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Sample records for population validation study

  1. Validation study of human figure drawing test in a Colombian school children population.

    PubMed

    Vélez van Meerbeke, Alberto; Sandoval-Garcia, Carolina; Ibáñez, Milciades; Talero-Gutiérrez, Claudia; Fiallo, Dolly; Halliday, Karen

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this article was to assess the validity of the emotional and developmental components of the Koppitz human figure drawing test. 2420 children's drawings available in a database resulting from a previous cross sectional study designed to determine the prevalence of neurological diseases in children between 0 and 12 years old in Bogota schools were evaluated. They were scored using the criteria proposed by Koppitz, and classified into 16 groups according to age, gender, and presence/absence of learning or attention problems. The overall results were then compared with the normative study to assess whether descriptive parameters of the two populations were significantly different. There were no significant differences associated with presence/absence of learning and attention disorders or school attended within the overall sample. An Interrater reliability test has been made to assure the homogeneity of scoring by the evaluator team. There were significant differences between this population and that of the original study. New scoring tables contextualized for our population based on the frequency of appearance in this sample are presented. We can conclude that various ethnic, social, and cultural factors can influence the way children draw the human figure. It is thus important to establish local reference values to adequately distinguish between normality and abnormality. The new scoring tables proposed here should be followed up with a clinical study to corroborate their validity. PMID:21568202

  2. Validation of the SQUASH Physical Activity Questionnaire in a Multi-Ethnic Population: The HELIUS Study

    PubMed Central

    Gademan, M. G. J.; Snijder, M. B.; Engelbert, R. H. H.; Dijkshoorn, H.; Terwee, C. B.; Stronks, K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the reliability and validity of the SQUASH physical activity (PA) questionnaire in a multi-ethnic population living in the Netherlands. Methods We included participants from the HELIUS study, a population-based cohort study. In this study we included Dutch (n = 114), Turkish (n = 88), Moroccan (n = 74), South-Asian Surinamese (n = 98) and African Surinamese (n = 91) adults, aged 18–70 years. The SQUASH was self-administered twice to assess test-re-test reliability (mean interval 6–7 weeks) and participants wore an accelerometer and heart rate monitor (Actiheart) to enable assessment of construct validity. Results We observed low test-re-test reliability; Intra class correlation coefficients ranged from low (0.05 for moderate/high intensity PA in African Surinamese women) to acceptable (0.78 for light intensity PA in Moroccan women). The discrepancy between self-reported and measured PA differed on the basis of the intensity of activity: self-reported light intensity PA was lower than measured but self-reported moderate/high intensity PA was higher than measured, with wide limits of agreement. The discrepancy between questionnaire and Actiheart measures of moderate intensity PA did not differ between ethnic minority and Dutch participants with correction for relevant confounders. Additionally, the SQUASH overestimated the number of participants meeting the Dutch PA norm; Cohen’s kappas for the agreement were poor, the highest being 0.30 in Dutch women. Conclusion We found considerable variation in the test-re-test reliability and validity of self-reported PA with no consistency based on ethnic origin. Our findings imply that the SQUASH does not provide a valid basis for comparison of PA between ethnic groups. PMID:27575490

  3. Family Early Literacy Practices Questionnaire: A Validation Study for a Spanish-Speaking Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kandia

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the psychometric validity of a Spanish translated version of a family involvement questionnaire (the FELP) using a mixed-methods design. Thus, statistical analyses (i.e., factor analysis, reliability analysis, and item analysis) and qualitative analyses (i.e., focus group data) were assessed.…

  4. A Population-Based Psychometric Validation Study of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire – Hebrew Version

    PubMed Central

    Mansbach-Kleinfeld, Ivonne; Apter, Alan; Farbstein, Ilana; Levine, Stephen Z.; Ponizovsky, Alexander M.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents the psychometric properties of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire – Hebrew version (SDQ-H), used in the Israel Survey on Mental Health among Adolescents (ISMEHA). The SDQ-H was administered to a representative sample of 611 adolescents and their mothers. Structural validity was evaluated by exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) inventory was used as “gold standard” to test convergent and discriminant validity. Internal consistency and normative scores were established. Agreement was found with the original factor structure, except for the Peer problem scale. Concurrent and discriminant validity varied from fair to very good for most scales. Total Difficulties scores showed better discriminant validity for the adolescents’ than the mothers’ report for internalizing disorders, and the opposite for externalizing disorders. Internal consistency for the Total Difficulties was 0.77 and for the Hyperactivity scale it was 0.73. It was lower for the other scales, particularly for the Peer problems scale. The findings suggest reasonable psychometric properties of the SDQ-H. Comparisons with other translated SDQ versions are presented. PMID:21423458

  5. Conditions for Valid Empirical Estimates of Cancer Overdiagnosis in Randomized Trials and Population Studies.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Roman; Feuer, Eric J; Etzioni, Ruth

    2016-07-15

    Cancer overdiagnosis is frequently estimated using the excess incidence in a screened group relative to that in an unscreened group. However, conditions for unbiased estimation are poorly understood. We developed a mathematical framework to project the effects of screening on the incidence of relevant cancers-that is, cancers that would present clinically without screening. Screening advances the date of diagnosis for a fraction of preclinical relevant cancers. Which diagnoses are advanced and by how much depends on the preclinical detectable period, test sensitivity, and screening patterns. Using the model, we projected incidence in common trial designs and population settings and compared excess incidence with true overdiagnosis. In trials with no control arm screening, unbiased estimates are available using cumulative incidence if the screen arm stops screening and using annual incidence if the screen arm continues screening. In both designs, unbiased estimation requires waiting until screening stabilizes plus the maximum preclinical period. In continued-screen trials and population settings, excess cumulative incidence is persistently biased. We investigated this bias in published estimates from the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer after 9-13 years. In conclusion, no trial or population setting automatically permits unbiased estimation of overdiagnosis; sufficient follow-up and appropriate analysis remain crucial. PMID:27358266

  6. Validating prediction scales of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Spain: the SPREDIA-2 population-based prospective cohort study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Salinero-Fort, Miguel Ángel; de Burgos-Lunar, Carmen; Mostaza Prieto, José; Lahoz Rallo, Carlos; Abánades-Herranz, Juan Carlos; Gómez-Campelo, Paloma; Laguna Cuesta, Fernando; Estirado De Cabo, Eva; García Iglesias, Francisca; González Alegre, Teresa; Fernández Puntero, Belén; Montesano Sánchez, Luis; Vicent López, David; Cornejo Del Río, Víctor; Fernández García, Pedro J; Sabín Rodríguez, Concesa; López López, Silvia; Patrón Barandío, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing worldwide. When diagnosed, many patients already have organ damage or advance subclinical atherosclerosis. An early diagnosis could allow the implementation of lifestyle changes and treatment options aimed at delaying the progression of the disease and to avoid cardiovascular complications. Different scores for identifying undiagnosed diabetes have been reported, however, their performance in populations of southern Europe has not been sufficiently evaluated. The main objectives of our study are: to evaluate the screening performance and cut-off points of the main scores that identify the risk of undiagnosed T2DM and prediabetes in a Spanish population, and to develop and validate our own predictive models of undiagnosed T2DM (screening model), and future T2DM (prediction risk model) after 5-year follow-up. As a secondary objective, we will evaluate the atherosclerotic burden of the population with undiagnosed T2DM. Methods and analysis Population-based prospective cohort study with baseline screening, to evaluate the performance of the FINDRISC, DANISH, DESIR, ARIC and QDScore, against the gold standard tests: Fasting plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance and/or HbA1c. The sample size will include 1352 participants between the ages of 45 and 74 years. Analysis: sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, likelihood ratio positive, likelihood ratio negative and receiver operating characteristic curves and area under curve. Binary logistic regression for the first 700 individuals (derivation) and last 652 (validation) will be performed. All analyses will be calculated with their 95% CI; statistical significance will be p<0.05. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol has been approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Carlos III Hospital (Madrid). The score performance and predictive model will be presented in medical conferences, workshops

  7. Validity and reliability of portfolio assessment of student competence in two dental school populations: a four-year study.

    PubMed

    Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C; McCracken, Michael S; Woldt, Janet L; Brennan, Robert L

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to empirically investigate the validity and reliability of portfolio assessment in two U.S. dental schools using a unified framework for validity. In the process of validation, it is not the test that is validated but rather the claims (interpretations and uses) about test scores that are validated. Kane's argument-based validation framework provided the structure for reporting results where validity claims are followed by evidence to support the argument. This multivariate generalizability theory study found that the greatest source of variance was attributable to faculty raters, suggesting that portfolio assessment would benefit from two raters' evaluating each portfolio independently. The results are generally supportive of holistic scoring, but analytical scoring deserves further research. Correlational analyses between student portfolios and traditional measures of student competence and readiness for licensure resulted in significant correlations between portfolios and National Board Dental Examination Part I (r=0.323, p<0.01) and Part II scores (r=0.268, p<0.05) and small and non-significant correlations with grade point average and scores on the Western Regional Examining Board (WREB) exam. It is incumbent upon the users of portfolio assessment to determine if the claims and evidence arguments set forth in this study support the proposed claims for and decisions about portfolio assessment in their respective institutions. PMID:24789826

  8. Validation and cross-cultural adaptation of the 'Fibromyalgia Participation Questionnaire' to the Spanish population: study protocol.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Calvente, M; Medina-Porqueres, I; Fontalba-Navas, A; Pena-Andreu, J M; de Vos-Martin, C

    2015-09-01

    There are few high-quality instruments to evaluate the participation and social functioning of fibromyalgia patients. The Fibromyalgia Participation Questionnaire (FPQ) is a questionnaire that evaluates these aspects with high reliability and validity in its German original version. The aim of this work was to describe the translation and cross-cultural adaptation process of the FPQ into Spanish and its validation to ensure the equivalence against the original version. The questionnaire will be translated according to the FACIT methodology, and it will be tested in the Clinical Management Unit of North Almeria Health Area. This methodology includes several stages: double forward translation, reconciled version, back-translation, review of the previous versions and development of the prefinal version for the pretest. Once the pretest ends, the final version of the questionnaire will be developed, which will be subjected to a validation process to study its psychometric properties. Reliability will be studied by internal consistency and test-retest reliability through Cronbach's alpha and Pearson's correlation coefficient, respectively. External and construct validity will be analysed using correlation coefficients, content validity with an empirical analysis, and a differential item functioning analysis will be employed to measure discriminative validity. The presence of ceiling and floor effects will be calculated too. The validation of the FPQ into different languages will allow better evaluation and treatment based on the observed limitations fibromyalgia patients suffer from, as well as bringing the possibility to compare between other countries and generalize its use in the scientific community. PMID:25847702

  9. The burden of headache disorders in Pakistan: methodology of a population-based nationwide study, and questionnaire validation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Large geographical gaps in our knowledge of the prevalence and burden of headache disorders include Pakistan, a country with major problems of poverty, illiteracy and security. We report implementation in this country of standard methods developed by Lifting The Burden (LTB) for population-based burden-of-headache studies. Methods We surveyed six locations from the four provinces: Lahore and Multan (Punjab), Karachi and Sukkur (Sindh), Abbottabad (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) and Gwadar (Baluchistan). We randomly selected rural and urban households in each, which were visited by trained non-medical interviewers from the same locations. One randomly selected adult member (18–65 years) of each household was interviewed using LTB’s structured questionnaire translated into Urdu, the national language. Validation was performed among patients and accompanying attendants in three (urban and rural) medical facilities. After responding to the questionnaire, these participants were re-interviewed and diagnosed by a neurologist (gold standard). Results The survey was completed by 4,223 respondents (1,957 [46.3%] male, 2,266 [53.7%] female, 1,443 [34.2%] urban, 2,780 [65.8%] rural, mean age 34.4 ± 11.0 years). The participation rate was 89.5%. There were 180 participants (46.1% male, 53.9% female, 41.7% urban, 58.3% rural, mean age 39.4 ± 14.2 years) in the validation sample, of whom 147 (81.7%) reported headache in the last year. The questionnaire was 100% sensitive in screening for headache and for headache on ≥15 days/month, and showed good agreement with the gold-standard diagnoses (kappa = 0.77). It was relatively insensitive for TTH. The questionnaire’s default diagnosis of probable MOH when medication overuse accompanied headache on ≥15 days/month was not supported by evidence of causation in most cases seen by the neurologist. In public-health terms, precise diagnosis in these cases matters less than reliably detecting the coexistence of

  10. Validation of the Framingham general cardiovascular risk score in a multiethnic Asian population: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Sarah Yu Weng; Ching, Siew Mooi; Lim, Hooi Min; Chinna, Karuthan

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aims to examine the validity of the Framingham general cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk chart in a primary care setting. Design This is a 10-year retrospective cohort study. Setting A primary care clinic in a teaching hospital in Malaysia. Participants 967 patients’ records were randomly selected from patients who were attending follow-up in the clinic. Main outcome measures Baseline demographic data, history of diabetes and smoking, blood pressure (BP), and serum lipids were captured from patient records in 1998. Each patient's Framingham CVD score was computed from these parameters. All atherosclerotic CVD events occurring between 1998 and 2007 were counted. Results In 1998, mean age was 57 years with 33.8% men, 6.1% smokers, 43.3% diabetics and 59.7% hypertensive. Median BP was 140/80 mm Hg and total cholesterol 6.0 mmol/L (1.3). The predicted median Framingham general CVD risk score for the study population was 21.5% (IQR 1.2–30.0) while the actual CVD events that occurred in the 10 years was 13.1% (127/967). The median CVD points for men was 30.0, giving them a CVD risk of more than 30%; for women it is 18.5, a CVD risk of 21.5%. Our study found that the Framingham general CVD risk score to have moderate discrimination with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.63. It also discriminates well for Malay (AUC 0.65, p=0.01), Chinese (AUC 0.60, p=0.03), and Indians (AUC 0.65, p=0.001). There was good calibration with Hosmer-Lemeshow test χ2=3.25, p=0.78. Conclusions Taking into account that this cohort of patients were already on treatment, the Framingham General CVD Risk Prediction Score predicts fairly accurately for men and overestimates somewhat for women. In the absence of local risk prediction charts, the Framingham general CVD risk prediction chart is a reasonable alternative for use in a multiethnic group in a primary care setting. PMID:25991451

  11. A two-reservoir, hollow-fiber bioreactor for the study of mixed-population dynamics: design aspects and validation of the approach.

    PubMed

    Manjarrez, E S; Albasi, C; Riba, J P

    2000-08-20

    A two-reservoir, membrane bioreactor for carrying out studies of mixed-population dynamics in batch fermentations is presented. Mixing requirements and design aspects for the validity of the approach are given and discussed. Equations describing mixing times between the reservoirs are presented and compared to the experimental results. The validity of the approach is demonstrated by the study of an amensalistic-type interaction, the protein-mediated killer phenomenon between two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. The validation consisted in the comparison between the results obtained in actual mixed culture and the results obtained by keeping the strains separated. A good agreement was found which demonstrates the viability of the designed bioreactor. PMID:10862678

  12. Establishing the reliability and validity of the Zagazig Depression Scale in a UK student population: an online pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It is thought that depressive disorders will be the second leading cause of disability worldwide by 2020. Recently, there is a steady increase in the number of university students diagnosed and treated as depression patients. It can be assumed that depression is a serious mental health problem for university students because it affects all age groups of the students either younger or older equally. The current study aims to establish the reliability and validity of the Zagazig Depression scale in a UK sample. Methods The study was a cross-sectional online survey. A sample of 133 out of 275 undergraduate students from a range of UK Universities in the academic year 2008-2009, aged 20.3 ± 6.3 years old were recruited. A modified back translated version of Zagazig Depression scale was used. In order to validate the Zagazig Depression scale, participants were asked to complete the Patient Health Questionnaire. Statistical analysis includes Kappa analysis, Cronbach's alpha, Spearman's correlation analysis, and Confirmatory Factor analysis. Results Using the recommended cut-off of Zagazig Depression scale for possible minor depression it was found that 30.3% of the students have depression and higher percentage was identified according to the Patient Health Questionnaire (37.4%). Females were more depressed. The mean ZDS score was 8.3 ± 4.2. Rates of depression increase as students get older. The reliability of The ZDS was satisfactory (Cronbach's alpha was .894). For validity, ZDS score was strongly associated with PHQ, with no significant difference (p-value > 0.05), with strong positive correlation (r = +.8, p-value < 0.01). Conclusion The strong, significant correlation between the PHQ and ZDS, along with high internal consistency of the ZDS as a whole provides evidence that ZDS is a reliable measure of depressive symptoms and is promising for the use of the translated ZDS in a large-scale cross-culture study. PMID:21143972

  13. Associations of iron metabolism genes with blood manganese levels: a population-based study with validation data from animal models

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Given mounting evidence for adverse effects from excess manganese exposure, it is critical to understand host factors, such as genetics, that affect manganese metabolism. Methods Archived blood samples, collected from 332 Mexican women at delivery, were analyzed for manganese. We evaluated associations of manganese with functional variants in three candidate iron metabolism genes: HFE [hemochromatosis], TF [transferrin], and ALAD [δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase]. We used a knockout mouse model to parallel our significant results as a novel method of validating the observed associations between genotype and blood manganese in our epidemiologic data. Results Percentage of participants carrying at least one copy of HFE C282Y, HFE H63D, TF P570S, and ALAD K59N variant alleles was 2.4%, 17.7%, 20.1%, and 6.4%, respectively. Percentage carrying at least one copy of either C282Y or H63D allele in HFE gene was 19.6%. Geometric mean (geometric standard deviation) manganese concentrations were 17.0 (1.5) μg/l. Women with any HFE variant allele had 12% lower blood manganese concentrations than women with no variant alleles (β = -0.12 [95% CI = -0.23 to -0.01]). TF and ALAD variants were not significant predictors of blood manganese. In animal models, Hfe-/- mice displayed a significant reduction in blood manganese compared with Hfe+/+ mice, replicating the altered manganese metabolism found in our human research. Conclusions Our study suggests that genetic variants in iron metabolism genes may contribute to variability in manganese exposure by affecting manganese absorption, distribution, or excretion. Genetic background may be critical to consider in studies that rely on environmental manganese measurements. PMID:22074419

  14. Statistical validation of structured population models for Daphnia magna

    PubMed Central

    Adoteye, Kaska; Banks, H.T.; Cross, Karissa; Eytcheson, Stephanie; Flores, Kevin B.; LeBlanc, Gerald A.; Nguyen, Timothy; Ross, Chelsea; Smith, Emmaline; Stemkovski, Michael; Stokely, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    In this study we use statistical validation techniques to verify density-dependent mechanisms hypothesized for populations of Daphnia magna. We develop structured population models that exemplify specific mechanisms, and use multi-scale experimental data in order to test their importance. We show that fecundity and survival rates are affected by both time-varying density-independent factors, such as age, and density-dependent factors, such as competition. We perform uncertainty analysis and show that our parameters are estimated with a high degree of confidence. Further, we perform a sensitivity analysis to understand how changes in fecundity and survival rates affect population size and age-structure. PMID:26092608

  15. Population-based study of intra-household gender differences in water insecurity: reliability and validity of a survey instrument for use in rural Uganda.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Alexander C; Kakuhikire, Bernard; Mushavi, Rumbidzai; Vořechovská, Dagmar; Perkins, Jessica M; McDonough, Amy Q; Bangsberg, David R

    2016-04-01

    Hundreds of millions of people worldwide lack adequate access to water. Water insecurity, which is defined as having limited or uncertain availability of safe water or the ability to acquire safe water in socially acceptable ways, is typically overlooked by development organizations focusing on water availability. To address the urgent need in the literature for validated measures of water insecurity, we conducted a population-based study in rural Uganda with 327 reproductive-age women and 204 linked men from the same households. We used a novel method of photo identification so that we could accurately elicit study participants' primary household water sources, thereby enabling us to identify water sources for objective water quality testing and distance/elevation measurement. Our psychometric analyses provided strong evidence of the internal structure, reliability, and validity of a new eight-item Household Water Insecurity Access Scale (HWIAS). Important intra-household gender differences in perceptions of water insecurity were observed, with men generally perceiving household water insecurity as being less severe compared to women. In summary, the HWIAS represents a reliable and valid measure of water insecurity, particularly among women, and may be useful for informing and evaluating interventions to improve water access in resource-limited settings. PMID:27105413

  16. Validity of Self-Reports in Three Populations of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobell, Linda C.; Sobell, Mark B.

    1978-01-01

    Examined whether population type and question type differentially affected validity of alcoholics' self-reports. Alcoholics gave highly valid self-reports. Question type differentially affected the validity of subjects' interview answers, as fewer invalid answers were given to demographic questions. Population type did not significantly affect…

  17. Body composition in taller individuals using DXA: A validation study for athletic and non-athletic populations.

    PubMed

    Santos, Diana A; Gobbo, Luís A; Matias, Catarina N; Petroski, Edio L; Gonçalves, Ezequiel M; Cyrino, Edilson S; Minderico, Claudia S; Sardinha, Luís B; Silva, Analiza M

    2013-01-01

    Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) cannot be used to evaluate participants taller than the scan area. We aimed to analyse the accuracy of bone mineral content, fat mass, and lean mass assessed with DXA whole-body scan and from the sum of two scans (head and trunk plus limbs). Participants were 31 athletes (13 males and 18 females) and 65 non-athletes (34 males and 31 females), that fit within the DXA scan area. Three scans were performed using a Hologic Explorer-W fan-beam densitometer: a whole-body scan used as the reference; a head scan; and a trunk and limbs scan. The sum of the head scan and the trunk and limbs scan was used as the alternative procedure. Multiple regression and agreement analysis were performed. Non-significant differences between methods were observed for fat mass (0.06 kg) and lean mass (-0.07 kg) while bone mineral content from the alternative procedure differed from the reference scan (0.009 kg). The alternative procedure explained > 99% of the variance in the reference scan and low limits of agreement were observed. Precision analysis indicated low pure errors and the higher coefficients of variation were found for fat mass (whole-body: 3.70%; subtotal: 4.05%). The method proposed is a valid and simple solution to be used in individuals taller than the DXA scan area, including athletes engaged in sports recognised for including very tall competitors. PMID:23092580

  18. Factor Structure, Reliability and Criterion Validity of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ): A Study in Dutch Population and Patient Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoekstra, Rosa A.; Bartels, Meike; Cath, Danielle C.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2008-01-01

    The factor structure of the Dutch translation of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ; a continuous, quantitative measure of autistic traits) was evaluated with confirmatory factor analyses in a large general population and student sample. The criterion validity of the AQ was examined in three matched patient groups (autism spectrum conditions (ASC),…

  19. Development and validation of a population-based prediction scale for osteoporotic fracture in the region of Valencia, Spain: the ESOSVAL-R study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Today, while there are effective drugs that reduce the risk of osteoporotic fracture, yet there are no broadly accepted criteria that can be used to estimate risks and decide who should receive treatment. One of the actual priorities of clinical research is to develop a set of simple and readily-available clinical data that can be used in routine clinical practice to identify patients at high risk of bone fracture, and to establish thresholds for therapeutic interventions. Such a tool would have high impact on healthcare policies. The main objective of the ESOSVAL-R is to develop a risk prediction scale of osteoporotic fracture in adult population using data from the Region of Valencia, Spain. Methods/Design Study design: An observational, longitudinal, prospective cohort study, undertaken in the Region of Valencia, with an initial follow-up period of five years; Subjects: 14,500 men and women over the age of 50, residing in the Region and receiving healthcare from centers where the ABUCASIS electronic clinical records system is implanted; Sources of data: The ABUCASIS electronic clinical record system, complemented with hospital morbidity registers, hospital Accidents & Emergency records and the Regional Ministry of Health's mortality register; Measurement of results: Incident osteoporotic fracture (in the hip and/or major osteoporotic fracture) during the study's follow-up period. Independent variables include clinical data and complementary examinations; Analysis: 1) Descriptive analysis of the cohorts' baseline data; 2) Upon completion of the follow-up period, analysis of the strength of association between the risk factors and the incidence of osteoporotic fracture using Cox's proportional hazards model; 3) Development and validation of a model to predict risk of osteoporotic fracture; the validated model will serve to develop a simplified scale that can be used during routine clinical visits. Discussion The ESOSVAL-R study will establish a

  20. CANFOR Portuguese version: validation study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The increase in prisoner population is a troublesome reality in several regions of the world. Along with this growth there is increasing evidence that prisoners have a higher proportion of mental illnesses and suicide than the general population. In order to implement strategies that address criminal recidivism and the health and social status of prisoners, particularly in mental disordered offenders, it is necessary to assess their care needs in a comprehensive, but individual perspective. This assessment must include potential harmful areas like comorbid personality disorder, substance misuse and offending behaviours. The Camberwell Assessment of Need – Forensic Version (CANFOR) has proved to be a reliable tool designed to accomplish such aims. The present study aimed to validate the CANFOR Portuguese version. Methods The translation, adaptation to the Portuguese context, back-translation and revision followed the usual procedures. The sample comprised all detainees receiving psychiatric care in four forensic facilities, over a one year period. A total of 143 subjects, and respective case manager, were selected. The forensic facilities were chosen by convenience: one prison hospital psychiatric ward (n=68; 47.6%), one male (n=24; 16.8%) and one female (n=22; 15.4%) psychiatric clinic and one civil security ward (n=29; 20.3%), all located nearby Lisbon. Basic descriptive statistics and Kappa weighted coefficients were calculated for the inter-rater and the test-retest reliability studies. The convergent validity was evaluated using the Global Assessment of Functioning and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale scores. Results The majority of the participants were male and single, with short school attendance, and accused of a crime involving violence against persons. The most frequent diagnosis was major depression (56.1%) and almost half presented positive suicide risk. The reliability study showed average Kappa weighted coefficients of 0.884 and 0

  1. Risk Prediction for Breast, Endometrial, and Ovarian Cancer in White Women Aged 50 y or Older: Derivation and Validation from Population-Based Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Park, Yikyung; Kreimer, Aimée R.; Lacey, James V.; Pee, David; Greenlee, Robert T.; Buys, Saundra S.; Hollenbeck, Albert; Rosner, Bernard; Gail, Mitchell H.; Hartge, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Background Breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancers share some hormonal and epidemiologic risk factors. While several models predict absolute risk of breast cancer, there are few models for ovarian cancer in the general population, and none for endometrial cancer. Methods and Findings Using data on white, non-Hispanic women aged 50+ y from two large population-based cohorts (the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial [PLCO] and the National Institutes of Health–AARP Diet and Health Study [NIH-AARP]), we estimated relative and attributable risks and combined them with age-specific US-population incidence and competing mortality rates. All models included parity. The breast cancer model additionally included estrogen and progestin menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) use, other MHT use, age at first live birth, menopausal status, age at menopause, family history of breast or ovarian cancer, benign breast disease/biopsies, alcohol consumption, and body mass index (BMI); the endometrial model included menopausal status, age at menopause, BMI, smoking, oral contraceptive use, MHT use, and an interaction term between BMI and MHT use; the ovarian model included oral contraceptive use, MHT use, and family history or breast or ovarian cancer. In independent validation data (Nurses' Health Study cohort) the breast and ovarian cancer models were well calibrated; expected to observed cancer ratios were 1.00 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.96–1.04) for breast cancer and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.97–1.19) for ovarian cancer. The number of endometrial cancers was significantly overestimated, expected/observed = 1.20 (95% CI: 1.11–1.29). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs; discriminatory power) were 0.58 (95% CI: 0.57–0.59), 0.59 (95% CI: 0.56–0.63), and 0.68 (95% CI: 0.66–0.70) for the breast, ovarian, and endometrial models, respectively. Conclusions These models predict absolute risks for breast, endometrial, and

  2. Using a Web-Based Approach to Assess Test-Retest Reliability of the "Hypertension Self-Care Profile" Tool in an Asian Population: A Validation Study.

    PubMed

    Koh, Yi Ling Eileen; Lua, Yi Hui Adela; Hong, Liyue; Bong, Huey Shin Shirley; Yeo, Ling Sui Jocelyn; Tsang, Li Ping Marianne; Ong, Kai Zhi; Wong, Sook Wai Samantha; Tan, Ngiap Chuan

    2016-03-01

    ICC scores of 0.671, 0.762, and 0.720 for these respective domains showed good test-retest reliability. The correlation of the HTN-SCP scores and patients' reported self-management measures were significant, except for keeping their food diary. HTN-SCP showed satisfactory internal consistency and test-retest reliability in an English literate Asian population. A web-based approach is feasible if similar studies are needed to validate its translated versions of the tool for wider application in the local multilingual population. PMID:26945410

  3. [Prehistoric population studies].

    PubMed

    Posse, Z C

    1985-01-01

    Studies concerning prehistoric populations in the Americas are discussed. "A review is made of research conducted in America focusing...on indigenous populations prior to contacts with Europeans, and those which, employing archaeological and historical sources, seek to evaluate the population and establish depopulation indexes for the said societies." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12341861

  4. Development and Validation of a Risk-Score Model for Type 2 Diabetes: A Cohort Study of a Rural Adult Chinese Population.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming; Zhang, Hongyan; Wang, Chongjian; Ren, Yongcheng; Wang, Bingyuan; Zhang, Lu; Yang, Xiangyu; Zhao, Yang; Han, Chengyi; Pang, Chao; Yin, Lei; Xue, Yuan; Zhao, Jingzhi; Hu, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Some global models to predict the risk of diabetes may not be applicable to local populations. We aimed to develop and validate a score to predict type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a rural adult Chinese population. Data for a cohort of 12,849 participants were randomly divided into derivation (n = 11,564) and validation (n = 1285) datasets. A questionnaire interview and physical and blood biochemical examinations were performed at baseline (July to August 2007 and July to August 2008) and follow-up (July to August 2013 and July to October 2014). A Cox regression model was used to weigh each variable in the derivation dataset. For each significant variable, a score was calculated by multiplying β by 100 and rounding to the nearest integer. Age, body mass index, triglycerides and fasting plasma glucose (scores 3, 12, 24 and 76, respectively) were predictors of incident T2DM. The model accuracy was assessed by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), with optimal cut-off value 936. With the derivation dataset, sensitivity, specificity and AUC of the model were 66.7%, 74.0% and 0.768 (95% CI 0.760-0.776), respectively. With the validation dataset, the performance of the model was superior to the Chinese (simple), FINDRISC, Oman and IDRS models of T2DM risk but equivalent to the Framingham model, which is widely applicable in a variety of populations. Our model for predicting 6-year risk of T2DM could be used in a rural adult Chinese population. PMID:27070555

  5. Development and Validation of a Risk-Score Model for Type 2 Diabetes: A Cohort Study of a Rural Adult Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chongjian; Ren, Yongcheng; Wang, Bingyuan; Zhang, Lu; Yang, Xiangyu; Zhao, Yang; Han, Chengyi; Pang, Chao; Yin, Lei; Xue, Yuan; Zhao, Jingzhi; Hu, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Some global models to predict the risk of diabetes may not be applicable to local populations. We aimed to develop and validate a score to predict type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a rural adult Chinese population. Data for a cohort of 12,849 participants were randomly divided into derivation (n = 11,564) and validation (n = 1285) datasets. A questionnaire interview and physical and blood biochemical examinations were performed at baseline (July to August 2007 and July to August 2008) and follow-up (July to August 2013 and July to October 2014). A Cox regression model was used to weigh each variable in the derivation dataset. For each significant variable, a score was calculated by multiplying β by 100 and rounding to the nearest integer. Age, body mass index, triglycerides and fasting plasma glucose (scores 3, 12, 24 and 76, respectively) were predictors of incident T2DM. The model accuracy was assessed by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), with optimal cut-off value 936. With the derivation dataset, sensitivity, specificity and AUC of the model were 66.7%, 74.0% and 0.768 (95% CI 0.760–0.776), respectively. With the validation dataset, the performance of the model was superior to the Chinese (simple), FINDRISC, Oman and IDRS models of T2DM risk but equivalent to the Framingham model, which is widely applicable in a variety of populations. Our model for predicting 6-year risk of T2DM could be used in a rural adult Chinese population. PMID:27070555

  6. Incidence of Hospitalization for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection amongst Children in Ontario, Canada: A Population-Based Study Using Validated Health Administrative Data

    PubMed Central

    Pisesky, Andrea; Benchimol, Eric I.; Wong, Coralie A.; Hui, Charles; Crowe, Megan; Belair, Marc-Andre; Pojsupap, Supichaya; Karnauchow, Tim; O'Hearn, Katie; Yasseen, Abdool S.; McNally, James D.

