 155, 29.0%). The most common perpetrator sadly remained unknown (n = 14, 40%). All NAI fractures were closed (n = 35, 6.14%), and the most commonly affected bone was the humeral shaft (n = 10, 28.57%) with an oblique configuration. Age < 1 year and parental divorce were significant risk factors associated with these fractures. Conclusions The skeletal injury pattern and risk factors highlighted in our study will help treating physicians identify patients susceptible to NAI, as many of these patients are young and vulnerable. Protective measures can be initiated early by recognizing these injuries and preventing further physical and psychological harm to the child. PMID:25436068

  15. Juvenile hypothyroidism among two populations exposed to radioiodine.

    PubMed Central

    Goldsmith, J R; Grossman, C M; Morton, W E; Nussbaum, R H; Kordysh, E A; Quastel, M R; Sobel, R B; Nussbaum, F D

    1999-01-01

    We found an epidemic of juvenile hypothyroidism among a population of self-defined "downwinders" living near the Hanford nuclear facility located in southeast Washington State. The episode followed massive releases of 131I. Self-reported data on 60 cases of juvenile hypothyroidism (<20 years of age) among a group of 801 Hanford downwinders are presented, as well as data concerning the thyroid status of approximately 160,000 children exposed to radioiodine before 10 years of age as a result of the 26 April 1986 Chernobyl explosion in the former Soviet Union. These children were residents of five regions near Chernobyl. They were examined by standardized screening protocols over a period of 5 years from 1991 to 1996. They are a well-defined group of 10 samples. Fifty-six cases of hypothyroidism were found among boys and 92 among girls. Body burdens of 137Cs have been correlated with hypothyroidism prevalence rates. On the other hand, the group of juvenile (<20 years of age) Hanford downwinders is not a representative sample. Most of the 77 cases of juvenile hypothyroidism in the Hanford group were diagnosed from 1945 to 1970. However, the ratio of reported cases to the county population under 20 years of age is roughly correlated with officially estimated mean levels of cumulative thyroid 131I uptake in these counties, providing evidence that juvenile hypothyroidism was associated with radioiodine exposures. Because even subtle hypothyroidism may be of clinical significance in childhood and can be treated, it may be useful to screen for the condition in populations exposed to radioiodine fallout. Although radiation exposure is associated with hypothyroidism, its excess among fallout-exposed children has not been previously quantified. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:10090710

  16. Studying Health Outcomes in Farmworker Populations Exposed to Pesticides

    PubMed Central

    McCauley, Linda A.; Anger, W. Kent; Keifer, Matthew; Langley, Rick; Robson, Mark G.; Rohlman, Diane

    2006-01-01

    A major goal of studying farmworkers is to better understand how their work environment, including exposure to pesticides, affects their health. Although a number of health conditions have been associated with pesticide exposure, clear linkages have yet to be made between exposure and health effects except in cases of acute pesticide exposure. In this article, we review the most common health end points that have been studied and describe the epidemiologic challenges encountered in studying these health effects of pesticides among farmworkers, including the difficulties in accessing the population and challenges associated with obtaining health end point data. The assessment of neurobehavioral health effects serves as one of the most common and best examples of an approach used to study health outcomes in farmworkers and other populations exposed to pesticides. We review the current limitations in neurobehavioral assessment and strategies to improve these analytical methods. Emerging techniques to improve our assessment of health effects associated with pesticide exposure are reviewed. These techniques, which in most cases have not been applied to farmworker populations, hold promise in our ability to study and understand the relationship between pesticide exposure and a variety of health effects in this population. PMID:16760000

  17. Accidental explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Medard, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    This book presents a survey of accidental explosions, their nature and their causes. It covers the physical and chemical conditions governing accidental explosions, whether in the gas phase, or in the liquid or solid state. The theoretical background of the kinetics and thermochemistry of explosions is outlined, followed by a detailed study of the explosion and detonation properties of both gas and condensed explosives. The author surveys a wide variety of substances in daily use in industry which can give rise to accidental explosions. Their properties and hazards are spelt out in detail, the discussion drawing on a long history of sometimes catastrophic accidents. Includes case studies, tables of physical and chemical data.

  18. Genetic and demographic responses of mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) populations exposed to mercury for multiple generations

    SciTech Connect

    Tatara, C.P.; Mulvey, M.; Newman, M.C.

    1999-12-01

    Genetic and demographic responses of mosquitofish were examined after multiple generations of exposure to mercury. Previous studies of acute lethal exposures of mosquitofish to either mercury or arsenic demonstrated a consistent correlation between time to death and genotype at the glucosephosphate isomerase-2 (Gpi-2) locus. A mesocosm study involving mosquitofish populations exposed to mercury for 111 d showed significant female sexual selection and fecundity selection at the Gpi-2 locus. Here the mesocosm study was extended to populations exposed to mercury for several (approx. four) generations. After 2 years, control and mercury-exposed populations met Hardy-Weinberg expectations and showed no evidence of genetic bottlenecks. The mean number of heterozygous loci did not differ significantly between the mercury-exposed and control populations. Significant differences in allele frequencies at the Gpi-2 locus were observed between the mercury-exposed and control populations. Relative to the initial and control allele frequencies, the GPI-2{sup 100} allele frequency was lower, the Gpi-2{sup 66} allele frequency increased, but the Gpi-2{sup 38} allele frequency did not change in mercury-exposed populations. No significant differences were found in standard length, weight, sex ratio, or age class ratio between the control and mercury-exposed populations. Allele frequency changes at the Gpi-2 locus suggest population-level response to chronic mercury exposure. Changes in allele frequency may be useful as indicators of population response to contaminants, provided that the population in question is well understood.

  19. Asbestos-exposed populations: prevention, care, and compensation

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, E.D.; Tulchinsky, T.; Goldsmith, J.R.; Yaffe, Y.

    1984-05-01

    In Israel, the prevention and care of asbestos-associated diseases with latency periods of one to four decades (asbestosis, mesothelioma, increased frequency of cancer of the lung and other sites) are not satisfactory, and new national policies are required. Such policies have three major goals: (a) elimination or reduction of exposure to asbestos dust; (b) measures to promote cessation or drastic reduction of cigarette smoking among those currently or formerly exposed; and (c) equitable compensation for the consequences of past exposures. The practical elements of a program to achieve these three goals include (a) exposure standards and control technology; (b) identification of sources, routes, and levels of exposure and groups at risk; (c) compensation and job security; (d) medical monitoring and follow-up; (e) smoking cessation; (f) selective substitution of other substances for asbestos; and (g) establishment of a panel for policy supervision and the overseeing of compensation programs. Delay in implementation risks higher death rates for asbestosis and cancer among previously exposed workers, greater exposure among current workers, loss of experienced workers from the work force, and unnecessary hardship for families not adequately compensated.

  20. Immunotoxicity Monitoring in a Population Exposed to Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    PubMed Central

    Haase, Hajo; Fahlenkamp, Astrid; Schettgen, Thomas; Esser, Andre; Gube, Monika; Ziegler, Patrick; Kraus, Thomas; Rink, Lothar

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) burden and several indicators of immune function was investigated as part of the HELPcB (Health Effects in High-Level Exposure to PCB) program, offering bio-monitoring to workers, relatives, and neighbors exposed to PCBs by a German transformers and capacitors recycling company. The present retrospective observational study evaluates the correlation of plasma levels of total PCBs, five indicator congeners (28, 101, 138, 153, 180), and seven dioxin-like congeners (105, 114, 118, 156, 157, 167, 189) with several parameters of immune function. The cross-sectional study was performed immediately after the end of exposure (258 subjects), and one (218 subjects), and two (177 subjects) years later. At the first time point, measurements showed significant positive correlation between congeners with low to medium chlorination and the relative proportion of CD19 positive B-cells among lymphocytes, as well as a negative correlation of PCB114 with serum IgM, and of PCB 28 with suppressor T-cell and NK-cell numbers. Congeners with a high degree of chlorination, in particular PCB157 and 189, were positively associated with expression of the activation marker CD25 on T-cells in the cohort of the second time point. No associations between PCB levels and IFN-y production by T-cells and killing by NK-cells were found. In conclusion, there were several effects on the cellular composition of adaptive immunity, affecting both T- and B-cells. However, the values were not generally outside the reference ranges for healthy adult individuals and did not indicate overt functional immunodeficiency, even in subjects with the uppermost PCB burden. PMID:27005643

  1. Immunotoxicity Monitoring in a Population Exposed to Polychlorinated Biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Haase, Hajo; Fahlenkamp, Astrid; Schettgen, Thomas; Esser, Andre; Gube, Monika; Ziegler, Patrick; Kraus, Thomas; Rink, Lothar

    2016-03-01

    The relationship between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) burden and several indicators of immune function was investigated as part of the HELPcB (Health Effects in High-Level Exposure to PCB) program, offering bio-monitoring to workers, relatives, and neighbors exposed to PCBs by a German transformers and capacitors recycling company. The present retrospective observational study evaluates the correlation of plasma levels of total PCBs, five indicator congeners (28, 101, 138, 153, 180), and seven dioxin-like congeners (105, 114, 118, 156, 157, 167, 189) with several parameters of immune function. The cross-sectional study was performed immediately after the end of exposure (258 subjects), and one (218 subjects), and two (177 subjects) years later. At the first time point, measurements showed significant positive correlation between congeners with low to medium chlorination and the relative proportion of CD19 positive B-cells among lymphocytes, as well as a negative correlation of PCB114 with serum IgM, and of PCB 28 with suppressor T-cell and NK-cell numbers. Congeners with a high degree of chlorination, in particular PCB157 and 189, were positively associated with expression of the activation marker CD25 on T-cells in the cohort of the second time point. No associations between PCB levels and IFN-y production by T-cells and killing by NK-cells were found. In conclusion, there were several effects on the cellular composition of adaptive immunity, affecting both T- and B-cells. However, the values were not generally outside the reference ranges for healthy adult individuals and did not indicate overt functional immunodeficiency, even in subjects with the uppermost PCB burden. PMID:27005643

  2. Field epidemiologic studies of populations exposed to waste dumps.

    PubMed

    Heath, C W

    1983-02-01

    Epidemiologic studies are required for assessing health risks related to toxic waste exposure. Since the settings in which such studies must be performed are extremely diverse, epidemiologic approaches must be versatile. For any particular study, three fundamental requirements are to assess what toxic materials are present, understand how human exposure may occur, and objectively measure possible biologic effects. In assessing links between exposure and disease, epidemiologists must be particularly aware of: expected disease frequencies in relation to the size of populations studied, implications of long or varied disease latencies for study design and competing causes of disease and associated confounding variables. These concepts are illustrated by discussion of epidemiologic studies related to the Love Canal toxic waste dump site in Niagara Falls, NY. PMID:6825633

  3. Populations potentially exposed to traffic-related air pollution in seven world cities.

    PubMed

    Su, Jason G; Apte, Joshua S; Lipsitt, Jonah; Garcia-Gonzales, Diane A; Beckerman, Bernardo S; de Nazelle, Audrey; Texcalac-Sangrador, José Luis; Jerrett, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) likely exerts a large burden of disease globally, and in many places, traffic is increasing dramatically. The impact, however, of urban form on the portion of population potentially exposed to TRAP remains poorly understood. In this study, we estimate portions of population potentially exposed to TRAP across seven global cities of various urban forms. Data on population distributions and road networks were collected from the best available sources in each city and from remote sensing analysis. Using spatial mapping techniques, we first overlaid road buffers onto population data to estimate the portions of population potentially exposed for four plausible impact zones. Based on a most likely scenario with impacts from highways up to 300meters and major roadways up to 50meters, we identified that the portions of population potentially exposed for the seven cities ranged from 23 to 96%. High-income North American cities had the lowest potential exposure portions, while those in Europe had the highest. Second, we adjusted exposure zone concentration levels based on a literature suggested multiplier for each city using corresponding background concentrations. Though Beijing and Mexico City did not have the highest portion of population exposure, those in their exposure zones had the highest levels of exposure. For all seven cities, the portion of population potentially exposed was positively correlated with roadway density and, to a lesser extent, with population density. These analyses suggest that urban form may influence the portion of population exposed to TRAP and vehicle emissions and other factors may influence the exposure levels. Greater understanding of urban form and other factors influencing potential exposure to TRAP may help inform interventions that protect public health. PMID:25770919

  4. Assessment of status of white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) populations exposed to bleached kraft pulp mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Miller, David H; Tietge, Joseph E; McMaster, Mark E; Munkittrick, Kelly R; Xia, Xiangsheng; Ankley, Gerald T

    2013-07-01

    Credible ecological risk assessments often need to include analysis of population-level impacts. In the present study, a predictive model was developed to investigate population dynamics for white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) exposed to pulp mill effluent at a well-studied site in Jackfish Bay, Lake Superior, Canada. The model uniquely combines a Leslie population projection matrix and the logistic equation to translate changes in the fecundity and the age structure of a breeding population of white sucker exposed to pulp mill effluent to alterations in population growth rate. Application of this density-dependent population projection model requires construction of a life table for the organism of interest, a measure of carrying capacity, and an estimation of the effect of stressors on vital rates. A white sucker population existing at carrying capacity and subsequently exposed to pulp mill effluent equivalent to a documented exposure experienced during the period 1988 to 1994 in Jackfish Bay would be expected to exhibit a 34% to 51% annual decrease in recruitment during the first 5 yr of exposure and approach a population size of 71% of carrying capacity. The Jackfish Bay study site contains monitoring data for biochemical endpoints in white sucker, including circulating sex steroid concentrations, that could be combined with population modeling to utilize the model demonstrated at the Jackfish Bay study site for investigation of other white sucker populations at sites that are less data-rich. PMID:23504660

  5. Population growth study of the rotifer Brachionus sp. fed with triazine-exposed microalgae.

    PubMed

    Rioboo, C; Prado, R; Herrero, C; Cid, A

    2007-08-01

    Few data exist on potential toxic effects that pollutants may have on zooplankton fed microalgae exposed to pesticides. For that reason, microalgal cultures were exposed to different concentrations of the triazine herbicide terbutryn, and used as exclusive food source to Brachionus sp. females, with the aim to evaluate potential deleterious effects upon population growth, survival, reproduction and feeding of the rotifer. Chlorella vulgaris cells were able to accumulate terbutryn, removing more than 90% of the total amount of herbicide in all the exposed cultures. Growth curves of Brachionus sp. showed that population density decreased as terbutryn concentration increased in the microalgal cells. In fact, this species of rotifer did not survive beyond four days when fed with microalgae exposed to 500 nM terbutryn. Percentage of reproductive females in rotifer populations fed with terbutryn-exposed microalgae decreased significantly as herbicide concentration increased. In control cultures, reproductive females laid a maximum of three eggs per individual; whereas in 100 nM cultures, reproductive females laid only one egg per individual throughout the treatment period. Terbutryn accumulated in C. vulgaris provoked a decrease in the feeding rate of Brachionus sp. cultures fed with these microalgae with respect to control cultures. After this treatment period, all the rotifer populations, except those fed with 500 nM terbutryn-exposed microalgae, showed recovery patterns when they were returned to fresh medium containing herbicide-free microalga. Taking into account the results obtained, uptake of pesticides by phytoplankton can directly affect higher trophic levels. PMID:17553575

  6. Possibility of retrospective dosimetry for persons accidentally exposed to ionizing radiation using electron spin resonance of sugar and mother-of-pearl.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, T

    1989-02-01

    An electron spin resonance (ESR) dosemeter was used to measure ESR absorption spectra of sugar and shell buttons made of mother-of-pearl, for the purpose of evaluating the external dose to exposed inhibitants in the vicinity of a radiation accident. The ESR absorption intensity of sugar was proportional to dose in the range from about 30 mGy to 6 x 10(4) Gy. The lifetime of the free radical created in both sugar and shell buttons by radiation was stable for at least 6 months after irradiation. If sugar and shell goods left in or around houses since the occurrence of the Chernobyl reactor and the Brazilian accidents were obtained, it would be possible to estimate from them the integrated external dose to exposed people. PMID:2538196

  7. Accidental Art

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 (Click on image for larger view)

    This image, acquired by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's panoramic camera on the 53rd martian day, or sol, of the rover's mission, struck science and engineering teams as not only scientifically interesting but remarkably beautiful. The large, shadowed rock in the foreground is nicknamed 'Sandia' for a mountain range in New Mexico. An imposing rock, 'Sandia' is about 33 centimeters high (1 foot) and about 1.7 meters (5.5 feet) long.

    Figure 1 above is a lightened version of the more artistic image above.

    The combination of the rover's high-resolution cameras with software tools used by scientists allows the minute details on martian targets to be visualized. When lightened, this image reveals much about the pictured rocks, which the science team believes are ejected material, or ejecta, from the nearby crater called 'Bonneville.' Scientists believe 'Sandia' is a basaltic rock that landed on its side after being ejected from the crater. The vertical lines on the side of the rock facing the camera are known by geologists as 'flow banding' and typically run horizontally, indicating that 'Sandia' is on its side. What look like small holes on the two visible sides of the rock are called vesicles; they were probably once gas bubbles within the lava.

    The lighting not only makes for an artistic image, it helps scientists get a virtual three-dimensional feel for target rocks. Observations taken at different times of day, as shadows move and surface texture details on target rocks are revealed, are entered into modeling software that turns a two-dimensional image into a three-dimensional research tool.

    Many smaller rocks can be seen in the background of the image. Some rocks are completely exposed, while others are only peeking out of the surface. Scientists believe that two processes might be at work here: accretion, which occurs when winds deposit material that

  8. General guidelines for medically screening mixed population groups potentially exposed to nerve or vesicant agents

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, A.P.; Munro, N.B.; Sidell, F.R.; Leffingwell, S.S.

    1992-01-01

    A number of state and local planners have requested guidance on screening protocols and have expressed interest in sampling body fluids from exposed or potentially exposed individuals as a means of estimating agent dose. These guidelines have been developed to provide a clear statement that could be used by state and local emergency response personnel in the event of a nerve or vesicant agent incident resulting in off-post contamination; maximum protection from harm is the goal. The assumption is that any population group so exposed would be heterogeneous for age, gender, reproductive status, and state of health.

  9. Prevalence of abnormal neurobehavioral scores in populations exposed to different industrial chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Camerino, D.; Cassito, M.G.; Gilioli, R. )

    1993-05-01

    The aim of the study is to establish the prevalence of neurobehavioral scores of occupationally exposed subjects below the 10th percentile rank of normalized curves obtained on a referent population. The Milan Automated Neurobehavioral System (MANS) wass administered to 400 drivers from public and private firms; their data were distributed on the basis of age and years of school attendance and were normalized by determining percentile rank equivalence. The exposed population is made up of 20 lead- and zinc-exposed subjects, 18 welders exposed to aluminum for less than 1 year, 150 exposed to different metals in the ferromanganese production, 73 lithographic operators exposed to gasoline and petroleum, 197 exposed to solvents mixtures in the paint manufacture, and 23 dropouts of the same firm. The percentages of scores below 10th percentile rank were calculated in the different exposure groups and in the different age-school attendance ranges. The prevalence of results below the 10th percentile rank was found to be related to the intensity of the exposures and to the low levels of school attendance. In the 20-29 and the 30-39 age ranges, there wa a prevalence of POMS scale scores below 10th percentile rank, in the 50-59 age range, the percentages were high for the Digit Symbol, the mean value of Simple Reaction Time, Serial Digit Learning, and Benton Visual Recognition. 6 refs., 3 tabs.

  10. PROJECTING POPULATION-LEVEL RESPONSES OF MYSIDS EXPOSED TO AN ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Raimondo, Sandy and Charles L. McKenney, Jr. Submitted. Projecting Population-Level Responses of Mysids Exposed to an Endocrine-Disrupting Chemical. Integr. Comp. Biol. 23 p. (ERL,GB 1203).

    To fully understand the implications of a chemical's effect on the conservation of...

  11. Vibrotactile perception thresholds in four non-exposed populations of working age.

    PubMed

    Wild, P; Massin, N; Lasfargues, G; Baudin, V; Unlu, D; Donati, P

    2001-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to establish a basis for the use of a device for measuring vibrotactile perception thresholds for epidemiological purposes on a series of non-exposed populations. Vibrotactile perception thresholds (VPTs) were measured with a vibrometer in 218 men and 160 women belonging to two non-exposed male blue collar populations, one white-collar population and one age and gender stratified sample of the general population. VPTs were measured on the middle and the little finger of the dominant hand at 31.5 and 125 Hz. The VPTs were expressed in dB and the effect of a series of factors including the population, age, gender and digital temperature was assessed in a regression analysis weighted by the inverse variance of the measurements. Adjusted for age, no significant difference between the VPTs in the four male populations was observed. At frequency 125 Hz, the effect of age (0.3 dB per year) was more important than at frequency 31.5 Hz (0.2 dB per year). In the two female populations, the results were less stable than among males and the VPTs were higher than among males. However, the age-dependence was similar among males and females. The within-test variance is a valuable indicator of the quality of the VPT measurements. Weighting by its inverse improved the fit of the regression models. Normal values for VPTs in non-exposed populations were obtained, which were reproducible in four separate populations. PMID:11373025

  12. Review of medical findings in a Marshallese population twenty-six years after accidental exposure to radioactive fallout

    SciTech Connect

    Conard, R.A.; Paglia, D.E.; Larsen, P.R.

    1980-01-01

    In March 1954, radioactive debris from a thermonuclear weapon test at Bikini Atoll deviated from predicted trajectories and contaminated several atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. As a result, 239 native inhabitants of these islands along with 28 American servicemen and 23 Japanese fishermen received variably severe exposures to diverse ionizing radiations. Fallout material consisted largely of mixed fission products with small amounts of neutron-induced radionuclides and minimal amounts of fissionable elements, producing a complex spectrum of electromagnetic and particulate radiation. Individuals were exposed to deeply penetrating, whole-body gamma irradiation, to internal radiation emitters assimilated either by inhalation or by ingestion of contaminated water and food, and to direct radiation from material accumulating on body surfaces. That accident initiated a cascade of events, medical, social and political, which continue in varying forms to this day. Most of these have been discussed in the open medical literature and in periodic reports issued by the medical team headquartered at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This report attempts to summarize some of the principal findings of medical significnce that have been observed during the subsequent 26 years with particular emphasis on the last six years.

  13. Survival following accidental scarf strangulation.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Ullasa; Deepak, M; Hussain, Syed Ather; Usmani, Hadi; Osama, Muhammad; Pereira, Kiran Godwin; Menezes, Ritesh George

    2016-09-01

    Injury or death by strangulation, unless otherwise explained, is almost always homicidal. Accidental strangulation may occur but only very rarely. We present such a case of accidental strangulation and survival in a motorbike pillion rider. A long scarf (dupatta) clad woman, sitting at the back of a two wheeler motorbike, fell after her long scarf got caught in the back wheel. The lady was first taken to a local clinic and then later was referred to a hospital for a suspected spine injury where she made an uneventful recovery. This case report exposes the precarious position of women pillion riders wearing a long scarf and emphasizes the need for extra caution and the need for wheel guards on spoked wheels in particular. PMID:27048761

  14. A study on the effects of seasonal solar radiation on exposed populations.

    PubMed

    Tsilimigaki, Smaragdi I; Messini-Nikolaki, Niki; Kanariou, Maria; Piperakis, Stylianos M

    2003-03-01

    In the present study the effects of seasonal solar radiation (summer and winter) on exposed populations of two different age groups (20-25 and 40-55 years old) were investigated. In addition, the effects of external factors, such as hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and gamma-irradiation, as well as the repair efficiency of human lymphocytes from these populations, was also evaluated. Our results show that the amount of DNA damage appears to be influenced by the exposure to solar radiation, with the summer exposure being the most damaging. Age was also found to be a significant factor, with the older population being more susceptible to solar radiation than the younger one. Season does not appear to affect the sensitivity to external DNA-damaging agents, while age does. Age was also found to have an effect on the DNA repair capacity of the examined populations. PMID:12621069

  15. Hearing Thresholds of a Non-noise-exposed Population in Dundee

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, W.; Pearson, J.; Mair, A.

    1967-01-01

    In order to provide a control population for a previous investigation of noise-induced hearing loss in a population of female jute weavers (Taylor, Pearson, Mair, and Burns, 1965) a survey was conducted on the hearing thresholds of 296 school teachers in Dundee, Scotland, by pure tone earphone listening. This population, although not exposed to industrial noise, is subjected to city noise and differs, therefore, from the rural population of Hinchcliffe (1959), whose presbycusis data have been used in previous studies. The results show that Dundee female school teachers do not conform to British Standard in the age group 18-24 years. The presbycusis data (18-65 years age group), however, show close agreement with those of Hinchcliffe (1959) and Corso (1963). The distributions of hearing threshold observed were normal. PMID:6023076

  16. Genetic structure and diversity of animal populations exposed to metal pollution.

    PubMed

    Mussali-Galante, Patricia; Tovar-Sánchez, Efraín; Valverde, Mahara; Rojas, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Studying the genetic diversity of wild populations that are affected by pollution provides a basis for estimating the risks of environmental contamination to both wildlife, and indirectly to humans. Such research strives to produce both a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms by which genetic diversity is affected,and the long-term effects of the pollutants involved.In this review, we summarize key aspects of the field of genetic ecotoxicology that encompasses using genetic patterns to examine metal pollutants as environmental stressors of natural animal populations. We address genetic changes that result from xenobiotic exposure versus genetic alterations that result from natural ecological processes. We also describe the relationship between metal exposure and changes in the genetic diversity of chronically exposed populations, and how the affected populations respond to environmental stress. Further, we assess the genetic diversity of animal populations that were exposed to metals, focusing on the literature that has been published since the year 2000.Our review disclosed that the most common metals found in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems were Cd, Zn, Cu and Pb; however, differences in the occurrence between aquatic (Cd=Zn>Cu>Pb>Hg) and terrestrial (Cu>Cd>Pb>Zn>Ni)environments were observed. Several molecular markers were used to assess genetic diversity in impacted populations, the order of the most common ones of which were SSR's > allozyme > RAPD's > mtDNA sequencing> other molecular markers.Genetic diversity was reduced for nearly all animal populations that were exposed to a single metal, or a mixture of metals in aquatic ecosystems (except in Hyalella azteca, Littorina littorea, Salmo trutta, and Gobio gobio); however, the pattern was less clear when terrestrial ecosystems were analyzed.We propose that future research in the topic area of this paper emphasizes seven key areas of activity that pertain to the methodological design of genetic

  17. The frequency of induced premature centromere division in human populations occupationally exposed to genotoxic chemicals.

    PubMed

    Major, J; Jakab, M G; Tompa, A

    1999-09-30

    Premature (early) centromere division (PCD, i.e., the separation of centromeres during the prometaphase/metaphase of the mitotic cycle) seems to be a possible manifestation of chromosome instability in human chromosome-breakage syndromes. Chromosome instability also frequently occurs in the peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of humans occupationally exposed to clastogenic agents, and is considered an etiologic factor of neoplastic diseases. In order to investigate the importance of PCD in cancer risk assessment, we studied the frequency of PCDs in PBL of 400 Hungarian subjects. The various groups comprised 188 control donors and 212 subjects occupationally exposed to different genotoxic chemicals, such as acrylonitrile (ACN) and/or dimethylformamide (DMF), benzene, cytostatic drugs, ethylene oxide (ETO), mixed exposure in the rubber industry, mixed organic solvents including CCl4, hot oil-mist, bitumen, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). Data were compared with chromosomal aberration frequencies determined in the same samples. PCD yields are significantly higher in populations exposed to mixed chemicals, crude oil and cytostatic drugs, compared with controls. PCDs involving more than three chromosomes are also more frequent in ETO- and oil mist-exposed groups than in the others. The results indicate that the induction of PCDs is neither incidental nor artificial. As a consequence, we suggest that PCD can be developed into a new, exposure-related cytogenetic biomarker for a more adequate occupational cancer risk assessment. A further, follow-up epidemiological and cytogenetic investigation of PCD is in progress. PMID:10575433

  18. Real-time estimation system for seismic-intensity exposed-population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoi, S.; Nakamura, H.; Kunugi, T.; Suzuki, W.; Fujiwara, H.

    2013-12-01

    For an appropriate first-action to an earthquake, risk (damage) information evaluated in real-time are important as well as hazard (ground motion) information. To meet this need, we are developing real-time estimation system (J-RISQ) for exposed population and earthquake damage on buildings. We plan to open the web page of estimated exposed population to the public from autumn. When an earthquake occurs, seismic intensities are calculated at each observation station and sent to the DMC (Data Management Center) in different timing. For rapid estimation, the system does not wait for the data from all the stations but begins the first estimation when the number of the stations observing the seismic intensity of 2.5 or larger exceeds the threshold amount. Estimations are updated several times using all the available data at that moment. Spatial distribution of seismic intensity in 250 m meshes is estimated by the site amplification factor of surface layers and the observed data. By using this intensity distribution, the exposed population is estimated using population data of each mesh. The exposed populations for municipalities and prefectures are estimated by summing-up the exposures of included meshes for the area and are appropriately rounded taking estimation precision into consideration. The estimated intensities for major cities are shown by the histograms, which indicate the variation of the estimated values in the city together with the observed maximum intensity. The variation is mainly caused by the difference of the site amplification factors. The intensities estimated for meshes with large amplification factor are sometimes larger than the maximum value observed in the city. The estimated results are seen on the web site just after the earthquake. The results of the past earthquakes can be easily searched by keywords such as date, magnitudes, seismic intensities and source areas. The summary of the results in the one-page report of Portable Document Format

  19. Radiation risk and cancer mortality in exposed populations living near the Techa River in Southern Urals

    SciTech Connect

    Kossenko, M.M.; Degteva, M.O.

    1992-06-01

    The appropriateness of applying risk coefficients calculated from short-term exposures at high doses for the assessment of radiation effects at low doses is currently much debated. The problem can be resolved on the basis of the data obtained from a long-term follow-up of the population exposed in the early 1950s when discharges of radioactive wastes from a radiochemical plant into the Techa River (southern Urals) occurred. This paper discusses the results of an analysis of cancer mortality during the period 1950-82. 10 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. An indoor air quality assessment for vulnerable populations exposed to volcanic vog from Kilauea Volcano.

    PubMed

    Longo, Bernadette M; Yang, Wei; Green, Joshua B; Longo, Anthony A; Harris, Merylin; Bibilone, Renwick

    2010-01-01

    The Ka'u District of Hawaii is exposed to sulfurous air pollution called vog from the ongoing eruption of Kilauea Volcano. Increased volcanic activity in 2008 prompted an indoor air quality assessment of the district's hospital and schools. All indoor sulfur dioxide concentrations were above the World Health Organization's average 24-hour recommendation. Indoor penetration ratios were up to 94% of ambient levels and dependent upon building construction or the use of air-conditioning. Health-promotion efforts for vulnerable populations at the hospital and schools are under way to improve indoor air quality and respond to those affected by vog exposure. PMID:20010002

  1. Changes in the population of seed bacteria of transgenerationally Cd-exposed Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Truyens, S; Weyens, N; Cuypers, A; Vangronsveld, J

    2013-11-01

    Plant-associated bacteria can have beneficial effects on the growth and health of their host. Nevertheless, the role of endophytic bacteria present in seeds has not been investigated in depth. In this study, the cultivable endophytic population of seeds from Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to 2 μm cadmium for several generations (Cd seeds) was compared with a population isolated from seeds of plants that were never exposed to Cd (control seeds). We observed obvious differences between the two types of seed concerning genera present and phenotypic characteristics of the different isolates. Sinorhizobium sp. and Micrococcus sp. were only found in control seeds, while Pseudomonas sp., Bosea sp. and Paenibacillus sp. were only found in Cd seeds. Sphingomonas sp., Rhizobium sp., Acidovorax sp., Variovorax sp., Methylobacterium sp., Bacillus sp. and Staphylococcus sp. occurred in varying numbers in both types of seed. Metal tolerance and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity were predominantly found in strains isolated from Cd seeds, while the production of siderophores, indole-3-acetic acid and organic acids was more prevalent in endophytes isolated from control seeds. These data support the hypothesis that certain endophytes are selected for transfer to the next generation and that their presence might be important for subsequent germination and early seedling development. PMID:23252960

  2. Molecular Characterization of TP53 Gene in Human Populations Exposed to Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Brasil-Costa, Igor; Alencar, Dayse O.; Raiol-Moraes, Milene; Pessoa, Igor A.; Brito, Alexandre W. M.; Jati, Schneyder R.; Santos, Sidney E. B.; Burbano, Rommel M. R.; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Ândrea K. C.

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiation, such as that emitted by uranium, may cause mutations and consequently lead to neoplasia in human cells. The TP53 gene acts to maintain genomic integrity and constitutes an important biomarker of susceptibility. The present study investigated the main alterations observed in exons 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 of the TP53 gene and adjacent introns in Amazonian populations exposed to radioactivity. Samples were collected from 163 individuals. Occurrence of the following alterations was observed: (i) a missense exchange in exon 4 (Arg72Pro); (ii) 2 synonymous exchanges, 1 in exon 5 (His179His), and another in exon 6 (Arg213Arg); (iii) 4 intronic exchanges, 3 in intron 7 (C → T at position 13.436; C → T at position 13.491; T → G at position 13.511) and 1 in intron 8 (T → G at position 13.958). Alteration of codon 72 was found to be an important risk factor for cancer development (P = 0.024; OR = 6.48; CI: 1.29–32.64) when adjusted for age and smoking. Thus, TP53 gene may be an important biomarker for carcinogenesis susceptibility in human populations exposed to ionizing radiation. PMID:23586029

  3. Dose reconstruction system for the exposed population living along the Techa River

    SciTech Connect

    Degteva, M O.; Vorobiova, M I.; Kozheurov, V P.; Tolstykh, E I.; Anspaugh, L R.; Napier, Bruce A. )

    1999-12-01

    The Mayak Production Association (MPA) was the first facility in the former Soviet Union for the production of plutonium, beginning operation in 1948. Significant worker and population exposure occurred as a result of failures in the technological processes in the late 1940?s and early 1950?s. Members of the public were exposed via discharge of about 10{sup 17} Bq of liquid wastes into the Techa River (1949-1956), an explosion in the radioactive waste-storage facility in 1957, and gaseous aerosol releases within the first decades of the facility's operation. Residents of many villages downstream on the Techa River were exposed via a variety of pathways; the more significant included drinking of water from the river and external gamma exposure due to proximity to sediments and shoreline. The specific aim of this project is to enhance the reconstruction of external and internal radiation doses for individuals in the Extended Techa River Cohort. The purpose of this paper is to present the details of the methods that are being used in this enhanced dose-reconstruction effort and to provide example and representative results of the calculations. The methods of dose assessment currently being used for the exposed population (termed the Techa River Dosimetry System -2000[TRDS-2000]), which are a significant improvement on past methods (TRDS-1996), are presented. The new TRDS-2000 doses from the ingestion of radionuclides are substantially higher for the gastrointestinal tract, due to consideration of short-lived radionuclides. The TRDS-2000 doses from external exposure are substantially lower, due to improvements in several factors. Assessment of uncertainty and validation of the?new? doses are significant issues currently under investigation.

  4. Dose reconstruction system for the exposed population living along the Techa River.

    PubMed

    Degteva, M O; Vorobiova, M I; Kozheurov, V P; Tolstykh, E I; Anspaugh, L R; Napier, B A

    2000-05-01

    The Mayak Production Association, which began operation in 1948, was the first facility in the former Soviet Union for the production of plutonium. Significant worker and population exposure occurred as a result of failures in the technological processes in the late 1940's and early 1950's. Members of the public were exposed via discharge of about 1017 Bq of liquid wastes into the Techa River during 1949-1956, an explosion in the radioactive waste-storage facility in 1957, and gaseous aerosol releases within the first decades of the facility's operation. Residents of many villages downstream on the Techa River were exposed via a variety of pathways; the more significant included drinking of water from the river and external gamma exposure due to proximity to sediments and shoreline. The specific aim of this project is to enhance the reconstruction of external and internal radiation doses for individuals in the Extended Techa River Cohort. The purpose of this paper is to present the details of the methods that are being used in this enhanced dose-reconstruction effort and to provide example and representative results of the calculations. The methods of dose assessment currently being developed for the exposed population [termed the Techa River Dosimetry System-2000 (TRDS-2000)], which are a significant improvement on past methods (TRDS-1996), are presented. The new TRDS-2000 doses from the ingestion of radionuclides are substantially higher for the gastrointestinal tract, due to consideration of short-lived radionuclides. The TRDS-2000 doses from external exposure are substantially lower due to improvements in several factors. Assessment of uncertainty and validation of the "new" doses are significant issues currently under investigation. PMID:10772028

  5. The mental health of populations directly and indirectly exposed to violent conflict in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Large disasters affect people who live both near and far from the areas in which they occur. The mental health impact is expected to be similar to a ripple effect, where the risk of mental health consequences generally decreases with increasing distance from the disaster center. However, we have not been able to identify studies of the ripple effect of man-made disaster on mental health in low-income countries. Objectives The objective was to examine the hypothesis of a ripple effect on the mental health consequences in populations exposed to man-made disasters in a developing country context, through a comparison of two different populations living in different proximities from the center of disaster in Mollucas. Methods Cross-sectional longitudinal data were collected from 510 Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) living in Ambon, who were directly exposed to the violence, and non-IDPs living in remote villages in Mollucas, Indonesia, who had never been directly exposed to violence in Mollucas. Data were collected during home visits and statistical comparisons were conducted by using chi square tests, t-test and logistic regression. Results There was significantly more psychological distress "caseness" in IDPs than non-IDPs. The mental health consequences of the violent conflict in Ambon supported the ripple effect hypothesis as displacement status appears to be a strong risk factor for distress, both as a main effect and interaction effect. Significantly higher percentages of IDPs experienced traumatic events than non-IDPs in all six event types reported. Conclusions This study indicates that the conflict had an impact on mental health and economic conditions far beyond the area where the actual violent events took place, in a diminishing pattern in line with the hypothesis of a ripple effect. PMID:20673322

  6. Dose reconstruction system for the exposed population living along the Techa River

    SciTech Connect

    Degteva, M.O.; Vorobiova, M.I.; Kozheurov, V.P.; Tolstykh, E.I.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Napier, B.A.

    2000-05-01

    The Mayak Production Association, which began operation in 1948, was the first facility in the former Soviet Union for the production of plutonium. Significant worker and population exposure occurred as a result of failures in the technological processes in the late 1940's and early 1950's. Members of the public were exposed via discharge of about 10{sup 17}Bq of liquid wastes into the Techa River during 1949--1956, an explosion in the radioactive waste-storage facility in 1957, and gaseous aerosol releases within the first decades of the facility's operation. Residents of many villages downstream on the Techa River were exposed via a variety of pathways; the more significant included drinking of water from the river and external gamma exposure due to proximity to sediments and shoreline. The specific aim of this project is to enhance the reconstruction of external and internal radiation doses for individuals in the Extended Techa River Cohort. The purpose of this paper is to present the details of the methods that are being used in this enhanced dose-reconstruction effort and to provide example and representative results of the calculations. The methods of dose assessment currently being developed for the exposed population [termed the Techa River Dosimetry System-2000 (TRDS-2000)], which are a significant improvement on past methods (TRDS-1996), are presented. The new TRDS-2000 doses from the ingestion of radionuclides are substantially higher for the gastrointestinal tract, due to consideration of short-lived radionuclides. The TRDS-2000 doses from external exposure are substantially lower due to improvements in several factors. Assessment of uncertainty and validation of the new doses are significant issues currently under investigation.

  7. Association of microsatellite instability and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder in isocyanate-Exposed population of Bhopal

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Protiti; Bathri, Rashmi

    2012-01-01

    CONTEXT: Survivors of the Bhopal gas disaster still suffer from various respiratory ailments. We examined the effects of exposures among a cross-section of current residents suffering from COPD by ISSR-PCR. AIMS: Molecular screening of the gas-affected population of Bhopal with COPD for microsatellite instability due to exposure of MIC. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: The isocyanate-exposed population of Bhopal city suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Inter-(SSR) analysis was used to characterize microsatellite instability in 52 MIC victims of Bhopal, suffering from COPD using (CA)8RG and (CA)8R[Y-Q] primer. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Association analyses were performed using regression analysis. RESULTS: The study on the MIC-affected population in Bhopal showed weak association between microsatellite instability and age (r = + 0.37); exposure distance from site (r = −0.44); and smoking status(r = + 0.12); while regression analysis of the above parameters displayed supporting evidence. CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of smoking coupled with aging and poor living habits threatens, to further increase COPD incidences among this population, highlighting the need for enhanced screening efforts. PMID:23162291

  8. Life-History Traits of Spodoptera frugiperda Populations Exposed to Low-Dose Bt Maize

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Fernanda F.; Mendes, Simone M.; Santos-Amaya, Oscar F.; Araújo, Octávio G.; Oliveira, Eugenio E.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins in low- and moderate-dose transgenic crops may induce sublethal effects and increase the rate of Bt resistance evolution, potentially compromising control efficacy against target pests. We tested this hypothesis using the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda, a major polyphagous lepidopteran pest relatively tolerant to Bt notorious for evolving field-relevant resistance to single-gene Bt maize. Late-instar larvae were collected from Bt Cry1Ab and non-Bt maize fields in five locations in Brazil, and their offspring was compared for survival, development, and population growth in rearing environment without and with Cry1Ab throughout larval development. Larval survival on Cry1Ab maize leaves varied from 20 to 80% among the populations. Larvae reared on Cry1Ab maize had seven-day delay in development time in relation to control larvae, and such delay was shorter in offspring of armyworms from Cry1Ab maize. Population growth rates were 50–70% lower for insects continuously exposed to Cry1Ab maize relative to controls, showing the population-level effect of Cry1Ab, which varied among the populations and prior exposure to Cry1Ab maize in the field. In three out of five populations, armyworms derived from Bt maize reared on Cry1Ab maize showed higher larval weight, faster larval development and better reproductive performance than the armyworms derived from non-Bt maize, and one of these populations showed better performance on both Cry1Ab and control diets, indicating no fitness cost of the resistance trait. Altogether, these results indicate that offspring of armyworms that developed on field-grown, single-gene Bt Cry1Ab maize had reduced performance on Cry1Ab maize foliage in two populations studied, but in other three populations, these offspring had better overall performance on the Bt maize foliage than that of the armyworms from non-Bt maize fields, possibly because of Cry1Ab resistance alleles in these populations

  9. Identifying populations potentially exposed to agricultural pesticides using remote sensing and a Geographic Information System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, M.H.; Nuckols, J.R.; Weigel, S. J.; Cantor, K.P.; Miller, Roger S.

    2000-01-01

    Pesticides used in agriculture may cause adverse health effects among the population living near agricultural areas. However, identifying the populations most likely to be exposed is difficult. We conducted a feasibility study to determine whether satellite imagery could be used to reconstruct historical crop patterns. We used historical Farm Service Agency records as a source of ground reference data to classify a late summer 1984 satellite image into crop species in a three-county area in south central Nebraska. Residences from a population-based epidemiologic study of non-Hodgkin lymphoma were located on the crop maps using a geographic information system (GIS). Corn, soybeans, sorghum, and alfalfa were the major crops grown in the study area. Eighty-five percent of residences could be located, and of these 22% had one of the four major crops within 500 m of the residence, an intermediate distance for the range of drift effects from pesticides applied in agriculture. We determined the proximity of residences to specific crop species and calculated crop-specific probabilities of pesticide use based on available data. This feasibility study demonstrated that remote sensing data and historical records on crop location can be used to create historical crop maps. The crop pesticides that were likely to have been applied can be estimated when information about crop-specific pesticide use is available. Using a GIS, zones of potential exposure to agricultural pesticides and proximity measures can be determined for residences in a study.

  10. Mechanism of erythrocyte death in human population exposed to arsenic through drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Debabrata; Banerjee, Mayukh; Sen, Gargi; Das, Jayanta K.; Banerjee, Apurba; Sau, T.J.; Pandit, Sudipta; Giri, A.K. Biswas, Tuli

    2008-07-01

    Arsenic contamination in drinking water is one of the biggest natural calamities, which has become an imperative threat to human health throughout the world. Abbreviation of erythrocyte lifespan leading to the development of anemia is a common sequel in arsenic exposed population. This study was undertaken to explore the mechanism of cell death in human erythrocytes during chronic arsenic exposure. Results revealed transformation of smooth discoid red cells into evaginated echinocytic form in the exposed individuals. Further distortion converted reversible echinocytes to irreversible spheroechinocytes. Arsenic toxicity increased membrane microviscosity along with an elevation of cholesterol/phospholipid ratio, which hampered the flexibility of red cell membrane and made them less deformable. Significant increase in the binding of merocyanine 540 with erythrocyte membrane due to arsenic exposure indicated disruption of lipid packing in the outer leaflet of the cell membrane resulting from altered transbilayer phospholipid asymmetry. Arsenic induced eryptosis was characterized by cell shrinkage and exposure of phosphatidylserine at the cell surface. Furthermore, metabolic starvation with depletion of cellular ATP triggered apoptotic removal of erythrocytes from circulation. Significant decrease in reduced glutathione content indicating defective antioxidant capacity was coupled with enhancement of malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl levels, which pointed to oxidative damage to erythrocyte membrane. Arsenic toxicity intervened into red cell membrane integrity eventually leading to membrane destabilization and hemoglobin release. The study depicted the involvement of both erythrophagocytosis and hemolysis in the destruction of human erythrocytes during chronic arsenic exposure.

  11. Cytogenetic studies in human populations exposed to gas leak at Bhopal, India

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, B.B.; Sengupta, S.; Roy, A.; Maity, S.; Ghosh, S.; Talukder, G.; Sharma, A. )

    1990-06-01

    Frequencies of chromosomal abnormalities, sister chromatid exchanges, and replicative index were assessed following peripheral lymphocyte culture in 129 individuals from Bhopal, India. Of these, 83 persons (40 male and 43 female) had been exposed directly to the methyl isocyanate (MIC) gas after the accident at the Union Carbide plant on December 2 and 3, 1984. The remaining 46 samples were taken from age-matched unexposed persons in the same city. Chromosome aberrations were recorded at first cycle metaphase (M{sub 1}) and sister chromatid exchanges, at second cycle metaphase (M{sub 2}), following standard schedule. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations was, in general, higher in individuals from the exposed populations, with the females showing a higher incidence. Nondisjunction of chromosomes or laggard was rare. The frequencies of sister chromatid exchanges and depression in mitotic and replicative indices could not be related to exposure or sex. The persistence of chromosomal abnormalities in the form of replicating minutes and exchange configurations, even 1,114 days after exposure to the gas, may indicate a residual effect on T-cell precursors.

  12. Seroprevalence of leptospirosis in rural populations inhabiting areas exposed and not exposed to floods in eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Wasiński, Bernard; Sroka, Jacek; Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina; Zając, Violetta; Cisak, Ewa; Knap, Józef P; Sawczyn, Anna; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Blood serum samples collected from randomly selected groups of 100 persons inhabiting rural community 'A' located in eastern Poland and exposed to floods by the Vistula river, and 98 persons inhabiting rural community 'B', also located in eastern Poland, but in the area not exposed to floods were examined by the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for the presence of antibodies against 18 Leptospira serovars. Positive results showed 3% of serum samples collected from community 'A', while the seroprevalence in community 'B' was 9.2%, being insignificantly higher than in community 'A'. For both examined communities (n=198), a significant positive correlation was found between the prevalence and titer of seropositive response and age of examined people (r=0.145, p=0.042). No significant differences were found between the prevalence of positive reactions in males and females (p>0.05). The reactions with 10 serovars of Leptospira (Australis, Autumnalis, Hebdomadis, Hardjo, Sejroe, Zanoni, Bataviae, Bratislava, Canicola and Grippotyphosa), belonging to 3 species (L. interrogans, L. borgpetersenii, L. kirschneri), were found in the examined communities. From both communities, of 12 persons demonstrating positive results in MAT, 9 showed reaction with one serovar, 2 with two serovars and 1 with three serovars. The highest titers found during the examination did not exceeded 800. In conclusion, our results suggest that there is only a slight, if any, hazard of an leptospirosis epidemic after the flood that afflicted eastern Poland in the year 2010 and the general epidemiological situation of leptospirosis in eastern Poland. Although there does not seem to be any cause for concern, further research is needed. PMID:22742803

  13. Population level effects of multiwalled carbon nanotubes in Daphnia magna exposed to pulses of triclocarban.

    PubMed

    Simon, Anne; Preuss, Thomas G; Schäffer, Andreas; Hollert, Henner; Maes, Hanna M

    2015-08-01

    Due to the rapid increase of carbon nanotubes (CNT) applications and their inevitable release into the aquatic environment, CNT may interact with and further influence the fate and transport of other pollutants such as triclocarban (TCC). TCC is a high-production-volume chemical that is widely used as an antimicrobial agent, is continually released into the aquatic environment, and is biologically active and persistent. In the present study, the population test with Daphnia magna was performed over 93 days. Different treatments were examined: (a) control, (b) solvent control, (c) 1 mg CNT/L from the beginning, (d) 1 mg CNT/L as of day 14, (e) control with a 2-day pulse of 25 µg TCC/L on day 14, 41 µg TCC/L (day 54), and 61 µg TCC/L (day 68) and (f) same pulses of TCC with co-exposure to 1 mg CNT/L. Significant changes in all three size classes were observed as a result of the long-term exposure to 1 mg CNT/L. Increasing in number of neonates, and decreasing in number of juveniles and adults were observed. Moreover, daphnids were significantly smaller when they were exposed to MWCNT. The exposure with TCC led to size-dependent mortality in Daphnia magna populations and a subsequent recovery. Lower toxicity of TCC was observed, with the presence of MWCNT in the medium. The reported effects of TCC on population level were compared to the output of an individual-based Daphnia magna population model, in order to verify the model predictions with laboratory data. PMID:26003833

  14. Composite accidental axions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redi, Michele; Sato, Ryosuke

    2016-05-01

    We present several models where the QCD axion arises accidentally. Confining gauge theories can generate axion candidates whose properties are uniquely determined by the quantum numbers of the new fermions under the Standard Model. The Peccei-Quinn symmetry can emerge accidentally if the gauge theory is chiral. We generalise previous constructions in a unified framework. In some cases these models can be understood as the deconstruction of 5-dimensional gauge theories where the Peccei-Quinn symmetry is protected by locality but more general constructions are possible.

  15. Intervention trial with calcium montmorillonite clay in a south Texas population exposed to aflatoxin.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Brad H; Elmore, Sarah; Romoser, Amelia; Tang, Lili; Kang, Min-Su; Xue, Kathy; Rodriguez, Marisa; Dierschke, Nicole A; Hayes, Holly G; Hansen, H Andrew; Guerra, Fernando; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Phillips, Timothy

    2016-08-01

    South Texas currently has the highest incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the United States, a disease that disproportionately affects Latino populations in the region. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a potent liver carcinogen that has been shown to be present in a variety of foods in the United States, including corn and corn products. Importantly, it is a dietary risk factor contributing to a higher incidence of HCC in populations frequently consuming AFB1-contaminated diets. In a randomised double-blind placebo controlled trial, we evaluated the effects of a 3-month administration of ACCS100 (refined calcium montmorillonite clay) on serum AFB1-lysine adduct (AFB-Lys) level and serum biochemistry in 234 healthy men and women residing in Bexar and Medina counties, Texas. Participants recruited from 2012 to 2014 received either a placebo, 1.5 g or 3 g ACCS100 each day for 3 months, and no treatment during the fourth month. Adverse event rates were similar across treatment groups and no significant differences were observed for serum biochemistry and haematology parameters. Differences in levels of AFB-Lys at 1, 3 and 4 months were compared between placebo and active treatment groups. Although serum AFB-Lys levels were decreased by month 3 for both treatment groups, the low dose was the only treatment that was significant (p = 0.0005). In conclusion, the observed effect in the low-dose treatment group suggests that the use of ACCS100 may be a viable strategy to reduce dietary AFB1 bioavailability during aflatoxin outbreaks and potentially in populations chronically exposed to this carcinogen. PMID:27321368

  16. A spatio-temporel optimization model for the evacuation of the population exposed to natural disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaeddine, H.; Serrhini, K.; Maïzia, M.; Néron, E.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of managing the crisis caused by natural disasters, and especially by flood, requires the development of an effective evacuation systems. An effective evacuation system must take into account certain constraints, including those related to network traffic, accessibility, human resources and material equipment (vehicles, collecting points, etc.). The main objective of this work is to provide assistance to technical services and rescue forces in terms of accessibility by offering itineraries relating to rescue and evacuation of people and property. We consider in this paper the evacuation of an urban area of medium size exposed to the hazard of flood. In case of inundation, most people will be evacuated using their own vehicles. Two evacuation types are addressed in this paper, (1) a preventive evacuation based on a flood forecasting system and (2) an evacuation during the disaster based on flooding scenarios. The two study sites on which the evacuation model developed is applied are the valley of Tours (Fr, 37) which is protected by a set of dikes (preventive evacuation) and the valley of Gien (Fr, 45) which benefits of a low rate of flooding (evacuation before and during the disaster). Our goal is to construct, for each of these two sites, a chronological evacuation plan i.e. computing for each individual the departure date and the path to reach the assembly point (also called shelter) associated according to a priorities list established for this purpose. Evacuation plan must avoid the congestion on the road network. Here we present a Spatio-Temporal Optimization Model (STOM) dedicated to the evacuation of the population exposed to natural disasters and more specifically to flood risk.

  17. A spatiotemporal optimization model for the evacuation of the population exposed to flood hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaeddine, H.; Serrhini, K.; Maizia, M.

    2015-03-01

    Managing the crisis caused by natural disasters, and especially by floods, requires the development of effective evacuation systems. An effective evacuation system must take into account certain constraints, including those related to traffic network, accessibility, human resources and material equipment (vehicles, collecting points, etc.). The main objective of this work is to provide assistance to technical services and rescue forces in terms of accessibility by offering itineraries relating to rescue and evacuation of people and property. We consider in this paper the evacuation of an urban area of medium size exposed to the hazard of flood. In case of inundation, most people will be evacuated using their own vehicles. Two evacuation types are addressed in this paper: (1) a preventive evacuation based on a flood forecasting system and (2) an evacuation during the disaster based on flooding scenarios. The two study sites on which the developed evacuation model is applied are the Tours valley (Fr, 37), which is protected by a set of dikes (preventive evacuation), and the Gien valley (Fr, 45), which benefits from a low rate of flooding (evacuation before and during the disaster). Our goal is to construct, for each of these two sites, a chronological evacuation plan, i.e., computing for each individual the departure date and the path to reach the assembly point (also called shelter) according to a priority list established for this purpose. The evacuation plan must avoid the congestion on the road network. Here we present a spatiotemporal optimization model (STOM) dedicated to the evacuation of the population exposed to natural disasters and more specifically to flood risk.

  18. Accidental sexual strangulation.

    PubMed

    Michalodimitrakis, M; Frangoulis, M; Koutselinis, A

    1986-03-01

    Accidental death by manual strangulation among homosexuals during the act of sodomy is an uncommon event. In our recent case, the pattern of injuries indicates that strangulation resulted from the forearm application on the neck in a manner better known as "choke holding." PMID:3728426

  19. Implications of radiation dose and exposed populations on radiation protection in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Boice, John D

    2014-02-01

    Radiation is in the public eye because of Fukushima, computed tomography examinations, airport screenings, and possible terrorist attacks. What if the Boston Marathon pressure cooker had also contained a radioactive source? Nuclear power may be on the resurgence. Because of the increasing uses of radiation, the increases in population exposures, and the increasing knowledge of radiation effects, constant vigilance is needed to keep up with the changing times. Psychosocial disorders associated with the inappropriate (but real) fear of radiation need to be recognized as radiation detriments. Radiation risk communication, radiation education, and communication must improve at all levels: to members of the public, to the media, to other scientists, and to radiation professionals. Stakeholders must continue to be involved in all radiation protection initiatives. Finally, we are at a crisis as the number of war babies (me) and baby boomers (you?) who are also radiation professionals continues its rapid decline, and there are few in the pipeline to fill the current and looming substantial need: "The old road is rapidly agin'" (Dylan). NCRP has begun the WARP initiative-Where Are the Radiation Professionals?-an attempt to rejuvenate the pipeline of future professionals before the trickle becomes tiny drops. A Workshop was held in July 2013 with government agencies, military, private sector, universities, White House representatives, and societies to develop a coordinated and national action plan. A "Manhattan Project" is needed to get us "Back to the Future" in terms of the funding levels that existed in years past that provided the necessary resources to train, engage, and retain (a.k.a., jobs) the radiation professionals needed for the nation. If we don't keep swimmin' (Disney's Nemo) we'll "sink like a stone" (Dylan).Introduction of Implications of Radiation Dose and Exposed Populations (Video 2:06, http://links.lww.com/HP/A25). PMID:24378509

  20. Measuring the invisible: Analysis of the Sustainable Development Goals in relation to populations exposed to drought.

    PubMed

    Sena, Aderita; de Freitas, Carlos Machado; Barcellos, Christovam; Ramalho, Walter; Corvalan, Carlos

    2016-03-01

    Brazil, together with all the member countries of the United Nations, is in a process of adoption of a group of Sustainable Development Goals, including targets and indicators. This article considers the implications of these goals and their proposed targets, for the Semi-Arid region of Brazil. This region has recurring droughts which may worsen with climate change, further weakening the situation of access of water for human consumption in sufficient quantity and quality, and as a result, the health conditions of the exposed populations. This study identifies the relationship between drought and health, in an effort to measure progress in this region (1,135 municipalities), comparing relevant indicators with the other 4,430 municipalities in Brazil, based on census data from 1991, 2000 and 2010. Important inequalities between the municipalities of this region and the municipalities of the rest of Brazil are identified, and discussed in the context of what is necessary for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals in the Semi-arid Region, principally in relation to the measures for adaptation to achieve universal and equitable access to drinking water. PMID:26960081

  1. Cognitive impairment in an adult Mexican population non-occupationally exposed to manganese.

    PubMed

    Solís-Vivanco, Rodolfo; Rodríguez-Agudelo, Yaneth; Riojas-Rodríguez, Horacio; Ríos, Camilo; Rosas, Irma; Montes, Sergio

    2009-09-01

    We examined the association between non-occupational exposure to Mn and cognitive functions. The study was carried out in a mining district located in Hidalgo State, Mexico, with 288 adults. Air and blood Mn concentrations were determined, and neuropsychological tests were administered to explore cognitive functions and depression. Blood Mn mean was 9.5 ± 4.14 μg/L. A total of 73% of the study group were in contact with air Mn levels that surpassed the EPA recommended guideline level for non-occupational environments (0.05 μg/m(3)). Air Mn concentration was associated as a risk factor for attention impairment (OR=1.75, 95% CI: 1.01-3.06). Blood Mn levels were not associated to any of the measured outcomes. The main finding of this study is the presence of attention impairments associated to high levels of air Mn exposure. These results confirm previous studies, in which cognitive impairment is reported for exposed population. PMID:21784000

  2. Cancer mortality in a Chinese population exposed to hexavalent chromium in drinking water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beaumont, J.J.; Sedman, R.M.; Reynolds, S.D.; Sherman, C.D.; Li, L.-H.; Howd, R.A.; Sandy, M.S.; Zeise, L.; Alexeeff, G.V.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 1987, investigators in Liaoning Province, China, reported that mortality rates for all cancer, stomach cancer, and lung cancer in 1970-1978 were higher in villages with hexavalent chromium (Cr)-contaminated drinking water than in the general population. The investigators reported rates, but did not report statistical measures of association or precision. METHODS: Using reports and other communications from investigators at the local Jinzhou Health and Anti-Epidemic Station, we obtained data on Cr contamination of groundwater and cancer mortality in 9 study regions near a ferrochromium factory. We estimated:(1) person-years at risk in the study regions, based on census and population growth rate data, (2) mortality counts, based on estimated person-years at risk and previously reported mortality rates, and (3) rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: The all-cancer mortality rate in the combined 5 study regions with Cr-contaminated water was negligibly elevated in comparison with the rate in the 4 combined study regions without contaminated water (rate ratio = 1.13; 95% confidence interval = 0.86-1.46), but was somewhat more elevated in comparison with the whole province (1.23; 0.97-1.53). Stomach cancer mortality in the regions with contaminated water was more substantially elevated in comparison with the regions without contaminated water (1.82; 1.11-2.91) and the whole province (1.69; 1.12-2.44). Lung cancer mortality was slightly elevated in comparison with the unexposed study regions (1.15; 0.62-2.07), and more strongly elevated in comparison with the whole province (1.78; 1.03-2.87). Mortality from other cancers combined was not elevated in comparison with either the unexposed study regions (0.86; 0.53-1.36) or the whole province (0.92; 0.58-1.38). CONCLUSIONS: While these data are limited, they are consistent with increased stomach cancer risk in a population exposed to Cr in drinking water. ?? 2008 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

  3. Analysis of HLA-DP association with beryllium disease susceptibility in pooled exposed populations

    SciTech Connect

    Cesare Saltini, Massimo Amicosante

    2009-12-19

    in each immunogenetic study. In this context, the populations of the study already performed in this field by the University of Modena and Rome (by Prof. C. Saltini) and the University of Pennsylvania (by Prof. M. Rossman) have been evaluated by using similar HLA molecular typing methodologies and that both populations have now been followed up for a period of 4 to 7 years. The general objective of this study has to generate a larger data base comprising the two population with which analyze gene disease association with greater statistical power and ascertain the effect of lesser common gener variants which may be missed when analyzing associations on small populations. In particular addressing the role suggested in previous study such as: (1) the role of HLA-DP rare alleles and polymorphisms, and (2) the role of the HLA markers in disease progression from sensitization. The two populations from the already published studies (Saltini et al Eur Respir J. 2001 18:677-84; Rossman et al Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002 165:788-94) present similar aspects about: ethnicity, type and length of exposure to Be dust, a broadly similar association between beryllium related abnormalities and HLA. The two population have been pooled and evaluated using common criteria of diagnosis (Sensitized subject: at least 2 positive BeLPT tests each with 2 positive wells; CBD-affected subject: identification of well formed non-caseating granulomas on biopsy), follow up and HLA typing technique (complete HLA-DRB, DQB, DPB high resolution typing using amplification with sequence specific primers or sequence based typing). The two populations included 137 subjects with Beryllium hypersensitized (BH) and 155 Be-exposed controls. Inclusion criteria were met by one hundred and six subjects with Be-hypersensitivity of whom 55 were affected by CBD (age 52 {+-} 11 years; 50 caucasians, 2 African-Americans 2 Hispanics and 1 Asian; 46 males and 9 females; mean duration of Be-exposure 15 {+-} 9 years

  4. Radiative accidental matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierra, D. Aristizabal; Simoes, C.; Wegman, D.

    2016-07-01

    Accidental matter models are scenarios where the beyond-the-standard model physics preserves all the standard model accidental and approximate symmetries up to a cutoff scale related with lepton number violation. We study such scenarios assuming that the new physics plays an active role in neutrino mass generation, and show that this unavoidably leads to radiatively induced neutrino masses. We systematically classify all possible models and determine their viability by studying electroweak precision data, big bang nucleosynthesis and electroweak perturbativity, finding that the latter places the most stringent constraints on the mass spectra. These results allow the identification of minimal radiative accidental matter models for which perturbativity is lost at high scales. We calculate radiative charged-lepton flavor violating processes in these setups, and show that μ → eγ has a rate well within MEG sensitivity provided the lepton-number violating scale is at or below 5×105 GeV, a value (naturally) assured by the radiative suppression mechanism. Sizeable τ → μγ branching fractions within SuperKEKB sensitivity are possible for lower lepton-number breaking scales. We thus point out that these scenarios can be tested not only in direct searches but also in lepton flavor-violating experiments.

  5. Genotoxicity in child populations exposed to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the air from Tabasco, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Gamboa, Rodríguez T.; Gamboa, Aldeco R.; Bravo, Alvarez H.; Ostrosky, Wegman P.

