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Sample records for population odds ratio

  1. Predictors of positive health in disability pensioners: a population-based questionnaire study using Positive Odds Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Ejlertsson, Gran; Edn, Lena; Leden, Ido

    2002-01-01

    Background Determinants of ill-health have been studied far more than determinants of good and improving health. Health promotion measures are important even among individuals with chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to find predictors of positive subjective health among disability pensioners (DPs) with musculoskeletal disorders. Methods Two questionnaire surveys were performed among 352 DPs with musculoskeletal disorders. Two groups were defined: DPs with positive health and negative health, respectively. In consequence with the health perspective in this study the conception Positive Odds Ratio was defined and used in the logistic regression analyses instead of the commonly used odds ratio. Results Positive health was associated with age ? 55 years, not being an immigrant, not having fibromyalgia as the main diagnosis for granting an early retirement, no regular use of analgesics, a high ADL capacity, a positive subjective health preceding the study period, and good quality of life. Conclusion Positive odds ratio is a concept well adapted to theories of health promotion. It can be used in relation to positive outcomes instead of risks. Suggested health promotion and secondary prevention efforts among individuals with musculoskeletal disorders are 1) to avoid a disability pension for individuals <55 years of age; if necessary, to make sure rehabilitation actions continue, 2) to increase efforts to support immigrants to adjust to circumstances connected to ill-health and retirement, 3) to pay special attention to individuals with fibromyalgia and other general pain disorders, and 4) to strengthen ADL activities to support an independent active life among disability pensioners. PMID:12225618

  2. Odds ratios for mediation analysis for a dichotomous outcome.

    PubMed

    Vanderweele, Tyler J; Vansteelandt, Stijn

    2010-12-15

    For dichotomous outcomes, the authors discuss when the standard approaches to mediation analysis used in epidemiology and the social sciences are valid, and they provide alternative mediation analysis techniques when the standard approaches will not work. They extend definitions of controlled direct effects and natural direct and indirect effects from the risk difference scale to the odds ratio scale. A simple technique to estimate direct and indirect effect odds ratios by combining logistic and linear regressions is described that applies when the outcome is rare and the mediator continuous. Further discussion is given as to how this mediation analysis technique can be extended to settings in which data come from a case-control study design. For the standard mediation analysis techniques used in the epidemiologic and social science literatures to be valid, an assumption of no interaction between the effects of the exposure and the mediator on the outcome is needed. The approach presented here, however, will apply even when there are interactions between the effect of the exposure and the mediator on the outcome. PMID:21036955

  3. Odds ratio analysis in women with endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Żak, Ewa; Pięta, Beata

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Despite the progress in diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumours, the effects of treatment are insufficient. Reduction of the risk of cervical, ovarian, and endometrial cancer is possible by introducing preventative actions. Aim of the study The aim of the thesis is the analysis of selected risk factors that may affect the increase or decrease in the odds ratio of developing endometrial cancer. Material and methods The study was conducted among patients of the Gynaecology and Obstetrics Hospital of Poznań University of Medical Sciences in the years 2011-2013. The research included a total of 548 female respondents aged between 40 and 84 years. Women responded to questions assessing elements of lifestyle such as consumption of alcohol, smoking, and eating certain groups of foods. Results The respondents consuming fruits and vegetables several times a week have a reduced risk of odds ratio and the OR is 0.85; 95% CI: 0.18-4.09, compared to the women who rarely consume vegetables and fruits. Consumption of whole-wheat bread several times a week reduces the risk of developing the cancer, OR = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.14-2.47, compared to women not consuming wholegrain bread at all. Respondents who consumed red meat, such as veal, pork, and lamb in the amount of 101-200 g per day have an increased risk of developing the disease: OR = 2.16; 95% CI: 1.09-4.28, compared to women not consuming red meat at all. Conclusions A diet rich in fruit and vegetables, onions, garlic, whole grains, and beans should be introduced in order to reduce the risk of endometrial cancer. The consumption of red meat and white pasta should be reduced or even eliminated. PMID:27095953

  4. [Razón de posibilidades: a proposed translation of the term odds ratio].

    PubMed

    Tapia, J A; Nieto, F J

    1993-01-01

    In English, odds ratio is a basic epidemiological measure approximating the relative risk. Odds ratio has been translated into Spanish in several ways, which has produced great terminological confusion. On the other hand, the English word odds is often used in epidemiology or statistics English textbooks, alone or as part of other expressions, but always keeping a definite mathematical meaning, which calls for a similarly definite term in Spanish. We discuss several translations of odds ratio found in the literature and propose the Spanish word "posibilidades" as a translation of odds and "razón de posibilidades" as a translation of odds ratio. PMID:8342087

  5. Limits on Log Odds Ratios for Unidimensional Item Response Theory Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberman, Shelby J.; Holland, Paul W.; Sinharay, Sandip

    2007-01-01

    Bounds are established for log odds ratios (log cross-product ratios) involving pairs of items for item response models. First, expressions for bounds on log odds ratios are provided for one-dimensional item response models in general. Then, explicit bounds are obtained for the Rasch model and the two-parameter logistic (2PL) model. Results are…

  6. Identifying the odds ratio estimated by a two-stage instrumental variable analysis with a logistic regression model.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Stephen

    2013-11-30

    An adjustment for an uncorrelated covariate in a logistic regression changes the true value of an odds ratio for a unit increase in a risk factor. Even when there is no variation due to covariates, the odds ratio for a unit increase in a risk factor also depends on the distribution of the risk factor. We can use an instrumental variable to consistently estimate a causal effect in the presence of arbitrary confounding. With a logistic outcome model, we show that the simple ratio or two-stage instrumental variable estimate is consistent for the odds ratio of an increase in the population distribution of the risk factor equal to the change due to a unit increase in the instrument divided by the average change in the risk factor due to the increase in the instrument. This odds ratio is conditional within the strata of the instrumental variable, but marginal across all other covariates, and is averaged across the population distribution of the risk factor. Where the proportion of variance in the risk factor explained by the instrument is small, this is similar to the odds ratio from a RCT without adjustment for any covariates, where the intervention corresponds to the effect of a change in the population distribution of the risk factor. This implies that the ratio or two-stage instrumental variable method is not biased, as has been suggested, but estimates a different quantity to the conditional odds ratio from an adjusted multiple regression, a quantity that has arguably more relevance to an epidemiologist or a policy maker, especially in the context of Mendelian randomization. PMID:23733419

  7. Isomer residual ratio of odd-odd isotope {sup 180}Ta in supernova nucleosynthsis

    SciTech Connect

    Hayakawa, Takehito; Kajino, Toshitaka; Chiba, Satoshi; Mathews, Grant

    2010-06-01

    The nucleosynthesis of {sup 180}Ta has remained an unsolved problem and as its origin many nucleosynthesis mechanisms have been proposed. This isotope has the unique feature that the naturally occurring abundance of {sup 180}Ta is actually a meta-stable isomer (half-life of >=10{sup 15} yr), while the ground state is a 1{sup +} unstable state which beta-decays with a half-life of only 8.15 hr. We have made a new time-dependent calculation of {sup 180}Ta meta-stable isomer residual ratio after supernova neutrino-induced reactions. This residual isomer ratio is crucial for understanding the production and survival of this naturally occurring rare isotope. We have constructed a new model under temperature evolution after type II supernova explosion. We include the explicit linking between the isomer and all known excited states and found that the residual ratio is insensitive to astrophysical parameters such as neutrino energy spectrum, explosion energy, decay time constant. We find that the explicit time evolution of the synthesis of {sup 180}Ta avoids the overproduction relative to {sup 138}La for a neutrino process neutrino temperature of 4 MeV.

  8. A quantitative expression of resiliency in the workplace: an odds ratio analysis.

    PubMed

    Everly, George S; Sherman, Martin F; Nucifora, Frederick; Langlieb, Alan; Kaminsky, Michael J; Links, Jonathan M

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews four empirical investigations into the effectiveness of workplace-based crisis intervention programs designed to enhance psychological resiliency. As an extension of a previously published review of effect sizes of workplace-based crisis interventions (Everly et al., 2006), this paper extends the expression of intervention effectiveness by proposing, then utilizing, the odds ratio statistic. It is proposed that the odds ratio is a more useful tool by which to express the practical utility of workplace-based psychosocial interventions. Thus, the use of odds ratios may be a tool that serves to ease the translation of research into practice. That is, odds ratios may aid in expressing the potential usefulness of workplace-based crisis intervention programs in terms that can be easily understood by program managers and policy makers without extensive training in inferential statistics, thereby potentiating increased utilization of such programs as indicated. PMID:19112928

  9. An Odds Ratio Approach for Detecting DDF under the Nested Logit Modeling Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzi, Ragip; Suh, Youngsuk

    2015-01-01

    An odds ratio approach (ORA) under the framework of a nested logit model was proposed for evaluating differential distractor functioning (DDF) in multiple-choice items and was compared with an existing ORA developed under the nominal response model. The performances of the two ORAs for detecting DDF were investigated through an extensive

  10. Practical Guidance for Conducting Mediation Analysis With Multiple Mediators Using Inverse Odds Ratio Weighting

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Quynh C.; Osypuk, Theresa L.; Schmidt, Nicole M.; Glymour, M. Maria; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the recent flourishing of mediation analysis techniques, many modern approaches are difficult to implement or applicable to only a restricted range of regression models. This report provides practical guidance for implementing a new technique utilizing inverse odds ratio weighting (IORW) to estimate natural direct and indirect effects for mediation analyses. IORW takes advantage of the odds ratio's invariance property and condenses information on the odds ratio for the relationship between the exposure (treatment) and multiple mediators, conditional on covariates, by regressing exposure on mediators and covariates. The inverse of the covariate-adjusted exposure-mediator odds ratio association is used to weight the primary analytical regression of the outcome on treatment. The treatment coefficient in such a weighted regression estimates the natural direct effect of treatment on the outcome, and indirect effects are identified by subtracting direct effects from total effects. Weighting renders treatment and mediators independent, thereby deactivating indirect pathways of the mediators. This new mediation technique accommodates multiple discrete or continuous mediators. IORW is easily implemented and is appropriate for any standard regression model, including quantile regression and survival analysis. An empirical example is given using data from the Moving to Opportunity (1994–2002) experiment, testing whether neighborhood context mediated the effects of a housing voucher program on obesity. Relevant Stata code (StataCorp LP, College Station, Texas) is provided. PMID:25693776

  11. Electron-capture branching ratio measurements of odd-odd intermediate nuclei in double-beta decay at the TITAN facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lennarz, A.; Brunner, T.; Andreoiu, C.; Chaudhuri, A.; Chowdhury, U.; Delheij, P.; Dilling, J.; Ettenauer, S.; Frekers, D.; Gallant, A. T.; Grossheim, A.; Jang, F.; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Ma, T.; Man, E.; Pearson, M. R.; Schultz, B. E.; Simon, M. C.; Simon, V. V.

    2014-01-01

    A novel technique to measure electron-capture branching ratios is being introduced, where the TITAN ion traps and the ISAC radioactive beam facility at TRIUMF are the central components. The technique will be applied to the intermediate odd-odd nuclei in double-beta decay. The decay properties of these nuclei will constrain theoretical models dealing with the evaluation of the nuclear matrix elements for both the 2 ? and the 0 ? mode. The present setup and its potential for measuring extremely low branching ratios at low instrumental backgrounds is described.

  12. Matrix methods for estimating odds ratios with misclassified exposure data: extensions and comparisons.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, M J; Spiegelman, D

    1999-06-01

    Misclassification of exposure variables is a common problem in epidemiologic studies. This paper compares the matrix method (Barron, 1977, Biometrics 33, 414-418; Greenland, 1988a, Statistics in Medicine 7, 745-757) and the inverse matrix method (Marshall, 1990, Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 43, 941-947) to the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) that corrects the odds ratio for bias due to a misclassified binary covariate. Under the assumption of differential misclassification, the inverse matrix method is always more efficient than the matrix method; however, the efficiency depends strongly on the values of the sensitivity, specificity, baseline probability of exposure, the odds ratio, case-control ratio, and validation sampling fraction. In a study on sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), an estimate of the asymptotic relative efficiency (ARE) of the inverse matrix estimate was 0.99, while the matrix method's ARE was 0.19. Under nondifferential misclassification, neither the matrix nor the inverse matrix estimator is uniformly more efficient than the other; the efficiencies again depend on the underlying parameters. In the SIDS data, the MLE was more efficient than the matrix method (ARE = 0.39). In a study investigating the effect of vitamin A intake on the incidence of breast cancer, the MLE was more efficient than the matrix method (ARE = 0.75). PMID:11318185

  13. Collective gyromagnetic ratios and the structure of odd superdeformed A=190 nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Perries, S.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, M.

    1997-04-01

    Collective gyromagnetic ratios g{sub R}, microscopically calculated from Hartree-Fock plus BCS calculations using the SkM{sup {asterisk}} force, are found to be very different from the rough Z/A estimates. It is pointed out that the latter disagree with the spectroscopic data in normally deformed states of even-even nuclei. The consequences of taking into account microscopic values of g{sub R} on the spectroscopic properties of odd superdeformed A=190 nuclei are discussed. Quenching factors, for proton and neutron g{sub s} ratios, are tentatively proposed. Single-particle assignments postulated by experimentalists for the available data are confirmed by our consistent approach. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  14. Distribution of odds ratio in 2 × 2 contingency table: adjustment for correlation.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Atanu; Hwang, Jing-Shiang

    2011-01-01

    The Log-odds ratio for 2 × 2 contingency tables is often approximated by a normal distribution with an approximated variance. Hwang and Biswas (2008) illustrated that the standard expression for the variance should be modified in the presence of correlation. They also provided an adjustment to this variance expression when a single 2 × 2 table is available with matched-pair data. In this present paper, we first provide the required adjustment for multiple 2 × 2 tables, theoretically and also with reference to some data examples. We illustrate that this variance-adjusted normal approximation is a better approximation for such data. We provide two examples, one of which came from a late-phase clinical trial. As the theoretical development of this research depends on the existence of a bivariate binomial distribution, a multivariate (and hence bivariate) binomial distribution is motivated and derived. We then provide a suitably correlation adjusted Mantel-Haenszel test procedure. PMID:21191860

  15. Sustainable sex ratio in lattice populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tainaka, K.; Hayashi, T.; Yoshimura, J.

    2006-05-01

    We present a lattice model of mating populations. Simulation is performed by two different methods: local and global interactions. Simulation results account for the reason why the observed sex ratio is nearly one half in many animals. The male-biased sex ratio, such as in human populations, is also explained.

  16. Application and interpretation of simple odds ratios in physical therapy-related research.

    PubMed

    Levangie, P K

    2001-09-01

    Over the past several decades, physical therapists have demonstrated an increasing responsiveness to the profession's obligation to generate objective evidence for examination and intervention strategies employed in physical therapy practice. This trend is evident, not only in the increasing number of journals that are publishing physical therapy research, but in the growing sophistication of research design and analytic options used by investigators. At the same time, physical therapists are held increasingly accountable for adopting an evidence-based approach to practice. The result for many of us is a growing concern about our ability to interpret study findings. The ability to independently weigh the importance to our own practice of evidence reported in a study requires that we understand the strengths and potential weaknesses of the sample, design, and analyses being used. The odds ratio (OR) is one of the analytic measures that has only recently appeared in the physical therapy literature. Because the OR may be unfamiliar to physical therapists, the goal of this paper is to provide a description of the simple OR and a discussion of its uses, interpretation, and potential limitations. PMID:11570733

  17. Symptom Prevalence of ADHD and ODD in a Pediatric Population in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michanie, Claudio; Kunst, Gabriel; Margulies, Daniel S.; Yakhkind, Aleksandra

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of DSM III-R symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in an outpatient pediatric population; to compare oppositional behavior and grade retention rates; and to establish local means and standard deviations (SD) for the ADHD rating scale. Method: 300…

  18. Symptom Prevalence of ADHD and ODD in a Pediatric Population in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michanie, Claudio; Kunst, Gabriel; Margulies, Daniel S.; Yakhkind, Aleksandra

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of DSM III-R symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in an outpatient pediatric population; to compare oppositional behavior and grade retention rates; and to establish local means and standard deviations (SD) for the ADHD rating scale. Method: 300

  19. Analysis of familial aggregation of atopic eczema and other atopic diseases by ODDS RATIO regression models.

    PubMed

    Diepgen, T L; Blettner, M

    1996-05-01

    In order to determine the relative importance of genetics and the environment on the occurrence of atopic diseases, we investigated the familial aggregation of atopic eczema, allergic rhinitis, and allergic asthma in the relatives of 426 patients with atopic eczema and 628 subjects with no history of eczema (5,136 family members in total). Analyses were performed by regression models for odds ratios (OR) allowing us to estimate OR for the familial aggregation and simultaneously to adjust for other covariates. Three models were analyzed assuming that the OR i) is the same among any two members of a family, ii) depends on different familial constellations, i.e., whether the pairs are siblings, parents, or parent/sibling pairs, and iii) is not the same between the father and the children and between the mother and the children. The OR of familial aggregation for atopic eczema was 2.16 (95% confidence interval (95%-CI) 1.58-2.96) if no distinction was made between the degree of relationship. Further analyses within the members of the family showed a high OR among siblings (OR = 3.86; 95%-CI 2.10-7.09), while the OR between parents and siblings was only 1.90 (95%-CI 1.31-2.97). Only for atopic eczema was the familial aggregation between fathers and siblings (ms: OR = 2.66; fs: OR = 1.29). This can be explained by stronger maternal heritability, shared physical environment of mother and child, or environmental events that affect the fetus in utero. Since for all atopic diseases a stronger correlation was found between siblings than between siblings and parents, our study indicates that environmental factors, especially during childhood, seem to explain the recently observed increased frequencies of atopic diseases. PMID:8618061

  20. The Overall Odds Ratio as an Intuitive Effect Size Index for Multiple Logistic Regression: Examination of Further Refinements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le, Huy; Marcus, Justin

    2012-01-01

    This study used Monte Carlo simulation to examine the properties of the overall odds ratio (OOR), which was recently introduced as an index for overall effect size in multiple logistic regression. It was found that the OOR was relatively independent of study base rate and performed better than most commonly used R-square analogs in indexing model…

  1. The Overall Odds Ratio as an Intuitive Effect Size Index for Multiple Logistic Regression: Examination of Further Refinements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le, Huy; Marcus, Justin

    2012-01-01

    This study used Monte Carlo simulation to examine the properties of the overall odds ratio (OOR), which was recently introduced as an index for overall effect size in multiple logistic regression. It was found that the OOR was relatively independent of study base rate and performed better than most commonly used R-square analogs in indexing model

  2. Level structure of odd-odd 134Sb populated in the ?- decays of 134,135Sn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shergur, J.; Whr, A.; Walters, W. B.; Kratz, K.-L.; Arndt, O.; Brown, B. A.; Cederkall, J.; Dillmann, I.; Fraile, L. M.; Hoff, P.; Joinet, A.; Kster, U.; Pfeiffer, B.

    2005-06-01

    The level structure of odd-odd 134Sb has been studied at CERN/ISOLDE following the ?- decay of 134Sn and the ?-delayed neutron decay of 135Sn. Elemental and isobaric separation were accomplished by use of a resonance ionization laser ion source and an on-line mass separator, respectively. Both ?-ray singles and ?-? coincidence data were taken as a function of time. New levels at 279, 441, 555, 617, and 1385 keV have been identified and given proposed spin and parity assignments of 7-, 5-, 6-, 4-, and 5-, respectively, following ?-delayed neutron decay of 7/2- 135Sn. New 1- levels have been identified at 1900, 2170, and 2430 keV following the ?- decay of 0+ 134Sn. The resulting level structures are compared to shell-model calculations using the CD Bonn interaction and scaled and unscaled Kuo-Herling interactions developed for the 208Pb region. Remarkably enough, the unscaled Kuo-Herling interaction provides the best fit for the levels below 1 MeV.

  3. Elevated odds of metabolic syndrome in psoriasis: a population-based study of age and sex differences*

    PubMed Central

    Danielsen, K; Wilsgaard, T; Olsen, AO; Eggen, AE; Olsen, K; Cassano, PA; Furberg, A-S

    2015-01-01

    Background Questions remain concerning to what extent age and sex may modify the suggested association between psoriasis and the metabolic syndrome in the general population. Objectives To investigate the association between psoriasis and the metabolic syndrome within a large population-based cohort by age and sex. Methods A cross-sectional study including 10 521 participants aged 3079 years from the Troms Study cohort was performed; 1137 participants reported lifetime psoriasis of a mainly mild character. The new harmonized definition of metabolic syndrome was used in the multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results There was a uniformly higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in men and women with psoriasis compared with those without across all age groups. In women, psoriasis was associated with a 38-times higher odds of metabolic syndrome at age 30 years (95% confidence interval 1597), with a decreasing odds ratio with increasing age. In men, psoriasis was associated with a stable 135-times higher odds of metabolic syndrome (95% confidence interval 1116) at all ages. Abdominal obesity was the most frequent metabolic syndrome component in women in this study, and there was indication of a doseresponse relationship between psoriasis severity, indicated through treatment, and having a high waistline in women. Conclusions This study suggests age and sex variations in the risk of metabolic syndrome among individuals with psoriasis. Given the high prevalence of psoriasis and the significantly elevated burden of metabolic syndrome in this patient group, there may be a benefit from targeted screening of metabolic syndrome among individuals with psoriasis regardless of age and disease severity. PMID:25059341

  4. Field curvature correction method for ultrashort throw ratio projection optics design using an odd polynomial mirror surface.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Zhenfeng; Chen, Yanting; Yu, Feihong; Sun, Xiaowei

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents a field curvature correction method of designing an ultrashort throw ratio (TR) projection lens for an imaging system. The projection lens is composed of several refractive optical elements and an odd polynomial mirror surface. A curved image is formed in a direction away from the odd polynomial mirror surface by the refractive optical elements from the image formed on the digital micromirror device (DMD) panel, and the curved image formed is its virtual image. Then the odd polynomial mirror surface enlarges the curved image and a plane image is formed on the screen. Based on the relationship between the chief ray from the exit pupil of each field of view (FOV) and the corresponding predescribed position on the screen, the initial profile of the freeform mirror surface is calculated by using segments of the hyperbolic according to the laws of reflection. For further optimization, the value of the high-order odd polynomial surface is used to express the freeform mirror surface through a least-squares fitting method. As an example, an ultrashort TR projection lens that realizes projection onto a large 50 in. screen at a distance of only 510 mm is presented. The optical performance for the designed projection lens is analyzed by ray tracing method. Results show that an ultrashort TR projection lens modulation transfer function of over 60% at 0.5 cycles/mm for all optimization fields is achievable with f-number of 2.0, 126° full FOV, <1% distortion, and 0.46 TR. Moreover, in comparing the proposed projection lens' optical specifications to that of traditional projection lenses, aspheric mirror projection lenses, and conventional short TR projection lenses, results indicate that this projection lens has the advantages of ultrashort TR, low f-number, wide full FOV, and small distortion. PMID:25090357

  5. Technical note: The risk ratio, an alternative to the odds ratio for estimating the association between multiple risk factors and a dichotomous outcome.

    PubMed

    Ospina, P A; Nydam, D V; DiCiccio, T J

    2012-05-01

    The objectives were (1) to explain why the risk ratio (RR) is an appropriate measure of association when the outcome of interest is dichotomous (e.g., displaced abomasum or no displaced abomasum) in both cohort studies and randomized trials; and (2) to outline an applied method for estimating the RR using currently available software. Interest in the association between multiple risk factors and a yes or no outcome is very common in the dairy industry; historically, logistic regression, which reports odds ratios (OR), was the method available in common statistical packages to evaluate this kind of association. However, the OR can overestimate the magnitude of the response in cohort studies and randomized trials when the outcome frequency is large. In addition, the interpretation of odds is not intuitive; fortunately, recent advances in statistical software have allowed the estimation of the RR. Because SAS software (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) is commonly used to analyze data, this technical note outlines the basic programming code that may be used to estimate the RR from raw data. Example data from a prospective cohort study was used to compare the OR and RR of developing a displaced abomasum or ketosis or metritis based on multiple predictors, their interaction, and a random effect (e.g., herd). PMID:22541486

  6. A note on the use of the generalized odds ratio in meta-analysis of association studies involving bi- and tri-allelic polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The generalized odds ratio (GOR) was recently suggested as a genetic model-free measure for association studies. However, its properties were not extensively investigated. We used Monte Carlo simulations to investigate type-I error rates, power and bias in both effect size and between-study variance estimates of meta-analyses using the GOR as a summary effect, and compared these results to those obtained by usual approaches of model specification. We further applied the GOR in a real meta-analysis of three genome-wide association studies in Alzheimer's disease. Findings For bi-allelic polymorphisms, the GOR performs virtually identical to a standard multiplicative model of analysis (e.g. per-allele odds ratio) for variants acting multiplicatively, but augments slightly the power to detect variants with a dominant mode of action, while reducing the probability to detect recessive variants. Although there were differences among the GOR and usual approaches in terms of bias and type-I error rates, both simulation- and real data-based results provided little indication that these differences will be substantial in practice for meta-analyses involving bi-allelic polymorphisms. However, the use of the GOR may be slightly more powerful for the synthesis of data from tri-allelic variants, particularly when susceptibility alleles are less common in the populations (≤10%). This gain in power may depend on knowledge of the direction of the effects. Conclusions For the synthesis of data from bi-allelic variants, the GOR may be regarded as a multiplicative-like model of analysis. The use of the GOR may be slightly more powerful in the tri-allelic case, particularly when susceptibility alleles are less common in the populations. PMID:21645382

  7. Should There Be Separate Parent and Teacher-Based Categories of ODD? Evidence from a General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munkvold, Linda; Lundervold, Astri; Lie, Stein Atle; Manger, Terje

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the occurrence of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms in a general population of boys and girls, as reported by parents and teachers, and to investigate differences in prevalence estimates, depending on how parents' and teachers' ratings were combined. Method: Data were collected from 7007 children (aged 7-9) who…

  8. Should There Be Separate Parent and Teacher-Based Categories of ODD? Evidence from a General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munkvold, Linda; Lundervold, Astri; Lie, Stein Atle; Manger, Terje

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the occurrence of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms in a general population of boys and girls, as reported by parents and teachers, and to investigate differences in prevalence estimates, depending on how parents' and teachers' ratings were combined. Method: Data were collected from 7007 children (aged 7-9) who

  9. Inferences about ungulate population dynamics derived from age ratios

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, N.C.; Kauffman, M.J.; Mills, L.S.

    2008-01-01

    Age ratios (e.g., calf:cow for elk and fawn:doe for deer) are used regularly to monitor ungulate populations. However, it remains unclear what inferences are appropriate from this index because multiple vital rate changes can influence the observed ratio. We used modeling based on elk (Cervus elaphus) life-history to evaluate both how age ratios are influenced by stage-specific fecundity and survival and how well age ratios track population dynamics. Although all vital rates have the potential to influence calf:adult female ratios (i.e., calf:xow ratios), calf survival explained the vast majority of variation in calf:adult female ratios due to its temporal variation compared to other vital rates. Calf:adult female ratios were positively correlated with population growth rate (??) and often successfully indicated population trajectories. However, calf:adult female ratios performed poorly at detecting imposed declines in calf survival, suggesting that only the most severe declines would be rapidly detected. Our analyses clarify that managers can use accurate, unbiased age ratios to monitor arguably the most important components contributing to sustainable ungulate populations, survival rate of young and ??. However, age ratios are not useful for detecting gradual declines in survival of young or making inferences about fecundity or adult survival in ungulate populations. Therefore, age ratios coupled with independent estimates of population growth or population size are necessary to monitor ungulate population demography and dynamics closely through time.

  10. Binary Logistic Regression Analysis for Detecting Differential Item Functioning: Effectiveness of R[superscript 2] and Delta Log Odds Ratio Effect Size Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hidalgo, Mª Dolores; Gómez-Benito, Juana; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2014-01-01

    The authors analyze the effectiveness of the R[superscript 2] and delta log odds ratio effect size measures when using logistic regression analysis to detect differential item functioning (DIF) in dichotomous items. A simulation study was carried out, and the Type I error rate and power estimates under conditions in which only statistical testing…

  11. Binary Logistic Regression Analysis for Detecting Differential Item Functioning: Effectiveness of R[superscript 2] and Delta Log Odds Ratio Effect Size Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hidalgo, M Dolores; Gmez-Benito, Juana; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2014-01-01

    The authors analyze the effectiveness of the R[superscript 2] and delta log odds ratio effect size measures when using logistic regression analysis to detect differential item functioning (DIF) in dichotomous items. A simulation study was carried out, and the Type I error rate and power estimates under conditions in which only statistical testing

  12. The Effects of Small Sample Size on Identifying Polytomous DIF Using the Liu-Agresti Estimator of the Cumulative Common Odds Ratio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvajal, Jorge; Skorupski, William P.

    2010-01-01

    This study is an evaluation of the behavior of the Liu-Agresti estimator of the cumulative common odds ratio when identifying differential item functioning (DIF) with polytomously scored test items using small samples. The Liu-Agresti estimator has been proposed by Penfield and Algina as a promising approach for the study of polytomous DIF but no…

  13. Small populations and offspring sex-ratio deviations in eagles.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Miguel; Newton, Ian; Pandolfi, Massimo

    2009-08-01

    Stochastic variation of sex ratio has long been appreciated as a potential factor driving small populations to extinction, but it is not the only source of sex-ratio bias in small populations. We examined whether some consequences of sex allocation could affect extinction risk in small populations of size-dimorphic birds such as eagles. We report variations in sex ratio at fledging from a long-term study of a declining population of Spanish Imperial Eagles (Aquila adalberti). Nestling sex-ratio deviation apparently was mediated by age of breeders, whereas territory quality had no obvious effect. Adult-adult pairs produced the same proportion of both sexes in high- or low-density situations, but pairs with at least one member in nonadult plumage class produced more males. As the population declined over a period of years, the proportion of breeders with immature plumage increased; consequently, the proportion of fledgling males increased. However, when population density was high, the proportion of breeders with immature plumage decreased and more female offspring were produced. This relationship between population density, composition of breeder age, and fledgling sex ratios allowed us to make predictions of extinction risk due to nonstochastic deviations of sex ratio in small, declining populations. In the study population, on the basis of the Vortex simulation results, an estimated reduction of 42.5% in predicted mean time to extinction was attributed solely to biased sex ratio. PMID:19627325

  14. An Analytical Evaluation of Two Common-Odds Ratios as Population Indicators of DIF.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pommerich, Mary; And Others

    The Mantel-Haenszel (MH) statistic for identifying differential item functioning (DIF) commonly conditions on the observed test score as a surrogate for conditioning on latent ability. When the comparison group distributions are not completely overlapping (i.e., are incongruent), the observed score represents different levels of latent ability…

  15. Pooling Dietary Data Using Questionnaires With Open-ended and Predefined Responses: Implications for Comparing Mean Intake or Estimating Odds Ratios

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Michael D.; Forman, Michele R.; Mahabir, Somdat; Etzel, Carol J.

    2010-01-01

    In the current era of diet-gene analyses, large sample sizes are required to uncover the etiology of complex diseases. As such, consortia form and often combine available data. Food frequency questionnaires, which commonly use 2 different types of responses about the frequency of intake (predefined responses and open-ended responses), may be pooled to achieve the desired sample size. The common practice is to categorize open-ended responses into the predefined response categories. A problem arises when the predefined categories are noncontiguous: possible open-ended responses may fall in gaps between the predefined categories. Using simulated data modeled from frequency of intake among 1,664 controls in a lung cancer case-control study at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center (Houston, Texas, 2000–2005), the authors describe the effect of different categories of open-ended responses that fall in between noncontiguous, predefined response sets on estimates of the mean difference in intake and the odds ratios. A significant inflation of false positives appears when comparing mean differences of intake, while the bias in estimating odds ratios may be acceptably small. Therefore, if pooling data cannot be restricted to the same type of response, inferences should focus on odds ratio estimation to minimize bias. PMID:20139126

  16. Does marital status predict the odds of suicidal death in taiwan? A seven-year population-based study.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Jui-Yuan; Xirasagar, Sudha; Liu, Tsai-Ching; Li, Chong-Yi; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2008-06-01

    Using nationwide, 7-year population-based data for 1997-2003, we examined marital status to see if it predicted suicide among the ethnic Chinese population of Taiwan. Using cause of death data, with a case-control design, two groups-total adult suicide deaths, n = 17,850, the study group, and adult deaths other than suicide, n = 71,400 (randomly selected from age, sex, and geographic region matched controls, four per suicide)-were studied. Using multiple logistic regression analysis including age-marital status interaction, adjusted estimates show divorced status to be the most detrimental for suicide propensity, with males showing stronger effect size. Females never married, aged below 35 and 65-plus, and widowed 65-plus had lower suicide odds. PMID:18611128

  17. Ecological genetics of sex ratios in plant populations

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Spencer C. H.; Yakimowski, Sarah B.; Field, David L.; Pickup, Melinda

    2010-01-01

    In many angiosperm species, populations are reproductively subdivided into distinct sexual morphs including females, males and hermaphrodites. Sexual polymorphism is maintained by frequency-dependent selection, leading to predictable sex ratios at equilibrium. Charles Darwin devoted much of his book ‘The Different Forms of Flowers on Plants of the Same Species’ (1877) to investigating plant sexual polymorphisms and laid the foundation for many problems addressed today by integrating theory with empirical studies of the demography and genetics of populations. Here, we summarize our recent work on the ecological and genetic mechanisms influencing variation in sex ratios and their implications for evolutionary transitions among sexual systems. We present the results of a survey of sex ratios from 126 species from 47 angiosperm families and then address two general problems using examples from diverse angiosperm taxa: (i) the mechanisms governing biased sex ratios in dioecious species; (ii) the origins and maintenance of populations composed of females, males and hermaphrodites. Several themes are emphasized, including the importance of non-equilibrium conditions, the role of life history and demography in affecting sex ratios, the value of theory for modelling the dynamics of sex ratio variation, and the utility of genetic markers for investigating evolutionary processes in sexually polymorphic plant populations. PMID:20643745

  18. Implications of a high population 2 B/Be ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, Brian D.; Olive, Keith A.; Schramm, David N.

    1995-01-01

    The observed boron/beryllium ratio in extreme Population II stars has been interpreted as evidence of Be and B synthesis by early Galactic cosmic rays. However, a recent reanalysis of the boron abundance in the Population II halo star HD 140823 suggests that B/H may be larger than previously reported, by as much as a factor of 4. This would yield a B/Be ratio lying in the range 14 less than or approximately equal to B/Be less than or approximately equal to 50. The possibilty of a high Population II B/Be ratio stresses the importance of the upper limit to the B/Be ratio arising from cosmic-ray production. It is found that the limit to cosmic-ray-produced B/Be depends upon the assumed cosmic-ray spectrum. For any Population II cosmic-ray spectrum that is a single power law in either total energy per nucleon or in momentum, the B/Be ratio constrained to lie in the range 7.6 less than or approximately equal to B/Be less than or approximately equal to 14. Thus, if the new B/Be ratio is correct, it requires either a bimodal cosmic-ray flux with a large low-energy component, or, for another B source, possibly the proposed nu-process in supernovae, either of which may be helpful in explaining the observed B-11/B-10 ratio. Finally, it is noted that the boron reanalysis highlights the uncertainty in our knowledge of the B/Be ratio, and the need for additional data on Be and B abundances.

  19. Population sex ratios: another consideration in the reintroduction - reinforcement debate?

    PubMed

    Lambertucci, Sergio A; Carrete, Martina; Speziale, Karina L; Hiraldo, Fernando; Donázar, José Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Reintroduction or reinforcement (RorR) of wild populations is a common conservation strategy. Many conservation projects involve the release of individuals of poorly studied species. This may lead to inefficient results or negative impacts on the conservation efforts. Here, we provide new insights into the conservation implications and potential consequences of a skew in the sex ratio of released birds and of the number of birds supplemented for the demography of a long-lived dimorphic bird species, the Andean condor (Vulturgryphus). We demonstrate that a RorR conservation program may be less effective in conserving a species if the sex ratios of the releases and the recipient populations are not considered. We also show that releases can reduce population declines but only if carried out over long periods (i.e., several decades). This can mean high costs for release programs and the added challenge of maintaining programs over time. If RorR programs are to be implemented, bearing in mind the importance of properly assessing their effectiveness, we urge conservation researchers and managers to consider the implications of sex ratio biases for wild populations, and particularly for dimorphic species with sexually despotic behaviour. PMID:24086641

  20. Suburbanization, estrogen contamination, and sex ratio in wild amphibian populations

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Max R.; Giller, Geoffrey S. J.; Barber, Larry B.; Fitzgerald, Kevin C.; Skelly, David K.

    2015-01-01

    Research on endocrine disruption in frog populations, such as shifts in sex ratios and feminization of males, has predominantly focused on agricultural pesticides. Recent evidence suggests that suburban landscapes harbor amphibian populations exhibiting similar levels of endocrine disruption; however the endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) sources are unknown. Here, we show that sex ratios of metamorphosing frogs become increasingly female-dominated along a suburbanization gradient. We further show that suburban ponds are frequently contaminated by the classical estrogen estrone and a variety of EDCs produced by plants (phytoestrogens), and that the diversity of organic EDCs is correlated with the extent of developed land use and cultivated lawn and gardens around a pond. Our work also raises the possibility that trace-element contamination associated with human land use around suburban ponds may be contributing to the estrogenic load within suburban freshwaters and constitutes another source of estrogenic exposure for wildlife. These data suggest novel, unexplored pathways of EDC contamination in human-altered environments. In particular, we propose that vegetation changes associated with suburban neighborhoods (e.g., from forests to lawns and ornamental plants) increase the distribution of phytoestrogens in surface waters. The result of frog sex ratios varying as a function of human land use implicates a role for environmental modulation of sexual differentiation in amphibians, which are assumed to only have genetic sex determination. Overall, we show that endocrine disruption is widespread in suburban frog populations and that the causes are likely diverse. PMID:26372955

  1. Suburbanization, estrogen contamination, and sex ratio in wild amphibian populations.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Max R; Giller, Geoffrey S J; Barber, Larry B; Fitzgerald, Kevin C; Skelly, David K

    2015-09-22

    Research on endocrine disruption in frog populations, such as shifts in sex ratios and feminization of males, has predominantly focused on agricultural pesticides. Recent evidence suggests that suburban landscapes harbor amphibian populations exhibiting similar levels of endocrine disruption; however the endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) sources are unknown. Here, we show that sex ratios of metamorphosing frogs become increasingly female-dominated along a suburbanization gradient. We further show that suburban ponds are frequently contaminated by the classical estrogen estrone and a variety of EDCs produced by plants (phytoestrogens), and that the diversity of organic EDCs is correlated with the extent of developed land use and cultivated lawn and gardens around a pond. Our work also raises the possibility that trace-element contamination associated with human land use around suburban ponds may be contributing to the estrogenic load within suburban freshwaters and constitutes another source of estrogenic exposure for wildlife. These data suggest novel, unexplored pathways of EDC contamination in human-altered environments. In particular, we propose that vegetation changes associated with suburban neighborhoods (e.g., from forests to lawns and ornamental plants) increase the distribution of phytoestrogens in surface waters. The result of frog sex ratios varying as a function of human land use implicates a role for environmental modulation of sexual differentiation in amphibians, which are assumed to only have genetic sex determination. Overall, we show that endocrine disruption is widespread in suburban frog populations and that the causes are likely diverse. PMID:26372955

  2. Abnormal sex ratios in human populations: Causes and consequences

    PubMed Central

    Hesketh, Therese; Xing, Zhu Wei

    2006-01-01

    In the absence of manipulation, both the sex ratio at birth and the population sex ratio are remarkably constant in human populations. Small alterations do occur naturally; for example, a small excess of male births has been reported to occur during and after war. The tradition of son preference, however, has distorted these natural sex ratios in large parts of Asia and North Africa. This son preference is manifest in sex-selective abortion and in discrimination in care practices for girls, both of which lead to higher female mortality. Differential gender mortality has been a documented problem for decades and led to reports in the early 1990s of 100 million “missing women” across the developing world. Since that time, improved health care and conditions for women have resulted in reductions in female mortality, but these advances have now been offset by a huge increase in the use of sex-selective abortion, which became available in the mid-1980s. Largely as a result of this practice, there are now an estimated 80 million missing females in India and China alone. The large cohorts of “surplus” males now reaching adulthood are predominantly of low socioeconomic class, and concerns have been expressed that their lack of marriageability, and consequent marginalization in society, may lead to antisocial behavior and violence, threatening societal stability and security. Measures to reduce sex selection must include strict enforcement of existing legislation, the ensuring of equal rights for women, and public awareness campaigns about the dangers of gender imbalance. PMID:16938885

  3. A graphic display for the presentation of site-wise odds ratios for score transitions to augment the traditional findings from clinical studies employing dental indexes.

    PubMed

    Proskin, H M; Kleber, C J; Sharma, N C; Nelson, B J

    2001-07-01

    Many of the parameters used in clinical dental research involve the assessment of a condition at each of a number of sites within the mouth. Traditionally, such measurements are averaged over all sites within the mouth (or over all sites of a specified type) for each study participant before statistical analysis. However, a consideration of the original, site-wise scores may provide some additional insights into the performance of therapeutic modalities that might not be made evident through an application of the traditional, means-based approach. A method based on the calculation of site-wise odds ratios of certain types of baseline-to-final examination score transitions was applied to the modified gingival index data from two clinical studies performed to investigate the effect of the daily chewing of a commercially available chewing gum relative to a mint control. A graphical display of these site-specific findings was prepared, which indicated that the chewing gum regimen tended to be associated with a higher frequency of occurrence of favorable score transitions than was the mint control at several measurement sites throughout the mouth. PMID:11913305

  4. The Pharmacy-Level Asthma Medication Ratio and Population Health

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Courtney L.; Huang, Bin; Simmons, Jeffrey M.; Heaton, Pamela C.; Kahn, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Community pharmacies may be positioned for an increased role in population health. We sought to develop a population-level measure of asthma medication fills and assess its relationship to asthma-related utilization. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, ecological study (2010–2012). Medication data from a chain of pharmacies (n = 27) within 1 county were used to calculate a Pharmacy-level Asthma Medication Ratio (Ph-AMR), defined as controller fills divided by controller plus rescue fills. Higher values are superior because they indicate more controller compared with rescue fills. The outcome was the asthma-related utilization rate among children in the same census tract as the pharmacy, calculated by dividing all emergency visits and hospitalizations by the number of children in that tract. Covariates, including ecological measures of poverty and access to care, were used in multivariable linear regression. RESULTS: Overall, 35 467 medications were filled. The median Ph-AMR was 0.53 (range 0.38–0.66). The median utilization rate across included census tracts was 22.4 visits per 1000 child-years (range 1.3–60.9). Tracts with Ph-AMR <0.5 had significantly higher utilization rates than those with Ph-AMR ≥0.5 (26.1 vs 9.9; P = .001). For every 0.1 increase in Ph-AMR, utilization rates decreased by 9.5 (P = .03), after adjustment for underlying poverty and access. Seasonal variation in fills was evident, but pharmacies in high-utilizing tracts filled more rescue than controller medications at nearly every point during the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Ph-AMR was independently associated with ecological childhood asthma morbidity. Pharmacies may be a community-based leverage point for improving population-level asthma control through targeted interventions. PMID:25941301

  5. Double-Robust Estimation of an Exposure-Outcome Odds Ratio Adjusting for Confounding in Cohort and Case-control Studies

    PubMed Central

    Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J.; Rotnitzky, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Modern epidemiologic studies often aim to evaluate the causal effect of a point exposure on the risk of a disease from cohort or case-control observational data. Because confounding bias is of serious concern in such non-experimental studies, investigators routinely adjust for a large number of potential confounders in a logistic regression analysis of the effect of exposure on disease outcome. Unfortunately, when confounders are not correctly modeled, standard logistic regression is likely biased in its estimate of the effect of exposure, potentially leading to erroneous conclusions. We partially resolve this serious limitation of standard logistic regression analysis with a new iterative approach that we call ProRetroSpective estimation, which carefully combines standard logistic regression with a logistic regression analysis in which exposure is the dependent variable and the outcome and confounders are the independent variables. As a result, we obtain a correct estimate of the exposure-outcome odds ratio, if either the standard logistic regression of the outcome given exposure and confounding factors is correct, or the regression model of exposure given the outcome and confounding factors is correct but not necessarily both, that is, it is double-robust. In fact, it also has certain advantadgeous efficiency properties. The approach is general in that it applies to both cohort and case-control studies whether the design of the study is matched or unmatched on a subset of covariates. Finally, an application illustrates the methods using data from the National Cancer Institute's Black/White Cancer Survival Study. PMID:21225896

  6. Does Marital Status Predict the Odds of Suicidal Death in Taiwan? A Seven-Year Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Jui-Yuan; Xirasagar, Sudha; Liu, Tsai-Ching; Li, Chong-Yi; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2008-01-01

    Using nationwide, 7-year population-based data for 1997-2003, we examined marital status to see if it predicted suicide among the ethnic Chinese population of Taiwan. Using cause of death data, with a case-control design, two groups--total adult suicide deaths, n = 17,850, the study group, and adult deaths other than suicide, n = 71,400 (randomly

  7. Population differences in finger-length ratios: ethnicity or latitude?

    PubMed

    Loehlin, John C; McFadden, Dennis; Medland, Sarah E; Martin, Nicholas G

    2006-12-01

    The relative length of the second and fourth fingers (the 2D:4D ratio) has been taken to be an indicator of prenatal exposure to testosterone, and hence possibly relevant to sexual orientation and other sex-differentiated behaviors. Studies have reported a difference in this ratio between Caucasian males in Britain and in the U.S.: higher average 2D:4D ratios were obtained in Britain. This raises the question of whether differences among different Caucasian gene pools were responsible or whether some environmental variable associated with latitude might be involved (e.g., exposure to sunlight or different day-length patterns). This question was explored by examining 2D:4D ratios for an Australian adolescent sample. The Australians were predominantly of British ancestry, but lived at distances from the equator more like those of the U.S. studies. The Australian 2D:4D ratios resembled those in Britain rather than those in the U.S., tending to exclude hypotheses related to latitude and making differences in gene pools a plausible explanation. PMID:16688484

  8. Does breeding population trajectory and age of nesting females influence disparate nestling sex ratios in two populations of Cooper's hawks?

    PubMed

    Rosenfield, Robert N; Stout, William E; Giovanni, Matthew D; Levine, Noah H; Cava, Jenna A; Hardin, Madeline G; Haynes, Taylor G

    2015-09-01

    Offspring sex ratios at the termination of parental care should theoretically be skewed toward the less expensive sex, which in most avian species would be females, the smaller gender. Among birds, however, raptors offer an unusual dynamic because they exhibit reversed size dimorphism with females being larger than males. And thus theory would predict a preponderance of male offspring. Results for raptors and birds in general have been varied although population-level estimates of sex ratios in avian offspring are generally at unity. Adaptive adjustment of sex ratios in avian offspring is difficult to predict perhaps in part due to a lack of life-history details and short-term investigations that cannot account for precision or repeatability of sex ratios across time. We conducted a novel comparative study of sex ratios in nestling Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii) in two study populations across breeding generations during 11 years in Wisconsin, 2001-2011. One breeding population recently colonized metropolitan Milwaukee and exhibited rapidly increasing population growth, while the ex-Milwaukee breeding population was stable. Following life-history trade-off theory and our prediction regarding this socially monogamous species in which reversed sexual size dimorphism is extreme, first-time breeding one-year-old, second-year females in both study populations produced a preponderance of the smaller and cheaper sex, males, whereas ASY (after-second-year), ≥2-year-old females in Milwaukee produced a nestling sex ratio near unity and predictably therefore a greater proportion of females compared to ASY females in ex-Milwaukee who produced a preponderance of males. Adjustment of sex ratios in both study populations occurred at conception. Life histories and selective pressures related to breeding population trajectory in two age cohorts of nesting female Cooper's hawk likely vary, and it is possible that these differences influenced the sex ratios we documented for two age cohorts of female Cooper's hawks in Wisconsin. PMID:26445658

  9. Odds per adjusted standard deviation: comparing strengths of associations for risk factors measured on different scales and across diseases and populations.

    PubMed

    Hopper, John L

    2015-11-15

    How can the "strengths" of risk factors, in the sense of how well they discriminate cases from controls, be compared when they are measured on different scales such as continuous, binary, and integer? Given that risk estimates take into account other fitted and design-related factors-and that is how risk gradients are interpreted-so should the presentation of risk gradients. Therefore, for each risk factor X0, I propose using appropriate regression techniques to derive from appropriate population data the best fitting relationship between the mean of X0 and all the other covariates fitted in the model or adjusted for by design (X1, X2, … , Xn). The odds per adjusted standard deviation (OPERA) presents the risk association for X0 in terms of the change in risk per s = standard deviation of X0 adjusted for X1, X2, … , Xn, rather than the unadjusted standard deviation of X0 itself. If the increased risk is relative risk (RR)-fold over A adjusted standard deviations, then OPERA = exp[ln(RR)/A] = RR(s). This unifying approach is illustrated by considering breast cancer and published risk estimates. OPERA estimates are by definition independent and can be used to compare the predictive strengths of risk factors across diseases and populations. PMID:26520360

  10. Aberrations Involving Chromosome 1 as a Possible Predictor of Odds Ratio for Colon Cancer - Results from the Krakow Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Galas, Aleksander; Miszczyk, Justyna

    2016-01-01

    Background There is still an open question how to predict colorectal cancer risk before any morphological changes appear in the colon. Objective The purpose was to investigate aberrations in chromosomes 1, 2 and 4 in peripheral blood lymphocytes analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization technique as a tool to assess the likelihood of colorectal cancer. Methods A hospital-based case-control study included 20 colon cancer patients and 18 hospital-based controls. Information about potential covariates was collected by interview. The frequency of stable and unstable chromosome aberrations in chromosome 1, 2 and 4 was assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization technique. Results Colorectal cancer patients, as compared to controls, had a relatively higher frequency of chromosome 1 translocations (median: 3.5 versus 1.0 /1000 cells, p = 0.006), stable aberrations (3.8 versus 1.0 /1000 cells, p = 0.007) and total aberrations (p = 0.009). There were no differences observed for chromosomes 2 and 4. Our results showed an increase in the odds of having colon cancer by about 50–80% associated with an increase by 1/1000 cells in the number of chromosome 1 aberrations. Conclusions The results revealed that the frequency of chromosomal aberrations, especially translocations in chromosome 1, seems to be a promising method to show a colon cancer risk. Additionally, our study suggests the reasonableness of use of biomarkers such as chromosome 1 aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes in screening prevention programs for individuals at higher colon cancer risk to identify those who are at increased risk and require more frequent investigations, e.g. by sigmoidoscopy. PMID:26824604

  11. Bayesian Reconstruction of Two-Sex Populations by Age: Estimating Sex Ratios at Birth and Sex Ratios of Mortality1

    PubMed Central

    Wheldon, Mark C.; Raftery, Adrian E.; Clark, Samuel J.; Gerland, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Summary The original version of Bayesian reconstruction, a method for estimating age-specific fertility, mortality, migration and population counts of the recent past with uncertainty, produced estimates for female-only populations. Here we show how two-sex populations can be similarly reconstructed and probabilistic estimates of various sex ratio quantities obtained. We demonstrate the method by reconstructing the populations of India from 1971 to 2001, Thailand from 1960 to 2000, and Laos from 1985 to 2005. We found evidence that in India, sex ratio at birth exceeded its conventional upper limit of 1.06, and, further, increased over the period of study, with posterior probability above 0.9. In addition, almost uniquely, we found evidence that life expectancy at birth (e0) was lower for females than for males in India (posterior probability for 1971–1976 equal to 0.79), although there was strong evidence for a narrowing of the gap through to 2001. In both Thailand and Laos, we found strong evidence for the more usual result that e0 was greater for females and, in Thailand, that the difference increased over the period of study. PMID:26612972

  12. Under what conditions do climate-driven sex ratios enhance versus diminish population persistence?

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Maria; Hone, Jim; Schwanz, Lisa E; Georges, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    For many species of reptile, crucial demographic parameters such as embryonic survival and individual sex (male or female) depend on ambient temperature during incubation. While much has been made of the role of climate on offspring sex ratios in species with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), the impact of variable sex ratio on populations is likely to depend on how limiting male numbers are to female fecundity in female-biased populations, and whether a climatic effect on embryonic survival overwhelms or interacts with sex ratio. To examine the sensitivity of populations to these interacting factors, we developed a generalized model to explore the effects of embryonic survival, hatchling sex ratio, and the interaction between these, on population size and persistence while varying the levels of male limitation. Populations with TSD reached a greater maximum number of females compared to populations with GSD, although this was often associated with a narrower range of persistence. When survival depended on temperature, TSD populations persisted over a greater range of temperatures than GSD populations. This benefit of TSD was greatly reduced by even modest male limitation, indicating very strong importance of this largely unmeasured biologic factor. Finally, when males were not limiting, a steep relationship between sex ratio and temperature favoured population persistence across a wider range of climates compared to the shallower relationships. The opposite was true when males were limiting – shallow relationships between sex ratio and temperature allowed greater persistence. The results highlight that, if we are to predict the response of populations with TSD to climate change, it is imperative to 1) accurately quantify the extent to which male abundance limits female fecundity, and 2) measure how sex ratios and peak survival coincide over climate. PMID:25512848

  13. Sex Ratio Bias and Extinction Risk in an Isolated Population of Tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus)

    PubMed Central

    Grayson, Kristine L.; Mitchell, Nicola J.; Monks, Joanne M.; Keall, Susan N.; Wilson, Joanna N.; Nelson, Nicola J.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying population declines is critical for preventing the extinction of endangered populations. Positive feedbacks can hasten the process of collapse and create an ‘extinction vortex,’ particularly in small, isolated populations. We provide a case study of a male-biased sex ratio creating the conditions for extinction in a natural population of tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus) on North Brother Island in the Cook Strait of New Zealand. We combine data from long term mark-recapture surveys, updated model estimates of hatchling sex ratio, and population viability modeling to measure the impacts of sex ratio skew. Results from the mark-recapture surveys show an increasing decline in the percentage of females in the adult tuatara population. Our monitoring reveals compounding impacts on female fitness through reductions in female body condition, fecundity, and survival as the male-bias in the population has increased. Additionally, we find that current nest temperatures are likely to result in more male than female hatchlings, owing to the pattern of temperature-dependent sex determination in tuatara where males hatch at warmer temperatures. Anthropogenic climate change worsens the situation for this isolated population, as projected temperature increases for New Zealand are expected to further skew the hatchling sex ratio towards males. Population viability models predict that without management intervention or an evolutionary response, the population will ultimately become entirely comprised of males and functionally extinct. Our study demonstrates that sex ratio bias can be an underappreciated threat to population viability, particularly in populations of long-lived organisms that appear numerically stable. PMID:24714691

  14. Mating behavior, population growth, and the operational sex ratio: a periodic two-sex model approach.

    PubMed

    Jenouvrier, Stéphanie; Caswell, Hal; Barbraud, Christophe; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2010-06-01

    We present a new approach to modeling two-sex populations, using periodic, nonlinear two-sex matrix models. The models project the population growth rate, the population structure, and any ratio of interest (e.g., operational sex ratio). The periodic formulation permits inclusion of highly seasonal behavioral events. A periodic product of the seasonal matrices describes annual population dynamics. The model is nonlinear because mating probability depends on the structure of the population. To study how the vital rates influence population growth rate, population structure, and operational sex ratio, we used sensitivity analysis of frequency-dependent nonlinear models. In nonlinear two-sex models the vital rates affect growth rate directly and also indirectly through effects on the population structure. The indirect effects can sometimes overwhelm the direct effects and are revealed only by nonlinear analysis. We find that the sensitivity of the population growth rate to female survival is negative for the emperor penguin, a species with highly seasonal breeding behavior. This result could not occur in linear models because changes in population structure have no effect on per capita reproduction. Our approach is applicable to ecological and evolutionary studies of any species in which males and females interact in a seasonal environment. PMID:20408757

  15. Against the Odds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Against the Odds Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. "Against the Odds," a new exhibition at the National ...

  16. Estimation of wildlife population ratios incorporating survey design and visibility bias

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Steinhorst, R.K.; Garton, E.O.; Unsworth, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    Age and sex ratio statistics are often a key component of the evaluation and management of wildlife populations. These statistics are determined from counts of animals that are commonly plagued by errors associated with either survey design or visibility bias. We present age and sex ratio estimators that incorporate both these sources of error and include the typical situation that animals are sampled in groups. Aerial surveys of elk (Cervus elaphus) in northcentral Idaho illustrate that differential visibility of age or sex classes can produce biased ratio estimates. Visibility models may be used to provide corrected estimates of ratios and their variability that incorporates errors due to sampling, visibility bias, and visibility estimation.

  17. Bolton tooth size ratio among Sudanese Population sample: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Abdalla Hashim, Ala’a Hayder; Eldin, AL-Hadi Mohi; Hashim, Hayder Abdalla

    2015-01-01

    Background: The study of the mesiodistal size, the morphology of teeth and dental arch may play an important role in clinical dentistry, as well as other sciences such as Forensic Dentistry and Anthropology. Aims: The aims of the present study were to establish tooth-size ratio in Sudanese sample with Class I normal occlusion, to compare the tooth-size ratio between the present study and Bolton's study and between genders. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of dental casts of 60 subjects (30 males and 30 females). Bolton formula was used to compute the overall and anterior ratio. The correlation coefficient between the anterior ratio and overall ratio was tested, and Student's t-test was used to compare tooth-size ratios between males and females, and between the present study and Bolton's result. Results: The results of the overall and anterior ratio was relatively similar to the mean values reported by Bolton, and there were no statistically significant differences between the mean values of the anterior ratio and the overall ratio between males and females. The correlation coefficient was (r = 0.79). Conclusions: The result obtained was similar to the Caucasian race. However, the reality indicates that the Sudanese population consisted of different racial groups; therefore, the firm conclusion is difficult to draw. Since this sample is not representative for the Sudanese population, hence, a further study with a large sample collected from the different parts of the Sudan is required. PMID:26229948

  18. Does polyandry control population sex ratio via regulation of a selfish gene?

    PubMed Central

    Price, Tom A. R.; Bretman, Amanda; Gradilla, Ana C.; Reger, Julia; Taylor, Michelle L.; Giraldo-Perez, Paulina; Campbell, Amy; Hurst, Gregory D. D.; Wedell, Nina

    2014-01-01

    The extent of female multiple mating (polyandry) can strongly impact on the intensity of sexual selection, sexual conflict, and the evolution of cooperation and sociality. More subtly, polyandry may protect populations against intragenomic conflicts that result from the invasion of deleterious selfish genetic elements (SGEs). SGEs commonly impair sperm production, and so are likely to be unsuccessful in sperm competition, potentially reducing their transmission in polyandrous populations. Here, we test this prediction in nature. We demonstrate a heritable latitudinal cline in the degree of polyandry in the fruitfly Drosophila pseudoobscura across the USA, with northern population females remating more frequently in both the field and the laboratory. High remating was associated with low frequency of a sex-ratio-distorting meiotic driver in natural populations. In the laboratory, polyandry directly controls the frequency of the driver by undermining its transmission. Hence we suggest that the cline in polyandry represents an important contributor to the cline in sex ratio in nature. Furthermore, as the meiotic driver causes sex ratio bias, variation in polyandry may ultimately determine population sex ratio across the USA, a dramatic impact of female mating decisions. As SGEs are ubiquitous it is likely that the reduction of intragenomic conflict by polyandry is widespread. PMID:24695427

  19. Does polyandry control population sex ratio via regulation of a selfish gene?

    PubMed

    Price, Tom A R; Bretman, Amanda; Gradilla, Ana C; Reger, Julia; Taylor, Michelle L; Giraldo-Perez, Paulina; Campbell, Amy; Hurst, Gregory D D; Wedell, Nina

    2014-05-22

    The extent of female multiple mating (polyandry) can strongly impact on the intensity of sexual selection, sexual conflict, and the evolution of cooperation and sociality. More subtly, polyandry may protect populations against intragenomic conflicts that result from the invasion of deleterious selfish genetic elements (SGEs). SGEs commonly impair sperm production, and so are likely to be unsuccessful in sperm competition, potentially reducing their transmission in polyandrous populations. Here, we test this prediction in nature. We demonstrate a heritable latitudinal cline in the degree of polyandry in the fruitfly Drosophila pseudoobscura across the USA, with northern population females remating more frequently in both the field and the laboratory. High remating was associated with low frequency of a sex-ratio-distorting meiotic driver in natural populations. In the laboratory, polyandry directly controls the frequency of the driver by undermining its transmission. Hence we suggest that the cline in polyandry represents an important contributor to the cline in sex ratio in nature. Furthermore, as the meiotic driver causes sex ratio bias, variation in polyandry may ultimately determine population sex ratio across the USA, a dramatic impact of female mating decisions. As SGEs are ubiquitous it is likely that the reduction of intragenomic conflict by polyandry is widespread. PMID:24695427

  20. Scale dependence of sex ratio in wild plant populations: implications for social selection.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Brian J; Augat, Malcolm E; Taylor, Douglas R; Brodie, Edmund D

    2016-03-01

    Social context refers to the composition of an individual's social interactants, including potential mates. In spatially structured populations, social context can vary among individuals within populations, generating the opportunity for social selection to drive differences in fitness functions among individuals at a fine spatial scale. In sexually polymorphic plants, the local sex ratio varies at a fine scale and thus has the potential to generate this opportunity. We measured the spatial distribution of two wild populations of the gynodioecious plant Silene vulgaris and show that there is fine-scale heterogeneity in the local distribution of the sexes within these populations. We demonstrate that the largest variance in sex ratio is among nearest neighbors. This variance is greatly reduced as the spatial scale of social interactions increases. These patterns suggest the sex of neighbors has the potential to generate fine-scale differences in selection differentials among individuals. One of the most important determinants of social interactions in plants is the behavior of pollinators. These results suggest that the potential for selection arising from sex ratio will be greatest when pollen is shared among nearest neighbors. Future studies incorporating the movement of pollinators may reveal whether and how this fine-scale variance in sex ratio affects the fitness of individuals in these populations. PMID:26865952

  1. Multigenerational response to artificial selection for biased clutch sex ratios in Tigriopus californicus populations.

    PubMed

    Alexander, H J; Richardson, J M L; Anholt, B R

    2014-09-01

    Polygenic sex determination (PSD) is relatively rare and theoretically evolutionary unstable, yet has been reported across a range of taxa. Evidence for multilocus PSD is provided by (i) large between-family variance in sex ratio, (ii) paternal and maternal effects on family sex ratio and (iii) response to selection for family sex ratio. This study tests the polygenic hypothesis of sex determination in the harpacticoid copepod Tigriopus californicus using the criterion of response to selection. We report the first multigenerational quantitative evidence that clutch sex ratio responds to artificial selection in both directions (selection for male- and female-biased families) and in multiple populations of T. californicus. In the five of six lines that showed a response to selection, realized heritability estimated by multigenerational analysis ranged from 0.24 to 0.58. Divergence of clutch sex ratio between selection lines is rapid, with response to selection detectable within the first four generations of selection. PMID:25039835

  2. Sexual dimorphism in finger length ratios and sex determination - A study in Indo-Mauritian population.

    PubMed

    Agnihotri, Arun Kumar; Jowaheer, A Aman; Soodeen-Lalloo, Adiilah K

    2015-10-01

    Many studies have shown that the finger length ratios might be characteristic for sexual dimorphism. The aim of the study was to determine sexual dimorphism in finger length ratios among the representatives of the Indo-Mauritian population. The study group comprised of 200 healthy Indo-Mauritian people (100 male and 100 female) of the age ranged from 19 to 25 years. The lengths of second (2D), third (3D), forth (4D) and fifth (5D) finger of both hands were measured by using a vernier caliper. Our results indicate that all finger length ratios have significant sex differences (p-value < 0.05) except 2D:5D and 3D:5D. To conclude, 2D:4D ratio is the most decisive ratio (predictive accuracy = 0.61) which can demarcate between male and female. PMID:26344459

  3. Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Nathan A. S.; Pownceby, Mark I.; Madsen, Ian C.; Studer, Andrew J.; Manuel, James R.; Kimpton, Justin A.

    2014-12-01

    Effects of basicity, B (CaO:SiO2 ratio) on the thermal range, concentration, and formation mechanisms of silico-ferrite of calcium and aluminum (SFCA) and SFCA-I iron ore sinter bonding phases have been investigated using an in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction-based methodology with subsequent Rietveld refinement-based quantitative phase analysis. SFCA and SFCA-I phases are the key bonding materials in iron ore sinter, and improved understanding of the effects of processing parameters such as basicity on their formation and decomposition may assist in improving efficiency of industrial iron ore sintering operations. Increasing basicity significantly increased the thermal range of SFCA-I, from 1363 K to 1533 K (1090 °C to 1260 °C) for a mixture with B = 2.48, to ~1339 K to 1535 K (1066 °C to 1262 °C) for a mixture with B = 3.96, and to ~1323 K to 1593 K (1050 °C to 1320 °C) at B = 4.94. Increasing basicity also increased the amount of SFCA-I formed, from 18 wt pct for the mixture with B = 2.48 to 25 wt pct for the B = 4.94 mixture. Higher basicity of the starting sinter mixture will, therefore, increase the amount of SFCA-I, considered to be more desirable of the two phases. Basicity did not appear to significantly influence the formation mechanism of SFCA-I. It did, however, affect the formation mechanism of SFCA, with the decomposition of SFCA-I coinciding with the formation of a significant amount of additional SFCA in the B = 2.48 and 3.96 mixtures but only a minor amount in the highest basicity mixture. In situ neutron diffraction enabled characterization of the behavior of magnetite after melting of SFCA produced a magnetite plus melt phase assemblage.

  4. Population sex-ratio affecting behavior and physiology of overwintering bank voles (Myodes glareolus).

    PubMed

    Sipari, Saana; Haapakoski, Marko; Klemme, Ines; Palme, Rupert; Sundell, Janne; Ylönen, Hannu

    2016-05-15

    Many boreal rodents are territorial during the breeding season but during winter become social and aggregate for more energy efficient thermoregulation. Communal winter nesting and social interactions are considered to play an important role for the winter survival of these species, yet the topic is relatively little explored. Females are suggested to be the initiators of winter aggregations and sometimes reported to survive better than males. This could be due to the higher social tolerance observed in overwintering females than males. Hormonal status could also affect winter behavior and survival. For instance, chronic stress can have a negative effect on survival, whereas high gonadal hormone levels, such as testosterone, often induce aggressive behavior. To test if the winter survival of females in a boreal rodent is better than that of males, and to assess the role of females in the winter aggregations, we generated bank vole (Myodes glareolus) populations of three different sex ratios (male-biased, female-biased and even density) under semi-natural conditions. We monitored survival, spatial behavior and hormonal status (stress and testosterone) during two winter months. We observed no significant differences in survival between the sexes or among populations with differing sex-ratios. The degree of movement area overlap was used as an indicator of social tolerance and potential communal nesting. Individuals in male biased populations showed a tendency to be solitary, whereas in female biased populations there was an indication of winter aggregation. Females living in male-biased populations had higher stress levels than the females from the other populations. The female-biased sex-ratio induced winter breeding and elevated testosterone levels in males. Thus, our results suggest that the sex-ratio of the overwintering population can lead to divergent overwintering strategies in bank voles. PMID:26976741

  5. Estimating Consumption to Biomass Ratio in Non-Stationary Harvested Fish Populations

    PubMed Central

    Wiff, Rodrigo; Roa-Ureta, Ruben H.; Borchers, David L.; Milessi, Andrés C.; Barrientos, Mauricio A.