    2016-01-01

    Importance RSV is a common illness among young children that causes significant morbidity and health care costs. Objective Routinely collected health administrative data can be used to track disease incidence, explore risk factors and conduct health services research. Due to potential for misclassification bias, the accuracy of data-elements should be validated prior to use. The objectives of this study were to validate an algorithm to accurately identify pediatric cases of hospitalized respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) from within Ontario’s health administrative data, estimate annual incidence of hospitalization due to RSV and report the prevalence of major risk factors within hospitalized patients. Study Design and Setting A retrospective chart review was performed to establish a reference-standard cohort of children from the Ottawa region admitted to the Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario (CHEO) for RSV-related disease in 2010 and 2011. Chart review data was linked to Ontario’s administrative data and used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of algorithms of RSV-related ICD-10 codes within provincial hospitalization and emergency department databases. Age- and sex-standardized incidence was calculated over time, with trends in incidence assessed using Poisson regression. Results From a total of 1411 admissions, chart review identified 327 children hospitalized for laboratory confirmed RSV-related disease. Following linkage to administrative data and restriction to first admissions, there were 289 RSV patients in the reference-standard cohort. The best algorithm, based on hospitalization data, resulted in sensitivity 97.9% (95%CI: 95.5–99.2%), specificity 99.6% (95%CI: 98.2–99.8%), PPV 96.9% (95%CI: 94.2–98.6%), NPV 99.4% (95%CI: 99.4–99.9%). Incidence of hospitalized RSV in Ontario from 2005–2012 was 10.2 per 1000 children under 1 year and 4.8 per 1000 children aged 1 to 3 years. During the surveillance period, there was no identifiable

  7. Considering the needs of English language learner populations: an examination of the population validity of reading intervention research.

    PubMed

    Moore, Brooke A; Klingner, Janette K

    2014-01-01

    This article synthesizes reading intervention research studies intended for use with struggling or at-risk students to determine which studies adequately address population validity, particularly in regard to the diverse reading needs of English language learners. An extensive search of the professional literature between 2001 and 2010 yielded a total of 67 reading intervention studies targeting at-risk elementary students. Findings revealed that many current research studies fail to adequately describe the sample, including the accessible and target populations, and to disaggregate their findings based on demographic characteristics. When population validity issues are not addressed, researchers cannot generalize findings to other populations of students, and it becomes unclear what intervention strategies work, especially with English language learner student populations. However, 25 studies did specifically recognize and address the needs of English language learners, indicating more researchers are taking into consideration the diverse needs of other struggling student populations. PMID:23175238

  8. Sexual compulsivity scale: adaptation and validation in the spanish population.

    PubMed

    Ballester-Arnal, Rafael; Gómez-Martínez, Sandra; Llario, M Dolores-Gil; Salmerón-Sánchez, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Sexual compulsivity has been studied in relation to high-risk behavior for sexually transmitted infections. The aim of this study was the adaptation and validation of the Sexual Compulsivity Scale to a sample of Spanish young people. This scale was applied to 1,196 (891 female, 305 male) Spanish college students. The results of principal components factor analysis using a varimax rotation indicated a two-factor solution. The reliability of the Sexual Compulsivity Scale was found to be high. Moreover, the scale showed good temporal stability. External correlates were examined through Pearson correlations between the Sexual Compulsivity Scale and other constructs related with HIV prevention. The authors' results suggest that the Sexual Compulsivity Scale is an appropriate measure for assessing sexual compulsivity, showing adequate psychometric properties in the Spanish population. PMID:23631692

  9. Validity of the SMAST in two American Indian tribal populations.

    PubMed

    Robin, Robert W; Saremi, Aramesh; Albaugh, Bernard; Hanson, Robert L; Williams, Desmond; Goldman, David

    2004-03-01

    The standardized evaluation of alcoholism and other psychopathologies in minority populations, particularly American Indians, has long been questioned. This study investigated the validity of one of the most commonly applied assessments for alcoholism--the Short Michigan Alcohol Screening Test (SMAST)--in two distinct American Indian tribal groups. We analyzed data collected from 1989 to 1995 from largely community representative samples of 456 Southwestern and 214 Plains Indians ages 21 or older. For comparison, alcohol dependence was diagnosed using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition-Revised (DSM-III-R) criteria from a detailed, modified version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia--Lifetime (SADS-L). Accuracy of the SMAST was quantified as sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, and the area under the curve for receiver operating characteristics, using the DSM-III-R diagnosis as the reference. The standard SMAST cutoff score of > or = 3 had a demonstrated sensitivity 86% to 95%, but did not perform well in terms of specificity (23%-47%). Significantly higher cutoff scores (> or = 5 for both genders in the Southwestern tribe and 8 and > or = 6 for men and women in the Plains tribe) were required to demonstrate acceptable levels of specificity in both tribes. The findings suggest that the SMAST is not a valid tool to screen for alcohol misuse in these two tribal populations. The highly elevated and different thresholds required from one population to the next and from one gender to the next constitute a significant obstacle to the use of the instrument. PMID:15115215

  10. Relationship between Obesity and Massive Transfusion Needs in Trauma Patients, and Validation of TASH Score in Obese Population: A Retrospective Study on 910 Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    De Jong, Audrey; Deras, Pauline; Martinez, Orianne; Latry, Pascal; Jaber, Samir; Capdevila, Xavier; Charbit, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Background Prediction of massive transfusion (MT) is challenging in management of trauma patients. However, MT and its prediction were poorly studied in obese patients. The main objective was to assess the relationship between obesity and MT needs in trauma patients. The secondary objectives were to validate the Trauma Associated Severe Hemorrhage (TASH) score in predicting MT in obese patients and to use a grey zone approach to optimize its ability to predict MT. Methods and Findings An observational retrospective study was conducted in a Level I Regional Trauma Center Trauma in obese and non-obese patients. MT was defined as ≥10U of packed red blood cells in the first 24h and obesity as a BMI≥30kg/m². Between January 2008 and December 2012, 119 obese and 791 non-obese trauma patients were included. The rate of MT was 10% (94/910) in the whole population. The MT rate tended to be higher in obese patients than in non-obese patients: 15% (18/119, 95%CI 9‒23%) versus 10% (76/791, 95%CI 8‒12%), OR, 1.68 [95%CI 0.97‒2.92], p = 0.07. After adjusting for Injury Severity Score (ISS), obesity was significantly associated with MT rate (OR, 1.79[95%CI 1.00‒3.21], p = 0.049). The TASH score was higher in the obese group than in the non-obese group: 7(4–11) versus 5(2–10)(p<0.001). The area under the ROC curves of the TASH score in predicting MT was very high and comparable between the obese and non-obese groups: 0.93 (95%CI, 0.89‒0.98) and 0.94 (95%CI, 0.92‒0.96), respectively (p = 0.80). The grey zone ranged respectively from 10 to 13 and from 9 to 12 in obese and non obese patients, and allowed separating patients at low, intermediate or high risk of MT using the TASH score. Conclusions Obesity was associated with a higher rate of MT in trauma patients. The predictive performance of the TASH score and the grey zones were robust and comparable between obese and non-obese patients. PMID:27010445

  11. Factor Structure, Reliability and Criterion Validity of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ): A Study in Dutch Population and Patient Groups

    PubMed Central

    Bartels, Meike; Cath, Danielle C.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2008-01-01

    The factor structure of the Dutch translation of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ; a continuous, quantitative measure of autistic traits) was evaluated with confirmatory factor analyses in a large general population and student sample. The criterion validity of the AQ was examined in three matched patient groups (autism spectrum conditions (ASC), social anxiety disorder, and obsessive–compulsive disorder). A two factor model, consisting of a “Social interaction” factor and “Attention to detail” factor could be identified. The internal consistency and test–retest reliability of the AQ were satisfactory. High total AQ and factor scores were specific to ASC patients. Men scored higher than women and science students higher than non-science students. The Dutch translation of the AQ is a reliable instrument to assess autism spectrum conditions. PMID:18302013

  12. Validation studies and proficiency testing.

    PubMed

    Ankilam, Elke; Heinze, Petra; Kay, Simon; Van den Eede, Guy; Popping, Bert

    2002-01-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) entered the European food market in 1996. Current legislation demands the labeling of food products if they contain <1% GMO, as assessed for each ingredient of the product. To create confidence in the testing methods and to complement enforcement requirements, there is an urgent need for internationally validated methods, which could serve as reference methods. To date, several methods have been submitted to validation trials at an international level; approaches now exist that can be used in different circumstances and for different food matrixes. Moreover, the requirement for the formal validation of methods is clearly accepted; several national and international bodies are active in organizing studies. Further validation studies, especially on the quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods, need to be performed to cover the rising demand for new extraction methods and other background matrixes, as well as for novel GMO constructs. PMID:12083280

  13. Methodology Review: Estimation of Population Validity and Cross-Validity, and the Use of Equal Weights in Prediction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raju, Nambury S.; Bilgic, Reyhan; Edwards, Jack E.; Fleer, Paul F.

    1997-01-01

    This review finds that formula-based procedures can be used in place of empirical validation for estimating population validity or in place of empirical cross-validation for estimating population cross-validity. Discusses conditions under which the equal weights procedure is a viable alternative. (SLD)

  14. Clinical Validity of the ADI-R in a US-Based Latino Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanegas, Sandra B.; Magaña, Sandra; Morales, Miguel; McNamara, Ellyn

    2016-01-01

    The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) has been validated as a tool to aid in the diagnosis of Autism; however, given the growing diversity in the United States, the ADI-R must be validated for different languages and cultures. This study evaluates the validity of the ADI-R in a US-based Latino, Spanish-speaking population of 50 children…

  15. PSI-Center Validation Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, B. A.; Akcay, C.; Glasser, A. H.; Hansen, C. J.; Jarboe, T. R.; Marklin, G. J.; Milroy, R. D.; Morgan, K. D.; Norgaard, P. C.; Shumlak, U.; Sutherland, D. A.; Victor, B. S.; Sovinec, C. R.; O'Bryan, J. B.; Held, E. D.; Ji, J.-Y.; Lukin, V. S.

    2014-10-01

    The Plasma Science and Innovation Center (PSI-Center - http://www.psicenter.org) supports collaborating validation platform experiments with 3D extended MHD simulations using the NIMROD, HiFi, and PSI-TET codes. Collaborators include the Bellan Plasma Group (Caltech), CTH (Auburn U), HBT-EP (Columbia), HIT-SI (U Wash-UW), LTX (PPPL), MAST (Culham), Pegasus (U Wisc-Madison), SSX (Swarthmore College), TCSU (UW), and ZaP/ZaP-HD (UW). The PSI-Center is exploring application of validation metrics between experimental data and simulations results. Biorthogonal decomposition (BOD) is used to compare experiments with simulations. BOD separates data sets into spatial and temporal structures, giving greater weight to dominant structures. Several BOD metrics are being formulated with the goal of quantitive validation. Results from these simulation and validation studies, as well as an overview of the PSI-Center status will be presented.

  16. Considering the Needs of English Language Learner Populations: An Examination of the Population Validity of Reading Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Brooke A.; Klingner, Janette K.

    2014-01-01

    This article synthesizes reading intervention research studies intended for use with struggling or at-risk students to determine which studies adequately address population validity, particularly in regard to the diverse reading needs of English language learners. An extensive search of the professional literature between 2001 and 2010 yielded a…

  17. Beverage Intake Assessment Questionnaire: Relative Validity and Repeatability in a Spanish Population with Metabolic Syndrome from the PREDIMED-PLUS Study

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira-Pêgo, Cíntia; Nissensohn, Mariela; Kavouras, Stavros A.; Babio, Nancy; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Martín Águila, Adys; Mauromoustakos, Andy; Álvarez Pérez, Jacqueline; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    We assess the repeatability and relative validity of a Spanish beverage intake questionnaire for assessing water intake from beverages. The present analysis was performed within the framework of the PREDIMED-PLUS trial. The study participants were adults (aged 55–75) with a BMI ≥27 and <40 kg/m2, and at least three components of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). A trained dietitian completed the questionnaire. Participants provided 24-h urine samples, and the volume and urine osmolality were recorded. The repeatability of the baseline measurement at 6 and 1 year was examined by paired Student’s t-test comparisons. A total of 160 participants were included in the analysis. The Bland–Altman analysis showed relatively good agreement between total daily fluid intake assessed using the fluid-specific questionnaire, and urine osmolality and 24-h volume with parameter estimates of −0.65 and 0.22, respectively (R2 = 0.20; p < 0.001). In the repeatability test, no significant differences were found between neither type of beverage nor total daily fluid intake at 6 months and 1-year assessment, compared to baseline. The proposed fluid-specific assessment questionnaire designed to assess the consumption of water and other beverages in Spanish adult individuals was found to be relatively valid with good repeatability. PMID:27483318

  18. Beverage Intake Assessment Questionnaire: Relative Validity and Repeatability in a Spanish Population with Metabolic Syndrome from the PREDIMED-PLUS Study.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Pêgo, Cíntia; Nissensohn, Mariela; Kavouras, Stavros A; Babio, Nancy; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Martín Águila, Adys; Mauromoustakos, Andy; Álvarez Pérez, Jacqueline; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    We assess the repeatability and relative validity of a Spanish beverage intake questionnaire for assessing water intake from beverages. The present analysis was performed within the framework of the PREDIMED-PLUS trial. The study participants were adults (aged 55-75) with a BMI ≥27 and <40 kg/m², and at least three components of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). A trained dietitian completed the questionnaire. Participants provided 24-h urine samples, and the volume and urine osmolality were recorded. The repeatability of the baseline measurement at 6 and 1 year was examined by paired Student's t-test comparisons. A total of 160 participants were included in the analysis. The Bland-Altman analysis showed relatively good agreement between total daily fluid intake assessed using the fluid-specific questionnaire, and urine osmolality and 24-h volume with parameter estimates of -0.65 and 0.22, respectively (R² = 0.20; p < 0.001). In the repeatability test, no significant differences were found between neither type of beverage nor total daily fluid intake at 6 months and 1-year assessment, compared to baseline. The proposed fluid-specific assessment questionnaire designed to assess the consumption of water and other beverages in Spanish adult individuals was found to be relatively valid with good repeatability. PMID:27483318

  19. Using the Bayesian Improved Surname Geocoding Method (BISG) to Create a Working Classification of Race and Ethnicity in a Diverse Managed Care Population: A Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Adjaye-Gbewonyo, Dzifa; Bednarczyk, Robert A; Davis, Robert L; Omer, Saad B

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo validate classification of race/ethnicity based on the Bayesian Improved Surname Geocoding method (BISG) and assess variations in validity by gender and age. Data Sources/Study SettingSecondary data on members of Kaiser Permanente Georgia, an integrated managed care organization, through 2010. Study DesignFor 191,494 members with self-reported race/ethnicity, probabilities for belonging to each of six race/ethnicity categories predicted from the BISG algorithm were used to assign individuals to a race/ethnicity category over a range of cutoffs greater than a probability of 0.50. Overall as well as gender-and age-stratified sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated and used to identify optimal cutoffs for race/ethnicity assignment. Principal FindingsThe overall cutoffs for assignment that optimized sensitivity and specificity ranged from 0.50 to 0.57 for the four main racial/ethnic categories (White, Black, Asian/Pacific Islander, Hispanic). Corresponding sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV ranged from 64.4 to 81.4 percent, 80.8 to 99.7 percent, 75.0 to 91.6 percent, and 79.4 to 98.0 percent, respectively. Accuracy of assignment was better among males and individuals of 65 years or older. ConclusionsBISG may be useful for classifying race/ethnicity of health plan members when needed for health care studies. PMID:23855558

  20. [A study on the construct validity of the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale (CTSPC) in an urban population in Northeast Brazil].

    PubMed

    Bonfim, Camila Barreto; Santos, Darci Neves; Menezes, Igor Gomes; Reichenheim, Michael Eduardo; Barreto, Mauricio Lima

    2011-11-01

    The Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale (CTSPC) is one of the most widely used instruments in the world for investigating domestic violence against children, but targeted use has proven inadequate given the phenomenon's complexity. This study focused on the factor structure of CTSPC scales in an urban population in Northeast Brazil. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a cohort of 1,370 children in Salvador, Bahia State. Factor analysis with promax oblique rotation was performed, and the Kuder-Richardson coefficient was calculated. Factor analysis showed a different distribution of items in the factors as compared to the original instrument. Violence showed a gradual profile in each factor. The Kuder-Richardson coefficient was 0.63 for factor 1, 0.59 for factor 2, and 0.42 for factor 3. The items behaved differently from the original instrument, corroborating international studies. These findings support proposing a resizing of the CTSPC. PMID:22124499

  1. Development and validity of a 3-day smartphone-assisted 24-hour recall to assess beverage consumption in a Chinese population: a randomized cross-over study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lindsey P.; Hua, Jenna; Seto, Edmund; Du, Shufa; Zang, Jiajie; Zou, Shurong; Popkin, Barry M.; Mendez, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the need for diet assessment methods that capture the rapidly changing beverage consumption patterns in China. The objective of this study was to develop a 3-day smartphone-assisted 24-hour recall to improve the quantification of beverage intake amongst young Chinese adults (n=110) and validate, in a small subset (n=34), the extent to which the written record and smartphone-assisted recalls adequately estimated total fluid intake, using 24-hour urine samples. The smartphone-assisted method showed improved validity compared to the written-assisted method, when comparing reported total fluid intake to total urine volume. However, participants reported consuming fewer beverages on the smartphone-assisted method compared to the written-assisted method, primarily due to decreased consumption of traditional zero-energy beverages (i.e. water, tea) in the smartphone-assisted method. It is unclear why participants reported fewer beverages in the smartphone-assisted method than the written-assisted method. One possibility is that participants found the smartphone method too cumbersome, and responded by decreasing beverage intake. These results suggest that smartphone-assisted 24-hour recalls perform comparably but do not appear to substantially improve beverage quantification compared to the current written record based approach. In addition, we piloted a beverage screener to identify consumers of episodically consumed SSBs. As expected, a substantially higher proportion of consumers reported consuming SSBs on the beverage screener compared to either recall type, suggesting that a beverage screener may be useful in characterizing consumption of episodically consumed beverages in China’s dynamic food and beverage landscape. PMID:25516327

  2. Performance of the Framingham and SCORE cardiovascular risk prediction functions in a non-diabetic population of a Spanish health care centre: a validation study

    PubMed Central

    Barroso, Lourdes Cañón; Muro, Eloísa Cruces; Herrera, Natalio Díaz; Ochoa, Gerardo Fernández; Hueros, Juan Ignacio Calvo; Buitrago, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Objective To analyse the 10-year performance of the original Framingham coronary risk function and of the SCORE cardiovascular death risk function in a non-diabetic population of 40–65 years of age served by a Spanish healthcare centre. Also, to estimate the percentage of patients who are candidates for antihypertensive and lipid-lowering therapy. Design Longitudinal, observational study of a retrospective cohort followed up for 10 years. Setting Primary care health centre. Patients A total of 608 non-diabetic patients of 40–65 years of age (mean 52.8 years, 56.7% women), without evidence of cardiovascular disease were studied. Main outcome measures Coronary risk at 10 years from the time of their recruitment, using the tables based on the original Framingham function, and of their 10-year risk of fatal cardiovascular disease using the SCORE tables. Results The actual incidence rates of coronary and fatal cardiovascular events were 7.9% and 1.5%, respectively. The original Framingham equation over-predicted risk by 64%, while SCORE function over-predicted risk by 40%, but the SCORE model performed better than the Framingham one for discrimination and calibration statistics. The original Framingham function classified 18.3% of the population as high risk and SCORE 9.2%. The proportions of patients who would be candidates for lipid-lowering therapy were 31.0% and 23.8% according to the original Framingham and SCORE functions, respectively, and 36.8% and 31.2% for antihypertensive therapy. Conclusion The SCORE function showed better values than the original Framingham function for each of the discrimination and calibration statistics. The original Framingham function selected a greater percentage of candidates for antihypertensive and lipid-lowering therapy. PMID:20873973

  3. Validity of Carrea's index in stature estimation among two racial populations in India

    PubMed Central

    Anita, P.; Madankumar, P. D.; Sivasamy, Shyam; Balan, I. Nanda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stature is considered to be one of the “big fours” in forensic anthropology. Though Carrea's Index was published as early as 1920 it has not been validated in any other population apart from the Brazilians. Aim: The present study was conducted to validate Carrea's index in stature estimation in two different racial populations in India. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in a sample of 100 persons comprising of 25 Aryan males, 25 Aryan females, 25 Dravidian males, and 25 Dravidian females in the age group of 18–30 years. The maximum and minimum stature of all individuals was estimated by Carrea's Index. The actual stature was measured by an anthropometer. The estimated stature was compared with the actual stature and percentage of success was calculated. Results: The Carrea's Index was found to be valid in predicting the stature of 80% Dravidian and 84% Aryan males, the difference being statistically insignificant (Fisher Exact test–0.16; P = 0.99). The stature of 76% of females in both Aryan and Dravidian races was successfully predicted by Carrea's index. Regression analysis showed that the minimum estimated height was more valid in estimating the stature of Aryan and Dravidian population. Conclusion: The validity to use Carrea's index in Aryan and Dravidian population was evaluated and found to be valid. PMID:27555731

  4. FDDS: A Cross Validation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Judy Parsons

    The Family Drawing Depression Scale (FDDS) was created by Wright and McIntyre to provide a clear and reliable scoring method for the Kinetic Family Drawing as a procedure for detecting depression. A study was conducted to confirm the value of the FDDS as a systematic tool for interpreting family drawings with populations of depressed individuals.…

  5. Critical validation studies of neurofeedback.

    PubMed

    Gruzelier, John; Egner, Tobias

    2005-01-01

    The field of neurofeedback training has proceeded largely without validation. In this article the authors review studies directed at validating sensory motor rhythm, beta and alpha-theta protocols for improving attention, memory, and music performance in healthy participants. Importantly, benefits were demonstrable with cognitive and neurophysiologic measures that were predicted on the basis of regression models of learning to enhance sensory motor rhythm and beta activity. The first evidence of operant control over the alpha-theta ratio is provided, together with remarkable improvements in artistic aspects of music performance equivalent to two class grades in conservatory students. These are initial steps in providing a much needed scientific basis to neurofeedback. PMID:15564053

  6. The reliability and validity of the Social Responsiveness Scale in a UK general child population.

    PubMed

    Wigham, Sarah; McConachie, Helen; Tandos, Jonathan; Le Couteur, Ann S

    2012-01-01

    This is the first UK study to report the reliability, validity, and factor structure of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) in a general population sample. Parents of 500 children (aged 5-8 years) in North East England completed the SRS. Profiles of scores were similar to USA norms, and a single factor structure was identified. Good construct validity and internal consistency were found. Children with identified special needs were found to have significantly higher SRS scores than those without. The findings suggest the SRS performs in similar ways in UK and USA general population samples of children and can be used without modification in the UK. PMID:22277583

  7. The Ecological and Population Validity of Reading Interventions for Adolescents: Can Effectiveness Be Generalized?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Deborah K.; McCray Sorrells, Audrey; Cole, Heather A.; Takakawa, Nara N.

    2013-01-01

    This article examined the ecological and population validity of research on reading interventions for adolescents in Grades 6 through 12. The 26 studies meeting selection criteria were analyzed to determine the characteristics of the students, interventionists, classroom structures, and school environments used, as well as whether there were…

  8. Further Validation of a U.S. Adult Social Self-Efficacy Inventory in Chinese Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Jinyan; Meng, Hui; Zhao, Bihua; Patel, Trishna

    2012-01-01

    The authors report further validity evidence for the Chinese version of a U.S. adult social self-efficacy inventory, the "Perceived Social Self-Efficacy" (PSSE) scale in Chinese populations. Study 1 participants were 323 new graduate students enrolled at a large university in an east coast city of the People's Republic of China. Differential item…

  9. Validity of Personal Growth Initiative Scale Scores with a Mexican American College Student Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robitschek, Christine

    2003-01-01

    This study tested the validity of scores on the Personal Growth Initiative Scale (PGIS; C. Robitschek, 1998, 1999) with a Mexican American college student sample. Results indicated that the PGIS scores appear to be culturally relevant for this population, with scores on the PGIS having many similar relations with other variables that have been…

  10. Validity and Reliability of the Maslach Burnout Inventory for a Coaching Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemke, Mark A.

    The factorial validity and reliability of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) (C. Maslach and S. Jackson, 1982) for use with coaching populations at educational institutions was investigated. A sample of 199 college basketball coaches served as subjects for the study. The coaches completed a demographic data sheet and a modified version of the…

  11. The Reliability and Validity of the Social Responsiveness Scale in a UK General Child Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigham, Sarah; McConachie, Helen; Tandos, Jonathan; Le Couteur, Ann S.

    2012-01-01

    This is the first UK study to report the reliability, validity, and factor structure of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) in a general population sample. Parents of 500 children (aged 5-8 years) in North East England completed the SRS. Profiles of scores were similar to USA norms, and a single factor structure was identified. Good construct…

  12. Validation of a physical anthropology methodology using mandibles for gender estimation in a Brazilian population

    PubMed Central

    CARVALHO, Suzana Papile Maciel; BRITO, Liz Magalhães; de PAIVA, Luiz Airton Saavedra; BICUDO, Lucilene Arilho Ribeiro; CROSATO, Edgard Michel; de OLIVEIRA, Rogério Nogueira

    2013-01-01

    Validation studies of physical anthropology methods in the different population groups are extremely important, especially in cases in which the population variations may cause problems in the identification of a native individual by the application of norms developed for different communities. Objective This study aimed to estimate the gender of skeletons by application of the method of Oliveira, et al. (1995), previously used in a population sample from Northeast Brazil. Material and Methods The accuracy of this method was assessed for a population from Southeast Brazil and validated by statistical tests. The method used two mandibular measurements, namely the bigonial distance and the mandibular ramus height. The sample was composed of 66 skulls and the method was applied by two examiners. The results were statistically analyzed by the paired t test, logistic discriminant analysis and logistic regression. Results The results demonstrated that the application of the method of Oliveira, et al. (1995) in this population achieved very different outcomes between genders, with 100% for females and only 11% for males, which may be explained by ethnic differences. However, statistical adjustment of measurement data for the population analyzed allowed accuracy of 76.47% for males and 78.13% for females, with the creation of a new discriminant formula. Conclusion It was concluded that methods involving physical anthropology present high rate of accuracy for human identification, easy application, low cost and simplicity; however, the methodologies must be validated for the different populations due to differences in ethnic patterns, which are directly related to the phenotypic aspects. In this specific case, the method of Oliveira, et al. (1995) presented good accuracy and may be used for gender estimation in Brazil in two geographic regions, namely Northeast and Southeast; however, for other regions of the country (North, Central West and South), previous methodological

  13. A Translation and Validation Study of the Life Orientation Test Revised in the Greek Speaking Population of Nurses among Three Hospitals in Athens and Ioannina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyrakos, George N.; Damigos, Dimitrios; Mavreas, Venetsanos; Georgia, Kostopanagiotou; Dimoliatis, Ioannis D. K.

