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Sample records for population validation study

  1. Validation study of human figure drawing test in a Colombian school children population.

    PubMed

    Vélez van Meerbeke, Alberto; Sandoval-Garcia, Carolina; Ibáñez, Milciades; Talero-Gutiérrez, Claudia; Fiallo, Dolly; Halliday, Karen

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this article was to assess the validity of the emotional and developmental components of the Koppitz human figure drawing test. 2420 children's drawings available in a database resulting from a previous cross sectional study designed to determine the prevalence of neurological diseases in children between 0 and 12 years old in Bogota schools were evaluated. They were scored using the criteria proposed by Koppitz, and classified into 16 groups according to age, gender, and presence/absence of learning or attention problems. The overall results were then compared with the normative study to assess whether descriptive parameters of the two populations were significantly different. There were no significant differences associated with presence/absence of learning and attention disorders or school attended within the overall sample. An Interrater reliability test has been made to assure the homogeneity of scoring by the evaluator team. There were significant differences between this population and that of the original study. New scoring tables contextualized for our population based on the frequency of appearance in this sample are presented. We can conclude that various ethnic, social, and cultural factors can influence the way children draw the human figure. It is thus important to establish local reference values to adequately distinguish between normality and abnormality. The new scoring tables proposed here should be followed up with a clinical study to corroborate their validity. PMID:21568202

  2. Validation of the SQUASH Physical Activity Questionnaire in a Multi-Ethnic Population: The HELIUS Study

    PubMed Central

    Gademan, M. G. J.; Snijder, M. B.; Engelbert, R. H. H.; Dijkshoorn, H.; Terwee, C. B.; Stronks, K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the reliability and validity of the SQUASH physical activity (PA) questionnaire in a multi-ethnic population living in the Netherlands. Methods We included participants from the HELIUS study, a population-based cohort study. In this study we included Dutch (n = 114), Turkish (n = 88), Moroccan (n = 74), South-Asian Surinamese (n = 98) and African Surinamese (n = 91) adults, aged 18–70 years. The SQUASH was self-administered twice to assess test-re-test reliability (mean interval 6–7 weeks) and participants wore an accelerometer and heart rate monitor (Actiheart) to enable assessment of construct validity. Results We observed low test-re-test reliability; Intra class correlation coefficients ranged from low (0.05 for moderate/high intensity PA in African Surinamese women) to acceptable (0.78 for light intensity PA in Moroccan women). The discrepancy between self-reported and measured PA differed on the basis of the intensity of activity: self-reported light intensity PA was lower than measured but self-reported moderate/high intensity PA was higher than measured, with wide limits of agreement. The discrepancy between questionnaire and Actiheart measures of moderate intensity PA did not differ between ethnic minority and Dutch participants with correction for relevant confounders. Additionally, the SQUASH overestimated the number of participants meeting the Dutch PA norm; Cohen’s kappas for the agreement were poor, the highest being 0.30 in Dutch women. Conclusion We found considerable variation in the test-re-test reliability and validity of self-reported PA with no consistency based on ethnic origin. Our findings imply that the SQUASH does not provide a valid basis for comparison of PA between ethnic groups. PMID:27575490

  3. Family Early Literacy Practices Questionnaire: A Validation Study for a Spanish-Speaking Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kandia

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the psychometric validity of a Spanish translated version of a family involvement questionnaire (the FELP) using a mixed-methods design. Thus, statistical analyses (i.e., factor analysis, reliability analysis, and item analysis) and qualitative analyses (i.e., focus group data) were assessed.…

  4. A Population-Based Psychometric Validation Study of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire – Hebrew Version

    PubMed Central

    Mansbach-Kleinfeld, Ivonne; Apter, Alan; Farbstein, Ilana; Levine, Stephen Z.; Ponizovsky, Alexander M.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents the psychometric properties of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire – Hebrew version (SDQ-H), used in the Israel Survey on Mental Health among Adolescents (ISMEHA). The SDQ-H was administered to a representative sample of 611 adolescents and their mothers. Structural validity was evaluated by exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) inventory was used as “gold standard” to test convergent and discriminant validity. Internal consistency and normative scores were established. Agreement was found with the original factor structure, except for the Peer problem scale. Concurrent and discriminant validity varied from fair to very good for most scales. Total Difficulties scores showed better discriminant validity for the adolescents’ than the mothers’ report for internalizing disorders, and the opposite for externalizing disorders. Internal consistency for the Total Difficulties was 0.77 and for the Hyperactivity scale it was 0.73. It was lower for the other scales, particularly for the Peer problems scale. The findings suggest reasonable psychometric properties of the SDQ-H. Comparisons with other translated SDQ versions are presented. PMID:21423458

  5. Conditions for Valid Empirical Estimates of Cancer Overdiagnosis in Randomized Trials and Population Studies.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Roman; Feuer, Eric J; Etzioni, Ruth

    2016-07-15

    Cancer overdiagnosis is frequently estimated using the excess incidence in a screened group relative to that in an unscreened group. However, conditions for unbiased estimation are poorly understood. We developed a mathematical framework to project the effects of screening on the incidence of relevant cancers-that is, cancers that would present clinically without screening. Screening advances the date of diagnosis for a fraction of preclinical relevant cancers. Which diagnoses are advanced and by how much depends on the preclinical detectable period, test sensitivity, and screening patterns. Using the model, we projected incidence in common trial designs and population settings and compared excess incidence with true overdiagnosis. In trials with no control arm screening, unbiased estimates are available using cumulative incidence if the screen arm stops screening and using annual incidence if the screen arm continues screening. In both designs, unbiased estimation requires waiting until screening stabilizes plus the maximum preclinical period. In continued-screen trials and population settings, excess cumulative incidence is persistently biased. We investigated this bias in published estimates from the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer after 9-13 years. In conclusion, no trial or population setting automatically permits unbiased estimation of overdiagnosis; sufficient follow-up and appropriate analysis remain crucial. PMID:27358266

  6. Validating prediction scales of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Spain: the SPREDIA-2 population-based prospective cohort study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Salinero-Fort, Miguel Ángel; de Burgos-Lunar, Carmen; Mostaza Prieto, José; Lahoz Rallo, Carlos; Abánades-Herranz, Juan Carlos; Gómez-Campelo, Paloma; Laguna Cuesta, Fernando; Estirado De Cabo, Eva; García Iglesias, Francisca; González Alegre, Teresa; Fernández Puntero, Belén; Montesano Sánchez, Luis; Vicent López, David; Cornejo Del Río, Víctor; Fernández García, Pedro J; Sabín Rodríguez, Concesa; López López, Silvia; Patrón Barandío, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing worldwide. When diagnosed, many patients already have organ damage or advance subclinical atherosclerosis. An early diagnosis could allow the implementation of lifestyle changes and treatment options aimed at delaying the progression of the disease and to avoid cardiovascular complications. Different scores for identifying undiagnosed diabetes have been reported, however, their performance in populations of southern Europe has not been sufficiently evaluated. The main objectives of our study are: to evaluate the screening performance and cut-off points of the main scores that identify the risk of undiagnosed T2DM and prediabetes in a Spanish population, and to develop and validate our own predictive models of undiagnosed T2DM (screening model), and future T2DM (prediction risk model) after 5-year follow-up. As a secondary objective, we will evaluate the atherosclerotic burden of the population with undiagnosed T2DM. Methods and analysis Population-based prospective cohort study with baseline screening, to evaluate the performance of the FINDRISC, DANISH, DESIR, ARIC and QDScore, against the gold standard tests: Fasting plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance and/or HbA1c. The sample size will include 1352 participants between the ages of 45 and 74 years. Analysis: sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, likelihood ratio positive, likelihood ratio negative and receiver operating characteristic curves and area under curve. Binary logistic regression for the first 700 individuals (derivation) and last 652 (validation) will be performed. All analyses will be calculated with their 95% CI; statistical significance will be p<0.05. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol has been approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Carlos III Hospital (Madrid). The score performance and predictive model will be presented in medical conferences, workshops

  7. Validity and reliability of portfolio assessment of student competence in two dental school populations: a four-year study.

    PubMed

    Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C; McCracken, Michael S; Woldt, Janet L; Brennan, Robert L

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to empirically investigate the validity and reliability of portfolio assessment in two U.S. dental schools using a unified framework for validity. In the process of validation, it is not the test that is validated but rather the claims (interpretations and uses) about test scores that are validated. Kane's argument-based validation framework provided the structure for reporting results where validity claims are followed by evidence to support the argument. This multivariate generalizability theory study found that the greatest source of variance was attributable to faculty raters, suggesting that portfolio assessment would benefit from two raters' evaluating each portfolio independently. The results are generally supportive of holistic scoring, but analytical scoring deserves further research. Correlational analyses between student portfolios and traditional measures of student competence and readiness for licensure resulted in significant correlations between portfolios and National Board Dental Examination Part I (r=0.323, p<0.01) and Part II scores (r=0.268, p<0.05) and small and non-significant correlations with grade point average and scores on the Western Regional Examining Board (WREB) exam. It is incumbent upon the users of portfolio assessment to determine if the claims and evidence arguments set forth in this study support the proposed claims for and decisions about portfolio assessment in their respective institutions. PMID:24789826

  8. Validation and cross-cultural adaptation of the 'Fibromyalgia Participation Questionnaire' to the Spanish population: study protocol.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Calvente, M; Medina-Porqueres, I; Fontalba-Navas, A; Pena-Andreu, J M; de Vos-Martin, C

    2015-09-01

    There are few high-quality instruments to evaluate the participation and social functioning of fibromyalgia patients. The Fibromyalgia Participation Questionnaire (FPQ) is a questionnaire that evaluates these aspects with high reliability and validity in its German original version. The aim of this work was to describe the translation and cross-cultural adaptation process of the FPQ into Spanish and its validation to ensure the equivalence against the original version. The questionnaire will be translated according to the FACIT methodology, and it will be tested in the Clinical Management Unit of North Almeria Health Area. This methodology includes several stages: double forward translation, reconciled version, back-translation, review of the previous versions and development of the prefinal version for the pretest. Once the pretest ends, the final version of the questionnaire will be developed, which will be subjected to a validation process to study its psychometric properties. Reliability will be studied by internal consistency and test-retest reliability through Cronbach's alpha and Pearson's correlation coefficient, respectively. External and construct validity will be analysed using correlation coefficients, content validity with an empirical analysis, and a differential item functioning analysis will be employed to measure discriminative validity. The presence of ceiling and floor effects will be calculated too. The validation of the FPQ into different languages will allow better evaluation and treatment based on the observed limitations fibromyalgia patients suffer from, as well as bringing the possibility to compare between other countries and generalize its use in the scientific community. PMID:25847702

  9. The burden of headache disorders in Pakistan: methodology of a population-based nationwide study, and questionnaire validation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Large geographical gaps in our knowledge of the prevalence and burden of headache disorders include Pakistan, a country with major problems of poverty, illiteracy and security. We report implementation in this country of standard methods developed by Lifting The Burden (LTB) for population-based burden-of-headache studies. Methods We surveyed six locations from the four provinces: Lahore and Multan (Punjab), Karachi and Sukkur (Sindh), Abbottabad (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) and Gwadar (Baluchistan). We randomly selected rural and urban households in each, which were visited by trained non-medical interviewers from the same locations. One randomly selected adult member (18–65 years) of each household was interviewed using LTB’s structured questionnaire translated into Urdu, the national language. Validation was performed among patients and accompanying attendants in three (urban and rural) medical facilities. After responding to the questionnaire, these participants were re-interviewed and diagnosed by a neurologist (gold standard). Results The survey was completed by 4,223 respondents (1,957 [46.3%] male, 2,266 [53.7%] female, 1,443 [34.2%] urban, 2,780 [65.8%] rural, mean age 34.4 ± 11.0 years). The participation rate was 89.5%. There were 180 participants (46.1% male, 53.9% female, 41.7% urban, 58.3% rural, mean age 39.4 ± 14.2 years) in the validation sample, of whom 147 (81.7%) reported headache in the last year. The questionnaire was 100% sensitive in screening for headache and for headache on ≥15 days/month, and showed good agreement with the gold-standard diagnoses (kappa = 0.77). It was relatively insensitive for TTH. The questionnaire’s default diagnosis of probable MOH when medication overuse accompanied headache on ≥15 days/month was not supported by evidence of causation in most cases seen by the neurologist. In public-health terms, precise diagnosis in these cases matters less than reliably detecting the coexistence of

  10. Validation of the Framingham general cardiovascular risk score in a multiethnic Asian population: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Sarah Yu Weng; Ching, Siew Mooi; Lim, Hooi Min; Chinna, Karuthan

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aims to examine the validity of the Framingham general cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk chart in a primary care setting. Design This is a 10-year retrospective cohort study. Setting A primary care clinic in a teaching hospital in Malaysia. Participants 967 patients’ records were randomly selected from patients who were attending follow-up in the clinic. Main outcome measures Baseline demographic data, history of diabetes and smoking, blood pressure (BP), and serum lipids were captured from patient records in 1998. Each patient's Framingham CVD score was computed from these parameters. All atherosclerotic CVD events occurring between 1998 and 2007 were counted. Results In 1998, mean age was 57 years with 33.8% men, 6.1% smokers, 43.3% diabetics and 59.7% hypertensive. Median BP was 140/80 mm Hg and total cholesterol 6.0 mmol/L (1.3). The predicted median Framingham general CVD risk score for the study population was 21.5% (IQR 1.2–30.0) while the actual CVD events that occurred in the 10 years was 13.1% (127/967). The median CVD points for men was 30.0, giving them a CVD risk of more than 30%; for women it is 18.5, a CVD risk of 21.5%. Our study found that the Framingham general CVD risk score to have moderate discrimination with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.63. It also discriminates well for Malay (AUC 0.65, p=0.01), Chinese (AUC 0.60, p=0.03), and Indians (AUC 0.65, p=0.001). There was good calibration with Hosmer-Lemeshow test χ2=3.25, p=0.78. Conclusions Taking into account that this cohort of patients were already on treatment, the Framingham General CVD Risk Prediction Score predicts fairly accurately for men and overestimates somewhat for women. In the absence of local risk prediction charts, the Framingham general CVD risk prediction chart is a reasonable alternative for use in a multiethnic group in a primary care setting. PMID:25991451

  11. A two-reservoir, hollow-fiber bioreactor for the study of mixed-population dynamics: design aspects and validation of the approach.