    2008-01-01

    The economy of the state of Tabasco is based on oil extraction. However, this imposes major effects to the environment and communities. Examples are the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) that may be found in the soil, water and sediment of the region. Their volatility makes them available to living beings and results in genotoxic activity. The purpose of this study was to quantify the levels of PAHs in the air at several points in the state, and to analyze their relationship with possible damage to DNA on local inhabitants. Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis Assay (Comet Assay) was applied to peripheral blood lymphocytes of five groups of children between six and 15 years of age. PAH samples were analyzed following US/EPA TO-13-A method. Results indicated the presence in the air of most of the 16 PAHs considered as high priority by EPA, some of which have been reported with carcinogenic activity. Differences (p<0.05) were found between PAHs concentration in the gaseous component and in the particulate component of air samples, with the greatest values for the gaseous component. Greatest PAH concentrations were detected in areas with high oil extraction activities. Children groups from high oil activity areas presented genotoxic damage labeled from moderate to high according to DNA migration from nuclei (Tail Length: 14.2 – 42.14 μm and Tail/Head: 0.97 – 2.83 μm) compared with control group (12.25 and 0.63 μm, respectively). The group with greatest cell damage was located in the area with the greatest oil activity. We conclude that the presence of PAHs in the air may represent a health risk to populations that are chronically exposed to them at high oil activity regions. PMID:19151429

  6. Work-related asthma in a population exposed to grain, flour and other ingredient dusts.

    PubMed

    Smith, T A; Lumley, K P

    1996-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence and causation of work-related asthmatic symptoms in a population exposed to grain, flour and other ingredient dusts. Where workers complained of asthmatic symptoms which were the result of dust exposure, follow-up aimed to identify whether the symptoms were the result of sensitisation or of non-specific irritation. A questionnaire was presented to 3,450 workers who had exposure to dust during the course of flour milling (528), bread baking (1,756), cake baking (209) and other activities in food preparation (957). Those with positive responses were followed-up by taking a formal history, examination, skin prick testing and serial peak flow measurement. The overall prevalence of work-related asthmatic symptoms was 4.4% (153 out of 3,450). In the group who were followed-up (128 out of 153), non-specific respiratory irritation was thought to be the cause in 90 (2.6%), whilst sensitisation was responsible for symptoms in 12 (0.3%). Of the 12 cases due to sensitisation, the agents responsible were: fungal amylase (10 cases, all associated with bread baking), flour (one case, associated with flour packing), and grain (one case, associated with flour milling). Non-specific irritation is considerably more common than sensitisation as the cause of work-related asthmatic symptoms in flour milling, baking and other flour-based industries. The prevalence of sensitisation to flour is very low (less than 1 in 1,000) in all these industries. The principal sensitiser encountered in modern plant bakeries appears to be fungal amylase. The most important source of exposure to fungal amylase is probably the debagging, sieving, weighing and mixing of bread improvers. PMID:8672792

  7. Apgar-score in children prenatally exposed to antiepileptic drugs: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Jakob; Pedersen, Henrik Søndergaard; Kjaersgaard, Maiken Ina Siegismund; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Vestergaard, Mogens; Sørensen, Merete Juul; Olsen, Jørn; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Pedersen, Lars Henning

    2015-01-01

    Objectives It is unknown if prenatal exposure to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) increases the risk of low Apgar score in offspring. Setting Population-based study using health registers in Denmark. Participants We identified all 677 021 singletons born in Denmark from 1997 to 2008 and linked the Apgar score from the Medical Birth Register with information on the women's prescriptions for AEDs during pregnancy from the Danish Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. We used the Danish National Hospital Registry to identify mothers diagnosed with epilepsy before birth of the child. Results were adjusted for smoking and maternal age. Results Among 2906 children exposed to AEDs, 55 (1.9%) were born with an Apgar score ≤7 as compared with 8797 (1.3%) children among 674 115 pregnancies unexposed to AEDs (adjusted relative risk (aRR)=1.41 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.85). When analyses were restricted to the 2215 children born of mothers with epilepsy, the aRR of having a low Apgar score associated with AED exposure was 1.34 (95% CI 0.90 to 2.01) When assessing individual AEDs, we found increased, unadjusted RR for exposure to carbamazepine (RR=1.86 (95% CI 1.01 to 3.42)), valproic acid (RR=1.85 (95% CI 1.04 to 3.30)) and topiramate (RR=2.97 (95% CI 1.26 to 7.01)) when compared to unexposed children. Conclusions Prenatal exposure to AEDs was associated with increased risk of being born with a low Apgar score, but the absolute risk of a low Apgar score was <2%. Risk associated with individual AEDs indicate that the increased risk is not a class effect, but that there may be particularly high risks of a low Apgar score associated with certain AEDs. PMID:26359281

  8. Assessment of Population Status for a White Sucker (Catostomus commersoni) Population Exposed to Bleached Kraft Pulp Mill Effluent

    EPA Science Inventory

    A predictive model was developed to translate changes in the fecundity and the age structure of a breeding population of white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) collected in the field to alterations in population growth rate. Application of this density dependent population ...

  9. Laser correlation spectrometry: a new approach to organizing oncological screening for a population exposed to chronic irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akleyev, Alexander; Pashkov, Igor; Kisselyov, Mikhail; Noskin, Leonid A.

    1999-12-01

    The issue of stochastic effects of radiation exposure (mostly leukemia and cancer), and early detection of malignant tumors, as a key aspect of the problem, is of crucial importance to the population chronically exposed due to the activities of the Mayak Production Association in the Urals region, Russia). Given the large number of exposed population, screening is considered to be the most expedient method to organize medical observation of exposed persons. As was shown by the results of medical examinations conducted for 1 391 residents of the Techa riverside villages, laser correlation spectrometry (LCS) of blood plasma has proved to be a highly effective screening method for early (pre-clinical) detection of malignant neoplasms and pre-cancerous conditions. It was established that LC- spectra of blood plasma in persons with cancer and pre- cancer can easily be differentiated from non-cancer conditions. Of particular diagnostic significance is the high-frequency range of the spectrum. The development of a diagnostic algorithm has allowed to carry out a computer- based classification of blood plasma LC spectra as a component of exposed population health monitoring system.

  10. Hematological and hepatic alterations in Brazilian population heavily exposed to organochlorine pesticides.

    PubMed

    Freire, Carmen; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Koifman, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of hematological and hepatic alterations and possible association with serum levels of beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH), p,p'-DDE, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) among residents in an area heavily contaminated with organochlorine (OC) pesticides. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 415 male and 432 female residents aged >14 years. Serum samples were collected and analyzed for OC pesticides concentrations and biochemical parameters. Frequencies of hematological and hepatic alterations were calculated for each gender. Association between beta-HCH, p,p'-DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene), and HCB levels and presence of alterations was determined by logistic regression stratified by gender and controlling for confounders. Highest frequencies were observed for eosinophilia (23% men and 18% women), low hemoglobin (12% men and 15% women), and low erythrocyte count (12% men). High levels of bilirubin, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) were observed, respectively, in 10, 11, and 12% of men and <10% of women. Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) was elevated in 26 and 25% of males and females, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed associations between eosinophilia and beta-HCH in men (OR = 1.06, 95%CI = 1.01-1.12) and women (OR = 1.05, 96%CI = 0.99-1.11), p,p'-DDE in men (OR = 1.03, 95%CI = 0.99-1.06) and women (OR = 1.02, 95%CI = 0.99-1.06), and HCB in women (OR = 1.54, 95%IC = 0.85-4.45). Beta-HCH was found to be associated with increased risk of elevated bilirubin in females (OR = 1.18, 95%CI = 1.07-1.29) and males (OR = 4.21, 95%CI = 1.87-9.47 for fourth vs. first quintile). Thus, OC pesticides may exert adverse effects on hematopoietic tissue and liver in populations chronically exposed to high levels of these compounds. PMID:25849770

  11. Hair concentration of essential trace elements in adult non-exposed Russian population.

    PubMed

    Skalny, Anatoly V; Skalnaya, Margarita G; Tinkov, Alexey A; Serebryansky, Eugeny P; Demidov, Vasily A; Lobanova, Yulia N; Grabeklis, Andrei R; Berezkina, Elena S; Gryazeva, Irina V; Skalny, Andrey A; Skalnaya, Oksana A; Zhivaev, Nikolay G; Nikonorov, Alexandr A

    2015-11-01

    Appropriate reference values of hair trace element content are required for correct interpretation of biomonitoring data. The primary objective of the current study was to estimate the reference values of selected essential trace elements in hair of adult Russian population. Involved in current investigation were 7256 occupationally non-exposed adults aged from 20 to 60 years and living in the European part of Russia. Occipital hair essential metal and metalloid (Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, V, Zn) content was estimated using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The reference ranges were calculated in accordance with the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) recommendations. Women were characterized by 55, 18, 58, and 7% higher values of hair Co, Cu, Mn, and Zn content as compared to the values observed in men. At the same time, hair Cr, Fe, Se, and V concentration in men significantly exceeded the respective female values by 65, 13, 20, and 56%. Consequently, the reference ranges of essential hair trace elements content should be separately calculated for both men and women. The obtained reference ranges for hair Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, V, and Zn in men were 0.11-0.67, 0.007-0.045, 10.4-22.6, 11.1-40.5, 0.24-1.05, 0.089-0.480, 0.014-0.083, and 125.7-262.8 μg/g, respectively. The respective values estimated for women were 0.06-0.40, 0.011-0.085, 12.1-44.5, 8.9-25.6, 0.32-2.05, 0.094-0.504, 0.010-0.056, and 140.0-315.1 μg/g. The reference ranges for hair Co (0.07-0.50), Cr (0.009-0.073), Cu (11.8-29.2), Fe (9.6-31.5), Mn (0.29-1.76), Se (0.093-0.482), V (0.011-0.069), and Zn (134.7-301.9) content (μg/g) in the general cohort were also calculated. PMID:26446131

  12. Accidental condom inhalation.

    PubMed

    Arya, C L; Gupta, Rajnish; Arora, V K

    2004-01-01

    A 27-year-old lady presented with persistent cough, sputum and fever for the preceding six months. Inspite of trials with antibiotics and anti-tuberculosis treatment for the preceeding four months, her symptoms did not improve. A subsequent chest radiograph showed non-homogeneous collapse-consolidation of right upper lobe. Videobronchoscopy revealed an inverted bag like structure in right upper lobe bronchus and rigid bronchoscopic removal with biopsy forceps confirmed the presence of a condom. Detailed retrospective history also confirmed accidental inhalation of the condom during fellatio. PMID:14870871

  13. Density Dependent Functional Forms Drive Compensation in Populations Exposed to Stressors

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interaction between density dependence (DD) and environmental stressors can result in a compensatory or synergistic response in population growth, and population models that use density-independent demographic rates or generic DD functions may be introducing bias into managem...

  14. Assessment of Population Status for a White Sucker (Catostomus commersoni) Population Exposed to Bleached Kraft Pulp Mill Effluent

    EPA Science Inventory

    Credible ecological risk assessments often need to include analysis of population-level impacts. In the present study, a predictive model was developed to translate changes in the fecundity and the age structure of a breeding population of white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) co...

  15. Accidental acute exposure to doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Curran, C F; Luce, J K

    1989-12-01

    Accidental ocular exposure to doxorubicin was followed by no reaction or rapidly resolving conjunctivitis in 13 of 15 cases (87%). In the two remaining cases, persistent photophobia and chronic inflammation were reported. Of 28 accidental exposures to sites other than the eyes, no reactions or rapidly resolving local reactions were reported in 24 cases (86%). Nurses are at particular risk for accidental exposure to doxorubicin and accounted for 20 of the 43 reported exposures (47%). PMID:2590899

  16. Dynamics and recovery of a sediment-exposed Chironomus riparius population: A modelling approach.

    PubMed

    Diepens, Noël J; Beltman, Wim H J; Koelmans, Albert A; Van den Brink, Paul J; Baveco, Johannes M

    2016-06-01

    Models can be used to assess long-term risks of sediment-bound contaminants at the population level. However, these models usually lack the coupling between chemical fate in the sediment, toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic processes in individuals and propagation of individual-level effects to the population. We developed a population model that includes all these processes, and used it to assess the importance of chemical uptake routes on a Chironomus riparius population after pulsed exposure to the pesticide chlorpyrifos. We show that particle ingestion is an important additional exposure pathway affecting C. riparius population dynamics and recovery. Models ignoring particle ingestion underestimate the impact and the required recovery times, which implies that they underestimate risks of sediment-bound chemicals. Additional scenario studies showed the importance of selecting the biologically relevant sediment layer and showed population effects in the long term. PMID:27031571

  17. SELENIUM CONCENTRATIONS AND GLULATHIONE PEROXIDASE ACTIVITIES IN A POPULATION EXPOSED TO SELENIUM VIA DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Selenium concentrations in blood, urine, hair, and tap water were determined in samples obtained from individuals exposed to varying amounts of the element via water from home wells. Glutathione peroxidase activities were also determined on the blood samples. Correlations of bloo...

  18. [Accidental methyl alcohol poisoning].

    PubMed

    Xiao, J H

    1990-05-01

    An accidental poisoning due to drinking methyl alcohol in Chaoyang county is reported, analysing the accident. The poison came from the "retail white spirit" which was contaminated with methyl alcohol. Twenty-nine persons drank the wine, fourteen of them died, two of them became blind. After drinking this "retail white spirit" the drinkers showed symptoms of vertigo, headache, weakness, vomiting, night sweat, dyspnea and blurring of vision etc. within 6-120 hours. On examining the remaining spirit, we found the content of methyl alcohol to be between 16.6 and 40.69 g/100 ml. Some of the patients' urine and blood also contained methyl alcohol. We reckoned that each one of the twenty patients had taken more than 27 g of methyl alcohol and each of the ten dead drank more than 40 ml of the alcohol. PMID:2253526

  19. Cytogenetic monitoring in a population occupationally exposed to pesticides in Ecuador.

    PubMed Central

    Paz-y-Miño, César; Bustamante, Gabriela; Sánchez, María Eugenia; Leone, Paola E

    2002-01-01

    We analyzed the incidence of structural and numerical chromosomal aberrations (CAs) in workers of a plantation of flowers located in Quito, Ecuador, in South America. This study included 41 individuals occupationally exposed to 27 pesticides, some of which are restricted in many countries and are classified as extremely toxic by the World Health Organization; among these are aldicarb and fenamiphos. The same number of individuals of the same age, sex, and geographic area were selected as controls. Workers exposed to these pesticides showed an increased frequency of CA compared with control group (20.59% vs. 2.73%; p < 0.001). We conclude that screening for CA is an adequate biomarker for evaluating and detecting genotoxicity resulting from exposure to pesticides. Levels of erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase were also determined as a complementary metabolic study. Levels below the optimal (> 28 U/mL blood) were found in 88% of exposed individuals; this clearly shows the effect of organophosphate pesticides. When comparing the levels of acetylcholinesterase and structural CA frequencies, there was a negative linear correlation (r = 0.416; p < 0.01). We conclude that by using both analyses it may be possible to estimate damage produced by exposure to organophosphate pesticides. PMID:12417477

  20. Differential proteomic responses of selectively bred and wild-type Sydney rock oyster populations exposed to elevated CO2.

    PubMed

    Thompson, E L; O'Connor, W; Parker, L; Ross, P; Raftos, D A

    2015-03-01

    Previous work suggests that larvae from Sydney rock oysters that have been selectively bred for fast growth and disease resistance are more resilient to the impacts of ocean acidification than nonselected, wild-type oysters. In this study, we used proteomics to investigate the molecular differences between oyster populations in adult Sydney rock oysters and to identify whether these form the basis for observations seen in larvae. Adult oysters from a selective breeding line (B2) and nonselected wild types (WT) were exposed for 4 weeks to elevated pCO2 (856 μatm) before their proteomes were compared to those of oysters held under ambient conditions (375 μatm pCO2 ). Exposure to elevated pCO2 resulted in substantial changes in the proteomes of oysters from both the selectively bred and wild-type populations. When biological functions were assigned, these differential proteins fell into five broad, potentially interrelated categories of subcellular functions, in both oyster populations. These functional categories were energy production, cellular stress responses, the cytoskeleton, protein synthesis and cell signalling. In the wild-type population, proteins were predominantly upregulated. However, unexpectedly, these cellular systems were downregulated in the selectively bred oyster population, indicating cellular dysfunction. We argue that this reflects a trade-off, whereby an adaptive capacity for enhanced mitochondrial energy production in the selectively bred population may help to protect larvae from the effects of elevated CO2 , whilst being deleterious to adult oysters. PMID:25689603

  1. Reference values of hair toxic trace elements content in occupationally non-exposed Russian population.

    PubMed

    Skalny, Anatoly V; Skalnaya, Margarita G; Tinkov, Alexey A; Serebryansky, Eugeny P; Demidov, Vasily A; Lobanova, Yulia N; Grabeklis, Andrei R; Berezkina, Elena S; Gryazeva, Irina V; Skalny, Andrey A; Nikonorov, Alexandr A

    2015-07-01

    A total of 5908 occupationally non-exposed adults (4384 women and 1524 men) living in Moscow and Moscow region were involved in the current investigation. Hair Al, As, Be, Bi, Cd, Hg, Li, Ni, Pb, Sn, and Sr content was estimated by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry using NexION 300D. Men are characterized by significantly higher hair Al, As, Cd, Hg, Li, and Pb content. At the same time, hair levels of Bi, Ni, Sn, and Sr were significantly higher in women. Consequently, the reference ranges were estimated for male, female, and general cohort as coverage intervals in accordance with IUPAC recommendations. PMID:26056973

  2. Involving Parents in Indicated Early Intervention for Childhood PTSD Following Accidental Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobham, Vanessa E.; March, Sonja; De Young, Alexandra; Leeson, Fiona; Nixon, Reginald; McDermott, Brett; Kenardy, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Accidental injuries represent the most common type of traumatic event to which a youth is likely to be exposed. While the majority of youth who experience an accidental injury will recover spontaneously, a significant proportion will go on to develop Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). And yet, there is little published treatment outcome…

  3. Prediction of lung function response for populations exposed to a wide range of ozone conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Context: A human exposure-response (E-R) model that has previously been demonstrated to accurately predict population mean FEV1 response to ozone exposure has been proposed as the foundation for future risk assessments for ambient ozone. Objective: Fit the origi...

  4. COMPARISON OF TWO ARSENIC EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT PROTOCOLS IN A CHRONICALLY EXPOSED POPULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Consistent with the US EPA 1997 Arsenic Research Plan's emphasis on studies in US populations to obtain data to support a revised Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for arsenic, two studies were conducted in Millard County, Utah; the first in 1997 and a second in 1999. This locat...

  5. Epidemiology of accidental radiation exposures.

    PubMed Central

    Cardis, E

    1996-01-01

    Much of the information on the health effects of radiation exposure available to date comes from long-term studies of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Accidental exposures, such as those resulting from the Chernobyl and Kyshtym accidents, have as yet provided little information concerning health effects of ionizing radiation. This paper will present the current state of our knowledge concerning radiation effects, review major large-scale accidental radiation exposures, and discuss information that could be obtained from studies of accidental exposures and the types of studies that are needed. PMID:8781398

  6. Subclinical health effects in a population exposed to excess vitamin D in milk.

    PubMed Central

    Scanlon, K S; Blank, S; Sinks, T; Lett, S; Mueller, P; Freedman, D S; Serdula, M; Falk, H

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate subclinical health effects of excess vitamin D, a cross-sectional study was conducted of persons consuming milk from a dairy that had overfortified milk for at least 4 years. Milk consumption, sunlight exposure, medical symptoms, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D), serum and urinary calcium, and indicators of renal function were measured. Increased milk consumption was associated with increased serum 25(OH)D and urinary calcium. However, the prevalences of elevated serum 25(OH)D and calcium were no greater than expected, and data indicated normal renal function. It was concluded that most persons exposed to excess vitamin D exhibited no measurable adverse subclinical effects. PMID:7573628

  7. Modified nucleosides as biomarkers for early cancer diagnose in exposed populations.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Annerose; Seidel, Peter; Manuwald, Olaf; Herbarth, Olf

    2015-07-01

    There is increasing worldwide interest in developing of markers for tumor diagnosis and identification of individuals who are at high cancer risk. Cancer, like other diseases accompanied by metabolic disorders, causes characteristic effects on cell turnover rate, activity of modifying enzymes, and RNA/DNA modifications. This results in an increased excretion of modified nucleosides in cancer patients. Therefore, for many years modified nucleosides have been suggested as tumor markers. The aim of the study was to elucidate further the usefulness of urinary nucleosides as possible markers at early detection of cancer in persons which are exposed against tumor promoting influences during their working life. Uranium miners are exposed to many kinds of pollutants that can cause health damage even lead to carcinogenesis. We analyzed modified nucleosides in urine samples from 92 miners who are at high risk for lung cancer to assess the levels of nucleosides by a multilayer perceptron (MLP) classifier - a neural network model. Eighteen nucleosides/metabolites were detected with reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). A valid set of urinary metabolites were selected and multivariate statistical technique of multilayer perceptron neural network were applied. In a previous study, MLP shows a sensitivity and specificity of 97 and 85%, respectively. MLP classification including the most relevant markers/nucleosides clearly demonstrates the elevation of RNA metabolism in miners, which is associated with possible malignant disease. We found that there were 30 subjects with early health disorders among 92 uranium workers based on MLP technique using modified nucleosides. The combination of RP-HPLC analysis of modified nucleosides and subsequent MLP analyses represents a promising tool for the development of a non-invasive prediction system and may assist in developing management and surveillance procedures. PMID:24615900

  8. Co-infections determine patterns of mortality in a population exposed to parasite infection

    PubMed Central

    Woolhouse, Mark E. J.; Thumbi, Samuel M.; Jennings, Amy; Chase-Topping, Margo; Callaby, Rebecca; Kiara, Henry; Oosthuizen, Marinda C.; Mbole-Kariuki, Mary N.; Conradie, Ilana; Handel, Ian G.; Poole, E. Jane; Njiiri, Evalyne; Collins, Nicola E.; Murray, Gemma; Tapio, Miika; Auguet, Olga Tosas; Weir, Willie; Morrison, W. Ivan; Kruuk, Loeske E. B.; Bronsvoort, B. Mark de C.; Hanotte, Olivier; Coetzer, Koos; Toye, Philip G.

    2015-01-01

    Many individual hosts are infected with multiple parasite species, and this may increase or decrease the pathogenicity of the infections. This phenomenon is termed heterologous reactivity and is potentially an important determinant of both patterns of morbidity and mortality and of the impact of disease control measures at the population level. Using infections with Theileria parva (a tick-borne protozoan, related to Plasmodium) in indigenous African cattle [where it causes East Coast fever (ECF)] as a model system, we obtain the first quantitative estimate of the effects of heterologous reactivity for any parasitic disease. In individual calves, concurrent co-infection with less pathogenic species of Theileria resulted in an 89% reduction in mortality associated with T. parva infection. Across our study population, this corresponds to a net reduction in mortality due to ECF of greater than 40%. Using a mathematical model, we demonstrate that this degree of heterologous protection provides a unifying explanation for apparently disparate epidemiological patterns: variable disease-induced mortality rates, age-mortality profiles, weak correlations between the incidence of infection and disease (known as endemic stability), and poor efficacy of interventions that reduce exposure to multiple parasite species. These findings can be generalized to many other infectious diseases, including human malaria, and illustrate how co-infections can play a key role in determining population-level patterns of morbidity and mortality due to parasite infections. PMID:26601143

  9. Co-infections determine patterns of mortality in a population exposed to parasite infection.

    PubMed

    Woolhouse, Mark E J; Thumbi, Samuel M; Jennings, Amy; Chase-Topping, Margo; Callaby, Rebecca; Kiara, Henry; Oosthuizen, Marinda C; Mbole-Kariuki, Mary N; Conradie, Ilana; Handel, Ian G; Poole, E Jane; Njiiri, Evalyne; Collins, Nicola E; Murray, Gemma; Tapio, Miika; Auguet, Olga Tosas; Weir, Willie; Morrison, W Ivan; Kruuk, Loeske E B; Bronsvoort, B Mark de C; Hanotte, Olivier; Coetzer, Koos; Toye, Philip G

    2015-03-01

    Many individual hosts are infected with multiple parasite species, and this may increase or decrease the pathogenicity of the infections. This phenomenon is termed heterologous reactivity and is potentially an important determinant of both patterns of morbidity and mortality and of the impact of disease control measures at the population level. Using infections with Theileria parva (a tick-borne protozoan, related to Plasmodium) in indigenous African cattle [where it causes East Coast fever (ECF)] as a model system, we obtain the first quantitative estimate of the effects of heterologous reactivity for any parasitic disease. In individual calves, concurrent co-infection with less pathogenic species of Theileria resulted in an 89% reduction in mortality associated with T. parva infection. Across our study population, this corresponds to a net reduction in mortality due to ECF of greater than 40%. Using a mathematical model, we demonstrate that this degree of heterologous protection provides a unifying explanation for apparently disparate epidemiological patterns: variable disease-induced mortality rates, age-mortality profiles, weak correlations between the incidence of infection and disease (known as endemic stability), and poor efficacy of interventions that reduce exposure to multiple parasite species. These findings can be generalized to many other infectious diseases, including human malaria, and illustrate how co-infections can play a key role in determining population-level patterns of morbidity and mortality due to parasite infections. PMID:26601143

  10. [Genomic variation of laboratory strains and natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster exposed to X-irradiation].

    PubMed

    Shokhanov, S O; Shcherbata, G R; Chernik, Ia I

    1997-01-01

    The spontaneous and X-ray-induced mutation rates and spectrums were estimated in laboratory strains and natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster from the Chernobyl meltdown area. Laboratory strains Oregon R and y2w alpha 4 were stable. In all natural populations, the spontaneous mutation rate was an order of magnitude higher (10(-3)) than in laboratory strains. Irradiation at a total dose of 3000 R was shown to induce genetic instability in the stable laboratory strain y2w alpha 4 and to increase the mutation rate and spectrum range in the unstable natural population P1. A high level of genetic instability was observed both in the first and second generations. Genetic analysis by means of classical genetic and molecular methods was performed; in crosses, a collection of spontaneous and induced mutants was used. The molecular genetic nature of mutations at the white and cut loci was analyzed by Southern blot-hybridization. Mutations at the white locus were shown to result both from transposition and recombination events; cut mutations were caused by deletions. PMID:9162688

  11. Mesothelial cell and anti-nuclear autoantibodies associated with pleural abnormalities in an asbestos exposed population of Libby MT.

    PubMed

    Marchand, Lucas S; St-Hilaire, Sophie; Putnam, Elizabeth A; Serve, Kinta M; Pfau, Jean C

    2012-01-25

    Despite data linking amphibole asbestos exposure with production of autoantibodies, the role of autoantibodies in subsequent disease is unknown. Residents of Libby, Montana have experienced significant exposure to amphibole asbestos due to the mining of asbestos-contaminated vermiculite near the community over several decades. This population predominantly exhibits pleural disease, and an autoimmune-like disorder that has yet to be well defined. This study sought to determine whether autoantibodies from asbestos-exposed subjects were associated with pleural lesions. Serum samples of subjects from Libby were evaluated for anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) and mesothelial cell autoantibodies (MCAA) using cell based ELISA. The presence of radiographic abnormalities detected during the time frame of serum collection was determined from screening records. In accord with previous studies, 61.3% (76/124) of the Libby samples were ANA positive, a frequency much higher than expected for a healthy population. The odds of having pleural or interstitial abnormalities in Libby was nearly 3.55 times greater for individuals that tested positive for ANA compared with individuals negative for ANA (p=0.004). MCAA were also detected at a strikingly high frequency (18.5%; 23/124) in samples from Libby. Individuals with MCAA had 4.9 times the risk of having pleural abnormalities compared to MCAA-negative subjects (p=0.044). In conclusion, ANA and MCAA were elevated in a study population that was known to have chronic exposure to asbestos, and these autoantibodies were associated with pleural abnormalities, the predominant finding in the asbestos-exposed population of Libby. Additional research is needed to determine the role these autoantibodies may play in pulmonary disease. PMID:22085844

  12. Hepatic Responses of Juvenile Fundulus heteroclitus from Pollution-adapted and Nonadapted Populations Exposed to Elizabeth River Sediment Extract.

    PubMed

    Riley, Amanda K; Chernick, Melissa; Brown, Daniel R; Hinton, David E; Di Giulio, Richard T

    2016-07-01

    Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) inhabiting the Atlantic Wood Industries region of the Elizabeth River, Virginia, have passed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) resistance to their offspring as evidenced by early life stage testing of developmental toxicity after exposure to specific PAHs. Our study focused on environmentally relevant PAH mixtures in the form of Elizabeth River sediment extract (ERSE). Juvenile (5 month) F1 progeny of pollution-adapted Atlantic Wood (AW) parents and of reference site (King's Creek [KC]) parents were exposed as embryos to ERSE. Liver alterations, including nonneoplastic lesions and microvesicular vacuolation, were observed in both populations. ERSE-exposed KC fish developed significantly more alterations than unexposed KC fish. Interestingly, unexposed AW killifish developed significantly more alterations than unexposed KC individuals, suggesting that AW juveniles are not fully protected from liver disease; rapid growth of juvenile fish may also be an accelerating factor for tumorigenesis. Because recent reports show hepatic tumor formation in adult AW fish, the differing responses from the 2 populations provided a way to determine whether embryo toxicity protection extends to juveniles. Future investigations will analyze older life stages of killifish to determine differences in responses related to chronic disease. PMID:26992886

  13. [Neurological manifestations in riverine populations from areas exposed to mercury in the Brazilian Amazon].

    PubMed

    Khoury, Eliana Dirce Torres; Souza, Givago da Silva; Silveira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; Costa, Carlos Araújo da; Araújo, Amélia A de; Pinheiro, Maria da Conceição Nascimento

    2013-11-01

    This study evaluated current levels of mercury exposure and sensory symptoms in adults from three riverine communities in Pará State, Brazil, two of which located in the Tapajós River basin and one in the Tocantins basin. Participants in this study included 78 residents in Barreiras (Tapajós), 30 in São Luiz do Tapajós (Tapajós), and 49 in Furo do Maracujá (Tocantins). Total hair mercury concentrations were quantified by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and neurological evaluation was conducted by routine examination. Mercury concentrations in the Tapajós communities were higher than those in the Tocantins (p < 0.01). Evaluation of neurological changes showed no significant difference between the communities in exposed areas and control areas for the changes observed by conventional neurological examination, except for gait deviation (p < 0.05). The study concludes that despite the mercury exposure levels, there was a low frequency of sensory alterations according to conventional neurological testing. PMID:24233045

  14. BLOOLD METHYLMICS IN RESPONSE TO ARSENIC EXPOSURE IN A LOW–EXPOSED US POPULATION

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Zheng, Yinan; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Xiao; Ning, Hongyan; Liu, Kiang; LIoyd-Jones, Donald M; Fornage, Myriam; He, Ka; Hou, Lifang

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to arsenic (As) has been associated with cancers, CVD, and neurological disorder. To explore the possible underlying epigenetic mechanisms, a genome-wide study was conducted in low exposed healthy individuals. This study was nested within a prospective study of Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) by randomly selecting 46 non-smoker and non-diabetic White participants with low (N=23) and high (N=23) As exposure. based on toenail total As measures at examination year 2. We conducted methylomic profiling of white blood cell DNA collected at examination year 15 using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Multivariate linear regression models were fitted to evaluate the associations between As exposure status and DNA methylation levels at each CpG site. We identified 29 CpG sites with methylation levels associated with As exposure status at a nominal p-value less than 0.0001. Some genes are known to be involved in cancers, CVD, and neurological disorder. Pathway analyses further revealed several canonical pathways relevant to the etiology of As-associated diseases. We demonstrated that As exposure is prospectively associated with DNA methylation levels in a number of genes implicated in As-associated diseases. Further studies are required for elucidating the role of epigenetic alterations in the pathogenesis of these diseases. PMID:24368509

  15. Biological citizenship: the science and politics of Chernobyl-exposed populations.

    PubMed

    Petryna, Adriana

    2004-01-01

    In the transition out of socialism to market capitalism, bodies, populations, and categories of citizenship have been reordered. The rational-technical management of group affected by the Chernobyl disaster in Ukraine is a window into this contested process. Chernobyl exemplifies a moment when scientific knowability collapsed and new maps and categories of entitlement emerged. Older models of welfare rely on precise definitions situating citizens and their attributes on a cross-mesh of known categories upon which claims rights are based. Here one observes how ambiguities related to categorizing suffering created a political field in which a state, forms of citizenship, and informal economies were remade. PMID:15484388

  16. Contribution of modern medical imaging technology to radiation health effects in exposed populations

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I,

    1980-11-01

    The introduction of technically-advanced imaging systems in medicine carries with it potential health hazards, particularly from ionizing and nonionizing radiation exposure of human populations. This paper will discuss what we know and what we do not know about the health effects of low-level radiation, how the risks of radiation-induced health effects may be estimated, the sources of the scientific data, the dose-response models used, the uncertainties which limit precision of estimation of excess health risks from low-level radiation, and what the implications might be for radiation protection in medicine and public health policy.

  17. Association of folate deficiency and selected tumor marker concentrations in long-term hexavalent chromium exposed population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tian-Cheng; Song, Yan-Shuang; Yu, Shan-Fa; Zhang, Ji; Wang, Hui; Gu, Yong-En; Chen, Tian; Jia, Guang

    2014-01-01

    Both hexavalent chromium [Cr (VI)] exposure and folate deficiency have been associated with increased cancer risks. Our previous studies have found folate deficiency in Cr (VI) exposed population. Here the relationship between some tumor markers and folate status in long-term Cr (VI) exposure was investigated carefully to show the multiple aspects of Cr (VI) carcinogenesis. A group of 115 workers occupationally exposed to chromate and 60 matched, unexposed controls in Shandong province of China were recruited. Environmental and biological exposure assessments including personal exposure to airborne Cr and Cr contents in erythrocytes were performed. Serum folate, plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) and plasma carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), neuron specific enolase (NSE), squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC), cytokeratin fragment antigen 21-1 (CYFRA 21-1), cancer antigen 72-4 (CA72-4), as well as α-fetoprotein (AFP) were measured. Smoking index (SI) was also calculated to discriminate possible confounding effects of smoking status. Serum folate level decreased significantly, while plasma tHcy, CEA, NSE, SCC, CYFRA21-1, CA72-4 and AFP concentrations increased significantly after Cr (VI) exposure. Meanwhile, plasma CEA, NSE and SCC were negatively correlated with serum folate. SI was negatively correlated with serum folate but positively correlated with plasma tHcy, CEA and NSE levels. Present study suggests that folate deficiency was associated with increased cancer risks and might be affected by smoking in Cr (VI) exposed population. Folate might play a key role in Cr (VI) carcinogenesis although further detailed investigations are needed to clarify the mechanism of this process. PMID:23623598

  18. Measurement of a drowning incidence rate combining direct observation of an exposed population with mortality statistics.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Damian; Ozanne-Smith, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Drowning risk factors may be identified by comparing drowning incidence rates for comparable at-risk populations but precise methods are lacking. To address this knowledge gap, an ecological study extrapolated crude time-duration exposure to water for a specified at-risk sample of surf bathers to estimate the bather population for all wave-dominated beaches in Victoria, Australia, over a four-year summer season period. An incidence rate was calculated using surf bather drowning deaths frequencies matched for time and location. For the sample, 47,341 hours of surf bathing were estimated from 177,528 bathing episodes. Generalising these results to Victoria, the crude drowning deaths incidence rate in the summer season was 0.41 per 1,000,000 person-hours of surf bathing (95% CI 0.37-0.45). Further application of the method, particularly in open water settings, may be used to identify candidate drowning risk factors to advance drowning prevention strategies. PMID:24758173

  19. Interrelationships of blood and hair mercury concentrations in a North American population exposed to methylmercury

    SciTech Connect

    Phelps, R.W.; Clarkson, T.W.

    1980-05-01

    Samples of blood and head hair were analyzed for organic and inorganic mercury from a population which consumed large amonts of fish contaminated with methylmercury. Mercury levels in newly formed hair were found to reflect those in blood with the concentration in hair being approximately 300 times that in blood. Organic and inorganic mercury levels were linearly related in both hair and blood samples, with a mean inorganic/organic ratio of 0.05 in blood and 0.21 in hair, but individual differences were found to exist. In addition, the total mercury concentration and inorganic/organic ratio in hair remained constant with time. Thus, longitudinal analysis of hair samples can provide a simple and accurate method of monitoring continuing exposure and an estimation of peak blood levels months to years after exposure.

  20. Evidence of early nervous system dysfunction in Amazonian populations exposed to low-levels of methylmercury.

    PubMed

    Lebel, J; Mergler, D; Lucotte, M; Amorim, M; Dolbec, J; Miranda, D; Arantès, G; Rheault, I; Pichet, P

    1996-01-01

    There is increasing concern about the potential neurotoxic effects of exposure to methylmercury in Amazonian populations due to mercury (Hg) release from gold-mining activities. A preliminary study was undertaken in two villages on the Tapajos River, an effluent of the Amazon, situated over 200 km downstream from the extraction areas. The study population included 29 young adults (< or = 35 years), 14 women and 15 men, randomly chosen from a previous survey. Hair analyses were conducted with cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrophotometry. Total hair Hg (THg) varied between 5.6 micrograms/g and 38.4 micrograms/gl, with MeHg levels from 72.2% to 93.3% of the THg. A quantitative behavioural neurophysiological test battery, designed for use under standard conditions, in an area without electricity and for persons with minimal education was administered to all participants. The results of visual testing showed that although all participants had good near and far visual acuity, color discrimination capacity (Lanthony D-15 desaturated panel) decreased with increasing THg (F = 4.1; p = 0.05); near visual contrast sensitivity profiles (Vistech 6000) and peripheral visual field profiles (Goldman Perimetry with Targets I and V) were reduced for those with the highest levels of THg. For the women, manual dexterity (Santa Ana, Helsinki version) decreased with increasing THg (F = 16.7; p < 0.01); this was not the case for the men. Although the women showed a tendency towards reduced grip strength, muscular fatigue did not vary with THg for either sex. The findings of this study demonstrate that it is possible, using a sensitive test battery, to detect alterations in nervous system functions, consistent with knowledge on Hg toxicity, at levels below the currently recognized threshold of 50 micrograms/g THg. PMID:8784826

  1. Cord blood lymphocyte functions in newborns from a remote maritime population exposed to organochlorines and methylmercury.

    PubMed

    Belles-Isles, Marthe; Ayotte, Pierre; Dewailly, Eric; Weber, Jean-Philippe; Roy, Raynald

    2002-01-25

    The consumption of fish and sea mammals can be an important source of exposure to organochlorine compounds (OCs) and heavy metals in populations relying on seafood for subsistence. Exposure to these substances, especially during the prenatal period, has been shown to induce immunotoxic effects in mammals. Immunological status was assessed in 48 newborns from a remote maritime population living on the Lower and Mid North Shore of the St. Lawrence River (subsistence fishing group) and 60 newborns from the coastal urban center of Sept-Iles (reference group). Women were recruited upon arrival at Sept-Iles regional hospital to give birth. Cord blood samples were collected for organochlorine and heavy metal analyses and to isolate lymphocytes for immunological assays (proportions and functional responses of the main cellular subsets T, B, and NK (natural killer) cells. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and mercury were respectively three- and twofold higher, significantly greater, in the subsistence fishing group than in the reference group. Compared to the reference group, the subsistence fishing group showed significant decreases in the proportion of the naive helper T-cell subset CD4+CD45RA, T-cell proliferation following an in vitro mitogenic stimulation, and plasma immunoglobulin M (IgM) level, while plasma IgC level was increased. NK cytolytic activities were similar in both groups. The proportion of CD4+CD45RA cells was inversely correlated to mercury and PCBs, while T-cell clonal expansion was negatively associated with PCBs and p,p'-DDE. Mercury was inversely correlated to plasma IgM. Data show that subtle functional alterations of the developing human immune system may result from in utero exposure to OCs and mercury. Epidemiological studies are needed to determine the relevance of these alterations in predicting detrimental health effects in the developing child. PMID:11820504

  2. Possibilities of detecting health effects by studies of populations exposed to chemicals from waste disposal sites.

    PubMed Central

    Buffler, P A; Crane, M; Key, M M

    1985-01-01

    Factors affecting the design of an epidemiologic study assessing possible health effects from chemical waste disposal sites are reviewed. Such epidemiologic studies will most likely be prompted either by a known release of chemicals into the environment around the site, or by an unusual disease cluster in a population near the site. In the latter situation, a method for evaluating the health effects is needed, and one possible approach is discussed. In the former situation, it may not be obvious what health outcomes are relevant. Reported associations between health effects and chemicals in humans were reviewed. Studies from the occupational and environmental literature were classified by chemical and target organ affected and presented in tabular form. No attempt was made to critically evaluate the quality of evidence for each health effect, although bibliographic documentation was provided where possible. Episodes of chemical contamination of food, drinking water and other media were also reviewed and presented in a separate table. The organ sites likely to be affected by toxic chemicals from waste disposal sites depend heavily on the route of exposure and the dose that is received. Ingestion is the most frequently reported route of exposure in episodes of environmental contamination. These have affected the hepatic, renal, hematopoietic, reproductive, and central nervous systems. The type and severity of effects were dose-dependent. Direct skin contact is important in the occupational environment where dermal and central nervous system effects have been reported but seems less likely as a route of exposure for populations around waste disposal sites. Inhalation, unless at relative high concentrations or as a result of fire, is unlikely to be important, although hematopoietic, reproductive, and central nervous system effects have been reported in occupational studies. PMID:3910420

  3. Egg rejection behavior in a population exposed to parasitism: Village Weavers on Hispaniola

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cruz, A.; Prather, J.W.; Wiley, J.W.; Weaver, P.F.

    2008-01-01

    In contrast to African Village Weavers (Ploceus cucullatus) that are parasitized by Diederik Cuckoos (Chrysococcyx caprius), introduced weavers on Hispaniola existed without parasitism for at least 2 centuries until the arrival of the Shiny Cowbird (Molothrus bonariensis) in the 1970s. Cruz and Wiley (1989) found that Hispaniolan weavers had a lower rejection rate of foreign eggs than African populations. Subsequently, Robert and Sorci (1999) and Lahti (2005, 2006) found that acceptance of dissimilar eggs is not characteristic of the species throughout its Hispaniolan range. In 1999-2002, we studied egg rejection in Hispaniolan weavers on a broad regional scale. Rejection increased as experimental eggs became increasingly different from the host eggs. Rejection rates for mimetic eggs, different color eggs, different-spotting eggs, and cowbird eggs was 23.2%, 33.3%, 61.5%, and 85.3%, respectively, with higher rejection of cowbird eggs in areas where cowbirds were observed. Although rejection is likely to have a genetic component, the differences could be due to phenotypic plasticity. Plasticity in egg rejection may be expected, given the potential cost of rejection and the spatiotemporal distribution of cowbirds. Thus, egg rejection has not necessarily decreased in Hispaniolan weavers, but it may act in a plastic manner, increasing where cowbirds are present. ?? The Author 2008. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology. All rights reserved.

  4. Transcriptional responses, metabolic activity and mouthpart deformities in natural populations of Chironomus riparius larvae exposed to environmental pollutants.

    PubMed

    Planelló, Rosario; Servia, María J; Gómez-Sande, Pablo; Herrero, Óscar; Cobo, Fernando; Morcillo, Gloria

    2015-04-01

    Biomarkers are an important tool in laboratory assays that link exposure or effect of specific toxicants to key molecular and cellular events, but they have not been widely used in invertebrate populations exposed to complex mixtures of environmental contaminants in their natural habitats. The present study focused on a battery of biomarkers and their comparative analysis in natural populations of the benthic larvae of Chironomus riparius (Diptera), sampled in three differentially polluted rivers (the Con, Sar, and Louro in Galicia, Spain). In our study, some parameters were identified, such as hsp70 gene activity, GST enzymatic activity, total glycogen content and mouthpart deformities, which showed significant differences among populations from the three rivers that differed in the levels and types of sedimentary contaminants analyzed (metals, organic-chlorine pesticides, alkylphenols, pharmaceutical, and personal care products). In contrast to these sensitive biomarkers, other parameters showed no significant differences (hsc70 gene, EcR gene, P450 gene, RNA:DNA ratio, total protein content), and were stable even when comparing field and nonexposed laboratory populations. The hsp70 gene seems to be particularly sensitive to conditions of pollutant exposure, while its constitutive counterpart hsc70 showed invariable expression, suggesting that the hsc70/hsp70 ratio may be a potential indicator of polluted environments. Although further studies are required to understand the correlation between molecular responses and the ecological effects of pollutants on natural populations, the results provide new data about the biological responses to multiple-stressor environments. This field study adds new molecular endpoints, including gene expression, as suitable tools that, complementing other ecotoxicological parameters, may help to improve the methodologies of freshwater monitoring under the increasing burden of xenobiotics. PMID:23893657

  5. Direct Measurement of Perchlorate Exposure Biomarkers in a Highly Exposed Population: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Michelle; Copan, Lori; Olmedo, Luis; Patton, Sharyle; Haas, Robert; Atencio, Ryan; Xu, Juhua; Valentin-Blasini, Liza

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to perchlorate is ubiquitous in the United States and has been found to be widespread in food and drinking water. People living in the lower Colorado River region may have perchlorate exposure because of perchlorate in ground water and locally-grown produce. Relatively high doses of perchlorate can inhibit iodine uptake and impair thyroid function, and thus could impair neurological development in utero. We examined human exposures to perchlorate in the Imperial Valley among individuals consuming locally grown produce and compared perchlorate exposure doses to state and federal reference doses. We collected 24-hour urine specimen from a convenience sample of 31 individuals and measured urinary excretion rates of perchlorate, thiocyanate, nitrate, and iodide. In addition, drinking water and local produce were also sampled for perchlorate. All but two of the water samples tested negative for perchlorate. Perchlorate levels in 79 produce samples ranged from non-detect to 1816 ppb. Estimated perchlorate doses ranged from 0.02 to 0.51 µg/kg of body weight/day. Perchlorate dose increased with the number of servings of dairy products consumed and with estimated perchlorate levels in produce consumed. The geometric mean perchlorate dose was 70% higher than for the NHANES reference population. Our sample of 31 Imperial Valley residents had higher perchlorate dose levels compared with national reference ranges. Although none of our exposure estimates exceeded the U. S. EPA reference dose, three participants exceeded the acceptable daily dose as defined by bench mark dose methods used by the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. PMID:21394205

  6. Direct measurement of perchlorate exposure biomarkers in a highly exposed population: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    English, Paul; Blount, Ben; Wong, Michelle; Copan, Lori; Olmedo, Luis; Patton, Sharyle; Haas, Robert; Atencio, Ryan; Xu, Juhua; Valentin-Blasini, Liza

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to perchlorate is ubiquitous in the United States and has been found to be widespread in food and drinking water. People living in the lower Colorado River region may have perchlorate exposure because of perchlorate in ground water and locally-grown produce. Relatively high doses of perchlorate can inhibit iodine uptake and impair thyroid function, and thus could impair neurological development in utero. We examined human exposures to perchlorate in the Imperial Valley among individuals consuming locally grown produce and compared perchlorate exposure doses to state and federal reference doses. We collected 24-hour urine specimen from a convenience sample of 31 individuals and measured urinary excretion rates of perchlorate, thiocyanate, nitrate, and iodide. In addition, drinking water and local produce were also sampled for perchlorate. All but two of the water samples tested negative for perchlorate. Perchlorate levels in 79 produce samples ranged from non-detect to 1816 ppb. Estimated perchlorate doses ranged from 0.02 to 0.51 µg/kg of body weight/day. Perchlorate dose increased with the number of servings of dairy products consumed and with estimated perchlorate levels in produce consumed. The geometric mean perchlorate dose was 70% higher than for the NHANES reference population. Our sample of 31 Imperial Valley residents had higher perchlorate dose levels compared with national reference ranges. Although none of our exposure estimates exceeded the U. S. EPA reference dose, three participants exceeded the acceptable daily dose as defined by bench mark dose methods used by the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. PMID:21394205

  7. High prevalence of HER-2/neu overexpression in female breast cancer among an Iraqi population exposed to depleted uranium

    PubMed Central

    AL-Dujaily, Esraa A.; Al-Janabi, Asad A.; Pierscionek, Tomasz

    2008-01-01

    Background This study aimed to estimate the rate of HER-2/neu (c-erbB2) immunohistochemical overexpression in different histological types of breast cancer found in the middle Euphrates region of Iraq, a region that was exposed to high levels of depleted uranium. HER-2/neu (c-erbB2) overexpression was correlated with common clinicopathological parameters such as age, grade, stage, tumor size and lymph node involvement to determine if any particular biomarker for exposure to depleted uranium could be found in the tumor samples from this region. Materials and Methods The present investigation was performed over a period starting from September 2007 to June 2008. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded blocks from 90 patients with breast cancer were included in this study. A group of 25 patients with benign breast lesions (fibroadenoma) was included as a comparative group, and 20 breast tissue sections were used as controls. Labeled streptavidin-biotin (LSAB) complex method was employed for immunohistochemical detection of HER-2/neu. Results HER-2/neu immuno-expression was positive in 67.8% of breast cancer, while it was negative in all benign breast lesions (fibroadenoma) (P < 0.05). HER-2/neu immunostaining was significantly associated with histological type and recurrence of breast cancer (P < 0.05). It was positively correlated with tumor grade, but this finding was not significant (P > 0.05). Conclusion Based upon the findings of this study, it can be concluded that HER-2/neu overexpression plays an important role in the pathogenesis of breast cancer and is associated with a worse prognosis. The findings indicate that in regions exposed to high levels of depleted uranium, HER-2/neu overexpression is high, but its correlation with age, grade, stage, tumor size, and lymph node involvement is similar to studies that have been conducted on populations not exposed to depleted uranium. PMID:19008567

  8. Accidental gamma dose measurement using commercial glasses.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Pradeep; Vaijapurkar, S G; Senwar, K R; Kumar, D; Bhatnagar, P K

    2008-01-01

    Commercial glasses have been investigated for their application in accidental gamma dose measurement using Thermoluminescent (TL) techniques. Some of the glasses have been found to be sensitive enough that they can be used as TL dating material in radiological accident situation for gamma dosimetry with lower detection limit 1 Gy (the dose significant for the onset of deterministic biological effects). The glasses behave linearly in the dose range 1-25 Gy with measurement uncertainty +/- 10%. The errors in accidental dose measurements using TL technique are estimated to be within +/- 25%. These glasses have shown TL fading in the range of 10-20% in 24 h after irradiation under room conditions; thereafter the fading becomes slower and reaches upto 50% in 15 d. TL fading of gamma-irradiated glasses follows exponential decay pattern, therefore dosimetry even after years is possible. These types of glasses can also be used as lethal dose indicator (3-4 Gy) using TL techniques, which can give valuable inputs to the medical professional for better management of radiation victims. The glasses are easy to use and do not require lengthy sample preparation before reading as in case of other building materials. TL measurement on glasses may give immediate estimation of the doses, which can help in medical triage of the radiation-exposed public. PMID:18285317

  9. Epidemiology of accidental radiation exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Cardis, E.

    1996-05-01

    Much of the information on the health effects of radiation exposure available to date comes from long-term studies of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Accidental exposures, such as those resulting from the Chernobyl and Kyshtym accidents, have as yet provided little information concerning health effects of ionizing radiation. This paper will present the current state of our knowledge concerning radiation effects, review major large-scale accidental exposures and the types of studies that are needed. 64 refs., 3 tabs.

  10. Short- and long-term morbidity and mortality in the population exposed to dioxin after the "Seveso accident".

    PubMed

    Pesatori, Angela Cecilia; Consonni, Dario; Bachetti, Silvia; Zocchetti, Carlo; Bonzini, Matteo; Baccarelli, Andrea; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto

    2003-07-01

    The early effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin (TCDD) exposure in the population involved in the Seveso, Italy, incident in 1976, have been examined in numerous studies. Chloracne was the only effect linked with sufficient certainty to dioxin exposure. The possible long-term consequences were investigated with mortality and cancer incidence studies. Mortality and morbidity findings during the 20-year period following the accident showed increased risk from lymphoemopoietic neoplasm, digestive system cancer (rectum in males, and biliary tract among females, in particular) and respiratory system cancer (lung, among males). In the incidence analyses, also thyroid gland and pleura cancer appeared suggestively increased. Soft tissue sarcomas showed an increase in the largest, yet least exposed, exposure sub-cohort. Several hypotheses associating non-cancer effects with dioxin exposure were corroborated by findings in the Seveso population: this was the case with cardiovascular effects (possibly linked to both chemical exposure and stressful disaster experience), endocrine effects (diabetes among females) and reproductive effects: exposure of men to TCDD was linked to a lowered male/female sex ratio in their offspring. The results of many Seveso studies point to possible gender effects, in accordance with animal models. Notwithstanding the acknowledged study limitations (lack of individual exposure markers, short latency, and small population size for certain cancer types), results of previous experimental and epidemiological studies, along with mechanistic knowledge on dioxin toxicity, support the hypotheses that the observed excesses might be associated with dioxin exposure. The mortality and cancer incidence follow-up of the Seveso cohort are continuing. PMID:12916742

  11. Interpreting population estimates of birds following pesticide applications--behavior of male starlings exposed to an organophosphate pesticide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grue, C.E.; Shipley, B.J.

    1981-01-01

    We determined activity budgets for 10 pairs of captive male Starlings between 7 May and 18 July 1980. Our objective was to quantify changes in behavior after exposure to an organophosphate (OP) pesticide and to assess the impact of changes in behavior on the interpretation of population estimates of birds following pesticide applications. We observed each pair of males for an hour at 07:30 and 09:30 for four days and classified their behavior into one of four categories: flying, perching, foraging, or singing and displaying. At 06:30 on day 2, one male received a single oral dose of 2.5 mg dicrotophos (3-hydroxy-N, N-dimethyl-cis-crotonamide dimethyl phosphate) per kg of body weight; the other male received an equivalent exposure of corn oil. Changes in the activity budgets of OP-dosed and control males were compared using t-tests. Activity of OP-dosed males was significantly (P _ 0.05) reduced within the 2-4 h following exposure. OP-dosed males spent more time perching (46.1%) than controls and less time flying (-96.6%), foraging (-28.5%), and singing and displaying (-49.5%). The frequency of perching (-75.3%), flying (-83.8%), foraging (-54.1%), and singing and displaying (- 59.2%) was significantly reduced. Activity in OP-dosed males returned to normal by 26-28 h posttreatment. Results suggest that movement and vocalization may be significantly reduced in birds exposed to organophosphate and carbamate pesticides. Conventional censusing techniques and population estimating procedures may, therefore, be inadequate to assess changes in bird populations after pesticide applications because of the difficulty in separating decreases in density due to mortality or emigration from reductions in activity.

  12. Plasma-aminothiols status and inverse correlation of total homocysteine with B-vitamins in arsenic exposed population of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Ashit K; Manna, Sujoy K; Roy, Sanjit K; Chakraborty, Manisha; Das, Surajit; Naskar, Jnan P

    2016-09-18

    Chronic arsenic toxicity is a serious environmental health problem across the world. Bangladesh and India (particularly the state of West Bengal) are the worst affected countries with such problem. The present study reports plasma-aminothiols (p-aminothiols) like L-cysteine (L-Cys), cysteinyl glycine (Cys-gly), total homocysteine (t-Hcy) and glutathione (GSH) status, and the inverse relationship of t-Hcy with B-vitamins (B1, B6, B9 and B12) in arsenic exposed population of West Bengal, India. Reverse phase HPLC was used to measure p-aminothiols and serum B-vitamins in different arsenic exposed population. Arsenic in drinking water and urine were measured by flow injection analysis system - Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FIAS-AAS) and Transversely heated graphite atomizer (THGA-AAS) techniques, respectively. Water arsenic exposure was >50 µg/L in 50% population, of which majority (33.58%) belong to the range of >50-500 µg/L and more than 8% were even >1000 µg/L. Urine arsenic (µg/g creatinine) levels increased with arsenic exposure. The variability among p-aminothiols was also observed with higher exposure to arsenic in drinking water. A significant difference between exposed and control population was noticed for plasma L-Cys. The difference of B-vitamins between the population exposed to <50 and >50 µg/L arsenic in drinking water was also found to be significant. B9 and B12 deficiency with increased consumption of arsenic in water corroborates the anemic conditions commonly observed among arsenic exposed population. The aminothiol status indicated oxidative stress in exposed population. This study demonstrated progressive increase in plasma t-Hcy as well as inverse relationships of serum B-vitamins with increased water arsenic concentration. PMID:27336853

  13. Accidental degeneracies in string compactification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bais, F. A.; Taormina, A.

    1986-11-01

    The equivalence of the torus and group manifold compactification of strings is established. Accidental degeneracies are shown to occur for a large class of compactifications. This way many examples are obtained in which modular invariance does not uniquely fix the representation content of the spectrum.

  14. Cadmium-Related Mortality and Long-Term Secular Trends in the Cadmium Body Burden of an Environmentally Exposed Population

    PubMed Central

    Nawrot, Tim S.; Van Hecke, Etienne; Thijs, Lutgarde; Richart, Tom; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Jin, Yu; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Roels, Harry A.; Staessen, Jan A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Few population studies have reported on the long-term changes in the internal cadmium dose and simultaneously occurring mortality. Objective We monitored blood cadmium (BCd), 24-hr urinary cadmium (UCd), and mortality in an environmentally exposed population. Methods Starting from 1985, we followed BCd (until 2003), UCd (until 1996), and mortality (until 2007) among 476 and 480 subjects, randomly recruited from low- exposure areas (LEA) and high-exposure areas (HEA). The last cadmium-producing plant in the HEA closed in 2002. Results From 1985–1989 to 1991–1996, BCd decreased by 40.3% and 18.9% in the LEA and HEA, respectively (p < 0.0001 for between-area difference). From 1991–1996 until 2001–2003, BCd remained unchanged in the HEA (+ 1.8%) and increased by 19.7% in the LEA (p < 0.0001). Over the entire follow-up period, the annual decrease in BCd averaged 2.7% in the LEA (n = 258) and 1.8% in the HEA (n = 203). From 1985–1989 to 1991–1996, UCd fell by 12.9% in the LEA and by 16.6% in the HEA (p = 0.22), with mean annual decreases of 2.7% (n = 366) and 3.4% (n = 364). Over 20.3 years (median), 206 deaths (21.5%) occurred. At baseline, BCd (14.6 vs. 10.2 nmol/L) and UCd (14.1 vs. 8.6 nmol/24-hr) were higher in deaths than in survivors. The risks (p ≤ 0.04) associated with a doubling of baseline UCd were 20% and 44% for total and noncardiovascular mortality, and 25% and 33% for a doubling of BCd. Conclusions Even if zinc–cadmium smelters close, historical environmental contamination remains a persistent source of exposure. Environmental exposure to cadmium increases total and noncardiovascular mortality in a continuous fashion without threshold. PMID:19079711

  15. CYP1A1 and GSTM1 genetic polymorphisms in lung cancer populations exposed to arsenic in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Adonis, M; Martínez, V; Marín, P; Gil, L

    2005-05-01

    Region II of Chile is the most important copper mining area in the world and it shows the highest lung cancer mortality rate in the country (35/100,000). The population in Antofagasta, the main city of Region II, was exposed from 1958 to 1970 to 860 microg m(-3) arsenic (As) in drinking water and has currently been declining to 40 microg m(-3). Glutathione serves as a reducing agent and glutathione S-transferase (GST) may have an important role in As methylation capacity and body retention. In the current study, the null genotype of GSTM1 and the MspI polymorphism of CYP450 1A1 were investigated in lung cancer patients and in healthy volunteers of Region II. In males, the 2A genotype of MspI represented a highly significant estimated relative lung cancer risk (OR=2.60). Relative lung cancer risk for the combined 2A/null GSTM1 genotypes was 2.51, which increased with the smoking habit (OR=2.98). In Region II, the cancer mortality rate for As-associated cancers at least partly might be related to differences in As biotransformation. Genetic biomarkers such as 2A and GSTM1 polymorphisms in addition to DR70 as screening biomarkers might provide relevant information to identify individuals with a high risk for lung cancer as prevention and protection actions to protect public health. PMID:16012082

  16. Analytical method for assessing potential dermal exposure to pesticides of a non-agricultural occupationally exposed population.

    PubMed

    Delhomme, Olivier; Raeppel, Caroline; Teigné, Delphine; Briand, Olivier; Millet, Maurice

    2011-01-01

    To measure dermal exposure of a non-agricultural occupationally exposed population to pesticides, a new method has been developed for analysis of 13 pesticides from different classes (fungicides, herbicides, insecticides) on dermal patches. The method includes extraction of the patches and analysis of the pesticides by GC-MS and/or HPLC-fluorescence. Water-soluble pesticides (glyphosate and glufosinate) on patches were ultrasonically extracted twice with ultra-pure water for 10 min and analysed by HPLC-fluorescence after derivatisation with FMOC. Organic-soluble pesticides (bifenthrin, cyprodinil, difufenicanil, fludioxonil, oxadiazon, pyriproxyfen, clopyralid, 2,4-D, fluroxypyr, 2,4-MCPA, and triclopyr) were extracted ultrasonically twice for 10 min with 70:30 dichloromethane-acetonitrile and analysed by GC-MS directly or after derivatisation with N-methyl-N-tert-butyldimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide. Detection limits varied between 3 and 4 μg L(-1) for water-soluble pesticides and between 1 and 10 μg L(-1) for organic-soluble pesticides. PMID:21107816

  17. Estimation of infectious risks in residential populations exposed to airborne pathogens during center pivot irrigation of dairy wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Dungan, Robert Stephen

    2014-05-01

    In the western United States where dairy wastewaters are commonly land applied, there are concerns over individuals being exposed to airborne pathogens. In response, a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was performed to estimate infectious risks after inhalation exposure of pathogens aerosolized during center pivot irrigation of diluted dairy wastewaters. The dispersion of pathogens (Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli O157:H7, non-O157 E. coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella spp.) was modeled using the atmospheric dispersion model, AERMOD. Pathogen concentrations at downwind receptors were used to calculate infectious risks during one-time (1, 8, and 24 h) and multiday (7 d at 1 h d(-1)) exposure events using a β-Poisson dose-response model. This assessment considered risk of infection in residential populations that were 1 to 10 km from a center pivot operation. In the simulations, infectious risks were estimated to be the greatest in individuals closest to the center pivot, as a result of a higher pathogen dose. On the basis of the results from this QMRA, it is recommended that wastewaters only be applied during daylight hours when inactivation and dilution of airborne pathogens is highest. Further refinement of the dispersion and dose-response models should be considered to increase the utility of this QMRA. PMID:24697271

  18. The big chill: accidental hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Davis, Robert Allan

    2012-01-01

    A potential cause of such emergent issues as cardiac arrhythmias, hypotension, and fluid and electrolyte shifts, accidental hypothermia can be deadly, is common among trauma patients, and is often difficult to recognize. The author discusses predisposing conditions, the classic presentation, and the effects on normal thermoregulatory processes; explains how to conduct a systems assessment of the hypothermic patient; and describes crucial management strategies. PMID:22186703

  19. [Immunological aspects of the study of contingents of population exposed to ionizing radiation effects as the consequence of the Chernobyl AES accident].

    PubMed

    Chumak, A A; Bazyka, D A; Tal'ko, V V; Minchenko, Zh N; Bezpalenko, A G; Beliaeva, N V; Gerasimenko, N K; Dmitrenko, E A; Konopleva, Iu L; Nefedova, R A

    1991-01-01

    The immune system was examined in those who participated in the liquidation of accident sequelae at the Chernobyl Atomic Power Station and the population exposed to ionizing radiation. Alteration in surface antigenic markers of basic regulatory subpopulations of immunocompetent cells and metabolic changes are caused by radiation and co-existent somatic diseases. Typing for HLA antigens and proteins with a genetically determined phenotype revealed characteristic features of their distribution for the general population. PMID:1950153

  20. Some results of long-term investigation population exposed as a result of release of radioactive wastes into the Techa River in Southern Urals

    SciTech Connect

    Degteva, M.O.; Kozheurov, V.P.; Vorobiova, M.I.