    2010-01-01

    The life orientation test-revised (LOT-R) (Scheier et al. in "Journal of Personality and Social Psychology" 67:1063-1078, 1994) is a brief measure for assessing dispositional optimism. The aim of this study was to develop a Greek language version of the LOT-R and to assess the instrument's psychometric properties. The LOT-R was translated and…

  14. Validation of the IMMIDIET food frequency questionnaire in an adult Belgian population: a report from the Belgian case-control study on bladder cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Brinkman, M T; Kellen, E; Zeegers, M P; van Dongen, M C J M S; Dagnelie, P C; Muls, E; Buntinx, F

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of the IMMIDIET food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) used to collect dietary data for the Belgian case-control study on bladder cancer. Thirty-seven men and women aged 50 years and older were recruited from the University Hospital in Leuven, Belgium. Participants completed the IMMIDIET FFQ, a 7-day diet diary and a 24-hour diet recall. Median intakes and inter-quartile ranges were calculated for 27 foods and nutrients from each dietary assessment method. All dietary factors were log-transformed and adjusted for energy using the nutrient density method. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to compare the different dietary assessment methods. Bland-Altman plots were also used to assess levels of agreement between the dietary methods. Energy, fruit and vegetable intake estimates were higher from the IMMIDIET FFQ compared with the two reference methods.The highest deattenuated correlations between the FFQ and 7-day diary were meat (0.58), bread (0.44), fruit (0.38) and fish (0.38). The highest deattenuated correlations between the FFQ and 24-hour recall were for fruit (0.72), fat (0.48), alcohol (0.44), cholesterol (0.42), monounsaturated fatty acid (0.42) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (0.41). Generally, correlation was lower for the micro-nutrients except for phosphorus (0.42), vitamin C (0.41) and calcium (0.40). The IMMIDIET FFQ is an appropriate instrument to measure usual dietary intake for the Belgian case-control study on bladder cancer risk. Further investigation of nutritional assessment methods is necessary. PMID:21485759

  15. Automated carotid IMT measurement and its validation in low contrast ultrasound database of 885 patient indian population epidemiological study: results of AtheroEdge™ Software

    PubMed Central

    MOLINARI, F.; MEIBURGER, K. M.; ZENG, G.; SABA, L.; ACHARYA, U. RAJENDRA; FAMIGLIETTI, L.; GEORGIOU, N.; NICOLAIDES, A.; MAMIDI, R. SRISWAN; KUPER, H.; SURI, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    Aim The aim of this paper was to demonstrate the usage of an automated computer-based IMT measurement system called - CALEX 3.0 (a class of patented AtheroEdge™ software) on a low contrast and low resolution image database acquired during an epidemiological study from India. The image contrast was very low with pixel density of 12.7 pixels/mm. Further, to demonstrate the accuracy and reproducibility of the AtheroEdge™ software system we compared it with the manual tracings of a vascular surgeon – considered as a gold standard. Methods We automatically measured the IMT value of 885 common carotid arteries in longitudinal B-Mode images. CALEX 3.0 consisted of a stage for the automatic recognition of the carotid artery and an IMT measurement modulus made of a fuzzy K-means classifier. Performance was assessed by measuring the system accuracy and reproducibility against manual tracings by experts. Results CALEX 3.0 processed all the 885 images of the dataset (100% success). The average automated obtained IMT measurement by CALEX 3.0 was 0.407±0.083 mm compared with 0.429 ± 0.052 mm for the manual tracings, which led to an IMT bias of 0.022±0.081mm. The IMT measurement accuracy (0.022 mm) was comparable to that obtained on high-resolution images and the reproducibility (0.081 mm) was very low and suitable to clinical application. The Figure-of-Merit defined as the percent agreement between the computer-estimated IMT and manually measured IMT for CALEX 3.0 was 94.7%. Conclusions CALEX 3.0 had a 100% success in processing low contrast/low-resolution images. CALEX 3.0 is the first technique, which has led to high accuracy and reproducibility on low-resolution images acquired during an epidemiological study. We propose CALEX 3.0 as a generalized framework for IMT measurement on large datasets. PMID:22330624

  16. Validity of moyers mixed dentition analysis for Saudi population

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dlaigan, Yousef H.; Alqahtani, Nasser D.; Almoammar, Khalid; Al-Jewair, Thikriat; Salamah, Fahad Bin; Alswilem, Mohamme; Albarakati, Sahar F.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the applicability of Moyers probability tables and to formulate more accurate mixed dentition prediction tables in the Saudi population. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the College of Dentistry, Kind Saud University, Saudi Arabia. The data were collected from 410 (203 males and 207 females) orthodontic study models, which had erupted mandibular permanent incisors, maxillary, mandibular canines and premolars. The mesiodistal widths were measured using a digital caliper with an accuracy of 0.01 mm. Student’s paired t-test was used to compare the mean width values derived from this study with the values derived using the Moyers table. Simple linear regression was used to evaluate the linear relationship between the combined mesiodistal widths of the mandibular permanent incisors and the canine-premolar segments in each dental arch. Results: The regression equations for the maxillary canine-premolar segment (males: Y=10.27+0.48X; females: Y=11.71 + 0.39X) and the mandibular canine-premolar segment (males: Y=9.71 + 0.40X; females: 11.28 + 0.39X) were used to formulate new probability tables on the Moyers pattern. Statistically significant differences were observed between predicted widths in our subjects and the widths obtained using Moyers tables. Conclusions: The new prediction tables derived in this study provided a more precise mixed dentition space analysis than Moyers prediction tables in estimating tooth dimensions in the Saudi population. PMID:26870104

  17. Archaeological evidence of validity of fish populations on unexploited reefs as proxy targets for modern populations.

    PubMed

    Longenecker, Ken; Chan, Yvonne L; Toonen, Robert J; Carlon, David B; Hunt, Terry L; Friedlander, Alan M; Demartini, Edward E

    2014-10-01

    Reef-fish management and conservation is hindered by a lack of information on fish populations prior to large-scale contemporary human impacts. As a result, relatively pristine sites are often used as conservation baselines for populations near sites affected by humans. This space-for-time approach can only be validated by sampling assemblages through time. We used archaeological remains to evaluate whether the remote, uninhabited Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) might provide a reasonable proxy for a lightly exploited baseline in the Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI). We used molecular and morphological techniques to describe the taxonomic and size composition of the scarine parrotfish catches present in 2 archaeological assemblages from the MHI, compared metrics of these catches with modern estimates of reproductive parameters to evaluate whether catches represented by the archaeological material were consistent with sustainable fishing, and evaluated overlap between size structures represented by the archaeological material and modern survey data from the MHI and the NWHI to assess whether a space-for-time substitution is reasonable. The parrotfish catches represented by archaeological remains were consistent with sustainable fishing because they were dominated by large, mature individuals whose average size remained stable from prehistoric (AD approximately 1400-1700) through historic (AD 1700-1960) periods. The ancient catches were unlike populations in the MHI today. Overlap between the size structure of ancient MHI catches and modern survey data from the NWHI or the MHI was an order of magnitude greater for the NWHI comparison, a result that supports the validity of using the NWHI parrotfish data as a proxy for the MHI before accelerated, heavy human impacts in modern times. PMID:24665960

  18. Validation of administrative hospital data for identifying incident pancreatic and periampullary cancer cases: a population-based study using linked cancer registry and administrative hospital data in New South Wales, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Creighton, Nicola; Walton, Richard; Roder, David; Aranda, Sanchia; Currow, David

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Informing cancer service delivery with timely and accurate data is essential to cancer control activities and health system monitoring. This study aimed to assess the validity of ascertaining incident cases and resection use for pancreatic and periampullary cancers from linked administrative hospital data, compared with data from a cancer registry (the ‘gold standard’). Design, setting and participants Analysis of linked statutory population-based cancer registry data and administrative hospital data for adults (aged ≥18 years) with a pancreatic or periampullary cancer case diagnosed during 2005–2009 or a hospital admission for these cancers between 2005 and 2013 in New South Wales, Australia. Methods The sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) of pancreatic and periampullary cancer case ascertainment from hospital admission data were calculated for the 2005–2009 period through comparison with registry data. We examined the effect of the look-back period to distinguish incident cancer cases from prevalent cancer cases from hospital admission data using 2009 and 2013 as index years. Results Sensitivity of case ascertainment from the hospital data was 87.5% (4322/4939), with higher sensitivity when the cancer was resected (97.9%, 715/730) and for pancreatic cancers (88.6%, 3733/4211). Sensitivity was lower in regional (83.3%) and remote (85.7%) areas, particularly in areas with interstate outflow of patients for treatment, and for cases notified to the registry by death certificate only (9.6%). The PPV for the identification of incident cases was 82.0% (4322/5272). A 2-year look-back period distinguished the majority (98%) of incident cases from prevalent cases in linked hospital data. Conclusions Pancreatic and periampullary cancer cases and resection use can be ascertained from linked hospital admission data with sufficient validity for informing aspects of health service delivery and system-level monitoring. Limited tumour clinical

  19. Further validation of the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory in a US adult population sample

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20) was developed in 1995. Since then, it has been widely used in cancer research and cancer-related illnesses but has never been validated in fatiguing illnesses or in a large US population-selected sample. In this study, we sought to examine the reliability and validity of the MFI-20 in the population of the state of Georgia, USA. Further, we assessed whether the MFI-20 could serve as a complementary diagnostic tool in chronically fatigued and unwell populations. Methods The data derive from a cross-sectional population-based study investigating the prevalence of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in Georgia. The study sample was comprised of three diagnostic groups: CFS-like (292), chronically unwell (269), and well (222). Participants completed the MFI-20 along with several other measures of psychosocial functioning, including the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-36 (SF-36), the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), and the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). We assessed the five MFI-20 subscales using several criteria: inter-item correlations, corrected item-total correlations, internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha coefficients), construct validity, discriminant (known-group) validity, floor/ceiling effects, and convergent validity through correlations with the SF-36, SDS, and STAI instruments. Results Averaged inter-item correlations ranged from 0.38 to 0.61, indicating no item redundancy. Corrected item-total correlations for all MFI-20 subscales were greater than 0.30, and Cronbach's alpha coefficients achieved an acceptable level of 0.70. No significant floor/ceiling effect was observed. Factor analysis demonstrated factorial complexity. The MFI-20 also distinguished clearly between three diagnostic groups on all subscales. Furthermore, correlations with depression (SDS), anxiety (STAI), and functional impairment (SF-36) demonstrated strong convergent validity. Conclusions

  20. Development and Validation of an LC-MS-MS Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Simvastatin, Simvastatin Acid and Ezetimibe in Human Plasma and Its Application to Pharmacokinetic Study in the Indian Population.

    PubMed

    Munaga, Sathish Babu; Valluru, Rajani Kumar; Bonga, Phani Bhushana Reddy; Rao, V Sumathi; Sharma, Hemanth Kumar

    2016-07-01

    A simple, selective, sensitive and high-throughput liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of simvastatin (SS), simvastatin acid (SSA, active metabolite of SS) and ezetimibe (EZM) in K2 EDTA containing human plasma, using simvastatin D6, simvastatin acid D3 and ezetimibe D4 as internal standards (ISTDs), respectively. A volume of plasma sample of only 400 µL was processed by the solid phase extraction technique; then 20 µL of processed sample was run on a Phenomenex, Kinetix XB C18, 150 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm column using an isocratic mobile phase consisting of 10 mM ammonium formate buffer (pH 4.0 ± 0.3): acetonitrile (27 : 73, v/v) with a run time of 6.3 min. The precursor and product ions of SSA, EZM and their ISTDs were monitored on a triple quadrupole instrument operated in the negative ionization mode, and SS was monitored in the positive mode. The method was validated over a concentration range of 0.2-80 ng/mL for SS, 0.1-60 ng/mL for SSA and 0.05-15 ng/mL for EZM. The method has been successfully applied in clinical pharmacokinetic study in the Indian population. The Cmax, AUC0-inf and Tmax values obtained in our study were 10.61 ± 5.287, 77.58 ± 29.367 and 1.62 ± 0.436 for EZM; 69.74 ± 45.274, 190.71 ± 107.271 and 1.74 ± 0.480 for SS; and 25.36 ± 23.576, 139.24 ± 131.653 and 3.95 ± 0.671 for SSA, respectively. PMID:27048644

  1. Thinking and Creative Styles: A Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Solange Muglia; Vendramini, Claudette Maria Medeiros; Oakland, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The validity evidences of thinking and creative styles were analyzed. Two studies are reported, one analyzing the dimensionality of creative styles and the other verifying their external validity. Participants were Brazilians, 1,752 in the first study (55% women) and 128 in the second study (53% women), among whom 45% had demonstrated creative…

  2. Validity of the minimal assessment of cognitive function in multiple sclerosis (MACFIMS) in the Italian population.

    PubMed

    Migliore, Simone; Ghazaryan, Anna; Simonelli, Ilaria; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Landi, Doriana; Palmieri, Maria Giuseppina; Moffa, Filomena; Rinaldi, Pasquale; Vernieri, Fabrizio; Filippi, Maria Maddalena

    2016-08-01

    Cognitive dysfunction involves 40-65 % of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. It can be detected in all MS phenotypes from the early stages of the disease, and it tends to progress over time. Minimal Assessment of Cognitive Function in MS (MACFIMS) has been proved to be the most sensitive and comprehensive battery available for MS cognitive assessment in the English population. In Italy, MACFIMS applicability is limited in everyday clinical practice since the overall validity of this battery in the Italian MS population has never been demonstrated. The aim of this study was to translate/cross-culturally adapt and validate an Italian version of the MACFIMS. A total of 130 MS patients and 60 healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled and evaluated with an Italian version of the MACFIMS. All tests discriminated MS patients from HCs; according to the literature, approximately more than half of MS patients (70.8 %) exhibit cognitive impairment. Principal component analysis showed four distinct components: visual-spatial memory/processing speed, working memory, executive functions and verbal memory. Our study is the first to validate an Italian version of the MACFIMS. Several aspects of validity have been demonstrated: criterion and, partially, construct. Future work will investigate the longitudinal course of neuropsychological dysfunction in Italian MS patients using these measures. PMID:27095052

  3. Venous Thrombosis Risk after Cast Immobilization of the Lower Extremity: Derivation and Validation of a Clinical Prediction Score, L-TRiP(cast), in Three Population-Based Case–Control Studies

    PubMed Central

    Nemeth, Banne; van Adrichem, Raymond A.; van Hylckama Vlieg, Astrid; Bucciarelli, Paolo; Martinelli, Ida; Baglin, Trevor; Rosendaal, Frits R.; le Cessie, Saskia; Cannegieter, Suzanne C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Guidelines and clinical practice vary considerably with respect to thrombosis prophylaxis during plaster cast immobilization of the lower extremity. Identifying patients at high risk for the development of venous thromboembolism (VTE) would provide a basis for considering individual thromboprophylaxis use and planning treatment studies. The aims of this study were (1) to investigate the predictive value of genetic and environmental risk factors, levels of coagulation factors, and other biomarkers for the occurrence of VTE after cast immobilization of the lower extremity and (2) to develop a clinical prediction tool for the prediction of VTE in plaster cast patients. Methods and Findings We used data from a large population-based case–control study (MEGA study, 4,446 cases with VTE, 6,118 controls without) designed to identify risk factors for a first VTE. Cases were recruited from six anticoagulation clinics in the Netherlands between 1999 and 2004; controls were their partners or individuals identified via random digit dialing. Identification of predictor variables to be included in the model was based on reported associations in the literature or on a relative risk (odds ratio) > 1.2 and p ≤ 0.25 in the univariate analysis of all participants. Using multivariate logistic regression, a full prediction model was created. In addition to the full model (all variables), a restricted model (minimum number of predictors with a maximum predictive value) and a clinical model (environmental risk factors only, no blood draw or assays required) were created. To determine the discriminatory power in patients with cast immobilization (n = 230), the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated by means of a receiver operating characteristic. Validation was performed in two other case–control studies of the etiology of VTE: (1) the THE-VTE study, a two-center, population-based case–control study (conducted in Leiden, the Netherlands, and Cambridge, United Kingdom

  4. Development and Validation of the Body Size Scale for Assessing Body Weight Perception in African Populations

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Emmanuel; Bernard, Jonathan Y.; Ponty, Amandine; Ndao, Amadou; Amougou, Norbert; Saïd-Mohamed, Rihlat; Pasquet, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background The social valorisation of overweight in African populations could promote high-risk eating behaviours and therefore become a risk factor of obesity. However, existing scales to assess body image are usually not accurate enough to allow comparative studies of body weight perception in different African populations. This study aimed to develop and validate the Body Size Scale (BSS) to estimate African body weight perception. Methods Anthropometric measures of 80 Cameroonians and 81 Senegalese were used to evaluate three criteria of adiposity: body mass index (BMI), overall percentage of fat, and endomorphy (fat component of the somatotype). To develop the BSS, the participants were photographed in full face and profile positions. Models were selected for their representativeness of the wide variability in adiposity with a progressive increase along the scale. Then, for the validation protocol, participants self-administered the BSS to assess self-perceived current body size (CBS), desired body size (DBS) and provide a “body self-satisfaction index.” This protocol included construct validity, test-retest reliability and convergent validity and was carried out with three independent samples of respectively 201, 103 and 1115 Cameroonians. Results The BSS comprises two sex-specific scales of photos of 9 models each, and ordered by increasing adiposity. Most participants were able to correctly order the BSS by increasing adiposity, using three different words to define body size. Test-retest reliability was consistent in estimating CBS, DBS and the “body self-satisfaction index.” The CBS was highly correlated to the objective BMI, and two different indexes assessed with the BSS were consistent with declarations obtained in interviews. Conclusion The BSS is the first scale with photos of real African models taken in both full face and profile and representing a wide and representative variability in adiposity. The validation protocol proved its

  5. Construct Validity of Four Frailty Measures in an Older Australian Population: A Rasch Analysis.

    PubMed

    Widagdo, I S; Pratt, N; Russell, M; Roughead, E E

    2016-01-01

    Individuals identified as frail have been shown to be at an increased risk of adverse health outcomes. However, there is no gold standard frailty measure and frailty status can vary depending on the measure used, suggesting the measures perform differently. Construct validity can be used to assess a measure's performance. This study aimed to examine the construct validity of four frailty measures in an Australian older population using Rasch analysis. Frailty status among the 2087 participants aged 65 years and above from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ALSA) was assessed using: frailty phenotype--FP, simplified frailty phenotype--SFP, frailty index--FI, and prognostic frailty score--PFS. Rasch analysis was used to assess the unidimensionality of the measures, which is the extent to which the underlying characteristic of frailty is assessed. The criteria for unidimensionality from principal component analysis of the residuals was when 50% or more of the raw variance was explained by the measures, and less than 5% was unexplained variance. Only FI meet the unidimensionality criteria with 74% of explained variance and 2.1% of unexplained variance. SFP did not show a unidimensional construct with 13.3% of explained variance and 47.1% of unexplained variance. FP and PFS had 39.6%, 18.1% and 46.5%, 8.7% of explained and unexplained variance, respectively. Our findings showed that FI has better construct validity than the other three measures in assessing frailty among the Australian older population. PMID:27224497

  6. Clinical Types in a Normal Population: Concurrent and Construct Validity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Philip; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examined the relationship between personality and psychopathology using the Multivariate Personality Inventory (MPI) (N=100). Results showed significant differences among groups, which indicates that the personality groups as defined by the MPI in a normal population perform as would be predicted from work with pathological groups. (JAC)

  7. Instruments for the assessment of social anxiety disorder: Validation studies

    PubMed Central

    Osório, Flávia de Lima; Crippa, José Alexandre de Souza; Loureiro, Sonia Regina

    2012-01-01

    Great progress has been observed in the literature over the last decade regarding the validation of instruments for the assessment of Social Anxiety Disorder in the Brazilian context. Particularly outstanding in this respect is the production of a group of Brazilian investigators regarding the psychometric study of the following instruments: Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, Social Phobia Inventory, Brief Social Phobia Scale, Disability Profile, Liebowitz Self-Rated Disability Scale, Social Phobia Safety Behaviors Scale and Self-Statements During Public Speaking Scale, which have proved to be appropriate and valid for use in the adult Brazilian population, representing resources for the assessment of social anxiety in clinical and experimental situations. PMID:24175172

  8. 29 CFR 1607.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a criterion-related validity... validity of a test or other selection procedure by a content validity study should consist of data showing... test or other selection procedure through a construct validity study should consist of data...

  9. 29 CFR 1607.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a criterion-related validity... validity of a test or other selection procedure by a content validity study should consist of data showing... test or other selection procedure through a construct validity study should consist of data...

  10. 29 CFR 1607.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a criterion-related validity... validity of a test or other selection procedure by a content validity study should consist of data showing... test or other selection procedure through a construct validity study should consist of data...

  11. 29 CFR 1607.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a criterion-related validity... validity of a test or other selection procedure by a content validity study should consist of data showing... test or other selection procedure through a construct validity study should consist of data...

  12. 29 CFR 1607.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a criterion-related validity... validity of a test or other selection procedure by a content validity study should consist of data showing... test or other selection procedure through a construct validity study should consist of data...

  13. Genomic selection in beef cattle: Training and validation in multibreed populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A challenge for applying genomic selection to beef cattle is accurate across-breed prediction. One approach is to train and validate prediction equations in multibreed populations, but the scarcity of large populations with known pedigrees, phenotypes, and dense genotypes has hindered the developmen...

  14. Validation of the Sense of Coherence Scale in an American Indian population.

    PubMed

    Albino, Judith; Shapiro, Allison L B; Henderson, William G; Tiwari, Tamanna; Brega, Angela G; Thomas, Jacob F; Bryant, Lucinda L; Braun, Patricia A; Quissell, David O

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Sense of Coherence (SOC) scale in the context of an oral health-related clinical trial conducted in an American Indian population-specifically, people of the Navajo Nation. Data were derived from baseline evaluations of parents (or caregivers) of Navajo children aged 3-5 from 52 Head Start classes enrolled in a trial of an intervention to prevent early childhood caries (ECC). A 190-item Basic Research Factors Questionnaire, which included the SOC, was administered to 1,016 parents/caregivers. Assessment of internal reliability and convergent validity, and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to examine associations between parents' SOC and other potentially convergent measures. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine 1- and 3-factor solutions of the SOC scale. Higher SOC was significantly related to higher parental education and income, employment status, and higher scores for social support, internal Oral Health Locus of Control (OHLOC), self-efficacy, importance of oral health, oral health knowledge and behavior, and children's oral health quality of life. Higher SOC also was related to lower reported distress and lower external OHLOC. Cronbach's α was 0.84 for all SOC items, but lower for each of the 3 SOC subscales. Confirmatory factor analyses suggested a 3-factor solution was superior to a 1-factor solution. The SOC scale had good internal reliability and convergent validity in this American Indian population. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26191608

  15. Association studies in consanguineous populations

    SciTech Connect

    Genin, E.; Clerget-Darpous, F.

    1996-04-01

    To study the genetic determinism of multifactorial diseases in large panmictic populations, a strategy consists in looking for an association with markers closely linked to candidate genes. A distribution of marker genotypes different in patients and controls may indicate that the candidate gene is involved in the disease. In panmictic populations, the power to detect the role of a candidate gene depends on the gametic disequilibrium with the marker locus. In consanguineous populations, we show that it depends on the inbreeding coefficient F as well. Inbreeding increases the power to detect the role of a recessive or quasi-recessive disease-susceptibility factor. The gain in power turns out to be greater for small values of the gametic disequilibrium. Moreover, even in the absence of gametic disequilibrium, the presence of inbreeding may allow to detect the role of a recessive factor. Ignoring inbreeding when it exists may lead to reject falsely a recessive model if the mode of inheritance is inferred on the distribution of genotypes among patients. 5 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Validating DNA Polymorphisms Using KASP Assay in Prairie Cordgrass (Spartina pectinata Link) Populations in the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Hannah; Rayburn, A. L.; Gonzalez-Hernandez, Jose L.; Nah, Gyoungju; Kim, Do-Soon; Lee, D. K.

    2016-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are one of the most abundant DNA variants found in plant genomes and are highly efficient when comparing genome and transcriptome sequences. SNP marker analysis can be used to analyze genetic diversity, create genetic maps, and utilize marker-assisted selection breeding in many crop species. In order to utilize these technologies, one must first identify and validate putative SNPs. In this study, 121 putative SNPs, developed from a nuclear transcriptome of prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata Link), were analyzed using KASP technology in order to validate the SNPs. Fifty-nine SNPs were validated using a core collection of 38 natural populations and a phylogenetic tree was created with one main clade. Samples from the same population tended to cluster in the same location on the tree. Polymorphisms were identified within 52.6% of the populations, split evenly between the tetraploid and octoploid cytotypes. Twelve selected SNP markers were used to assess the fidelity of tetraploid crosses of prairie cordgrass and their resulting F2population. These markers were able to distinguish true crosses and selfs. This study provides insight into the genomic structure of prairie cordgrass, but further analysis must be done on other cytotypes to fully understand the structure of this species. This study validates putative SNPs and confirms the potential usefulness of SNP marker technology in future breeding programs of this species. PMID:26834772

  17. [Validation study of the Depressive Experience Questionnaire].

    PubMed

    Atger, F; Frasson, G; Loas, G; Guibourgé, S; Corcos, M; Perez Diaz, F; Speranza, M; Venisse, J-L; Lang, F; Stephan, Ph; Bizouard, P; Flament, M; Jeammet, Ph

    2003-01-01

    -reliant and as sociotropic and autonomous . Our work presents the results of a validation study of both forms of Blatt's questionnaire (for adults--DEQ--and for adolescents--DEQA) translated in French in a large population of normal subjects, aged 15 to 45 years. DEQ and DEQ-A were compared by inspection of items loading strongly on each factor and by correlation of the three factors of adults and adolescents. The exploratory factor analysis of DEQ and DEQA revealed three orthogonal factors, corresponding with Blatt's original dimensions. Consistency and external validity were adequate for all 3 factors of DEQ and DEQ-A. Anaclitism and self-criticism dimensions of DEQ and DEQ-A correlate positively with measures of depression (DSM-IV, Beck Depression Inventory), consistently with the results obtained by Blatt. Differently from this author, anaclitism appears to be less differentiated in males than in females, suggesting that the concept of dependence could assume different relevance for men and women. PMID:14615694

  18. Bioethics, population studies, and geneticophobia.

    PubMed

    Salzano, Francisco M

    2015-07-01

    In any research of human populations, the classical principles of bioethics (respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, proportionality between risks and benefits, and justice) should be strictly followed. The question of individual and/or community rights should also be considered, as well as some neglected rights, such as the right to benefit from progress in science and technology and the right to know the nature of the group's biological and cultural history; however, in their urge to assure rights, social researchers, bioethics commissions, non-governmental organizations, and community leaders are, in many cases, crossing the limits of good sense. DNA is sometimes interpreted as synonymous to demoniac, and there is a frequent behaviour that I could only describe using a neologism: geneticophobia. There is an irrational attitude against genetic studies aiming to unravel the biological history of a given people and to classify any genome population study as "racist". This behaviour should be opposed; science and the scientific study of humankind are the only way we have to reach the socially adequate objective of the maximum of happiness to the largest number of persons. PMID:25575494

  19. Validation of population-based disease simulation models: a review of concepts and methods

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Computer simulation models are used increasingly to support public health research and policy, but questions about their quality persist. The purpose of this article is to review the principles and methods for validation of population-based disease simulation models. Methods We developed a comprehensive framework for validating population-based chronic disease simulation models and used this framework in a review of published model validation guidelines. Based on the review, we formulated a set of recommendations for gathering evidence of model credibility. Results Evidence of model credibility derives from examining: 1) the process of model development, 2) the performance of a model, and 3) the quality of decisions based on the model. Many important issues in model validation are insufficiently addressed by current guidelines. These issues include a detailed evaluation of different data sources, graphical representation of models, computer programming, model calibration, between-model comparisons, sensitivity analysis, and predictive validity. The role of external data in model validation depends on the purpose of the model (e.g., decision analysis versus prediction). More research is needed on the methods of comparing the quality of decisions based on different models. Conclusion As the role of simulation modeling in population health is increasing and models are becoming more complex, there is a need for further improvements in model validation methodology and common standards for evaluating model credibility. PMID:21087466

  20. [Validity of the Experiences of Discrimination scale in a Brazilian population].

    PubMed

    Fattore, Gisel Lorena; Teles, Carlos Antonio; Santos, Darci Neves Dos; Santos, Leticia Marques; Reichenheim, Michael Eduardo; Barreto, Mauricio L

    2016-01-01

    One of the most widely used tools in epidemiological research on discrimination is the Experiences of Discrimination (EOD) scale, used but not validated in Brazil. The objective was to assess the reliability and dimensional structure of the EOD scale in a Brazilian population. A cross-sectional study was performed with 1,380 adults in the city of Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed testing a two-factor model: experiences of discrimination and concerned about discrimination. The results of CFA showed satisfactory fit, high factor loads, and adequate reliability, confirming the scale's internal consistency. Residual correlations were identified involving items from both factors. The dimensional structure presented in this study highlights the importance of using different measures of discrimination (interpersonal and group) to allow more in-depth future research on the effects of racism on health. PMID:27143308

  1. A statistical framework for the validation of a population exposure model based on personal exposure data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Delphy; Valari, Myrto; Markakis, Konstantinos; Payan, Sébastien

    2016-04-01

    Currently, ambient pollutant concentrations at monitoring sites are routinely measured by local networks, such as AIRPARIF in Paris, France. Pollutant concentration fields are also simulated with regional-scale chemistry transport models such as CHIMERE (http://www.lmd.polytechnique.fr/chimere) under air-quality forecasting platforms (e.g. Prev'Air http://www.prevair.org) or research projects. These data may be combined with more or less sophisticated techniques to provide a fairly good representation of pollutant concentration spatial gradients over urban areas. Here we focus on human exposure to atmospheric contaminants. Based on census data on population dynamics and demographics, modeled outdoor concentrations and infiltration of outdoor air-pollution indoors we have developed a population exposure model for ozone and PM2.5. A critical challenge in the field of population exposure modeling is model validation since personal exposure data are expensive and therefore, rare. However, recent research has made low cost mobile sensors fairly common and therefore personal exposure data should become more and more accessible. In view of planned cohort field-campaigns where such data will be available over the Paris region, we propose in the present study a statistical framework that makes the comparison between modeled and measured exposures meaningful. Our ultimate goal is to evaluate the exposure model by comparing modeled exposures to monitor data. The scientific question we address here is how to downscale modeled data that are estimated on the county population scale at the individual scale which is appropriate to the available measurements. To assess this question we developed a Bayesian hierarchical framework that assimilates actual individual data into population statistics and updates the probability estimate.

  2. Construction and Validation of Brain MRI Templates from a Korean Normal Elderly Population

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyunna; Yoo, Byung Il; Han, Ji Won; Lee, Jung Jae; Oh, San Yeo Wool; Lee, Eun Young; Kim, Jae Hyoung

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to construct a Korean normal elderly brain template (KNE96) using Korean elderly individuals for use in brain MRI studies and to validate it. Methods We used high-resolution 3.0T T1 structural MR images from 96 Korean normal elderly individuals (M/F=48/48), aged 60 years or older (M=69.5±6.2 years, F=70.1±7.0 years), for constructing the KNE96 template. The KNE96 template was validated by comparing the registration-induced deformations between the KNE96 and ICBM152 templates using different MR images from 48 Korean normal elderly individuals (M/F=24/24), aged 60 years or older (M=71.5±5.9 years, F=72.8±5.1 years). We used the magnitude of displacement vectors (mag-displacement) and log of Jacobian determinants (log-Jacobian) to quantify the deformation produced during registration process to templates. Results The mag-displacement and log-Jacobian of the registration were much smaller using the KNE96 template than with the ICBM152 template in most brain regions. There was a prominent difference in the significant averaged differences (SADs) of the mag-displacement and log-Jacobian between the KNE96 and ICBM152 at the superior, medial, and middle frontal gyrus, the lingual, inferior, middle, and superior occipital gyrus, and the caudate and thalamus. Conclusion This study suggests that templates constructed from Asian populations, such as the KNE96, may be more desirable than those from Caucasian populations, like the ICBM152, in computational neuroimaging studies that measure and compare anatomical features of the frontal and occipital lobe, thalamus and caudate. PMID:26766956

  3. Reliability, Validity and Factor Structure of the 12-Item General Health Questionnaire among General Population

    PubMed Central

    Petkovska, Miodraga Stefanovska; Bojadziev, Marjan I.; Stefanovska, Vesna Velikj

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The aim of the study is to analyze the internal consistency; validity and factor structure of the twelve item General Health Questionnaire for the Macedonian general population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data came from nationally representative sample of 1603 randomly selected Macedonians all aged 18 years or older. RESULTS: The mean GHQ score in the general sample was found to be 7.9 (SD = 4.3). The results revealed a higher GHQ score among women (M = 8.91, SD = 4.5) compared to men (M = 6.89; SD = 4.2). The participants from the rural areas obtained a lower GHQ score (M = 7.55, SD = 3.8) compared to participants coming from the urban areas (M = 9.37, SD = 4.1). The principal component analysis with oblique rotation (direct oblimin) with maximum likelihood procedure solution was performed and the results yielded a three factor solution which jointly accounted for 57.17% of the total variance: Factor I named social management (items 1, 3, 4, 6, 7 and 8); Factor II stress (items 2, 5 and 9) and Factor III named self-confidence (items 10, 11 and 12). Its factor structure is in line with representative research from other population groups. CONCLUSION: The GHQ-12 can be used effectively for assessment of the overall psychological well-being and detection of non-psychotic psychiatric problems among the Macedonian population.