    2015-01-01

    The food consumption to biomass ratio (C) is one of the most important population parameters in ecosystem modelling because its quantifies the interactions between predator and prey. Existing models for estimating C in fish populations are per-recruit cohort models or empirical models, valid only for stationary populations. Moreover, empirical models lack theoretical support. Here we develop a theory and derive a general modelling framework to estimate C in fish populations, based on length frequency data and the generalised von Bertalanffy growth function, in which models for stationary populations with a stable-age distributions are special cases. Estimates using our method are compared with estimates from per-recruit cohort models for C using simulated harvested fish populations of different lifespans. The models proposed here are also applied to three fish populations that are targets of commercial fisheries in southern Chile. Uncertainty in the estimation of C was evaluated using a resampling approach. Simulations showed that stationary and non-stationary population models produce different estimates for C and those differences depend on the lifespan, fishing mortality and recruitment variations. Estimates of C using the new model exhibited smoother inter-annual variation in comparison with a per-recruit model estimates and they were also smaller than C predicted by the empirical equations in all population assessed. PMID:26528721

  6. Estimating Consumption to Biomass Ratio in Non-Stationary Harvested Fish Populations.

    PubMed

    Wiff, Rodrigo; Roa-Ureta, Ruben H; Borchers, David L; Milessi, Andrés C; Barrientos, Mauricio A

    2015-01-01

    The food consumption to biomass ratio (C) is one of the most important population parameters in ecosystem modelling because its quantifies the interactions between predator and prey. Existing models for estimating C in fish populations are per-recruit cohort models or empirical models, valid only for stationary populations. Moreover, empirical models lack theoretical support. Here we develop a theory and derive a general modelling framework to estimate C in fish populations, based on length frequency data and the generalised von Bertalanffy growth function, in which models for stationary populations with a stable-age distributions are special cases. Estimates using our method are compared with estimates from per-recruit cohort models for C using simulated harvested fish populations of different lifespans. The models proposed here are also applied to three fish populations that are targets of commercial fisheries in southern Chile. Uncertainty in the estimation of C was evaluated using a resampling approach. Simulations showed that stationary and non-stationary population models produce different estimates for C and those differences depend on the lifespan, fishing mortality and recruitment variations. Estimates of C using the new model exhibited smoother inter-annual variation in comparison with a per-recruit model estimates and they were also smaller than C predicted by the empirical equations in all population assessed. PMID:26528721

  7. Population Sex Ratios: Another Consideration in the Reintroduction – Reinforcement Debate?

    PubMed Central

    Lambertucci, Sergio A.; Carrete, Martina; Speziale, Karina L.; Hiraldo, Fernando; Donázar, José Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Reintroduction or reinforcement (RorR) of wild populations is a common conservation strategy. Many conservation projects involve the release of individuals of poorly studied species. This may lead to inefficient results or negative impacts on the conservation efforts. Here, we provide new insights into the conservation implications and potential consequences of a skew in the sex ratio of released birds and of the number of birds supplemented for the demography of a long-lived dimorphic bird species, the Andean condor (Vulturgryphus). We demonstrate that a RorR conservation program may be less effective in conserving a species if the sex ratios of the releases and the recipient populations are not considered. We also show that releases can reduce population declines but only if carried out over long periods (i.e., several decades). This can mean high costs for release programs and the added challenge of maintaining programs over time. If RorR programs are to be implemented, bearing in mind the importance of properly assessing their effectiveness, we urge conservation researchers and managers to consider the implications of sex ratio biases for wild populations, and particularly for dimorphic species with sexually despotic behaviour. PMID:24086641

  8. Comparing Dynamical and Stellar Population Mass-To-Light Ratio Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, Roelof S.; Bell, Eric F.

    We investigate the mass-to-light ratios of stellar populations as predicted by stellar population synthesis codes and compare those to dynamical/gravitational measurements. In Bell & de Jong (2001) we showed that population synthesis models predict a tight relation between the color and mass-to-light ratio of a stellar population. The normalization of this relation depends critically on the shape of the stellar IMF at the low-mass end. These faint stars contribute significantly to the mass, but insignificantly to the luminosity and color of a stellar system. In Bell & de Jong (2001) we used rotation curves to normalize the relation, but rotation curves provide only an upper limit to the stellar masses in a system. Here we compare stellar and dynamical masses for a range of stellar systems in order to constrain the mass normalization of stellar population models. We find that the normalization of Bell & de Jong (2001) should be lowered by about 0.05-0.1 dex in M/L. This is consistent with a Kroupa (2001), Chabrier (2003), or a Ken-nicutt (1983) IMF, but does not leave much room for other unseen components.

  9. Sex ratio and morphological polymorphism in an isolated, endemic Teladorsagia circumcincta population.

    PubMed

    Craig, B H; Pilkington, J G; Pemberton, J M

    2010-06-01

    Teladorsagia circumcincta is a polygamous nematode that exhibits morphological polymorphism. Sex ratio is typically female biased and the male nematodes occur in association with the genetically similar, minor morphotypes Teladorsagia davtiani and Teladorsagia trifurcata. In experimental infections, sex ratio (proportion male) and the proportion of minor male morphs observed have been shown to be influenced by both host and nematode-related factors. As similar investigations from natural systems are rare, this study examined whether sex ratio and minor male morph frequency were associated with host age and sex and nematode infra-population size in the isolated Soay sheep population on St Kilda. Count data for Teladorsagia were analysed for sheep of all age classes and both sexes from the winters of three consecutive population crashes (1999, 2002 and 2005). Generally, the intensity of Teladorsagia nematodes increased with host age until the age of 2 years before decreasing. In 2005, abundance of nematodes was generally higher than in the previous crashes, nematode sex ratio was negatively associated with host age and tended to be negatively associated with nematode intensity. Within the male nematode subpopulation, T. circumcincta always predominated, followed by T. davtiani and then T. trifurcata, with little variation in the relative proportions between hosts. The presence of each minor morph was primarily associated with the intensity of male T. circumcincta and, in those hosts where all three male morphs were detected, intensity of each minor morph was most associated with intensity of Teladorsagia females. Therefore, in a year when the nematode was generally more abundant, sex ratio appeared to be influenced by both host and nematode-related factors, whereas in all years examined, the frequency of morphological polymorphism was primarily density dependent. PMID:19761627

  10. Inbreeding and Offspring Sex Ratio in the Pygmy Hippopotamus (Cheoropsis liberiensis) Population Kept in Zoological Gardens.

    PubMed

    Graczyk, Magdalena; Cwiertnia, Piotr; Borowska, Alicja; Barczak, Elżbieta; Szwaczkowski, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the inbreeding level and its impact on offspring sex ratio in the pygmy hippopotamus population kept in zoological gardens. Records of pygmy hippopotamus born between 1873-2013 were extracted from the international studbook. Totally, 1357 individuals originating from 148 breeding units were included (individuals with unknown sex were omitted). The offspring sex ratio is defined as the number of sons to the total number of progeny of each dam and sire. Spearman's rank correlation was employed to examine the relationships between the inbreeding level and offspring sex ratio. Inbreeding coefficients and individual increase in inbreeding coefficients (included as a linear co-variable) were examined as well as the geographic region and birth period using general linear models. The average inbreeding coefficient was 5.39%. The following sex proportion was observed for the inbred population: 57% and 43% for females and males, respectively. A significant relationship between inbreeding level of parents and their offspring sex ratio were estimated for European zoological gardens, whereas in others geographic regions the dependencies were insignificant. PMID:26103683

  11. The ratio of metabolically active versus total Mycolata populations triggers foaming in a membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Maza-Márquez, P; Vílchez-Vargas, R; Boon, N; González-López, J; Martínez-Toledo, M V; Rodelas, B

    2016-04-01

    The abundance of total and metabolically active populations of Mycolata was evaluated in a full-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) experiencing seasonal foaming, using quantitative PCR (qPCR) and retrotranscribed qPCR (RT-qPCR) targeting the 16S rRNA gene sequence. While the abundance of total Mycolata remained stable (10(10) copies of 16S rRNA genes/L activated sludge) throughout four different experimental phases, significant variations (up to one order of magnitude) were observed when the 16S rRNA was targeted. The highest ratios of metabolically active versus total Mycolata populations were observed in samples of two experimental phases when foaming was experienced in the MBR. Non-metric multidimensional scaling and BIO-ENV analyses demonstrated that this ratio was positively correlated to the concentrations of substrates in the influent water, F/M ratio, and pH, and negatively correlated to temperature and solids retention time. It the first time that the ratio of metabolically active versus total Mycolata is found to be a key parameter triggering foaming in the MBR; thus, we propose it as a candidate predictive tool. PMID:26859516

  12. Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism, sex ratio distorters and population genetics in the isopod Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Rigaud, T; Bouchon, D; Souty-Grosset, C; Raimond, R

    1999-08-01

    Two maternally inherited sex ratio distorters (SRD) impose female-biased sex ratios on the wood louse Armadillidium vulgare by feminizing putative males. These SRD are (i) an intracytoplasmic bacterium of the genus Wolbachia, and (ii) another non-Mendelian element of unknown nature: the f element. Mitochondrial DNA variation was investigated in A. vulgare field populations to trace the evolution of host-SRD relationships and to investigate the effect of SRD on host cytoplasmic polymorphism. The Wolbachia endosymbionts showed no polymorphism in their ITS2 sequence and were associated with two closely related mitochondrial types. This situation probably reflects a single infection event followed by a slight differentiation of mitochondria. There was no association between the f element and a given mitochondrial type, which may confirm the fact that this element can be partially paternally transmitted. The spreading of a maternally inherited SRD in a population should reduce the mitochondrial diversity by a hitchhiking process. In A. vulgare, however, a within-population mtDNA polymorphism was often found, because of the deficient spread of Wolbachia and the partial paternal inheritance of the f element. The analysis of molecular variance indicated that A. vulgare populations are genetically structured, but without isolation by distance. PMID:10430591

  13. Brief Report: Doubly Robust Estimation of Standardized Risk Difference and Ratio in the Exposed Population.

    PubMed

    Shinozaki, Tomohiro; Matsuyama, Yutaka

    2015-11-01

    Standardization-a method used to adjust for confounding-estimates counterfactual risks in a target population. To adjust for confounding variables that contain too many combinations to be fully stratified, two model-based standardization methods exist: regression standardization and use of an inverse probability of exposure weighted-reweighted estimators. Whereas the former requires an outcome regression model conditional on exposure and confounders, the latter requires a propensity score model. In reconciling among their modeling assumptions, doubly robust estimators, which only require correct specification of either the outcome regression or the propensity score model but do not necessitate both, have been well studied for total populations. Here, we provide doubly robust estimators of standardized risk difference and ratio in the exposed population. Theoretical details, simple model extension for independently censored outcomes, and a SAS program are provided in the eAppendix (http://links.lww.com/EDE/A955). PMID:26275176

  14. The value of Apolipoprotein B/Apolipoprotein A1 ratio for metabolic syndrome diagnosis in a Chinese population: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The apoB/apoA1 ratio has been reported to be associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS), and it may be a more convenient biomarker in MetS predicting. However, whether apoB/apoA1 ratio is a better indicator of metabolic syndrome than other biomarkers and what is the optimal cut-off value of apoB/apoA1 ratio as an indicator of metabolic syndrome in Chinese population remain unknown. Thus, we carried out the current study to assess the predictive value of apoB/apoA1 ratio and determine the optimal cut-off value of apoB/apoA1 ratio for diagnosing MetS in a Chinese population. Method We selected 1,855 subjects with MetS and 6,265 individuals without MetS based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria from the China Health Nutrition Survey (CHNS) in 2009. MetS was identified based on the diagnostic criteria of International Diabetes Federation (2005). Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between the apoB/apoA1 ratio and risk of MetS, and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was performed to test the predictive value of apoB/apoA1 ratio and calculate the appropriate cut-off value. Results Compared with the lowest quartile of apoB/apoA1 ratio, subjects in the fourth quartile had a higher risk of MetS in both men [odds ratio (OR) = 2.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) =1.82-3.83] and women (OR = 5.18, 95% CI = 3.87-6.92) after adjustment for potential confounders. The optimal cut-off value of apoB/apoA1 ratio for MetS detection was 0.85 in men and 0.80 in women. Comparisons of ROC curves indicated that apoB/apoA1 ratio was better than traditional biomarkers in predicting MetS. Conclusion Our results suggest that, apoB/apoA1 ratio has a promising predictive effectiveness in detection of MetS. An apoB/apoA1 ratio higher than 0.85 in men and 0.80 in women may be a promising and convenient marker of MetS. PMID:24886173

  15. Radiographic assessment of clinical root-crown ratios of permanent teeth in a healthy Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Hee-Jung; Jeong, Jin-Sun; Pang, Nan-Sim; Kwon, Il-Keun

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to determine the absolute value of the root/crown ratio (R/C ratio) using panoramic radiographs (PRGs) in a healthy Korean population. MATERIALS AND METHODS In total, 99 patient radiographs (of 50 males and 49 females subjects; aged 16 to 24 years old) were examined, and 2,770 teeth were analyzed. Crown lengths and root lengths were measured with modified Lind's measurements using PACS tools by two examiners in two separate sessions two months apart. All data were analyzed using SPSS. The independent t-test was used to assess for gender differences, and the paired t-test was used to compare both arches with a significance level of P<.05. RESULTS The mean R/C ratios varied from 1.29 to 1.89 (male: 1.28-1.84; females: 1.31-1.94). The highest R/C ratios were recorded for the mandibular canines (1.89), followed by the maxillary canines (1.79). The lowest R/C ratios were recorded for the maxillary second molars (1.31). In comparison with the maxillary teeth (1.29-1.78), the mandibular teeth yielded the higher R/C ratio (1.47-1.89), and this difference was significant in the females (P<.05). The difference between the genders was not statistically significant, except for the maxillary central incisors, mandibular canines and mandibular first premolars. CONCLUSION These data may enhance the understanding of the clinical R/C ratio as a useful guideline for determining the status of teeth and the ethnic difference. PMID:25006380

  16. Association of polyandry and sex-ratio drive prevalence in natural populations of Drosophila neotestacea.

    PubMed

    Pinzone, Cheryl A; Dyer, Kelly A

    2013-10-22

    Selfish genetic elements bias their own transmission to the next generation, even at the expense of the fitness of their carrier. Sex-ratio (SR) meiotic drive occurs when an X-chromosome causes Y-bearing sperm to die during male spermatogenesis, so that it is passed on to all of the male's offspring, which are all daughters. How SR is maintained as a stable polymorphism in the absence of genetic suppressors of drive is unknown. Here, we investigate the potential for the female remating rate to affect SR dynamics in natural populations, using the fly Drosophila neotestacea. In controlled laboratory conditions, females from populations where SR is rare mate more often than females from populations where SR is common. Furthermore, only when males mate multiply does the average fertility of SR males relative to wild-type males decrease to a level that can prevent SR from spreading. Our results suggest that differences in the female mating rate among populations may contribute to SR dynamics in the wild, and thus also affect the outcome of this intragenomic conflict. In line with this, we also present evidence of a localized population crash due to SR that may have resulted from habitat fragmentation along with a reduced mating rate. PMID:24004936

  17. The importance of delivery rate on odds ratios by cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption for esophageal adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma in the Barretts and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Lubin, Jay H.; Cook, Michael B.; Pandeya, Nirmala; Vaughan, Thomas L.; Abnet, Christian C.; Giffen, Carol; Webb, Penelope M.; Murray, Liam J.; Casson, Alan G.; Risch, Harvey A.; Ye, Weimin; Kamangar, Farin; Bernstein, Leslie; Sharp, Linda; Nyrn, Olof; Gammon, Marilie D.; Corley, Douglas A.; Wu, Anna H.; Brown, Linda M.; Chow, Wong-Ho; Ward, Mary H.; Freedman, Neal D.; Whiteman, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking is associated with esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), esophagogastric junctional adenocarcinoma (EGJA) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), and alcohol consumption with ESCC. However, no analyses have examined how delivery rate modifies the strength of odds ratio (OR) trends with total exposure, i.e., the impact on the OR for a fixed total exposure of high exposure rate for short duration compared with low exposure rate for long duration. Methods The authors pooled data from 12 case-control studies from the Barretts Esophagus and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium (BEACON), including 1,242 (EAC), 1,263 (EGJA) and 954 (ESCC) cases and 7,053 controls, modeled joint ORs for cumulative exposure and exposure rate for cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption, and evaluated effect modification by sex, body mass index (BMI), age and self-reported acid reflux. Results For smoking, all sites exhibited inverse delivery rate effects, whereby ORs with pack-years increased, but trends weakened with increasing cigarettes/day. None of the examined factors modified associations, except for ESCC where younger ages at diagnosis enhanced smoking effects (P<0.01). For EAC and EGJA, ORs with drink-years exhibited inverse associations in <5 drinks/day consumers and no association in heavier consumers. For ESCC, ORs with drink-years increased, with trends strengthening with greater drinks/day. There was no significant effect modification, except for EAC and EGJA where acid reflux mitigated the inverse associations (P=0.02). For ESCC, younger ages at diagnosis enhanced drinking-related ORs (P<0.01). Conclusions Patterns of ORs by pack-years and drink-years, delivery rate effects and effect modifiers revealed common as well as distinct etiologic elements for these diseases. PMID:22504051

  18. PopRatio: A program to calculate atomic level populations in astrophysical plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, A. I.; Viegas, S. M.

    2002-02-01

    PopRatio is a Fortran 90 code to calculate atomic level populations in astrophysical plasmas. The program solves the equations of statistical equilibrium considering all possible bound-bound processes: spontaneous, collisional or radiation induced (the later either directly or by fluorescence). There is no limit on the number of levels or in the number of processes that may be taken into account. The program may find a wide range of applicability in astronomical problems, such as interpreting fine-structure absorption lines or collisionally excited emission lines and also in calculating the cooling rates due to collisional excitation.

  19. PopRatio: a program to calculate atomic level populations in astrophysical plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, A. I.; Viegas, S. M.

    We describe a Fortran 90 program to calculate population ratios of atomic levels. The program solves the equations of statistical equilibrium considering all possible bound-bound processes: spontaneous, collisional or radiation induced (the later either directly or by bluorescence). There is no limit on the number of levels or in the number of processes that may be taken into account. The program may find a wide range of applicability in astronomical problems, such as interpreting fine-structure absorption lines or collisionally excited emission lines (such as coronal emission lines) in the spectra of several objects, and also in calculating the cooling rates due to collisional excitation.

  20. Epidemiologic study of the sexually dimorphic second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) and other finger ratios in Greek population.

    PubMed

    Kyriakidis, Ioannis; Papaioannidou, Paraskevi

    2008-12-01

    The 2nd to 4th digit ratio (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic biometric marker, related to prenatal estrogen and testosterone levels in utero, and determined genetically by the HOX genes. 2D:4D presents a population variation, which seems to be dependent on geographical position or ethnicity, and may reflect differences in prenatal steroid hormone levels among different ethnic groups. In view of its clinical importance, this study investigates the 2D:4D ratio, as well as other digit ratios, in Greek population. A sample of 60 Greek men and 60 Greek women (age range 19-25 years) was selected by random procedures. Fingers' length was measured twice, using an electronic vernier calliper (precision 0.01 mm). Men had lower 2D:4D ratio (0.974 +/- 0.035 for the right hand and 0.973 +/- 0.044 for the left hand) than women (1.002 +/- 0.04 for the right hand and 1.001 +/- 0.045 for the left hand). This difference in 2D:4D ratio between sexes was statistically significant (p < 0.0001 for the right hand and p < 0.001 for the left hand). The other digit ratios were also lower in men than women for both hands; this difference was statistically significant for all digit ratios of the right hand and for the 2nd to 3rd (2D:3D) and 2nd to 5th (2D:5D) digit ratios of the left hand. The digit ratios are lateralized and sexually dimorphic in Greek population. The sexual dimorphism of all digit ratios (except 2D:3D) is stronger in right than left hand. PMID:19149213

  1. High quit ratio among Asian immigrants in California: implications for population tobacco cessation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shu-Hong; Wong, Shiushing; Tang, Hao; Shi, Chih-Wen; Chen, Moon S

    2007-09-01

    Asian immigrants to the U.S. are participants in a natural experiment on the effects of social norms on tobacco cessation. Smoking is socially acceptable in most Asian countries. When Asian smokers move to U.S. states such as California, they experience a radically different social norm toward smoking. This study examines ever smokers among two groups of Asian immigrants in California, Chinese and Koreans, and finds that most have quit smoking. The quit ratios (percent of ever smokers who have quit) for Chinese (52.5%) and Korean immigrants (51.1%) have quit ratios for ever smokers in California in general (53.3%), which is among the highest in the U.S. These high quit ratios contrast sharply with much lower quit ratios for Chinese in China (11.5%) and for Koreans in Korea (22.3%). Such large differences in quit ratios are the results of accumulated differences over the years, because of dramatic differences in annual cessation rates: Chinese in California quit at roughly seven times the rate of Chinese in China, and Koreans in California three times that of Koreans in Korea. Analyses further show that these large differences in annual cessation rates come mainly from the fact that these immigrants in California made quit attempts at a much higher rate than their counterparts in their home countries. These results suggest that creating an impetus to drive up quit attempts, which often results from a significant change in social norms toward smoking, is the most important strategy to improve cessation on the population level. PMID:17978979

  2. Efficient screening of covariates in population models using Wald's approximation to the likelihood ratio test.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, K G; Hutmacher, M M

    2001-06-01

    We propose an efficient algorithm for screening covariates in population model building using Wald's approximation to the likelihood ratio test (LRT) statistic in conjunction with Schwarz's Bayesian criterion. The algorithm can be applied to a full model fit of k covariate parameters to calculate the approximate LRT for all 2k - 1 possible restricted models. The algorithm's efficiency also permits internal validation of the model selection process via bootstrap methods. We illustrate the use of this algorithm for both model selection and validation with data from a Daypro pediatric study. The algorithm is easily implemented using standard statistical software such as SAS/IML and S-Plus. A SAS/IML macro to perform the algorithm is provided. PMID:11468940

  3. Population incidence and segregation ratios in the Martin-Bell syndrome.

    PubMed

    Webb, T P; Bundey, S E; Thake, A I; Todd, J

    1986-01-01

    A clinical and cytogenetic study of children attending schools for the educationally handicapped has been carried out in the City of Coventry. As a result of this an estimate of the population incidence of the Martin-Bell syndrome among schoolchildren has been made. Among school-boys the incidence of mental retardation due to the fra (X) was found to be 0.73 per 1000 and among schoolgirls 0.48 per 1000. The overall prevalence is 0.61 per 1000. Genetic and cytogenetic analysis of 14 families ascertained in an unbiased manner showed that the expected 50% ratio of affected to unaffected relatives was disturbed, the possible result of a segregation distortion. PMID:3953667

  4. Associations between Optic Cup-to-disc Ratio and Systemic Factors in the Healthy Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yang Jae; Shim, Seong Hee; Bae, Jeong Hun; Park, Ki Ho

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess the relationships between optic cup-to-disc ratio (CDR) and age, sex, and other demographic and health characteristics in the healthy Korean population. Methods The study design was retrospective and population-based. A total of 28,377 subjects who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2008 and 2011 were enrolled in this study. Participants underwent structured interviews as well as systemic and ophthalmic examinations. Patients with glaucoma who were diagnosed using the International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology classification were excluded. Changes in vertical CDR were examined by age in relation to systemic variables on multiple regression analysis. Results The mean vertical CDR was 0.34 ± 0.12. The vertical CDR increased with age from subjects in their 20s to those in their 80s (p < 0.001). The mean CDR in males was significantly higher than that of females (p < 0.001). On multiple regression analysis, the vertical CDR was positively associated with age (p < 0.001), male sex (p < 0.001), diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.009), and intraocular pressure (p < 0.001) but was negatively associated with body mass index (p < 0.001). Conclusions Greater vertical CDR was related to age, male sex, higher diastolic blood pressure, higher intraocular pressure, and lower body mass index in healthy Koreans. PMID:26457040

  5. Level structures in odd-odd deformed nucleus 184Ta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowrishankar, R.; Sood, P. C.

    2016-02-01

    A detailed low-energy level scheme of the odd-odd n-rich nucleus 184 73Ta111 is constructed using the well tested Two-Quasiparticle Rotor Model (TQRM) for calculating the bandhead energies of physically admissible 2qp configurations with the inclusion of residual n-p interaction contribution. The presently available data on this level scheme from 184Hf decay are shown to be in agreement with these calculations. Our analysis concludes that 184Hf ( Q_{β}=1340(30) keV) decay admits of 7 additional (to the 3 presently reported) β-branches to 184Ta with J = 0 or 1 and 8 more physically admissible weak ( 1fu β-branches populating J^{π}=2- levels in 184Ta. Further, a close examination of our level scheme clearly indicates the existence of a low-lying ( Ex = 260(40) keV) high-spin ( J^{π}=10-) long-lived isomer in this nucleus.

  6. Properties of the high area-to-mass ratio space debris population at high altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schildknecht, T.; Musci, R.; Flohrer, T.

    In the framework of its space debris research activities ESA established an optical survey program to study the space debris environment at high altitudes, in particular in the geostationary ring and in the geostationary transfer orbit region. The Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB) performs these surveys on behalf of ESA using ESA’s 1-m telescope in Tenerife. Regular observations were started in 1999 and are continued during about 120 140 nights per year. Results from these surveys revealed a substantial amount of space debris at high altitudes in the size range from 0.1 to 1 m. Several space debris populations with different dynamical properties were identified in the geostationary ring. During the searches for debris in the geostationary transfer orbit region a new population of objects in unexpected orbits, where no potential progenitors exist, was found. The orbital periods of these objects are clustered around one revolution per day; the eccentricities, however, are scattered between 0 and 0.6. By following-up some of these objects using the ESA telescope and AIUB’s 1-m telescope in Zimmerwald, Switzerland, it was possible to study the properties of this new population. One spectacular finding from monitoring the orbits over time spans of days to months is the fact that these objects must have extreme area-to-mass ratios, which are by several orders of magnitudes higher than for ‘normal-type’ debris. This in turn supports the hypothesis that the new population actually is debris generated in or near the geostationary ring and which is in orbits with periodically varying eccentricity and inclination due to perturbations by solar radiation pressure. In order to further study the nature of these debris, multi-color and temporal photometry (light curves) were acquired with the Zimmerwald telescope. The light curves show strong variations over short time intervals, including signals typical for specular reflections. Some objects exhibit distinct periodic variations with periods ranging from 10 to several 100 s. All this is indicative for objects with complicated shapes and some highly reflective surfaces.

  7. Sex ratio of congenital abnormalities in the function of maternal age: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Csermely, Gyula; Urbán, Robert; Czeizel, Andrew E; Veszprémi, Béla

    2015-05-01

    Maternal age effect is well-known in the origin of numerical chromosomal aberrations and some isolated congenital abnormalities (CAs). The sex ratio (SR), i.e. number of males divided by the number of males and females together, of most CAs deviates from the SR of newborn population (0.51). The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the possible association of maternal age with the SR of isolated CAs in a population-based large dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980-1996. First, SR of 24 CA entities/groups was estimated in 21,494 patients with isolated CA. In the next step SR of different maternal age groups was compared to the mean SR of the given CA-groups. The SR of four CA-groups showed some deviation in certain maternal age groups. Cases with anencephaly had female excess in young mothers (<25 years). Cases with skull's CAs particularly craniosynostosis had a male excess in cases born to women over 30 years. Two other CA groups (cleft lip ± palate and valvar pulmonic stenosis within the group of right-sided obstructive defect of heart) had significant deviation in SR of certain maternal age groups from the mean SR, but these deviations were not harmonized with joining age groups and thus were considered as a chance effect due to multiple testing. In conclusion, our study did not suggest that in general SR of isolated CAs might be modified by certain maternal age groups with some exception such as anencephaly and craniosynostosis. PMID:25354028

  8. Genetic Diversity and Genetic Structure of Different Types of Natural Populations in Osmanthus fragrans Lour. and the Relationships with Sex Ratio, Population Structure, and Geographic Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shaoqing; Wu, Shuai; Wang, Yiguang; Zhang, Yuanyan

    2014-01-01

    Osmanthus fragrans Lour., an evergreen small tree, has the rare sexual system of androdioecy (coexistence of males and hermaphrodites), once with wide-spread natural distribution in the areas of the South Yangzi river basin. However, due to excessive human utilization, natural distribution became fragmented and the number and size of natural populations reduced sharply. With four different types of natural populations from the same region as research object, we aim to provide a comparative analysis on the relationships among genetic diversity, sexual system, population structure and size, and geographic isolation by ISSR. In genetic parameters of Ne, He, and I, the LQGC population had the highest value and the LQZGQ population had the lowest value. These indicated that LQGC population showed the highest genetic diversity, followed by QDH and JN population, and LQZGQ population exhibited the lowest genetic diversity. Genetic diversity in populations is closely related to population structure, reproduction mode, and sex ratio. However, there seems to be no obvious correlation between genetic diversity and population size. The results of AMOVA showed that genetic variations mostly occurred within populations. It indicates that no significant genetic differentiation among populations occurs, and geographic isolation has no significant effect on genetic diversity. PMID:25436228

  9. Life history and environmental variation interact to determine effective population to census size ratio

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Thomas F; Osborne, Megan J; Moyer, Gregory R; Benavides, Melissa A; Alò, Dominique

    2006-01-01

    Successful recovery and sustainability of threatened and exploited species depends in part on retention and maintenance of genetic diversity. Theory indicates that genetic diversity is lost at a rate inversely proportional to the genetically effective population size (Ne), which is roughly equal to one-half the adult census size (N) in many organisms. However, Ne has been reported to be up to five orders of magnitude lower than N in species with life histories that result in type III survivorship (high fecundity, but heavy mortality in early life stages, e.g. bony fishes), prompting speculation that low values of Ne may be a general feature of such organisms despite sometimes vast abundances. Here, we compared Ne and the ratio Ne/N across three ecologically similar fish species from the arid southwestern United States, all with type III life histories but with differing expectations of egg and larval survivorship that correlate with the degree of human-imposed habitat fragmentation. Our study indicates that type III life history may be necessary, but this alone is insufficient to account for extraordinarily low values of Ne/N. Rather, life history interacts with environmentally imposed mortality to determine the rate and magnitude of change in genetic diversity in these desert fish species. PMID:17015350

  10. Against the Odds Exhibition Opens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Against the Odds Exhibition Opens Past Issues / Spring 2008 ... Research in Bethesda. Photo courtesy of Bill Branson "Against the Odds" is a remarkable story of achievement ...

  11. Using the Logarithm of Odds to Define a Vector Space on Probabilistic Atlases

    PubMed Central

    Pohl, Kilian M.; Fisher, John; Bouix, Sylvain; Shenton, Martha; McCarley, Robert W.; Grimson, W. Eric L.; Kikinis, Ron; Wells, William M.

    2007-01-01

    The Logarithm of the Odds ratio (LogOdds) is frequently used in areas such as artificial neural networks, economics, and biology, as an alternative representation of probabilities. Here, we use LogOdds to place probabilistic atlases in a linear vector space. This representation has several useful properties for medical imaging. For example, it not only encodes the shape of multiple anatomical structures but also captures some information concerning uncertainty. We demonstrate that the resulting vector space operations of addition and scalar multiplication have natural probabilistic interpretations. We discuss several examples for placing label maps into the space of LogOdds. First, we relate signed distance maps, a widely used implicit shape representation, to LogOdds and compare it to an alternative that is based on smoothing by spatial Gaussians. We find that the LogOdds approach better preserves shapes in a complex multiple object setting. In the second example, we capture the uncertainty of boundary locations by mapping multiple label maps of the same object into the LogOdds space. Third, we define a framework for non-convex interpolations among atlases that capture different time points in the aging process of a population. We evaluate the accuracy of our representation by generating a deformable shape atlas that captures the variations of anatomical shapes across a population. The deformable atlas is the result of a principal component analysis within the LogOdds space. This atlas is integrated into an existing segmentation approach for MR images. We compare the performance of the resulting implementation in segmenting 20 test cases to a similar approach that uses a more standard shape model that is based on signed distance maps. On this data set, the Bayesian classification model with our new representation outperformed the other approaches in segmenting subcortical structures. PMID:17698403

  12. Flexoelectric and elastic coefficients of odd and even homologous bimesogens.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Katie L; Morris, Stephen M; Castles, Flynn; Qasim, Malik M; Gardiner, Damian J; Coles, Harry J

    2012-01-01

    It is known that bimesogenic liquid crystals exhibit a marked "odd-even" effect in the flexoelastic ratio (the effective flexoelectric coefficient to the average elastic coefficient), with the ratio being higher for the "odd-spaced" bimesogens (those with an odd number of alkyl groups in the spacer chain) than their neighboring even-spaced counterparts. To determine the contribution of each property to the flexoelastic ratio, we present experimental results on the flexoelectric and elastic coefficients of two homologous nonsymmetric bimesogens which possess odd and even alkyl spacers. Our results show that, although there are differences in the flexoelectric coefficients, there are substantially larger differences in the effective elastic coefficient. Specifically, the odd bimesogen is found to have both a low splay elastic coefficient and a very low bend elastic coefficient which, when combined, results in a significantly lower effective elastic coefficient and consequently a higher flexoelastic ratio. PMID:22400606

  13. Disentangling the effect of genes, the environment and chance on sex ratio variation in a wild bird population.

    PubMed

    Postma, Erik; Heinrich, Franziska; Koller, Ursina; Sardell, Rebecca J; Reid, Jane M; Arcese, Peter; Keller, Lukas F

    2011-10-01

    Sex ratio theory proposes that the equal sex ratio typically observed in birds and mammals is the result of natural selection. However, in species with chromosomal sex determination, the same 1 : 1 sex ratio is expected under random Mendelian segregation. Here, we present an analysis of 14 years of sex ratio data for a population of song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) on Mandarte Island, at the nestling stage and at independence from parental care. We test for the presence of variance in sex ratio over and above the binomial variance expected under Mendelian segregation, and thereby quantify the potential for selection to shape sex ratio. Furthermore, if sex ratio variation is to be shaped by selection, we expect some of this extra-binomial variation to have a genetic basis. Despite ample statistical power, we find no evidence for the existence of either genetic or environmentally induced variation in sex ratio, in the nest or at independence. Instead, the sex ratio variation observed matches that expected under random Mendelian segregation. Using one of the best datasets of its kind, we conclude that female song sparrows do not, and perhaps cannot, adjust the sex of their offspring. We discuss the implications of this finding and make suggestions for future research. PMID:21345862

  14. The lithium isotope ratio in Population II halo dwarfs - A proposed test of the late decaying massive particle nucleosynthesis scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Lawrence; Schramm, David N.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that observations of the lithium isotope ratio in high surface temperature Population II stars may be critical to cosmological nucleosynthesis models. In particular, decaying particle scenarios as derived in some supersymmetric models may stand or fall with such observations.

  15. Population structure and the evolution of sexual size dimorphism and sex ratios in an insular population of Florida box turtles (Terrapene carolina bauri)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dodd, C.K., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Hypotheses in the chelonian literature suggest that in species with sexual size dimorphism, the smaller sex will mature at a smaller size and a younger age than the larger sex, sex ratios should be biased in favor of the earlier maturing sex, and deviations from a 1:1 sex ratio result from maturation of the smaller sex at a younger age. I tested these hypotheses using data collected from 1991 to 1995 on an insular (Egmont Key) population of Florida box turtles, Terrapene carolina bauri. Contrary to predictions, the earlier maturing sex (males) grew to larger sizes than the late maturing sex. Males were significantly larger than females in mean carapace length but not mean body mass. Sex ratios were not balanced, favoring the earlier maturing sex (1.6 males:1 female), but the sex-ratio imbalance did not result from faster maturation of the smaller sex. The imbalance in the sex ratio in Egmont Key's box turtles is not the result of sampling biases; it may result from nest placement. Size-class structure and sex ratios can provide valuable insights into the status and trends of populations of long-lived turtles.

  16. 2D:4D finger length ratio in the Chuvashian population.

    PubMed

    Kalichman, L; Zorina, D; Batsevich, V; Kobyliansky, E

    2013-06-01

    In a sample of Chuvashians (803 males and 738 females) we evaluated the mean values of index finger to ring finger (2D:4D) ratio, the contributions of phalanges and metacarpals to the 2D:4D ratio, and the symmetry between right and left 2D:4D ratios. Age, sex, anthropometric data and radiographs of both hands were collected. Each hand was visually classified on a radiograph as either Type 1 - index finger was longer than ring finger; Type 2 - equal; or Type 3 - index shorter than the ring finger. The following measurements (1) from the mid-point of the base of the proximal phalanx to the mid-point of the tip of the distal phalanx; and (2) from the mid-point of the base to the mid-point of the tip of the metacarpal were obtained from the index and ring fingers. Visual classification was significantly associated with the measured 2D:4D length ratio. Women had a higher prevalence of Type 1 and Type 2, but lower prevalence of Type 3 ratio in both hands. Men had smaller measured 2D:4D phalangeal, metacarpal and ray (combined) ratios than women. Symmetry between the right and left hand measured 2D:4D ratios were significant in phalangeal (r=0.657, p<0.001), metacarpal (r=0.638, p<0.001), ray (r=0.682, p<0.001) ratios and visual classification types (contingency coefficient=0.559, p<0.001). No sex dimorphism was found between the right and left hands. Correlations between age and visual classification were significant on both sides before and after adjustment for sex. This result is probably a sign of a secular trend in the Chuvashian sample and the study should be replicated in other samples. PMID:23642797

  17. Selected Intakes as Ratios of Energy Intake, U.S. Population, 2001-04

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Method provides the capability to estimate the distribution of usual food intakes in the US population to greatly enhance the ability to monitor diets relative to recommendations and to assess the scope of dietary deficiencies and excesses.

  18. U.S. hospital workforce-to-population ratios by service area.

    PubMed

    Connor, R A

    1995-01-01

    Traditionally, hospital productivity has been measured in terms of episodic patient services such as days or admissions. However, the delivery of health care is shifting toward a greater focus on the health of a covered population. Thus, population-based indicators of hospital productivity are needed. This work analyzes hospital FTEs per 10,000 served population across the United States as a function of regional demographic, socioeconomic, and geographic factors. For managers of integrated service networks, it provides benchmarks for hospital FTEs per service population for several personnel categories. Important findings for public policy include an 11 percent increase in FTEs per 1 percent increase in interns and residents and a 2 percent increase in FTEs per 1 percent increase in the elderly. PMID:10153371

  19. Concurrent habitat and life history influences on effective/census population size ratios in stream-dwelling trout

    PubMed Central

    Belmar-Lucero, Sebastian; Wood, Jacquelyn L A; Scott, Sherylyne; Harbicht, Andrew B; Hutchings, Jeffrey A; Fraser, Dylan J

    2012-01-01

    Lower effective sizes (Ne) than census sizes (N) are routinely documented in natural populations, but knowledge of how multiple factors interact to lower Ne/N ratios is often limited. We show how combined habitat and life-history influences drive a 2.4- to 6.1-fold difference in Ne/N ratios between two pristine brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) populations occupying streams separated by only 750 m. Local habitat features, particularly drainage area and stream depth, govern trout biomass produced in each stream. They also generate higher trout densities in the shallower stream by favoring smaller body size and earlier age-at-maturity. The combination of higher densities and reduced breeding site availability in the shallower stream likely leads to more competition among breeding trout, which results in greater variance in individual reproductive success and a greater reduction in Ne relative to N. A similar disparity between juvenile or adult densities and breeding habitat availability is reported for other species and hence may also result in divergent Ne/N ratios elsewhere. These divergent Ne/N ratios between adjacent populations are also an instructive reminder for species conservation programs that genetic and demographic parameters may differ dramatically within species. PMID:22822435

  20. Sex-Ratio and Gender Differences in Depression in an Unselected Adult Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgart, E. P.; Oliver, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    Neither sex-ratio nor gender differences in depression were found in adult sample, similar to pattern found among university students. No demographic variable was correlated significantly with depression. Suggests results may be due to the elimination of face-to-face interviews, which expose males to greater negative repercussions for exhibiting…

  1. High nitrate to phosphorus ratio attenuates negative effects of rising pCO2 on net population carbon accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krug, S. A.; Eggers, S. L.; Matthiessen, B.

    2011-07-01

    The ongoing rise in atmospheric pCO2 and the consequent increase in ocean acidification have direct effects on marine calcifying phytoplankton which potentially translates into altered carbon export. To date it remains unclear first, how nutrient ratio, in particular from coccolithophores preferred phosphate limitation, interacts with pCO2 on particulate carbon accumulation. Second, how direct physiological responses on the cellular level translate into a net population response. In this study cultures of Emiliania huxleyi were full-factorially exposed to two different N:P ratios (Redfield and high N:P) and three different pCO2 levels. Effects on net population particulate inorganic and organic carbon (PIC, POC) were measured after E. huxleyi cultures reached stationary phase. Thereby cell sizes and total cell abundance were taken into account. Corresponding to literature results show a significant negative cellular PIC and POC response which, however, was strongest under high N:P ratio. In contrast, net population PIC and POC accumulation was significantly attenuated under high N:P ratio. We suggest that less cellular nutrient accumulation allowed for higher cell abundances which compensated for the strong negative cellular PIC and POC response to pCO2 on the population level. Moreover, the design of this study also allowed following natural alteration of carbon chemistry through changing DIC and alkalinity. Our results suggest that at high initial pCO2 natural alteration of pCO2 during the experimental runtime was regulated by algal biomass. In contrast, at low initial pCO2 the PIC/POC ratio was responsible for changes in pCO2. Our results point to the fact that the physiological (i.e. cellular) PIC and POC response to ocean acidification cannot be linearly extrapolated to total population response and thus carbon export. It is therefore recommended to consider effects of nutrient limitation on cell physiology and translate these to net population carbon accumulation when predicting the influence of coccolithophores on both, the atmospheric pCO2 feedback and their function in carbon export mechanisms.

  2. Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotope Ratios Predict Intake of Sweeteners in a Yup’ik Study Population12

    PubMed Central

    Nash, Sarah H.; Kristal, Alan R.; Bersamin, Andrea; Hopkins, Scarlett E.; Boyer, Bert B.; O’Brien, Diane M.

    2013-01-01

    The carbon isotope ratio (δ13C) is elevated in corn- and cane sugar-based foods and has recently shown associations with sweetener intake in multiple U.S. populations. However, a high carbon isotope ratio is not specific to corn- and sugar cane-based sweeteners, as other foods, including meats and fish, also have elevated δ13C. This study examines whether the inclusion of a second marker, the nitrogen isotope ratio (δ15N), can control for confounding dietary effects on δ13C and improve the validity of isotopic markers of sweetener intake. The study participants are from the Yup’ik population of southwest Alaska and consume large and variable amounts of fish and marine mammals known to have elevated carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios. Sixty-eight participants completed 4 weekly 24-h recalls followed by a blood draw. RBC δ13C and δ15N were used to predict sweetener intake, including total sugars, added sugars, and sugar-sweetened beverages. A model including both δ13C and δ15N explained more than 3 times as much of the variation in sweetener intake than did a model using only δ13C. Because carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios are simultaneously determined in a single, high-throughput analysis, this dual isotope marker provides a simple method to improve the validity of stable isotope markers of sweetener intake with no additional cost. We anticipate that this multi-isotope approach will have utility in any population where a stable isotope biomarker is elevated in several food groups and there are appropriate “covariate” isotopes to control for intake of foods not of research interest. PMID:23256142

  3. Survey of odd-odd deformed nuclear spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, R.W.

    1993-09-14

    In this paper, we survey the current experimental data that support assignment of rotational bands in odd-odd deformed nuclear in the rare earth and actinide regions. We present the results of a new study of {sup 170}Mt nuclear structure. In a comparing experimental and calculated Gallagher-Moszkowski matrix elements for rare earth-region nuclei, we have developed a new approach to the systematics of these matrix elements.

  4. Simultaneous Description of Even-Even, Odd-Mass and Odd-Odd Nuclear Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Ganev, H. G.; Georgieva, A. I.

    2010-01-21

    The orthosymplectic extension of the Interacting Vector Boson Model (IVBM) is used for the simultaneous description of the spectra of different families of neighboring heavy nuclei. The structure of even-even nuclei is used as a core on which the collective excitations of the neighboring odd-mass and odd-odd nuclei are built on. Hence, the spectra of the odd-mass and odd-odd nuclei arise as a result of the consequent and self-consistent coupling of the fermion degrees of freedom of the odd particles, specified by the fermion sector SO{sup F}(2OMEGA) subset of OS{sub p}(2OMEGA/12, R), to the boson core which states belong to an Sp{sup B}(12, R) irreducible representation.The theoretical predictions for different low-lying collective bands with positive and negative parity for two sets of neighboring nuclei with distinct collective properties are compared with experiment and IBM/IBFM/IBFFM predictions. The obtained results reveal the applicability of the used dynamical symmetry of the model.

  5. Analysis of the Intrinsic βλ,0 Ratio using Spectral Synthesis Models of Composite Stellar Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Duho; Jansen, Rolf A.; Windhorst, Rogier A.

    2015-01-01

    Light from galaxies is extincted by dust via scattering and absorbtion. Studying galaxies without correcting for this extinction could lead to incorrect results. Therefore, a careful study of dust correction in the nearby universe should be done first. Tamura et al. (2009) developed an approximate method, dubbed the "βV" method, which corrects for dust extinction on a pixel by pixel basis by comparing the observed and the intrinsic flux ratios of optical and MIR (L~3.5μm) broadband data. A NASA/ADAP funded program "Magellanic Clues to Spatially-resolved Extinction Corrections for Distant Galaxies in the HST/JWST Era" (P.I. : Rolf Jansen), aims to validate and test the limits of the "βV" method by using imagery of the LMC and SMC in various filters and extensive modeling to test assumptions for the intrinsic flux ratios. For the latter, we build spectral energy distribution (SED) models of simple stellar population (SSP), by adopting Starburst99 and BC03 models for young (<9Myr) and old (>100Myr) stellar populations, respectively, and linear combinations of these for intermediate ages. We then construct composite stellar population (CSP) SEDs by combining SSP SEDs as functions of various star formation histories (SFHs). Filter response/throughput curves (V,I,WISE W1(3.4μm), Spitzer IRAC-1 (3.6μm) and L-band) were convolved with the model SEDs to obtain the intrinsic flux ratios (βλ,0). We present the values of βλ,0 as a function of the age and metallicity of stellar populations, and discuss the effect of various SFHs. We also present ranges of βλ,0 values for different types of galaxies.

  6. Modeling level structures of odd-odd deformed nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, R.W.; Kern, J.; Piepenbring, R.; Boisson, J.P.

    1984-09-07

    A technique for modeling quasiparticle excitation energies and rotational parameters in odd-odd deformed nuclei has been applied to actinide species where new experimental data have been obtained by use of neutron-capture gamma-ray spectroscopy. The input parameters required for the calculation were derived from empirical data on single-particle excitations in neighboring odd-mass nuclei. Calculated configuration-specific values for the Gallagher-Moszkowski splittings were used. Calculated and experimental level structures for /sup 238/Np, /sup 244/Am, and /sup 250/Bk are compared, as well as those for several nuclei in the rare-earth region. The agreement for the actinide species is excellent, with bandhead energies deviating 22 keV and rotational parameters 5%, on the average. Corresponding average deviations for five rare-earth nuclei are 47 keV and 7%. Several applications of this modeling technique are discussed. 18 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio and Cardiovascular Disease Incidence in HIV-Infected Patients: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Quiros-Roldan, Eugenia; Raffetti, Elena; Donato, Francesco; Magoni, Michele; Pezzoli, Chiara; Ferraresi, Alice; Brianese, Nigritella; Castelnuovo, Filippo; Focà, Emanuele; Castelli, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been shown to predict occurrence of cardiovascular events in the general population. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of NLR to predict major cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in HIV-infected subjects. We performed a retrospective cohort study of HIV-infected patients residing in the Local Health Authority (LHA) of Brescia, northern Italy, from 2000 to 2012. The incidence of CVD events in HIV-positive patients was compared with that expected in the general population living in the same area, computing standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). To evaluate the predictive role of NLR, univariate and multivariate Cox regression models were applied, computing hazard ratios (HRs). A total of 3766 HIV-infected patients (mean age 38.1 years, 71.3% males) were included (person-years 28768.6). A total of 134 CVD events occurred in 119 HIV-infected patients. A 2-fold increased risk (SIR 2.02) of CVD was found in HIV-infected patients compared to the general population. NLR levels measured at baseline and during follow-up were independently associated with CVD incidence, when also adjusting for both traditional CVD risk factors and HIV-related factors (HR 3.05 for NLR≥ 1.2). The area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve showed a modest, not statistically significant, increase, from 0.81 to 0.83, with addition of NLR to Framingham risk score model covariates. In conclusion an elevated NLR is a predictor of risk CVD in HIV-infected patients, independently from the traditional CVD risk factors. PMID:27148878

  8. Investigations on hydrogen isotope ratios of endogenous urinary steroids: reference-population-based thresholds and proof-of-concept.

    PubMed

    Piper, Thomas; Thomas, Andreas; Thevis, Mario; Saugy, Martial

    2012-09-01

    Carbon isotope ratio (CIR) analysis has been routinely and successfully used in sports drug testing for many years to uncover the misuse of endogenous steroids. One limitation of the method is the availability of steroid preparations exhibiting CIRs equal to endogenous steroids. To overcome this problem, hydrogen isotope ratios (HIR) of endogenous urinary steroids were investigated as a potential complement; results obtained from a reference population of 67 individuals are presented herein. An established sample preparation method was modified and improved to enable separate measurements of each analyte of interest where possible. From the fraction of glucuronidated steroids; pregnanediol, 16-androstenol, 11-ketoetiocholanolone, androsterone (A), etiocholanolone (E), dehydroepiandrosterone (D), 5α- and 5β-androstanediol, testosterone and epitestosterone were included. In addition, sulfate conjugates of A, E, D, epiandrosterone and 17α- and 17β-androstenediol were considered and analyzed after acidic solvolysis. The obtained results enabled the calculation of the first reference-population-based thresholds for HIR of urinary steroids that can readily be applied to routine doping control samples. Proof-of-concept was accomplished by investigating urine specimens collected after a single oral application of testosterone-undecanoate. The HIR of most testosterone metabolites were found to be significantly influenced by the exogenous steroid beyond the established threshold values. Additionally, one regular doping control sample with an extraordinary testosterone/epitestosterone ratio of 100 without suspicious CIR was subjected to the complementary methodology of HIR analysis. The HIR data eventually provided evidence for the exogenous origin of urinary testosterone metabolites. Despite further investigations on HIR being advisable to corroborate the presented reference-population-based thresholds, the developed method proved to be a new tool supporting modern sports drug testing procedures. PMID:22991188

  9. Genetic Linkage Mapping and Transmission Ratio Distortion in a Three-Generation Four-Founder Population of Panicum virgatum (L.)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guifen; Serba, Desalegn D.; Saha, Malay C.; Bouton, Joseph H.; Lanzatella, Christina L.; Tobias, Christian M.

    2014-01-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a warm season, C4, perennial grass, is one of the predominant grass species of the North American tall grass prairies. It is viewed as a high-potential bioenergy feedstock species because it can produce large amounts of lignocellulosic material with relatively few inputs. The objectives of this project were to develop an advanced switchgrass population and use it for the construction of genetic linkage maps and trait characterization. A three-generation, four-founder population was created and a total of 182 progeny of this advanced population were genotyped, including a mixture of self-pollinated and hybrid individuals. The female map integrated both subpopulations and covered 1629 cM of the switchgrass genome, with an average map length of 91 cM per linkage group. The male map of the hybrid progeny covered 1462 cM, with an average map length of 81 cM per linkage group. Average marker density of the female and male maps was 3.9 and 3.5 cM per marker interval, respectively. Based on the parental maps, the genome length of switchgrass was estimated to be 1776 cM and 1596 cM for the female map and male map, respectively. The proportion of the genome within 5 cM of a mapped locus was estimated to be 92% and 93% for the female map and male map, respectively. Thus, the linkage maps have covered most of the switchgrass genome. The assessment of marker transmission ratio distortion found that 26% of the genotyped markers were distorted from either 1:1 or 3:1 ratios expected for segregation of single dose markers in one or both parents, respectively. Several regions affected by transmission ratio distortion were found, with linkage groups Ib-m and VIIIa-f most affected. PMID:24637352

  10. Genetic linkage mapping and transmission ratio distortion in a three-generation four-founder population of Panicum virgatum (L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Guifen; Serba, Desalegn D; Saha, Malay C; Bouton, Joseph H; Lanzatella, Christina L; Tobias, Christian M

    2014-05-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a warm season, C4, perennial grass, is one of the predominant grass species of the North American tall grass prairies. It is viewed as a high-potential bioenergy feedstock species because it can produce large amounts of lignocellulosic material with relatively few inputs. The objectives of this project were to develop an advanced switchgrass population and use it for the construction of genetic linkage maps and trait characterization. A three-generation, four-founder population was created and a total of 182 progeny of this advanced population were genotyped, including a mixture of self-pollinated and hybrid individuals. The female map integrated both subpopulations and covered 1629 cM of the switchgrass genome, with an average map length of 91 cM per linkage group. The male map of the hybrid progeny covered 1462 cM, with an average map length of 81 cM per linkage group. Average marker density of the female and male maps was 3.9 and 3.5 cM per marker interval, respectively. Based on the parental maps, the genome length of switchgrass was estimated to be 1776 cM and 1596 cM for the female map and male map, respectively. The proportion of the genome within 5 cM of a mapped locus was estimated to be 92% and 93% for the female map and male map, respectively. Thus, the linkage maps have covered most of the switchgrass genome. The assessment of marker transmission ratio distortion found that 26% of the genotyped markers were distorted from either 1:1 or 3:1 ratios expected for segregation of single dose markers in one or both parents, respectively. Several regions affected by transmission ratio distortion were found, with linkage groups Ib-m and VIIIa-f most affected. PMID:24637352

  11. Nonadiabatic effects in odd-odd deformed proton emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Patial, M.; Jain, A. K.; Arumugam, P.; Maglione, E.; Ferreira, L. S.

    2011-11-30

    We present for the first time, the nonadiabatic quasiparticle approach to study proton emission from odd-odd deformed nuclei. Coriolis effects are incorporated in both the parent and daughter wavefunctions and hence our formalism allows us to study their complete role on the decay widths. First results obtained for the nucleus {sup 112}Cs suggest a weak dependance on Coriolis effect. However, we are able to reproduce the experimental half-lives without assuming the exact Nilsson orbital from which the decay proceeds.

  12. Use of generalized population ratios to obtain Fe XV line intensities and linewidths at high electron densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastner, S. O.; Bhatia, A. K.

    1980-08-01

    A generalized method for obtaining individual level population ratios is used to obtain relative intensities of extreme ultraviolet Fe XV emission lines in the range 284-500 A, which are density dependent for electron densities in the tokamak regime or higher. Four lines in particular are found to attain quite high intensities in the high-density limit. The same calculation provides inelastic contributions to linewidths. The method connects level populations and level widths through total probabilities t(ij), related to 'taboo' probabilities of Markov chain theory. The t(ij) are here evaluated for a real atomic system, being therefore of potential interest to random-walk theorists who have been limited to idealized systems characterized by simplified transition schemes.

  13. Use of generalized population ratios to obtain Fe XV line intensities and linewidths at high electron densities

    SciTech Connect

    Kastner, S.O.; Bhatia, A.K.

    1980-08-01

    A generalized method for obtaining individual level population ratios is used to obtain relative intensities of extreme ultraviolet Fe XV emission lines in the range 284 --500 A, which are density dependent for electron densities in the tokamak regime or higher. Four lines in particular are found to attain quite high intensities in the high-density limit. The same calculation provides inelastic contributions to linewidths. The method connects level populations and level widths through total probabilities t/sub i/j, related to ''taboo'' probabilities of Markov chain theory. The t/sub i/j are here evaluated for a real atomic system, being therefore of potential interest to random-walk theorists who have been limited to idealized systems characterized by simplified transition schemes.

  14. Use of generalized population ratios to obtain Fe XV line intensities and linewidths at high electron densities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kastner, S. O.; Bhatia, A. K.

    1980-01-01

    A generalized method for obtaining individual level population ratios is used to obtain relative intensities of extreme ultraviolet Fe XV emission lines in the range 284-500 A, which are density dependent for electron densities in the tokamak regime or higher. Four lines in particular are found to attain quite high intensities in the high-density limit. The same calculation provides inelastic contributions to linewidths. The method connects level populations and level widths through total probabilities t(ij), related to 'taboo' probabilities of Markov chain theory. The t(ij) are here evaluated for a real atomic system, being therefore of potential interest to random-walk theorists who have been limited to idealized systems characterized by simplified transition schemes.

  15. Reconstructing the diets of Greek Byzantine populations (6th-15th centuries AD) using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios.

    PubMed

    Bourbou, Chryssi; Fuller, Benjamin T; Garvie-Lok, Sandra J; Richards, Michael P

    2011-12-01

    Documentary evidence and artistic representations have traditionally served as the primary sources of information about Byzantine diet. According to these sources, Byzantine diet was based on grain (primarily wheat and barley), oil, and wine, supplemented with legumes, dairy products, meat, and marine resources. Here, we synthesize and compare the results of stable isotope ratio analyses of eight Greek Byzantine populations (6th-15th centuries AD) from throughout Greece. The ?(13) C and ?(15) N values are tightly clustered, suggesting that all of these populations likely consumed a broadly similar diet. Both inland and coastal Byzantine populations consumed an essentially land-based C(3) diet, significant amounts of animal protein, and possibly some C(4) plants, while no evidence of a general dependence on low-?(15) N legumes was observed. One interesting result observed in the isotopic data is the evidence for the consumption of marine protein at both coastal sites (a reasonable expectation given their location) and for some individuals from inland sites. This pattern contrasts with previous isotopic studies mainly on prehistoric Greek populations, which have suggested that marine species contributed little, or not at all, to the diet. The possibility that fasting practices contributed to marine protein consumption in the period is discussed, as are possible parallels with published isotope data from western European medieval sites. PMID:21952735

  16. Plasma Bicarbonate and Odds of Incident Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Several biomarkers of metabolic acidosis, including lower plasma bicarbonate, have been associated with prevalent hypertension in cross-sectional studies. We sought to examine prospectively whether lower plasma bicarbonate is associated with incident hypertension. METHODS We conducted a prospective case–control study nested within the Nurses’ Health Study II. Plasma bicarbonate was measured in 695 nonobese women without hypertension at time of blood draw who subsequently developed hypertension during 6 years of follow-up. Control subjects were matched to case subjects according to age, race, time and day of blood draw, and day of menstrual cycle. We used unconditional logistic regression to generate odds ratios (ORs) for development of hypertension by quintile of baseline plasma bicarbonate. RESULTS After adjusting for matching factors, body mass index, family history of hypertension, plasma creatinine, and dietary and lifestyle factors, higher plasma bicarbonate was associated with lower odds of developing hypertension across quintiles (P for linear trend = 0.04). Those in the highest compared with the lowest quintile of plasma bicarbonate had 31% lower odds of developing hypertension (OR = 0.69; 95% confidence interval = 0.48–0.99). Further adjustment for diet-estimated net endogenous acid production, plasma insulin, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and uric acid did not alter these findings. CONCLUSIONS Our case–control study is consistent with a modest association between higher plasma bicarbonate and reduced odds of developing hypertension among nonobese women, although our findings are of borderline statistical significance. Further research is required to confirm this finding as part of a larger prospective cohort study and to elucidate the mechanism for this relation. PMID:23942654

  17. Temporal variations of vegetative features, sex ratios and reproductive phenology in a Dictyota dichotoma (Dictyotales, Phaeophyceae) population of Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauna, M. Cecilia; Cáceres, Eduardo J.; Parodi, Elisa R.

    2013-12-01

    This paper addresses the phenology of a Dictyota dichotoma population from the North Patagonian coasts of Argentina. The morphology of the individuals was characterized, and analyses of the temporal variations of vegetative features, diploid and haploid life cycle generations and sex ratios are provided. Individuals, represented by growing sporophytes and gametophytes, occurred simultaneously throughout the year. Morphological variables showed temporal variation, except the width and height of medullary cells, which did not vary between seasons. All vegetative variables were significantly correlated with daylength. Besides, frond length, frond dry mass and apical and basal branching angles were significantly correlated with seawater temperatures. Vegetative thalli were less abundant than haploid and diploid thalli. Sporophytes were less abundant than male and female gametophytes. Male gametophytes dominated in May, August, October and January, and female gametophytes were more abundant in September, November, December, February and March. The formation of female gametangia showed a significant correlation with daylength, and the highest number of gametangia was registered in spring. In general, the male/female sex ratio varied between 1:2 and 1:1. Apical regions were more fertile than basal regions. Our data about frequency in the formation of reproductive structures and male/female ratios are the first recorded in the Dictyota genus and thus could not be compared with populations from other regions of the world. Significant morphological variation was observed in thalli of both life cycle generations, regarding length and dry mass, number of primary branches and branching basal angle. In general, all variables analyzed varied seasonally except cortical cell width.

  18. Age at sexual maturity, sex ratio, fecundity, and longevity of isolated headwater populations of Westslope cutthroat trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Downs, Christopher C.; White, R.G.; Shepard, B.B.

    1997-01-01

    We sampled 19 isolated headwater populations of westslope cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi in Montana to provide estimates of fecundity, longevity, sex ratio, and age at sexual maturity. Fecundity was estimated for 31 fish collected from two streams in the upper Missouri River drainage. Females smaller than 149 mm fork length (FL) were generally immature and their fecundities could not be estimated. Mean fecundities (SD) were 227 eggs (41.1) for 150-174-mm fish, 346 eggs (85.6) for 175-199-mm fish, and 459 eggs (150.8) for 200-mm and larger fish. A linear regression model (two stream samples combined) to predict fecundity (E) from fork length was developed (E = -494.9 + 4.4.FL: r2 = 0.51, P < 0.001) for westslope cutthroat trout in the upper Missouri River drainage. Regression slopes of fecundity against fish length differed significantly (P < 0.01) between these and some of the previously studied populations. Steeper slopes were associated with lacustrine-adfluvial populations. The average sex ratio was 1.3 males per female across all sampled streams. Males began to mature sexually at age 2 and all were mature by age 4. Some females (27%) were sexually mature at age 3 and most of them (93%) were mature by age 5. Length was a better predictor of sexual maturity than age. Males matured at 110-160 mm and females at 150-180 mm FL. The maximum estimated age was 8 years based on otoliths from 475 fish collected from our 19 study streams and 14 additional streams.

  19. Reflection asymmetry in odd-A and odd-odd actinium nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, I.

    1993-09-01

    Theoretical calculations and measurements indicate that octupole correlations are at a maximum in the ground states of the odd-proton nuclei Ac and Pa. It has been expected that odd-odd nuclei should have even larger amount of octupole-octupole correlations. We have recently made measurements on the structure of {sup 224}Ac. Although spin and parity assignments could not be made, two bands starting at 354.1 and 360.0 keV have properties characteristic of reflection asymmetric shape. These two bands have very similar rotational constants and also similar alpha decay rates, which suggest similarity between the wavefunctions of these bands. These signatures provide evidence for octupole correlations in these nuclides.

  20. Excited states of the odd-odd nucleus 230Pa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotthaus, T.; Reiter, P.; Hess, H.; Kalkühler, M.; Wendt, A.; Wiens, A.; Hertenberger, R.; Morgan, T.; Thirolf, P. G.; Wirth, H.-F.; Faestermann, T.

    2013-04-01

    The completely unknown spectrum of excited states of the odd-odd nucleus 230Pa was studied employing the one-neutron transfer reaction 231Pa(d,t)230Pa at a beam energy of 22 MeV. The excitation energy and the cross section were measured for, in total, 81 states below 1.4 MeV. Level assignments of these states are based on a semiempirical model and comparison with theoretical predictions, based on distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA) calculations for the cross sections. For 12 rotational bands the band-head energy and the rotational parameter are determined. The K quantum numbers and the Nilsson configurations are established. Empirical values for the Gallagher-Moszkowski splittings and for Newby shifts are obtained.

  1. Association between urinary 6?-hydroxycortisol/cortisol ratio and CYP3A5 genotypes in a normotensive population

    PubMed Central

    RAIS, NAUSHAD; HUSSAIN, ARIF; CHAWLA, YOGESH KUMAR; KOHLI, KRISHAN K.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic polymorphism of genes involved in renal salt handling and arterial vessel tone is considered to be one of the causes of hypertension. Numerous reports suggest that cytochrome P4503A5 (CYP3A5) catalyzes 6?-hydroxylation of endogenous cortisol (CS), which is associated with sodium and water retention in the kidney and involved in the regulation of blood pressure. The purpose of the present study was to study the associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the CYP3A5 gene with the urinary 6?-hydroxycortisol/cortisol (6?-OH-CS/CS) ratio considered as quantitative phenotypes. CS measurements of three hundred (n=300) healthy, normotensive North Indian individuals was performed on morning spot urine samples by high-performance liquid chromatography. Furthermore, genotyping for CYP3A5*3 and CYP3A5*6 was performed by PCR-RFLP. The results indicated a unimodal distribution of CYP3A phenotypes in the North Indian population. In further analysis, all the phenotypes were distributed into three groups, demonstrating low (n=75), intermediate (n=150) and high CYP3A activity (n=75) based on CS and 6?-OH-CS levels and log 6?-OH-CS/CS ratios. The subjects in the low and high activity groups were genotyped for the CYP3A5*3 and *6 alleles. The present study demonstrated that the allele frequencies of CYP3A5*1 and *3 were 0.29 (95% CI, 0.220.36) and 0.71 (95% CI, 0.640.78), respectively. Notably, the frequency of normal homozygotes (CYP3A5*1/*1) was significantly higher in the high activity than the low activity group (11% vs. 5%). Similarly, the frequency of mutant homozygotes (CYP3A5*3/*3) was significantly higher in the low activity group than the high activity group (57% vs. 44%). The allele frequency of CYP3A5*3 was significantly higher in the low activity group (0.76) than the high activity group (0.67). The mean 6?-OH-CS/CS ratios were 110, 76 and 69 in wild-type homozygotes (n=12), heterozygotes (n=62) and mutant homozygotes (n=76), respectively. The difference between the normal and mutant homozygotes was statistically significant (P<0.05). The CYP3A5*6 allele was absent from all the subjects genotyped. This is the first study to report the genetic polymorphism of CYP3A5 in a North Indian population and its association with urinary 6?-OH-CS/CS ratio reflecting the CYP3A phenotypes. PMID:23404385

  2. Gene drive through a landscape: Reaction-diffusion models of population suppression and elimination by a sex ratio distorter.

    PubMed

    Beaghton, Andrea; Beaghton, Pantelis John; Burt, Austin

    2016-04-01

    Some genes or gene complexes are transmitted from parents to offspring at a greater-than-Mendelian rate, and can spread and persist in populations even if they cause some harm to the individuals carrying them. Such genes may be useful for controlling populations or species that are harmful. Driving-Y chromosomes may be particularly potent in this regard, as they produce a male-biased sex ratio that, if sufficiently extreme, can lead to population elimination. To better understand the potential of such genes to spread over a landscape, we have developed a series of reaction-diffusion models of a driving-Y chromosome in 1-D and radially-symmetric 2-D unbounded domains. The wild-type system at carrying capacity is found to be unstable to the introduction of driving-Y males for all models investigated. Numerical solutions exhibit travelling wave pulses and fronts, and analytical and semi-analytical solutions for the asymptotic wave speed under bounded initial conditions are derived. The driving-Y male invades the wild-type equilibrium state at the front of the wave and completely replaces the wild-type males, leaving behind, at the tail of the wave, a reduced- or zero-population state of females and driving-Y males only. In our simplest model of a population with one life stage and density-dependent mortality, wave speed depends on the strength of drive and the diffusion rate of Y-drive males, and is independent of the population dynamic consequences (suppression or elimination). Incorporating an immobile juvenile stage of fixed duration into the model reduces wave speed approximately in proportion to the relative time spent as a juvenile. If females mate just once in their life, storing sperm for subsequent reproduction, then wave speed depends on the movement of mated females as well as Y-drive males, and may be faster or slower than in the multiple-mating model, depending on the relative duration of juvenile and adult life stages. Numerical solutions are shown for parameter values that may in part be representative for Anopheles gambiae, the primary vector of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:26704073

  3. Predicting prey population dynamics from kill rate, predation rate and predator-prey ratios in three wolf-ungulate systems.