    1992-06-01

    This paper describes results of a long-term investigation of a population exposed to radioactive waste release in 1949-1956 into the Techa River in the Southern Urals. Systematic measurements of radionuclide concentration in the river waters, sediments, and floodplain soils and measurements of exposure gamma dose rates as well as studies of the radionuclide composition in the contaminated areas began in the summer of 1951. As a result of the contamination, 124,000 residents were exposed to radiation and 28,100 received significant doses in terms of health effect potential. Covered results include the following: estimation of external radiation doses; content of strontium-90 in humans and estimation of radionuclide ingestion rates; age-dependent model of strontium metabolism in the human body; evaluation of doses of internal irradiation; distribution of exposed population according to accumulated doses. 11 refs; 15 figs.

  1. Acute health effects after accidental exposure to styrene from drinking water in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Arnedo-Pena, Alberto; Bellido-Blasco, Juan; Villamarin-Vazquez, Jose-Luis; Aranda-Mares, Jose-Luis; Font-Cardona, Nuria; Gobba, Fabriziomaria; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2003-01-01

    Objectives We studied subjective health symptoms in a population accidentally exposed to high styrene concentrations in drinking tap water. The contamination occurred during the reparation of a water tank. Methods Residents of 27 apartments in two buildings using the contaminated water were contacted. A questionnaire on subjective symptoms was administered to 84 out of 93 persons living in the apartments at the time of the accident. Styrene concentration was measured in samples of water collected two days after the accident. The means of exposure associated with appearance of symptoms were examined through case-control analyses. Results Styrene in water reached concentrations up to 900 μg/L. Symptoms were reported by 46 persons (attack rate 55 %). The most frequent symptoms were irritation of the throat (26%), nose (19%), eyes (18%) and the skin (14%). General gastrointestinal symptoms were observed with 11% reporting abdominal pain and 7% diarrhea. The factors most strongly associated with symptoms were drinking tap water (OR = 7.8, 95% CI 1.3–48), exposure to vapors from the basement (OR = 10.4, 2.3–47) and eating foods prepared with tap water (OR = 8.6, 1.9–40). All residents in the ground floor reported symptoms. Conclusions This accidental contamination led to very high styrene concentrations in water and was related to a high prevalence of subjective symptoms of the eyes, respiratory tract and skin. Similar exposures have been described in workers but not in subjects exposed at their residence. Various gastrointestinal symptoms were also observed in this population probably due to a local irritative effect. PMID:12777181

  2. Accidental Deaths Among British Columbia Indians

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, N.; Hole, L. W.; Barclay, W. S.

    1966-01-01

    A statistical and epidemiological review of British Columbia native Indian and non-Indian mortality revealed that accidents were the leading cause of death among Indians but ranked only fourth among non-Indians. Comparison of accidental death rates by age and sex showed that, without exception, the rates among Indians were considerably higher than the corressponding rates for non-Indians. While the Indians represented some 2% of the total population of British Columbia, they accounted for over 10% of the total accident fatalities, 29% of drownings, and 21% of fatal burns. Socioeconomic, environmental and psychosocial factors and excessive drinking are considered the chief causes responsible for this rather unusual epidemiological phenomenon. This study revealed certain hazardous conditions which are specific to the Indian's present way of life. In the authors' opinion the recognition of these specific hazards is imperative for the planning of effective preventive campaigns. PMID:5902238

  3. Significant accumulation of persistent organic pollutants and dysregulation in multiple DNA damage repair pathways in the electronic-waste-exposed populations

    SciTech Connect

    He, Xiaobo; Jing, Yaqing; Wang, Jianhai; Li, Keqiu; Yang, Qiaoyun; Zhao, Yuxia; Li, Ran; Ge, Jie; Qiu, Xinghua; Li, Guang

    2015-02-15

    Electronic waste (e-waste) has created a worldwide environmental and health problem, by generating a diverse group of hazardous compounds such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Our previous studies demonstrated that populations from e-waste exposed region have a significantly higher level of chromosomal aberrancy and incidence of DNA damage. In this study, we further demonstrated that various POPs persisted at a significantly higher concentration in the exposed group than those in the unexposed group. The level of reactive oxygen species and micronucleus rate were also significantly elevated in the exposed group. RNA sequencing analysis revealed 31 genes in DNA damage responses and repair pathways that were differentially expressed between the two groups (Log 2 ratio >1 or <−1). Our data demonstrated that both females and males of the exposed group have activated a series of DNA damage response genes; however many important DNA repair pathways have been dysregulated. Expressions of NEIL1/3 and RPA3, which are critical in initiating base pair and nucleotide excision repairs respectively, have been downregulated in both females and males of the exposed group. In contrast, expression of RNF8, an E3 ligase involved in an error prone non-homologous end joining repair for DNA double strand break, was upregulated in both genders of the exposed group. The other genes appeared to be differentially expressed only when the males or females of the two groups were compared respectively. Importantly, the expression of cell cycle regulatory gene CDC25A that has been implicated in multiple kinds of malignant transformation was significantly upregulated among the exposed males while downregulated among the exposed females. In conclusion, our studies have demonstrated significant correlations between e-waste disposing and POPs accumulation, DNA lesions and dysregulation of multiple DNA damage repair mechanisms in the residents of the e-waste exposed region. - Highlights:

  4. Evaluation of glutathione S-transferase GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms and methylmercury metabolism in an exposed Amazon population.

    PubMed

    Mazzaron Barcelos, Gustavo Rafael; de Marco, Kátia Cristina; Grotto, Denise; Valentini, Juliana; Garcia, Solange Cristina; Leite Braga, Gilberto Úbila; Barbosa, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decades, the presence of methylmercury (MeHg) in the Amazon region of Brazil and its adverse human health effects have given rise to much concern. The biotransformation of MeHg occurs mainly through glutathione (GSH) in the bile mediated by conjugation with glutathione S-transferases (GST). Epidemiological evidence has shown that genetic polymorphisms may affect the metabolism of MeHg. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between GST polymorphisms, GSH, and Hg levels in blood (B-Hg) and in hair (H-Hg) of an Amazon population chronically exposed to the metal through fish consumption. Blood and hair samples were collected from 144 volunteers (71 men, 73 women). B-Hg and H-Hg levels were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and GSH levels were evaluated by a spectrophotometric method. GSTM1 and T1 genotyping evaluation were carried out by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Mean levels of B-Hg and H-Hg were 37.7 ± 24.5 μg/L and 10.4 ± 7.4 μg/g, respectively; GSH concentrations ranged from 0.52 to 2.89 μM/ml of total blood. Distributions for GSTM1/T1, GSTM1/GSTT1*0, GSTM1*0/T1, and GSTM1*0/GSTT1*0 genotypes were 35.4, 22.2, 25.0, and 17.4%, respectively. GSTT1 genotype carriers presented lower levels of B-Hg and H-Hg when compared to other genotypes carriers. In addition, GSTM1*0/GSTT1*0 individuals presented higher Hg levels in blood and hair than subjects presenting any other genotypes. There appeared to be no evidence of an effect of polymorphisms on GSH levels. Therefore, our data suggest that GST polymorphisms may be associated with MeHg detoxification. PMID:22852846

  5. Are diabetic foot lesions precipitated by accidental trauma?

    PubMed

    Doshi, H K; Moissinac, K; Harwant, S

    2001-12-01

    Diabetic foot lesions may arise from frictional trauma due to tight or inappropriate footwear, repetitive stresses on parts of the foot, overlying bony prominence generated by walking and accidental trauma to the neuropathic foot. Many diabetics have been found to be unaware of their foot lesion, or know what the precipitating cause was. Based on the assumption that accidental trauma would affect the foot in a random fashion and result in lesions distributed evenly throughout the foot, a study was performed to determine whether foot lesions were distributed evenly or concentrated to certain areas of predilection. It was found that foot lesions were not evenly distributed but concentrated to certain areas of predilection. Even though relatively high proportion of the study population walked about in open slippers and barefeet, the study showed that accidental trauma was not a predominant precipitant of diabetic foot lesions. Diabetic foot lesions tend to occur as a result of cumulative, repetitive trauma to areas of prediliection rather than accidental trauma. PMID:14569763

  6. Quick management of accidental tritium exposure cases.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vishwanath P; Badiger, N M; Managanvi, S S; Bhat, H R

    2012-07-01

    Removal half-life (RHL) of tritium is one of the best means for optimising medical treatment, reduction of committed effective dose (CED) and quick/easy handling of a large group of workers for medical treatment reference. The removal of tritium from the body depends on age, temperature, relative humidity and daily rainfall; so tritium removal rate, its follow-up and proper data analysis and recording are the best techniques for management of accidental acute tritium exposed cases. The decision of referring for medical treatment or medical intervention (MI) would be based on workers' tritium RHL history taken from their bodies at the facilities. The workers with tritium intake up to 1 ALI shall not be considered for medical treatment as it is a derived limit of annual total effective dose. The short-term MI may be considered for tritium intake of 1-10 ALI; however, if the results show intake ≥100 ALI, extended strong medical/therapeutic intervention may be recommended based on the severity of exposure for maximum CED reduction requirements and annual total effective dose limit. The methodology is very useful for pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) which are mainly operated by Canada and India and future fusion reactor technologies. Proper management will optimise the cases for medical treatment and enhance public acceptance of nuclear fission and fusion reactor technologies. PMID:22349318

  7. Estimation of infectious risks in residential populations exposed to airborne pathogens during center pivot irrigation of dairy wastewaters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the western United States where dairy wastewaters are commonly land applied, there are concerns over individuals being exposed to airborne pathogens. In response, a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was performed to estimate infectious risks after inhalation exposure of pathogens aero...

  8. Accidental inflation in the landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Metallinos, Konstantinos; Gomez-Reino, Marta E-mail: marta.gomez-reino.perez@cern.ch

    2013-02-01

    We study some aspects of fine tuning in inflationary scenarios within string theory flux compactifications and, in particular, in models of accidental inflation. We investigate the possibility that the apparent fine-tuning of the low energy parameters of the theory needed to have inflation can be generically obtained by scanning the values of the fluxes over the landscape. Furthermore, we find that the existence of a landscape of eternal inflation in this model provides us with a natural theory of initial conditions for the inflationary period in our vacuum. We demonstrate how these two effects work in a small corner of the landscape associated with the complex structure of the Calabi-Yau manifold P{sup 4}{sub [1,1,1,6,9]} by numerically investigating the flux vacua of a reduced moduli space. This allows us to obtain the distribution of observable parameters for inflation in this mini-landscape directly from the fluxes.

  9. Is the tribimaximal mixing accidental?

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas, Mohammed; Smirnov, A. Yu.

    2010-07-01

    The tribimaximal (TBM) mixing is not accidental if structures of the corresponding leptonic mass matrices follow immediately from certain (residual or broken) flavor symmetry. We develop a simple formalism which allows one to analyze effects of deviations of the lepton mixing from TBM on the structure of the neutrino mass matrix and on the underlying flavor symmetry. We show that possible deviations from the TBM mixing can lead to strong modifications of the mass matrix and strong violation of the TBM-mass relations. As a result, the mass matrix may have an 'anarchical' structure with random values of elements or it may have some symmetry that differs from the TBM symmetry. Interesting examples include matrices with texture zeros, matrices with certain 'flavor alignment' as well as hierarchical matrices with a two-component structure, where the dominant and subdominant contributions have different symmetries. This opens up new approaches to understanding the lepton mixing.

  10. Influence of vanadium on serum lipid and lipoprotein profiles: a population-based study among vanadium exposed workers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Some experimental animal studies reported that vanadium had beneficial effects on blood total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG). However, the relationship between vanadium exposure and lipid, lipoprotein profiles in human subjects remains uncertain. This study aimed to compare the serum lipid and lipoprotein profiles of occupational vanadium exposed and non-exposed workers, and to provide human evidence on serum lipid, lipoprotein profiles and atherogenic indexes changes in relation to vanadium exposure. Methods This cross-sectional study recruited 533 vanadium exposed workers and 241 non-exposed workers from a Steel and Iron Group in Sichuan, China. Demographic characteristics and occupational information were collected through questionnaires. Serum lipid and lipoprotein levels were measured for all participants. The ratios of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) to HDL-C and apoB to apoA-I were used as atherogenic indexes. A general linear model was applied to compare outcomes of the two groups while controlling possible confounders and multivariate logistic regression was performed to evaluate the relationship between low HDL-C level, abnormal atherogenic index and vanadium exposure. Results Higher levels of HDL-C and apoA-I could be observed in the vanadium exposed group compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, atherogenic indexes (TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, and apoB/apoA-I ratios) were found statistically lower in the vanadium exposed workers (P < 0.05). Changes in HDL-C, TC/HDL-C, and LDL-C/HDL-C were more pronounced in male workers than that in female workers. In male workers, after adjusting for potential confounding variables as age, habits of smoking and drinking, occupational vanadium exposure was still associated with lower HDL-C (OR 0.41; 95% CI, 0.27-0.62) and abnormal atherogenic index (OR 0.38; 95% CI, 0.20-0.70). Conclusion Occupational

  11. GPX1 Pro198Leu polymorphism and GSTM1 deletion do not affect selenium and mercury status in mildly exposed Amazonian women in an urban population.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Ariana V; Rita Cardoso, Bárbara; Zavarize, Bruna; Almondes, Kaluce; Bordon, Isabella; Hare, Dominic J; Teixeira Favaro, Déborah Inês; Franciscato Cozzolino, Silvia Maria

    2016-11-15

    Mercury is potent toxicant element, but its toxicity can be reduced by forming a complex with selenium for safe excretion. Considering the impact of mercury exposure in the Amazon region and the possible interaction between these two elements, we aimed to assess the effects of Pro198Leu polymorphism to GPX1 and GSTM1 deletion, on mercury levels in a population from Porto Velho, an urban locality in the Brazilian Amazon region. Two hundred women from the capital city of Rondônia state were recruited for this study with 149 deemed suitable to participate. We assessed dietary intake using 24-hour recall. Selenium levels in plasma and erythrocytes were measured using hydride generation quartz tube atomic absorption spectroscopy and total hair mercury using cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Oxidative stress parameters (GPx activity, oxygen radical absorbency capacity [ORAC] and malondialdehyde [MDA]) were also analyzed. All participants were genotyped for Pro198Leu polymorphism and GSTM1 deletion. We observed that this population presented high prevalence of selenium deficiency, and also low levels of mercury, likely due to food habits that did not include selenium-rich food sources or significant consumption of fish (mercury biomagnifiers) regularly. Univariate statistical analysis showed that Pro198Leu and GSTM1 genotypes did not affect selenium and mercury levels in this population. Pro198Leu polymorphism and GSTM1 deletion had no effect on mercury levels in mildly exposed people, suggesting these genetic variants impact mercury levels only in highly exposed populations. PMID:27450956

  12. Effect of GSTM1 and GSTT1 Polymorphisms on Genetic Damage in Humans Populations Exposed to Radiation From Mobile Towers.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Sachin; Yadav, Anita; Kumar, Neeraj; Kanupriya; Aggarwal, Neeraj K; Kumar, Rajesh; Gupta, Ranjan

    2016-04-01

    All over the world, people have been debating about associated health risks due to radiation from mobile phones and mobile towers. The carcinogenicity of this nonionizing radiation has been the greatest health concern associated with mobile towers exposure until recently. The objective of our study was to evaluate the genetic damage caused by radiation from mobile towers and to find an association between genetic polymorphism of GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes and DNA damage. In our study, 116 persons exposed to radiation from mobile towers and 106 control subjects were genotyped for polymorphisms in the GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes by multiplex polymerase chain reaction method. DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes was determined using alkaline comet assay in terms of tail moment (TM) value and micronucleus assay in buccal cells (BMN). There was a significant increase in BMN frequency and TM value in exposed subjects (3.65 ± 2.44 and 6.63 ± 2.32) compared with control subjects (1.23 ± 0.97 and 0.26 ± 0.27). However, there was no association of GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms with the level of DNA damage in both exposed and control groups. PMID:26238667

  13. Utility of the TBARS assay in detecting oxidative stress in white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) populations exposed to pulp mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Oakes, Ken D; Van Der Kraak, Glen J

    2003-05-29

    Recent evidence indicates that contaminant-stimulated free radical production and resulting oxidative damage may be an important mechanism of toxicity in organisms exposed to water-borne contaminants. This study tested the hypothesis that increases in oxidative stress and associated biochemical alterations would be present in white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) living in an environment receiving pulp mill effluent. Consistent increases in liver TBARS and frequent increases in gonadal TBARS were observed immediately downstream of the pulp mill effluent discharge; observable effects were attenuated with distance until they were not significantly different from reference values. Increases detected with the TBARS assay were commensurate with increases detected using the lipid hydroperoxides assay, a mechanistically independent technique. Fish exposed to pulp mill effluent also exhibited significant increases in hepatic free iron and ascorbic acid and a reduced free radical scavenging capacity in the livers of fish downstream of the effluent discharge relative to reference fish. Increases in oxidative stress are not necessarily dependent on increases in lipid substrate or related to reductions in ascorbic acid. TBARS values similar to those observed in fish resident below pulp mill effluent discharges were observed in white sucker 2 h after intraperitoneal injection using 15 mg/kg body weight ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe(3+) NTA) as a positive control. This study indicates oxidative stress could be a mechanism of toxicity in fish exposed to pulp mill effluent and demonstrates the utility of TBARS in delineating zones of exposure to pulp mill effluent. PMID:12758008

  14. Application of Biochemical Markers for Population Level Assessment of a White Sucker (Catostomus commersoni) Population Exposed to Bleached Kraft Pulp Mill Effluent

    EPA Science Inventory

    A need in ecological risk assessment is an approach that can be used to link chemically-induced alterations in molecular and biochemical endpoints to adverse outcomes in whole organisms and populations. A predictive population model was developed to translate changes in fecundit...

  15. GIS-Mapping and Statistical Analyses to Identify Climate-Vulnerable Communities and Populations Exposed to Superfund Sites

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate change-related cumulative health risks are expected to be disproportionately greater for overburdened communities, due to differential proximity and exposures to chemical sources and flood zones. Communities and populations vulnerable to climate change-associated impacts ...

  16. Anger and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Severity in a Trauma-Exposed Military Population: Differences by Trauma Context and Gender.

    PubMed

    Worthen, Miranda; Rathod, Sujit D; Cohen, Gregory; Sampson, Laura; Ursano, Robert; Gifford, Robert; Fullerton, Carol; Galea, Sandro; Ahern, Jennifer

    2015-12-01

    Studies have found a stronger association between anger and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity in military populations than in nonmilitary populations. Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain this difference: Military populations are more prone to anger than nonmilitary populations, and traumas experienced on deployment create more anger than nondeployment traumas. To examine these hypotheses, we evaluated the association between anger and PTSD severity among never-deployed military service members with nondeployment traumas (n = 226) and deployed service members with deployment traumas (n = 594) using linear regression. We further examined these associations stratified by gender. Bivariate associations between anger and PTSD severity were similar for nondeployment and deployment events; however, gender modified this association. For men, the association for deployment events was stronger than for nondeployment events (β = .18, r = .53 vs. β = .16, r = .37, respectively), whereas the reverse was true for women (deployment: β = .20, r = .42 vs. nondeployment: β = .25, r = .65). Among men, findings supported the hypothesis that deployment traumas produce stronger associations between PTSD and anger and are inconsistent with hypothesized population differences. In women, however, there was not a clear fit with either hypothesis. PMID:26580844

  17. Reduced flight-to-light behaviour of moth populations exposed to long-term urban light pollution.

    PubMed

    Altermatt, Florian; Ebert, Dieter

    2016-04-01

    The globally increasing light pollution is a well-recognized threat to ecosystems, with negative effects on human, animal and plant wellbeing. The most well-known and widely documented consequence of light pollution is the generally fatal attraction of nocturnal insects to artificial light sources. However, the evolutionary consequences are unknown. Here we report that moth populations from urban areas with high, globally relevant levels of light pollution over several decades show a significantly reduced flight-to-light behaviour compared with populations of the same species from pristine dark-sky habitats. Using a common garden setting, we reared moths from 10 different populations from early-instar larvae and experimentally compared their flight-to-light behaviour under standardized conditions. Moths from urban populations had a significant reduction in the flight-to-light behaviour compared with pristine populations. The reduced attraction to light sources of 'city moths' may directly increase these individuals' survival and reproduction. We anticipate that it comes with a reduced mobility, which negatively affects foraging as well as colonization ability. As nocturnal insects are of eminent significance as pollinators and the primary food source of many vertebrates, an evolutionary change of the flight-to-light behaviour thereby potentially cascades across species interaction networks. PMID:27072407

  18. The characterization and evaluation of accidental explosions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strehlow, R. A.; Baker, W. E.

    1975-01-01

    Accidental explosions are discussed from a number of viewpoints. First, all accidental explosions, intentional explosions and natural explosions are characterized by type. Second, the nature of the blast wave produced by an ideal (point source or HE) explosion is discussed to form a basis for describing how other explosion processes yield deviations from ideal blast wave behavior. The current status blast damage mechanism evaluation is also discussed. Third, the current status of our understanding of each different category of accidental explosions is discussed in some detail.

  19. Accidental death involving professional fireworks.

    PubMed

    Romolo, Francesco Saverio; Aromatario, Mariarosaria; Bottoni, Edoardo; Cappelletti, Simone; Fiore, Paola Antonella; Ciallella, Costantino

    2014-01-01

    An interesting case of accidental death involving the explosion of professional fireworks in an apartment is described. The examination of the scene permitted to study several effects of the explosion on walls, ceiling, furniture and especially on a balcony where the victim was found. The external examination of the victim showed extensive thermal injuries, degloving injuries and extensive shrapnel wounds. The autopsy examination showed subarachnoid haemorrhage localized to the cerebellum, haemorrhage in the soft tissues of the neck and chest and fracture of one clavicle. Almost the entire surface of lungs showed blunt injuries and the liver showed tearing of parenchyma and multiple cavities. Histological analysis were carried out showing thickening of alveolar septae, enlargement of alveolar spaces and alveolar ruptures in lung sections while numerous, round, empty spaces were detected in the parenchyma of the liver. The examination of the scene and of the fragments found showed that at least eight pyrotechnical charges exploded on the balcony, in close proximity of the threshold with the living room of the apartment. According to the chemical findings, the charges were typical for professional use and were filled with a mixture of potassium perchlorate and aluminium. A conservative calculation results in more than 1.5 kg total mass of pyrotechnic composition exploding very close to the victim. PMID:24279979

  20. Accidental Bolus of Parenteral Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Lodeserto, Frank; Al-Jaghbeer, Mohammed; Huang, David

    2016-08-01

    There is a paucity of data that exists regarding acute toxicity and management in the setting of parental nutrition (PN) overdose. We describe a case of a patient who received an accidental rapid bolus of PN and fat emulsion. She developed a seizure, metabolic acidosis, arrhythmias, myocardial ischemia, altered mental status, hypotension, and hypoxemia likely caused by elevated triglycerides, leading to a hyperviscosity syndrome. After failing standard therapy, she was successfully treated with a single-volume plasma exchange with resolution of symptoms. Fat emulsion or intravenous lipid emulsion and much of its safety have been recently described in its use as a rescue therapy in resuscitation from drug-related toxicity. Elevated serum triglyceride levels can result in a picture similar to a hyperviscosity syndrome. Plasma exchange is a known therapeutic modality for the management of hyperviscosity syndrome and a novel therapy in the treatment of hyperviscosity syndrome due to fat emulsion therapy. In a patient receiving PN with development of rapid deterioration of clinical status, without an obvious etiology, there should be consideration of PN overdose. A rapid assessment and treatment of severe electrolyte abnormalities should be undertaken immediately to prevent life-threatening cardiovascular and central nervous system collapse. If fat emulsion was rapidly coadministered and there are signs and symptoms of hyperviscosity syndrome, then consideration should be given to plasma exchange as an effective therapeutic treatment option. PMID:25666023

  1. Analysis of plasma microRNA expression profiles in a Chinese population occupationally exposed to benzene and in a population with chronic benzene poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Chen, Xianwen; Bian, Qian; Shi, Yuan; Liu, Qingdong; Ding, Lu; Zhang, Hengdong

    2016-01-01

    Background Circulating microRNA (miRNA) has attractive interests as a non-invasive biomarker of physiological and pathological conditions. Our study aimed to investigate the potential effects of chronic benzene poisoning (CBP) and benzene exposure on miRNA expression, and identify CBP-related miRNAs. Methods In the discovery stage, we used a microarray assay to detect the miRNA expression profiles among pooled plasma samples from ten CBP patients, ten healthy benzene-exposed individuals and ten non-benzene exposed individuals. Subsequently, we conducted an expanded validation of six candidate miRNAs in 27 CBP patients- low blood counts, 54 healthy benzene-exposed individuals and 54 non-exposed individuals. Moreover, we predicted the biological functions of putative target genes using a Gene Ontology (GO) function enrichment analysis and KEGG pathway analysis. Results In the discovery stage, compared with non-exposures, 36 and 12 miRNAs demonstrated at least a 1.0-fold differential expression in the CBP patients and the benzene exposures, respectively. And compared with benzene exposures, 58 miRNAs demonstrated at least a 1.0-fold differential expression in the CBP patients. In the expanded validation stage, compared with non-exposures as well as exposures, miR-24-3p and miR-221-3p were significantly up-regulated (1.99- and 2.06-fold for miR-24-3p, 2.19- and 3.93-fold for miR-221-3p, P<0.01) while miR-122-5p and miR-638 were significantly down-regulated (−3.45- and −2.60-fold for miR-122-5p, −1.82- and −3.20-fold for miR-638, P<0.001) in the CBP patients; compared with non-exposures, the plasma level of miR-638 was significantly up-regulated (1.38-fold, P<0.01) while the plasma levels miR-122-5p and miR-221-3p were significantly down-regulated (−0.85- and −1.74-fold, P<0.01) in the exposures, which were consistent with the results of microarray analysis. Conclusions The four indicated plasma miRNAs may be biomarkers of indicating responses to benzene

  2. Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) gene diversity in a population naturally exposed to malaria in Porto Velho, Northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Perce-da-Silva, D S; Silva, L A; Lima-Junior, J C; Cardoso-Oliveira, J; Ribeiro-Alves, M; Santos, F; Porto, L C M S; Oliveira-Ferreira, J; Banic, D M

    2015-03-01

    Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) are expressed mainly in natural killer cells and specifically recognize human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules. The repertoire of KIR genes and KIR-HLA pairs is known to play a key role in the susceptibilities to and the outcomes of several diseases, including malaria. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of KIR genes, KIR genotypes and KIR-HLA pair combinations in a population naturally exposed to malaria from Brazilian Amazon. All 16 KIR genes investigated were present in the studied population. Overall, 46 KIR genotypes were defined. The two most common genotypes in the Porto Velho communities, genotypes 1 and 2, were present at similar frequencies as in the Americas. Principal component analysis based on the frequencies of the KIR genes placed the Porto Velho population closer to the Venezuela Mestizos, USA California hispanic and Brazil Paraná Mixed in terms of KIR gene frequencies. This analysis highlights the multi-ethnic profile of the Porto Velho population. Most of the individuals were found to have at least one inhibitory KIR-HLA pair. Seventy-five KIR-HLA pair combinations were identified. The KIR-2DL2/3_HLA-C1, KIR3DL1_HLA-Bw4 and KIR2DL1_HLA-C2 pairs were the most common. There was no association between KIR genes, KIR genotypes or KIR-HLA pair combinations and malaria susceptibility in the studied population. This is the first report on the distribution of KIR and known HLA ligands in the Porto Velho population. Taken together, these results should provide baseline information that will be relevant to population evolutionary history, malaria and other diseases studies in populations of the Brazilian Amazon. PMID:25656387

  3. Incorporation of Predictive Population Modeling into the AOP Famework: A Case Study with White Suckers Exposed to Pulp Effluent

    EPA Science Inventory

    A need in ecological risk assessment is the ability to create linkages between chemically-induced alterations at molecular and biochemical levels of organization with adverse outcomes in whole organisms and populations. A predictive model was developed to translate changes in th...

  4. ALTERATIONS IN DEVELOPMENT OF REPRODUCTIVE AND ENDOCRINE SYSTEMS OF WILDLIFE POPULATIONS EXPOSED TO ENDOCRINE-DISRUPTING CONTAMINANTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wildlife and human populations are affected by contaminants in natural settings. This problem has been a growing concern over the last decade with the realization that various environmental chemicals can alter the development and functioning of endocrine organs, cells and target ...

  5. Exposing malaria in-host diversity and estimating population diversity by capture-recapture using massively parallel pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Juliano, Jonathan J.; Porter, Kimberly; Mwapasa, Victor; Sem, Rithy; Rogers, William O.; Ariey, Frédéric; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda; Read, Andrew; Meshnick, Steven R.

    2010-01-01

    Malaria infections commonly contain multiple genetically distinct variants. Mathematical and animal models suggest that interactions among these variants have a profound impact on the emergence of drug resistance. However, methods currently used for quantifying parasite diversity in individual infections are insensitive to low-abundance variants and are not quantitative for variant population sizes. To more completely describe the in-host complexity and ecology of malaria infections, we used massively parallel pyrosequencing to characterize malaria parasite diversity in the infections of a group of patients. By individually sequencing single strands of DNA in a complex mixture, this technique can quantify uncommon variants in mixed infections. The in-host diversity revealed by this method far exceeded that described by currently recommended genotyping methods, with as many as sixfold more variants per infection. In addition, in paired pre- and posttreatment samples, we show a complex milieu of parasites, including variants likely up-selected and down-selected by drug therapy. As with all surveys of diversity, sampling limitations prevent full discovery and differences in sampling effort can confound comparisons among samples, hosts, and populations. Here, we used ecological approaches of species accumulation curves and capture-recapture to estimate the number of variants we failed to detect in the population, and show that these methods enable comparisons of diversity before and after treatment, as well as between malaria populations. The combination of ecological statistics and massively parallel pyrosequencing provides a powerful tool for studying the evolution of drug resistance and the in-host ecology of malaria infections. PMID:21041629

  6. Projection models for health effects assessment in populations exposed to radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants. Volume IV. SPAHR user's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, J.J.; Lundy, R.T.

    1982-09-01

    The Simulation Package for the Analysis of Health Risk (SPAHR) is a computer software package based upon a demographic model for health risk projections. The model extends several health risk projection models by making realistic assumptions about the population at risk, and thus represents a distinct improvement over previous models. Complete documentation for use of SPAHR is contained in this five-volume publication. The demographic model in SPAHR estimates population response to environmental toxic exposures. Latency of response, changing dose level over time, competing risks from other causes of death, and population structure can be incorporated into SPAHR to project health risks. Risks are measured by morbid years, number of deaths, and loss of life expectancy. Comparisons of estimates of excess deaths demonstrate that previous health risk projection models may have underestimated excess deaths by a factor of from 2 to 10, depending on the pollutant and the exposure scenario. The software supporting the use of the demographic model is designed to be user oriented. Complex risk projections are made by responding to a series of prompts generated by the package. The flexibility and ease of use of SPAHR make it an important contribution to existing models and software packages. This volume gives the more advanced user of the SPAHR computer package the information required to create tailor-made programs for addressing specific issues not covered by the three interactive packages. It assumes that the user is familiar with the concepts and terms relating to demography and health risk assessment.

  7. Projection models for health-effects assessment in populations exposed to radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants. Volume V. SPAHR programmer's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, J.J.; Lundy, R.T.

    1982-09-01

    The Simulation Package for the Analysis of Health Risk (SPAHR) is a computer software package based upon a demographic model for health risk projections. The model extends several health risk projection models by making realistic assumptions about the population at risk, and thus represents a distinct improvement over previous models. Complete documentation for use of SPAHR is contained in this five-volume publication. The demographic model in SPAHR estimates population response to environmental toxic exposures. Latency of response, changing dose level over time, competing risks from other causes of death, and population structure can be incorporated into SPAHR to project health risks. Risks are measured by morbid years, numbers of deaths, and loss of life expectancy. Comparisons of estimates of excess deaths demonstrate that previous health risk projection models may have underestimated excess deaths by a factor of from 2 to 10, depending on the pollutant and the exposure scenario. The software supporting the use of the demographic model is designed to be user oriented. Complex risk projections are made by responding to a series of prompts generated by the package. The flexibility and ease of use of SPAHR make it an important contribution to existing models and software packages. This volume contains a programmer's guide to SPAHR.

  8. An accidental poisoning with mitragynine.

    PubMed

    Karinen, Ritva; Fosen, Jan Toralf; Rogde, Sidsel; Vindenes, Vigdis

    2014-12-01

    An increasing number of drugs of abuse are sold word wide over the internet. Names like "legal highs", "herbal highs" etc. give the impression that these are safe products, although the risk of fatal reactions might be substantial. Leaves from the plant Mitragyna speciosa, contain active compounds like mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine. It has been reported that the potency of 7-hydroxymitragynine at the μ-opioid receptor is 30 times higher than that of mitragynine and 17 times higher than that of morphine. Case reports regarding poisoning with Kratom are reported, but the toxic or lethal ranges for the concentrations of the active substances have not been established, and concentrations of 7-hydroxymitragynine have not been reported previously. We present a case report where a middle aged man was found dead at home. The deceased had a history of drug abuse and mental illness for several years. At autopsy, there were no significant pathological findings. Post-mortem analysis of peripheral blood revealed: zopiclone 0.043mg/L, citalopram 0.36mg/L and lamotrigine 5.4mg/L, i.e. concentrations regularly seen after therapeutic ingestion of these drugs. Additionally mitragynine 1.06mg/L and 7-hydroxymitragynine 0.15mg/L were detected in blood and both also in urine. The high concentrations of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine indicate that the cause of death is intoxication by these substances; and the circumstances point toward the manner of death being accidental. We recommend that both mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine are analyzed for in cases with suspected Kratom intoxication. PMID:25453780

  9. Estimated radiological doses to the maximumly exposed individual and downstream populations from releases of tritium, strontium-90, ruthenium-106, and cesium-137 from White Oak Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Little, C.A.; Cotter, S.J.

    1980-01-01

    Concentrations of tritium, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 106/Ru, and /sup 137/Cs in the Clinch River for 1978 were estimated by using the known 1978 releases of these nuclides from the White Oak Dam and diluting them by the integrated annual flow rate of the Clinch River. Estimates of 50-year dose commitment to a maximumly exposed individual were calculated for both aquatic and terestrial pathways of exposure. The maximumly exposed individual was assumed to reside at the mouth of White Oak Creek where it enters the Clinch River and obtain all foodstuffs and drinking water at that location. The estimated total-body dose from all pathways to the maximumly exposed individual as a result of 1978 releases was less than 1% of the dose expected from natural background. Using appropriate concentrations of to subject radionuclides diluted downstream, the doses to populations residing at Harriman, Kingston, Rockwood, Spring City, Soddy-Daisy, and Chattanooga were calculated for aquatic exposure pathways. The total-body dose estimated for aquatic pathways for the six cities was about 0.0002 times the expected dose from natural background. For the pathways considered in this report, the nuclide which contributed the largest fraction of dose was /sup 90/Sr. The largest dose delivered by /sup 90/Sr was to the bone of the subject individual or community.

  10. 5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870....206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a) (1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an automatic part of Basic and Option A insurance for employees. (2) There is no accidental death...

  11. 5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870....206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a)(1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an automatic part of Basic and Option A insurance for employees. (2) There is no accidental death...

  12. 5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870....206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a)(1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an automatic part of Basic and Option A insurance for employees. (2) There is no accidental death...

  13. 5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870....206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a)(1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an automatic part of Basic and Option A insurance for employees. (2) There is no accidental death...

  14. 5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870....206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a)(1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an automatic part of Basic and Option A insurance for employees. (2) There is no accidental death...

  15. Differential accumulation of soluble proteins in roots of metallicolous and nonmetallicolous populations of Agrostis capillaris L. exposed to Cu.

    PubMed

    Hego, Elena; Bes, Clémence M; Bedon, Frank; Palagi, Patricia M; Chaumeil, Philippe; Barré, Aurélien; Claverol, Stéphane; Dupuy, Jean-William; Bonneu, Marc; Lalanne, Céline; Plomion, Christophe; Mench, Michel

    2014-08-01

    Differential expression of soluble proteins was explored in roots of metallicolous (M) and non-M (NM) plants of Agrostis capillaris L. exposed to increasing Cu to partially identify molecular mechanisms underlying higher Cu tolerance in M plants. Plants were cultivated for 2 months on perlite with a CuSO4 (1-30 μM) spiked-nutrient solution. Soluble proteins extracted by the trichloroacetic acid/acetone procedure were separated with 2DE (linear 4-7 pH gradient). After Coomassie Blue staining and image analysis, 19 proteins differentially expressed were identified using LC-MS/MS and Expressed Sequence Tag (ESTs) databases. At supra-optimal Cu exposure (15-30 μM), glycolysis was likely altered in NM roots with increased production of glycerone-P and methylglyoxal based on overexpression of triosephosphate isomerase and fructose bisphosphate aldolase. Changes in tubulins and higher expressions of 5-methyltetrahydropteroyltriglutamatehomocysteine methyltransferase and S-adenosylmethionine synthase underpinned impacts on the cytoskeleton and stimulation of ethylene metabolism. Increased l-methionine and S-adenosylmethionine amounts may also facilitate production of nicotianamine, which complexes Cu, and of l-cysteine, needed for metallothioneins and GSH. In M roots, the increase of [Cu/Zn] superoxide dismutase suggested a better detoxification of superoxide, when Cu exposure rose. Higher Cu-tolerance of M plants would rather result from simultaneous cooperation of various processes than from a specific mechanism. PMID:24842164

  16. Functional Antibodies against VAR2CSA in Nonpregnant Populations from Colombia Exposed to Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax

    PubMed Central

    Doritchamou, Justin; Arango, Eliana M.; Cabrera, Ana; Arroyo, Maria Isabel; Kain, Kevin C.; Ndam, Nicaise Tuikue; Maestre, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    In pregnancy, parity-dependent immunity is observed in response to placental infection with Plasmodium falciparum. Antibodies recognize the surface antigen, VAR2CSA, expressed on infected red blood cells and inhibit cytoadherence to the placental tissue. In most settings of malaria endemicity, antibodies against VAR2CSA are predominantly observed in multigravid women and infrequently in men, children, and nulligravid women. However, in Colombia, we detected antibodies against multiple constructs of VAR2CSA among men and children with acute P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infection. The majority of men and children (>60%) had high levels of IgGs against three recombinant domains of VAR2CSA: DBL5ε, DBL3X, and ID1-ID2. Surprisingly, these antibodies were observed only in pregnant women, men, and children exposed either to P. falciparum or to P. vivax. Moreover, the anti-VAR2CSA antibodies are of high avidity and efficiently inhibit adherence of infected red blood cells to chondroitin sulfate A in vitro, suggesting that they are specific and functional. These unexpected results suggest that there may be genotypic or phenotypic differences in the parasites of this region or in the host response to either P. falciparum or P. vivax infection outside pregnancy. These findings may hold significant clinical relevance to the pathophysiology and outcome of malaria infections in this region. PMID:24686068

  17. Projection models for health-effects assessment in populations exposed to radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants. Volume II. SPAHR introductory guide

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, J.J.; Lundy, R.T.

    1982-09-01

    The Simulation Package for the Analysis of Health Risk (SPAHR) is a computer software package based upon a demographic model for health risk projections. The model extends several health risk projection models by making realistic assumptions about the population at risk, and thus represents a distinct improvement over previous models. Complete documentation for use of SPAHR is contained in this five-volume publication. The demographic model in SPAHR estimates population response to environmental toxic exposures. Latency of responses, changing dose level over time, competing risks from other causes of death, and population structure can be incorporated into SPAHR to project health risks. Risks are measured by morbid years, number of deaths, and loss of life expectancy. Comparisons of estimates of excess deaths demonstrate that previous health risk projection models may have underestimated excess deaths by a factor of from 2 to 10, depending on the pollutant and the exposure scenario. The software supporting the use of the demographic model is designed to be user oriented. Complex risk projects are made by responding to a series of prompts generated by the package. The flexibility and ease of use of SPAHR make it an important contribution to existing models and software packages. This volume gives the user of the SPAHR program the information required to operate the program when it is up and running on the computer. It assumes that the user is familiar with the concepts and terms relating to demography and health risk assessment. It contains a brief description of all commands and options available in SPAHR, as well as a user-oriented description of the structure and operation of the control system and language processor.

  18. Complex Spatial Structure in a Population of Didymopanax pittieri, A Tree of Wind-Exposed Lower Montane Rain Forest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawton, Robert M.; Lawton, Robert O.

    2010-01-01

    Didymopanax pittieri is a common shade-intolerant tree colonizing treefall gaps in the elfin forests on windswept ridgecrests in the lower montane rain forests of the Cordillera de Tilarain, Costa Rica. All D. pittieri taller than > 0.5 m in a 5.2-ha elfin forested portion of a gridded study watershed in the Monteverde Cloud Forest Preserve were located, mapped, and measured. This local population of D. pittieri is spatially inhomogeneous, in that density increases with increasing wind exposure; D. pittieri are more abundant near ridge crests than lower on windward slopes. The important and ubiquitous phenomenon of spatial inhomogeneity in population density is addressed and corrected for in spatial analyses by the application of the inhomogeneous version of Ripley's K. The spatial patterns of four size classes of D. pittieri (<5 cm dbh, 5-10 cm dbh, 10-20 cm dbh, and> 20 cm dbh) were investigated. Within the large-scale trend in density driven by wind exposure, D. pittieri saplings are clumped at the scale of treefall gaps and at the scale of patches of aggregated gaps. D. pittieri 5-10 cm dbh are randomly distributed, apparently due to competitive thinning of sapling clumps during the early stages of gap-phase regeneration. D. pittieri larger than 10 cm dbh are overdispersed at a scale larger than that of patches of gaps. Natural disturbance can influence the distribution of shade intolerant tree populations at several different spatial scales, and can have discordant effects at different life history stages.

  19. Increased utilisation of primary healthcare in persons exposed to severe stress in prenatal life: a national population-based study in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiong; Yang, Hu; Guldin, Mai-Britt; Vedsted, Peter; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    Objective Recent studies have suggested that stress in a pregnant mother may affect the future health of the unborn child negatively. An excellent proxy for health problems is the use of healthcare resources. Using nationwide data, we examined whether persons born to mothers who lost a close relative during pregnancy have more contacts to general practice. Design Population-based cohort study. Setting Denmark. Participants We included all children born in Denmark from 1973 to 2002 (N=2 032 528). Exposure of prenatal stress was defined as maternal bereavement by the death of a close relative during the antenatal period. The outcome of interest was contact with general practice between 2003 and 2009 when the participants were between 1 and 35 years of age. Poisson regression was used to assess the association between exposure and outcome. Outcome measures Contacts to general practitioner. Results Overall, persons exposed to prenatal stress had 2% more GP contacts than those not exposed, primarily due to increased utilisation of healthcare services during late adolescence and early adulthood. The exposed persons born to mothers who had lost a spouse had a higher risk (relative risk (RR) 1.12, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.14) and so did those born to mothers who had lost a close relative due to unexpected death (RR 1.06, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.06). Exposed persons had more contacts to general practice in daytime and more psychometric tests, talk therapies and C reactive protein tests than unexposed persons. Conclusions Prenatal stress following maternal bereavement was associated with a slightly increased utilisation of primary healthcare, mainly due to increased healthcare needs related to mental health and infections. Understanding how stress during pregnancy influences the future health of the child is an important aspect of prenatal care. PMID:25573520

  20. Hypermethylations of RASAL1 and KLOTHO is associated with renal dysfunction in a Chinese population environmentally exposed to cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Chen; Liang, Yihuai; Lei, Lijian; Zhu, Guoying; Chen, Xiao; Jin, Taiyi; Wu, Qing

    2013-08-15

    Exposure to cadmium (Cd) can affect both DNA methylation and renal function, but there are few examples of the association between epigenetic markers and Cd-induced kidney damage. It has been suggested that hypermethylation of the genes RASAL1 and KLOTHO is associated with renal fibrogenesis. To investigate whether hypermethylation of RASAL1 and KLOTHO in peripheral blood DNA can be associated with Cd exposure and/or Cd-induced renal dysfunction, the degrees of methylation of RASAL1 and KLOTHO in peripheral blood DNA from 81 residents in Cd-polluted and non-polluted areas were measured using bisulfate-PCR-pyrosequencing. Changes in blood cadmium (BCd), urinary cadmium (UCd), and kidney parameters were measured, and the glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was estimated. The levels of BCd and UCd correlated positively with the levels of DNA methylation in RASAL1 and in KLOTHO. The more heavily exposed residents (BCd, 4.23–13.22 μg/L; UCd, 8.65–32.90 μg/g creatinine) exhibited obvious renal dysfunction. Notably, when Cd concentration in blood and urine was adjusted, the increased methylation level in RASAL1 was inversely correlated with eGFR (P < 0.01) but the relationship between hypermethylation of KLOTHO and eGFR was not statistically significant. The methylation of RASAL1 increased along with the increased abnormal prevalence of eGFR. Our findings suggest that Cd exposure can induce the hypermethylation of RASAL1 and KLOTHO. Hypermethylation of RASAL1 may be an indicator of the progress for chronic kidney disease. - Highlights: • A long term heavily Cd exposure induced renal dysfunction. • Cd exposure correlated positively with DNA methylation in RASAL1 and KLOTHO. • Hypermethylation of RASAL1 correlated with adjusted renal function indicators.

  1. Structural Validity of the Tonic Immobility Scale in a Population Exposed to Trauma: Evidence from Two Large Brazilian Samples

    PubMed Central

    Reichenheim, Michael; Souza, Wanderson; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Figueira, Ivan; Quintana, Maria Inês; de Mello, Marcelo Feijó; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca; de Jesus Mari, Jair; Andreoli, Sergio Baxter

    2014-01-01

    Background Tonic Immobility is a temporary state of motor inhibition in situations involving extreme fear. The first scale developed for its assessment was the 10-item Tonic Immobility Scale (TIS). However, there are still few studies on its structural (dimensional) validity. The objective of this study was to reassess the factor structure of the TIS applied to representative samples exposed to general trauma of two Brazilian mega-cities. Methods The sample comprised 3,223 participants reporting at least one traumatic experience. In São Paulo (n = 2,148), a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) first tested the originally proposed two-dimensional structure. This was followed by sequential Exploratory Structural Equation Models to identify the best fitting model, and subsequently tested in Rio de Janeiro (n = 1,075) via CFA. Alternative reduced versions were further explored using the aggregate sample. Model-based Item Response Theory (IRT) location parameters were also investigated. Results An absence of factor-based convergent and discriminant validity rejected the original proposition. However, the one-dimensional structure still held several residual correlations. Further exploration indicated the sustainability of reduced versions with seven (alternative A) and six (alternative B) items. Both presented excellent fit and no relevant residual item correlation. According to the IRT location parameters, items in alternative B covered a wider range of the latent trait. The Loevinger's H scalability coefficients underscored this pattern. Conclusions The original model did not hold. A one-factor solution was the most tenable in both large samples, but with significant item residual correlations, indicating that content redundancies persisted. Further reduced and simplified versions of the TIS proved promising. Although studies are yet to be carried out in other settings, it is the authors' impression that the restricted versions of the TIS are already apt for

  2. Chronic arsenic exposure increases TGFalpha concentration in bladder urothelial cells of Mexican populations environmentally exposed to inorganic arsenic☆

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela, Olga L.; Germolec, Dori R.; Borja-Aburto, Víctor H.; Contreras-Ruiz, José; García-Vargas, Gonzalo G.; Del Razo, Luz M.

    2009-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a well-established carcinogen and human exposure has been associated with a variety of cancers including those of skin, lung, and bladder. High expression of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-α) has associated with local relapses in early stages of urinary bladder cancer. iAs exposures are at least in part determined by the rate of formation and composition of iAs metabolites (MAsIII, MAsV, DMAsIII, DMAsV). This study examines the relationship between TGF-α concentration in exfoliated bladder urothelial cells (BUC) separated from urine and urinary arsenic species in 72 resident women (18-51 years old) from areas exposed to different concentrations of iAs in drinking water (2-378 ppb) in central Mexico. Urinary arsenic species, including trivalent methylated metabolites were measured by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry method. The concentration of TGF-α in BUC was measured using an ELISA assay. Results show a statistically significant positive correlation between TGF-α concentration in BUC and each of the six arsenic species present in urine. The multivariate linear regression analyses show that the increment of TGF-α levels in BUC was importantly associated with the presence of arsenic species after adjusting by age, and presence of urinary infection. People from areas with high arsenic exposure had a significantly higher TGF-α concentration in BUC than people from areas of low arsenic exposure (128.8 vs. 64.4 pg/mg protein; p<0.05). Notably, exfoliated cells isolated from individuals with skin lesions contained significantly greater amount of TGF-α than cells from individuals without skin lesions: 157.7 vs. 64.9 pg/mg protein (p=0.003). These results suggest that TGF-α in exfoliated BUC may serve as a susceptibility marker of adverse health effects on epithelial tissue in arsenic-endemic areas. PMID:17267001

  3. Increased Risk of Dementia in Patients Exposed to Nitrogen Dioxide and Carbon Monoxide: A Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Kuang-Hsi; Chang, Mei-Yin; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Wu, Trong-Neng; Chen, Chiu-Ying; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2014-01-01

    Background The air pollution caused by vehicular emissions is associated with cognitive decline. However, the associations between the levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) exposure and dementia remain poorly defined and have been addressed in only a few previous studies. Materials and Methods In this study, we obtained data on 29547 people from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan, including data on 1720 patients diagnosed with dementia between 2000 and 2010, and we evaluated the risk of dementia among four levels of air pollutant. Detailed data on daily air pollution were available from January 1, 1998 to December 31, 2010. Yearly average concentrations of pollutants were calculated from the baseline to the date of dementia occurrence, withdrawal of patients, or the end of the study, and these data were categorized into quartiles, with Q1 being the lowest level and Q4 being the highest. Results In the case of NO2, the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of dementia for all participants in Q2, Q3, and Q4 compared to Q1 were 1.10 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.96–1.26), 1.01 (95% CI, 0.87–1.17), and 1.54 (95% CI, 1.34–1.77), and in the case of CO, the adjusted HRs were 1.07 (95% CI, 0.92–1.25), 1.37 (95% CI, 1.19–1.58), and 1.61 (95% CI, 1.39–1.85). Conclusion The results of this large retrospective, population-based study indicate that exposure to NO2 and CO is associated with an increased risk of dementia in the Taiwanese population. PMID:25115939

  4. Chronic arsenic exposure increases TGFalpha concentration in bladder urothelial cells of Mexican populations environmentally exposed to inorganic arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Valenzuela, Olga L.; Germolec, Dori R.; Borja-Aburto, Victor H.; Contreras-Ruiz, Jose; Garcia-Vargas, Gonzalo G.; Razo, Luz M. del

    2007-08-01

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a well-established carcinogen and human exposure has been associated with a variety of cancers including those of skin, lung, and bladder. High expression of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-{alpha}) has associated with local relapses in early stages of urinary bladder cancer. iAs exposures are at least in part determined by the rate of formation and composition of iAs metabolites (MAs{sup III}, MAs{sup V}, DMAs{sup III}, DMAs{sup V}). This study examines the relationship between TGF-{alpha} concentration in exfoliated bladder urothelial cells (BUC) separated from urine and urinary arsenic species in 72 resident women (18-51 years old) from areas exposed to different concentrations of iAs in drinking water (2-378 ppb) in central Mexico. Urinary arsenic species, including trivalent methylated metabolites were measured by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry method. The concentration of TGF-{alpha} in BUC was measured using an ELISA assay. Results show a statistically significant positive correlation between TGF-{alpha} concentration in BUC and each of the six arsenic species present in urine. The multivariate linear regression analyses show that the increment of TGF-{alpha} levels in BUC was importantly associated with the presence of arsenic species after adjusting by age, and presence of urinary infection. People from areas with high arsenic exposure had a significantly higher TGF-{alpha} concentration in BUC than people from areas of low arsenic exposure (128.8 vs. 64.4 pg/mg protein; p < 0.05). Notably, exfoliated cells isolated from individuals with skin lesions contained significantly greater amount of TGF-{alpha} than cells from individuals without skin lesions: 157.7 vs. 64.9 pg/mg protein (p = 0.003). These results suggest that TGF-{alpha} in exfoliated BUC may serve as a susceptibility marker of adverse health effects on epithelial tissue in arsenic-endemic areas.

  5. Polymorphisms in Genes Encoding Potential Mercury Transporters and Urine Mercury Concentrations in Populations Exposed to Mercury Vapor from Gold Mining

    PubMed Central

    Ameer, Shegufta; Bernaudat, Ludovic; Drasch, Gustav; Baeuml, Jennifer; Skerfving, Staffan; Bose-O’Reilly, Stephan; Broberg, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Elemental mercury (Hg0) is widely used in small-scale gold mining. Persons working or living in mining areas have high urinary concentrations of Hg (U-Hg). Differences in genes encoding potential Hg-transporters may affect uptake and elimination of Hg. Objective: We aimed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Hg-transporter genes that modify U-Hg. Methods: Men and women (1,017) from Indonesia, the Philippines, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe were classified either as controls (no Hg exposure from gold mining) or as having low (living in a gold-mining area) or high exposure (working as gold miners). U-Hg was analyzed by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Eighteen SNPs in eight Hg-transporter genes were analyzed. Results: U-Hg concentrations were higher among ABCC2/MRP2 rs1885301 A–allele carriers than among GG homozygotes in all populations, though differences were not statistically significant in most cases. MRP2 SNPs showed particularly strong associations with U-Hg in the subgroup with highest exposure (miners in Zimbabwe), whereas rs1885301 A–allele carriers had higher U-Hg than GG homozygotes [geometric mean (GM): 36.4 µg/g creatinine vs. 21.9; p = 0.027], rs2273697 GG homozygotes had higher U-Hg than A–allele carriers (GM: 37.4 vs. 16.7; p = 0.001), and rs717620 A–allele carriers had higher U-Hg than GG homozygotes (GM: 83 vs. 28; p = 0.084). The SLC7A5/LAT1 rs33916661 GG genotype was associated with higher U-Hg in all populations (statistically significant for all Tanzanians combined). SNPs in SLC22A6/OAT1 (rs4149170) and SLC22A8/OAT3 (rs4149182) were associated with U-Hg mainly in the Tanzanian study groups. Conclusions: SNPs in putative Hg-transporter genes may influence U-Hg concentrations. PMID:23052037

  6. Investigation on the Lung Function of General Population in Ilam, West of Iran, as a City Exposed to Dust Storm

    PubMed Central

    Amarloei, Ali; Jafari, Ahmad Jonidi; Mahabadi, Hassan Asilian; Asadollahi, Kheirollah; Nourmoradi, Heshmatollah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dust storm is one of the most important natural sources of air pollution in the Middle East that has caused a major concern in recent years. The aim of this study was to evaluate the respiratory tract function of people living in Ilam city (Iran) during dust storm. Methods: A sample size of 250 people was selected and the cluster sampling was randomly used from 13 health centers in Ilam city. Pulmonary function test (PFT) was determined via a standard spirometry apparatus. Vital capacity (VC), Forced Vital capacity (FVC), FVC in first second (FEV1), FEV1/VC, FEV1/FVC, peek expiratory flow (PEF), forced expiratory flow (FEF25-75%), forced expiratory flow (FEF25–75%), forced expiratory flow (FEF75–85%), forced mid flow time (FMFT) and maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) were measured. Results: Mean values of respiratory capacities measured in all participants excluding FEV1/VC and FMFT were less than predicted mean values by ECCS reference. 21.6% of the population suffered from obstructive lesions. This value among males (24.1%) was more than females (19.6%). This could be related to more exposure (outdoor jobs) of males with dust storms. Conclusion: The results also showed a negative significant relationship between duration of inhabitance in Ilam city and all respiratory capacities. Further studies are needed for confident confirmation of whether reduction of respiratory capacities among Ilamian people is only related to dust storms. PMID:25948466

  7. Noise-induced hearing loss: A possible marker for high blood pressure in older noise-exposed populations

    SciTech Connect

    Talbott, E.O.; Findlay, R.C.; Kuller, L.H.; Lenkner, L.A.; Matthews, K.A.; Day, R.D.; Ishii, E.K. )

    1990-08-01

    The present study assessed the relationships among occupational noise exposure, noise-induced hearing loss, and high blood pressure. The study population consisted of 245 retired metal assembly workers from Pittsburgh aged 56 to 68 with chronic noise exposure of 30 or more years at greater than or equal to 89 dBA. Results of the audiometric testing indicated 52% of the younger workers (ages 56 to 63) have severe noise-induced hearing loss (greater than or equal to 65 dBA loss at 3, 4, or 6 kHz) and 67% of older workers (ages 64 to 68). Body mass index and alcohol intake were significantly related to systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Among older men, there was a marginally significant increased prevalence of high blood pressure (greater than or equal to 90 mm diastolic or taking blood pressure medicine) among those with severe noise-induced hearing loss (P = .05). Moreover, another measure of hearing loss at high frequencies, speech discrimination score in noise (measured in the better ear), referred to as the W-22 MAX score, was also found to be related to the prevalence of high blood pressure in the older (64 to 68) age group (P less than .05). Multiple regression analysis revealed W-22 MAX and severe noise-induced hearing loss were independent predictors of hypertension in the older, but not in the younger group of retired workers.

  8. The relationship between cadmium in kidney and cadmium in urine and blood in an environmentally exposed population

    SciTech Connect

    Akerstrom, Magnus; Barregard, Lars; Lundh, Thomas; Sallsten, Gerd

    2013-05-01

    Introduction: Cadmium (Cd) is toxic to the kidney and a major part of the body burden occurs here. Cd in urine (U-Cd) and blood (B-Cd) are widely-used biomarkers for assessing Cd exposure or body burden. However, empirical general population data on the relationship between Cd in kidney (K-Cd), urine, and blood are scarce. Our objectives were to determine the relationship between cadmium in kidney, urine, and blood, and calculate the elimination half-time of Cd from the kidney. Methods: Kidney cortex biopsies, urine, and blood samples were collected from 109 living kidney donors. Cd concentrations were determined and the relationships between K-Cd, U-Cd, and B-Cd were investigated in regression models. The half-time of K-Cd was estimated from the elimination constant. Results: There was a strong association between K-Cd and U-Cd adjusted for creatinine (r{sub p} = 0.70, p < 0.001), while the association with B-Cd was weaker (r{sub p} = 0.44, p < 0.001). The relationship between K-Cd and U-Cd was nonlinear, with slower elimination of Cd at high K-Cd. Estimates of the K-Cd half-time varied between 18 and 44 years. A K-Cd of 25 μg/g corresponds to U-Cd of 0.42 μg/g creatinine in overnight urine (U-Cd/K-Cd ratio: about 1:60). Multivariate models showed Cd in blood and urinary albumin as determinants for U-Cd excretion. Discussion: In healthy individuals with low-level Cd exposure, there was a strong correlation between Cd in kidney and urine, especially after adjustment for creatinine. Urinary Cd was also affected by Cd in blood and urinary albumin. Previous estimates of the U-Cd/K-Cd ratio may underestimate K-Cd at low U-Cd. - Highlights: ► The first study of the relation between Cd in kidney, blood and urine at low U-Cd ► Simultaneous samples were collected from healthy kidney donors. ► There was a nonlinear relationship between cadmium in kidney and urine. ► Estimates of the kidney cadmium half-time were 18–44 years, depending on model used. ► Previous

  9. Accidental paraffin poisoning in Kenyan children.

    PubMed

    Lang, T; Thuo, N; Akech, S

    2008-06-01

    A serious and common accident in rural Kenyan homesteads is accidental ingestion of paraffin when it has been mistaken for water and offered to a young child. Here we report the incidence, parental practices and outcome of severe paraffin poisoning, requiring admission at Kilifi District Hospital, Kenya. Over a 2-year period, 48 children (0.5% of all admissions) were admitted with kerosene poisoning, constituting 62% of all poisoning cases. All cases were accidental. Ten per cent had induced vomiting. One child (2%) died. We suggest these data support assessment followed by implementation of practical and affordable measures to prevent paraffin poisoning. PMID:18363584

  10. Behavior and food consumption pattern of the population exposed in 1949–1962 to fallout from Semipalatinsk nuclear test site in Kazakhstan

    PubMed Central

    Schonfeld, Sara; Akimzhanov, Kuat; Aldyngurov, Daulet; Land, Charles E.; Luckyanov, Nickolas; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Potischman, Nancy; Schwerin, Michael J.; Semenova, Yulia; Tokaeva, Alma; Zhumadilov, Zhaxybay; Bouville, André; Simon, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between radiation exposure from nuclear weapons testing fallout and thyroid disease in a group of 2,994 subjects has been the subject of study by the U.S. National Cancer Institute. In that study, radiation doses to the thyroid were estimated for residents of villages in Kazakhstan possibly exposed to deposition of radioactive fallout from nuclear testing conducted by the Soviet Union at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site in Kazakhstan between 1949 and 1962. The study subjects included individuals of both Kazakh and Russian origin who were exposed during childhood and adolescence. An initial dose reconstruction used for the risk analysis of Land et al. (2008) was based on individual information collected from basic questionnaires administered to the study population in 1998. However, because data on several key questions for accurately estimating doses was not obtained from the 1998 questionnaires it was decided to conduct a second data collection campaign in 2007. Due to the many years elapsed since exposure, a well developed strategy was necessary to encourage accurate memory recall. In our recent study, a focus group interview data collection methodology was used to collect historical behavioral and food consumption data. The data collection in 2007 involved interviews conducted within four eight-person focus groups (three groups of women and one group of men) in each of four exposed villages where thyroid disease screening was conducted in 1998. Population-based data on relevant childhood behaviors, including time spent in- and outdoors and consumption rates of milk and other dairy products were collected from women’s groups. The data were collected for five age groups of children and adolescents ranging from less than 1 year of age to 21 years of age. Dairy products considered included fresh milk and other products from cows, goats, mares, and sheep. Men’s focus group interviews pertained to construction materials of houses and schools

  11. Behavior and food consumption pattern of the population exposed in 1949-1962 to fallout from Semipalatinsk nuclear test site in Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Schonfeld, Sara; Akimzhanov, Kuat; Aldyngurov, Daulet; Land, Charles E; Luckyanov, Nickolas; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Potischman, Nancy; Schwerin, Michael J; Semenova, Yulia; Tokaeva, Alma; Zhumadilov, Zhaxybay; Bouville, André; Simon, Steven L

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between radiation exposure from nuclear weapons testing fallout and thyroid disease in a group of 2,994 subjects has been the subject of study by the US National Cancer Institute. In that study, radiation doses to the thyroid were estimated for residents of villages in Kazakhstan possibly exposed to deposition of radioactive fallout from nuclear testing conducted by the Soviet Union at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site in Kazakhstan between 1949 and 1962. The study subjects included individuals of both Kazakh and Russian origin who were exposed during childhood and adolescence. An initial dose reconstruction used for the risk analysis of Land et al. (Radiat Res 169:373-383, 2008) was based on individual information collected from basic questionnaires administered to the study population in 1998. However, because data on several key questions for accurately estimating doses were not obtained from the 1998 questionnaires, it was decided to conduct a second data collection campaign in 2007. Due to the many years elapsed since exposure, a well-developed strategy was necessary to encourage accurate memory recall. In our recent study, a focus group interview data collection methodology was used to collect historical behavioral and food consumption data. The data collection in 2007 involved interviews conducted within four-eight-person focus groups (three groups of women and one group of men) in each of four exposed villages where thyroid disease screening was conducted in 1998. Population-based data on relevant childhood behaviors including time spent in- and outdoors and consumption rates of milk and other dairy products were collected from women's groups. The data were collected for five age groups of children and adolescents ranging from less than 1 year of age to 21 years of age. Dairy products considered included fresh milk and other products from cows, goats, mares, and sheep. Men's focus group interviews pertained to construction materials of

  12. Particle-Associated Ambient Benzo[a]pyrene and Levels of Urinary 1-Hydroxypyrene in a Non-occupationally Exposed Population of Adults and Children in Lanzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yunjiang; Wang, Qiong; Li, Liangzhong; Liu, Zien; Sun, Peng; Zhang, Yanping; Lin, Haipeng; Xiang, Mingdeng; Li, Hui; Lin, Bigui

    2016-03-01

    Concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in ambient air from different areas in Lanzhou city in northwest of China, and its metabolite 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) in the urine of resident children and adults were determined by using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography. Results showed that the atmospheric environmental concentration of B[a]P varied significantly from one part of the city to another with levels of 150 ng/m(3) in the industrial area of Xigu and 73.8 ng/m(3) in the agricultural area of Yuzhong. The geometric mean urinary 1-OHP concentration was 0.42 µmol/mol-creatinine, with a range of means between 0.067 and 2.05 for the various population sub-groups. The non-occupationally exposed populations' age, gender and area of residence were the major factors that influenced urinary 1-OHP levels. The health risks of B[a]P for adults and children in Xigu and for children in Yuzhong exceeded the acceptable level (1 × 10(-4)) of the US Environmental Protection Agency. PMID:26841792

  13. Dose assessment of an accidental exposure at IPNS

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, M.M.C.