  4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) equations validation against hydrodensitometry in a Colombian population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caicedo-Eraso, J. C.; Gonzalez-Correa, C. A.; Gonzalez-Correa, C. H.

    2013-04-01

    Several studies have shown that the accuracy of BIA results depends of ethnicity, age, gender, hormonal and genetic variations and, so far, there are not specific equations for Colombian population. The purpose was to evaluate reported BIA equations to determine their usefulness in body composition assessment in young females from Colombia using hydrodensitometry as the reference method. A sample of 30 young females was evaluated. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined to minimize the variability of BIA. Height, weight, multi-frequency BIA, residual lung volume (RV) and underwater weight (UWW) were measured. Five BIA equations met the inclusion criteria of this study. Three equations overestimated and two equations underestimated body fat (BF). Paired Student t-test and Bland and Altman analysis (p<0.05) showed significant differences in four BIA equations. However, all standard error of estimate (SEE) to BF was greater than 2.7 kg. This study showed that the five selected BIA equations are not valid for estimation of body composition in young females from Colombia. It is recommended to develop BIA equations to improve BF fat assessment in our population.

  5. Validation of the SCOFF Questionnaire for Eating Disorders in a Multiethnic General Population Sample

    PubMed Central

    Solmi, Francesca; Hatch, Stephani L; Hotopf, Matthew; Treasure, Janet; Micali, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study aimed to validate the SCOFF, an eating disorders (ED) screening questionnaire, in a multiethnic general population sample of adults. Method A two-stage design was employed using the South East London Community Health Study phases I and II data. A total of 1,669 participants were screened using the SCOFF in SELCoHI, and 145 were administrated an ED clinical interview in SELCoHII. We explored the diagnostic validity of the questionnaire restricting to the 145 individuals with the clinical questionnaire. Results Sensitivity and specificity of the SCOFF were 53.7 and 93.5%, respectively. Conclusion The SCOFF showed good levels of specificity but low sensitivity, resulting in a high percentage of false negatives. Given the low sensitivity found in our sample the SCOFF is likely to be a suboptimal measure for the identification of ED in the community. © 2014 The Authors International Journal of Eating Disorders Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2015; 48:312–316) PMID:25504212

  6. Estimating chimpanzee population size with nest counts: validating methods in Taï National Park.

    PubMed

    Kouakou, Célestin Yao; Boesch, Christophe; Kuehl, Hjalmar

    2009-06-01

    Successful conservation and management of wild animals require reliable estimates of their population size. Ape surveys almost always rely on counts of sleeping nests, as the animals occur at low densities and visibility is low in tropical forests. The reliability of standing-crop nest counts and marked-nest counts, the most widely used methods, has not been tested on populations of known size. Therefore, the answer to the question of which method is more appropriate for surveying chimpanzee population remains problematic and comparisons among sites are difficult. This study aimed to test the validity of these two methods by comparing their estimates to the known population size of three habituated chimpanzee communities in Taï National Park [Boesch et al., Am J Phys Anthropol 130:103-115, 2006; Boesch et al., Am J Primatol 70:519-532, 2008]. In addition to transect surveys, we made observations on nest production rate and nest lifetime. Taï chimpanzees built 1.143 nests per day. The mean nest lifetime of 141 fresh nests was 91.22 days. Estimate precision for the two methods did not differ considerably (difference of coefficient of variation <5%). The estimate of mean nest decay time was more precise (CV=6.46%) when we used covariates (tree species, rainfall, nest height and age) to model nest decay rate, than when we took a simple mean of nest decay times (CV=9.17%). The two survey methods produced point estimates of chimpanzee abundance that were similar and reliable: i.e. for both methods the true chimpanzee abundance was included within the 95% estimate confidence interval. We recommend further research on covariate modeling of nest decay times as one way to improve the precision and to reduce the costs of conducting nest surveys. PMID:19235865

  7. Validity and reliability in reporting sexual partners and condom use in a Swiss population survey.

    PubMed

    Jeannin, A; Konings, E; Dubois-Arber, F; Landert, C; Van Melle, G

    1998-02-01

    To monitor the impact of its AIDS prevention efforts, Switzerland conducts an annual telephone survey about AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and preventive behavior in the general population aged 17-45 years. Based upon a test-retest study with additional focused interviews conducted upon a subsample of 138 respondents aged 17-22, the authors report their findings from an investigation of the validity and reliability of indicators of sexual behavior and condom use in those surveys. The initial survey sample was comprised of 2800 respondents aged 17-45 in October 1992. The subsample included more French-speaking respondents and more people in stable relationships than did the initial sample. Survey indicators are the number of lifetime sex partners, casual sex during lifetime and number of casual sex partners during the preceding 6 months, condom use with casual partners during the past 6 months, the acquisition of a new steady partner during the year, condom use with that partner, age at first intercourse, and condom use at last intercourse. These indicators were determined to be highly reliable, although more research is needed on the validity of the data. Among sexually active respondents, 12.5% of the men and 1.9% of women included nonpenetrative sex in their definitions of sexual intercourse. Furthermore, 40% of the 15 respondents who reported consistent condom use with casual sex partners at the initial interview later admitted at reinterview that they sometimes have unprotected sex. PMID:9556172

  8. Content Validity Studies of Licensing Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, I. Leon; Hambleton, Ronald K.

    1990-01-01

    Implementing measurement specialists' ideas about content validity with licensure examinations and the problem of court litigation are discussed. Validity issues surfacing when sponsors of national licensure examinations conduct validity investigations are considered. Issues include local versus national focus on content validity, job analysis,…

  9. Validation of a French-Canadian adaptation of the Intuitive Eating Scale-2 for the adult population.

    PubMed

    Carbonneau, Elise; Carbonneau, Noémie; Lamarche, Benoît; Provencher, Véronique; Bégin, Catherine; Bradette-Laplante, Maude; Laramée, Catherine; Lemieux, Simone

    2016-10-01

    Intuitive eating is an adaptive eating style based on the reliance on physiological cues to determine when, what, and how much to eat. The Intuitive Eating Scale-2 (IES-2) is a validated four-subscale tool measuring the degree of adherence to intuitive eating principles. The present series of studies aimed at evaluating the psychometric properties of a French-Canadian adaptation of the IES-2 for the adult population. The factor structure, the reliability (internal consistency and test-retest), the construct validity, and the discriminant validity were evaluated in 334 women and 75 men from the Province of Québec, Canada, across two studies. A confirmatory factor analysis upheld that the four-factor structure of the original IES-2 was adequate for the present sample of French-Canadians. The scale demonstrated adequate internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Construct validity evidence was obtained with the significant associations between intuitive eating and psychological and eating-related variables. Intuitive eating was negatively associated with eating disorder symptomatology and with food- and weight-preoccupation, and positively associated with body-esteem and well-being. The French-Canadian IES-2 was also able to discriminate between genders and body mass index categories. The properties of this new version of the IES-2 are demonstrative of a reliable and valid tool to assess intuitive eating in the French-Canadian adult population of the Province of Québec. PMID:27179938

  10. Validation of an early childhood caries risk assessment tool in a low-income Hispanic population

    PubMed Central

    Custodio-Lumsden, Christie L.; Wolf, Randi L.; Contento, Isobel R.; Basch, Charles E.; Zybert, Patricia A.; Koch, Pamela A.; Edelstein, Burton L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives There is a recognized need for valid risk assessment tools for use by both dental and nondental personnel to identify young children at risk for, or with, precavitated stages of early childhood caries (i.e., early stage decalcifications or white spot lesions).The aim of this study is to establish concurrent criterion validity of “MySmileBuddy” (MSB), a novel technology-assisted ECC risk assessment and behavioral intervention tool against four measures of ECC activity: semi-quantitative assays of salivary mutans streptococci levels, visible quantity of dental plaque, visual evidence of enamel decalcifications, and cavitation status (none, ECC, severe ECC). Methods One hundred eight children 2-6 years of age presenting to a pediatric dental clinic were recruited from a predominantly Spanish-speaking, low-income, urban population. All children received a comprehensive oral examination and saliva culture for assessment of ECC indicators. Their caregivers completed the iPad-based MSB assessment in its entirety (15-20 minutes). MSB calculated both diet and comprehensive ECC risk scores. Associations between all variables were determined using ordinal logistic regression. Results MSB diet risk scores were significantly positively associated with salivary mutans (P < 0.05), and approached significance with visible plaque levels (P < 0.1). MSB comprehensive risk scores were significantly associated with both oral mutans and visible plaque (P < 0.05). Neither was associated with visually evident decalcifications or cavitations. Conclusions Findings suggest that MSB may have clinical utility as a valid risk assessment tool for identifying children with early precursors of cavitations but does not add value in identifying children with extant lesions. PMID:26440728

  11. Reproducibility and validity of dietary patterns identified using factor analysis among Chinese populations.

    PubMed

    Hong, Xin; Ye, Qing; Wang, Zhiyong; Yang, Huafeng; Chen, Xupeng; Zhou, Hairong; Wang, Chenchen; Chu, Wenjie; Lai, Yichao; Sun, Liuyuan; Wang, Youfa; Xu, Fei

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the reproducibility and validity of dietary patterns among Chinese adult populations. A random subsample of 203 participants (aged 31-80 years) from a community-based nutrition and health survey was enrolled. An eighty-seven-item FFQ was administered twice (FFQ1 and FFQ2) 1 year apart; four 3 consecutive day, 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDR, as a reference method) were performed between the administrations of the two FFQ every 3 months. Dietary patterns from three separate dietary sources were derived using factor analysis based on twenty-eight predefined food groups. Comparisons between dietary pattern scores were made by using Pearson's or intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), cross-classification analysis, weighted κ statistic and Bland-Altman plots; the four major dietary patterns identified from FFQ1, FFQ2 and 24-HDR were similar. Regarding reproducibility, ICC for z-scores between FFQ1 and FFQ2 were all >0·6 for dietary patterns. The 'animal and plant protein' pattern had the highest ICC of 0·870. For validity, the adjusted Pearson's correlation coefficients for dietary pattern z-scores between two FFQ and the mean of four 3 consecutive day 24-HDR ranged from 0·387 for the 'Chinese traditional' pattern to 0·838 for the 'animal and plant protein' pattern. More than 75 % of the participants were classified into the same or adjacent quartile, and <5 % were misclassified into opposite quartiles. The weighted κ ranged from 0·259 to 0·680. Bland-Altman plots indicated that no significant deviation was found between two dietary assessment methods. Our findings indicate a good reasonable reproducibility and a reasonable validity of dietary patterns derived by factor analysis in China. PMID:27405825

  12. Studies on the Techa river populations: dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Degteva, M O.; Shagina, N B.; Tolstykh, E I.; Vorobiova, M I.; Napier, Bruce A. ); Anspaugh, L R.

    2001-12-01

    The combined dosimetric and epidemiologic study of the Extended Techa River Cohort (ETRC) is deemed important, as this cohort is one of a very few that can be studied to examine the question of whether there is a dose rate- reduction factor in the induction of stochastic effects by radiation. This question represents a central issue in radiation protection of workers and the public. The overall scientific hypothesis to be tested by the combined dosimetric and epidemiologic study of the ETRC is whether radiation dose delivered at low dose rates is equally as effective (in causing cancer and other stochastic effects) as the same dose delivered at high dose rates. Russian and United States scientists have been involved in collaborative research programs under the sponsorship of the U.S.-Russian Joint Coordinating Committee on Radiation Effects Research (JCCRER) since 1995. JCCRER Project 1.1 was a comprehensive program to develop improvements in the dosimetry system for the population exposed as a result of the releases of the Mayak Production Association (Mayak PA) by providing more in-depth analysis of existing data, further search of existing records for useful data, model development and testing, evaluation of uncertainties, verification of procedures, and validation studies. The project was extended in 2000 with the additional aims of further study of uncertainty of the doses with the goal of reducing uncertainty in the final dose estimates, and validation of the dose estimates, particularly the revised estimates of external dose. Russian and European scientists are also collaborating in this area. Current work is supported by the EC-Framework Programme/Research and Training Programme in the Field of Nuclear Energy. The partners include the Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine (URCRM) and the GSF - National Research Center for Environment and Health. The purpose is to support companion epidemiologic studies of radiogenic leukemia and solid cancers.

  13. Development of Japonica mapping populations to validate GWAS in the rice diversity panel 1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to validate associations identified in the Rice Diversity Panel 1 (RDP1) between SNP markers and 34 phenotypic traits, four bi-parental recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations were developed from Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica accessions that were phenotypically and genotypically diverse. ...

  14. Validation of the Finnish Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ) for Clinical Settings and Total Population Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattila, Marja-Leena; Jussila, Katja; Linna, Sirkka-Liisa; Kielinen, Marko; Bloigu, Risto; Kuusikko-Gauffin, Sanna; Joskitt, Leena; Ebeling, Hanna; Hurtig, Tuula; Moilanen, Irma

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the validity and determined cut-off scores for the Finnish Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ). A population sample of 8-year-old children (n = 4,408) was rated via the ASSQ by parents and/or teachers, and a subgroup of 104 children was examined via structured interview, semi-structured observation, IQ measurement, school…

  15. 40 CFR 761.392 - Preparing validation study samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Preparing validation study samples... Under § 761.79(d)(4) § 761.392 Preparing validation study samples. (a)(1) To validate a procedure to... surface to be used in the validation study as follows: (i) Use a spiking solution made of PCBs mixed...

  16. Utilizing Existing Clinical and Population Biospecimen Resources for Discovery or Validation of Markers for Early Cancer Detection

    Cancer.gov

    Utilizing Existing Clinical and Population Biospecimen Resources for Discovery or Validation of Markers for Early Cancer Detection, a 2013 workshop sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program.

  17. Development and Validation of Chinese Health Literacy Scale for Low Salt Consumption-Hong Kong Population (CHLSalt-HK).

    PubMed

    Chau, P H; Leung, Angela Y M; Li, Holly L H; Sea, Mandy; Chan, Ruth; Woo, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Globally, sodium intake far exceeds the level recommended by the World Health Organization. Assessing health literacy related to salt consumption among older adults could guide the development of interventions that target their knowledge gaps, misconceptions, or poor dietary practices. This study aimed to develop and validate the Chinese Health Literacy Scale for Low Salt Consumption-Hong Kong population (CHLSalt-HK). Based on previous studies on salt intake and nutrition label reading in other countries, we developed similar questions that were appropriate for the Chinese population in Hong Kong. The questions covered the following eight broad areas: functional literacy (term recognition and nutrition label reading), knowledge of the salt content of foods, knowledge of the diseases related to high salt intake, knowledge of international standards, myths about salt intake, attitudes toward salt intake, salty food consumption practices, and nutrition label reading practices. Eight professionals, including doctors, nurses, and dietitians, provided feedback on the scale. The psychometric properties of the scale were assessed based on data collected from a convenience sample of 603 Chinese elderly adults recruited from Elderly Health Centres in Hong Kong. The 49-item CHLSalt-HK had a possible score range of 0 to 98, with a higher score indicating higher health literacy related to salt intake. The CHLSalt-HK had acceptable content validity; the item-level Content Validity Index ranged from 0.857 to 1.000, and the scale-level Content Validity Index was 0.994. Additionally, it had good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha of 0.799) and good test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.846). The mean CHLSalt-HK score among those who were aware of the public education slogan about nutrition labels and sodium intake was higher by 3.928 points (95% confidence interval: 1.742 to 6.115) than that among those who were not aware of the slogan, which supports

  18. Development and Validation of Chinese Health Literacy Scale for Low Salt Consumption - Hong Kong Population (CHLSalt-HK)

    PubMed Central

    Chau, PH; Leung, Angela Y. M.; Li, Holly L. H.; Sea, Mandy; Chan, Ruth; Woo, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Globally, sodium intake far exceeds the level recommended by the World Health Organization. Assessing health literacy related to salt consumption among older adults could guide the development of interventions that target their knowledge gaps, misconceptions, or poor dietary practices. This study aimed to develop and validate the Chinese Health Literacy Scale for Low Salt Consumption - Hong Kong population (CHLSalt-HK). Based on previous studies on salt intake and nutrition label reading in other countries, we developed similar questions that were appropriate for the Chinese population in Hong Kong. The questions covered the following eight broad areas: functional literacy (term recognition and nutrition label reading), knowledge of the salt content of foods, knowledge of the diseases related to high salt intake, knowledge of international standards, myths about salt intake, attitudes toward salt intake, salty food consumption practices, and nutrition label reading practices. Eight professionals, including doctors, nurses, and dietitians, provided feedback on the scale. The psychometric properties of the scale were assessed based on data collected from a convenience sample of 603 Chinese elderly adults recruited from Elderly Health Centres in Hong Kong. The 49-item CHLSalt-HK had a possible score range of 0 to 98, with a higher score indicating higher health literacy related to salt intake. The CHLSalt-HK had acceptable content validity; the item-level Content Validity Index ranged from 0.857 to 1.000, and the scale-level Content Validity Index was 0.994. Additionally, it had good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha of 0.799) and good test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.846). The mean CHLSalt-HK score among those who were aware of the public education slogan about nutrition labels and sodium intake was higher by 3.928 points (95% confidence interval: 1.742 to 6.115) than that among those who were not aware of the slogan, which

  19. An Overlooked Population in Community College: International Students' (In)Validation Experiences With Academic Advising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Guided by validation theory, this study aims to better understand the role that academic advising plays in international community college students' adjustment. More specifically, this study investigated how academic advising validates or invalidates their academic and social experiences in a community college context. Method: This…

  20. Development, reliability and validity of the psychosocial adaptation scale for Parkinson’s disease in Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tingting; Yin, Anchun; Sun, Xiaohong; Liu, Qigui; Song, Guirong; Li, Lianhong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To develop psychosocial adaptation scale for Parkinson’s disease (PD) in Chinese population and evaluate its reliability and validity. Methods: The items were designed by literature review, expert consultation and semi-structured interview. The methods of corrected item-total correlation, discrimination analysis and exploratory factor analysis were used for items selection. 427 valid scales from PD patients were collected in the study to test the reliability and validity. Results: The scale incorporated six dimensions: anxiety, self-esteem, attitude, self-acceptance, self-efficacy and social support, a total of 32 items. The scale possessed good internal consistency. The test-retest correlation coefficient was 0.99 and average content validation rate was 0.97. The Hoehn and Yahr stage were correlated with total score of the scale. Conclusions: The psychosocial adaptation scale in this study showed good reliability and validity, it can be used as a reliable and valid instrument to evaluate the psychosocial adaptation of PD objectively and effectively. PMID:26770638

  1. Population studies of Plasmodium vivax

    PubMed Central

    Rybalka, V. M.; Beljaev, A. E.; Lysenko, A. Ja.

    1977-01-01

    The authors investigate a mathematical model based on the theory they proposed in a previous publication. The model fits field data collected in re-established foci of tertian malaria. The patterns of distribution of manifestations of tertian malaria among the population may readily be explained on the basis of the theory of polymorphism of sporozoites. PMID:338189

  2. Validity Shrinkage in Ridge Regression: A Simulation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faden, Vivian; Bobko, Philip

    1982-01-01

    Ridge regression offers advantages over ordinary least squares estimation when a validity shrinkage criterion is considered. Comparisons of cross-validated multiple correlations indicate that ridge estimation is superior when the predictors are multicollinear, the number of predictors is large relative to sample size, and the population multiple…

  3. Validation of the FIB4 index in a Japanese nonalcoholic fatty liver disease population

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A reliable and inexpensive noninvasive marker of hepatic fibrosis is required in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). FIB4 index (based on age, aspartate aminotransferase [AST] and alanine aminotransferase [ALT] levels, and platelet counts) is expected to be useful for evaluating hepatic fibrosis. We validated the performance of FIB4 index in a Japanese cohort with NAFLD. Methods The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC) for FIB4 and six other markers were compared, based on data from 576 biopsy-proven NAFLD patients. Advanced fibrosis was defined as stage 3-4 fibrosis. FIB4 index was assessed as: age (yr) × AST (IU/L)/(platelet count (109/L) × √ALT (IU/L)) Results Advanced fibrosis was found in 64 (11%) patients. The AUROC for FIB4 index was superior to those for the other scoring systems for differentiating between advanced and mild fibrosis. Only 6 of 308 patients with a FIB4 index below the proposed low cut-off point (< 1.45) were under-staged, giving a high negative predictive value of 98%. Twenty-eight of 59 patients with a FIB4 index above the high cut-off point (> 3.25) were over-staged, giving a low positive predictive value of 53%. Using these cutoffs, 91% of the 395 patients with FIB-4 values outside 1.45-3.25 would be correctly classified. Implementation of the FIB4 index in the Japanese population would avoid 58% of liver biopsies. Conclusion The FIB4 index was superior to other tested noninvasive markers of fibrosis in Japanese patients with NAFLD, with a high negative predictive value for excluding advanced fibrosis. The small number of cases of advanced fibrosis in this cohort meant that this study had limited power for validating the high cut-off point. PMID:22221544

  4. Validity of the Addiction Severity Index (adapted version) in a Costa Rican population group.

    PubMed

    Sandí Esquivel, L E; Avila Corrales, K

    1990-01-01

    Until recently, no adapted and validated instrument was available for assessing the alcohol and drug problems of individuals in Costa Rica. This article reports the results of a study performed by Costa Rica's Institute on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence in order to test an adapted version of one such instrument, the Addiction Severity Index (ASI), in a Costa Rican setting. The instrument was used to interview 100 male subjects 18 to 64 years old (51 with diagnosed alcohol or drug problems and 49 controls). In general, the subjects with previously diagnosed alcohol or drug problems were assigned substantially higher scores. More specifically, statistical analysis indicated highly significant correlations (p less than 0.001) between the type of subject (test subject or control) and the likelihood that noteworthy problems would be found in the areas of alcohol use, family/social relations, work/finances, and psychological status. Overall, the study demonstrated that the instrument was capable of distinguishing between the affected and unaffected populations, and also of gauging the severity of the problems involved and the patients' treatment needs. PMID:2331561

  5. Adaptation and validation of the Michigan Incontinence Severity Index in a Turkish population

    PubMed Central

    Sargın, Mehmet Akif; Yassa, Murat; Taymur, Bilge Dogan; Ergun, Emrah; Akca, Gizem; Tug, Niyazi

    2016-01-01

    The translated and cross-culturally adapted M-ISI showed good validity, reproducibility, and reliability that allow its use in Turkish-speaking populations with urinary incontinence. Its comprehensive structure means that it has become a practical instrument that is available for utilization in the primary health care setting, clinical research, and epidemiological trials in Turkey. PMID:27307713

  6. Validation study of Polar V800 accelerometer

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Vicente, Adrián; De Cocker, Katrien; Garatachea, Nuria

    2016-01-01

    Background The correct quantification of physical activity (PA) and energy expenditure (EE) in daily life is an important target for researchers and professionals. The objective of this paper is to study the validity of the Polar V800 for the quantification of PA and the estimation of EE against the ActiGraph (ActiTrainer) in healthy young adults. Methods Eighteen Caucasian active people (50% women) aged between 19–23 years wore an ActiTrainer on the right hip and a Polar V800 on the preferred wrist during 7 days. Paired samples t-tests were used to analyze differences in outcomes between devices, and Pearson’s correlation coefficients to examine the correlation between outcomes. The agreement was studied using the Bland-Altman method. Also, the association between the difference and the magnitude of the measurement (heteroscedasticity) was examined. Sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC-AUC value) were calculated to evaluate the ability of the devices to accurately define a person who fulfills the recommendation of 10,000 daily steps. Results The devices significantly differed from each other on all outcomes (P<0.05), except for Polar V800’s alerts vs. ActiTrainer’s 1 hour sedentary bouts (P=0.595) and Polar V800’s walking time vs. ActiTrainer’s lifestyle time (P=0.484). Heteroscedasticity analyses were significant for all outcomes, except for Kcal and sitting time. The ROC-AUC value was fair (0.781±0.048) and the sensitivity and specificity was 98% and 58%, respectively. Conclusions The Polar V800 accelerometer has a comparable validity to the accelerometer in free-living conditions, regarding “1 hour sedentary bouts” and “V800’s walking time vs. ActiTrainer’s lifestyle time” in young adults. PMID:27570772

  7. Strategies in postoperative pain assessment: validation study.

    PubMed

    Sjöström, B; Dahlgren, L O; Haljamäe, H

    1999-10-01

    Pain assessment and management are major clinical problems that many categories of healthcare professionals have to deal with. Although there are many potentially successful approaches available for pain management, there is still a shortage of knowledge about the strategies used by staff members for the actual assessment of pain and how reliable these strategies are. The fact that patients often undergo a great deal of suffering from pain and lack of adequate pain relief may be considered an indicator of this shortage of knowledge. Clinical studies from different parts of the world reveal that the incidence of pain reported by patients is still high, with about 75% reporting moderate pain and an additional 15% severe pain. The aim of the present study was to validate different categories used in acute pain assessment and their accuracy in a new clinical sample and to explore further different dimensions of how staff members experience pain assessment. Intensive care nurses (n = 10) were carrying out pain assessment of postoperative patients (n = 30). Each pain assessment was followed by a detailed interview and indicating the estimated pain intensity on a visual analogue scale (VAS, 0-10 cm). The pain ratings by the nurses were compared to those of the patients to assess the accuracy of the pain assessments of the staff members. A previously developed category system for describing the initial empirical material regarding criteria the nurses relied on when assessing pain, combined with what experience has taught them in this respect, was used to assess the validity of previous observations. The results indicate that similar approaches were still used by the nurses but the accuracy of pain assessment had considerably improved. PMID:10808821

  8. Validation Studies for the Diet History Questionnaire II

    Cancer.gov

    Data show that the DHQ I instrument provides reasonable nutrient estimates, and three studies were conducted to assess its validity/calibration. There have been no such validation studies with the DHQ II.

  9. Rapid estimation of Aedes aegypti population size using simulation modeling, with a novel approach to calibration and field validation.

    PubMed

    Williams, Craig R; Johnson, Petrina H; Long, Sharron A; Rapley, Luke P; Ritchie, Scott A

    2008-11-01

    New approaches for control of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (L.) are being developed, including the potential introduction of life-shortening symbiont bacteria into field populations and the release of transgenic strains with reduced vector competency. With these new approaches comes the need for rapid estimations of existing field population size. Here, we describe the use of simulation modeling with container-inhabiting mosquito simulation (CIMSiM) for estimation of Ae. aegypti pupal crop size in north Queensland, Australia. CIMSiM was calibrated for local conditions by deploying "sentinel key containers" (tire, 2-liter plastic bucket, 0.6-liter pot plant base, and tarpaulin indentation) in which water flux and pupal productivity were studied for 72 d. Iterative adjustment of CIMSiM parameters was used to fit model outputs to match that of sentinel key containers. This calibrated model was then used in a blind field validation, in which breeding container and local meteorological data were used to populate CIMSiM, and model outputs were compared with a field pupal survey. Actual pupae per ha during two 10-d periods in 2007 fell within 95% confidence intervals of simulated pupal crop estimates made by 10 replicate simulations in CIMSiM, thus providing a successful field validation. Although the stochasticity of the field environment can never be wholly simulated, CIMSiM can provide field-validated estimates of pupal crop in a timely manner by using simple container surveys. PMID:19058645

  10. Population legislation: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Zou, P

    1991-01-01

    Legislation on birth and population control has received increased attention in China where a scientific approach is sought based on Marxist principles and the realities of the country. There are 6 categories of lawmaking: 1) a bill is drafted when conditions call for it, 2) the bill is passed in part when conditions are ripe, 3) the bill is adopted on a trial basis, 4) the State Council issues tentative rules and regulations, 5) administrative rules and local ordinances are issued, and 6) government policies take the place of missing laws and regulations. The Marriage Act of 1950 was tried based on the principle of ripe conditions, and it proved to be appropriate. Delegates to the National People's Congress and members of the Political Consultative Conference solicited the enactment of laws on birth control. Regarding the legislative process one opinion is to hold off until conditions are ripe, another view deems birth control too complex for lawmaking to enforce, and still another holds that the dynamics of demography makes frequent changes necessary with an effect on the stability of any law. This latter view ought to consider that the Chinese Constitution has been revised 4 times in the last 30 years without affecting its stability. Still another position is the recommendation of local rules and regulations before promulgating a national birth control act. The requirements of population legislation entail coordination between various population laws, norms, executive orders, regulations, and local rules. The provisions have to be consistent with agreement between form and content (bigamy is prohibited by the Marriage Law and punished under the penal code). Technical requirements mandate clear and precise language and avoidance of repetition of clauses. PMID:12317648

  11. Validity of Self-Reported Physical Fitness and Body Mass Index in a Military Population.

    PubMed

    Martin, Robyn C; Grier, Tyson; Canham-Chervak, Michelle; Anderson, Morgan K; Bushman, Timothy T; DeGroot, David W; Jones, Bruce H

    2016-01-01

    Many epidemiological studies rely on valid physical fitness data. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the validity of self-reported Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) data and determine whether men and women recall APFT performance differently. U.S. Army soldiers (N = 1,047) completed a survey, including questions on height, weight, and most recent APFT performance. Height, weight, and APFT performance were also obtained from unit records. The mean ± SDs for unit and self-reported push-up repetitions were 63.5 ± 13.1 and 66.3 ± 14.0 for men and 37.7 ± 12.8 and 40.2 ± 12.8 for women, respectively. The mean ± SD for unit- and self-reported sit-up repetitions were 66.3 ± 11.4 and 68.1 ± 12.1 for men and 64.2 ± 13.6 and 66.5 ± 12.9 for women, respectively. The mean ± SD unit- and self-reported 2-mile run times were 15.2 ± 1.8 and 14.9 ± 1.6 minutes for men, and 18.0 ± 2.9 and 17.4 ± 1.9 minutes for women, respectively. Unit- and self-reported body mass indices (BMIs) (calculated by height and weight) were 26.4 ± 3.4 and 26.3 ± 3.6 for men and 24.6 ± 2.8 and 24.2 ± 3.3 for women. Correlations between unit- and self-reported scores for push-ups, sit-ups, 2-mile run, height, weight, and BMI were 0.82, 0.78, 0.85, 0.87, 0.97, and 0.88 for men and 0.86, 0.84, 0.87, 0.78, 0.98, and 0.78 for women, respectively. On average, men and women slightly overreported performance on the APFT and overestimated height, resulting in underestimated BMI. There was no difference in recall ability between men and women (p > 0.05). The very good to excellent correlations (r = 0.78-0.98) between unit- and self-reported scores indicate that self-reported data are valid for capturing physical fitness performance in this population. PMID:26683633

  12. The Swedish Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale (ESES-S): reliability and validity in a rheumatoid arthritis population

    PubMed Central

    Nessen, Thomas; Demmelmaier, Ingrid; Nordgren, Birgitta; Opava, Christina H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate aspects of reliability and validity of the Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale (ESES-S) in a rheumatoid arthritis (RA) population. Methods: A total of 244 people with RA participating in a physical activity stkudy were included. The six-item ESES-S, exploring confidence in performing exercise, was assessed for test–retest reliability over 4–6 months, and for internal consistency. Construct validity investigated correlation with similar and other constructs. Results: An intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.59 (95% CI 0.37–0.73) was found for 84 participants with stable health perceptions between measurement occasions. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients of 0.87 and 0.89 were found at the first and second measurements. Corrected item-total correlation single ESES-S items ranged between 0.53 and 0.73. Construct convergent validity for the ESES-S was partly confirmed by correlations with health-enhancing physical activity and outcome expectations respectively (Pearson’s r = 0.18, p < 0.01). Construct divergent validity was confirmed by the absence of correlations with age or gender. No floor or ceiling effects were found for ESES-S. Conclusions: The results indicate that the ESES-S has moderate test–retest reliability and respectable internal consistency in people with RA. Construct validity was partially supported in the present sample. Further research on construct validity of the ESES-S is recommended.Implications for RehabilitationPhysical exercise is crucial for management of symptoms and co-morbidity in rheumatoid arthritis.Self-efficacy for exercise is important to address in rehabilitation as it regulates exercise motivation and behavior.Measurement properties of self-efficacy scales need to be assessed in specific populations and different languages. PMID:25572319

  13. 29 CFR 1607.7 - Use of other validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of other validity studies. 1607.7 Section 1607.7 Labor... EMPLOYEE SELECTION PROCEDURES (1978) General Principles § 1607.7 Use of other validity studies. A. Validity studies not conducted by the user. Users may, under certain circumstances, support the use of...