    PubMed

    Vucetich, John A; Hebblewhite, Mark; Smith, Douglas W; Peterson, Rolf O

    2011-11-01

    1. Predation rate (PR) and kill rate are both fundamental statistics for understanding predation. However, relatively little is known about how these statistics relate to one another and how they relate to prey population dynamics. We assess these relationships across three systems where wolf-prey dynamics have been observed for 41 years (Isle Royale), 19 years (Banff) and 12 years (Yellowstone). 2. To provide context for this empirical assessment, we developed theoretical predictions of the relationship between kill rate and PR under a broad range of predator-prey models including predator-dependent, ratio-dependent and Lotka-Volterra dynamics. 3. The theoretical predictions indicate that kill rate can be related to PR in a variety of diverse ways (e.g. positive, negative, unrelated) that depend on the nature of predator-prey dynamics (e.g. structure of the functional response). These simulations also suggested that the ratio of predator-to-prey is a good predictor of prey growth rate. That result motivated us to assess the empirical relationship between the ratio and prey growth rate for each of the three study sites. 4. The empirical relationships indicate that PR is not well predicted by kill rate, but is better predicted by the ratio of predator-to-prey. Kill rate is also a poor predictor of prey growth rate. However, PR and ratio of predator-to-prey each explained significant portions of variation in prey growth rate for two of the three study sites. 5. Our analyses offer two general insights. First, Isle Royale, Banff and Yellowstone are similar insomuch as they all include wolves preying on large ungulates. However, they also differ in species diversity of predator and prey communities, exploitation by humans and the role of dispersal. Even with the benefit of our analysis, it remains difficult to judge whether to be more impressed by the similarities or differences. This difficulty nicely illustrates a fundamental property of ecological communities. Second, kill rate is the primary statistic for many traditional models of predation. However, our work suggests that kill rate and PR are similarly important for understanding why predation is such a complex process. PMID:21569029

  4. Simultaneous failure of two sex-allocation invariants: implications for sex-ratio variation within and between populations

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, António M. M.; Gardner, Andy

    2015-01-01

    Local mate competition (LMC) occurs when male relatives compete for mating opportunities, and this may favour the evolution of female-biased sex allocation. LMC theory is among the most well developed and empirically supported topics in behavioural ecology, clarifies links between kin selection, group selection and game theory, and provides among the best quantitative evidence for Darwinian adaptation in the natural world. Two striking invariants arise from this body of work: the number of sons produced by each female is independent of both female fecundity and also the rate of female dispersal. Both of these invariants have stimulated a great deal of theoretical and empirical research. Here, we show that both of these invariants break down when variation in female fecundity and limited female dispersal are considered in conjunction. Specifically, limited dispersal of females following mating leads to local resource competition (LRC) between female relatives for breeding opportunities, and the daughters of high-fecundity mothers experience such LRC more strongly than do those of low-fecundity mothers. Accordingly, high-fecundity mothers are favoured to invest relatively more in sons, while low-fecundity mothers are favoured to invest relatively more in daughters, and the overall sex ratio of the population sex ratio becomes more female biased as a result. PMID:26085590

  5. Identification of Facial Shape by Applying Golden Ratio to the Facial Measurements: An Interracial Study in Malaysian Population

    PubMed Central

    Packiriswamy, Vasanthakumar; Kumar, Pramod; Rao, Mohandas

    2012-01-01

    Background: The “golden ratio” is considered as a universal facial aesthetical standard. Researcher's opinion that deviation from golden ratio can result in development of facial abnormalities. Aims: This study was designed to study the facial morphology and to identify individuals with normal, short, and long face. Materials and Methods: We studied 300 Malaysian nationality subjects aged 18-28 years of Chinese, Indian, and Malay extraction. The parameters measured were physiognomical facial height and width of face, and physiognomical facial index was calculated. Face shape was classified based on golden ratio. Independent t test was done to test the difference between sexes and among the races. Results: The mean values of the measurements and index showed significant sexual and interracial differences. Out of 300 subjects, the face shape was normal in 60 subjects, short in 224 subjects, and long in 16 subjects. Conclusion: As anticipated, the measurements showed variations according to gender and race. Only 60 subjects had a regular face shape, and remaining 240 subjects had irregular face shape (short and long). Since the short and long shape individuals may be at risk of developing various disorders, the knowledge of facial shapes in the given population is important for early diagnostic and treatment procedures. PMID:23272303

  6. Population structure, sex ratio and growth of the seabob shrimp Xiphopenaeuskroyeri (Decapoda, Penaeidae) from coastal waters of southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, Raphael Cezar; Simes, Sabrina Morilhas; Castilho, Antonio Leo

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the growth and population structure of Xiphopenaeuskroyeri in Babitonga Bay, southern Brazil. Monthly trawls were conducted from July 2010 through June 2011, using a shrimp boat outfitted with double-rig nets, at depths from 5 to 17 m. Differences from the expected 0.5 sex ratio were determined by applying a Binomial test. A von Bertalanffy growth model was used to estimate the individual growth, and longevity was calculated using its inverted formula. A total of 4,007 individuals were measured, including 1,106 juveniles (sexually immature) and 2,901 adults. Females predominated in the larger size classes. Males and females showed asymptotic lengths of 27.7 mm and 31.4 mm, growth constants of 0.0086 and 0.0070 per day, and longevities of 538 and 661 days, respectively. The predominance of females in larger size classes is the general rule in species of Penaeidae. The paradigm of latitudinal-effect does not appear to apply to seabob shrimp on the southern Brazilian coast, perhaps because of the small proportion of larger individuals, the occurrence of cryptic species, or the intense fishing pressure in this region. The longevity values are within the general range for species of Penaeidae. The higher estimates for longevity in populations at lower latitudes may have occurred because of the growth constants observed at these locations, resulting in overestimation of this parameter. PMID:25561841

  7. Population structure, sex ratio and growth of the seabob shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Decapoda, Penaeidae) from coastal waters of southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Grabowski, Raphael Cezar; Simões, Sabrina Morilhas; Castilho, Antonio Leão

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study evaluated the growth and population structure of Xiphopenaeus kroyeri in Babitonga Bay, southern Brazil. Monthly trawls were conducted from July 2010 through June 2011, using a shrimp boat outfitted with double-rig nets, at depths from 5 to 17 m. Differences from the expected 0.5 sex ratio were determined by applying a Binomial test. A von Bertalanffy growth model was used to estimate the individual growth, and longevity was calculated using its inverted formula. A total of 4,007 individuals were measured, including 1,106 juveniles (sexually immature) and 2,901 adults. Females predominated in the larger size classes. Males and females showed asymptotic lengths of 27.7 mm and 31.4 mm, growth constants of 0.0086 and 0.0070 per day, and longevities of 538 and 661 days, respectively. The predominance of females in larger size classes is the general rule in species of Penaeidae. The paradigm of latitudinal-effect does not appear to apply to seabob shrimp on the southern Brazilian coast, perhaps because of the small proportion of larger individuals, the occurrence of cryptic species, or the intense fishing pressure in this region. The longevity values are within the general range for species of Penaeidae. The higher estimates for longevity in populations at lower latitudes may have occurred because of the growth constants observed at these locations, resulting in overestimation of this parameter. PMID:25561841

  8. Preschool enrollment is associated with lower odds of childhood obesity among WIC participants in LA County.

    PubMed

    Koleilat, Maria; Harrison, Gail G; Whaley, Shannon; McGregor, Samar; Jenks, Eloise; Afifi, Abdelmonem

    2012-04-01

    The prevalence of obesity among children in the United States has increased rapidly during the past few decades. Research into social and behavioral determinants of obesity could lead to innovative strategies for prevention. The objective of the present study was to examine the association between childhood obesity and preschool enrollment and number of hours in child care among low-income preschool-aged children who were participants in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC). We conducted a case-control study including 556 3- to 4-year-old children who were either obese (BMI > 95th percentile of reference standard) or normal-weight (BMI 25-75th percentile). The population was largely (96%) Hispanic, an ethnic group that has one of the highest rates of overweight and obesity in adults and children in the US. In multiple logistic regression analysis, controlling for a variety of psychosocial and cognitive home environment variables, key demographics and maternal variables, the odds ratio of being obese was 0.61 for children who attended preschool more than 4 days a week (95% CI: 0.41-0.90). Watching television or videos for an hour or more on a typical day (odds ratio 1.71 (95% CI 1.07-2.75)), and higher maternal BMI (odds ratio 1.08 (95% CI 1.05-1.11)) were independently related to odds of obesity. The impact of preschool attendance and TV viewing are potentially instructive in terms of preventive interventions for children at this age. PMID:21431308

  9. Stable nitrogen and carbon isotope ratios indicate traditional and market food intake in an indigenous circumpolar population.

    PubMed

    Nash, Sarah H; Bersamin, Andrea; Kristal, Alan R; Hopkins, Scarlett E; Church, Rebecca S; Pasker, Renee L; Luick, Bret R; Mohatt, Gerald V; Boyer, Bert B; O'Brien, Diane M

    2012-01-01

    The transition of a society from traditional to market-based diets (termed the nutrition transition) has been associated with profound changes in culture and health. We are developing biomarkers to track the nutrition transition in the Yup'ik Eskimo population of Southwest Alaska based on naturally occurring variations in the relative abundances of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes (δ(15)N and δ(13)C values). Here, we provide three pieces of evidence toward the validation of these biomarkers. First, we analyzed the δ(15)N and δ(13)C values of a comprehensive sample of Yup'ik foods. We found that δ(15)N values were elevated in fish and marine mammals and that δ(13)C values were elevated in market foods containing corn or sugar cane carbon. Second, we evaluated the associations between RBC δ(15)N and δ(13)C values and self-reported measures of traditional and market food intake (n = 230). RBC δ(15)N values were correlated with intake of fish and marine mammals (r = 0.52; P < 0.0001). RBC δ(13)C values were correlated with intake of market foods made from corn and sugar cane (r = 0.46; P < 0.0001) and total market food intake (r = 0.46; P < 0.0001). Finally, we assessed whether stable isotope ratios captured population-level patterns of traditional and market intake (n = 1003). Isotopic biomarkers of traditional and market intake were associated with age, community location, sex, and cultural identity. Self-report methods showed variations by age and cultural identity only. Thus, stable isotopes show potential as biomarkers for monitoring dietary change in indigenous circumpolar populations. PMID:22157543

  10. Stable Nitrogen and Carbon Isotope Ratios Indicate Traditional and Market Food Intake in an Indigenous Circumpolar Population123

    PubMed Central

    Nash, Sarah H.; Bersamin, Andrea; Kristal, Alan R.; Hopkins, Scarlett E.; Church, Rebecca S.; Pasker, Renee L.; Luick, Bret R.; Mohatt, Gerald V.; Boyer, Bert B.; O’Brien, Diane M.

    2012-01-01

    The transition of a society from traditional to market-based diets (termed the nutrition transition) has been associated with profound changes in culture and health. We are developing biomarkers to track the nutrition transition in the Yup’ik Eskimo population of Southwest Alaska based on naturally occurring variations in the relative abundances of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes (δ15N and δ13C values). Here, we provide three pieces of evidence toward the validation of these biomarkers. First, we analyzed the δ15N and δ13C values of a comprehensive sample of Yup’ik foods. We found that δ15N values were elevated in fish and marine mammals and that δ13C values were elevated in market foods containing corn or sugar cane carbon. Second, we evaluated the associations between RBC δ15N and δ13C values and self-reported measures of traditional and market food intake (n = 230). RBC δ15N values were correlated with intake of fish and marine mammals (r = 0.52; P < 0.0001). RBC δ13C values were correlated with intake of market foods made from corn and sugar cane (r = 0.46; P < 0.0001) and total market food intake (r = 0.46; P < 0.0001). Finally, we assessed whether stable isotope ratios captured population-level patterns of traditional and market intake (n = 1003). Isotopic biomarkers of traditional and market intake were associated with age, community location, sex, and cultural identity. Self-report methods showed variations by age and cultural identity only. Thus, stable isotopes show potential as biomarkers for monitoring dietary change in indigenous circumpolar populations. PMID:22157543

  11. Exploring the active galactic nuclei population with extreme X-ray-to-optical flux ratios (fx/fo > 50)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Della Ceca, R.; Carrera, F. J.; Caccianiga, A.; Severgnini, P.; Ballo, L.; Braito, V.; Corral, A.; Del Moro, A.; Mateos, S.; Ruiz, A.; Watson, M. G.

    2015-03-01

    The cosmic history of the growth of supermassive black holes in galactic centres parallels that of star formation in the Universe. However, an important fraction of this growth occurs inconspicuously in obscured objects, where ultraviolet/optical/near-infrared emission is heavily obscured by dust. Since the X-ray flux is less attenuated, a high X-ray-to-optical flux ratio (fx/fo) is expected to be an efficient tool to find out these obscured accreting sources. We explore here via optical spectroscopy, X-ray spectroscopy and infrared photometry the most extreme cases of this population (those with fx/fo > 50, EXO50 sources hereafter), using a well-defined sample of seven X-ray sources extracted from the 2XMM catalogue. Five EXO50 sources (˜70 per cent of the sample) in the bright flux regime explored by our survey (f(2-10 keV) ≥ 1.5 × 10-13 erg cm-2 s-1) are associated with obscured AGN (NH > 1022 cm-2), spanning a redshift range between 0.75 and 1 and characterized by 2-10 keV intrinsic luminosities in the QSO regime (e.g. well in excess to 1044 erg s-1). We did not find compelling evidence of Compton thick active galacic nuclei (AGN). Overall, the EXO50 type 2 QSOs do not seem to be different from standard X-ray-selected type 2 QSOs in terms of nuclear absorption; a very high AGN/host galaxy ratio seems to play a major role in explaining their extreme properties. Interestingly, three out of five EXO50 type 2 QSO objects can be classified as extreme dust-obscured galaxies (EDOGs, f24 μm/fR ≥ 2000), suggesting that a very high AGN/host ratios (along with the large amount of dust absorption) could be the natural explanation also for a part of the EDOG population. The remaining two EXO50 sources are classified as BL Lac objects, having rather extreme properties, and which are good candidates for TeV emission.

  12. Pollen limitation and Allee effect related to population size and sex ratio in the endangered Ottelia acuminata (Hydrocharitaceae): implications for conservation and reintroduction.

    PubMed

    Xia, J; Lu, J; Wang, Z X; Hao, B B; Wang, H B; Liu, G H

    2013-03-01

    Small populations may suffer more severe pollen limitation and result in Allee effects. Sex ratio may also affect pollination and reproduction success in dioecious species, which is always overlooked when performing conservation and reintroduction tasks. In this study, we investigated whether and how population size and sex ratio affected pollen limitation and reproduction in the endangered Ottelia acuminata, a dioecious submerged species. We established experimental plots with increasing population size and male sex ratio. We observed insect visitation, estimated pollen limitation by hand-pollinations and counted fruit set and seed production per fruit. Fruit set and seed production decreased significantly in small populations due to pollinator scarcity and thus suffered more severe pollen limitation. Although frequently visited, female-biased larger populations also suffered severe pollen limitation due to few effective visits and insufficient pollen availability. Rising male ratio enhanced pollination service and hence reproduction. Unexpectedly, pollinator preferences did not cause reduced reproduction in male-biased populations because of high pollen availability. However, reproductive outputs showed more variability in severe male-biased populations. Our results revealed two component Allee effects in fruit set and seed production, mediated by pollen limitation in O. acuminata. Moreover, reproduction decreased significantly in larger female-biased populations, increasing the risk of an Allee effect. PMID:22963276

  13. Association between urinary 6β-hydroxycortisol/cortisol ratio and CYP3A5 genotypes in a normotensive population.

    PubMed

    Rais, Naushad; Hussain, Arif; Chawla, Yogesh Kumar; Kohli, Krishan K

    2013-02-01

    Genetic polymorphism of genes involved in renal salt handling and arterial vessel tone is considered to be one of the causes of hypertension. Numerous reports suggest that cytochrome P4503A5 (CYP3A5) catalyzes 6β-hydroxylation of endogenous cortisol (CS), which is associated with sodium and water retention in the kidney and involved in the regulation of blood pressure. The purpose of the present study was to study the associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the CYP3A5 gene with the urinary 6β-hydroxycortisol/cortisol (6β-OH-CS/CS) ratio considered as quantitative phenotypes. CS measurements of three hundred (n=300) healthy, normotensive North Indian individuals was performed on morning spot urine samples by high-performance liquid chromatography. Furthermore, genotyping for CYP3A5*3 and CYP3A5*6 was performed by PCR-RFLP. The results indicated a unimodal distribution of CYP3A phenotypes in the North Indian population. In further analysis, all the phenotypes were distributed into three groups, demonstrating low (n=75), intermediate (n=150) and high CYP3A activity (n=75) based on CS and 6β-OH-CS levels and log 6β-OH-CS/CS ratios. The subjects in the low and high activity groups were genotyped for the CYP3A5*3 and *6 alleles. The present study demonstrated that the allele frequencies of CYP3A5*1 and *3 were 0.29 (95% CI, 0.22-0.36) and 0.71 (95% CI, 0.64-0.78), respectively. Notably, the frequency of normal homozygotes (CYP3A5*1/*1) was significantly higher in the high activity than the low activity group (11% vs. 5%). Similarly, the frequency of mutant homozygotes (CYP3A5*3/*3) was significantly higher in the low activity group than the high activity group (57% vs. 44%). The allele frequency of CYP3A5*3 was significantly higher in the low activity group (0.76) than the high activity group (0.67). The mean 6β-OH-CS/CS ratios were 110, 76 and 69 in wild-type homozygotes (n=12), heterozygotes (n=62) and mutant homozygotes (n=76), respectively. The difference between the normal and mutant homozygotes was statistically significant (P<0.05). The CYP3A5*6 allele was absent from all the subjects genotyped. This is the first study to report the genetic polymorphism of CYP3A5 in a North Indian population and its association with urinary 6β-OH-CS/CS ratio reflecting the CYP3A phenotypes. PMID:23404385

  14. Modeling degradation ratios and nutrient availability of anthocyanidin-accumulating Lc-alfalfa populations in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Jonker, A; Gruber, M Y; Wang, Y; Coulman, B; Azarfar, A; McKinnon, J J; Christensen, D A; Yu, P

    2011-03-01

    Dairy cattle eating fresh or ensiled alfalfa as the main portion of their diet often have low protein efficiency because of the rapid initial rate of ruminal protein degradation of fresh and ensiled alfalfa. Ruminal protein degradation of alfalfa might be reduced by introducing a gene that stimulates the accumulation of mono- or polymeric anthocyanidins in alfalfa. The objectives of this study were to fractionate protein and carbohydrates by in situ and chemical approaches, to evaluate in situ ruminal degradation characteristics and synchronization ratios, to determine protein availability to dairy cattle using the 2007 digestible intestinal protein/rumen-degraded protein balance (DVE/OEB) protein system, and to determine net energy for lactation using the Dutch net energy for lactation (VEM) system for 3 newly developed transgenic winter hardy anthocyanidin-accumulating T(1)Lc-alfalfa populations. These T(1)Lc-alfalfa populations, called (T1)BeavLc1, (T1)RambLc3, and (T1)RangLc4, had an average anthocyanidin accumulation of 163.4 μg/g of DM, whereas AC Grazeland (selected for a low initial rate of degradation) did not accumulate anthocyanidin. The basic chemical composition of the original samples, soluble and potentially degradable fractions, and degradation characteristics of crude protein and carbohydrates were similar in T(1)Lc-alfalfa and AC Grazeland. The undegradable in situ crude protein and neutral detergent fiber fraction had 1.3% lower CP and 4.8% lower CHO, respectively, in T(1)Lc-alfalfa compared with the amounts in AC Grazeland. The T(1)Lc-alfalfa had a 0.34 MJ/kg of DM higher calculated net energy for lactation and 1.9% of CP higher buffer soluble protein compared with that in AC Grazeland. By the protein evaluation model, it was predicted that T(1)Lc-alfalfa tended to have 11.9, 6.9, and 8.4 g/kg of DM higher rumen degradable protein, OEB, and intestinal available protein, respectively, compared with the amounts in AC Grazeland. The hourly OEB included an initial and substantial peak (oversupply) of protein relative to energy, which was highest in (T1)RangLc4 and lowest in (T1)RambLc3. The hourly OEB between 4 and 24h was similar and more balanced for all 4 alfalfa populations. In conclusion, T(1)Lc-alfalfa accumulated anthocyanidin, tended to have higher predicted intestinal protein availability, and had higher predicted net energy of lactation availability for dairy cattle than did AC Grazeland. PMID:21338808

  15. Ratios between acute aquatic toxicity and effects on population growth rates in relation to toxicant mode of action

    SciTech Connect

    Roex, E.W.M.; Gestel, C.A.M. Van; Wezel, A.P. Van; Straalen, N.M. Van

    2000-03-01

    Environmental risk assessment of chemicals is mostly based on the results of standardized toxicity tests. To obtain environmental quality criteria, extrapolation factors are used that depend on the amount and quality of available data. These extrapolation factors do not, however, take into account the mode of action of the compound tested or the life history of the test organism. In this study, the authors analyzed the variability in acute-to-chronic ratios (ACRs) for various chemicals in relation to their mode of action. Chemicals were classified as nonpolar narcotics, polar narcotics, specifically acting compounds, and heavy metals. As an acute endpoint, the LC50 was used; as a chronic endpoint, the lowest test concentration at which the natural rate of population increase (r) is affected, or LOEC(r), was used. Data were derived from the on-line literature. Nonpolar narcotic chemicals demonstrate the smallest variation in ACRs, and acute tests can be used to derive chronic endpoints for this class. For the other classes, the variation in ACRs is larger. Fish species especially show a relatively large ACR. For heavy metals, differences in the mode of action may play an important role in explaining differences in ACRs. For the other three classes, however, it is less reliable to predict chronic toxicity using the results of acute tests. In general, differences in species sensitivity rather than in mode of action for the chemical seem to determine differences in ACRs.

  16. Use of prior odds for missing persons identifications

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Identification of missing persons from mass disasters is based on evaluation of a number of variables and observations regarding the combination of features derived from these variables. DNA typing now is playing a more prominent role in the identification of human remains, and particularly so for highly decomposed and fragmented remains. The strength of genetic associations, by either direct or kinship analyses, is often quantified by calculating a likelihood ratio. The likelihood ratio can be multiplied by prior odds based on nongenetic evidence to calculate the posterior odds, that is, by applying Bayes' Theorem, to arrive at a probability of identity. For the identification of human remains, the path creating the set and intersection of variables that contribute to the prior odds needs to be appreciated and well defined. Other than considering the total number of missing persons, the forensic DNA community has been silent on specifying the elements of prior odds computations. The variables include the number of missing individuals, eyewitness accounts, anthropological features, demographics and other identifying characteristics. The assumptions, supporting data and reasoning that are used to establish a prior probability that will be combined with the genetic data need to be considered and justified. Otherwise, data may be unintentionally or intentionally manipulated to achieve a probability of identity that cannot be supported and can thus misrepresent the uncertainty with associations. The forensic DNA community needs to develop guidelines for objectively computing prior odds. PMID:21707977

  17. A rapid method for determining arachidonic:eicosapentaenoic acid ratios in whole blood lipids: correlation with erythrocyte membrane ratios and validation in a large Italian population of various ages and pathologies

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Omega-3 and -6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), are important for good health conditions. They are present in membrane phospholipids. The ratio of total n-6:n-3 LCPUFA and arachidonic acid:eicosapentaenoic acid (AA and EPA), should not exceed 5:1. Increased intake of n-6 and decreased consumption of n-3 has resulted in much higher, ca 10/15:1 ratio in RBC fatty acids with the possible appearance of a pathological "scenario". The determination of RBC phospholipid LCPUFA contents and ratios is the method of choice for assessing fatty acid status but it is labour intensive and time consuming. Aims of the study [i] To describe and validate a rapid method, suitable for large scale population studies, for total blood fatty acid assay; [ii] to verify a possible correlation between total n-6:n-3 ratio and AA:EPA ratios in RBC phospholipids and in whole-blood total lipids, [iii] to assess usefulness of these ratio as biomarkers of LCPUFA status. Methods [1] Healthy volunteers and patients with various pathologies were recruited. [2] Fatty acid analyses by GC of methyl esters from directly derivatized whole blood total lipids and from RBC phospholipids were performed on fasting blood samples from 1432 subjects categorised according to their age, sex and any existing pathologies. AA:EPA ratio and the total n-6:n-3 ratio were determined. Results AA:EPA ratio is a more sensitive and reliable index for determining changes in total blood fatty acid and it is correlated with the ratio derived from extracted RBC phospholipids. Conclusions The described AA:EPA ratio is a simple, rapid and reliable method for determining n-3 fatty acid status. PMID:20105293

  18. Galactoglucomannans increase cell population density and alter the protoxylem/metaxylem tracheary element ratio in xylogenic cultures of Zinnia.

    PubMed

    Benov-Kkosov, Anna; Digonnet, Catherine; Goubet, Florence; Ranocha, Philippe; Jauneau, Alain; Pesquet, Edouard; Barbier, Odile; Zhang, Zhinong; Capek, Peter; Dupree, Paul; Liskov, Desana; Goffner, Deborah

    2006-10-01

    Xylogenic cultures of zinnia (Zinnia elegans) provide a unique opportunity to study signaling pathways of tracheary element (TE) differentiation. In vitro TEs differentiate into either protoxylem (PX)-like TEs characterized by annular/helical secondary wall thickening or metaxylem (MX)-like TEs with reticulate/scalariform/pitted thickening. The factors that determine these different cell fates are largely unknown. We show here that supplementing zinnia cultures with exogenous galactoglucomannan oligosaccharides (GGMOs) derived from spruce (Picea abies) xylem had two major effects: an increase in cell population density and a decrease in the ratio of PX to MX TEs. In an attempt to link these two effects, the consequence of the plane of cell division on PX-MX differentiation was assessed. Although GGMOs did not affect the plane of cell division per se, they significantly increased the proportion of longitudinally divided cells differentiating into MX. To test the biological significance of these findings, we have determined the presence of mannan-containing oligosaccharides in zinnia cultures in vitro. Immunoblot assays indicated that beta-1,4-mannosyl epitopes accumulate specifically in TE-inductive media. These epitopes were homogeneously distributed within the thickened secondary walls of TEs when the primary cell wall was weakly labeled. Using polysaccharide analysis carbohydrate gel electrophoresis, glucomannans were specifically detected in cell walls of differentiating zinnia cultures. Finally, zinnia macroarrays probed with cDNAs from cells cultured in the presence or absence of GGMOs indicated that significantly more genes were down-regulated rather than up-regulated by GGMOs. This study constitutes a major step in the elucidation of signaling mechanisms of PX- and MX-specific genetic programs in zinnia. PMID:16891547

  19. Birth Order and Sibling Sex Ratio in a Population with High Fertility: Are Turkish Male to Female Transsexuals Different?

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Ali; Bozkurt, Ozlem Hekim; Sonmez, Ipek

    2015-07-01

    Western studies have consistently found that androphilic (sexually attracted to men) male-to-female transsexuals have a later birth order and a relative excess of brothers compared with appropriate control participants. However, non-Western studies on birth order and sibling sex ratio in androphilic males (transsexual or non-transsexual) are rare. The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that androphilic male-to-female transsexuals have a late birth order and a relative excess of brothers in a non-Western culture with a higher fertility rate. The participants were 60 androphilic male-to-female transsexuals and 61 male heterosexual controls. The transsexual participants had significantly more older brothers than the control participants, but the groups did not differ in their numbers of older sisters, younger brothers, or younger sisters. The foregoing pattern is usually referred to as the "fraternal birth order effect." Slater's and Berglin's Indexes both showed that the mean birth order of the control participants was very close to that expected from a random sample drawn from a demographically stable population whereas the mean birth order of the transsexual participants was later. A measure of sibship composition, brothers/all siblings, showed that the transsexual group had a higher proportion of male siblings compared with the control group. In conclusion, the present study found that Turkish androphilic male-to-female transsexuals show the same high fraternal birth order that has been found in comparable androphilic samples in Western Europe, North America, and the South Pacific, which suggests a common underlying biological causal mechanism. PMID:25351529

  20. Boson fermion symmetries and dynamical supersymmetries for odd-odd nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Balantekin, A.B.; Huebsch, T.; Paar, V.

    1985-01-01

    Odd-odd nuclei are modeled by the application of symmetries and supersymmetries in IBM/IBFM. Odd-odd nuclei are described as a mixed system if bosons and fermions by a Hamiltonian consisting of three contributions: the IBM Hamiltonian, a one-fermion and fermion-fermion interaction terms, and a boson-fermion interaction term. 23 refs., 2 figs., (WRF)

  1. Odds of observing the multiverse

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlen, A.

    2010-03-15

    Eternal inflation predicts that our observable universe lies within a bubble (or pocket universe) embedded in a volume of inflating space. The interior of the bubble undergoes inflation and standard cosmology, while the bubble walls expand outward and collide with other neighboring bubbles. The collisions provide either an opportunity to make a direct observation of the multiverse or, if they produce unacceptable anisotropy, a threat to inflationary theory. The probability of an observer in our bubble detecting the effects of collisions has an absolute upper bound set by the odds of being in the part of our bubble that lies in the forward light cone of a collision; in the case of collisions with bubbles of identical vacua, this bound is given by the bubble nucleation rate times (H{sub O}/H{sub I}){sup 2}, where H{sub O} is the Hubble scale outside the bubbles and H{sub I} is the scale of the second round of inflation that occurs inside our bubble. Similar results were obtained by Freigovel et al. using a different method for the case of collisions with bubbles of much larger cosmological constant; here, it is shown to hold in the case of collisions with identical bubbles as well.

  2. Observed parity-odd CMB temperature bispectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraishi, Maresuke; Liguori, Michele; Fergusson, James R. E-mail: michele.liguori@pd.infn.it

    2015-01-01

    Parity-odd non-Gaussianities create a variety of temperature bispectra in the cosmic microwave background (CMB), defined in the domain: ℓ{sub 1} + ℓ{sub 2} + ℓ{sub 3} = odd. These models are yet unconstrained in the literature, that so far focused exclusively on the more common parity-even scenarios. In this work, we provide the first experimental constraints on parity-odd bispectrum signals in WMAP 9-year temperature data, using a separable modal parity-odd estimator. Comparing theoretical bispectrum templates to the observed bispectrum, we place constraints on the so-called nonlineality parameters of parity-odd tensor non-Gaussianities predicted by several Early Universe models. Our technique also generates a model-independent, smoothed reconstruction of the bispectrum of the data for parity-odd configurations.

  3. Observed parity-odd CMB temperature bispectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraishi, Maresuke; Liguori, Michele; Fergusson, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Parity-odd non-Gaussianities create a variety of temperature bispectra in the cosmic microwave background (CMB), defined in the domain: l1 + l2 + l3 = odd. These models are yet unconstrained in the literature, that so far focused exclusively on the more common parity-even scenarios. In this work, we provide the first experimental constraints on parity-odd bispectrum signals in WMAP 9-year temperature data, using a separable modal parity-odd estimator. Comparing theoretical bispectrum templates to the observed bispectrum, we place constraints on the so-called nonlineality parameters of parity-odd tensor non-Gaussianities predicted by several Early Universe models. Our technique also generates a model-independent, smoothed reconstruction of the bispectrum of the data for parity-odd configurations.

  4. Changes of Microbial Population in the Rumen of Dairy Steers as Influenced by Plant Containing Tannins and Saponins and Roughage to Concentrate Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Anantasook, N.; Wanapat, M.; Cherdthong, A.; Gunun, P.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate microbial population in the rumen of dairy steers as influenced by supplementing with dietary condensed tannins and saponins and different roughage to concentrate ratios. Four, rumen fistulated dairy steers (Bos indicus) were used in a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. The main factors were two roughage to concentrate ratios (R:C, 60:40 and 40:60) and two supplementations of rain tree pod meal (RPM) (0 and 60 g/kg of total DM intake). Chopped 30 g/kg urea treated rice straw was used as a roughage source. All animals received feed according to respective R:C ratios at 25 g/kg body weight. The RPM contained crude tannins and saponins at 84 and 143 g/kg of DM, respectively. It was found that ruminal pH decreased while ruminal temperature increased by a higher concentrate ratio (R:C 40:60) (p<0.05). In contrast, total bacterial, Ruminococus albus and viable proteolytic bacteria were not affected by dietary supplementation. Numbers of fungi, cellulolytic bacteria, Fibrobactor succinogenes and Ruminococus flavefaciens were higher while amylolytic bacteria was lower when steers were fed at 400 g/kg of concentrate. The population of Fibrobactor succinogenes, was found to be higher with RPM supplementation. In addition, the use of real-time PCR technique indicated that the population of protozoa and methanogens were decreased (p<0.05) with supplementation of RPM and with an increasing concentrate ratio. Supplementation of RPM and feeding different concentrate ratios resulted in changing the rumen microbes especially, when the animals were fed at 600 g/kg of concentrate and supplemented with RPM which significantly reduced the protozoa and methanogens population. PMID:25049745

  5. Is otolith microchemistry (Sr: Ca and Ba:Ca ratios) useful to identify Mugil curema populations in the southeastern Caribbean Sea?

    PubMed

    Avigliano, E; Callicó-Fortunato, R; Buitrago, J; Volpedo, A V

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential use of otolith microchemistry (Sr:Ca and Ba:Ca ratios) to identify silver mullet, Mugil curema, populations in Southeastern Caribbean Sea. Fish samples were collected in 7 areas of Nueva Esparta State (Venezuela). The otolith Sr:Ca and Ba:Ca ratios and water Sr:Ca were determined (by ICP-OES and EDTA volumetric method). Otoliths Sr:Ca and Ba:Ca ratios and Sr:Ca partition coefficient of mullets in Cubagua island (south of the State) were significantly different from ratios in La Guardia (north of the State). A discriminant analysis of otolith Sr:Ca and Ba:Ca ratios separated Cubagua Island from La Guardia values. These results suggest the existence of different mullet groups in the Southeastern Caribbean Sea. For this, the simultaneous use of Sr:Ca and Ba:Ca ratios could be a potential tool to identify populations in the study area. PMID:26628220

  6. Reinvestigation of the collective band structures in odd-odd 138Pm nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H. J.; Xiao, Z. G.; Zhu, S. J.; Qi, C.; Yeoh, E. Y.; Zhang, Z.; Wang, R. S.; Yi, H.; Yan, W. H.; Xu, Q.; Wu, X. G.; He, C. Y.; Zheng, Y.; Li, G. S.; Li, C. B.; Li, H. W.; Liu, J. J.; Hu, S. P.; Wang, J. L.; Yao, S. H.

    2015-05-01

    The high-spin states in the odd-odd 138Pm nucleus have been reinvestigated via the 124Te(19F, 5 n) reaction at the beam energy of 103 MeV. Most of the known transitions and levels are confirmed. A number of bands are revised and one new band has been established. For the yrast πh 11/2⊗ νh 11/2 band based on 8+ state, no evidence supporting the occurence of signature inversion is found. The experimental and theoretical B( M1)/ B( E2) ratios have been calculated for band (2), which support the πg 7/2[413]5/2+ ⊗ νh 11/2[514]9/2- Nilsson configuration assignment. Four bands with ΔI = 2 transitions are tentatively assigned as doubly decoupled bands. The other three bands are proposed as oblate-triaxial bands. The possible configuration assignments for these bands are also discussed under the calculations of total Routhian surface and particle-rotor model.

  7. Neutron-proton multiplets in the odd-odd nucleus 53 37 90Rb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czerwiński, M.; RzÄ ca-Urban, T.; Urban, W.; BÄ czyk, P.; Sieja, K.; Timár, J.; Nyakó, B. M.; Kuti, I.; Tornyi, T. G.; Atanasova, L.; Blanc, A.; Jentschel, M.; Mutti, P.; Köster, U.; Soldner, T.; de France, G.; Simpson, G. S.; Ur, C. A.

    2016-03-01

    Medium-spin excited levels in 90Rb, populated in the fission of 235U induced by neutrons, have been observed for the first time. γ radiation from fission has been measured by using the EXILL array of Ge detectors at the cold-neutron-beam facility PF1B of the Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble. Low-energy levels are interpreted as members of the π p3/2 -1ν (d5/2) 3 , π f5/2 -1ν (d5/2) 3 , and π g9 /2ν (d5/2) 3 multiplets with the 0- ground state due to the seniority-3 coupling in the ν d5 /2 shell. Analogous anomalous coupling within the π g9 /2ν (d5/2) 3 configuration explains the 5+, 6+, and 7+ triplet of states, observed at medium spins, similar to the triplet seen in the N =53 isotone, 88Br. Shell-model calculations reproduce well the proposed structures in Rb,9088 and support the seniority-3 coupling in N =53 isotones and its absence in N =51 isotones. The structure of the odd-odd 88Rb and 90Rb nuclei provides an argument in favor of the collectivity building up at the neutron number N =53 .

  8. BOOK REVIEW: The Odd Quantum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Helen

    2000-03-01

    The Odd Quantum is aiming to be odd. Falling between being a quantum mechanics textbook and a `popular' science book, it aims to convey something of the substance of quantum mechanics without being overly technical or professional. It does not shy away from the mathematics of the subject or resort solely to analogy and metaphor, as so often is the case. Books aimed at the lay reader tend to take on a particular aspect of quantum mechanics, for example, wave-particle duality, and can do little more than hint at the complexity of the subject. This book is more than a textbook on quantum mechanics; it gives the reader a comprehensive account of history and an appreciation of the nature of quantum mechanics. The introductory chapters deal with the earlier part of the century and the thinking of that time. The approach is familiar, as are the stories that Treiman tells, but he also manages to convey the speed with which ideas changed and the excitement this brought to the physics community. Classical ideas of force and energy are dealt with succinctly but with sufficient depth to set up the reader for what is to come; Maxwell's equations and a brief glimpse at relativity are included. This is followed by a brief description of what the author terms the `old' quantum mechanics, in effect a highly readable tour around black body radiation and spectroscopy and the models of the atom that emerged from them. The `new' quantum mechanics begins about a third of the way through the book, and in a chapter entitled `Foundations' starts gently but rapidly moves into a detailed mathematical treatment. This section, of necessity, relapses into the style of a textbook and covers a lot of ground quickly. It is at this point that the non-specialist popular science readers for whom Treiman has written this book may become a little bemused. Concepts such as non-degeneracy and operators come thick and fast. It is difficult to imagine an educated non-physicist with little mathematical ability keeping track of the equations and their meaning. However, the text continues to be accessible and moves swiftly from `quantum classics' such as the harmonic oscillator to electrical conductivity and the collapse of stars. Reassuringly, Treiman takes time out to ask `What's going on?' where he considers the question of how probabilities get converted into `facts' when things are measured. His own fascination with the subject comes through as he considers the different interpretations of quantum mechanics. The chapter on `building blocks' starts in 1932 when ` ... it could seem that all the basic building blocks of the whole world were at last in hand'. Swiftly and succinctly it moves through to the standard model, acknowledging that a closer look would ` ... quickly carry us far afield into highly technical thickets'. The final chapter tackles the more difficult subject of quantum field theory. This is a very swift journey through quantum electrodynamics and quantum chromodynamics. It is the final summary that stands out, however. The author reminds us what to marvel about: the miracles of quantum theory that are ` ... outrageous to common sense and intuition'. This is a useful book for any science department. It will be of particular use to those of us who studied the subject some time ago and who need to refresh their memories, for example teachers of A-level physics. The asides about `what is going on' and the history that is included make it a `book' rather than a `textbook'. First-year undergraduates, or just possibly motivated and mathematically able A-level students, would also benefit. Beware, however. The mathematics is not trivial and you would arguably need to have met it before in order to cope. Although the book occasionally relapses into textbook style you are left with a sense of the wonder of the subject and an appreciation of the beauty of the mathematics that underpins it.

  9. Social Adjustment among Taiwanese Children with Symptoms of ADHD, ODD, and ADHD Comorbid with ODD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Wan-Ling; Kawabata, Yoshito; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2011-01-01

    This study examined social problems at school and relationships with peers, siblings, mothers, and fathers among children with ADHD only (n = 41), ODD only (n = 14), ADHD + ODD (n = 47), and normal controls (n = 204) from a school-based sample of 2,463 first to ninth graders in Taiwan. ADHD and ODD symptoms were determined by teacher and mother

  10. Social Adjustment among Taiwanese Children with Symptoms of ADHD, ODD, and ADHD Comorbid with ODD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Wan-Ling; Kawabata, Yoshito; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2011-01-01

    This study examined social problems at school and relationships with peers, siblings, mothers, and fathers among children with ADHD only (n = 41), ODD only (n = 14), ADHD + ODD (n = 47), and normal controls (n = 204) from a school-based sample of 2,463 first to ninth graders in Taiwan. ADHD and ODD symptoms were determined by teacher and mother…

  11. A large population parental care game: polymorphisms and feedback between patterns of care and the operational sex ratio.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, David M

    2010-10-21

    This article presents a game theoretic model of parental care which models the feedback between patterns of care and the operational sex ratio. It is assumed here that males can be in one of two states: searching for a mate or breeding (including caring for their offspring). Females can be in one of three states: receptive (searching), non-receptive or breeding. However, these sets of states can be adapted to the physiology of a particular species. The length of time that an individual remains in the breeding state depends on the level of care an individual gives. When in the searching state, individuals find partners at a rate dependent on the proportion of members of the opposite sex searching. These rates are defined to satisfy the Fisher condition that the total number of offspring of males equals the total number of offspring of females. The operational sex ratio is not defined exogenously, but can be derived from the adult sex ratio and the pattern of parental care. Pure strategy profiles and so-called single sex stable polymorphisms, in which behaviour is varied within one sex, are derived analytically. The difference between mixed evolutionarily stable strategies and stable polymorphisms within this framework is highlighted. The effects of various physiological and demographic parameters on patterns of care are considered. PMID:20678504

  12. Unexpected consequences of a drier world: evidence that delay in late summer rains biases the population sex ratio of an insect

    PubMed Central

    Bonal, Raul; Hernández, Marisa; Espelta, Josep M.; Muñoz, Alberto; Aparicio, José M.

    2015-01-01

    The complexity of animal life histories makes it difficult to predict the consequences of climate change on their populations. In this paper, we show, for the first time, that longer summer drought episodes, such as those predicted for the dry Mediterranean region under climate change, may bias insect population sex ratio. Many Mediterranean organisms, like the weevil Curculio elephas, become active again after summer drought. This insect depends on late summer rainfall to soften the soil and allow adult emergence from their underground refuges. We found that, as in many protandric species, more C. elephas females emerged later in the season. Male emergence timing was on average earlier and also more dependent on the beginning of late summer rainfall. When these rains were delayed, the observed weevil sex ratio was biased towards females. So far, the effects of global warming on animal sex ratios has been reported for temperature-dependent sex determination in reptiles. Our results show that rainfall timing can also bias the sex ratio in an insect, and highlight the need for keeping a phenological perspective to predict the consequences of climate change. We must consider not just the magnitude of the predicted changes in temperature and rainfall but also the effects of their timing. PMID:26473046

  13. Unexpected consequences of a drier world: evidence that delay in late summer rains biases the population sex ratio of an insect.

    PubMed

    Bonal, Raul; Hernández, Marisa; Espelta, Josep M; Muñoz, Alberto; Aparicio, José M

    2015-09-01

    The complexity of animal life histories makes it difficult to predict the consequences of climate change on their populations. In this paper, we show, for the first time, that longer summer drought episodes, such as those predicted for the dry Mediterranean region under climate change, may bias insect population sex ratio. Many Mediterranean organisms, like the weevil Curculio elephas, become active again after summer drought. This insect depends on late summer rainfall to soften the soil and allow adult emergence from their underground refuges. We found that, as in many protandric species, more C. elephas females emerged later in the season. Male emergence timing was on average earlier and also more dependent on the beginning of late summer rainfall. When these rains were delayed, the observed weevil sex ratio was biased towards females. So far, the effects of global warming on animal sex ratios has been reported for temperature-dependent sex determination in reptiles. Our results show that rainfall timing can also bias the sex ratio in an insect, and highlight the need for keeping a phenological perspective to predict the consequences of climate change. We must consider not just the magnitude of the predicted changes in temperature and rainfall but also the effects of their timing. PMID:26473046

  14. Persistent sex-by-environment effects on offspring fitness and sex-ratio adjustment in a wild bird population

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, E. Keith; Thompson, Charles F.; Sakaluk, Scott K.

    2014-01-01

    Summary A major component of sex-allocation theory, the Trivers-Willard Model (TWM), posits that sons and daughters are differentially affected by variation in the rearing environment. In many species, the amount of parental care received is expected to have differing effects on the fitness of males and females. When this occurs, the TWM predicts that selection should favour adjustment of the offspring sex ratio in relation to the expected fitness return from offspring. However, evidence for sex-by-environment effects is mixed and little is known about the adaptive significance of producing either sex. Here, we test whether offspring sex ratios vary according to predictions of the TWM in the house wren (Troglodytes aedon, Vieillot). We also test the assumption of a sex-by-environment effect on offspring using two experiments, one in which we manipulated age-differences among nestlings within broods, and another in which we held nestling age constant but manipulated brood size. As predicted, females with high investment ability over-produced sons relative to those with lower ability. Males were also over-produced early within breeding seasons. In our experiments, the body mass of sons was more strongly affected by the sibling-competitive environment and resource availability than that of daughters: males grew heavier than females when reared in good conditions but were lighter than females when in poor conditions. Parents rearing broods with 1:1 sex ratios were more productive than parents rearing broods biased more strongly towards sons or daughters, suggesting that selection favours the production of mixed-sex broods. However, differences in the condition of offspring as neonates persisted to adulthood, and their reproductive success as adults varied with the body mass of sons, but not daughters, prior to independence from parental care. Thus, selection should favour slight but predictable variations in the sex ratio in relation to the quality of offspring that parents are able to produce. Offspring sex interacts with the neonatal environment to influence offspring fitness, thus favouring sex-ratio adjustment by parents. However, increased sensitivity of males to environmental conditions, such as sibling rivalry and resource availability, reduces the fitness returns from highly male-biased broods. PMID:25266087

  15. Predicting Intrinsic mid-IR to optical flux ratios for galaxies of different types using Spectral Synthesis Models of Composite Stellar Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Duho; Jansen, Rolf A.; Windhorst, Rogier A.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the intrinsic flux ratios of simple and composite stellar populations for various visible--near-infrared filters with respect to ˜3.5μm (L-band), and their dependence on metallicity, star-formation history, and effective mean age. This study is motivated by the fact that light from galaxies is reddened and attenuated by dust via scattering and absorption, where different sightlines across the face of a galaxy suffer various amounts of extinction. Ignoring the effects of this extinction could lead one to infer lower stellar mass, and SFR, or higher metallicity. Tamura et al. (2009) developed an approximate method, dubbed the "βV" method, which corrects for dust-extinction on a pixel-by-pixel basis, by comparing the observed flux ratio and empirical estimate of the intrinsic flux ratio of optical and ˜3.5μm broadband data. Here, we aim to validate and test the limits of the βV method for various filters spanning the visible through near-infrared wavelength range. Through extensive modeling, we test their assumptions for the intrinsic flux ratios for a wide variety of simple and composite stellar populations. We build spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of simple stellar populations (SSPs), by adopting Starburst99 and BC03 models for young (<9Myr) and old (>100Myr) stellar populations, respectively, and linear combinations of these for intermediate ages. We then construct composite stellar population (CSP) SEDs by combining SSP SEDs for various realistic star-formation histories (SFHs). We convolve filter response curves of visible--near-infrared filters for HST imaging surveys and mid-infrared filters in current (WISE, Spitzer/IRAC) and near-future use (JWST/NIRCam) with each model SED, to obtain intrinsic flux ratios (βλ,0). We find that βNIR,0 is only varying slightly as a function of metallicity but is insensitive to SFH or redshift (z≤2). We also find a narrow range of βV,0 (0.7+0.05-0.08) for early Hubble type galaxies (E and S0) using SEDs of randomly generated multi-burst SFHs together with age and metallicity profiles of nearby galaxies from the literature.

  16. Comparing clinical effectiveness and drug toxicity with hydrochlorothiazide and chlorthalidone using two potency ratios in a managed care population.

    PubMed

    Saseen, Joseph J; Ghushchyan, Vahram; Nair, Kavita V

    2015-02-01

    This study compared the clinical effectiveness and drug toxicity of chlorthalidone and hydrochlorothiazide. Electronic health records and claims data were used to identify patients initially prescribed chlorthalidone or hydrochlorothiazide. A total of 214 patients prescribed chlorthalidone 25 mg were matched with 428 patients prescribed hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg (1:1 potency ratio) and 214 patients prescribed hydrochlorothiazide 50 mg (1:2 potency ratio). Mean systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure values at least 30 days after initial prescription were lower with chlorthalidone (132.2/74 mm Hg) compared with hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg (137.0/77.5 mm Hg) and hydrochlorothiazide 50 mg (138.6/78.5 mm Hg) (P<.05 for all comparisons). Goal systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure values were achieved in a higher percentage of patients prescribed chlorthalidone (45.0%/78.3%) than with either hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg (32.1%/63.9%) or hydrochlorothiazide 50 mg (32.8%/68.9%) (P<.05 for all comparisons). Mean serum potassium was 3.94 mEq/L with chlorthalidone 25 mg, 4.13 mEq/L with hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg (P<.01 vs chlorthalidone), and 3.96 mEq/L with hydrochlorothiazide 50 mg. These findings indicate that chlorthalidone 25 mg is associated with a better antihypertensive response than hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg or 50 mg, without clinically significant differences in serum potassium. PMID:25496048

  17. Topology Explains Why Automobile Sunshades Fold Oddly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feist, Curtis; Naimi, Ramin

    2009-01-01

    Automobile sunshades always fold into an "odd" number of loops. The explanation why involves elementary topology (braid theory and linking number, both explained in detail here with definitions and examples), and an elementary fact from algebra about symmetric group.

  18. Influence of contact heterogeneity on TB reproduction ratio R0 in a free-living brushtail possum Trichosurus vulpecula population.

    PubMed

    Porphyre, Thibaud; Stevenson, Mark; Jackson, Ron; McKenzie, Joanna

    2008-01-01

    Social network analyses were used to investigate contact patterns in a free-living possum Trichosurus vulpecula population and to estimate the influence of contact on R(0) for bovine tuberculosis (TB). Using data collected during a five-year capture-mark-recapture study of a free-living possum population, observed estimates of R(0) were computed and compared with R(0) computed from random networks of similar size that approximated a random mixing process. All networks displayed a heterogeneous pattern of contact with the average number of contacts per possum ranging from 20 to 26 per year. The networks consistently showed small-world and single-scale features. The mean estimates of R(0) for TB using the observed contact networks were 1.78, 1.53, 1.53, 1.51, and 1.52 times greater than the corresponding random networks (P <0.05). We estimate that TB would spread if an average of between 1.94 and 1.97 infective contacts occurred per year per infected possum, which is approximately half of that expected from a random network. These results have implications for the management of TB in New Zealand where the possum is the principal wildlife reservoir host of Mycobacterium bovis, the causal agent of bovine TB. This study argues the relevance of refining epidemiological models used to inform disease management policy to account for contact heterogeneity. PMID:18275805

  19. Band structures in doubly odd Rh98

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Sihotra, S.; Singh, K.; Singh, V.; Sandeep, Goswamy, J.; Singh, N.; Mehta, D.; Malik, S. S.; Palit, R.; Kumar, R.; Singh, R. P.; Muralithar, S.; Bhowmik, R. K.

    2014-03-01

    Excited states in the transitional doubly odd Rh98 nucleus were populated in the As75(Si28,2p3n) fusion-evaporation reaction using the 120-MeV incident Si28 beam. The subsequent de-excitations were investigated through in-beam γ-ray spectroscopic techniques using an early implementation phase of the Indian National Gamma Array (INGA) spectrometer equipped with 18 clover Ge detectors. The level structures in Rh98 have been established up to excitation energy ≈10 MeV and angular momentum ˜23ℏ. The previously reported level schemes are considerably modified and extended substantially. Significant expansion of the level scheme at low excitation energies stipulates that the previously reported 842-726-994-980-265 keV γ-transition cascade in Rh98 is not directly based on the ground state (T1/2 = 8.7 min). Tilted-axis cranking (TAC) shell-model calculations have been used to put the present level scheme of Rh98 in perspective. Level structures have been interpreted in terms of the rotational bands based on the πp1/2⊗νh11/2 [triaxiality parameter (γ) = 25∘], and πf5/2⊗νh11/2 proton-neutron configurations having moderate quadrupole deformation (ɛ2 ≈ 0.13) and the admixtures. Excited band structures are based on the πp1/2/f5/2⊗π(g9/2)2⊗νh11/2 configuration and the fully stretched [πp1/2⊗ν(h11/2)2⊗νd5/2]13- configuration.

  20. Being WISE. I. Validating Stellar Population Models and M sstarf/L Ratios at 3.4 and 4.6 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Mark A.; Meidt, Sharon; Van de Ven, Glenn; Schinnerer, Eva; Groves, Brent; Querejeta, Miguel

    2014-12-01

    Using data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer mission, we have measured near infra-red (NIR) photometry of a diverse sample of dust-free stellar systems (globular clusters, dwarf and giant early-type galaxies) which have metallicities that span the range -2.2 < [Fe/H] (dex) < 0.3. This dramatically increases the sample size and broadens the metallicity regime over which the 3.4 (W1) and 4.6 μm (W2) photometry of stellar populations have been examined. We find that the W1 - W2 colors of intermediate and old (>2 Gyr) stellar populations are insensitive to the age of the stellar population, but that the W1 - W2 colors become bluer with increasing metallicity, a trend not well reproduced by most stellar population synthesis (SPS) models. In common with previous studies, we attribute this behavior to the increasing strength of the CO absorption feature located in the 4.6 μm bandpass with metallicity. Having used our sample to validate the efficacy of some of the SPS models, we use these models to derive stellar mass-to-light ratios in the W1 and W2 bands. Utilizing observational data from the SAURON and ATLAS3D surveys, we demonstrate that these bands provide extremely simple, yet robust stellar mass tracers for dust free older stellar populations that are freed from many of the uncertainties common among optical estimators.

  1. Being WISE. I. Validating stellar population models and M {sub *}/L ratios at 3.4 and 4.6 μm

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, Mark A.; Meidt, Sharon; Van de Ven, Glenn; Schinnerer, Eva; Groves, Brent; Querejeta, Miguel

    2014-12-10

    Using data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer mission, we have measured near infra-red (NIR) photometry of a diverse sample of dust-free stellar systems (globular clusters, dwarf and giant early-type galaxies) which have metallicities that span the range -2.2 < [Fe/H] (dex) < 0.3. This dramatically increases the sample size and broadens the metallicity regime over which the 3.4 (W1) and 4.6 μm (W2) photometry of stellar populations have been examined. We find that the W1 – W2 colors of intermediate and old (>2 Gyr) stellar populations are insensitive to the age of the stellar population, but that the W1 – W2 colors become bluer with increasing metallicity, a trend not well reproduced by most stellar population synthesis (SPS) models. In common with previous studies, we attribute this behavior to the increasing strength of the CO absorption feature located in the 4.6 μm bandpass with metallicity. Having used our sample to validate the efficacy of some of the SPS models, we use these models to derive stellar mass-to-light ratios in the W1 and W2 bands. Utilizing observational data from the SAURON and ATLAS3D surveys, we demonstrate that these bands provide extremely simple, yet robust stellar mass tracers for dust free older stellar populations that are freed from many of the uncertainties common among optical estimators.

  2. PCNA appears in two populations of slow and fast diffusion with a constant ratio throughout S-phase in replicating mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Zessin, Patrick J. M.; Sporbert, Anje; Heilemann, Mike

    2016-01-01

    DNA replication is a fundamental cellular process that precedes cell division. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a central scaffold protein that orchestrates DNA replication by recruiting many factors essential for the replication machinery. We studied the mobility of PCNA in live mammalian cells using single-particle tracking in combination with photoactivated-localization microscopy (sptPALM) and found two populations. The first population which is only present in cells with active DNA replication, showed slow diffusion and was found to be located in replication foci. The second population showed fast diffusion, and represents the nucleoplasmic pool of unbound PCNA not involved in DNA replication. The ratio of these two populations remained constant throughout different stages of S-phase. A fraction of molecules in both populations showed spatially constrained mobility. We determined an exploration radius of ~100 nm for 13% of the slow-diffusing PCNA molecules, and of ~600 nm for 46% of the fast-diffusing PCNA molecules. PMID:26758689

  3. Odd orders in Shor's factoring algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Shor's factoring algorithm (SFA) finds the prime factors of a number, , exponentially faster than the best known classical algorithm. Responsible for the speedup is a subroutine called the quantum order finding algorithm (QOFA) which calculates the order—the smallest integer, , satisfying , where is a randomly chosen integer coprime to (meaning their greatest common divisor is one, ). Given , and with probability not 1/2, the factors are given by and . For odd , it is assumed that the factors cannot be found (since is not generally integer) and the QOFA is relaunched with a different value of . But a recent paper (Martin-Lopez et al. Nat. Photonics 6:773, 2012) noted that the factors can sometimes be found from odd orders if the coprime is square. This raises the question of improving SFA's success probability by considering odd orders. We show that an improvement is possible, though it is small. We present two techniques for retrieving the order from apparently useless runs of the QOFA: not discarding odd orders; and looking out for new order finding relations in the case of failure. In terms of efficiency, using our techniques is equivalent to avoiding square coprimes and disregarding odd orders, which is simpler in practice. Even still, our techniques may be useful in the near future, while demonstrations are restricted to factoring small numbers. The most convincing demonstrations of the QOFA are those that return a non-power-of-two order, making odd orders that lead to the factors attractive to experimentalists.

  4. Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Pat; Landahl, John

    This pamphlet has been prepared in response to a new problem, a rapidly increasing population, and a new need, population education. It is designed to help teachers provide their students with some basic population concepts with stress placed on the elements of decision making. In the first section of the pamphlet, some of the basic concepts of…

  5. Marriage season, promptness of successful pregnancy and first-born sex ratio in a historical natural fertility population - evidence for sex-dependent early pregnancy loss?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonaka, K.; Desjardins, Bertrand; Charbonneau, Hubert; Légaré, Jacques; Miura, Teiji

    We investigated population-based vital records of the seventeenth and eighteenth century French Canadian population to assess the effects of marriage season on the outcome of the first births under natural fertility conditions (n=21,698 marriages). Promptness of the first successful conception after marriage differed according to marriage season; the proportion of marriages with a marriage-first birth interval of 8.0-10.0 months was lowest (34%) for marriages in August-October (P=0.001). Although the male/female sex ratio of the babies born with an interval of 8.0-10.0 months was generally higher (1.10) than those with an interval of 10.0-24.0 months (1.05), the marriages in August-October resulted in a significantly reduced sex ratio (0.96) among only the prompt conceptions (P=0.026). We discuss whether this seasonal reduction of the sex ratio could be partly explained by a clustered pregnancy loss of male zygotes in early pregnancy.

  6. Effects of mating status, sex ratio, and population density on longevity and offspring production of Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens) (Coleoptera: Cucujidae).

    PubMed

    White, N D; Bell, R J

    1993-01-01

    The life span and reproductive rate of the rusty grain beetle, Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens), were determined at different adult densities and sex ratios at 30 +/- 1 degree C, 75 +/- 5% relative humidity (RH), and with feed consisting of ground wheat plus wheat germ (4:1, w/w). The mean life spans of adult beetles were 32 weeks for adults individually isolated in separate vials, 22 to 25 weeks for adults of different strains kept one male and one female per vial, 24 weeks for a group of 30 virgin females together in one vial, 13 weeks for a group of 30 virgin males together in one vial, 14 weeks for groups with 10 males and 20 females per vial, 13 weeks for groups with 15 males and 15 females per vial, and 12 weeks for groups with 20 males and 10 females per vial. When kept one adult per vial, males and females had similar life spans; when kept one male and one female per vial, males lived longer; when kept in groups of 30 per vial females lived longer, except in the group which had a sex ratio of two males to one female; in this group life spans of males and females were the same. Females in separate vials with one male produced mean numbers of of offspring ranging from 389 for an inbred homozygous malathion-resistant strain to 514 for an outbred strain (genetically variable: GV). GV strain females in vials which had 10 males and 20 females produced a mean of 97 offspring, GV strain females in vials which had 15 males and 15 females produced a mean of 146 offspring, and GV strain females in vials which had 20 males and 10 females produced a mean of 216 offspring. The results of this study and similar studies on other insect species suggest that the life span of this insect is inversely related to the rate at which it expends energy and to injury incurred during copulation, and that oviposition rate decreases as the density of larvae and female adults increases. PMID:8137898

  7. Seasonal Variation in Female Mate Choice and Operational Sex Ratio in Wild Populations of an Annual Fish, Austrolebias reicherti

    PubMed Central

    Passos, Carlos; Tassino, Bettina; Reyes, Federico; Rosenthal, Gil G.

    2014-01-01

    The intensity of mating competition and the potential benefits for female of mating with certain males can be influenced by several extrinsic factors, such that behavioral decisions can be highly context-dependent. Short-lived species with a single reproductive season are a unique model to study context-sensitive mating decisions. Through exhaustive sampling in the field and simultaneous choice tests in the laboratory, we evaluated operational sex ratio (OSR) and female mate choice at the beginning and end of the reproductive season in the annual killifish Austrolebias reicherti. We found seasonal change in both OSR and female mate choice. At the start of the reproductive season the OSR did not deviate from parity, and females preferred larger males. Later in the reproductive season, while the proportion of males in the ponds decreased, females became unselective with respect to male size. The particular biological cycle of annual killifish, where both life expectancy and mating opportunities decline sharply over a short timescale, could account for the seasonal change in female choice. Reduction in choosiness could arise from diminished reproductive prospects due to a decline in male availability. Moreover, as the end of the season approaches, any benefits of choosiness are presumably reduced: a female’s fitness will be higher if she mates with any male than if she forgoes reproduction and dies. Future work will disentangle the mechanisms underlying seasonal changes in mating preferences, notably direct responses to demographic factors, environmental cues, or intrinsic changes during development. PMID:25029019

  8. Performance of the waist-to-height ratio in identifying obesity and predicting non-communicable diseases in the elderly population: A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Márcia Mara; Thumé, Elaine; De Oliveira, Elizabete Regina Araújo; Tomasi, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review was carried out aiming to collect evidence on the use of the waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) on the elderly population, focusing on validity measures to identify the best anthropometric indicator in assessing obesity associated with non-communicable diseases. The review consisted in a search of papers published on the databases Pubmed, Web of Science, and Lilacs, with no restriction regarding period of publication, using the following combinations: abdominal fat or overweight or obesity and waist-to-height ratio or waist height or waist ht or WHtR or waist to stature ratio or wst stature or WSR or stature and girth. Sixteen papers were selected, most of which with high methodological quality. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves was the validity measure explored in 13 papers, followed by sensitivity and specificity measures. In all studies, the body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) received special attention for analysis along with WHtR. Five manuscripts showed evidence of WHtR being the best anthropometric index when used alone, four showed that both WHtR and WC had the best discriminatory power in predicting cardiovascular risk factors compared to the other indices, and two ranked WHtR at the same performance level as waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and BMI. An association was shown of the obesity assessed by WHtR in predicting risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes compared to other anthropometric parameters. PMID:27061665

  9. Even-odd staggering of the spectroscopic factor as new evidence for α clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delion, D. S.; Dumitrescu, A.; Baran, V. V.

    2016-04-01

    We evidence a staggering effect of the experimental spectroscopic factors corresponding to even-even and odd-mass (odd-mass and odd-odd) α emitters. The comparison to the theoretical estimate within the standard Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) approach reveals a similar staggering, but with a different behavior. It turns out that the ratio between corresponding experimental and theoretical spectroscopic factors is proportional to the experimental reduced decay width. A similar dependence was found in a previous work between the strength of the quadrupole-quadrupole α -core interaction, describing the α -decay fine structure and the reduced width. Thus, the even-odd staggering effect in the spectroscopic factor is a new evidence of the α -clustering phenomenon in medium and heavy nuclei.

  10. Illness representation on H1N1 influenza and preventive behaviors in the Hong Kong general population.

    PubMed

    Mo, Phoenix K H; Lau, Joseph T F

    2015-12-01

    This study examined illness representations of new influenza Human Swine Influenza A (H1N1) and association with H1N1 preventive behaviors among 300 Chinese adults using a population-based randomized telephone survey. Results showed that relatively few participants thought H1N1 would have serious consequences (12%-15.7%) and few showed negative emotional responses toward H1N1 (9%-24.7%). The majority of the participants thought H1N1 could be controlled by treatment (70.4%-72.7%). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that treatment control (odds ratio = 1.78) and psychological attribution (odds ratio = .75) were associated with intention to take up influenza vaccination. Emotional representations were associated with lower likelihood of wearing face mask (odds ratio = .77) and hand washing (odds ratio = .67). Results confirm that illness representation variables are associated with H1N1 preventive behaviors. PMID:24423574

  11. Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    In an effort to help meet the growing interest and concern about the problems created by the rapid growth of population, The International Planned Parenthood Federation has prepared this booklet with the aim of assisting the study of the history and future trends of population growth and its impact on individual and family welfare, national,…

  12. Signature inversion in the semidecoupled π h9/2 ⊗ ν i13/2 band of the odd-odd nucleus 172Lu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkova, Ts; Lieder, R. M.; Gast, W.; Bazzacco, D.; de Angelis, G.; Lieder, E. O.; Jäger, H. M.; Mihailescu, L.; Menegazzo, R.; Lunardi, S.; Rossi Alvarez, C.; Ur, C.; Martinez, T.; Axiotis, M.; Napoli, D.; Urban, W.; Rzaca-Urban, T.

    High-spin states in the odd-odd nucleus 172Lu have been populated in a 170Er(7Li,5n) reaction at 51 MeV and the emitted γ -radiation was detected with the GASP array. A new semidecoupled band with the proposed π 1/2-[541] ⊗ ν 7/2^ + [633] configuration has been established exhibiting a signature inversion. A systematic study of the signature inversion in odd-odd nuclei of the rare-earth region is presented. The variation of the inversion spin remains nearly constant for nuclei with the same N-Z, increases with N for an isotopic chain and decreases with Z for an isotonic chain. On the basis of the systematics a change of the spins by 1ℎ is proposed for the semidecoupled bands in 180Re, 182,184Ir and 184,186Au.

  13. Flavor Dependence of T-odd PDFs

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard P. Gamberg; Gary R. Goldstein; Marc Schlegel

    2007-04-20

    The flavor dependence of the naive time reversal odd ("T-odd'') parton distributions for $u$- and $d$-quarks are explored in the spectator model. The flavor dependence of $h_{1}^{\\perp}$ is of significance for the analysis of the azimuthal $\\cos(2\\phi)$ asymmetries in unpolarized SIDIS and DY-processes, as well as for the overall physical understanding of the distribution of transversely polarized quarks in unpolarized nucleons. As a by-product of the formalism, we calculate the chiral-odd but ``T-even'' function $h_{1L}^{\\perp}$ which enables us to present a prediction for the single spin asymmetry $A_{UL}^{\\sin(2\\phi)}$ for a longitudinally polarized target in SIDIS.

  14. (abstract) Odd Hydrogen in the Atmospheres of Earth and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nair, Hari; Allen, Mark; Yung, Yuk L.

    1994-01-01

    The Martian atmosphere has many features in common with the terrestrial mesosphere. Both share similar pressure and temperature ranges, and much of the same chemistry operates in each. For example, the radical species H, OH, and H(sub 2)O, which comprise the odd hydrogen family, are of central importance in the catalytic destruction of CO and O(sub 3) in both atmospheres. The inclusion of recent chemical kinetics data, specifically temperature dependent CO(sub 2) absorption cross-sections, into our one dimensional photochemical model of the Martial atmosphere shows that oxidation of CO by odd hydrogen is too efficient. The incorporation of smaller cross sections for CO(sub 2) leads to an enhanced photolysis rate of water vapor, increasing odd hydrogen to the point where the predicted mixing ratio of CO in our model is substantially less than the observed value of 6.5 x 10(sup -4). Interestingly, most photochemical models of the terrestrial mesosphere underestimate the CO and O(sub 3) densities using currently accepted photodissociation and kinetic rate coefficients. This has also been attributed to an overabundance of odd hydrogen in the models. We shall show that agreement between models and observations of CO in the Martian atmosphere as well as of CO and O(sub 3) in the terrestrial mesosphere can be achieved by revising the rate constants for the reactions OH + HO(sub 2) and CO + OH within their published uncertainties. The fact that similar revisions alleviate discrepancies in both the terrestrial and Martian atmospheres warrants a re-evaluation of these key rate constants at the appropriate temperatures and pressures.

  15. Babesia divergens builds a complex population structure composed of specific ratios of infected cells to ensure a prompt response to changing environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Cursino-Santos, Jeny R; Singh, Manpreet; Pham, Petra; Rodriguez, Marilis; Lobo, Cheryl A

    2016-06-01

    Babesia parasites cause a malaria-like febrile illness by infection of red blood cells (RBCs). Despite the growing importance of this tick-borne infection, its basic biology has been neglected. Using novel synchronization tools, the sequence of intra-erythrocytic events was followed from invasion through development and differentiation to egress. The dynamics of the parasite population were studied in culture, revealing for the first time, the complete array of morphological forms in a precursor-product relationship. Important chronological constants including Babesia's highly unusual variable intra-erythrocytic life cycle, the life span of each population of infected cells and the time required for the genesis of the different parasite stages were elucidated. Importantly, the maintenance of specific ratios of the infected RBC populations was shown to be responsible for the parasites' choice of developmental pathways, enabling swift responses to changing environmental conditions like availability of RBCs and nutrition. These results could impact the control of parasite proliferation and therefore disease. PMID:26663747

  16. Experimental level-structure determination in odd-odd actinide nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, R.W.