    PubMed

    Manjarrez, E S; Albasi, C; Riba, J P

    2000-08-20

    A two-reservoir, membrane bioreactor for carrying out studies of mixed-population dynamics in batch fermentations is presented. Mixing requirements and design aspects for the validity of the approach are given and discussed. Equations describing mixing times between the reservoirs are presented and compared to the experimental results. The validity of the approach is demonstrated by the study of an amensalistic-type interaction, the protein-mediated killer phenomenon between two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. The validation consisted in the comparison between the results obtained in actual mixed culture and the results obtained by keeping the strains separated. A good agreement was found which demonstrates the viability of the designed bioreactor. PMID:10862678

  12. Establishing the reliability and validity of the Zagazig Depression Scale in a UK student population: an online pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It is thought that depressive disorders will be the second leading cause of disability worldwide by 2020. Recently, there is a steady increase in the number of university students diagnosed and treated as depression patients. It can be assumed that depression is a serious mental health problem for university students because it affects all age groups of the students either younger or older equally. The current study aims to establish the reliability and validity of the Zagazig Depression scale in a UK sample. Methods The study was a cross-sectional online survey. A sample of 133 out of 275 undergraduate students from a range of UK Universities in the academic year 2008-2009, aged 20.3 ± 6.3 years old were recruited. A modified back translated version of Zagazig Depression scale was used. In order to validate the Zagazig Depression scale, participants were asked to complete the Patient Health Questionnaire. Statistical analysis includes Kappa analysis, Cronbach's alpha, Spearman's correlation analysis, and Confirmatory Factor analysis. Results Using the recommended cut-off of Zagazig Depression scale for possible minor depression it was found that 30.3% of the students have depression and higher percentage was identified according to the Patient Health Questionnaire (37.4%). Females were more depressed. The mean ZDS score was 8.3 ± 4.2. Rates of depression increase as students get older. The reliability of The ZDS was satisfactory (Cronbach's alpha was .894). For validity, ZDS score was strongly associated with PHQ, with no significant difference (p-value > 0.05), with strong positive correlation (r = +.8, p-value < 0.01). Conclusion The strong, significant correlation between the PHQ and ZDS, along with high internal consistency of the ZDS as a whole provides evidence that ZDS is a reliable measure of depressive symptoms and is promising for the use of the translated ZDS in a large-scale cross-culture study. PMID:21143972

  13. Associations of iron metabolism genes with blood manganese levels: a population-based study with validation data from animal models

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Given mounting evidence for adverse effects from excess manganese exposure, it is critical to understand host factors, such as genetics, that affect manganese metabolism. Methods Archived blood samples, collected from 332 Mexican women at delivery, were analyzed for manganese. We evaluated associations of manganese with functional variants in three candidate iron metabolism genes: HFE [hemochromatosis], TF [transferrin], and ALAD [δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase]. We used a knockout mouse model to parallel our significant results as a novel method of validating the observed associations between genotype and blood manganese in our epidemiologic data. Results Percentage of participants carrying at least one copy of HFE C282Y, HFE H63D, TF P570S, and ALAD K59N variant alleles was 2.4%, 17.7%, 20.1%, and 6.4%, respectively. Percentage carrying at least one copy of either C282Y or H63D allele in HFE gene was 19.6%. Geometric mean (geometric standard deviation) manganese concentrations were 17.0 (1.5) μg/l. Women with any HFE variant allele had 12% lower blood manganese concentrations than women with no variant alleles (β = -0.12 [95% CI = -0.23 to -0.01]). TF and ALAD variants were not significant predictors of blood manganese. In animal models, Hfe-/- mice displayed a significant reduction in blood manganese compared with Hfe+/+ mice, replicating the altered manganese metabolism found in our human research. Conclusions Our study suggests that genetic variants in iron metabolism genes may contribute to variability in manganese exposure by affecting manganese absorption, distribution, or excretion. Genetic background may be critical to consider in studies that rely on environmental manganese measurements. PMID:22074419

  14. Statistical validation of structured population models for Daphnia magna

    PubMed Central

    Adoteye, Kaska; Banks, H.T.; Cross, Karissa; Eytcheson, Stephanie; Flores, Kevin B.; LeBlanc, Gerald A.; Nguyen, Timothy; Ross, Chelsea; Smith, Emmaline; Stemkovski, Michael; Stokely, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    In this study we use statistical validation techniques to verify density-dependent mechanisms hypothesized for populations of Daphnia magna. We develop structured population models that exemplify specific mechanisms, and use multi-scale experimental data in order to test their importance. We show that fecundity and survival rates are affected by both time-varying density-independent factors, such as age, and density-dependent factors, such as competition. We perform uncertainty analysis and show that our parameters are estimated with a high degree of confidence. Further, we perform a sensitivity analysis to understand how changes in fecundity and survival rates affect population size and age-structure. PMID:26092608

  15. Population-based study of intra-household gender differences in water insecurity: reliability and validity of a survey instrument for use in rural Uganda.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Alexander C; Kakuhikire, Bernard; Mushavi, Rumbidzai; Vořechovská, Dagmar; Perkins, Jessica M; McDonough, Amy Q; Bangsberg, David R

    2016-04-01

    Hundreds of millions of people worldwide lack adequate access to water. Water insecurity, which is defined as having limited or uncertain availability of safe water or the ability to acquire safe water in socially acceptable ways, is typically overlooked by development organizations focusing on water availability. To address the urgent need in the literature for validated measures of water insecurity, we conducted a population-based study in rural Uganda with 327 reproductive-age women and 204 linked men from the same households. We used a novel method of photo identification so that we could accurately elicit study participants' primary household water sources, thereby enabling us to identify water sources for objective water quality testing and distance/elevation measurement. Our psychometric analyses provided strong evidence of the internal structure, reliability, and validity of a new eight-item Household Water Insecurity Access Scale (HWIAS). Important intra-household gender differences in perceptions of water insecurity were observed, with men generally perceiving household water insecurity as being less severe compared to women. In summary, the HWIAS represents a reliable and valid measure of water insecurity, particularly among women, and may be useful for informing and evaluating interventions to improve water access in resource-limited settings. PMID:27105413

  16. Validity of Self-Reports in Three Populations of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobell, Linda C.; Sobell, Mark B.

    1978-01-01

    Examined whether population type and question type differentially affected validity of alcoholics' self-reports. Alcoholics gave highly valid self-reports. Question type differentially affected the validity of subjects' interview answers, as fewer invalid answers were given to demographic questions. Population type did not significantly affect…

  17. Body composition in taller individuals using DXA: A validation study for athletic and non-athletic populations.

    PubMed

    Santos, Diana A; Gobbo, Luís A; Matias, Catarina N; Petroski, Edio L; Gonçalves, Ezequiel M; Cyrino, Edilson S; Minderico, Claudia S; Sardinha, Luís B; Silva, Analiza M

    2013-01-01

    Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) cannot be used to evaluate participants taller than the scan area. We aimed to analyse the accuracy of bone mineral content, fat mass, and lean mass assessed with DXA whole-body scan and from the sum of two scans (head and trunk plus limbs). Participants were 31 athletes (13 males and 18 females) and 65 non-athletes (34 males and 31 females), that fit within the DXA scan area. Three scans were performed using a Hologic Explorer-W fan-beam densitometer: a whole-body scan used as the reference; a head scan; and a trunk and limbs scan. The sum of the head scan and the trunk and limbs scan was used as the alternative procedure. Multiple regression and agreement analysis were performed. Non-significant differences between methods were observed for fat mass (0.06 kg) and lean mass (-0.07 kg) while bone mineral content from the alternative procedure differed from the reference scan (0.009 kg). The alternative procedure explained > 99% of the variance in the reference scan and low limits of agreement were observed. Precision analysis indicated low pure errors and the higher coefficients of variation were found for fat mass (whole-body: 3.70%; subtotal: 4.05%). The method proposed is a valid and simple solution to be used in individuals taller than the DXA scan area, including athletes engaged in sports recognised for including very tall competitors. PMID:23092580

  18. Factor Structure, Reliability and Criterion Validity of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ): A Study in Dutch Population and Patient Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoekstra, Rosa A.; Bartels, Meike; Cath, Danielle C.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2008-01-01

    The factor structure of the Dutch translation of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ; a continuous, quantitative measure of autistic traits) was evaluated with confirmatory factor analyses in a large general population and student sample. The criterion validity of the AQ was examined in three matched patient groups (autism spectrum conditions (ASC),…

  19. Development and validation of a population-based prediction scale for osteoporotic fracture in the region of Valencia, Spain: the ESOSVAL-R study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Today, while there are effective drugs that reduce the risk of osteoporotic fracture, yet there are no broadly accepted criteria that can be used to estimate risks and decide who should receive treatment. One of the actual priorities of clinical research is to develop a set of simple and readily-available clinical data that can be used in routine clinical practice to identify patients at high risk of bone fracture, and to establish thresholds for therapeutic interventions. Such a tool would have high impact on healthcare policies. The main objective of the ESOSVAL-R is to develop a risk prediction scale of osteoporotic fracture in adult population using data from the Region of Valencia, Spain. Methods/Design Study design: An observational, longitudinal, prospective cohort study, undertaken in the Region of Valencia, with an initial follow-up period of five years; Subjects: 14,500 men and women over the age of 50, residing in the Region and receiving healthcare from centers where the ABUCASIS electronic clinical records system is implanted; Sources of data: The ABUCASIS electronic clinical record system, complemented with hospital morbidity registers, hospital Accidents & Emergency records and the Regional Ministry of Health's mortality register; Measurement of results: Incident osteoporotic fracture (in the hip and/or major osteoporotic fracture) during the study's follow-up period. Independent variables include clinical data and complementary examinations; Analysis: 1) Descriptive analysis of the cohorts' baseline data; 2) Upon completion of the follow-up period, analysis of the strength of association between the risk factors and the incidence of osteoporotic fracture using Cox's proportional hazards model; 3) Development and validation of a model to predict risk of osteoporotic fracture; the validated model will serve to develop a simplified scale that can be used during routine clinical visits. Discussion The ESOSVAL-R study will establish a

  20. CANFOR Portuguese version: validation study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The increase in prisoner population is a troublesome reality in several regions of the world. Along with this growth there is increasing evidence that prisoners have a higher proportion of mental illnesses and suicide than the general population. In order to implement strategies that address criminal recidivism and the health and social status of prisoners, particularly in mental disordered offenders, it is necessary to assess their care needs in a comprehensive, but individual perspective. This assessment must include potential harmful areas like comorbid personality disorder, substance misuse and offending behaviours. The Camberwell Assessment of Need – Forensic Version (CANFOR) has proved to be a reliable tool designed to accomplish such aims. The present study aimed to validate the CANFOR Portuguese version. Methods The translation, adaptation to the Portuguese context, back-translation and revision followed the usual procedures. The sample comprised all detainees receiving psychiatric care in four forensic facilities, over a one year period. A total of 143 subjects, and respective case manager, were selected. The forensic facilities were chosen by convenience: one prison hospital psychiatric ward (n=68; 47.6%), one male (n=24; 16.8%) and one female (n=22; 15.4%) psychiatric clinic and one civil security ward (n=29; 20.3%), all located nearby Lisbon. Basic descriptive statistics and Kappa weighted coefficients were calculated for the inter-rater and the test-retest reliability studies. The convergent validity was evaluated using the Global Assessment of Functioning and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale scores. Results The majority of the participants were male and single, with short school attendance, and accused of a crime involving violence against persons. The most frequent diagnosis was major depression (56.1%) and almost half presented positive suicide risk. The reliability study showed average Kappa weighted coefficients of 0.884 and 0

  1. Risk Prediction for Breast, Endometrial, and Ovarian Cancer in White Women Aged 50 y or Older: Derivation and Validation from Population-Based Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Park, Yikyung; Kreimer, Aimée R.; Lacey, James V.; Pee, David; Greenlee, Robert T.; Buys, Saundra S.; Hollenbeck, Albert; Rosner, Bernard; Gail, Mitchell H.; Hartge, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Background Breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancers share some hormonal and epidemiologic risk factors. While several models predict absolute risk of breast cancer, there are few models for ovarian cancer in the general population, and none for endometrial cancer. Methods and Findings Using data on white, non-Hispanic women aged 50+ y from two large population-based cohorts (the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial [PLCO] and the National Institutes of Health–AARP Diet and Health Study [NIH-AARP]), we estimated relative and attributable risks and combined them with age-specific US-population incidence and competing mortality rates. All models included parity. The breast cancer model additionally included estrogen and progestin menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) use, other MHT use, age at first live birth, menopausal status, age at menopause, family history of breast or ovarian cancer, benign breast disease/biopsies, alcohol consumption, and body mass index (BMI); the endometrial model included menopausal status, age at menopause, BMI, smoking, oral contraceptive use, MHT use, and an interaction term between BMI and MHT use; the ovarian model included oral contraceptive use, MHT use, and family history or breast or ovarian cancer. In independent validation data (Nurses' Health Study cohort) the breast and ovarian cancer models were well calibrated; expected to observed cancer ratios were 1.00 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.96–1.04) for breast cancer and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.97–1.19) for ovarian cancer. The number of endometrial cancers was significantly overestimated, expected/observed = 1.20 (95% CI: 1.11–1.29). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs; discriminatory power) were 0.58 (95% CI: 0.57–0.59), 0.59 (95% CI: 0.56–0.63), and 0.68 (95% CI: 0.66–0.70) for the breast, ovarian, and endometrial models, respectively. Conclusions These models predict absolute risks for breast, endometrial, and

  2. Using a Web-Based Approach to Assess Test-Retest Reliability of the "Hypertension Self-Care Profile" Tool in an Asian Population: A Validation Study.