  14. 40 CFR 761.395 - A validation study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false A validation study. 761.395 Section...)(4) § 761.395 A validation study. (a) Decontaminate the following prepared sample surfaces using the... must be 10 µg/100 cm2, then the validation study failed and the solvent may not be used...

  15. 40 CFR 761.395 - A validation study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false A validation study. 761.395 Section...)(4) § 761.395 A validation study. (a) Decontaminate the following prepared sample surfaces using the... must be 10 µg/100 cm2, then the validation study failed and the solvent may not be used...

  16. Validation of an Eulerian population model for the marine copepod Calanus finmarchicus in the Norwegian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alver, Morten Omholt; Broch, Ole Jacob; Melle, Webjørn; Bagøien, Espen; Slagstad, Dag

    2016-08-01

    Calanus finmarchicus is an important zooplankton species in the Norwegian Sea, as a dominant food organism for pelagic fish larvae, and a potentially large source of marine lipids and proteins. Its position in the marine food web also makes it an important model species in assessing the risk posed by oil spills in the Norwegian and Arctic Seas. In this study, an Eulerian population model for C.finmarchicus, coupled to the physical and ecological model SINMOD, is presented. The model includes the full life cycle of C. finmarchicus with a representation of all developmental stages. The model has been validated against field measurements made in different areas of the Norwegian Sea in 1997 and 1998. The model displays geographical and temporal distributions of development stages that is in line with observed patterns. When comparing time series for selected regions, we see a high degree of variability both in the field samples and model output. On average, the model deviations are near half of the summed variability of the field data and model estimates. The model has applications within assessment of ecological production, and the potential for harvesting in the Norwegian and Arctic Seas, but in combination with other models, also for the assessment of ecological effects of oil spills and other types of pollution.

  17. The global status of freshwater fish age validation studies and a prioritization framework for future research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, Kevin L.; Hamel, Martin J.; Pegg, Mark A.; Spurgeon, Jonathan J.

    2016-01-01

    Age information derived from calcified structures is commonly used to estimate recruitment, growth, and mortality for fish populations. Validation of daily or annual marks on age structures is often assumed, presumably due to a lack of general knowledge concerning the status of age validation studies. Therefore, the current status of freshwater fish age validation studies was summarized to show where additional effort is needed, and increase the accessibility of validation studies to researchers. In total, 1351 original peer-reviewed articles were reviewed from freshwater systems that studied age in fish. Periodicity and age validation studies were found for 88 freshwater species comprising 21 fish families. The number of age validation studies has increased over the last 30 years following previous calls for more research; however, few species have validated structures spanning all life stages. In addition, few fishes of conservation concern have validated ageing structures. A prioritization framework, using a combination of eight characteristics, is offered to direct future age validation studies and close the validation information gap. Additional study, using the offered prioritization framework, and increased availability of published studies that incorporate uncertainty when presenting research results dealing with age information are needed.

  18. FETAX interlaboratory validation study: Phase 2 testing

    SciTech Connect

    Bantle, J.A. . Dept. of Zoology); Burton, D.T. ); Dawson, D.A. . Dept. of Biology and Toxicology)

    1994-10-01

    The Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus (FETAX) is a 96-h whole embryo developmental toxicity screening assay that can be used in ecotoxicology and in detecting mammalian developmental toxicants when an in vitro metabolic activation system is employed. A standardized American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) guide for the conduct of FETAX has been published along with a companion atlas that helps in embryo staging and identifying malformations. As part of the ASTM process, an interlaboratory validation study was undertaken to evaluate the repeatability and reliability of FETAX. Six different laboratories participated in the study. Each laboratory utilized one technician with the exception of one laboratory, which utilized two independent technicians. In Phase 1, FETAX proved to be more repeatable and reliable than many other bioassays. However, some excessive variation was observed in a few laboratories. Some of this variation may have been due to an initial lack of experience with the assay by some technicians. Phase 2, which is reported here, showed far less intralaboratory and interlaboratory variability than did Phase 1. Nonteratogens such as saccharin and sodium cyclamate showed the most consistent results, whereas more variability was observed for the teratogens caffeine and 5-fluorouracil. Interlaboratory coefficient of variation values for all FETAX end points ranged from 7.3 to 54.7%. The minimum concentration to inhibit growth proved to be the most variable end point for three of the four test chemicals, whereas the LC50 and EC50 (malformation) proved to be less variable.

  19. Validation and population studies of the loci LDLR, GYPA, HBGG, D7S8, and Gc (PM loci), and HLA-DQ alpha using a multiplex amplification and typing procedure.

    PubMed

    Budowle, B; Lindsey, J A; DeCou, J A; Koons, B W; Giusti, A M; Comey, C T

    1995-01-01

    Studies were performed to evaluate the forensic applicability of multiplex amplification of the loci low density lipoprotein receptor, glycophorin A, hemoglobin G gammaglobin, D7S8, and group-specific component (PM loci) and simultaneous typing of these loci using a reverse dot blot approach where allele specific oligonucleotide probes are immobilized on a nylon membrane strip. These results were obtained by using the AmpliType PM PCR Amplification and Typing Kit. The experiments included: mixed body fluid studies; chemical contaminant effects on the DNA in body fluid samples; the effect of typing DNA from body fluid samples deposited on various substrates; the effect of microorganism contamination on typing DNA derived from blood and semen; the effect of sunlight and storage conditions on DNA typing; determination of the sensitivity of detection of the PM test kit; determination of cross-reactivity of DNA from species other than human; typing DNA derived from various tissues from an individual; and an evaluation of the hybridization temperature of the assay. The data demonstrate that DNA exposed to a variety of environmental insults yields reliable PM typing results. Allele and genotype frequencies for six loci (PM loci and HLA-DQ alpha) were determined in African Americans. Caucasians, southeastern Hispanics, and southwestern Hispanics. All loci meet Hardy-Weinberg expectations and there is little evidence for association of alleles between the loci. The frequency data can be used in forensic analyses and paternity tests to estimate the frequency of a multiple locus DNA profile in various general United States populations. PMID:7876801

  20. Assessing autistic traits in a Taiwan preschool population: cross-cultural validation of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS).

    PubMed

    Wang, Jessica; Lee, Li-Ching; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Hsu, Ju-Wei

    2012-11-01

    The cross-cultural validity of the Mandarin-adaptation of the social responsiveness scale (SRS) was examined in a sample of N = 307 participants in Taiwan, 140 typically developing and 167 with clinically-diagnosed developmental disorders. This scale is an autism assessment tool that provides a quantitative rather than categorical measure of social impairment in the general population. SRS total and subscale scores distinguished significantly between autism spectrum disorder and other developmental disorders (p < 0.01). Total SRS scores and sensitivity and specificity of the scale for diagnosing developmental disorders in the Taiwan study were similar to those observed in Western studies. These findings support the cross-cultural validity of the SRS scale for detecting autistic traits and for distinguishing between autism and other neuropsychiatric conditions. PMID:22407579

  1. Validation study of the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey at a Hispanic-serving institution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawtelle, Vashti; Brewe, Eric; Kramer, Laird

    2009-12-01

    The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) has been widely acknowledged as a useful measure of student cognitive attitudes about science and learning. The initial University of Colorado validation study included only 20% non-Caucasian student populations. In this Brief Report we extend their validation to include a predominately under-represented minority population. We validated the CLASS instrument at Florida International University, a Hispanic-serving institution, by interviewing students in introductory physics classes using a semistructured protocol, examining students’ responses on the CLASS item statements, and comparing them to the items’ intended meaning. We find that in our predominately Hispanic population, 94% of the students’ interview responses indicate that the students interpret the CLASS items correctly, and thus the CLASS is a valid instrument. We also identify one potentially problematic item in the instrument which one third of the students interviewed consistently misinterpreted.

  2. Validation of the standardised assessment of personality – abbreviated scale in a general population sample

    PubMed Central

    Seegobin, Seth; Frissa, Souci; Hatch, Stephani L.; Hotopf, Matthew; Hayes, Richard D.; Moran, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Personality disorder (PD) is associated with important health outcomes in the general population. However, the length of diagnostic interviews poses a significant barrier to obtaining large scale, population‐based data on PD. A brief screen for the identification of people at high risk of PD in the general population could be extremely valuable for both clinicians and researchers. Aim We set out to validate the Standardised Assessment of Personality – Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS), in a general population sample, using the Structured Clinical Interviews for DSM‐IV Personality Disorders (SCID‐II) as a gold standard. Method One hundred and ten randomly selected, community‐dwelling adults were administered the SAPAS screening interview. The SCID‐II was subsequently administered by a clinical interviewer blind to the initial SAPAS score. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to assess the discriminatory performance of the SAPAS, relative to the SCID‐II. Results Area under the curve for the SAPAS was 0.70 (95% CI = 0.60 to 0.80; p < 0.001), indicating moderate overall discriminatory accuracy. A cut point score of 4 on the SAPAS correctly classified 58% of participants. At this cut point, the sensitivity and specificity were 0.69 and 0.53 respectively. Conclusion The SAPAS operates less efficiently as a screen in general population samples and is probably most usefully applied in clinical populations. © 2015 The Authors Personality and Mental Health published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd PMID:26314385

  3. Psychometric Properties and Construct Validity of the Weight-Related Eating Questionnaire in a Diverse Population

    PubMed Central

    Schembre, Susan M.; Geller, Karly S.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the 16-item, four-factor Weight-Related Eating Questionnaire (WREQ), which assesses theory-based aspects of eating behavior, across diverse, nonclinical subgroups. A total of 621 men and women aged 18–81 years (34.3 ± 16.4) with a mean BMI of 25.7 ± 6.1 kg/m2 (range 15.5–74.1 kg/m2) were recruited from general education classes at the University of Hawai’i, Manoa and an online survey panel of Hawai’i residents to complete a web-based survey. Participants were predominantly white (23%), Asian/Asian-mix (42%), or Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (18%). The WREQ’s factor structure was successfully replicated by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) for the entire sample and by weight status, gender, age, and race with strong internal consistency. Four-week test–retest reliability (n = 31) for the subscales was excellent with interclass correlations of 0.849–0.932. Tests of population invariance confirmed the generalizability of the WREQ across all subgroups having provided no evidence that the factor structure, factor loadings, or indicator intercepts varied significantly between the groups. Multivariate regression analyses showed that emotional eating was independently associated with BMI (β = 0.272, P < 0.001) as well as moderate- and long-term weight change rates (weight gain) in young adults (β = 0.152, P = 0.042) and adults (β = 0.217, P = 0.001). Compensatory restraint was negatively associated with weight gain in adults (β = −0.133, P = 0.039). Routine restraint and emotional eating were highest among dieters. All associations remained significant after accounting for gender, age, and race. The hypothesized WREQ measurement model demonstrated very good construct validity, confirming the unbiased generalizability of the WREQ measure across sex, age, race, and BMI subgroups, and excellent criterion-related validity with respect to current BMI, weight change, and weight control status. PMID:21546931

  4. Expert system verification and validation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, Scott W.; Hamilton, David

    1992-01-01

    Five workshops on verification and validation (V&V) of expert systems (ES) where taught during this recent period of performance. Two key activities, previously performed under this contract, supported these recent workshops (1) Survey of state-of-the-practice of V&V of ES and (2) Development of workshop material and first class. The first activity involved performing an extensive survey of ES developers in order to answer several questions regarding the state-of-the-practice in V&V of ES. These questions related to the amount and type of V&V done and the successfulness of this V&V. The next key activity involved developing an intensive hands-on workshop in V&V of ES. This activity involved surveying a large number of V&V techniques, conventional as well as ES specific ones. In addition to explaining the techniques, we showed how each technique could be applied on a sample problem. References were included in the workshop material, and cross referenced to techniques, so that students would know where to go to find additional information about each technique. In addition to teaching specific techniques, we included an extensive amount of material on V&V concepts and how to develop a V&V plan for an ES project. We felt this material was necessary so that developers would be prepared to develop an orderly and structured approach to V&V. That is, they would have a process that supported the use of the specific techniques. Finally, to provide hands-on experience, we developed a set of case study exercises. These exercises were to provide an opportunity for the students to apply all the material (concepts, techniques, and planning material) to a realistic problem.

  5. An Agenda for NAEP Validity Research: NAEP Validity Studies. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stancavage, Frances B.

    The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) Validity Studies Panel undertook a systematic analysis to consider the domain of validity threats to NAEP and to identify the most urgent research priorities. A framework of six broad categories was developed: (1) the constructs measured within each of NAEP's subject domains; (2) the manner in…

  6. Idaho NTE Core Battery Validation: Study Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zetler, Alan G.

    The content validity of the National Teacher Examinations (NTE) Core Battery tests of communications skills, general knowledge, and professional knowledge was examined to determine whether this commercially available test was suitable for initial teacher certification in Idaho. Focus was on recommending adoption scores (cut scores) to the State…

  7. Validation Study of the Malay Version of the Work-Family Conflict Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    SANAZ, Aazami; SYAQIRAH, Akmal; KHADIJAH, Shamsuddin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Work-family conflict has received increasing attention in recent decades in the area of workplace stressors, which can affect employees’ health. However, the dimensionality of the work–family conflict construct among the Malay-speaking population has not been clarified. In order to do so, it is crucial to use an instrument that is appropriate and valid for the Malay-speaking population. As such, the goal of this study was to validate and test the dimensionality of the Malay version of the Work-Family Conflict Questionnaire. Methods: The present study conducted exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, discriminant validity, convergent validity, and internal consistency, using Cronbach’s alpha, of the work–family conflict construct among 332 working women in Malaysia. Results: The results supported the existence of four dimensions in the Work-Family Conflict Questionnaire that distinguish between time based and strain-based work-family conflict and family-work conflict. The discriminant validity, convergent validity, and internal consistency of this construct are adequately supported. Conclusion: The findings of this study supported the existence of discriminant and convergent validity, as well as adequate reliability, for the construct. Thus, the Work–Family Conflict Questionnaire is a valid and reliable instrument among Malay-speaking working women. PMID:24639612

  8. Validation of the osteoporosis quality of life questionnaire QUALEFFO-41 for the Serbian population

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Vertebral fractures could lead to reduced physical, social and mental functioning, and loss of personal independence. Therefore, during the treatment of osteoporosis, it has become necessary to examine the changes in everyday functioning, well-being and health related quality of life (HRQOL). To that effect, this study aims to translate, culturally adapt, and validate the Serbian version of Quality of Life Questionnaire of the European Foundation for Osteoporosis (QUALEFFO-41) for patients with vertebral fractures. Methods Nine female patients with osteoporosis participated in the pre-validation study. A validation, case–control study included two groups of female patients: one that consisted of 50 female patients with osteoporosis, and with at least one vertebral fracture, and another one that consisted of 50 control patients with osteoporosis but without fractures. They completed the QUALEFFO-41 and the EuroQol group questionnaire with five dimensions (EQ-5D) twice within a month. The validation study examined internal consistency, concurrent validity, test-retest reliability, sensitivity and specificity. Results During the pre-validation study, three of the items in the QUALEFFO-41 were slightly changed. Afterwards, during the validation study, the statistically significant differences (adjusted for: age, duration of menopause, current employment and marital status) in the mean values of all domains and total scores between the groups were noted. For the case group, the internal consistency of the QUALEFFO-41 domains and of total questionnaire was above 0.70. The test-retest reliability was tested by the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) that were in range 0.87 – 0.96 for the case, and 0.15 – 0.83 for the control group. Correlations between the total scores of the QUALEFFO-41 and the EQ-5D health state value, for both groups were negative and statistically significant (r = -0.78, p<0.001 and r = -0.73, p<0.001, respectively). The

  9. SAMICS Validation. SAMICS Support Study, Phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    SAMICS provides a consistent basis for estimating array costs and compares production technology costs. A review and a validation of the SAMICS model are reported. The review had the following purposes: (1) to test the computational validity of the computer model by comparison with preliminary hand calculations based on conventional cost estimating techniques; (2) to review and improve the accuracy of the cost relationships being used by the model: and (3) to provide an independent verification to users of the model's value in decision making for allocation of research and developement funds and for investment in manufacturing capacity. It is concluded that the SAMICS model is a flexible, accurate, and useful tool for managerial decision making.

  10. Construct Validation Theory Applied to the Study of Personality Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Zapolski, Tamika C. B.; Guller, Leila; Smith, Gregory T.

    2013-01-01

    The authors review theory validation and construct validation principles as related to the study of personality dysfunction. Historically, personality disorders have been understood to be syndromes of heterogeneous symptoms. The authors argue that the syndrome approach to description results in diagnoses of unclear meaning and constrained validity. The alternative approach of describing personality dysfunction in terms of homogeneous dimensions of functioning avoids the problems of the syndromal approach and has been shown to provide more valid description and diagnosis. The authors further argue that description based on homogeneous dimensions of personality function/dysfunction is more useful, because it provides direct connections to validated treatments. PMID:22321263

  11. One School Many Differences: A Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tadlock-Marlo, Rebecca L.

    2012-01-01

    Due to the ever growing diversity of school populations in the United States, it becomes increasingly more vital that school counselors are efficient in multicultural counseling. As the significance of effective multicultural competencies increases, so too does the importance of accurately assessing these proficiencies. The central focus of this…

  12. 29 CFR 1607.14 - Technical standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... study. Nothing in these guidelines is intended to preclude the development and use of other... technically feasible for a user to conduct a validity study, the user has the obligation otherwise to comply... information about the job. Any validity study should be based upon a review of information about the job...

  13. 29 CFR 1607.14 - Technical standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... study. Nothing in these guidelines is intended to preclude the development and use of other... technically feasible for a user to conduct a validity study, the user has the obligation otherwise to comply... information about the job. Any validity study should be based upon a review of information about the job...

  14. 29 CFR 1607.14 - Technical standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... study. Nothing in these guidelines is intended to preclude the development and use of other... technically feasible for a user to conduct a validity study, the user has the obligation otherwise to comply... information about the job. Any validity study should be based upon a review of information about the job...

  15. 29 CFR 1607.14 - Technical standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... study. Nothing in these guidelines is intended to preclude the development and use of other... technically feasible for a user to conduct a validity study, the user has the obligation otherwise to comply... information about the job. Any validity study should be based upon a review of information about the job...

  16. 29 CFR 1607.14 - Technical standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... study. Nothing in these guidelines is intended to preclude the development and use of other... technically feasible for a user to conduct a validity study, the user has the obligation otherwise to comply... information about the job. Any validity study should be based upon a review of information about the job...

  17. Validation of a Mental Health Assessment in an African Conflict Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertl, Verena; Pfeiffer, Anett; Saile, Regina; Schauer, Elisabeth; Elbert, Thomas; Neuner, Frank

    2010-01-01

    We studied the validity of the assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression within the context of an epidemiological mental health survey among war-affected adolescents and young adults in northern Uganda. Local language versions of the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS) and the Depression section of the Hopkins Symptom…

  18. Methodological problems with population cancer studies: The forgotten confounding factors

    PubMed Central

    Blaylock, Russell L.

    2015-01-01

    Among clinical physicians it is the population study that is considered to be the “gold standard” of medical evidence concerning acceptable treatments. As new information comes to light concerning the many variables and confounding factors that can affect such studies, many older studies lose much of their original impact. While newer population studies take into consideration a far greater number of confounding factors many are still omitted and a number of these omitted factors can have profound effects on interpretation and validity of the study. In this editorial, I will discuss some of the omitted confounding factors and demonstrate how they can alter the interpretation of these papers and their clinical application. PMID:26097772

  19. Validation of a 2D multispectral camera: application to dermatology/cosmetology on a population covering five skin phototypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolivot, Romuald; Nugroho, Hermawan; Vabres, Pierre; Ahmad Fadzil, M. H.; Marzani, Franck

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the validation of a new multispectral camera specifically developed for dermatological application based on healthy participants from five different Skin PhotoTypes (SPT). The multispectral system provides images of the skin reflectance at different spectral bands, coupled with a neural network-based algorithm that reconstructs a hyperspectral cube of cutaneous data from a multispectral image. The flexibility of neural network based algorithm allows reconstruction at different wave ranges. The hyperspectral cube provides both high spectral and spatial information. The study population involves 150 healthy participants. The participants are classified based on their skin phototype according to the Fitzpatrick Scale and population covers five of the six types. The acquisition of a participant is performed at three body locations: two skin areas exposed to the sun (hand, face) and one area non exposed to the sun (lower back) and each is reconstructed at 3 different wave ranges. The validation is performed by comparing data acquired from a commercial spectrophotometer with the reconstructed spectrum obtained from averaging the hyperspectral cube. The comparison is calculated between 430 to 740 nm due to the limit of the spectrophotometer used. The results reveal that the multispectral camera is able to reconstruct hyperspectral cube with a goodness of fit coefficient superior to 0,997 for the average of all SPT for each location. The study reveals that the multispectral camera provides accurate reconstruction of hyperspectral cube which can be used for analysis of skin reflectance spectrum.

  20. Genomewide single nucleotide polymorphism discovery in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): validation in wild and farmed American and European populations.

    PubMed

    Yáñez, J M; Naswa, S; López, M E; Bassini, L; Correa, K; Gilbey, J; Bernatchez, L; Norris, A; Neira, R; Lhorente, J P; Schnable, P S; Newman, S; Mileham, A; Deeb, N; Di Genova, A; Maass, A

    2016-07-01

    A considerable number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are required to elucidate genotype-phenotype associations and determine the molecular basis of important traits. In this work, we carried out de novo SNP discovery accounting for both genome duplication and genetic variation from American and European salmon populations. A total of 9 736 473 nonredundant SNPs were identified across a set of 20 fish by whole-genome sequencing. After applying six bioinformatic filtering steps, 200 K SNPs were selected to develop an Affymetrix Axiom(®) myDesign Custom Array. This array was used to genotype 480 fish representing wild and farmed salmon from Europe, North America and Chile. A total of 159 099 (79.6%) SNPs were validated as high quality based on clustering properties. A total of 151 509 validated SNPs showed a unique position in the genome. When comparing these SNPs against 238 572 markers currently available in two other Atlantic salmon arrays, only 4.6% of the SNP overlapped with the panel developed in this study. This novel high-density SNP panel will be very useful for the dissection of economically and ecologically relevant traits, enhancing breeding programmes through genomic selection as well as supporting genetic studies in both wild and farmed populations of Atlantic salmon using high-resolution genomewide information. PMID:26849107

  1. Adaptation and Validation of the Instrument Treatment Outcomes Profile to the Chilean Population.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Carniglia, Álvaro; Marín, José D; Soto-Brandt, Gonzalo; Donoso, María Paz; Piñol, Diego; San Martín, Juan; Huepe, David; Alvarado, Rubén; Eastwood, Brian; Portilla Huidobro, Rodrigo

    2015-09-01

    This study aims to psychometrically validate the Chilean version of the treatment outcomes profile (TOP), an instrument that can be used by treatment centers to monitor the results of drug and alcohol treatments. Specifically, this study is interested in evaluating the inter-rater reliability, concurrent validity, change sensitivity and discriminant and construct validity of this instrument. The TOP was modified to reflect the Chilean context and then applied in three successive stages: an initial application at the beginning of treatment, a retest after 1week, and a follow up after a month. The sample was composed of 411 users of different types of drugs who were in treatment centers in the three largest regions of the country. The TOP reliability was greater than .75 for most items. Regarding concurrent validity, all the coefficients were in the expected direction and statistically significant. Change over time, as measured by Cohen's d statistic and the Reliable Change Index, was significant for most items. Users in treatment for less than 3months showed higher alcohol consumption (odds ratio [OR]=1.07; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.01-1.13), poorer psychological health (OR=0.94; 95% CI: 0.87-1.00), fewer days worked (0.56; 0.95-0.99) and poorer housing conditions (OR=2.76; 95% CI: 1.22-6.23) than did their counterparts who had more than 3months of treatment. Researchers extracted six components with eigenvalues greater than one, accounting for 69.0% of the total variance. In general, the Chilean TOP is a reliable and valid mechanism to monitor outcomes of people treated for problems with drug and alcohol abuse in Chile, but further validation work is required in some dimensions. PMID:25858760

  2. Cross-population validation of statistical distance as a measure of physiological dysregulation during aging.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Alan A; Milot, Emmanuel; Li, Qing; Legault, Véronique; Fried, Linda P; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2014-09-01

    Measuring physiological dysregulation during aging could be a key tool both to understand underlying aging mechanisms and to predict clinical outcomes in patients. However, most existing indices are either circular or hard to interpret biologically. Recently, we showed that statistical distance of 14 common blood biomarkers (a measure of how strange an individual's biomarker profile is) was associated with age and mortality in the WHAS II data set, validating its use as a measure of physiological dysregulation. Here, we extend the analyses to other data sets (WHAS I and InCHIANTI) to assess the stability of the measure across populations. We found that the statistical criteria used to determine the original 14 biomarkers produced diverging results across populations; in other words, had we started with a different data set, we would have chosen a different set of markers. Nonetheless, the same 14 markers (or the subset of 12 available for InCHIANTI) produced highly similar predictions of age and mortality. We include analyses of all combinatorial subsets of the markers and show that results do not depend much on biomarker choice or data set, but that more markers produce a stronger signal. We conclude that statistical distance as a measure of physiological dysregulation is stable across populations in Europe and North America. PMID:24802990

  3. The accuracy of the Alvarado score in predicting acute appendicitis in the black South African population needs to be validated

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Victor Y.; Van Der Linde, Stefan; Aldous, Colleen; Handley, Jonathan J.; Clarke, Damian L.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Alvarado score is the most widely used clinical prediction tool to facilitate decision-making in patients with acute appendicitis, but it has not been validated in the black South African population, which has much wider differential diagnosis than developed world populations. We investigated the applicability of this score to our local population and sought to introduce a checklist for rural doctors to facilitate early referral. Methods We analyzed patients with proven appendicitis for the period January 2008 to December 2012. Alvarado scores were retrospectively assigned based on patients’ admission charts. We generated a clinical probability score (1–4 = low, 5–6 = intermediate, 7–10 = high). Results We studied 1000 patients (54% male, median age 21 yr). Forty percent had inflamed, nonperforated appendices and 60% had perforated appendices. Alvarado scores were 1–4 in 20.9%, 5–6 in 35.7% and 7–10 in 43.4%, indicating low, intermediate and high clincial probability, respectively. In our subgroup analysis of 510 patients without generalized peritonitis, Alvarado scores were 1–4 in 5.5%, 5–6 in 18.1% and 7–10 in 76.4%, indicating low, intermediate and high clinical probability, respectively. Conclusion The widespread use of the Alvarado score has its merits, but its applicability in the black South African population is unclear, with a significant proportion of patients with the disease being potentially missed. Further prospective validation of the Alvarado score and possible modification is needed to increase its relevance in our setting. PMID:25078937

  4. CFD Validation Studies for Hypersonic Flow Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.

    2001-01-01

    A series of experiments to measure pressure and heating for code validation involving hypersonic, laminar, separated flows was conducted at the Calspan-University at Buffalo Research Center (CUBRC) in the Large Energy National Shock (LENS) tunnel. The experimental data serves as a focus for a code validation session but are not available to the authors until the conclusion of this session. The first set of experiments considered here involve Mach 9.5 and Mach 11.3 N, flow over a hollow cylinder-flare with 30 deg flare angle at several Reynolds numbers sustaining laminar, separated flow. Truncated and extended flare configurations are considered. The second set of experiments, at similar conditions, involves flow over a sharp, double cone with fore-cone angle of 25 deg and aft-cone angle of 55 deg. Both sets of experiments involve 30 deg compressions. Location of the separation point in the numerical simulation is extremely sensitive to the level of grid refinement in the numerical predictions. The numerical simulations also show a significant influence of Reynolds number on extent of separation. Flow unsteadiness was easily introduced into the double cone simulations using aggressive relaxation parameters that normally promote convergence.

  5. CFD Validation Studies for Hypersonic Flow Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.

    2001-01-01

    A series of experiments to measure pressure and heating for code validation involving hypersonic, laminar, separated flows was conducted at the Calspan-University at Buffalo Research Center (CUBRC) in the Large Energy National Shock (LENS) tunnel. The experimental data serves as a focus for a code validation session but are not available to the authors until the conclusion of this session. The first set of experiments considered here involve Mach 9.5 and Mach 11.3 N2 flow over a hollow cylinder-flare with 30 degree flare angle at several Reynolds numbers sustaining laminar, separated flow. Truncated and extended flare configurations are considered. The second set of experiments, at similar conditions, involves flow over a sharp, double cone with fore-cone angle of 25 degrees and aft-cone angle of 55 degrees. Both sets of experiments involve 30 degree compressions. Location of the separation point in the numerical simulation is extremely sensitive to the level of grid refinement in the numerical predictions. The numerical simulations also show a significant influence of Reynolds number on extent of separation. Flow unsteadiness was easily introduced into the double cone simulations using aggressive relaxation parameters that normally promote convergence.