    1996-05-01

    Seven different methods were used to estimate the dose rate to a female worker who was accidentally exposed in the neutron PHOENIX beamline at the IPNS. Theoretical and measured entrance dose rates ranged from 550 mrem/min to 2,850 mrem/min. Theoretical estimates were based on a Monte Carlo simulation of a spectrum provided by IPNS (Crawford Spectrum). Dose measurements were made with TLDs on phantoms and with ionization chambers in a water phantom. Estimates of the whole body total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) rate ranged from 5.2 mrem/min to 840 mrem/min. Assumed and measured quality factors ranged from 2.6 to 11.8. Cytogenic analyses of blood samples detected no positive exposure. The recommended TEDE rate was 158 mrem/min. The TEDE was 750 mrem.

  14. Dose assessment of an accidental exposure at the IPNS

    SciTech Connect

    Campos Torres, M.M.

    1995-02-01

    Seven different methods were used to estimate the dose rate to a female worker who was accidentally exposed in the neutron PHOENIX beamline at the IPNS. Theoretical and measured entrance dose ranged from 550 mrem/min to 2850 mrem/min. Theoretical estimates were based on a Monte Carlo simulation of a spectrum provided by IPNS (Crawford Spectrum). Dose measurements were made with TLDs on phantoms and with ionization chambers in a water phantom. Estimates of the whole body total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) rate ranged from 5.2 mrem/min to 840 mrem/min. Assumed and measured quality factors ranged from 2.6 to 11.8. Cytogenetic analyses of blood samples detected no positive exposure. The recommended TEDE rate was 158 mrem/min. The TEDE was 750 mrem.

  15. Accidental Head Injury: A Real Life Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakely, Jim

    1988-01-01

    The adult victim of accidental head injury as a result of an automobile accident recounts his experiences as a brain injured adult with such problems as poor balance, poor speech, spasticity, and lack of fine motor movement. He emphasizes his determination to get on with his life. (DB)

  16. Metabolic responses of Glossina pallidipes (Diptera: Glossinidae) puparia exposed to oxygen and temperature variation: implications for population dynamics and subterranean life.

    PubMed

    Basson, C Helene; Terblanche, John S

    2010-12-01

    Understanding the factors affecting insect gas exchange in subterranean environments is critical to understanding energy budgets and predicting mortality under field conditions. Here, we examine the metabolic rate (MR) responses of tsetse puparia, which remain underground for ca. 1 month in this life-stage, to varying oxygen and temperature. First, the effects of temperature and oxygen on puparial MR were investigated by ramping temperature from 15 to 35°C under 10, 21 or 40% O(2). Overall, temperature was the dominant effect on puparial MR although O(2) had small but significant impacts. Second, critical O(2) concentration (P(CRIT)) for MR of puparia was examined across a range of oxygen concentrations (0-40%). P(CRIT) was 6% O(2) which is similar to P(CRIT) in other basal arthropods but relatively high for inactive or subterranean insects. Third, we asked if puparia exposed to anoxia might experience oxygen debt, potentially indicative of anaerobic metabolism or cellular repair. Metabolic responses to anoxia were limited or insignificant, but MR was marginally elevated (∼ 15%) in anoxia-exposed (4h) puparia by 12h post-anoxia. Finally, we examined the ability of puparia to withstand water submersion, thus simulating flooding conditions frequently experienced in tropical soil habitats. Puparia were unable to survive submersion for >24h suggesting limited flooding tolerance. These novel results suggest that soil conditions experienced by puparia should not be limiting for MR, except possibly under high temperature-low O(2) conditions. Due to a large safety margin between P(CRIT) and soil oxygen levels and limited effects of oxygen on metabolism during temperature ramping experiments, we suggest that Glossina pallidipes puparia are not particularly susceptible to oxygen availability in their natural environment. However, soil flooding associated with tropical rainfall likely imposes strong selection on tsetse populations and may have had important effects for

  17. Causes of accidental childhood deaths in China in 2010: A systematic review and analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kit Yee; Yu, Xin–wei; Lu, Jia–peng; Demaio, Alessandro Rhyll; Bowman, Kirsty; Theodoratou, Evropi

    2015-01-01

    Background Infectious causes of childhood deaths in the world have decreased substantially in the 21st century. This trend has exposed accidental deaths as an increasingly important future challenge. Presently, little is known about the cause structure of accidental childhood deaths in low– and middle–income country (LMIC) settings. In this paper, we aim to establish cause structure for accidental deaths in children aged 0–4 years in China in the year 2010. Methods In this paper, we explored the database of 208 multi–cause child mortality studies in Chinese that formed a basis for the first published estimate of the causes of child deaths in China (for the year 2008). Only five of those studies identified specific causes of accidental deaths. Because of this, we searched the Chinese medical literature databases CNKI and WanFang for single–cause mortality studies that were focused on accidental deaths. We identified 71 further studies that provided specific causes for accidental deaths. We used epidemiological modeling to estimate the number of accidental child deaths in China in 2010 and to assign those deaths to specific causes. Results In 2010, we estimated 314 581 deaths in children 0–4 years in China, of which 31 633 (10.1%) were accidental. Accidental deaths contributed 7240 (4.0%) of all deaths in neonatal period, 8838 (10.5%) among all post–neonatal infant deaths, and 15 554 (31.7%) among children with 1–4 years of age. Among four tested models, the most predictive was used to establish the likely cause structure of accidental deaths in China. We estimated that asphyxia caused 9490 (95% confidence interval (CI) 8224–11 072), drowning 5694 (95% CI 5061–6327), traffic accidents 3796 (95% CI 3163–4745), poisoning 3163 (95% CI 2531–3796) and falls 2531 (95% CI 2214–3163) deaths. Based on medians from a few rare studies, we also predict 633 (95% CI 316–1265) deaths to be due to burns and 316 (95% CI 0–633) due to falling

  18. Patterns and Trends in Accidental Poisoning Deaths: Pennsylvania’s Experience 1979-2014

    PubMed Central

    Balmert, Lauren C.; Buchanich, Jeanine M.; Pringle, Janice L.; Williams, Karl E.; Burke, Donald S.; Marsh, Gary M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to examine county and state-level accidental poisoning mortality trends in Pennsylvania from 1979 to 2014. Methods Crude and age-adjusted death rates were formed for age group, race, sex, and county for accidental poisonings (ICD 10 codes X40-X49) from 1979 to 2014 for ages 15+ using the Mortality and Population Data System housed at the University of Pittsburgh. Rate ratios were calculated comparing rates from 1979 to 2014, overall and by sex, age group, and race. Joinpoint regression was used to detect statistically significant changes in trends of age-adjusted mortality rates. Results Rate ratios for accidental poisoning mortality in Pennsylvania increased more than 14-fold from 1979 to 2014. The largest rate ratios were among 35–44 year olds, females, and White adults. The highest accidental poisoning mortality rates were found in the counties of Southwestern Pennsylvania, those surrounding Philadelphia, and those in Northeast Pennsylvania near Scranton. Conclusions The patterns and locations of accidental poisoning mortality by race, sex, and age group provide direction for interventions and policy makers. In particular, this study found the highest rate ratios in PA among females, whites, and the age group 35–44. PMID:26963396

  19. 19 CFR 158.27 - Accidental fire or other casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Accidental fire or other casualty. 158.27 Section... Casualty, Loss, or Theft While in Customs Custody § 158.27 Accidental fire or other casualty. In the case of injury or destruction by accidental fire or other casualty, the following evidence shall...

  20. 19 CFR 158.27 - Accidental fire or other casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accidental fire or other casualty. 158.27 Section... Casualty, Loss, or Theft While in Customs Custody § 158.27 Accidental fire or other casualty. In the case of injury or destruction by accidental fire or other casualty, the following evidence shall...

  1. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic...

  2. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic...

  3. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic...

  4. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic...

  5. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a) Manufacturers of electronic...

  6. [Accidental extubation in a pediatric intensive care unit].

    PubMed

    Piva, J P; Amantéa, S; Luchese, S; Giugno, K; Maia, T R; Einloft, L

    1995-01-01

    It is an on-going practice in the pediatric ICUs to obtain and to maintain a working artificial airway. Nevertheless this procedure bears not infrequent risks of accidental extubation (AE) which ranges in several services from 0.9 to 3.3 for each 100 days of intubation. The risk factors that are involved in AE are related to: sedation level, age-group, intubation path, and others. The purpose of the authors in this article was to observe the incidence of AE in their service and to compare the relative risk in the rate of AE among orotracheal and nasotracheal intubation population. A prospective study was taken during six months, in which every patients with artificial airway admitted at the PICU of the Santo Antonio Hospital in Porto Alegre (Brazil) was included except those with tracheostomy. The total number of cases were 673 patients-day with artificial airway, with an average of 3.7 patients with tracheal tube per day. In the period there were 18 AE, with a rate of 2.7 AE/ 100 days. The incidence rate of AE in the orotracheal group was 3.1% and 1.6% in the nasotracheal group with no statistically significant difference (p=0.6). The authors concluded that the pathway of intubation in their study does not carry any additional risk in the incidence of accidental extubation. PMID:14689021

  7. In vitro activation of cord blood mononuclear cells and cytokine production in a remote coastal population exposed to organochlorines and methyl mercury.

    PubMed

    Bilrha, Houda; Roy, Raynald; Moreau, Brigitte; Belles-Isles, Marthe; Dewailly, Eric; Ayotte, Pierre

    2003-12-01

    Remote coastal populations that rely on seafood for subsistence often receive unusually high doses of organochlorines and methyl mercury. Immunosuppression resulting from prenatal exposure to organochlorines has been reported in wildlife species and humans. In this study, we assessed lymphocyte activation and associated cytokine secretion in 47 newborns from a remote maritime population living on the Mid and Lower North Shore regions of the St. Lawrence River (Québec, Canada; subsistence fishing group) and 65 newborns from nearby urban settings (reference group). Cord blood samples were collected for organochlorine and mercury analyses and also to isolate cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs) for the in vitro assessment of cytokine production and expression of surface markers after mitogenic stimulation (CD4(+)CD45RO(+), CD8(+)CD45RO(+), CD3(+)CD25(+), and CD8(+)HLA-DR(+)). Blood mercury and plasma concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were significantly higher in the subsistence fishing group than in the reference group (p < 0.001). No difference was observed between the two groups regarding subsets of lymphocytes showing markers of activation. In vitro secretion of cytokines by CBMCs after mitogenic stimulation was lower in the subsistence fishing group than in the reference group (p < 0.05). Moreover, we found an inverse correlation between tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) secretion and plasma PCB, p,p'-DDE, and HCB concentrations (p < 0.05). Our data support a negative association between TNF-alpha secretion by CBMCs and prenatal organochlorine exposure. If the relationship between organochlorine and TNF-alpha secretion is causal, it would suggest a role for this important proinflammatory cytokine in mediating organochlorine-induced immunotoxicity in infants developmentally exposed to these compounds. PMID:14644672

  8. Ethnic characterization of a population of children exposed to high doses of arsenic via drinking water and a possible correlation with metabolic processes

    PubMed Central

    Bobillo, Cecilia; Navoni, Julio A; Olmos, Valentina; Merini, Luciano J; Villaamil Lepori, Edda; Corach, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Because the ratio between the two major arsenic metabolites is related to the adverse health effects of arsenic, numerous studies have been performed to establish a relationship between the ability to metabolically detoxify arsenic and other variables, including exposure level, gender, age and ethnicity. Because ethnicity may play a key role and provide relevant information for heterogeneous populations, we characterized a group of 70 children from rural schools in the Argentinean provinces of Chaco and Santiago del Estero who were exposed to high levels of arsenic. We used genetic markers for maternal, paternal and bi-parental ancestry to achieve this goal. Our results demonstrate that the Amerindian maternal linages are present in 100% of the samples, whereas the Amerindian component transmitted through the paternal line is less than 10%. Informative markers for autosomal ancestry show a predominantly European ancestry, in which 37% of the samples contained between 90 and 99% European ancestry. The native American component ranged from 50 to 80% in 15.7% of the samples, and in all but four samples, the African component was less than 10%. Correlation analysis demonstrated that the ethnicity and the ratio of the excreted arsenic metabolites monomethyl arsenic and dimethyl arsenic are not associated, dismissing a relationship between ethnic origin and differential metabolism. PMID:24596592

  9. Accidental swallowing of orthodontic expansion appliance key.

    PubMed

    Monini, André da Costa; Maia, Luiz Guilherme Martins; Jacob, Helder Baldi; Gandini, Luiz Gonzaga

    2011-08-01

    Ingestion of a foreign object, including a dental object, can lead to a trip to the emergency room. This article describes the accidental swallowing of a key that was used to activate a rapid maxillary expander. An orthodontic patient swallowed the key while trying to activate the appliance at home. The object's trajectory was followed on radiographs until it was eliminated. Possible clinical complications, legal implications of this situation, and practices for prevention are described. PMID:21803265

  10. Computer code to assess accidental pollutant releases

    SciTech Connect

    Pendergast, M.M.; Huang, J.C.

    1980-07-01

    A computer code was developed to calculate the cumulative frequency distributions of relative concentrations of an air pollutant following an accidental release from a stack or from a building penetration such as a vent. The calculations of relative concentration are based on the Gaussian plume equations. The meteorological data used for the calculation are in the form of joint frequency distributions of wind and atmospheric stability.

  11. Fatal accidental burns in married women.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Virendra; Tripathi, Chandra Bhal

    2003-09-01

    Burning incidents amongst women are a major concern in India as it has become pervasive throughout all social strata and geographical areas. They may be homicidal, suicidal or accidental in nature. Here, in the study, the main objective is to present the different epidemiological and medicolegal aspects of accidental burns in the married women. In a cohort of 152 burned wives, 70 (46%) were accidental victims and these cases were analyzed accordingly for their different medicolegal and epidemiological aspects. Data were collected from personal interview and from examining the different documents related to death. In this series, most of the women were illiterate Hindu housewives hailing from joint families (i.e. multigenerational groups of related individuals living under a single roof) of rural community. The majority (60%) of the affected wives were 16-25 years of age at the time of the accident and sustained less than 90% total body surface area burn injury. Most had the survival period more than 1 day, and more than half of them died of septicaemia. PMID:14568773

  12. Urinary arsenic metabolism in a Western Chinese population exposed to high-dose inorganic arsenic in drinking water: Influence of ethnicity and genetic polymorphisms

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Songbo; Wu, Jie; Li, Yuanyuan; Liu, Yan; Gao, Yanhui; Yao, Feifei; Qiu, Chuanying; Song, Li; Wu, Yu; Liao, Yongjian; Sun, Dianjun

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the differences in urinary arsenic metabolism patterns of individuals exposed to a high concentration of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in drinking water, an epidemiological investigation was conducted with 155 individuals living in a village where the arsenic concentration in the drinking water was 969 μg/L. Blood and urine samples were collected from 66 individuals including 51 cases with skin lesions and 15 controls without skin lesions. The results showed that monomethylated arsenic (MMA), the percentage of MMA (%MMA) and the ratio of MMA to iAs (MMA/iAs) were significantly increased in patients with skin lesions as compared to controls, while dimethylated arsenic (DMA), the percentage of DMA (%DMA) and the ratio of DMA to MMA (DMA/MMA) were significantly reduced. The percent DMA of individuals with the Ala/Asp genotype of glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1) was significantly lower than those with Ala/Ala. The percent MMA of individuals with the A2B/A2B genotype of arsenic (+ 3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) was significantly lower than those with AB/A2B. The iAs and total arsenic (tAs) content in the urine of a Tibetan population were significantly higher than that of Han and Hui ethnicities, whereas MMA/iAs was significantly lower than that of Han and Hui ethnicities. Our results showed that when exposed to the same arsenic environment, different individuals exhibited different urinary arsenic metabolism patterns. Gender and ethnicity affect these differences and above polymorphisms may be effectors too. - Highlights: • We first survey a village with high iAs content in the drinking water (969 μg/L). • 90 villagers suffered typical skin lesions with a morbidity rate of 58%. • Cases exhibited higher %MMA and MMA/iAs, and lower %DMA and DMA/MMA than controls. • Gender and ethnicity affect the differences of iAs methylation metabolism levels. • GSTO1 and AS3MT gene polymorphisms may be factors too.

  13. Women are considerably more exposed to intimate partner violence than men in Rwanda: results from a population-based, cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is an important, yet often neglected public health issue. The existence of gender norms imbalance expressed by men’s and women’s attitudes in relation to power and decision-making in intimate relationships may influence the magnitude of IPV. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and potential risk factors of physical, sexual and psychological IPV in young men and women in Rwanda. Methods This population-based, cross-sectional study included a representative sample of men and women from the Southern Province of Rwanda. Face-to-face interviews were performed using the World Health Organization (WHO) questionnaire for violence exposure to estimate past year and earlier in life IPV occurrence. Risk factor patterns were analyzed by use of bi- and multivariate logistic regression. Results Women were, to a considerably higher extent, exposed to physical, sexual and psychological IPV than men. Of the women, 18.8% (n = 78) reported physical abuse in the past year, compared to 4.3% (n = 18) of men. The corresponding figures for women and men for sexual abuse were 17.4% (n = 71) and 1.5% (n = 6), respectively, and for psychological abuse, the corresponding figures were 21.4% (n = 92) and 7.3% (n = 32). Findings illustrate that violence against women was recurrent, as the highest frequency (>3 times) dominated in women for the various acts of all forms of violence. Identified risk factors for women’s exposure to physical violence were being low educated, having poor social support, being poor and having many children. For men exposed to physical violence, no statistically significant risk factor was identified. Conclusions In this setting, IPV exposure was more common in women than men in the Southern Province of Rwanda. Promotion of gender equality at the individual level is needed to make a positive difference in a relatively short term perspective. Men’s lower

  14. Humoral immune response to Plasmodium falciparum vaccine candidate GMZ2 and its components in populations naturally exposed to seasonal malaria in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    participants, in both study sites, suggesting the induction of protective (cytophilic) antibodies against the two antigens. Analysis of age-related pattern in antibody levels against the antigens showed a positive association with increasing age. Conclusions P. falciparum GLURP-R0 and MSP3 separately as well as in a fused form in GMZ2 are readily recognized by the sera of the study populations. The significantly higher antibody prevalence and level detected against GMZ2 compared to either of its subunits separately, in naturally exposed populations, suggests the synergistic effect of GLURP-R0 and MSP3 and that GMZ2 could be a more relevant blood-stage malaria vaccine candidate than the individual components. Detection of high-level antibody responses in non-febrile, smear-negative individuals may possibly be an indication of a low-grade, asymptomatic sub-microscopic infection in the induction and maintenance of high-level malaria immunity. PMID:23383869

  15. Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Pat; Landahl, John

    This pamphlet has been prepared in response to a new problem, a rapidly increasing population, and a new need, population education. It is designed to help teachers provide their students with some basic population concepts with stress placed on the elements of decision making. In the first section of the pamphlet, some of the basic concepts of…

  16. GT-repeat polymorphism in the heme oxygenase-1 gene promoter is associated with cardiovascular mortality risk in an arsenic-exposed population in northeastern Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Meei-Maan; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chen, Chi-Ling; Wang, Yuan-Hung; Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Lien, Li-Ming; Lee, Te-Chang; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2010-11-01

    Inorganic arsenic has been associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic vascular disease and mortality in humans. A functional GT-repeat polymorphism in the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene promoter is inversely correlated with the development of coronary artery disease and restenosis after clinical angioplasty. The relationship of HO-1 genotype with arsenic-associated cardiovascular disease has not been studied. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between the HO-1 GT-repeat polymorphism and cardiovascular mortality in an arsenic-exposed population. A total of 504 study participants were followed up for a median of 10.7 years for occurrence of cardiovascular deaths (coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral arterial disease). Cardiovascular risk factors and DNA samples for determination of HO-1 GT repeats were obtained at recruitment. GT repeats variants were grouped into the S (< 27 repeats) or L allele ({>=} 27 repeats). Relative mortality risk was estimated using Cox regression analysis, adjusted for competing risk of cancer and other causes. For the L/L, L/S, and S/S genotype groups, the crude mortalities for cardiovascular disease were 8.42, 3.10, and 2.85 cases/1000 person-years, respectively. After adjusting for conventional cardiovascular risk factors and competing risk of cancer and other causes, carriers with class S allele (L/S or S/S genotypes) had a significantly reduced risk of cardiovascular mortality compared to non-carriers (L/L genotype) [OR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.16-0.90]. In contrast, no significant association was observed between HO-1 genotype and cancer mortality or mortality from other causes. Shorter (GT)n repeats in the HO-1 gene promoter may confer protective effects against cardiovascular mortality related to arsenic exposure.

  17. “Complexities of holistic community based participatory research for a low-income, multi-ethnic population exposed to multiple built-environment stressors in Worcester, Massachusetts”

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Timothy J.; Ross, Laurie; Patton, Suzanne; Rulnick, Sarah; Sinha, Deb; Mucciarone, Danielle; Calvache, Maria; Parmenter, Sarah; Subedi, Rajendra; Wysokenski, Donna; Anderson, Erin; Dezan, Rebecca; Lowe, Kate; Bowen, Jennifer; Tejani, Amee; Piersanti, Kelly; Taylor, Octavia; Goble, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Low income, multi-ethnic communities in Main South/Piedmont neighborhoods of Worcester, Massachusetts are exposed to cumulative, chronic built-environment stressors, and have limited capacity to respond, magnifying their vulnerability to adverse health outcomes. “Neighborhood STRENGTH”, our community based participatory research (CBPR) project, comprised four partners: a youth center; an environmental non-profit; a community based health center; and a university. Unlike most CBPR projects that are single topic-focused, our ‘holistic’, systems-based project targeted five priorities. The three research-focused/action-oriented components were: 1) participatory monitoring of indoor and outdoor pollution; 2) learning about health needs and concerns of residents through community based listening sessions; and 3) engaging in collaborative survey work, including a household vulnerability survey and an asthma prevalence survey for schoolchildren. The two action-focused/research-informed components were: 4) tackling persistent street trash and illegal dumping strategically; and 5) educating and empowering youth to promote environmental justice. We used a coupled CBPR-capacity building approach to design, vulnerability theory to frame, and mixed methods: quantitative environmental testing and qualitative surveys. Process and outcomes yielded important lessons: vulnerability theory helps frame issues holistically; having several topic-based projects yielded useful information, but was hard to manage and articulate to the public; access to, and engagement with, the target population was very difficult and would have benefited greatly from having representative residents who were paid at the partners' table. Engagement with residents and conflict burden varied highly across components. Notwithstanding, we built enabling capacity, strengthened our understanding of vulnerability, and are able to share valuable experiential knowledge. PMID:19762014

  18. Complexities of holistic community-based participatory research for a low income, multi-ethnic population exposed to multiple built-environment stressors in Worcester, Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Downs, Timothy J; Ross, Laurie; Patton, Suzanne; Rulnick, Sarah; Sinha, Deb; Mucciarone, Danielle; Calvache, Maria; Parmenter, Sarah; Subedi, Rajendra; Wysokenski, Donna; Anderson, Erin; Dezan, Rebecca; Lowe, Kate; Bowen, Jennifer; Tejani, Amee; Piersanti, Kelly; Taylor, Octavia; Goble, Robert

    2009-11-01

    Low income, multi-ethnic communities in Main South/Piedmont neighborhoods of Worcester, Massachusetts are exposed to cumulative, chronic built-environment stressors, and have limited capacity to respond, magnifying their vulnerability to adverse health outcomes. "Neighborhood STRENGTH", our community-based participatory research (CBPR) project, comprised four partners: a youth center; an environmental non-profit; a community-based health center; and a university. Unlike most CBPR projects that are single topic-focused, our 'holistic', systems-based project targeted five priorities. The three research-focused/action-oriented components were: (1) participatory monitoring of indoor and outdoor pollution; (2) learning about health needs and concerns of residents through community-based listening sessions; (3) engaging in collaborative survey work, including a household vulnerability survey and an asthma prevalence survey for schoolchildren. The two action-focused/research-informed components were: (4) tackling persistent street trash and illegal dumping strategically; and (5) educating and empowering youth to promote environmental justice. We used a coupled CBPR-capacity building approach to design, vulnerability theory to frame, and mixed methods: quantitative environmental testing and qualitative surveys. Process and outcomes yielded important lessons: vulnerability theory helps frame issues holistically; having several topic-based projects yielded useful information, but was hard to manage and articulate to the public; access to, and engagement with, the target population was very difficult and would have benefited greatly from having representative residents who were paid at the partners' table. Engagement with residents and conflict burden varied highly across components. Notwithstanding, we built enabling capacity, strengthened our understanding of vulnerability, and are able to share valuable experiential knowledge. PMID:19762014

  19. Accidental Kähler moduli inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Maharana, Anshuman; Rummel, Markus; Sumitomo, Yoske

    2015-09-14

    We study a model of accidental inflation in type IIB string theory where inflation occurs near the inflection point of a small Kähler modulus. A racetrack structure helps to alleviate the known concern that string-loop corrections may spoil Kähler Moduli Inflation unless having a significant suppression via the string coupling or a special brane setup. Also, the hierarchy of gauge group ranks required for the separation between moduli stabilization and inflationary dynamics is relaxed. The relaxation becomes more significant when we use the recently proposed D-term generated racetrack model.

  20. European research in accidental release phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Wicks, P.J.; Cole, S.T.

    1995-12-31

    The European Commission (CEC) has an ongoing research program in the field of the environment. Part of this work concerns the consequences of accidental releases from industrial plants, and covers hazards posing an off-site threat. This paper reviews some of the main results arising from this work. In addition to consequence modeling, the research has also included work on risk assessment and management. After a brief introduction to CEC research, the work is presented in five sections corresponding the main areas of work: flashing flow, atmospheric dispersion, jet-flame attack on vessels, gas explosions and storage fires.

  1. Genotoxicity Studies Performed in the Ecuadorian Population

    PubMed Central

    Paz-y-Miño, César; Cumbal, Nadia; Sánchez, María Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    Genotoxicity studies in Ecuador have been carried out during the past two decades. The focuses of the research were mainly the area of environmental issues, where the populations have been accidentally exposed to contaminants and the area of occupational exposure of individuals at the workplace. This paper includes studies carried out in the population of the Amazon region, a zone known for its rich biodiversity as well as for the ecological damage caused by oil spills and chemical sprayings whose consequences continue to be controversial. Additionally, we show the results of studies comprised of individuals occupationally exposed to toxic agents in two very different settings: flower plantation workers exposed to pesticide mixtures and X-ray exposure of hospital workers. The results from these studies confirm that genotoxicity studies can help evaluate current conditions and prevent further damage in the populations exposed to contaminants. As such, they are evidence of the need for biomonitoring employers at risk, stricter law enforcement regarding the use of pesticides, and increasingly conscientious oil extraction activities. PMID:22496977

  2. Accidental radioisotope burns - Management of late sequelae.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Bipin T; Thomas, Shaji; Nair, Balakrishnan; Mathew, P C; Sebastian, Paul

    2010-09-01

    Accidental radioisotope burns are rare. The major components of radiation injury are burns, interstitial pneumonitis, acute bone marrow suppression, acute renal failure and adult respiratory distress syndrome. Radiation burns, though localized in distribution, have systemic effects, and can be extremely difficult to heal, even after multiple surgeries. In a 25 year old male who sustained such trauma by accidental industrial exposure to Iridium192 the early presentation involved recurrent haematemesis, pancytopenia and bone marrow suppression. After three weeks he developed burns in contact areas in the left hand, left side of the chest, abdomen and right inguinal region. All except the inguinal wound healed spontaneously but the former became a non-healing ulcer. Pancytopenia and bone marrow depression followed. He was treated with morphine and NSAIDs, epidural buprinorphine and bupivicaine for pain relief, steroids, antibiotics followed by wound excision and reconstruction with tensor fascia lata(TFL) flap. Patient had breakdown of abdominal scar later and it was excised with 0.5 cm margins up to the underlying muscle and the wound was covered by a latissimis dorsi flap. Further scar break down and recurrent ulcers occurred at different sites including left wrist, left thumb and right heel in the next two years which needed multiple surgical interventions. PMID:21321664

  3. Chloracne from the accidental production of tetrachlorodibenzodioxin

    PubMed Central

    May, George

    1973-01-01

    May, G. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,30, 276-283. Chloracne from the accidental production of tetrachlorodibenzodioxin. Following the accidental production of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (dioxin) as the result of an exothermic reaction at a chemical plant in Derbyshire, 79 cases of chloracne were recorded, many of them severe. Contrary to the usual experience they have responded very favourably to treatment and there were no cases of contact chloracne among relatives or domestic animals in the initial outbreak. However, two cases of contact chloracne were recorded three years later. Similar incidents are known to have occured in both Europe and the United States of America, almost invariably accompanied by widespread severe illness and with fatalities. Apart from one death due to an explosion which followed the exothermic reaction the more serious sequelae, which may range from depression and loss of weight to liver, kidney, and cardiac failure as well as malignant disease, have not occurred. A quick and reliable method of biological assay for the presence of dioxin in produced trichlorophenol was developed based on oral dosage to rabbits with assessment of liver function at fixed time intervals thereafter. This test has already been superseded by instantaneous gas-liquid chromatography. An entirely new plant with suitable modifications and multiple safety features has now been in satisfactory operation for three years. Images PMID:4269256

  4. Modelling dispersion processes of hypothetical nuclear accidental release on different scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mészáros, R.; Lagzi, I.; Molnár, F., Jr.; Vincze, Cs.; Leelőssy, Á.; Kovács, T.

    2010-09-01

    An increased attention of anthropogenic effects on the environment was observable in the last decades. As more nuclear, biological and industrial accidents occurred in the different part of the world, there is an increased demand both on the part of population and scientific society for the understanding and effective prediction of the environmental, social or economical effects of continuous or a possible accidental release. On the basis of sophisticated dispersion model calculations, the decision makers could make important arrangements, which can save human lives. For this purpose, accidental release models for different spatial and time scales were developed. Model estimations of radionuclide dispersions from the Paks Nuclear Power Plant (Hungary) were also carried out from regional to local scales. With the TREX-Euler, multi-layered, Eulerian passive tracer dispersion model, the transport and deposition of air pollutants over the Central European region were simulated under different weather conditions. For mesoscale simulation of accidental release, the stochastic TREX-Lagrangian particle model was chosen and developed. Both hypothetical accidental releases and continuous environmental loads were simulated. Additionally, near the point source, CFD simulations with A2C model were evaluated. Model estimations on different scales and their sensitivity analyses are presented in this study.

  5. Containing the accidental laboratory escape of potential pandemic influenza viruses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The recent work on the modified H5N1 has stirred an intense debate on the risk associated with the accidental release from biosafety laboratory of potential pandemic pathogens. Here, we assess the risk that the accidental escape of a novel transmissible influenza strain would not be contained in the local community. Methods We develop here a detailed agent-based model that specifically considers laboratory workers and their contacts in microsimulations of the epidemic onset. We consider the following non-pharmaceutical interventions: isolation of the laboratory, laboratory workers’ household quarantine, contact tracing of cases and subsequent household quarantine of identified secondary cases, and school and workplace closure both preventive and reactive. Results Model simulations suggest that there is a non-negligible probability (5% to 15%), strongly dependent on reproduction number and probability of developing clinical symptoms, that the escape event is not detected at all. We find that the containment depends on the timely implementation of non-pharmaceutical interventions and contact tracing and it may be effective (>90% probability per event) only for pathogens with moderate transmissibility (reproductive number no larger than R0 = 1.5). Containment depends on population density and structure as well, with a probability of giving rise to a global event that is three to five times lower in rural areas. Conclusions Results suggest that controllability of escape events is not guaranteed and, given the rapid increase of biosafety laboratories worldwide, this poses a serious threat to human health. Our findings may be relevant to policy makers when designing adequate preparedness plans and may have important implications for determining the location of new biosafety laboratories worldwide. PMID:24283203

  6. Assessment of accidental intakes of uranyl acetylacetonate (UAA)

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.; Briant, J.K.

    1993-12-01

    Uranyl acetylacetonate (UAA) is an organic complex of uranium used for military applications as a chemical catalyst in high explosives. It is prepared from depleted uranium metal (in lots of 5 kg to 7 kg) by dissolution in nitric acid, neutralization, and complexation with 2,4-pentanedione; the precipitate is dissolved in benzene and recrystallized, dried, ground, and packaged. About six workers at a small chemical company were exposed over a period of time to UAA powders during routine preparation and packaging of the uranium catalyst. The dissolution characteristics of the inhaled material were unknown and could not be determined from the published scientific literature. A 1.05-g sample of UAA powder was obtained from the responsible regulatory authority for further study to determine its chemical composition, and for dissolution in simulated lung fluid. We found the solubility of UAA to be equivalent to a mixture of 52% ICRP class D and 48% ICRP class W material. The annual limit on intake and the derived air concentration for radiological protection were estimated from this result for airborne exposure to UAA. A recycling biokinetic model was used to estimate both material-specific variations in urinary excretion rates and lung retention with time after accidental intakes. This study provides new information for evaluating future exposures to UAA.

  7. Accidental infant death and stroller-prams.

    PubMed

    Byard, R W; Beal, S M; Simpson, A; Carter, R F; Khong, T Y

    1996-08-01

    A three-month-old boy and an eight-month-old boy died from accidental positional asphyxia and hanging, respectively, after being placed to sleep unsupervised in stroller-prams. Both infants had moved down towards the fronts of the stroller-prams. The younger infant fell out when the footplate collapsed and he was found hanging from a metal bar on the side. The older infant had partly slipped through the front and was suspended with his head and arms within the stroller-pram and with his face pushed firmly into the mattress by a horizontal metal bar. Stroller-prams are a potentially dangerous sleeping environment unless infants are closely supervised, gaps in the front of stroller-prams closed and upright footplates stabilised. PMID:8709876

  8. Accidental Turbulent Discharge Rate Estimation from Videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra, Eric; Shaffer, Franklin; Savaş, Ömer

    2015-11-01

    A technique to estimate the volumetric discharge rate in accidental oil releases using high speed video streams is described. The essence of the method is similar to PIV processing, however the cross correlation is carried out on the visible features of the efflux, which are usually turbulent, opaque and immiscible. The key step in the process is to perform a pixelwise time filtering on the video stream, in which the parameters are commensurate with the scales of the large eddies. The velocity field extracted from the shell of visible features is then used to construct an approximate velocity profile within the discharge. The technique has been tested on laboratory experiments using both water and oil jets at Re ~105 . The technique is accurate to 20%, which is sufficient for initial responders to deploy adequate resources for containment. The software package requires minimal user input and is intended for deployment on an ROV in the field. Supported by DOI via NETL.

  9. [Accidental myiasis by Ornidia obesa in humans].

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Silvia G; Faccio, Lucian; Otto, Mateus Anderson; Soares, João Fabio; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Mazzanti, Alexandre

    2008-09-01

    Dipterous of the genus Ornidia are pollinator bugs, but immature stages can be found in organic matter in decomposition. This article refers to a found of larvae of Ornidia obesa in humans feces. An eight years old child was treated in a medical clinic due to the presence of two larvae and one pupae in the feces, hyperthermia, intestinal obstruction and strong abdominal pain. Medical therapy consisted of Mebendazol and Ivermectin in the indicated doses. 24 hours after the administration of the drugs, several larvae were expelled with diarrheic feces. The material was taken to the Parasitological Veterinary Lab, and the larvae were classified belonging to the genus Ornidia. According to the literature, this specie of Diptera is not incriminated to cause myiasis in vertebrates. We think that this study reports a case of accidental myiasis in humans, were the patient may have ingested food with immature stages of the fly (eggs or larvae). PMID:20059825

  10. Rickettsial infection caused by accidental conjunctival inoculation.

    PubMed

    Brissos, Joao; de Sousa, Rita; Santos, Ana Sofia; Gouveia, Catarina

    2015-01-01

    The most common transmission route of tick-borne Rickettsia is through tick bite; nevertheless, other transmission routes should also be considered. We report a case of rickettsial infection in a 15-year-old boy caused by accidental contamination of the conjunctiva through the infected fluid of a crushed engorged tick removed from a dog. Right eye pain, conjunctival hyperaemia with mucopurulent exudate, chemosis and eyelid oedema were the first signs and symptoms. Two days later, the boy developed fever, myalgia, headache, abdominal pain and was vomiting; physical examination showed multiple cervical adenopathies but no rash. He was treated with doxycycline (200 mg/day) for 7 days with progressive resolution of clinical signs. Rickettsial infection was confirmed by immunofluorescence assay with serological seroconversion in two consecutive samples. Rickettsia conorii or Rickettsia massiliae were the possible causal agents since they are the Rickettsia spp found in the Rhipicephalus sanguineus dog tick in Portugal. PMID:25568272

  11. Throat-cutting of accidental origin.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Serafettin; Dogan, Kamil Hakan; Gunaydin, Gursel

    2008-07-01

    Incised wounds of the neck can be accidental, homicidal, or suicidal. In this paper, a death case has been presented where a spinning circular saw of a cutting machine in a workshop came off its place and cut the throat of a 30-year-old male who was operating the machine. There was an incision (15 cm x 5 cm) that began in the middle of the neck down the thyroid cartilage, extended horizontally to the left of the neck and ended on the outer part of the neck in the outer left side of m. trapezius. Death occurred because of exsanguination caused by the cutting of carotis artery and jugular vein. In the case we presented, although the cut in the neck initially suggested homicide, it was found to have occurred as a result of an accident after the autopsy and death scene investigation. PMID:18489556

  12. Accidental etizolam ingestion in a child.

    PubMed

    Kato, Zenichiro; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Funato, Michinori; Kuwabara, Hideaki; Kondo, Naomi

    2007-07-01

    Etizolam (ETZ) is an antidepressive thienodiazepine drug that is used worldwide. The most frequent adverse effects in adults are drowsiness and muscle weakness, and this can rarely cause paradoxical excitation; however, no information exists on intoxication in children. Furthermore, evidence bearing on its safety in children is not available. We present a case of a child who accidentally took a single dose of ETZ, approximately the same as a therapeutic dose for adults, and who showed paradoxical excitation and muscle weakness. The case presented here suggests that pediatricians and emergency physicians should be aware of the possible adverse effects in children and therapeutic approaches in intoxication of ETZ and the necessity of further investigations on a specific therapeutic guideline for overdose management especially in children. PMID:17666930

  13. Experiences of Causing an Accidental Death: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rassool, Sara B.; Nel, Pieter W.

    2012-01-01

    Accidentally killing or feeling responsible for another person's death constitutes an event that is different from many typical traumatic stressors in that the responsibility for causing the trauma is located in the person themselves, rather than another person or persons. Research exploring the perspective of those who have accidentally caused a…

  14. Course Management Systems for Learning: Beyond Accidental Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Patricia; Carmean, Colleen; Jafari, Ali

    2005-01-01

    "Course Management Systems for Learning: Beyond Accidental Pedagogy" is a comprehensive overview of standards, practices and possibilities of course management systems in higher education. "Course Management Systems for Learning: Beyond Accidental Pedagogy" focuses on what the current knowledge is (in best practices, research, standards and…

  15. 49 CFR 192.751 - Prevention of accidental ignition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.751 Prevention of accidental ignition. Each operator shall take steps to minimize the danger of accidental ignition of gas in any structure or area where the presence of gas constitutes a hazard of fire or explosion,...

  16. 49 CFR 192.751 - Prevention of accidental ignition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.751 Prevention of accidental ignition. Each operator shall take steps to minimize the danger of accidental ignition of gas in any structure or area where the presence of gas constitutes a hazard of fire or explosion,...

  17. 49 CFR 192.751 - Prevention of accidental ignition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.751 Prevention of accidental ignition. Each operator shall take steps to minimize the danger of accidental ignition of gas in any structure or area where the presence of gas constitutes a hazard of fire or explosion,...

  18. 49 CFR 192.195 - Protection against accidental overpressuring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection against accidental overpressuring. 192.195 Section 192.195 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE... Pipeline Components § 192.195 Protection against accidental overpressuring. (a) General...

  19. Evaluation of chromosomal alteration in electrical workers occupationally exposed to low frequency of electro magnetic field (EMFs) in Coimbatore population, India.

    PubMed

    Balamuralikrishnan, Balasubramanian; Balachandar, Vellingiri; Kumar, Shanmugam Suresh; Stalin, Nattan; Varsha, Prakash; Devi, Subramaniam Mohana; Arun, Meyyazhagan; Manikantan, Pappuswamy; Venkatesan, Chinnakulandhai; Sasikala, Keshavarao; Dharwadkar, Shahnaz N

    2012-01-01

    Extremely low frequency electro magnetic fields (EMFs) have been classified as possibly carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. An increased number of chromosomal alterations in peripheral lymphocytes are correlated with elevated incidence of cancer. The aim of the present study was to assess occupationally induced chromosomal damage in EMF workers exposed to low levels of radiation. We used conventional metaphase chromosome aberration (CA) analysis and the micronucleus (MN) assay as biological indicators of non ionizing radiation exposure. In the present study totally 70 subjects were selected including 50 exposed and 20 controls. Informed written consent was obtained from all participants and the study was performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and the approval of the local ethical committee. A higher degree of CA and MN was observed in exposed subjects compared to controls, the frequency of CA being significantly enhanced with long years of exposure (P<0.05). Moreover increase in CA and MN with age was noted in both exposed subjects and controls, but was significantly greater in the former. The results of this study demonstrated that a significant induction of cytogenetic damage in peripheral lymphocytes of workers occupationally exposed to EMFs in electric transformer and distribution stations. In conclusion, our findings suggest that EMFs possess genotoxic capability, as measured by CA and MN assays; CA analysis appeared more sensitive than other cytogenetic end-points. It can be concluded that chronic occupational exposure to EMFs may lead to an increased risk of genetic damage among electrical workers. PMID:22938490

  20. Clinical clues for head injuries amongst Malaysian infants: accidental or non-accidental?

    PubMed

    Thalayasingam, M; Veerakumarasivam, A; Kulanthayan, S; Khairuddin, F; Cheah, I G S

    2012-12-01

    Identifying the differences between infants with non-accidental head injuries (NAHI) and accidental head injuries (AHI) may help alert clinicians to recognize markers of abuse. A retrospective review of infants <1 year of age admitted to a tertiary referral centre in Malaysia over a two year period with a diagnosis of head injury or abnormal computed tomography head scans was conducted to identify the clinical features pointing towards a diagnosis of NAHI by comparing the socio-demographics, presenting complaints, clinical features and the extent of hospital investigations carried out. NAHI infants were more likely to be symptomatic, under a non-related caregiver's supervision, and presented with inconsistent or no known mechanism of injury. Subdural haemorrhages were more common in NAHI infants. The history, mechanism of injury, presenting signs and symptoms as well as the nature of the injuries sustained are all valuable clues as to whether a head injury sustained during infancy is likely to be accidental or not. PMID:22424957

  1. Adverse events in humans associated with accidental exposure to the livestock brucellosis vaccine RB51.

    PubMed

    Ashford, David A; di Pietra, Jennifer; Lingappa, Jairam; Woods, Christopher; Noll, Heather; Neville, Bridget; Weyant, Robbin; Bragg, Sandra L; Spiegel, Richard A; Tappero, Jordan; Perkins, Bradley A

    2004-09-01

    Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine, is an attenuated live bacterial vaccine that was licensed conditionally by the Center for Veterinary Biologics, Veterinary Services, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA, on 23 February 1996, for vaccination of cattle in the United States. Accidental human inoculations can occur during vaccination of cattle, and previous live Brucella vaccines designed for cattle have been known to cause brucellosis in humans. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) established passive surveillance for accidental inoculation with the RB51 vaccine in the United States to determine if this veterinary vaccine is associated with human disease, to describe the circumstances of accidental inoculation, to evaluate the potential efficacy of post-exposure chemoprophylaxis, and to develop recommendations for post-exposure management following exposure to RB51. Reports were received from 26 individuals. Accidental exposure to RB51 occurred by needle stick injury in 21 people (81%), conjunctival spray exposure in four (15%), and spray exposure of an open wound in one (4%) individual. At least one systemic symptom was reported in 19 (73%) people, including three (12%) who reported persistent local reactions with systemic involvement. One case required surgery, and B. abortus strain RB51 was isolated from the wound of that individual. Seven cases reported no adverse event associated with accidental exposure. Nine cases reported previous exposure to Brucella vaccines, including one case who also reported a previous diagnosis of brucellosis following exposure to S19 vaccine. Accidental needle stick injuries and conjunctival or open wound exposures of humans with the RB51 vaccine are associated with both local and systemic adverse events in the United States that are consistent with brucellosis; however, it remains undetermined if strain RB51 vaccine can cause systemic brucellosis in humans. Early culture attempts on those exposed and

  2. Health status of Air Force veterans occupationally exposed to herbicides in Vietnam: II. Mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Michalek, J.E.; Wolfe, W.H.; Miner, J.C. )

    1990-10-10

    The Air Force Health Study is a 20-year comprehensive assessment of the current health of Air Force veterans of Operation Ranch Hand, the unit responsible for aerial spraying of herbicides in Vietnam. This report compares the noncombat mortality of 1261 Ranch Hand veterans to that of a comparison population of 19,101 other Air Force veterans primarily involved in cargo missions in Southeast Asia but who were not exposed to herbicides. The indirectly standardized all-cause death rate among Ranch Hands is 2.5 deaths per 1,000 person-years, the same as that among comparison subjects. After adjustment for age, rank, and occupation, the all-cause standardized mortality ratio was 1.0. In adjusted cause-specific analyses, the authors found no significant group differences regarding accidental, malignant neoplasm, and circulatory deaths. These data are not supportive to a hypothesis of increases mortality among Ranch Hands.

  3. [Psychological aspects of accidental poisoning in children].

    PubMed

    Trabach-Valadier, C; Floret, D

    1987-01-01

    The following points stand out from a semi-open questionnaire which was sent to the parents of 28 children hospitalized for accidental intoxication. Intoxications often occur in children who are hyperactive, curious, rebellious and have strong affective needs. Parents find it very difficult to set bans and limitations to their children, whose behaviour seems to be actively calling out for such restrictions. These children frequently put themselves in a situation of self-aggression, which shows the parents' inability to teach them to develop a vital self protective attitude from life's daily experience. Most often, the child is aware of transgressing a ban and in a few cases, intoxication seems to be a deliberate act on his part. It generally occurs when stress has been building up in the family, thus threatening the balance of the family. If it happens in a family where relationships are already deeply disturbed, it must be considered as a signal of alarm. It is then necessary to suggest that the family should undergo a psychotherapeutic course to help them to put an end to the deadly process in which they are involved. PMID:3448592

  4. Accidental overdose of multiple chemotherapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Kim, I S; Gratwohl, A; Stebler, C; Hausmann, M; Tichelli, A; Stern, A; Speck, B

    1989-07-01

    A 35-year-old man with refractory low grade diffuse centroblastic centrocytic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was treated accidentally with an overdose of multiple chemotherapeutic agents. He was given adriamycin 50 mg/m2 and cyclophosphamide 350 mg/m2 for 6 days followed by 4 days of vincristine 1 mg/m2 and bleomycin 10 mg/m2. He was transferred when he developed pancytopenia, fever, severe mucositis, ileus and peripheral neuropathy. He was treated with broad spectrum antibiotics, red cell and single donor platelet transfusions and strict parenteral nutrition. In addition, he was given a continuous infusion of 400 micrograms daily human recombinant granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (rh GM-CSF) for 17 days. Intractable severe bleeding from his oral mucositis necessitated treatment with a continuous infusion of 8-ornithine-vasopressin for 8 days. He recovered and could be discharged home after 36 days of hospitalization with normal blood counts and without severe sequelae. PMID:2486848

  5. Accidental Overdose of Multiple Chemotherapeutic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, In Soon; Gratwohl, A.; Stebler, C.; Hausmann, M.; Tichelli, A.; Stern, A.; Speck, B.

    1989-01-01

    A 35-year-old man with refractory low grade diffuse centroblastic centrocytic non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma was treated accidentally with an overdose of multiple chemotherapeutic agents. He was given adriamycin 50 mg/m2 and cyclophosphamide 350 mg/m2 for 6 days followed by 4 days of vincristine 1 mg/m2 and bleomycin 10 mg/m2. He was transferred when he developed pancytopenia, fever, severe mucositis, ileus and peripheral neuropathy. He was treated with broad spectrum antibiotics, red cell and single donor platelet transfusions and strict parenteral nutrition. In addition, he was given a continuous infusion of 400 ug daily human recombinant granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (rh GM-CSF) for 17 days. Intractable severe bleeding from his oral mucositis necessitated treatment with a continuous infusion of 8-ornithine-vasopressin for 8 days. He recovered and could be discharged home after 36 days of hospitalization with normal blood counts and without severe sequelae. PMID:2486848

  6. Role of the surgeon in non-accidental trauma.

    PubMed

    Naik-Mathuria, Bindi; Akinkuotu, Adesola; Wesson, David

    2015-07-01

    Non-accidental trauma (NAT) represents a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the pediatric population. The management of these patients often involves many care providers including the surgeon. Victims of NAT often present with multiple injuries and as such should be treated as trauma patients with complete trauma evaluation including primary, secondary and tertiary surveys. Common injury patterns in NAT include extremity fractures, closed head injury and intra-abdominal injury. Brain imaging is of importance to rule out acute or sub-acute intracranial hemorrhage. Children under the age of 5 years with acute intracranial pathology should also be evaluated by an ophthalmologist to rule out retinal hemorrhages, which are considered pathognomonic for child abuse from violent shaking. In instances when abdominal injury is suspected, prompt evaluation by a surgeon is recommended along with CT imaging. Finding of extremity fractures should prompt evaluation by an orthopedic surgeon. At our institution, all patients with suspected NAT are admitted to the pediatric surgery service for complete evaluation and management. We encourage other pediatric trauma centers to employ a similar approach so that these complicated patients are managed safely and effectively. PMID:25772160

  7. Non-Accidental Health Impacts of Wildfire Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Youssouf, Hassani; Liousse, Catherine; Roblou, Laurent; Assamoi, Eric-Michel; Salonen, Raimo O.; Maesano, Cara; Banerjee, Soutrik; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    Wildfires take a heavy toll on human health worldwide. Climate change may increase the risk of wildfire frequency. Therefore, in view of adapted preventive actions, there is an urgent need to further understand the health effects and public awareness of wildfires. We conducted a systematic review of non-accidental health impacts of wildfire and incorporated lessons learned from recent experiences. Based on the literature, various studies have established the relationship between one of the major components of wildfire, particulate matter (particles with diameter less than 10 µm (PM10) and less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5)) and cardiorespiratory symptoms in terms of Emergency Rooms visits and hospital admissions. Associations between wildfire emissions and various subclinical effects have also been established. However, few relationships between wildfire emissions and mortality have been observed. Certain segments of the population may be particularly vulnerable to smoke-related health risks. Among them, people with pre-existing cardiopulmonary conditions, the elderly, smokers and, for professional reasons, firefighters. Potential action mechanisms have been highlighted. Overall, more research is needed to better understand health impact of wildfire exposure. PMID:25405597

  8. Comparative study of IgA VH3 gene usage in healthy TST− and TST+ population exposed to tuberculosis: deep sequencing analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Siang Tean; Ignatius, Joshua; Suraiya, Siti; Tye, Gee Jun; Sarmiento, Maria E; Acosta, Armando; Norazmi, Mohd Nor; Lim, Theam Soon

    2015-01-01

    The acquired immune response against tuberculosis is commonly associated with T-cell responses with little known about the role of B cells or antibodies. There have been suggestions that B cells and humoral immunity can modulate the immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, the mechanisms involving B-cell responses in M. tuberculosis are not fully understood, in particular the antibody gene preferences. We hypothesized that a preferential use of V genes can be seen associated with resistance to infection mainly in the IgA isotype, which is of prominent importance for infection by pathogens via the mucosal route. We studied healthy individuals with long-term exposure to tuberculosis, infected (TST+) and uninfected TST−) with M. tuberculosis. From a total of 22 V genes analysed, the TST− population preferred the VH3-23 and Vκ1 genes. The VH3-23 genes were subsequently subjected to 454 amplicon sequencing. The TST− population showed a higher frequency of the D3-10 segment compared with the D3-22 segment for the TST+ population. The J segment usage pattern was similar for both populations with J4 segment being used the most. A preferential pairing of J4 segments to D3-3 was seen for the TST− population. The antibodyome difference between both populations suggests a preference for antibodies with VH3-23, D3-3, JH4 gene usage by the TST− population that could be associated with resistance to infection with M. tuberculosis. PMID:25158076

  9. Spatial patterns of neutral and functional genetic variations reveal patterns of local adaptation in raccoon (Procyon lotor) populations exposed to raccoon rabies.

    PubMed

    Kyle, Christopher J; Rico, Yessica; Castillo, Sarrah; Srithayakumar, Vythegi; Cullingham, Catherine I; White, Bradley N; Pond, Bruce A

    2014-05-01

    Local adaptation is necessary for population survival and depends on the interplay between responses to selective forces and demographic processes that introduce or retain adaptive and maladaptive attributes. Host-parasite systems are dynamic, varying in space and time, where both host and parasites must adapt to their ever-changing environment in order to survive. We investigated patterns of local adaptation in raccoon populations with varying temporal exposure to the raccoon rabies virus (RRV). RRV infects approximately 85% of the population when epizootic and has been presumed to be completely lethal once contracted; however, disease challenge experiments and varying spatial patterns of RRV spread suggest some level of immunity may exist. We first assessed patterns of local adaptation in raccoon populations along the eastern seaboard of North America by contrasting spatial patterns of neutral (microsatellite loci) and functional, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genetic diversity and structure. We explored variation of MHC allele frequencies in the light of temporal population exposure to RRV (0-60 years) and specific RRV strains in infected raccoons. Our results revealed high levels of MHC variation (66 DRB exon 2 alleles) and pronounced genetic structure relative to neutral microsatellite loci, indicative of local adaptation. We found a positive association linking MHC genetic diversity and temporal RRV exposure, but no association with susceptibility and resistance to RRV strains. These results have implications for landscape epidemiology studies seeking to predict the spread of RRV and present an example of how population demographics influence the degree to which populations adapt to local selective pressures. PMID:24655158

  10. Comparative study of IgA VH 3 gene usage in healthy TST(-) and TST(+) population exposed to tuberculosis: deep sequencing analysis.

    PubMed

    Chin, Siang Tean; Ignatius, Joshua; Suraiya, Siti; Tye, Gee Jun; Sarmiento, Maria E; Acosta, Armando; Norazmi, Mohd Nor; Lim, Theam Soon

    2015-02-01

    The acquired immune response against tuberculosis is commonly associated with T-cell responses with little known about the role of B cells or antibodies. There have been suggestions that B cells and humoral immunity can modulate the immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, the mechanisms involving B-cell responses in M. tuberculosis are not fully understood, in particular the antibody gene preferences. We hypothesized that a preferential use of V genes can be seen associated with resistance to infection mainly in the IgA isotype, which is of prominent importance for infection by pathogens via the mucosal route. We studied healthy individuals with long-term exposure to tuberculosis, infected (TST(+) ) and uninfected TST(-) ) with M. tuberculosis. From a total of 22 V genes analysed, the TST(-) population preferred the VH 3-23 and Vκ1 genes. The VH 3-23 genes were subsequently subjected to 454 amplicon sequencing. The TST(-) population showed a higher frequency of the D3-10 segment compared with the D3-22 segment for the TST(+) population. The J segment usage pattern was similar for both populations with J4 segment being used the most. A preferential pairing of J4 segments to D3-3 was seen for the TST(-) population. The antibodyome difference between both populations suggests a preference for antibodies with VH 3-23, D3-3, JH 4 gene usage by the TST(-) population that could be associated with resistance to infection with M. tuberculosis. PMID:25158076

  11. Low-dose computed tomography screening for lung cancer in populations highly exposed to tobacco: A systematic methodological appraisal of published randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Coureau, Gaëlle; Salmi, L Rachid; Etard, Cécile; Sancho-Garnier, Hélène; Sauvaget, Catherine; Mathoulin-Pélissier, Simone

    2016-07-01

    Low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening recommendations for lung cancer are contradictory. The French National Authority for Health commissioned experts to carry a systematic review on the effectiveness, acceptability and safety of lung cancer screening with LDCT in subjects highly exposed to tobacco. We used MEDLINE and Embase databases (2003-2014) and identified 83 publications representing ten randomised control trials. Control arms and methodology varied considerably, precluding a full comparison and questioning reproducibility of the findings. From five trials reporting mortality results, only the National Lung Screening Trial found a significant decrease of disease-specific and all-cause mortality with LDCT screening compared to chest X-ray screening. None of the studies provided all information needed to document the risk-benefit balance. The lack of statistical power and the methodological heterogeneity of European trials question on the possibility of obtaining valid results separately or by pooling. We conclude, in regard to the lack of strong scientific evidence, that LDCT screening should not be recommended in subjects highly exposed to tobacco. PMID:27211572

  12. Laboratory-Acquired Parasitic Infections from Accidental Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Herwaldt, Barbara L.

    2001-01-01

    Parasitic diseases are receiving increasing attention in developed countries in part because of their importance in travelers, immigrants, and immunocompromised persons. The main purpose of this review is to educate laboratorians, the primary readership, and health care workers, the secondary readership, about the potential hazards of handling specimens that contain viable parasites and about the diseases that can result. This is accomplished partly through discussion of the occupationally acquired cases of parasitic infections that have been reported, focusing for each case on the type of accident that resulted in infection, the length of the incubation period, the clinical manifestations that developed, and the means by which infection was detected. The article focuses on the cases of infection with the protozoa that cause leishmaniasis, malaria, toxoplasmosis, Chagas' disease (American trypanosomiasis), and African trypanosomiasis. Data about 164 such cases are discussed, as are data about cases caused by intestinal protozoa and by helminths. Of the 105 case-patients infected with blood and tissue protozoa who either recalled an accident or for whom the likely route of transmission could be presumed, 47 (44.8%) had percutaneous exposure via a contaminated needle or other sharp object. Some accidents were directly linked to poor laboratory practices (e.g., recapping a needle or working barehanded). To decrease the likelihood of accidental exposures, persons who could be exposed to pathogenic parasites must be thoroughly instructed in safety precautions before they begin to work and through ongoing training programs. Protocols should be provided for handling specimens that could contain viable organisms, using protective clothing and equipment, dealing with spills of infectious organisms, and responding to accidents. Special care should be exercised when using needles and other sharp objects. PMID:11585780

  13. Neurologic function among termiticide applicators exposed to chlorpyrifos.

    PubMed Central

    Steenland, K; Dick, R B; Howell, R J; Chrislip, D W; Hines, C J; Reid, T M; Lehman, E; Laber, P; Krieg, E F; Knott, C

    2000-01-01

    Chlorpyrifos is a moderately toxic organophosphate pesticide. Houses and lawns in the United States receive a total of approximately 20 million annual chlorpyrifos treatments, and 82% of U.S. adults have detectable levels of a chlorpyrifos metabolite (3,5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridinol; TCP) in the urine. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has estimated that there are 5,000 yearly reported cases of accidental chlorpyrifos poisoning, and approximately one-fourth of these cases exhibit symptoms. Organophosphates affect the nervous system, but there are few epidemiologic data on chlorpyrifos neurotoxicity. We studied neurologic function in 191 current and former termiticide applicators who had an average of 2.4 years applying chlorpyrifos and 2.5 years applying other pesticides, and we compared them to 189 nonexposed controls. The average urinary TCP level for 65 recently exposed applicators was 629.5 microg/L, as compared to 4.5 microg/L for the general U.S. population. The exposed group did not differ significantly from the nonexposed group for any test in the clinical examination. Few significant differences were found in nerve conduction velocity, arm/hand tremor, vibrotactile sensitivity, vision, smell, visual/motor skills, or neurobehavioral skills. The exposed group did not perform as well as the nonexposed group in pegboard turning tests and some postural sway tests. The exposed subjects also reported significantly more symptoms, including memory problems, emotional states, fatigue, and loss of muscle strength; our more quantitative tests may not have been adequate to detect these symptoms. Eight men who reported past chlorpyrifos poisoning had a pattern of low performance on a number of tests, which is consistent with prior reports of chronic effects of organophosphate poisoning. Overall, the lack of exposure effects on the clinical examination was reassuring. The findings for self-reported symptoms raise some concern, as does the finding of low performance

  14. Complications in exodontia--accidental dislodgment to adjacent anatomical areas.

    PubMed

    Grandini, S A; Barros, V M; Salata, L A; Rosa, A L; Soares, U N

    1993-01-01

    The authors report 4 cases of accidental dislodgement of teeth to adjacent anatomical areas during extraction. The causes and their prevention are discussed and solutions for the problem are suggested. PMID:8241759

  15. Frequent detection of stomach contents in accidental drowning.

    PubMed

    Kibayashi, Kazuhiko; Shimada, Ryo; Nakao, Ken-Ichiro

    2011-07-01

    We analysed forensic autopsies of 536 consecutive adults to determine the relationship between the presence of stomach contents and the manner of death. Stomach contents were identified in 27 (79.4%) of 34 accidental drownings and in 22 (43.1%) of 51 suicidal drownings (P < 0.01). Accidental drowning was the manner of death most frequently associated with the presence of stomach contents, and stomach contents were found significantly more often in this type of death than in suicidal drowning. These findings indicate that food intake is a factor possibly related to accidental drowning and suggest that fasting may be required before swimming or taking a bath to prevent accidental drowning. PMID:21905572

  16. Accidental Childhood Iron Poisoning: A Problem of Marketing and Labeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krenzelok, Edward P.; Hoff, Julie V.

    1979-01-01

    The article indicates that accidental iron poisoning represents a significant hazard in children less than five years of age. Attractiveness of dosage, high availability, and ambiguity in product labeling contribute to the problem. Journal availability: see EC 114 125. (CL)

  17. FRAMEWORK FOR DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF POPULATION RISK-BASED CRITERIA FOR FISH AND WILDLIFE EXPOSED TO PERSISTENT BIOACCUMULATIVE TOXICANTS (PBTS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fundamental purpose of this project is to insure that appropriate chemical residue-based toxicity data and models are effectively used, in conjunction with bioaccumulation and population dynamics models, to determine site-specific water and sediment quality conditions require...