    PubMed

    Koh, Yi Ling Eileen; Lua, Yi Hui Adela; Hong, Liyue; Bong, Huey Shin Shirley; Yeo, Ling Sui Jocelyn; Tsang, Li Ping Marianne; Ong, Kai Zhi; Wong, Sook Wai Samantha; Tan, Ngiap Chuan

    2016-03-01

    ICC scores of 0.671, 0.762, and 0.720 for these respective domains showed good test-retest reliability. The correlation of the HTN-SCP scores and patients' reported self-management measures were significant, except for keeping their food diary. HTN-SCP showed satisfactory internal consistency and test-retest reliability in an English literate Asian population. A web-based approach is feasible if similar studies are needed to validate its translated versions of the tool for wider application in the local multilingual population. PMID:26945410

  3. [Prehistoric population studies].

    PubMed

    Posse, Z C

    1985-01-01

    Studies concerning prehistoric populations in the Americas are discussed. "A review is made of research conducted in America focusing...on indigenous populations prior to contacts with Europeans, and those which, employing archaeological and historical sources, seek to evaluate the population and establish depopulation indexes for the said societies." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12341861

  4. Development and Validation of a Risk-Score Model for Type 2 Diabetes: A Cohort Study of a Rural Adult Chinese Population.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming; Zhang, Hongyan; Wang, Chongjian; Ren, Yongcheng; Wang, Bingyuan; Zhang, Lu; Yang, Xiangyu; Zhao, Yang; Han, Chengyi; Pang, Chao; Yin, Lei; Xue, Yuan; Zhao, Jingzhi; Hu, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Some global models to predict the risk of diabetes may not be applicable to local populations. We aimed to develop and validate a score to predict type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a rural adult Chinese population. Data for a cohort of 12,849 participants were randomly divided into derivation (n = 11,564) and validation (n = 1285) datasets. A questionnaire interview and physical and blood biochemical examinations were performed at baseline (July to August 2007 and July to August 2008) and follow-up (July to August 2013 and July to October 2014). A Cox regression model was used to weigh each variable in the derivation dataset. For each significant variable, a score was calculated by multiplying β by 100 and rounding to the nearest integer. Age, body mass index, triglycerides and fasting plasma glucose (scores 3, 12, 24 and 76, respectively) were predictors of incident T2DM. The model accuracy was assessed by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), with optimal cut-off value 936. With the derivation dataset, sensitivity, specificity and AUC of the model were 66.7%, 74.0% and 0.768 (95% CI 0.760-0.776), respectively. With the validation dataset, the performance of the model was superior to the Chinese (simple), FINDRISC, Oman and IDRS models of T2DM risk but equivalent to the Framingham model, which is widely applicable in a variety of populations. Our model for predicting 6-year risk of T2DM could be used in a rural adult Chinese population. PMID:27070555

  5. Development and Validation of a Risk-Score Model for Type 2 Diabetes: A Cohort Study of a Rural Adult Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chongjian; Ren, Yongcheng; Wang, Bingyuan; Zhang, Lu; Yang, Xiangyu; Zhao, Yang; Han, Chengyi; Pang, Chao; Yin, Lei; Xue, Yuan; Zhao, Jingzhi; Hu, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Some global models to predict the risk of diabetes may not be applicable to local populations. We aimed to develop and validate a score to predict type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a rural adult Chinese population. Data for a cohort of 12,849 participants were randomly divided into derivation (n = 11,564) and validation (n = 1285) datasets. A questionnaire interview and physical and blood biochemical examinations were performed at baseline (July to August 2007 and July to August 2008) and follow-up (July to August 2013 and July to October 2014). A Cox regression model was used to weigh each variable in the derivation dataset. For each significant variable, a score was calculated by multiplying β by 100 and rounding to the nearest integer. Age, body mass index, triglycerides and fasting plasma glucose (scores 3, 12, 24 and 76, respectively) were predictors of incident T2DM. The model accuracy was assessed by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), with optimal cut-off value 936. With the derivation dataset, sensitivity, specificity and AUC of the model were 66.7%, 74.0% and 0.768 (95% CI 0.760–0.776), respectively. With the validation dataset, the performance of the model was superior to the Chinese (simple), FINDRISC, Oman and IDRS models of T2DM risk but equivalent to the Framingham model, which is widely applicable in a variety of populations. Our model for predicting 6-year risk of T2DM could be used in a rural adult Chinese population. PMID:27070555

  6. Incidence of Hospitalization for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection amongst Children in Ontario, Canada: A Population-Based Study Using Validated Health Administrative Data

    PubMed Central

    Pisesky, Andrea; Benchimol, Eric I.; Wong, Coralie A.; Hui, Charles; Crowe, Megan; Belair, Marc-Andre; Pojsupap, Supichaya; Karnauchow, Tim; O'Hearn, Katie; Yasseen, Abdool S.; McNally, James D.

    2016-01-01

    Importance RSV is a common illness among young children that causes significant morbidity and health care costs. Objective Routinely collected health administrative data can be used to track disease incidence, explore risk factors and conduct health services research. Due to potential for misclassification bias, the accuracy of data-elements should be validated prior to use. The objectives of this study were to validate an algorithm to accurately identify pediatric cases of hospitalized respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) from within Ontario’s health administrative data, estimate annual incidence of hospitalization due to RSV and report the prevalence of major risk factors within hospitalized patients. Study Design and Setting A retrospective chart review was performed to establish a reference-standard cohort of children from the Ottawa region admitted to the Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario (CHEO) for RSV-related disease in 2010 and 2011. Chart review data was linked to Ontario’s administrative data and used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of algorithms of RSV-related ICD-10 codes within provincial hospitalization and emergency department databases. Age- and sex-standardized incidence was calculated over time, with trends in incidence assessed using Poisson regression. Results From a total of 1411 admissions, chart review identified 327 children hospitalized for laboratory confirmed RSV-related disease. Following linkage to administrative data and restriction to first admissions, there were 289 RSV patients in the reference-standard cohort. The best algorithm, based on hospitalization data, resulted in sensitivity 97.9% (95%CI: 95.5–99.2%), specificity 99.6% (95%CI: 98.2–99.8%), PPV 96.9% (95%CI: 94.2–98.6%), NPV 99.4% (95%CI: 99.4–99.9%). Incidence of hospitalized RSV in Ontario from 2005–2012 was 10.2 per 1000 children under 1 year and 4.8 per 1000 children aged 1 to 3 years. During the surveillance period, there was no identifiable

  7. Considering the needs of English language learner populations: an examination of the population validity of reading intervention research.

    PubMed

    Moore, Brooke A; Klingner, Janette K

    2014-01-01

    This article synthesizes reading intervention research studies intended for use with struggling or at-risk students to determine which studies adequately address population validity, particularly in regard to the diverse reading needs of English language learners. An extensive search of the professional literature between 2001 and 2010 yielded a total of 67 reading intervention studies targeting at-risk elementary students. Findings revealed that many current research studies fail to adequately describe the sample, including the accessible and target populations, and to disaggregate their findings based on demographic characteristics. When population validity issues are not addressed, researchers cannot generalize findings to other populations of students, and it becomes unclear what intervention strategies work, especially with English language learner student populations. However, 25 studies did specifically recognize and address the needs of English language learners, indicating more researchers are taking into consideration the diverse needs of other struggling student populations. PMID:23175238

  8. Sexual compulsivity scale: adaptation and validation in the spanish population.

    PubMed

    Ballester-Arnal, Rafael; Gómez-Martínez, Sandra; Llario, M Dolores-Gil; Salmerón-Sánchez, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Sexual compulsivity has been studied in relation to high-risk behavior for sexually transmitted infections. The aim of this study was the adaptation and validation of the Sexual Compulsivity Scale to a sample of Spanish young people. This scale was applied to 1,196 (891 female, 305 male) Spanish college students. The results of principal components factor analysis using a varimax rotation indicated a two-factor solution. The reliability of the Sexual Compulsivity Scale was found to be high. Moreover, the scale showed good temporal stability. External correlates were examined through Pearson correlations between the Sexual Compulsivity Scale and other constructs related with HIV prevention. The authors' results suggest that the Sexual Compulsivity Scale is an appropriate measure for assessing sexual compulsivity, showing adequate psychometric properties in the Spanish population. PMID:23631692

  9. Validity of the SMAST in two American Indian tribal populations.

    PubMed

    Robin, Robert W; Saremi, Aramesh; Albaugh, Bernard; Hanson, Robert L; Williams, Desmond; Goldman, David

    2004-03-01

    The standardized evaluation of alcoholism and other psychopathologies in minority populations, particularly American Indians, has long been questioned. This study investigated the validity of one of the most commonly applied assessments for alcoholism--the Short Michigan Alcohol Screening Test (SMAST)--in two distinct American Indian tribal groups. We analyzed data collected from 1989 to 1995 from largely community representative samples of 456 Southwestern and 214 Plains Indians ages 21 or older. For comparison, alcohol dependence was diagnosed using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition-Revised (DSM-III-R) criteria from a detailed, modified version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia--Lifetime (SADS-L). Accuracy of the SMAST was quantified as sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, and the area under the curve for receiver operating characteristics, using the DSM-III-R diagnosis as the reference. The standard SMAST cutoff score of > or = 3 had a demonstrated sensitivity 86% to 95%, but did not perform well in terms of specificity (23%-47%). Significantly higher cutoff scores (> or = 5 for both genders in the Southwestern tribe and 8 and > or = 6 for men and women in the Plains tribe) were required to demonstrate acceptable levels of specificity in both tribes. The findings suggest that the SMAST is not a valid tool to screen for alcohol misuse in these two tribal populations. The highly elevated and different thresholds required from one population to the next and from one gender to the next constitute a significant obstacle to the use of the instrument. PMID:15115215

  10. Relationship between Obesity and Massive Transfusion Needs in Trauma Patients, and Validation of TASH Score in Obese Population: A Retrospective Study on 910 Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    De Jong, Audrey; Deras, Pauline; Martinez, Orianne; Latry, Pascal; Jaber, Samir; Capdevila, Xavier; Charbit, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Background Prediction of massive transfusion (MT) is challenging in management of trauma patients. However, MT and its prediction were poorly studied in obese patients. The main objective was to assess the relationship between obesity and MT needs in trauma patients. The secondary objectives were to validate the Trauma Associated Severe Hemorrhage (TASH) score in predicting MT in obese patients and to use a grey zone approach to optimize its ability to predict MT. Methods and Findings An observational retrospective study was conducted in a Level I Regional Trauma Center Trauma in obese and non-obese patients. MT was defined as ≥10U of packed red blood cells in the first 24h and obesity as a BMI≥30kg/m². Between January 2008 and December 2012, 119 obese and 791 non-obese trauma patients were included. The rate of MT was 10% (94/910) in the whole population. The MT rate tended to be higher in obese patients than in non-obese patients: 15% (18/119, 95%CI 9‒23%) versus 10% (76/791, 95%CI 8‒12%), OR, 1.68 [95%CI 0.97‒2.92], p = 0.07. After adjusting for Injury Severity Score (ISS), obesity was significantly associated with MT rate (OR, 1.79[95%CI 1.00‒3.21], p = 0.049). The TASH score was higher in the obese group than in the non-obese group: 7(4–11) versus 5(2–10)(p<0.001). The area under the ROC curves of the TASH score in predicting MT was very high and comparable between the obese and non-obese groups: 0.93 (95%CI, 0.89‒0.98) and 0.94 (95%CI, 0.92‒0.96), respectively (p = 0.80). The grey zone ranged respectively from 10 to 13 and from 9 to 12 in obese and non obese patients, and allowed separating patients at low, intermediate or high risk of MT using the TASH score. Conclusions Obesity was associated with a higher rate of MT in trauma patients. The predictive performance of the TASH score and the grey zones were robust and comparable between obese and non-obese patients. PMID:27010445

  11. Factor Structure, Reliability and Criterion Validity of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ): A Study in Dutch Population and Patient Groups

    PubMed Central

    Bartels, Meike; Cath, Danielle C.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2008-01-01

    The factor structure of the Dutch translation of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ; a continuous, quantitative measure of autistic traits) was evaluated with confirmatory factor analyses in a large general population and student sample. The criterion validity of the AQ was examined in three matched patient groups (autism spectrum conditions (ASC), social anxiety disorder, and obsessive–compulsive disorder). A two factor model, consisting of a “Social interaction” factor and “Attention to detail” factor could be identified. The internal consistency and test–retest reliability of the AQ were satisfactory. High total AQ and factor scores were specific to ASC patients. Men scored higher than women and science students higher than non-science students. The Dutch translation of the AQ is a reliable instrument to assess autism spectrum conditions. PMID:18302013

  12. Validation studies and proficiency testing.

    PubMed

    Ankilam, Elke; Heinze, Petra; Kay, Simon; Van den Eede, Guy; Popping, Bert

    2002-01-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) entered the European food market in 1996. Current legislation demands the labeling of food products if they contain <1% GMO, as assessed for each ingredient of the product. To create confidence in the testing methods and to complement enforcement requirements, there is an urgent need for internationally validated methods, which could serve as reference methods. To date, several methods have been submitted to validation trials at an international level; approaches now exist that can be used in different circumstances and for different food matrixes. Moreover, the requirement for the formal validation of methods is clearly accepted; several national and international bodies are active in organizing studies. Further validation studies, especially on the quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods, need to be performed to cover the rising demand for new extraction methods and other background matrixes, as well as for novel GMO constructs. PMID:12083280

  13. Methodology Review: Estimation of Population Validity and Cross-Validity, and the Use of Equal Weights in Prediction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raju, Nambury S.; Bilgic, Reyhan; Edwards, Jack E.; Fleer, Paul F.