    1985-04-04

    The status of experimental determination of level structure in odd-odd actinide nuclei is reviewed. A technique for modeling quasiparticle excitation energies and rotational parameters in odd-odd deformed nuclei is applied to actinide species where new experimental data have been obtained by use of neutron-capture gamma-ray spectroscopy. The input parameters required for the calculation are derived from empirical data on single-particle excitations in neighboring odd-mass nuclei. Calculated configuration-specific values for the Gallagher-Moszkowski splittings are used. Calculated and experimental level structures for /sup 238/Np, /sup 244/Am, and /sup 250/Bk are compared, as well as those for several nuclei in the rare-earth region. The agreement for the actinide species is excellent, with bandhead energies deviating 22 keV and rotational parameters 5%, on the average. Applications of this modeling technique are discussed.

  17. The Alleged Oddness of Ethical Egoism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marietta, Don E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    There are some critics of ethical egoism who treat it seriously as an ethical doctrine, but consider it an odd approach. Examines this doctrine and suggests that if we are to have the benefit of egoism as a sound ethical approach, or rightly assess its inadequacies, we must first see it fairly. (Author/RK)

  18. Odd-Man-Out and Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diascro, Matthew N.; Brody, Nathan

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between odd-man-out reaction time tasks and intelligence was examined in 2 experiments involving 79 college students. The two experiments indicate that tasks that assess the ability to perceive relationships among stimuli rapidly are good measures of general intelligence. (SLD)

  19. Confusion between Odds and Probability, a Pandemic?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Lawrence V.; Mendez, Francis A.; Bastian, Nathaniel D.; Musal, R. Muzaffer

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript discusses the common confusion between the terms probability and odds. To emphasize the importance and responsibility of being meticulous in the dissemination of information and knowledge, this manuscript reveals five cases of sources of inaccurate statistical language imbedded in the dissemination of information to the general…

  20. Confusion between Odds and Probability, a Pandemic?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Lawrence V.; Mendez, Francis A.; Bastian, Nathaniel D.; Musal, R. Muzaffer

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript discusses the common confusion between the terms probability and odds. To emphasize the importance and responsibility of being meticulous in the dissemination of information and knowledge, this manuscript reveals five cases of sources of inaccurate statistical language imbedded in the dissemination of information to the general

  1. Odd numbers of photons and teleportation

    SciTech Connect

    Enk, S.J. van

    2003-02-01

    Several teleportation protocols, namely those using entangled coherent states, entangled squeezed states, and the single-photon Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen state, are all shown to be particular instances of a more general scheme that relies on the detection of an odd number of photons.

  2. Odd and Even Numbers--Magician's Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadar, Nitsa

    1982-01-01

    It is felt teachers can adopt techniques of magicians to mathematics instruction whenever it seems appropriate. Ideas for a unit on the properties of odd and even integers are presented for teachers who enjoy some theatrics in the classroom. The goal is to teach mathematical ideas underlying magic tricks. (MP)

  3. Neutron-Proton Interaction in Odd-Odd Spherical Nuclei Near 208PB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexa, Petr; Kvasil, Jan; Sheline, Raymond K.

    A total of 74 levels from 21 multiplets of the nuclei 206Tl, 208Tl, 208Bi, and 210Bi have been calculated with a Generalized Intermediate Coupling Model, with Gaussian and delta potentials with and without an interaction between octupole phonon and odd nucleons. The goodness of fit is compared with that of other calculations of Molinari et al. and Schiffer and True. It is quite clear that the calculations work well in spite of the fact that they are required to fit simultaneously odd-odd nuclei with neutron and proton shells which differ by principal harmonic oscillator quantum numbers Δ N = +1.

  4. Body mass index, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio: which anthropometric indicator is better predictor for the hypertension development in women population of the island Cres.

    PubMed

    Kabalin, Milena; Kolarić, Branko; Marchesi, Vanja Vasiljev; Pereza, Nina; Ostojić, Sasa; Rukavina, Tomislav; Kapović, Miljenko

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the prevalence of obesity and high blood pressure and to prove which of three anthropometric indicators of obesity - waist circumference, body mass index (BMI) waist-to-hip ratio - is better predictor for the development of hypertension in women population of the island of Cres. We approached separately groups of women with measured high blood pressure and with previously diagnosed. The research was preformed within the research project "Genetic and biomedical characteristics of the population of the island of Cres". This was the cross sectional study and data were obtained on the sample of 247 females over 18 years old that voluntarily participated in this study. In our study group the prevalence of overweight was 39.0%, obesity 27.5%, increased waist circumference was present in 69.4% while increased blood pressure was found in 53.0% examinees. Our results indicate that age, BMI, impaired glucose concentration and serum cholesterol could be considered as predictors for the development of arterial hypertension, whether measured or previously diagnosed. PMID:22856216

  5. Associations between soil lead concentrations and populations by race/ethnicity and income-to-poverty ratio in urban and rural areas

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Harley T.; Lawson, Andrew B.; Cai, Bo; McDermott, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a well-studied environmental contaminant that has many negative health effects, especially for children. Both racial/ethnic and income disparities have been documented with respect to exposure to Pb in soils. The objectives of this study were to assess whether soil Pb concentrations in rural and urban areas of South Carolina USA, previously identified as having clusters of intellectual disabilities (ID) in children, were positively associated with populations of minority and low-income individuals and children (?6 years of age). Surface soils from two rural and two urban areas with identified clusters of ID were analyzed for Pb and concentrations were spatially interpolated using inverse distance weighted analysis. Population race/ethnicity and income-to-poverty ratio (ITPR) from United States Census 2000 block group data were aerially interpolated by block group within each area. Urban areas had significantly higher concentrations of Pb than rural areas. Significant positive associations between black, non-Hispanic Latino, individuals and children ?6 years of age and mean estimated Pb concentrations were observed in both urban (r = 0.38, p = 0.0007) and rural (r = 0.53, p = 0.04) areas. Significant positive associations also were observed between individuals and children with an ITPR < 1.00 and Pb concentrations, though primarily in urban areas. Racial/ethnic minorities and low ITPR individuals, including children, may be at elevated risk for exposure to Pb in soils. PMID:22752852

  6. Stratospheric distributions of odd nitrogen and odd hydrogen in a two-dimensional model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinn, R. G.; Alyea, F. N.; Cunnold, D. M.

    1975-01-01

    A two-dimensional pole-to-pole chemical model of the stratosphere is developed which extends from 8 to 38 km in altitude. Atmospheric motions are simulated by mean vertical and meridional winds and eddy diffusion coefficients. Seasonally averaged distributions of important odd nitrogen (NO, NO2, and HNO3) and odd hydrogen (H, OH, HO2, H2O2) compounds are computed. Photodissociation of N2O leads to production of odd nitrogen in the stratosphere, and the odd nitrogen is ultimately removed by downward transport into the troposphere and by rain-out (modeled by a rain-out lifetime of 30 days below 8-km altitude). Results are presented for a quasi-steady state in which seasonal cycles repeat themselves. These results show significant latitudinal as well as vertical variations in the predicted species which emphasize the need for at least two dimensions in accurate stratospheric modeling. Computed concentrations are compared with observations when they exist.

  7. Classification of Traces and Associated Determinants on Odd-Class Operators in Odd Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neira Jiménez, Carolina; Ouedraogo, Marie Françoise

    2012-04-01

    To supplement the already known classification of traces on classical pseudodifferential operators, we present a classification of traces on the algebras of odd-class pseudodifferential operators of non-positive order acting on smooth functions on a closed odd-dimensional manifold. By means of the one to one correspondence between continuous traces on Lie algebras and determinants on the associated regular Lie groups, we give a classification of determinants on the group associated to the algebra of odd-class pseudodifferential operators with fixed non-positive order. At the end we discuss two possible ways to extend the definition of a determinant outside a neighborhood of the identity on the Lie group associated to the algebra of odd-class pseudodifferential operators of order zero.

  8. Study of Even-Even/Odd-Even/Odd-Odd Nuclei in Zn-Ga-Ge Region in the Proton-Neutron IBM/IBFM/IBFFM

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, N.; Brant, S.; Zuffi, L.

    2009-08-26

    We study the even-even, odd-even and odd-odd nuclei in the region including Zn-Ga-Ge in the proton-neutron IBM and the models derived from it: IBM2, IBFM2, IBFFM2. We describe {sup 67}Ga, {sup 65}Zn, and {sup 68}Ga by coupling odd particles to a boson core {sup 66}Zn. We also calculate the beta{sup +}-decay rates among {sup 68}Ge, {sup 68}Ga and {sup 68}Zn.

  9. Odd top partners at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anandakrishnan, Archana; Collins, Jack H.; Farina, Marco; Kuflik, Eric; Perelstein, Maxim

    2016-04-01

    LHC searches for fermionic top partners T focus on three decay topologies: T →b W , T →t Z , and T →t h . However, top partners may carry new conserved quantum numbers that forbid these decays. The simplest possibility is a conserved parity, under which the top partner is odd and all SM states are even. In this case, decays of top partners may involve new particle-odd scalars, leading to signal topologies more commonly associated with supersymmetry, either with or without R -parity conservation. We study a simplified model in which this possibility is realized, and estimate the bounds on the top partner mass in this model implied by LHC searches for supersymmetry. We find that the bounds can be significantly weaker than in the conventional top partner decay scenario. For example, if the new parity is exact, a 500 GeV top partner is allowed as long as the lightest parity-odd scalar mass is between 325 and 500 GeV. The lower allowed top partner mass reduces the need for fine-tuning in the Higgs mass parameter, compared to the conventional decay scenario. We also present an explicit model, the oddest little Higgs, which exhibits this phenomenology.

  10. A Focus on Variation in Morphology of Soft Palate Using Cone-Beam Computed Tomography with Assessment of Need’s Ratio in Central Madhya Pradesh Population

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Priyal; Phulambrikar, Tushar; Singh, Siddharth Kumar; Sharma, B.K.; Rodricks, Deepshikha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Soft palate is an anatomical structure that helps in modifying the quality of voice and to breathe while swallowing. Through the variants and shapes of the soft palate, we can assess the age and gender of an individual. Aim The aim of the present study was to investigate the variation in morphology of soft palate and to find its association with the Need’s ratio, Velar Length (VL), Velar Width (VW) and Pharyngeal Depth (PD), in age groups and gender using CBCT in Central Madhya Pradesh population. Materials and Methods The study sample consisted of 121 CBCT scans of individuals aged between 15 to 45 years. These scans were retrieved from the Department of Oral Radiology. The velar morphology on CBCT was examined and grouped into six types. The results obtained were subjected to a statistical analysis to find the association between variants of the soft palate with gender and different age groups. ANOVA and Z-test were used for statistical analysis. The p≤0.05 was considered as significant while p≤0.001 was considered as highly significant. Results The most frequent type of soft palate was rat tail shaped. The mean VL and VW values were significantly higher in males while PD and Need’s ratio were higher among females, insignificantly associated with the types of soft palate. A significant association was observed between the mean VL and VW with various age groups, showing an increase in values with an increase in age. Conclusion A variation in morphology of soft palate plays an important role in the assessment of velopharyngeal closure and in diagnosing obstructive sleep apnoea individuals.

  11. Cluster radioactivities of odd-mass nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poenaru, D. N.; Hourani, E.; Greiner, W.

    The partial half-lives of the hypothetical even-even equivalent of an odd-mass nucleus for cluster transitions toward various excited states of the daughter, used as a reference to find the hindrance factor, can be calculated within analytical superasymmetric fission model, by taking into account the angular momentum of the emitted cluster. Detailed tables are presented for 14C radioactivity of 221Fr, 221,223Ra, 225Ac; 24Ne radioactivity of 233U, 231Pa, and 23F decay of 231Pa, showing that, except for 225Ac, the existing experimental evidences, do not exclude (moderate) hindered transitions to the ground states of the daugther nuclei.

  12. Enhanced T-odd, P-odd electromagnetic moments in reflection asymmetric nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Spevak, V.; Auerbach, N.; Flambaum, V.V.

    1997-09-01

    Collective P- and T-odd moments produced by parity and time invariance violating forces in reflection asymmetric nuclei are considered. The enhanced collective Schiff, electric dipole, and octupole moments appear due to the mixing of rotational levels of opposite parity. These moments can exceed single-particle moments by more than 2 orders of magnitude. The enhancement is due to the collective nature of the intrinsic moments and the small energy separation between members of parity doublets. In turn these nuclear moments induce enhanced T- and P-odd effects in atoms and molecules. A simple estimate is given and a detailed theoretical treatment of the collective T-, P-odd electric moments in reflection asymmetric, odd-mass nuclei is presented. In the present work we improve on the simple liquid drop model by evaluating the Strutinsky shell correction and include corrections due to pairing. Calculations are performed for octupole deformed long-lived odd-mass isotopes of Rn, Fr, Ra, Ac, and Pa and the corresponding atoms. Experiments with such atoms may improve substantially the limits on time reversal violation. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  13. Empirical residual neutron-proton interaction in odd-odd nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zheying; Changizi, S. A.; Qi, Chong

    2016-03-01

    Two types of average neutron-proton interaction formulas are compared: In the first type, neutron-proton interactions for even-even and odd-A nuclei extracted from experimental binding energies show a smooth behavior as a function of mass number A and are dominated by the contribution from the symmetry energy. Whereas in the second type large systematic staggering is seen between even-A and odd-A nuclei. This deviation is understood in terms of the additional neutron-proton interaction in odd-odd nuclei relative to the neighboring even-even and odd-A systems. We explore three possible ways to extract this additional interaction from the binding energy difference of neighboring nuclei. The extracted interactions are positive in nearly all cases and show weak dependence on the mass number. The empirical interactions are also compared with theoretical values extracted from recent nuclear mass models where large unexpected fluctuations are seen in certain nuclei. The reproduction of the residual neutron-proton interaction and the correction of those irregular fluctuations can be a good criterion for the refinement of those mass models.

  14. Effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on alfalfa nutrient degradation characteristics and rumen microbial populations of steers fed diets with different concentrate-to-forage ratios.

    PubMed

    Ding, Gengzhi; Chang, Ying; Zhao, Liping; Zhou, Zhenming; Ren, Liping; Meng, Qingxiang

    2014-01-01

    Live yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) constitutes an effective additive for animal production; its probiotic effect may be related to the concentrate-to-forage ratio (CTFR). The objective of this study was to assess the effects of S. cerevisiae (SC) on fiber degradation and rumen microbial populations in steers fed diets with different levels of dietary concentrate. Ten Simmental × Local crossbred steers (450 ± 50 kg BW) were assigned to a control group or an SC group. Both groups were fed the same basal diet but the SC group received SC supplementation (8 × 10(9) cfu/h/d through the ruminal fistula) following a two-period crossover design. Each period consisted of four phases, each of which lasted 17 d: 10 d for dietary adaptation, 6 d for degradation study, and 1 d for rumen sample collection. From the 1(st) to the 4(th) phase, steers were fed in a stepwise fashion with increasing CTFRs, i.e., 30:70, 50:50, 70:30, and 90:10. The kinetics of dry matter and fiber degradation of alfalfa pellets were evaluated; the rumen microbial populations were detected using real-time PCR. The results revealed no significant (P > 0.05) interactions between dietary CTFR and SC for most parameters. Dietary CTFR had a significant effect (P < 0.01) on degradation characteristics of alfalfa pellets and the copies of rumen microorganism; the increasing concentrate level resulted in linear, quadratic or cubic variation trend for these parameters. SC supplementation significantly (P < 0.05) affected dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradation rates (c DM, c NDF) and NDF effective degradability (EDNDF). Compared with the control group, there was an increasing trend of rumen fungi and protozoa in SC group (P < 0.1); copies of total bacteria in SC group were significantly higher (P < 0.05). Additionally, percentage of Ruminobacter amylophilus was significantly lower (P < 0.05) but percentage of Selenomonas ruminantium was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the SC group. In a word, dietary CTFR had a significant effect on degradation characteristics of forage and rumen microbial population. S. cerevisiae had positive effects on DM and NDF degradation rate or effective degradability of forage; S. cerevisiae increased rumen total bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and lactate-utilizing bacteria but reduced starch-degrading and lactate-producing bacteria. PMID:24883184

  15. Effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on alfalfa nutrient degradation characteristics and rumen microbial populations of steers fed diets with different concentrate-to-forage ratios

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Live yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) constitutes an effective additive for animal production; its probiotic effect may be related to the concentrate-to-forage ratio (CTFR). The objective of this study was to assess the effects of S. cerevisiae (SC) on fiber degradation and rumen microbial populations in steers fed diets with different levels of dietary concentrate. Ten Simmental × Local crossbred steers (450 ± 50 kg BW) were assigned to a control group or an SC group. Both groups were fed the same basal diet but the SC group received SC supplementation (8 × 109 cfu/h/d through the ruminal fistula) following a two-period crossover design. Each period consisted of four phases, each of which lasted 17 d: 10 d for dietary adaptation, 6 d for degradation study, and 1 d for rumen sample collection. From the 1st to the 4th phase, steers were fed in a stepwise fashion with increasing CTFRs, i.e., 30:70, 50:50, 70:30, and 90:10. The kinetics of dry matter and fiber degradation of alfalfa pellets were evaluated; the rumen microbial populations were detected using real-time PCR. The results revealed no significant (P > 0.05) interactions between dietary CTFR and SC for most parameters. Dietary CTFR had a significant effect (P < 0.01) on degradation characteristics of alfalfa pellets and the copies of rumen microorganism; the increasing concentrate level resulted in linear, quadratic or cubic variation trend for these parameters. SC supplementation significantly (P < 0.05) affected dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradation rates (cDM, cNDF) and NDF effective degradability (EDNDF). Compared with the control group, there was an increasing trend of rumen fungi and protozoa in SC group (P < 0.1); copies of total bacteria in SC group were significantly higher (P < 0.05). Additionally, percentage of Ruminobacter amylophilus was significantly lower (P < 0.05) but percentage of Selenomonas ruminantium was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the SC group. In a word, dietary CTFR had a significant effect on degradation characteristics of forage and rumen microbial population. S. cerevisiae had positive effects on DM and NDF degradation rate or effective degradability of forage; S. cerevisiae increased rumen total bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and lactate-utilizing bacteria but reduced starch-degrading and lactate-producing bacteria. PMID:24883184

  16. Soil clay content underlies prion infection odds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    David, Walter W.; Walsh, D.P.; Farnsworth, Matthew L.; Winkelman, D.L.; Miller, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental factors-especially soil properties-have been suggested as potentially important in the transmission of infectious prion diseases. Because binding to montmorillonite (an aluminosilicate clay mineral) or clay-enriched soils had been shown to enhance experimental prion transmissibility, we hypothesized that prion transmission among mule deer might also be enhanced in ranges with relatively high soil clay content. In this study, we report apparent influences of soil clay content on the odds of prion infection in free-ranging deer. Analysis of data from prion-infected deer herds in northern Colorado, USA, revealed that a 1% increase in the clay-sized particle content in soils within the approximate home range of an individual deer increased its odds of infection by up to 8.9%. Our findings suggest that soil clay content and related environmental properties deserve greater attention in assessing risks of prion disease outbreaks and prospects for their control in both natural and production settings. ?? 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  17. Sigma decomposition: the CP-odd Lagrangian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hierro, I. M.; Merlo, L.; Rigolin, S.

    2016-04-01

    In Alonso et al., JHEP 12 (2014) 034, the CP-even sector of the effective chiral Lagrangian for a generic composite Higgs model with a symmetric coset has been constructed, up to four momenta. In this paper, the CP-odd couplings are studied within the same context. If only the Standard Model bosonic sources of custodial symmetry breaking are considered, then at most six independent operators form a basis. One of them is the weak- θ term linked to non-perturbative sources of CP violation, while the others describe CP-odd perturbative couplings between the Standard Model gauge bosons and an Higgs-like scalar belonging to the Goldstone boson sector. The procedure is then applied to three distinct exemplifying frameworks: the original SU(5)/SO(5) Georgi-Kaplan model, the minimal custodial-preserving SO(5)/SO(4) model and the minimal SU(3)/(SU(2) × U(1)) model, which intrinsically breaks custodial symmetry. Moreover, the projection of the high-energy electroweak effective theory to the low-energy chiral effective Lagrangian for a dynamical Higgs is performed, uncovering strong relations between the operator coefficients and pinpointing the differences with the elementary Higgs scenario.

  18. Proton emission from the deformed odd-odd nuclei near drip line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patial, M.; Arumugam, P.; Jain, A. K.; Maglione, E.; Ferreira, L. S.

    2016-01-01

    Proton emission from odd-odd nuclei is studied within the two quasiparticle plus rotor model which includes the non-adiabatic effects and the residual interaction between valence proton and neutron. Justification of the formalism is discussed through corroboration of our results with the experimental spectrum of 180Ta. Exact calculations are performed to get the proton emission halflives. Our results for the proton emitter 130Eu leads to the assignment of spin and parity Jπ = 1+ for the ground state. The role of Coriolis and residual neutron-proton interactions on the proton emission halflives and their interplay are also discussed.

  19. NUCLEAR PHYSICS: Description of Chiral Doublet Bands in Odd-Odd Cs Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Da-Li; Ding, Bin-Gang

    2010-08-01

    Properties of the chair doublet bands of the odd-odd Cs isotopes built on the πh11/2 otimesvh11/2 configuration are investigated systematically within the supersymmetry scheme including many-body interactions and possessing the SO(5)(or SU(5)) symmetry on the rotational symmetry. Quantitatively good results of the energy spectra, the energy staggering parameter as a function of the spin are obtained. The calculation shows that the stronger competition between the pairing and anti-pairing effects and the SU(3) symmetry broking more seriously exist in the stable chiral structure.

  20. Shell Model Description of the Odd-Odd Co and Cu Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Medina, N. H.; Allegro, P. R. P.; Oliveira, J. R. B. de; Ribas, R. V.; Seale, W. A.; Toufen, D. L.; Silveira, M. A. G.

    2007-10-26

    The known excited states of the odd-odd nuclei {sup 54,56,58,60}Co and 60,62,64,66Cu were interpreted in the framework of the large scale shell model (LSSM), using several effective interactions and configuration spaces. For the description of the negative parity states, we have allowed one particle excitation to the g{sub 9/2} orbital. The LSSM using the GXPF1 effective interaction reproduces well the first excited states in all of these nuclei.

  1. Marginal likelihood estimation for proportional odds models with right censored data.

    PubMed

    Lam, K F; Leung, T L

    2001-03-01

    One major aspect in medical research is to relate the survival times of patients with the relevant covariates or explanatory variables. The proportional hazards model has been used extensively in the past decades with the assumption that the covariate effects act multiplicatively on the hazard function, independent of time. If the patients become more homogeneous over time, say the treatment effects decrease with time or fade out eventually, then a proportional odds model may be more appropriate. In the proportional odds model, the odds ratio between patients can be expressed as a function of their corresponding covariate vectors, in which, the hazard ratio between individuals converges to unity in the long run. In this paper, we consider the estimation of the regression parameter for a semiparametric proportional odds model at which the baseline odds function is an arbitrary, non-decreasing function but is left unspecified. Instead of using the exact survival times, only the rank order information among patients is used. A Monte Carlo method is used to approximate the marginal likelihood function of the rank invariant transformation of the survival times which preserves the information about the regression parameter. The method can be applied to other transformation models with censored data such as the proportional hazards model, the generalized probit model or others. The proposed method is applied to the Veteran's Administration lung cancer trial data. PMID:11280846

  2. Executive Functioning Deficits in Relation to Symptoms of ADHD and/or ODD in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorell, Lisa B.; Wahlstedt, Cecilia

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated the relation between executive functioning and symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) in children aged 4-6. A population-based sample (n = 201) was used and laboratory measures of inhibition, working memory and verbal fluency and teacher ratings of…

  3. W${'}$ signatures with odd Higgs particles

    SciTech Connect

    Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Peterson, Andrea D.

    2014-08-13

    We point out that W' bosons may decay predominantly into Higgs particles associated with their broken gauge symmetry. We demonstrate this in a renormalizable model where the W' and W couplings to fermions differ only by an overall normalization. This "meta-sequential" W' boson decays into a scalar pair, with the charged one subsequently decaying into a W boson and a neutral scalar. These scalars are odd under a parity of the Higgs sector, which consists of a complex bidoublet and a doublet. Finally, the W' and Z' bosons have the same mass and branching fractions into scalars, and may show up at the LHC in final states involving one or two electroweak bosons and missing transverse energy.

  4. W$${'}$$ signatures with odd Higgs particles

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Peterson, Andrea D.

    2014-08-13

    We point out that W' bosons may decay predominantly into Higgs particles associated with their broken gauge symmetry. We demonstrate this in a renormalizable model where the W' and W couplings to fermions differ only by an overall normalization. This "meta-sequential" W' boson decays into a scalar pair, with the charged one subsequently decaying into a W boson and a neutral scalar. These scalars are odd under a parity of the Higgs sector, which consists of a complex bidoublet and a doublet. Finally, the W' and Z' bosons have the same mass and branching fractions into scalars, and may showmore » up at the LHC in final states involving one or two electroweak bosons and missing transverse energy.« less

  5. Against All Odds: Genocidal Trauma Is Associated with Longer Life-Expectancy of the Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Sagi-Schwartz, Abraham; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Linn, Shai; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2013-01-01

    Does surviving genocidal experiences, like the Holocaust, lead to shorter life-expectancy? Such an effect is conceivable given that most survivors not only suffered psychosocial trauma but also malnutrition, restriction in hygienic and sanitary facilities, and lack of preventive medical and health services, with potentially damaging effects for later health and life-expectancy. We explored whether genocidal survivors have a higher risk to die younger than comparisons without such background. This is the first population-based retrospective cohort study of the Holocaust, based on the entire population of immigrants from Poland to Israel (N = 55,220), 4–20 years old when the World War II started (1939), immigrating to Israel either between 1945 and 1950 (Holocaust group) or before 1939 (comparison group; not exposed to the Holocaust). Hazard of death – a long-term outcome of surviving genocidal trauma – was derived from the population-wide official data base of the National Insurance Institute of Israel. Cox regression yielded a significant hazard ratio (HR = 0.935, CI (95%) = 0.910–0.960), suggesting that the risk of death was reduced by 6.5 months for Holocaust survivors compared to non-Holocaust comparisons. The lower hazard was most substantial in males who were aged 10–15 (HR = 0.900, CI (95%) = 0.842–0.962, i.e., reduced by 10 months) or 16–20 years at the onset of the Holocaust (HR = 0.820, CI (95%) = 0.782–0.859, i.e., reduced by18 months). We found that against all odds genocidal survivors were likely to live longer. We suggest two explanations: Differential mortality during the Holocaust and “Posttraumatic Growth” associated with protective factors in Holocaust survivors or in their environment after World War II. PMID:23894427

  6. DISK MASS-TO-LIGHT RATIO DISTRIBUTION FROM STELLAR POPULATION SYNTHESIS: APPLICATION TO ROTATION CURVE DECOMPOSITION OF NGC 5278 (KPG 390 A)

    SciTech Connect

    Repetto, P.; Martinez-Garcia, Eric E.; Rosado, M.; Gabbasov, R.

    2013-03-01

    In this work we extend the study on the mass distribution of the spiral galaxy NGC 5278, performing 1D and 2D (GALFIT) bulge-disk decomposition to determine which components constitute the baryonic mass in this galaxy. Our analysis does not detect any bulge; instead we find a bright source probably related to the central active galactic nucleus and an exponential disk. We fix the stellar disk contribution to the rotation curve (RC) with broadband photometric observations and population synthesis models, to obtain the 2D mass distribution of the stellar disk. In the particular case of NGC 5278, we find that the typical assumption of considering the mass-to-luminosity ratio (M/L) of the disk as constant along the galactocentric radius is not valid. We also extract a baryonic RC from the mass profile to determine the inability of this baryonic RC and also the baryonic RC with more than and less than 30% disk mass (in order to consider the disk mass errors) to fit the entire RC. We perform the RC decomposition of NGC 5278 by considering the baryonic RC and four types of dark matter (DM) halo: Hernquist, Burkert, Navarro, Frenk, and White, and Einasto. Our results determine that the Hernquist DM halo better models our observed RC in the case of disk mass M{sub d} = 5.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M {sub Sun} and also with less than 30% disk mass. In the case of more than 30% disk mass, the cored Einasto (n < 4) DM halo is the best-fitting model.

  7. Intrinsic structures and associated rotational bands in medium-heavy deformed odd-odd nuclei. 2: Update supplement

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, B.; Sood, P.C.; Jain, A.K.

    1998-07-01

    The preceding article, Intrinsic Structures and Associated Rotational Bands in Medium-Heavy Deformed Odd-Odd Nuclei, 1, by D.M. Headly et al., presents the experimentally observed energy levels of odd-odd nuclei with 57 {le} Z {le} 81 and 87 {le} N {le} 117 with a literature cutoff date of August 1995. This supplement updates the experimental data specifically dealing with level structures of these nuclei through March 1998.

  8. Redistribution of reactive odd nitrogen in the lower arctic stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebler, G.; Fahey, D. W.; Kelly, K. K.; Montzka, D. D.; Carroll, M. A.; Tuck, A. F.; Heidt, L. E.; Pollock, W. H.; Gregory, G. L.; Vedder, J. F.

    1990-01-01

    In-situ measurements of total reactive odd nitrogen NO(y), were made from the NASA DC-8 aircraft in the lower arctic stratosphere during the 1989 Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition. Throughout January and February, NO(y) mixing ratios were typically between 0.5 and 3 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) at altitudes between 10 and 12.5 km. During several flights late in the mission, events of unusually light NO(y) occurred with mixing ratios up to 12 ppbv at these altitudes. Simultaneous measurements of N2O, O3, and H2O during these events suggest that large changes in NO(y) are not expected. The elevated NO(y) values are interpreted as a vertical redistribution of NO(y) in the lower stratosphere resulting from gravitational sedimentation of aerosol particles containing HNO3. No evidence of the redistribution of H2O is noted, consistent with observations of denitrification without dehydration higher in the stratosphere.

  9. THE RELATION BETWEEN DYNAMICAL MASS-TO-LIGHT RATIO AND COLOR FOR MASSIVE QUIESCENT GALAXIES OUT TO z ∼ 2 AND COMPARISON WITH STELLAR POPULATION SYNTHESIS MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Van de Sande, Jesse; Franx, Marijn; Kriek, Mariska; Bezanson, Rachel; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.

    2015-02-01

    We explore the relation between the dynamical mass-to-light ratio (M/L) and rest-frame color of massive quiescent galaxies out to z ∼ 2. We use a galaxy sample with measured stellar velocity dispersions in combination with Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based multi-band photometry. Our sample spans a large range in log M {sub dyn}/L {sub g} (of 1.6 dex) and log M {sub dyn}/L {sub K} (of 1.3 dex). There is a strong, approximately linear correlation between the M/L for different wavebands and rest-frame color. The root-mean-square scatter in log M {sub dyn}/L residuals implies that it is possible to estimate the M/L with an accuracy of ∼0.25 dex from a single rest-frame optical color. Stellar population synthesis (SPS) models with a Salpeter stellar initial mass function (IMF) cannot simultaneously match M {sub dyn}/L {sub g} versus (g – z){sub rest-frame} and M {sub dyn}/L {sub K} versus (g – K){sub rest-frame}. By changing the slope of the IMF we are still unable to explain the M/L of the bluest and reddest galaxies. We find that an IMF with a slope between α = 2.35 and α = 1.35 provides the best match. We also explore a broken IMF with a Salpeter slope at M < 1 M {sub ☉} and M > 4 M {sub ☉} and a slope α in the intermediate region. The data favor a slope of α = 1.35 over α = 2.35. Nonetheless, our results show that variations between different SPS models are comparable to the IMF variations. In our analysis we assume that the variation in M/L and color is driven by differences in age, and that other contributions (e.g., metallicity evolution, dark matter) are small. These assumptions may be an important source of uncertainty as galaxies evolve in more complex ways.

  10. Structure of the yrast band in the odd-odd deformed nucleus {sup 156}Pm

    SciTech Connect

    Sood, P. C.; Sai, K. Vijay; Gowrishankar, R.; Sainath, M.

    2011-05-15

    The six-level sequence deduced for the odd-odd nucleus {sup 156}Pm in the high-spin studies following spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf is shown to constitute the K{sup {pi}=}4{sup +} yrast band having the two-quasiparticle configuration {l_brace}p:5/2[532]+ n:3/2[521]{r_brace}. Spin parities I{sup {pi}=}4{sup +} through 9{sup +} are assigned to the earlier suggested six levels. The location and the decay {gamma}'s of the 10{sup +} level of this band are indicated. It is also pointed out that there are no {gamma} rays common to these postfission high-spin spectra and those seen in the {sup 156}Nd {beta}-decay studies.

  11. High-Spin States in the Odd-Odd Nucleus 92Nb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yi-Heng; Lu, Jing-Bin; Luo, Peng-Wei; Li, Guang-Sheng; Li, Hong-Wei; Wu, Xiao-Guang; He, Chuang-Ye; Zheng, Yun; Ma, Ke-Yan; Yang, Dong; Li, Cong-Bo; Hu, Shi-Peng; Liu, Jia-Jian; Wang, Jin-Long; Yao, Shun-He; Chen, Qi-Ming; Zhong, Jian

    2014-04-01

    High spin states of the odd-odd nucleus 92Nb are investigated using the 82Se (14N, 4n)92Nb reaction at a beam energy of 54 MeV. The level scheme of the 92Nb was extended up to Jπ =(16+) at about 7.3 MeV and Jπ=(21-) at about 9.7 MeV. According to systematic analyses and a comparison with the neighboring nucleus, the higher spin states could be interpreted by the multi-particle excitations in the π(f5/2,p3/2,p1/2,g9/2)ν(p1/2,g9/2,d5/2, g7/2) configuration space.

  12. Isovector pairing in odd-odd N=Z {sup 50}Mn.

    SciTech Connect

    O'Leary, C. D. O.; Bentley, M. A.; Lenzi, S. M.; Martinez-Pinedo, G.; Warner, D. D.; Bruce, A. M.; Cameron, J. A.; Carpenter, M. P.; Davids, C. N.; Fallon, P.; Frankland, L.; Gelletly, W.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Joss, D. T.; Lister, C. J.; Regan, P. H.; Reiter, P.; Rubio, B.; Seweryniak, D.; Svensson, C. E.; Vincent, S. M.; Williams, S. J.; Physics; Univ. of York; Univ. of Liverpool; Keele Univ.; Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Universit and INFN; Univ. Basel; CLRC Daresbury Lab.; Univ. of Brighton; McMaster Univ.; LBNL; Univ. of Surrey; CSIC-Uni.

    2002-01-17

    High-spin states in the odd-odd N=Z nucleus {sup 50}{sub 25}Mn have been investigated. A sequence of states up to J{sup {pi}}=6{sup +} has been assigned as the T=1 analogue of the yrast band in {sup 50}{sub 24}Cr for the first time. The differences in energy between levels in these bands are interpreted in terms of rotational alignments and the effect they have on the Coulomb energy of the nucleus. Comparisons with shell model calculations show that the Coulomb energy difference between the T=1 analogue structures is an important indicator of the competition between isovector pairing modes in N=Z nuclei and their isobars.

  13. Meeting report for "OddPols" 2014: the odds invite an even.

    PubMed

    Roy-Engel, Astrid M

    2015-02-01

    The Ninth International Biennial Conference on RNA Polymerases I and III (the "OddPols") was held on June 19-21, 2014 at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA. Sponsored by New England Biolabs, the Cayman Chemical Company, the Rackham Graduate School and the University of Michigan Health System, and organized by David Engelke, Craig Pikaard, Lawrence Rothblum, Andrzej Wierzbicki and Astrid Engel. This year at the conference, the "odds" were increased by expanding the usual topics on the advances in RNA polymerases I and III research to include presentations on RNA polymerase IV and V. The keynote speaker, Craig Pikaard, opened the meeting with his presentation entitled "Five nuclear multisubunit RNA polymerases". The meeting drew attendees from fourteen countries that shared their research discoveries through oral and poster presentations. The talks were organized into 11 sessions covering seven distinct topics. Here we present some of the highlights from the meeting using summaries provided by the participants. PMID:25445280

  14. Cortisol and GH: odd and controversial ideas.

    PubMed

    Duclos, Martine; Guinot, Michel; Le Bouc, Yves

    2007-10-01

    Activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 (GH/IGF-1) axis represents a physiological response to the energetic, metabolic, vascular, and sometimes neurophysiologic or psychological needs of exercise. Long-lasting increased and (or) decreased secretion of cortisol (the end-product of the HPA axis) or of GH is detrimental to health. This suggests that the activity of these hormonal axes is finely tuned toward homeostasia, tolerating limited prolonged homeostatic disruption. However, the relationships between exercise training and cortisol and GH secretion are full of odd and controversial ideas. In this review, the relationships between HPA axis adaptation to exercise training or disadaptation with overtraining will be discussed, with an emphasis on the limitation on the current measures used to profile hormonal activity. Knowledge of these relationships between cortisol and GH responses to exercise is an important tool to fight against doping with glucocorticoids and GH, and their health-damaging consequences. PMID:18059614

  15. Environment and energy: an odd duo

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.S.

    1989-03-01

    Some people believe that environmental policies will drive energy needs. Others believe that energy issues in the 101st US Congress will be determined by environmental concerns. But whatever may turn out to be the case, neither the demands of energy or of the environment can be met without consideration of the other. Environmental progress must be wed to energy issues such as efficiency and technology. Traditional approaches to their environmental problems always run into energy considerations, to be sure, but one way to avoid this collision of environmental and energy demands is to take an alternative, nontraditional approach. In the traditional approach, solutions to environmental problems such as global warming, acid rain, and nonattainment make energy-using demands, run into budgetary restraints, cost money, and include a command and control approach. The latter is based on the theory that by commanding acid rain control, for example, in legislation, the acid rain problem can be controlled. If and when they choose to move ahead, command control techniques certainly will be avoided; rather, the market place will sort out the conflict between this odd duo of environment-energy issues.

  16. Construction of an odds model of coronary heart disease using published information: the Cardiovascular Health Improvement Model (CHIME)

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Christopher J; Taylor, Paul; Potts, Henry WW

    2008-01-01

    Background There is a need for a new cardiovascular disease model that includes a wider range of relevant risk factors, in particular lifestyle factors, to aid targeting of interventions and improve population models of the impact of cardiovascular disease and preventive strategies. The model needs to be applicable to a wider population including different ethnic groups, different countries and to those with and without cardiovascular disease. This paper describes the construction of the Cardiovascular Health Improvement Model that aims to meet these requirements. Method An odds model is used. Information was taken from 2003 mortality statistics for England and Wales, the Health Survey for England 2003 and published data on relative risk in those with and without CVD and mean blood pressure values in hypertensives. The odds ratios used were taken from the INTERHEART study. Results A worked example is given calculating the 10-year coronary heart disease risk for a 57 year-old non-diabetic male with no personal or family history of cardiovascular disease, who smokes 30 cigarettes a day and has a systolic blood pressure of 137 mmHg, a total cholesterol (TC) of 6.2 mmol/l, a high density lipoprotein (HDL) of 1.3 mol/l, and a body mass index of 21. He neither drinks regularly nor exercises. He can give no reliable information about his mental health or fruit and vegetable intake. His 10-year risk of CHD death is 2.47%. Conclusion This paper demonstrates a method for developing a CHD risk model. Further improvements could be made to the model with additional information. The method is applicable to other causes of death. PMID:18976488

  17. Odd-even mass difference and isospin dependent pairing interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Bertulani, C. A.; Lue, H. F.; Sagawa, H.

    2009-08-15

    The neutron and proton odd-even mass differences are studied with Hartree-Fock + BCS (HF+BCS) calculations with Skyrme interactions and an isospin dependent contact pairing interaction, which is recently derived from a microscopic nucleon-nucleon interaction. To this end, we perform HF+BCS calculations for even and odd semi-magic tin and lead isotopes together with even and odd Z isotones with N=50 and 82. The filling approximation is applied to the last unoccupied particle in odd nuclei. Comparisons with the experimental data show a clear manifestation of the isospin dependent pairing correlations in both proton and neutron pairing gaps.

  18. The Wigner caustic on shell and singularities of odd functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domitrz, Wojciech; Manoel, Miriam; Rios, Pedro de M.

    2013-09-01

    We study the Wigner caustic on shell of a Lagrangian submanifold L of affine symplectic space. We present the physical motivation for studying singularities of the Wigner caustic on shell and present its mathematical definition in terms of a generating family. Because such a generating family is an odd deformation of an odd function, we study simple singularities in the category of odd functions and their odd versal deformations, applying these results to classify the singularities of the Wigner caustic on shell, interpreting these singularities in terms of the local geometry of L.

  19. Gender ratio in a clinical population sample, age of diagnosis and duration of assessment in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Marion; McKenzie, Karen; Johnson, Tess; Catchpole, Ciara; O'Hare, Anne; McClure, Iain; Forsyth, Kirsty; McCartney, Deborah; Murray, Aja

    2016-07-01

    This article reports on gender ratio, age of diagnosis and the duration of assessment procedures in autism spectrum disorder diagnosis in a national study which included all types of clinical services for children and adults. Findings are reported from a retrospective case note analysis undertaken with a representative sample of 150 Scottish children and adults recently diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. The study reports key findings that the gender ratio in this consecutively referred cohort is lower than anticipated in some age groups and reduces with increasing age. The gender ratio in children, together with the significant difference in the mean age of referral and diagnosis for girls compared to boys, adds evidence of delayed recognition of autism spectrum disorder in younger girls. There was no significant difference in duration of assessment for males and females suggesting that delays in diagnosis of females occur prior to referral for assessment. Implications for practice and research are considered. PMID:26825959

  20. Assessing Differential Step Functioning in Polytomous Items Using a Common Odds Ratio Estimator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penfield, Randall D.

    2007-01-01

    Many statistics used in the assessment of differential item functioning (DIF) in polytomous items yield a single item-level index of measurement invariance that collapses information across all response options of the polytomous item. Utilizing a single item-level index of DIF can, however, be misleading if the magnitude or direction of the DIF…

  1. Odds Ratio, Delta, ETS Classification, and Standardization Measures of DIF Magnitude for Binary Logistic Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Patrick O.; McHorney, Colleen A.; Stump, Timothy E.; Perkins, Anthony J.

    2007-01-01

    Previous methodological and applied studies that used binary logistic regression (LR) for detection of differential item functioning (DIF) in dichotomously scored items either did not report an effect size or did not employ several useful measures of DIF magnitude derived from the LR model. Equations are provided for these effect size indices.…

  2. Asymptotically Unbiased Estimation of Exposure Odds Ratios in Complete Records Logistic Regression

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, Jonathan W.; Harel, Ofer; Carpenter, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Missing data are a commonly occurring threat to the validity and efficiency of epidemiologic studies. Perhaps the most common approach to handling missing data is to simply drop those records with 1 or more missing values, in so-called “complete records” or “complete case” analysis. In this paper, we bring together earlier-derived yet perhaps now somewhat neglected results which show that a logistic regression complete records analysis can provide asymptotically unbiased estimates of the association of an exposure of interest with an outcome, adjusted for a number of confounders, under a surprisingly wide range of missing-data assumptions. We give detailed guidance describing how the observed data can be used to judge the plausibility of these assumptions. The results mean that in large epidemiologic studies which are affected by missing data and analyzed by logistic regression, exposure associations may be estimated without bias in a number of settings where researchers might otherwise assume that bias would occur. PMID:26429998

  3. Asymptotically Unbiased Estimation of Exposure Odds Ratios in Complete Records Logistic Regression.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Jonathan W; Harel, Ofer; Carpenter, James R

    2015-10-15

    Missing data are a commonly occurring threat to the validity and efficiency of epidemiologic studies. Perhaps the most common approach to handling missing data is to simply drop those records with 1 or more missing values, in so-called "complete records" or "complete case" analysis. In this paper, we bring together earlier-derived yet perhaps now somewhat neglected results which show that a logistic regression complete records analysis can provide asymptotically unbiased estimates of the association of an exposure of interest with an outcome, adjusted for a number of confounders, under a surprisingly wide range of missing-data assumptions. We give detailed guidance describing how the observed data can be used to judge the plausibility of these assumptions. The results mean that in large epidemiologic studies which are affected by missing data and analyzed by logistic regression, exposure associations may be estimated without bias in a number of settings where researchers might otherwise assume that bias would occur. PMID:26429998

  4. Assessing Differential Step Functioning in Polytomous Items Using a Common Odds Ratio Estimator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penfield, Randall D.

    2007-01-01

    Many statistics used in the assessment of differential item functioning (DIF) in polytomous items yield a single item-level index of measurement invariance that collapses information across all response options of the polytomous item. Utilizing a single item-level index of DIF can, however, be misleading if the magnitude or direction of the DIF

  5. Depression and violence: a Swedish population study

    PubMed Central

    Fazel, Seena; Wolf, Achim; Chang, Zheng; Larsson, Henrik; Goodwin, Guy M; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Depression increases the risk of a range of adverse outcomes including suicide, premature mortality, and self-harm, but associations with violent crime remain uncertain. We aimed to determine the risks of violent crime in patients with depression and to investigate the association between depressive symptoms and violent crime in a cohort of twins. Methods We conducted two studies. The first was a total population study in Sweden of patients with outpatient diagnoses of depressive disorders (n=47 158) between 2001 and 2009 and no lifetime inpatient episodes. Patients were age and sex matched to general population controls (n=898 454) and risk of violent crime was calculated. Additionally, we compared the odds of violent crime in unaffected half-siblings (n=15 534) and full siblings (n=33 516) of patients with the general population controls. In sensitivity analyses, we examined the contribution of substance abuse, sociodemographic factors, and previous criminality. In the second study, we studied a general population sample of twins (n=23 020) with continuous measures of depressive symptoms for risk of violent crime. Findings During a mean follow-up period of 3·2 years, 641 (3·7%) of the depressed men and 152 (0·5%) of the depressed women violently offended after diagnosis. After adjustment for sociodemographic confounders, the odds ratio of violent crime was 3·0 (95% CI 2·8–3·3) compared with the general population controls. The odds of violent crime in half-siblings (adjusted odds ratio 1·2 [95% CI 1·1–1·4]) and full siblings (1·5, 95% CI 1·3–1·6) were significantly increased, showing some familial confounding of the association between depression and violence. However, the odds increase remained significant in individuals with depression after adjustment for familial confounding, and in those without substance abuse comorbidity or a previous violent conviction (all p<0·0001). In the twin study, during the mean follow-up time of 5·4 years, 88 violent crimes were recorded. Depressive symptoms were associated with increased risk of violent crime and a sensitivity analysis identified little difference in risk estimate when all crimes (violent and non-violent) was the outcome. Interpretation Risk of violent crime was increased in individuals with depression after adjustment for familial, sociodemographic and individual factors in two longitudinal studies. Clinical guidelines should consider recommending violence risk assessment in certain subgroups with depression. Funding Wellcome Trust and the Swedish Research Council. PMID:26236648

  6. Spectroscopy of the odd-odd fp-shell nucleus {sup 52}Sc from secondary fragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Gade, A.; Bazin, D.; Mueller, W.F.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Carpenter, M.P.; Zhu, S.; Brown, B.A.; Campbell, C.M.; Cook, J.M.; Dinca, D.-C.; Glasmacher, T.; Terry, J.R.; Deacon, A.N.; Freeman, S.J.; Kay, B.P.; Mantica, P.F.

    2006-03-15

    The odd-odd fp-shell nucleus {sup 52}Sc was investigated using in-beam {gamma}-ray spectroscopy following secondary fragmentation of a {sup 55}V and {sup 57}Cr cocktail beam. Aside from the known {gamma}-ray transition at 674(5) keV, a new decay at E{sub {gamma}}=212(3) keV was observed. It is attributed to the depopulation of a low-lying excited level. This new state is discussed in the framework of shell-model calculations with the GXPF1, GXPF1A, and KB3G effective interactions. These calculations are found to be fairly robust for the low-lying level scheme of {sup 52}Sc irrespective of the choice of the effective interaction. In addition, the frequency of spin values predicted by the shell model is successfully modeled by a spin distribution formulated in a statistical approach with an empirical, energy-independent spin-cutoff parameter.

  7. First observation of scissors mode states in an odd-mass nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Bauske, I.; Arias, J.M.; von Brentano, P.; Frank, A.; Friedrichs, H.; Heil, R.D.; Herzberg, R.; Hoyler, F.; Van Isacker, P.; Kneissl, U.; Margraf, J.; Pitz, H.H.; Wesselborg, C.; Zilges, A. Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Fisica, Universidad de Sevilla, Apartado 1065, 41080 Sevilla Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet zu Koeln, W-5000 Koeln Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Apartado Postal 70-543, Mexico 04510 and Instituto de Fisica, Laboratorio de Cuernavaca, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Giessen, W-6300 Giessen Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Tuebingen, W-7400 Tuebingen Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford Gu2 5XH, England, and Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds, Boite Postal 5027, F-14021 Caen CEDEX )

    1993-08-16

    Nuclear resonance fluorescence experiments are reported to search for enhanced [ital M]1 scissors mode states in the deformed odd-mass nucleus [sup 163]Dy. A concentration of dipole strengths near 3 MeV excitation energy is found, which fits nicely into the systematics observed for [ital M]1 excitations in the neighboring even-even Dy isotopes. The observed strength distribution and the decay branching ratios are discussed in the context of the interacting boson-fermion model.

  8. The cutoff level of free/total prostate specific antigen (f/t PSA) ratios in the diagnosis of prostate cancer: a validation study on a Turkish patient population in different age categories.

    PubMed

    Erol, Bulent; Gulpinar, Murat Tolga; Bozdogan, Gurdal; Ozkanli, Seyma; Onem, Kadir; Mungan, Görkem; Bektas, Sibel; Tokgoz, Husnu; Akduman, Bulent; Mungan, Aydin

    2014-11-01

    We investigated an optimal cutoff level of free/total PSA ratios (f/t PSA) in predicting prostate cancer in different age groups, focusing on the avoidance of unnecessary prostate biopsies. A total of 4955 men were enrolled into the study. Serum tPSA, fPSA, and f/t PSA ratios were determined for the study population. All males who had suspicious digital rectal examination and tPSA > 4 ng/mL underwent transrectal ultrasonography-guided prostate biopsy. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for each group were generated by plotting the sensitivity versus 1-specificity for the f/t PSA ratio. The sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), and negative likelihood ratio (NLR) were obtained using various f/t PSA ratio cutoffs for different age groups. There were 657 patients with a PSA level of 4-10 ng/mL. According to sensitivity and specificity f/t% PSA cutoff points were determined to be 10%, 15%, 15%, and 10% in 50-59 years, 60-69 years, >70 years, and all ages categories, respectively, in patients with initial PSA level of 4-10 ng/mL. f/t PSA ratio had an area under the curve (AUC) value of 0.81 (95% confidence level: 0.80-0.82) for all age groups in detecting prostate cancer. f/t PSA ratio has an AUC value of 0.669 (0.632-0.705) in detecting prostate cancer among patients with a PSA level of 4-10 ng/mL. Ten percent of f/t PSA ratio had the highest specificity with PLR and 30% f/t PSA ratio had the highest sensitivity with lower NLR in the all-age categories. The current study shows that the use of f/t PSA ratio in patients with PSA levels of 4-10 ng/mL should enhance the specificity of PSA screening and decrease the number of unnecessary biopsies. The age-related changes warrant further investigation in a large, multicentric, and multinational population to improve the clinical use of f/t PSA cutoffs. PMID:25458043

  9. Coexisting Psychiatric Problems and Stressful Life Events in Adults with Symptoms of ADHD--A Large Swedish Population-Based Study of Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrichs, Bettina; Igl, Wilmar; Larsson, Henrik; Larsson, Jan-Olov

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the associations of subtypes of adult ADHD with other psychiatric problems, stressful life events, and sex differences. Method: Odds ratios were calculated using information from 17,899 participants from a population-based survey of adult twins born in Sweden between 1959 and 1985. Results: Symptoms of attention deficit

  10. Coexisting Psychiatric Problems and Stressful Life Events in Adults with Symptoms of ADHD--A Large Swedish Population-Based Study of Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrichs, Bettina; Igl, Wilmar; Larsson, Henrik; Larsson, Jan-Olov

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the associations of subtypes of adult ADHD with other psychiatric problems, stressful life events, and sex differences. Method: Odds ratios were calculated using information from 17,899 participants from a population-based survey of adult twins born in Sweden between 1959 and 1985. Results: Symptoms of attention deficit…

  11. Utilization of Primary and Secondary Medical Care among Disadvantaged Populations: A Log-Linear Model Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Din, Gregory Yom; Zugman, Zinaida; Alla, Khashper

    2014-01-01

    Aim: We examined how, where an overall population is covered by universal health insurance, characteristics of disadvantaged populations interact to influence inequality in primary and secondary medical care utilization. Subject and Methods: Disadvantaged populations, the focus of the study, were defined as populations who have lower socio-economic status (SES), who are elderly and/or reside in a peripheral area. Data from the 2009 Israeli National Health Survey were analysed using log-linear models to estimate utilization of medical care. Results: The main findings were: a) pro-poor utilization of primary medical care among elderly populations, with higher odds ratios for low SES populations in the periphery; (b) lack of interaction between SES and primary medical care utilization among younger populations, between SES and secondary medical care utilization among the elderly and pro-rich utilization of secondary medical care among younger populations who did not regularly visit general practitioners (GP); (c) the odds ratios of secondary medical care utilization increased as SES decreased for both elderly and younger populations who also regularly visited a GP. Conclusion: Potential policy implications for disadvantaged populations, regarding possible inequality in primary and secondary medical care utilization, can be drawn using log-linear model analysis of interactions among characteristics (SES, age, location) of disadvantaged populations. PMID:25168981

  12. Apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I ratio in relation to the metabolic syndrome, its components, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the population of Georgia.

    PubMed

    Makaridze, Z; Giorgadze, E; Asatiani, K

    2014-09-01

    The study was designed to assess the association of ApolipoproteinB/ApolipoproteinA-I (ApoB/ApoA-I) ratio with metabolic syndrome, its components, total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in the population of Georgia. The subjects were 1522 Georgians of Caucasian origin aged 18-80 (653 women and 869 men) without diabetes mellitus. The subjects were divided into two groups. High ApoB/ApoA-I ratio group was defined as gender-specific upper quartile (≥0.88 for women and (≥1.0 for men) and low ApoB/ApoA-I ratio group as the remaining three quartiles (<0.88 for women and <1.0 for men). ApoB/ApoA-I ratio was significantly higher in patients with vs. without MetS (p<.0001). Mean values of ApoB/ApoA-I ratio significantly increased as the numbers of MetS components increased (p<.0001 in both sexes). After adjustment for age and gender, ApoB/ApoA-I ratio was associated significantly with MetS as definition (OR=1.86), IR as definition (OR=9.83), LDL-C (OR=1.99), systolic pressure (OR=3.31), diastolic pressure (OR=1.64), fasting glucose (OR=2.46), triglycerides (OR=2.52), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR=7.08) (all p<0.05). PMID:25341235

  13. Comparison of model results transporting the odd nitrogen family with results transporting separate odd nitrogen species

    SciTech Connect

    Douglass, A. R.; Jackman, C. H.; Stolarski, R. S.

    1989-07-20

    We have developed a fast two-dimensional residual circulation stratospheric model. In order to calculate possible effects of long-term changes for trace gases for a large number of scenarios and to examine the model sensitivities to dynamical and photochemical assumptions and inputs, the model is designed to minimize computer requirements. The species continuity equations are solved using process splitting, that is, by successively applying the operators associated with advective changes with photochemical and diffusive forcing. The first study undertaken with this model concerns family chemistry approximations, in which groups of species are related by photochemical equilibrium assumptions and transported as one species. These assumptions are tested by comparing results for the family transport model (FTM), in which odd nitrogen (NO/sub y/=N+NO+NO/sub 2/+NO/sub 3/+2N/sub 2/O/sub 5/ +HO/sub 2/NO/sub 2/+ClONO/sub 2/+HNO/sub 3/) is transported as a family, with the results for a separate transport model (STM) in which HNO/sub 3/, HO/sub 2/NO/sub 2/, ClONO/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/O/sub 5/ are transported separately from NO/sub /ital x//=N+NO+NO/sub 2/+NO/sub 3/. Two cases are considered: (1) a current atmosphere annual cycle; and (2) a typical scenario for increased fluorocarbons, methane, and nitrous oxide. Although there are differences in odd nitrogen species partitioning, especially at high latitudes, the calculated O/sub 3/ distributions are nearly identical. For the perturbation scenario the annual average column ozone change and its temporal and spatial characteristics are nearly the same for the FTM and the STM. /copyright/ American Geophysical Union 1989

  14. Substituting homemade fruit juice for sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with lower odds of metabolic syndrome among Hispanic adults.

    PubMed

    Mattei, Josiemer; Malik, Vasanti; Hu, Frank B; Campos, Hannia

    2012-06-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) has been associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS); however, studies conducted on Hispanic adults are scarce. To determine the association between beverages consumed by Hispanic adults and MetS and its components, data were analyzed in 1872 Costa Rican adults who served as controls of a population-based, case-control study of coronary heart disease. Multivariate-adjusted means were calculated for components of MetS by servings (never, ? 1/wk; 2-6/wk, ? 1/d) of 2 traditional fruit-based beverages ("fresco" and freshly-squeezed homemade fruit juice, separately) and 2 SSB (instant drinks and regular sodas, separately and combined). The prevalence ratio (PR) of MetS was calculated for each beverage and the OR was calculated by substituting one serving of homemade fruit juice or water for one of SSB. Significant positive trends were observed for increasing servings of instant drinks with plasma TG and waist circumference and for regular soda with waist circumference (all P-trend < 0.001). Increasing servings of homemade fruit juice were positively associated with HDL cholesterol (P-trend = 0.033). Consuming ?1 serving/d of instant drinks was associated with a higher PR of MetS [1.42 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.83)] compared with no consumption. Substituting one serving of homemade fruit juice for instant drink was associated with 29% (95% CI: 7, 47%) lower odds of MetS and for regular soda with 30% (95% CI: 1, 50%) lower odds. Substituting water for combined SSB was marginally significant (OR = 0.86 (95% CI: 0.74, 1.00). In conclusion, reducing the consumption of SSB and substituting them with homemade fruit juices in moderation may be a culturally appropriate approach to lower MetS among Hispanic adults. PMID:22551801

  15. The competition between alpha decay and spontaneous fission in odd-even and odd-odd nuclei in the range 99 ≤ Z ≤ 129

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhosh, K. P.; Priyanka, B.

    2015-08-01

    The predictions on the mode of decay of the odd-even and odd-odd isotopes of heavy and superheavy nuclei with Z = 99- 129, in the range 228 ≤ A ≤ 336, have been done within the Coulomb and proximity potential model for deformed nuclei (CPPMDN). A comparison of our calculated alpha half lives with the values computed using other theoretical models shows good agreement with each other. An extensive study on the spontaneous fission half lives of all the isotopes under study has been performed to identify the long-lived isotopes in the mass region. The study reveals that the alpha decay half lives and the mode of decay of the isotopes with Z = 109, 111, 113, 115 and 117, evaluated using our formalisms, agree well with the experimental observations. As our study on the odd-even and odd-odd isotopes of Z = 99- 129 predicts that, the isotopes 238,240-25499, 244,246-258101, 248,250,252-260,262103, 254,256,258-262,264105, 258,260,262-264,266107, 262,264,266-274109, 266,268-279111, 270-284,286113, 272-289,291115, 274-299117, 276-307119, 281-314121, 287-320,322123, 295-325125, 302-327127 and 309-329129 survive fission and have alpha decay channel as the prominent mode of decay, these nuclei could possibly be synthesized in the laboratory and this could be of great interest to the experimentalists. The behavior of these nuclei against the proton decay has also been studied to identify the probable proton emitters in this region of nuclei.

  16. The Link between Peer Relations, Prosocial Behavior, and ODD/ADHD Symptoms in 7–9-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Paap, Muirne C. S.; Haraldsen, Ira R.; Breivik, Kyrre; Butcher, Phillipa R.; Hellem, Frøydis M.; Stormark, Kjell M.

    2013-01-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are characterized by symptoms that hinder successful positive interaction with peers. The main goal of this study was to examine if the presence of symptoms of ODD and ADHD affects the relationship between positive social behavior and peer status found in 7–9-year-old children who show symptoms typical of ADHD and/or ODD. Furthermore, the possible interaction with sex was investigated. We used data collected in the first wave of The Bergen Child Study of mental health (BCS), a prospective longitudinal total population study of children's developmental and mental health. The target population consisted of children in the second to the fourth, in all public, private, and special schools in Bergen, Norway, in the fall of 2002 (N = 9430). All 79 primary schools in Bergen participated in the study. Both teacher (8809 complete cases) and parent (6253 complete cases) report were used in the analyses. ADHD and ODD scores were estimated using the Swanson Noland and Pelham rating scale version IV (SNAP-IV), and peer problems and prosocial behavior were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). We replicated the relationship between peer problems and prosocial behavior found previously in typically developing children. Our results showed that the relationship between peer problems and prosocial behavior became weaker as the ODD symptoms increased in number and severity. For ADHD this effect was only found in the teacher report of the children. A sex effect for ODD symptoms was found only using the parent report: boys with ODD symptoms showed less prosocial behavior than girls with similar levels of ODD symptoms. Since this effect was not found using the teacher data, it may imply a situational effect (school/home) for girls with high levels of ODD. The moderator effect of ODD/ADHD was comparable for boys and girls. Our findings suggest that even if children with ADHD/ODD symptoms have the opportunity to practice their social skills in peer relationships, this is not necessarily accompanied by an increase in prosocial behavior. PMID:24286065

  17. Obese Mothers have Lower Odds of Experiencing Pro-breastfeeding Hospital Practices than Mothers of Normal Weight: CDC Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), 2004-2008.

    PubMed

    Kair, Laura R; Colaizy, Tarah T

    2016-03-01

    Objectives This study examines the extent to which a mother's pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) category is associated with her exposure to pro-breastfeeding hospital practices. Methods Data from the 2004-2008 CDC PRAMS were analyzed for three states (Illinois, Maine, and Vermont) that had administered an optional survey question about hospital pro-breastfeeding practices. Results Of 19,145 mothers surveyed, 19 % were obese (pre-pregnancy BMI ≥ 30). Obese mothers had lower odds than mothers of normal weight of initiating breastfeeding [70 vs. 79 % (unweighted), p < 0.0001]. Compared with women of normal weight, obese mothers had lower odds of being exposed to pro-breastfeeding hospital practices during the birth hospitalization. Specifically, obese mothers had higher odds of using a pacifier in the hospital [odds ratio (OR) 1.31, 95 % confidence interval (CI) (1.17-1.48), p < 0.0001] and lower odds of: a staff member providing them with information about breastfeeding [OR 0.71, 95 % CI (0.57-0.89), p = 0.002], a staff member helping them breastfeed [OR 0.69, 95 % CI (0.61-0.78), p < 0.0001], breastfeeding in the first hour after delivery [OR 0.55, 95 % CI (0.49-0.62), p < 0.0001], being given a telephone number for breastfeeding help [OR 0.65, 95 % CI (0.57-0.74), p < 0.0001], rooming in [OR 0.84, 95 % CI (0.73-0.97), p = 0.02], and being instructed to breastfeed on demand [OR 0.66, 95 % CI (0.58-0.75), p < 0.0001]. Adjusting for multiple covariates, all associations except rooming in remained significant. Conclusions Obesity stigma may be a determinant of breastfeeding outcomes for obese mothers. Breastfeeding support should be improved for this at-risk population. PMID:26515471

  18. APOL1 Kidney Risk Alleles: Population Genetics and Disease Associations

    PubMed Central

    Limou, Sophie; Nelson, George W.; Kopp, Jeffrey B.; Winkler, Cheryl A.

    2014-01-01

    APOL1 kidney disease is a unique case in the field of the genetics of common disease: 2 variants (termed G1 and G2) with high population frequency have been repeatedly associated with nondiabetic CKDs, with very strong effect size (odds ratios 3–29) in populations of sub-Saharan African descent. This review provides an update on the spectrum of APOL1 kidney disease and on the worldwide distribution of these kidney risk variants. We also summarize the proper way to run a recessive analysis on joint and independent effects of APOL1 G1 and G2 kidney risk variants. PMID:25168832

  19. Evening Snacking Might Raise Odds for Breast Cancer's Return

    MedlinePlus

    ... 158068.html Evening Snacking Might Raise Odds for Breast Cancer's Return Women who fasted less than 13 hours ... 31, 2016 THURSDAY, March 31, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Breast cancer patients fond of midnight snacking may be at ...

  20. More IVF Tries Improve Odds of Having a Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_156347.html More IVF Tries Improve Odds of Having a Baby Some ... three-to-four cycles of in vitro fertilization (IVF), a new British study suggests. Among more than ...

  1. Underactive Thyroid May Raise Odds for Type 2 Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... 158132.html Underactive Thyroid May Raise Odds for Type 2 Diabetes: Study Experts say many thyroid patients are already ... Services, or federal policy. More Health News on: Diabetes Type 2 Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Diabetes ...

  2. Two Genes May Raise Odds for Fraternal Twin Pregnancies

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Two Genes May Raise Odds for Fraternal Twin Pregnancies Variants make the release of multiple eggs ... News) -- Although it's long been known that fraternal twins run in families, researchers say they've just ...

  3. Characterization of isomers in the neutron-rich odd-odd nucleus {sup 156}Pm

    SciTech Connect

    Sood, P. C.; Gowrishankar, R; Sai, K. Vijay; Sainath, M.

    2011-02-15

    Critical examination of the experimental data from {sup 156}Nd and {sup 156}Pm {beta} decays and the observed location of relevant neutron and proton orbitals in the neighboring odd-A isotones and isotopes, taken together with the low-lying two-quasiparticle (2qp) structures expected in {sup 156}Pm from the rotor-particle model, lead to the conclusion that a consistent description of all the available data is achieved with the I{sup {pi}}=4{sup +} spin-parity assignment to the 26.7s {sup 156}Pm ground state (g.s.) and assignment of I{sup {pi}}=1{sup +} to its 150.3-keV isomer with the 2qp configuration 4{sub g.s.}{sup +}{l_brace}p{sub o}:5/2[532{up_arrow}]{+-}n{sub o}:3/2[521{up_arrow}]{r_brace}1{sub 150}{sup +}. In the process, a two-neutron configuration is also suggested for the 1509-keV 4{sup +} level in the daughter nucleus {sup 156}Sm. The present analysis reiterates the important question of whether the {beta}-decay log ft value, by itself, can be employed to deduce the relative parity of the {beta}-connected states.

  4. Efficiency and bacterial populations related to pollutant removal in an upflow microaerobic sludge reactor treating manure-free piggery wastewater with low COD/TN ratio.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jia; Li, Jiuling; Li, Jianzheng; Sun, Kai; Antwi, Philip; Deng, Kaiwen; Wang, Cheng; Buelna, Gerardo

    2016-02-01

    A novel upflow microaerobic sludge reactor (UMSR) had proved excellent in nitrogen removal from manure-free piggery wastewater characterized by high concentration of ammonium (NH4(+)-N) and low chemical oxygen demand (COD) to total nitrogen (TN) ratio, but the biological mechanism in the UMSR was still indeterminate. With a constant nitrogen loading rate of 1.10kg/(m(3)d) at hydraulic retention time 8h, the UMSR was kept performing for 67days in the present research and the average load removal of COD, NH4(+)-N and TN was as high as 0.72, 0.76 and 0.94kg/(m(3)d), respectively. Compared with the inoculated sludge, the acclimated sludge was richer in genera responsible for the biological removal of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus. Ammonium oxidation bacteria, heterotrophic denitrifiers, autotrophic denitrifiers and phosphate accumulating organisms coexisted perfectly in the microaerobic system, and their synergistic action made the UMSR perform well in COD, NH4(+)-N, TN and phosphate removal. PMID:26649897

  5. Strong male-biased operational sex ratio in a breeding population of loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) inferred by paternal genotype reconstruction analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lasala, Jacob A; Harrison, J Scott; Williams, Kris L; Rostal, David C

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of a species mating systems is fundamental for understanding the natural history and evolution of that species. Polyandry can result in the multiple paternity of progeny arrays. The only previous study of the loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) in the USA showed that within the large peninsular Florida subpopulation, multiple paternity occurs in approximately 30% of clutches. Our study tested clutches from the smaller northern subpopulation for the presence of multiple paternal contributions. We examined mothers and up to 20 offspring from 19.5% of clutches laid across three nesting seasons (2008–2010) on the small nesting beach on Wassaw Island, Georgia, USA. We found that 75% of clutches sampled had multiple fathers with an average of 2.65 fathers per nest (1–7 fathers found). The average number of fathers per clutch varied among years and increased with female size. There was no relationship between number of fathers and hatching success. Finally, we found 195 individual paternal genotypes and determined that each male contributed to no more than a single clutch over the 3-year sampling period. Together these results suggest that the operational sex ratio is male-biased at this site. PMID:24363901

  6. Strong male-biased operational sex ratio in a breeding population of loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) inferred by paternal genotype reconstruction analysis.