  18. FIXED-SITE AIR AND BIOMARKER MEASUREMENTS OF VOCS IN A NON-OCCUPATIONALLY EXPOSED POPULATION ALONG THE ARIZONA-MEXICO BORDER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goals of the NHEXAS-Border Study are to obtain environmental exposure and biomarker data for a representative population residing along the Arizona-Mexico border, and compare the distributions to similar distributions previously obtained for the state of Arizona (NHEXAS-Ari...

  19. Integration of genotoxicity and population genetic analyses in kangaroo rats (Dipodomys merriami) exposed to radionuclide contamination at the Nevada Test Site, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Theodorakis, Christopher W.; Bickham, John W.; Lamb, Trip; Medica, Philip A.; Lyne, T. Barrett

    2001-01-01

    We examined effects of radionuclide exposure at two atomic blast sites on kangaroo rats (Dipodomys merriami) at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, USA, using genotoxicity and population genetic analyses. We assessed chromosome damage by micronucleus and flow cytometric assays and genetic variation by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analyses. The RAPD analysis showed no population structure, but mtDNA exhibited differentiation among and within populations. Genotoxicity effects were not observed when all individuals were analyzed. However, individuals with mtDNA haplotypes unique to the contaminated sites had greater chromosomal damage than contaminated-site individuals with haplotypes shared with reference sites. When interpopulation comparisons used individuals with unique haplotypes, one contaminated site had greater levels of chromosome damage than one or both of the reference sites. We hypothesize that shared-haplotype individuals are potential migrants and that unique-haplotype individuals are potential long-term residents. A parsimony approach was used to estimate the minimum number of migration events necessary to explain the haplotype distributions on a phylogenetic tree. The observed predominance of migration events into the contaminated sites supported our migration hypothesis. We conclude the atomic blast sites are ecological sinks and that immigration masks the genotoxic effects of radiation on the resident populations.

  20. [Retinal haemorrhages in non-accidental head injury in childhood].

    PubMed

    Oberacher-Velten, I M; Helbig, H

    2014-09-01

    Retinal haemorrhages are one of the three cardinal manifestations of the "shaken baby syndrome" or "non-accidental head injury" in childhood. The role of an ophthalmologist in suspected non-accidental head injury has not only medical but also legal aspects and has been discussed controversially in the literature. The differential diagnosis and the specificity of retinal haemorrhages in childhood for an abusive head trauma will be pointed out in this paper. PMID:25181505

  1. Infrasonic signals from an accidental chemical explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Mutschlecner, J.P.; Whitaker, R.W.

    1996-12-31

    A series of large accidental explosions occurred at a chemical plant in Henderson, Nevada on May 4, 1988. The explosions were produced by the ignition of stores of ammonium perchlorate produced for solid rocket fuel at the Pacific Engineering and Production Co. This material, prior to the incident, had been believed to be non- explosive. The blasts destroyed the plant and caused one death. There was a series of explosions over a period of time with two major explosions which we will identify as A at 18:53:34 (all times herein will be given in C.U.T.) and B at 18:57:35. Signals from events A and B as well as smaller events were detected by the infrasound arrays operated by the Los Alamos National Laboratory at St. George, Utah (distance 159 km) and at Los Alamos, N.M. (distance 774 km). The Henderson explosions present an interesting and challenging set of infrasound observations. The case may be unique in providing two very large sources separated in time by only four minutes. To fully understand the propagation details will require further analysis and probably a modeling effort. The understanding of the St. George signals in the context of Lamb waves would be valuable for a better understanding of this mode of propagation. The improved understanding of long range infrasonic propagation is now especially important in the context of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). A portion of the plan for CTBT monitoring includes a global distribution of sixty infrasound arrays to provide for the monitoring of signals in as uniform a way as possible. It is expected that under this global network many signals and interpretation questions of the type described here will be encountered. Investigations of propagation over the ranges of hundreds to thousands of kilometers will be highly desired.

  2. The relationship between microfilaraemic and amicrofilaraemic loiasis involving co-infection with Mansonella perstans and clinical symptoms in an exposed population from Gabon.

    PubMed

    Bouyou Akotet, M K; Owono-Medang, M; Mawili-Mboumba, D P; Moussavou-Boussougou, M N; Nzenze Afène, S; Kendjo, E; Kombila, M

    2016-07-01

    The relationship between the frequency of loiasis objective symptoms and microfilaraemic or amicrofilaraemic infection was assessed in 1148 exposed patients also infected, or not, with Mansonella perstans. Filarial infections were detected by direct microscopy, leucoconcentration and serology, with prevalence values of 39.5% Loa loa, 5.6% M. perstans and 3.4% co-infection with both filarial species. Amicrofilaraemic or occult loiasis (OL) predominated among L. loa-infected individuals, with a prevalence of 58.2%. Hypermicrofilaraemia (>8000 microfilariae (mf)/ml) was found in 18.4% of L. loa microfilaraemic patients, with 25.7% of them harbouring more than 30,000 mf/ml. Up to 34% of patients with OL showed evidence of Calabar swelling, compared with 26.3% of microfilaraemic patients (P= 0.03). Overall 5.3% of patients presented with adult worm migration across the eye, representing 16.3% of microfilaraemic individuals and 11.4% of amicrofilaraemic patients (P= 0.13). This symptom was similarly found in patients with more than 30,000 mf/ml (22%), those with microfilaraemia between 8 and 30,000 mf/ml (15.4%) and also in individuals with low or without microfilaraemia (16.1%) (P= 0.7). Five (14.3%) hypermicrofilaraemic patients did not present any L. loa-specific objective symptoms, as well as all the patients with single M. perstans infection. The presence of adult eye worm migration as a strong predictor of high microfilaraemia density would obscure the real burden of L. loa hypermicrofilaraemia in exposed individuals. For epidemiological purposes and control strategies, the mapping of L. loa in endemic areas should also take into account the group of patients with occult loiasis. PMID:26268068

  3. Epidemiology of Munchausen syndrome by proxy, non-accidental poisoning, and non-accidental suffocation.

    PubMed Central

    McClure, R J; Davis, P M; Meadow, S R; Sibert, J R

    1996-01-01

    A two year prospective study was performed to determine the epidemiology of Munchausen syndrome by proxy, non-accidental poisoning, and non-accidental suffocation in the UK and the Republic of Ireland. Cases were notified to the British Paediatric Association Surveillance Unit from September 1992 to August 1994 if a formal case conference had been held for the first time during that period to discuss any of the above conditions. A total of 128 cases were identified: 55 suffered Munchausen syndrome by proxy alone, 15 poisoning, and 15 suffocation; 43 suffered more than one type of abuse. The majority of children were aged under 5 years, the median age being 20 months. On 85% of occasions the perpetrator was the child's mother. In 42% of families with more than one child, a sibling had previously suffered some form of abuse. Eighty five per cent of notifying paediatricians considered the probability of their diagnosis as virtually certain before a case conference was convened. The commonest drugs used to poison were anticonvulsants; opiates were the second commonest. Sixty eight children suffered severe illness of whom eight died. The combined annual incidence of these conditions in children aged under 16 years is at least 0.5/100,000, and for children aged under 1, at least 2.8/100,000. PMID:8813872

  4. In vivo measurement of /sup 241/Am in an accidentally exposed subject

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, H.E.; Rieksts, G.A.; Icayan, E.E.

    1981-10-01

    Detailed external measurements were made of internally deposited /sup 241/Am in a nuclear chemical operator involved in an americium exposure accident at the Hanford plant. Despite some interference from high-level external contamination, quantitative measurements of the /sup 241/Am content in the lung, liver, and bones were made starting on the third day after the accident. The rate of excretion of /sup 241/Am from these organs was determined. The /sup 241/Am embedded in the skin of the face and head was carefully mapped. The distribution over the total length of the body was also determined. Linear and rectilinear scanners, gamma cameras, large and small scintillation detectors, proportional counters, and Si(Li) and intrinsic germanium detectors were used to evaluate the internal deposition. Methods of calibration for quantitative measurement included simulation of the /sup 241/Am activity in both phantom and cadaver parts.

  5. Design, Methods, and Population for a Study of PFOA Health Effects among Highly Exposed Mid-Ohio Valley Community Residents and Workers

    PubMed Central

    Lally, Cathy; Shin, Hyeong-Moo; Steenland, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    Background: A cohort of community residents and workers is the basis for a series of epidemiologic studies of a Mid-Ohio Valley population with substantial perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) exposure due to releases from a chemical plant. Objectives: We describe study design, methods, and study participants for a longitudinal cohort study of associations between PFOA exposure and adult chronic diseases. Methods: Two cohorts were formed, one recruited from community residents who participated in a previous community-wide survey, and one from plant workers. Study participants were interviewed during 2008–2011 regarding demographics, health-related behaviors, and personal history of chronic diseases. Reported diseases were validated through medical records review and registry matching. Here we describe cohort characteristics, compare survey respondents and nonrespondents, provide data on the number of diseases reported and validated, and describe historical estimates of serum PFOA concentrations over time. Results: The final combined cohort included 32,254 participants (28,541 community; 3,713 worker). Participation rates were high (community, 81.5%; worker, 72.9% of target population). The final population from each cohort was representative of the target population in terms of demographic characteristics and measured serum PFOA concentrations in 2005–2006. The study had a wide exposure range and the number of reported cases of chronic diseases was high, resulting in greater power to detect associations than has been the case for many previous studies. Conclusions: This is the largest study to date of the health effects of PFOA. The information from this cohort is being used to examine associations between PFOA exposure and multiple adult chronic diseases. PMID:23735518

  6. Projection models for health-effects assessment in populations exposed to radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants. Volume I. Introduction to the SPAHR demographic model for health risk

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, J.J.; Lundy, R.T.; Grahn, D.; Ginevan, M.E.

    1982-09-01

    The Simulation Package for the Analysis of Health Risk (SPAHR) is a computer software package based upon a demographic model for health risk projections. The model extends several health risk projection models by making realistic assumptions about the population at risk, and thus represents a distinct improvement over previous models. Complete documentation for use of SPAHR is contained in this five-volume publication. The demographic model in SPAHR estimates population response to environmental toxic exposures. Latency of response, changing dose level over time, competing risks from other causes of death, and population structure can be incorporated into SPAHR to project health risks. Risks are measured by morbid years, number of deaths, and loss of life expectancy. Comparisons of estimates of excess deaths demonstrate that previous health risk projection models may have underestimated excess deaths by a factor of from 2 to 10, depending on the pollutant and the exposure scenario. The software supporting the use of the demographic model is designed to be user oriented. Complex risk projections are made by responding to a series of prompts generated by the package. The flexibility and ease of use of SPAHR make it an important contribution to existing models and software packages. The first volume presents the theory behind the SPAHR health risk projection model and several applications of the model to actual pollution episodes. The elements required for an effective health risk projection model are specified, and the models that have been used to date in health risk projections are outlined. These are compared with the demographic model, whose formulation is described in detail. Examples of the application of air pollution and radiation dose-response functions are included in order to demonstrate the estimation of future mortality and morbidity levels and the range of variation in excess deaths that occurs when populations structure is changed.

  7. N-Acetyl-4-aminophenol (paracetamol), N-acetyl-2-aminophenol and acetanilide in urine samples from the general population, individuals exposed to aniline and paracetamol users.

    PubMed

    Dierkes, Georg; Weiss, Tobias; Modick, Hendrik; Käfferlein, Heiko Udo; Brüning, Thomas; Koch, Holger M

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest associations between the use of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol (paracetamol) during pregnancy and increased risks of reproductive disorders in the male offspring. Previously we have reported a ubiquitous urinary excretion of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol in the general population. Possible sources are (1) direct intake of paracetamol through medication, (2) paracetamol residues in the food chain and (3) environmental exposure to aniline or related substances that are metabolized into N-acetyl-4-aminophenol. In order to elucidate the origins of the excretion of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol in urine and to contribute to the understanding of paracetamol and aniline metabolism in humans we developed a rapid, turbulent-flow HPLC-MS/MS method with isotope dilution for the simultaneous quantification of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol and two other aniline related metabolites, N-acetyl-2-aminophenol and acetanilide. We applied this method to three sets of urine samples: (1) individuals with no known exposure to aniline and also no recent paracetamol medication; (2) individuals after occupational exposure to aniline but no paracetamol medication and (3) paracetamol users. We confirmed the omnipresent excretion of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol. Additionally we revealed an omnipresent excretion of N-acetyl-2-aminophenol. In contrast, acetanilide was only found after occupational exposure to aniline, not in the general population or after paracetamol use. The results lead to four preliminary conclusions: (1) other sources than aniline seem to be responsible for the major part of urinary N-acetyl-4-aminophenol in the general population; (2) acetanilide is a metabolite of aniline in man and a valuable biomarker for aniline in occupational settings; (3) aniline baseline levels in the general population measured after chemical hydrolysis do not seem to originate from acetanilide and hence not from a direct exposure to aniline itself and (4) N-acetyl-2-aminophenol does not seem to be

  8. Multi-event capture-recapture modeling of host-pathogen dynamics among European rabbit populations exposed to myxoma and Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Viruses: common and heterogeneous patterns.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Simone; Pacios, Isa; Moreno, Sacramento; Bertó-Moran, Alejandro; Rouco, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Host-pathogen epidemiological processes are often unclear due both to their complexity and over-simplistic approaches used to quantify them. We applied a multi-event capture-recapture procedure on two years of data from three rabbit populations to test hypotheses about the effects on survival of, and the dynamics of host immunity to, both myxoma virus and Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus (MV and RHDV). Although the populations shared the same climatic and management conditions, MV and RHDV dynamics varied greatly among them; MV and RHDV seroprevalences were positively related to density in one population, but RHDV seroprevalence was negatively related to density in another. In addition, (i) juvenile survival was most often negatively related to seropositivity, (ii) RHDV seropositives never had considerably higher survival, and (iii) seroconversion to seropositivity was more likely than the reverse. We suggest seropositivity affects survival depending on trade-offs among antibody protection, immunosuppression and virus lethality. Negative effects of seropositivity might be greater on juveniles due to their immature immune system. Also, while RHDV directly affects survival through the hemorrhagic syndrome, MV lack of direct lethal effects means that interactions influencing survival are likely to be more complex. Multi-event modeling allowed us to quantify patterns of host-pathogen dynamics otherwise difficult to discern. Such an approach offers a promising tool to shed light on causative mechanisms. PMID:24708296

  9. Multi-event capture–recapture modeling of host–pathogen dynamics among European rabbit populations exposed to myxoma and Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Viruses: common and heterogeneous patterns

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Host–pathogen epidemiological processes are often unclear due both to their complexity and over-simplistic approaches used to quantify them. We applied a multi-event capture–recapture procedure on two years of data from three rabbit populations to test hypotheses about the effects on survival of, and the dynamics of host immunity to, both myxoma virus and Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus (MV and RHDV). Although the populations shared the same climatic and management conditions, MV and RHDV dynamics varied greatly among them; MV and RHDV seroprevalences were positively related to density in one population, but RHDV seroprevalence was negatively related to density in another. In addition, (i) juvenile survival was most often negatively related to seropositivity, (ii) RHDV seropositives never had considerably higher survival, and (iii) seroconversion to seropositivity was more likely than the reverse. We suggest seropositivity affects survival depending on trade-offs among antibody protection, immunosuppression and virus lethality. Negative effects of seropositivity might be greater on juveniles due to their immature immune system. Also, while RHDV directly affects survival through the hemorrhagic syndrome, MV lack of direct lethal effects means that interactions influencing survival are likely to be more complex. Multi-event modeling allowed us to quantify patterns of host–pathogen dynamics otherwise difficult to discern. Such an approach offers a promising tool to shed light on causative mechanisms. PMID:24708296

  10. Accidental Laser Injury to the Eye.

    PubMed

    Kandari, Jamal Al; Raizada, Seemant; Razzak, Ahmed Abdul

    2010-03-01

    The unprotected human eye is extremely sensitive to laser radiation and can be permanently damaged from direct or reflected beams. Two cases of retinal injury by laser exposure outside hospital setting are reported. Two patients presented in retina clinic in Al-Bahar eye center in Kuwait with complaints of decrease in vision following exposure to unknown light. Case 1 was exposed to a laser used in military warfare and Case 2 exposed to laser pointer. Routine slit lamp examination and fundus examination of the patient was done along with fundus fluorescien angiography (FFA) and Optical coherence tomography (OCT). Patients were followed up in out patient department for 6 months. Patient with military laser exposure had severe permanent vision loss and persisted even after 6 months. Patient exposed to laser pointer beam had transient visual loss, which improved to 20/25 at 7 months follow-up. Laser retinal damage should be suspected in any patient with visual complaints after obvious exposure to unknown strong light. The treatment for laser retinal injuries is extremely limited and hence prevention is essential. PMID:20337345

  11. Birth outcome and risk of neonatal hypoglycaemia following in utero exposure to pivmecillinam: a population-based cohort study with 414 exposed pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Larsen, H; Nielsen, G L; Møller, M; Ebbesen, F; Schønheyder, H C; Sørensen, H T

    2001-01-01

    Concerns have been raised as to the safety of using pivaloyl-conjugated beta-lactam antibiotics during pregnancy as they cause carnitine depletion. Restrictions have been recommended in some Scandinavian countries as drug-induced carnitine depletion could constitute a risk to the developing foetus. One of these drugs, pivmecillinam, is widely used against urinary tract infections but few data exist concerning its safety in pregnancy. In a cohort study, we compared the prevalences of congenital abnormalities, pre-term delivery, low birth weight, low Apgar score and neonatal hypoglycaemia in the offspring of 414 women who had at least 1 prescription for pivmecillinam redeemed during pregnancy with those of the offspring of 7472 pregnant women for whom no drugs were prescribed during pregnancy. The prevalence of congenital abnormalities was 1.7% among 119 infants exposed in the first trimester and 3.7% among the reference group [odds ratio (OR) 0.46; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11-1.86]. We found no significantly increased risks in either pre-term delivery (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.11-1.86), low birth weight (OR 0.57, 95%, CI 0.23-1.41), low Apgar score (OR 2.32, 95% CI 0.30-18.16) or hypoglycaemia (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.18-3.00) that were induced by carnitine depletion. No significantly increased risk in adverse birth outcome was therefore found in women treated with pivmecillinam. PMID:11450863

  12. Hepatic Metallothionein and Glutathione-S-Transferase Responses in Two Populations of Rice Frogs, Fejervarya limnocharis, Naturally Exposed to Different Environmental Cadmium Levels

    PubMed Central

    Othman, Mohd Sham; Khonsue, Wichase; Kitana, Jirarach; Thirakhupt, Kumthorn; Robson, Mark; Borjan, Marija

    2014-01-01

    Glutathione-S-Transferase (GST) and metallothionein are important biomarker endpoints in studying the effect of Cd exposure. The purpose of this research was to study the correlation between hepatic GST and metallothionein with hepatic Cd in wild Fejervarya limnocharis exposed to environmental Cd. Results showed that frogs from contaminated sites had significantly higher hepatic metallothionein (3.58 mg/kg wet weight) and GST activity (0.259 μmol/min/mg total protein) than those from the reference site (2.36 mg/kg wet weight and 0.157 μmol/min/mg total protein respectively). There was a significantly positive correlation between hepatic Cd and GST activity (r = 0.802, p = 0.009) but not between hepatic Cd and metallothionein (r = 0.548, p = 0.139). The results concluded that while frogs from the contaminated site had higher GST and metallothionein, only GST showed significant positive correlation with hepatic Cd levels, indicating that hepatic GST activity may be used as a biomarker endpoint. PMID:22722596

  13. Elevated temperature is more effective than elevated [CO2 ] in exposing genotypic variation in Telopea speciosissima growth plasticity: implications for woody plant populations under climate change.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guomin; Rymer, Paul D; Duan, Honglang; Smith, Renee A; Tissue, David T

    2015-10-01

    Intraspecific variation in phenotypic plasticity is a critical determinant of plant species capacity to cope with climate change. A long-standing hypothesis states that greater levels of environmental variability will select for genotypes with greater phenotypic plasticity. However, few studies have examined how genotypes of woody species originating from contrasting environments respond to multiple climate change factors. Here, we investigated the main and interactive effects of elevated [CO2 ] (CE ) and elevated temperature (TE ) on growth and physiology of Coastal (warmer, less variable temperature environment) and Upland (cooler, more variable temperature environment) genotypes of an Australian woody species Telopea speciosissima. Both genotypes were positively responsive to CE (35% and 29% increase in whole-plant dry mass and leaf area, respectively), but only the Coastal genotype exhibited positive growth responses to TE . We found that the Coastal genotype exhibited greater growth response to TE (47% and 85% increase in whole-plant dry mass and leaf area, respectively) when compared with the Upland genotype (no change in dry mass or leaf area). No intraspecific variation in physiological plasticity was detected under CE or TE , and the interactive effects of CE and TE on intraspecific variation in phenotypic plasticity were also largely absent. Overall, TE was a more effective climate factor than CE in exposing genotypic variation in our woody species. Our results contradict the paradigm that genotypes from more variable climates will exhibit greater phenotypic plasticity in future climate regimes. PMID:26033432

  14. Hepatic metallothionein and Glutathione-S-Transferase responses in two populations of rice frogs, Fejervarya limnocharis, naturally exposed to different environmental cadmium levels.

    PubMed

    Othman, Mohd Sham; Khonsue, Wichase; Kitana, Jirarach; Thirakhupt, Kumthorn; Robson, Mark; Borjan, Marija; Kitana, Noppadon

    2012-08-01

    Glutathione-S-Transferase (GST) and metallothionein are important biomarker endpoints in studying the effect of Cd exposure. The purpose of this research was to study the correlation between hepatic GST and metallothionein with hepatic Cd in wild Fejervarya limnocharis exposed to environmental Cd. Results showed that frogs from contaminated sites had significantly higher hepatic metallothionein (3.58 mg/kg wet weight) and GST activity (0.259 μmol/min/mg total protein) than those from the reference site (2.36 mg/kg wet weight and 0.157 μmol/min/mg total protein respectively). There was a significantly positive correlation between hepatic Cd and GST activity (r = 0.802, p = 0.009) but not between hepatic Cd and metallothionein (r = 0.548, p = 0.139). The results concluded that while frogs from the contaminated site had higher GST and metallothionein, only GST showed significant positive correlation with hepatic Cd levels, indicating that hepatic GST activity may be used as a biomarker endpoint. PMID:22722596

  15. Projection models for health-effects assessment in populations exposed to radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants. Volume III. SPAHR interactive package guide

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, J.J.

    1982-09-01

    The Simulation Package for the Analysis of Health Risk (SPAHR) is a computer software package based upon a demographic model for health risk projectons. The model extends several health risk projection models by making realistic assumptions about the population at risk, adn thus represents a distinct improvement over previous models. Complete documentation for use of SPAHR is contained in this five-volume publication. The demographic model in SPAHR estimates population response to environmental toxic exposures. Latency of response, changing dose level over time, competing risks from other causes of death, and population structure can be incorporated into SPAHR to project health risks. Risks are measured by morbid years, number of deaths, and loss of life expectancy. Comparisons of estimates of excess deaths demonstrate that previous health risk projection models may have underestimated excess deaths by a factor of from 2 to 10, depending on the pollutant and the exposure scenario. The software supporting the use of the demographic model is designed to be user oriented. Complex risk projections are made by responding to a series of prompts generated by the package. The flexibility and ease of use of SPAHR make it an important contribution to existing models and software packages. This manual outlines the use of the interactive capabilities of SPAHR. SPAHR is an integrated system of computer programs designed for simulating numerous health risk scenarios using the techniques of demographic modeling. This system of computer programs has been designed to be very flexible so as to allow the user to simulate a large variety of scenarios. It provides the user with an integrated package for projecting the impacts on human health of exposure to various hazards, particularly those resulting from the effluents related to energy production.

  16. Genetic and morphometric evidence on a Galápagos Island exposes founder effects and diversification in the first-known (truly) feral western dog population.

    PubMed

    Reponen, Sini E M; Brown, Sarah K; Barnett, Bruce D; Sacks, Benjamin N

    2014-02-01

    Domesticated animals that revert to a wild state can become invasive and significantly impact native biodiversity. Although dogs can be problematic locally, only the Australasian dingo is known to occur in isolation from humans. Western dogs have experienced more intense artificial selection, which potentially limits their invasiveness. However, feral dogs eradicated from Isabela Island, Galápagos in the 1980s could be the first-known exception. We used DNA and morphometric data from 92 of these dogs to test the hypotheses that (i) these dogs persisted independently of humans for up to a century and a half since descending from a handful of dogs introduced in the early 1800s, vs. (ii) similarly to other western feral dog populations, they reflected continuous recruitment of strays from human settlements on a portion of the Island. We detected one dominant maternal lineage and one dominant paternal lineage shared by the three subpopulations, along with low autosomal genetic diversity, consistent with the hypothesized common origins from a small founder population. Genetic diversity patterns among the three island subpopulations were consistent with stepping-stone founder effects, while morphometric differentiation suggested rapid phenotypic divergence, possibly due to drift and reinforced by selection corresponding to distinct microclimates and habitats on Isabela. Despite the continued presence of free-ranging dogs in the vicinity of settlements on Isabela and other Galápagos Islands, feral populations have not reestablished in remote areas since the 1980s, emphasizing the rarity of conditions necessary for feralization of modern western dogs. PMID:24261528

  17. [Severe accidental hypothermia in an elderly woman].

    PubMed

    Knobel, B; Mikhlin, A

    2001-11-01

    Profound hypothermia (core temperature of less than 28 degrees C) is a life threatening state and a medical emergency associated with a high mortality rate. The prognosis depends on underlying diseases, advanced or very early age, the duration prior to treatment, the degree of hemodynamic deterioration, and especially, the methods of treatment, including active external or internal rewarming. This is a case study of an 80-year-old female patient with severe accidental hypothermia (core temperature 27 degrees C). She was found in her home lying immobile on the cold floor after a fall. The patient was in a profound coma with cardiocirculatory collapse, and the medical staff treating her was inclined to pronounce her deceased. On her arrival at the hospital, she was resuscitated, put on a respirator and actively warmed. Very severe metabolic disorders were found, including a marked metabolic acidosis composed of diabetic ketoacidosis (she had suffered from insulin treated type 2 diabetes mellitus) and lactic acidosis with a very high anion gap (42) and a hyperosmotic state (blood glucose 1202 mg/dl). There were pathognomonic electrocardiographic abnormalities, J-wave of Osborn and prolonged repolarization. Slow atrial fibrillation with a ventricular response of 30 bpm followed by a nodal rhythm of 12 bpm and reversible cardiac arrest were recorded. The pulse and blood pressure were unobtainable. Despite the successful resuscitation and hemodynamic and cognitive improvement, rhabdomyolysis (CKP 6580 u/L), renal failure and hepatic damage developed. She was extubated and treated with intravenous fluids containing dopamine, bicarbonate, insulin and antibiotics. Her medical condition gradually improved, and she was discharged clear minded, functioning very well and independent. Renal and liver tests returned eventually to normal limits. Progressive bradycardia, hypotension and death due to ventricular fibrillation or asystole commonly occur during severe hypothermia

  18. The importance of small colonies in sustaining Microcystis population exposed to mixing conditions: an exploration through colony size, genotypic composition and toxic potential.

    PubMed

    Sabart, Marion; Misson, Benjamin; Descroix, Aurélie; Duffaud, Emilie; Combourieu, Bruno; Salençon, Marie-José; Latour, Delphine

    2013-10-01

    Microcystis is a toxic colony-forming cyanobacterium, which can bloom in a wide range of freshwater ecosystems. Despite the ecological advantage of the colonial form, few studies have paid attention to the size of Microcystis colonies in the field. With the aim of evaluating the impact of a fluctuating physical environment on the colony size, the genotypic composition and the toxic potential of a Microcystis population, we investigated five different colony size classes of a Microcystis bloom in the Grangent reservoir (France). By sequencing the internal transcribed spacer of the ribosomal operon, we evidenced changes in the genetic structure among size classes in response to environmental change. While similar genotypes were seen in every size class in stable conditions, new dominant genotypes appeared in the smallest colonies (< 160 μm) concomitantly with mixing conditions, strongly suggesting the importance of these colonies in response to disturbances. Moreover, these small colonies played a major role in microcystin production during this bloom, since very high microcystin contents (> 1 pg.cell.(-1)) were found in their cells. These findings indicate that the colony size distribution of a Microcystis population in response to disturbance could be an adaptive strategy that may explain its ecological success in freshwater ecosystems. PMID:24115626

  19. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression is associated with a family history of upper gastrointestinal tract cancer in a high-risk population exposed to aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, M.J.; Wei, W.Q.; Baer, J.; Abnet, C.C.; Wang, G.Q.; Sternberg, L.R.; Warner, A.C.; Johnson, L.L.; Lu, N.; Giffen, C.A.; Dawsey, S.M.; Qiao, Y.L.; Cherry, J.

    2009-09-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure is a risk factor for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and PAHs are ligands of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). This study measured the expression of AhR and related genes in frozen esophageal cell samples from patients exposed to different levels of indoor air pollution, who did or did not have high-grade squamous dysplasia and who did or did not have a family history of upper gastrointestinal tract (UGI) cancer. 147 samples were evaluated, including 23 (16%) from patients with high-grade dysplasia and 48 (33%) from patients without dysplasia who heated their homes with coal, without a chimney (a 'high' indoor air pollution group), and 27 (18%) from patients with high-grade dysplasia and 49 (33%) from patients without dysplasia who did not heat their homes at all (a 'low' indoor air pollution group). Sixty-four (44%) had a family history of UGI cancer. RNA was extracted and quantitative PCR analysis was done. AhR gene expression was detectable in 85 (58%) of the samples and was >9-fold higher in those with a family history of UGI cancer (median expression (interquartile range), -1,964 (-18,000, -610) versus -18,000 (-18,000, -1036); P = 0.02, Wilcoxon rank-sum test). Heating status, dysplasia category, age, gender, and smoking were not associated with AhR expression (linear regression; all P values {ge} 0.1). AhR expression was higher in patients with a family history of UGI cancer. Such individuals may be more susceptible to the deleterious effects of PAH exposure, including PAH-induced cancer.

  20. Global Gene Expression Response of a Population Exposed to Benzene: A Pilot Study Exploring the Use of RNA-Sequencing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Reuben; McHale, Cliona M.; Lan, Qing; Hubbard, Alan E.; Zhang, Luoping; Vermeulen, Roel; Li, Guilan; Rappaport, Stephen M.; Yin, Songnian; Rothman, Nathaniel; Smith, Martyn T.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism of toxicity of the leukemogen benzene is not entirely known. This pilot study used RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) technology to examine the effect of benzene exposure on gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from 10 workers occupationally exposed to high levels of benzene (≥5 ppm) in air and 10 matched unexposed control workers, from a large study (n = 125) in which gene expression was previously measured by microarray. RNA-seq is more sensitive and has a wider dynamic range for the quantification of gene expression. Further, it has the ability to detect novel transcripts and alternative splice variants. The main conclusions from our analysis of the 20 workers by RNA-seq are as follows: The Pearson correlation between the two technical replicates for the RNA-seq experiments was 0.98 and the correlation between RNA-seq and microarray signals for the 20 subjects was around 0.6. 60% of the transcripts with detected reads from the RNA-seq experiments did not have corresponding probes on the microarrays. Fifty-three percent of the transcripts detected by RNA-seq and 99% of those with probes on the microarray were protein-coding. There was a significant overlap (P < 0.05) in transcripts declared differentially expressed due to benzene exposure using the two technologies. About 20% of the transcripts declared differentially expressed using the RNA-seq data were non-coding transcripts. Six transcripts were determined (false-discovery rate < 0.05) to be alternatively spliced as a result of benzene exposure. Overall, this pilot study shows that RNA-seq can complement the information obtained by microarray in the analysis of changes in transcript expression from chemical exposures. PMID:23907980

  1. Non-accidental trauma in pediatric patients: a review of epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Adamo, Matthew A.

    2014-01-01

    Non-accidental trauma (NAT) is a leading cause of childhood traumatic injury and death in the United States. It is estimated that 1,400 children died from maltreatment in the United States in 2002 and abusive head trauma (AHT) accounted for 80% of these deaths. This review examines the epidemiology and risk factors for NAT as well as the general presentation and required medical work up of abused children. In addition, potential algorithms for recognizing cases of abuse are reviewed as well as outcomes in children with NAT and potential neurosurgical interventions which may be required. Finally, the evidence for seizure prophylaxis in this population is addressed. PMID:26835337

  2. Non-accidental trauma in pediatric patients: a review of epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Paul, Alexandra R; Adamo, Matthew A

    2014-07-01

    Non-accidental trauma (NAT) is a leading cause of childhood traumatic injury and death in the United States. It is estimated that 1,400 children died from maltreatment in the United States in 2002 and abusive head trauma (AHT) accounted for 80% of these deaths. This review examines the epidemiology and risk factors for NAT as well as the general presentation and required medical work up of abused children. In addition, potential algorithms for recognizing cases of abuse are reviewed as well as outcomes in children with NAT and potential neurosurgical interventions which may be required. Finally, the evidence for seizure prophylaxis in this population is addressed. PMID:26835337

  3. Flow cytometric analysis and microsatellite genotyping reveal extensive DNA content variation in Trypanosoma cruzi populations and expose contrasts between natural and experimental hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Michael D.; Llewellyn, Martin S.; Gaunt, Michael W.; Yeo, Matthew; Carrasco, Hernán J.; Miles, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi exhibits remarkable genetic heterogeneity. This is evident at the nucleotide level but also structurally, in the form of karyotypic variation and DNA content differences between strains. Although natural populations of T. cruzi are predominantly clonal, hybrid lineages (TcIId and TcIIe) have been identified and hybridisation has been demonstrated in vitro, raising the possibility that genetic exchange may continue to shape the evolution of this pathogen. The mechanism of genetic exchange identified in the laboratory is unusual, apparently involving fusion of diploid parents followed by genome erosion. We investigated DNA content diversity in natural populations of T. cruzi in the context of its genetic subdivisions by using flow cytometric analysis and multilocus microsatellite genotyping to determine the relative DNA content and estimate the ploidy of 54 cloned isolates. The maximum difference observed was 47.5% between strain Tu18 cl2 (TcIIb) and strain C8 cl1 (TcI), which we estimated to be equivalent to ∼73 Mb of DNA. Large DNA content differences were identified within and between discrete typing units (DTUs). In particular, the mean DNA content of TcI strains was significantly less than that for TcII strains (P < 0.001). Comparisons of hybrid DTUs TcIId/IIe with corresponding parental DTUs TcIIb/IIc indicated that natural hybrids are predominantly diploid. We also measured the relative DNA content of six in vitro-generated TcI hybrid clones and their parents. In contrast to TcIId/IIe hybrid strains these experimental hybrids comprised populations of sub-tetraploid organisms with mean DNA contents 1.65–1.72 times higher than the parental organisms. The DNA contents of both parents and hybrids were shown to be relatively stable after passage through a mammalian host, heat shock or nutritional stress. The results are discussed in the context of hybridisation mechanisms in both natural and in vitro settings. PMID:19393242

  4. Hepatitis B virus infection contributes to oxidative stress in a population exposed to aflatoxin B1 and high-risk for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhi-Ming; Li, Le-Qun; Peng, Min-Hao; Liu, Tang-Wei; Qin, Zhong; Guo, Ya; Xiao, Kai-Yin; Ye, Xin-Ping; Mo, Xin-Shao; Qin, Xue; Li, Shan; Yan, Lu-Nan; Shen, Han-Ming; Wang, LianWen; Wang, Qiao; Wang, Kai-bo; Liang, Ren-xiang; Wei, Zong-liang; Ong, Choon Nam; Santella, Regina M.; Peng, Tao

    2009-01-01

    Biomarkers of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure and oxidative stress were detected in 71 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients and 694 controls from southern China. Plasma level of AFB1-Albumin-Adducts (AAA) and protein carbonyl content (PCC) were significantly higher in the 71 HCC cases than in any age/gender matched HBV sero-status groups (P<0.001). HCC patients positive for the p53-249 G-T mutation had a marginally higher level of PCC than those negative for the mutation (p=0.077). HBV infection had a prominent influence on the association between AFB1 exposure and oxidative stress biomarkers in the controls. Our study indicates a significant contribution from HBV infection to oxidative stress in a population with AFB1 exposure which might substantially increase risk for HCC in this region. PMID:18280645

  5. Cost of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning: A preventable expense.

    PubMed

    Hampson, Neil B

    2016-06-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is common in the United States, accounting for hundreds of deaths and thousands of emergency department visits annually. It is believed that most accidental CO poisoning is preventable through public education, warning labels on consumer products, and uniform use of residential CO alarms. However, cost effectiveness of these prevention strategies has not been demonstrated in the United States to date. It was the objective of this study to estimate societal cost of accidental CO poisoning and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of universal installation of residential CO alarms. Published studies and data from the English language literature were used in to estimate direct hospital costs and lost earnings resulting from accidental CO poisoning. The study was performed in the US in 2015. Approximately 6600 individuals are estimated to sustain long-term cognitive sequela annually, with total loss in earnings of approximately $925 million, 334 individuals die from accidental, non-fire related CO poisoning with an average loss of 26 years of productivity accounting for $355 million, and 2800 are hospitalized with acute medical care costs of $33 million. Available data indicate that accidental CO poisoning in the US conservatively costs society over $1.3 billion, resulting from direct hospital costs and lost earnings. Further, it demonstrates a positive cost-benefit ratio for the uniform use of residential CO alarms. PMID:26844181

  6. Cost of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning: A preventable expense

    PubMed Central

    Hampson, Neil B.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is common in the United States, accounting for hundreds of deaths and thousands of emergency department visits annually. It is believed that most accidental CO poisoning is preventable through public education, warning labels on consumer products, and uniform use of residential CO alarms. However, cost effectiveness of these prevention strategies has not been demonstrated in the United States to date. It was the objective of this study to estimate societal cost of accidental CO poisoning and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of universal installation of residential CO alarms. Published studies and data from the English language literature were used in to estimate direct hospital costs and lost earnings resulting from accidental CO poisoning. The study was performed in the US in 2015. Approximately 6600 individuals are estimated to sustain long-term cognitive sequela annually, with total loss in earnings of approximately $925 million, 334 individuals die from accidental, non-fire related CO poisoning with an average loss of 26 years of productivity accounting for $355 million, and 2800 are hospitalized with acute medical care costs of $33 million. Available data indicate that accidental CO poisoning in the US conservatively costs society over $1.3 billion, resulting from direct hospital costs and lost earnings. Further, it demonstrates a positive cost-benefit ratio for the uniform use of residential CO alarms. PMID:26844181

  7. Environmental impact analysis for the main accidental sequences of ignitor

    SciTech Connect

    Carpignano, A.; Francabandiera, S.; Vella, R.; Zucchetti, M.

    1996-12-31

    A safety analysis study has been applied to the Ignitor machine using Probabilistic Safety Assessment. The main initiating events have been identified, and accident sequences have been studied by means of traditional methods such as Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), Fault Trees (FT) and Event Trees (ET). The consequences of the radioactive environmental releases have been assessed in terms of Effective Dose Equivalent (EDEs) to the Most Exposed Individuals (MEI) of the chosen site, by means of a population dose code. Results point out the low enviromental impact of the machine. 13 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  8. Analysis of hepatic deiodinase 2 mRNA levels in natural fish lake populations exposed to different levels of putative thyroid disrupters.

    PubMed

    Jarque, Sergio; Bosch, Carme; Casado, Marta; Grimalt, Joan O; Raldúa, Demetrio; Piña, Benjamin

    2014-04-01

    Hepatic mRNA levels of the dio2 gene (deiodinase 2), implicated in thyroid hormone homeostasis, were analyzed in trout from six remote lakes in the Pyrenees (Spain) and the Tatra Mountains (Slovakia). Highest levels corresponded to fish from the two coldest lakes in Pyrenees, whereas relatively low levels were found in the Tatra lakes. These values correlated with the presence of highly-brominated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) congeners in the muscle of the same animals, reflecting the distribution of these compounds across European mountain ranges. In contrast, cyp1a expression levels, diagnostic for the presence of dioxin-like pollutants, mirrored the distribution of semi-volatile organochlorine compounds, indicating the specificity of the two types of biological responses. Exposure to PDBEs is known to increase transcription of dio2 and other thyroid-related genes in laboratory experiments; we propose that our data reflects the same phenomenon in natural populations, driven by anthropogenic pollutants at the environmental concentrations. PMID:24530182

  9. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia feedback in a stressed population exposed to a brief stressor demonstrated by quantitative EEG and sLORETA.

    PubMed

    Sherlin, Leslie; Muench, Fred; Wyckoff, Sarah

    2010-09-01

    Previous investigations of electroencephalograms during relaxation have identified increases in slow wave band power, correlations between increased levels of alpha activity with lower levels of anxiety, and autonomic changes characterized by otherwise documented decreased sympathetic activity. This study was carried out to determine the overall changes in quantitative electroencephalographic activity and the current source as a result of an acute session of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) biofeedback in a population of subjects experiencing stress. This study's findings provide physiological evidence of RSA feedback effect and suggest that RSA training may decrease arousal by promoting an increase of alpha band frequencies and decrease in beta frequencies overall and in areas critical to the regulation of stress. It was of interest that novices could achieve these objective alterations in EEG activity after minimal training and intervention periods considering that the previous literature on EEG and meditative states involve experienced meditators or participants who had been given extensive training. Additionally, these effects were present immediately following the training suggesting that the intervention may have effects beyond the actual practice. PMID:20414803

  10. Window contamination on Expose-R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demets, R.; Bertrand, M.; Bolkhovitinov, A.; Bryson, K.; Colas, C.; Cottin, H.; Dettmann, J.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Elsaesser, A.; Jaramillo, E.; Lebert, M.; van Papendrecht, G.; Pereira, C.; Rohr, T.; Saiagh, K.

    2015-01-01

    Expose is a multi-user instrument for astrobiological and astrochemical experiments in space. Installed at the outer surface of the International Space Station, it enables investigators to study the impact of the open space environment on biological and biochemical test samples. Two Expose missions have been completed so far, designated as Expose-E (Rabbow et al. 2012) and Expose-R (Rabbow et al. this issue). One of the space-unique environmental factors offered by Expose is full-spectrum, ultraviolet (UV)-rich electromagnetic radiation from the Sun. This paper describes and analyses how on Expose-R, access of the test samples to Solar radiation degraded during space exposure in an unpredicted way. Several windows in front of the Sun-exposed test samples acquired a brown shade, resulting in a reduced transparency in visible light, UV and vacuum UV (VUV). Post-flight investigations revealed the discolouration to be caused by a homogenous film of cross-linked organic polymers at the inside of the windows. The chemical signature varied per sample carrier. No such films were found on windows from sealed, pressurized compartments, or on windows that had been kept out of the Sun. This suggests that volatile compounds originating from the interior of the Expose facility were cross-linked and photo-fixed by Solar irradiation at the rear side of the windows. The origin of the volatiles was not fully identified; most probably there was a variety of sources involved including the biological test samples, adhesives, plastics and printed circuit boards. The outer surface of the windows (pointing into space) was chemically impacted as well, with a probable effect on the transparency in VUV. The reported analysis of the window contamination on Expose-R is expected to help the interpretation of the scientific results and offers possibilities to mitigate this problem on future missions - in particular Expose-R2, the direct successor of Expose-R.

  11. Menace of childhood non-accidental traumatic brain injuries: A single unit report

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Musa; Mu’azu, Adamu Ladan; Idris, Nura; Rabiu, Musa Uba; Jibir, Binta Wudil; Getso, Kabir Ibrahim; Mohammad, Mohammad Aminu; Owolabi, Femi Luqman

    2015-01-01

    Background: Childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) has high rate of mortality and morbidity worldwide. There are dearths of reports from developing countries with large paediatric population on trauma; neurosurgery trauma of nonaccidental origin is not an exemption. This study analysed menace of non-accidental TBI in the paediatric population from our center. Materials and Methods: This is a single unit, retrospective study of the epidemiology of non-accidental TBI in children starting from September, 2008 to March, 2014. The management outcomes of the epidemiology of the non-accidental TBI were analysed. Results: Total of 109 children age range from 0 (intra-natal) to 16 years with a mean of 5.8 ± 4.6 years (median, 5 years) were enrolled into the study. 34 (31.2%) were domestic violence, 26 (23.9%) street assaults, 16 (14.7%) were due to animal assaults and mishaps, 17 (15.6%) fall from heights. Seven (6.4%) cases of collapsed buildings were also seen during the period. Four (3.7%) industrial accidents and two (1.8%) were self-inflicted injuries. There were also three (2.8%) cases of iatrogenic TBI out of which two infants (1.8%) sustained TBI from cesarean section procedure while one patient (0.9%) under general anaesthesia felt from the operation bed resulting to severe TBI. Conclusion: Child abuse, unprotected child labour, parental/care-givers negligence are the main cause of nonaccidental TBI. Human right activists and government agents should be incorporated in curtailing the menace. PMID:25659545

  12. Self limiting features of accidental criticality in a solution system

    SciTech Connect

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Experience with the SHEBA solution critical assembly during validation testing of accidental criticality alarm detectors provided several insights into the character of potential accidental excursions. Two observations were of particular interest. First, it is nearly impossible to maintain a solution system, particularly one employing low-enrichment material, in a constant state. If super-critical, the system will heat up, expand (or form bubbles), return to a sub-critical state, and shut down of its own accord without going into short period oscillations. Second, a very slow change in the system could produce a long ''pulse'' resulting in lengthy exposures, a high dose, but a low dose rate. The experiments dramatically contradicted the popular contention that accidental criticality is characterized by a blue flash, a clap of thunder, and violet expulsion of material. 5 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. CD14 C-159T polymorphism and its association with chronic lung diseases: A pilot study on isocyanate exposed population of Central India

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Protiti; Bathri, Rashmi; De, Sajal; Maudar, K. K.

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT: CD14 functions as a multifunctional receptor for bacterial cell wall components including endotoxin and lipopolysaccharide and is likely to influence the cytokine profile and subsequent immunoglobulin E production in response to antigen/allergen contact in allergic phenotypes. AIMS: The present study was to investigate genetic polymorphism in CD14 gene - 159C/T, which may be one of the risk factor for increased prevalence of Chronic Lung Diseases in the Central India. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Survivors of Methyl isocyanates toxicity in Bhopal still suffering from various respiratory ailments were examined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was performed to determine the polymorphism of C-159T. RESULTS: The genotype and allelic frequencies were in Hardy-Weinberg’s equilibrium. Prevalence of CC, CT, and TT were 5.5%, 22.2% and 9.25% respectively in asthmatics; 16.6%, 20.3% and 5.5% respectively in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and 5.5%, 14.8% and 1.85 respectively among interstitial lung disorder (ILD) patients; whereas the control cohort with no methyl isocyanate exposure displayed (CC, CT, and TT) cytosine, thymine as 2%, 1.6% and 2% respectively. Increased risk of Asthma among those carrying TT genotype and T allele (odds ratio [OR] =2.61 and 2.02 respectively). CONCLUSION: COPD risk significantly found among those with CC genotype and C allele (OR = 2.81 and 1.50 respectively), whereas ILD risk found significantly among CT genotype and C allele (OR = 1.75 and 1.40 respectively). Therefore, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) C-159T polymorphism in CD14 gene might be a risk factor for development of CLD in this population. PMID:24019621

  14. Chronic or accidental exposure of oysters to norovirus: is there any difference in contamination?

    PubMed

    Ventrone, Iole; Schaeffer, Julien; Ollivier, Joanna; Parnaudeau, Sylvain; Pepe, Tiziana; Le Pendu, Jacques; Le Guyader, Françoise S

    2013-03-01

    Bivalve molluscan shellfish such as oysters may be contaminated by human pathogens. Currently, the primary pathogens associated with shellfish-related outbreaks are noroviruses. This study was conducted to improve understanding of oyster bioaccumulation when oysters were exposed to daily contamination or one accidental contamination event, i.e., different modes of contamination. Oysters were contaminated with two representative strains of norovirus (GI.1 and GII.3) and then analyzed with real-time reverse transcription PCR. Exposure to a repeated virus dose for 9 days (mimicking a growing area subjected to frequent sewage contamination) led to an additive accumulation that was not significantly different from that obtained when the same total dose of virus was added all at once (as may happen after accidental sewage discharge). Similarly, bioaccumulation tests performed with mixed strains revealed additive accumulation of both viruses. Depuration may not be efficient for eliminating viruses; therefore, to prevent contaminated shellfish from being put onto the market, continuous sanitary monitoring must be considered. All climatic events or sewage failures occurring in production areas must be recorded, because repeated low-dose exposure or abrupt events may lead to similar levels of accumulation. This study contributes to an understanding of norovirus accumulation in oysters and provides suggestions for risk management strategies. PMID:23462089

  15. Effects of particulate air pollution on blood pressure in a highly exposed population in Beijing, China: a repeated-measure study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Particulate Matter (PM) exposure is critical in Beijing due to high population density and rapid increase in vehicular traffic. PM effects on blood pressure (BP) have been investigated as a mechanism mediating cardiovascular risks, but results are still inconsistent. The purpose of our study is to determine the effects of ambient and personal PM exposure on BP. Methods Before the 2008 Olympic Games (June 15-July 27), we examined 60 truck drivers and 60 office workers on two days, 1-2 weeks apart (n = 240). We obtained standardized measures of post-work BP. Exposure assessment included personal PM2.5 and Elemental Carbon (EC, a tracer of traffic particles) measured using portable monitors during work hours; and ambient PM10 averaged over 1-8 days pre-examination. We examined associations of exposures (exposure group, personal PM2.5/EC, ambient PM10) with BP controlling for multiple covariates. Results Mean personal PM2.5 was 94.6 μg/m3 (SD = 64.9) in office workers and 126.8 (SD = 68.8) in truck drivers (p-value < 0.001). In all participants combined, a 10 μg/m3 increase in 8-day ambient PM10 was associated with BP increments of 0.98 (95%CI 0.34; 1.61; p-value = 0.003), 0.71 (95%CI 0.18; 1.24; p-value = 0.01), and 0.81 (95%CI 0.31; 1.30; p-value = 0.002) mmHg for systolic, diastolic, and mean BP, respectively. BP was not significantly different between the two groups (p-value > 0.14). Personal PM2.5 and EC during work hours were not associated with increased BP. Conclusions Our results indicate delayed effects of ambient PM10 on BP. Lack of associations with exposure groups and personal PM2.5/EC indicates that PM effects are related to background levels of pollution in Beijing, and not specifically to work-related exposure. PMID:22188661

  16. Scaling and gender behavior of road accidental dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Tian; Zou, Xiang-Xiang; Chen, Guang; Jiang, Xiong-Fei; Zhong, Li-Xin

    2014-12-01

    The probability distribution of the time intervals between two consecutive accidents is investigated, based on the road accidental records of the Great Britain. A universal description is obtained for different roads, by rescaling the probability distribution and time intervals. The scaling curve is found to deviate from the Gaussian distribution, but it is well fitted by a stretched exponential function. Long-range time correlation is revealed for the interevent series. Moreover, gender similarity is found for the small accidental intervals, while for the large intervals, the female drivers are observed to present a higher probability than the male drivers.

  17. Accidental ingestion of a fractured Twin-block appliance.

    PubMed

    Rohida, Neeraj S; Bhad, Wasundhara A

    2011-01-01

    Orthodontic appliances that become dislodged can cause problems in the airway or the gastrointestinal tract. Accidental ingestion of an appliance during a chair-side procedure or because of inadequate retention of the appliance can create a medical emergency with potentially serious complications, including death from aspiration of the foreign body. This article reports the accidental ingestion of a fractured Twin-block appliance. The ease with which removable appliances can become dislodged if retention is inadequate is discussed, and some serious complications that can arise are described. Precautions the orthodontist can take to prevent such accidents are presented. PMID:21195285

  18. Key-locked guard prevents accidental switch actuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawthorne, K. C.

    1966-01-01

    Switch guard, which locks in place on a panel, protects individual switches from accidental activation. The guard consists of a cup to cover the switch lever, a standard screw lock tumbler, and a stud that mates with a threaded adapter in the panel.

  19. The Accidental Transgressor: Morally Relevant Theory of Mind

    PubMed Central

    Killen, Melanie; Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Richardson, Cameron; Jampol, Noah

    2014-01-01

    To test young children’s false belief theory of mind in a morally relevant context, two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, children (N = 162) at 3.5, 5.5, and 7.5 years of age were administered 3 tasks: prototypic moral transgression task, false belief theory of mind task (ToM), and an “accidental transgressor” task, which measured a morally relevant false belief theory of mind (MoToM). Children who did not pass false belief ToM were more likely to attribute negative intentions to an accidental transgressor than children who passed false belief ToM, and to use moral reasons when blaming the accidental transgressor. In Experiment 2, children (N = 46) who did not pass false belief ToM viewed it as more acceptable to punish the accidental transgressor than did participants who passed false belief ToM. Findings are discussed in light of research on the emergence of moral judgment and theory of mind. PMID:21377148

  20. Accidental entrapment of cats in front-loading washing machines

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Sarah A.; Gaunt, Matthew C.; Taylor, Susan M.; Snead, Elizabeth C.R.

    2010-01-01

    Two clinical cases of accidental entrapment of cats in front-loading washing machines are described. One cat died the day after presentation as a result of aspiration pneumonia and head trauma, despite supportive care. The second cat survived with supportive treatment, but developed dermatologic complications 10 d later. PMID:21119868

  1. 49 CFR 192.751 - Prevention of accidental ignition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prevention of accidental ignition. 192.751 Section 192.751 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.751 Prevention...

  2. The Accidental Transgressor: Morally-Relevant Theory of Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killen, Melanie; Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Richardson, Cameron; Jampol, Noah; Woodward, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    To test young children's false belief theory of mind in a morally relevant context, two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, children (N=162) at 3.5, 5.5, and 7.5 years of age were administered three tasks: prototypic moral transgression task, false belief theory of mind task (ToM), and an "accidental transgressor" task, which measured a…

  3. 49 CFR 192.751 - Prevention of accidental ignition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prevention of accidental ignition. 192.751 Section 192.751 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY...

  4. Accidental Childhood Poisoning in Enugu, South-East, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Edelu, BO; Odetunde, OI; Eke, CB; Uwaezuoke, NA; Oguonu, T

    2016-01-01

    Background: Accidental childhood poisoning is one of the recognized causes of morbidity and mortality in children under the age of 5 years worldwide. The prevalence and type of substance ingested vary from place to place and over time. Aim: This study was conducted with the aim of ascertaining the frequency and pattern of accidental childhood poisoning in Enugu. Subjects and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at the Emergency Paediatric Unit of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, South-East, Nigeria from January 2003 to December 2012 (10 years). All the cases of childhood accidental poisoning that presented within the period were reviewed and important information extracted. Results: Sixty-five cases of childhood poisoning were recorded during the 10-year period, giving an incidence rate of 442 per 100,000 children. The mean age was 22.15 ± 11.7 months. Male:female ratio was 1.5:1. The prevalence was higher among those with low socioeconomic background. Kerosene poisoning was the most common agent. The overall mortality rate was 3.1% (2/65). Conclusion: Accidental childhood poisoning is common in Enugu, with appreciable mortality, with kerosene being the most common agent. We advocate regulatory policy on proper ways of storing kerosene and other harmful household chemicals and medications. PMID:27398248

  5. Follow-Up Skeletal Surveys for Suspected Non-Accidental Trauma: Can a More Limited Survey Be Performed without Compromising Diagnostic Information?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonik, Arvind; Stein-Wexler, Rebecca; Rogers, Kristen K.; Coulter, Kevin P.; Wootton-Gorges, Sandra L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Follow-up skeletal surveys have been shown to improve the rate of fracture detection in suspected cases of non-accidental trauma (NAT). As these studies are performed in a particularly radiosensitive population, it is important to evaluate if all of the (approximately 20) radiographs obtained at repeat skeletal survey are clinically…

  6. Are pre-hospital deaths from accidental injury preventable?

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, L. M.; Redmond, A. D.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine what proportion of pre-hospital deaths from accidental injury--deaths at the scene of the accident and those that occur before the person has reached hospital--are preventable. DESIGN--Retrospective study of all deaths from accidental injury that occurred between 1 January 1987 and 31 December 1990 and were reported to the coroner. SETTING--North Staffordshire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Injury severity score, probability of survival (probit analysis), and airway obstruction. RESULTS--There were 152 pre-hospital deaths from accidental injury (110 males and 42 females). In the same period there were 257 deaths in hospital from accidental injury (136 males and 121 females). The average age at death was 41.9 years for those who died before reaching hospital, and their average injury severity score was 29.3. In contrast, those who died in hospital were older and equally likely to be males or females. Important neurological injury occurred in 113 pre-hospital deaths, and evidence of airway obstruction in 59. Eighty six pre-hospital deaths were due to road traffic accidents, and 37 of these were occupants in cars. On the basis of the injury severity score and age, death was found to have been inevitable or highly likely in 92 cases. In the remaining 60 cases death had not been inevitable and airway obstruction was present in up to 51 patients with injuries that they might have survived. CONCLUSION--Death was potentially preventable in at least 39% of those who died from accidental injury before they reached hospital. Training in first aid should be available more widely, and particularly to motorists as many pre-hospital deaths that could be prevented are due to road accidents. PMID:8173428

  7. Assessment of genotoxic risks in Croatian health care workers occupationally exposed to cytotoxic drugs: a multi-biomarker approach.

    PubMed

    Kopjar, Nevenka; Garaj-Vrhovac, Verica; Kasuba, Vilena; Rozgaj, Ruzica; Ramić, Snjezana; Pavlica, Vesna; Zeljezić, Davor

    2009-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate genome damage induced in peripheral blood lymphocytes of Croatian health care workers occupationally exposed to cytotoxic drugs. A comprehensive multi-biomarker approach using the alkaline comet assay and cytogenetic endpoints (analysis of structural chromosome aberrations, SCE assay, lymphocyte proliferation kinetics and cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay) was employed. The study included two populations of subjects: 50 health care workers occupationally exposed to cytotoxic drugs and 50 control subjects matched in age, gender and smoking habit. An investigation regarding the handling practice with cytotoxic drugs was conducted in parallel. Results obtained indicate high exposure levels at workplace that should be reduced. The values recorded among the occupationally exposed subjects were as follows: mean comet tail length: 17.46+/-0.08 microm; the incidence of long-tailed nuclei: 54.68+/-3.93%; 4.48+/-0.33 structural chromosome aberrations per 200 cells; 5.81+/-0.04 SCE per 50 cells; 29.28+/-2.21% of high-frequency cells; proliferation rate index: 1.97+/-0.12; and 16.32+/-0.85 micronuclei per 1000 binuclear cells. All these values indicated higher levels of DNA and cytogenetic damage compared to the general population. Obtained results also confirmed that the frequency of long-tailed nuclei in the alkaline comet assay represents a helpful complement to other well-established comet parameters. The age of subjects and smoking habit significantly influenced the values of both comet and cytogenetic endpoints. Overall results of this study confirmed that handling cytotoxic drugs without appropriate safety precautions involves a potential genotoxic risk for exposed subjects. Before a strict monitoring of exposure levels on each workplace becomes a standard practice in Croatian hospitals, cytogenetic surveillance of exposed workers is also recommended, at least in cases of accidental exposure. PMID:19049854

  8. EXPOSE-R cosmic radiation time profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dachev, Tsvetan; Horneck, Gerda; Häder, Donat-Peter; Schuster, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to present the time profile of cosmic radiation exposure obtained by the radiation risks radiometer-dosimeter (R3DR) during the ESA exposition facility for EXPOSE-R mission (EXPOSE-R) in the EXPOSE-R facility outside the Russian Zvezda module of the International Space Station (ISS). Another aim is to make the obtained results available to other EXPOSE-R teams for use in their data analysis. R3DR is a low mass and small dimensions automated device, which measures solar radiation in four channels and in addition cosmic ionizing radiation. The main results of cosmic ionizing radiation measurements are: three different radiation sources were detected and quantified: galactic cosmic rays (GCR), energetic protons from the inner radiation belt (IRB) in the region of the South Atlantic anomaly and energetic electrons from the outer radiation belt (ORB). The highest daily averaged absorbed dose rate of 506 μGy day-1 came from IRB protons; GCR delivered much smaller daily absorbed dose rates of 81.4 μGy day-1 on average, and ORB source delivered on average a dose rate of 89 μGy day-1. The IRB and ORB daily averaged absorbed dose rates were higher than those observed during the ESA exposition facility for EXPOSE-E mission (EXPOSE-E), whereas the GCR rate was smaller than that measured during the EXPOSE-E mission. The reason for this difference is much less surrounding constructions shielding of the R3DR instrument in comparison with the R3DE instrument.

  9. Reducing the loss of vaccines from accidental freezing in the cold chain: The experience of continuous temperature monitoring in Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, John; Lydon, Patrick; Ouhichi, Ramzi; Zaffran, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Accidental freezing of vaccines is a growing threat and a real risk for national immunization programs when the potency of many vaccines can be compromised if these are exposed to sub-zero temperatures in the cold chain. In Tunisia, this issue is compounded by using sub-standard domestic cold chain equipment instead of equipping the program with medical refrigerators designed specifically for storing vaccines and temperature sensitive pharmaceuticals. Against this backdrop, this paper presents the findings of a demonstration project conducted in Tunisia in 2012 that tested the impact of introducing several freeze prevention solutions to mitigate the risk of accidental freezing of vaccines. The main finding is that, despite the continued use of underperforming domestic refrigerators, continuous temperature monitoring using new technologies combined with other technological interventions significantly reduced the prevalence of accidental exposure to freezing temperatures. These improvements were noticed for cold chain storage at regional, district and health center levels, and during the transport legs that were part of the demonstration conducted in the regions of Kasserine in the South-Eastern part of Tunisia. Subsequent to introducing these freeze prevention solutions, the incidence of freeze alarms was reduced and the percent of time the temperatures dropped below the 2 °C recommended threshold. The incidence of freeze alarms at health center level was reduced by 40%. Lastly, the solutions implemented reduced risk of freezing during transport from 13.8% to 1.7%. Although the solution implemented is not optimal in the longer term because domestic refrigerators are used extensively in district stores and health centers, the risk of accidental freezing is significantly reduced by introducing the practice of continuous temperature monitoring as a standard. The management of the cold chain equipment was strengthened as a result which helps protect the potency of

  10. Reducing the loss of vaccines from accidental freezing in the cold chain: the experience of continuous temperature monitoring in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, John; Lydon, Patrick; Ouhichi, Ramzi; Zaffran, Michel

    2015-02-11

    Accidental freezing of vaccines is a growing threat and a real risk for national immunization programs when the potency of many vaccines can be compromised if these are exposed to sub-zero temperatures in the cold chain. In Tunisia, this issue is compounded by using sub-standard domestic cold chain equipment instead of equipping the program with medical refrigerators designed specifically for storing vaccines and temperature sensitive pharmaceuticals. Against this backdrop, this paper presents the findings of a demonstration project conducted in Tunisia in 2012 that tested the impact of introducing several freeze prevention solutions to mitigate the risk of accidental freezing of vaccines. The main finding is that, despite the continued use of underperforming domestic refrigerators, continuous temperature monitoring using new technologies combined with other technological interventions significantly reduced the prevalence of accidental exposure to freezing temperatures. These improvements were noticed for cold chain storage at regional, district and health center levels, and during the transport legs that were part of the demonstration conducted in the regions of Kasserine in the South-Eastern part of Tunisia. Subsequent to introducing these freeze prevention solutions, the incidence of freeze alarms was reduced and the percent of time the temperatures dropped below the 2 °C recommended threshold. The incidence of freeze alarms at health center level was reduced by 40%. Lastly, the solutions implemented reduced risk of freezing during transport from 13.8% to 1.7%. Although the solution implemented is not optimal in the longer term because domestic refrigerators are used extensively in district stores and health centers, the risk of accidental freezing is significantly reduced by introducing the practice of continuous temperature monitoring as a standard. The management of the cold chain equipment was strengthened as a result which helps protect the potency of

  11. Acute exogenous lipoid pneumonia caused by accidental kerosene ingestion in an elderly patient with dementia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gotanda, Hiroshi; Kameyama, Yumi; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro; Ishii, Masaki; Hanaoka, Yoko; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Sumito; Iijima, Katsuya; Akishita, Masahiro; Ouchi, Yasuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Acute exogenous lipoid pneumonia is an uncommon condition caused by aspiration of oil-based substances, occurring mainly in children. Here, we report the case of an 83-year-old patient with Alzheimer's disease who presented with coughing and hypoxia. The diagnosis of acute exogenous lipoid pneumonia caused by accidental kerosene ingestion was made on the basis of the patient's clinical history, and typical radiological and cytological findings. The patient's cognitive impairment and an unsafe environment, in which the patient's 91-year-old husband stored kerosene in an old shochu bottle, were responsible for the accidental ingestion. Acute exogenous lipoid pneumonia should be considered in the differential diagnosis for acute respiratory disorders in the rapidly aging population. PMID:23286561

  12. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 9. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF CHLORINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manual discusses reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of chlorine. It identifies examples of potential causes of accidental releases that apply to processes that use chlorine, as well as measures that may be taken to reduce the accidental release risk. Such...