    1997-01-01

    This review finds that formula-based procedures can be used in place of empirical validation for estimating population validity or in place of empirical cross-validation for estimating population cross-validity. Discusses conditions under which the equal weights procedure is a viable alternative. (SLD)

  14. Clinical Validity of the ADI-R in a US-Based Latino Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanegas, Sandra B.; Magaña, Sandra; Morales, Miguel; McNamara, Ellyn

    2016-01-01

    The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) has been validated as a tool to aid in the diagnosis of Autism; however, given the growing diversity in the United States, the ADI-R must be validated for different languages and cultures. This study evaluates the validity of the ADI-R in a US-based Latino, Spanish-speaking population of 50 children…

  15. PSI-Center Validation Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, B. A.; Akcay, C.; Glasser, A. H.; Hansen, C. J.; Jarboe, T. R.; Marklin, G. J.; Milroy, R. D.; Morgan, K. D.; Norgaard, P. C.; Shumlak, U.; Sutherland, D. A.; Victor, B. S.; Sovinec, C. R.; O'Bryan, J. B.; Held, E. D.; Ji, J.-Y.; Lukin, V. S.

    2014-10-01

    The Plasma Science and Innovation Center (PSI-Center - http://www.psicenter.org) supports collaborating validation platform experiments with 3D extended MHD simulations using the NIMROD, HiFi, and PSI-TET codes. Collaborators include the Bellan Plasma Group (Caltech), CTH (Auburn U), HBT-EP (Columbia), HIT-SI (U Wash-UW), LTX (PPPL), MAST (Culham), Pegasus (U Wisc-Madison), SSX (Swarthmore College), TCSU (UW), and ZaP/ZaP-HD (UW). The PSI-Center is exploring application of validation metrics between experimental data and simulations results. Biorthogonal decomposition (BOD) is used to compare experiments with simulations. BOD separates data sets into spatial and temporal structures, giving greater weight to dominant structures. Several BOD metrics are being formulated with the goal of quantitive validation. Results from these simulation and validation studies, as well as an overview of the PSI-Center status will be presented.

  16. Considering the Needs of English Language Learner Populations: An Examination of the Population Validity of Reading Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Brooke A.; Klingner, Janette K.

    2014-01-01

    This article synthesizes reading intervention research studies intended for use with struggling or at-risk students to determine which studies adequately address population validity, particularly in regard to the diverse reading needs of English language learners. An extensive search of the professional literature between 2001 and 2010 yielded a…

  17. Beverage Intake Assessment Questionnaire: Relative Validity and Repeatability in a Spanish Population with Metabolic Syndrome from the PREDIMED-PLUS Study.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Pêgo, Cíntia; Nissensohn, Mariela; Kavouras, Stavros A; Babio, Nancy; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Martín Águila, Adys; Mauromoustakos, Andy; Álvarez Pérez, Jacqueline; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    We assess the repeatability and relative validity of a Spanish beverage intake questionnaire for assessing water intake from beverages. The present analysis was performed within the framework of the PREDIMED-PLUS trial. The study participants were adults (aged 55-75) with a BMI ≥27 and <40 kg/m², and at least three components of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). A trained dietitian completed the questionnaire. Participants provided 24-h urine samples, and the volume and urine osmolality were recorded. The repeatability of the baseline measurement at 6 and 1 year was examined by paired Student's t-test comparisons. A total of 160 participants were included in the analysis. The Bland-Altman analysis showed relatively good agreement between total daily fluid intake assessed using the fluid-specific questionnaire, and urine osmolality and 24-h volume with parameter estimates of -0.65 and 0.22, respectively (R² = 0.20; p < 0.001). In the repeatability test, no significant differences were found between neither type of beverage nor total daily fluid intake at 6 months and 1-year assessment, compared to baseline. The proposed fluid-specific assessment questionnaire designed to assess the consumption of water and other beverages in Spanish adult individuals was found to be relatively valid with good repeatability. PMID:27483318

  18. Beverage Intake Assessment Questionnaire: Relative Validity and Repeatability in a Spanish Population with Metabolic Syndrome from the PREDIMED-PLUS Study

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira-Pêgo, Cíntia; Nissensohn, Mariela; Kavouras, Stavros A.; Babio, Nancy; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Martín Águila, Adys; Mauromoustakos, Andy; Álvarez Pérez, Jacqueline; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    We assess the repeatability and relative validity of a Spanish beverage intake questionnaire for assessing water intake from beverages. The present analysis was performed within the framework of the PREDIMED-PLUS trial. The study participants were adults (aged 55–75) with a BMI ≥27 and <40 kg/m2, and at least three components of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). A trained dietitian completed the questionnaire. Participants provided 24-h urine samples, and the volume and urine osmolality were recorded. The repeatability of the baseline measurement at 6 and 1 year was examined by paired Student’s t-test comparisons. A total of 160 participants were included in the analysis. The Bland–Altman analysis showed relatively good agreement between total daily fluid intake assessed using the fluid-specific questionnaire, and urine osmolality and 24-h volume with parameter estimates of −0.65 and 0.22, respectively (R2 = 0.20; p < 0.001). In the repeatability test, no significant differences were found between neither type of beverage nor total daily fluid intake at 6 months and 1-year assessment, compared to baseline. The proposed fluid-specific assessment questionnaire designed to assess the consumption of water and other beverages in Spanish adult individuals was found to be relatively valid with good repeatability. PMID:27483318

  19. Using the Bayesian Improved Surname Geocoding Method (BISG) to Create a Working Classification of Race and Ethnicity in a Diverse Managed Care Population: A Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Adjaye-Gbewonyo, Dzifa; Bednarczyk, Robert A; Davis, Robert L; Omer, Saad B

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo validate classification of race/ethnicity based on the Bayesian Improved Surname Geocoding method (BISG) and assess variations in validity by gender and age. Data Sources/Study SettingSecondary data on members of Kaiser Permanente Georgia, an integrated managed care organization, through 2010. Study DesignFor 191,494 members with self-reported race/ethnicity, probabilities for belonging to each of six race/ethnicity categories predicted from the BISG algorithm were used to assign individuals to a race/ethnicity category over a range of cutoffs greater than a probability of 0.50. Overall as well as gender-and age-stratified sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated and used to identify optimal cutoffs for race/ethnicity assignment. Principal FindingsThe overall cutoffs for assignment that optimized sensitivity and specificity ranged from 0.50 to 0.57 for the four main racial/ethnic categories (White, Black, Asian/Pacific Islander, Hispanic). Corresponding sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV ranged from 64.4 to 81.4 percent, 80.8 to 99.7 percent, 75.0 to 91.6 percent, and 79.4 to 98.0 percent, respectively. Accuracy of assignment was better among males and individuals of 65 years or older. ConclusionsBISG may be useful for classifying race/ethnicity of health plan members when needed for health care studies. PMID:23855558

  20. [A study on the construct validity of the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale (CTSPC) in an urban population in Northeast Brazil].

    PubMed

    Bonfim, Camila Barreto; Santos, Darci Neves; Menezes, Igor Gomes; Reichenheim, Michael Eduardo; Barreto, Mauricio Lima

    2011-11-01

    The Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale (CTSPC) is one of the most widely used instruments in the world for investigating domestic violence against children, but targeted use has proven inadequate given the phenomenon's complexity. This study focused on the factor structure of CTSPC scales in an urban population in Northeast Brazil. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a cohort of 1,370 children in Salvador, Bahia State. Factor analysis with promax oblique rotation was performed, and the Kuder-Richardson coefficient was calculated. Factor analysis showed a different distribution of items in the factors as compared to the original instrument. Violence showed a gradual profile in each factor. The Kuder-Richardson coefficient was 0.63 for factor 1, 0.59 for factor 2, and 0.42 for factor 3. The items behaved differently from the original instrument, corroborating international studies. These findings support proposing a resizing of the CTSPC. PMID:22124499

  1. Development and validity of a 3-day smartphone-assisted 24-hour recall to assess beverage consumption in a Chinese population: a randomized cross-over study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lindsey P.; Hua, Jenna; Seto, Edmund; Du, Shufa; Zang, Jiajie; Zou, Shurong; Popkin, Barry M.; Mendez, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the need for diet assessment methods that capture the rapidly changing beverage consumption patterns in China. The objective of this study was to develop a 3-day smartphone-assisted 24-hour recall to improve the quantification of beverage intake amongst young Chinese adults (n=110) and validate, in a small subset (n=34), the extent to which the written record and smartphone-assisted recalls adequately estimated total fluid intake, using 24-hour urine samples. The smartphone-assisted method showed improved validity compared to the written-assisted method, when comparing reported total fluid intake to total urine volume. However, participants reported consuming fewer beverages on the smartphone-assisted method compared to the written-assisted method, primarily due to decreased consumption of traditional zero-energy beverages (i.e. water, tea) in the smartphone-assisted method. It is unclear why participants reported fewer beverages in the smartphone-assisted method than the written-assisted method. One possibility is that participants found the smartphone method too cumbersome, and responded by decreasing beverage intake. These results suggest that smartphone-assisted 24-hour recalls perform comparably but do not appear to substantially improve beverage quantification compared to the current written record based approach. In addition, we piloted a beverage screener to identify consumers of episodically consumed SSBs. As expected, a substantially higher proportion of consumers reported consuming SSBs on the beverage screener compared to either recall type, suggesting that a beverage screener may be useful in characterizing consumption of episodically consumed beverages in China’s dynamic food and beverage landscape. PMID:25516327

  2. Performance of the Framingham and SCORE cardiovascular risk prediction functions in a non-diabetic population of a Spanish health care centre: a validation study

    PubMed Central

    Barroso, Lourdes Cañón; Muro, Eloísa Cruces; Herrera, Natalio Díaz; Ochoa, Gerardo Fernández; Hueros, Juan Ignacio Calvo; Buitrago, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Objective To analyse the 10-year performance of the original Framingham coronary risk function and of the SCORE cardiovascular death risk function in a non-diabetic population of 40–65 years of age served by a Spanish healthcare centre. Also, to estimate the percentage of patients who are candidates for antihypertensive and lipid-lowering therapy. Design Longitudinal, observational study of a retrospective cohort followed up for 10 years. Setting Primary care health centre. Patients A total of 608 non-diabetic patients of 40–65 years of age (mean 52.8 years, 56.7% women), without evidence of cardiovascular disease were studied. Main outcome measures Coronary risk at 10 years from the time of their recruitment, using the tables based on the original Framingham function, and of their 10-year risk of fatal cardiovascular disease using the SCORE tables. Results The actual incidence rates of coronary and fatal cardiovascular events were 7.9% and 1.5%, respectively. The original Framingham equation over-predicted risk by 64%, while SCORE function over-predicted risk by 40%, but the SCORE model performed better than the Framingham one for discrimination and calibration statistics. The original Framingham function classified 18.3% of the population as high risk and SCORE 9.2%. The proportions of patients who would be candidates for lipid-lowering therapy were 31.0% and 23.8% according to the original Framingham and SCORE functions, respectively, and 36.8% and 31.2% for antihypertensive therapy. Conclusion The SCORE function showed better values than the original Framingham function for each of the discrimination and calibration statistics. The original Framingham function selected a greater percentage of candidates for antihypertensive and lipid-lowering therapy. PMID:20873973

  3. Validity of Carrea's index in stature estimation among two racial populations in India

    PubMed Central

    Anita, P.; Madankumar, P. D.; Sivasamy, Shyam; Balan, I. Nanda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stature is considered to be one of the “big fours” in forensic anthropology. Though Carrea's Index was published as early as 1920 it has not been validated in any other population apart from the Brazilians. Aim: The present study was conducted to validate Carrea's index in stature estimation in two different racial populations in India. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in a sample of 100 persons comprising of 25 Aryan males, 25 Aryan females, 25 Dravidian males, and 25 Dravidian females in the age group of 18–30 years. The maximum and minimum stature of all individuals was estimated by Carrea's Index. The actual stature was measured by an anthropometer. The estimated stature was compared with the actual stature and percentage of success was calculated. Results: The Carrea's Index was found to be valid in predicting the stature of 80% Dravidian and 84% Aryan males, the difference being statistically insignificant (Fisher Exact test–0.16; P = 0.99). The stature of 76% of females in both Aryan and Dravidian races was successfully predicted by Carrea's index. Regression analysis showed that the minimum estimated height was more valid in estimating the stature of Aryan and Dravidian population. Conclusion: The validity to use Carrea's index in Aryan and Dravidian population was evaluated and found to be valid. PMID:27555731

  4. FDDS: A Cross Validation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Judy Parsons

    The Family Drawing Depression Scale (FDDS) was created by Wright and McIntyre to provide a clear and reliable scoring method for the Kinetic Family Drawing as a procedure for detecting depression. A study was conducted to confirm the value of the FDDS as a systematic tool for interpreting family drawings with populations of depressed individuals.…

  5. Critical validation studies of neurofeedback.

    PubMed

    Gruzelier, John; Egner, Tobias

    2005-01-01

    The field of neurofeedback training has proceeded largely without validation. In this article the authors review studies directed at validating sensory motor rhythm, beta and alpha-theta protocols for improving attention, memory, and music performance in healthy participants. Importantly, benefits were demonstrable with cognitive and neurophysiologic measures that were predicted on the basis of regression models of learning to enhance sensory motor rhythm and beta activity. The first evidence of operant control over the alpha-theta ratio is provided, together with remarkable improvements in artistic aspects of music performance equivalent to two class grades in conservatory students. These are initial steps in providing a much needed scientific basis to neurofeedback. PMID:15564053

  6. The reliability and validity of the Social Responsiveness Scale in a UK general child population.

    PubMed

    Wigham, Sarah; McConachie, Helen; Tandos, Jonathan; Le Couteur, Ann S

    2012-01-01

    This is the first UK study to report the reliability, validity, and factor structure of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) in a general population sample. Parents of 500 children (aged 5-8 years) in North East England completed the SRS. Profiles of scores were similar to USA norms, and a single factor structure was identified. Good construct validity and internal consistency were found. Children with identified special needs were found to have significantly higher SRS scores than those without. The findings suggest the SRS performs in similar ways in UK and USA general population samples of children and can be used without modification in the UK. PMID:22277583

  7. Validity and Reliability of the Maslach Burnout Inventory for a Coaching Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemke, Mark A.