  6. What population studies can do for business.

    PubMed

    Hugo, G

    1991-05-01

    This paper examines how specific skills essential to demography, the scientific study of human populations, can be useful in private and public sector planning. Over the past 2 decades, Australia's population has undergone profound transformations -- a shift to below replacement level fertility and a change in ethnic composition, to name a few. And these changes have reshaped the markets for goods, services, and labor. Because demography seeks to analyze and explain changes in the size, composition, and spatial distribution of people, this discipline requires certain skills that can be particularly valuable to both private and public sector planning. These skills include: 1) a sound knowledge of why and how populations change over time; 2) a wide range of concepts (the "cohort," for example) which allow demographers to analyze the dynamics of change in a population; 3) statistical techniques; and 4) life tables techniques. Having named the specific skills of demographers, the author identifies the areas of business and public administration where these skills can be most useful, areas that include the following: strategic long-term planning, marketing, market segmentation, small area analysis, household and family level analysis, projections and estimates, human resources analysis, and international population trends. Finally, the author discusses the implications of applied population analysis on the training of demographers in Australia, emphasizing the role of the Australian Population Association in improving the status of demography as an important planning tool. PMID:12343380

  7. Assessing the Validity of a Stage Measure on Physical Activity in a Population-Based Sample of Individuals with Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Lippke, Sonia; Reinbold-Matthews, Melissa; Courneya, Kerry S.; Karunamuni, Nandini; Sigal, Ronald J.; Birkett, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to test the validity of a transtheoretical model's physical activity (PA) stage measure with intention and different intensities of behavior in a large population-based sample of adults living with diabetes (Type 1 diabetes, n = 697; Type 2 diabetes, n = 1,614) and examine different age groups. The overall "specificity"…

  8. A Comparative Analysis of the Validity of US State- and County-Level Social Capital Measures and Their Associations with Population Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chul-Joo; Kim, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The goals of this study were to validate a number of available collective social capital measures at the US state and county levels, and to examine the relative extent to which these social capital measures are associated with population health outcomes. Measures of social capital at the US state level included aggregate indices based on the…

  9. Factor Structure and Convergent Validity of the Aggression Questionnaire in an Offender Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Tamra Y.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Whether the four-factor structure of the Aggression Questionnaire (A. Buss and M. Perry, 1992) from previous studies would be replicated in an offender population was studied with 200 adult offenders. Results of a confirmatory factor analysis indicate that a two-factor structure is a better fit with offenders. (SLD)

  10. Evolutionary game theory for physical and biological scientists. I. Training and validating population dynamics equations

    PubMed Central

    Liao, David; Tlsty, Thea D.

    2014-01-01

    Failure to understand evolutionary dynamics has been hypothesized as limiting our ability to control biological systems. An increasing awareness of similarities between macroscopic ecosystems and cellular tissues has inspired optimism that game theory will provide insights into the progression and control of cancer. To realize this potential, the ability to compare game theoretic models and experimental measurements of population dynamics should be broadly disseminated. In this tutorial, we present an analysis method that can be used to train parameters in game theoretic dynamics equations, used to validate the resulting equations, and used to make predictions to challenge these equations and to design treatment strategies. The data analysis techniques in this tutorial are adapted from the analysis of reaction kinetics using the method of initial rates taught in undergraduate general chemistry courses. Reliance on computer programming is avoided to encourage the adoption of these methods as routine bench activities. PMID:25097751

  11. PLCO Ovarian Phase III Validation Study — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    Our preliminary data indicate that the performance of CA 125 as a screening test for ovarian cancer can be improved upon by additional biomarkers. With completion of one additional validation step, we will be ready to test the performance of a consensus marker panel in a phase III validation study. Given the original aims of the PLCO trial, we believe that the PLCO represents an ideal longitudinal cohort offering specimens for phase III validation of ovarian cancer biomarkers.

  12. Matrix population models from 20 studies of perennial plant populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, Martha M.; Williams, Jennifer L.; Lesica, Peter; Bell, Timothy J.; Bierzychudek, Paulette; Bowles, Marlin; Crone, Elizabeth E.; Doak, Daniel F.; Ehrlen, Johan; Ellis-Adam, Albertine; McEachern, Kathryn; Ganesan, Rengaian; Latham, Penelope; Luijten, Sheila; Kaye, Thomas N.; Knight, Tiffany M.; Menges, Eric S.; Morris, William F.; den Nijs, Hans; Oostermeijer, Gerard; Quintana-Ascencio, Pedro F.; Shelly, J. Stephen; Stanley, Amanda; Thorpe, Andrea; Tamara, Ticktin; Valverde, Teresa; Weekley, Carl W.

    2012-01-01

    Demographic transition matrices are one of the most commonly applied population models for both basic and applied ecological research. The relatively simple framework of these models and simple, easily interpretable summary statistics they produce have prompted the wide use of these models across an exceptionally broad range of taxa. Here, we provide annual transition matrices and observed stage structures/population sizes for 20 perennial plant species which have been the focal species for long-term demographic monitoring. These data were assembled as part of the 'Testing Matrix Models' working group through the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS). In sum, these data represent 82 populations with >460 total population-years of data. It is our hope that making these data available will help promote and improve our ability to monitor and understand plant population dynamics.

  13. Matrix population models from 20 studies of perennial plant populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, Martha M.; Williams, Jennifer L.; Lesica, Peter; Bell, Timothy J.; Bierzychudek, Paulette; Bowles, Marlin; Crone, Elizabeth E.; Doak, Daniel F.; Ehrlen, Johan; Ellis-Adam, Albertine; McEachern, Kathryn; Ganesan, Rengaian; Latham, Penelope; Luijten, Sheila; Kaye, Thomas N.; Knight, Tiffany M.; Menges, Eric S.; Morris, William F.; den Nijs, Hans; Oostermeijer, Gerard; Quintana-Ascencio, Pedro F.; Shelly, J. Stephen; Stanley, Amanda; Thorpe, Andrea; Tamara, Ticktin; Valverde, Teresa; Weekley, Carl W.

    2012-01-01

    Demographic transition matrices are one of the most commonly applied population models for both basic and applied ecological research. The relatively simple framework of these models and simple, easily interpretable summary statistics they produce have prompted the wide use of these models across an exceptionally broad range of taxa. Here, we provide annual transition matrices and observed stage structures/population sizes for 20 perennial plant species which have been the focal species for long-term demographic monitoring. These data were assembled as part of the "Testing Matrix Models" working group through the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS). In sum, these data represent 82 populations with >460 total population-years of data. It is our hope that making these data available will help promote and improve our ability to monitor and understand plant population dynamics.

  14. Isolation of a circulating CD45−, CD34dim cell population and validation of their endothelial phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Tropea, Margaret M.; Harper, Bonnie J. A.; Graninger, Grace M.; Phillips, Terry M.; Ferreyra, Gabriela; Mostowski, Howard S.; Danner, Robert L.; Suffredini, Anthony F.; Solomon, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Accurately detecting circulating endothelial cells (CECs) is important since their enumeration has been proposed as a biomarker to measure injury to the vascular endothelium. However, there is no single methodology for determining CECs in blood, making comparison across studies difficult. Many methods for detecting CECs rely on characteristic cell surface markers and cell viability indicators, but lack secondary validation. Here, a CEC population in healthy adult human subjects was identified by flow cytometry as CD45−, CD34dim that is comparable to a previously described CD45−, CD31bright population. In addition, nuclear staining with 7-aminoactinomycin D (7-AAD) was employed as a standard technique to exclude dead cells. Unexpectedly, the CD45−, CD34dim, 7-AAD− CECs lacked surface detectable CD146, a commonly used marker of CECs. Furthermore, light microscopy revealed this cell population to be composed primarily of large cells without a clearly defined nucleus. Nevertheless, immunostains still demonstrated the presence of the lectin Ulex europaeus and van Willebrand factor. Ultramicro analytical immunochemistry assays for the endothelial cell proteins CD31, CD34, CD62E, CD105, CD141, CD144 and vWF indicated these cells possess an endothelial phenotype. However, only a small amount of RNA, which was mostly degraded, could be isolated from these cells. Thus the majority of CECs in healthy individuals as defined by CD45−, CD34dim, and 7-AAD− have shed their CD146 surface marker and are senescent cells without an identifiable nucleus and lacking RNA of sufficient quantity and quality for transcriptomal analysis. This study highlights the importance of secondary validation of CEC identification. PMID:25057108

  15. Validation of a mental health assessment in an African conflict population.

    PubMed

    Ertl, Verena; Pfeiffer, Anett; Saile, Regina; Schauer, Elisabeth; Elbert, Thomas; Neuner, Frank

    2010-06-01

    We studied the validity of the assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression within the context of an epidemiological mental health survey among war-affected adolescents and young adults in northern Uganda. Local language versions of the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS) and the Depression section of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (DHSCL) were administered by trained local interviewers. Correlations with probable predictor variables (i.e., trauma exposure), outcomes (e.g., impaired functioning), and local idioms of distress (i.e., spirit possession) were determined to estimate criterion-related construct validity. To assess convergent validity, expert clinicians reinterviewed a subsample using structured interviews (the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale [CAPS] and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview [MINI]). Depression and PTSD symptoms as assessed by the local interviewers correlated with the context variables as predicted. After optimizing the scoring algorithm, we found good agreement between the PDS-based diagnoses and expert diagnoses. However, the concordance for depression diagnoses was not satisfactory. Results show that mental health assessments in African languages can produce reliable and valid data but that caution is warranted in the unevaluated transfer of cutoff scores and scoring algorithms. PMID:20528059

  16. Factorial validation of a walking safety scale (GEM scale) for the geriatric population.

    PubMed

    Dubé, François; Rousseau, Jacqueline; Nadeau, Sylvie; Kaegi, Christine; Boudreault, Renee

    2010-04-22

    The GEM scale is an objective assessment tool evaluating walking safety of elderly individuals. It includes 33 walking items divided into three subscales (A, B, and C). The purpose of this study was to estimate the internal consistency and factorial validation of the scale. Seventy-four subjects (> or = 65 years) recruited from geriatric units were assessed by a total of 11 physical therapists. The internal consistency data were analyzed by using the Cronbach alpha coefficient. An exploratory factor analysis was performed to analyze the factorial structure of the scale and determine the construct validation. The internal consistency for the three subscales revealed high Cronbach alpha (subscales A = 0.90; B = 0.76, and C = 0.85). The preliminary analyses of the factorial validation did not confirm the original structure of the scale. For subscales A and B, a three-factor solution was supported by the analyses and explained 61% of the total variance. For subscale C, a four-factor solution was extracted and explained 87% of the total variance. The three subscales showed excellent item homogeneity. The factorial validation results support a new structure for the GEM scale regrouping the items in two sub-scales under different factors. The reorganization of the walking items into representative factors will allow a better understanding and interpretation of the scale. PMID:20331374

  17. The Validity of the WHO-5 as an Early Screening for Apathy in an Elderly Population

    PubMed Central

    Lucas-Carrasco, Ramona; Allerup, Peter; Bech, Per

    2012-01-01

    Aim. The objective of our study has been to evaluate the WHO-5 as a new early screening instrument for apathy in a group of elderly persons. Methods. The WHO-5 was compared to the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15). The GDS contains five items measuring well-being and ten items measuring depression. The internal validity of the WHO-5 (total score being a sufficient statistic) was evaluated with both parametric and nonparametric item response theory models. The external validity of the WHO-5 and the GDS was evaluated by ROC using depression as index of validity. Results. The item response theory analyses confirmed that the total score of the WHO-5 is a sufficient statistic. The ROC analysis shows an adequate sensitivity (61%) and specificity (84%). The GDS15 and its two subscales obtained low sensitivity (25–42%), but high specificity (90–98%). Conclusion. The WHO-5 was found both internally and externally valid when considering decreased positive well-being to be an early indication of apathy reflecting that the wind has begun to be taken out of the “motivation sail.” PMID:22991511

  18. Characteristics of the population studies in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, C

    1989-01-01

    The author presents a brief historical sketch of the origins of Chinese population studies and provides 8 characteristics of the post-1978 advances made in population science. Chinese scholars were among the 1st to research population issues but ceased their work in the 18th century. In the late 19th century scholars used the theories of Thomas Malthus to explain population growth. This research peaked in the 1st half of the 20th century and continued in the Malthusian tradition and sociological point of view. Soviet theories on population were popular in the 1930's and 40's, and adopted by the administration with the founding of New China in 1949. Sociologically oriented scholars were criticized, even for Marxist views. The 1978 3rd plenary session of the 11th Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party adopted a policy which emphasized the quest for truth from facts, future planning, and unification. Between 1978-88 huge advances were made in population studies which attracted world attention and contributed to solving China's population problems. Demographic societies were founded at the national, provincial, and municipal levels. Institutions of higher education formed professional departments. Training centers were formed for government family planning officers, and exchanges of students and scholars were made with other countries. An extensive network of party schools and FP departments contributed to population studies. The 8 characteristics which contributed to the originality of the effort were as follows: 1) A blend of Western and Marxist theory was developed. 2) Qualitative and quantitative research was conducted, which surpassed the boring and abstract Soviet research and the Western research short on sociological analyses. 3) Theoretical research was combined with practical research, which lead to the publication of a 30 volume series. 4) Population studies have utilized the theories and methodologies of other related sciences such as economics

  19. Validation of the CDA CAMBRA caries risk assessment--a six-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Doméjean, Sophie; White, Joel M; Featherstone, John D B

    2011-10-01

    The present manuscript presents the results of a six-year retrospective study validating caries risk assessment in a caries management by risk assessment program in a large predominantly adult patient population seeking dental care. CRA was successful in accurately identifying patients at high caries risk. Caries risk assessment in a CAMBRA program is a good clinical tool for everyday dental practice. PMID:22132582

  20. Investigating the Knowledge Needed for Teaching Mathematics: An Exploratory Validation Study Focusing on Teaching Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charalambous, Charalambos Y.

    2016-01-01

    Central in the frameworks proposed to capture the knowledge needed for teaching mathematics is the assumption that teachers need more than pure subject-matter knowledge. Validation studies exploring this assumption by recruiting contrasting populations are relatively scarce. Drawing on a sample of 644 Greek-Cypriots preservice and inservice…

  1. Psychometric Properties of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children in Italy: Testing the Validity among a General and Clinical Pediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    Gobbi, Erica; Elliot, Catherine; Varnier, Maurizio; Carraro, Attilio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to assess an Italian version of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C-It). Three separate studies were conducted, whereby testing general psychometric properties, construct validity, concurrent validity and the factor structure of the PAQ-C-It among general and clinical pediatric population. Study 1 (n = 1170) examined the psychometric properties, internal consistency, factor structure (exploratory factor analysis, EFA) and construct validity with enjoyment perception during physical activity. Study 2 (n = 59) reported on reliability, construct validity with enjoyment and BMI, and on cross-sectional concurrent validity with objectively measured MVPA (tri-axial accelerometry) over the span of seven consecutive days. Study 3 (n = 58) examined the PAQ-C-It reliability, construct validity with BMI and VO2max as the objective measurement among a population of children with congenital heart defects (CHD). In study 2 and 3, the factor structure of the PAQ-C-It was then re-examined with an EFA. The PAQ-C-It showed acceptable to good reliability (alpha .70 to .83). Results on construct validity showed moderate but significant association with enjoyment perception (r = .30 and .36), with BMI (r = -.30 and -.79 for CHD simple form), and with the VO2max (r = .55 for CHD simple form). Significant concurrent validity with the objectively measured MVPA was reported (rho = .30, p < .05). Findings of the EFA suggested a two-factor structure for the PAQ-C-It, with items 2, 3, and 4 contributing little to the total score. This study supports the PAQ-C-It as an appropriate instrument to assess the MVPA levels of Italian children, including children with simple forms of CHD. Support is given to the possible instrument effectiveness on a large international perspective in order to level out data gathering across the globe. PMID:27228050

  2. Measuring Long-Distance Romantic Relationships: A Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pistole, M. Carole; Roberts, Amber

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated aspects of construct validity for the scores of a new long-distance romantic relationship measure. A single-factor structure of the long-distance romantic relationship index emerged, with convergent and discriminant evidence of external validity, high internal consistency reliability, and applied utility of the scores.…

  3. Studies on the Ozyorsk population: dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Khokhryakov, Victor V.; Drozhko, Evgeniy G.; Glagolenko, Y V.; Rovny, Sergey I.; Vasilenko, E K.; Suslov, A; Anspaugh, L R.; Napier, Bruce A. ); Bouville, A; Khokhryakov, V F.; Suslova, K G.; Romanov, S A.

    2001-12-01

    The Mayak Production Association (MPA) is located in the northern part of Chelyabinsk Oblast. Operating areas are about 10 km from the town of Ozyorsk, the largest populated area nearby, but other nearby populated areas include Novogorny Village, New Metlino Village, and Kyshtym Town. The long-term objective of this (unfunded) project is reconstruction of the time-dependent individual radiation doses to residents of Ozyorsk and the surrounding area from atmospheric releases of radionuclides from the facilities of the Mayak Production Association (MPA). The time period is from 1948 to the present. This information could be used in several epidemiologic studies of the regional population. Two pilotscale studies of thyroid disease among residents of Ozyorsk have found an increase in thyroid nodules among exposed persons compared to unexposed persons and an increase in thyroid carcinoma in Ozyorsk. The success of follow-on studies would depend upon the availability of thyroid doses proposed to be provided. The availability of credible thyroid doses would allow the quantification of risk of thyroid disease and the evaluation of factors such as host susceptibility, age and time effects, and gender differences. Perhaps more importantly, studies of the Ozyorsk residents would not be encumbered with the complications associated with previous early detection screening, as in the Chernobyl studies, or previous medical conditions, as in the I-131 medical studies. The releases to the atmosphere from MPA stacks are a source of exposure to other populations that are the subject of epidemiologic investigation; these populations include the Extended Techa River Cohort (JCCRER Direction 1), the MPA workers (JCCRER Direction 2), and proposed studies of the East Urals Radioactive Trace (EURT) cohort. The doses received by these cohorts from atmospheric releases at the MPA represent a confounding variable that cannot be considered without the information proposed to be provided.

  4. Comparison of validity and reliability of the Migraine disability assessment (MIDAS) versus headache impact test (HIT) in an Iranian population

    PubMed Central

    Chitsaz, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Background Migraine is one of the most common headaches that affect 11% or more adult population. Recently, researchers have designed two questionnaires, namely Headache Impact Test (HIT) and Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS), with the aim of improving migraine care. These two tests provide a standard measurement about migraine's effects on people's life style that divide patients into 4 groups (grades) based on headaches intensity. The aim of this study was to compare the validity and reliability of these two tests. Methods This study was designed as a multicenter, descriptive study to compare validity and reliability of Persian version of MIDAS and HIT questionnaires in 240 males and females with a migraine diagnosis according to criteria for headache and facial pain of the International Headache Society (IHS). The patients were enrolled in the study from 3 neurology clinics in Isfahan, Iran, between July 2004 and January 2005 and were evaluated at baseline (visit 1) and 4 weeks later (visit 2). Results According to our study, there was a high correlation between two tests (r = 0.94). This decreased their MIDAS grade in comparison to their grade HIT questionnaire. Conclusion These findings demonstrated that Persian version of HIT have the same validity and reliability as MIDAS. Replying to HIT questionnaire was easier than MIDAS for Iranian patients. Physicians can reliably use the Persian translation of both MIDAS and HIT questionnaires to define the severity of illness and its treatment strategy as a self-administered report by migraine patients. However, we recommend HIT for its simplicity in headache clinics. PMID:24250844

  5. Cross-Cultural Validation of Holland's Interest Structure in Chinese Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Weiwei; Stokes, Garnett S.; Hui, C. Harry

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated Holland's (1973, 1985, 1997) structural hypotheses--circular order and circumplex--in two populations in China at both the subtest (Activities, Competencies, Occupational Preferences, and Self-ratings on Abilities) and the entire test levels of the Self-Directed Search (SDS; Holland, 1994). Confirmatory factor analyses…

  6. Evaluating the Invariance and Validity of the Structure of Dysfunctional Attitudes in an Adolescent Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prenoveau, Jason M.; Zinbarg, Richard E.; Craske, Michelle G.; Mineka, Susan; Griffith, James W.; Rose, Raphael D.

    2009-01-01

    Form A of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS-A), a self-report measure of depressive beliefs, is widely used to test Beck's cognitive model of depression. The present study is the first to evaluate the DAS-A factor structure in an adolescent population of 542 high school juniors and the first to examine a hierarchical model. Findings support…

  7. [The research protocol III. Study population].

    PubMed

    Arias-Gómez, Jesús; Villasís-Keever, Miguel Ángel; Miranda-Novales, María Guadalupe

    2016-01-01

    The study population is defined as a set of cases, determined, limited, and accessible, that will constitute the subjects for the selection of the sample, and must fulfill several characteristics and distinct criteria. The objectives of this manuscript are focused on specifying each one of the elements required to make the selection of the participants of a research project, during the elaboration of the protocol, including the concepts of study population, sample, selection criteria and sampling methods. After delineating the study population, the researcher must specify the criteria that each participant has to comply. The criteria that include the specific characteristics are denominated selection or eligibility criteria. These criteria are inclusion, exclusion and elimination, and will delineate the eligible population. The sampling methods are divided in two large groups: 1) probabilistic or random sampling and 2) non-probabilistic sampling. The difference lies in the employment of statistical methods to select the subjects. In every research, it is necessary to establish at the beginning the specific number of participants to be included to achieve the objectives of the study. This number is the sample size, and can be calculated or estimated with mathematical formulas and statistic software. PMID:27174763

  8. Validating an Elicited Imitation Task as a Measure of Implicit Knowledge: Comparisons with Other Validation Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spada, Nina; Shiu, Julie Li-Ju; Tomita, Yasuyo

    2015-01-01

    This study builds on research investigating the construct validity of elicited imitation (EI) as a measure of implicit second language (L2) grammatical knowledge. It differs from previous studies in that the EI task focuses on a single grammatical feature and time on task is strictly controlled. Seventy-three EFL learners and 20 native English…

  9. Identifying Primary Spontaneous Pneumothorax from Administrative Databases: A Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Frechette, Eric; Guidolin, Keegan; Seyam, Ayman; Choi, Yun-Hee; Jones, Sarah; McClure, J. Andrew; Winick-Ng, Jennifer; Welk, Blayne; Malthaner, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) is a disorder commonly encountered in healthy young individuals. There is no differentiation between PSP and secondary pneumothorax (SP) in the current version of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). This complicates the conduct of epidemiological studies on the subject. Objective. To validate the accuracy of an algorithm that identifies cases of PSP from administrative databases. Methods. The charts of 150 patients who consulted the emergency room (ER) with a recorded main diagnosis of pneumothorax were reviewed to define the type of pneumothorax that occurred. The corresponding hospital administrative data collected during previous hospitalizations and ER visits were processed through the proposed algorithm. The results were compared over two different age groups. Results. There were 144 cases of pneumothorax correctly coded (96%). The results obtained from the PSP algorithm demonstrated a significantly higher sensitivity (97% versus 81%, p = 0.038) and positive predictive value (87% versus 46%, p < 0.001) in patients under 40 years of age than in older patients. Conclusions. The proposed algorithm is adequate to identify cases of PSP from administrative databases in the age group classically associated with the disease. This makes possible its utilization in large population-based studies.

  10. Population Validity and Cross-Validity: Applications of Distribution Theory for Testing Hypotheses, Setting Confidence Intervals, and Determining Sample Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algina, James; Keselman, H. J.

    2008-01-01

    Applications of distribution theory for the squared multiple correlation coefficient and the squared cross-validation coefficient are reviewed, and computer programs for these applications are made available. The applications include confidence intervals, hypothesis testing, and sample size selection. (Contains 2 tables.)

  11. Physical activity promotion in Latin American populations: a systematic review on issues of internal and external validity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to determine the degree to which physical activity interventions for Latin American populations reported on internal and external validity factors using the RE-AIM framework (reach & representativeness, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintenance). We systematically identified English (PubMed; EbscoHost) and Spanish (SCIELO; Biblioteca Virtual en Salud) language studies published between 2001 and 2012 that tested physical activity, exercise, or fitness promotion interventions in Latin American populations. Cross-sectional/descriptive studies, conducted in Brazil or Spain, published in Portuguese, not including a physical activity/fitness/exercise outcome, and with one time point assessment were excluded. We reviewed 192 abstracts and identified 46 studies that met the eligibility criteria (34 in English, 12 in Spanish). A validated 21-item RE-AIM abstraction tool was used to determine the quality of reporting across studies (0-7 = low, 8-14 = moderate, and 15-21 = high). The number of indicators reported ranged from 3–14 (mean = 8.1 ± 2.6), with the majority of studies falling in the moderate quality reporting category. English and Spanish language articles did not differ on the number of indicators reported (8.1 vs. 8.3, respectively). However, Spanish articles reported more across reach indicators (62% vs. 43% of indicators), while English articles reported more across effectiveness indicators (69% vs 62%). Across RE-AIM dimensions, indicators for reach (48%), efficacy/effectiveness (67%), and implementation (41%) were reported more often than indicators of adoption (25%) and maintenance (10%). Few studies reported on the representativeness of participants, staff that delivered interventions, or the settings where interventions were adopted. Only 13% of the studies reported on quality of life and/or potential negative outcomes, 20% reported on intervention fidelity, and 11% on cost of implementation

  12. Accuracy of Population Validity and Cross-Validity Estimation: An Empirical Comparison of Formula-Based, Traditional Empirical, and Equal Weights Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raju, Nambury S.; Bilgic, Reyhan; Edwards, Jack E.; Fleer, Paul F.

    1999-01-01

    Performed an empirical Monte Carlo study using predictor and criterion data from 84,808 U.S. Air Force enlistees. Compared formula-based, traditional empirical, and equal-weights procedures. Discusses issues for basic research on validation and cross-validation. (SLD)

  13. Assessing Adolescent Mindfulness: Validation of an Adapted Mindful Attention Awareness Scale in Adolescent Normative and Psychiatric Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kirk Warren; West, Angela Marie; Loverich, Tamara M.; Biegel, Gina M.

    2011-01-01

    Interest in mindfulness-based interventions for children and adolescents is burgeoning, bringing with it the need for validated instruments to assess mindfulness in youths. The present studies were designed to validate among adolescents a measure of mindfulness previously validated for adults (e.g., Brown & Ryan, 2003), which we herein call the…

  14. English Consequential Validity Study, Fall 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Diego Community Coll. District, CA. Research and Planning.

    This study, conducted by the San Diego Community College District in fall 2002, aims to answer the following research questions regarding student preparedness for courses in writing, reading, study skills, and composition: (1) Is there a relationship between instructor perception of preparedness and student performance? (2) Is there a relationship…

  15. A Validity Study of the NAEP Full Population Estimates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedges, Larry V.; Bandeira de Mello, Victor

    2013-01-01

    In early 2001, to support an internal evaluation of the impact of changing exclusion rates on reports of statistically significant gains across states, the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) sponsored research on imputation procedures of National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) scores for the excluded students and provided…

  16. Validation of Horne and Ostberg morningness-eveningness questionnaire in a middle-aged population of French workers.

    PubMed

    Taillard, Jacques; Philip, Pierre; Chastang, Jean-François; Bioulac, Bernard

    2004-02-01

    As suggested by the authors, the Horne and Ostberg morning/evening questionnaire (MEQ) has never been adapted to evaluate a nonstudent population. The purpose of this study was to validate this MEQ in a sample of middle-aged workers by modifying only the cutoffs. It was administered in 566 non-shift-workers aged 51.2 to 3.2 years who presented no sleep disorders. According to the Home and Ostberg classification, the sample consisted of 62.1% morning type, 36.6% neither type, and 2.2% evening type. Multiple correspondence analysis, which determines the principal components, was performed on all MEQ items. Then an ascending hierarchical classification was applied to determine 3 clusters from these principal components. On the basis of these 3 clusters, new cutoffs were determined: evening types were considered as scoring under 53 and morning types above 64, thus giving 28.1% morning type, 51.7% neither type, and 20.2% evening type. As an external validation, eveningness was associated with later bedtime and waking-up time (more pronounced at the weekend), greater need for sleep, larger daily sleep debt, greater morning sleepiness, and ease of returning to sleep in the early morning. A positive correlation between age and morningness was again found. This study confirms that "owls" are not rare in a middle-aged sample. We conclude that this adapted MEQ could be useful when investigating age-related changes in sleep. PMID:14964706

  17. Sensor data validation and reconstruction. Phase 1: System architecture study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The sensor validation and data reconstruction task reviewed relevant literature and selected applicable validation and reconstruction techniques for further study; analyzed the selected techniques and emphasized those which could be used for both validation and reconstruction; analyzed Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) hot fire test data to determine statistical and physical relationships between various parameters; developed statistical and empirical correlations between parameters to perform validation and reconstruction tasks, using a computer aided engineering (CAE) package; and conceptually designed an expert system based knowledge fusion tool, which allows the user to relate diverse types of information when validating sensor data. The host hardware for the system is intended to be a Sun SPARCstation, but could be any RISC workstation with a UNIX operating system and a windowing/graphics system such as Motif or Dataviews. The information fusion tool is intended to be developed using the NEXPERT Object expert system shell, and the C programming language.

  18. Designing SoTL Studies--Part I: Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartsch, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter discusses how to improve validity in SoTL studies through generating appropriate measures and using designs that examine causality between an activity and students' performance. [Part II available at EJ1029365.

  19. Genotoxicity Studies Performed in the Ecuadorian Population

    PubMed Central

    Paz-y-Miño, César; Cumbal, Nadia; Sánchez, María Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    Genotoxicity studies in Ecuador have been carried out during the past two decades. The focuses of the research were mainly the area of environmental issues, where the populations have been accidentally exposed to contaminants and the area of occupational exposure of individuals at the workplace. This paper includes studies carried out in the population of the Amazon region, a zone known for its rich biodiversity as well as for the ecological damage caused by oil spills and chemical sprayings whose consequences continue to be controversial. Additionally, we show the results of studies comprised of individuals occupationally exposed to toxic agents in two very different settings: flower plantation workers exposed to pesticide mixtures and X-ray exposure of hospital workers. The results from these studies confirm that genotoxicity studies can help evaluate current conditions and prevent further damage in the populations exposed to contaminants. As such, they are evidence of the need for biomonitoring employers at risk, stricter law enforcement regarding the use of pesticides, and increasingly conscientious oil extraction activities. PMID:22496977

  20. Convergent validity of the eating disorder inventory and the anorexia nervosa inventory for self-rating in an Austrian nonclinical population.