  13. 40 CFR 63.95 - Additional approval criteria for accidental release prevention programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accidental release prevention programs. 63.95 Section 63.95 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Additional approval criteria for accidental release prevention programs. (a) A State submission for approval... (“federally-listed chemicals”) that an approvable State Accidental Release Prevention program is...

  14. Accidental Nuclear War: The Growing Peril. Part I [and] Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcombe, Alan, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Two volumes designed to increase awareness of accidental nuclear war dangers are presented. The first of 5 sections in volume I proposes that although accidental war is preventable, the current arms race and secrecy about accidents and false alarms increase the possibility of an accidental war. Section 2 posits that decreased decision-making time…

  15. Thyroid disease among the Rongelap and Utirik population - an update

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, J.E.; Vaswani, A.; Heotis, P.

    1997-07-01

    In 1954, 253 Marshallese were accidentally exposed to fallout radiation from the hydrogen bomb, BRAVO. The Marshall Islands Medical Program (MIMP) was established by the Department of Energy in 1955 to monitor and treat radiation-related disease pursuant to this accident. Medical teams from Brookhaven National laboratory, a federal institution, regularly visit the Marshall Islands to give medical care to the exposed population. The most significant complication of the exposure has been found to be thyroid disease due to the ingestion of radioactive iodides from the fallout. In 1963 the first thyroid nodules were found in Rongelap subjects and in 1969 in Utirik. Non-neoplastic adenomatous nodules were associated with higher doses of radiation and neoplastic nodules developed in individuals receiving lower doses of radiation. Women were more susceptible to the development of palpable thyroid nodules than men. In 1994 the MIMP initiated examination of the thyroid by ultrasound to supplement the clinical examination. One hundred and sixty-four patients were evaluated. No significant differences were found in the incidence of thyroid nodules or the mean nodule count between the three groups of Rongelap and Utirik exposed and a comparison patient population. There was no significant difference in the incidence of thyroid nodules in males vs. females. Five exposed patients were referred for surgical excision of a nodule detected only by ultrasound. These ultrasound findings are unexpected in that females are known to have a higher incidence of thyroid disease than males and we expected that the incidence of ultrasound nodules would be higher in the exposed population. 36 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs.

  16. Accidental Electric Shock during Pregnancy: Reflection on a Case

    PubMed Central

    Awwad, Johnny; Hannoun, Antoine; Fares, Farah; Ghazeeri, Ghina

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Data on fetal effects following accidental electric shock during pregnancy are scarce. We report on a case of accidental maternal electric shock associated with benign fetal arrhythmia in a woman at 28 weeks' gestation. Study Design Case report. Results Although electrocution involving low-voltage, low-frequency current has been associated with fatal cardiac arrhythmias and conduction abnormalities, two protective parameters in the present case likely reduced the fetal injury: the dry skin at the site of current entry and the hand-to-hand pathway of current flow. Conclusion Because the pathophysiology of electric injury is altered during pregnancy, assessment of fetal well-being should be prompted no matter how trivial an incident may appear. PMID:24147245

  17. Accidental intraoral injection of formalin during extraction: case report.

    PubMed

    Swami, Pushp Chander; Raval, Rushik; Kaur, Mandeep; Kaur, Jasleen

    2016-04-01

    Transparent, clear solutions such as hydrogen peroxide, alcohol, sodium hypochlorite, formaldehyde, and local anaesthetics are widely used in dentistry, so the tissues are liable to accidental injury. Formalin, a 37%-40% solution of formaldehyde, is extensively used in 10% solution as a tissue preservative, but it has toxic effects on systems such as the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, skin, and mucosa. However, we know of few reports of cases of inadvertent injection of alcohol and formalin directly into the human body. In this case report we describe the early and delayed clinical effects of accidental intraoral injection of formalin, the subsequent symptoms and management, and some prudent points that should be learnt to avoid such incidents in the future. PMID:26794082

  18. Accidental degeneracy of double Dirac cones in a phononic crystal

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ze-Guo; Ni, Xu; Wu, Ying; He, Cheng; Sun, Xiao-Chen; Zheng, Li-Yang; Lu, Ming-Hui; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Artificial honeycomb lattices with Dirac cone dispersion provide a macroscopic platform to study the massless Dirac quasiparticles and their novel geometric phases. In this paper, a quadruple-degenerate state is achieved at the center of the Brillouin zone in a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice phononic crystal, which is a result of accidental degeneracy of two double-degenerate states. In the vicinity of the quadruple-degenerate state, the dispersion relation is linear. Such quadruple degeneracy is analyzed by rigorous representation theory of groups. Using method, a reduced Hamiltonian is obtained to describe the linear Dirac dispersion relations of this quadruple-degenerate state, which is well consistent with the simulation results. Near such accidental degeneracy, we observe some unique properties in wave propagating, such as defect-insensitive propagating character and the Talbot effect. PMID:24714512

  19. Accidental ligature strangulation by an ironing machine: an unusual case.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Kamil Hakan; Demirci, Serafettin; Gunaydin, Gursel; Buken, Bora

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a case of a 53-year-old woman who had her headscarf catch on the cylinder ironing machine in the laundry of the hospital where she worked. The hospital workers found the woman dead with her head stuck to the ironing machine. After the death scene investigation and autopsy were completed, it was determined that the death occurred as a result of accidental ligature strangulation. Accidental ligature strangulation in which an article of clothing is caught in such an electrical machine and strangles the wearer is very rare. This case highlights the fact that these kinds of machines can be hazardous to work around and that increased safety measures should be taken to insure worker safety; additionally, the people who use these machines should be educated on the potential hazards. PMID:20002258

  20. Food allergy: practical approach on education and accidental exposure prevention.

    PubMed

    Pádua, I; Moreira, A; Moreira, P; Barros, R

    2016-09-01

    Food allergies are a growing problem and currently the primary treatment of food allergy is avoidance of culprit foods. However, given the lack of information and education and also the ubiquitous nature of allergens, accidental exposures to food allergens are not uncommon. The fear of potential fatal reactions and the need of a proper avoidance leads in most of the cases to the limitation of leisure and social activities. This review aims to be a practical approach on education and accidental exposure prevention regarding activities like shopping, eating out, and travelling. The recommendations are focused especially on proper reading of food labels and the management of the disease, namely in restaurants and airplanes, concerning cross-contact and communication with other stakeholders. The implementation of effective tools is essential to manage food allergy outside home, avoid serious allergic reactions and minimize the disease's impact on individuals' quality of life. PMID:27608473

  1. Parental substance abuse and accidental death in children.

    PubMed

    Palmiere, Cristian; Staub, Christian; La Harpe, Romano; Mangin, Patrice

    2010-05-01

    In this report, the authors present two cases of accidental death in children of addicted parents. In the first case, the child was left unattended at home while the mother went out to buy cocaine. She was arrested and detained with no mention of the unsupervised child. The cause of death in this case was determined to be starvation and dehydration. In the second case, a child mistakenly received a methadone suppository by her father instead of an antipyretic suppository. Toxicological analysis of the femoral blood revealed methadone at a concentration of 1.2 mg/L. The cause of death was determined to be methadone intoxication. The literature is reviewed and discussed. We report these cases to illustrate the risk of harm to children from illicit drugs and prescription medications at home and because there is no mention of accidental death in children following a methadone suppository administration in the current literature. PMID:20345788

  2. Approaches for preventing and mitigating accidental gaseous chemical releases

    SciTech Connect

    Fthenakis, V.M.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a review of approaches to prevent and mitigate accidental releases of toxic and flammable gases. The prevention options are related to: choosing safer processes and materials, preventing initiating events, preventing or minimizing releases, and preventing human exposures. the mitigation options include: secondary confinement, de-inventory, vapor barriers, and water sprays/monitors. Guidelines for the design and operation of effective post-release mitigation systems are also presented.

  3. Paediatric femur fractures at the emergency department: accidental or not?

    PubMed

    Hoytema van Konijnenburg, Eva M M; Vrolijk-Bosschaart, Thekla F; Bakx, Roel; Van Rijn, Rick R

    2016-01-01

    Only a small proportion of all paediatric fractures is caused by child abuse or neglect, especially in highly prevalent long bone fractures. It can be difficult to differentiate abusive fractures from non-abusive fractures. This article focuses on femoral fractures in young children. Based on three cases, this article presents a forensic evidence-based approach to differentiate between accidental and non-accidental causes of femoral fractures. We describe three cases of young children who were presented to the emergency department because of a suspected femur fracture. Although in all cases, the fracture had a similar location and appearance, the clinical history and developmental stage of the child led to three different conclusions. In the first two cases, an accidental mechanism was a plausible conclusion, although in the second case, neglect of parental supervision was the cause for concern. In the third case, a non-accidental injury was diagnosed and appropriate legal prosecution followed. Any doctor treating children should always be aware of the possibility of child abuse and neglect in children with injuries, especially in young and non-mobile children presenting with an unknown trauma mechanism. If a suspicion of child abuse or neglect arises, a thorough diagnostic work-up should be performed, including a full skeletal survey according to the guidelines of the Royal College of Radiologists and the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. In order to make a good assessment, the radiologist reviewing the skeletal survey needs access to all relevant clinical and social information. PMID:26642309

  4. A case of accidental ingestion of ant bait containing fipronil.

    PubMed

    Fung, Hin Tat; Chan, Kar Ki; Ching, Wei Ming; Kam, Chak Wah

    2003-01-01

    A 77-year-old woman accidentally ingested a commercial ant bait containing fipronil without development of obvious toxicity, supporting the safety of this new insecticide as demonstrated in animal studies. However, concentrated agricultural products may be more toxic, and the potential for seizures should not be overlooked. The pharmacological action, mechanism of selective insect toxicity, and clinical effects of fipronil are discussed. PMID:12807306

  5. An investigation of accidental ingestion during dental procedures.

    PubMed

    Obinata, Kenichi; Satoh, Takafumi; Towfik, Alam Mohammad; Nakamura, Motoyasu

    2011-12-01

    Twenty-three cases of accidental ingestion during dental procedures, which occurred at the Center for Dental Clinics of Hokkaido University Hospital between 2006 and 2010, were analyzed retrospectively. We examined not only the objects ingested, but also details of the circumstances (treated teeth, types of treatment, professional experience of the practitioners). Except for two cases (an unidentified endodontic file and the tip of an ultrasonic scaler, which were recovered by vacuuming), the other 21 accidentally ingested objects were all found in the digestive tract, and none in the respiratory tract, by radiographic examination of the chest and abdomen. The ingested objects were mostly metal restorations (inlays or onlays) or prostheses (crowns or cores). Ingestion occurred more frequently during treatment of lower molars, and when procedures were being conducted by practitioners with less than 5 years of experience. No adverse events related to ingestion were reported. The present study found no cases of aspiration or complications related to the ingested objects. However, considering the risk of life-threatening emergencies related to accidental aspiration and ingestion, dentists must take meticulous precautions and be ready to deal with this kind of emergency during dental procedures. PMID:22167036

  6. Prevention of accidental exposure in radiotherapy: the risk matrix approach.

    PubMed

    Vilaragut, J J; Duménigo, C; Delgado, J M; Morales, J; McDonnell, J D; Ferro, R; Ortiz López, P; Ramírez, M L; Pérez Mulas, A; Papadopulos, S; Gonçalves, M; López Morones, R; Sánchez Cayuela, C; Cascajo Castresana, A; Somoano, F; Álvarez, C; Guillén, A; Rodríguez, M; Pereira, P P; Nader, A

    2013-02-01

    Knowledge and lessons from past accidental exposures in radiotherapy are very helpful in finding safety provisions to prevent recurrence. Disseminating lessons is necessary but not sufficient. There may be additional latent risks for other accidental exposures, which have not been reported or have not occurred, but are possible and may occur in the future if not identified, analyzed, and prevented by safety provisions. Proactive methods are available for anticipating and quantifying risk from potential event sequences. In this work, proactive methods, successfully used in industry, have been adapted and used in radiotherapy. Risk matrix is a tool that can be used in individual hospitals to classify event sequences in levels of risk. As with any anticipative method, the risk matrix involves a systematic search for potential risks; that is, any situation that can cause an accidental exposure. The method contributes new insights: The application of the risk matrix approach has identified that another group of less catastrophic but still severe single-patient events may have a higher probability, resulting in higher risk. The use of the risk matrix approach for safety assessment in individual hospitals would provide an opportunity for self-evaluation and managing the safety measures that are most suitable to the hospital's own conditions. PMID:23274816

  7. Compact fluorescent lamp phosphors in accidental radiation monitoring.

    PubMed

    Murthy, K V R; Pallavi, S P; Ghildiyal, Rahul; Parmar, Manish C; Patel, Y S; Ravi Kumar, V; Sai Prasad, A S; Natarajan, V; Page, A G

    2006-01-01

    The application of lamp phosphors for accidental dosimetry is a new concept. Since the materials used in fluorescent lamps are good photo luminescent materials, if one can either use the inherent defects present in the phosphor or add suitable modifiers to induce thermoluminescence (TL) in these phosphors, then the device (fluorescent lamp) can be used as an accidental dosemeter. In continuation of our search for a suitable phosphor material, which can serve both as an efficient lamp phosphor and as a good radiation monitoring device, detailed examination has been carried out on cerium and terbium-doped lanthanum phosphate material. A (90)Sr beta source with 50 mCi strength (1.85 GBq) was used as the irradiation source for TL studies. The TL response as a function of dose received was examined for all phosphors used and it was observed that the intensity of the TL peak vs. dose received was a linear function in the dose range 0.1-200 Gy in each case. Incidentally LaPO(4): Ce,Tb is a component of the compact fluorescent lamp marketed recently as an energy bright light source. Besides having very good luminescence efficiency, good dosimetric properties of these phosphors render them useful for their use in accidental dosimetry also. PMID:16816401

  8. Accidental dural puncture rates in UK obstetric practice.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, C M; Reynolds, F

    1998-10-01

    Headache following epidural analgesia is a common cause of complaint, but accidental dural puncture rates vary among hospitals and with techniques. We were therefore interested to discover the extent of audit of dural puncture, the dural puncture rates in those UK centres that kept reliable records, and the techniques they used for detecting the epidural space. Consultants in charge of anaesthetic services to all 257 obstetric units in the UK were sent a questionnaire requesting numbers of obstetric epidurals, techniques used to detect the epidural space and the numbers of accidental dural punctures in the years 1991-1995. Replies were received from 191 respondents (74%) of whom 104 were able to provide some information about dural puncture rates. Dural puncture rate was inversely related to the number of epidurals performed; the highest recorded rate was 3.6% in a unit with < 300 epidurals annually, and the lowest 0.19% in a unit with > 1000. Most respondents did not record the loss of resistance technique used but among those who did, the dural puncture rate using mainly saline was 0.69% and using mainly air was 1.11% (P<0.001). Since accurate patient information is crucial for informed consent, audit needs to be improved in many centres. Though the accidental dural puncture rate may be under-reported in this survey, our data are in agreement with other findings that loss of resistance to saline is safer than loss of resistance to air. PMID:15321187

  9. An alternative approach for computing seismic response with accidental eccentricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xuanhua; Yin, Jiacong; Sun, Shuli; Chen, Pu

    2014-09-01

    Accidental eccentricity is a non-standard assumption for seismic design of tall buildings. Taking it into consideration requires reanalysis of seismic resistance, which requires either time consuming computation of natural vibration of eccentric structures or finding a static displacement solution by applying an approximated equivalent torsional moment for each eccentric case. This study proposes an alternative modal response spectrum analysis (MRSA) approach to calculate seismic responses with accidental eccentricity. The proposed approach, called the Rayleigh Ritz Projection-MRSA (RRP-MRSA), is developed based on MRSA and two strategies: (a) a RRP method to obtain a fast calculation of approximate modes of eccentric structures; and (b) an approach to assemble mass matrices of eccentric structures. The efficiency of RRP-MRSA is tested via engineering examples and compared with the standard MRSA (ST-MRSA) and one approximate method, i.e., the equivalent torsional moment hybrid MRSA (ETM-MRSA). Numerical results show that RRP-MRSA not only achieves almost the same precision as ST-MRSA, and is much better than ETM-MRSA, but is also more economical. Thus, RRP-MRSA can be in place of current accidental eccentricity computations in seismic design.

  10. Fatal and non-fatal outcome by accidental intoxication with paint thinner.

    PubMed

    Tsatsakis, A M; Dolapsakis, G; Troulakis, G; Christodoulou, P; Relakis, K; Trikilis, N; Michalodimitrakis, M N

    1997-09-01

    Although poisonings (fatal and non-fatal) due to intentional or accidental acute exposure to toluene or toluene mixture fumes have been previously reported in the literature, several issues concerning lethal doses or lasting post-exposure neuropathological impairments still remain unclear. Two male painters (18 and 30 years old) were accidentally exposed to toxic concentrations of paint diluent fumes containing toluene (TL), acetone (ACT) and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) (60:15:15 w/w/w respectively) during their work in an underground reservoir. Both workers were found unresponsive by colleagues and were immediately transferred to the regional hospital. On admission, the younger man was pronounced dead, while the other remained in the intensive care unit for 3 days and then 4 days in the internal medicine ward. TL, ACT and MEK concentrations in blood samples taken from the survivor on admission were 6.3, 30.6 and 40.5 microg/mL. Postmortem toxicology of the dead worker revealed TL, ACT and MEK blood levels of 12.4, 90.8 and 80.4 microg/mL respectively. The solvent levels in the liver, kidney, lung, brain, testis and gland were also quantified and showed a somewhat similar distribution of the chemicals among these tissues with the highest levels found in the brain and the liver. The fatal and the non-fatal outcome that resulted despite similar intoxication conditions, most probably demonstrates the interindividual tolerance among the painters who also had similar body weights. The surviving painter did not develop any neuropsychological impairment in post-exposure time. The reported case strongly emphasizes the necessity to take precautions when using paint diluents in enclosed spaces. PMID:15335573

  11. Non-accidental injury and the haematologist: the causes and investigation of easy bruising.

    PubMed

    Liesner, Ri; Hann, Ian; Khair, Kate

    2004-05-01

    In cases of suspected non-accidental injury in children, it is vital that a haematologist confirms the presence or absence of a haemostatic disorder so that the child welfare and legal systems can make accurate judgements regarding the cause of isolated injuries. The present paper will discuss commonly used methods for the diagnosis of coagulation disorders in children, and will describe how the investigation of easy bruising and bleeding can be highly problematic. For instance, some frequently used tests for the assessment of haemostasis in children are insensitive, inappropriate, or based on values derived from adult populations. Furthermore, artefact is a frequent problem, and many cases present with a negative family history of bleeding. Therefore, the role played by the haematologist in potential child abuse cases is an essential yet challenging one. PMID:15166934

  12. Observations on an accidental case of raw sewage pollution in Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Rochow, V B

    1992-03-01

    The effects of an accidental exposure to saltwater polluted by human wastes on aquarium populations of a variety of Antarctic organisms are described. Only the giant Antarctic slater Glyptonotus antarcticus survived the exposure to the contaminated water unharmed. A comparative analysis of water qualities revealed that total nitrogen and phosphorus levels of the contaminated sample were 15 and 19.5 times higher than those of the control and that the contaminated sample contained high amounts of coliform bacteria, whereas the latter were not identified in the control. Considering the widespread practice in Antarctica of disposing of raw sewage into the sea, the dearth of knowledge concerning the biological impact of such behaviour is seen as worrysome. PMID:1575882

  13. Doses from accidental releases of tritium and activation products into the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raskob, W.

    1993-06-01

    In view of public acceptance and the licensing procedure of projected fusion reactors, the release of tritium and activation products during normal operation as well as after accidents is a significant safety aspect. Calculations have been performed under accidental conditions for unit releases of corrosion products from water coolant loops, of first wall erosion products including different coating materials, and of tritium in its chemical form of tritiated water (HTO). Dose assessments during normal operation have been performed for corrosion products from first wall primary coolant loop and for tritium in both chemical forms (HT/HTO). The two accident consequence assessment (ACA) codes UFOTRI and COSYMA have been applied for the deterministic dose calculations with nearly the same input variables and for several radiological source terms. Furthermore, COSYMA and NORMTRI have been applied for routine release scenarios. The paper analyzes the radioation doses to individuals and the population resulting from the different materials assumed to be released in the environment.

  14. The accidental release of exotic species from breeding colonies and zoological collections.

    PubMed

    Barrat, J; Richomme, C; Moinet, M

    2010-04-01

    Exotic species have often been introduced into a new country in zoological or botanical gardens or on game and fur farms. When accidentally or deliberately released, these alien species can become invasive and have negative impacts on native plant and animal communities and human activities. This article focuses on a selection of such invasive species: principally the American mink (Neovison vison), but also the coypu (Myocastor coypus), muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus), raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), raccoon (Procyon lotor) and African sacred ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus). In each of these cases, the authors describe the biological characteristics and life history of the species, in relation to its invasive capacity, the origins and establishment of non-native populations, the environmental consequences and possible control measures. The main negative impacts observed are the destruction of habitat, the introduction and/or spread of pathogens and changes in the composition of native communities with consequent effects on biodiversity. PMID:20617652

  15. Gas-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methodology for the quantitation of estrogenic contaminants in bile of fish exposed to wastewater treatment works effluents and from wild populations.

    PubMed

    Fenlon, Kate A; Johnson, Andrew C; Tyler, Charles R; Hill, Elizabeth M

    2010-01-01

    Fish can be exposed to a complex mixture of chemical contaminants arising from the exposure to wastewater treatment works (WwTWs) effluents. Some of these contaminants are estrogenic and have been associated with feminisation of male fish and the presence of populations containing intersex individuals. However the detection of trace levels (ng/L) of estrogenic chemicals surface waters can be difficult and does not give information on the exposure of aquatic organisms to these contaminants. In this study we assessed whether the analysis of estrogenic substances that bioconcentrate in fish bile can be used to detect the exposure of fish to feminising contaminants in receiving waters and effluents, and thus facilitate their monitoring of these substances in aquatic environments. Estrogenic metabolites in bile were deconjugated using enzymatic hydrolysis and partially purified by solid phase extraction. Steroidal and xenoestrogens were derivatized to their trimethylsilyl ethers and quantified by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) using multiple reaction monitoring. The method was validated using spiked bile samples from immature female rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) as well as bile from sexually mature roach (Rutilus rutilus) that had been exposed to either tap water or an undiluted estrogenic effluent for 10 days or captured from a river site downstream of a WwTWs effluent discharge. The mean recovery of target analytes from spiked bile was between 86 and 99% and the limit of detection was between 0.1 and 0.7ng/mL bile for bisphenol A (BPA), 17beta-estradiol (E2), estrone (E1) and 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2), and 11, 60 and 327ng/mL bile for branched nonyl chain isomeric mixtures of 4-nonylphenolethoxylate (NP1EO), 4-nonylphenol (NP) and 4-nonylphenoldiethoxylate (NP2EO), respectively. All target analytes were detected in bile from roach exposed directly to a WwTWs effluent, with concentrations between 6-13microg/mL bile for NP, 18-21microg

  16. Atmospheric dispersion of ammonia accidentally released from the 242-A Evaporator, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Daling, P.M.; Lavender, J.C.

    1997-11-01

    Two errors have been identified in the authorization basis for the 242-A Evaporator at the Hanford Site. These errors, which appear in the 242-A Evaporator/Crystallizer Final Safety Analysis Report analysis of ammonia gas concentrations accidentally released from the 242-A Evaporator, are: (1) the vessel ventilation system flow rate used in the previous calculations is a factor of ten higher than the actual flow rate, and (2) the previous calculations did not account for the ammonia source term reduction that would occur via condensation of ammonia vapors, which will remove a large fraction of the ammonia from the exhaust gas stream. The purpose of this document is to correct these errors and recalculate the maximum ground-level concentrations of ammonia released to the environment as a result of potential errors in blending Evaporator feed. The errors offset each other somewhat, so it is unlikely that the 242-A Evaporator has operated outside its current authorization basis. However, the errors must be corrected and the results incorporated into a revision of the 242-A Evaporator/Crystallizer Safety Analysis Report, WHC-SD-WM-SAR-023. An EPA-approved atmospheric dispersion model, SCREEN3, was used to recalculate the maximum ground-level concentrations of ammonia that would be released from the 242-A Evaporator as a result of a feed-blending error. The results of the re-analysis of the 242-A Evaporator`s ammonia release scenario are as follows. The onsite receptor 100 m away from the release point (242-A vessel vent stack) is projected to be exposed to a maximum ground-level concentration of ammonia of 8.3 ppm. The maximally-exposed offsite receptor, located at the nearest Hanford Site boundary 16 km away from the 242-A vessel vent stack, will be exposed to a maximum ground-level concentration of 0.11 ppm ammonia.

  17. Numerical simulation of industrial and accidental release formation and transport

    SciTech Connect

    Piskunov, V.N.; Aloyan, A.A.; Gerasimov, V.M.; Pinaev, V.S.; Golubev, A.I.; Yanilkin, Yu.V.; Ivanov, N.V.; Nikonov, S.N.; Kharchenko, A.I.

    1995-05-01

    Statement of work for contract 006 {open_quotes}Mathematical simulation of industrial and accidental release formation and transport{close_quotes} implies that the final result of the activity within this task will be VNIIEF developed techniques which will provide for the prediction of the post-accidental environment. Report [1] presents the description of physical models and calculation techniques which were chosen by VNIIEF to accomplish this task. These techniques were analysed for their capabilities, the areas of their application were defined, modifications within contract 006 were described, the results of test and methodical calculations were presented. Moreover, the experimental data were analysed over the source parameters and contamination measurements which can be used in the comparison with the calculation results. Based an these data this report compares the calculation results obtained with VNIIEF calculation techniques with the LANL-presented experimental results. The calculations which statements and results are given in section 1, included the following processes: explosion cloud ascent dynamics and jet release origin; aerosols kinetics in the release source including composite particle origin in the explosion cloud caused by radioactive substance sorption an the soil particles; contaminant transport in atmosphere and their in-site fallout due to the accidental explosions and fires; atmospheric flow dynamics and industrial contamination transfer over the complicated terrain. The calculated results were compared with the experimental data. Section 2 presents the parameters for a typical source in the explosion accidents based an the experimental results and calculated data from Section 1, as well as contamination patterns were calculated with basic technique {open_quotes}Prognosis{close_quotes}.

  18. An accidental decapitation resulting from head protruding out of bus.

    PubMed

    Parchake, Manoj Bhausaheb; Tumram, Nilesh K; Umbare, Rahul; Kachare, R V; Dode, C R

    2016-06-01

    Decapitation is the separation of the head from the neck. Accidental decapitation is rare, and very few cases are cited in the literature. In this case, the victim was asleep during an overnight trip with her head sticking out of the window, and she was decapitated by a truck travelling in the opposite direction. Lack of security grilles on windows, high-speed driving, narrow roads and night travel were contributing factors. This case is presented for its rarity and pattern of injuries during the fatal mishap and to consider possible preventive measures. PMID:26857073

  19. Clinical perspectives on osteogenesis imperfecta versus non-accidental injury.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Elaine Maria

    2015-12-01

    Although non-accidental injuries (NAI) are more common in cases of unexplained fractures than rare disorders such as osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), ruling out OI and other medical causes of fracture is always indicated. The majority of OI patients can be diagnosed with the help of family history, physical examination, and radiographic findings. In particular, there are a few radiological findings which are seen more commonly in NAI than in OI which may help guide clinician considerations regarding the probability of either of these diagnoses. At the same time, molecular testing still merits careful consideration in cases with unexplained fractures without obvious additional signs of abuse. PMID:26492946

  20. Methemoglobinemia as a result of accidental lacquer thinner poisoning.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ranju; Vinayagam, Stalin; Vajifdar, Homay

    2012-01-01

    Lacquer thinner, commonly used for removing household paints, is known to contain a mixture of various aromatic hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons and naptha; if ingested, it may cause methemoglobinemia. We report two cases who presented to us with a history of accidental ingestion of paint thinner. Both the patients had very high levels of methemoglobin and were treated with methylene blue (MB), but did not respond to the MB therapy. One of them received an exchange transfusion followed again by MB and survived. Unfortunately the other patient succumbed to the poisoning. PMID:22557834

  1. ECMO for Cardiac Rescue after Accidental Intravenous Mepivacaine Application

    PubMed Central

    Froehle, Michael; Haas, Nikolaus A.; Kirchner, Guenther; Kececioglu, Deniz; Sandica, Eugen

    2012-01-01

    Mepivacaine is a potent local anaesthetic and used for infiltration and regional anaesthesia in adults and pediatric patients. Intoxications with mepivacaine affect mainly the CNS and the cardiovascular system. We present a case of accidental intravenous mepivacaine application and intoxication of an infant resulting in seizure, broad complex bradyarrhythmia, arterial hypotension and finally cardiac arrest. The patient could be rescued by prolonged resuscitations and a rapid initiation of ECMO and survived without neurological damage. The management strategies of this rare complication including promising other treatment options with lipid emulsions are discussed. PMID:22966472

  2. Method and apparatus for controlling accidental releases of tritium

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, Terry R. [Berkeley, CA

    1980-04-01

    An improvement in a tritium control system based on a catalytic oxidation reactor wherein accidental releases of tritium into room air are controlled by flooding the catalytic oxidation reactor with hydrogen when the tritium concentration in the room air exceeds a specified limit. The sudden flooding with hydrogen heats the catalyst to a high temperature within seconds, thereby greatly increasing the catalytic oxidation rate of tritium to tritiated water vapor. Thus, the catalyst is heated only when needed. In addition to the heating effect, the hydrogen flow also swamps the tritium and further reduces the tritium release.

  3. Method and apparatus for controlling accidental releases of tritium

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, T.R.

    1980-04-01

    An improvement is described in a tritium control system based on a catalytic oxidation reactor wherein accidental releases of tritium into room air are controlled by flooding the catalytic oxidation reactor with hydrogen when the tritium concentration in the room air exceeds a specified limit. The sudden flooding with hydrogen heats the catalyst to a high temperature within seconds, thereby greatly increasing the catalytic oxidation rate of tritium to tritiated water vapor. Thus, the catalyst is heated only when needed. In addition to the heating effect, the hydrogen flow also swamps the tritium and further reduces the tritium release. 1 fig.

  4. Accidental childhood death and the role of the pathologist.

    PubMed

    Byard, R W

    2000-01-01

    The following study provides an overview of accidental childhood death. This study is based on a review of 369 cases of fatal childhood accidents taken from the records of the Department of Histopathology, Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide, Australia, over a 34-year period from 1963 to 1996. Data provide information on deaths due to motor vehicle accidents, drownings, accidental asphyxia, burns, poisonings, electrocution, and miscellaneous trauma. In addition, certain categories have undergone further examination, including asphyxial deaths due to unsafe sleeping environments and unsafe eating practices, drowning deaths, and deaths on farms, following identification of significant child safety problems in these areas as part of the "Keeping Your Baby and Child Safe" program. Previously unrecognized dangers to children detected through this program include mesh-sided cots, V-shaped pillows, and certain types of stroller-prams. The production of information pamphlets and packages for parents and the recall of certain dangerous products following recommendations made by pathologists demonstrate that pediatric and forensic pathologists have an important role to play in preventive medicine issues and in formulating public health strategies. PMID:10890925

  5. Laryngeal oedema caused by accidental ingestion of Oil of Wintergreen.

    PubMed

    Botma, M; Colquhoun-Flannery, W; Leighton, S

    2001-05-11

    Oil of Wintergreen (methyl salicylate) is a common ingredient for liniments, ointments and essential oils used in self-treatment of musculoskeletal pain. Its pleasant smell also encourages its use to flavour confectionery. The toxic potential of this preparation is not always fully appreciated by the general public and physicians. To appreciate the danger of this oil it can be compared to aspirin tablets (325 mg dose): one teaspoon (5 ml) of Oil of Wintergreen is equivalent to approximately 7000 mg of salicylate or 21.7 adult aspirin tablets. Ingestion of as little as 4 ml in a child can be fatal. Prevention of accidental ingestion of methyl salicylate containing products can be achieved by keeping the products out of reach of children, using child resistant bottles, restricting the size of the openings of the bottles, appropriate labeling on products and reducing the salicylate content. Immediate action should be taken to treat a patient with accidental poisoning and hospitalisation is needed for monitoring and treatment. The danger of this product should be fully appreciated by both physicians and the general public. We present a case of Oil of Wintergreen poisoning with development of laryngeal oedema as a complication, general information and management issues will also be discussed. PMID:11335011

  6. Preventing Accidental Ignition of Upper-Stage Rocket Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickman, John; Morgan, Herbert; Cooper, Michael; Murbach, Marcus

    2005-01-01

    A report presents a proposal to reduce the risk of accidental ignition of certain upper-stage rocket motors or other high energy hazardous systems. At present, mechanically in-line initiators are used for initiation of many rocket motors and/or other high-energy hazardous systems. Electrical shorts and/or mechanical barriers, which are the basic safety devices in such systems, are typically removed as part of final arming or pad preparations while personnel are present. At this time, static discharge, test equipment malfunction, or incorrect arming techniques can cause premature firing. The proposal calls for a modular out-of-line ignition system incorporating detonating-cord elements, identified as the donor and the acceptor, separated by an air gap. In the safe configuration, the gap would be sealed with two shields, which would prevent an accidental firing of the donor from igniting the system. The shields would be removed to enable normal firing, in which shrapnel generated by the donor would reliably ignite the acceptor to continue the ordnance train. The acceptor would then ignite a through bulkhead initiator (or other similar device), which would ignite the motor or high-energy system. One shield would be remotely operated and would be moved to the armed position when a launch was imminent or conversely returned to the safe position if the launch were postponed. In the event of failure of the remotely operated shield, the other shield could be inserted manually to safe the system.

  7. Historical Doses To The Public from Routine and Accidental Releases of Tritium - Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 1953 - 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, S; Raskob, W

    2007-08-15

    Throughout fifty-three years of operations, an estimated 29,300 TBq of tritium have been released to the atmosphere at the Livermore site of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; about 75% of this was released accidentally as gaseous tritium in 1965 and 1970. Routine emissions contributed slightly more than 3,700 TBq gaseous tritium and about 2,800 TBq tritiated water vapor to the total. Mean annual doses (with 95% confidence intervals) to the most exposed member of the public were calculated for all years using the same model and the same assumptions. Because time-dependent tritium models require detailed meteorological data that were unavailable for the large releases, ingestion/inhalation dose ratios were derived from experience with UFOTRI. Even with assumptions to assure that doses would not be underestimated, all doses from routine and accidental releases were below the level (3.6 mSv) at which adverse health effects have been documented, and most were below the current regulatory limit of 100 {micro}Sv per year from releases to the atmosphere.

  8. Evaluation of health effects in Sequoyah Fuels Corporation workers from accidental exposure to uranium hexafluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R. ); Swint, M.J.; Kathren, R.L. )

    1990-05-01

    Urine bioassay measurements for uranium and medical laboratory results were studied to determine whether there were any health effects from uranium intake among a group of 31 workers exposed to uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) and hydrolysis products following the accidental rupture of a 14-ton shipping cylinder in early 1986 at the Sequoyah Fuels Corporation uranium conversion facility in Gore, Oklahoma. Physiological indicators studied to detect kidney tissue damage included tests for urinary protein, casts and cells, blood, specific gravity, and urine pH, blood urea nitrogen, and blood creatinine. We concluded after reviewing two years of follow-up medical data that none of the 31 workers sustained any observable health effects from exposure to uranium. The early excretion of uranium in urine showed more rapid systemic uptake of uranium from the lung than is assumed using the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 30 and Publication 54 models. The urinary excretion data from these workers were used to develop an improved systemic recycling model for inhaled soluble uranium. We estimated initial intakes, clearance rates, kidney burdens, and resulting radiation doses to lungs, kidneys, and bone surfaces. 38 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. Accidental bilateral Q-switched neodymium laser exposure: treatment and recovery of visual function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwick, Harry; Stuck, Bruce E.; Dunlap, Weldon; Scales, David K.; Lund, David J.; Ness, James W.

    1998-05-01

    A 21 year old female was accidentally exposed in both eyes when she looked into the 10 cm exit aperture of a military laser designator emitting 1064 nm q-switched (30 ns) pulses at a 10 pulse per second rate. Steroid therapy (methylprednisolone sodium succinate) was initiated within 6 hours post exposure. Initial ophthalmoscopic observation revealed small contained macular hemorrhages in each eye. Fluorescein angiography (FA) showed minimal leakage. Visual acuity was 20/100 and 20/60 in OD and OS respectively. Contrast sensitivity in both eyes was depressed across all spatial frequencies by more than 1.5 log units. At four weeks post exposure, no significant macular scarring was apparent and visual acuity returned to 20/25 in both eyes. Contrast sensitivity had improved to normal levels with a peak at 3 cycles/degree. At one year post exposure, visual acuity was 20/13 in both eyes and measures of contrast sensitivity were within normal limits. During the course of recovery, the patient's fixation shifted from a slightly superior temporal site back to the central foveal region. The foveal lesion sites were still evident by ophthalmoscopy and Amsler grid measurements but were deemed functional when the patient placed small targets generated by the scanning laser ophthalmoscope in the lesion site for discrimination. This outcome indicates remarkable recovery of visual function and suggests that early administration of steroids may assist in preserving the natural neural recovery process of the photoreceptor matrix by minimizing intraretinal scar formation.

  10. Accidental death of elderly persons under the influence of chlorpheniramine.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hideto; Shigeta, Akio; Fukunaga, Tatsushige

    2013-09-01

    Older individuals are susceptible to accident, such as falls, some of which are fatal. In such cases, autopsies and toxicological analysis may be deemed unnecessary, especially if the critical injuries and manner of death can be determined conclusively based on information at the scene and an external investigation. Here, we report the results of two autopsies performed on elderly individuals who died accidentally under the influence of chlorpheniramine. These autopsies revealed valuable additional information. Case 1: A woman in her 70s, who was living alone, was found dead under the stairs in her house. She had no history of a condition that could have led to sudden death. The autopsy revealed a neck fracture, multiple rib fractures, and a coccyx fracture. The histopathological findings showed fat embolisms in numerous small vessels of the interalveolar septum. Toxicological analysis of blood samples revealed the presence of chlorpheniramine (0.41μg/ml). Case 2: A woman in her 70s, who was living alone, was found dead in the bathtub in her house. There was no past medical history other than diabetes mellitus and vertigo. The autopsy revealed hyper-inflated lungs and brown-red fluids in the trachea, but there was no evidence of a pathology or injury that could have induced a loss of consciousness. Toxicological analysis of the fluids in the right thoracic cavity revealed the presence of chlorpheniramine (0.57μg/ml). In both cases, re-examination of the scene after the autopsy revealed the presence of common cold medicine containing chlorpheniramine. The victim may have accidentally overdosed on common cold medicine. This overdose would have been compounded by anti-histamine-induced drowsiness. The present cases suggest that forensic pathologists should always notify physicians/pharmacists of findings pertaining to unexpected drug side effects. Such intervention would prevent many accidental deaths. In addition, each autopsy must be performed in conjunction with

  11. Accidental Intraoral Formalin Injection: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Dandriyal, Ramakant; Giri, Kolly Yada; Alam, Sarwar; Singh, Aishwarya Pratap

    2014-01-01

    Formalin is a hazardous chemical that needs cautious handling and special storage. Owing to its disinfectant and fixative (i.e. for preserving pathologic tissue specimens in histopathology) properties, it is widely used in dentistry. Although, the terms formaldehyde and formalin are often confused as being identical, these are different as to the concentrations of the primary component i.e. formaldehyde. In fact, the common fixative available as 10% neutral buffered formalin is actually a 4% solution of formaldehyde (i.e., a 10% solution made from a 37-40% commercially pure formaldehyde solution). This case report describes an unfortunate case of accidental injection instead of local anesthetic, of formalin into the pterygomandibular space in a 35-year old woman during inferior alveolar nerve block for surgical removal of impacted lower right third molar and its successful management by cautious debridement (under both local and general anesthesia) and empirical drug therapy (utilizing analgesics and antibiotics). PMID:25568771

  12. Correcting for accidental correlations in saturated avalanche photodiodes.

    PubMed

    Grieve, J A; Chandrasekara, R; Tang, Z; Cheng, C; Ling, A

    2016-02-22

    In this paper we present a general method for estimating rates of accidental coincidence between a pair of single photon detectors operated within their saturation regimes. By folding the effects of recovery time of both detectors and the detection circuit into an "effective duty cycle" we are able to accomodate complex recovery behaviour at high event rates. As an example, we provide a detailed high-level model for the behaviour of passively quenched avalanche photodiodes, and demonstrate effective background subtraction at rates commonly associated with detector saturation. We show that by post-processing using the updated model, we observe an improvement in polarization correlation visibility from 88.7% to 96.9% in our experimental dataset. This technique will be useful in improving the signal-to-noise ratio in applications which depend on coincidence measurements, especially in situations where rapid changes in flux may cause detector saturation. PMID:26907016

  13. Accidental low velocity atypical missile injury to the head.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Saurabh

    2008-12-01

    Missile injuries on the head are mostly due to firearms. Atypical missiles may be encountered in case of shrapnel of bomb explosions but rarely because of stones. The present case is a rare case where a stone propelled by the pressure from the rear wheel of a speeding truck on the highway, struck the head of a 7-year-old girl resulting in fatality. Reconstruction of the incident on the basis of history and postmortem findings throws some light on the mechanism. The case is unique as it is the first reported case of an accidental missile injury to the head resulting in fatality without any direct human involvement for propulsion of the projectile. PMID:19259020

  14. CT findings of accidental fish bone ingestion and its complications.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Sandeep Halagatti; Venkatanarasimha Karaddi, Nanda Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Fish bone is one of the most common accidentally ingested foreign bodies, and patients commonly present to the emergency department with nonspecific symptoms. Fortunately, most of them are asymptomatic and exit the gastrointestinal tract spontaneously. However, fish bones can get impacted in any part of the aerodigestive tract and cause symptoms. Occasionally, they are asymptomatic initially after ingestion and may present remotely at a later date with serious complications such as gastrointestinal tract perforation, obstruction, and abscess formation. Radiographs are most often negative. High degree of clinical suspicion and familiarity with CT appearance can help to detect fish bone along with any associated complications, and direct further management. We describe and illustrate various CT presentations of ingested fish bone and its complications. PMID:26714057

  15. Evolution Towards Critical Fluctuations in a System of Accidental Pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaffari, Peyman; Jansen, Vincent; Stollenwerk, Nico

    2011-09-01

    Some time ago a model for accidental pathogens was developed to describe large fluctuations in the epidemiology of some diseases where the pathogen mostly lives with its host as a commensal and only rarely causes disease, leading to a disadvantage of the mutants which cause disease more often. By now the simplest version of this scenario is known as Stollenwerk-Jansen (SJ) model, showing that the critical exponents of the large fluctuations are of the type of the voter model (which by itself has an evolutionary biologists predecessor) but no further attempt was made there to investigate in more detail the mechanism leading the system to evolve towards small pathogenicity. We investigate an extended version of the SJ model, the SJ model version II in which we find the system to evolve to low pathogenicity causing large critical fluctuations without tuning the control parameter, a self-organization of criticality.

  16. Modeling downwind hazards after an accidental release of chlorine trifluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi, D.A.; Cheng, Meng-Dawn

    1996-05-01

    A module simulating ClF{sub 3} chemical reactions with water vapor and thermodynamic processes in the atmosphere after an accidental release has been developed. This module was liked to the HGSYSTEM. Initial model runs simulate the rapid formation of HF and ClO{sub 2} after an atmospheric release of ClF{sub 3}. At distances beyond the first several meters from the release point, HF and ClO{sub 2} concentrations pose a greater threat to human health than do ClF{sub 3} concentrations. For most of the simulations, ClF{sub 3} concentrations rapidly fall below the IDLH. Fro releases occurring in ambient conditions with low relative humidity and/or ambient temperature, ClF{sub 3} concentrations exceed the IDLH up to almost 500 m. The performance of this model needs to be determined for potential release scenarios that will be considered. These release scenarios are currently being developed.

  17. CT findings of accidental fish bone ingestion and its complications

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesh, Sandeep Halagatti; Karaddi, Nanda Kumar Venkatanarasimha

    2016-01-01

    Fish bone is one of the most common accidentally ingested foreign bodies, and patients commonly present to the emergency department with nonspecific symptoms. Fortunately, most of them are asymptomatic and exit the gastrointestinal tract spontaneously. However, fish bones can get impacted in any part of the aerodigestive tract and cause symptoms. Occasionally, they are asymptomatic initially after ingestion and may present remotely at a later date with serious complications such as gastrointestinal tract perforation, obstruction, and abscess formation. Radiographs are most often negative. High degree of clinical suspicion and familiarity with CT appearance can help to detect fish bone along with any associated complications, and direct further management. We describe and illustrate various CT presentations of ingested fish bone and its complications. PMID:26714057

  18. Modeling acute health risks associated with accidental releases of toxic gases

    SciTech Connect

    Haskin, F.E.; Ding, C.; Summa, K.J.; Young, M.

    1996-09-01

    CHEM{_}MACCS has been developed from the radiological accident consequence code, MACCS, to perform probabilistic calculations of potential off-site consequences of the accidental atmospheric release of hazardous chemicals. The principal phenomena considered in CHEM{_}MACCS are atmospheric transport, mitigative actions based on dose projection, dose accumulation by a number of pathways, and early and latent health effects. CHEM{_}MACCS provides the following capabilities: (1) statistical weather sampling data (8,760 hourly data points per year), (2) population dose and health effect risk calculations based on site-specific population data, (3) health effects calculations including the consideration of potential site specific mitigative actions (evacuation and shielding), and (4) modeling of multiple release segments. Three different sample problems are contained in this report to show how to use CHEM{_}MACCS. Three test problems are run to compare CHEM{_}MACCS and D2PC. The doses versus the downwind centerline distances from the source for the given doses are in very close agreement.

  19. Can we prevent accidental injury to adolescents? A systematic review of the evidence.

    PubMed Central

    Munro, J.; Coleman, P.; Nicholl, J.; Harper, R.; Kent, G.; Wild, D.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: As part of the Department of Health strategy The Health of the Nation, a systematic review of published and unpublished literature relating to the effectiveness of interventions in reducing accidental injury in the population aged 15-24 years was carried out. METHODS: The literature was reviewed under the standard setting headings of road, work, home, and sports and leisure, and graded for quality of evidence and strength of recommendation using a scale published in the UK national epidemiologically based needs assessment programme. RESULTS: The most effective measures appear to be legislative and regulatory controls in road, sport, and workplace settings. Environmental engineering measures on the road and in sports have relatively low implementation costs and result in fewer injuries at all ages. There is little evidence that purely educational measures reduced injuries in the short term. Community based approaches may be effective in all age groups, and incentives to encourage safer behaviour hold promise but require further evaluation. The potential of multifactorial approaches seems greater than narrowly based linear approaches. CONCLUSIONS: Few interventions to reduce injury in adolescents have been rigorously evaluated using good quality randomised controlled trials, and where such evidence is available, fewer have been shown to be definitely worthwhile. Many studies relied on surrogate measures rather than actual injury rates, and substantial issues relating to the efficacy or implementation of preventive measures in adolescent and young adult populations remain unresolved. PMID:9346041

  20. Accidentes en plantas nucleares de electricidad y el riesgo de cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Hoja informativa acerca de los riesgos del cáncer asociados con accidentes en plantas nucleares de electricidad. Incluye información para pacientes con cáncer que viven en una zona que puede haber sido afectada por un accidente en una planta nuclear.

  1. Two Cases of Accidental Injection of Epinephrine into a Digit Treated with Subcutaneous Phentolamine Injections

    PubMed Central

    Bodkin, Ryan P.; Acquisto, Nicole M.; Wiegand, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Accidental injection into the digit from an epinephrine autoinjection device can cause discoloration, pain, and paresthesias. Although loss of digit is rare, treatment in the emergency department is commonly aimed at vasodilation of the affected tissue. We report two cases of accidental injection of epinephrine into the digits that were successfully treated with subcutaneous phentolamine injection with no adverse events. PMID:24024046

  2. Accidental Durotomy in Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Frequency, Risk Factors, and Management

    PubMed Central

    Volz, Florian; Krüger, Marie T.; Kogias, Evangelos; Rölz, Roland; Sircar, Ronen; Hubbe, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the frequency, risk factors, and management of accidental durotomy in minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS TLIF). Methods. This single-center study retrospectively investigates 372 patients who underwent MIS TLIF and were mobilized within 24 hours after surgery. The frequency of accidental durotomies, intraoperative closure technique, body mass index, and history of previous surgery was recorded. Results. We identified 32 accidental durotomies in 514 MIS TLIF levels (6.2%). Analysis showed a statistically significant relation of accidental durotomies to overweight patients (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2; P = 0.0493). Patient age older than 65 years tended to be a positive predictor for accidental durotomies (P = 0.0657). Mobilizing patients on the first postoperative day, we observed no durotomy-associated complications. Conclusions. The frequency of accidental durotomies in MIS TLIF is low, with overweight being a risk factor for accidental durotomies. The minimally invasive approach seems to minimize durotomy-associated complications (CSF leakage, pseudomeningocele) because of the limited dead space in the soft tissue. Patients with accidental durotomy can usually be mobilized within 24 hours after MIS TLIF without increased risk. The minimally invasive TLIF technique might thus be beneficial in the prevention of postoperative immobilization-associated complications such as venous thromboembolism. This trial is registered with DRKS00006135. PMID:26075294

  3. 21 CFR 369.9 - General warnings re accidental ingestion by children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General warnings re accidental ingestion by... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INTERPRETATIVE STATEMENTS RE WARNINGS ON DRUGS AND DEVICES FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER SALE Definitions and Interpretations § 369.9 General warnings re accidental...

  4. Thyroid disease among the Rongelap and Utirik population--an update.

    PubMed

    Howard, J E; Vaswani, A; Heotis, P

    1997-07-01

    In 1954, 253 Marshallese were accidentally exposed to fallout radiation from the hydrogen bomb, BRAVO. The Marshall Islands Medical Program (MIMP) was established by the Department of Energy in 1955 to monitor and treat radiation-related disease pursuant to this accident. Medical teams from Brookhaven National Laboratory, a federal institution, regularly visit the Marshall Islands to give medical care to the exposed population. The most significant complication of the exposure has been found to be thyroid disease due to the ingestion of radioactive iodides from the fallout. In 1963 the first thyroid nodules were found in Rongelap subjects and in 1969 in Utirik. Non-neoplastic adenomatous nodules were associated with higher doses of radiation and neoplastic nodules developed in individuals receiving lower doses of radiation. Women were more susceptible to the development of palpable thyroid nodules than men. In 1994 the MIMP initiated examination of the thyroid by ultrasound to supplement the clinical examination. One hundred and sixty-four patients were evaluated. No significant differences were found in the incidence of thyroid nodules or the mean nodule count between the three groups of Rongelap and Utirik exposed and a comparison patient population. There was no significant difference in the incidence of thyroid nodules in males vs. females. Five exposed patients were referred for surgical excision of a nodule detected only by ultrasound. These ultrasound findings are unexpected in that females are known to have a higher incidence of thyroid disease than males and we expected that the incidence of ultrasound nodules would be higher in the exposed population. PMID:9199229

  5. Characterization and Comparison of Injuries Caused by Accidental and Non-accidental Blunt Force Trauma in Dogs and Cats.

    PubMed

    Intarapanich, Nida P; McCobb, Emily C; Reisman, Robert W; Rozanski, Elizabeth A; Intarapanich, Pichai P

    2016-07-01

    Motor vehicle accidents (MVA) are often difficult to distinguish from non-accidental injury (NAI). This retrospective case-control study compared animals with known MVA trauma against those with known NAI. Medical records of 426 dogs and cats treated after MVA and 50 after NAI were evaluated. Injuries significantly associated with MVA were pelvic fractures, pneumothorax, pulmonary contusion, abrasions, and degloving wounds. Injuries associated with NAI were fractures of the skull, teeth, vertebrae, and ribs, scleral hemorrhage, damage to claws, and evidence of older fractures. Odds ratios are reported for these injuries. MVA rib fractures were found to occur in clusters on one side of the body, with cranial ribs more likely to fracture, while NAI rib fractures were found to occur bilaterally with no cranial-caudal pattern. Establishing evidence-based patterns of injury may help clinicians differentiate causes of trauma and may aid in the documentation and prosecution of animal abuse. PMID:27364279

  6. How unclogging a sink can be lethal: case report of an accidental methyl bromide poisoning leading to a multiple organ failure.

    PubMed

    Lecailtel, Sylvain; Broucqsault-Dedrie, Céline; Vanbaelinghem, Clément; Nyunga, Martine; Colling, Delphine; Herbecq, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Methyl bromide (CH3Br) is a colorless and odorless volatile gas, used as an insecticide, fire extinguisher, fumigant, and refrigerant. Although forbidden since 1987 for domestic use, it is still used in industry, for example, to fumigate agricultural fields which are for importation in the United States. Here is the case of a 74-year-old man who was accidentally exposed to methyl bromide after using an old fire extinguisher. Even though he finally survived, he developed a severe multiple organ failure and spent 2 months in intensive care unit. We present in this report all the difficulties we had to diagnose this unusual poisoning. PMID:27408727

  7. Effects of meteorological conditions on the concentration and dispersion of an accidental release of H2S in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul-Wahab, Sabah A.; Chan, Keziah; Elkamel, Ali; Ahmadi, Lena

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to determine the effects of the land's meteorological conditions on the dispersion of an accidental release of H2S using the CALPro software. The three Canadian cities or towns of Edmonton, Yarmouth and Whitehorse, which are all of different meteorological conditions, were chosen as the domains of study. Hourly geophysical, surface and upper air meteorological data were used with CALMET to model the wind field of the three domains for the modeling period of March 11, 2012 from 00h00 to 23h00 LST. Individual 5-h modeling periods where the wind field showed the most significant variations were chosen for each region of study. CALPUFF was used to model the dispersion effects of an accidental release of H2S from a single point source due to an accidental vessel puncture using time-varying emission data modified to suit each region's modeling period. Despite the wind reversal encountered in Edmonton, its relatively flat terrain allowed H2S to disperse outwards, causing concentrations to accumulate lower than the other two regions but still to sever levels and a much greater population. Differences between the effect of land and sea breeze on H2S dispersion in Yarmouth's coastal region caused concentrations to accumulate higher than the other two regions and to life threatening levels around the source. The mountainous terrain of Whitehorse shaped the plume trajectory, causing H2S concentrations to accumulate to levels that can cause irreversible health effects at various times and locations. Results show that each area's meteorological conditions will have different impacts on dispersion.

  8. Behaviour, development and metal accumulation in striped marsh frog tadpoles (Limnodynastes peronii) exposed to coal mine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lanctôt, C; Bennett, W; Wilson, S; Fabbro, L; Leusch, F D L; Melvin, S D

    2016-04-01

    Coal mining generates large quantities of complex effluent, and this often contains high levels of dissolved solids, suspended solids, metals, hydrocarbons, salts and other compounds. Substantial volumes of mine wastewater are periodically discharged into the environment, through both planned and accidental releases, and this raises concerns about the potential for adverse impacts on aquatic wildlife. There have been few attempts to explore sub-lethal effects of coal mine wastewater on amphibians compared to other organisms, and this is particularly true for Australian species. To address existing knowledge gaps, we exposed striped marsh frog (Limnodynastes peronii) tadpoles to 25, 50 and 100% coal mine wastewater collected from two holding dams (CMW1 and CMW2) located at an open cut mine in Central Queensland, Australia. The exposure lasted for four weeks, after which survival, growth and development, swimming behaviour, and concentrations of metals and metalloids in tail and liver tissues were assessed. Physico-chemical parameters varied considerably between sites, with higher turbidity, nutrients, total and dissolved organic carbon, alkalinity and arsenic (As) concentrations at CMW1, and higher conductivity, salinity, dissolved solids, hardness and sulfate levels at CMW2. There was no mortality in controls and less than 5% mortality in CMW1 treatments, whereas survival was significantly decreased in tadpoles exposed to CMW2 with 40 and 55% mortality in the 50 and 100% treatments, respectively. Development was significantly delayed in 100% CMW1 wastewater, but tadpole size (growth) was not influenced by the exposure. Hepatosomatic indices were significantly increased in tadpoles exposed to 25 and 50% CMW1 but not the 100% treatment group. Exposed tadpoles (predominantly those exposed to CMW1) exhibited increased activity after very short-term exposure (24h), but this did not persist as animals approached metamorphic climax. At the end of the experiment, tadpoles

  9. 36 CFR 1230.10 - Who is responsible for preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or destruction of records? 1230.10... responsible for preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or destruction of records? The heads of Federal agencies must: (a) Prevent the unlawful or accidental removal,...

  10. NASA Orbital Debris Baseline Populations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krisko, Paula H.; Vavrin, A. B.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office has created high fidelity populations of the debris environment. The populations include objects of 1 cm and larger in Low Earth Orbit through Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit. They were designed for the purpose of assisting debris researchers and sensor developers in planning and testing. This environment is derived directly from the newest ORDEM model populations which include a background derived from LEGEND, as well as specific events such as the Chinese ASAT test, the Iridium 33/Cosmos 2251 accidental collision, the RORSAT sodium-potassium droplet releases, and other miscellaneous events. It is the most realistic ODPO debris population to date. In this paper we present the populations in chart form. We describe derivations of the background population and the specific populations added on. We validate our 1 cm and larger Low Earth Orbit population against SSN, Haystack, and HAX radar measurements.

  11. Risk and resilience factors of persons exposed to accidents

    PubMed Central

    HERTA, DANA – CRISTINA; BRÎNDAS, PAULA; TRIFU, RALUCA; COZMAN, DOINA

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Resilience encompasses factors promoting effective functioning in the context of adversity. Data regarding resilience in the wake of accidental trauma is still scarce. The aim of the current study is to comparatively assess adaptive, life – promoting factors in persons exposed to motor vehicle accidents (MVA) vs. persons exposed to other types of accidents, and to identify psychological factors of resilience and vulnerability in this context of trauma exposure. Methods We assessed 93 participants exposed to accidents out of 305 eligible patients from the Clinical Rehabilitation Hospital and Cluj County Emergency Hospital. The study used Reasons for Living Inventory (RFL) and Life Events Checklist. Scores were comparatively assessed for RFL items, RFL scale and subscales in participants exposed to motor vehicle accidents (MVA) vs. participants exposed to other life – threatening accidents. Results Participants exposed to MVA and those exposed to other accidents had significantly different scores in 7 RFL items. Scores were high in 4 out of 6 RFL subscales for both samples and in most items comprising these subscales, while in the other 2 subscales and in some items comprising them scores were low. Conclusions Low fear of death, physical suffering and social disapproval emerge as risk factors in persons exposed to life – threatening accidents. Love of life, courage in life and hope for the future are important resilience factors after exposure to various types of life – threatening accidents. Survival and active coping beliefs promote resilience especially after motor vehicle accidents. Coping with uncertainty are more likely to foster resilience after other types of life – threatening accidents. Attachment of the accident victim to family promotes resilience mostly after MVA, while perceived attachment of family members to the victim promotes resilience after other types of accidents. PMID:27152078

  12. Prevention reference manual: chemical specific. Volume 9. Control of accidental releases of chlorine

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, D.S.; DeWolf, G.B.; Quass, J.D.; Wert, K.P.

    1987-08-01

    The manual discusses reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of chlorine. It identifies examples of potential causes of accidental releases that apply to processes that use chlorine, as well as measures that may be taken to reduce the accidental release risk. Such measures include recommendations on plant design practices; prevention, protection, and mitigation technologies; and operation and maintenance practices. It provides conceptual cost estimates of possible prevention, protection, and mitigation measures. Chlorine has an IDLH (immediately dangerous to life and health) concentration, making it a substantial acute toxic hazard.