    The factorial validity and reliability of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) (C. Maslach and S. Jackson, 1982) for use with coaching populations at educational institutions was investigated. A sample of 199 college basketball coaches served as subjects for the study. The coaches completed a demographic data sheet and a modified version of the…

  8. Further Validation of a U.S. Adult Social Self-Efficacy Inventory in Chinese Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Jinyan; Meng, Hui; Zhao, Bihua; Patel, Trishna

    2012-01-01

    The authors report further validity evidence for the Chinese version of a U.S. adult social self-efficacy inventory, the "Perceived Social Self-Efficacy" (PSSE) scale in Chinese populations. Study 1 participants were 323 new graduate students enrolled at a large university in an east coast city of the People's Republic of China. Differential item…

  9. Validity of Personal Growth Initiative Scale Scores with a Mexican American College Student Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robitschek, Christine

    2003-01-01

    This study tested the validity of scores on the Personal Growth Initiative Scale (PGIS; C. Robitschek, 1998, 1999) with a Mexican American college student sample. Results indicated that the PGIS scores appear to be culturally relevant for this population, with scores on the PGIS having many similar relations with other variables that have been…

  10. The Reliability and Validity of the Social Responsiveness Scale in a UK General Child Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigham, Sarah; McConachie, Helen; Tandos, Jonathan; Le Couteur, Ann S.

    2012-01-01

    This is the first UK study to report the reliability, validity, and factor structure of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) in a general population sample. Parents of 500 children (aged 5-8 years) in North East England completed the SRS. Profiles of scores were similar to USA norms, and a single factor structure was identified. Good construct…

  11. The Ecological and Population Validity of Reading Interventions for Adolescents: Can Effectiveness Be Generalized?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Deborah K.; McCray Sorrells, Audrey; Cole, Heather A.; Takakawa, Nara N.

    2013-01-01

    This article examined the ecological and population validity of research on reading interventions for adolescents in Grades 6 through 12. The 26 studies meeting selection criteria were analyzed to determine the characteristics of the students, interventionists, classroom structures, and school environments used, as well as whether there were…

  12. Validation of a physical anthropology methodology using mandibles for gender estimation in a Brazilian population

    PubMed Central

    CARVALHO, Suzana Papile Maciel; BRITO, Liz Magalhães; de PAIVA, Luiz Airton Saavedra; BICUDO, Lucilene Arilho Ribeiro; CROSATO, Edgard Michel; de OLIVEIRA, Rogério Nogueira

    2013-01-01

    Validation studies of physical anthropology methods in the different population groups are extremely important, especially in cases in which the population variations may cause problems in the identification of a native individual by the application of norms developed for different communities. Objective This study aimed to estimate the gender of skeletons by application of the method of Oliveira, et al. (1995), previously used in a population sample from Northeast Brazil. Material and Methods The accuracy of this method was assessed for a population from Southeast Brazil and validated by statistical tests. The method used two mandibular measurements, namely the bigonial distance and the mandibular ramus height. The sample was composed of 66 skulls and the method was applied by two examiners. The results were statistically analyzed by the paired t test, logistic discriminant analysis and logistic regression. Results The results demonstrated that the application of the method of Oliveira, et al. (1995) in this population achieved very different outcomes between genders, with 100% for females and only 11% for males, which may be explained by ethnic differences. However, statistical adjustment of measurement data for the population analyzed allowed accuracy of 76.47% for males and 78.13% for females, with the creation of a new discriminant formula. Conclusion It was concluded that methods involving physical anthropology present high rate of accuracy for human identification, easy application, low cost and simplicity; however, the methodologies must be validated for the different populations due to differences in ethnic patterns, which are directly related to the phenotypic aspects. In this specific case, the method of Oliveira, et al. (1995) presented good accuracy and may be used for gender estimation in Brazil in two geographic regions, namely Northeast and Southeast; however, for other regions of the country (North, Central West and South), previous methodological

  13. A Translation and Validation Study of the Life Orientation Test Revised in the Greek Speaking Population of Nurses among Three Hospitals in Athens and Ioannina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyrakos, George N.; Damigos, Dimitrios; Mavreas, Venetsanos; Georgia, Kostopanagiotou; Dimoliatis, Ioannis D. K.

    2010-01-01

    The life orientation test-revised (LOT-R) (Scheier et al. in "Journal of Personality and Social Psychology" 67:1063-1078, 1994) is a brief measure for assessing dispositional optimism. The aim of this study was to develop a Greek language version of the LOT-R and to assess the instrument's psychometric properties. The LOT-R was translated and…

  14. Validation of the IMMIDIET food frequency questionnaire in an adult Belgian population: a report from the Belgian case-control study on bladder cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Brinkman, M T; Kellen, E; Zeegers, M P; van Dongen, M C J M S; Dagnelie, P C; Muls, E; Buntinx, F

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of the IMMIDIET food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) used to collect dietary data for the Belgian case-control study on bladder cancer. Thirty-seven men and women aged 50 years and older were recruited from the University Hospital in Leuven, Belgium. Participants completed the IMMIDIET FFQ, a 7-day diet diary and a 24-hour diet recall. Median intakes and inter-quartile ranges were calculated for 27 foods and nutrients from each dietary assessment method. All dietary factors were log-transformed and adjusted for energy using the nutrient density method. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to compare the different dietary assessment methods. Bland-Altman plots were also used to assess levels of agreement between the dietary methods. Energy, fruit and vegetable intake estimates were higher from the IMMIDIET FFQ compared with the two reference methods.The highest deattenuated correlations between the FFQ and 7-day diary were meat (0.58), bread (0.44), fruit (0.38) and fish (0.38). The highest deattenuated correlations between the FFQ and 24-hour recall were for fruit (0.72), fat (0.48), alcohol (0.44), cholesterol (0.42), monounsaturated fatty acid (0.42) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (0.41). Generally, correlation was lower for the micro-nutrients except for phosphorus (0.42), vitamin C (0.41) and calcium (0.40). The IMMIDIET FFQ is an appropriate instrument to measure usual dietary intake for the Belgian case-control study on bladder cancer risk. Further investigation of nutritional assessment methods is necessary. PMID:21485759

  15. Automated carotid IMT measurement and its validation in low contrast ultrasound database of 885 patient indian population epidemiological study: results of AtheroEdge™ Software

    PubMed Central

    MOLINARI, F.; MEIBURGER, K. M.; ZENG, G.; SABA, L.; ACHARYA, U. RAJENDRA; FAMIGLIETTI, L.; GEORGIOU, N.; NICOLAIDES, A.; MAMIDI, R. SRISWAN; KUPER, H.; SURI, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    Aim The aim of this paper was to demonstrate the usage of an automated computer-based IMT measurement system called - CALEX 3.0 (a class of patented AtheroEdge™ software) on a low contrast and low resolution image database acquired during an epidemiological study from India. The image contrast was very low with pixel density of 12.7 pixels/mm. Further, to demonstrate the accuracy and reproducibility of the AtheroEdge™ software system we compared it with the manual tracings of a vascular surgeon – considered as a gold standard. Methods We automatically measured the IMT value of 885 common carotid arteries in longitudinal B-Mode images. CALEX 3.0 consisted of a stage for the automatic recognition of the carotid artery and an IMT measurement modulus made of a fuzzy K-means classifier. Performance was assessed by measuring the system accuracy and reproducibility against manual tracings by experts. Results CALEX 3.0 processed all the 885 images of the dataset (100% success). The average automated obtained IMT measurement by CALEX 3.0 was 0.407±0.083 mm compared with 0.429 ± 0.052 mm for the manual tracings, which led to an IMT bias of 0.022±0.081mm. The IMT measurement accuracy (0.022 mm) was comparable to that obtained on high-resolution images and the reproducibility (0.081 mm) was very low and suitable to clinical application. The Figure-of-Merit defined as the percent agreement between the computer-estimated IMT and manually measured IMT for CALEX 3.0 was 94.7%. Conclusions CALEX 3.0 had a 100% success in processing low contrast/low-resolution images. CALEX 3.0 is the first technique, which has led to high accuracy and reproducibility on low-resolution images acquired during an epidemiological study. We propose CALEX 3.0 as a generalized framework for IMT measurement on large datasets. PMID:22330624

  16. Validity of moyers mixed dentition analysis for Saudi population

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dlaigan, Yousef H.; Alqahtani, Nasser D.; Almoammar, Khalid; Al-Jewair, Thikriat; Salamah, Fahad Bin; Alswilem, Mohamme; Albarakati, Sahar F.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the applicability of Moyers probability tables and to formulate more accurate mixed dentition prediction tables in the Saudi population. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the College of Dentistry, Kind Saud University, Saudi Arabia. The data were collected from 410 (203 males and 207 females) orthodontic study models, which had erupted mandibular permanent incisors, maxillary, mandibular canines and premolars. The mesiodistal widths were measured using a digital caliper with an accuracy of 0.01 mm. Student’s paired t-test was used to compare the mean width values derived from this study with the values derived using the Moyers table. Simple linear regression was used to evaluate the linear relationship between the combined mesiodistal widths of the mandibular permanent incisors and the canine-premolar segments in each dental arch. Results: The regression equations for the maxillary canine-premolar segment (males: Y=10.27+0.48X; females: Y=11.71 + 0.39X) and the mandibular canine-premolar segment (males: Y=9.71 + 0.40X; females: 11.28 + 0.39X) were used to formulate new probability tables on the Moyers pattern. Statistically significant differences were observed between predicted widths in our subjects and the widths obtained using Moyers tables. Conclusions: The new prediction tables derived in this study provided a more precise mixed dentition space analysis than Moyers prediction tables in estimating tooth dimensions in the Saudi population. PMID:26870104

  17. Archaeological evidence of validity of fish populations on unexploited reefs as proxy targets for modern populations.