    PubMed

    Rathner, G; Rumpold, G

    1994-12-01

    This study assesses the convergent and divergent validity of the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI--German version) and the Anorexia Nervosa Inventory for Self-Rating (ANIS) in a German-speaking nonclinical population. One hundred fifty-five female and 224 male Austrian medical students were surveyed. Validity was studied at a dimensional level, separately for both sexes, by correlating with conceptually related as well as distinct scales. These instruments included the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). The intercorrelation coefficients of the EDI and the ANIS were similar to the original samples. In women, the convergent validity of the EDI and the ANIS was confirmed, especially for the subscales measuring the specific psychopathology (r = .43 to .84) and for ineffectiveness/feelings of inadequacy (r = .63). The EDI subscales Maturity Fears and Interpersonal Distrust and the ANIS subscales Obsessive-Compulsive Traits and Sexual Anxiety address traits not included in the other test and these showed divergent validity. Divergent validity of the ANIS and to a lesser degree the EDI with the GHQ was established. Both tests can be equally recommended for female subjects. In males however, the validity indices of both tests were generally lower and convergent and divergent validity was not established. PMID:7866417

  1. Conducting Internet Research With the Transgender Population: Reaching Broad Samples and Collecting Valid Data.

    PubMed

    Miner, Michael H; Bockting, Walter O; Romine, Rebecca Swinburne; Raman, Sivakumaran

    2012-05-01

    Health research on transgender people has been hampered by the challenges inherent in studying a hard-to-reach, relatively small, and geographically dispersed population. The Internet has the potential to facilitate access to transgender samples large enough to permit examination of the diversity and syndemic health disparities found among this population. In this article, we describe the experiences of a team of investigators using the Internet to study HIV risk behaviors of transgender people in the United States. We developed an online instrument, recruited participants exclusively via websites frequented by members of the target population, and collected data using online quantitative survey and qualitative synchronous and asynchronous interview methods. Our experiences indicate that the Internet environment presents the investigator with some unique challenges and that commonly expressed criticisms about Internet research (e.g., lack of generalizable samples, invalid study participants, and multiple participation by the same subject) can be overcome with careful method design, usability testing, and pilot testing. The importance of both usability and pilot testing are described with respect to participant engagement and retention and the quality of data obtained online. PMID:24031157

  2. Experiments to populate and validate a processing model for polyurethane foam :

    SciTech Connect

    Mondy, Lisa Ann; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Shelden, Bion; Soehnel, Melissa Marie; O'Hern, Timothy J.; Grillet, Anne; Celina, Mathias Christopher; Wyatt, Nicholas B.; Russick, Edward Mark; Bauer, Stephen J.; Hileman, Michael Bryan; Urquhart, Alexander; Thompson, Kyle Richard; Smith, David Michael

    2014-03-01

    We are developing computational models to elucidate the expansion and dynamic filling process of a polyurethane foam, PMDI. The polyurethane of interest is chemically blown, where carbon dioxide is produced via the reaction of water, the blowing agent, and isocyanate. The isocyanate also reacts with polyol in a competing reaction, which produces the polymer. Here we detail the experiments needed to populate a processing model and provide parameters for the model based on these experiments. The model entails solving the conservation equations, including the equations of motion, an energy balance, and two rate equations for the polymerization and foaming reactions, following a simplified mathematical formalism that decouples these two reactions. Parameters for the polymerization kinetics model are reported based on infrared spectrophotometry. Parameters describing the gas generating reaction are reported based on measurements of volume, temperature and pressure evolution with time. A foam rheology model is proposed and parameters determined through steady-shear and oscillatory tests. Heat of reaction and heat capacity are determined through differential scanning calorimetry. Thermal conductivity of the foam as a function of density is measured using a transient method based on the theory of the transient plane source technique. Finally, density variations of the resulting solid foam in several simple geometries are directly measured by sectioning and sampling mass, as well as through x-ray computed tomography. These density measurements will be useful for model validation once the complete model is implemented in an engineering code.

  3. Temporal lobe signs: electroencephalographic validity and enhanced scores in special populations.

    PubMed

    Makarec, K; Persinger, M A

    1985-06-01

    Internal and external validity tests were completed for an inventory that has been used to infer signs of temporal lobe lability. Strong, positive correlations were reported for a normal (reference) population between the numbers of responses that referred to paranormal experiences (including feelings of a "presence") and separately to religious beliefs and the numbers of spikes per minute within electroencephalographic recordings from the temporal lobe. Numbers of spikes were also correlated with the subjects' scores on the hysteria, schizophrenia, and psychasthenia scales from the MMPI. These clusters of items were not correlated with electrical activity from the occipital lobe (the comparison region). Numbers of responses to control clusters of mundane experiences were not correlated with the temporal lobe measures. A group of student poets scored higher on different subclusters of temporal lobe signs and on the schizophrenia and mania scales of the MMPI than the reference group. For both groups, there were positive correlations between the amount of alpha activity in the temporal lobe only and answers to items such as "hearing inner voices" and "feeling as if things were not real." These results demonstrate that quantitative measures of electrical changes in the temporal lobe are correlated with (or with the report of) specific experiences that are prevalent during surgical or epileptic stimulation of this brain region. PMID:3927256

  4. Development and validation of a web-based questionnaire for surveying the health and working conditions of high-performance marine craft populations

    PubMed Central

    de Alwis, Manudul Pahansen; Lo Martire, Riccardo; Äng, Björn O; Garme, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Background High-performance marine craft crews are susceptible to various adverse health conditions caused by multiple interactive factors. However, there are limited epidemiological data available for assessment of working conditions at sea. Although questionnaire surveys are widely used for identifying exposures, outcomes and associated risks with high accuracy levels, until now, no validated epidemiological tool exists for surveying occupational health and performance in these populations. Aim To develop and validate a web-based questionnaire for epidemiological assessment of occupational and individual risk exposure pertinent to the musculoskeletal health conditions and performance in high-performance marine craft populations. Method A questionnaire for investigating the association between work-related exposure, performance and health was initially developed by a consensus panel under four subdomains, viz. demography, lifestyle, work exposure and health and systematically validated by expert raters for content relevance and simplicity in three consecutive stages, each iteratively followed by a consensus panel revision. The item content validity index (I-CVI) was determined as the proportion of experts giving a rating of 3 or 4. The scale content validity index (S-CVI/Ave) was computed by averaging the I-CVIs for the assessment of the questionnaire as a tool. Finally, the questionnaire was pilot tested. Results The S-CVI/Ave increased from 0.89 to 0.96 for relevance and from 0.76 to 0.94 for simplicity, resulting in 36 items in the final questionnaire. The pilot test confirmed the feasibility of the questionnaire. Conclusions The present study shows that the web-based questionnaire fulfils previously published validity acceptance criteria and is therefore considered valid and feasible for the empirical surveying of epidemiological aspects among high-performance marine craft crews and similar populations. PMID:27324717

  5. Validity and feasibility of a satellite imagery-based method for rapid estimation of displaced populations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Estimating the size of forcibly displaced populations is key to documenting their plight and allocating sufficient resources to their assistance, but is often not done, particularly during the acute phase of displacement, due to methodological challenges and inaccessibility. In this study, we explored the potential use of very high resolution satellite imagery to remotely estimate forcibly displaced populations. Methods Our method consisted of multiplying (i) manual counts of assumed residential structures on a satellite image and (ii) estimates of the mean number of people per structure (structure occupancy) obtained from publicly available reports. We computed population estimates for 11 sites in Bangladesh, Chad, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Haiti, Kenya and Mozambique (six refugee camps, three internally displaced persons’ camps and two urban neighbourhoods with a mixture of residents and displaced) ranging in population from 1,969 to 90,547, and compared these to “gold standard” reference population figures from census or other robust methods. Results Structure counts by independent analysts were reasonably consistent. Between one and 11 occupancy reports were available per site and most of these reported people per household rather than per structure. The imagery-based method had a precision relative to reference population figures of <10% in four sites and 10–30% in three sites, but severely over-estimated the population in an Ethiopian camp with implausible occupancy data and two post-earthquake Haiti sites featuring dense and complex residential layout. For each site, estimates were produced in 2–5 working person-days. Conclusions In settings with clearly distinguishable individual structures, the remote, imagery-based method had reasonable accuracy for the purposes of rapid estimation, was simple and quick to implement, and would likely perform better in more current application. However, it may have insurmountable

  6. Depression and violence: a Swedish population study

    PubMed Central

    Fazel, Seena; Wolf, Achim; Chang, Zheng; Larsson, Henrik; Goodwin, Guy M; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Depression increases the risk of a range of adverse outcomes including suicide, premature mortality, and self-harm, but associations with violent crime remain uncertain. We aimed to determine the risks of violent crime in patients with depression and to investigate the association between depressive symptoms and violent crime in a cohort of twins. Methods We conducted two studies. The first was a total population study in Sweden of patients with outpatient diagnoses of depressive disorders (n=47 158) between 2001 and 2009 and no lifetime inpatient episodes. Patients were age and sex matched to general population controls (n=898 454) and risk of violent crime was calculated. Additionally, we compared the odds of violent crime in unaffected half-siblings (n=15 534) and full siblings (n=33 516) of patients with the general population controls. In sensitivity analyses, we examined the contribution of substance abuse, sociodemographic factors, and previous criminality. In the second study, we studied a general population sample of twins (n=23 020) with continuous measures of depressive symptoms for risk of violent crime. Findings During a mean follow-up period of 3·2 years, 641 (3·7%) of the depressed men and 152 (0·5%) of the depressed women violently offended after diagnosis. After adjustment for sociodemographic confounders, the odds ratio of violent crime was 3·0 (95% CI 2·8–3·3) compared with the general population controls. The odds of violent crime in half-siblings (adjusted odds ratio 1·2 [95% CI 1·1–1·4]) and full siblings (1·5, 95% CI 1·3–1·6) were significantly increased, showing some familial confounding of the association between depression and violence. However, the odds increase remained significant in individuals with depression after adjustment for familial confounding, and in those without substance abuse comorbidity or a previous violent conviction (all p<0·0001). In the twin study, during the mean

  7. Test of Creative Imagination: Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundogan, Aysun; Ari, Meziyet; Gonen, Mubeccel

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate validity and reliability of the test of creative imagination. This study was conducted with the participation of 1000 children, aged between 9-14 and were studying in six primary schools in the city center of Denizli Province, chosen by cluster ratio sampling. In the study, it was revealed that the…

  8. Human Rights Attitude Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ercan, Recep; Yaman, Tugba; Demir, Selcuk Besir

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a valid and reliable attitude scale having quality psychometric features that can measure secondary school students' attitudes towards human rights. The study group of the research is comprised by 710 6th, 7th and 8th grade students who study at 4 secondary schools in the centre of Sivas. The study group…

  9. Validation Theory and Research for a Population-Level Measure of Children's Development, Wellbeing, and School Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guhn, Martin; Zumbo, Bruno D.; Janus, Magdalena; Hertzman, Clyde

    2011-01-01

    This paper delineates general validity and research questions that are underlying an ongoing program of research pertaining to the Early Development Instrument (EDI, Janus and Offord 2007), a population-level measure, on which teachers rate kindergarten children's developmental outcomes in the social, emotional, physical, cognitive, and…

  10. The Universal Patient Centeredness Questionnaire: reliability and validity of a one-page questionnaire following surveys in three patient populations

    PubMed Central

    Bjertnaes, Oyvind; Iversen, Hilde Hestad; Holmboe, Olaf; Danielsen, Kirsten; Garratt, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Background This study developed and tested the reliability and validity of the Universal Patient Centeredness Questionnaire (UPC-Q). Methods The UPC-Q developed in this study has three parts: 1) the aspects that patients consider the most important when receiving a relevant health care service, rating the health care services on these aspects and their prioritization, 2) the overall experiences of patients using the relevant health care service, and 3) suggestions for improvements. The UPC-Q was tested in four different patient-experience surveys in 2015, including psychiatric inpatients (n=109), general practitioner (GP) patients (n=1,059), and inpatients from two hospital samples (n=973, n=599). The UPC-Q was tested for item completeness and ceiling effects, while the UPC-Q scale consisting of the first part of the UPC-Q was tested for internal consistency reliability and construct validity. Results The percentage of patients rating at least one aspect was 70.6% for psychiatric inpatients, 77.6% for hospital inpatients, and 90.6% for GP patients, while 88.9% of the psychiatric inpatients, 93.1% of the hospital inpatients, and 95.3% of the GP patients were able to prioritize the aspects. The internal consistency reliability of the UPC-Q scale was acceptable in all samples (Cronbach’s alpha >0.7), and construct validity was supported by 20 of 21 significant associations between the UPC-Q and related variables. The UPC-Q total score was skewed toward positive evaluations, but the ceiling effect was smaller for an unbalanced response scale than for a balanced scale. Conclusion The UPC-Q includes ratings of what is most important for individual patients, while at the same time providing data for improving the quality of health care and making it possible to monitor trends within and across patient populations. This study included psychiatric inpatients, hospital inpatients, and GP patients, and found that the UPC-Q performed well in terms of acceptance, internal

  11. The Well-Being 5: Development and Validation of a Diagnostic Instrument to Improve Population Well-being

    PubMed Central

    Sears, Lindsay E.; Agrawal, Sangeeta; Sidney, James A.; Castle, Patricia H.; Coberley, Carter R.; Witters, Dan; Pope, James E.; Harter, James K.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Building upon extensive research from 2 validated well-being instruments, the objective of this research was to develop and validate a comprehensive and actionable well-being instrument that informs and facilitates improvement of well-being for individuals, communities, and nations. The goals of the measure were comprehensiveness, validity and reliability, significant relationships with health and performance outcomes, and diagnostic capability for intervention. For measure development and validation, questions from the Well-being Assessment and Wellbeing Finder were simultaneously administered as a test item pool to over 13,000 individuals across 3 independent samples. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on a random selection from the first sample and confirmed in the other samples. Further evidence of validity was established through correlations to the established well-being scores from the Well-Being Assessment and Wellbeing Finder, and individual outcomes capturing health care utilization and productivity. Results showed the Well-Being 5 score comprehensively captures the known constructs within well-being, demonstrates good reliability and validity, significantly relates to health and performance outcomes, is diagnostic and informative for intervention, and can track and compare well-being over time and across groups. With this tool, well-being deficiencies within a population can be effectively identified, prioritized, and addressed, yielding the potential for substantial improvements to the health status, performance, and quality of life for individuals and cost savings for stakeholders. (Population Health Management 2014;17:357–365) PMID:24892873

  12. The positive mental health instrument: development and validation of a culturally relevant scale in a multi-ethnic asian population

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Instruments to measure mental health and well-being are largely developed and often used within Western populations and this compromises their validity in other cultures. A previous qualitative study in Singapore demonstrated the relevance of spiritual and religious practices to mental health, a dimension currently not included in exiting multi-dimensional measures. The objective of this study was to develop a self-administered measure that covers all key and culturally appropriate domains of mental health, which can be applied to compare levels of mental health across different age, gender and ethnic groups. We present the item reduction and validation of the Positive Mental Health (PMH) instrument in a community-based adult sample in Singapore. Methods Surveys were conducted among adult (21-65 years) residents belonging to Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnicities. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (EFA, CFA) were conducted and items were reduced using item response theory tests (IRT). The final version of the PMH instrument was tested for internal consistency and criterion validity. Items were tested for differential item functioning (DIF) to check if items functioned in the same way across all subgroups. Results: EFA and CFA identified six first-order factor structure (General coping, Personal growth and autonomy, Spirituality, Interpersonal skills, Emotional support, and Global affect) under one higher-order dimension of Positive Mental Health (RMSEA = 0.05, CFI = 0.96, TLI = 0.96). A 47-item self-administered multi-dimensional instrument with a six-point Likert response scale was constructed. The slope estimates and strength of the relation to the theta for all items in each six PMH subscales were high (range:1.39 to 5.69), suggesting good discrimination properties. The threshold estimates for the instrument ranged from -3.45 to 1.61 indicating that the instrument covers entire spectrums for the six dimensions. The instrument demonstrated

  13. Scoring of nonmetric cranial traits: a population study

    PubMed Central

    BRASILI, P.; ZACCAGNI, L.; GUALDI-RUSSO, E.

    1999-01-01

    The aims of the present study were: (1) to supply further knowledge about variations in nonmetric cranial traits in relation to sex, age and laterality and (2) to evaluate biological distance between samples from a recent population. The incidence of 18 nonmetric variants of the cranium were determined in 3 adult samples of 394 skulls of known sex from North Sardinia (Sassari, Alghero and Ozieri); for the Sassari sample (n = 200) age at death was also known. Some significant sex differences were observed. Age did not appear to influence the frequency of the discontinuous traits but did for legibility. Side differences may provide important information about environmental influences. The interpopulation analysis indicates a stronger relationship between samples that are geographically closer (Sassari and Alghero), in accordance with other studies, strengthening the hypothesis of the validity of the use of nonmetric traits in the study of the peopling of a territory. PMID:10634694

  14. Radionuclide migration laboratory studies for validation of batch sorption data

    SciTech Connect

    Triay, I.R.; Mitchell, A.J.; Ott, M.A.

    1991-12-31

    Advective and diffusive migration experiments (within the Dynamic Transport Column Experiments and Diffusion Studies of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project) involve utilizing crushed material, intact, and fractured tuff in order to test and improve (if necessary) transport models by experimentally observing the migration of sorbing and non-sorbing radionuclides on a laboratory scale. Performing a validation of the sorption data obtained with batch techniques (within the Batch Sorption Study) is an integral part of the mission of the Dynamic Transport Column Experiments and Diffusion Studies. In this paper the work scope of the radionuclide migration laboratory experiments (as they apply to validation of batch sorption data) is reviewed.

  15. THE RELIABILITY, MINIMAL DETECTABLE CHANGE AND CONSTRUCT VALIDITY OF A CLINICAL MEASUREMENT FOR QUANTIFYING POSTERIOR SHOULDER TIGHTNESS IN THE POST‐OPERATIVE POPULATION

    PubMed Central

    Kolber, Morey J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Posterior shoulder tightness (PST) has been implicated in the etiology of numerous shoulder disorders. Although reliable and valid measures have been described for the non‐operative population one does not exist for the post‐operative population. Study Design: Blinded repeated measures design. Purpose: Investigate the intrarater reliability, minimal detectable change at the 90% confidence interval (MDC90) and construct validity of an inclinometric measurement designed to quantify PST in the post‐operative population. Methods: One investigator performed PST measurements on the operative shoulder of 23 participants. Passive internal and external rotation measurements were performed for the validity component of the investigation. Results: Intrarater reliability using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) model 3,k was good (ICC = 0.79). The MDC90 indicated that a change of greater than or equal to 8 degrees would be required to be 90% certain that a change in the measurement would not be the result of inter‐trial variability or measurement error. Construct validity was supported by a statistically significant relationship between PST and internal rotation r = 0.54 and by a relationship between PST and external rotation r = 0.30 which was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The sidelying procedure described in this investigation appears to be a reliable and valid means for quantifying PST in the post‐operative population. Moreover, the use of inclinometry provides an absolute angle of tightness that may be used for intersubject comparison, documenting change, and to determine reference values. Level of Evidence: Therapy, level 2b PMID:23316420

  16. Development and Validation of a Cross-Cultural Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Survey Instrument for Chronic Kidney Disease in a Swahili-Speaking Population

    PubMed Central

    Stanifer, John W.; Karia, Francis; Voils, Corrine I.; Turner, Elizabeth L.; Maro, Venance; Shimbi, Dionis; Kilawe, Humphrey; Lazaro, Matayo; Patel, Uptal D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Non-communicable diseases are a growing global burden, and structured surveys can identify critical gaps to address this epidemic. In sub-Saharan Africa, there are very few well-tested survey instruments measuring population attributes related to non-communicable diseases. To meet this need, we have developed and validated the first instrument evaluating knowledge, attitudes and practices pertaining to chronic kidney disease in a Swahili-speaking population. Methods and Results Between December 2013 and June 2014, we conducted a four-stage, mixed-methods study among adults from the general population of northern Tanzania. In stage 1, the survey instrument was constructed in English by a group of cross-cultural experts from multiple disciplines and through content analysis of focus group discussions to ensure local significance. Following translation, in stage 2, we piloted the survey through cognitive and structured interviews, and in stage 3, in order to obtain initial evidence of reliability and construct validity, we recruited and then administered the instrument to a random sample of 606 adults. In stage 4, we conducted analyses to establish test-retest reliability and known-groups validity which was informed by thematic analysis of the qualitative data in stages 1 and 2. The final version consisted of 25 items divided into three conceptual domains: knowledge, attitudes and practices. Each item demonstrated excellent test-retest reliability with established content and construct validity. Conclusions We have developed a reliable and valid cross-cultural survey instrument designed to measure knowledge, attitudes and practices of chronic kidney disease in a Swahili-speaking population of Northern Tanzania. This instrument may be valuable for addressing gaps in non-communicable diseases care by understanding preferences regarding healthcare, formulating educational initiatives, and directing development of chronic disease management programs that

  17. 41 CFR 60-3.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., content, and construct validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a... this part. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a content validity study.... Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure through a construct validity study...

  18. 41 CFR 60-3.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., content, and construct validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a... this part. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a content validity study.... Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure through a construct validity study...

  19. 41 CFR 60-3.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., content, and construct validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a... this part. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a content validity study.... Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure through a construct validity study...

  20. 41 CFR 60-3.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., content, and construct validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a... this part. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a content validity study.... Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure through a construct validity study...

  1. 41 CFR 60-3.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., content, and construct validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a... this part. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a content validity study.... Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure through a construct validity study...

  2. Verification, Validation and Sensitivity Studies in Computational Biomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Andrew E.; Ellis, Benjamin J.; Weiss, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    Computational techniques and software for the analysis of problems in mechanics have naturally moved from their origins in the traditional engineering disciplines to the study of cell, tissue and organ biomechanics. Increasingly complex models have been developed to describe and predict the mechanical behavior of such biological systems. While the availability of advanced computational tools has led to exciting research advances in the field, the utility of these models is often the subject of criticism due to inadequate model verification and validation. The objective of this review is to present the concepts of verification, validation and sensitivity studies with regard to the construction, analysis and interpretation of models in computational biomechanics. Specific examples from the field are discussed. It is hoped that this review will serve as a guide to the use of verification and validation principles in the field of computational biomechanics, thereby improving the peer acceptance of studies that use computational modeling techniques. PMID:17558646

  3. California Diploma Project Technical Report III: Validity Study--Validity Study of the Health Sciences and Medical Technology Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGaughy, Charis; Bryck, Rick; de Gonzalez, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    This study is a validity study of the recently revised version of the Health Science Standards. The purpose of this study is to understand how the Health Science Standards relate to college and career readiness, as represented by survey ratings submitted by entry-level college instructors of health science courses and industry representatives. For…

  4. The Basic "How To's" for Validating a Study Skills Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blasingame, Virginia G.

    To find out what study skills were used by successful students at an urban commuter school whose primary degree program is business, the College Reading and Study Skills (CRSS) inventory was validated on 150 students. First the CRSS inventory was evaluated and revised slightly. The language of the statements was made positive and jargon free. The…

  5. Developing the Educational Belief Scale: The Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Kursad; Altinkurt, Yahya; Cokluk, Omay

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a valid and reliable scale that can be used in determining educational beliefs of teachers and prospective teachers. After studies such as scale expert views and the evaluation of intelligibility, the measure is administered to a sample consisting of 154 teachers and 305 prospective teachers with a total number…

  6. A Validation Study of the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keck Seeley, Susan. M.; Perosa, Sandra, L.; Perosa, Linda, M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to further the validation process of the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale (A-DES). In this study, a 6-item Likert response format with descriptors was used when responding to the A-DES rather than the 11-item response format used in the original A-DES. Method: The internal reliability and construct…

  7. A Re-analysis of Published Differential Validity Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruch, William W.

    A survey of recent literature was undertaken to locate validity studies of paper-and-pencil tests which met the following criteria: (1) Studies were conducted in a business or industrial (i.e. non-education, non-military) setting; (2) Separate statistics were available for blacks and whites; (3) Race was not confounded with some outside variable…

  8. The Jackson Career Explorer: Two Further Validity Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schermer, Julie Aitken

    2012-01-01

    The present report consists of two further validity studies using the Jackson Career Explorer (JCE), a short form and continuous version of the Jackson Vocational Interest Survey, measuring 34 interests. The first study examined the relationships between the JCE and five personality factors, from a sample of 528 individuals. The correlations found…

  9. Validation of Genotyping-By-Sequencing Analysis in Populations of Tetraploid Alfalfa by 454 Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Rocher, Solen; Jean, Martine; Castonguay, Yves; Belzile, François

    2015-01-01

    Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) is a relatively low-cost high throughput genotyping technology based on next generation sequencing and is applicable to orphan species with no reference genome. A combination of genome complexity reduction and multiplexing with DNA barcoding provides a simple and affordable way to resolve allelic variation between plant samples or populations. GBS was performed on ApeKI libraries using DNA from 48 genotypes each of two heterogeneous populations of tetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa spp. sativa): the synthetic cultivar Apica (ATF0) and a derived population (ATF5) obtained after five cycles of recurrent selection for superior tolerance to freezing (TF). Nearly 400 million reads were obtained from two lanes of an Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencer and analyzed with the Universal Network-Enabled Analysis Kit (UNEAK) pipeline designed for species with no reference genome. Following the application of whole dataset-level filters, 11,694 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci were obtained. About 60% had a significant match on the Medicago truncatula syntenic genome. The accuracy of allelic ratios and genotype calls based on GBS data was directly assessed using 454 sequencing on a subset of SNP loci scored in eight plant samples. Sequencing depth in this study was not sufficient for accurate tetraploid allelic dosage, but reliable genotype calls based on diploid allelic dosage were obtained when using additional quality filtering. Principal Component Analysis of SNP loci in plant samples revealed that a small proportion (<5%) of the genetic variability assessed by GBS is able to differentiate ATF0 and ATF5. Our results confirm that analysis of GBS data using UNEAK is a reliable approach for genome-wide discovery of SNP loci in outcrossed polyploids. PMID:26115486

  10. Evaluation of Berlin Questionnaire Validity for Sleep Apnea Risk in Sleep Clinic Populations

    PubMed Central

    Khaledi-Paveh, Behnam; Khazaie, Habibolah; Nasouri, Marzie; Ghadami, Mohammad Rasoul; Tahmasian, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The Berlin questionnaire (BQ) is a common tool to screen for Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) in the general population, but its application in the clinical sleep setting is still challenging. The aim of this study was to determine the specificity and sensitivity of the BQ compared to the apnea-hypopnea index obtained from polysomnography recordings obtained from a sleep clinic in Iran. Methods: We recruited 100 patients who were referred to the Sleep Disorders Research Center of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences for the evaluation of suspected sleep-disorder breathing difficulties. Patients completed a Persian version of BQ and underwent one night of PSG. For each patient, Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI) was calculated to assess the diagnosis and severity of OSA. Severity of OSA was categorized as mild when AHI was between 5 and 15, moderate when it was between 15 and 30, and severe when it was more than 30. Results: BQ results categorized 65% of our patients as high risk and 35% as low risk for OSA. The sensitivity and the specificity of BQ for OSA diagnosis with AHI>5 were 77.3% and 23.1%, respectively. Positive predictive value was 68.0% and negative predictive value was 22.0%. Moreover, the area under curve was 0.53 (95% CI: 0.49 – 0.67, P=0.38). Discussion: Our findings suggested that BQ, despite its advantages in the general population, is not a precise tool to determine the risk of sleep apnea in the clinical setting, particularly in the sleep clinic population. PMID:27303598

  11. A Comparative Analysis of the Validity of US State- and County-Level Social Capital Measures and Their Associations with Population Health

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chul-joo; Kim, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The goals of this study were to validate a number of available collective social capital measures at the U.S. state and county levels, and to examine the relative extent to which these social capital measures are associated with population health outcomes. Measures of social capital at the U.S. state level included aggregate indices based on the Annenberg National Health Communication Survey (ANHCS) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), Petris Social Capital Index (PSCI), Putnam’s index, and Kim et al.’s scales. County-level measures consisted of Rupasingha et al.’s social capital index (RGFI) and a BRFSS-derived measure. These measures, except for the PSCI, showed evidence of acceptable validity. Moreover, we observed differences across the social capital measures in their associations with population health outcomes. The implications of the findings for future research in this area are discussed. PMID:25574069

  12. Concurrent Validity of the Schwartz Outcome Scale with a Chemically Dependent Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, John M.; Ahern, Bob

    2003-01-01

    Explored validity of Schwartz Outcome Scale (SOS-10) for use with people possibly motivated to "fake good," and therefore unwilling to admit problems, and with people who, because of denial, might be unaware of their psychological distress. Investigated discriminant validity of SOS-10 by comparing it with another inventory designed primarily to…

  13. Systematic review of validated case definitions for diabetes in ICD-9-coded and ICD-10-coded data in adult populations

    PubMed Central

    Khokhar, Bushra; Jette, Nathalie; Metcalfe, Amy; Cunningham, Ceara Tess; Kaplan, Gilaad G; Butalia, Sonia; Rabi, Doreen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives With steady increases in ‘big data’ and data analytics over the past two decades, administrative health databases have become more accessible and are now used regularly for diabetes surveillance. The objective of this study is to systematically review validated International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-based case definitions for diabetes in the adult population. Setting, participants and outcome measures Electronic databases, MEDLINE and Embase, were searched for validation studies where an administrative case definition (using ICD codes) for diabetes in adults was validated against a reference and statistical measures of the performance reported. Results The search yielded 2895 abstracts, and of the 193 potentially relevant studies, 16 met criteria. Diabetes definition for adults varied by data source, including physician claims (sensitivity ranged from 26.9% to 97%, specificity ranged from 94.3% to 99.4%, positive predictive value (PPV) ranged from 71.4% to 96.2%, negative predictive value (NPV) ranged from 95% to 99.6% and κ ranged from 0.8 to 0.9), hospital discharge data (sensitivity ranged from 59.1% to 92.6%, specificity ranged from 95.5% to 99%, PPV ranged from 62.5% to 96%, NPV ranged from 90.8% to 99% and κ ranged from 0.6 to 0.9) and a combination of both (sensitivity ranged from 57% to 95.6%, specificity ranged from 88% to 98.5%, PPV ranged from 54% to 80%, NPV ranged from 98% to 99.6% and κ ranged from 0.7 to 0.8). Conclusions Overall, administrative health databases are useful for undertaking diabetes surveillance, but an awareness of the variation in performance being affected by case definition is essential. The performance characteristics of these case definitions depend on the variations in the definition of primary diagnosis in ICD-coded discharge data and/or the methodology adopted by the healthcare facility to extract information from patient records. PMID:27496226

  14. Validation of SNP Allele Frequencies Determined by Pooled Next-Generation Sequencing in Natural Populations of a Non-Model Plant Species

    PubMed Central

    Rellstab, Christian; Zoller, Stefan; Tedder, Andrew; Gugerli, Felix; Fischer, Martin C.