  13. Pneumonitis and pneumatoceles following accidental hydrocarbon aspiration in children.

    PubMed

    Thalhammer, Gabriela H; Eber, Ernst; Zach, Maximilian S

    2005-02-01

    Accidental ingestion and aspiration of hydrocarbons in children are common. Among the various clinical and pathological manifestations of hydrocarbon (HC) poisoning, pneumonitis is the most significant and occurs in up to 40% of children, whereas formation of pneumatoceles is believed to be a rare event. We report two children with HC pneumonitis and pneumatoceles as a reversible complication after ingestion and aspiration of lamp oil with very low viscosity. Patient 1, a 21-month-old boy, started to cough and developed tachypnea, sternal retractions and mild cyanosis immediately after aspiration. Patient 2, a 24-month-old girl, was asymptomatic during the first days after the accident; subsequently, she started to cough and developed fever, dyspnea and chest pain. Chest x-ray and computed tomography revealed multiple patchy infiltrates in both cases; after several days, these confluent infiltrates developed into pneumatoceles. Both children were treated with antibiotics and steroids. They recovered within three and four weeks, respectively, with complete remission of the radiologic abnormalities and had an uneventful follow-up after discharge. PMID:15847196

  14. High mortality due to accidental salinomycin intoxication in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Eisapour, Hamed; Erfani, Amir Mehdi; Kalantary, Amir Ali; Amoli, Jamileh Salar; Mozafari, Morteza

    2014-01-01

    In February 2012, 100% mortality was reported in a herd with 79 local sheep that were kept around of Abhar, Northwest of Iran. The ration for adult sheep was daily mixed (40 kg straw, 25 kg wheat and 2 kg Vit-C premix) and accidentally 1 500 g of salinomycin (Salinomycin 12% Premix; Aras Bazar Laboratories, Iran) had been added to the ration (22388 mg/kg = 22388 ppm) and overnight was fed to herd. At the morning, 78 sheep were founded dead and one of them showed convulsive seizures. Postmortem examination revealed pulmonary congestion and edema, hemorrhages in abomasum, large pale kidney and white streak lines in myocardium. Main histopathologic lesions were extensive subepicardial and intercardiomyofibers hemorrhages, extensive cardiomyolysis and myocarditis in heart, severe hyperemia and extensive acute tubular necrosis (ATN) in kidneys and focal necrosis and retention of bile cholangitis in the liver. In this study, on the basis of the history, observation of the ionophore remnant in the ration, clinical signs, gross and histopathological findings, acute salinomycin intoxication is definitely diagnosed. PMID:26109896

  15. Kinematics and kinetics of an accidental lateral ankle sprain.

    PubMed

    Kristianslund, Eirik; Bahr, Roald; Krosshaug, Tron

    2011-09-23

    Ankle sprains are common during sporting activities and can have serious consequences. Understanding of injury mechanisms is essential to prevent injuries, but only two previous studies have provided detailed descriptions of the kinematics of lateral ankle sprains and measures of kinetics are missing. In the present study a female handball player accidentally sprained her ankle during sidestep cutting in a motion analysis laboratory. Kinematics and kinetics were calculated from 240 Hz recordings with a full-body marker setup. The injury trial was compared with two previous (non-injury) trials. The injury trial showed a sudden increase in inversion and internal rotation that peaked between 130 and 180 ms after initial contact. We observed an attempted unloading of the foot from 80 ms after initial contact. As the inversion and internal rotation progressed, the loads were likely to exceed injury threshold between 130 and 180 ms. There was a considerable amount of dorsiflexion in the injury trial compared to neutral flexion in the control trials, similar to the previously published kinematical descriptions of lateral ankle sprains. The present study also adds valuable kinetic information that improves understanding of the injury mechanism. PMID:21824618

  16. Methodology for evaluation of possible consequences of accidental atmospheric releases of hazardous matter.

    PubMed

    Mahura, A; Baklanov, A; Sørensen, J Havskov

    2003-01-01

    Sites exist with high levels of risk of accidental atmospheric releases. These releases can be hazardous nuclear, chemical, and biological matter. Such accidents may occur during transport of waste, or they may be due to natural hazards, human errors, terror acts or various operations at high risk. Considering the operation of lifting and transport of the sunken Kursk nuclear submarine as an example, a methodology for risk assessment is described. This methodology includes two approaches: (1) probabilistic analysis of possible atmospheric transport pathways using trajectory modelling, and (2) evaluation of possible contamination and consequences using real-time operational atmospheric dispersion modelling. The first approach can be applied in advance of an operation during the preparation stage, the second in real time during the operation stage. For the cases considered in this study, the results of trajectory modelling are supported by the operational dispersion modelling, i.e., the westerly flow is dominant during fall occurring 79% of the time. Hence, September-October 2001 was more appropriate for the lifting and transport of the Kursk nuclear submarine in comparison with summer months, when atmospheric transport toward the populated regions of the Kola and Scandinavian Peninsulas was dominant. The suggested methodology may be applied to any potentially dangerous object involving a risk of atmospheric release of hazardous material of nuclear, chemical or biological nature. PMID:12593432

  17. Non-accidental Trauma Injury Patterns and Outcomes: A Single Institutional Experience.

    PubMed

    Ward, Austin; Iocono, Joseph A; Brown, Samuel; Ashley, Phillip; Draus, John M

    2015-09-01

    Non-accidental trauma (NAT) victims account for a significant percentage of our pediatric trauma population. We sought to better understand the injury patterns and outcomes of NAT victims who were treated at our level I pediatric trauma center. Trauma registry data were used to identify NAT victims between January 2008 and December 2012. Demographic data, injury severity, hospital course, and outcomes were evaluated. One hundred and eighty-eight cases of suspected NAT were identified. Children were mostly male and white. The median age was 1.1 years; the median Injury Severity Score was 9. Traumatic brain injuries, lower extremity fractures, and skull fractures were the most common injuries. Twenty-seven per cent required medical procedures; most were performed by orthopedic surgery. Twenty-four per cent required admission to the pediatric intensive care unit. The median length of stay was two days. The mortality rate was 9.6 per cent. We generated a hot spot map of our catchment area and identified areas of our state where NAT occurs at increased rates. NAT victims sustain significant morbidity and mortality. Due to the severity of injuries, pediatric trauma surgeons should be involved in the evaluation and management of these children. Much work is needed to prevent the death and disability incurred by victims of child abuse. PMID:26350656

  18. Along-wind dispersion of short-duration accidental releases of hazardous gases

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, S.R.

    1996-12-31

    Most accidental releases of hazardous gases are of short duration (a few minutes, at most) because of limitations to the total mass available for release or because of mitigation measures such as automatic valve closure or water spray curtains. The resulting cloud would then have the shape of an elongated puff at distances of about 500 m to 1,000 m when it encounters nearby population centers. The maximum concentration in the elongated puff depends strongly on whether the along-wind dispersion coefficient, {sigma}{sub x}, is larger than the length of the finite duration core of the cloud, u{sub c}T{sub d}, where T{sub d} is the source release duration and u{sub c} is the advective speed of the cloud. The along-wind dispersion coefficient, {sigma}{sub x}, is determined by the turbulent energy and the wind-shear over the cloud depth. Both the wind-shear and the advective speed of the cloud, u{sub c}, are functions of time or distance, since they represent concentration-weighted averages over the depth of the cloud, which is steadily increasing. Boundary-layer similarity theories are used to develop simplified formulas for {sigma}{sub x}, which are tested using data from laboratory and field experiments. The theory is expanded to include dense gas clouds and the resulting associated enhanced along-wind dispersion due to gravity slumping.

  19. Development of emergency response tools for accidental radiological contamination of French coastal areas.

    PubMed

    Duffa, Céline; Bailly du Bois, Pascal; Caillaud, Matthieu; Charmasson, Sabine; Couvez, Céline; Didier, Damien; Dumas, Franck; Fievet, Bruno; Morillon, Mehdi; Renaud, Philippe; Thébault, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident resulted in the largest ever accidental release of artificial radionuclides in coastal waters. This accident has shown the importance of marine assessment capabilities for emergency response and the need to develop tools for adequately predicting the evolution and potential impact of radioactive releases to the marine environment. The French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) equips its emergency response centre with operational tools to assist experts and decision makers in the event of accidental atmospheric releases and contamination of the terrestrial environment. The on-going project aims to develop tools for the management of marine contamination events in French coastal areas. This should allow us to evaluate and anticipate post-accident conditions, including potential contamination sites, contamination levels and potential consequences. In order to achieve this goal, two complementary tools are developed: site-specific marine data sheets and a dedicated simulation tool (STERNE, Simulation du Transport et du transfert d'Eléments Radioactifs dans l'environNEment marin). Marine data sheets are used to summarize the marine environment characteristics of the various sites considered, and to identify vulnerable areas requiring implementation of population protection measures, such as aquaculture areas, beaches or industrial water intakes, as well as areas of major ecological interest. Local climatological data (dominant sea currents as a function of meteorological or tidal conditions) serving as the basis for an initial environmental sampling strategy is provided whenever possible, along with a list of possible local contacts for operational management purposes. The STERNE simulation tool is designed to predict radionuclide dispersion and contamination in seawater and marine species by incorporating spatio-temporal data. 3D hydrodynamic forecasts are used as input data. Direct discharge points or

  20. Medical documentation, bioanalytical evidence of an accidental human exposure to sulfur mustard and general therapy recommendations.

    PubMed

    Steinritz, Dirk; Striepling, Enno; Rudolf, Klaus-Dieter; Schröder-Kraft, Claudia; Püschel, Klaus; Hullard-Pulstinger, Andreas; Koller, Marianne; Thiermann, Horst; Gandor, Felix; Gawlik, Michael; John, Harald

    2016-02-26

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent (CWA) that was first used in World War I and in several military conflicts afterwards. The threat by SM is still present even today due to remaining stockpiles, old and abandoned remainders all over the world as well as to its ease of synthesis. CWA are banned by the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) interdicting their development, production, transport, stockpiling and use and are subjected to controlled destruction. The present case report describes an accidental exposure of three workers that occurred during the destruction of SM. All exposed workers presented a characteristic SM-related clinical picture that started about 4h after exposure with erythema and feeling of tension of the skin at the upper part of the body. Later on, superficial blister and a burning phenomenon of the affected skin areas developed. Similar symptoms occurred in all three patients differing severity. One patient presented sustained skin affections at the gluteal region while another patient came up with affections of the axilla and genital region. Fortunately, full recovery was observed on day 56 after exposure except some little pigmentation changes that were evident even on day 154 in two of the patients. SM-exposure was verified for all three patients using bioanalytical GC MS and LC MS/MS based methods applied to urine and plasma. Urinary biotransformation products of the β-lyase pathway were detected until 5 days after poisoning whereas albumin-SM adducts could be found until day 29 underlining the beneficial role of adduct detection for post-exposure verification. In addition, we provide general recommendations for management and therapy in case of SM poisoning. PMID:26321678

  1. A Case Report: Cytogenetic Dosimetry after Accidental Radiation Exposure during (192)Ir Industrial Radiography Testing.

    PubMed

    Beinke, C; Ben-Shlomo, A; Abend, M; Port, M

    2015-07-01

    The accidental gamma radiation exposure of an industrial radiography worker and the cytogenetic examination of the worker's blood lymphocytes are described here. The exposure of the worker was due to a malfunction at the entrance into the depleted uranium-shielding device of a (192)Ir source during operation. Because the source was sealed no additional beta radiation exposure was assumed. The worker's thermoluminescent dosimeter indicated an absorbed dose of 0.078 Sv, which presumably took place in December 2013. No clinical symptoms were reported in the case history after the potential exposure to radiation. Four months after the incident it was decided that biological dosimetry using dicentric chromosome and micronucleus analysis would be performed to follow radiation protection aspects and to clarify the radiation dose uncertainties for the exposed worker. Micronucleus frequency was not increased above the laboratory's control value of micronucleus background frequency of unexposed individuals. However, the observed dicentric frequency (0.003 dicentric/cell) differs significantly from the laboratory's background level of dicentric chromosomes in unexposed individuals (0.0007 dicentric/cell). Dicentric analysis in 2,048 metaphase cells resulted in an estimated dose of no more than 0.181 Gy (95% upper confidence level), not less than 0.014 Gy (95% lower confidence level) and a mean dose of 0.066 Gy (photon-equivalent whole-body exposure) based on interpolation from the laboratory's calibration curve for (60)Co gamma radiation. Since overdispersion of dicentric chromosomes (u = 9.78) indicated a heterogeneous (partial-body) exposure, we applied the Dolphin method and estimated an exposure of 2.1 Sv affecting 21% of the body volume. Because the overdispersion of dicentric chromosomes was caused by only one heavily damaged cell containing two dicentrics, it is possible that this was an incidental finding. In summary, a radiation overexposure of the radiography worker

  2. 60,000 U.S. Kids Treated for Accidental Medicine Poisoning a Year

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_157875.html 60,000 U.S. Kids Treated for Accidental Medicine Poisoning a Year Toddlers ... because of medicine-related poisoning, according to Safe Kids Worldwide. And nearly every minute each day a ...

  3. Accidental hanging deaths in children in Konya, Turkey between 1998 and 2007.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Kamil H; Demirci, Serafettin; Erkol, Zerrin; Gulmen, Mete K

    2010-05-01

    In general, hanging cases are the result of suicide, and accidental and homicidal hanging cases are rarely seen. This study retrospectively investigated 4571 death examinations and autopsies that were performed at The Konya Branch of the Forensic Medicine Council (Turkey) between 1998 and 2007; hanging was involved in 201 (6.5%) of the cases. There were a total of 13 accidental hanging cases, where 12 of these involved children. In seven of the cases, the accidental hanging involved a scarf that wraps around swing-like cradles and is intended to prevent infants from falling down. It was concluded that accidental hanging deaths can be reduced by replacing swing-like cradles with cribs that are designed for children, removing ropes in and around the house, and preventing children from reaching and/or playing with rope-like objects. PMID:20202070

  4. [Vaccines and exposed occupations].

    PubMed

    Gendrel, Dominique

    2007-04-01

    The use of safe and efficacious vaccines in occupational settings to protect workers from diseases to which they may be exposed is obvious and has been included in the employment law. Healthcare workers are particular exposed. Immunization has two purposes : protect the worker from contracting a disease, but also prevent him from disseminating the disease to weakened patients. It is important not only to take into account existing recommendations for immunization, but also to envisage their extension to teachers and staff of nurseries and primary schools. Routine vaccination against whooping cough, varicella, measles and hepatitis A is particularly warranted in these categories. Recommendations should also extend to medical students who are too often poorly protected and insufficiently warned against potential occupational exposure to pathogens and dissemination to their patients. PMID:17433233

  5. Accidental ingestion of a component of a fixed orthodontic appliance--a case report.

    PubMed

    Quick, A N; Harris, A M P

    2002-03-01

    Most dental patients are treated in the supine position, enhancing the risk of accidental aspiration or swallowing of foreign objects. This article presents a case report of an orthodontic patient who accidentally ingested a section of orthodontic wire and coil spring from a fixed expansion device placed in the maxillary dental arch. Some guidelines for the prevention of such occurrences in the practice and at home, and possible courses of remedial action, are discussed. PMID:12061146

  6. Persistent Seroconversion after Accidental Eye Exposure to Calcifying Nanoparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciftcioglu, Neva; Aho, Katja M.; McKay, David S.; Kajander, E. Olavi

    2007-01-01

    Biosafety of nanomaterials has attracted much attention recently. We report here a case where accidental human eye exposure to biogenic nanosized calcium phosphate in the form of calcifying nanoparticles (CNP) raised a strong IgG immune response against proteins carried by CNP. The antibody titer has persisted over ten years at the high level. The IgG was detected by ELISA using CNPs propagated in media containing bovine and human serum as antigen. The exposure incident occurred to a woman scientist (WS) at a research laboratory in Finland at 1993. CNP, also termed "nanobacteria", is a unique self-replicating agent that has not been fully characterized and no data on biohazards were available at that time. Before the accident, her serum samples were negative for both CNP antigen and anti-CNP antibody using specific ELISA tests (Nanobac Oy, Kuopio, Finland). The accident occurred while WS was harvesting CNP cultures. Due to a high pressure in pipetting, CNP pellet splashed into her right eye. Both eyes were immediately washed with water and saline. The following days there was irritation and redness in the right eye. These symptoms disappeared within two weeks without any treatment. Three months after the accident, blood and urine samples of WS were tested for CNP cultures (2), CNP-specific ELISA tests, and blood cell counts. Blood cell counts were normal, CNP antigen and culture tests were negative. A high IgG anti-CNP antibody titer was detected (see Figure). The antibodies of this person have been used thereafter as positive control and standard in ELISA manufacturing (Nano-Sero IgG ELISA, Nanobac Oy, Kuopio, Finland).

  7. Acute health effects of accidental chlorine gas exposure

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to report the course of an accidental release of chlorine gas that occurred in a factory in Gumi-si, South Korea, on March 5, 2013. We describe the analysis results of 2 patients hospitalized because of chlorine-induced acute health problems, as well as the clinical features of 209 non-hospitalized patients. Methods We analyzed the medical records of the 2 hospitalized patients admitted to the hospital, as well as the medical records and self-report questionnaires of 209 non-hospitalized patients completed during outpatient treatment. Results Immediately after the exposure, the 2 hospitalized patients developed acute asthma-like symptoms such as cough and dyspnea, and showed restrictive and combined pattern ventilatory defects on the pulmonary function test. The case 1 showed asthma-like symptoms over six months and diurnal variability in peak expiratory flow rate was 56.7%. In case 2, his FEV1 after treatment (93%) increased by 25% compared to initial FEV1 (68%). Both cases were diagnosed as chlorine-induced reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS) on the basis of these clinical features. The most frequent chief complaints of the 209 non-hospitalized patients were headache (22.7%), followed by eye irritation (18.2%), nausea (11.2%), and sore throat (10.8%), with asymptomatic patients accounting for 36.5%. The multiple-response analysis of individual symptom revealed headache (42.4%) to be the most frequent symptom, followed by eye irritation (30.5%), sore throat (30.0%), cough (29.6%), nausea (27.6%), and dizziness (27.3%). Conclusions The 2 patients hospitalized after exposure to chlorine gas at the leakage site showed a clinical course corresponding to RADS. All of the 209 non-hospitalized patients only complained of symptoms of the upper airways and mucous membrane irritation. PMID:25852940

  8. Effectiveness of common shelter-in-place techniques in reducing ammonia exposure following accidental release.

    PubMed

    Tarkington, Brett; Harris, Angela J; Barton, Paul S; Chandler, Ben; Goad, Phillip T

    2009-04-01

    Shelter-in-place strategies such as remaining indoors; breathing through a damp cloth; sealing cracks in windows and doors using towels, duct tape, or plastic sheeting; and running a shower are often recommended by emergency response officials to protect against accidental or intentional release of hazardous airborne chemicals and biologicals. Similar recommendations have been made to and used by community members exposed to anhydrous ammonia after catastrophic release of ammonia gas due to a derailment or other accidents. Such incidents have resulted in fatalities and serious injury to exposed individuals; however, other individuals within the same area have escaped injury and, in many cases, sustained no injuries as a result of sheltering-in-place. Although there are some studies that have evaluated the effectiveness of remaining in the home or breathing through a damp cloth to reduce exposure to various agents, there have been no studies that directly address the efficacy of running the shower in reducing exposure to ammonia gas. The present study was designed to simulate sheltering-in-place inside a typical bathroom with the shower running. The effectiveness of breathing through a damp cloth was also evaluated using a CPR mannequin placed inside a chamber built to represent a typical household bathroom. Ammonia gas at 300 or 1000 ppm was added to the chamber until the concentration peaked and stabilized, then the shower was turned on and the ammonia gas concentration was continuously monitored. In the mannequin studies, using a damp cloth reduced exposure to ammonia gas by 2- to 18-fold. Turning on the shower was even more effective at reducing ammonia levels. After 27 min, the ammonia concentration in the chamber was reduced to 2% of the initial concentration, even though gas was being continuously added to the chamber. These results indicate that use of shelter-in-place strategies substantially reduces ammonia exposure and that by combining shelter

  9. Evolution of N-species Kimura/voter models towards criticality, a surrogate for general models of accidental pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaffari, Peyman; Stollenwerk, Nico

    2012-09-01

    In models for accidental pathogens, with the paradigmatic epidemiological system of bacterial meningitis, there was evolution towards states exhibiting critical fluctuations with power law behaviour observed [1]. This is a model with many possibly pathogenic strains essentially evolving independently to low pathogenicity. A first and previous study had shown that in the limit of vanishing pathogenicity there are critical fluctuations with power law distributions observed, already when only two strains interact [2]. This earlier version of a two strain model was very recently reinvestigated [3] and named as Stollenwerk-Jansen model (SJ). Muñoz et al. demonstrated that this two-strain model for accidental pathogens is in the universality class of the so-called voter model. Though this model clearly shows criticality, its control parameter, the pathogenicity, is not self-tuning towards criticality. However, the multi-strain version mentioned above [1] is well evolving towards criticality, as well as a spatially explicit version of this, shown in [4] p. 155. These models of multi-strain type including explicitly mutations of the pathogenicity can be called SJ-models of type II [5]. Since the original epidemiological model is of SIRYX-type, the evolution to zero pathogenicity is slow and perturbed by large population noise. In the present article we now show on the basis of the notion of the voter-model universality classes the evolution of n-voter models with mutaion towards criticality, now much less perturbed by population noise, hence demonstrating a clear mechanism of self-organized criticality in the sense of [6, 7]. The present results have wide implications for many diseases in which a large proportion of infections is asymptomatic, meaning that the system has already evolved towards an average low pathogenicity. This holds not only for the original paradigmatic case of bacterial meningitis, but was reecently also suggested for example for dengue fever (DENFREE

  10. The Psychobiology of Children Exposed to Marital Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltzman, Kasey M.; Holden, George W.; Holahan, Charles J.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the psychological and physiological functioning of a community sample of children exposed to marital violence, comparing them to a clinical comparison group without marital violence exposure. Results replicated past findings of elevated levels of trauma symptomatology in this population. Further, children exposed to marital violence…

  11. Estimation of background radiation doses for the Peninsular Malaysia's population by ESR dosimetry of tooth enamel.

    PubMed

    Rodzi, Mohd; Zhumadilov, Kassym; Ohtaki, Megu; Ivannikov, Alexander; Bhattacharjee, Deborshi; Fukumura, Akifumi; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2011-08-01

    Background radiation dose is used in dosimetry for estimating occupational doses of radiation workers or determining radiation dose of an individual following accidental exposure. In the present study, the absorbed dose and the background radiation level are determined using the electron spin resonance (ESR) method on tooth samples. The effect of using different tooth surfaces and teeth exposed with single medical X-rays on the absorbed dose are also evaluated. A total of 48 molars of position 6-8 were collected from 13 district hospitals in Peninsular Malaysia. Thirty-six teeth had not been exposed to any excessive radiation, and 12 teeth had been directly exposed to a single X-ray dose during medical treatment prior to extraction. There was no significant effect of tooth surfaces and exposure with single X-rays on the measured absorbed dose of an individual. The mean measured absorbed dose of the population is 34 ± 6.2 mGy, with an average tooth enamel age of 39 years. From the slope of a regression line, the estimated annual background dose for Peninsular Malaysia is 0.6 ± 0.3 mGy y(-1). This value is slightly lower than the yearly background dose for Malaysia, and the radiation background dose is established by ESR tooth measurements on samples from India and Russia. PMID:21404066

  12. Collective radiation biodosimetry for dose reconstruction of acute accidental exposures: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Pass, B

    1997-01-01

    Quantification of the biologically relevant dose is required to establish cause and effect between radiation detriment or burden and important biological outcomes. Most epidemiologic studies of unanticipated radiation exposure fail to establish cause and effect because researchers have not been able to construct a valid quantification of dose for the exposed population. However, no one biodosimetric technique (biophysical or biological) meets all the requirements of an ideal dosimeter. This paper reviews how the collection of biodosimetric data for victims of radiation accidents can be used to create a dosimetric "gold standard." Particular emphasis is placed on the use of electron spin resonance, a standard for radiation accident dosimetry. As an example of this technique, a review will be presented of a previously reported study of an individual exposed to a 60Co sterilization source. PMID:9467051

  13. Magical Empiricism and 'Exposed Being' in Medicine and Traditional Healing.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Southern African traditional healers often generalize too broadly from discrete ('accidental') instances of success, partly to recruit a clientele, while biomedicine frequently reasons incorrectly from the general to the specific. Both logics are based on empirical observations, but are inversions of each other; these I characterize as 'magical empiricism.' 'Magic' functions as a metapragmatic discourse to recruit a clientele from a skeptical public that doubts the efficacy of any therapeutic interventions, and it acts in parallel with other practical (and efficacious) healing acts. I introduce the concept of 'exposed beings' to describe locally specific constructions of the person as patient and healer. This helps to explain the existence and enduring appeal of many different medical practices and beliefs in South Africa, but I suggest that 'medical parallelism' rather than 'pluralism' might be more accurate. PMID:25806659

  14. Fate of accidental symmetries of the relativistic hydrogen atom in a spherical cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hashimi, M. H.; Shalaby, A. M.; Wiese, U.-J.

    2015-11-01

    The non-relativistic hydrogen atom enjoys an accidental SO(4) symmetry, that enlarges the rotational SO(3) symmetry, by extending the angular momentum algebra with the Runge-Lenz vector. In the relativistic hydrogen atom the accidental symmetry is partially lifted. Due to the Johnson-Lippmann operator, which commutes with the Dirac Hamiltonian, some degeneracy remains. When the non-relativistic hydrogen atom is put in a spherical cavity of radius R with perfectly reflecting Robin boundary conditions, characterized by a self-adjoint extension parameter γ, in general the accidental SO(4) symmetry is lifted. However, for R =(l + 1) (l + 2) a (where a is the Bohr radius and l is the orbital angular momentum) some degeneracy remains when γ = ∞ or γ =2/R. In the relativistic case, we consider the most general spherically and parity invariant boundary condition, which is characterized by a self-adjoint extension parameter. In this case, the remnant accidental symmetry is always lifted in a finite volume. We also investigate the accidental symmetry in the context of the Pauli equation, which sheds light on the proper non-relativistic treatment including spin. In that case, again some degeneracy remains for specific values of R and γ.

  15. Accidental release of fluoride into experimental pond and accumulation in sediments, plants, algae, molluscs and fish.

    PubMed

    Kudo, A; Garrec, J P

    1983-09-01

    The fate of fluoride in a simulated accidental release into an experimental pond was observed for 30 days in Grenoble, France. The components investigated were water, sediments, plants, algae, molluscs, and fish. Twenty-four hours after the release, most (99.8%) of the fluoride was distributed in the physical components (water and sediments), and the biological agents contained only 0.2% of the fluoride released. Despite an exposure to hot spots of 5000 ppm at the beginning of the accidental release, no visible toxic effects were observed on the biological components such as plants, algae, molluscs, and fish. The effects of the physical components in the defluoridation showed a significant role in the control the accidental release of fluoride in the aquatic system. PMID:6635267

  16. Accidental release of fluoride into experimental pond and accumulation in sediments, plants, algae, molluscs, and fish

    SciTech Connect

    Kudo, A.; Garrec, J.P.

    1983-09-01

    The fate of fluoride in a simulated accidental release into an experimental pond was observed for 30 days in Grenoble, France. The components investigated were water, sediments, plants, algae, molluscs, and fish. Twenty-four hours after the release, most (99.8%) of the fluoride was distributed in the physical components (water and sediments), and the biological agents contained only 0.2% of the fluoride released. Despite an exposure to hot spots of 5000 ppm at the beginning of the accidental release, no visible toxic effects were observed on the biological components such as plants, algae, molluscs, and fish. The effects of the physical components in the defluoridation showed a significant role in the control the accidental release of fluoride in the aquatic system.

  17. Laryngeal impaction of an archwire segment after accidental ingestion during orthodontic adjustment.

    PubMed

    Umesan, Uday Kumar; Ahmad, Wizziyiane; Balakrishnan, Priya

    2012-08-01

    Orthodontic archwires or fractured appliances that are accidentally swallowed can become lodged in the airway or gastrointestinal tract. Inadvertent ingestion or aspiration of an appliance or archwire piece during orthodontic appliance adjustment is a medical emergency with potentially serious complications, including possible death from asphyxiation. This article reports the accidental ingestion of a piece of orthodontic archwire that became impacted in the larynx; it was subsequently retrieved. Some potential complications are discussed, along with suggested precautions to prevent such mishaps when using fixed appliances. PMID:22858337

  18. Good continuation in dot patterns: A quantitative approach based on local symmetry and non-accidentalness.

    PubMed

    Lezama, José; Randall, Gregory; Morel, Jean-Michel; Grompone von Gioi, Rafael

    2016-09-01

    We propose a novel approach to the grouping of dot patterns by the good continuation law. Our model is based on local symmetries, and the non-accidentalness principle to determine perceptually relevant configurations. A quantitative measure of non-accidentalness is proposed, showing a good correlation with the visibility of a curve of dots. A robust, unsupervised and scale-invariant algorithm for the detection of good continuation of dots is derived. The results of the proposed method are illustrated on various datasets, including data from classic psychophysical studies. An online demonstration of the algorithm allows the reader to directly evaluate the method. PMID:26408332

  19. Investigation of Thermal Equilibrium around an Accidental Event and Impact on Possibly Enclosed Surrounding Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Biswanath; Shah, Nitin; Choukekar, Ketan; Kapoor, Himanshu; Kumar, Uday; Das, Jotirmoy; Bhattacharaya, Ritendra; Vaghela, Hitensinh; Muralidhara, Srinivasa

    Complex and large cryogenic distribution systems are integral part of a fusion machine having superconducting magnets, cryopumps, etc. The various equipment of the cryogenic distribution system are interconnected via Cryogenic Transfer Lines (CTLs) to distribute cold helium to end users. During nominal operation of the fusion machine, helium inventory in CTLs could be in order of several tons. The cold helium present in CTLs could be released in surrounding volume due to accidental scenario. The present analysis, aims to estimate lowest temperature in the surrounding volume due to accidental scenario. The paper will describe simulation results and the test plan in a simulated condition.

  20. A case of delayed respiratory depression caused by accidental subcutaneous opioid infusion.

    PubMed

    Okada, Takuya; Egi, Moritoki; Sato, Hitoaki; Nomura, Yuki; Okada, Masako; Izuta, Shinichiro; Mizobuchi, Satoshi

    2016-06-01

    We report a case of delayed respiratory depression due to accidental subcutaneous opioid infusion. A healthy 33-year-old woman underwent orthopedic surgery under general anesthesia. Before the end of the operation, it was noticed that a part of the opioid infusion had been administered subcutaneously. About 15 min after tracheal extubation, the patient developed respiratory depression and loss of consciousness. The patient recovered with the use of jaw lift together with bag-valve-mask ventilation. We believe that accidental subcutaneous opioid accumulation may have caused the respiratory depression. PMID:26762999

  1. Interphase cytogenetics of workers exposed to benzene

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, L.; Wang, Yunxia; Venkatesh, P.

    1996-12-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful new technique that allows numerical chromosome aberrations (aneuploidy) to be detected in interphase cells. In previous studies, FISH has been used to demonstrate that the benzene metabolites hydroquinone and 1,2,4-benzenetriol induce aneuploidy of chromosomes 7 and 9 in cultures of human cells. In the present study, we used an interphase FISH procedure to perform cytogenetic analyses on the blood cells of 43 workers exposed to benzene (median=31 ppm, 8-hr time-weighted average) and 44 matched controls from Shanghai, China. High benzene exposure (>31 ppm, n=22) increased the hyperdiploid frequency of chromosome 9 (p<0.01), but lower exposure (<31 ppm, n=21) did not. Trisomy 9 was the major form of benzene-induced hyperdiploidy. The level of hyperdiploidy in exposed workers correlated with their urinary phenol level (r= 0.58, p < 0.0001), a measure of internal benzene close. A significant correlation was also found between hyperdiploicly and decreased absolute lymphocyte count, an indicator of benzene hematotoxicity, in the exposed group (r=-0.44, p=0.003) but not in controls (r=-0.09, P=0.58). These results show that high benzene exposure induces aneuploidy of chromosome 9 in nondiseased individuals, with trisomy being the most prevalent form. They further highlight the usefulness of interphase cytogenetics and FISH for the rapid and sensitive detection of aneuploidy in exposed human populations. 35 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Accidental exposure to isocyanate fumes in a group of firemen.

    PubMed Central

    Axford, A T; McKerrow, C B; Jones, A P; Le Quesne, P M

    1976-01-01

    A total of 35 firemen involved in fighting a fire in a factory in which polyurethane foam was made were exposed to fumes of toluene di-isocyanate from two large storage tanks which were damaged during the fire, resulting in massive spillage. Most of the men experienced symptoms during the fire or during the three weeks after it. The symptoms were mainly gastrointestinal, respiratory, or neurological. Altogether 15 men described gastrointestinal symptoms which subsided within two days of onset. Respiratory symptoms were described by 31 men and were most pronounced during the three days after the fire, thereafter tending to improve. The neurological findings are described separately. When the men were reviewed at six months there was a suggestion that some of them might have sustained long-term damage to the respiratory tract, and almost four years later 20 men had persistent respiratory symptoms. Serial measurements of ventilatory capacity revealed a marked decline in the first six months although this was not sustained. PMID:179561

  3. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES. VOLUME 1. PREVENTION AND PROTECTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR CONTROLLING ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF AIR TOXICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume discusses prevention and protection measures for controlling accidental releases of air toxics. The probability of accidental releases depends on the extent to which deviations (in magnitude and duration) in the process can be tolerated before a loss of chemical contai...

  4. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES, VOLUME 2: POST-RELEASE MITIGATION MEASURES FOR CONTROLLING ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF AIR TOXICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume discusses prevention and protection measures for controlling accidental releases of air toxics. The probability of accidental releases depends on the extent to which deviations (in magnitude and duration) in the process can be tolerated before a loss of chemical contai...

  5. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES, VOL. 2. POST-RELEASE MITIGATION MEASURES FOR CONTROLLING ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF AIR TOXICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume discusses prevention and protection measures for controlling accidental releases of air toxics. The probability of accidental releases depends on the extent to which deviations (in magnitude and duration) in the process can be tolerated before a loss of chemical contai...

  6. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 2. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF CHLORINE (SCAQMD) (SOUTH COAST AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT DISTRICT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manual discusses reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of chlorine. It identifies some of the potential causes of accidental releases that apply to the processes that use chlorine. It also identifies examples of potential causes, as well as measures that may...

  7. 36 CFR 1230.10 - Who is responsible for preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Who is responsible for preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or destruction of records? 1230.10 Section 1230.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT UNLAWFUL OR ACCIDENTAL...

  8. 36 CFR 1230.10 - Who is responsible for preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Who is responsible for preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or destruction of records? 1230.10 Section 1230.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT UNLAWFUL OR ACCIDENTAL...

  9. 36 CFR 1230.10 - Who is responsible for preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Who is responsible for preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or destruction of records? 1230.10 Section 1230.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT UNLAWFUL OR ACCIDENTAL...

  10. 36 CFR 1230.10 - Who is responsible for preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Who is responsible for preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or destruction of records? 1230.10 Section 1230.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT UNLAWFUL OR ACCIDENTAL...

  11. 36 CFR 1230.16 - How does NARA handle allegations of unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does NARA handle allegations of unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or destruction? 1230.16 Section 1230.16... handle allegations of unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or destruction?...

  12. Determination of VX-G analogue in red blood cells via gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry following an accidental exposure to VX.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Jeffrey M; Taylor, James T; Byers, Christopher E; Jakubowski, Edward M; Thomson, Sandra M

    2008-01-01

    A sensitive method for determining exposure to the chemical warfare agent VX is described in which the biomarker ethyl methylphosphonofluoridate (VX-G) is measured in red blood cells (RBCs) following treatment with fluoride ion using isotope-dilution gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The analyte was isolated via solid-phase extraction and detected using ammonia chemical ionization in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. A good linear relationship was obtained in the quantitative concentration range of 4 ng/mL to 1000 ng/mL with an absolute detection limit of < 1 pg on column. The method has been applied to the analysis of RBCs from a laboratory worker accidentally exposed to VX vapor. Detection and quantitation of VX-G were possible in samples taken as late as 27 days following exposure. PMID:18269797

  13. Osteogenesis Imperfecta and non-accidental injury: problems in diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Kasim, M S; Cheah, I; Sameon, H

    1995-06-01

    It has been noted in the literature that Osteogenesis Imperfecta is frequently mistaken for non-accidental injury. This article serves to illustrate the difficulty in differentiating between the two conditions and that they can occur concomitantly in one patient. PMID:7565189

  14. 10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND...

  15. Non-Accidental Head Injury in New Zealand: The Outcome of Referral to Statutory Authorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Patrick; MacCormick, Judith; Strange, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the outcome of referral to the statutory authorities for infants under 2 years with non-accidental head injury (NAHI), and to establish whether the authorities held sufficient information to develop a risk profile for these cases. Methods: Retrospective review of cases admitted to hospital in Auckland, New Zealand from 1988…

  16. 10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND...

  17. SUMMARY OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF RADIOACTIVITY DETECTED OFF THE NEVADA TEST SITE, 1963-1986

    EPA Science Inventory

    Of the more than 450 underground nuclear explosives tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site from August 1963 (signing of the Limited Test Ban Treaty) through the end of 1986, only 23 accidentally released radioactivity that was detectable beyond the boundary of the NTS. Of these ...

  18. Accidental ingestion of Ecstasy by a toddler: unusual cause for convulsion in a febrile child.

    PubMed

    Cooper, A J; Egleston, C V

    1997-05-01

    The case is reported of a toddler who presented with an apparent febrile convulsion. The final diagnosis was that of accidental ingestion of Ecstasy. The child made an uneventful recovery. Ecstasy toxicity should be added to the list of differential diagnoses in a child presenting with fever and an unexplained seizure. PMID:9193992

  19. Accidental ingestion of Ecstasy by a toddler: unusual cause for convulsion in a febrile child.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, A J; Egleston, C V

    1997-01-01

    The case is reported of a toddler who presented with an apparent febrile convulsion. The final diagnosis was that of accidental ingestion of Ecstasy. The child made an uneventful recovery. Ecstasy toxicity should be added to the list of differential diagnoses in a child presenting with fever and an unexplained seizure. PMID:9193992

  20. Accidental Discovery of Information on the User-Defined Social Web: A Mixed-Method Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Chi-Jung

    2012-01-01

    Frequently interacting with other people or working in an information-rich environment can foster the "accidental discovery of information" (ADI) (Erdelez, 2000; McCay-Peet & Toms, 2010). With the increasing adoption of social web technologies, online user-participation communities and user-generated content have provided users the…

  1. Changes in Surface Charge Density of Blood Cells in Fatal Accidental Hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Szeremeta, Michał; Petelska, Aneta Dorota; Kotyńska, Joanna; Pepiński, Witold; Naumowicz, Monika; Figaszewski, Zbigniew Artur; Niemcunowicz-Janica, Anna

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate postmortem changes concerning electric charge of human erythrocytes and thrombocytes in fatal accidental hypothermia. The surface charge density values were determined on the basis of the electrophoretic mobility measurements of the cells conducted at various pH values of electrolyte solution. The surface charge of erythrocyte membranes after fatal accidental hypothermia increased compared to the control group within whole range of experimental pH values. Moreover, a slight shift of the isoelectric point of erythrocyte membranes towards high pH values was observed. The surface charge of thrombocyte membranes in fatal accidental hypothermia decreased at low pH compared to the control group. However, at pH range 4-9, the values increased compared to the control group. The isoelectric point of thrombocyte membranes after fatal accidental hypothermia was slightly shifted towards low pH values compared to the control group. The observed changes are probably connected with the partial destruction and functional changes of the blood cell structure. PMID:26364031

  2. Accidental Epipen injection into a digit - the value of a Google search.

    PubMed

    Turner, M J A; Purushotham, A D

    2004-05-01

    Despite the lack of awareness by the clinicians consulted of the most suitable treatment for accidentally injected epinephrine, this patient was successfully treated due mainly to the ability of clinicians on-site to access the Internet in the A&E department. A broad search engine such as Google can be an invaluable tool in finding important clinical information rapidly. PMID:15140311

  3. 10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR... accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. (a) Each licensee shall notify the NRC...

  4. 10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR... accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. (a) Each licensee shall notify the NRC...

  5. Accidental displacement of a dental implant into the submandibular space during explantation.

    PubMed

    Kim, B H; Kim, B C; Lee, J

    2016-07-01

    Dental implants are reliable and widely used, but complications such as peri-implantitis occasionally necessitate their removal. Accidents during removal are similar to those that may occur during extraction, including displacement into another structure in the maxillofacial region. We present a rare case of accidental displacement into the submandibular space, which happened during an attempt to remove an implant. PMID:26507676

  6. 78 FR 79317 - Approval of Request for Delegation of Authority for Prevention of Accidental Release, North...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... mean Code of Federal Regulations (vi) The initials FR mean Federal Register (vii) The initials NDCC... (61 FR 31668, June 20, 1996). These regulations require owners and operators of stationary sources... Accidental Release, Clean Air Act Section 112(r) Program'' EPA-R08-OAR-2013-0330, 78 FR 66321 (Nov. 5,...

  7. 10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR... accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. (a) Each licensee shall notify the NRC...

  8. 21 CFR 369.9 - General warnings re accidental ingestion by children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... children. 369.9 Section 369.9 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... OVER-THE-COUNTER SALE Definitions and Interpretations § 369.9 General warnings re accidental ingestion... statements be used on the label of all drug products....

  9. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOL. 15: CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF SULFUR TRIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report, discussing sulfur trioxide (SO3), is one of a series addressing the prevention of accidental releases of toxic chemicals. SO3, a clear oily liquid or solid at typical ambient conditions, has an Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) concentration of 20 ppm, w...

  10. A study of accidental poisoning (in children) in a rural medical college hospital of West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Sarker, A K; Ghosh, S; Barik, K

    1990-01-01

    134 cases of accidental poisoning in children have been reported, children belonging to the age group of 1-3 years are the main victims. Kerosene has been noted as the single most important cause of poisoning. Mortality was fortunately low amounting to 5.2% of all cases. PMID:2103925

  11. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC, VOLUME 13: CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF METHYL ISOCYANATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is one of a series of manuals addressing accidental releases of toxic chemicals. Methyl isocyanite (MIC) has an Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) concentration of 20 ppm, making it a substantially acute toxic hazard. Reducing the risk associated with an acciden...

  12. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC, VOLUME 14: CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF PHOSGENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report, discussing phosgene, is one of a series addressing the prevention of accidental releases of toxic chemicals. Phosgene, a highly reactive and corrosive liquid that boils at room temperature has an Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (lDLH) conctntration of 2 ppm, ...

  13. Motion sickness increases the risk of accidental hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Nobel, Gerard; Eiken, Ola; Tribukait, Arne; Kölegård, Roger; Mekjavic, Igor B

    2006-09-01

    Motion sickness (MS) has been found to increase body-core cooling during immersion in 28 degrees C water, an effect ascribed to attenuation of the cold-induced peripheral vasoconstriction (Mekjavic et al. in J Physiol 535(2):619-623, 2001). The present study tested the hypothesis that a more profound cold stimulus would override the MS effect on peripheral vasoconstriction and hence on the core cooling rate. Eleven healthy subjects underwent two separate head-out immersions in 15 degrees C water. In the control trial (CN), subjects were immersed after baseline measurements. In the MS-trial, subjects were rendered motion sick prior to immersion, by using a rotating chair in combination with a regimen of standardized head movements. During immersion in the MS-trial, subjects were exposed to an optokinetic stimulus (rotating drum). At 5-min intervals subjects rated their temperature perception, thermal comfort and MS discomfort. During immersion mean skin temperature, rectal temperature, the difference in temperature between the non-immersed right forearm and 3rd finger of the right hand (DeltaTff), oxygen uptake and heart rate were recorded. In the MS-trial, rectal temperature decreased substantially faster (33%, P < 0.01). Also, the DeltaTff response, an index of peripheral vasomotor tone, as well as the oxygen uptake, indicative of the shivering response, were significantly attenuated (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively) by MS. Thus, MS may predispose individuals to hypothermia by enhancing heat loss and attenuating heat production. This might have significant implications for survival in maritime accidents. PMID:16847677

  14. Increased medication use in a community environmentally exposed to chemicals.

    PubMed

    Bowler, Rosemarie M; Gysens, Sabine; Hartney, Christopher; Ngo, Long; Rauch, Stephen S; Midtling, John

    2002-10-01

    An epidemiological health study compared the health status of residents of a town exposed to an accidental Catacarb chemical release from an adjacent oil refinery, with the health status of demographically similar residents of an unexposed town in the region. Few studies of Catacarb's effects on humans exist; however, animal studies have shown it to be a respiratory, gastro-intestinal, dermatological and visual irritant. As part of the study, health questionnaires assessing pre- and post exposure symptoms, illnesses and medication use were mailed to residents in both towns. Medication use is sometimes reported to be a more objective and reliable measure of health outcomes. The current paper compared medication use of exposed and unexposed residents. Significant increases after exposure were found in the use of the following medications: antacid, asthma medication, cough and cold medication, eye medication, headache medication and sleep medication. These increases were consistent with reported symptoms, albeit of greater magnitude; no increase in medication use for other illnesses was reported. Medication use in this sample was consistent with patients' report of symptoms and may be a better measure of outcome. PMID:12502236

  15. EXPOSE-R on Mission on the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panitz, Corinna; Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Barczyk, Simon; Kloss, Maria; Reitz, Guenther

    Currently EXPOSE-R is on mission! This astrobiological exposure facility was accommodated at the universal workplace URM-D Zenith payload site, located outside the Russian Svezda Module of the International Space Station (ISS) by extravehicular activity (EVA) on March 10th 2009. It contains 3 trays accommodating 12 sample compartments with sample carriers in three levels either open to space vacuum or kept in a defined gas environment. In its 8 experiments of biological and chemical content, more than 1200 individual samples are exposed to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiations, vacuum, cosmic rays or extreme temperature variations. In their different experiments the involved scientists are studying the question of life's origin on Earth and the results of their experiments are contributing to different aspects of the evolution and distribution of life in the Universe. Additionally integrated into the EXPOSE-R facility are several dosimeters monitoring the ionising and the solar UV-radiation during the mission to deliver useful information to complement the sample analysis. In close cooperation with the DLR and the Technical University Munich (TUM), the Rheinisch -Westfülische Technischen Hochschule Aachen (RWTH Aachen) operates the experiment "Spores". a This is one of the 6 astrobiological experiments of the ROSE-Consortium" (Response of Or-ganisms to Space Environment) of the EXPOSE-R mission. In these experiments spores of bacteria, fungi and ferns are being over layered or mixed with meteorite material. The analysis of the effect of the space parameters on different biological endpoints of the spores of the mi-croorganism Bacillus subtilis will be performed after the retrieval of the experiment scheduled for the end of 2010. Parallel to the space mission an identical set of samples was accommodated into EXPOSE-R trays identical in construction to perform the Mission Ground Reference (MGR) Test. Currently this MGR Test is carried out in the Planetary and Space

  16. Human health effects from accidental release of tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) at Seveso, Italy.

    PubMed

    Pocchiari, F; Silano, V; Zampieri, A

    1979-05-31

    This paper is a progress report of the epidemiologic work carried out under the supervision of the Lombardy Regional Authority during the two years elapsed from the accident in a TCP-producing factory (ICMESA) in Meda (Italy), which resulted in the contamination of several towns of a large, densely populated area called the Brianza di Seveso with a total population of 220,000 inhabitants. A wide follow-up program is in progress in the Seveso area; it includes a clinical screening of the population living in the contaminated area and longitudinal and systematic health control of different groups at risk; a long-term morbidity cohort study has been also undertaken. TCDD exposure following the ICMESA accident resulted in an increased chloracne frequency. Neurologic examinations showed both signs of idiopathic subclinical neurologic damage and cases of clinically detectable idiopathic polyneuropathy in adults. A limited percentage of idiopathic hepatomegaly was reported to be present on clinical investigation; no information, however, is given on the criteria by which the hepatomegaly was investigated. Some alterations were observed in some exposed people in one or more liver tests (mainly transaminases and gamma-GT). So far, immunologic investigations, cytogenetic examination and embryomorphology analysis on cases of therapeutical or spontaneous abortions have not given abnormal results. PMID:287395

  17. Welding tritium exposed stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Kanne, W.R. Jr.

    1994-11-01

    Stainless steels that are exposed to tritium become unweldable by conventional methods due to buildup of decay helium within the metal matrix. With longer service lives expected for tritium containment systems, methods for welding on tritium exposed material will become important for repair or modification of the systems. Solid-state resistance welding and low-penetration overlay welding have been shown to mitigate helium embrittlement cracking in tritium exposed 304 stainless steel. These processes can also be used on stainless steel containing helium from neutron irradiation, such as occurs in nuclear reactors.

  18. Models for the analysis of radon-exposed populations.

    PubMed

    Lubin, J H

    1988-01-01

    Radon-222 is a radioactive decay product of radium-226 and uranium-238, which are found throughout the crust of the earth. Studies of underground miners clearly show that exposure to radon and its decay products increases the risk of developing lung cancer. Data on standardized mortality ratios from eight cohort studies indicate that the radon-lung cancer relationship is statistically homogeneous, even though cohorts are from different types of mines and from different countries. Regression methods for cohort data based on a Poisson probability model permit a thorough consideration of risk patterns. In this report, we review these methods, wherein the disease rate in each cell of a multi-way table is modeled as a function of the cross-classifying variables. The National Academy of Sciences' Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation uses the Poisson regression approach to develop a model for age-specific lung cancer risk which depends on cumulative exposure, age at risk, and time since exposure. This model is reviewed and its implications discussed. The most important determinant of lung cancer is cigarette smoking. This paper discusses relative risk models for analysis of joint exposure to radon and tobacco products. The review of available studies suggests that the joint relationship of radon and smoking with lung cancer is consistent with a multiplicative model, but a submultiplicative relationship is most likely. An additive model is rejected. PMID:3051700

  19. Katrina Kids! Helping Kids Exposed to Population-Wide Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, William N.; Sims, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    Although schools have implemented school safety plans as a result of the violence witnessed on rare occasions in schools today, schools are less likely to be prepared for emergencies such as Katrina or 9/11; this is true even for schools in locations prone to hurricanes, tornadoes, or earthquakes. Whereas disaster plans typically involve school…

  20. Models for the analysis of radon-exposed populations

    SciTech Connect

    Lubin, J.H.

    1988-05-01

    Radon-222 is a radioactive decay product of radium-226 and uranium-238, which are found throughout the crust of the earth. Studies of underground miners clearly show that exposure to radon and its decay products increases the risk of developing lung cancer. Data on standardized mortality ratios from eight cohort studies indicate that the radon-lung cancer relationship is statistically homogeneous, even though cohorts are from different types of mines and from different countries. Regression methods for cohort data based on a Poisson probability model permit a thorough consideration of risk patterns. In this report, we review these methods, wherein the disease rate in each cell of a multi-way table is modeled as a function of the cross-classifying variables. The National Academy of Sciences' Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation uses the Poisson regression approach to develop a model for age-specific lung cancer risk which depends on cumulative exposure, age at risk, and time since exposure. This model is reviewed and its implications discussed. The most important determinant of lung cancer is cigarette smoking. This paper discusses relative risk models for analysis of joint exposure to radon and tobacco products. The review of available studies suggests that the joint relationship of radon and smoking with lung cancer is consistent with a multiplicative model, but a submultiplicative relationship is most likely. An additive model is rejected. 58 references.

  1. Modelling of accidental released toxic gases for emergency responders in Austria, Kosovo and Bulgaria.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenzel, Sirma; Baumann-Stanzer, Kathrin; Gashi, Salih; Thaci, Bashkim; Batchvarova, Ekaterina; Spassova, Tatiana

    2010-05-01

    In the case of accidental release of hazardous gases in the atmosphere, the emergency responders need a reliable and fast tool to assess the possible consequences and apply the optimal countermeasures. A number of models for the prediction and simulation of hazard areas affected by accidental releases of toxic gases are available worldwide. Modelling accidental releases may be required for a variety of reasons: for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios"), for preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management (e.g. in the frame of the SEVESO directive). Depending on the demand and the particular purposes, the choice of the appropriate model is up to the authorities. The one year project was funded by the Austrian Science and research liaison Office (ASO, www.aso.zsi.at) as a part of the program: Research Cooperation and Networking between Austria, the public higher education institutions in Kosovo and South Eastern Europe. The project was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG, http://www.zamg.ac.at) in cooperation with the University of Prishtina (Kosovo, www.uni-pr.edu and the National Institute of meteorology and Hydrology (NIHM Bulgaria, www.meteo.bg). One of the main purposes of the project was to provide the both partners with basic knowledge in modelling with accidental release of toxic gases, based on the practical experience of the meteorologists from the ZAMG in the area. This knowledge can be used as scientific response to society driven current or upcoming problems especially in Kosovo. The activities involved know-how transfer on European standards and practice among the project partners, as well as joint efforts to adapt and disseminate the scientific methods and results in Kosovo. Within the project, the partners from Kosovo and Bulgaria were introduced to the atmospheric dispersion model (ALOHA - Areal

  2. Unsupervised invariance learning of transformation sequences in a model of object recognition yields selectivity for non-accidental properties

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Sarah M.; Serre, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Non-accidental properties (NAPs) correspond to image properties that are invariant to changes in viewpoint (e.g., straight vs. curved contours) and are distinguished from metric properties (MPs) that can change continuously with in-depth object rotation (e.g., aspect ratio, degree of curvature, etc.). Behavioral and electrophysiological studies of shape processing have demonstrated greater sensitivity to differences in NAPs than in MPs. However, previous work has shown that such sensitivity is lacking in multiple-views models of object recognition such as Hmax. These models typically assume that object processing is based on populations of view-tuned neurons with distributed symmetrical bell-shaped tuning that are modulated at least as much by differences in MPs as in NAPs. Here, we test the hypothesis that unsupervised learning of invariances to object transformations may increase the sensitivity to differences in NAPs vs. MPs in Hmax. We collected a database of video sequences with objects slowly rotating in-depth in an attempt to mimic sequences viewed during object manipulation by young children during early developmental stages. We show that unsupervised learning yields shape-tuning in higher stages with greater sensitivity to differences in NAPs vs. MPs in agreement with monkey IT data. Together, these results suggest that greater NAP sensitivity may arise from experiencing different in-depth rotations of objects. PMID:26500528

  3. Photonic crystal surface-emitting lasers enabled by an accidental Dirac point

    SciTech Connect

    Chua, Song Liang; Lu, Ling; Soljacic, Marin

    2014-12-02

    A photonic-crystal surface-emitting laser (PCSEL) includes a gain medium electromagnetically coupled to a photonic crystal whose energy band structure exhibits a Dirac cone of linear dispersion at the center of the photonic crystal's Brillouin zone. This Dirac cone's vertex is called a Dirac point; because it is at the Brillouin zone center, it is called an accidental Dirac point. Tuning the photonic crystal's band structure (e.g., by changing the photonic crystal's dimensions or refractive index) to exhibit an accidental Dirac point increases the photonic crystal's mode spacing by orders of magnitudes and reduces or eliminates the photonic crystal's distributed in-plane feedback. Thus, the photonic crystal can act as a resonator that supports single-mode output from the PCSEL over a larger area than is possible with conventional PCSELs, which have quadratic band edge dispersion. Because output power generally scales with output area, this increase in output area results in higher possible output powers.

  4. A case of accidental fatal aluminum phosphide poisoning involving humans and dogs.

    PubMed

    Behera, Chittaranjan; Krishna, Karthik; Bhardwaj, Daya Nand; Rautji, Ravi; Kumar, Arvind

    2015-05-01

    Aluminum phosphide is one of the commonest poisons encountered in agricultural areas, and manner of death in the victims is often suicidal and rarely homicidal or accidental. This paper presents an unusual case, where two humans (owner and housemaid) and eight dogs were found dead in the morning hours inside a room of a house, used as shelter for stray dogs. There was allegation by the son of the owner that his father had been killed. Crime scene visit by forensic pathologists helped to collect vital evidence. Autopsies of both the human victims and the dogs were conducted. Toxicological analysis of viscera, vomitus, leftover food, and chemical container at the crime scene tested positive for aluminum phosphide. The cause of death in both humans and dogs was aluminum phosphide poisoning. Investigation by police and the forensic approach to the case helped in ascertaining the manner of death, which was accidental. PMID:25707792

  5. Accidental Displacement of Third Molar into the Sublingual Space: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Robson Rodrigues; Botelho, Tessa Lucena; Franco, Ademir; Silva, Rhonan Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Successful extraction of third molars depends on preoperative diagnosis and planning. Gold standard preoperative examinations are performed through computed tomography, decreasing risks and avoiding potential accidents. The present report highlights the value of preoperative examinations in face of accidentally displaced third molars. Methods An 18-years-old female patient underwent a third mandibular molar extraction with a general dentist. Accidentally, the mandibular left third molar was displaced into the sublingual space, making necessary a second surgical step. The surgery was interrupted and the patient was referred to an expert in maxillofacial surgery. Results After 21 days awaiting an asymptomatic health status, the second surgical step was successfully performed using multislice computed tomography as preoperative imaging guide. Conclusions The present case report highlights the clinical usefulness of imaging planning and informed consents in face of legal and ethic potential complaints. PMID:25386232

  6. The lethal paraphiliac syndrome. Accidental autoerotic deaths in Denmark 1933-1990.

    PubMed

    Behrendt, N; Modvig, J

    1995-09-01

    A new definition of accidental autoerotic death (AAD) is proposed. A death is an AAD if it is solitary, accidental, and caused by a lethal paraphilia. On the basis of a series of 46 AADs, all occurring among men in the period 1933-1990 in Denmark, the definition cannot be rejected. A paraphilia is regarded as lethal if it is inherently life-threatening. The results of this study have been related to previous reports of similar autoerotic deaths in the literature. It is suggested that the present distinction between asphyxial AAD as typical and nonasphyxial ADD as atypical be replaced with lethal paraphilia with accompanying nonlethal paraphilia or props as typical AAD and lethal paraphilia with no accompanying nonlethal paraphilia or props as atypical AAD. PMID:7495265

  7. Observing accidental and intentional unusual actions is associated with different subregions of the medial frontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Desmet, Charlotte; Brass, Marcel

    2015-11-15

    The literature on action observation revealed contradictory results regarding the activation of different subregions of the medial prefrontal cortex when observing unusual behaviour. Error observation research has shown that the posterior part of the medial prefrontal cortex is more active when observing unusual behaviour compared to usual behaviour while action understanding research has revealed some mixed results concerning the role of the anterior part of the medial prefrontal cortex during the observation of unusual actions. Here, we resolve this discrepancy in the literature by showing that different parts of the medial prefrontal cortex are active depending on whether an observed unusual behaviour is intentional or not. While the posterior medial prefrontal cortex is more active when we observe unusual accidental actions compared to unusual intentional actions, a more anterior part of the medial prefrontal cortex is more active when we observe unusual intentional actions compared to unusual accidental actions. PMID:26279209

  8. Death scene evaluation in a case of fatal accidental carbon monoxide toxicity.

    PubMed

    Sedda, Antioco Franco; Rossi, Gabriele

    2006-12-20

    Exposure of humans to high concentrations of carbon monoxide can result in death, due to the formation of carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb), which impairs the oxygen carrying capacity of the haemoglobin. Carbon monoxide is responsible of a great number of accidental domestic poisonings and deaths throughout the world, particularly in homes that have faulty or poorly vented combustion appliances. A case is reported, in which a 21-year-old woman was found dead, due to carbon monoxide poisoning from a gas water heater, despite the puzzling evidence that the heater has been used for more than 10 years without any problem. An evaluation of the exposure to CO was performed, by measuiring the rate of production of CO from the heater, and using the Coburn-Forster-Kane equation to describe the kinetics of the poisoning process. The death was attributed to an accidental poisoning from carbon monoxide due to a sum of unfortunate circumstances. PMID:16439085

  9. An evaluation of available models for assessing accidental releases of extremely hazardous substances

    SciTech Connect

    Yuhas, J.A.; Taylor, R.K.; Dutcher, D.D.

    1996-12-31

    Section 112(r) of the Clean Air Act calls for the promulgation of new rules to prevent and minimize the consequences of accidental releases of chemicals. The rules will require the development of Risk Management Plans (RMP`s) and ambient air consequence analyses of potential releases. A series of dense gas dispersion, puff release, and accidental release models are being introduced to meet the demands of the new regulatory requirements for various release scenarios. Studies to data have shown that no single model out performs all others when tested against field experiment data. Also, little has been done to assess the applicability of these models to actual modeling scenarios and to the Section 112(r) modeling requirements. This paper assesses the applicability of current guideline models to the Section 112(r) requirements and points out areas where the guideline models cannot meet these requirements. Additional models are presented as potential solutions to this problem.

  10. Accidental versus operational oil spills from shipping in the Baltic Sea: risk governance and management strategies.

    PubMed

    Hassler, Björn

    2011-03-01

    Marine governance of oil transportation is complex. Due to difficulties in effectively monitoring procedures on vessels en voyage, incentives to save costs by not following established regulations on issues such as cleaning of tanks, crew size, and safe navigation may be substantial. The issue of problem structure is placed in focus, that is, to what degree the specific characteristics and complexity of intentional versus accidental oil spill risks affect institutional responses. It is shown that whereas the risk of accidental oil spills primarily has been met by technical requirements on the vessels in combination with Port State control, attempts have been made to curb intentional pollution by for example increased surveillance and smart governance mechanisms such as the No-Special-Fee system. It is suggested that environmental safety could be improved by increased use of smart governance mechanisms tightly adapted to key actors' incentives to alter behavior in preferable directions. PMID:21446395

  11. Accidental oral administration of povidone iodine in a newborn: case report.

    PubMed

    Alarcon Martínez, Tugba; Bozkaya, Davut; Yurdakök, Murat

    2016-04-01

    Iodine solutions are widely used as antiseptic for treating and preventing wound infections. Povidone iodine, one of the most common topical iodine solutions in emergency kits, can lead to several abnormalities as thyroid dysfunction. Povidone iodine poisoning is unusual and previously reported effects are mainly complications of topical usage during surgical procedures. Here we present the case of a newborn that was accidentally given oral povidone iodine, showing no signs or symptoms of toxicity after ingestion. PMID:27079409

  12. Atmospheric Dispersion Code System for Evaluating Accidental Radioactivity Releases from Nuclear Power Stations.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1983-06-28

    Version: 00 PAVAN estimates down-wind ground-level air concentrations for potential accidental releases of radioactive material from nuclear facilities. Options can account for variation in the location of release points, additional plume dispersion due to building wakes, plume meander under low wind speed conditions, and adjustments to consider non-straight trajectories. It computes an effective plume height using the physical release height which can be reduced by inputted terrain features.

  13. Accidental strangulation by a hot belt: an occupational medico-legal case report.

    PubMed

    Arun, M; Kumar, R G Hemanth; Kumar, G N Pramod; Chandrakanth, H V; Nagesh, K R; Menezes, Ritesh G

    2013-01-01

    Death due to strangulation is generally considered homicidal unless proved otherwise. Here a case of accidental strangulation by a faulty machine is presented and discussed where the deceased was strangled by a heated rubber belt of a rice mill machine. The ligature mark was an assortment of abrasion and dermo-epidermal burns. The term "thermal ligature strangulation" is proposed for such an occurrence. PMID:24057313

  14. Reproductive adaptation in Drosophila exposed to oxygen-enriched atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kloek, G.; Winkle, L.

    1979-01-01

    Ten successive generations of a Drosophila melanogaster population were exposed to an atmospheric mix of 50% oxygen/50% nitrogen at standard pressure. This atmospheric mix has been shown to be toxic to this species and causes significantly shortened life span. By the fifth generation, survivorship and life span for the first 25-30 days were identical to control populations and total life span was shorter by only a few days. Egg-laying rates were stable in the experimental populations but below those of the controls. Hatching success was identical between experimental and control populations. Even though the egg-laying rates were lower in 50% oxygen, it was concluded that the population had adapted and could maintain a stable population in these conditions. The near-normal life spans, normal hatching rates, and overall population stability, exhibited following five generations of adaptation, were considered sufficient to allow continued reproduction in spite of a reduced egg-laying rate.

  15. The role of environmental accidental risk assessment in the process of granting development consent.

    PubMed

    Kontic, Branko; Gerbec, Marko

    2009-11-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is a procedure that must be followed for certain types of development before they are granted development consent. The procedure requires the developer to compile an environmental impact report (EIR) describing the likely significant effects of the project on the environment. A regulatory requirement in Slovenia is that an accidental risk assessment for a new installation should be a part of an EIR. The article shows how risk assessment (RA) related to accidental release of methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) or a polyvalent alcohol mixture from a new planned unit of a chemical factory in the Alpine region of Slovenia was performed in the framework of an EIA for the purpose of obtaining a construction permit. Two accidental scenarios were considered: (a) a spill of 20 m(3) of MDI or polyvalent alcohol mixture into the river Soca (the river runs close to the chemical factory) and (b) a fire in the warehouse storing the raw material, where emission of toxic gases HCN, NO(x), and CO is expected during combustion of MDI. One of the most important results of this case is the agreement among the developer, the competent authority, and a consultant in the field of EIA and RA to positively conclude the licensing process despite the absence of formal (regulatory) limit values for risk. It has been approved that transparent, reasonably uncertain, and semi-quantitative environmental risk assessment is an inevitable component of an EIA, and an essential factor in informed, licensing-related decision making. PMID:19732394

  16. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 5. Accidental Releases

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, S

    2007-08-15

    Over the course of fifty-three years, LLNL had six acute releases of tritiated hydrogen gas (HT) and one acute release of tritiated water vapor (HTO) that were too large relative to the annual releases to be included as part of the annual releases from normal operations detailed in Parts 3 and 4 of the Tritium Dose Reconstruction (TDR). Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) had one such release of HT and one of HTO. Doses to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) for these accidents have been modeled using an equation derived from the time-dependent tritium model, UFOTRI, and parameter values based on expert judgment. All of these acute releases are described in this report. Doses that could not have been exceeded from the large HT releases of 1965 and 1970 were calculated to be 43 {micro}Sv (4.3 mrem) and 120 {micro}Sv (12 mrem) to an adult, respectively. Two published sets of dose predictions for the accidental HT release in 1970 are compared with the dose predictions of this TDR. The highest predicted dose was for an acute release of HTO in 1954. For this release, the dose that could not have been exceeded was estimated to have been 2 mSv (200 mrem), although, because of the high uncertainty about the predictions, the likely dose may have been as low as 360 {micro}Sv (36 mrem) or less. The estimated maximum exposures from the accidental releases were such that no adverse health effects would be expected. Appendix A lists all accidents and large routine puff releases that have occurred at LLNL and SNL/CA between 1953 and 2005. Appendix B describes the processes unique to tritium that must be modeled after an acute release, some of the time-dependent tritium models being used today, and the results of tests of these models.