    PubMed

    Longenecker, Ken; Chan, Yvonne L; Toonen, Robert J; Carlon, David B; Hunt, Terry L; Friedlander, Alan M; Demartini, Edward E

    2014-10-01

    Reef-fish management and conservation is hindered by a lack of information on fish populations prior to large-scale contemporary human impacts. As a result, relatively pristine sites are often used as conservation baselines for populations near sites affected by humans. This space-for-time approach can only be validated by sampling assemblages through time. We used archaeological remains to evaluate whether the remote, uninhabited Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) might provide a reasonable proxy for a lightly exploited baseline in the Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI). We used molecular and morphological techniques to describe the taxonomic and size composition of the scarine parrotfish catches present in 2 archaeological assemblages from the MHI, compared metrics of these catches with modern estimates of reproductive parameters to evaluate whether catches represented by the archaeological material were consistent with sustainable fishing, and evaluated overlap between size structures represented by the archaeological material and modern survey data from the MHI and the NWHI to assess whether a space-for-time substitution is reasonable. The parrotfish catches represented by archaeological remains were consistent with sustainable fishing because they were dominated by large, mature individuals whose average size remained stable from prehistoric (AD approximately 1400-1700) through historic (AD 1700-1960) periods. The ancient catches were unlike populations in the MHI today. Overlap between the size structure of ancient MHI catches and modern survey data from the NWHI or the MHI was an order of magnitude greater for the NWHI comparison, a result that supports the validity of using the NWHI parrotfish data as a proxy for the MHI before accelerated, heavy human impacts in modern times. PMID:24665960

  18. Validation of administrative hospital data for identifying incident pancreatic and periampullary cancer cases: a population-based study using linked cancer registry and administrative hospital data in New South Wales, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Creighton, Nicola; Walton, Richard; Roder, David; Aranda, Sanchia; Currow, David

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Informing cancer service delivery with timely and accurate data is essential to cancer control activities and health system monitoring. This study aimed to assess the validity of ascertaining incident cases and resection use for pancreatic and periampullary cancers from linked administrative hospital data, compared with data from a cancer registry (the ‘gold standard’). Design, setting and participants Analysis of linked statutory population-based cancer registry data and administrative hospital data for adults (aged ≥18 years) with a pancreatic or periampullary cancer case diagnosed during 2005–2009 or a hospital admission for these cancers between 2005 and 2013 in New South Wales, Australia. Methods The sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) of pancreatic and periampullary cancer case ascertainment from hospital admission data were calculated for the 2005–2009 period through comparison with registry data. We examined the effect of the look-back period to distinguish incident cancer cases from prevalent cancer cases from hospital admission data using 2009 and 2013 as index years. Results Sensitivity of case ascertainment from the hospital data was 87.5% (4322/4939), with higher sensitivity when the cancer was resected (97.9%, 715/730) and for pancreatic cancers (88.6%, 3733/4211). Sensitivity was lower in regional (83.3%) and remote (85.7%) areas, particularly in areas with interstate outflow of patients for treatment, and for cases notified to the registry by death certificate only (9.6%). The PPV for the identification of incident cases was 82.0% (4322/5272). A 2-year look-back period distinguished the majority (98%) of incident cases from prevalent cases in linked hospital data. Conclusions Pancreatic and periampullary cancer cases and resection use can be ascertained from linked hospital admission data with sufficient validity for informing aspects of health service delivery and system-level monitoring. Limited tumour clinical

  19. Further validation of the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory in a US adult population sample

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20) was developed in 1995. Since then, it has been widely used in cancer research and cancer-related illnesses but has never been validated in fatiguing illnesses or in a large US population-selected sample. In this study, we sought to examine the reliability and validity of the MFI-20 in the population of the state of Georgia, USA. Further, we assessed whether the MFI-20 could serve as a complementary diagnostic tool in chronically fatigued and unwell populations. Methods The data derive from a cross-sectional population-based study investigating the prevalence of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in Georgia. The study sample was comprised of three diagnostic groups: CFS-like (292), chronically unwell (269), and well (222). Participants completed the MFI-20 along with several other measures of psychosocial functioning, including the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-36 (SF-36), the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), and the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). We assessed the five MFI-20 subscales using several criteria: inter-item correlations, corrected item-total correlations, internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha coefficients), construct validity, discriminant (known-group) validity, floor/ceiling effects, and convergent validity through correlations with the SF-36, SDS, and STAI instruments. Results Averaged inter-item correlations ranged from 0.38 to 0.61, indicating no item redundancy. Corrected item-total correlations for all MFI-20 subscales were greater than 0.30, and Cronbach's alpha coefficients achieved an acceptable level of 0.70. No significant floor/ceiling effect was observed. Factor analysis demonstrated factorial complexity. The MFI-20 also distinguished clearly between three diagnostic groups on all subscales. Furthermore, correlations with depression (SDS), anxiety (STAI), and functional impairment (SF-36) demonstrated strong convergent validity. Conclusions

  20. Development and Validation of an LC-MS-MS Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Simvastatin, Simvastatin Acid and Ezetimibe in Human Plasma and Its Application to Pharmacokinetic Study in the Indian Population.

    PubMed

    Munaga, Sathish Babu; Valluru, Rajani Kumar; Bonga, Phani Bhushana Reddy; Rao, V Sumathi; Sharma, Hemanth Kumar

    2016-07-01

    A simple, selective, sensitive and high-throughput liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of simvastatin (SS), simvastatin acid (SSA, active metabolite of SS) and ezetimibe (EZM) in K2 EDTA containing human plasma, using simvastatin D6, simvastatin acid D3 and ezetimibe D4 as internal standards (ISTDs), respectively. A volume of plasma sample of only 400 µL was processed by the solid phase extraction technique; then 20 µL of processed sample was run on a Phenomenex, Kinetix XB C18, 150 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm column using an isocratic mobile phase consisting of 10 mM ammonium formate buffer (pH 4.0 ± 0.3): acetonitrile (27 : 73, v/v) with a run time of 6.3 min. The precursor and product ions of SSA, EZM and their ISTDs were monitored on a triple quadrupole instrument operated in the negative ionization mode, and SS was monitored in the positive mode. The method was validated over a concentration range of 0.2-80 ng/mL for SS, 0.1-60 ng/mL for SSA and 0.05-15 ng/mL for EZM. The method has been successfully applied in clinical pharmacokinetic study in the Indian population. The Cmax, AUC0-inf and Tmax values obtained in our study were 10.61 ± 5.287, 77.58 ± 29.367 and 1.62 ± 0.436 for EZM; 69.74 ± 45.274, 190.71 ± 107.271 and 1.74 ± 0.480 for SS; and 25.36 ± 23.576, 139.24 ± 131.653 and 3.95 ± 0.671 for SSA, respectively. PMID:27048644

  1. Thinking and Creative Styles: A Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Solange Muglia; Vendramini, Claudette Maria Medeiros; Oakland, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The validity evidences of thinking and creative styles were analyzed. Two studies are reported, one analyzing the dimensionality of creative styles and the other verifying their external validity. Participants were Brazilians, 1,752 in the first study (55% women) and 128 in the second study (53% women), among whom 45% had demonstrated creative…

  2. Validity of the minimal assessment of cognitive function in multiple sclerosis (MACFIMS) in the Italian population.

    PubMed

    Migliore, Simone; Ghazaryan, Anna; Simonelli, Ilaria; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Landi, Doriana; Palmieri, Maria Giuseppina; Moffa, Filomena; Rinaldi, Pasquale; Vernieri, Fabrizio; Filippi, Maria Maddalena

    2016-08-01

    Cognitive dysfunction involves 40-65 % of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. It can be detected in all MS phenotypes from the early stages of the disease, and it tends to progress over time. Minimal Assessment of Cognitive Function in MS (MACFIMS) has been proved to be the most sensitive and comprehensive battery available for MS cognitive assessment in the English population. In Italy, MACFIMS applicability is limited in everyday clinical practice since the overall validity of this battery in the Italian MS population has never been demonstrated. The aim of this study was to translate/cross-culturally adapt and validate an Italian version of the MACFIMS. A total of 130 MS patients and 60 healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled and evaluated with an Italian version of the MACFIMS. All tests discriminated MS patients from HCs; according to the literature, approximately more than half of MS patients (70.8 %) exhibit cognitive impairment. Principal component analysis showed four distinct components: visual-spatial memory/processing speed, working memory, executive functions and verbal memory. Our study is the first to validate an Italian version of the MACFIMS. Several aspects of validity have been demonstrated: criterion and, partially, construct. Future work will investigate the longitudinal course of neuropsychological dysfunction in Italian MS patients using these measures. PMID:27095052

  3. Venous Thrombosis Risk after Cast Immobilization of the Lower Extremity: Derivation and Validation of a Clinical Prediction Score, L-TRiP(cast), in Three Population-Based Case–Control Studies

    PubMed Central

    Nemeth, Banne; van Adrichem, Raymond A.; van Hylckama Vlieg, Astrid; Bucciarelli, Paolo; Martinelli, Ida; Baglin, Trevor; Rosendaal, Frits R.; le Cessie, Saskia; Cannegieter, Suzanne C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Guidelines and clinical practice vary considerably with respect to thrombosis prophylaxis during plaster cast immobilization of the lower extremity. Identifying patients at high risk for the development of venous thromboembolism (VTE) would provide a basis for considering individual thromboprophylaxis use and planning treatment studies. The aims of this study were (1) to investigate the predictive value of genetic and environmental risk factors, levels of coagulation factors, and other biomarkers for the occurrence of VTE after cast immobilization of the lower extremity and (2) to develop a clinical prediction tool for the prediction of VTE in plaster cast patients. Methods and Findings We used data from a large population-based case–control study (MEGA study, 4,446 cases with VTE, 6,118 controls without) designed to identify risk factors for a first VTE. Cases were recruited from six anticoagulation clinics in the Netherlands between 1999 and 2004; controls were their partners or individuals identified via random digit dialing. Identification of predictor variables to be included in the model was based on reported associations in the literature or on a relative risk (odds ratio) > 1.2 and p ≤ 0.25 in the univariate analysis of all participants. Using multivariate logistic regression, a full prediction model was created. In addition to the full model (all variables), a restricted model (minimum number of predictors with a maximum predictive value) and a clinical model (environmental risk factors only, no blood draw or assays required) were created. To determine the discriminatory power in patients with cast immobilization (n = 230), the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated by means of a receiver operating characteristic. Validation was performed in two other case–control studies of the etiology of VTE: (1) the THE-VTE study, a two-center, population-based case–control study (conducted in Leiden, the Netherlands, and Cambridge, United Kingdom

  4. Development and Validation of the Body Size Scale for Assessing Body Weight Perception in African Populations

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Emmanuel; Bernard, Jonathan Y.; Ponty, Amandine; Ndao, Amadou; Amougou, Norbert; Saïd-Mohamed, Rihlat; Pasquet, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background The social valorisation of overweight in African populations could promote high-risk eating behaviours and therefore become a risk factor of obesity. However, existing scales to assess body image are usually not accurate enough to allow comparative studies of body weight perception in different African populations. This study aimed to develop and validate the Body Size Scale (BSS) to estimate African body weight perception. Methods Anthropometric measures of 80 Cameroonians and 81 Senegalese were used to evaluate three criteria of adiposity: body mass index (BMI), overall percentage of fat, and endomorphy (fat component of the somatotype). To develop the BSS, the participants were photographed in full face and profile positions. Models were selected for their representativeness of the wide variability in adiposity with a progressive increase along the scale. Then, for the validation protocol, participants self-administered the BSS to assess self-perceived current body size (CBS), desired body size (DBS) and provide a “body self-satisfaction index.” This protocol included construct validity, test-retest reliability and convergent validity and was carried out with three independent samples of respectively 201, 103 and 1115 Cameroonians. Results The BSS comprises two sex-specific scales of photos of 9 models each, and ordered by increasing adiposity. Most participants were able to correctly order the BSS by increasing adiposity, using three different words to define body size. Test-retest reliability was consistent in estimating CBS, DBS and the “body self-satisfaction index.” The CBS was highly correlated to the objective BMI, and two different indexes assessed with the BSS were consistent with declarations obtained in interviews. Conclusion The BSS is the first scale with photos of real African models taken in both full face and profile and representing a wide and representative variability in adiposity. The validation protocol proved its

  5. Construct Validity of Four Frailty Measures in an Older Australian Population: A Rasch Analysis.

    PubMed

    Widagdo, I S; Pratt, N; Russell, M; Roughead, E E

    2016-01-01

    Individuals identified as frail have been shown to be at an increased risk of adverse health outcomes. However, there is no gold standard frailty measure and frailty status can vary depending on the measure used, suggesting the measures perform differently. Construct validity can be used to assess a measure's performance. This study aimed to examine the construct validity of four frailty measures in an Australian older population using Rasch analysis. Frailty status among the 2087 participants aged 65 years and above from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ALSA) was assessed using: frailty phenotype--FP, simplified frailty phenotype--SFP, frailty index--FI, and prognostic frailty score--PFS. Rasch analysis was used to assess the unidimensionality of the measures, which is the extent to which the underlying characteristic of frailty is assessed. The criteria for unidimensionality from principal component analysis of the residuals was when 50% or more of the raw variance was explained by the measures, and less than 5% was unexplained variance. Only FI meet the unidimensionality criteria with 74% of explained variance and 2.1% of unexplained variance. SFP did not show a unidimensional construct with 13.3% of explained variance and 47.1% of unexplained variance. FP and PFS had 39.6%, 18.1% and 46.5%, 8.7% of explained and unexplained variance, respectively. Our findings showed that FI has better construct validity than the other three measures in assessing frailty among the Australian older population. PMID:27224497

  6. Clinical Types in a Normal Population: Concurrent and Construct Validity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Philip; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examined the relationship between personality and psychopathology using the Multivariate Personality Inventory (MPI) (N=100). Results showed significant differences among groups, which indicates that the personality groups as defined by the MPI in a normal population perform as would be predicted from work with pathological groups. (JAC)

  7. Instruments for the assessment of social anxiety disorder: Validation studies

    PubMed Central

    Osório, Flávia de Lima; Crippa, José Alexandre de Souza; Loureiro, Sonia Regina

    2012-01-01

    Great progress has been observed in the literature over the last decade regarding the validation of instruments for the assessment of Social Anxiety Disorder in the Brazilian context. Particularly outstanding in this respect is the production of a group of Brazilian investigators regarding the psychometric study of the following instruments: Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, Social Phobia Inventory, Brief Social Phobia Scale, Disability Profile, Liebowitz Self-Rated Disability Scale, Social Phobia Safety Behaviors Scale and Self-Statements During Public Speaking Scale, which have proved to be appropriate and valid for use in the adult Brazilian population, representing resources for the assessment of social anxiety in clinical and experimental situations. PMID:24175172

  8. 29 CFR 1607.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a criterion-related validity... validity of a test or other selection procedure by a content validity study should consist of data showing... test or other selection procedure through a construct validity study should consist of data...

  9. 29 CFR 1607.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a criterion-related validity... validity of a test or other selection procedure by a content validity study should consist of data showing... test or other selection procedure through a construct validity study should consist of data...

  10. 29 CFR 1607.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a criterion-related validity... validity of a test or other selection procedure by a content validity study should consist of data showing... test or other selection procedure through a construct validity study should consist of data...

  11. 29 CFR 1607.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a criterion-related validity... validity of a test or other selection procedure by a content validity study should consist of data showing... test or other selection procedure through a construct validity study should consist of data...