    PubMed

    Lasala, Jacob A; Harrison, J Scott; Williams, Kris L; Rostal, David C

    2013-11-01

    Characterization of a species mating systems is fundamental for understanding the natural history and evolution of that species. Polyandry can result in the multiple paternity of progeny arrays. The only previous study of the loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) in the USA showed that within the large peninsular Florida subpopulation, multiple paternity occurs in approximately 30% of clutches. Our study tested clutches from the smaller northern subpopulation for the presence of multiple paternal contributions. We examined mothers and up to 20 offspring from 19.5% of clutches laid across three nesting seasons (2008-2010) on the small nesting beach on Wassaw Island, Georgia, USA. We found that 75% of clutches sampled had multiple fathers with an average of 2.65 fathers per nest (1-7 fathers found). The average number of fathers per clutch varied among years and increased with female size. There was no relationship between number of fathers and hatching success. Finally, we found 195 individual paternal genotypes and determined that each male contributed to no more than a single clutch over the 3-year sampling period. Together these results suggest that the operational sex ratio is male-biased at this site. PMID:24363901

  7. Engineering Escherichia coli for odd straight medium chain free fatty acid production.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hui; San, Ka-Yiu

    2014-10-01

    Microbial biosynthesis of free fatty acids (FFAs) can be achieved by introducing an acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase gene into Escherichia coli. The engineered E. coli usually produced even chain FFAs. In this study, propionyl-CoA synthetase (prpE) from Salmonella enterica was overexpressed in two efficient even chain FFAs producers, ML103 (pXZM12) carrying the acyl-ACP thioesterase gene from Umbellularia californica and ML103 (pXZ18) carrying the acyl-ACP thioesterase gene from Ricinus communis combined with supplement of extracellular propionate. With these metabolically engineered E. coli, the odd straight chain FFAs, undecanoic acid (C11:0), tridecanoic acid (C13:0), and pentadecanoic acid (C15:0) were produced from glucose and propionate. The highest total odd straight chain FFAs produced by ML103 (pXZM12, pBAD-prpE) reached 276 mg/l with a ratio of 23.43 % of the total FFAs. In ML103 (pXZ18, pBAD-prpE), the highest total odd straight chain FFAs accumulated to 297 mg/l, and the ratio reached 17.68 % of the total FFAs. Due to the different substrate specificity of the acyl-ACP thioesterases, the major odd straight chain FFA components of ML103 (pXZM12, pBAD-prpE) were undecanoic acid and tridecanoic acid, while the ML103 (pXZ18, pBAD-prpE) preferred pentadecanoic acid. PMID:25030454

  8. Excited states of deformable odd {sup 157,159}Tb nuclei: Nonconservation of the angular momentum of external nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Sharipov, Sh.; Ermamatov, M. J.

    2009-01-15

    The previously developed rotationally single-particle and vibrational model of the triaxial deformable odd nuclei is extended to the case where the total angular momentum of an external nucleon is not conserved. The calculated ratios of the excitation energies of the {sup 157,159}Tb nuclei are compared with the existing experimental data. The ratios of E2-transition probabilities and those of quadrupole moments of the above nuclei are calculated using parameters determined from the spectra of these nuclei.

  9. P-odd, P-even, and T-odd asymmetries in true quaternary fission of nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Kadmensky, S. G. Titova, L. V.

    2013-04-15

    The coefficients of P-odd, P-even, and T -odd asymmetries for a third and a fourth prescission particle emitted in the true quaternary fission of nuclei that was induced by polarized cold neutrons were studied on the basis of quantum-mechanical fission theory. By using non-evaporation (nonadiabatic) mechanisms of light-particle emission, these coefficients were compared with the analogous coefficients for prescission third particles emitted in the ternary fission of nuclei.

  10. Examining the reproducibility of stable isotope ratios in the marine bivalve, Astarte borealis, from populations in the White Sea, Russia: implications for biological consequences of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNabb, Justin; Surge, Donna

    2015-04-01

    Shells of the marine bivalve, Astarte, are uniquely suited to investigate links between environmental/climate change and biological consequences because of their change in size and biogeographic distribution through time. For example, are there corresponding changes in lifespan and biogeographic distribution depending on warm vs. cold climate states? Does warm vs. cold climate state result in longer or shorter lifespans? Early studies of Astarte have documented a decrease in shell size through geologic time. Modern specimens are much smaller than those from the mid Pliocene at similar latitudes. Astarte had a wide latitudinal and cosmopolitan distribution in the western North Atlantic during the Oligocene to Pliocene. During the early Pleistocene, most of the warm-water species became extinct, and today, their biogeographic distribution is mostly restricted to the northern Pacific, Atlantic, and Arctic Oceans. To answer questions linking biological consequences and climate change, we must first decipher ontogenetic changes in shell growth of modern specimens. Preliminary data using isotope sclerochronology identified slowed shell growth from late summer to winter in modern specimens from the White Sea, Russia, possibly triggered by increasing freshwater input and decreasing temperatures. Here, we present new data examining the reproducibility of isotopic time series and season of slowed growth among modern individuals collected at the same time from the same population.

  11. How Methodology Decisions Affect the Variability of Schools Identified as Beating the Odds. REL 2015-071

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abe, Yasuyo; Weinstock, Phyllis; Chan, Vincent; Meyers, Coby; Gerdeman, R. Dean; Brandt, W. Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Schools that show better academic performance than would be expected given characteristics of the school and student populations are often described as "beating the odds" (BTO). State and local education agencies often attempt to identify such schools as a means of identifying strategies or practices that might be contributing to the…

  12. How Methodology Decisions Affect the Variability of Schools Identified as Beating the Odds. REL 2015-071.rev

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abe, Yasuyo; Weinstock, Phyllis; Chan, Vincent; Meyers, Coby; Gerdeman, R. Dean; Brandt, W. Christopher

    2015-01-01

    A number of states and school districts have identified schools that perform better than expected, given the populations they serve, in order to recognize school performance or to learn from local school practices and policies. These schools have been labeled "beating the odds," "high-performing/high-poverty,"…

  13. Executive functions in preschoolers with ADHD, ODD, and comorbid ADHD-ODD: Evidence from ecological and performance-based measures.

    PubMed

    Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser

    2015-09-01

    Executive functioning in 3-year-old preschoolers with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD), comorbid ADHD+ODD, and children without any of these conditions (control group) was examined. A community sample including 622 children was diagnosed using a diagnostic interview following DSM-IV criteria, and assessed using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Preschool version (BRIEF-P) and the Kiddie-Conners' Continuous Performance Test. The children diagnosed with ADHD showed the poorest executive function (EF) profile in comparison with controls, and were closely followed up in this respect by the comorbid ADHD+ODD children. The ADHD and comorbid groups presented similar executive difficulties. The ODD group obtained mean scores statistically equal to those of controls in EF. These findings suggest that, in preschoolers, executive functioning deficits assessed with a performance-based measure or with behavioural descriptions are specific to children with ADHD, in comparison with those with ODD. This study contributes knowledge about EFs in two prevalent and comorbid disorders in preschool children, ADHD and ODD, knowledge that can help our understanding of specific deficits and the design of specific early intervention initiatives. PMID:24966035

  14. Effect of core polarization on magnetic dipole moments in deformed odd-mass nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonneau, L.; Minkov, N.; Duc, Dao Duy; Quentin, P.; Bartel, J.

    2015-05-01

    Magnetic properties of deformed odd-mass nuclei are studied within a nonrelativistic mean-field-plus-pairing approach, namely the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock-BCS approach with self-consistent blocking. For an odd number of nucleons these approaches lead to the breaking of the time-reversal invariance. The deviation from the Schmidt values of the isoscalar magnetic dipole moment is known to result from a subtle balance between core-polarization effects and meson-exchange current effects. However, the former are usually calculated in the random phase approximation without time-reversal symmetry breaking at the mean-field level. In this work we show that if one takes into account this symmetry breaking already in the mean-field solution, the correction from core polarization yields a significant contribution to the empirical quenching of the spin gyromagnetic ratios as compared to the free values in deformed odd-mass nuclei. Moreover, we calculate magnetic dipole moments in the Bohr and Mottelson unified-model description with self-consistent blocked mean-field intrinsic states. The obtained results in the A ˜100 and A ˜180 mass regions as well as for three actinide nuclei compare favorably with experimental data.

  15. Effect of time-odd fields on odd-even mass differences of semi-magic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Kun; Zhou, XianRong; Cui, JiWei; Sagawa, H.

    2016-05-01

    The effect of time-odd fields of Skyrme interaction on neutron odd-even mass differences is studied in the framework of axially deformed Skyrme Hartree-Fock (DSHF)+BCS model. To this end, we take into account both the time-even and time-odd fields to calculate the one-neutron and two-neutron separation energies and pairing gaps of semi-magic Ca, Ni, and Sn isotopic chains. In the calculations, a surface-type pairing interaction (IS pairing) and an isospin dependent contact pairing interaction (IS+IV pairing) are adopted on top of Skyrme interactions SLy4, SLy6 and SkM*, respectively. We find that the time-odd fields have in general small effects on pairing gaps, but achieve better agreement with experimental data using SLy4 and Sly6 interactions, respectively. It is also shown that the calculations with IS+IV pairing reproduce the one-neutron separation energies of Sn isotopes better than those with the IS pairing interaction when the contributions of the time-odd fields are included.

  16. Search for a very light CP-odd neutral Higgs boson of the MSSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buskulic, D.; Decamp, D.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Minard, M.-N.; Mours, B.; Alemany, R.; Ariztizabal, F.; Comas, P.; Crespo, J. M.; Delfino, M.; Fernandez, E.; Gaitan, V.; Garrido, Ll.; Pacheco, A.; Pascual, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Farilla, A.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Quattromini, M.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Romano, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Gao, Y.; Hu, H.; Huang, D.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Lou, J.; Qiao, C.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, D.; Xu, R.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, W.; Atwood, W. B.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Blucher, E.; Bonvicini, G.; Bossi, F.; Boudreau, J.; Burnett, T. H.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Haywood, S.; Hilgart, J.; Jacobsen, R.; Jost, B.; Knobloch, J.; Lançon, E.; Lehraus, I.; Lohse, T.; Lusiani, A.; Martinez, M.; Mato, P.; Mattison, T.; Meinhard, H.; Menary, S.; Meyer, T.; Minten, A.; Miquel, R.; Moser, H.-G.; Nash, J.; Palazzi, P.; Perlas, J. A.; Ranjard, F.; Redlinger, G.; Rolandi, L.; Roth, A.; Rothberg, J.; Ruan, T.; Saich, M.; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Sefkow, F.; Tejessy, W.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wildish, T.; Witzeling, W.; Wotschack, J.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Badaud, F.; Bardadin-Otwinowska, M.; Bencheikh, A. M.; El Fellous, R.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Pietrzyk, B.; Proriol, J.; Prulhière, F.; Stimpfl, G.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Møllerud, R.; Nilsson, B. S.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Kyriakis, A.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Badier, J.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J. C.; Fouque, G.; Gamess, A.; Orteu, S.; Rosowsky, A.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Tanaka, R.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Parsons, M. I.; Veitch, E.; Moneta, L.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Ikeda, M.; Lannutti, J.; Levinthal, D.; Mermikides, M.; Sawyer, L.; Wasserbaech, S.; Antonelli, A.; Baldini, R.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Cerutti, F.; Chiarella, V.; D'Ettorre-Piazzoli, B.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Picchi, P.; Altoon, B.; Boyle, O.; Colrain, P.; Ten Have, I.; Lynch, J. G.; Maitland, W.; Morton, W. T.; Raine, C.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Thompson, A. S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Brandl, B.; Braun, O.; Geiges, R.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Maumary, Y.; Putzer, A.; Rensch, B.; Stahl, A.; Tittel, K.; Wunsch, M.; Belk, A. T.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Cattaneo, M.; Colling, D. J.; Dornan, P. J.; Dugeay, S.; Greene, A. M.; Hassard, J. F.; Lieske, N. M.; Patton, S. J.; Payne, D. G.; Phillips, M. J.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Tomalin, I. R.; Wright, A. G.; Kneringer, E.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Bowdery, C. K.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jackson, D.; Keemer, N. R.; Nuttall, M.; Patel, A.; Sloan, T.; Snow, S. W.; Whelan, E. P.; Barczewski, T.; Kleinknecht, K.; Raab, J.; Renk, B.; Roehn, S.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmidt, H.; Steeg, F.; Walther, S. M.; Wolf, B.; Aubert, J.-J.; Benchouk, C.; Bernard, V.; Bonissent, A.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Drinkard, J.; Etienne, F.; Papalexiou, S.; Payre, P.; Qian, Z.; Rousseau, D.; Schwemling, P.; Talby, M.; Adlung, S.; Bauer, C.; Blum, W.; Brown, D.; Cowan, G.; Dehning, B.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Frank, M.; Halley, A. W.; Lauber, J.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Richter, R.; Schröder, J.; Schwarz, A. S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Stierlin, U.; Stiegler, U.; St. Denis, R.; Takashima, M.; Thomas, J.; Wolf, G.; Bertin, V.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Chen, X.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Janot, P.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Schune, M.-H.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Zhang, Z.; Zomer, F.; Abbaneo, D.; Amendolia, S. R.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bosisio, L.; Bottigli, U.; Bradaschia, C.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Foà, L.; Focardi, E.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Ligabue, F.; Mannelli, E. B.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Triggiani, G.; Vannini, C.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Walsh, J.; Carter, J. M.; Green, M. G.; March, P. V.; Mir, Ll. M.; Medcalf, T.; Quazi, I. S.; Strong, J. A.; West, L. R.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Edwards, M.; Fisher, S. M.; Jones, T. J.; Norton, P. R.; Salmon, D. P.; Thompson, J. C.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Kozanecki, W.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Loucatos, S.; Monnier, E.; Perez, P.; Perrier, F.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Si Mohand, D.; Vallage, B.; Johnson, R. P.; Litke, A. M.; Taylor, G.; Wear, J.; Ashman, J. G.; Babbage, W.; Booth, C. N.; Buttar, C.; Carney, R. E.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Hatfield, F.; Reeves, P.; Thompson, L. F.; Barberio, E.; Brandt, S.; Grupen, C.; Mirabito, L.; Schäfer, U.; Ganis, G.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Ragusa, F.; Bellantoni, L.; Cinabro, D.; Conway, J. S.; Cowen, D. F.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; Grahl, J.; Harton, J. L.; Jared, R. C.; Leclaire, B. W.; Lishka, C.; Pan, Y. B.; Pater, J. R.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Saadi, Y.; Sharma, V.; Schmitt, M.; Shi, Z. H.; Walsh, A. M.; Weber, F. V.; Whitney, M. H.; Sau Lan Wu; Wu, X.; Zobernig, G.; Aleph Collaboration

    1992-07-01

    The reactions e+e- → hZ∗ande+e- → hA have been used to search for the neutral Higgs bosons h and A of the MSSM in the case where the CP-odd A is lighter than 2 mμ, taking into account the large h → AA decay branching ratio. No signal was found in the data sample collected until the end of 1991 by the ALEPH experiment at LEP. For tan β ⩾, mA < 2 mμ is excluded at 95% CL for any mh.

  17. Dietary pattern and risk of hodgkin lymphoma in a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Mara M; Chang, Ellen T; Zhang, Yawei; Fung, Teresa T; Batista, Julie L; Ambinder, Richard F; Zheng, Tongzhang; Mueller, Nancy E; Birmann, Brenda M

    2015-09-01

    Classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) has few known modifiable risk factors, and the relationship between diet and cHL risk is unclear. We performed the first investigation of an association between dietary pattern and cHL risk in 435 cHL cases and 563 population-based controls from Massachusetts and Connecticut (1997-2000) who completed baseline diet questionnaires. We identified 4 major dietary patterns ("vegetable," "high meat," "fruit/low-fat dairy," "desserts/sweets") using principal components analysis. We computed multivariable odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for associations of dietary pattern score (quartiles) with younger-adult (age <50 years), older-adult (age ≥50 years), and overall cHL risk. Secondary analyses examined associations by histological subtype and tumor Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) status. A diet high in desserts/sweets was associated with younger-adult (odds ratio(quartile 4 vs. quartile 1) = 1.60, 95% confidence interval: 1.05, 2.45; Ptrend = 0.008) and EBV-negative, younger-adult (odds ratio = 2.11, 95% confidence interval: 1.31, 3.41; Ptrend = 0.007) cHL risk. A high meat diet was associated with older-adult (odds ratio = 3.34, 95% confidence interval: 1.02, 10.91; Ptrend = 0.04) and EBV-negative, older-adult (odds ratio = 4.64, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 20.86; Ptrend = 0.04) cHL risk. Other dietary patterns were not clearly associated with cHL. We report the first evidence for a role of dietary pattern in cHL etiology. Diets featuring high intake of meat or desserts and sweets may increase cHL risk. PMID:26182945

  18. Entrance-channel effects in odd-Z tranactinide compound nucleus reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S.L.; Gregorich, K.E.; Dragojevic, I.; Dullmann, Ch.E.; Eichler, R.; Folden III, C.M.; Garcia, M.A.; Gates, J.M.; Stavsetra, L.; Sudowe, R.; Nitsche, H.

    2007-09-01

    Swiatecki, Siwek-Wilczynska, and Wilczynski's 'Fusion By Diffusion' description [1] of transactinide (TAN) compound nucleus (CN) formation utilizes a three-step model. The first step is the 'sticking', or capture, which can be calculated relatively accurately. The second step is the probability for the formation of a CN by 'diffusion' analogous to that of Brownian motion. Lastly, there exists the probability of the CN 'surviving' deexcitation by neutron emission, which competes with fission and other de-excitation modes. This model predicts and reproduces cross sections typically within a factor of two. Producing the same CN with different projectile-target pairs is a very sensitive way to test entrance channel effects on heavy element production cross sections. If the same CN is produced at or near the same excitation energy the survival portion of the theory is nearly identical for the two reactions. This method can be used as a critical test of the novel 'diffusion' portion of the model. The reactions producing odd-Z TAN CN such as Db, Bh, Mt, and Rg (Z = 105, 107, 109, and 111, respectively) were first studied using even-Z projectiles on {sup 209}Bi targets (as opposed to odd-Z projectiles on {sup 208}Pb targets) because lower effective fissility [2] was expected to lead to larger cross sections. Many odd-Z projectile reactions producing odd-Z CN had not been studied in-depth until very recently. We have completed studies of these reaction pairs with the 88-Inch Cyclotron and the Berkeley Gas-Filled Separator (BGS) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), see Figure 1. Cross section ratios for several pairs of reactions will be presented and compared with theory.

  19. New spin assignments in the odd-odd N=Z nucleus {sup 42}Sc and the breaking of the {sup 40}Ca core

    SciTech Connect

    Scholl, C.; Linnemann, A.; Dewald, A.; Fitzler, A.; Fransen, C.; Jolie, J.; Muecher, D.; Warr, N.; Zell, K. O.; Brentano, P. von; Petkov, P.; Werner, V.; Adachi, T.; Fujita, Y.; Langanke, K.; Martinez-Pinedo, G.; Lisetskiy, A. F.; Orce, J. N.; Pietralla, N.

    2007-06-15

    Using the {sup 40}Ca({sup 3}He,p) reaction at E{sub {sup 3}He}=9 MeV and the multidetector array HORUS, angular correlations of coincident pairs of {gamma} transitions in the odd-odd N=Z nucleus {sup 42}Sc have been measured at the FN tandem Van de Graaff accelerator of the University of Cologne. The analysis of the data allowed nine new spin assignments and the determination of a series of new multipole mixing ratios. In particular, the spin and parity of the 5{sup +} and 7{sup +} levels belonging to the lowest T=0{pi}f{sub 7/2}{nu}f{sub 7/2} multiplet have been determined and the (6{sup +}) level from the T=1 multiplet has been tentatively assigned. In this way, all T=1 states up to an excitation energy of 3.2 MeV now have known spins as well as the lowest T=0 quadruplet (J{sup {pi}}=1{sup +},3{sup +},5{sup +},7{sup +}) and many other T=0 states of unknown structure. The comparison with shell-model calculations reveals that a breaking of the {sup 40}Ca core has to be invoked to describe the level structure of {sup 42}Sc.

  20. The influence of quasineutron configurations on {sup 161}Ta and nearby odd-A nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Joss, D. T.; Thomson, J.; Bianco, L.; O'Donnell, D.; Page, R. D.; Paul, E. S.; Sapple, P. J.; Wiseman, D. R.; Lagergren, K.; Appelbe, D. E.; Barton, C. J.; Gomez-Hornillos, M. B.; Labiche, M.; Simpson, J.; Warner, D. D.; Cederwall, B.; Hadinia, B.; Wyss, R.; Darby, I. G.; Grahn, T.; and others

    2011-11-30

    Several strongly coupled bands in the neutron-deficient nucleus {sup 161}Ta have been identified and quasiparticle configuration assignments have been made on the basis of rotational alignments and cranked shell model calculations. The level scheme elucidated for {sup 161}Ta highlights the competition between the {nu}(h{sub 9/2}) and {nu}(i{sub 13/2}) orbitals to form the yrast spectrum. The band structures in {sup 161}Ta also provide new insights into the structural features of other heavy odd-A nuclei populated with much lower reaction cross sections in this region at the proton drip line.

  1. Octupole correlations in neutron rich, odd-{ital A} lanthanum nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, W.; Phillips, W.R.; Durell, J.L.; Jones, M.A.; Leddy, M.; Pearson, C.J.; Smith, A.G.; Varley, B.J.; Ahmad, I.; Morss, L.R.; Bentaleb, M.; Lubkiewicz, E.; Schulz, N.

    1996-08-01

    Neutron-rich, odd-{ital Z} nuclei {sup 145}La and {sup 147}La populated in spontaneous fission of {sup 248}Cm were studied using the EUROGAM array. The experiment indicates the presence of similar octupole correlations in the studied La isotopes as found in the barium core nuclei. Alternating-parity structures were found in {sup 145}La, indicating enhanced octupole correlations, as observed in {sup 144}Ba, while in {sup 147}La octupole effects are weakened by alignment phenomena, as seen in the core nucleus {sup 146}Ba. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  2. The Antarctic ozone minimum - Relationship to odd nitrogen, odd chlorine, the final warming, and the 11-year solar cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, L. B.; Natarajan, M.

    1986-01-01

    Photochemical calculations along 'diabatic trajectories' in the meridional phase are used to search for the cause of the dramatic springtime minimum in Antarctic column ozone. The results indicate that the minimum is principally due to catalytic destruction of ozone by high levels of total odd nitrogen. Calculations suggest that these levels of odd nitrogen are transported within the polar vortex and during the polar night from the middle to upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere to the lower stratosphere. The possibility that these levels are related to the 11-year solar cycle and are increased by enhanced formation in the thermosphere and mesosphere during solar maximum conditions is discussed.

  3. Quantum description of T-odd correlations in ternary fission

    SciTech Connect

    Bunakov, V. E.; Kadmensky, S. G.

    2008-07-15

    A quantum version of a unified description of two T-odd effects recently observed in the ternary fission of nuclei that is induced by polarized neutrons is considered. These effects are explained by the effect of the Coriolis interaction of the rotating fissile system on the angular distributions of light charged particles in the interior and exterior regions of the nucleus.

  4. Are the Odds Against the Origin of Life Too Great?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Statistics are offered to "prove" odds against the origin of life. Presents a summary analysis of all known examples to be used to check these claims whenever they are brought up in conversations, debates, books, or articles. Addresses scientific work misused by anti-evolutionists and the pseudoscientific assertions of the anti-evolutionists…

  5. The Differential Graded Odd NilHecke Algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Alexander P.; Qi, You

    2016-01-01

    We equip the odd nilHecke algebra and its associated thick calculus category with diagrammatically local differentials. The resulting differential graded Grothendieck groups are isomorphic to two different forms of the positive part of quantum sl_2 at a fourth root of unity.

  6. Against the Odds: Insights from One District's Small School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuban, Larry; Lichtenstein, Gary; Evenchik, Arthur; Tombari, Martin; Pozzoboni, Kristen

    2010-01-01

    "Against the Odds" offers an in-depth look at the Mapleton, Colorado, school district's transformation of two traditional high schools into seven small schools, each enrolling fewer than four hundred students. This even-handed account chronicles both the heartening successes and frequent frustrations of a district-wide embrace of the small school…

  7. Despite the Odds: The Contentious Politics of Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grindle, Merilee S.

    2004-01-01

    "Despite the Odds" poses an important question: How can we account for successful policy reform initiatives when the political cards are stacked against change? Theories of politics usually predict that reform initiatives will be unsuccessful when powerful groups are opposed to change and institutions are biased against it. This book, however,…

  8. CP-odd phase correlations and electric dipole moments

    SciTech Connect

    Olive, Keith A.; Pospelov, Maxim; Ritz, Adam; Santoso, Yudi

    2005-10-01

    We revisit the constraints imposed by electric dipole moments (EDMs) of nucleons and heavy atoms on new CP-violating sources within supersymmetric theories. We point out that certain two-loop renormalization group corrections induce significant mixing between the basis-invariant CP-odd phases. In the framework of the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model, the CP-odd invariant related to the soft trilinear A-phase at the grand unified theory (GUT) scale, {theta}{sub A}, induces nontrivial and distinct CP-odd phases for the three gaugino masses at the weak scale. The latter give one-loop contributions to EDMs enhanced by tan{beta}, and can provide the dominant contribution to the electron EDM induced by {theta}{sub A}. We perform a detailed analysis of the EDM constraints within the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model, exhibiting the reach, in terms of sparticle spectra, which may be obtained assuming generic phases, as well as the limits on the CP-odd phases for some specific parameter points where detailed phenomenological studies are available. We also illustrate how this reach will expand with results from the next generation of experiments which are currently in development.

  9. A Study of Odd- and Even-Number Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishiyama, Yutaka

    2006-01-01

    Japanese prefer odd numbers, whereas Westerners emphasize even numbers, an observation that is clear from the distribution of number-related words in Japanese and English dictionaries. In this article, the author explains why these two cultures differ by surveying the history of numbers, including yin-yang thought from ancient China, ancient Greek…

  10. Variation in the prevalence, awareness, and control of diabetes in a multiethnic population: a nationwide population study in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Rampal, Sanjay; Rampal, Lekhraj; Rahmat, Ramlee; Zain, Azhar Md; Yap, Yee Guan; Mohamed, Mafauzy; Taha, Mohamad

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the association between different ethnic groups and the prevalence, awareness, and control of diabetes in Malaysia. A population-based cross-sectional study using multistage sampling was conducted in Malaysia. Diabetes is defined as having a fasting blood glucose > or =7 mmol/L or a self-reported diabetic on treatment. Among the 7683 respondents aged > or =30 years, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus was 15.2% (95% CI = 14.1, 16.4). Multivariate analysis showed that compared with Malays, Chinese had lower odds (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.71; 95% CI = 0.56, 0.91) and Indians had higher odds of having diabetes (aOR 1.54; 95% CI = 1.20, 1.98). The odds of diabetes increased with age, family history of diabetes, body mass index, and lower education levels. Among those with diabetes mellitus, 45.0% were aware and 42.7% were under treatment. Among treated diabetics, 25.1% had their fasting blood sugar under control. There is a significant association between prevalence of diabetes and different ethnic groups. PMID:19443875

  11. Antiferromagnetic molecular nanomagnets with odd-numbered coupled spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owerre, S. A.; Nsofini, J.

    2015-05-01

    In recent years, studies on cyclic molecular nanomagnets have captivated the attention of researchers. These magnets are finite in size and contain very large spins. They are interesting because they possess macroscopic quantum tunneling of Néel vectors. For antiferromagnetic molecular nanomagnets with finite number of even-numbered coupled spins, tunneling involves two classical localized Néel ground states separated by a magnetic energy barrier. The question is: can such phenomena be observed in nanomagnets with odd number of magnetic ions? The answer is not directly obvious because cyclic chains with odd-numbered coupled spins are frustrated as one cannot obtain a perfect Néel order. These frustrated spins can indeed be observed experimentally, so they are of interest. In this letter, we theoretically investigate macroscopic quantum tunneling in this odd spin system with arbitrary spins s, in the presence of a magnetic field applied along the plane of the magnet. In contrast to systems with an even-numbered coupled spins, the ground state of the cyclic odd-spin system contains a topological soliton due to spin frustration. Thus, the classical ground state is 2N-fold degenerate as the soliton can be placed anywhere along the ring with total S_z=+/- s . Small quantum fluctuations delocalize the soliton with a formation of an energy band. We obtain this energy band using degenerate perturbation theory at order 2s. We show that the soliton ground state is chiral for half-odd integer spins and non-chiral for integer spins. From the structure of the energy band we infer that as the value of the spin increases the inelastic polarized neutron-scattering intensity may increase or decrease depending on the strengths of the parameters of the Hamiltonian.

  12. Trends in the human sex odds at birth in Europe and the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Scherb, Hagen; Voigt, Kristina

    2007-06-01

    To investigate trends in the sex odds before and after the Chernobyl accident, gender-specific annual birth statistics were obtained from the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Norway, Poland, and Sweden between 1982 and 1992. For parts of Germany, annual birth statistics and fallout measurements after Chernobyl are available at the district level. Trend models allowing for discontinuities of the male birth proportions are suggested. Superimposed on a downward trend in male proportions there was a jump in 1987 with a sex odds ratio of 1.0047 (95%-confidence interval: 1.0013-1.0081, p=0.0061). A positive association of the male proportion in Germany between 1986 and 1991 with radioactive exposure at the district level is reflected by a sex odds ratio of 1.0145 per mSv/a (1.0021-1.0271, p=0.0218). These findings suggest a possible long-term chronic influence of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident on the human sex odds at birth in several European countries. PMID:17482426

  13. Existence of intrinsic reflection asymmetry at low spin in odd and odd-odd mass nuclei in the Pm/Eu region

    SciTech Connect

    Afanasjev, A.V.; Ragnarsson, I. )

    1995-03-01

    The low-spin features of odd-mass nuclei in the [ital Z][similar to]62, [ital N][similar to]90 region, for which stable octupole deformations has been previously suggested, are studied without introducing the static intrinsic reflection asymmetry (SIRA). Calculations using a Woods-Saxon potential and taking into account the Coriolis mixing show that most properties can be described in this approximation. Furthermore, the calculated polarization energies of octupole-driving orbitals are not large enough to support the existence of SIRA at low spin in this region.

  14. Executive Functioning in Children: A Comparison of Hospitalised ODD and ODD/ADHD Children and Normal Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Goozen, Stephanie H. M.; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.; Snoek, Heddeke; Matthys, Walter; Swaab-Barneveld, Hanna; Van Engeland, Herman

    2004-01-01

    Background: Deficits in executive functioning are supposed to have a predisposing influence on impulsive or aggressive behaviour. We tested the hypothesis that oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) children with or without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have problems in executive functioning. Method: Seventy-seven 7- to 12-year-old…

  15. When is an odd number not odd? Influence of task rule on the MARC effect for numeric classification.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yang Seok; Proctor, Robert W

    2007-09-01

    When classifying numbers as odd or even with left-right keypresses, performance is better with the mapping even-right/odd-left than with the opposite mapping. This linguistic markedness association of response codes (MARC) effect has been attributed to compatibility between the linguistic markedness of stimulus and response codes. In 2 experiments participants made keypresses to the Arabic numerals or number words 3, 4, 8, and 9 using the odd-even parity rule or a multiple-of-3 rule, which yield the same keypress response for each stimulus. For both stimulus modes, the MARC effect was obtained with the odd-even rule, but tended to reverse with the multiple-of-3 rule. The reversal was complete for the right response, but task rule had little influence on the left response. The results are consistent with the view that the MARC effect and its reversal are caused by correspondence of the stimulus code designated as positive by the task rule with the positive-polarity right response code. PMID:17723063

  16. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and venlafaxine in early pregnancy and risk of birth defects: population based cohort study and sibling design

    PubMed Central

    Kieler, Helle; Haglund, Bengt; Engeland, Anders; Selmer, Randi; Stephansson, Olof; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur Anna; Zoega, Helga; Artama, Miia; Gissler, Mika; Malm, Heli; Nørgaard, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess whether use of specific selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or venlafaxine in early pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of birth defects, with emphasis on cardiovascular birth defects even when accounting for lifestyle or other familial confounding. Design Multicountry population based cohort study, including sibling controlled design. Setting Nordic population (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) identified from nationwide health registers at different periods in 1996-2010. Population The full study cohort included women giving birth to 2.3 million live singletons. The sibling cohort included 2288 singleton live births. The sibling controlled analyses included sibling pairs who were discordant for exposure to SSRIs or venlafaxine and birth defects. Main outcome measure Prevalence of birth defects, including subtypes of cardiac defects. Odds ratio of birth defects from logistic and conditional logistic regression. Results Among 36 772 infants exposed to any SSRI in early pregnancy, 3.7% (n=1357) had a birth defect compared with 3.1% of 2 266 875 unexposed infants, yielding a covariate adjusted odds ratio of 1.13 (95% confidence interval 1.06 to 1.20). In the sibling controlled analysis the adjusted odds ratio decreased to 1.06 (0.91 to 1.24). The odds ratios for any cardiac birth defect with use of any SSRI or venlafaxine were 1.15 (95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.26) in the covariate adjusted analysis and 0.92 (0.72 to 1.17) in the sibling controlled analysis. For atrial and ventricular septal defects the covariate adjusted odds ratio was 1.17 (1.05 to 1.31). Exposure to any SSRI or venlafaxine increased the prevalence of right ventricular outflow tract obstruction defects, with a covariate adjusted odds ratio of 1.48 (1.15 to 1.89). In the sibling controlled analysis the adjusted odds ratio decreased to 0.56 (0.21 to 1.49) for any exposure to SSRIs or venlafaxine and right ventricular outflow tract obstruction defects. Conclusions In this large Nordic study no substantial increase was found in prevalence of overall cardiac birth defects among infants exposed to SSRIs or venlafaxine in utero. Although the prevalence of septal defects and right ventricular outflow tract defects was higher in exposed infants, the lack of an association in the sibling controlled analyses points against a teratogenic effect of these drugs. PMID:25888213

  17. Influence of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) on odd nitrogen in the troposphere and lower stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aikin, A. C.; Herman, J. R.; Maier, E. J. R.; Mcquillan, C. J.

    1983-01-01

    Nonmethane hydrocarbon breakdown in the atmosphere produces aldehydes of which a fraction are transferred into peroxyacetyl nitrates (PAN) in the presence of NO and NO2. Since ethane is destroyed photochemically primarily above 1 km, PAN can be introduced into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere without the need to be transported from the boundary layer where most hydrocarbons are destroyed and where PAN may be lost due to thermal decomposition and heterogeneous loss. Mixing ratios of ethane in the lower troposphere increase by a factor of 4-8 from equatorial to northern mid-latitudes. This difference is directly translatable into a PAN latitude gradient. At mid-latitudes the concentration of PAN below 20 km is 0.1 ppb comparable to and in some instances larger than predicted HO2NO2 mixing ratios. Like HO2NO2 and HNO3, PAN serves as a reservoir for odd nitrogen.

  18. Investigation of odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities in atomic vapors

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Yaqi; Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049; Teaching and Research Section of Maths and Physics, Guangzhou Commanding Academy of Chinese People’s Armed Police Force, Guangzhou, 510440 ; Wu, Zhenkun; Si, Jinhai; Yan, Lihe; Zhang, Yiqi; Yuan, Chenzhi; Sun, Jia; Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 ; Zhang, Yanpeng; Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049

    2013-06-15

    We theoretically deduce the macroscopic symmetry constraints for arbitrary odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities in homogeneous media including atomic vapors for the first time. After theoretically calculating the expressions using a semiclassical method, we demonstrate that the expressions for third- and fifth-order nonlinear susceptibilities for undressed and dressed four- and six-wave mixing (FWM and SWM) in atomic vapors satisfy the macroscopic symmetry constraints. We experimentally demonstrate consistence between the macroscopic symmetry constraints and the semiclassical expressions for atomic vapors by observing polarization control of FWM and SWM processes. The experimental results are in reasonable agreement with our theoretical calculations. -- Highlights: •The macroscopic symmetry constraints are deduced for homogeneous media including atomic vapors. •We demonstrate that odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities satisfy the constraints. •We experimentally demonstrate the deduction in part.

  19. Shape phase transitions in odd-A nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, C. E.; Arias, J. M.; Fortunato, L.; Vitturi, A.

    2008-11-11

    We investigate shape phase transitions in odd nuclei within the Interacting Boson Fermion Model. Special attention is given to the case of the transition from the vibrational behaviour to the stable axial deformation. The odd particle is assumed to be moving in the three single particle orbitals j = 1/2,3/2,5/2 with a boson-fermion Hamiltonian that leads to the occurrence of the SU{sup BF}(3) boson-fermion symmetry when the boson part approaches the SU(3) condition. Both energy spectra and electromagnetic transitions show characteristic patterns similar to those displayed by the even nuclei at the corresponding critical point. The role of the additional particle in characterizing the properties of the critical points in finite quantal systems is investigated by resorting to the formalism based on the intrinsic frame.

  20. Mesospheric Odd Nitrogen Enhancements During Relativistic Electron Precipitation Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aikin, A. C.; Smith, H. J. P.

    1999-01-01

    The behavior of mesospheric odd nitrogen species during and following relativistic and diffuse auroral precipitation events is simulated, Below 75 km nitric oxide is enhanced in proportion to the ion pair production function associated with the electron precipitation and the length of the event. Nitrogen dioxide and nitric acid are also enhanced. At 65 km the percentage of odd nitrogen for N is 0.1%, HNO3 is 1.6%, NO2 is 15%, and NO is 83.3%. Between 75 and 85 km NO is depleted during particle events due to the faster destruction of NO by N relative to the production of NO by N reacting with O2. Recovery of NO depends on transport from the lower thermosphere, where NO is produced in abundant amounts during particle events.

  1. Contribution of excited states to stellar weak-interaction rates in odd-A nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarriguren, P.

    2016-05-01

    Weak-interaction rates, including β decay and electron capture, are studied in several odd-A nuclei in the p f -shell region at various densities and temperatures of astrophysical interest. Special attention is paid to the relative contribution to these rates of thermally populated excited states in the decaying nucleus. The nuclear structure involved in the weak processes is studied within a quasiparticle random-phase approximation with residual interactions in both particle-hole and particle-particle channels on top of a deformed Skyrme Hartree-Fock mean field with pairing correlations. In the range of densities and temperatures considered, it is found that the total rates do not differ much from the rates of the ground state fully populated. In any case, the changes are not larger than the uncertainties due to the nuclear-model dependence of the rates.

  2. Combining universal and odd RR axions for aligned natural inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Xin; Li, Tianjun; Shukla, Pramod E-mail: tli@itp.ac.cn

    2014-10-01

    We successfully embed the Kim-Nilles-Peloso (KNP) alignment mechanism for enhancing the axion decay constant in the context of large volume type IIB orientifolds. The flat direction is generated in the plane of (C{sub 0}-C{sub 2}) axions corresponding to the involutively even universal axion C{sub 0} and odd axion C{sub 2}, respectively. The moduli stabilization with large volume scheme has been established as well.

  3. Yrast band in doubly-odd /sup 138/Eu

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Y.; Ahn, K.; Ma, R.; Paul, E.S.; Xu, N.; Fossan, D.B.

    1988-11-01

    A rotational band, showing both signature components with a small energy splitting, has been identified in the doubly-odd /sup 138/Eu nucleus via the /sup 92/Mo(/sup 50/Cr,3pn..gamma..) reaction. Both ..gamma..-..gamma.. and ..gamma..-n coincidence studies were employed. Comparisons with the lighter /sup 136/Pm, /sup 134/Pr, and /sup 132/La isotones suggest a ..pi..h/sub 11/2/x..nu..h/sub 11/2/ structure.

  4. Alternating parity structure in doubly odd /sup 218/Ac

    SciTech Connect

    Debray, M.E.; Davidson, M.; Kreiner, A.J.; Davidson, J.; Falcone, G.; Hojman, D.; Santos, D.

    1989-03-01

    States in doubly odd /sup 218/Ac have been studied using in-beam ..cap alpha..-, ..gamma..-, and e/sup -/-spectroscopy techniques mainly through the /sup 209/Bi(/sup 12/C,3n)= fusion-evaporation reaction. /sup 218/Ac shows a band structure, with interleaved states of alternating parities connected by enhanced B(E1) transitions, which is strikingly similar to the one in its isotone /sup 217/Ra.

  5. Odd oxygen measurements during the Noctilucent Cloud 93 rocket campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumbel, J.; Murtagh, D. P.; Espy, P. J.; Witt, G.; Schmidlin, F. J.

    1998-10-01

    The NLC-93 campaign at Esrange, Sweden, addressed the chemical, dynamical and electrical environment of the summer mesopause in the presence of noctilucent clouds (NLC). A major topic was the detailed investigation of odd oxygen abundances and their structure in the vicinity of the cloud layer. Applying independent in situ measurements, we have obtained consistent profiles of atomic oxygen, ozone, and mesospheric total density. Atomic oxygen was measured on two rocket flights by means of a newly developed probe utilizing the 1304 Å resonance fluorescence/absorption technique. Detailed Monte Carlo simulations of the radiative transfer and the instrument aerodynamics are included in the data analysis. We find relatively low atomic oxygen densities with a peak of 2×1011cm-3 at 96 km. An airglow radiometer recorded the O2 IR-atmospheric band emission, allowing the retrieval of ozone densities by means of an inversion model that considers both direct and indirect sources of O2(a1Δg). The odd oxygen measurements are compared to a steady state photochemical model. While good agreement is found in the mesosphere, the results deviate close to the cold mesopause. Significant vertical structures are found in the atomic oxygen profiles; sharp gradients and distinct minima coincide with the observed NLC layer. Possible influences of heterogeneous chemistry on the odd oxygen abundance are discussed.

  6. A loop group extension of the odd Chern character

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Scott O.

    2016-04-01

    We show that the universal odd Chern form, defined on the stable unitary group U, extends to the loop group LU as an equivariantly closed differential form. This provides an odd analogue to the Bismut-Chern form that appears in supersymmetric field theories. We also describe the associated transgression form, the so-called Bismut-Chern-Simons form, and explicate some properties it inherits as a differential form on the space of maps of a cylinder into the stable unitary group. As one corollary, we show that in a precise sense the spectral flow of a loop of self adjoint Fredholm operators equals the lowest degree component of the Bismut-Chern-Simons form, and the latter, when restricted to cylinders which are tori, is an equivariantly closed extension of spectral flow. As another corollary, we construct the Chern character homomorphism from odd K-theory to the periodic cohomology of the free loop space, represented geometrically on the level of differential forms.

  7. Decline in Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Odds of Incident Sleep Complaints

    PubMed Central

    Dishman, Rodney K.; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S.; Kline, Christopher E.; Youngstedt, Shawn D.; Blair, Steven N.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine longitudinal change in cardiorespiratory fitness and odds of incident sleep problems. Methods A cohort of 7368 men and 1155 women, aged 20–85 years, from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. The cohort did not complain of sleep problems, depression, or anxiety at their first clinic visit. Cardiorespiratory fitness assessed at 4 clinic visits between 1971–2006, each separated by an average of 2–3 years, was used as a proxy measure of cumulative physical activity exposure. Sleep complaints were made to a physician during follow-up. Results Across visits, there were 784 incident cases of sleep complaints in men and 207 cases in women. After adjustment for age, time between visits, body mass index, smoking, alcohol use, chronic medical conditions, complaints of depression or anxiety at each visit, and fitness at Visit 1, each minute decline in treadmill endurance (i.e., a decline in cardiorespiratory fitness of approximately one-half MET) between ages 51 to 56 increased the odds of incident sleep complaints by 1.7% (1.0–2.4%) in men and 1.3% (0.0–2.8%) in women. Odds were ~8% higher per minute decline in people with sleep complaints at 2 or 3 visits. Conclusion The results indicate that maintenance of cardiorespiratory fitness during middle-age, when decline in fitness typically accelerates and risk of sleep problems is elevated, helps protect against the onset of sleep complaints made to a physician. PMID:25207930

  8. Male infertility risk factors in a French military population.

    PubMed

    Velez de la Calle, J F; Rachou, E; le Martelot, M T; Ducot, B; Multigner, L; Thonneau, P F

    2001-03-01

    We investigated infertility risk factors by conducting a population-based case-control study in the military population of the French town of Brest. Sixty couples who had sought medical advice for infertility of more than 12 months duration (cases) were compared with 165 couples who had had a child (controls). All the men in these couples had been employed by the military. The infertility risk factors studied were male and female medical factors, occupational and environmental exposures. We obtained age-adjusted odds ratios of 7.4 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.4--39.5] for testis surgery, and 13.0 for varicocele (95% CI: 1.4--120.3) in men. In logistic regression, the age-adjusted odds ratio for men who had worked in a nuclear submarine was found to be 2.0 (95% CI: 1.0--3.7), and that for heat exposure was 4.5 (95% CI: 1.9--10.6). One limitation of this study is the lack of exposure measurements, especially for potential exposure to nuclear radiation (type of reactor used in nuclear-powered submarines, inability to obtain personal dosimeters worn by military personnel working in nuclear submarines). In conclusion, this study suggests that in this military population, having worked as a submariner in a nuclear-powered submarine, and having worked in very hot conditions, should be considered as risk factors for infertility. PMID:11228215

  9. Solar Cycle Dependence Of Temperature, Odd-Oxygen, Odd-Hydrogen, And Airglow In The Mesopause Region Observed By SABER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlynczak, M. G.; Hunt, L. A.; Mertens, C. J.; Marshall, T.; Russell, J. M.; Thompson, R. E.; Gordley, L. L.

    2013-12-01

    We present the first consistent, global set of temperature, pressure, odd-oxygen, odd-hydrogen and airglow measurements in the mesopause region spanning a complete solar cycle. The measurements are derived from the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument on the NASA TIMED satellite. These data clearly indicate the influence of solar variability on the atmosphere structure and composition. In general, the values of most parameters decrease with decreasing solar activity. However, odd-hydrogen is observed to increase with decreasing solar activity. While the data indicate a direct relation between solar activity and atmospheric response, the role of dynamical variability in modulating the direct solar response has not yet been investigated, particularly on regional scales (e.g.,tropical, mid-latitude, or polar). We describe the SABER observations in detail and discuss how they can be used with general circulation models to assess the coupled role of dynamics and solar variability in determining the overall atmospheric response.

  10. Type of Diabetes Mellitus and the Odds of Gleason Score 8 to 10 Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Josephine; Chen Minghui; Zhang Yuanye; Moran, Brian J.; Dosoretz, Daniel E.; Katin, Michael J.; Braccioforte, Michelle H.; Salenius, Sharon A.; D'Amico, Anthony V.

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: It has been recently shown that diabetes mellitus (DM) is significantly associated with the likelihood of presenting with high-grade prostate cancer (PCa) or Gleason score (GS) 8 to 10; however, whether this association holds for both Type 1 and 2 DM is unknown. In this study we evaluated whether DM Type 1, 2, or both are associated with high-grade PCa after adjusting for known predictors of high-grade disease. Methods and Materials: Between 1991 and 2010, a total of 15,330 men diagnosed with PCa and treated with radiation therapy were analyzed. A polychotomous logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate whether Type 1 or 2 DM was associated with odds of GS 7 or GS 8 to 10 compared with 6 or lower PCa, adjusting for African American race, age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, and digital rectal examination findings. Results: Men with Type 1 DM (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28-3.27; p = 0.003) or Type 2 DM (AOR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.26-1.99; p < 0.001) were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with GS 8 to 10 PCa compared with nondiabetic men. However this was not true for GS 7, for which these respective results were AOR, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.93-1.82; p = 0.12 and AOR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.98-1.32; p = 0.10. Conclusion: Type 1 and 2 DM were associated with a higher odds of being diagnosed with Gleason score 8 to 10 but not 7 PCa. Pending validation, men who are diagnosed with Type I DM with GS 7 or lower should be considered for additional workup to rule out occult high-grade disease.

  11. Functional and Prognostic Implications of the Main Pulmonary Artery Diameter to Aorta Diameter Ratio from Chest Computed Tomography in Korean COPD Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kyung Soo; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Se Kyu; Kim, Ha Yan; Lee, Sang Min; Seo, Joon Beom; Oh, Yeon Mok

    2016-01-01

    Background The ratio of the diameter of the main pulmonary artery (mPA) to the diameter of the aorta (Ao) on chest computed tomography is associated with diverse clinical conditions. Herein, we determined the functional and prognostic implications of the mPA/Ao ratio in Korean chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Methods The study population comprised 226 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients from the Korean Obstructive Lung Disease cohort who underwent chest computed tomography. We analyzed the relationships between the clinical characteristics, including pulmonary function, echocardiography findings, St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire, 6-minute walking (6MW) distance, and exacerbation with the mPA, Ao, and mPA/Ao ratio. Results The mean age was 65.8 years, and 219 (96.9%) patients were male. The mean FEV1% predicted and FEV1/FVC ratio were 61.2% and 47.3%, respectively. The mean mPA and Ao were 23.7 and 36.4 mm, respectively, and the mPA/Ao ratio was 0.66. The mPA/Ao ratio correlated negatively with the 6MW distance (G = -0.133, P = 0.025) and positively with the right ventricular pressure (G = 0.323, P = 0.001). After adjustment for potential confounders, the mPA/Ao ratio was significantly associated with 6MW distance (β = -107.7, P = 0.017). Moreover, an mPA/Ao ratio >0.8 was a significant predictor of exacerbation at the 1-year (odds ratio 2.12, 95% confidence interval 1.27–3.52) and 3-year follow-ups (odds ratio 2.04, 95% confidence interval 1.42–2.90). Conclusions The mPA/Ao ratio is an independent predictor of exercise capacity and an mPA/Ao ratio >0.8 is a significant risk factor of COPD exacerbation. PMID:27152915

  12. On the optimal sex ratio.

    PubMed Central

    Karlin, S; Lessard, S

    1983-01-01

    The equilibrium structures for various multiallele sex-determining genetic models of panmictic populations with sex expression depending on the genotypes of either the zygote or a parent are described. Even-sex-ratio equilibrium surfaces can exist apart from equilibrium points having coincident male and female allelic frequency sets. The latter (symmetric) equilibrium states entail biased sex ratios. A stable symmetric equilibrium and an even-sex-ratio equilibrium segregating the same alleles cannot coexist. The tendency to evolve toward an even-sex ratio is embodied by the following optimality property: starting from an equilibrium having a biased sex ratio, mutant sex-determining alleles can accumulate only in the case in which in the augmented system all attainable equilibrium states have a sex ratio closer to one to one. PMID:6577461

  13. Potential explanations for the educational gradient in coronary heart disease: a population-based case-control study of Swedish women.

    PubMed Central

    Wamala, S P; Mittleman, M A; Schenck-Gustafsson, K; Orth-Gomér, K

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the association between educational attainment and coronary heart disease (CHD) and the factors that may explain this association. METHODS: This population-based case-control study included 292 women with CHD who were 65 years or younger and 292 age-matched controls. RESULTS: Compared with the adjusted odds ratio for CHD associated with college education, the age-adjusted odds ratio associated with mandatory education (< or = 9 years) was 1.87 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.23, 2.84) and the odds ratio for high school education was 1.35 (95% CI = 0.81, 2.25) (P for trend < .01). The odds ratio for mandatory education was reduced by 82%, to 1.16 (95% CI = 0.69, 2.09), after adjustment for psychosocial stress, unhealthy lifestyle patterns, hemostatic factors, hypertension, and lipids. CONCLUSIONS: Much of the increased risk of CHD in women with low education appears to be linked to psychosocial stress and lifestyle factors. Hemostatic factors, lipids, and hypertension also contribute to a lesser extent. These factors may be considered in strategies geared to reducing socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular health. PMID:10076479

  14. Preoperative 3-Tesla Multiparametric Endorectal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings and the Odds of Upgrading and Upstaging at Radical Prostatectomy in Men With Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Hegde, John V.; Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts ; Chen, Ming-Hui; Mulkern, Robert V.; Department of Radiology, Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, Massachusetts ; Fennessy, Fiona M.; Department of Imaging, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts ; D'Amico, Anthony V.; Tempany, Clare M.C.

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether 3-T esla (3T) multiparametric endorectal MRI (erMRI) can add information to established predictors regarding occult extraprostatic or high-grade prostate cancer (PC) in men with clinically localized PC. Methods and Materials: At a single academic medical center, this retrospective study's cohort included 118 men with clinically localized PC who underwent 3T multiparametric erMRI followed by radical prostatectomy, from 2008 to 2011. Multivariable logistic regression analyses in all men and in 100 with favorable-risk PC addressed whether erMRI evidence of T3 disease was associated with prostatectomy T3 or Gleason score (GS) 8-10 (in patients with biopsy GS {<=}7) PC, adjusting for age, prostate-specific antigen level, clinical T category, biopsy GS, and percent positive biopsies. Results: The accuracy of erMRI prediction of extracapsular extension and seminal vesicle invasion was 75% and 95%, respectively. For all men, erMRI evidence of a T3 lesion versus T2 was associated with an increased odds of having pT3 disease (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 4.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.36-16.98, P=.015) and pGS 8-10 (AOR 5.56, 95% CI 1.10-28.18, P=.038). In the favorable-risk population, these results were AOR 4.14 (95% CI 1.03-16.56), P=.045 and AOR 7.71 (95% CI 1.36-43.62), P=.021, respectively. Conclusions: Three-Tesla multiparametric erMRI in men with favorable-risk PC provides information beyond that contained in known preoperative predictors about the presence of occult extraprostatic and/or high-grade PC. If validated in additional studies, this information can be used to counsel men planning to undergo radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy about the possible need for adjuvant radiation therapy or the utility of adding hormone therapy, respectively.

  15. Light Charged and CP-odd Higgses in MSSM-like Models

    SciTech Connect

    Dermisek, Radovan

    2008-11-23

    We study the Higgs sector of supersymmetric models containing two Higgs doublets with a light MSSM-like CP odd Higgs, m{sub A} < or approx. 10 GeV, and tan{beta} < or approx. 2.5. In this scenario all Higgses resulting from two Higgs doublets: light and heavy CP even Higgses, h and H, the CP odd Higgs, A, and the charged Higgs, H{sup {+-}}, could have been produced at LEP or the Tevatron, but would have escaped detection because they decay in modes that have not been searched for or the experiments are not sensitive to. Especially H{yields}ZA and H{sup {+-}}{yields}W{sup {+-}}*A with A{yields}cc-bar, {tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -} present an opportunity to discover some of the Higgses at LEP, the Tevatron and also at B factories. In addition, the 2.8{sigma} excess of the branching ratio W{yields}{tau}v with respect to the other leptons measured at LEP correlates well with the existence of the charged Higgs with properties typical for this scenario. Dominant {tau}- and c-rich decay products of all Higgses require modified strategies for their discovery at the LHC.

  16. The odds of wrong-way crashes and resulting fatalities: A comprehensive analysis.

    PubMed

    Ponnaluri, Raj V

    2016-03-01

    The United States of America and other nations are grappling with the incidence of wrong-way driving (WWD). The issue is as important today (NTSB, 2012) as it was a half-century ago (Hulbert and Beers, 1966). In the absence of a comprehensive analysis, any effort to implement WWD countermeasures can be counterproductive. Hence, this effort began with the express intent to identify the factors that cause WWD crashes and fatalities. This work is sizeable in that it evaluated one million complete crash records from Florida. The methodology comprised (a) administering a survey on the perceptions about WWD; (b) developing binomial logistic models for computing the odds of WWD crashes, and of fatal crashes within the WWD space; (c) analyzing the contributing variables; and (d) comparing perceptions with crash analysis results. The study parameters included driver's age, gender, licensing state, physical defect, blood alcohol concentration, vehicle use, seatbelt compliance, day and time of crash, roadway lighting, facility type, weather conditions, road geometrics, and traffic volumes. Individual variable analysis of 23 parameters and the model development process included the determination of odds ratios and statistical tests for the predictive power and goodness-of-fit. The results of this work are generally consistent with expectation, yet surprising at times. This work concludes with decision-making inputs to the scientist, policy-maker and practitioner on the need for effectively engineering the roads, actively educating people about wrong-way driving, and strictly enforcing traffic laws, rules and regulations. PMID:26745273

  17. Fitting Proportional Odds Model to Case-Control data with Incorporating Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Zehui; Li, Xinmin; Li, Qizhai

    2015-01-01

    Genetic association studies have been proved to be an efficient tool to reveal the aetiology of many human complex diseases and traits. When the phenotype is binary, the logistic regression model is commonly employed to evaluate the association strength of the genetic variants predispose to human diseases because the maximum likelihood estimator of the odds ratio based on case-control data is equivalent to that from the same model by taking the data as being arisen prospectively. This equivalence does not hold for the proportional odds model and using it to analyze the case-control data directly often results in a substantial bias. Through putting a parameter of the minor allele frequency in the modified likelihood function under the condition that the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium law holds within controls, a consistent estimator is obtained. On the basis of it, we construct a score test statistic to test whether the genetic variant is associated with the diseases. Simulation studies show that the proposed estimator has smaller mean squared error than the existing methods when the genetic effect size is away from zero and the proposed test statistic has a good control of type I error rate and is more powerful than the existing procedures. Application to 45 single nucleotide polymorphisms located in the region of TRAF1-C5 genes for the association with four-level anticyclic citrullinated protein antibody from Genetic Analysis Workshop 16 further demonstrates its performance. PMID:26607176

  18. Odd-parity perturbations of self-similar Vaidya spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, Brien C.

    2007-01-01

    We carry out an analytic study of odd-parity perturbations of the self-similar Vaidya spacetimes that admit a naked singularity. It is found that an initially finite perturbation remains finite at the Cauchy horizon. This holds not only for the gauge-invariant metric and matter perturbation, but also for all the gauge-invariant perturbed Weyl curvature scalars, including the gravitational radiation scalars. In each case, 'finiteness' refers to Sobolev norms of scalar quantities on naturally occurring spacelike hypersurfaces, as well as pointwise values of these quantities.

  19. Dimension-5 C P -odd operators: QCD mixing and renormalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Gupta, Rajan; Mereghetti, Emanuele; Yoon, Boram

    2015-12-01

    We study the off-shell mixing and renormalization of flavor-diagonal dimension-five T - and P -odd operators involving quarks, gluons, and photons, including quark electric dipole and chromoelectric dipole operators. We present the renormalization matrix to one loop in the MS ¯ scheme. We also provide a definition of the quark chromoelectric dipole operator in a regularization-independent momentum-subtraction scheme suitable for nonperturbative lattice calculations and present the matching coefficients with the MS ¯ scheme to one loop in perturbation theory, using both the naïve dimensional regularization and 't Hooft-Veltman prescriptions for γ5.

  20. Neutron-proton pairing correlations in odd mass systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fellah, M. Allal, N. H.; Oudih, M. R.

    2015-03-30

    An expression of the ground-state which describes odd mass systems within the BCS approach in the isovector neutron-proton pairing case is proposed using the blocked level technique. The gap equations as well as the energy expression are then derived. It is shown that they exactly generalize the expressions obtained in the pairing between like-particles case. The various gap parameters and the energy are then numerically studied as a function of the pairing-strength within the schematic one-level model.

  1. Radiative lifetimes of odd-parity levels in Nb I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukund, Sheo; Bhattacharyya, Soumen; Yarlagadda, Suresh; Nakhate, S. G.

    2015-11-01

    Radiative lifetimes are reported for 37 odd-parity energy levels of neutral niobium (Nb I), out of which 33 have been measured for the first time. The levels belong to electronic configurations 4d35s5p and 4d45p between 18,790 and 35,730 cm-1. The time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy technique was employed. The Nb atoms were generated in a free-jet by laser vaporization of niobium metal. Lifetime values reported in this work fall in the range 12-340 ns and are accurate to ±10%.

  2. Behavior of odd-even mass staggering around 132Sn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coraggio, L.; Covello, A.; Gargano, A.; Itaco, N.

    2013-10-01

    We have performed shell-model calculations of binding energies of nuclei around 132Sn. The main aim of our study has been to find out if the behavior of odd-even staggering across N=82 is explainable in terms of the shell model. In our calculations, we have employed realistic low-momentum two-body effective interactions derived from the charge-dependent Bonn nucleon-nucleon potential that have already proved quite successful in describing the spectroscopic properties of nuclei in the 132Sn region. Comparison shows that our results fully explain the trend of the experimental staggering.

  3. Signatures of odd-frequency correlations in the Josephson current of superconductor/ferromagnet hybrid junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Caroline; Buzdin, Alexandre; Houzet, Manuel; Meyer, Julia S.

    2015-09-01

    Contacting a bilayer ferromagnet with a singlet even-frequency superconductor allows for the realization of an effective triplet odd-frequency superconductor. In this work, we investigate the Josephson effect between superconductors with different symmetries (e.g., odd versus even frequency). In particular, we study the supercurrent flowing between two triplet odd-frequency superconducting leads through a weak singlet even-frequency superconductor. We show that the peculiar temperature dependence of the critical current below the superconducting transition of the weak superconductor is a signature of the competition between odd/odd-frequency and odd/even-frequency Josephson couplings.

  4. Fully and partially coherent pathways in multiply enhanced odd-order wave-mixing spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Nathan A; Yurs, Lena A; Block, Stephen B; Pakoulev, Andrei V; Kornau, Kathryn M; Sibert, Edwin L; Wright, John C

    2010-01-21

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy relies on using multiple excitation pulses to create multiple quantum coherences that provide great specificity for chemical measurements. Coherent multidimensional spectroscopy (CMDS) is the optical analogue of NMR. Current CMDS methods use three excitation pulses and phase matching to create zero, single, and double quantum coherences. In order to create higher order multiple quantum coherences, the number of interactions must be increased by raising the excitation intensities high enough to create Rabi frequencies that are comparable to the dephasing rates of vibrational coherences. The higher Rabi frequencies create multiple, odd-order coherence pathways. The coherence pathways that involve intermediate populations are partially coherent and are sensitive to population relaxation effects. Pathways that are fully coherent involve only coherences and measure the direct coupling between excited quantum states. The fully coherent pathways are related to the multiple quantum coherences created in multiple pulse NMR methods such as heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence (HMQC) spectroscopy with the important difference that HMQC NMR methods have a defined number of interactions and avoid dynamic Stark effects whereas the multiply enhanced odd-order wave-mixing pathways do not. The difference arises because CMDS methods use phase matching to define the interactions and at high intensities, multiple pathways obey the same phase matching conditions. The multiple pathways correspond to the pathways created by dynamic Stark effects. This paper uses rhodium dicarbonyl chelate (RDC) as a model to demonstrate the characteristics of multiply enhanced odd-order wave-mixing (MEOW) methods. Dynamic Stark effects excite vibrational ladders on the symmetric and asymmetric CO stretch modes and create a series of multiple quantum coherences and populations using partially and fully coherent pathways. Vibrational quantum states up to v = 6 are excited. A series of spectra provides different two-dimensional cross sections through the multidimensional parameter space involving two excitation frequencies, the frequency of the output coherence, and the excitation pulse time delays. The spectra allow the identification of 18 different overtone and combination band states. Comparison with a local mode model with two anharmonic Morse oscillators with interbond coupling shows excellent agreement. PMID:19950915

  5. Deformed rotational bands in the doubly odd nuclei [sup 134]Pr and [sup 132]Pr

    SciTech Connect

    Hauschild, K.; Wadsworth, R.; Clark, R.M.; Hibbert, I.M. ); Beausang, C.W.; Forbes, S.A.; Nolan, P.J.; Paul, E.S.; Semple, A.T.; Wilson, J.N. ); Gizon, A.; Gizon, J.; Santos, D. ); Simpson, J. )

    1994-08-01

    The nuclei [sup 132,134]Pr have been investigated using the [sup 100]Mo([sup 37]Cl,[ital xn]) reactions at a beam energy of 155 MeV. Gamma rays were detected with the Eurogam array. Analysis of the data has revealed the presence of two new weakly populated decoupled bands in [sup 134]Pr. One of these bands has been linked into the normal-deformed states and is thought to be built on a [pi]([ital h][sub 11/2])[sup 2][direct product][nu]([ital f][sub 7/2],[ital h][sub 9/2]) configuration. The second band has been interpreted as being based on a [pi]([ital h][sub 11/2])[sup 3][direct product][nu][ital i][sub 13/2] intruder configuration within the second [beta][sub 2][congruent]0.3 prolate minimum. The known decoupled band in [sup 132]Pr (5[ital n] reaction channel) and the highly deformed band in [sup 130]La A([alpha]3[ital n]) have also been extended. The structure of all of these bands is discussed together with similar bands in nieghboring odd-odd nuclei.

  6. Higher dimensional geometries related to fuzzy odd-dimensional spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramgoolam, Sanjaye

    2002-10-01

    We study SO(m) covariant matrix realizations of ∑i = 1mXi2 = 1 for even m as candidate fuzzy odd spheres following \\cite{guram}. As for the fuzzy four sphere, these matrix algebras contain more degrees of freedom than the sphere itself and the full set of variables has a geometrical description in terms of a higher dimensional coset. The fuzzy S2k-1 is related to a higher dimensional coset SO(2k)/U(1) × U(k-1). These cosets are bundles where base and fibre are hermitean symmetric spaces. The detailed form of the generators and relations for the matrix algebras related to the fuzzy three-spheres suggests matrix actions which admit the fuzzy spheres as solutions. These matrix actions are compared with the BFSS, IKKT and BMN matrix models as well as some others. The geometry and combinatorics of fuzzy odd spheres lead to some remarks on the transverse five-brane problem of matrix theories and the exotic scaling of the entropy of 5-branes with the brane number.

  7. Beyond Mean-Field Calculations for Odd-Mass Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bally, B.; Avez, B.; Bender, M.; Heenen, P.-H.

    2014-10-01

    Beyond mean-field methods are very successful tools for the description of large-amplitude collective motion for even-even atomic nuclei. The state-of-the-art framework of these methods consists in a generator coordinate method based on angular-momentum and particle-number projected triaxially deformed Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) states. The extension of this scheme to odd-mass nuclei is a long-standing challenge. We present for the first time such an extension, where the generator coordinate space is built from self-consistently blocked one-quasiparticle HFB states. One of the key points for this success is that the same Skyrme interaction is used for the mean-field and the pairing channels, thus avoiding problems related to the violation of the Pauli principle. An application to Mg25 illustrates the power of our method, as agreement with experiment is obtained for the spectrum, electromagnetic moments, and transition strengths, for both positive and negative parity states and without the necessity for effective charges or effective moments. Although the effective interaction still requires improvement, our study opens the way to systematically describe odd-A nuclei throughout the nuclear chart.

  8. Beyond mean-field calculations for odd-mass nuclei.

    PubMed

    Bally, B; Avez, B; Bender, M; Heenen, P-H

    2014-10-17

    Beyond mean-field methods are very successful tools for the description of large-amplitude collective motion for even-even atomic nuclei. The state-of-the-art framework of these methods consists in a generator coordinate method based on angular-momentum and particle-number projected triaxially deformed Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) states. The extension of this scheme to odd-mass nuclei is a long-standing challenge. We present for the first time such an extension, where the generator coordinate space is built from self-consistently blocked one-quasiparticle HFB states. One of the key points for this success is that the same Skyrme interaction is used for the mean-field and the pairing channels, thus avoiding problems related to the violation of the Pauli principle. An application to ^{25}Mg illustrates the power of our method, as agreement with experiment is obtained for the spectrum, electromagnetic moments, and transition strengths, for both positive and negative parity states and without the necessity for effective charges or effective moments. Although the effective interaction still requires improvement, our study opens the way to systematically describe odd-A nuclei throughout the nuclear chart. PMID:25361253

  9. On strontium isotopic anomalies and odd-A p-process abundances. [in solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, D. D.