  17. Effect of wet-cold weather transportation conditions on thermoregulation and the development of accidental hypothermia in pullets under tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Minka, Ndazo S; Ayo, Joseph O

    2016-03-01

    The present study examines onboard thermal microclimatic conditions and thermoregulation of pullets exposed to accidental hypothermia during wet-cold weather transportation conditions, and the effect of rewarming on colonic temperature (CT) of the birds immediately after transportation. A total of 2200 pullets were transportation for 5 h in two separate vehicles during the nighttime. The last 3 h of the transportation period was characterized by heavy rainfall. During the precipitation period, each vehicle was covered one fourth way from the top-roof with a tarpaulin. The onboard thermal conditions inside the vehicles during transportation, which comprised ambient temperature and relative humidity were recorded, while humidity ratio and specific enthalpy were calculated. The CT of the birds was recorded before and after transportation. During transportation, onboard thermal heterogeneity was observed inside the vehicles with higher (p < 0.05) values in the front and center, and lower values recorded at the air inlets at the sides and rear planes. The CT values recorded in birds at the front and center planes were between 42.2 and 42.5 °C, indicative of mild hypothermia; while lower CT values between 28 and 38 °C were recorded at the sides and rear planes, indicative of mild to severe hypothermia. Several hours of gradual rewarming returned the CT to normal range. The result, for the first time, demonstrated the occurrence of accidental hypothermia in transported pullets under tropical conditions and a successful rewarming outcome. In conclusion, transportation of pullets during wet weather at onboard temperature of 18-20 °C induced hypothermia on birds located at the air inlets, which recovered fully after several hours of gradual rewarming. PMID:26198381

  18. Effect of wet-cold weather transportation conditions on thermoregulation and the development of accidental hypothermia in pullets under tropical conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minka, Ndazo S.; Ayo, Joseph O.

    2016-03-01

    The present study examines onboard thermal microclimatic conditions and thermoregulation of pullets exposed to accidental hypothermia during wet-cold weather transportation conditions, and the effect of rewarming on colonic temperature (CT) of the birds immediately after transportation. A total of 2200 pullets were transportation for 5 h in two separate vehicles during the nighttime. The last 3 h of the transportation period was characterized by heavy rainfall. During the precipitation period, each vehicle was covered one fourth way from the top-roof with a tarpaulin. The onboard thermal conditions inside the vehicles during transportation, which comprised ambient temperature and relative humidity were recorded, while humidity ratio and specific enthalpy were calculated. The CT of the birds was recorded before and after transportation. During transportation, onboard thermal heterogeneity was observed inside the vehicles with higher ( p < 0.05) values in the front and center, and lower values recorded at the air inlets at the sides and rear planes. The CT values recorded in birds at the front and center planes were between 42.2 and 42.5 °C, indicative of mild hypothermia; while lower CT values between 28 and 38 °C were recorded at the sides and rear planes, indicative of mild to severe hypothermia. Several hours of gradual rewarming returned the CT to normal range. The result, for the first time, demonstrated the occurrence of accidental hypothermia in transported pullets under tropical conditions and a successful rewarming outcome. In conclusion, transportation of pullets during wet weather at onboard temperature of 18-20 °C induced hypothermia on birds located at the air inlets, which recovered fully after several hours of gradual rewarming.

  19. Brucellosis in Occupationally Exposed Groups

    PubMed Central

    Sajjan, Annapurna G.; Mohite, Shivajirao T.; Gajul, Shivali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In India, high incidence of human brucellosis may be expected, as the conditions conducive for human brucellosis exist. Limited studies have been undertaken on human brucellosis especially in occupationally-exposed groups. Aim To estimate prevalence of anti-brucellar antibodies, evaluate the clinical manifestations, risk factors and Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) levels about brucellosis among occupationally exposed groups. Materials and Methods Blood samples were collected from 2337 occupationally exposed individuals. The serum samples were screened for the presence of anti-brucellar antibodies by Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT), Serum Agglutination Test (SAT) and 2-Mercaptoethanol test (2-ME). Clinical manifestations, risk factors and KAP levels were evaluated by personal interview using a structured questionnaire. Results Seroprevalence of brucellosis by RBPT, SAT and 2-ME test was 9.46%, 4.45% and 3.64 % respectively. Clinical symptoms resembling brucellosis were seen in 91 subjects. The major risk factors were animal exposure in veterinarians and abattoirs, both animal exposure and raw milk ingestion in farmers and shepherds, exposure to raw milk and its ingestion in dairy workers and exposure to Brucella culture in laboratory workers. Except laboratory workers, few veterinarians and dairy workers none had heard about brucellosis. KAP levels regarding brucellosis were too poor in all the groups except laboratory workers. Conclusion Brucellosis most of the times was missed or misdiagnosed. Regular screenings for brucellosis and awareness programmes to increase KAP levels are necessary to control brucellosis in occupationally exposed groups. PMID:27190804

  20. 5th National Audit Project (NAP5) on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia: summary of main findings and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Pandit, J J; Andrade, J; Bogod, D G; Hitchman, J M; Jonker, W R; Lucas, N; Mackay, J H; Nimmo, A F; O'Connor, K; O'Sullivan, E P; Paul, R G; Palmer, J H M G; Plaat, F; Radcliffe, J J; Sury, M R J; Torevell, H E; Wang, M; Hainsworth, J; Cook, T M

    2014-10-01

    We present the main findings of the 5th National Audit Project (NAP5) on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia (AAGA). Incidences were estimated using reports of accidental awareness as the numerator, and a parallel national anaesthetic activity survey to provide denominator data. The incidence of certain/probable and possible accidental awareness cases was ~1:19,600 anaesthetics (95% confidence interval 1:16,700-23,450). However, there was considerable variation across subtypes of techniques or subspecialities. The incidence with neuromuscular block (NMB) was ~1:8200 (1:7030-9700), and without, it was ~1:135,900 (1:78,600-299,000). The cases of AAGA reported to NAP5 were overwhelmingly cases of unintended awareness during NMB. The incidence of accidental awareness during Caesarean section was ~1:670 (1:380-1300). Two-thirds (82, 66%) of cases of accidental awareness experiences arose in the dynamic phases of anaesthesia, namely induction of and emergence from anaesthesia. During induction of anaesthesia, contributory factors included: use of thiopental, rapid sequence induction, obesity, difficult airway management, NMB, and interruptions of anaesthetic delivery during movement from anaesthetic room to theatre. During emergence from anaesthesia, residual paralysis was perceived by patients as accidental awareness, and commonly related to a failure to ensure full return of motor capacity. One-third (43, 33%) of accidental awareness events arose during the maintenance phase of anaesthesia, mostly due to problems at induction or towards the end of anaesthesia. Factors increasing the risk of accidental awareness included: female sex, age (younger adults, but not children), obesity, anaesthetist seniority (junior trainees), previous awareness, out-of-hours operating, emergencies, type of surgery (obstetric, cardiac, thoracic), and use of NMB. The following factors were not risk factors for accidental awareness: ASA physical status, race, and use or omission

  1. USING POPULATION MODELS TO EVALUATE RISK IN POPULATION OF BIRDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wildlife populations are exposed to varying habitat structure and quality, as well as an array of human-induced environmental stressors. Predicting the consequences to a real population of one perturbation (e.g. a pesticide application) without considering other human activities ...

  2. Biological monitoring of a worker acutely exposed to MBOCA.

    PubMed

    Osorio, A M; Clapp, D; Ward, E; Wilson, H K; Cocker, J

    1990-01-01

    A 30 year-old male polyurethane worker was exposed to an accidental spill of 4,4'-methylene-bis-2-chloroaniline (MBOCA) at a plant producing MBOCA-cured plastic products. Exposure to MBOCA is significant in that this compound is a known animal carcinogen and a suspected human carcinogen. The employee was sprayed over his upper body and extremities with molten MBOCA while cleaning out a clogged hose from a MBOCA and polymer mixing machine. The subsequent environmental and medical evaluation of this episode included serial urinary MBOCA samples from the worker over a 2 week period to allow the calculation of a biological half-life for this compound. This worker experienced a very high dose of MBOCA as judged by his urinary MBOCA levels (peak value of 1,700 ppb 4 hours after exposure). There were no acute symptoms or other laboratory abnormalities noted. The kinetic evaluation resulted in a biological half-life for MBOCA in urine of approximately 23 hours. Assuming a one-compartment model, approximately 94% of an initial MBOCA dose will be eliminated within four days. This is the first report of kinetic analysis on urinary MBOCA excretion in humans. This information suggests that biological monitoring of the urine MBOCA concentrations in exposed workers may miss peak levels following an acute exposure unless the analyses of the urinary MBOCA are performed in a timely fashion. Recommendations to the company included: 1) installation of a warning system or lock-out device on the mixing machine to prevent the opening of the MBOCA hose prior to the release of pressure; and 2) annual medical surveillance of this individual for bladder cancer with urinalysis and urine cytology. PMID:2244630

  3. Numerical prediction of rock mass damage due to accidental explosions in an underground ammunition storage chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chengqing; Hao, Hong

    2006-03-01

    Accidental detonations in an underground ammunition storage chamber inside a rock mass may cause severe damage to the rock mass around the chamber, adjacent tunnels and chambers, ground surface, and in the worst case cause sympathetic detonation of explosives in adjacent storage chambers. To prevent such damage, underground ammunition storage chambers are often situated at minimum depth below the ground surface, and spaced at minimum distance from each other, so that damage, should it occur, is limited to the accidental chamber. Different codes and regulations for ammunition storage chambers specify minimum embedment depth and separation distance for underground ammunition storage chambers. They are usually given in terms of the rock mass properties and the weight of explosive stored in chambers. Some empirical formulae, usually based on the peak particle velocity of the stress wave or the maximum strain of the rock mass, are also available to estimate the damage zones in the rock mass from an explosion. All these empirical methods do not include the effects of explosion details, such as the loading density, chamber geometry and explosive distribution. In this paper, a previously calibrated numerical model is used to estimate the damage zones in a granite mass resulting from an accidental explosion in an underground ammunition storage chamber. Effects of various explosion conditions on rock mass damage are investigated. On the basis of the numerical results, some empirical formulae are derived to predict damage zones around the explosion chamber, as well as safe embedment depth of the storage chamber and safe separation distance between adjacent chambers. The numerical results are also compared with available empirical formulae and code specifications. It should be noted that the characteristics of stress wave propagation around an ammunition storage chamber has been published in a preceding paper (Int. J. Blast. Fragm. 5:57 90, 2001.

  4. Retinal photoreceptor focal disruption secondary to accidental Nd:YAG laser exposure.

    PubMed

    Milani, Paolo; Pierro, Luisa; Pece, Alfredo; Marino, Valerio; Scialdone, Antonio

    2011-10-01

    Retinal injuries caused by accidental laser exposure include retinal or vitreous hemorrhages, macular holes and edema. We describe the imaging of a bilateral macular lesion secondary to accidental Nd:YAG laser exposure. Observational case report. We performed color photography, fluorescein angiography and autofluorescence (AF) with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope, as well as time-domain and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). After accidental exposure to a 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser, a patient experienced blurred vision in the left eye (LE) with visual acuity of 20/60. Color, fluorescein angiography and OCT imaging showed a retinal hemorrhage in the foveal area of the left eye and in the inferomacular region of the asymptomatic right eye. Steroid therapy was then administered, and 5 days later there was rapid improvement with progressive re-absorption of the hemorrhages and functional recovery. At 6 month follow-up, visual acuity was 20/20 in both eyes with unremarkable biomicroscopy, except for focal foveal retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) atrophy in the LE. In comparison to previous hemorrhages, OCT could visualize focal disruption of the photoreceptor IS/OS junction in both eyes. Due to different macular pigment distribution and lesion localization, 787 nm near-infrared AF depicted a small hypofluorescent spot in both eyes, whilst at 488 nm AF a black spot became evident in the right eye only. Despite the re-absorption of foveal hemorrhage and the functional recovery, AF and OCT imaging highlighted the persistence of small focal disruptions of the photoreceptor outer segments and RPE. PMID:22002418

  5. Comparative Analysis of Suicide, Accidental, and Undetermined Cause of Death Classification

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Douglas; Coon, Hilary; McGlade, Erin; Callor, W; Byrd, Josh; Viskochil, Joseph; Bakian, Amanda; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah; Grey, Todd; McMahon, William

    2015-01-01

    Suicide determination is not standardized across medical examiners, and many suspected suicides are later classified as accidental or undetermined. The present study investigated patterns between these three groups using a Medical Examiner database and 633 structured interviews with next of kin. There were similarities across all three classification groups, including rates of mental illness and psychiatric symptoms. Those classified suicide were more likely to be male, to have died in a violent fashion, and have a stronger family history of suicide. Physical pain was very common, but acute pain vs. chronic pain distinguished the suicide group. PMID:25057525

  6. C-Safe Image Gallery from the Center for the Simulation of Accidental Fires and Explosions

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Center for the Simulation of Accidental Fires and Explosions, created through the Department of Energy's Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Program, employed a large number of a highly skilled faculty, research scientists, staff, and students who created the Uintah Computational Framework (UCF) software. For over a decade C-SAFE produced cutting edge research in simulating complex physical phenomena including reacting flows, material properties, multi-material interactions, and atomic level chemistry. Additionally, pioneering work was done in the field of parallel computing, software frameworks, and visualization.

  7. Radiation injuries from military and accidental explosions: a brief historical review.

    PubMed

    Bice-Stephens, W M

    2000-04-01

    Nuclear radiation was discovered in the late 1800s. Advances in nuclear physics split the atom to herald the atomic age soon afterward. Now, a century later, health care providers remain acutely aware that nuclear hazards may present instantly and unexpectedly, with devastating and massive results. This article highlights known radiation injuries from military and accidental explosions. This information is critical for the preparedness of health care providers in view of aging nuclear power plants, potential industrial and medical accidents, and the buildup of military weapons by other countries. PMID:10802999

  8. Problems in experimental and mathematical investigations of the accidental thermalhydraulic processes in RBMK nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Nigmatulin, B.I.; Tikhonenko, L.K.; Blinkov, V.N.

    1995-09-01

    In this paper the thermalhydraulic scheme and peculiarities of the boiling water graphite-moderated channel-type reactor RBMK are presented and discussed shortly. The essential for RBMK transient regimes, accidental situations and accompanying thermalhydraulic phenomena and processes are formulated. These data are presented in the form of cross reference matrix (version 1) for system computer codes verification. The paper includes qualitative analysis of the computer codes and integral facilities which have been used or can be used for RBMK transients and accidents investigations. The stability margins for RBMK-1000 and RBMK-1500 are shown.

  9. An accidental intra-arterial injection of phenytoin in a 43-year-old woman

    PubMed Central

    Khan, ZH; Faghihnassiri, S

    2016-01-01

    We report an accidental intra-arterial injection of phenytoin in a 43-year-old woman undergoing ventriculoperitoneal shunt for hydrocephalus. To flush the arterial line with heparin, mistakenly phenytoin was injected which caused cutaneous gangrene along the radial side of the forearm and an absence of pulsation in the radial artery. After flushing the artery with normal saline and lidocaine, the patient was transferred to the Intensive Care Unit. There the patient was put on intravenous heparin that resolved the problem leading to complete recovery of the patient. The case is being reported to emphasize the importance of close surveillance in injecting drugs through the arterial line access. PMID:27375394

  10. Crisis Management of Accidental Extubation in a Prone-Positioned Patient with Klippel-Feil Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Spond, Matthew; Burns, Tyler; Rosenbaum, Thea; Lienhart, Kristen

    2016-06-15

    We present the case of an accidental extubation in a prone-positioned patient with a challenging airway because of Klippel-Feil syndrome and previous cervical spine fusions. The surgical procedure was well underway when this occurred, which added substantially to the difficulties produced by this event. We herein highlight the corrective steps we took in our case. We also recommend the need for a comprehensive preoperative briefing with all operating room personnel together with an action plan for how to prevent this particular scenario. PMID:27301052

  11. Non-accidental chlorpyrifos poisoning-an unusual cause of profound unconsciousness.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jiun-Chang; Lin, Kuang-Lin; Lin, Jainn-Jim; Hsia, Shao-Hsuan; Wu, Chang-Teng

    2010-04-01

    Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphorus anticholinesterase insecticide, and organophosphate intoxication can induce symptoms such as miosis, urination, diarrhea, diaphoresis, lacrimation, excitation of central nervous system, salivation, and consciousness disturbance (MUDDLES). Although accidental poisoning of children with drugs and chemicals is a common cause for consciousness disturbance in children, the possibility of deliberate poisoning is rarely considered. We report on a healthy 5-year 6-month-old boy with recurrent organophosphate intoxication. Reports of chlorpyrifos intoxication in children are quite rare. This case report demonstrates decision-making process and how to disclose deliberate chlorpyrifos poisoning of the toddler by the stepmother, another example of Munchausen syndrome by proxy. PMID:19763618

  12. Accidental hijab pin ingestion in Muslim women: an emerging endoscopic emergency?

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Jason; Patel, Neeral; Boulton, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Ingested foreign body is an infrequent indication for emergency endoscopy in the adult gastroenterology practice. We describe the clinical features and endoscopic management of the first four cases of accidental ingestion of hijab pins by Muslim women in our unit, all presenting within a 12-month period. The pins were all successfully retrieved without any complications. In this report, we review published guidelines and the current literature, as well as discussing the approach (conservative vs proactive endoscopic retrieval) and timing of endoscopic treatment. The Muslim community may need to be alerted to the potential health hazard of hijab pins. PMID:24390968

  13. FINE-SCALE GENETIC DIFFERENTIATION BETWEEN CONTAMINANT-TOLERANT AND CONTAMINANT SENSITIVE FISH POPULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies have suggested that environmental contaminants can act as selective forces on exposed populations of wildlife species. Chronically exposed populations have shown reduced genetic diversity and/or demonstrated other genetic changes. We evaluated the genetic structure of pop...

  14. A fatal case of commotio cordis caused by an accidental fall on the beach.

    PubMed

    Hiquet, J; Tovagliaro, F; Gromb-Monnoyeur, S

    2014-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death is a major health problem and a recurring issue in forensic medicine. Most cases are attributed to congenital heart disease, cardiomyopathy, myocarditis, pathology of the coronary arteries, long or short QT interval syndromes, Brugada syndrome or secondary toxic effects of cardioactive drugs. Sudden death caused by Commotio cordis after an accidental fall is very rare in women. Victims are essentially young people who die following a direct blow to the chest sustained during physical activity. In the following, we report a case of an adult with no significant past medical history, walking on the beach with friends, who died from commotio cordis following an accidental fall on the wet sand. This article deals with post-mortem diagnosis, and demonstrates the importance of a detailed understanding of the circumstances surrounding the death, as well as systematic histological examination of the heart, as the heart will generally appear normal under macroscopic examination. It is important to note that commotio cordis can also occur in adults. PMID:24365682

  15. Emergency operational meteorological considerations during an accidental release of hazardous chemicals. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, P.; Galt, J.

    1991-08-01

    The accidental release of toxic chemicals into the atmosphere has always been of great concern among local emergency response authorities. Evacuation of persons in and around the affected area, the amount of chemical spilled, and atmospheric conditions governing the downwind concentrations are among some of the more pressing issues confronting local hazardous materials (HAZMAT) personnel. Recently, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has embarked upon a program to provide chemical dispersion models to local HAZMAT groups. Greater public awareness of the dangers of toxic chemicals will likely mandate greater involvement by a number of government agencies, including the National Weather Service (NWS). HAZMAT personnel have not yet fully utilized the services of NWS meteorologists. In the future, NWS meteorologists and meteorological technicians may be asked to provide weather data as well as initial and short range weather forecasts (including trajectory forecasts) to emergency response managers responsible for protecting people from accidental releases of toxic spills. While a wide number of dispersion models exist, many are very similar when it comes to the type of meteorological input required to run them. The paper focuses on the input so that meteorologists may be better informed when they are called upon to provide assistance during a hazardous chemical spill in their area.

  16. Accidental discharge of a Halon 1301 total flooding fire extinguishing system

    SciTech Connect

    Sass-Kortsak, A.M.; Holness, D.L.; Stopps, G.J.

    1985-11-01

    An accidental discharge of a total flooding Halon 1301 fire extinguishing system is described. The release of the Halon was accompanied by a sudden very loud noise, considerable air turbulence and a dense fog, resulting in worker anxiety and loss of visibility. The workers in the area at the time of the discharge reported higher frequencies of lightheadedness, headache, nasal complaints and disorientation than those entering the area later. Halon 1301 usually is regarded as having a low toxicity, although at concentrations above those used in occupied spaces, effects on consciousness and cardiac rhythm have been reported. In the present report no significant illness or injury due to the Halon exposure was found. A fine oily deposit found on horizontal surfaces in the area subsequent to the discharge consisted of mineral oil and iron, suggesting that this material was scoured out of the piping as the Halon discharged. The disorientation and anxiety produced by an accidental discharge can be minimized through education programs designed to ensure that personnel know what to expect and how to abort the discharge if it results from a false alarm. Situations leading to triggering of fire detectors by events other than fires should be investigated and reduced.

  17. Accidental contamination of a German town's drinking water with sodium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Lendowski, Luba; Färber, Harald; Holy, Andreas; Darius, Anke; Ehrich, Bernd; Wippermann, Christine; Küfner, Bernd; Exner, Martin

    2015-05-01

    Case report of a very serious drinking water incident putting up to 50,000 inhabitants of a town near Bonn in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany at risk. A concentrated solution of highly alkaline water by sodium hydroxide was accidentally washed into the town's drinking water at a pumping station and increased the pH-value of the water to 12. Residents who came into contact with the contaminated water immediately had a toxic reaction. The incident was detected by complaints from customers and after that was stopped within several hours. The pipes were flushed and the customers were warned not to use the water till the all clear. After this immediate management there was an investigation and the cause of the incident was detected as an accidental release of accumulated sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. The lack of a network alarm system and the automatic cut-off mechanisms as deficiencies in the design of the station were rectified by the water company immediately after the incident. PMID:25687345

  18. Risk determination method for accidental water basin contamination based on risk source coupling with sensitive targets.

    PubMed

    Li, Zongfeng; Zeng, Bo; Zhou, Tinggang; Li, Guowei; Zhu, Xiaobo

    2016-01-01

    Accidental water basin pollution seriously threatens human health and ecological security, but rapid, effective methods for evaluating this threat are lacking. This paper aims to develop a risk evaluation method for basin accidents by coupling the risk source with sensitive targets to evaluate the zone accident risk levels of basins and prevent the accidental environmental pollution of water. This method incorporates the interplay between risk sources and sensitive targets by evaluating the zone risk levels of water environments from different sources, effectiveness of the risk source control mechanisms, vulnerability of sensitive targets and spatial and temporal relationships between these sources and targets. Using the Three Gorges Reservoir region as an example, a risk system for water basin pollution incidents consisting of a risk indicator quantification system, a risk zoning method and a verification method for the zoning results is developed and implemented. The results were verified in a field investigation, which showed that the risk zoning model provides rapid, effective and reliable zoning results. This research method could serve as a theoretical reference and technological support for evaluating water basin accident risks. Furthermore, the results are useful for evaluating and protecting the aquatic environments in the Three Gorges Reservoir region. PMID:26207430

  19. Creatin-kinase elevation after accidental ingestion of almotriptan in an 18-month-old girl.

    PubMed

    Castagno, E; Lupica, M; Viola, S; Savino, F; Miniero, R

    2014-02-01

    Few studies have been published to demonstrate tolerability and efficacy of almotriptan in adolescents and children with migraine, particularly in the first years of life, though preliminary results are favorable. We report the case of an 18-month-old infant with elevation of serum levels of creatin-kinase after the accidental ingestion of almotriptan. A previously healthy 18-month-old girl (weight: 13 kg) was admitted to our Department four hours after the accidental ingestion of 6.25 mg of almotriptan (0.48 mg/kg), without any specific symptom. The performed investigations showed high serum levels of creatin-kinase (CK) (527 IU/L; normal values: 24-170 IU/L). Transaminase, creatinine, aldolase, myoglobin and troponin T serum levels were normal. The electrocardiogram proved negative. Initial management consisted of parenteral rehydration with saline solution. CK levels lowered significantly at 12 hours (455 IU/L) and at 65 hours (188 IU/L) after the ingestion. No symptoms were observed before discharge and on follow-up. PMID:24608586

  20. ESR dosimetry study of population in the vicinity of the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site

    PubMed Central

    Zhumadilov, Kassym; Ivannikov, Alexander; Stepanenko, Valeriy; Zharlyganova, Dinara; Toyoda, Shin; Zhumadilov, Zhaxybay; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2013-01-01

    A tooth enamel electron spin resonance (ESR) dosimetry study was carried out with the purpose of obtaining the individual absorbed radiation doses of population from settlements in the Semipalatinsk region of Kazakhstan, which was exposed to radioactive fallout traces from nuclear explosions in the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site and Lop Nor test base, China. Most of the settlements are located near the central axis of radioactive fallout trace from the most contaminating surface nuclear test, which was conducted on 29 August 1949, with the maximum detected excess dose being 430 ± 93 mGy. A maximum dose of 268 ± 79 mGy was determined from the settlements located close to radioactive fallout trace resulting from surface nuclear tests on 24 August 1956 (Ust-Kamenogorsk, Znamenka, Shemonaikha, Glubokoe, Tavriya and Gagarino). An accidental dose of 56 ± 42 mGy was found in Kurchatov city residents located close to fallout trace after the nuclear test on 7 August 1962. This method was applied to human tooth enamel to obtain individual absorbed doses of residents of the Makanchi, Urdzhar and Taskesken settlements located near the Kazakhstan–Chinese border due to the influence of nuclear tests (1964–1981) at Lop Nor. The highest dose was 123 ± 32 mGy. PMID:23404205

  1. Caregivers' voices: The experiences of caregivers of children who sustained serious accidental and non-accidental head injury in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Wharewera-Mika, Julie; Cooper, Erana; Kool, Bridget; Pereira, Susana; Kelly, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Head injury is a leading cause of mortality and acquired neurological impairment in children. Head-injured children may have neurobehavioural deficits that persist for years following injury. Head injury can result in significant and persistent caregiver burden, including mental health issues, family stress and disorganisation, and unmet social and healthcare service needs. Few studies have examined the healthcare and social service needs of children and their families following head injury sustained at an early age. This qualitative study aims to describe the experiences of caregivers of children who sustained a serious head injury (particularly non-accidental head injury) before the age of 2 years. Caregivers were interviewed up to 15 years following the initial injury. Semi-structured interviews with 21 caregivers of 15 children (aged 3-15 years at the time of interview) were completed. Thematic analysis of interview data generated three key themes: impact, support and information. The study's findings reveal the broad impact of serious childhood head injury on caregivers, specifically the significant distress and burden brought about through lack of information, challenges in accessing support and inconsistent care. Recommendations for developing a quality 'model of care' and improving ease of access to supports for caregivers are provided. PMID:26088208

  2. Corrections for the effects of accidental coincidences, Compton scatter, and object size in positron emission mammography (PEM) imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond Raylman; Stanislaw Majewski; Randolph Wojcik; Andrew Weisenberger; Brian Kross; Vladimir Popov

    2001-06-01

    Positron emission mammography (PEM) has begun to show promise as an effective method for the detection of breast lesions. Due to its utilization of tumor-avid radiopharmaceuticals labeled with positron-emitting radionuclides, this technique may be especially useful in imaging of women with radiodense or fibrocystic breasts. While the use of these radiotracers affords PEM unique capabilities, it also introduces some limitations. Specifically, acceptance of accidental and Compton-scattered coincidence events can decrease lesion detectability. The authors studied the effect of accidental coincidence events on PEM images produced by the presence of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose in the organs of a subject using an anthropomorphic phantom. A delayed-coincidence technique was tested as a method for correcting PEM images for the occurrence of accidental events. Also, a Compton scatter correction algorithm designed specifically for PEM was developed and tested using a compressed breast phantom.

  3. Accidental Strangulation Due to Entrapment of Saree in Crop Thrasher Machine in an Elderly Women Working at Agricultural Field.

    PubMed

    Parchake, Manoj Bhausaheb; Kumre, Vikas; Kachare, Rajesh V

    2016-09-01

    Strangulation is generally considered as homicidal death and in accidental strangulation circumstantial evidence alone can point toward the accidental nature of incidence. In present case, a 71-year-old woman, wearing a saree (garment worn by traditional women in India) working in agricultural field, got entangled in the crop thrasher machine and got strangled. Immediately, she was taken to the nearest hospital, where she survived for 6 to 8 hours and then died. The autopsy reveals cross ribbon-shaped ligature mark on neck and anterior chest along with 1 puncture wound at the right lateral aspect of the neck. A lack of proper precaution and safety measures at agricultural field are other contributing factors. Accidental strangulation by saree is extremely rare, hence, this case is presented for its rarity and pattern of injury. PMID:27311083

  4. Accidental degeneracy in photonic bands and topological phase transitions in two-dimensional core-shell dielectric photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lin; Wang, Hai-Xiao; Xu, Ya-Dong; Chen, Huan-Yang; Jiang, Jian-Hua

    2016-08-01

    A simple core-shell two-dimensional photonic crystal is studied where the triangle lattice symmetry and $C_{6v}$ rotation symmetry leads to rich physics in the study of accidental degeneracy's in photonic bands. We systematically evaluate different types of accidental nodal points, depending on the dispersions around them and their topological properties, when the geometry and permittivity are continuously changed. These accidental nodal points can be the critical states lying between a topological phase and a normal phase and are thus important for the study of topological photonic states. In time-reversal systems, this leads to the photonic quantum spin Hall insulator where the spin is defined upon the orbital angular momentum for transverse-magnetic polarization. We study the topological phase transition as well as the properties of the edge and bulk states and their application potentials in optics.

  5. Sulphuric acid marketed in water bottle in India: A cause for fatal accidental poisoning in an adult.

    PubMed

    Behera, C; Chopra, Saurav; Garg, Aayushi; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-06-01

    Corrosive acid ingestion is a rare but serious health hazard with fatal complications. Cases of suicidal and accidental acid ingestion have been documented in the scientific literature. Accidental acid poisoning due to a mistaken identity of the bottle containing sulphuric acid is a matter of grave concern especially in a household set-up. We hereby report a fatal case of accidental sulphuric acid ingestion in an adult, who unsuspectingly swallowed about 50 ml of 'toilet-cleaner' at his residence. The bottle containing the acid was recently purchased from a local vendor and placed with water bottles in the kitchen. The autopsy and toxicological findings of this case are discussed in this paper with discussion of medico-legal issues on the sale and use of such corrosive acids in illegal bottles and its subsequent health hazards in India. PMID:26837566

  6. Population policies in perspective.

    PubMed

    Duden, B

    1992-01-01

    This paper consists of excerpts of the author's population chapter in The Development Dictionary: A Guide to Knowledge as Power. The author opens by noting the general tendency for people to fear and connote overpopulation when exposed to the term population. Population evokes emotional, value-laden paranoia among populations of industrialized countries, who fear that the rapid population growth of developing countries will lead to a world dominated by individuals of yellow and brown skin complexion. Populations grow, consume, pollute, need, demand, and are entitled. They are objects which can be acted upon, controlled, developed, and limited. As such, the author presents her view of how population has been transformed over 40 years of development discourse and the social realities engendered by its use. She contends that the term has become a tool for the verbal extermination of people. The discussion is presented in brief sections under the following headings: how people became populations, birth control for development, and population control for survival. PMID:12286349

  7. Prevalence to Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis spp. In a reintroduced fisher (Martes pennanti) population in Pennsylvania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the role of disease in population regulation is important to the conservation of wildlife. We evaluated the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis spp in 46 road-killed and accidental trapper-killed fisher carcasses collected by the Pennsylvania Game Commission and stored a...

  8. Wilderness Medical Society practice guidelines for the out-of-hospital evaluation and treatment of accidental hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Zafren, Ken; Giesbrecht, Gordon G; Danzl, Daniel F; Brugger, Hermann; Sagalyn, Emily B; Walpoth, Beat; Weiss, Eric A; Auerbach, Paul S; McIntosh, Scott E; Némethy, Mária; McDevitt, Marion; Dow, Jennifer; Schoene, Robert B; Rodway, George W; Hackett, Peter H; Bennett, Brad L; Grissom, Colin K

    2014-12-01

    To provide guidance to clinicians, the Wilderness Medical Society (WMS) convened an expert panel to develop evidence-based guidelines for the out-of-hospital evaluation and treatment of victims of accidental hypothermia. The guidelines present the main diagnostic and therapeutic modalities and provide recommendations for the management of hypothermic patients. The panel graded the recommendations based on the quality of supporting evidence and the balance between benefits and risks/burdens according the criteria published by the American College of Chest Physicians. The guidelines also provide suggested general approaches to the evaluation and treatment of accidental hypothermia that incorporate specific recommendations. PMID:25443771

  9. Immunoglobulin levels and cellular immune function in lead exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, M L; Perlingeiro, R C; Bincoletto, C; Almeida, M; Cardoso, M P; Dantas, D C

    1994-02-01

    The immunological status of lead acid battery workers with blood lead levels and urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA-U) concentrations ranging from safe to toxic levels has been examined and compared with those of non-exposed, age and sex matched controls. No differences in the serum concentrations of IgG, IgA and IgM between the populations were observed and there existed no correlation between blood lead level or ALA-U concentrations and serum immunoglobulin levels. In addition assessment was made of the capacity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to respond to the mitogen phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), a correlate of T cell function. As before, there was no difference between exposed and control populations and no correlation between reactivity and blood lead concentration. Our data suggest that chronic exposure to lead fail to compromise lymphocyte function in man. PMID:8169320

  10. Embryo- and fetotoxicity of chromium in pregestationally exposed mice

    SciTech Connect

    Junaid, M.; Murthy, R.C.; Saxena, D.K.

    1996-10-01

    Chromium, an essential element in the human body required for proper carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism, is reported to impair gestational development of offspring of workers chronically exposed to this metal in the work place. Workers in chromium based industries can be exposed to concentrations two orders of magnitude higher than the general population. Among the general population, residents living near chromate production sites may be exposed to high levels of chromium (VI) in air or to elevated levels (40 - 50,000 ppm) of chromium in effluents. Shmitova reported afterbirth and puerperal hemorrhages in women industrially exposed to this metal and observed high chromium levels in blood and urine of pregnant women and in fetal and cord blood. Chromium readily passes the placental barrier and reaches the growing fetus. Exposure of mice to chromium during various gestational periods resulted in embryo and fetotoxic effects. This study looks at the role of body chromium accumulated pregestationally on embryo and fetal development and its subsequent transfer to feto-placental sites. 25 refs., 3 tabs.

  11. Accidental Thawing of Embryos, Cryopreserved for Transfer. Two Italian cases, Milan and Rome.

    PubMed

    Busardò, Francesco P; Vergallo, Gianluca Montanari; Turillazzi, Emanuela; Bolino, Giorgio; Vullo, Annamaria; Frati, Paola

    2016-01-01

    The bioethical and juridical debate on the status of frozen embryos sometimes adds new issues arising from new scientific evidence or by accidental occurrences that bring to the attention of the scientific community the need for new practical solutions. Within this scenario, there have been, in recent years, episodes concerning the accidental thawing of embryos, which have been cryopreserved for transfer. Two Italian cases (the Milan and the Rome cases) are here reported: the Milan case involves a couple undergoing artificial insemination. Three eggs were collected for insemination and two of them had been fertilized. During the night of 8/9 May 2007 a short circuit occurred, resulting in an electricity blackout, which caused the loss of the embryos in culture, which should have been transferred to the woman's uterus on 9 May. The couple applied for damage compensation from the hospital following the loss of the embryos. The case went to Court and the result was a judgment issued by the Milan civil court, which recognized that the centre was to blame for irreparable damage to the embryos. The Rome case, involves two couples (A and B) affected by sterility who applied to an authorized public centre to undergo an ART program. Following the medical procedures, two of the embryos produced were transferred to the woman in couple A and five were frozen, whereas three embryos produced by couple B were transferred to the uterus of the woman and six eggs were cryopreserved in the centre. Two years after the procedure there was an electricity blackout, and the backup electricity generator failed to function, causing the loss of the gametes and the embryos cryopreserved in the centre. Legal proceedings begun by the couples to obtain compensation for damages are still underway. The above reported cases have significantly intensified the bioethical debate on the lawfulness of such practices and on the fate of the cryopreserved embryos, at the same time opening new frontiers in

  12. Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann-Stanzer, K.; Stenzel, S.

    2009-04-01

    Several air dispersion models are available for prediction and simulation of the hazard areas associated with accidental releases of toxic gases. The most model packages (commercial or free of charge) include a chemical database, an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) and automated graphical output for effective presentation of results. The models are designed especially for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios"), preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management. Uncertainties in the meteorological input together with incorrect estimates of the source play a critical role for the model results. The research project RETOMOD (reference scenarios calculations for toxic gas releases - model systems and their utility for the fire brigade) was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in cooperation with the Vienna fire brigade, OMV Refining & Marketing GmbH and Synex Ries & Greßlehner GmbH. RETOMOD was funded by the KIRAS safety research program at the Austrian Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology (www.kiras.at). The main tasks of this project were 1. Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input for modeling of the hazard areas (human exposure) during the accidental toxic releases. 2. Comparison of several model packages (based on reference scenarios) in order to estimate the utility for the fire brigades. This presentation gives a short introduction to the project and presents the results of task 1 (meteorological input). The results of task 2 are presented by Stenzel and Baumann-Stanzer in this session. For the aim of this project, the observation-based analysis and forecasting system INCA, developed in the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) was used. INCA (Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Analysis) data were calculated with 1 km horizontal resolution and

  13. Metal dynamics and tolerance of Typha domingensis exposed to high concentrations of Cr, Ni and Zn.

    PubMed

    Mufarrege, M M; Hadad, H R; Di Luca, G A; Maine, M A

    2014-07-01

    Typha domingensis was exposed to a 100mgL(-1) Cr+100mgL(-1) Ni+100mgL(-1) Zn solution. Metal tolerance and metal accumulation in plant tissues and sediment were studied over time. Although removal rates were different, the three metals were efficiently removed from water. Leaf and root tissues showed high metal concentration. However, the sediment showed the highest accumulation. During the first hours of contact, metals were not only accumulated by sediment and roots but they were also taken up by the leaves in direct contact with the solution. Over time, metals were translocated from roots to leaves and vice versa. Metals caused growth inhibition and a decrease in chlorophyll concentration and affected anatomical parameters. Despite these sub-lethal effects, T. domingensis demonstrated that it could accumulate Cr, Ni and Zn efficiently and survive an accidental dump of high concentrations of contaminants in systems such as natural and constructed wetlands. PMID:24793518

  14. Accidental exposure to biological material in healthcare workers at a university hospital: Evaluation and follow-up of 404 cases.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Eliana Battaggia; Lopes, Marta Heloísa; Yasuda, Maria Aparecida Shikanai

    2005-01-01

    The care and follow-up provided to healthcare workers (HCWs) from a large teaching hospital who were exposed to biological material between 1 August 1998 and 31 January 2002 is described here. After exposure, the HCW is evaluated by a nurse and doctor in an emergency consultation and receives follow-up counselling. The collection of 10 ml of blood sample from each HCW and its source patient, when known, is made for immunoenzymatic testing for HIV, HBV and HCV. Evaluation and follow-up of 404 cases revealed that the exposures were concentrated in only a few areas of the hospital; 83% of the HCWs exposed were seen by a doctor responsible for the prophylaxis up to 3 h after exposure. Blood was involved in 76.7% (309) of the exposures. The patient source of the biological material was known in 80.7% (326) of the exposed individuals studied; 80 (24.5%) sources had serological evidence of infection with 1 or more agents: 16.2% were anti-HCV positive, 3.8% were HAgBs positive and 10.9% were anti-HIV positive. 67% (273) of the study population completed the proposed follow-up. No confirmed seroconversion occurred. In conclusion, the observed adherence to the follow-up was quite low, and measures to improve it must be taken. Surprisingly, no difference in adherence to the follow-up was observed among those exposed HCW at risk, i.e. those with an infected or unknown source patient. Analysis of post-exposure management revealed excess prescription of antiretroviral drugs, vaccine and immunoglobulin. Infection by HCV is the most important risk of concern, in our hospital, in accidents with biological material. PMID:15804666

  15. Advances in treating exposed fractures☆

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira Giglio, Pedro; Fogaça Cristante, Alexandre; Ricardo Pécora, José; Partezani Helito, Camilo; Lei Munhoz Lima, Ana Lucia; dos Santos Silva, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The management of exposed fractures has been discussed since ancient times and remains of great interest to present-day orthopedics and traumatology. These injuries are still a challenge. Infection and nonunion are feared complications. Aspects of the diagnosis, classification and initial management are discussed here. Early administration of antibiotics, surgical cleaning and meticulous debridement are essential. The systemic conditions of patients with multiple trauma and the local conditions of the limb affected need to be taken into consideration. Early skeletal stabilization is necessary. Definitive fixation should be considered when possible and provisional fixation methods should be used when necessary. Early closure should be the aim, and flaps can be used for this purpose. PMID:26229904

  16. Urban Early Adolescent Narratives on Sexuality: Accidental and Intentional Influences of Family, Peers, and the Media

    PubMed Central

    McKamey, Corinne

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the ways that early adolescents talked, interacted, and made references to events in their individual and collective lives during photography-based focus groups about sexuality and relationships. Twenty-three participants (10 boys and 13 girls) were recruited from three urban schools participating in a comprehensive sex education impact evaluation in the Northeast. We analyzed conversational narratives that were elicited in a group process while sharing photos of important people, contexts, and situations, showcasing participants’ exploration of sexuality and relationships. Our analysis revealed four main themes: (a) direct and indirect family communication about sexuality, (b) accidental and intentional Internet usage, (c) shared and contested peer knowledge, and (d) school as a direct and indirect learning context. Implications and future directions for practice, research, and policy are explored. PMID:22983141

  17. The potential for damage from the accidental release of conductive carbon fibers from aircraft composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, V. L.

    1980-01-01

    Carbon and graphite fibers are known to be electrically conductive. The rapidly accelerating use of carbon fibers as the reinforcement in filamentary composite materials brought up the possibility of accidental release of carbon fibers from the burning of crashed commercial airliners with carbon composite parts. Such release could conceivably cause widespread damage to electrical and electronic equipment. The experimental and analytical results of a comprehensive investigation of the various elements necessary to assess the extent of such potential damage in terms of annual expected costs and maximum losses at low probabilities of occurrence are presented. A review of NASA materials research program to provide alternate or modified composite materials to overcome any electrical hazards from the use of carbon composites in aircraft structures is described.

  18. [Accidental injection sodium hypochlorite during endodontic therapy. Better understand to better manage].

    PubMed

    Ben Rejeb, H; Douki, N

    2015-09-01

    The high frequency of iatrogenic incidents during endodontic treatment is a source of stress for the practitioner. These incidents may occur during the different steps of a root canal treatment. During irrigation, extrusion of sodium hypochlorite beyond the apex is a rare but impressive accident. Sodium hypochlorite, is the most common irrigant used in modern endodontics, but when it comes in contact with the periapical tissue, it can cause complications ranging from mild discomfort to serious tissue damage such as the hematoma and hemato-emphysema. The aims of this article are to discuss through the presentation of two clinical cases: Etiological and predisposing factors; Signs guiding to suspicion of accidental injection of sodium hypochlorite. In this work, we focused on clinical keys that help the practitioner in better understanding this accident in order to prevent it or to manage it well when it occurs. PMID:26930773

  19. Accidental injection of 2% chlorhexidine gluconate instead of an anesthetic agent: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Hiremath, Hemalatha; Agarwal, Rolly S.; Patni, Pallav; Chauhan, Sapna

    2016-01-01

    We report a case where 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) gluconate was mistaken for an anesthetic solution and infiltrated into the buccal vestibule during routine root canal treatment. Accidentally, 2% CHX gluconate solution was injected in the right upper buccal vestibule (16) of a 23-year-old male during routine root canal treatment. The patient experienced pain and a burning sensation over the injected area shortly after injection. Swelling with mild extraoral redness over the right cheek area was observed clinically. The patient was immediately administered dexamethasone intramuscularly, and was prescribed antibiotics, analgesics, and antihistamines. The patient complained of a loss of sensation over the right cheek by the 15th day. The swelling reduced gradually over a period of 15 days. Reversal of sensation was attained after 35 days. PMID:26957805

  20. Dynamic evaluation of environmental impact due to tritium accidental release from the fusion reactor.

    PubMed

    Nie, Baojie; Ni, Muyi; Jiang, Jieqiong; Wu, Yican

    2015-10-01

    As one of the key safety issues of fusion reactors, tritium environmental impact of fusion accidents has attracted great attention. In this work, the dynamic tritium concentrations in the air and human body were evaluated on the time scale based on accidental release scenarios under the extreme environmental conditions. The radiation dose through various exposure pathways was assessed to find out the potential relationships among them. Based on this work, the limits of HT and HTO release amount for arbitrary accidents were proposed for the fusion reactor according to dose limit of ITER. The dynamic results aim to give practical guidance for establishment of fusion emergency standard and design of fusion tritium system. PMID:26164282

  1. Equilibria Between Cell Membranes and Electrolyte Solution: Effect of Fatal Accidental Hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Petelska, Aneta D; Kotyńska, Joanna; Naumowicz, Monika; Figaszewski, Zbigniew A

    2016-06-01

    Equilibria between the membranes of erythrocytes as well as thrombocytes and solution ions in fatal accidental hypothermia were analyzed using a theoretical four-equilibria model. The model was developed to determinate parameters characterizing cell membrane-surrounding ion interactions: the total surface concentrations of both acidic and basic groups C A, C B, and association constants K AH, K BOH. Knowledge of these parameters was necessary to calculate the theoretical values of surface charge density. The model was validated by curve-fitting the experimental data points to simulated data generated by the model. The experimental and theoretical surface charge density values agree at pH 2-8, at higher pH the deviation was observed. PMID:26843064

  2. Accidental formation of Gd₄(SiO₄)₂OTe: crystal structure and spectroscopic properties.

    PubMed

    Daszkiewicz, Marek; Gulay, Lubomir D

    2015-07-01

    Designing new functional materials with increasingly complex compositions is of current interest in science and technology. Complex rare-earth-based chalcogenides have specific thermal, electrical, magnetic and optical properties. Tetragadolinium bis[tetraoxidosilicate(IV)] oxide telluride, Gd4(SiO4)2OTe, was obtained accidentally while studying the Gd2Te3-Cu2Te system. The crystal structure was determined by means of single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The compound crystallizes in the space group Pnma. Three symmetry-independent gadolinium sites were determined. The excitation and emission spectra were collected at room temperature and at 10 K. Gd4(SiO4)2OTe appears to be a promising optical material when doped with rare-earth ions. PMID:26146399

  3. Accidental release of toxic chemicals: influence of the main input parameters on consequence calculation.

    PubMed

    Bubbico, Roberto; Mazzarotta, Barbara

    2008-03-01

    In the present paper the accidental release of toxic chemicals has been taken into consideration, and a sensitivity analysis study of the corresponding consequences calculation has been carried out. Four different toxic chemicals have been chosen for the simulations, and the effect of the variability of the main input parameters on the extension of the impact areas has been assessed. The results show that the influence of these parameters depends on the physical properties of the released substance and that not always the widely known rules of thumb, such as the positive influence of the wind velocity on gas dispersion, apply. In particular, the boiling temperature of the chemical has revealed to be the main parameter affecting the type of dependence of the impact distances on the input variables. PMID:17630190

  4. Effectiveness of water spray mitigation systems for accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    Accidental releases of pressurized, superheated hydrogen fluoride (HF) can result in initially dense clouds which will typically contain a mixture of HF vapor, aerosol, and droplets. Previous experiments were performed by Amoco Oil Company and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (the Goldfish series in 1986) to study atmospheric dispersion of these HF clouds. The present study examines the effect of water application on the mitigation of these clouds. To assess the effectiveness of water application (via either sprays or monitor) in mitigating HF clouds two series of tests were conducted in separate flow chambers. Bench scale experiments identified key variables for testing in a larger facility. The larger scale field tests demonstrated that HF releases can be mitigated with water. The impact of numerous design variables on mitigation effectiveness has also been quantified. HF removal efficiencies of 25 to 90+% have been demonstrated at water to HF liquid ratios of 6/1 to 40/1 and higher.

  5. Effectiveness of water spray mitigation systems for accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    Accidental releases of pressurized, superheated hydrogen fluoride (HF) can result in initially dense clouds which will typically contain a mixture of HF vapor, aerosol, and droplets. Previous experiments were performed by Amoco Oil Company and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (the Goldfish series in 1986) to study atmospheric dispersion of these HF clouds. The present study examines the effect of water application on the mitigation of these clouds. To assess the effectiveness of water application (via either sprays or monitor) in mitigating HF clouds two series of tests were conducted in separate flow chambers. Bench scale experiments identified key variables for testing in larger scale field tests demonstrated that HF releases can be mitigated with water. The impact of numerous design variables on mitigation effectiveness has also been quantified. HF removal efficiencies of 25 to 90+% have been demonstrated at water to HF liquid ratios of 6/1 to 40/1 and higher. 8 refs., 69 figs., 50 tabs.

  6. Effectiveness of water spray mitigation systems for accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    Accidental release of pressurized, superheated hydrogen fluoride (HF) can result in initially dense clouds which will typically contain a mixture of HF vapor, aerosol, and droplets. Previous experiments were performed by Amoco Oil Company and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (the Goldfish series in 1986) to study atmospheric dispersion of these HF clouds. The present study examines the effect of water application on the mitigation of these clouds. To assess the effectiveness of water application (via either sprays or monitor) in mitigating HF clouds two series of tests were conducted in separate flow chambers. Bench scale experiments identified key variables for testing in a larger facility. The larger scale field tests demonstrated that HF releases can be mitigated with water. The impact of numerous design variables on mitigation effectiveness has also been quantified. HF removal efficiencies of 25 to 90+% have been demonstrated at water to HF liquid ratios of 6/1 to 40/1 and higher.

  7. Effectiveness of water spray mitigation systems for accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    Accidental release of pressurized, superheated hydrogen fluoride (HF) can result in initially dense clouds which will typically contain a mixture of HF vapor, aerosol, and droplets. Previous studies experiments were performed by Amoco Oil Company and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (the Goldfish series in 1986) to study atmospheric dispersion of these HF clouds. The present study examines the effect of water application on the mitigation of these clouds. To assess the effectiveness of water application (via either sprays or monitor) in mitigating HF clouds two series of tests were conducted in separate flow chambers. Bench scale experiments identified key variables for testing in a larger facility. The large scale field tests demonstrated that HF releases can be mitigated with water. The impact of numerous design variables on mitigation effectiveness has also been quantified. HF removal efficiencies of 25 to 90+% have been demonstrated at water to HF liquid ratios of 6/1 to 40/1 and higher.

  8. Effectiveness of water spray mitigation systems for accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, D.E. . Fluid Mechanics and Wind Engineering Lab.)

    1989-06-01

    Accidental releases of pressurized, superheated hydrogen fluoride (HF) can result in initially dense clouds which will typically contain a mixture of HF vapor, aerosol, and droplets. Previous experiments were performed by Amoco Oil Company and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (the Goldfish series in 1986) to study atmospheric dispersion of these HF clouds. The present study examines the effect of water application on the mitigation of these clouds. To assess the effectiveness of water application (via either sprays or monitor) in mitigating HF clouds two series of tests were conducted in separate flow chambers. Bench scale experiments identified key variables for testing in a larger facility. The large scale field tests demonstrated that HF releases can be mitigated with water. The impact of numerous design variables on mitigation effectiveness has also been quantified. HF removal efficiencies of 25 to 90+% have been demonstrated at water to HF liquid ratios of 6/1 to 40/1 and higher.

  9. Accidental Transorbital Penetrating Brainstem and Carotid Injury with CB Antenna: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Hargrave, Kevin; Hoppe, Blaine; Wojak, Joan; Sharkey, Paula; Godchaux, James; Diaz, Orlando

    2016-01-01

    The authors present an unusual case of a transorbital penetrating injury of the internal carotid artery and brainstem. A young man accidentally ran into a 10-foot long citizens band (CB) antenna, and presented to the emergency department with nausea, dizziness and right periorbital ecchymosis. The nature and full extent of the injury were not appreciated at the time of initial examination and computed tomography scan. Magnetic resonance imaging subsequently demonstrated an unusual brainstem lesion. Neurology consultation was obtained. The neurologist and neuroradiologists reviewed the neurological and imaging findings together. This collaboration proved critical to understanding the true nature and extent of the injury and planning evaluation and treatment. Cerebral angiography revealed a traumatic internal carotid artery dissection and pseudoaneurysm, which was treated by placement of a covered stent. The clinical symptoms remained mild and 7-year follow up shows clinical and angiographic stability. PMID:27389377

  10. Hybrid parallel strategy for the simulation of fast transient accidental situations at reactor scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faucher, V.; Galon, P.; Beccantini, A.; Crouzet, F.; Debaud, F.; Gautier, T.

    2014-06-01

    This contribution is dedicated to the latest methodological developments implemented in the fast transient dynamics software EUROPLEXUS (EPX) to simulate the mechanical response of fully coupled fluid-structure systems to accidental situations to be considered at reactor scale, among which the Loss of Coolant Accident, the Core Disruptive Accident and the Hydrogen Explosion. Time integration is explicit and the search for reference solutions within the safety framework prevents any simplification and approximations in the coupled algorithm: for instance, all kinematic constraints are dealt with using Lagrange Multipliers, yielding a complex flow chart when non-permanent constraints such as unilateral contact or immersed fluid-structure boundaries are considered. The parallel acceleration of the solution process is then achieved through a hybrid approach, based on a weighted domain decomposition for distributed memory computing and the use of the KAAPI library for self-balanced shared memory processing inside subdomains.

  11. Simulation of accidental UF/sub 6/ releases in support of the safety analysis effort

    SciTech Connect

    Just, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The safety analysis of the US uranium enrichment facilities requires that postulated accidental releases of UF/sub 6/ be simulated. In order to predict the human health consequences of a postulated UF/sub 6/ release, two types of information are needed: (1) predicted toxicant concentrations and exposure durations at pertinent locations (calculated by a dispersion model), and (2) toxicity data which support the assessment of the human health consequences of a known exposure to a mixture of UF/sub 6/ and UF/sub 6/ hydrolysis products. This report describes the development of a Gaussian dispersion model for simulating UF/sub 6/ dispersion and the plans for developing a puff dispersion model.

  12. Accidental injection of 2% chlorhexidine gluconate instead of an anesthetic agent: A case report.

    PubMed

    Hiremath, Hemalatha; Agarwal, Rolly S; Patni, Pallav; Chauhan, Sapna

    2016-01-01

    We report a case where 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) gluconate was mistaken for an anesthetic solution and infiltrated into the buccal vestibule during routine root canal treatment. Accidentally, 2% CHX gluconate solution was injected in the right upper buccal vestibule (16) of a 23-year-old male during routine root canal treatment. The patient experienced pain and a burning sensation over the injected area shortly after injection. Swelling with mild extraoral redness over the right cheek area was observed clinically. The patient was immediately administered dexamethasone intramuscularly, and was prescribed antibiotics, analgesics, and antihistamines. The patient complained of a loss of sensation over the right cheek by the 15(th) day. The swelling reduced gradually over a period of 15 days. Reversal of sensation was attained after 35 days. PMID:26957805

  13. Investigation of thermoluminescence properties of mobile phone screen displays as dosimeters for accidental dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrozik, Anna; Marczewska, B.; Bilski, P.; Kłosowski, M.

    2014-11-01

    The rapid assessment of the radiation dose after unexpected exposure is a task of accidental dosimetry. In case of a radiological accident glasses originating from mobile phone screens, placed usually near the human body, could be used as emergency thermoluminescent (TL) personal dosimeters. The time between irradiation and TL readout is crucial and therefore preparation of the mobile phone screens and their readout conditions should be optimized. The influence of the samples etching, bleaching and selection of the optical filters based on measurement of the emission spectrum of irradiated glass samples during heating for different types of mobile phones were the subjects of our investigation. Obtained results showed that glasses extracted from different brands of mobile phones have different dosimetric properties but all of them give a luminescent signal which can be used to calculate the dose.

  14. A precise calculation of delayed coincidence selection efficiency and accidental coincidence rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jing-Yi; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Shao-Min

    2015-05-01

    A precise background evaluation model is proposed to address the complex data structure of the delayed coincidence method, which is widely used in reactor electron-antineutrino oscillation experiments. In this model, effects from the muon veto, uncorrelated random background, and background are all studied analytically, simplifying the estimation of the systematic uncertainties of signal efficiency and accidental background rate. The results of the calculations are validated numerically with a number of simulation studies and also applied and validated in the recent Daya Bay hydrogen-capture based oscillation measurement. Supported by Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2013CB834302), National Natural Science Foundation of China (11235006, 11475093), Tsinghua University Initiative Scientific Research Program (2012Z02161), and Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging (Tsinghua University), Ministry of Education.

  15. Exhaled nitric oxide in children after accidental exposure to chlorine gas.

    PubMed

    Grasemann, Hartmut; Tschiedel, Eva; Groch, Manuela; Klepper, Jörg; Ratjen, Felix

    2007-08-01

    Chronic exposure to chlorine gas has been shown to cause occupational asthma. Acute inhalation of chlorine is known to cause airway inflammation and induce airway nitric oxide formation. Exhaled nitric oxide may therefore be a marker of airway damage after chlorine gas exposure. After accidental chlorine gas exposure in a swimming pool, exhaled nitric oxide and pulmonary function were repeatedly measured in 18 children over a 1-mo period. Symptomatic children with impaired pulmonary function had higher nitric oxide levels on the day after the exposure compared to day 8 and day 28. Differences in exhaled nitric oxide were more pronounced at a higher exhalation flow compared to lower flow, suggesting peripheral rather than central airway damage. This was in accordance with the observed changes in pulmonary function. No changes in exhaled nitric oxide were seen in asymptomatic children. These data suggest that acute chlorine gas exposure results in a mild increase of exhaled nitric oxide in symptomatic children. PMID:17687720

  16. Control of accidental releases of hydrogen selenide in vented storage cabinets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fthenakis, V. M.; Moskowitz, P. D.; Sproull, R. D.

    1988-07-01

    Highly toxic hydrogen selenide and hydrogen sulfide gases are used in the production of copper-indium-diselenide photovoltaic cells by reactive sputtering. In the event of an accident, these gases may be released to the atmosphere and pose hazards to public and occupational safety and health. This paper outlines an approach for designing systems for the control of these releases given the uncertainty in release conditions and lack of data on the chemical systems involved. Accidental releases of these gases in storage cabinets can be controlled by either a venturi and packed-bed scrubber and carbon adsorption bed, or containment scrubbing equipment followed by carbon adsorption. These systems can effectively reduce toxic gas emissions to levels needed to protect public health. The costs of these controls (˜0.012/Wp) are samll in comparison with current (˜6/Wp) and projected (˜I/Wp) production costs.

  17. Parents Accidentally Substitute Similar Sounding Sibling Names More Often than Dissimilar Names

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Zenzi M.; Wangerman, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    When parents select similar sounding names for their children, do they set themselves up for more speech errors in the future? Questionnaire data from 334 respondents suggest that they do. Respondents whose names shared initial or final sounds with a sibling’s reported that their parents accidentally called them by the sibling’s name more often than those without such name overlap. Having a sibling of the same gender, similar appearance, or similar age was also associated with more frequent name substitutions. Almost all other name substitutions by parents involved other family members and over 5% of respondents reported a parent substituting the name of a pet, which suggests a strong role for social and situational cues in retrieving personal names for direct address. To the extent that retrieval cues are shared with other people or animals, other names become available and may substitute for the intended name, particularly when names sound similar. PMID:24391955

  18. [Drug Exposed Infants and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This bulletin issue addresses the theme of drug-exposed infants and the services required by these infants and their families. "Cocaine-Exposed Infants: Myths and Misunderstandings" (Barbara J. Myers and others) comments on the negative accounts of drug-exposed babies presented by mass media and reviews the mix of positive and negative findings…

  19. Non-accidental injury in companion animals in the Republic of Ireland.

    PubMed

    McGuinness, Kristina; Allen, Mary; Jones, Boyd R

    2005-01-01

    : Non-accidental injury (NAI), animal abuse and "battered pet" syndrome are terms used to identify "the intentional harm of an animal". The terms include, but are not limited to, wilful neglect, inflicting injury, pain or distress, or malicious killing of an animal. Three categories of abuse are recognised: physical, sexual and neglect.A postal survey was conducted to determine the extent to which NAI was recognised by veterinary surgeons in urban, semi-rural and rural veterinary practices in the Republic of Ireland. The questionnaire was sent to 600 veterinarians; completed submissions were received from 115 respondents (19.2%).The occurrence of NAI was acknowledged by 106 (92.2%) of the respondents and cases had been seen by 50 (43.3%) of them, comprised of 36.2% of urban veterinary surgeons from rural towns and of 82% of urban practitioners. In 59% of cases the client indicated the injury was non-accidental; 39 (67.2%) of the 58 reported cases involved a single event. Signs that made veterinary surgeons suspicious of NAI included inconsistent history, untreated injuries, recurring injuries, meekness of the animal, suspicious behaviour of the owner and injuries consistent with abuse. The types of injuries observed included burns, lacerations, gunshot wounds, poisoning, injury to genitalia, bruising and fractures.The findings of this study are comparable with those from other countries. Most but not all veterinary surgeons in Ireland recognise NAI and animal abuse is of significant concern in rural and urban communities as evidenced by this survey of practising veterinary surgeons. PMID:21851672

  20. Regional scale atmospheric dispersion simulation of accidental releases of radionuclides from Fukushima Dai-ichi reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, C. V.; Venkatesan, R.; Baskaran, R.; Rajagopal, V.; Venkatraman, B.

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents the results of regional scale atmospheric dispersion simulation of accidental emission of radionuclides from the Fukushima Daiichi Reactor, Japan following the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami event on 11 March 2011. The objective was to study the temporal behaviour of plume trajectory, concentration, deposition and radiation dose pattern over an 80 km range around the reactor. The time-varying meteorological parameters during the release period were simulated with a multi-scale nested atmospheric model WRF ARW and the trajectory, plume dispersion were computed with Lagrangian Particle Dispersion models HYSPLIT, FLEXPART using the available information on accidental source term. The simulations indicated that the wind flow over Japan during the release period was driven by the large scale extra-tropical westerly waves and associated low pressure systems. In the lower levels, the flow was influenced by the local topography/sea breeze causing occasional landward wind shift on the east coast of Japan. Simulated airflow trajectories revealed that the plume stayed over the ocean by westerly winds on most days and the radioactivity dispersed over sea surface. Landward trajectories were found on a few days due to southeasterly, easterly and northeasterly flow (15-17, 19-21 March 2011) during which much of the radionuclides deposited over the land region. The hotspot of depositions occurred over east Pacific Ocean near to Japan. Over the land relatively high depositions were simulated in a narrow zone of 20 km width and 80 km length in the northwest sector in agreement with monitor data. Simulations showed wet depositions over the land to be higher than the dry depositions during 12-30 March due to occurrence of rainfall on some days. Comparison of activity deposition and air dose values with available observations confirmed that the plume pattern in a finer length scale around the site could be simulated realistically and agree with the measurements