  12. 29 CFR 1607.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a criterion-related validity... validity of a test or other selection procedure by a content validity study should consist of data showing... test or other selection procedure through a construct validity study should consist of data...

  13. Genomic selection in beef cattle: Training and validation in multibreed populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A challenge for applying genomic selection to beef cattle is accurate across-breed prediction. One approach is to train and validate prediction equations in multibreed populations, but the scarcity of large populations with known pedigrees, phenotypes, and dense genotypes has hindered the developmen...

  14. Validation of the Sense of Coherence Scale in an American Indian population.

    PubMed

    Albino, Judith; Shapiro, Allison L B; Henderson, William G; Tiwari, Tamanna; Brega, Angela G; Thomas, Jacob F; Bryant, Lucinda L; Braun, Patricia A; Quissell, David O

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Sense of Coherence (SOC) scale in the context of an oral health-related clinical trial conducted in an American Indian population-specifically, people of the Navajo Nation. Data were derived from baseline evaluations of parents (or caregivers) of Navajo children aged 3-5 from 52 Head Start classes enrolled in a trial of an intervention to prevent early childhood caries (ECC). A 190-item Basic Research Factors Questionnaire, which included the SOC, was administered to 1,016 parents/caregivers. Assessment of internal reliability and convergent validity, and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to examine associations between parents' SOC and other potentially convergent measures. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine 1- and 3-factor solutions of the SOC scale. Higher SOC was significantly related to higher parental education and income, employment status, and higher scores for social support, internal Oral Health Locus of Control (OHLOC), self-efficacy, importance of oral health, oral health knowledge and behavior, and children's oral health quality of life. Higher SOC also was related to lower reported distress and lower external OHLOC. Cronbach's α was 0.84 for all SOC items, but lower for each of the 3 SOC subscales. Confirmatory factor analyses suggested a 3-factor solution was superior to a 1-factor solution. The SOC scale had good internal reliability and convergent validity in this American Indian population. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26191608

  15. Association studies in consanguineous populations

    SciTech Connect

    Genin, E.; Clerget-Darpous, F.

    1996-04-01

    To study the genetic determinism of multifactorial diseases in large panmictic populations, a strategy consists in looking for an association with markers closely linked to candidate genes. A distribution of marker genotypes different in patients and controls may indicate that the candidate gene is involved in the disease. In panmictic populations, the power to detect the role of a candidate gene depends on the gametic disequilibrium with the marker locus. In consanguineous populations, we show that it depends on the inbreeding coefficient F as well. Inbreeding increases the power to detect the role of a recessive or quasi-recessive disease-susceptibility factor. The gain in power turns out to be greater for small values of the gametic disequilibrium. Moreover, even in the absence of gametic disequilibrium, the presence of inbreeding may allow to detect the role of a recessive factor. Ignoring inbreeding when it exists may lead to reject falsely a recessive model if the mode of inheritance is inferred on the distribution of genotypes among patients. 5 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Validating DNA Polymorphisms Using KASP Assay in Prairie Cordgrass (Spartina pectinata Link) Populations in the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Hannah; Rayburn, A. L.; Gonzalez-Hernandez, Jose L.; Nah, Gyoungju; Kim, Do-Soon; Lee, D. K.

    2016-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are one of the most abundant DNA variants found in plant genomes and are highly efficient when comparing genome and transcriptome sequences. SNP marker analysis can be used to analyze genetic diversity, create genetic maps, and utilize marker-assisted selection breeding in many crop species. In order to utilize these technologies, one must first identify and validate putative SNPs. In this study, 121 putative SNPs, developed from a nuclear transcriptome of prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata Link), were analyzed using KASP technology in order to validate the SNPs. Fifty-nine SNPs were validated using a core collection of 38 natural populations and a phylogenetic tree was created with one main clade. Samples from the same population tended to cluster in the same location on the tree. Polymorphisms were identified within 52.6% of the populations, split evenly between the tetraploid and octoploid cytotypes. Twelve selected SNP markers were used to assess the fidelity of tetraploid crosses of prairie cordgrass and their resulting F2population. These markers were able to distinguish true crosses and selfs. This study provides insight into the genomic structure of prairie cordgrass, but further analysis must be done on other cytotypes to fully understand the structure of this species. This study validates putative SNPs and confirms the potential usefulness of SNP marker technology in future breeding programs of this species. PMID:26834772

  17. [Validation study of the Depressive Experience Questionnaire].

    PubMed

    Atger, F; Frasson, G; Loas, G; Guibourgé, S; Corcos, M; Perez Diaz, F; Speranza, M; Venisse, J-L; Lang, F; Stephan, Ph; Bizouard, P; Flament, M; Jeammet, Ph

    2003-01-01

    -reliant and as sociotropic and autonomous . Our work presents the results of a validation study of both forms of Blatt's questionnaire (for adults--DEQ--and for adolescents--DEQA) translated in French in a large population of normal subjects, aged 15 to 45 years. DEQ and DEQ-A were compared by inspection of items loading strongly on each factor and by correlation of the three factors of adults and adolescents. The exploratory factor analysis of DEQ and DEQA revealed three orthogonal factors, corresponding with Blatt's original dimensions. Consistency and external validity were adequate for all 3 factors of DEQ and DEQ-A. Anaclitism and self-criticism dimensions of DEQ and DEQ-A correlate positively with measures of depression (DSM-IV, Beck Depression Inventory), consistently with the results obtained by Blatt. Differently from this author, anaclitism appears to be less differentiated in males than in females, suggesting that the concept of dependence could assume different relevance for men and women. PMID:14615694

  18. Bioethics, population studies, and geneticophobia.

    PubMed

    Salzano, Francisco M

    2015-07-01

    In any research of human populations, the classical principles of bioethics (respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, proportionality between risks and benefits, and justice) should be strictly followed. The question of individual and/or community rights should also be considered, as well as some neglected rights, such as the right to benefit from progress in science and technology and the right to know the nature of the group's biological and cultural history; however, in their urge to assure rights, social researchers, bioethics commissions, non-governmental organizations, and community leaders are, in many cases, crossing the limits of good sense. DNA is sometimes interpreted as synonymous to demoniac, and there is a frequent behaviour that I could only describe using a neologism: geneticophobia. There is an irrational attitude against genetic studies aiming to unravel the biological history of a given people and to classify any genome population study as "racist". This behaviour should be opposed; science and the scientific study of humankind are the only way we have to reach the socially adequate objective of the maximum of happiness to the largest number of persons. PMID:25575494

  19. Validation of population-based disease simulation models: a review of concepts and methods

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Computer simulation models are used increasingly to support public health research and policy, but questions about their quality persist. The purpose of this article is to review the principles and methods for validation of population-based disease simulation models. Methods We developed a comprehensive framework for validating population-based chronic disease simulation models and used this framework in a review of published model validation guidelines. Based on the review, we formulated a set of recommendations for gathering evidence of model credibility. Results Evidence of model credibility derives from examining: 1) the process of model development, 2) the performance of a model, and 3) the quality of decisions based on the model. Many important issues in model validation are insufficiently addressed by current guidelines. These issues include a detailed evaluation of different data sources, graphical representation of models, computer programming, model calibration, between-model comparisons, sensitivity analysis, and predictive validity. The role of external data in model validation depends on the purpose of the model (e.g., decision analysis versus prediction). More research is needed on the methods of comparing the quality of decisions based on different models. Conclusion As the role of simulation modeling in population health is increasing and models are becoming more complex, there is a need for further improvements in model validation methodology and common standards for evaluating model credibility. PMID:21087466

  20. A statistical framework for the validation of a population exposure model based on personal exposure data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Delphy; Valari, Myrto; Markakis, Konstantinos; Payan, Sébastien

    2016-04-01

    Currently, ambient pollutant concentrations at monitoring sites are routinely measured by local networks, such as AIRPARIF in Paris, France. Pollutant concentration fields are also simulated with regional-scale chemistry transport models such as CHIMERE (http://www.lmd.polytechnique.fr/chimere) under air-quality forecasting platforms (e.g. Prev'Air http://www.prevair.org) or research projects. These data may be combined with more or less sophisticated techniques to provide a fairly good representation of pollutant concentration spatial gradients over urban areas. Here we focus on human exposure to atmospheric contaminants. Based on census data on population dynamics and demographics, modeled outdoor concentrations and infiltration of outdoor air-pollution indoors we have developed a population exposure model for ozone and PM2.5. A critical challenge in the field of population exposure modeling is model validation since personal exposure data are expensive and therefore, rare. However, recent research has made low cost mobile sensors fairly common and therefore personal exposure data should become more and more accessible. In view of planned cohort field-campaigns where such data will be available over the Paris region, we propose in the present study a statistical framework that makes the comparison between modeled and measured exposures meaningful. Our ultimate goal is to evaluate the exposure model by comparing modeled exposures to monitor data. The scientific question we address here is how to downscale modeled data that are estimated on the county population scale at the individual scale which is appropriate to the available measurements. To assess this question we developed a Bayesian hierarchical framework that assimilates actual individual data into population statistics and updates the probability estimate.

  1. [Validity of the Experiences of Discrimination scale in a Brazilian population].

    PubMed

    Fattore, Gisel Lorena; Teles, Carlos Antonio; Santos, Darci Neves Dos; Santos, Leticia Marques; Reichenheim, Michael Eduardo; Barreto, Mauricio L

    2016-01-01

    One of the most widely used tools in epidemiological research on discrimination is the Experiences of Discrimination (EOD) scale, used but not validated in Brazil. The objective was to assess the reliability and dimensional structure of the EOD scale in a Brazilian population. A cross-sectional study was performed with 1,380 adults in the city of Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed testing a two-factor model: experiences of discrimination and concerned about discrimination. The results of CFA showed satisfactory fit, high factor loads, and adequate reliability, confirming the scale's internal consistency. Residual correlations were identified involving items from both factors. The dimensional structure presented in this study highlights the importance of using different measures of discrimination (interpersonal and group) to allow more in-depth future research on the effects of racism on health. PMID:27143308

  2. Construction and Validation of Brain MRI Templates from a Korean Normal Elderly Population

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyunna; Yoo, Byung Il; Han, Ji Won; Lee, Jung Jae; Oh, San Yeo Wool; Lee, Eun Young; Kim, Jae Hyoung

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to construct a Korean normal elderly brain template (KNE96) using Korean elderly individuals for use in brain MRI studies and to validate it. Methods We used high-resolution 3.0T T1 structural MR images from 96 Korean normal elderly individuals (M/F=48/48), aged 60 years or older (M=69.5±6.2 years, F=70.1±7.0 years), for constructing the KNE96 template. The KNE96 template was validated by comparing the registration-induced deformations between the KNE96 and ICBM152 templates using different MR images from 48 Korean normal elderly individuals (M/F=24/24), aged 60 years or older (M=71.5±5.9 years, F=72.8±5.1 years). We used the magnitude of displacement vectors (mag-displacement) and log of Jacobian determinants (log-Jacobian) to quantify the deformation produced during registration process to templates. Results The mag-displacement and log-Jacobian of the registration were much smaller using the KNE96 template than with the ICBM152 template in most brain regions. There was a prominent difference in the significant averaged differences (SADs) of the mag-displacement and log-Jacobian between the KNE96 and ICBM152 at the superior, medial, and middle frontal gyrus, the lingual, inferior, middle, and superior occipital gyrus, and the caudate and thalamus. Conclusion This study suggests that templates constructed from Asian populations, such as the KNE96, may be more desirable than those from Caucasian populations, like the ICBM152, in computational neuroimaging studies that measure and compare anatomical features of the frontal and occipital lobe, thalamus and caudate. PMID:26766956

  3. Reliability, Validity and Factor Structure of the 12-Item General Health Questionnaire among General Population

    PubMed Central

    Petkovska, Miodraga Stefanovska; Bojadziev, Marjan I.; Stefanovska, Vesna Velikj

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The aim of the study is to analyze the internal consistency; validity and factor structure of the twelve item General Health Questionnaire for the Macedonian general population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data came from nationally representative sample of 1603 randomly selected Macedonians all aged 18 years or older. RESULTS: The mean GHQ score in the general sample was found to be 7.9 (SD = 4.3). The results revealed a higher GHQ score among women (M = 8.91, SD = 4.5) compared to men (M = 6.89; SD = 4.2). The participants from the rural areas obtained a lower GHQ score (M = 7.55, SD = 3.8) compared to participants coming from the urban areas (M = 9.37, SD = 4.1). The principal component analysis with oblique rotation (direct oblimin) with maximum likelihood procedure solution was performed and the results yielded a three factor solution which jointly accounted for 57.17% of the total variance: Factor I named social management (items 1, 3, 4, 6, 7 and 8); Factor II stress (items 2, 5 and 9) and Factor III named self-confidence (items 10, 11 and 12). Its factor structure is in line with representative research from other population groups. CONCLUSION: The GHQ-12 can be used effectively for assessment of the overall psychological well-being and detection of non-psychotic psychiatric problems among the Macedonian population.

  4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) equations validation against hydrodensitometry in a Colombian population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caicedo-Eraso, J. C.; Gonzalez-Correa, C. A.; Gonzalez-Correa, C. H.

    2013-04-01

    Several studies have shown that the accuracy of BIA results depends of ethnicity, age, gender, hormonal and genetic variations and, so far, there are not specific equations for Colombian population. The purpose was to evaluate reported BIA equations to determine their usefulness in body composition assessment in young females from Colombia using hydrodensitometry as the reference method. A sample of 30 young females was evaluated. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined to minimize the variability of BIA. Height, weight, multi-frequency BIA, residual lung volume (RV) and underwater weight (UWW) were measured. Five BIA equations met the inclusion criteria of this study. Three equations overestimated and two equations underestimated body fat (BF). Paired Student t-test and Bland and Altman analysis (p<0.05) showed significant differences in four BIA equations. However, all standard error of estimate (SEE) to BF was greater than 2.7 kg. This study showed that the five selected BIA equations are not valid for estimation of body composition in young females from Colombia. It is recommended to develop BIA equations to improve BF fat assessment in our population.