    1978-01-01

    Several aspects of the nucleosynthesis of Sr isotopes are considered in an attempt to shed light on the problem of the Sr isotopic anomalies discovered in an inclusion of the Allende meteorite. Decomposition of the Sr isotopes into average r-, s-, and p-process nucleosynthetic classes is performed. It is suggested that the Allende inclusion most likely has an excess of s-process Sr and that the initial Sr-87/Sr-86 isotopic ratio is probably slightly more primitive than basaltic achondrites. The results also show that Sn-115 is mostly due to the r-process and that odd-A yields are very small. It is concluded that if the Sr anomaly in the inclusion is an average s enhancement, it argues somewhat in favor of a model of gas/dust fractionation of s and r isotopes during accumulation of the inclusion parent in the protosolar cloud.

  10. Search for Very Light CP-Odd Higgs Boson in Radiative Decays of {upsilon}(1S)

    SciTech Connect

    Love, W.; Savinov, V.; Mendez, H.; Ge, J. Y.; Miller, D. H.; Shipsey, I. P. J.; Xin, B.; Adams, G. S.; Anderson, M.; Cummings, J. P.; Danko, I.; Hu, D.; Moziak, B.; Napolitano, J.; He, Q.; Insler, J.; Muramatsu, H.; Park, C. S.; Thorndike, E. H.; Yang, F.

    2008-10-10

    We search for a non-SM-like CP-odd Higgs boson (a{sub 1}{sup 0}) decaying to {tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -} or {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} in radiative decays of the {upsilon}(1S). No significant signal is found, and upper limits on the product branching ratios are set. Our {tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -} results are almost 2 orders of magnitude more stringent than previous upper limits. Our data provide no evidence for a Higgs state with a mass of 214 MeV decaying to {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}, previously proposed as an explanation for 3 {sigma}{sup +}{yields}p{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} events observed by the HyperCP experiment. Our results constrain NMSSM models.

  11. Testing supersymmetry in the associated production of CP-odd and charged Higgs bosons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanemura, Shinya; Yuan, C.-P.

    2002-03-01

    In the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), the masses of the charged Higgs boson (H±) and the CP-odd scalar (A) are related by MH+2=MA2+mW2. Furthermore, because the coupling of W--A-H+ is fixed by gauge interaction, the tree level production rate of qq¯‧→W±∗→AH± depends only on one supersymmetry parameter—the mass (MA) of A. We show that to a good approximation this conclusion also holds at the one-loop level. Consequently, this process can be used to distinguish MSSM from its alternatives (such as a general two-Higgs-doublet model) by verifying the above mass relation, and to test the prediction of the MSSM on the product of the decay branching ratios of A and H± in terms of only one single parameter—MA.

  12. Exposure to childhood traumas ups the odds of giving birth to daughters.

    PubMed

    Kaitz, Marsha; Rokem, Ann Marie; Mankuta, David; Davidov, Maayan; Faraone, Stephen V

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the likelihood of giving birth to a daughter as a function of women's exposure to four categories of stressors: childhood trauma, adult trauma, chronic stressors, and recent (adverse) life events. Hypothesis 1 stated that exposure to recent life events (near conception) and to childhood traumas would increase women's chances of having a girl baby. Hypothesis 2 stated that the relationship between stress and gender outcome is mediated by persistent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The final sample was comprised of 225 women. The design was prospective observational. At first contact, women were retained if they were <27 weeks pregnant and met initial inclusion criteria. In interview 2, at 27-30 weeks, women were excluded for positive diagnoses of anxiety disorders besides PTSD with or without depression (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders). In interview 3 (30-34 weeks), reports on stress categories (Social Stress Indicator Questionnaire) and PTSD symptoms (Post-Traumatic Checklist) were obtained. Infant gender was obtained from medical records. The relationship between stress categories and the distribution of girl/boy infants was examined with Chi Squares and logistic regression analyses. Mediation was tested with the macro PROCESS (Hayes 2012). Childhood trauma was the only stress category that increased the odds of having a girl, with an odds ratio of >3.0 for women who had been exposed to more than two such events. PTSD symptoms (partially) mediated the relationship between childhood trauma and infant gender. Findings suggest that women's exposure to childhood trauma contributes to the determination of the sex ratio at birth and that PTSD symptoms are part of the cause. PMID:24221408

  13. Preconception maternal polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and the secondary sex ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Kira C.; Jackson, Leila W.; Lynch, Courtney D.; Kostyniak, Paul J.; Buck Louis, Germaine M. . E-mail: louisg@mail.nih.gov

    2007-01-15

    The secondary sex ratio is the ratio of male to female live births and historically has ranged from 102 to 106 males to 100 females. Temporal declines have been reported in many countries prompting authors to hypothesize an environmental etiology. Blood specimens were obtained from 99 women aged 24-34 prior to attempting pregnancy and quantified for 76 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners using dual column gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Women were prospectively followed until pregnancy or 12 cycles of trying. The odds of a male birth for three PCB groupings (total, estrogenic, anti-estrogenic) controlling for maternal characteristics were estimated using logistic regression. Among the 50 women with live births and PCB data, 26 female and 24 male infants were born (ratio 0.92). After adjusting for age and body mass index, odds of a male birth were elevated among women in the second (OR=1.29) and third (OR=1.48) tertiles of estrogenic PCBs; odds (OR=0.70) were reduced among women in the highest tertile of anti-estrogenic PCBs. All confidence intervals included one. The direction of the odds ratios in this preliminary study varied by PCB groupings, supporting the need to study specific PCB patterns when assessing environmental influences on the secondary sex ratio.

  14. Subclinical cardiovascular disease is associated with a high glomerular filtration rate in the nondiabetic general population.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Bjørn O; Løchen, Maja-Lisa; Arntzen, Kjell A; Bertelsen, Geir; Eilertsen, Britt-Ann W; von Hanno, Therese; Herder, Marit; Jenssen, Trond G; Mathisen, Ulla D; Melsom, Toralf; Njølstad, Inger; Solbu, Marit D; Toft, Ingrid; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B

    2014-07-01

    A reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in chronic kidney disease is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, evidence indicates that a high GFR may also be a cardiovascular risk factor. This issue remains unresolved due to a lack of longitudinal studies of manifest cardiovascular disease with precise GFR measurements. Here, we performed a cross-sectional study of the relationship between high GFR measured as iohexol clearance and subclinical cardiovascular disease in the Renal Iohexol Clearance Survey in Tromsø 6 (RENIS-T6), a representative sample of the middle-aged general population. A total of 1521 persons without cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, or micro- or macroalbuminuria were examined with carotid ultrasonography and electrocardiography. The GFR in the highest quartile was associated with an increased odds ratio of having total carotid plaque area greater than the median of non-zero values (odds ratio 1.56, 95% confidence interval 1.02-2.39) or electrocardiographic signs of left ventricular hypertrophy (odds ratio 1.62, 95% confidence interval 1.10-2.38) compared to the lowest quartile. The analyses were adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors, urinary albumin excretion, and fasting serum glucose. Thus, high GFR is associated with carotid atherosclerosis and left ventricular hypertrophy and should be investigated as a possible risk factor for manifest cardiovascular disease in longitudinal studies. PMID:24304885

  15. Serosurvey of Entamoeba Histolytica Exposure among Tepehuanos Population in Durango, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Francisco Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis; Ramos-Nevárez, Agar; Margarita Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra; Alberto Guido-Arreola, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The seroepidemiology of Entamoeba histolytica infection in Tepehuanos population in Mexico is largely unknown. This study aimed to study the seroprevalence and correlates of E. histolytica antibodies in Tepehuanos in Durango, Mexico. Through a cross-sectional study, we determined the frequency of E. histolytica IgG antibodies in 156 Tepehuanos people in Durango, Mexico using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Furthermore, we studied the association of E. histolytica seroprevalence with the socio-demographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of the Tepehuanos studied. Forty-four (28.2%) Tepehuanos with mean age of 31.03 ± 16.71 years old had anti- E. histolytica IgG antibodies. Multivariate analysis showed that E. histolytica exposure was positively associated with laborer occupation (Odds ratio=2.77; 95% CI: 1.15, 6.66; p=0.02), and history of lymphadenopathy (Odds ratio=4.97; 95% CI: 1.74, 14.13; p=0.002), and negatively associated with soil contact (Odds ratio=0.13; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.53; p=0.004). Other behavioral characteristics including drinking untreated water or unpasteurized milk, and consumption of unwashed raw vegetables or fruits were not associated with E. histolytica exposure. The seroprevalence of E. histolytica infection in Tepehuanos in Durango is higher thanseroprevalences reported in national surveys. The factors associated with E. histolytica seropositivity reported in the present study might aid for the planning and implementation of effective measures against E. histolytica infection. PMID:26199578

  16. Prescription Stimulant Use and Hospitalization for Psychosis or Mania: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Cressman, Alex M; Macdonald, Erin M; Huang, Anjie; Gomes, Tara; Paterson, Michael J; Kurdyak, Paul A; Mamdani, Muhammad M; Juurlink, David N

    2015-12-01

    Small studies suggest that prescription stimulants can precipitate psychosis and mania. We conducted a population-based case-crossover study to examine whether hospitalization for psychosis or mania was associated with initiation of stimulant therapy. Between October 1, 1999 and March 31, 2013, we studied 12,856 young people who received a stimulant prescription and were subsequently hospitalized for psychosis or mania. Of these, 183 commenced treatment during 1 of 2 prespecified 60-day intervals (defined as the "risk interval" and "control interval," respectively) prior to admission. We found that stimulant initiation was associated with an increased risk of hospitalization for psychosis or mania in the subsequent 60 days (odds ratio, 1.86; 95% confidence interval, 1.39-2.56). The risk was marginally higher in patients treated with antipsychotic drugs (odds ratio, 2.06; 95% confidence interval, 1.38-3.28), but remained in patients with no such history (odds ratio, 1.66; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-2.66). One third of subjects received another stimulant prescription after hospital discharge. Of these, 45% were readmitted with psychosis or mania shortly thereafter. We conclude that initiation of prescription stimulants is associated with an increased risk of hospitalization for psychosis or mania. Resumption of therapy is common, which may reflect a lack of awareness of the potential causative role of these drugs. PMID:26485338

  17. Summertime distribution and relations of reactive odd nitrogen species and NO(y) in the troposphere over Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talbot, R. W.; Bradshaw, J. D.; Sandholm, S. T.; Singh, H. B.; Sachse, G. W.; Collins, J.; Gregory, G. L.; Anderson, B.; Blake, D.; Barrick, J.

    1994-01-01

    We report here large-scale features of the distribution of NO(x), HNO3, PAN, particle NO3, and NO(y) in the troposphere from 0.15 to 6 km altitude over central Canada. These measurements were conducted in July - August 1990 from the NASA Wallops Electra aircraft as part of the joint United States-Canadian Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE) 3B-Northern Wetlands Study. Our findings show that this region is generally NO(x) limited, with NO(x) mixing ratios typically 20-30 parts per trillion by volume (pptv). We found little direct evidence for anthropogenic enhancement of mixing ratios of reactive odd nitrogen species and NO(y) above those in 'background' air. Instead, it appears that enhancements in the mixing ratios of these species were primarily due to emissions from several day old or CO-rich-NO(x)-poor smoldering local biomass-burning fires. NO(x) mixing ratios in biomass-burning impacted air masses were usually less than 50 pptv, but those of HNO3 and PAN were typically 100-300 pptv representing a twofold-threefold enhancement over 'background' air. During our study period, inputs of what appeared to be aged tropical air were a major factor influencing the distribution of reactive odd nitrogen in the midtroposphere over northeastern North America. These air masses were quite depleted in NO(y) (generally less than 150 pptv), and a frequent summertime occurrence of such air masses over this region would imply a significant influence on the reactive odd nitrogen budget. Our findings show that the chemical composition of aged air masses over subarctic Canada and those documented in the Arctic during ABLE 3A have strikingly similar chemistries, suggesting large-scale connection between the air masses influencing these regions.

  18. Near yrast states in doubly odd [sup 214]Fr

    SciTech Connect

    Debray, M.E.; Kreiner, A.J.; Kesque, J.M.; Ozafran, M.; Romo, A.; Somacal, H.; Vazquez, M.E. ); Davidson, J.; Davidson, M. ); Ahn, K.; Fossan, D.B.; Liang, Y.; Ma, R.; Paul, E.S.; Piel, W.F. Jr.; Xu, N. )

    1993-11-01

    High spin states of doubly odd [sup 214]Fr[sub 127] have been investigated using in-beam [gamma]-ray and conversion electron spectroscopy techniques through the [sup 206]Pb([sup 11]B, 3[ital n]) and [sup 208]Pb([sup 11]B, 5[ital n]) fusion-evaporation reactions. Completely new spectrocopic information has been obtained. The yrast level structure is established up to spin (19[sup +]) and some information on [gamma] transitions from higher-lying levels is also obtained. Two new isomers [ital T][sub 1/2]=174(20) ns and [ital T][sub 1/2]=11(2) ns were found. Configuration assignments for the low-lying levels are discussed. Information on residual proton-neutron interactions is extracted.

  19. Ground State Magnetic Properties of Odd Neutron DY Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakut, Hakan; Tabar, Emre; Kuliev, Ali Akbar; Zenginerler, Zemine; Kaplan, Pinar

    2013-10-01

    Using the quasiparticle phonon nuclear model (QPNM) and taking into account the spin-spin interaction, the effects of the spin polarization on spin gyromagnetic factors (gs) as well as the intrinsic magnetic moments (gK) of the deformed odd neutron 155-165Dy isotopes were studied. The calculated values of gs and gK are in fair agreement with the experiment as well as with other microscopic calculations. Our calculations indicated that because of the core polarization, the gs factors of the nucleons in the nucleus reduce noticeably from its free nucleon value and the spin-spin interactions play an important role in the explanation of the quenching of the gs factors. A very good reproduction of the phenomenological quenching of gs factor from its free values (gs eff = 0.6-0.7gs free) is obtained for 155-165Dy.

  20. Can one measure C-odd asymmetry in ee??? ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layssac, J.; Narison, S.

    2009-01-01

    C-odd asymmetry can be studied from an accurate measurement of the angular distribution due to the interference between the S- and P-waves in ee??? at order ?3. Though the integrated total cross-section is zero as expected from the Furry's theorem, the asymmetry is dominated by the pion rescattering diagram which is enhanced by the presence of the lns/me2, and is quite large (?11% at ?=30 and ?{s}

  1. Odd-Frequency Triplet Josephson Current Through an Exchange Spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moke, Adam; Baker, Thomas; Richie-Halford, Adam; Bill, Andreas

    2012-11-01

    The existence of an odd-frequency long range triplet component in the order parameter of a proximity system with singlet superconductors is a recent prediction that has garnered great interest. The experimental fingerprint of this phenomenon is difficult to establish. We investigate a hybrid structure in which the emergence of the long range triplet component may be measured and identified. We consider a superconductor - exchange spring - superconductor Josephson junction as a function of increasing twist of the magnetic domain wall in the exchange spring. We show that as the domain wall is generated the long range triplet component emerges and modifies the current flowing through the Josephson junction. The critical temperature is also affected by the increased twist of the domain wall. The calculations lead us to propose an experiment where the long range triplet component can unequivocally be identified.

  2. An Overview of Modeling Middle Atmospheric Odd Nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackman, Charles H.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Odd nitrogen (N, NO, NO2, NO3, N2O5, HNO3, HO2NO2, ClONO2, and BrONO2) constituents are important components in the control of middle atmospheric ozone. Several processes lead to the production of odd nitrogen (NO(sub y)) in the middle atmosphere (stratosphere and mesosphere) including the oxidation of nitrous oxide (N2O), lightning, downflux from the thermosphere, and energetic charged particles (e.g., galactic cosmic rays, solar proton events, and energetic electron precipitation). The dominant production mechanism of NO(sub y) in the stratosphere is N2O oxidation, although other processes contribute. Mesospheric NO(sub y) is influenced by N2O oxidation, downflux from the thermosphere, and energetic charged particles. NO(sub y) is destroyed in the middle atmosphere primarily via two processes: 1) dissociation of NO to form N and O followed by N + NO yielding N2 + O to reform even nitrogen; and 2) transport to the troposphere where HNO3 can be rapidly scavenged in water droplets and rained out of the atmosphere. There are fairly significant differences among global models that predict NO(sub y). NO(sub y) has a fairly long lifetime in the stratosphere (months to years), thus disparate transport in the models probably contributes to many of these differences. Satellite and aircraft measurement provide modeling tests of the various components of NO(sub y). Although some recent reaction rate measurements have led to improvements in model/measurement agreement, significant differences do remain. This presentation will provide an overview of several proposed sources and sinks of NO(sub y) and their regions of importance. Multi-dimensional modeling results for NO(sub y) and its components with comparisons to observations will also be presented.

  3. Population-based study of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, histology, and medical history among human immunodeficiency virus-negative participants in San Francisco.

    PubMed

    Holly, Elizabeth A; Bracci, Paige M

    2003-08-15

    A population-based case-control study of non-Hodgkin lymphoma was conducted in the San Francisco Bay Area of California from 1988 to 1995. The study used Working Formulation histologic subtypes of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Diffuse and immunoblastic large-cell lymphomas and all follicular lymphomas were combined to reflect two Revised European-American Lymphoma (REAL) classifications. Results were obtained from age- and sex-adjusted polytomous multivariable logistic models for 1,304 cases and 2,402 controls who were negative for human immunodeficiency virus. Statistically significant odds ratios for REAL large-cell lymphoma were decreased for receipt of five or more different vaccines (odds ratio (OR) = 0.65), use of calcium channel blockers (OR = 0.35), mononucleosis (OR = 0.55), plant allergies (OR = 0.72), and animal allergies (OR = 0.40). Odds ratios for REAL follicular lymphoma were decreased for use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (OR = 0.67), hepatitis (OR = 0.36), and having had three or more bee or wasp stings (OR = 0.79) and were increased for heart disease (OR = 1.5). Similar elevated odds ratios for heart disease and Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine and decreased odds ratios for nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, plant allergies, and three or more bee or wasp stings were found for small lymphocytic lymphoma. These data provide direction for further investigation of immune function and genetic characteristics of subtypes of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in lymphomagenesis and warrant analyses in large pooled data sets. PMID:12915497

  4. Measuring an Effect Size from Dichotomized Data: Contrasted Results Whether Using a Correlation or an Odds Ratio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousson, Valentin

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that dichotomizing continuous data has the effect to decrease statistical power when the goal is to test for a statistical association between two variables. Modern researchers however are focusing not only on statistical significance but also on an estimation of the "effect size" (i.e., the strength of association…

  5. Low Back Pain Prevalence and Associated Factors in Iranian Population: Findings from the National Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Biglarian, Akbar; Seifi, Behjat; Bakhshi, Enayatollah; Mohammad, Kazem; Rahgozar, Mehdi; Karimlou, Masoud; Serahati, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Background. There are very few studies that had a sample size sufficient to explore the association between factors related to low back pain in a representative sample of the Iranian population. Objective. To examine the relationship between sociodemographic factors, smoking, obesity, and low back pain in Iranian people. Methods. We used Iranian adults respondents (n = 25307) from the National Health Survey. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by using logistic regression. Results. The prevalence of low back pain was found in 29.3% of the studied sample. High age, female sex, being married, obesity, low-economic index, being smoker, in a rural residence, and low educational attainment, all increased the odds of low back pain. Conclusions. Our findings add to the evidence on the importance of obesity in relation to low back pain. These results can be used as a basis to reinforce health programs to prevent obesity. PMID:23024861

  6. Fission barriers for the emission of odd-numbered fragments from multicharged C{sub 60} prepared in Ar{sup 8+}-C{sub 60} collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, S.; Chen, L.; Bernard, J.; Buchet-Poulizac, M. C.; Wei, B.; Bredy, R.

    2006-01-15

    We report on measurements of the branching ratios of emission of small C{sub n}{sup +} fragments in asymmetrical fission of highly charged C{sub 60}{sup r+} ions (r=4-6). For the channels corresponding to the emission of one fragment, only small fragments with an even number of carbon atoms are observed. For the channels with the emission of two fragments, successive emission of small fragments with an odd number of carbon atoms has been observed with a surprisingly high branching ratio (30%). In order to reproduce the experimental branching ratios in the framework of a statistical evaporation model, the height of fission barriers for the emission of one odd numbered fragment has to be reduced at higher temperature in order to allow the opening of these channels that are forbidden at lower temperature.

  7. Application of USDA and SDBA Hamiltonians in calculating the excited states of odd-A magnesium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Sammarrae, Anwer A.; Sharrad, Fadhil I.; Aziz, A. A.; Yusof, Norhasliza; Kassim, Hasan Abu

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we assess the accuracy of theoretical shell model in calculating the excited states in odd- A magnesium isotopes with neutron numbers between 9 and 15, on the basis of recently reported experimental results. The assessments rely on the calculations of the energy levels, reduced electric quadrupole transition probabilities, reduced magnetic dipole transition probabilities, and multipole mixing ratio. The theoretical results are based on the new sd-shell Universal Hamiltonian (USDA) and the realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction Bonn A Hamiltonian (SDBA). We show the area in which the two Hamiltonians are effective and demonstrate the possibility of confirming known states and suggesting new states.

  8. Outbreeding depression in hybrids between odd-and even-broodyear pink salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gharrett, A.J.; Smoker, W.W.; Reisenbichler, R.R.; Taylor, S.G.

    1999-01-01

    Fewer F2 hybrids between even- and odd-broodline pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha), which are lines that are genetically isolated by their strict two-year life cycle, survived than did F2 controls, indicating outbreeding depression. Cryopreserved sperm of 40 broodyear 1990 males and of 40 broodyear 1991 males fertilized equal subsamples of eggs from 40 broodyear 1992 females. Return rates of F1 hybrids (1.73%) and controls (1.63%) in 1994 did not differ significantly (P=0.30). F2 hybrid and control crosses were made from 40 males and 40 females selected at random from each return group. Offspring were differentially marked and released. In 1996, returns differed significantly (P=0.011) between hybrids (n=34, 0.34%) and controls (n=44, 0.42%). The low rate of return of the control fish was similar to the measured return of a much larger group of tagged Auke Creek pink salmon, and probably not an artifact of the experiment. Although no increase in fluctuating asymmetry of paired meristic counts was observed in either F1or F2 hybrids, size and some meristic counts of hybrids exceed measurements of controls, suggesting heterosis for those traits. The observations of decreased survival in F2 hybrids confirm previous work [Gharrett, A.J., Smoker, W.W., 1991. Two generations of hybrids between even- and odd-year pink salmon (O. gorbuscha). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 48(9) 1744–1749]. Although genetic divergence between pink salmon broodlines is large and outbreeding depression might be expected in such unlikely hybrids, the results document the occurrence of outbreeding depression in salmon and signal caution in making management and aquacultural decisions that may create the possibility of outbreeding depression in self-sustaining or cultured populations.

  9. Succinate esters: odd-even effects in melting points.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Sumy; Sathishkumar, Ranganathan

    2014-10-01

    Dialkyl succinates show a pattern of alternating behavior in their melting points, as the number of C atoms in the alkane side chain increases, unlike in the dialkyl oxalates [Joseph et al. (2011). Acta Cryst. B67, 525-534]. Dialkyl succinates with odd numbers of C atoms in the alkyl side chain show higher melting points than the immediately adjacent analogues with even numbers. The crystal structures and their molecular packing have been analyzed for a series of dialkyl succinates with 1-4 C atoms in the alkyl side chain. The energy difference (ΔE) between the optimized and observed molecular conformations, density, Kitaigorodskii packing index (KPI) and C-H...O interactions are considered to rationalize this behavior. In contrast to the dialkyl oxalates where a larger number of moderately strong C-H...O interactions were characteristic of oxalates with elevated melting points, here the molecular packing and the density play a major role in raising the melting point. On moving from oxalate to succinate esters the introduction of the C2 spacer adds two activated H atoms to the asymmetric unit, resulting in the formation of stronger C-H...O hydrogen bonds in all succinates. As a result the crystallinity of long-chain alkyl substituted esters improves enormously in the presence of hydrogen bonds from activated donors. PMID:25274517

  10. Increasing the Odds: Applying Emergentist Theory in Language Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Poll, Gerard H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This review introduces a leading theory of language development, emergentism, the view that language ability is the product of interactions between the language environment and the learning capabilities of the child. It suggests ways in which emergentism provides a theoretical rationale for interventions designed to address developmental language delays in young children. Method A review of selected literature on emergentist theory and research is presented, with a focus on the acquisition of early morphology and syntax. A significant method for developing and testing emergentist theory, connectionist modeling, is described. Key themes from both connectionist and behavioral studies are summarized and applied with specific examples to language intervention techniques. A case study is presented to integrate elements of emergentism with language intervention. Conclusions Evaluating the theoretical foundation for language interventions is an important step in evidence-based practice. This article introduces three themes in the emergentist literature that have implications for language intervention: sufficiency of language input, active engagement of the child with the input, and the introduction of factors that increase the odds for correctly mapping language form to meaning. Evidence supporting the importance of these factors in effective language intervention is presented, along with limitations in that evidence. PMID:21616988

  11. Odd-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in thraustochytrids.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kim Jye Lee; Mansour, Maged P; Dunstan, Graeme A; Blackburn, Susan I; Koutoulis, Anthony; Nichols, Peter D

    2011-08-01

    A series of unusual odd-chain fatty acids (OC-FA) were identified in two thraustochytrid strains, TC 01 and TC 04, isolated from waters off the south east coast of Tasmania, Australia. FA compositions were determined by capillary GC and GC-MS, with confirmation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) structure performed by analysis of 4,4-dimethyloxazoline derivatives. PUFA constituted 68-74% of the total FA, with the essential PUFA; eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5ω3, EPA), arachidonic acid (20:4ω6, AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6ω3, DHA), accounting for 42-44% of the total FA. High proportions of the saturated OC-FA 15:0 (7.1% in TC 01) and 17:0 (6.2% in TC 04) were detected. The OC-FA 17:1ω8 was present at 2.8% in TC 01. Of particular interest, the C₂₁ PUFA 21:5ω5 and 21:4ω7 were detected at 3.5% and 4.1%, respectively, in TC 04. A proposed biosynthesis pathway for these OC-PUFA is presented. It is possible that the unsaturated OC-PUFA found previously in a number of marine animals were derived from dietary thraustochytrids and they could be useful biomarkers in environmental and food web studies. PMID:21546043

  12. Nonparametric Risk and Nonparametric Odds in Quantitative Genetic Association Studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Li, Qizhai

    2015-01-01

    The coefficient in a linear regression model is commonly employed to evaluate the genetic effect of a single nucleotide polymorphism associated with a quantitative trait under the assumption that the trait value follows a normal distribution or is appropriately normally distributed after a certain transformation. When this assumption is violated, the distribution-free tests are preferred. In this work, we propose the nonparametric risk (NR) and nonparametric odds (NO), obtain the asymptotic normal distribution of estimated NR and then construct the confidence intervals. We also define the genetic models using NR, construct the test statistic under a given genetic model and a robust test, which are free of the genetic uncertainty. Simulation studies show that the proposed confidence intervals have satisfactory cover probabilities and the proposed test can control the type I error rates and is more powerful than the exiting ones under most of the considered scenarios. Application to gene of PTPN22 and genomic region of 6p21.33 from the Genetic Analysis Workshop 16 for association with the anticyclic citrullinated protein antibody further show their performances. PMID:26174851

  13. Strain-induced time-reversal odd superconductivity in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juricic, Vladimir; Roy, Bitan

    2014-03-01

    I will discuss the possibility of realizing a time-reversal-symmetry breaking superconducting state that exhibits an f + is pairing symmetry in strained graphene. Although the underlying attractive interactions need to be sufficiently strong and comparable in pristine graphene to support such pairing state, I will argue that strain can be conducive for its formation even for weak interactions. I will show that quantum-critical behavior near the transition is controlled by a fermionic multicritical point, characterized by various critical exponents computed in the framework of an ɛ-expansion near four spacetime dimensions. I will then discuss the scaling of the superconducting gap with the strain-induced axial pseudo-magnetic field. Furthermore, a vortex in this mixed superconducting state hosts a pair of Majorana fermions supporting a quartet of insulating and superconducting orders, among which quantum spin Hall topological insulator. Finally, I will mention some experimental signatures of this f + is time-reversal odd superconductor. These findings suggest that strained graphene could provide a platform for the realization of exotic superconducting states of Dirac fermions. VJ is supported by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO).

  14. Even-odd entanglement in boson and spin systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rossignoli, R.; Canosa, N.; Matera, J. M.

    2011-04-15

    We examine the entanglement entropy of the even half of a translationally invariant finite chain or lattice in its ground state. This entropy measures the entanglement between the even and odd halves (each forming a 'comb' of n/2 sites) and can be expected to be extensive for short-range couplings away from criticality. We first consider bosonic systems with quadratic couplings, where analytic expressions for arbitrary dimensions can be provided. The bosonic treatment is then applied to finite spin chains and arrays by means of the random-phase approximation. Results for first-neighbor anisotropic XY couplings indicate that, while at strong magnetic fields this entropy is strictly extensive, at weak fields important deviations arise, stemming from parity-breaking effects and the presence of a factorizing field (in the vicinity of which it becomes size-independent and identical to the entropy of a contiguous half). Exact numerical results for small spin s chains are shown to be in agreement with the bosonic random-phase approximation prediction.

  15. Odd-Frequency Triplet Josephson Current Through an Exchange Spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bill, Andreas; Baker, Thomas E.; Richie-Halford, Adam; Moke, Adam K.

    2013-03-01

    The existence of an odd-frequency long range triplet component in the order parameter of a proximity system with singlet superconductors is a recent prediction that has garnered great interest. The experimental fingerprint of this phenomenon is difficult to establish. We investigate a hybrid structure in which the emergence of the long range triplet component may be measured and identified. We consider a superconductor - exchange spring - superconductor Josephson junction as a function of increasing twist of the magnetic domain wall in the exchange spring. We show that as the domain wall is generated the long range triplet component emerges and modifies the current flowing through the Josephson junction. The critical temperature is also affected by the increased twist of the domain wall. The calculations lead us to propose an experiment where the long range triplet component can unequivocally be identified. We gratefully acknowledge the support of the National Science Foundation (DMR-0907242), the Army Research Laboratory, the Research Corporation, the Graduate Research Fellowship and RSCA at CSU Long Beach.

  16. E-GOS plots for Odd-A Medium Mass Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolova, Veronika; Fetea, Mirela; Regan, Paddy; Zamfir, Victor; Casten, Rick; Beausang, Cornelius

    2004-10-01

    Neutron rich nuclei are difficult to populate experimentally. One of the best mechanisms currently available is to use heavy-ion binary reactions to populate the medium-to-high spin states of the near-stable nuclei to investigate the role of specific orbitals in determining how the nuclear structure properties evolve as a function of angular momentum. A recently reported `E-Gamma Over Spin' (E-GOS) prescription [1,2] provides an intuitive graphical mechanism for viewing potential phase changes in the mechanism for angular momentum generation in transitional nuclei. Flat curves are associated with rotors, while hyperbolic loci are associated with vibrational structures - quite distinct from plots of excitation energy against the spin, where the trajectories for both a vibrator and a rotor gradually increase as a function of spin. The present work extends the previous EGOS analysis for even-even nuclei to odd-A medium mass nuclei. This work was supported by NSF Grant No. PHY 0204811, Research Corporation Grant No. CC5494, US-DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-91ER-40609 and by the Engineering and Physical Science Research Council UK. PHR acknowledges support from the Yale University Flint and Science Development Funds. [1] Regan, P.H. et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 152502 (2003) [2] Regan, P.H. et al., AIP Conferences Proceedings 656, New York, American Institute of Physics, 2003, pp 422-428.

  17. Nuclear Shell Structure and Beta Decay I. Odd A Nuclei II. Even A Nuclei

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Mayer, M.G.; Moszkowski, S.A.; Nordheim, L.W.

    1951-05-01

    In Part I a systematics is given of all transitions for odd A nuclei for which sufficiently reliable data are available. The allowed or forbidden characters of the transitions are correlated with the positions of the initial and final odd nucleon groups in the nuclear shell scheme. The nuclear shells show definite characteristics with respect to parity of the ground states. The latter is the same as the one obtained from known spins and magnetic moments in a one-particle interpretation. In Part II a systematics of the beta transitions of even-A nuclei is given. An interpretation of the character of the transitions in terms of nuclear shell structure is achieved on the hypothesis that the odd nucleon groups have the same structure as in odd-A nuclei, together with a simple coupling rule between the neutron and proton groups in odd-odd nuclei.

  18. Gamow-Teller strength in the exotic odd-odd nuclei 138La and 180Ta and its relevance for neutrino nucleosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Byelikov, A; Adachi, T; Fujita, H; Fujita, K; Fujita, Y; Hatanaka, K; Heger, A; Kalmykov, Y; Kawase, K; Langanke, K; Martínez-Pinedo, G; Nakanishi, K; von Neumann-Cosel, P; Neveling, R; Richter, A; Sakamoto, N; Sakemi, Y; Shevchenko, A; Shimbara, Y; Shimizu, Y; Smit, F D; Tameshige, Y; Tamii, A; Woosley, S E; Yosoi, M

    2007-02-23

    The Gamow-Teller strength distributions below the particle threshold in 138La and 180Ta, deduced from high-resolution measurements of the (3He,t) reaction at 0 degrees, allow us to evaluate the role of charged-current reactions for the production of these extremely rare nuclides in neutrino-nucleosynthesis models. The analysis suggests that essentially all 138La in the Universe can be made that way. Neutrino nucleosynthesis also contributes significantly to the abundance of 180Ta but the magnitude depends on the unknown branching ratio for population of the long-lived isomer. PMID:17359091

  19. Gamow-Teller Strength in the Exotic Odd-Odd Nuclei {sup 138}La and {sup 180}Ta and Its Relevance for Neutrino Nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Byelikov, A.; Kalmykov, Y.; Neumann-Cosel, P. von; Richter, A.; Shevchenko, A.; Adachi, T.; Fujita, Y.; Shimbara, Y.; Fujita, H.; Fujita, K.; Hatanaka, K.; Kawase, K.; Nakanishi, K.; Sakamoto, N.; Sakemi, Y.; Shimizu, Y.; Tameshige, Y.; Tamii, A.; Yosoi, M.; Heger, A.

    2007-02-23

    The Gamow-Teller strength distributions below the particle threshold in {sup 138}La and {sup 180}Ta, deduced from high-resolution measurements of the ({sup 3}He,t) reaction at 0 deg., allow us to evaluate the role of charged-current reactions for the production of these extremely rare nuclides in neutrino-nucleosynthesis models. The analysis suggests that essentially all {sup 138}La in the Universe can be made that way. Neutrino nucleosynthesis also contributes significantly to the abundance of {sup 180}Ta but the magnitude depends on the unknown branching ratio for population of the long-lived isomer.

  20. Experimental identification of intruder bandheads in odd-mass {sup 187-193}Pb

    SciTech Connect

    Andreyev, A. N.; Huyse, M.; Van de Vel, K.; Van Duppen, P.; Cocks, J. F. C.; Dorvaux, O.; Greenlees, P.; Jones, P.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Helariutta, K.; Kettunen, H.; Kuusiniemi, P.; Leino, M.; Muikku, M.; Trzaska, W. H.; Eskola, K.; Wyss, R.

    1999-11-16

    Fine-structure {alpha}-decays of the odd mass {sup 191-197}Po identifying proton based intruder states in the daughter lead nuclei have been observed, leading to a systematics of intruder states in odd mass lead isotopes from {sup 197}Pb down to {sup 187}Pb. The interpretation of these states involves the coupling of the i{sub 13/2} or p{sub 3/2} odd neutron to the oblate deformed even lead core.

  1. Experimental Identification of Intruder Bandheads in Odd-Mass {sup 187-193}Pb

    SciTech Connect

    A.N. Andreyev; J.F.C. Cocks; O. Dorvaux; K. Eskola; P. Greenlees; P. Jones; R. Julin; S. Juutinen; K. Helariutta; M. Huyse; H. Kettunen; P. Kuusiniemi; M. Leino; M. Muikku; W.H. Trzaska; K. Van de Vel; P. Van Duppen; R. Wyss

    1999-12-31

    Fine-structure {alpha}-decays of the odd mass {sup 191-197}Po identifying proton based intruder states in the daughter lead nuclei have been observed, leading to a systematics of intruder states in odd mass lead isotopes from {sup 197}Pb down to {sup 187}Pb. The interpretation of these states involves the coupling of the i{sub 13/2} or p{sub 3/2} odd neutron to the oblate deformed even lead core.

  2. Influence of APOE Genotype on Alzheimer's Disease CSF Biomarkers in a Spanish Population

    PubMed Central

    Monge-Argilés, J. A.; Gasparini-Berenguer, R.; Gutierrez-Agulló, M.; Muñoz-Ruiz, C.; Sánchez-Payá, J.; Leiva-Santana, C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the association between apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers and to study the influence of APOE genotype on the development of AD in a Spanish population. Material and Methods. The study comprised 29 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients and 27 control subjects. Using ELISA methodology, CSF biomarkers and tau/Aβ ratios were obtained. ANOVA and adjusted odds ratios were calculated. Results. We observed the effect of APOE genotype and age on CSF AD variables. The progression to AD was more clearly influenced by CSF AD variables than by age or APOE status. Conclusions. APOE status influences CSF AD variables. However, the presence of APOE ε4 does not appear to be a deterministic factor for the development of AD, because CSF variables have a greater influence on progression to the disease. These results confirm previous observations and, to our knowledge, are the first published in a Spanish population. PMID:27092308

  3. Prosociality and negative emotionality mediate the association of serotonin transporter genotype with childhood ADHD and ODD.

    PubMed

    Brammer, Whitney A; Lee, Steve S

    2013-01-01

    Although there is evidence that the promoter polymorphism of the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) gene is associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), the pathways underlying these associations are largely unknown. Given their theoretical and biological plausibility, we tested whether individual differences in key temperament dimensions (i.e., prosociality, negative emotionality, daring) constituted potential pathways from 5-HTTLPR to ADHD and ODD. Using a well-characterized sample of 194 six to nine-year-old children with and without ADHD, we utilized multiple mediation procedures with bootstrapping to evaluate prosociality, negative emotionality, and daring as independent mediators of 5-HTTLPR with separate parent and teacher ratings of ADHD and ODD. Controlling for ODD, prosociality and negative emotionality significantly mediated the association of 5-HTTLPR and parent-reported ADHD. Similarly, controlling for ADHD, prosociality and negative emotionality each uniquely mediated the association of 5-HTTLPR and parent-reported ODD. For teacher-reported ADHD, prosociality significantly mediated the association of 5-HTTLPR (controlling for ODD) whereas controlling for ODD, negative emotionality significantly mediated the prediction of teacher-reported ODD from 5-HTTLPR. Specifically, the number of 5-HTTLPR long alleles was inversely associated with prosociality and positively associated with negative emotionality; prosociality was inversely associated and negative emotionality was positively associated with ADHD and ODD. We consider the role of temperament in genetically sensitive designs as well as its potential value in the development and delivery of effective interventions. PMID:24116887

  4. Even-odd Effects in the Prompt Emission in Fission of Even-even Actinides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudora, A.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Giubega, G.; Visan, I.

    The even-odd effects in prompt emission received less attention compared to the extensively studied Z even-odd effects in fragment distributions. In this context, the present work is focusing on the even-odd effects (in both Z and N) appearing in the prompt emission of even-even nuclei fissioning spontaneously (252Cf, 236,238,240,242,244Pu) and by thermal neutron induced fission (233,235U, 239Pu). The study shows that these effects are mainly due to the Z even-odd effects in fragment distributions and ΔZ and the N even-odd effects in average neutron separation energies. The most pronounced even-odd effect in prompt emission is observed for the prompt neutron multiplicity, its global size decreasing with increasing fissility. The N even-odd effect in , influences the global even-odd effect in prompt neutron multiplicity often in an opposite way compared to the Z even-odd effect. The global N even-odd effect in is considerably higher in the case of 236-244Pu(SF) compared to other neutron induced fissioning nuclei with comparable mass. <ν>(TKE) shows an increase of the Z even-odd effect with increasing TKE. Compared to 233,235U(nth,f), 239Pu(nth,f) and 252Cf(SF) for which these effects show a decrease for heavier fissioning systems, in the case of 236-244Pu(SF) this behaviour is not visible. The comparison of even-odd effects of 240Pu(SF) and 239Pu(nth,f) showed i) a higher even-odd effect in Y(Z) and ΔZ for SF confirming the Z even-odd effect decrease with increasing excitation energy and ii) the higher N even-odd effect in for SF impacts the prompt emission leading to a lower Z even-odd effect in prompt neutron multiplicity of 240Pu(SF) compared to 239Pu(nth,f).

  5. A genome-wide association study of periodontitis in a Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, S; Momozawa, Y; Takahashi, A; Nagasawa, T; Ashikawa, K; Terada, Y; Izumi, Y; Kobayashi, H; Tsuji, M; Kubo, M; Furuichi, Y

    2015-04-01

    Periodontitis is a multifactorial disease in which bacterial, lifestyle, and genetic factors are involved. Although previous genetic association studies identified several susceptibility genes for periodontitis in European populations, there is little information for Asian populations. Here, we conducted a genome-wide association study and a replication study consisting of 2,760 Japanese periodontitis patients and 15,158 Japanese controls. Although single-nucleotide polymorphisms that surpassed a stringent genome-wide significance threshold (P < 5 × 10(-8)) were not identified, we found 2 suggestive loci for periodontitis: KCNQ5 on chromosome 6q13 (rs9446777, P = 4.83 × 10(-6), odds ratio = 0.82) and GPR141-NME8 at chromosome 7p14.1 (rs2392510, P = 4.17 × 10(-6), odds ratio = 0.87). A stratified analysis indicated that the GPR141-NME8 locus had a strong genetic effect on the susceptibility to generalized periodontitis in Japanese individuals with a history of smoking. In conclusion, this study identified 2 suggestive loci for periodontitis in a Japanese population. This study should contribute to a further understanding of genetic factors for enhanced susceptibility to periodontitis. PMID:25672891

  6. Q192R paraoxonase1 polymorphism is a risk factor for cataract in Pakistani population.

    PubMed

    Baig, Amena; Zohaib, Muhammad; Rehman, Ata-Ur; Zarina, Shamshad

    2016-05-01

    Cataract, the lens opacity, is among major causes of blindness in Pakistani population. In recent past, oxidative stress is suggested to play crucial role in loss of transparency. Along with other antioxidants, Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has also shown decreased activity in patients suffering from cataract. The aim of current study was to examine the possible association of PON polymorphism with predisposition of cataract formation in local population. The study was conducted on 51 cataract patients and 50 control subjects considering all ethical issues. DNA was extracted from whole blood and PON1 polymorphism was identified using tetra primer ARMS-PCR method for both positions L55M and Q192R. Tetra primer ARMS-PCR results revealed that association between L55M polymorphism and cataract was insignificant while 192R genotype PON1 frequency was higher among the people suffering from cataract (78.4%) as compared to control subjects (56%), (odds ratio=2.857, confidence interval=1.197-6.820). Hence, R allele is likely to be a risk factor for cataract with allele frequency (82.3%) and (odds ratio=4.552, confidence interval=1.716-12.073, p-value=0.002). PON1 Q192R polymorphism is likely to be a risk factor for cataract development in Pakistani population while PON1 L55M was not found to be associated with cataract. PMID:27166546

  7. Against All Odds: A Socioeconomic Analysis of Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote Sykes, Darold E.

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that the adolescent African American male, in comparison to his peers of other races, is challenged by a diversity of destructive factors that significantly affect his future. This study examined the disparity in academic achievement that exists between African American male students and other student populations in the United…

  8. Issue Backgrounder : Downstream Fish Migration : Improving the Odds of Survival.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1985-05-01

    Background information is given on the problems caused to anadromous fish migrations, especially salmon and steelhead trout, by the development of hydroelectric power dams on the Columbia River and its tributaries. Programs arising out of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and conservation Act of 1980 to remedy these problems and restore fish and wildlife populations are described. (ACR)

  9. Co-trimoxazole and sudden death in patients receiving inhibitors of renin-angiotensin system: population based study

    PubMed Central

    Fralick, Michael; Macdonald, Erin M; Gomes, Tara; Antoniou, Tony; Hollands, Simon; Mamdani, Muhammad M

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the prescription of co-trimoxazole with an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker is associated with sudden death. Design Population based nested case-control study. Setting Ontario, Canada, from 1 April 1994 to 1 January 2012. Participants Ontario residents aged 66 years or older treated with an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker. Cases were those who died suddenly shortly after receiving an outpatient prescription for one of co-trimoxazole, amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, or nitrofurantoin. Each case was matched with up to four controls on age, sex, chronic kidney disease, and diabetes. Main outcome measure Odds ratio for the association between sudden death and exposure to each antibiotic relative to amoxicillin, after adjustment for predictors of sudden death according to a disease risk index. Results Of 39?879 sudden deaths, 1027 occurred within seven days of exposure to an antibiotic and were matched to 3733 controls. Relative to amoxicillin, co-trimoxazole was associated with an increased risk of sudden death (adjusted odds ratio 1.38, 95% confidence interval 1.09 to 1.76). The risk was marginally higher at 14 days (adjusted odds ratio 1.54, 1.29 to 1.84). This corresponds to approximately three sudden deaths within 14 days per 1000 co-trimoxazole prescriptions. Ciprofloxacin (a known cause of QT interval prolongation) was also associated with an increased risk of sudden death (adjusted odds ratio 1.29, 1.03 to 1.62), but no such risk was observed with nitrofurantoin or norfloxacin. Conclusions In older patients receiving angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, co-trimoxazole is associated with an increased risk of sudden death. Unrecognized severe hyperkalemia may underlie this finding. When appropriate, alternative antibiotics should be considered in such patients. PMID:25359996

  10. Proton Pump Inhibitors and Hospitalization with Hypomagnesemia: A Population-Based Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Zipursky, Jonathan; Macdonald, Erin M.; Hollands, Simon; Gomes, Tara; Mamdani, Muhammad M.; Paterson, J. Michael; Lathia, Nina; Juurlink, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Some evidence suggests that proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are an under-appreciated risk factor for hypomagnesemia. Whether hospitalization with hypomagnesemia is associated with use of PPIs is unknown. Methods and Findings We conducted a population-based case-control study of multiple health care databases in Ontario, Canada, from April 2002 to March 2012. Patients who were enrolled as cases were Ontarians aged 66 years or older hospitalized with hypomagnesemia. For each individual enrolled as a case, we identified up to four individuals as controls matched on age, sex, kidney disease, and use of various diuretic classes. Exposure to PPIs was categorized according to the most proximate prescription prior to the index date as current (within 90 days), recent (within 91 to 180 days), or remote (within 181 to 365 days). We used conditional logistic regression to estimate the odds ratio for the association of outpatient PPI use and hospitalization with hypomagnesemia. To test the specificity of our findings we examined use of histamine H2 receptor antagonists, drugs with no causal link to hypomagnesemia. We studied 366 patients hospitalized with hypomagnesemia and 1,464 matched controls. Current PPI use was associated with a 43% increased risk of hypomagnesemia (adjusted odds ratio, 1.43; 95% CI 1.061.93). In a stratified analysis, the risk was particularly increased among patients receiving diuretics, (adjusted odds ratio, 1.73; 95% CI 1.112.70) and not significant among patients not receiving diuretics (adjusted odds ratio, 1.25; 95% CI 0.811.91). We estimate that one excess hospitalization with hypomagnesemia will occur among 76,591 outpatients treated with a PPI for 90 days. Hospitalization with hypomagnesemia was not associated with the use of histamine H2 receptor antagonists (adjusted odds ratio 1.06; 95% CI 0.542.06). Limitations of this study include a lack of access to serum magnesium levels, uncertainty regarding diagnostic coding of hypomagnesemia, and generalizability of our findings to younger patients. Conclusions PPIs are associated with a small increased risk of hospitalization with hypomagnesemia among patients also receiving diuretics. Physicians should be aware of this association, particularly for patients with hypomagnesemia. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:25268962

  11. Pure odd-order oscillators with constant excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cveticanin, L.

    2011-02-01

    In this paper the excited vibrations of a truly nonlinear oscillator are analyzed. The excitation is assumed to be constant and the nonlinearity is pure (without a linear term). The mathematical model is a second-order nonhomogeneous differential equation with strong nonlinear term. Using the first integral, the exact value of period of vibration i.e., angular frequency of oscillator described with a pure nonlinear differential equation with constant excitation is analytically obtained. The closed form solution has the form of gamma function. The period of vibration depends on the value of excitation and of the order and coefficient of the nonlinear term. For the case of pure odd-order-oscillators the approximate solution of differential equation is obtained in the form of trigonometric function. The solution is based on the exact value of period of vibration. For the case when additional small perturbation of the pure oscillator acts, the so called 'Cveticanin's averaging method' for a truly nonlinear oscillator is applied. Two special cases are considered: one, when the additional term is a function of distance, and the second, when damping acts. To prove the correctness of the method the obtained results are compared with those for the linear oscillator. Example of pure cubic oscillator with constant excitation and linear damping is widely discussed. Comparing the analytically obtained results with exact numerical ones it is concluded that they are in a good agreement. The investigations reported in the paper are of special interest for those who are dealing with the problem of vibration reduction in the oscillator with constant excitation and pure nonlinear restoring force the examples of which can be found in various scientific and engineering systems. For example, such mechanical systems are seats in vehicles, supports for machines, cutting machines with periodical motion of the cutting tools, presses, etc. The examples can be find in electronics (electromechanical devices like micro-actuators and micro oscillators), in music instruments (hammers in piano), in human voice producing folds (voice cords), etc.

  12. Sex ratios in pheasant research and management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dale, F.H.

    1952-01-01

    Sex ratios are of primary importance in interpretation of extensive studies of pheasant populations. They are necessary for converting crowing-cock indices to population estimates even where annual trends are to be studied in the same area. Reliability of population estimates from hunting season kill of pheasants suffers primarily from inability to estimate sex ratios accurately. Fall sex ratio is an index to production and where adult sex ratios are divergent can serve as a good check on production per hen. Age ratios of cocks cannot be interpreted directly as an index of productivity, even within the boundaries of one state, unless adult sex ratios are known. The relationship between observed and actual sex ratio varies significantly from season to season and according to the method of observation. In view of their importance in population studies and the lack of reliability of present methods, it is believed that intensive studies on techniques for obtaining sex ratios are a major need in pheasant research.

  13. One-quasiparticle states in odd-Z heavy nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Kuklin, S. N.; Scheid, W.

    2010-11-15

    The isotopic dependencies of one-quasiparticle states in Es and Md are treated. In {sup 253,255}Lr, the energies of the lowest one-quasiproton states are calculated. The one-quasiparticle isomer states are revealed in the nuclei of an {alpha}-decay chain starting from {sup 269}Rg. The {alpha} decays from some isomer states are predicted. The population of isomer states in the complete fusion reactions is discussed.

  14. Surveillance for Hepatocellular Carcinoma in a Medicaid Cirrhotic Population

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Lena B.; Kappelman, Michael D.; Sandler, Robert S.; Hayashi, Paul H.

    2013-01-01

    Goals To estimate hepatocellular carcinoma surveillance in the Medicaid cirrhotic population. Background Most studies predate 2005 AASLD surveillance recommendations and do not examine the primary target population, cirrhotics. Study For 2006-2007 we identified adults with at least one cirrhosis International Classification of Disease code and 15 months of continuous enrollment in North Carolina Medicaid, recording claims for abdominal ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and alpha-fetoprotein testing. We used multi-variable logistic regression to identify factors independently associated with imaging. Results Five-thousand sixty one subjects (5,061) were identified: mean age 54 years, 54% male, 35% African-American, 56% White. Cirrhosis risk factors were alcohol (59%), hepatitis C (30%), hepatitis B (4%), other (18%), and unknown (24%). Only 26% had at least one imaging test. Just 12% of those not hospitalized or seen in an emergency department had any imaging. Care in an academic facility, younger age, female gender, viral hepatitis, and Medicare co-insurance were positively associated with imaging. Twenty-one percent saw a gastroenterologist which increased the odds of undergoing imaging [Odds Ratio (O.R.) 2.81, 95% Confidence Interval (C.I.) 2.32, 3.41] while primary care visits did not (O.R. 0.94, 95% C.I. 0.76, 1.16). Conclusions Only a quarter of North Carolina Medicaid cirrhotics had abdominal imaging over a 15 month period, and many tests may have occurred without surveillance intent. Gastroenterology visits nearly tripled the odds of imaging, but primary care visits had no effect. Efforts to improve surveillance rates in cirrhotic patients should target primary care and increased access to sub-specialty care. PMID:23442840

  15. Nuclear Data Evaluation for Mass Chain A=217:Odd-Proton Nuclei.

    PubMed

    Nafee, Sherif S; Shaheen, Salem A; Al-Ramady, Amir M

    2016-01-01

    Thallium ([Formula: see text], Bismuth ([Formula: see text]), Astatine ([Formula: see text]), Francium ([Formula: see text]), Actinium ([Formula: see text]) and Protactinium ([Formula: see text]) are of odd-proton numbers among the mass chain A = 217. In the present work, the half-lives and gamma transitions for the six nuclei have been studied and adopted based on the recently published interactions or unevaluated nuclear data sets XUNDL. The Q (α) has been updated based on the recent published work of the Atomic Mass Evaluation AME2012 as well. Moreover, the total conversion electrons as well as the K-Shell to L-Shell, L-Shell to M-Shell and L-Shell to N-Shell Conversion Electron Ratios have been calculated using BrIcc code v2.3. An updated skeleton decay scheme for each of the above nuclei has been presented here. The decay hindrance factors (HF) calculated using the ALPHAD program, which is available from Brookhaven National Laboratory's website, have been calculated for the α- decay data sets for 221Fr-, 221Ac- and 221Pa- α-decays. PMID:26761207

  16. Nuclear Data Evaluation for Mass Chain A=217:Odd-Proton Nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Nafee, Sherif S.; Shaheen, Salem A.; Al-Ramady, Amir M.

    2016-01-01

    Thallium (Tl81217), Bismuth (Bi83217), Astatine (At85217), Francium (Fr87217), Actinium (Ac89217) and Protactinium (Pa91217) are of odd-proton numbers among the mass chain A = 217. In the present work, the half-lives and gamma transitions for the six nuclei have been studied and adopted based on the recently published interactions or unevaluated nuclear data sets XUNDL. The Q (α) has been updated based on the recent published work of the Atomic Mass Evaluation AME2012 as well. Moreover, the total conversion electrons as well as the K-Shell to L-Shell, L-Shell to M-Shell and L-Shell to N-Shell Conversion Electron Ratios have been calculated using BrIcc code v2.3. An updated skeleton decay scheme for each of the above nuclei has been presented here. The decay hindrance factors (HF) calculated using the ALPHAD program, which is available from Brookhaven National Laboratory’s website, have been calculated for the α- decay data sets for 221Fr-, 221Ac- and 221Pa- α-decays. PMID:26761207

  17. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor associated cough: a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Visser, L E; Stricker, B H; van der Velden, J; Paes, A H; Bakker, A

    1995-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the risk for coughing as an adverse reaction to angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors under everyday circumstances in a large population and to study whether this adverse effect is more common in women. A population-based case-control study was used. The study was set in the practices of 161 Dutch general practitioners (GPs), in which all consultations, morbidity, mortality, medical interventions and prescriptions were registered during 4 consecutive 3-month periods in 4 consecutive groups of 40-41 GPs. The subjects were 2436 patients with incident coughing and up to 3 controls per case were obtained (total group: 7348 controls), matched for GP and a contemporary consultation in the same 3 months. All cases and controls were 20 years or older and had no notification of respiratory infections, influenza, tuberculosis, asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, congestive heart failure, sinusitis, laryngitis, haemoptysis or respiratory neoplasms during the 3-month period. The results showed that cases were 3.6 times as likely as controls to have been exposed to ACE inhibitors (95% CI: 2.4-5.5) but after adjustment for potential confounders the odds ratio was 2.5 (95% CI: 1.6-3.9). The crude odds ratio for males was 2.7 (95% CI: 1.4-5.1) and for females 4.2 (95% CI: 2.4-7.5). The adjusted odds ratio for males was 1.8 (95% CI: 0.9-3.5) and for females 2.7 (95% CI: 1.5-4.8).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7769416

  18. Investigation of Cool and Hot Executive Function in ODD/CD Independently of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Christopher W.; Scott, Stephen; Rubia, Katya

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) have shown deficits in "cool" abstract-cognitive, and "hot" reward-related executive function (EF) tasks. However, it is currently unclear to what extent ODD/CD is associated with neuropsychological deficits, independently of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

  19. ODD and ADHD Symptoms in Ukrainian Children: External Validators and Comorbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Carlson, Gabrielle A.; Bromet, Evelyn J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine potential external validators for oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and attention-deficient/hyperactive disorder (ADHD) symptoms in a Ukrainian community-based sample of 600 children age 10 to 12 years old and evaluate the nature of co-occurring ODD and ADHD symptoms using mother- and teacher-defined groups. Method: In…

  20. The Correlation of Secondary Organic Aerosol with Odd Oxygen in Mexico City

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data from a mountain location intercepting the Mexico City emission plume demonstrate a strong correlation between secondary organic aerosol and odd-oxygen (O3 + NO2). The measured oxygenated-organic aerosol correlates with odd-oxygen measurements with an a...

  1. Fitting Proportional Odds Models to Educational Data in Ordinal Logistic Regression Using Stata, SAS and SPSS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xing

    2008-01-01

    The proportional odds (PO) model, which is also called cumulative odds model (Agresti, 1996, 2002 ; Armstrong & Sloan, 1989; Long, 1997, Long & Freese, 2006; McCullagh, 1980; McCullagh & Nelder, 1989; Powers & Xie, 2000; O'Connell, 2006), is one of the most commonly used models for the analysis of ordinal categorical data and comes from the class…

  2. Into the Cuckoo's Nest: "Silver Linings Playbook" and Movies about Odd People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Odd people have always been identified and often treated differently in human societies. In modern times, they have been described as being afflicted with a psychological condition to be treated by specialists and assigned to a "crazy" category by general society. Movies about such odd people have a long history. A recent movie,…

  3. Investigation of Cool and Hot Executive Function in ODD/CD Independently of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Christopher W.; Scott, Stephen; Rubia, Katya

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) have shown deficits in "cool" abstract-cognitive, and "hot" reward-related executive function (EF) tasks. However, it is currently unclear to what extent ODD/CD is associated with neuropsychological deficits, independently of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder…

  4. Association of Anxiety and ODD/CD in Children with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Aguirre, Vincent P.; Lee, Steve S.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to examine levels of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) in four groups of children: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) only, anxiety only, ADHD and anxiety, and controls (i.e., non-ADHD youth). Although children with ADHD exhibit more ODD and CD than non-ADHD youth, it is unknown if…

  5. Into the Cuckoo's Nest: "Silver Linings Playbook" and Movies about Odd People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Odd people have always been identified and often treated differently in human societies. In modern times, they have been described as being afflicted with a psychological condition to be treated by specialists and assigned to a "crazy" category by general society. Movies about such odd people have a long history. A recent movie,

  6. The Interplay among Preschool Child and Family Factors and the Development of ODD Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Metcalfe, Lindsay A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined (a) the interactions between early behavior, early parenting, and early family adversity in predicting later oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, and (b) the reciprocal relations between parent functioning and ODD symptoms across the preschool years. Participants were 258 three-year-old children (138 boys, 120

  7. Functional outcomes of child and adolescent ODD symptoms in young adult men

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Jeffrey D.; Rowe, Richard; Boylan, Khrista

    2013-01-01

    Background ODD is considered to be a disorder of childhood, yet evidence suggests that prevalence rates of the disorder are stable into late adolescence and trajectories of symptoms persist into young adulthood. Functional outcomes associated with ODD through childhood and adolescence include conflict within families, poor peer relationships, peer rejection and academic difficulties. Little examination of functional outcomes in adulthood associated with ODD has been undertaken. Method Data for the present analyses come from a clinic referred sample of 177 boys aged 7 to 12 followed up annually to age 18 and again at age 24. Annual parental report of psychopathology through adolescence was used to predict self-reported functional outcomes at 24. Results Controlling for parent reported symptoms of ADHD, CD, depression and anxiety, ODD symptoms from childhood through adolescence predicted poorer age 24 functioning with peers, poorer romantic relationships, a poorer paternal relationship, and having nobody who would provide a recommendation for a job. CD symptoms predicted workplace problems, poor maternal relationship, lower academic attainment and violent injuries. Only parent reported ODD symptoms and child reported CD symptoms predicted a composite of poor adult outcomes. Conclusion ODD is a disorder that significantly interferes with functioning, particularly in social or interpersonal relationships. The persistence of impairment associated with ODD into young adulthood calls for a reconsideration of ODD as a disorder limited to childhood. PMID:24117754

  8. The odd-even effect in Sudoku puzzles: effects of working memory, aging, and experience.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hye-Sang; Gibson, Janet M

    2011-01-01

    The odd-even effect in numerical processing has been explained as the easier processing of even numbers compared with odd numbers. We investigated this effect in Sudoku puzzles, a reasoning problem that uses numbers but does not require arithmetic operations. Specifically, we asked whether the odd-even effect occurred with Sudoku puzzles and whether individual differences in working memory (WM), aging, and experience with Sudoku modulated this effect. We manipulated the presence of odd and even numbers in Sudoku puzzles, measured WM with the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and backward digit span task, tested older and younger adults, and collected Sudoku experience frequency. Performance on Sudoku was more accurate for even puzzles than odd ones. Younger, experienced, and higher-WM participants were more accurate on Sudoku, but these individual difference variables did not interact with the odd-even effect. Odd numbers may impose more cognitive load than even numbers, but future research is needed to examine how age, experience, or WM may influence the odd-even effect. PMID:21977693

  9. Clinically Referred ODD Children with or without CD and Healthy Controls: Comparisons across Contextual Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolko, David J.; Dorn, Lorah D.; Bukstein, Oscar; Burke, Jeffrey D.

    2008-01-01

    This study compares 6-11-year-old, clinically referred boys and girls diagnosed with Oppositional Defiant Disorder, either with (ODD + CD, n = 40) or without Conduct Disorder (ODD only; n = 136), to a matched sample of healthy control children (HC; n = 69). Multiple informants completed intake diagnostic interviews and self-reports to evaluate…

  10. The Interplay among Preschool Child and Family Factors and the Development of ODD Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Metcalfe, Lindsay A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined (a) the interactions between early behavior, early parenting, and early family adversity in predicting later oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, and (b) the reciprocal relations between parent functioning and ODD symptoms across the preschool years. Participants were 258 three-year-old children (138 boys, 120…

  11. Quantifying asymmetry: ratios and alternatives.

    PubMed

    Franks, Erin M; Cabo, Luis L

    2014-08-01

    Traditionally, the study of metric skeletal asymmetry has relied largely on univariate analyses, utilizing ratio transformations when the goal is comparing asymmetries in skeletal elements or populations of dissimilar dimensions. Under this approach, raw asymmetries are divided by a size marker, such as a bilateral average, in an attempt to produce size-free asymmetry indices. Henceforth, this will be referred to as "controlling for size" (see Smith: Curr Anthropol 46 (2005) 249-273). Ratios obtained in this manner often require further transformations to interpret the meaning and sources of asymmetry. This model frequently ignores the fundamental assumption of ratios: the relationship between the variables entered in the ratio must be isometric. Violations of this assumption can obscure existing asymmetries and render spurious results. In this study, we examined the performance of the classic indices in detecting and portraying the asymmetry patterns in four human appendicular bones and explored potential methodological alternatives. Examination of the ratio model revealed that it does not fulfill its intended goals in the bones examined, as the numerator and denominator are independent in all cases. The ratios also introduced strong biases in the comparisons between different elements and variables, generating spurious asymmetry patterns. Multivariate analyses strongly suggest that any transformation to control for overall size or variable range must be conducted before, rather than after, calculating the asymmetries. A combination of exploratory multivariate techniques, such as Principal Components Analysis, and confirmatory linear methods, such as regression and analysis of covariance, appear as a promising and powerful alternative to the use of ratios. PMID:24842694

  12. 20 {mu}s isomeric state in doubly odd {sub 61}{sup 134}Pm

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, D. M.; Mason, P. J. R; Rigby, S. V.; Kishada, A. M.; Varley, B. J.; Scholey, C.; Eeckhaudt, S.; Grahn, T.; Greenlees, P. T.; Jakobsson, U.; Jones, P. M.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Ketelhut, S.; Leino, M.; Leppaenen, A.-P.; Maentyniemi, K.; Nieminen, P.; Nyman, M.; Pakarinen, J.

    2009-08-15

    Recoil-isomer tagging at the Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyvaeskylae has been used to establish the isomeric nature of a known (7{sup -}) excited state in the doubly odd nucleus {sup 134}Pm. The isomeric state was determined to have a half-life of 20(1) {mu}s and was populated from the decay of a {pi}h{sub 11/2} x {nu}h{sub 11/2} band using the {sup 92}Mo({sup 54}Fe,2{alpha}3pn) reaction at 305 and 315 MeV. The isomer decays by a 71-keV transition that provides an intermediate step in linking the established {sup 134}Pm high-spin level scheme to the lower-spin states observed from the {beta} decay of {sup 134}Sm. Electron-conversion analysis for the 71-keV {gamma}-ray transition reveals that it is of E1 character and its small reduced-transition probability suggests that {sup 134}Pm may have a nuclear shape more rigid than that of the neighboring nuclei.

  13. Collective band structures in the odd-proton nuclei /sup 135,137/Pm

    SciTech Connect

    Beausang, C.W.; Hildingsson, L.; Paul, E.S.; Piel W.F. Jr.; Weng, P.K.; Xu, N.; Fossan, D.B.

    1987-08-01

    Collective bands based on a low-K ..pi..h/sub 11/2/ orbital have been populated to high spins in the odd-proton nuclei /sup 135,137/Pm following the reactions /sup 116/Sn(/sup 24/Mg,p4n)/sup 135/Pm and /sup 114/Cd(/sup 27/Al,4n)/sup 137/Pm, respectively. Both nuclei exhibit a band crossing in the ..pi..h/sub 11/2/ band at a frequency of h-dash-bar..omega..--0.42 MeV. In /sup 135/Pm, an upbend is observed, while a weaker interaction backbend is observed in /sup 137/Pm. Cranked-shell model calculations, including triaxiality, imply that this crossing is due to the alignment of the second and third valence h/sub 11/2/ protons. The systematics of this alignment in the Pm isotopes will be discussed. In addition, positive parity three-quasiproton states were observed in both nuclei. These structures also contain a pair of aligned h/sub 11/2/ protons, in this case the first and second valence protons which align at a much lower frequency of h-dash-bar..omega..--0.28 MeV.

  14. An apparent 'even-odd' cycle distribution in Mt. Wilson 'numbers of spots' data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    1986-01-01

    Mt. Wilson 'numbers of spots' data (Howard et al., 1984) appear to be distributed according to 'even-odd' cycle numbering. Linear fits of annual 'numbers of spots' versus annual sunspot number for even- and odd-numbered cycles have slopes which are statistically different at the 5 percent level of significance. The existence of an 'even-odd' split in Mt. Wilson 'numbers of spots' data may be due either to a real difference in even- and odd-numbered cycles on the sun or to a difference in weather at Mt. Wilson during even- and odd-numbered cycles, or both. For cycle 22, an even-numbered cycle, the peak 'numbers of spots' is estimated to be near 2600.

  15. Odd-even effect in heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Su Jun; Zhang Fengshou; Bian Baoan

    2011-01-15

    Heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies are studied by the isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model in the company of the GEMINI model. The isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model is applied to describe the violent stage of the collisions, while the GEMINI model is applied to simulate the decays of the prefragments. The present study mainly focuses on the odd-even effect in the yields of the final fragments. We find that the odd-even effect appears in the deexcitation process of the excited prefragments, and is affected by the excitation energies and the isotope distributions of the prefragments. Both the projectile-isospin-dependent odd-even effect in the region of -4{<=}T{sub Z}{<=}1 and the role of the symmetry energy on the odd-even effect are studied. We find that the odd-even effect depends sensitively on the symmetry energy.

  16. Odd-even effect in heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Jun; Zhang, Feng-Shou; Bian, Bao-An

    2011-01-01

    Heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies are studied by the isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model in the company of the GEMINI model. The isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model is applied to describe the violent stage of the collisions, while the GEMINI model is applied to simulate the decays of the prefragments. The present study mainly focuses on the odd-even effect in the yields of the final fragments. We find that the odd-even effect appears in the deexcitation process of the excited prefragments, and is affected by the excitation energies and the isotope distributions of the prefragments. Both the projectile-isospin-dependent odd-even effect in the region of -4⩽TZ⩽1 and the role of the symmetry energy on the odd-even effect are studied. We find that the odd-even effect depends sensitively on the symmetry energy.