    2013-01-01

    Sequencing of pooled samples (Pool-Seq) using next-generation sequencing technologies has become increasingly popular, because it represents a rapid and cost-effective method to determine allele frequencies for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in population pools. Validation of allele frequencies determined by Pool-Seq has been attempted using an individual genotyping approach, but these studies tend to use samples from existing model organism databases or DNA stores, and do not validate a realistic setup for sampling natural populations. Here we used pyrosequencing to validate allele frequencies determined by Pool-Seq in three natural populations of Arabidopsis halleri (Brassicaceae). The allele frequency estimates of the pooled population samples (consisting of 20 individual plant DNA samples) were determined after mapping Illumina reads to (i) the publicly available, high-quality reference genome of a closely related species (Arabidopsis thaliana) and (ii) our own de novo draft genome assembly of A. halleri. We then pyrosequenced nine selected SNPs using the same individuals from each population, resulting in a total of 540 samples. Our results show a highly significant and accurate relationship between pooled and individually determined allele frequencies, irrespective of the reference genome used. Allele frequencies differed on average by less than 4%. There was no tendency that either the Pool-Seq or the individual-based approach resulted in higher or lower estimates of allele frequencies. Moreover, the rather high coverage in the mapping to the two reference genomes, ranging from 55 to 284x, had no significant effect on the accuracy of the Pool-Seq. A resampling analysis showed that only very low coverage values (below 10-20x) would substantially reduce the precision of the method. We therefore conclude that a pooled re-sequencing approach is well suited for analyses of genetic variation in natural populations. PMID:24244686

  15. Practical Bias Correction in Aerial Surveys of Large Mammals: Validation of Hybrid Double-Observer with Sightability Method against Known Abundance of Feral Horse (Equus caballus) Populations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Reliably estimating wildlife abundance is fundamental to effective management. Aerial surveys are one of the only spatially robust tools for estimating large mammal populations, but statistical sampling methods are required to address detection biases that affect accuracy and precision of the estimates. Although various methods for correcting aerial survey bias are employed on large mammal species around the world, these have rarely been rigorously validated. Several populations of feral horses (Equus caballus) in the western United States have been intensively studied, resulting in identification of all unique individuals. This provided a rare opportunity to test aerial survey bias correction on populations of known abundance. We hypothesized that a hybrid method combining simultaneous double-observer and sightability bias correction techniques would accurately estimate abundance. We validated this integrated technique on populations of known size and also on a pair of surveys before and after a known number was removed. Our analysis identified several covariates across the surveys that explained and corrected biases in the estimates. All six tests on known populations produced estimates with deviations from the known value ranging from -8.5% to +13.7% and <0.7 standard errors. Precision varied widely, from 6.1% CV to 25.0% CV. In contrast, the pair of surveys conducted around a known management removal produced an estimated change in population between the surveys that was significantly larger than the known reduction. Although the deviation between was only 9.1%, the precision estimate (CV = 1.6%) may have been artificially low. It was apparent that use of a helicopter in those surveys perturbed the horses, introducing detection error and heterogeneity in a manner that could not be corrected by our statistical models. Our results validate the hybrid method, highlight its potentially broad applicability, identify some limitations, and provide insight and guidance

  16. Practical Bias Correction in Aerial Surveys of Large Mammals: Validation of Hybrid Double-Observer with Sightability Method against Known Abundance of Feral Horse (Equus caballus) Populations.

    PubMed

    Lubow, Bruce C; Ransom, Jason I

    2016-01-01

    Reliably estimating wildlife abundance is fundamental to effective management. Aerial surveys are one of the only spatially robust tools for estimating large mammal populations, but statistical sampling methods are required to address detection biases that affect accuracy and precision of the estimates. Although various methods for correcting aerial survey bias are employed on large mammal species around the world, these have rarely been rigorously validated. Several populations of feral horses (Equus caballus) in the western United States have been intensively studied, resulting in identification of all unique individuals. This provided a rare opportunity to test aerial survey bias correction on populations of known abundance. We hypothesized that a hybrid method combining simultaneous double-observer and sightability bias correction techniques would accurately estimate abundance. We validated this integrated technique on populations of known size and also on a pair of surveys before and after a known number was removed. Our analysis identified several covariates across the surveys that explained and corrected biases in the estimates. All six tests on known populations produced estimates with deviations from the known value ranging from -8.5% to +13.7% and <0.7 standard errors. Precision varied widely, from 6.1% CV to 25.0% CV. In contrast, the pair of surveys conducted around a known management removal produced an estimated change in population between the surveys that was significantly larger than the known reduction. Although the deviation between was only 9.1%, the precision estimate (CV = 1.6%) may have been artificially low. It was apparent that use of a helicopter in those surveys perturbed the horses, introducing detection error and heterogeneity in a manner that could not be corrected by our statistical models. Our results validate the hybrid method, highlight its potentially broad applicability, identify some limitations, and provide insight and guidance

  17. The well-being 5: development and validation of a diagnostic instrument to improve population well-being.

    PubMed

    Sears, Lindsay E; Agrawal, Sangeeta; Sidney, James A; Castle, Patricia H; Rula, Elizabeth Y; Coberley, Carter R; Witters, Dan; Pope, James E; Harter, James K

    2014-12-01

    Building upon extensive research from 2 validated well-being instruments, the objective of this research was to develop and validate a comprehensive and actionable well-being instrument that informs and facilitates improvement of well-being for individuals, communities, and nations. The goals of the measure were comprehensiveness, validity and reliability, significant relationships with health and performance outcomes, and diagnostic capability for intervention. For measure development and validation, questions from the Well-being Assessment and Wellbeing Finder were simultaneously administered as a test item pool to over 13,000 individuals across 3 independent samples. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on a random selection from the first sample and confirmed in the other samples. Further evidence of validity was established through correlations to the established well-being scores from the Well-Being Assessment and Wellbeing Finder, and individual outcomes capturing health care utilization and productivity. Results showed the Well-Being 5 score comprehensively captures the known constructs within well-being, demonstrates good reliability and validity, significantly relates to health and performance outcomes, is diagnostic and informative for intervention, and can track and compare well-being over time and across groups. With this tool, well-being deficiencies within a population can be effectively identified, prioritized, and addressed, yielding the potential for substantial improvements to the health status, performance, and quality of life for individuals and cost savings for stakeholders. PMID:24892873

  18. Age and education adjusted normative data and discriminative validity for Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test in the elderly Greek population.

    PubMed

    Messinis, Lambros; Nasios, Grigorios; Mougias, Antonios; Politis, Antonis; Zampakis, Petros; Tsiamaki, Eirini; Malefaki, Sonia; Gourzis, Phillipos; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) is a widely used neuropsychological test to assess episodic memory. In the present study we sought to establish normative and discriminative validity data for the RAVLT in the elderly population using previously adapted learning lists for the Greek adult population. We administered the test to 258 cognitively healthy elderly participants, aged 60-89 years, and two patient groups (192 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, aMCI, and 65 with Alzheimer's disease, AD). From the statistical analyses, we found that age and education contributed significantly to most trials of the RAVLT, whereas the influence of gender was not significant. Younger elderly participants with higher education outperformed the older elderly with lower education levels. Moreover, both clinical groups performed significantly worse on most RAVLT trials and composite measures than matched cognitively healthy controls. Furthermore, the AD group performed more poorly than the aMCI group on most RAVLT variables. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to examine the utility of the RAVLT trials to discriminate cognitively healthy controls from aMCI and AD patients. Area under the curve (AUC), an index of effect size, showed that most of the RAVLT measures (individual and composite) included in this study adequately differentiated between the performance of healthy elders and aMCI/AD patients. We also provide cutoff scores in discriminating cognitively healthy controls from aMCI and AD patients, based on the sensitivity and specificity of the prescribed scores. Moreover, we present age- and education-specific normative data for individual and composite scores for the Greek adapted RAVLT in elderly subjects aged between 60 and 89 years for use in clinical and research settings. PMID:26588427

  19. Translation, Cross-Cultural Adaptation, and Validation of the Lee Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease Symptom Scale in a Brazilian Population.

    PubMed

    Vasconcellos de Souza, Clarissa; Vigorito, Afonso Celso; Miranda, Eliana C M; Garcia, Celso; Rensi Colturato, Vergílio Antonio; Mauad, Marcos Augusto; Rodrigues Moreira, Maria Cláudia; da Silva Bouzas, Luis Fernando; Lermontov, Simone; Hamerschlak, Nelson; Rodrigues, Morgani; Carlos de Almeida Barros, Jose; Chiattone, Ricardo; Lee, Stephanie J; Flowers, Mary E D

    2016-07-01

    The Lee Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease (GVHD) Symptom Scale is a patient-reported instrument developed and validated in English to measure the symptoms and functional impact of cGVHD. This tool has not yet been validated in a Latin American population, however. The Brazil-Seattle Chronic GVHD Consortium conducted a multicenter study at 5 Brazilian institutions to validate the Lee cGVHD Symptom Scale in adults with cGVHD. Study objectives included the translation and validation of the instrument in Brazilian Portuguese and evaluation of the correlation with other quality of life (QoL) tools, including the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) and Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy with Bone Marrow Transplant subscale (FACT-BMT). Translation and validation were done according to the American Association of Orthopedic Surgeons Outcome Committee guidelines. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to measure construct validity. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach's α and intraclass correlation coefficients. Between April 2011 and August 2012, 47 patients with cGVHD based on the 2005 National Institutes of Health criteria (29 males [62%], 18 females [38%]; median age, 48 years; range, 23 to 69 years) were enrolled in this study. The reliability of the Lee cGVHD Symptom Scale was adequate (Cronbach's α = 0.62 to 0.83). The correlations between similar domains of the Lee cGVHD Symptom Scale, SF-36, and FACT-BMT were moderate to high. Our data indicate that the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Lee cGVHD Symptom Scale is valid and reliable and can be used in clinical trials of cGVHD in Brazil. PMID:27058616

  20. Assessing Meritorious Teacher Performance: A Differential Validity Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellett, Chad D; Capie, William

    The Teacher Assessment and Development System (TADS) - Meritorious Teacher Program (MTP) FORM instrument is used in the Dade County Public Schools, Miami, Florida, to evaluate teachers. Its validity for decisions concerning merit pay for master teachers was examined in this study. Specifically, its ability to discriminate between high performing…

  1. Conceptualization and Utility of University Mattering: A Construct Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    France, Megan K.; Finney, Sara J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gather validity evidence for the University Mattering Scale. Theoretically based factor structures were tested, resulting in the four-factor conceptualization of mattering being championed. As predicted, university mattering related positively to academic motivational and relatedness constructs and negatively to…

  2. Rap-Music Attitude and Perception Scale: A Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyson, Edgar H.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study tests the validity of the Rap-music Attitude and Perception (RAP) Scale, a 1-page, 24-item measure of a person's thoughts and feelings surrounding the effects and content of rap music. The RAP was designed as a rapid assessment instrument for youth programs and practitioners using rap music and hip hop culture in their work…

  3. A Validation Study of Early Adolescents' Pubertal Self-Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Katharine E.; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Nichols, Jeanne F.; Irvin, Veronica L.; Keating, Kristen; Simon, Gayle M.; Gehrman, Christine; Jones, Kenneth Lee

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether self-assessed puberty is sufficiently reliable and valid to substitute for physician examination when feasibility of physician examination is low (e.g., behavioral research). Adolescents (convenience sample N = 178 endocrinology patients and N = 125 from educational trial; mean age 12.7 and 11.3 years,…

  4. Homework Purpose Scale for Middle School Students: A Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Jianzhong

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to test the validity of scores on the Homework Purpose Scale (HPS) for middle school students. The participants were 1,181 eighth graders in the southeastern United States, including (a) 699 students in urban school districts and (b) 482 students in rural school districts. First, confirmatory factor analysis was…

  5. Homework Purpose Scale for High School Students: A Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Jianzhong

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test the validity of scores on the Homework Purpose Scale using 681 rural and 306 urban high school students. First, confirmatory factor analysis was conducted on the rural sample. The results reveal that the Homework Purpose Scale comprises three separate yet related factors, including Learning-Oriented Reasons,…

  6. Teachers' Engagement at Work: An International Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Robert M.; Aldhafri, Said; Mansfield, Caroline F.; Purwanto, Edy; Siu, Angela F. Y.; Wong, Marina W.; Woods-McConney, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the validity of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale in a sample of 853 practicing teachers from Australia, Canada, China (Hong Kong), Indonesia, and Oman. The authors used multigroup confirmatory factor analysis to test the factor structure and measurement invariance across settings, after which they examined the relationships…

  7. A Validation Study of the Existential Anxiety Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hullett, Michael A.

    Logotherapy is a meaning-centered psychotherapy which focuses on both the meaning of human existence and the personal search for meaning. If the will to search for meaning is frustrated, "existential frustration" may result. This study validates the Existential Anxiety Scale (EAS) developed by Good and Good (1974). Basic principles of logotherapy…

  8. Reflective Thinking Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basol, Gulsah; Evin Gencel, Ilke

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to adapt Reflective Thinking Scale to Turkish and investigate its validity and reliability over a Turkish university students' sample. Reflective Thinking Scale (RTS) is a 5 point Likert scale (ranging from 1 corresponding Agree Completely, 3 to Neutral, and 5 to Not Agree Completely), purposed to measure…

  9. A Validation Study of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, Rex J.

    A study was conducted to expand the body of research that tests the validity of Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory in a work context where it often serves as a guide for the supervisor's relationships with his subordinates. Data was gathered by questionnaire which tested for a hierarchy of needs among instructors at four community colleges…

  10. The Theoretical Orientation Profile Scale-Revised: A Validation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthington, Roger L.; Dillon, Frank R.

    2003-01-01

    This study supported evidence of reliability and validity of the Theoretical Orientation Profile Scale-Revised (TOPS-R) scores. The TOPS-R was designed to measure theoretical orientation among counselors and trainees. Factor analysis yielded a 6-factor solution accounting for 87.5% of the total variance in the scale. The 6 factors corresponded to…

  11. A Validity Study of the Self-Esteem Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landis, H. John

    Results of this validation study of a slightly modified version of the Coppersmith Self-Esteem Inventory substantiate its use with seventh graders to assess Goal I (concerning self-understanding and appreciation of self-worth) of the Educational Quality Assessment Program in Pennsylvania. Appendixes include the definition and rationale for Goal I,…

  12. A Framework for Conducting ESL/EFL Construct Validation Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouw, John T.; Perkins, Kyle

    The purpose for which a test is used and the examinees' stage of learning are two anchor points that are incorporated into a suggested framework for conducting construct validation studies for tests of students with English as a second language (ESL) or English as a foreign language (EFL). The framework includes the use of generalizability theory,…

  13. 40 CFR 761.395 - A validation study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false A validation study. 761.395 Section 761.395 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL... selected testing parameters and experimental conditions. Take a standard wipe sample of the...

  14. 29 CFR 1607.7 - Use of other validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... procedures by validity studies conducted by other users or conducted by test publishers or distributors and described in test manuals. While publishers of selection procedures have a professional obligation to... seeking to obtain selection procedures from publishers and distributors should be careful to...

  15. 29 CFR 1607.7 - Use of other validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... procedures by validity studies conducted by other users or conducted by test publishers or distributors and described in test manuals. While publishers of selection procedures have a professional obligation to... seeking to obtain selection procedures from publishers and distributors should be careful to...

  16. 29 CFR 1607.7 - Use of other validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... procedures by validity studies conducted by other users or conducted by test publishers or distributors and described in test manuals. While publishers of selection procedures have a professional obligation to... seeking to obtain selection procedures from publishers and distributors should be careful to...

  17. 29 CFR 1607.7 - Use of other validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... procedures by validity studies conducted by other users or conducted by test publishers or distributors and described in test manuals. While publishers of selection procedures have a professional obligation to... seeking to obtain selection procedures from publishers and distributors should be careful to...

  18. Research Measures for Dyscalculia: A Validity and Reliability Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiman, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate a measure of dyscalculia to determine its validity and reliability. It also tested use of the instrument with seventh graders and ascertained where errors attributed to dyscalculia were also present in an average sample of seventh graders. Results varied. (MNS)

  19. Understanding Foreign Language Learning Strategies: A Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tragant, Elsa; Thompson, Marilyn S.; Victori, Mia

    2013-01-01

    The present work aims to contribute to our understanding of the underlying dimensions of language learning strategies in foreign language contexts. The study analyzes alternative factor structures underlying a recently developed instrument (Tragant and Victori, 2012) and it includes the age factor in the examination of its construct validity. The…

  20. Dimensions of Intuition: First-Round Validation Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrugtman, Rosanne

    2009-01-01

    This study utilized confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), canonical correlation analysis (CCA), regression analysis (RA), and correlation analysis (CA) for first-round validation of the researcher's Dimensions of Intuition (DOI) instrument. The DOI examined 25 personal characteristics and situations purportedly predictive of intuition. Data was…

  1. Comparative Study of Population Growth and Agricultural Change: C - Case Study of India. Asian Population Studies Series No. 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok (Thailand).

    This report, the third in a series of five reports of the Comparative Study of Population Growth and Agricultural Change, describes a study of the two states of India (Punjaband and Orissa) which attempted to clarify the relationship between population pressure and agricultural change through a time series analysis. This study: (1) outlines trends…

  2. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Ankle Osteoarthritis Scale for use in French-speaking populations

    PubMed Central

    Angers, Magalie; Svotelis, Amy; Balg, Frederic; Allard, Jean-Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Background The Ankle Osteoarthritis Scale (AOS) is a self-administered score specific for ankle osteoarthritis (OA) with excellent reliability and strong construct and criterion validity. Many recent randomized multicentre trials have used the AOS, and the involvement of the French-speaking population is limited by the absence of a French version. Our goal was to develop a French version and validate the psychometric properties to assure equivalence to the original English version. Methods Translation was performed according to American Association of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) 2000 guidelines for cross-cultural adaptation. Similar to the validation process of the English AOS, we evaluated the psychometric properties of the French version (AOS-Fr): criterion validity (AOS-Fr v. Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index [WOMAC] and SF-36 scores), construct validity (AOS-Fr correlation to single heel-lift test), and reliability (AOS-Fr test–retest). Sixty healthy individuals tested a prefinal version of the AOS-Fr for comprehension, leading to modifications and a final version that was approved by C. Saltzman, author of the AOS. We then recruited patients with ankle OA for evaluation of the AOS-Fr psychometric properties. Results Twenty-eight patients with ankle OA participated in the evaluation. The AOS-Fr showed strong criterion validity (AOS:WOMAC r = 0.709 and AOS:SF-36 r = −0.654) and construct validity (r = 0.664) and proved to be reliable (test–retest intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.922). Conclusion The AOS-Fr is a reliable and valid score equivalent to the English version in terms of psychometric properties, thus is available for use in multicentre trials. PMID:27007093

  3. Population Study of Fears in Two Generations of Ukrainians

    PubMed Central

    Filiptsova, O. V.; Kobets, Yu. N.; Kobets, M. N.; Timoshyna, I. A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Fear is an ancient natural reaction of a human being to a threat and it is also an adaptive feature. Obsessive fear can transfer into phobias, which lead to a clinical problem. In spite of many studies done on fear, many questions are yet not clarified. In the former Soviet Union, research on human behaviour traits was mostly tabooed. The current research will fill some gaps on the ‘behavioural map’ of Ukraine in relationship to fear distributions in two successive generations of residents of Ukraine. Subjects and Methods: Eight hundred and sixty-seven residents of Ukraine, predominantly residents of Kharkov and Kharkov region participated in the study. All participants were distributed into groups of younger and older generations. Twenty-four emotional states of fear have been studied by Ivleva-Shcherbatyh questionnaire, developed and validated in Slavs samples. Results: The population analysis of 24 types of fear has shown that sex differences were found mostly among members of the younger generation. The average value of sex differences from the amplitude trait of variation made up approximately 20%. More significant differences between members of different generations have been found in females. The age dynamics of fears within each generation has been detected. Conclusions: The population analysis of fears in Ukraine has demonstrated that the strongest fears independently of the generation were related to diseases of relatives and to problems in the case of diseases of relatives. PMID:26664078

  4. Quality indicators in postoperative pain management: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Idvall, E; Hamrin, E; Sjöström, B; Unosson, M

    2001-01-01

    Quality indicators in postoperative pain management: a validation study. In a previous study, strategic and clinical quality indicators were developed from a tentative model to assess high quality in postoperative pain management. The aim of the present study was to investigate the content validity of these 15 indicators. The indicators were compiled in a questionnaire, and two groups of nurses (n=210, n=321) scored each indicator on a 5-point scale (strongly disagree to strongly agree) from three different standpoints: whether it was essential for achieving high quality, whether it was realistic to carry out, and whether it was possible for nurses to influence management. The respondents were also asked to choose the most crucial indicators for the quality of care. The results showed that both groups of nurses judged the 15 indicators to have content validity from all three standpoints. Both groups also found the same six indicators to be the most crucial. These indicators concerned detecting and acting on signs and symptoms, performing prescriptions, informing and educating, acting on behalf of patients, competence/knowledge, and attitudes. The validated indicators should be useful to consider when implementing a strategy for postoperative pain management and when planning to evaluate the quality of care. PMID:12453175

  5. Construct Validity of Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) and General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) in Patients with Drug Addiction and Diabetes, and Normal Population

    PubMed Central

    ARDAKANI, Abolfazl; SEGHATOLESLAM, Tahereh; HABIL, Hussain; JAMEEI, Fahimeh; RASHID, Rusdi; ZAHIRODIN, Alireza; MOTLAQ, Farid; MASJIDI ARANI, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Given that validity is the baseline of psychological assessments, there is a need to provide evidence-based data for construct validity of such scales to advance the clinicians for evaluating psychiatric morbidity in psychiatric and psychosomatic setting. Methods: This comparative cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the construct validity of the Malaysian version of the GHQ-28 and the SCL-90-R. The sample comprised 660 individuals including diabetics, drug dependents, and normal population. The research scales were administered to the participants. Convergent and discriminant validity of both scales were investigated by Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) using AMOS. The Pearson correlation coefficient was utilized to obtain the relationship between the two scales. Results: The internal consistency of the GHQ-28 and SCL-90-R were highly acceptable, and confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the convergent validity of both scales. The results of this study revealed that the construct validity of GHQ-28 was acceptable, whereas discriminant validity of SCL-90-R was not adequate. According to Pearson correlation coefficient the relationships between three common subscales of the GHQ-28 and SCL-90-R were significantly positive; somatization (r=0.671, P<0.01), Anxiety (r=0.728, P<0.01), and Depression (r=0.660, P <0.01). Conclusions: This study replicated the construct of the Malaysian version of GHQ-28, yet failed to support the nine-factor structure of the SCL-90-R. Therefore, multidimensionality of the SCL-90-R as clinical purposes is questionable, and it may be a better unitary measure for assessing and screening mental disorders. Further research need to be carried out to prove this finding. PMID:27252914

  6. [Food and population: study of three countries].

    PubMed

    1988-12-01

    In 1985, despite a nearly 25% worldwide surplus of cereals, more than 700 million poor people had insufficient food and some 17 million children died of malnutrition or related causes. 16% of the developing world's population is undernourished. Rapid population growth is a major reason for the world's hunger. Large families exhaust the resources of many urban couples and rural couples with little land. Closely spaced pregnancies deplete the nutritional resources of the mother and lead to low birth weight babies and inadequate lactation. Population growth in already densely populated countries reduces the land available for each family, inevitably contributing to poverty and rural malnutrition. Unemployment and underemployment reach alarming proportions in the city, where the combination of high fertility rates and migration from the countryside have produced growth twice that of the world population as a whole. Few developing countries have been able to generate sufficient investment to create new jobs for all seeking them. Unstable governments attempt to pacify urban unrest by subsidizing food prices and concentrating social and economic investments in the cities, causing further deterioration in rural conditions. Today more than 60 countries have food deficits, although not all are suffering. India, Kenya, and Mexico are 3 countries that have had some success in balancing population growth and food production, but each still has undernourished population sectors because of economic policies that fail to provide sufficient help to their poor and because of implacable population growth. Ending malnutrition in the 3 countries will require reducing the cost of food for households and increasing their incomes, but both objectives are made more difficult by rapid population growth. As a result of the green revolution and other factors, food production in India has tripled since 1950, but population has almost doubled in the same years. With rapid population growth, per

  7. Assessment of the face validity of two pain scales in Kenya: a validation study using cognitive interviewing

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients in sub-Saharan Africa commonly experience pain, which often is un-assessed and undertreated. One hindrance to routine pain assessment in these settings is the lack of a single-item pain rating scale validated for the particular context. The goal of this study was to examine the face validity and cultural acceptability of two single-item pain scales, the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) and the Faces Pain Scale-Revised (FPS-R), in a population of patients on the medical, surgical, and pediatric wards of Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital in Kenya. Methods Swahili versions of the NRS and FPS-R were developed by standard translation and back-translation. Cognitive interviews were performed with 15 patients at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital in Eldoret, Kenya. Interview transcripts were analyzed on a question-by-question basis to identify major themes revealed through the cognitive interviewing process and to uncover any significant problems participants encountered with understanding and using the pain scales. Results Cognitive interview analysis demonstrated that participants had good comprehension of both the NRS and the FPS-R and showed rational decision-making processes in choosing their responses. Participants felt that both scales were easy to use. The FPS-R was preferred almost unanimously to the NRS. Conclusions The face validity and acceptability of the Swahili versions of the NRS and FPS-R has been demonstrated for use in Kenyan patients. The broader application of these scales should be evaluated and may benefit patients who currently suffer from pain. PMID:22512923

  8. Reliability and validity of 6MWT for outpatients with schizophrenia: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Eluana; Bastos, Tânia; Probst, Michel; Ribeiro, José Carlos; Silva, Gustavo; Corredeira, Rui

    2016-03-30

    Although the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) has been widely used in patients with schizophrenia, there is a lack of scientific evidence about its reliability and validity in this population. The first goal of this study was to explore the test-retest reliability of the 6MWT and to identify the associated parameters that contribute to the variability of the distance walked during the 6MWT in outpatients with schizophrenia. The second goal was to assess the criterion validity of the 6MWT in men with schizophrenia. Fifty one outpatients with schizophrenia participated in the study. To test-retest reliability (men=39; women=12), participants performed the 6MWT twice within 3 days interval. To test criterion validity (men=13), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) was measured on a treadmill. For the associated parameters with the distance walked (n=51), medications use, smoking behavior, body and bone composition, and physical activity levels were analyzed. No significant differences between the means of the two 6MWTs were found. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.94 indicating good reliability. 6MWT correlated significantly with VO2peak (r=0.67) indicating criterion validity. Height, body fat mass, smoking behavior and minutes of PA/week were significantly associated with the 6MWT. Results suggest that 6MWT shows good reliability for individuals with schizophrenia and good validity for the small sample of male participants in this study. PMID:26921049

  9. Psychedelics and Mental Health: A Population Study

    PubMed Central

    Krebs, Teri S.; Johansen, Pål-Ørjan

    2013-01-01

    Background The classical serotonergic psychedelics LSD, psilocybin, mescaline are not known to cause brain damage and are regarded as non-addictive. Clinical studies do not suggest that psychedelics cause long-term mental health problems. Psychedelics have been used in the Americas for thousands of years. Over 30 million people currently living in the US have used LSD, psilocybin, or mescaline. Objective To evaluate the association between the lifetime use of psychedelics and current mental health in the adult population. Method Data drawn from years 2001 to 2004 of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health consisted of 130,152 respondents, randomly selected to be representative of the adult population in the United States. Standardized screening measures for past year mental health included serious psychological distress (K6 scale), mental health treatment (inpatient, outpatient, medication, needed but did not receive), symptoms of eight psychiatric disorders (panic disorder, major depressive episode, mania, social phobia, general anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and non-affective psychosis), and seven specific symptoms of non-affective psychosis. We calculated weighted odds ratios by multivariate logistic regression controlling for a range of sociodemographic variables, use of illicit drugs, risk taking behavior, and exposure to traumatic events. Results 21,967 respondents (13.4% weighted) reported lifetime psychedelic use. There were no significant associations between lifetime use of any psychedelics, lifetime use of specific psychedelics (LSD, psilocybin, mescaline, peyote), or past year use of LSD and increased rate of any of the mental health outcomes. Rather, in several cases psychedelic use was associated with lower rate of mental health problems. Conclusion We did not find use of psychedelics to be an independent risk factor for mental health problems. PMID:23976938

  10. Genomewide study and validation of markers associated with production traits in German Landrace boars.

    PubMed

    Strucken, E M; Schmitt, A O; Bergfeld, U; Jurke, I; Reissmann, M; Brockmann, G A

    2014-05-01

    We present results from a genomewide association study (GWAS) and a single-marker association study. The GWAS was performed with the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip from which 5 markers were selected for a validation analysis. Genetic effects were estimated for feed intake, weight gain, and traits of fat and muscle tissue in German Landrace boars kept on performance test stations. The GWAS was performed in a population of 288 boars and the validation study for another 432 boars. No statistically significant effect was found in the GWAS after adjusting for multiple testing. Effects of 2 markers, which were significant genomewide before correction for multiple testing (P < 0.00005), could be confirmed in the validation study. The major allele of marker ALGA0056781 on SSC1 was positively associated with both higher weight gain and fat deposition. The effect on live-weight gain was 2.25 g/d in the GWAS (P = 0.0003) and 3.73 g/d in the validation study (P = 0.01) and for back fat thickness was 0.15 mm in the GWAS (P < 0.0001) and 0.20 mm in the validation study (P = 0.02). The marker had similar effects on test-day weight gain (GWAS: 3.85 g/d, P = 0.001; validation study: 6.80 g/d, P = 0.003) and back fat area (GWAS: 0.27 cm(2), P < 0.0001; validation study: 0.35 cm(2), P = 0.03). Marker ASGA0056782 on SSC13 was associated with live-weight gain. The major allele had negative effects in both studies (GWAS: -4.88 g/d, P < 0.0001; validation study: -3.75 g/d, P = 0.02). The effects of these 2 markers would have been excluded based on the GWAS alone but were shown to be significantly trait associated in the validation study indicating a false-negative result. The G protein-coupled receptor 126 (GPR126) gene approximately 200 kb downstream of marker ALGA0001781 was shown to be associated with human height and therefore might explain the association with weight gain in pigs. Several traits were affected in an economically desired direction by the minor allele of the markers