  17. On the variability of alligator sex ratios

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Chabreck, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    Samples of alligators from wild and 'farm' populations exhibited disproportionate sex ratios. Males predominated among young alligators from wild populations, whereas females were much more abundant than males in the farm population, where resources were superabundant. These results and other considerations lead us to hypothesize that environmental factors influence sex determination in alligators. During favorable environmental conditions natural selection is expected to favor a preponderance of the sex whose individuals exhibit the greater environmentally associated variation in relative fitness. We hypothesize that environmentally associated variation in age at sexual maturity of females produces sufficient variation in relative fitness of females to result in selection for low sex ratios during periods of resource abundance.

  18. Obesity increases the odds of acquiring and incarcerating noninguinal abdominal wall hernias.

    PubMed

    Lau, Briana; Kim, Hanjoo; Haigh, Philip I; Tejirian, Talar

    2012-10-01

    The current data available describing the relationship of obesity and abdominal wall hernias is sparse. The objective of this study was to investigate the current prevalence of noninguinal abdominal wall hernias and their correlation with body mass index (BMI) and other demographic risk factors. Patients with umbilical, incisional, ventral, epigastric, or Spigelian hernias with or without incarceration were identified using the regional database for 14 hospitals over a 3-year period. Patients were stratified based on their BMI. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to distinguish other significant risk factors associated with the hernias. Of 2,807,414 patients, 26,268 (0.9%) had one of the specified diagnoses. Average age of the patients was 52 years and 61 per cent were male. The majority of patients had nonincarcerated umbilical hernias (74%). Average BMI was 32 kg/m2. Compared with patients with a normal BMI, the odds of having a hernia increased with BMI: BMI of 25 to 29.9 kg/m2 odds ratio (OR) 1.63, BMI of 30 to 39.9 kg/m2 OR 2.62, BMI 40 to 49.9 kg/m2 OR 3.91, BMI 50 to 59.9 kg/m2 OR 4.85, and BMI greater than 60 kg/m2 OR 5.17 (P<0.0001). Age older than 50 years was associated with a higher risk for having a hernia (OR, 2.12; 95% [CI], 2.07 to 2.17), whereas female gender was associated with a lower risk (OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.52 to 0.55). Those with incarcerated hernias had a higher average BMI (32 kg/m2 vs 35 kg/m2; P<0.0001). Overall, BMI greater than 40 kg/m2 showed an increased chance of incarceration, and a BMI greater than 60 kg/m2 had the highest chance of incarceration, OR 12.7 (P<0.0001). Age older than 50 years and female gender were also associated with a higher risk of incarceration (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.59 and OR, 1.80; CI, 1.45 to 2.24). Increasing BMI and increasing age are associated with a higher prevalence and an increased risk of incarceration of noninguinal abdominal wall hernias. PMID:23025954

  19. Association of anxiety and ODD/CD in children with and without ADHD.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, Kathryn L; Aguirre, Vincent P; Lee, Steve S

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to examine levels of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) in four groups of children: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) only, anxiety only, ADHD and anxiety, and controls (i.e., non-ADHD youth). Although children with ADHD exhibit more ODD and CD than non-ADHD youth, it is unknown if anxiety is associated with increased or decreased ODD and CD in children with ADHD. We examined parent and teacher ratings of ODD and CD from the Disruptive Behavior Disorder Rating Scale in 203 school age children (ages 6-9); 70% were male, and 47% were Caucasian. Children were divided into four diagnostic groups based on ADHD and anxiety status from the Diagnostic Interview Scale for Children. According to parents, children with ADHD and anxiety had the highest levels of ODD/CD, followed by children with ADHD only (i.e., without anxiety). Children with anxiety only and controls had lowest ODD and CD scores, and these groups did not differ from each other. The same patterns were found according to teacher report, except that the anxiety only group had significantly lower levels of ODD than non-ADHD controls. Further, combined type ADHD youth with anxiety exhibited the highest levels of ODD and CD compared to all other groups. Comorbid anxiety may strengthen the association of ADHD and ODD/CD, particularly in the combined subtype. We discuss the importance of comorbid anxiety to the development of externalizing problems as well as potential explanatory factors underlying elevated ODD and CD among children with ADHD and anxiety. PMID:22420771

  20. Deformed ODD-ODD nuclei: Matrix elements for the residual n-p interaction and patterns of alternating perturbations in level spacings

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, R.W.; Jain, A.K.; Kvasil, J.; Sood, P.C.; Sheline, R.K.; Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL )

    1989-09-01

    The application of a simple semi-empirical model is discussed in terms of interpreting experimental nuclear structure data for twelve of the best characterized odd-odd deformed nuclei. An essential part of this modeling is to calculate values for the Gallagher-Moszkowski splittings and Newby shifts, the observables that arise from the n-p residual interaction in odd-odd nuclei. Assumptions regarding the form for this n-p force are traced historically. The predictive power of a favored form of the n-p force, one that includes a central force with short and long-range components, a tensor force, and some effects of core polarization, is examined in light of experimental data obtained since its formulation. A data set of 42 experimentally determined Newby shifts has been reviewed as to the reliability of each entry. Exceptions to a recently proposed rule for the a priori determination of the sign of Newby shift are discussed. Evidence is presented for the existence of an odd-even staggering or signature effect in the rotational spacings of many K{sup {minus}} bands (with K > 0). By use of Coriolis-coupling calculations, it has been possible to reproduce the staggering observed in some of the K{sup {minus}} rotational bands of {sup 156}Tb, {sup 168}Tm, {sup 176}Lu, {sup 182}Ta, and {sup 182}Re. 27 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Laboratory search for a long-range T-odd, P-odd interaction from axionlike particles using dual-species nuclear magnetic resonance with polarized 129Xe and 131Xe gas.

    PubMed

    Bulatowicz, M; Griffith, R; Larsen, M; Mirijanian, J; Fu, C B; Smith, E; Snow, W M; Yan, H; Walker, T G

    2013-09-01

    Various theories beyond the standard model predict new particles with masses in the sub-eV range with very weak couplings to ordinary matter. A new P-odd and T-odd interaction between polarized and unpolarized nucleons proportional to K·r is one such possibility, where r is the distance between the nucleons and K is the spin of the polarized nucleon. Such an interaction involving a scalar coupling gs at one vertex and a pseudoscalar coupling gp at the polarized nucleon vertex can be induced by the exchange of spin-0 bosons. We used the NMR cell test station at Northrop Grumman Corporation to search for NMR frequency shifts in polarized 129Xe and 131Xe when a nonmagnetic zirconia rod is moved near the NMR cell. Long (T2∼20  s) spin-relaxation times allow precision measurements of the NMR frequency ratios, which are insensitive to magnetic field fluctuations. Combined with existing theoretical calculations of the neutron spin contribution to the nuclear angular momentum in xenon nuclei, the measurements improve the laboratory upper bound on the product gsgp(n) by 2 orders of magnitude for distances near 1 mm. The sensitivity of this technique can be increased by at least two more orders of magnitude. PMID:25166656

  2. Laboratory Search for a Long-Range T-Odd, P-Odd Interaction from Axionlike Particles Using Dual-Species Nuclear Magnetic Resonance with Polarized Xe129 and Xe131 Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulatowicz, M.; Griffith, R.; Larsen, M.; Mirijanian, J.; Fu, C. B.; Smith, E.; Snow, W. M.; Yan, H.; Walker, T. G.

    2013-09-01

    Various theories beyond the standard model predict new particles with masses in the sub-eV range with very weak couplings to ordinary matter. A new P-odd and T-odd interaction between polarized and unpolarized nucleons proportional to K→·r→ is one such possibility, where r→ is the distance between the nucleons and K→ is the spin of the polarized nucleon. Such an interaction involving a scalar coupling gs at one vertex and a pseudoscalar coupling gp at the polarized nucleon vertex can be induced by the exchange of spin-0 bosons. We used the NMR cell test station at Northrop Grumman Corporation to search for NMR frequency shifts in polarized Xe129 and Xe131 when a nonmagnetic zirconia rod is moved near the NMR cell. Long (T2˜20s) spin-relaxation times allow precision measurements of the NMR frequency ratios, which are insensitive to magnetic field fluctuations. Combined with existing theoretical calculations of the neutron spin contribution to the nuclear angular momentum in xenon nuclei, the measurements improve the laboratory upper bound on the product gsgpn by 2 orders of magnitude for distances near 1 mm. The sensitivity of this technique can be increased by at least two more orders of magnitude.

  3. Estimating diversity via frequency ratios.

    PubMed

    Willis, Amy; Bunge, John

    2015-12-01

    We wish to estimate the total number of classes in a population based on sample counts, especially in the presence of high latent diversity. Drawing on probability theory that characterizes distributions on the integers by ratios of consecutive probabilities, we construct a nonlinear regression model for the ratios of consecutive frequency counts. This allows us to predict the unobserved count and hence estimate the total diversity. We believe that this is the first approach to depart from the classical mixed Poisson model in this problem. Our method is geometrically intuitive and yields good fits to data with reasonable standard errors. It is especially well-suited to analyzing high diversity datasets derived from next-generation sequencing in microbial ecology. We demonstrate the method's performance in this context and via simulation, and we present a dataset for which our method outperforms all competitors. PMID:26038228

  4. Even-odd effects in the prompt fission emission of even Z actinides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudora, Anabella; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Giubega, Georgiana; Visan, Iuliana

    2016-03-01

    The investigation of even-odd effects in the prompt emission of even Z actinides showed a sawtooth shape of ν(Z) with staggering in the asymmetric fission region. Average prompt emission quantities as a function of A, e.g. ν(A), of even Z fragmentations are higher than those of odd Z fragmentations and they exhibit oscillations with a periodicity of about 5 mass units in the asymmetric fission region. This periodicity is not due to the Z even-odd effect in fragment distributions. The even-odd effect in <ν>(TKE) is increasing with increasing TKE and it decreases with increasing mass of the fissioning nucleus. The global even-odd effect in total average prompt emission quantities is decreasing with increasing mass of the fissioning nucleus. In the case of an even-odd fissioning nucleus, 234U(n,f), the global even-odd effect in prompt emission quantities exhibits a very slow variation with the incident neutron energy.

  5. Underweight is an important risk factor for coronary heart disease in the population of Ceningan Island, Bali.

    PubMed

    Suastika, Ketut; Dwipayana, Pande; Saraswati, Made Ratna; Gotera, Wira; Budhiarta, Anak Agung Gde; Sutanegara, Nengah Dwi; Gunadi, Gusti Ngurah Putra; Nadha, Ketut Badjra; Wita, Wayan; Rina, Ketut; Santoso, Anwar; Soegondo, Sidartawan; Kajiwara, Naemi; Taniguchi, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    A study on the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) and its risk factors in Ceningan Island was conducted. The prevalence of CHD was 11.5%. Older age (odds ratio, OR, 27.0), underweight (OR, 3.6), systolic hypertension (OR, 4.6), high total cholesterol (OR, 5.9), and high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR, 3.1) were risk factors for a history of myocardial infarction (MI). By logistic regression analysis, only age (B=3.937) and underweight (B=1.275) consistently appeared to be risk factors for MI. The prevalence of CHD in the population was comparatively high. PMID:21994166

  6. α-decay spectroscopy of light odd-odd Bi isotopes - II: 186Bi and the new nuclide 184Bi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreyev, A. N.; Ackermann, D.; Heßberger, F. P.; Hofmann, S.; Huyse, M.; Kojouharov, I.; Kindler, B.; Lommel, B.; Münzenberg, G.; Page, R. D.; Vel, K. Van De; Duppen, P. Van; Heyde, K.

    2003-10-01

    Alpha-decay of the new nuclide 184Bi has been studied in the complete-fusion reaction 93Nb(94Mo, 3n)184Bi at the velocity filter SHIP. The evaporation residues were separated in-flight and subsequently identified on the basis of recoil-α, recoil-α-γ analysis and excitation functions measurements. Two α-decaying isomeric states in 184Bi with half-life values of 13(2) ms and 6.6(1.5) ms were identified. The α-branching ratio of 180Tl was deduced for the first time as b_α = (2 --12)%. Improved data on the fine-structure α-decay of 186Bi were obtained in the 93Nb(95Mo, 2n)186Bi reaction. A similarity of the decay energies and half-life values of 184,186Bi is pointed out and a possible explanation for this effect is suggested.

  7. A model study of the effects of intermittent loss on odd nitrogen concentrations in the lower troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. W.; Hameed, S.; Matloff, G.

    1983-01-01

    A time-dependent box model of the lower troposphere which includes a description of photochemical and physical processes has been developed. This model has been applied to the calculation of nitric acid and NO(x)(NO + NO2) concentrations over a diurnal cycle which includes precipitation. Nitric acid concentrations and the HNO3/NO(x) ratio are found to be highly variable under the assumptions regarding the frequency, duration, and intensity of precipitation employed in this model. The chemistry of odd nitrogen compounds during the night is potentially important in establishing the level of nitric acid in the lower troposphere. These calculations also indicate that relatively large errors may occur when the continuity equation describing nitric acid variations is averaged over a diurnal cycle which includes precipitation. Interpretation of simultaneous measurements of HNO3 and NO(x) will require some knowledge of the history of the observed air mass and may require an improved understanding of nighttime odd nitrogen chemistry.

  8. Even and odd coherent states of supersymmetric harmonic oscillators and their nonclassical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afshar, Davood; Motamedinasab, Amin; Anbaraki, Azam; Jafarpour, Mojtaba

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we have constructed even and odd superpositions of supercoherent states, similar to the standard even and odd coherent states of the harmonic oscillator. Then, their nonclassical properties, that is, squeezing and entanglement have been studied. We have observed that even supercoherent states show squeezing behavior for some values of parameters involved, while odd supercoherent states do not show squeezing at all. Also sub-Poissonian statistics have been observed for some ranges of the parameters in both states. We have also shown that these states may be considered as logical qubits which reduce to the Bell states at a limit, with concurrence equal to 1.

  9. ADHD, ODD, and CD: Do They Belong to a Common Psychopathological Spectrum? A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sayanti; Sinha, Mausumi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of Research. Numerous studies have reported comorbidities, overlapping symptoms, and shared risk factors among cases of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD). We present three adolescent males aged 13–16 years with conduct disorder having past history of ADHD and ODD. Principal Result. The symptom profile especially in domains of aggression, hostility, and emotionality as well as the manner of progression from ADHD to ODD and CD in the above cases shows a similar pattern. Conclusion. These common developmental pathways and overlapping symptoms suggest the possibility of a common psychopathological spectrum encompassing the three externalizing disorders. PMID:23097736

  10. Positive parity states and some electromagnetic transition properties of even-odd europium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Yazar, Harun Resit

    2013-06-15

    The positive-parity low-spin states of even-odd Europium isotopes ({sup 151-155}Eu) were studied within the framework of the interacting boson-fermion model. The calculated positive low-spin state energy spectra of the odd Eu isotope were found to agree quite well with the experimental data. The B(E2) values were also calculated and it was found that the calculated positive-parity low-spin state energy spectra of the odd-A Eu isotopes agree quite well with the experimental data.

  11. Preterm Birth and Prenatal Maternal Occupation: The Role of Hispanic Ethnicity and Nativity in a Population-Based Sample in Los Angeles, California

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelm, Michelle; Wang, Anthony; Ritz, Beate

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated preterm birth (PTB) in relation to maternal occupational exposure and whether effect measures were modified by Hispanic ethnicity and nativity in a population-based sample with high proportion of Hispanics. Methods. We used a case-control study (n = 2543) nested within a cohort of 58 316 births in Los Angeles County, California, in 2003. We categorized prenatal occupations using the US Census Occupation Codes and Classification System and developed a job exposure matrix. Odds ratios for PTB were estimated using logistic regression. Results. Odds ratios for PTB were increased for all women in health care practitioner and technical occupations, but the 95% confidence intervals included the null value; effects were more pronounced among Hispanics. We estimated elevated odds ratios for foreign-born Hispanic women in building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations. Shift work and physically demanding work affected births among US-born but not foreign-born Hispanics. Conclusions. Hispanic women are at particular risk for PTB related to adverse prenatal occupational exposure. Nativity may moderate these effects on PTB. Maternal occupational exposures likely contribute to ethnic disparities in PTB. PMID:24354840

  12. Mass media campaigns: the odds against finding behavior change.

    PubMed

    Wallack, L M

    1981-01-01

    The use of mass media has long been an attractive method for implementing and discharging institutional responsibility for the promotion of good health practices and the prevention of various social and health problems. Although there is a long history of such efforts, relatively little is known about the effects such campaigns might have. The large number of programs currently being conceived and implemented on local, state, and federal levels have not benefited as much as they might have from the experience of past mass media efforts. This paper reviews the history, commonalities, assumptions, and effects of planned largescale campaigns to communicate information to the general population to encourage moderation or abstinence in the use of alcohol, drugs, or tobacco. The concept of experimental design is critiqued regarding the appropriateness of such a model for evaluation of mass media campaigns. Suggestions are offered for making evaluations of such campaigns more able to generate useful information for program and planning purposes. This includes expanding evaluation questions through additional forms of inquiry rather than constricting the information obtained through methods based on assumptions of experimental design. PMID:7037686

  13. Super-Genotype: Global Monoclonality Defies the Odds of Nature

    PubMed Central

    Le Roux, Johannes J.; Wieczorek, Ania M.; Wright, Mark G.; Tran, Carol T.

    2007-01-01

    The ability to respond to natural selection under novel conditions is critical for the establishment and persistence of introduced alien species and their ability to become invasive. Here we correlated neutral and quantitative genetic diversity of the weed Pennisetum setaceum Forsk. Chiov. (Poaceae) with differing global (North American and African) patterns of invasiveness and compared this diversity to native range populations. Numerous molecular markers indicate complete monoclonality within and among all of these areas (FST = 0.0) and is supported by extreme low quantitative trait variance (QST = 0.00065–0.00952). The results support the general-purpose-genotype hypothesis that can tolerate all environmental variation. However, a single global genotype and widespread invasiveness under numerous environmental conditions suggests a super-genotype. The super-genotype described here likely evolved high levels of plasticity in response to fluctuating environmental conditions during the Early to Mid Holocene. During the Late Holocene, when environmental conditions were predominantly constant but extremely inclement, strong selection resulted in only a few surviving genotypes. PMID:17611622

  14. Sustainable Odds: Towards Quantitative Decision Support when Relevant Probabilities are not Available

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, L. A.

    2012-04-01

    There is, at present, no attractive foundation for quantitative probabilistic decision support in the face of model inadequacy, or given ambiguity (deep uncertainty) regarding the relative likelihood of various outcomes, known or unknown. True model error arguably precludes the extraction of objective probabilities from an ensemble of model runs drawn from an available (inadequate) model class, while the acknowledgement of incomplete understanding precludes the justified use of (if not the very formation of) an individual's subjective probabilities. An alternative approach based on Sustainable Odds is proposed and investigated. Sustainable Odds differ from "fair odds" (and are easily distinguished any claim which implying well defined probabilities) as the probabilities implied by sustainable odds summed over all outcomes is expected to exceed one. Traditionally, a person's fair odds are found by identifying the probability level at which one would happily accept either side of a bet, thus the probabilities implied by fair odds always sum to one. Knowing that one has incomplete information and perhaps even erroneous beliefs, there is no compelling reason a rational agent should accept the constraint implied by "fair odds" in any bet. Rather, a rational agent might insist on longer odds both on the event and against the event in order to account for acknowledged ignorance. Let probabilistic odds imply any set of odds for which the implied probabilities sum to one; once model error is acknowledged can one rationally demand non-probabilistic odds? The danger of using fair odds (or probabilities) in decision making is illustrated by considering the risk of ruin a cooperative insurance scheme using probabilistic odds is exposed to. Cases where knowing merely that the insurer's model is imperfect, and nothing else, is sufficient to place bets which drive the insurer to an unexpectedly early ruin are presented. Methodologies which allow the insurer to avoid this early ruin are explored; those which prevent early ruin are said to provide "sustainable odds", and it is suggested that these must be non-probabilistic. The aim here is not for the insurance cooperative to make a profit in the long run (or to form a book in any one round) but rather to increase the chance that the cooperative will not go bust, merely breaking even in the long run and thereby continuing to provide a service. In the perfect model scenario, with complete knowledge of all uncertainties and unlimited computational resources, fair odds may prove to be sustainable. The implications these results hold in the case of games against nature, which is perhaps a more relevant context for decision makers concerned with geophysical systems, are discussed. The claim that acknowledged model error makes fair (probabilistic) odds an irrational aim is considered, as are the challenges of working within the framework of sustainable (but non-probabilistic) odds.

  15. Interplay between Single-Particle and Collective Effects in the Odd-A Cu Isotopes beyond N=40

    SciTech Connect

    Stefanescu, I.; Georgiev, G.; Blasi, N.; Lo Bianco, G.; Blazhev, A.; Eberth, J.; Jolie, J.; Reiter, P.; Warr, N.; Bree, N.; Cocolios, T. E.; Diriken, J.; Huyse, M.; Ivanov, O.; Patronis, N.; Pauwels, D.; Van Duppen, P.; Cederkaell, J.; Davinson, T.

    2008-03-21

    Collective properties of the low-lying levels in the odd-A {sup 67-73}Cu were investigated by Coulomb excitation with radioactive beams. The beams were produced at ISOLDE and postaccelerated by REX-ISOLDE up to 2.99 MeV/u. In {sup 67,69}Cu, low-lying 1/2{sup -}, 5/2{sup -}, and 7/2{sup -} states were populated. In {sup 71,73}Cu, besides the known transitions deexciting the single-particle-like 5/2{sup -} and core-coupled 7/2{sup -} levels, {gamma} rays of 454 and 135 keV, respectively, were observed for the first time. Based on a reanalysis of {beta}-decay work and comparison with the systematics, a spin 1/2{sup -} is suggested for these excited states. Three B(E2) values were determined in each of the four isotopes. The results indicate a significant change in the structure of the odd-A Cu isotopes beyond N=40 where single-particle-like and collective levels are suggested to coexist at very low excitation energies.

  16. Construct Validity of ADHD/ODD Rating Scales: Recommendations for the Evaluation of Forthcoming DSM-V ADHD/ODD Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, G. Leonard; Walsh, James A.; Servera, Mateu; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Cardo, Esther; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    Exploratory structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to a multiple indicator (26 individual symptom ratings) by multitrait (ADHD-IN, ADHD-HI and ODD factors) by multiple source (mothers, fathers and teachers) model to test the invariance, convergent and discriminant validity of the Child and Adolescent Disruptive Behavior Inventory with 872…

  17. Psoriasis in the U.S. Medicare population: prevalence, treatment, and factors associated with biologic use

    PubMed Central

    Takeshita, Junko; Gelfand, Joel M.; Li, Penxiang; Pinto, Lionel; Yu, Xinyan; Rao, Preethi; Viswanathan, Hema N.; Doshi, Jalpa A.

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory disorder, primarily of the skin. Despite an aging population, knowledge of the epidemiology of psoriasis and its treatments among the elderly is limited. We examined the prevalence of psoriasis and its treatments, with a focus on biologics and identification of factors associated with biologic use, using a nationally representative sample of Medicare beneficiaries in 2011. Based on several psoriasis identification algorithms, the claims-based prevalence for psoriasis in the United States ranged from 0.51% to 1.23%. Treatments employed for moderate to severe psoriasis (phototherapy, oral systemic, or biologic therapies) were received by 27.3% of the total psoriasis sample, of whom 37.2% used biologics. Patients without Medicare Part D low-income subsidies had 70% lower odds of having received biologics than those with low-income subsidies (odds ratio 0.30; 95% confidence interval, 0.19– 0.46). Similarly, the odds of having received biologics was 69% lower among black patients than white patients (0.31; 0.16–0.60). This analysis identified potential financial and racial barriers to receipt of biologic therapies and underscores the need for additional studies to further define the epidemiology and treatment of psoriasis among the elderly. PMID:26214380

  18. A Note on the Noncollapsibility of Rate Differences and Rate Ratios.

    PubMed

    Sjölander, Arvid; Dahlqwist, Elisabeth; Zetterqvist, Johan

    2016-05-01

    It is well known that the odds ratio is noncollapsible, in the sense that conditioning on a covariate that is related to the outcome typically changes the size of the odds ratio, even if this covariate is unrelated to the exposure. The risk difference and risk ratio do not have this peculiar property; we say that the risk difference and risk ratio are collapsible. However, noncollapsibility is not unique for the odds ratio; the rate difference and rate ratio are generally noncollapsible as well. This may seem paradoxical, since the rate can be viewed as a risk per unit time, and thus one would naively suspect that the rate difference/ratio should inherit collapsibility from the risk difference/ratio. Adding to the confusion, it was recently shown that the exposure coefficient in the Aalen additive hazards model is collapsible. This may seem to contradict the fact that the rate difference is generally noncollapsible, since the exposure coefficient in the Aalen additive hazards model is a rate difference. In this article, we use graphical arguments to explain why the rate difference/ratio does not inherit collapsibility from the risk difference/ratio. We also explain when and why the exposure coefficient in the Aalen additive hazards model is collapsible. PMID:26680297

  19. Prevalence and Determinants of Masked Hypertension Among Black Nigerians Compared With a Reference Population.

    PubMed

    Odili, Augustine N; Thijs, Lutgarde; Hara, Azusa; Wei, Fang-Fei; Ogedengbe, John O; Nwegbu, Maxwell M; Aparicio, Lucas S; Asayama, Kei; Niiranen, Teemu J; Boggia, José; Luzardo, Leonella; Jacobs, Lotte; Stergiou, George S; Johansson, Jouni K; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Jula, Antti M; Imai, Yutaka; O'Brien, Eoin; Staessen, Jan A

    2016-06-01

    Hitherto, diagnosis of hypertension in sub-Saharan Africa was largely based on conventional office blood pressure (BP). Data on the prevalence of masked hypertension (MH) in this region is scarce. Among individuals with normal office BP (<140/90 mm Hg), we compared the prevalence and determinants of MH diagnosed with self-monitored home blood pressure (≥135/85 mm Hg) among 293 Nigerians with a reference population consisting of 3615 subjects enrolled in the International Database on Home Blood Pressure in Relation to Cardiovascular Outcomes. In the reference population, the prevalence of MH was 14.6% overall and 11.1% and 39.6% in untreated and treated participants, respectively. Among Nigerians, the prevalence standardized to the sex and age distribution of the reference population was similar with rates of 14.4%, 8.6%, and 34.6%, respectively. The mutually adjusted odds ratios of having MH in Nigerians were 2.34 (95% confidence interval, 1.39-3.94) for a 10-year higher age, 1.92 (1.11-3.31) and 1.70 (1.14-2.53) for 10- or 5-mm Hg increments in systolic or diastolic office BP, and 3.05 (1.08-8.55) for being on antihypertensive therapy. The corresponding estimates in the reference population were similar with odds ratios of 1.80 (1.62-2.01), 1.64 (1.45-1.87), 1.13 (1.05-1.22), and 2.84 (2.21-3.64), respectively. In conclusion, MH is as common in Nigerians as in other populations with older age and higher levels of office BP being major risk factors. A significant proportion of true hypertensive subjects therefore remains undetected based on office BP, which is particularly relevant in sub-Saharan Africa, where hypertension is now a major cause of death. PMID:27067719

  20. Maternal complement C1q and increased odds for psychosis in adult offspring

    PubMed Central

    Severance, Emily G.; Gressitt, Kristin L.; Buka, Stephen L.; Cannon, Tyrone D.; Yolken, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of maternal antibodies to food and infectious antigens may confer an increased risk of developing schizophrenia and psychosis in adult offspring. Complement factor C1q is an immune molecule with multiple functions including clearance of antigen-antibody complexes from circulation and mediation of synaptic pruning during fetal brain development. To determine if maternal C1q was associated with offspring schizophrenia and psychosis, we evaluated 55 matched case-control maternal serum pairs from the National Collaborative Perinatal Project. Sample pairs were composed of mothers whose offspring developed psychoses as adults and those whose offspring were free from psychiatric disease. Matching criteria for offspring included birth date, delivery hospital, race and gender, with further matching based on mother’s age. IgG markers of C1q, bovine milk casein, egg ovalbumin and wheat gluten were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. C1q levels were compared to food antigen IgG and to previously generated data for C-reactive protein, adenovirus, herpes simplex viruses, influenza viruses, measles virus and Toxoplasma gondii. C1q was significantly elevated in case mothers with odds ratios of 2.66–6.31 (conditional logistic regressions, p≤0.008–0.05). In case mothers only, C1q was significantly correlated with antibodies to both food and infectious antigens: gluten (R2=0.26, p≤0.004), herpes simplex virus type 2 (R2=0.21, p≤0.02), adenovirus (R2=0.25, p≤0.006). In conclusion, exposure to maternal C1q activity during pregnancy may be a risk factor for the development of schizophrenia and psychosis in offspring. Prenatal measurement of maternal C1q may be an important and convergent screening tool to identify potentially deleterious immune activation from multiple sources. PMID:25195065

  1. Maternal complement C1q and increased odds for psychosis in adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Severance, Emily G; Gressitt, Kristin L; Buka, Stephen L; Cannon, Tyrone D; Yolken, Robert H

    2014-10-01

    The presence of maternal antibodies to food and infectious antigens may confer an increased risk of developing schizophrenia and psychosis in adult offspring. Complement factor C1q is an immune molecule with multiple functions including clearance of antigen-antibody complexes from circulation and mediation of synaptic pruning during fetal brain development. To determine if maternal C1q was associated with offspring schizophrenia and psychosis, we evaluated 55 matched case-control maternal serum pairs from the National Collaborative Perinatal Project. Sample pairs were composed of mothers whose offspring developed psychoses as adults and those whose offspring were free from psychiatric disease. Matching criteria for offspring included birth date, delivery hospital, race, and gender, with further matching based on mother's age. IgG markers of C1q, bovine milk casein, egg ovalbumin, and wheat gluten were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. C1q levels were compared to food antigen IgG and to previously generated data for C-reactive protein, adenovirus, herpes simplex viruses, influenza viruses, measles virus, and Toxoplasma gondii. C1q was significantly elevated in case mothers with odds ratios of 2.66-6.31 (conditional logistic regressions, p ≤ 0.008-0.05). In case mothers only, C1q was significantly correlated with antibodies to both food and infectious antigens: gluten (R(2)=0.26, p ≤ 0.004), herpes simplex virus type 2 (R(2)=0.21, p ≤ 0.02), and adenovirus (R(2)=0.25, p ≤ 0.006). In conclusion, exposure to maternal C1q activity during pregnancy may be a risk factor for the development of schizophrenia and psychosis in offspring. Prenatal measurement of maternal C1q may be an important and convergent screening tool to identify potentially deleterious immune activation from multiple sources. PMID:25195065

  2. Electron capture strength on odd- A nucleus 59Co in explosive astrophysical environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Muneeb-Ur; Nabi, Jameel-Un

    2014-05-01

    The Gamow-Teller (GT) transitions within massive stars play sumptuous role in the dynamics of core collapse supernovae. GT strength distributions and electron capture rates have been calculated for odd- A nucleus 59Co within the proton-neutron quasiparticles random phase approximation (pn-QRPA) formalism. The pn-QRPA results are compared with other model calculations and ( n, p) reaction experiment carried out at TRIUMF charge-exchange facility. The pn-QRPA calculated a total B( GT +) strength of 3.3 for 59Co to be compared with the shell model value of 2.5 and the 1.9±0.1 in the ( n, p) charge-exchange reaction. Aufderheide et al. (1993) extracted total strength equaling 2.4±0.3. The placement of GT centroid at 5.6 MeV by the pn-QRPA model is in reasonable agreement with the shell model centroid at 5.1 MeV whereas the measured GT centroid was placed at 4.4±0.3 MeV in the ( n, p) experiment. Fuller, Fowler and Newman (FFN) (1980, 1982a, 1982b), placed the GT centroid at too low excitation energy of 2.0 MeV in the daughter nucleus 59Fe, and this misplacement led to the enhancement of FFN rates. The suppressed pn-QRPA and shell model electron capture rates are in good agreement with each other. The rates are suggestive of higher value of Y e (electron-to-baryon ratio) and may contribute to a more massive homologously collapsing core resulting in a more energetic shock. It might be interesting for the simulators to check the effect of these suppressed rates on the fine-tuning of the time rate of Y e , the concomitant heavy element nucleosynthesis, and, on the energetics of the subsequent shock wave.

  3. General Patterns and Particular Pictures: Lessons Learned from Reports from "Beating the Odds" Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strahan, David

    2003-01-01

    Describes reports of elementary and middle schools that are "beating the odds" by strengthening professional learning communities and improving student academic achievement. Draws implications for implementation of No Child Left Behind Act. (Contains 30 references.) (PKP)

  4. Odd versus even: a scientific study of the ‘rules’ of plating

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Charles; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    We report on the results of a series of large-scale computer-based preference tests (conducted at The Science Museum in London and online) that evaluated the widely-held belief that food should be plated in odd rather than even numbers of elements in order to maximize the visual appeal of a dish. Participants were presented with pairs of plates of food showing odd versus even number of seared scallops (3 vs. 4; 1–6 in Experiment 7), arranged in a line, as a polygon or randomly, on either a round or square white plate. No consistent evidence for a preference for odd or even numbers of food items was found, thus questioning the oft-made assertion that odd number of items on a plate looks better than an even number. The implications of these results are discussed. PMID:26839741

  5. Testing Lorentz invariance using an odd-parity asymmetric optical resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Baynes, Fred N.; Luiten, Andre N.; Tobar, Michael E.

    2011-10-15

    We present the first experimental test of Lorentz invariance using the frequency difference between counter-propagating modes in an asymmetric odd-parity optical resonator. This type of test is {approx}10{sup 4} more sensitive to odd-parity and isotropic (scalar) violations of Lorentz invariance than equivalent conventional even-parity experiments due to the asymmetry of the optical resonator. The disadvantages of odd-parity resonators have been negated by the use of counter-propagating modes, delivering a high level of immunity to environmental fluctuations. With a nonrotating experiment our result limits the isotropic Lorentz violating parameter {kappa}-tilde{sub tr} to 3.4{+-}6.2x10{sup -9}, the best reported constraint from direct measurements. Using this technique the bounds on odd-parity and scalar violations of Lorentz invariance can be improved by many orders of magnitude.

  6. Odd versus even: a scientific study of the 'rules' of plating.

    PubMed

    Woods, Andy T; Michel, Charles; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    We report on the results of a series of large-scale computer-based preference tests (conducted at The Science Museum in London and online) that evaluated the widely-held belief that food should be plated in odd rather than even numbers of elements in order to maximize the visual appeal of a dish. Participants were presented with pairs of plates of food showing odd versus even number of seared scallops (3 vs. 4; 1-6 in Experiment 7), arranged in a line, as a polygon or randomly, on either a round or square white plate. No consistent evidence for a preference for odd or even numbers of food items was found, thus questioning the oft-made assertion that odd number of items on a plate looks better than an even number. The implications of these results are discussed. PMID:26839741

  7. Changing the Odds A North Carolina family's search to help those with TBI

    MedlinePlus

    ... Brain Injury Changing the Odds A North Carolina family's search to help those with TBI Past Issues / ... with traumatic brain injury (TBI)—and changed his family's life forever. "Back then there were no roadmaps ...

  8. Strong odd-frequency correlations in fully gapped Zeeman-split superconductors

    PubMed Central

    Linder, Jacob; Robinson, Jason W. A.

    2015-01-01

    It is now well established that at a superconductor/ferromagnet (S/F) interface an unconventional superconducting state arises in which the pairing is odd-frequency. The hallmark signature of this superconducting state is generally understood to be an enhancement of the electronic density of states (DoS) at subgap energies close to the S/F interface. However, here we show that an odd frequency state can be present even if the DoS is fully gapped. As an example, we show that this is the case in the pioneering S/FI (where FI is a insulating ferromagnet) tunneling experiments of Meservey and Tedrow, and we derive a generalized analytical criterium to describe the effect of odd-frequency pairing on the DoS. Finally, we propose a simple experiment in which odd-frequency pairing in a Zeeman-split superconductor can be unambiguously detected via the application of an external magnetic field. PMID:26503380

  9. Strong odd-frequency correlations in fully gapped Zeeman-split superconductors.

    PubMed

    Linder, Jacob; Robinson, Jason W A

    2015-01-01

    It is now well established that at a superconductor/ferromagnet (S/F) interface an unconventional superconducting state arises in which the pairing is odd-frequency. The hallmark signature of this superconducting state is generally understood to be an enhancement of the electronic density of states (DoS) at subgap energies close to the S/F interface. However, here we show that an odd frequency state can be present even if the DoS is fully gapped. As an example, we show that this is the case in the pioneering S/FI (where FI is a insulating ferromagnet) tunneling experiments of Meservey and Tedrow, and we derive a generalized analytical criterium to describe the effect of odd-frequency pairing on the DoS. Finally, we propose a simple experiment in which odd-frequency pairing in a Zeeman-split superconductor can be unambiguously detected via the application of an external magnetic field. PMID:26503380

  10. Bottomonium Spectroscopy with Mixing of eta{sub b} States and a Light CP-Odd Higgs Boson

    SciTech Connect

    Domingo, Florian; Ellwanger, Ulrich; Sanchis-Lozano, Miguel-Angel

    2009-09-11

    The mass of the eta{sub b}(1S), measured recently by the BABAR Collaboration, is significantly lower than expected from QCD predictions for the UPSILON(1S)-eta{sub b}(1S) hyperfine splitting. We suggest that the observed eta{sub b}(1S) mass is shifted downwards due to a mixing with a CP-odd Higgs boson A with a mass m{sub A} in the range 9.4-10.5 GeV compatible with LEP, CLEO, and BABAR constraints. We determine the resulting predictions for the spectrum of the eta{sub b}(nS)-A system and the branching ratios into tau{sup +}tau{sup -} as functions of m{sub A}.

  11. Birthweight ratio revisited.

    PubMed Central

    Brownlee, K G; Ng, P C; Roussounis, S H; Dear, P R

    1991-01-01

    In order to test the hypothesis suggested in a recent report that the birthweight ratio might be a useful predictor of several important clinical outcome measures in babies of less than 31 weeks' gestation, we examined the association between the birthweight ratio and aspects of both short and long term outcome in 436 Leeds babies of less than 31 weeks' gestation. Unlike the report, and contrary to what we had expected, we were unable to find any significant association between birthweight ratio and length of time on the ventilator, mortality, neurological outcome, or intellectual outcome. PMID:2025035

  12. Deterrence and arrest ratios.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, Stephanie E; Piquero, Alex R

    2006-02-01

    In the limited research on the origins of sanction threat perceptions, researchers have focused on either the effects of actively engaging in crime or the effects of formal sanctioning but rarely on both (i.e., the arrest ratio or the number of arrests relative to the number of crimes committed). This article extends this line of research by using a sample of Colorado inmates and measures arrest ratios and sanction perceptions for eight different crime types. Analyses reveal that the offenders report both significant experiential and arrest ratio effects. Theoretical and policy implications, limitations, and directions for future research are outlined. PMID:16397123

  13. T=0 and T=1 states in the odd-odd N=Z nucleus, 7035Br35

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, D. G.; Kelsall, N. S.; Lister, C. J.; Balamuth, D. P.; Carpenter, M. P.; Sienko, T. A.; Fischer, S. M.; Clark, R. M.; Fallon, P.; Görgen, A.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Svensson, C. E.; Wadsworth, R.; Reviol, W.; Sarantites, D. G.; Ball, G. C.; Rikovska Stone, J.; Juillet, O.; van Isacker, P.; Afanasjev, A. V.; Frauendorf, S.

    2002-06-01

    Excited states in 70Br were populated in the 40Ca(32S,pn) reaction at Ebeam=80-100 MeV and the 40Ca(36Ar,αpn) reaction at Ebeam=145 MeV. The resulting gamma decay was detected using the Gammasphere array triggered by a 30-element neutron detector. The cross-bombardment allowed the unambiguous assignment of levels to 70Br, comprising a total of 32 states built both on the Jπ=0+ ground state and a previously known Jπ=9+ isomer, which is located at an excitation energy of 2293 keV by the observation of linking transitions. The structures are discussed within the context of the two-quasiparticle plus rotor model, the IBM-4 model and the cranked Nilsson-Strutinsky formalism. The nonobservation of a doublet of J=0, T=1 and J=1, T=0 states at low excitation in 70Br is indicative that T=0 proton-neutron pairing strength is weak in comparison to T=1 pairing.

  14. Comparing T-odd and T-even spin sum rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teryaev, O. V.

    2015-04-01

    Sum rules for T-even and T-odd structure functions and parton distributions are considered. The case of spin-dependent distributions related to energy-momentum tensor (EMT) is specifically addressed. The Burkardt sum rule for T-odd Sivers functions may be related to EMT provided the imaginary prescription for gluonic pole correlator is incorporated. The momentum sum rule for deuteron tensor spin structure function allows one to probe indirectly the gravity couplings to quarks and gluons.

  15. Comparing T-odd and T-even spin sum rules

    SciTech Connect

    Teryaev, O.V.

    2015-04-10

    Sum rules for T-even and T-odd structure functions and parton distributions are considered. The case of spin-dependent distributions related to energy-momentum tensor (EMT) is specifically addressed. The Burkardt sum rule for T-odd Sivers functions may be related to EMT provided the imaginary prescription for gluonic pole correlator is incorporated. The momentum sum rule for deuteron tensor spin structure function allows one to probe indirectly the gravity couplings to quarks and gluons.

  16. Familial Aggregation of Hyperopia in an Elderly Population of Siblings in Salisbury, Maryland

    PubMed Central

    Wojciechowski, Robert; Congdon, Nathan; Bowie, Heidi; Munoz, Beatriz; Gilbert, Donna; West, Sheila

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether hyperopia aggregates in families in an older mixed-race population. Design Cross-sectional familial aggregation study using sibships. Methods We recruited 759 subjects (mean age, 73.4 years) in 241 families through the population-based Salisbury Eye Evaluation study. Subjects underwent noncycloplegic refraction if best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was ≤20/40, had lensometry to measure their currently worn spectacles if BCVA was >20/40 with spectacles, or were considered to be plano (refraction of zero) if the BCVA was >20/40 without spectacles. Preoperative refraction from medical records was used for bilaterally pseudophakic subjects. Results Utilizing hyperopia cutoffs from 1.00 to 2.50 diopters, age-, race-, and gender-adjusted odds ratios for hyperopia with an affected sibling ranged from 2.72 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.84–4.01) to 4.87 (95% CI, 2.54–9.30). The odds of hyperopia increased with age until 75 years, after which they remained relatively constant. Black men were significantly less likely to be hyperopic than white men, white women, or black women. Conclusions Hyperopia appears to be under strong genetic control in this older population. PMID:15629824

  17. Testing the odds of inherent vs. observed overdispersion in neural spike counts.

    PubMed

    Taouali, Wahiba; Benvenuti, Giacomo; Wallisch, Pascal; Chavane, Frédéric; Perrinet, Laurent U

    2016-01-01

    The repeated presentation of an identical visual stimulus in the receptive field of a neuron may evoke different spiking patterns at each trial. Probabilistic methods are essential to understand the functional role of this variance within the neural activity. In that case, a Poisson process is the most common model of trial-to-trial variability. For a Poisson process, the variance of the spike count is constrained to be equal to the mean, irrespective of the duration of measurements. Numerous studies have shown that this relationship does not generally hold. Specifically, a majority of electrophysiological recordings show an "overdispersion" effect: responses that exhibit more intertrial variability than expected from a Poisson process alone. A model that is particularly well suited to quantify overdispersion is the Negative-Binomial distribution model. This model is well-studied and widely used but has only recently been applied to neuroscience. In this article, we address three main issues. First, we describe how the Negative-Binomial distribution provides a model apt to account for overdispersed spike counts. Second, we quantify the significance of this model for any neurophysiological data by proposing a statistical test, which quantifies the odds that overdispersion could be due to the limited number of repetitions (trials). We apply this test to three neurophysiological data sets along the visual pathway. Finally, we compare the performance of this model to the Poisson model on a population decoding task. We show that the decoding accuracy is improved when accounting for overdispersion, especially under the hypothesis of tuned overdispersion. PMID:26445864

  18. Efficient odd straight medium chain free fatty acid production by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hui; San, Ka-Yiu

    2014-11-01

    Free fatty acids (FFAs) can be used as precursors for the production of biofuels or chemicals. Different composition of FFAs will be useful for further modification of the biofuel/biochemical quality. Microbial biosynthesis of even chain FFAs can be achieved by introducing an acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase gene into E. coli. In this study, odd straight medium chain FFAs production was investigated by using metabolic engineered E. coli carrying acyl-ACP thioesterase (TE, Ricinus communis), propionyl-CoA synthase (Salmonella enterica), and β-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III (four different sources) with supplement of extracellular propionate. By using these metabolically engineered E. coli, significant quantity of C13 and C15 odd straight-chain FFAs could be produced from glucose and propionate. The highest concentration of total odd straight chain FFAs attained was 1205 mg/L by the strain HWK201 (pXZ18, pBHE2), and 85% of the odd straight chain FFAs was C15. However, the highest percentage of odd straight chain FFAs was achieved by the strain HWK201 (pXZ18, pBHE3) of 83.2% at 48 h. This strategy was also applied successfully in strains carrying different TE, such as the medium length acyl-ACP thioesterase gene from Umbellularia californica. C11 and C13 became the major odd straight-chain FFAs. PMID:24889416

  19. Time-odd mean fields in covariant density functional theory: Rotating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasjev, A. V.; Abusara, H.

    2010-09-01

    Time-odd mean fields (nuclear magnetism) and their impact on physical observables in rotating nuclei are studied in the framework of covariant density functional theory (CDFT). It is shown that they have profound effect on the dynamic and kinematic moments of inertia. Particle number, configuration, and rotational frequency dependencies of their impact on the moments of inertia have been analyzed in a systematic way. Nuclear magnetism can also considerably modify the band crossing features such as crossing frequencies and the properties of the kinematic and dynamic moments of inertia in the band crossing region. The impact of time-odd mean fields on the moments of inertia in the regions away from band crossing only weakly depends on the relativistic mean-field parametrization, reflecting good localization of the properties of time-odd mean fields in CDFT. The moments of inertia of normal-deformed nuclei considerably deviate from the rigid-body value. On the contrary, superdeformed and hyperdeformed nuclei have the moments of inertia which are close to rigid-body value. The structure of the currents in rotating frame, their microscopic origin, and the relations to the moments of inertia have been systematically analyzed. The phenomenon of signature separation in odd-odd nuclei, induced by time-odd mean fields, has been analyzed in detail.

  20. Ratio and Proportion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipton, Sheila

    1980-01-01

    Examples of ratio and proportion problems from engineering, science, business, and catering are presented and solved. The goal is to illustrate how certain basic processes are used across a wide spectrum of occupations. (MK)

  1. Pelvic pain after childbirth: a longitudinal population study.

    PubMed

    Bjelland, Elisabeth Krefting; Owe, Katrine Mari; Pingel, Ronnie; Kristiansson, Per; Vangen, Siri; Eberhard-Gran, Malin

    2016-03-01

    In this longitudinal population study, the aims were to study associations of mode of delivery with new onset of pelvic pain and changes in pelvic pain scores up to 7 to 18 months after childbirth. We included 20,248 participants enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (1999-2008) without preexisting pelvic pain in pregnancy. Data were obtained by 4 self-administered questionnaires and linked to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. A total of 4.5% of the women reported new onset of pelvic pain 0 to 3 months postpartum. Compared to unassisted vaginal delivery, operative vaginal delivery was associated with increased odds of pelvic pain (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-1.59). Planned and emergency cesarean deliveries were associated with reduced odds of pelvic pain (adjusted OR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.31-0.74 and adjusted OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.49-0.87, respectively). Planned cesarean delivery, young maternal age, and low Symptom Checklist-8 scores were associated with low pelvic pain scores after childbirth. A history of pain was the only factor associated with increased pelvic pain scores over time (P = 0.047). We conclude that new onset of pelvic pain after childbirth was not commonly reported, particularly following cesarean delivery. Overall, pelvic pain scores were rather low at all time points and women with a history of pain reported increased pelvic pain scores over time. Hence, clinicians should follow up women with pelvic pain after a difficult childbirth experience, particularly if they have a history of pain. PMID:26588694

  2. Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio as a predictor of systemic inflammation - A cross-sectional study in a pre-admission setting.

    PubMed Central

    Venkatraghavan, Lashmi; Tan, Tze Ping; Mehta, Jigesh; Arekapudi, Anil; Govindarajulu, Arun; Siu, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Background: Neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio (NLR)  is an emerging biomarker that is used to predict postoperative mortality and morbidity in cardiac and cancer surgeries. The association of this biomarker with systemic illness and its usefulness in risk assessment of preoperative patients has not been fully elucidated. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of elevated NLR in preoperative patients and to examine the relationship between elevated NLR and the presence of systemic illnesses as well as anaesthesia risk indices such as American Society of Anesthesia (ASA) and the revised cardiac risk index (RCRI) scores.   Design: Cross-sectional study Setting: Anaesthesia pre-admission clinic, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, Canada Patients: We evaluated 1117 pre-operative patients seen at an anesthesia preadmission clinic. Results: NLR was elevated (>3.3) in 26.6% of target population. In multivariate analysis, congestive cardiac failure, diabetes mellitus and malignancy were independent risk factors predicting raised NLR. After regression analysis, a relationship between NLR and ASA score (Odds Ratio 1.78; 95% CI: 1.42-2.24) and revised cardiac risk index (RCRI, odds ratio 1.33; 95% CI: 1.09-1.64, p-value: 0.0063) was observed. Conclusions:  NLR was elevated (> 3.3) in 26.6% of patients. Congestive cardiac failure and malignancy were two constant predictors of elevated NLR at >3.3 and > 4.5. There was a strong association between NLR and anesthesia risk scoring tools of ASA and RCRI. PMID:26213612

  3. Prevalence and Correlates of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy in a Saudi Arabic Population: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dong D.; Bakhotmah, Balkees A.; Hu, Frank B.; Alzahrani, Hasan Ali

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence and correlates of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in a Saudi population. The study population consisted of 552 diabetic participants with an average age of 53.4 years. Among this population, 62.7% were male and 94.9% had type 2 diabetes. The average body mass index was 31.1 kg/m2. DPN was diagnosed based on a combination of reduced vibration perception measured by neurothesiometer and/or reduced light touch perception evaluated by the 10-g Semmes-Weinstein monofilament, as well as neurological symptoms. Information on socio-demographic variables, smoking status, duration of diabetes, and medications was obtained through interviews by physicians. Body weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure and clinical markers were assessed following standard procedures. The prevalence of DPN in this population was 19.9% (95% CI, 16.7%-23.5%). In the multivariable analyses, longer duration of diabetes [odds ratio (OR) for every 5-year increase, 2.49, 95% CI, 1.75-3.53], abdominal obesity (OR, 2.53, 95% CI, 1.41-4.55), and higher levels of fasting blood glucose (OR for every 1 mmol/L increase, 1.05, 95% CI, 0.99-1.12), creatinine (OR for every 10 µmol/L increase, 1.07, 95% CI, 0.99-1.14) and white blood cell count (OR for every 106/L increase, 1.08, 95% CI, 1.01-1.16) were associated with higher odds of DPN, while oral hypoglycemic medication use was associated with a lower odds of DPN (OR, 0.47, 95% CI, 0.26-0.85). In this large Saudi population, several correlates for DPN, in addition to glycemic control and diabetes duration, were identified, including abdominal obesity, creatinine and white blood cell count. PMID:25184511

  4. Prevalence and correlates of diabetic peripheral neuropathy in a Saudi Arabic population: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong D; Bakhotmah, Balkees A; Hu, Frank B; Alzahrani, Hasan Ali

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence and correlates of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in a Saudi population. The study population consisted of 552 diabetic participants with an average age of 53.4 years. Among this population, 62.7% were male and 94.9% had type 2 diabetes. The average body mass index was 31.1 kg/m2. DPN was diagnosed based on a combination of reduced vibration perception measured by neurothesiometer and/or reduced light touch perception evaluated by the 10-g Semmes-Weinstein monofilament, as well as neurological symptoms. Information on socio-demographic variables, smoking status, duration of diabetes, and medications was obtained through interviews by physicians. Body weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure and clinical markers were assessed following standard procedures. The prevalence of DPN in this population was 19.9% (95% CI, 16.7%-23.5%). In the multivariable analyses, longer duration of diabetes [odds ratio (OR) for every 5-year increase, 2.49, 95% CI, 1.75-3.53], abdominal obesity (OR, 2.53, 95% CI, 1.41-4.55), and higher levels of fasting blood glucose (OR for every 1 mmol/L increase, 1.05, 95% CI, 0.99-1.12), creatinine (OR for every 10 µmol/L increase, 1.07, 95% CI, 0.99-1.14) and white blood cell count (OR for every 106/L increase, 1.08, 95% CI, 1.01-1.16) were associated with higher odds of DPN, while oral hypoglycemic medication use was associated with a lower odds of DPN (OR, 0.47, 95% CI, 0.26-0.85). In this large Saudi population, several correlates for DPN, in addition to glycemic control and diabetes duration, were identified, including abdominal obesity, creatinine and white blood cell count. PMID:25184511

  5. Biannual birth pulses allow filoviruses to persist in bat populations.

    PubMed

    Hayman, David T S

    2015-03-22

    Filoviruses Ebolavirus (EBOV) and Marburgvirus (MARV) cause haemorrhagic fevers with high mortality rates, posing significant threats to public health. To understand transmission into human populations, filovirus dynamics within reservoir host populations must be understood. Studies have directly linked filoviruses to bats, but the mechanisms allowing viral persistence within bat populations are poorly understood. Theory suggests seasonal birthing may decrease the probability of pathogen persistence within populations, but data suggest MARV may persist within colonies of seasonally breeding Egyptian fruit bats, Rousettus aegyptiacus. I synthesize available filovirus and bat data in a stochastic compartmental model to explore fundamental questions relating to filovirus ecology: can filoviruses persist within isolated bat colonies; do critical community sizes exist; and how do host-pathogen relationships affect spillover transmission potential? Synchronous annual breeding and shorter incubation periods did not allow filovirus persistence, whereas bi-annual breeding and longer incubation periods, such as reported for Egyptian fruit bats and EBOV in experimental studies, allowed persistence in colony sizes often found in nature. Serological data support the findings, with bats from species with two annual birth pulses more likely to be seropositive (odds ratio (OR) 4.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.5-8.7) than those with one, suggesting that biannual birthing is necessary for filovirus persistence. PMID:25673678

  6. Biannual birth pulses allow filoviruses to persist in bat populations

    PubMed Central

    Hayman, David T. S.

    2015-01-01

    Filoviruses Ebolavirus (EBOV) and Marburgvirus (MARV) cause haemorrhagic fevers with high mortality rates, posing significant threats to public health. To understand transmission into human populations, filovirus dynamics within reservoir host populations must be understood. Studies have directly linked filoviruses to bats, but the mechanisms allowing viral persistence within bat populations are poorly understood. Theory suggests seasonal birthing may decrease the probability of pathogen persistence within populations, but data suggest MARV may persist within colonies of seasonally breeding Egyptian fruit bats, Rousettus aegyptiacus. I synthesize available filovirus and bat data in a stochastic compartmental model to explore fundamental questions relating to filovirus ecology: can filoviruses persist within isolated bat colonies; do critical community sizes exist; and how do host–pathogen relationships affect spillover transmission potential? Synchronous annual breeding and shorter incubation periods did not allow filovirus persistence, whereas bi-annual breeding and longer incubation periods, such as reported for Egyptian fruit bats and EBOV in experimental studies, allowed persistence in colony sizes often found in nature. Serological data support the findings, with bats from species with two annual birth pulses more likely to be seropositive (odds ratio (OR) 4.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.5–8.7) than those with one, suggesting that biannual birthing is necessary for filovirus persistence. PMID:25673678

  7. The forensic analysis of office paper using oxygen isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Part 1: Understanding the background population and homogeneity of paper for the comparison and discrimination of samples.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kylie; Benson, Sarah; Roux, Claude

    2016-05-01

    Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) using carbon isotopes has previously been shown to be a robust and discriminating technique for the comparison of document papers. This study aims to examine the inter and intra sample variability for oxygen isotopes measured in standard 80gsm white document papers, to inform the comparison of document papers in forensic casework. 123 paper samples collected from Australia and New Zealand over a 24-month period were measured for their bulk oxygen isotopic abundance and were found to sit within a range of 15‰. A homogeneity study was undertaken which included examining the variability of samples at the sheet, ream and brand source levels. The results of this study were used to construct guidelines for sample comparison and as such, 95% confidence intervals were observed to be inappropriate for use given the high intra sample variability. Instead, a 1.4‰ discrimination range (0.7‰ either side of the measured value) was defined for use as a benchmark for discrimination when samples were measured in the same sequence. Utilising this value, 82% of the samples could be discriminated using a paired comparison, demonstrating a strong potential for use within forensic casework. PMID:26994666

  8. Low-energy structure studies of odd-odd deformed nuclei and the coriolis and residual interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Dewberry, R.A.

    1980-08-01

    The nuclear level structure of /sup 176/Lu, /sup 170/Tm, /sup 166/Ho, and /sup 160/Tb have been studied by means of the /sup 177/Hf(t,..cap alpha..)/sup 176/Lu, /sup 171/Yb(t,..cap alpha..)/sup 170/Tm, /sup 167/Er(t,..cap alpha..)/sup 166/Ho, and /sup 161/Dy(t,..cap alpha..)/sup 160/Tb reactions and with the use of previously published (d,p) spectroscopy and gamma transitions from the (n,..gamma..) reactions. The (t,..cap alpha..) reactions have been performed and analyzed with 17 MeV tritons and the Los Alamos Q3D spectrometer. Eighty-one new rotational states in excited proton configurations or vibrational excited states are proposed. An independent parameterization of the Coriolis interaction is presented, which leads to satisfactory results in reproducing experimental single-particle transfer reaction cross-sections by theoretical calculations. The anomalous population of the excited neutron configurations (404 reduces to -624 up arrow) in /sup 176/Lu and (411 reduces to +- 512 up arrow) in /sup 170/Tm, and the anomalously low (t,..cap alpha..) cross-sections of the (411 up arrow +- 633 up arrow) configuration in /sup 166/Ho are observed. Qualitative explanation of the anomalies is presented in terms of the mixing of states which satisfy the requirement delta/sub I'/,/sub I/delta/sub K'/,/sub K/. Off-diagonal H/sub INT/ matrix elements are calculated, which show that the residual interaction cannot be used to account for the magnitude of the cross-sections observed.

  9. Postpartum Maternal and Neonatal Hospitalizations Among Women with HIV: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Macdonald, Erin M.; Ng, Ryan; Yudin, Mark H.; Bayoumi, Ahmed M.; Loutfy, Mona; Raboud, Janet; Masinde, Khatundi-Irene; Tharao, Wangari E.; Brophy, Jason; Glazier, Richard H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Postpartum maternal and neonatal readmissions in the period shortly following birth are indicators of serious morbidity. We compared the risk of postpartum maternal and neonatal hospitalizations in women living with and without HIV in Ontario, Canada. We conducted a population-based study of pregnancies in Ontario between April 1, 2002 and March 31, 2011 using Ontario's administrative health care databases. Generalized estimating equations were used to derive adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of HIV infection with postpartum maternal hospitalizations within 30 days of hospital discharge and neonatal hospitalizations within 30 and 60 days of hospital discharge. Between 2002/2003 and 2010/2011, 1,133,505 pregnancies were available for analysis, of which 634 (0.06%) were to women living with HIV. The proportion of postpartum maternal hospitalizations (2.8% versus 1.1%; odds ratio 2.53; 95% CI 1.57 to 4.07) was higher among women with HIV. The multivariable adjusted odds ratio was 1.54 (95% CI 0.93 to 2.55). The proportions of neonates hospitalized within 30 (2.6% versus 3.7%; aOR 0.68, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.10) and 60 days (4.9% versus 4.9%; aOR 0.86, 95% CI 0.60 to 1.24) of discharge were similar among infants born to women with and without HIV. Women living with HIV are at a higher risk of postpartum maternal hospitalizations than women not living with HIV. The effect of HIV infection was attenuated by multivariable adjustment, suggesting that sociodemographic or health care factors are responsible for much of the difference in outcomes. PMID:26132654

  10. Nutrient intakes and dysglycaemia in populations of West African origin.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Simon G; Younger, Novie; Heald, Adrian H; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K; Simukonda, Wiyumile P; Mbanya, Jean-Claude; Jackson, Maria D; Balkau, Beverley; Sharma, Sangita; Tanya, Agatha; Forrester, Terrence; Wilks, Rainford; Cruickshank, J Kennedy

    2011-01-01

    Examining the relationship between glucose intolerance and dietary intake in genetically similar populations with different dietary patterns and rates of type 2 diabetes may provide important insights into the role of diet in the pathogenesis of this disease. The objective of the present study was to assess the relationship between dietary variables and dysglycaemia/type 2 diabetes among three populations of African origin. The study design consists of a cross-sectional study of men and women of African descent aged 24-74 years from Cameroon (n 1790), Jamaica (n 857) and Manchester, UK (n 258) who were not known to have diabetes. Each participant had anthropometric measurements and underwent a 2 h 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. Habitual dietary intake was estimated with quantitative FFQ, developed specifically for each country. The age-adjusted prevalence of undiagnosed type 2 diabetes in Cameroon was low (1·1 %), but it was higher in Jamaica (11·6 %) and the UK (12·6 %). Adjusted generalised linear and latent mixed models used to obtain OR indicated that each 1·0 % increment in energy from protein, total fat and saturated fats significantly increased the odds of type 2 diabetes by 9 (95 % CI 1·02, 1·16) %, 5 (95 % CI, 1·01, 1·08) % and 16 (95 % CI 1·08, 1·25) %, respectively. A 1 % increase in energy from carbohydrates and a 0·1 unit increment in the PUFA:SFA ratio were associated with significantly reduced odds of type 2 diabetes. The results show independent effects of dietary factors on hyperglycaemia in African origin populations. Whether modifying intake of specific macronutrients helps diabetes prevention needs testing in randomised trials. PMID:21214963

  11. Even-odd effects in prompt emission of spontaneously fissioning even-even Pu isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudora, A.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Giubega, G.; Visan, I.

    2015-01-01

    The available experimental Y (A, TKE) data for 236,238,240,242,244Pu(SF) together with the Zp model prescription with appropriate parameters allows the investigation of even-odd effects in fragment distributions. The size of the global even-odd effect in Y (Z) is decreasing from 244Pu(SF) to 236Pu(SF) confirming the general observation of a decrease of the even-odd effect with the fissility parameter. Charge polarizations (ΔZ) and root-mean squares (rms) as a function of A of 236-244Pu(SF) were obtained for the first time. In the asymmetric fission region both ΔZ (A) and rms (A) exhibit oscillations with a periodicity of about 5 mass units due to the even-odd effects. The total average charge deviations < ΔZ > (obtained by averaging ΔZ (A) over the experimental Y (A) distribution) are of about |0.5| for all studied Pu(SF) systems. The comparison of the calculated ΔZ (A) and rms (A) of 240Pu(SF) with those of 239Pu (nth, f) reported by Wahl shows an in-phase oscillation with a higher amplitude in the case of 240Pu(SF), confirming the higher even-odd effect in the case of SF. As in the previously studied cases (233,235U (nth, f), 239Pu (nth, f), 252Cf(SF)) the even-odd effects in the prompt emission of 236-244Pu(SF) are mainly due to the Z even-odd effects in fragment distributions and charge polarizations and the N even-odd effects in the average neutron separation energies from fragments < Sn >. The size of the global N even-odd effect in < Sn > is decreasing with the fissility parameter, being higher for the Pu(SF) systems compared to the previously studied systems. The prompt neutron multiplicities as a function of Z, ν (Z), exhibit sawtooth shapes with a visible staggering for asymmetric fragmentations. The size of the global Z even-odd effect in ν (Z) exhibits a decreasing trend with increasing fissility. The average prompt neutron multiplicities as a function of TKE show an increase of the even-odd effect with increasing TKE, with global effect sizes close to each other (a decrease of the effect for heavier fissioning nuclei is not observed here). The amounts of the global even-odd effect in Y (Z) and of the N even-odd effect in < Sn > of 240Pu(SF) are larger compared to 239Pu (nth, f). This fact affects the prompt emission leading to a lower Z even-odd effect in the prompt neutron multiplicity of 240Pu(SF) compared to 239Pu (nth, f).

  12. Predation risk as a driving force for phenotypic assortment: a cross-population comparison

    PubMed Central

    Croft, D.P.; Darden, S.K.; Ruxton, G.D.

    2009-01-01

    Frequency-dependent predation has been proposed as a general mechanism driving the phenotypic assortment of social groups via the oddity effect, which occurs when the presence of odd individuals in a group allows a predator to fixate on a single prey item, increasing the predator's attack-to-kill ratio. However, the generality of the oddity effect has been debated and, previously, there has not been an ecological assessment of the role of predation risk in driving the phenotypic assortment of social groups. Here, we compare the levels of body length assortment of social groups between populations of the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata) that experience differences in predation risk. As predicted by the oddity effect hypothesis, we observe phenotypic assortment by body length to be greater under high predation risk. However, we found that a number of low-predation populations were also significantly assorted by body length, suggesting that other mechanisms may have a role to play. PMID:19324770

  13. Determining maintenance cost ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, Donald S.; Sherif, Josef S.; Buchanan, Harry R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the wide range of costs involved in maintaining equipment and discusses methods that different industries use to measure and report their maintenance cost. Results are presented of the study of maintenance costs in the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) and of a comparison of DSN maintenance cost with the maintenance costs of a number of other reports. A comparison of the maintenance costs in terms of the maintenance cost ratio (annual maintenance cost/capital replacement cost) shows that DSN has the lowest maintenance cost ratio of the industries and organizations surveyed.

  14. Chronic constipation and co-morbidities: A prospective population-based nested case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Choung, Rok S; Rey, Enrique; Richard Locke, G; Schleck, Cathy D; Baum, Charles; Zinsmeister, Alan R

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic constipation (CC) is common in the community but surprisingly little is known about relevant gastro-intestinal (GI) and non-GI co-morbidities. Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the epidemiology of CC and in particular provide new insights into the co-morbidities linked to this condition. Methods In a prospective, population-based nested case-control study, a cohort of randomly selected community residents (n = 8006) were mailed a validated self-report gastrointestinal symptom questionnaire. CC was defined according to Rome III criteria. Medical records of each case and control were abstracted to identify potential CC comorbidities. Results Altogether 3831 (48%) subjects returned questionnaires; 307 met criteria for CC. Age-adjusted prevalence in females was 8.7 (95% confidence interval (CI) 7.1–10.3) and 5.1 (3.6–6.7) in males, per 100 persons. CC was not associated with most GI pathology, but the odds for constipation were increased in subjects with anal surgery relative to those without (odds ratio (OR) = 3.3, 95% CI 1.2–9.1). In those with constipation vs those without, neurological diseases including Parkinson’s disease (OR = 6.5, 95% CI 2.9–14.4) and multiple sclerosis (OR = 5.5, 95% CI 1.9–15.8) showed significantly increased odds for chronic constipation, adjusting for age and gender. In addition, modestly increased odds for chronic constipation in those with angina (OR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.1–1.9) and myocardial infarction (OR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.0–2.4) were observed. Conclusions Neurological and cardiovascular diseases are linked to constipation but in the community constipation is unlikely to account for most lower GI pathology. PMID:26966534

  15. Studies of a Large Odd-Numbered Odd-Electron Metal Ring: Inelastic Neutron Scattering and Muon Spin Relaxation Spectroscopy of Cr8 Mn.

    PubMed

    Baker, Michael L; Lancaster, Tom; Chiesa, Alessandro; Amoretti, Giuseppe; Baker, Peter J; Barker, Claire; Blundell, Stephen J; Carretta, Stefano; Collison, David; Güdel, Hans U; Guidi, Tatiana; McInnes, Eric J L; Möller, Johannes S; Mutka, Hannu; Ollivier, Jacques; Pratt, Francis L; Santini, Paolo; Tuna, Floriana; Tregenna-Piggott, Philip L W; Vitorica-Yrezabal, Iñigo J; Timco, Grigore A; Winpenny, Richard E P

    2016-01-26

    The spin dynamics of Cr8 Mn, a nine-membered antiferromagnetic (AF) molecular nanomagnet, are investigated. Cr8 Mn is a rare example of a large odd-membered AF ring, and has an odd-number of 3d-electrons present. Odd-membered AF rings are unusual and of interest due to the presence of competing exchange interactions that result in frustrated-spin ground states. The chemical synthesis and structures of two Cr8 Mn variants that differ only in their crystal packing are reported. Evidence of spin frustration is investigated by inelastic neutron scattering (INS) and muon spin relaxation spectroscopy (μSR). From INS studies we accurately determine an appropriate microscopic spin Hamiltonian and we show that μSR is sensitive to the ground-spin-state crossing from S=1/2 to S=3/2 in Cr8 Mn. The estimated width of the muon asymmetry resonance is consistent with the presence of an avoided crossing. The investigation of the internal spin structure of the ground state, through the analysis of spin-pair correlations and scalar-spin chirality, shows a non-collinear spin structure that fluctuates between non-planar states of opposite chiralities. PMID:26748964

  16. Sex ratio at birth in Croatia: update.

    PubMed

    Pavić, Dario

    2014-06-01

    There is strong evidence that the sex ratio at birth is partially determined by environmental and social factors. The modern change in those factors serves as an explanation for the secular decline in sex ratio at birth in most of the industrialized countries. This article is the reexamination of the results from my previous communication in which no trend in sex ratio at birth was established for the Croatian data from 1946 to 2007. The data for the years 2008 to 2011 were added, which didn't result with the detection of a significant change in sex ratio at birth by the regression analysis or by the Box-Jenkins time series analysis. Although the numerous factors associated with the decline in sex ratio at birth did occur during the studied period (e.g. increased exposure to the environmental pollution through food, air and water, the rise of the obesity and diabetes incidence, the economic crisis etc.), it appears that none of them made the measurable impact on sex ratio at birth. Also, the possible marginally significant decline in sex ratio at birth could be the result of a high sex ratio at birth immediately after the World War II. The results of this study caution against rapid generalization of the factors found to influence the sex ratio at birth in the epidemiological and clinical studies on the population level data. PMID:25144988

  17. Flexible parametrization of generalized parton distributions: The chiral-odd sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Gary R.; Hernandez, J. Osvaldo Gonzalez; Liuti, Simonetta

    2015-06-01

    We present a physically motivated parametrization of the chiral-odd generalized parton distributions. The parametrization is an extension of our previous one in the chiral-even sector which was based on the Reggeized diquark model. While for chiral-even generalized distributions a quantitative fit with uncertainty estimation can be performed using deep inelastic scattering data, nucleon electromagnetic, axial and pseudoscalar form factors measurements, and all available deeply virtual Compton scattering data, the chiral-odd sector is far less constrained. While awaiting the analysis of measurements on pseudoscalar mesons exclusive electroproduction which are key for the extraction of chiral-odd GPDs, we worked out a connection between the chiral-even and chiral-odd reduced helicity amplitudes using parity transformations. The connection works for quark-parton models including both scalar and axial vector diquark models, and spectator models in general. This relation allows us to estimate the size of the various chiral-odd contributions and it opens the way for future quantitative fits.

  18. [Odd- and branched-chain fatty acids in milk fat--characteristic and health properties].

    PubMed

    Adamska, Agata; Rutkowska, Jarosława

    2014-01-01

    This review analyzes the current state of knowledge on odd- and branched-chain fatty acids present in milk fat. Special attention is devoted to the characteristic, synthesis in ruminants, factors affecting their content in milk fat and pro-health properties of these compounds. The group of odd- and branched-chain fatty acids includes mainly saturated fatty acids with one or more methyl branches in the iso or anteiso position. These fatty acids are largely derived from ruminal bacteria and they have been transferred to ruminant tissue (milk and meat). For that reason they have been used as biomarkers of rumen fermentation. Odd- and branched-chain fatty acids are exogenous products for humans, and therefore have specific properties. The results of research from recent decades show that odd- and branched-chain fatty acids have anti-cancer activity. Branched-chain fatty acids may reduce the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis. Additionally, these compounds have a beneficial effect on proper tissue function and on functioning and development of the infant gut, whereas odd-chain fatty acids are considered as biomarkers of milk fat intake by humans. So far, not all the mechanisms of activity of these compounds are known thoroughly. They should be more carefully studied for application of their biological effects in prevention and treatment. PMID:25228507

  19. Comparison of Gender Differences in Intracerebral Hemorrhage in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Population

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Justin T.; Ang, Beng Ti; Ng, Yew Poh; Allen, John C.; King, Nicolas K. K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounts for 10–15% of all first time strokes and with incidence twice as high in the Asian compared to Western population. This study aims to investigate gender differences in ICH patient outcomes in a multi-ethnic Asian population. Method Data for 1,192 patients admitted for ICH were collected over a four-year period. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors and odds ratios were computed for 30-day mortality and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) comparing males and females. Result Males suffered ICH at a younger age than females (62.2 ± 13.2 years vs. 66.3 ± 15.3 years; P<0.001). The occurrence of ICH was higher among males than females at all ages until 80 years old, beyond which the trend was reversed. Females exhibited increased severity on admission as measured by Glasgow Coma Scale compared to males (10.9 ± 4.03 vs. 11.4 ± 4.04; P = 0.030). No difference was found in 30-day mortality between females and males (F: 30.5% [155/508] vs. M: 27.0% [186/688]), with unadjusted and adjusted odds ratio (F/M) of 1.19 (P = 0.188) and 1.21 (P = 0.300). At discharge, there was a non-statistically significant but potentially clinically relevant morbidity difference between the genders as measured by GOS (dichotomized GOS of 4–5: F: 23.7% [119/503] vs. M: 28.7% [194/677]), with unadjusted and adjusted odds ratio (F/M) of 0.77 (P = 0.055) and 0.87 (P = 0.434). Conclusion In our multi-ethnic Asian population, males developed ICH at a younger age and were more susceptible to ICH than women at all ages other than the beyond 80-year old age group. In contrast to the Western population, neurological status of female ICH patients at admission was poorer and their 30-day mortality was not reduced. Although the study was not powered to detect significance, female showed a trend toward worse 30-day morbidity at discharge. PMID:27050549

  20. Midlife vascular risk factors and Alzheimer's disease in later life: longitudinal, population based study

    PubMed Central

    Kivipelto, Miia; Helkala, Eeva-Liisa; Laakso, Mikko P; Hänninen, Tuomo; Hallikainen, Merja; Alhainen, Kari; Soininen, Hilkka; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Nissinen, Aulikki

    2001-01-01

    Objective To examine the relation of midlife raised blood pressure and serum cholesterol concentrations to Alzheimer's disease in later life. Design Prospective, population based study. Setting Populations of Kuopio and Joensuu, eastern Finland. Participants Participants were derived from random, population based samples previously studied in a survey carried out in 1972, 1977, 1982, or 1987. After an average of 21 years' follow up, a total of 1449 (73%) participants aged 65-79 took part in the re-examination in 1998. Main outcome measures Midlife blood pressure and cholesterol concentrations and development of Alzheimer's disease in later life. Results People with raised systolic blood pressure (⩾160 mm Hg) or high serum cholesterol concentration (⩾6.5 mmol/l) in midlife had a significantly higher risk of Alzheimer's disease in later life, even after adjustment for age, body mass index, education, vascular events, smoking status, and alcohol consumption, than those with normal systolic blood pressure (odds ratio 2.3, 95% confidence interval 1.0 to 5.5) or serum cholesterol (odds ratio 2.1, 1.0 to 4.4). Participants with both of these risk factors in midlife had a significantly higher risk of developing Alzheimer's disease than those with either of the risk factors alone (odds ratio 3.5, 1.6 to 7.9). Diastolic blood pressure in midlife had no significant effect on the risk of Alzheimer's disease. Conclusion Raised systolic blood pressure and high serum cholesterol concentration, and in particular the combination of these risks, in midlife increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease in later life. What is already known on this topicVascular risk factors may play an important part as risk factors for Alzheimer's diseaseNo population based studies have evaluated prospectively the impact of both midlife blood pressure and cholesterol concentration in both men and women on the subsequent development of Alzheimer's diseaseWhat this study addsRaised systolic blood pressure and high serum cholesterol concentration, and in particular the combination of these risks, in midlife increased the risk of Alzheimer's disease in later lifeRaised systolic blood pressure and hypercholesterolaemia may have a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease; more emphasis should be placed on identification and appropriate treatment of these conditions PMID:11408299

  1. Raw garlic consumption as a protective factor for lung cancer, a population-based case-control study in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Zi-Yi; Wu, Ming; Han, Ren-Qiang; Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Xu-Shan; Liu, Ai-Ming; Zhou, Jin-Yi; Lu, Qing-Yi; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Zhao, Jin-Kou

    2013-01-01

    Protective effect of garlic on the development of cancer has been reported in vitro and in vivo experimental studies, however, few human epidemiological studies have evaluated the relationship. A population-based case-control study has been conducted in a Chinese population from 2003 to 2010, with the aim to explore the association between raw garlic consumption and lung cancer. Epidemiological data were collected by face-to-face interviews using a standard questionnaire among 1,424 lung cancer cases and 4,543 healthy controls. Unconditional logistic regression was employed to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and to evaluate ratio of odds ratios (ROR) for multiplicative interactions between raw garlic consumption and other risk factors. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, raw garlic consumption of ≥ 2 times per week is inversely associated with lung cancer (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.44-0.72) with a monotonic dose-response relationship (p for trend <0.001). Furthermore, strong interactions at either additive and/or multiplicative scales were observed between raw garlic consumption and tobacco smoking (Synergy Index (SI) = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.57-0.85; and ROR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.67-0.90), as well as high-temperature cooking oil fume (ROR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.59-1.00). In conclusion, protective association between intake of raw garlic and lung cancer has been observed with a dose-response pattern, suggesting that garlic may potentially serve as a chemopreventive agent for lung cancer. Effective components in garlic in lung cancer chemoprevention warrant further in-depth investigation. PMID:23658367

  2. Polymorphisms in the TMEM132D region are associated with panic disorder in HLA-DRB1*13:02-negative individuals of a Japanese population

    PubMed Central

    Shimada-Sugimoto, Mihoko; Otowa, Takeshi; Miyagawa, Taku; Khor, Seik-Soon; Omae, Yosuke; Toyo-oka, Licht; Sugaya, Nagisa; Kawamura, Yoshiya; Umekage, Tadashi; Miyashita, Akinori; Kuwano, Ryozo; Kaiya, Hisanobu; Kasai, Kiyoto; Tanii, Hisashi; Okazaki, Yuji; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Sasaki, Tsukasa

    2016-01-01

    We herein report an association between TMEM132D and panic disorder (PD) in a Japanese population, evaluating the effects of HLA-DRB1*13:02, which we previously reported as a susceptibility genetic factor for PD. SNPs in TMEM132D showed significant associations with PD in subjects without HLA-DRB1*13:02 (rs4759997; P=5.02×10−6, odds ratio=1.50) but not in those with the HLA allele. TMEM132D might have a role in the development of PD in subjects without HLA-DRB1*13:02. PMID:27081567

  3. Polymorphisms in the TMEM132D region are associated with panic disorder in HLA-DRB1*13:02-negative individuals of a Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Shimada-Sugimoto, Mihoko; Otowa, Takeshi; Miyagawa, Taku; Khor, Seik-Soon; Omae, Yosuke; Toyo-Oka, Licht; Sugaya, Nagisa; Kawamura, Yoshiya; Umekage, Tadashi; Miyashita, Akinori; Kuwano, Ryozo; Kaiya, Hisanobu; Kasai, Kiyoto; Tanii, Hisashi; Okazaki, Yuji; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Sasaki, Tsukasa

    2016-01-01

    We herein report an association between TMEM132D and panic disorder (PD) in a Japanese population, evaluating the effects of HLA-DRB1*13:02, which we previously reported as a susceptibility genetic factor for PD. SNPs in TMEM132D showed significant associations with PD in subjects without HLA-DRB1*13:02 (rs4759997; P=5.02×10(-6), odds ratio=1.50) but not in those with the HLA allele. TMEM132D might have a role in the development of PD in subjects without HLA-DRB1*13:02. PMID:27081567

  4. Likelihood ratios for DNA identification.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, A; Morton, N E

    1994-01-01

    Likelihood ratio (LR) tests are provided for the three alternatives to DNA identity: exclusion, coincidence, and kinship. The coincidence test uses the radius of coalescence to conserve the observed frequency of single band phenotypes. Genotype probabilities under kinship are derived for mating groups, specified relatives, and structured populations; and unbiased estimates of the genetic parameters are provided. The LR is made robust to gene frequency errors by specifying the mean matching probability, and the tolerable loss of information this entails is determined by LR theory. This straightforward application of the seminal work of Jerzy Neyman and Sewall Wright strongly supports the use of LRs and kinship for presentation of DNA evidence by expert witnesses and committees. PMID:8016106

  5. Lifelong vegetarianism and risk of breast cancer: a population-based case-control study among South Asian migrant women living in England.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Mangtani, Punam; McCormack, Valerie; Bhakta, Dee; Sevak, Leena; McMichael, Anthony J

    2002-05-10

    To investigate the role of lifelong vegetarianism on the aetiology of female breast cancer, we conducted a population-based case-control study among South Asian migrant women from the Indian subcontinent resident in England. A total of 240 South Asian breast cancer cases were identified from 2 cancer registries during 1995-1999. For each case, 2 age-matched South Asian controls were randomly selected from the age-sex register of the case practice. Lifelong vegetarians had a slight reduction, although not statistically significant, in the odds of breast cancer relative to lifelong meat-eaters, which persisted after adjustment for socio-demographic and reproductive variables [odds ratio (OR)=0.77; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.50-1.18]. Analysis by food group revealed no linear trend in the odds of breast cancer with increasing consumption of meat (p=0.10) but the odds were higher for women in the top 75%. In contrast, there were strong inverse trends in the odds of breast cancer with increasing intake of vegetables (p=0.005), pulses (p=0.007) and fibre [non-starch polysaccharides, NSP (p=0.02)], with women in the highest 25% of intake of these foods having about 50% of the odds of those in the lowest ones. Adjustment for intake of vegetables and pulses reverted the odds of breast cancer in lifelong vegetarians relative to lifelong meat-eaters (OR=1.04; 95% CI=0.65-1.68) and attenuated the quartile-specific estimates for meat intake, whereas the inverse trends in the odds of breast cancer with intake of vegetables and pulses remained after adjustment for type of diet or meat intake. These findings suggest that lifelong vegetarianism may be associated with a reduction in the risk of breast cancer through its association with a higher intake of vegetables and pulses. Although it is not possible to exclude the possibility that lifelong meat abstention may also play a role, the findings provide evidence that a diet rich in vegetables and pulses, such as those typically found in South Asian diets, may be protective against this cancer. PMID:11979439

  6. Short Sleep Duration across Income, Education and Race/Ethnic Groups: Population Prevalence and Growing Disparities over 34 Years of Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Stamatakis, Katherine A.; Kaplan, George A.; Roberts, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Little is known about population determinants of short sleep duration. The authors examined associations between short sleep duration and income, education and race/ethnicity, and assessed changes over time in relative disparities. Methods Questionnaire data from the Alameda County Health and Ways of Living Study (ACS) was obtained at five time-points (1965, 1974, 1983, 1994, and 1999) for short sleep duration (<7 hours sleep per night). Household income, education level and race/ethnicity were assessed at baseline (n=6928). Odds ratios were computed to examine short sleep duration across income, education and race/ethnicity, adjusting for age, sex and time-varying covariates, and to assess changes over time. Results Prevalence of short sleep at baseline was 15.2%.The (age-adjusted) odds of short sleep was increased for the lowest household income quintile (OR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.34, 1.94), those with less than high school education (OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.30, 1.75), and among African Americans (odds ratio (OR) = 1.97, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.68, 2.30). Relative disparities increased over time for African Americans and Hispanics compared to whites. Conclusions Socioeconomic position is a robust determinant of short sleep duration, even after adjusting for health-related characteristics linked to short sleep duration. PMID:17855122

  7. Strong positive association of traditional Asian-style diets with blood cadmium and lead levels in the Korean adult population.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmin; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2013-12-01

    Blood lead and cadmium levels are more than twofold to fivefold higher in the Korean population compared to that of the USA. This may be related to the foods consumed. We examined which food categories are related to blood lead and cadmium levels in the Korean adult population using the 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 5504). High and moderate consumption of bread and crackers, potatoes, meat and meat products, milk and dairy products, and pizza and hamburger resulted in significantly lower odds ratios for blood lead levels than their low consumption. However, consumption of salted fish, white fish, green vegetables, white and yellow vegetables, coffee, and alcohol resulted in significantly higher odds ratios of blood lead and cadmium. In conclusion, the typical Asian diet based on rice, fish, vegetables, regular coffee, and alcoholic drinks may be associated with higher blood cadmium and lead levels. This study suggests that lead and cadmium contents should be monitored and controlled in agricultural products to reduce health risks from heavy metals. PMID:23394202

  8. Odd-Even Pattern Observed in Polyaniline/(Au0 – Au8) Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Jonke, Alex P.; Josowicz, Mira A.; Janata, Jiri

    2012-01-12

    Theoretically predicted effect of odd-even pattern of electron pairing on behavior of gold clusters in polyaniline/AuN (N = 0 to 8) has been confirmed experimentally. In these composites the atomic Au clusters with even number of atoms exhibit higher catalytic activity for electrochemical oxidation of n-propanol in 1 M NaOH than the odd-number atoms clusters. Also, infrared spectroscopy shows that even numbered PANI/AuN composites affect the N-H stretching vibration more strongly than the corresponding odd numbered ones. This behavior matches the theoretically predicted variations of HOMO-LUMO gap energy and the stability of the atomic Au clusters. It also agrees with the earlier experimental work in which the UPS spectra of isolated, mass-selected Au clusters have been reported.

  9. Odd-frequency superconductivity in a nanowire coupled to Majorana zero modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shu-Ping; Lutchyn, Roman M.; Maciejko, Joseph

    Odd-frequency superconductivity, originally proposed by Berezinskii in 1974, is an exotic phase of matter in which pairing is entirely dynamical in nature. The pair potential is an odd function of frequency, leading to a vanishing static superconducting order parameter and exotic types of pairing seemingly inconsistent with Fermi statistics, such as spin triplet (singlet) pairing in an s-wave (p-wave) superconductor. Motivated by recent experimental progress in the realization of Majorana zero modes in semiconducting nanowires, we show that a spin-polarized nanowire coupled to a one-dimensional array of Majorana zero modes becomes an odd-frequency superconductor. This work was supported by NSERC, CRC, CIFAR, and the University of Alberta.

  10. Influences of Vehicle Size and Mass and Selected Driver Factors on Odds of Driver Fatality

    PubMed Central

    Padmanaban, Jeya

    2003-01-01

    Research was undertaken to determine vehicle size parameters influencing driver fatality odds, independent of mass, in two-vehicle collisions. Forty vehicle parameters were evaluated for 1,500 vehicle groupings. Logistic regression analyses show driver factors (belt use, age, drinking) collectively contribute more to fatality odds than vehicle factors, and that mass is the most important vehicular parameter influencing fatality odds for all crash configurations. In car crashes, other vehicle parameters with statistical significance had a second order effect compared to mass. In light truck-to-car crashes, “vehicle type-striking vehicle is light truck” was the most important parameter after mass, followed by vehicle height and bumper height, with second order effect. To understand the importance of “vehicle type” variable, further investigation of vehicle “stiffness” and other passenger car/light truck differentiating parameters is warranted. PMID:12941244

  11. Odd-parity superconductivity by competing spin-orbit coupling and orbital effect in artificial heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Tomohiro; Yanase, Youichi

    2015-11-01

    We show that odd-parity superconductivity occurs in multilayer Rashba systems without requiring spin-triplet Cooper pairs. A pairing interaction in the spin-singlet channel stabilizes the odd-parity pair-density-wave (PDW) state in the magnetic field parallel to the two-dimensional conducting plane. It is shown that the layer-dependent Rashba spin-orbit coupling and the orbital effect play essential roles for the PDW state in binary and tricolor heterostructures. We demonstrate that the odd-parity PDW state is a symmetry-protected topological superconducting state characterized by the one-dimensional winding number in the symmetry class BDI. The superconductivity in the artificial heavy-fermion superlattice CeCoIn5/YbCoIn5 and bilayer interface SrTiO3/LaAlO3 is discussed.

  12. Beyond-mean-field boson-fermion model for odd-mass nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, K.; Nikšić, T.; Vretenar, D.

    2016-05-01

    A novel method for calculating spectroscopic properties of medium-mass and heavy atomic nuclei with an odd number of nucleons is introduced, based on the framework of nuclear energy density functional theory and the particle-core coupling scheme. The deformation energy surface of the even-even core, as well as the spherical single-particle energies and occupation probabilities of the odd particle(s), are obtained in a self-consistent mean-field calculation determined by the choice of the energy density functional and pairing interaction. This method uniquely determines the parameters of the Hamiltonian of the boson core, and only the strength of the particle-core coupling is specifically adjusted to selected data for a particular nucleus. The approach is illustrated in a systematic study of low-energy excitation spectra and transition rates of axially deformed odd-mass Eu isotopes.

  13. Enhancement of odd nitrogen modifies mesospheric ozone chemistry during polar winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verronen, P. T.; Lehmann, R.

    2015-12-01

    Energetic particle precipitation (EPP) enhances odd nitrogen (NOx) in the polar upper atmosphere. Model studies have reported a solar cycle response in mesospheric ozone (O3) caused by EPP-related NOx enhancements which are included by applying a vertical NOx flux at around 80 km. However, it is not clear how O3 can be affected when the main chemical catalyst of odd oxygen (Ox = O + O(1D) + O3) loss in the mesosphere is odd hydrogen (HOx). Here we use a 1-D atmospheric model and show how enhanced NOx affects mesospheric chemistry and changes HOx partitioning, which subsequently leads to increase in Ox loss through standard HOx-driven catalytic cycles. Another, smaller increase of Ox loss results from HOx storage in HNO3 during night and its release by daytime photodissociation. Our results suggest that EPP, through NOx enhancements, could have a longer-term effect on mesospheric HOx and Ox in polar winter.

  14. Enhancement of the C P -odd effect in the nuclear electric dipole moment of 6Li

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, Nodoka; Hiyama, Emiko

    2015-05-01

    We calculate for the first time the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the 6Li nucleus within the α +p +n three-body cluster model using the Gaussian expansion method, assuming the one-meson exchange P , CP-odd nuclear forces. It is found that the EDM of 6Li is 2 times more sensitive to the isovector pion exchange P , CP-odd nuclear force than the deuteron EDM because of the CP-odd interaction between the nucleons and the α cluster. The 9Be EDM is also calculated in the same framework as an α +α +n three-body system. We also test the ab initio calculation of the EDM of the deuteron, 3H , and 3He nuclei using the realistic Argonne v 18 nuclear force. In the ab initio calculations, good agreements with previous studies are obtained. We finally discuss the prospects for new physics beyond the standard model.

  15. NUCLEAR PHYSICS: Some Electromagnetic Transition Properties of Odd-A Europium Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resit Yazar, Harun; Uluer, Ihsan; Ünaloǧlu, Volkan; Yaşar, Sinan

    2010-04-01

    In this work, we analyze the positive parity of states of odd-A Eu isotopes within the framework of interacting boson fermion model (IBFM-1). The result of an IBFM-1 multilevel calculation with the 3s1/2, 2d3/2, 2d5/2, and 1g7/2 single particle orbits is reported for the positive parity states of the odd-A Eu isotopes. Also, an IBM-1 calculation is presented for the low-lying states in the even-even 152-154Sm core nucleus. The energy levels and B(E2) transition probabilities are calculated and compared with the experimental data. It is found that the calculated positive parity low spin state energy spectra of the odd-A Eu isotopes agree quite well with the experimental data.

  16. Diverging scaling with converging multisite entanglement in odd and even quantum Heisenberg ladders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singha Roy, Sudipto; Shekhar Dhar, Himadri; Rakshit, Debraj; Sen(De, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal

    2016-02-01

    We investigate finite-size scaling of genuine multisite entanglement in the ground state of quantum spin-1/2 Heisenberg ladders. We obtain the ground states of odd- and even-legged Heisenberg ladder Hamiltonians and compute genuine multisite entanglement, the generalized geometric measure (GGM), which shows that for even rungs, GGM increases for odd-legged ladder while it decreases for even ones. Interestingly, the ground state obtained by short-range dimer coverings, under the resonating valence bond ansatz, encapsulates the qualitative features of GGM for both the ladders. We find that while the quantity converges to a single value for higher legged odd- and even-ladders, in the asymptotic limit of a large number of rungs, the finite-size scaling exponents of the same tend to diverge. The scaling exponent of GGM is therefore capable to distinguish the odd–even dichotomy in Heisenberg ladders, even when the corresponding multisite entanglements merge.

  17. Sex ratio of older siblings in heterosexual and homosexual, right-handed and non-right-handed men.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Ray

    2008-12-01

    This study investigated why older brothers, which increase the odds of homosexuality in later-born males who are right-handed, have no effect or the opposite effect on later-born males who are non-right-handed. The specific question was whether the different results for the non-right-handed men have to do with the heterosexual non-right-handers or the homosexual non-right-handers. The human sex ratio at birth (106 males per 100 females) was used as a gold standard for determining which groups differ from the general population and in which direction. All usable data from previous studies were combined to obtain the largest possible sample (N = 8,201). The observed ratio of older brothers to older sisters was 105 for the heterosexual right-handers, 128 for the homosexual right-handers, 127 for the heterosexual non-right-handers, and 96 for the homosexual non-right-handers. The ratios for the homosexual right-handers and the heterosexual non-right-handers differed significantly from the expected value. These results suggest that both heterosexual and homosexual non-right-handers contribute to the older brothers x handedness x sexual orientation interaction. PMID:17186124

  18. Lower Numeracy Is Associated with Increased Odds of 30-Day Emergency Department and Hospital Recidivism for Patients with Acute Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    McNaughton, Candace D.; Collins, Sean; Kripalani, Sunil; Rothman, Russell; Self, Wesley H.; Jenkins, Cathy; Miller, Karen; Arbogast, Patrick; Naftilan, Allen; Dittus, Robert S.; Storrow, Alan B.

    2013-01-01

    Background More than 25% of Medicare patients hospitalized for heart failure are readmitted within 30 days. The contributions of numeracy and health literacy to recidivism for patients with acute heart failure (AHF) are not known. Methods and Results A cohort of patients with AHF who presented to four emergency departments between January 2008 and September 2011. Research assistants administered subjective measures of numeracy and health literacy; thirty-day follow up was performed by phone interview. Recidivism was defined as any unplanned return to the emergency department or hospital within 30-days of the index emergency department visit for AHF. Multivariable logistic regression adjusting for patient age, gender, race, insurance status, hospital site, days eligible for recidivism, chronic kidney disease, abnormal hemoglobin, and low ejection fraction evaluated the relationships between numeracy and health literacy with 30-day recidivism. Of the 709 patients included in the analysis, 390 (55%) had low numeracy skills and 258 (37%) had low literacy skills. Low numeracy was associated with increased odds of recidivism within 30 days (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.41, 95% confidence interval 1.00-1.98, P=0.048). For low health literacy, adjusted OR of recidivism was 1.17 (95% CI 0.83-1.65, P=0.37). Conclusions Low numeracy was associated with greater odds of 30-day recidivism. Further investigation is warranted to determine whether addressing numeracy and health literacy may reduce 30-day recidivism for patients with acute heart failure. PMID:23230305

  19. Collective states of odd nuclei in a model with quadrupole-octupole degrees of freedom

    SciTech Connect

    Minkov, N. Drenska, S. B.; Yotov, P.; Bonatsos, D. Scheid, W.

    2007-08-15

    We apply the collective axial quadrupole-octupole Hamiltonian to describe the rotation-vibration motion of odd nuclei with Coriolis coupling between the even-even core and the unpaired nucleon.We consider that the core oscillates coherently with respect to the quadrupole and octupole axialdeformation variables. The coupling between the core and the unpaired nucleon provides a split paritydoublet structure of the spectrum. The formalism successfully reproduces the parity-doublet splitting in a wide range of odd-A nuclei. It provides model estimations for the third angular-momentum projection K on the intrinsic symmetry axis and the related intrinsic nuclear structure.

  20. Stimulus-parity synaesthesia versus stimulus-dichotomy synaesthesia: Odd, even or something else?

    PubMed Central

    White, Rebekah C.; Plassart, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In stimulus-parity synaesthesia, a range of stimuli—for example, letters, numbers, weekdays, months, and colours (the inducers)—elicit an automatic feeling of oddness or evenness (the concurrent). This phenomenon was first described by Théodore Flournoy in 1893, and has only recently been “rediscovered.” Here, we describe an individual who experiences a comparable phenomenon, but uses the labels negative and positive rather than odd and even. Stimulus-parity synaesthesia may be broader than first supposed, and it is important that assessments are sensitive to this breadth. PMID:26034572

  1. Herd and cow characteristics affecting the odds of veterinary treatment for disease – a multilevel analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mörk, Marie Jansson; Emanuelson, Ulf; Lindberg, Ann; Vågsholm, Ivar; Egenvall, Agneta

    2009-01-01

    Background Research has indicated that a number of different factors affect whether an animal receives treatment or not when diseased. The aim of this paper was to evaluate if herd or individual animal characteristics influence whether cattle receives veterinary treatment for disease, and thereby also introduce misclassification in the disease recording system. Methods The data consisted mainly of disease events reported by farmers during 2004. We modelled odds of receiving veterinary treatment when diseased, using two-level logistic regression models for cows and young animals (calves and heifers), respectively. Model parameters were estimated using three procedures, because these procedures have been shown, under some conditions, to produce biased estimates for multi-level models with binary outcomes. Results Cows located in herds mainly consisting of Swedish Holstein cows had higher odds for veterinary treatment than cows in herds mainly consisting of Swedish Red cows. Cows with a disease event early in lactation had higher odds for treatment than when the event occurred later in lactation. There were also higher odds for veterinary treatment of events for cows in January and April than in July and October. The odds for veterinary treatment of events in young animals were higher if the farmer appeared to be good at keeping records. Having a disease event at the same date as another animal increased the odds for veterinary treatment for all events in young animals, and for lameness, metabolic, udder and other disorders, but not for peripartum disorders, in cows. There were also differences in the odds for veterinary treatment between disease complexes, both for cows and young animals. The random effect of herd was significant in both models and accounted for 40–44% of the variation in the cow model and 30–46% in the young animal model. Conclusion We conclude that cow and herd characteristics influence the odds for veterinary treatment and that this might bias the results from studies using data from the cattle disease database based on veterinary practice records. PMID:19698112

  2. Spontaneous Formation of a π Soliton in a Superconducting Wire with an Odd Number of Electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Hyok-Jon; Yakovenko, Victor M.

    2002-06-01

    We consider a one-dimensional superconducting wire where the total number of electrons can be controlled in the Coulomb blockade regime. We predict that a π soliton (kink) will spontaneously form in the system when the number of electrons is odd, because this configuration has a lower energy. If the wire with an odd number of electrons is closed in a ring, the phase difference on the two sides of the soliton will generate a supercurrent detectable by a SQUID. The two degenerate states with the current flowing clockwise or counterclockwise can be utilized as a qubit.

  3. Spontaneous formation of a π soliton in a superconducting wire with an odd number of electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakovenko, Victor

    2003-03-01

    We consider a one-dimensional superconducting wire where the total number of electrons can be controlled in the Coulomb blockade regime. We predict that a π soliton (kink) will spontaneously form in the system when the number of electron is odd, because this configuration has a lower energy. If the wire with an odd number of electrons is closed in a ring, the phase difference on the two sides of the soliton will generate a spontaneous supercurrent detectable by SQUID. The two degenerate states with the current flowing clockwise or counterclockwise can be utilized as a qubit. Reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 017002 (2002)

  4. Electric dipole moments as probes of new CP-odd physics

    SciTech Connect

    Ritz, Adam

    2009-12-17

    We review the importance of precision probes for flavor-diagonal CP-violation, specifically searches for electric dipole moments of nucleons, atoms and molecules, in accessing new CP-odd physics at high scales. We summarize the effective field theory analysis of observable EDMs in terms of a general set of CP-odd operators at 1 GeV, and the ensuing model-independent new physics constraints, incorporating the recently improved limit on the Hg EDM. We also discuss the current status of these limits in the context of 1- and 2-loop contributions in supersymmetric models.

  5. NUCLEAR PHYSICS: Description of Properties of Triaxial Superdeformed Bands in Odd-A Lu Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Da-Li; Li, Jin-Bo; Cao, Hong-Ping

    2010-01-01

    Properties of the triaxial superdeformed (TSD) bands of odd-A Lu isotopes are investigated systematically within the supersymmetry scheme including many-body interactions and a perturbation possessing the SO(5) (or SU(5)) symmetry on the rotational symmetry. Quantitatively good results of the γ-ray energies, the dynamical moments of inertia and the spin of the TSD bands in odd-A Lu isotopes are obtained. The calculation shows that the competition between the pairing and anti-pairing effects exists in these TSD bands. Meanwhile, the SU(3) symmetry in TSD bands are broken more seriously than in superdeformed (SD) bands.

  6. General conditions for proximity induced odd-frequency superconductivity in two-dimensional electronic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Enrico; Triola, Christopher; Badiane, Driss; Balatsky, Alexander V.

    We obtain the general conditions for the emergence of odd-frequency superconducting pairing in a two-dimensional (2D) electronic system proximity-coupled to a superconductor, making minimal assumptions about both the 2D system and the superconductor. Using our general results we show that a simple heterostructure formed by a monolayer of a group VI transition metal dichalcogenide, such as molybdenum disulfide, and an s-wave superconductor with Rashba spin-orbit coupling will exhibit odd-frequency superconducting pairing. Work supported by US DOE BES E304, KAW, ACS-PRF-53581-DNI5, and NSF-DMR-1455233.

  7. Nonminimal derivative coupling scalar-tensor theories: Odd-parity perturbations and black hole stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisterna, Adolfo; Cruz, Miguel; Delsate, Térence; Saavedra, Joel

    2015-11-01

    We derive the odd-parity perturbation equation for the nonminimal kinetic coupling sector of the general Horndeski theory, where the kinetic term is coupled to the metric and the Einstein tensor. We derive the potential of the perturbation, by identifying a master function and switching to tortoise coordinates. We then prove the mode stability under linear odd-parity perturbations of hairy black holes in this sector of Horndeski theory, when a cosmological constant term in the action is included. Finally, we comment on the existence of slowly rotating black hole solutions in this setup and discuss their implications on the physics of compact object configurations, such as neutron stars.

  8. Interstellar CNO Isotope Ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henkel, C.; Wilson, T. L.; Langer, N.; Chin, Y.-N.; Mauersberger, R.

    In an interpretation of interstellar, circumstellar, and solar system CNO isotope ratios, we find two scenarios which are free of internal inconsistencies. The first requires that the early solar system was enriched by material from massive stars, leading to enhanced 12C/13C and 18O/17O ratios and to a reduced 14N/15N ratio. The second involves infall of gas onto the galactic disk after the formation of the solar system. Both scenarios require that the bulk of the interstellar 16O, 18O and 15N originates from massive stars (>8M⊙), with 18O and perhaps 15N being destroyed in lower mass stars. 17O is mainly synthesized in stars of intermediate mass while 12C, 13C, and 14N are produced in stars of high and intermediate masses. With respect to nucleosynthesis, evolutionary models of massive stars applying the Ledoux criterion for convection and semiconvective mixing should be preferred. These yield high 18O abundances above the convective He-burning core. For 17O, theoretical yields and observational data are not consistent, since models predict too much 17O from massive stars. The absence of an 18O/17O gradient in the galactic plane remains unexplained. Since 18O and 17O are products of quite different processes, this absence strongly constrains numerical models of the "chemical" evolution of the Galaxy.

  9. A Population-based Seroepidemiological Study on Hepatitis E Virus in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sepanlou, SG; Rezvan, H; Amini-Kafiabad, S; Dayhim, MR; Merat, S

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Little is known about HEV seroprevalence and its determinants in Iran. Considering the fact that Iran is among the countries in which HEV infection is endemic, a large-scale population-based study in this regard is justified. METHODS This survey was conducted in 2006 in Tehran and Golestan Provinces, Iran. Stored sera of subjects were tested for serological markers of anti-HEV. The baseline data were recorded in structured questionnaires. Weighted seroprevalence and weighted logistic regression coefficients were calculated. RESULTS A total of 1423 samples were included. The overall seroprevalence in two provinces was 7.4%. Age with an odds ratio equal to 1.59 (95% CI: 1.26-2.02) and history of traditional phlebotomy with an odds ratio equal to 2.28 (95% CI: 1.13-4.60) were independent predictors of HEV seropositivity. CONCLUSION Considering the high rate of HEV seroprevalence in Iran, further studies on the cost-effectiveness of vaccination among vulnerable groups are mandatory. PMID:25197520

  10. Level of Physical Activity in Population Aged 16 to 65 Years in Rural Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Aslesh, O. P.; Mayamol, P.; Suma, R. K.; Usha, K.; Sheeba, G.; Jayasree, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    Kerala is a state in India with a high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. In order to control these diseases, the prevalence of modifiable risk factors such as low physical activity need to be studied. For this a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the level of physical activity among 240 residents aged between 15 and 65 years in Kulappuram, a village in north Kerala. Low level of physical activity was seen in 65.8% of the study participants. The average duration of moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity per day in different domains such as work, travel, and recreation were 40.5, 10.1, and 12.7 minutes, respectively. The average duration of sedentary activities was 284.3 minutes per day. The level of physical activity was more among those engaged in unskilled work (adjusted odds ratio = 4.32; confidence interval = 1.38–13.51) and unmarried persons (adjusted odds ratio = 3.65; confidence interval = 1.25–10.65). No statistically significant difference in physical activity level was seen in different age, education, religious, and economic categories. The study concludes that the physical activity level was low in the study population. PMID:26276364

  11. General population job exposure matrix applied to a pooled study of prevalent carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dale, Ann Marie; Zeringue, Angelique; Harris-Adamson, Carisa; Rempel, David; Bao, Stephen; Thiese, Matthew S; Merlino, Linda; Burt, Susan; Kapellusch, Jay; Garg, Arun; Gerr, Fred; Hegmann, Kurt T; Eisen, Ellen A; Evanoff, Bradley

    2015-03-15

    A job exposure matrix may be useful for the study of biomechanical workplace risk factors when individual-level exposure data are unavailable. We used job title-based exposure data from a public data source to construct a job exposure matrix and test exposure-response relationships with prevalent carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Exposures of repetitive motion and force from the Occupational Information Network were assigned to 3,452 active workers from several industries, enrolled between 2001 and 2008 from 6 studies. Repetitive motion and force exposures were combined into high/high, high/low, and low/low exposure groupings in each of 4 multivariable logistic regression models, adjusted for personal factors. Although force measures alone were not independent predictors of CTS in these data, strong associations between combined physical exposures of force and repetition and CTS were observed in all models. Consistent with previous literature, this report shows that workers with high force/high repetition jobs had the highest prevalence of CTS (odds ratio = 2.14-2.95) followed by intermediate values (odds ratio = 1.09-2.27) in mixed exposed jobs relative to the lowest exposed workers. This study supports the use of a general population job exposure matrix to estimate workplace physical exposures in epidemiologic studies of musculoskeletal disorders when measures of individual exposures are unavailable. PMID:25700886

  12. Level of Physical Activity in Population Aged 16 to 65 Years in Rural Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Aslesh, O P; Mayamol, P; Suma, R K; Usha, K; Sheeba, G; Jayasree, A K

    2016-01-01

    Kerala is a state in India with a high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. In order to control these diseases, the prevalence of modifiable risk factors such as low physical activity need to be studied. For this a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the level of physical activity among 240 residents aged between 15 and 65 years in Kulappuram, a village in north Kerala. Low level of physical activity was seen in 65.8% of the study participants. The average duration of moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity per day in different domains such as work, travel, and recreation were 40.5, 10.1, and 12.7 minutes, respectively. The average duration of sedentary activities was 284.3 minutes per day. The level of physical activity was more among those engaged in unskilled work (adjusted odds ratio = 4.32; confidence interval = 1.38-13.51) and unmarried persons (adjusted odds ratio = 3.65; confidence interval = 1.25-10.65). No statistically significant difference in physical activity level was seen in different age, education, religious, and economic categories. The study concludes that the physical activity level was low in the study population. PMID:26276364

  13. A population-based study on defecatory conditions in Japanese subjects: methods for self-evaluation.

    PubMed

    Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Matsuzaka, Masashi; Umeda, Takashi; Shimoyama, Tadashi; Sugawara, Kazuo; Sakamoto, Juichi; Wada, Seiko; Tokunaga, Shoji

    2004-06-01

    We examined the defecatory conditions in a population of Japanese subjects and analyzed the measured parameters as a means for self-evaluation of defecation. Subjects (n=1195) were residents of northern Japan and were all aged over 40 years. The state of defecation and fecal characteristics were assessed with regard to nine parameters including "self-reported bowel habit" and "bowel movement frequency." Logistic regression analysis was carried out to analyze the association between the complaint of constipation and other eight parameters. A higher tendency for constipation was noted in women than in men. The highest value of the odds ratio was "bowel movement frequency"; especially the value "once per three days or more" was noted in both genders (odds ratio: 13.38 and 42.46 in men and women, respectively). In addition, "stool appearance", "length of time for bowel movement", "straining after bowel movement", "alternating diarrhea/constipation/disorder" and "travel-related changes in bowel movements" were significantly related with the complaint of constipation ("self-reported bowel habits") in both genders. In conclusion, the study elucidated that personal and subjective evaluation of bowel habits in normal subjects consisted of various factors under the heading of "bowel movement frequency". PMID:15212144

  14. Risk of miscarriage for pregnant users of pivmecillinam: a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Nrgaard, Mette; Skriver, Mette Vinther; Srensen, Henrik Toft; Schnheyder, Henrik Carl; Pedersen, Lars

    2008-04-01

    Few data exist on the risk of miscarriage after exposure to pivmecillinam. We therefore conducted a population-based case-control study in a Danish county with 0.5 million inhabitants during the period 1997-2002. We included 1,599 women with a miscarriage recorded in the Hospital Discharge Registry and selected 10 controls per case among primiparous women who had a live birth during the study period. Controls were selected from the Danish Medical Birth Registry. We obtained data on use of pivmecillinam and sulfamethizole from a prescription database. Five cases (0.30%) and 24 controls (0.15%) were exposed to pivmecillinam in the last week before the miscarriage/index date. After adjustment for maternal age, use of antidiabetics or antiepileptics, the odds ratio for miscarriages among users of pivmecillinam compared with non-users was 2.03 (95% confidence interval: 0.77-5.33) and the corresponding odds ratio for use of sulfamethizole was 1.53 (95% confidence interval: 0.76-3.09). Exposure within 2 to 12 weeks before the miscarriage was not associated with an increased risk. We concluded that use of pivmecillinam was associated with an increased risk of miscarriage, but the risk was not significantly (p=0.64) different from the risk associated with use of sulfamethizole. PMID:18397462

  15. General Population Job Exposure Matrix Applied to a Pooled Study of Prevalent Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Ann Marie; Zeringue, Angelique; Harris-Adamson, Carisa; Rempel, David; Bao, Stephen; Thiese, Matthew S.; Merlino, Linda; Burt, Susan; Kapellusch, Jay; Garg, Arun; Gerr, Fred; Hegmann, Kurt T.; Eisen, Ellen A.; Evanoff, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    A job exposure matrix may be useful for the study of biomechanical workplace risk factors when individual-level exposure data are unavailable. We used job title–based exposure data from a public data source to construct a job exposure matrix and test exposure-response relationships with prevalent carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Exposures of repetitive motion and force from the Occupational Information Network were assigned to 3,452 active workers from several industries, enrolled between 2001 and 2008 from 6 studies. Repetitive motion and force exposures were combined into high/high, high/low, and low/low exposure groupings in each of 4 multivariable logistic regression models, adjusted for personal factors. Although force measures alone were not independent predictors of CTS in these data, strong associations between combined physical exposures of force and repetition and CTS were observed in all models. Consistent with previous literature, this report shows that workers with high force/high repetition jobs had the highest prevalence of CTS (odds ratio = 2.14–2.95) followed by intermediate values (odds ratio = 1.09–2.27) in mixed exposed jobs relative to the lowest exposed workers. This study supports the use of a general population job exposure matrix to estimate workplace physical exposures in epidemiologic studies of musculoskeletal disorders when measures of individual exposures are unavailable. PMID:25700886

  16. Resistant hypertension and associated comorbidities in a veterans affairs population.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Tushar; Tringali, Steven; Singh, Manmeet; Huang, Jian

    2014-10-01

    Resistant hypertension (RH) is understudied and its reported prevalence varies with study populations. The authors sought to determine its prevalence and association with certain comorbid conditions in a Veterans Affairs population. This cross-sectional study utilized demographic and clinical data from 17,466 patients. Chi-square or t test was used for comparing groups with and without RH. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine independent associations. Overall, the prevalence of RH was 9%, and 13% of all hypertensive patients met criteria for RH. After adjusting for confounding variables, RH was significantly associated with older age (odds ratio [OR], 1.007), higher body mass index (OR, 1.04), Framingham score (OR, 1.14), and coexisting coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular accident/transient ischemic attack, peripheral vascular disease, congestive heart failure, chronic kidney disease, diabetes mellitus, erectile dysfunction, and metabolic syndrome (OR, 1.3, 1.32, 1.29, 2.88, 2.13, 1.2, 1.12, and 1.2, respectively; all P<.05). Our results indicate a complex interplay of certain comorbid conditions among patients with RH and suggest the need for multifaceted interventions in this high-risk population to prevent cardiovascular events. PMID:25243893

  17. CLU rs9331888 Polymorphism Contributes to Alzheimer's Disease Susceptibility in Caucasian But Not East Asian Populations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuyan; Li, Xuling; Ma, Guoda; Jiang, Yongshuai; Liao, Mingzhi; Feng, Rennan; Zhang, Liangcai; Liu, Jiafeng; Wang, Guangyu; Zhao, Bin; Jiang, Qinghua; Li, Keshen; Liu, Guiyou

    2016-04-01

    Large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified three single nucleotide polymorphisms rs11136000, rs2279590, and rs9331888 in CLU gene to be significantly associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in Caucasian ancestry. Both rs11136000 and rs2279590 variants were successfully replicated in Asian population. However, previous studies reported either a weak association or no association between rs9331888 polymorphism and AD in Asian population. Here, we searched the PubMed, AlzGene, and Google Scholar databases. We selected 12 independent studies that evaluated the association between the rs9331888 polymorphism and AD using a case-control design. Using an additive model, we did not identify significant heterogeneity among these 12 studies. We observed significant association between rs9331888 polymorphism and AD in pooled populations (P = 2.26E - 07, odds ratio (OR) = 1.10, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.14). In subgroup analysis, we did not identify significant heterogeneity in both Asian and Caucasian populations. We identified significant association in Caucasian population (P = 1.67E - 08, OR = 1.13, 95 % CI 1.08-1.18) but not in East Asian population (P = 0.49, OR = 1.02, 95 % CI 0.96-1.10). PMID:25633098

  18. Populations at risk for alveolar echinococcosis, France.

    PubMed

    Piarroux, Martine; Piarroux, Renaud; Knapp, Jenny; Bardonnet, Karine; Dumortier, Jérôme; Watelet, Jérôme; Gerard, Alain; Beytout, Jean; Abergel, Armand; Bresson-Hadni, Solange; Gaudart, Jean

    2013-05-01

    During 1982-2007, alveolar echinococcosis (AE) was diagnosed in 407 patients in France, a country previously known to register half of all European patients. To better define high-risk groups in France, we conducted a national registry-based study to identify areas where persons were at risk and spatial clusters of cases. We interviewed 180 AE patients about their way of life and compared responses to those of 517 controls. We found that almost all AE patients lived in 22 départements in eastern and central France (relative risk 78.63, 95% CI 52.84-117.02). Classification and regression tree analysis showed that the main risk factor was living in AE-endemic areas. There, most at-risk populations lived in rural settings (odds ratio [OR] 66.67, 95% CI 6.21-464.51 for farmers and OR 6.98, 95% CI 2.88-18.25 for other persons) or gardened in nonrural settings (OR 4.30, 95% CI 1.82-10.91). These findings can help sensitization campaigns focus on specific groups. PMID:23647623

  19. Populations at Risk for Alveolar Echinococcosis, France

    PubMed Central

    Piarroux, Martine; Piarroux, Renaud; Knapp, Jenny; Bardonnet, Karine; Dumortier, Jérôme; Watelet, Jérôme; Gerard, Alain; Beytout, Jean; Abergel, Armand; Bresson-Hadni, Solange

    2013-01-01

    During 1982–2007, alveolar echinococcosis (AE) was diagnosed in 407 patients in France, a country previously known to register half of all European patients. To better define high-risk groups in France, we conducted a national registry-based study to identify areas where persons were at risk and spatial clusters of cases. We interviewed 180 AE patients about their way of life and compared responses to those of 517 controls. We found that almost all AE patients lived in 22 départements in eastern and central France (relative risk 78.63, 95% CI 52.84–117.02). Classification and regression tree analysis showed that the main risk factor was living in AE-endemic areas. There, most at-risk populations lived in rural settings (odds ratio [OR] 66.67, 95% CI 6.21–464.51 for farmers and OR 6.98, 95% CI 2.88–18.25 for other persons) or gardened in nonrural settings (OR 4.30, 95% CI 1.82–10.91). These findings can help sensitization campaigns focus on specific groups. PMID:23647623

  20. Lung Cancer and Occupation in a Population-based Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Consonni, Dario; De Matteis, Sara; Lubin, Jay H.; Wacholder, Sholom; Tucker, Margaret; Pesatori, Angela Cecilia; Caporaso, Neil E.; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Landi, Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the relation between occupation and lung cancer in the large, population-based Environment And Genetics in Lung cancer Etiology (EAGLE) case-control study. In 2002–2005 in the Lombardy region of northern Italy, 2,100 incident lung cancer cases and 2,120 randomly selected population controls were enrolled. Lifetime occupational histories (industry and job title) were coded by using standard international classifications and were translated into occupations known (list A) or suspected (list B) to be associated with lung cancer. Smoking-adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated with logistic regression. For men, an increased risk was found for list A (177 exposed cases and 100 controls; odds ratio = 1.74, 95% confidence interval: 1.27, 2.38) and most occupations therein. No overall excess was found for list B with the exception of filling station attendants and bus and truck drivers (men) and launderers and dry cleaners (women). The authors estimated that 4.9% (95% confidence interval: 2.0, 7.8) of lung cancers in men were attributable to occupation. Among those in other occupations, risk excesses were found for metal workers, barbers and hairdressers, and other motor vehicle drivers. These results indicate that past exposure to occupational carcinogens remains an important determinant of lung cancer occurrence. PMID:20047975

  1. Driving following Kava Use and Road Traffic Injuries: A Population-Based Case-Control Study in Fiji (TRIP 14)

    PubMed Central

    Wainiqolo, Iris; Kafoa, Berlin; Kool, Bridget; Robinson, Elizabeth; Herman, Josephine; McCaig, Eddie; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between kava use and the risk of four-wheeled motor vehicle crashes in Fiji. Kava is a traditional beverage commonly consumed in many Pacific Island Countries. Herbal anxiolytics containing smaller doses of kava are more widely available. Methods Data for this population-based case-control study were collected from drivers of ‘case’ vehicles involved in serious injury-involved crashes (where at least one road user was killed or admitted to hospital for 12 hours or more) and ‘control’ vehicles representative of ‘driving time’ in the study base. Structured interviewer administered questionnaires collected self-reported participant data on demographic characteristics and a range of risk factors including kava use and potential confounders. Unconditional logistic regression models estimated odds ratios relating to the association between kava use and injury-involved crash risk. Findings Overall, 23% and 4% of drivers of case and control vehicles, respectively, reported consuming kava in the 12 hours prior to the crash or road survey. After controlling for assessed confounders, driving following kava use was associated with a four-fold increase in the odds of crash involvement (Odds ratio: 4.70; 95% CI: 1.90–11.63). The related population attributable risk was 18.37% (95% CI: 13.77–22.72). Acknowledging limited statistical power, we did not find a significant interaction in this association with concurrent alcohol use. Conclusion In this study conducted in a setting where recreational kava consumption is common, driving following the use of kava was associated with a significant excess of serious-injury involved road crashes. The precautionary principle would suggest road safety strategies should explicitly recommend avoiding driving following kava use, particularly in communities where recreational use is common. PMID:26930404

  2. Intralocus sexual conflict and offspring sex ratio.

    PubMed

    Katsuki, Masako; Harano, Tomohiro; Miyatake, Takahisa; Okada, Kensuke; Hosken, David J

    2012-03-01

    Males and females frequently have different fitness optima for shared traits, and as a result, genotypes that are high fitness as males are low fitness as females, and vice versa. When this occurs, biasing of offspring sex-ratio to reduce the production of the lower-fitness sex would be advantageous, so that for example, broods produced by high-fitness females should contain fewer sons. We tested for offspring sex-ratio biasing consistent with these predictions in broad-horned flour beetles. We found that in both wild-type beetles and populations subject to artificial selection for high- and low-fitness males, offspring sex ratios were biased in the predicted direction: low-fitness females produced an excess of sons, whereas high-fitness females produced an excess of daughters. Thus, these beetles are able to adaptively bias sex ratio and recoup indirect fitness benefits of mate choice. PMID:22225600

  3. Wellness Factors Decrease the Odds of Drinking and Driving among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Todd F.; Myers, Jane E.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined holistic wellness factors and drinking and driving behaviors among undergraduate students. Two factors of the Indivisible Self Wellness Model, the Coping Self and the Physical Self, decreased the odds of engaging in drinking and driving behavior. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

  4. Building and Solving Odd-One-Out Classification Problems: A Systematic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Philippe E.

    2011-01-01

    Classification problems ("find the odd-one-out") are frequently used as tests of inductive reasoning to evaluate human or animal intelligence. This paper introduces a systematic method for building the set of all possible classification problems, followed by a simple algorithm for solving the problems of the R-ASCM, a psychometric test derived

  5. Probing a light CP-odd scalar in di-top-associated production at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Farooque, Trisha; Juste, Aurelio; Liu, Tao; Spannowsky, Michael

    2015-10-01

    CP-odd scalars are an integral part of many extensions of the Standard Model. Recently, electroweak-scale pseudoscalars have received increased attention in explaining the diffuse gamma-ray excess from the Galactic Centre. Elusive due to absence of direct couplings to gauge bosons, these particles receive only weak constraints from direct searches at LEP or searches performed during the first LHC runs. We investigate the LHC's sensitivity in probing a CP-odd scalar in the mass range 20 ≤ m_A ≤ 100 GeV via di-top-associated production using jet-substructure-based reconstruction techniques. We parameterise the scalar's interactions using a simplified model approach and relate the obtained upper limits to couplings within type-I and type-II 2HDMs as well as the NMSSM. We find that in di-top-associated production, experiments at the LHC can set tight limits on CP-odd scalars that fit the Galactic Centre excess. However, direct sensitivity to light CP-odd scalars from the NMSSM remains challenging.

  6. Partial proportional odds model-an alternate choice for analyzing pedestrian crash injury severities.

    PubMed

    Sasidharan, Lekshmi; Menéndez, Mónica

    2014-11-01

    The conventional methods for crash injury severity analyses include either treating the severity data as ordered (e.g. ordered logit/probit models) or non-ordered (e.g. multinomial models). The ordered models require the data to meet proportional odds assumption, according to which the predictors can only have the same effect on different levels of the dependent variable, which is often not the case with crash injury severities. On the other hand, non-ordered analyses completely ignore the inherent hierarchical nature of crash injury severities. Therefore, treating the crash severity data as either ordered or non-ordered results in violating some of the key principles. To address these concerns, this paper explores the application of a partial proportional odds (PPO) model to bridge the gap between ordered and non-ordered severity modeling frameworks. The PPO model allows the covariates that meet the proportional odds assumption to affect different crash severity levels with the same magnitude; whereas the covariates that do not meet the proportional odds assumption can have different effects on different severity levels. This study is based on a five-year (2008-2012) national pedestrian safety dataset for Switzerland. A comparison between the application of PPO models, ordered logit models, and multinomial logit models for pedestrian injury severity evaluation is also included here. The study shows that PPO models outperform the other models considered based on different evaluation criteria. Hence, it is a viable method for analyzing pedestrian crash injury severities. PMID:25113015

  7. The numerology of gender: gendered perceptions of even and odd numbers.

    PubMed

    Wilkie, James E B; Bodenhausen, Galen V

    2015-01-01

    Do numbers have gender? Wilkie and Bodenhausen (2012) examined this issue in a series of experiments on perceived gender. They examined the perceived gender of baby faces and foreign names. Arbitrary numbers presented with these faces and names influenced their perceived gender. Specifically, odd numbers connoted masculinity, while even numbers connoted femininity. In two new studies (total N = 315), we further examined the gendering of numbers. The first study examined explicit ratings of 1-digit numbers. We confirmed that odd numbers seemed masculine while even numbers seemed feminine. Although both men and women showed this pattern, it was more pronounced among women. We also examined whether this pattern holds for automatic as well as deliberated reactions. Results of an Implicit Association Test showed that it did, but only among the women. The implicit and explicit patterns of numerical gender ascription were moderately correlated. The second study examined explicit perceptions of 2-digit numbers. Again, women viewed odd numbers as more masculine and less feminine than even numbers. However, men viewed 2-digit numbers as relatively masculine, regardless of whether they were even or odd. These results indicate that women and men impute gender to numbers in different ways and to different extents. We discuss possible implications for understanding how people relate to and are influenced by numbers in a variety of real-life contexts. PMID:26113839

  8. Observation of the naive-T-odd Sivers effect in deep-inelastic scattering.

    PubMed

    Airapetian, A; Akopov, N; Akopov, Z; Aschenauer, E C; Augustyniak, W; Avetissian, A; Avetisyan, E; Bacchetta, A; Ball, B; Bianchi, N; Blok, H P; Böttcher, H; Bonomo, C; Borissov, A; Bryzgalov, V; Burns, J; Capiluppi, M; Capitani, G P; Cisbani, E; Ciullo, G; Contalbrigo, M; Dalpiaz, P F; Deconinck, W; De Leo, R; De Nardo, L; De Sanctis, E; Diefenthaler, M; Di Nezza, P; Dreschler, J; Düren, M; Ehrenfried, M; Elbakian, G; Ellinghaus, F; Elschenbroich, U; Fabbri, R; Fantoni, A; Felawka, L; Frullani, S; Gabbert, D; Gapienko, G; Gapienko, V; Garibaldi, F; Gharibyan, V; Giordano, F; Gliske, S; Hadjidakis, C; Hartig, M; Hasch, D; Hill, G; Hillenbrand, A; Hoek, M; Holler, Y; Hristova, I; Imazu, Y; Ivanilov, A; Jackson, H E; Jo, H S; Joosten, S; Kaiser, R; Keri, T; Kinney, E; Kisselev, A; Korotkov, V; Kozlov, V; Kravchenko, P; Lagamba, L; Lamb, R; Lapikás, L; Lehmann, I; Lenisa, P; Linden-Levy, L A; López Ruiz, A; Lorenzon, W; Lu, X-G; Lu, X-R; Ma, B-Q; Mahon, D; Makins, N C R; Manaenkov, S I; Manfré, L; Mao, Y; Marianski, B; Martinez de la Ossa, A; Marukyan, H; Miller, C A; Miyachi, Y; Movsisyan, A; Murray, M; Mussgiller, A; Nappi, E; Naryshkin, Y; Nass, A; Negodaev, M; Nowak, W-D; Pappalardo, L L; Perez-Benito, R; Reimer, P E; Reolon, A R; Riedl, C; Rith, K; Rosner, G; Rostomyan, A; Rubin, J; Ryckbosch, D; Salomatin, Y; Sanftl, F; Schäfer, A; Schnell, G; Schüler, K P; Seitz, B; Shibata, T-A; Shutov, V; Stancari, M; Statera, M; Steijger, J J M; Stenzel, H; Stewart, J; Stinzing, F; Taroian, S; Terkulov, A; Trzcinski, A; Tytgat, M; Vandenbroucke, A; van der Nat, P B; Van Haarlem, Y; Van Hulse, C; Varanda, M; Veretennikov, D; Vikhrov, V; Vilardi, I; Vogel, C; Wang, S; Yaschenko, S; Ye, H; Ye, Z; Yen, S; Yu, W; Zeiler, D; Zihlmann, B; Zupranski, P

    2009-10-01

    Azimuthal single-spin asymmetries of leptoproduced pions and charged kaons were measured on a transversely polarized hydrogen target. Evidence for a naive-T-odd, transverse-momentum-dependent parton distribution function is deduced from nonvanishing Sivers effects for pi(+), pi(0), and K(+/-), as well as in the difference of the pi(+) and pi(-) cross sections. PMID:19905623

  9. Muon signals of very light CP-odd Higgs states of the NMSSM at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Almarashi, M. M.; Moretti, S.

    2011-02-01

    We study here the {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} decay mode of a very light CP-odd Higgs boson of the NMSSM, a{sub 1}, produced in association with a bottom-antibottom pair and find that, despite small event rates, a significant signal should be extractable from the SM background at the LHC with high luminosity.

  10. Teenage Parenthood among Child Welfare Clients: A Swedish National Cohort Study of Prevalence and Odds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinnerljung, Bo; Franzen, Eva; Danielsson, Maria

    2007-01-01

    To assess prevalence and odds for teenage parenthood among former child welfare clients, we used national register data for all children born in Sweden 1972-1983 (n = 1,178,207), including 49,582 former child welfare clients with varying intervention experiences. Logistic regression models, adjusted for demographic, socio-economic and familial…

  11. Stability and change of ODD, CD and ADHD diagnosis in referred preschool children.

    PubMed

    Bunte, Tessa L; Schoemaker, Kim; Hessen, David J; van der Heijden, Peter G M; Matthys, Walter

    2014-10-01

    Longitudinal studies have shown that preschool children's diagnosis of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), Conduct Disorder (CD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are likely to persist into school age. However, limited attention has been paid to instability of diagnosis. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to investigate both stability and change of ODD, CD and ADHD diagnosis in children aged 3.5-5.5 years. For diagnosing these disorders, a semi-structured diagnostic parent interview, i.e., the Kiddie-Disruptive Behavior Disorder Schedule (K-DBDS), was used at the first assessment and at follow-up assessments (9 and 18 months). Five diagnostic stability groups (chronic, partial remission, full remission, new onset, no diagnosis) were compared with regard to impairment and number of symptoms. Participants were referred preschool children with externalizing behavioral problems (N = 193; 83% male) and typically developing (TD) children (N = 58; 71% male). Follow-up assessments allowed to distinguish children belonging to the chronic group of ODD, CD or ADHD from those belonging to one of the remission groups. In addition, there was a substantial number of children with a new onset diagnosis. In conclusion, as a complement to studies showing stability of ODD, CD and ADHD diagnosis into school age, present findings point to changes of diagnosis in the preschool and early school period. Diagnostic reassessments therefore are needed in this age group. PMID:24781411

  12. Teenage Parenthood among Child Welfare Clients: A Swedish National Cohort Study of Prevalence and Odds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinnerljung, Bo; Franzen, Eva; Danielsson, Maria

    2007-01-01

    To assess prevalence and odds for teenage parenthood among former child welfare clients, we used national register data for all children born in Sweden 1972-1983 (n = 1,178,207), including 49,582 former child welfare clients with varying intervention experiences. Logistic regression models, adjusted for demographic, socio-economic and familial

  13. Anger and Irritability Symptoms among Youth with ODD: Cross-Informant versus Source-Exclusive Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; Drabick, Deborah A. G.

    2012-01-01

    We examined differences in co-occurring psychological symptoms and background characteristics among clinically referred youth with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) with and without anger/irritability symptoms (AIS) according to either parent or teacher (source-exclusive) and both informants (cross-informant), youth with noncompliant symptoms…

  14. Delaware Middle Schools Beating the Odds. Technical Report Number T2010.4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grusenmeyer, Linda; Fifield, Steve; Murphy, Aideen; Nian, Qinghua; Qian, Xiaoyu

    2010-01-01

    The investigation identified Delaware public and charter middle schools across the state which outperformed other Delaware middle schools with similar student demographic profiles. Teachers and administrators at six of these "Beating the Odds" schools and at six comparison middle schools were surveyed regarding their schools characteristics and…

  15. Why the Faulhaber Polynomials Are Sums of Even or Odd Powers of (n + 1/2)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersh, Reuben

    2012-01-01

    By extending Faulhaber's polynomial to negative values of n, the sum of the p'th powers of the first n integers is seen to be an even or odd polynomial in (n + 1/2) and therefore expressible in terms of the sum of the first n integers.

  16. Singular eigenstates in the even(odd) length Heisenberg spin chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjan Giri, Pulak; Deguchi, Tetsuo

    2015-05-01

    We study the implications of the regularization for the singular solutions on the even(odd) length spin-1/2 XXX chains in some specific down-spin sectors. In particular, the analytic expressions of the Bethe eigenstates for three down-spin sector have been obtained along with their numerical forms in some fixed length chains. For an even-length chain if the singular solutions \\{{{λ }α }\\} are invariant under the sign changes of their rapidities \\{{{λ }α }\\}=\\{-{{λ }α }\\}, then the Bethe ansatz equations are reduced to a system of (M-2)/2((M-3)/2) equations in an even (odd) down-spin sector. For an odd N length chain in the three down-spin sector, it has been analytically shown that there exist singular solutions in any finite length of the spin chain of the form N=3(2k+1) with k=1,2,3,\\cdots . It is also shown that there exist no singular solutions in the four down-spin sector for some odd-length spin-1/2 XXX chains.

  17. Mother-Teacher Agreement on Preschoolers' Symptoms of ODD and CD: Does Context Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Jennifer; Hopkins, Joyce; Keenan, Kate

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine mother-teacher agreement on oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms and diagnoses in preschool children; to determine if context is a source of disagreement; and to explore if sex, referral status, and age moderated agreement rates. Participants included 158 male and 139 female…

  18. Neither Even nor Odd: Sixth Grade Students' Dilemmas Regarding the Parity of Zero

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenson, Esther; Tsamir, Pessia; Tirosh, Dina

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates two sixth grade students' dilemmas regarding the parity of zero. Both students originally claimed that zero was neither even nor odd. Interviews revealed a conflict between students' formal definitions of even numbers and their concept images of even numbers, zero, and division. These images were supported by practically…

  19. The numerology of gender: gendered perceptions of even and odd numbers

    PubMed Central

    Wilkie, James E. B.; Bodenhausen, Galen V.

    2015-01-01

    Do numbers have gender? Wilkie and Bodenhausen (2012) examined this issue in a series of experiments on perceived gender. They examined the perceived gender of baby faces and foreign names. Arbitrary numbers presented with these faces and names influenced their perceived gender. Specifically, odd numbers connoted masculinity, while even numbers connoted femininity. In two new studies (total N = 315), we further examined the gendering of numbers. The first study examined explicit ratings of 1-digit numbers. We confirmed that odd numbers seemed masculine while even numbers seemed feminine. Although both men and women showed this pattern, it was more pronounced among women. We also examined whether this pattern holds for automatic as well as deliberated reactions. Results of an Implicit Association Test showed that it did, but only among the women. The implicit and explicit patterns of numerical gender ascription were moderately correlated. The second study examined explicit perceptions of 2-digit numbers. Again, women viewed odd numbers as more masculine and less feminine than even numbers. However, men viewed 2-digit numbers as relatively masculine, regardless of whether they were even or odd. These results indicate that women and men impute gender to numbers in different ways and to different extents. We discuss possible implications for understanding how people relate to and are influenced by numbers in a variety of real-life contexts. PMID:26113839

  20. Even-odd spatial nonequivalence for atomic quantum gases with isotropic spin-orbit couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, G. S.; Gupta, Reena

    2014-05-01

    A general expression for the density of states (DOS) of power-law trapped d-dimensional ideal quantum gases with isotropic spin-orbit couplings (SOCs) is derived and is found to bifurcate into even- dand odd- d classes. The expressions for the grand potential and hence for several thermodynamic quantities are then shown to be amenable to exact analytical forms provided d is an odd integer. Also, a condition γ < 2 d is obtained in case of odd- d for appearance of the Bose-Einstein condensation with γ as the power-law exponent. It is thus established that isotropic SOCs render even and odd dimensional spaces nonequivalent for uniform as well as trapped gases, and that the DOS of one-dimensional (1D) ideal gases, uniform or trapped, remains unaffected by the SOC. Furthermore, the analytical study of the transition temperature and the condensate fraction in a 3D Bose gas under combined presence of the harmonic trapping and the Weyl coupling shows that the condensation is favored by the former but disfavored by the latter. This countering behavior is discussed to be in conformity with the exchange-symmetry-induced statistical interactions resulting from these two entities as enunciated recently [Phys. Rev. A 88, 053607 (2013)].