  5. Validation of the SCOFF Questionnaire for Eating Disorders in a Multiethnic General Population Sample

    PubMed Central

    Solmi, Francesca; Hatch, Stephani L; Hotopf, Matthew; Treasure, Janet; Micali, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study aimed to validate the SCOFF, an eating disorders (ED) screening questionnaire, in a multiethnic general population sample of adults. Method A two-stage design was employed using the South East London Community Health Study phases I and II data. A total of 1,669 participants were screened using the SCOFF in SELCoHI, and 145 were administrated an ED clinical interview in SELCoHII. We explored the diagnostic validity of the questionnaire restricting to the 145 individuals with the clinical questionnaire. Results Sensitivity and specificity of the SCOFF were 53.7 and 93.5%, respectively. Conclusion The SCOFF showed good levels of specificity but low sensitivity, resulting in a high percentage of false negatives. Given the low sensitivity found in our sample the SCOFF is likely to be a suboptimal measure for the identification of ED in the community. © 2014 The Authors International Journal of Eating Disorders Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2015; 48:312–316) PMID:25504212

  6. Estimating chimpanzee population size with nest counts: validating methods in Taï National Park.

    PubMed

    Kouakou, Célestin Yao; Boesch, Christophe; Kuehl, Hjalmar

    2009-06-01

    Successful conservation and management of wild animals require reliable estimates of their population size. Ape surveys almost always rely on counts of sleeping nests, as the animals occur at low densities and visibility is low in tropical forests. The reliability of standing-crop nest counts and marked-nest counts, the most widely used methods, has not been tested on populations of known size. Therefore, the answer to the question of which method is more appropriate for surveying chimpanzee population remains problematic and comparisons among sites are difficult. This study aimed to test the validity of these two methods by comparing their estimates to the known population size of three habituated chimpanzee communities in Taï National Park [Boesch et al., Am J Phys Anthropol 130:103-115, 2006; Boesch et al., Am J Primatol 70:519-532, 2008]. In addition to transect surveys, we made observations on nest production rate and nest lifetime. Taï chimpanzees built 1.143 nests per day. The mean nest lifetime of 141 fresh nests was 91.22 days. Estimate precision for the two methods did not differ considerably (difference of coefficient of variation <5%). The estimate of mean nest decay time was more precise (CV=6.46%) when we used covariates (tree species, rainfall, nest height and age) to model nest decay rate, than when we took a simple mean of nest decay times (CV=9.17%). The two survey methods produced point estimates of chimpanzee abundance that were similar and reliable: i.e. for both methods the true chimpanzee abundance was included within the 95% estimate confidence interval. We recommend further research on covariate modeling of nest decay times as one way to improve the precision and to reduce the costs of conducting nest surveys. PMID:19235865

  7. Validity and reliability in reporting sexual partners and condom use in a Swiss population survey.

    PubMed

    Jeannin, A; Konings, E; Dubois-Arber, F; Landert, C; Van Melle, G

    1998-02-01

    To monitor the impact of its AIDS prevention efforts, Switzerland conducts an annual telephone survey about AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and preventive behavior in the general population aged 17-45 years. Based upon a test-retest study with additional focused interviews conducted upon a subsample of 138 respondents aged 17-22, the authors report their findings from an investigation of the validity and reliability of indicators of sexual behavior and condom use in those surveys. The initial survey sample was comprised of 2800 respondents aged 17-45 in October 1992. The subsample included more French-speaking respondents and more people in stable relationships than did the initial sample. Survey indicators are the number of lifetime sex partners, casual sex during lifetime and number of casual sex partners during the preceding 6 months, condom use with casual partners during the past 6 months, the acquisition of a new steady partner during the year, condom use with that partner, age at first intercourse, and condom use at last intercourse. These indicators were determined to be highly reliable, although more research is needed on the validity of the data. Among sexually active respondents, 12.5% of the men and 1.9% of women included nonpenetrative sex in their definitions of sexual intercourse. Furthermore, 40% of the 15 respondents who reported consistent condom use with casual sex partners at the initial interview later admitted at reinterview that they sometimes have unprotected sex. PMID:9556172

  8. Content Validity Studies of Licensing Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, I. Leon; Hambleton, Ronald K.

    1990-01-01

    Implementing measurement specialists' ideas about content validity with licensure examinations and the problem of court litigation are discussed. Validity issues surfacing when sponsors of national licensure examinations conduct validity investigations are considered. Issues include local versus national focus on content validity, job analysis,…

  9. Validation of a French-Canadian adaptation of the Intuitive Eating Scale-2 for the adult population.

    PubMed

    Carbonneau, Elise; Carbonneau, Noémie; Lamarche, Benoît; Provencher, Véronique; Bégin, Catherine; Bradette-Laplante, Maude; Laramée, Catherine; Lemieux, Simone

    2016-10-01

    Intuitive eating is an adaptive eating style based on the reliance on physiological cues to determine when, what, and how much to eat. The Intuitive Eating Scale-2 (IES-2) is a validated four-subscale tool measuring the degree of adherence to intuitive eating principles. The present series of studies aimed at evaluating the psychometric properties of a French-Canadian adaptation of the IES-2 for the adult population. The factor structure, the reliability (internal consistency and test-retest), the construct validity, and the discriminant validity were evaluated in 334 women and 75 men from the Province of Québec, Canada, across two studies. A confirmatory factor analysis upheld that the four-factor structure of the original IES-2 was adequate for the present sample of French-Canadians. The scale demonstrated adequate internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Construct validity evidence was obtained with the significant associations between intuitive eating and psychological and eating-related variables. Intuitive eating was negatively associated with eating disorder symptomatology and with food- and weight-preoccupation, and positively associated with body-esteem and well-being. The French-Canadian IES-2 was also able to discriminate between genders and body mass index categories. The properties of this new version of the IES-2 are demonstrative of a reliable and valid tool to assess intuitive eating in the French-Canadian adult population of the Province of Québec. PMID:27179938

  10. Validation of an early childhood caries risk assessment tool in a low-income Hispanic population

    PubMed Central

    Custodio-Lumsden, Christie L.; Wolf, Randi L.; Contento, Isobel R.; Basch, Charles E.; Zybert, Patricia A.; Koch, Pamela A.; Edelstein, Burton L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives There is a recognized need for valid risk assessment tools for use by both dental and nondental personnel to identify young children at risk for, or with, precavitated stages of early childhood caries (i.e., early stage decalcifications or white spot lesions).The aim of this study is to establish concurrent criterion validity of “MySmileBuddy” (MSB), a novel technology-assisted ECC risk assessment and behavioral intervention tool against four measures of ECC activity: semi-quantitative assays of salivary mutans streptococci levels, visible quantity of dental plaque, visual evidence of enamel decalcifications, and cavitation status (none, ECC, severe ECC). Methods One hundred eight children 2-6 years of age presenting to a pediatric dental clinic were recruited from a predominantly Spanish-speaking, low-income, urban population. All children received a comprehensive oral examination and saliva culture for assessment of ECC indicators. Their caregivers completed the iPad-based MSB assessment in its entirety (15-20 minutes). MSB calculated both diet and comprehensive ECC risk scores. Associations between all variables were determined using ordinal logistic regression. Results MSB diet risk scores were significantly positively associated with salivary mutans (P < 0.05), and approached significance with visible plaque levels (P < 0.1). MSB comprehensive risk scores were significantly associated with both oral mutans and visible plaque (P < 0.05). Neither was associated with visually evident decalcifications or cavitations. Conclusions Findings suggest that MSB may have clinical utility as a valid risk assessment tool for identifying children with early precursors of cavitations but does not add value in identifying children with extant lesions. PMID:26440728

  11. Reproducibility and validity of dietary patterns identified using factor analysis among Chinese populations.

    PubMed

    Hong, Xin; Ye, Qing; Wang, Zhiyong; Yang, Huafeng; Chen, Xupeng; Zhou, Hairong; Wang, Chenchen; Chu, Wenjie; Lai, Yichao; Sun, Liuyuan; Wang, Youfa; Xu, Fei

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the reproducibility and validity of dietary patterns among Chinese adult populations. A random subsample of 203 participants (aged 31-80 years) from a community-based nutrition and health survey was enrolled. An eighty-seven-item FFQ was administered twice (FFQ1 and FFQ2) 1 year apart; four 3 consecutive day, 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDR, as a reference method) were performed between the administrations of the two FFQ every 3 months. Dietary patterns from three separate dietary sources were derived using factor analysis based on twenty-eight predefined food groups. Comparisons between dietary pattern scores were made by using Pearson's or intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), cross-classification analysis, weighted κ statistic and Bland-Altman plots; the four major dietary patterns identified from FFQ1, FFQ2 and 24-HDR were similar. Regarding reproducibility, ICC for z-scores between FFQ1 and FFQ2 were all >0·6 for dietary patterns. The 'animal and plant protein' pattern had the highest ICC of 0·870. For validity, the adjusted Pearson's correlation coefficients for dietary pattern z-scores between two FFQ and the mean of four 3 consecutive day 24-HDR ranged from 0·387 for the 'Chinese traditional' pattern to 0·838 for the 'animal and plant protein' pattern. More than 75 % of the participants were classified into the same or adjacent quartile, and <5 % were misclassified into opposite quartiles. The weighted κ ranged from 0·259 to 0·680. Bland-Altman plots indicated that no significant deviation was found between two dietary assessment methods. Our findings indicate a good reasonable reproducibility and a reasonable validity of dietary patterns derived by factor analysis in China. PMID:27405825

  12. Development of Japonica mapping populations to validate GWAS in the rice diversity panel 1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to validate associations identified in the Rice Diversity Panel 1 (RDP1) between SNP markers and 34 phenotypic traits, four bi-parental recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations were developed from Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica accessions that were phenotypically and genotypically diverse. ...

  13. Validation of the Finnish Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ) for Clinical Settings and Total Population Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattila, Marja-Leena; Jussila, Katja; Linna, Sirkka-Liisa; Kielinen, Marko; Bloigu, Risto; Kuusikko-Gauffin, Sanna; Joskitt, Leena; Ebeling, Hanna; Hurtig, Tuula; Moilanen, Irma

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the validity and determined cut-off scores for the Finnish Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ). A population sample of 8-year-old children (n = 4,408) was rated via the ASSQ by parents and/or teachers, and a subgroup of 104 children was examined via structured interview, semi-structured observation, IQ measurement, school…

  14. Studies on the Techa river populations: dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Degteva, M O.; Shagina, N B.; Tolstykh, E I.; Vorobiova, M I.; Napier, Bruce A. ); Anspaugh, L R.

    2001-12-01

    The combined dosimetric and epidemiologic study of the Extended Techa River Cohort (ETRC) is deemed important, as this cohort is one of a very few that can be studied to examine the question of whether there is a dose rate- reduction factor in the induction of stochastic effects by radiation. This question represents a central issue in radiation protection of workers and the public. The overall scientific hypothesis to be tested by the combined dosimetric and epidemiologic study of the ETRC is whether radiation dose delivered at low dose rates is equally as effective (in causing cancer and other stochastic effects) as the same dose delivered at high dose rates. Russian and United States scientists have been involved in collaborative research programs under the sponsorship of the U.S.-Russian Joint Coordinating Committee on Radiation Effects Research (JCCRER) since 1995. JCCRER Project 1.1 was a comprehensive program to develop improvements in the dosimetry system for the population exposed as a result of the releases of the Mayak Production Association (Mayak PA) by providing more in-depth analysis of existing data, further search of existing records for useful data, model development and testing, evaluation of uncertainties, verification of procedures, and validation studies. The project was extended in 2000 with the additional aims of further study of uncertainty of the doses with the goal of reducing uncertainty in the final dose estimates, and validation of the dose estimates, particularly the revised estimates of external dose. Russian and European scientists are also collaborating in this area. Current work is supported by the EC-Framework Programme/Research and Training Programme in the Field of Nuclear Energy. The partners include the Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine (URCRM) and the GSF - National Research Center for Environment and Health. The purpose is to support companion epidemiologic studies of radiogenic leukemia and solid cancers.

  15. 40 CFR 761.392 - Preparing validation study samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Preparing validation study samples... Under § 761.79(d)(4) § 761.392 Preparing validation study samples. (a)(1) To validate a procedure to... surface to be used in the validation study as follows: (i) Use a spiking solution made of PCBs mixed...

  16. Utilizing Existing Clinical and Population Biospecimen Resources for Discovery or Validation of Markers for Early Cancer Detection

    Cancer.gov

    Utilizing Existing Clinical and Population Biospecimen Resources for Discovery or Validation of Markers for Early Cancer Detection, a 2013 workshop sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program.

  17. Development and Validation of Chinese Health Literacy Scale for Low Salt Consumption - Hong Kong Population (CHLSalt-HK)

    PubMed Central

    Chau, PH; Leung, Angela Y. M.; Li, Holly L. H.; Sea, Mandy; Chan, Ruth; Woo, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Globally, sodium intake far exceeds the level recommended by the World Health Organization. Assessing health literacy related to salt consumption among older adults could guide the development of interventions that target their knowledge gaps, misconceptions, or poor dietary practices. This study aimed to develop and validate the Chinese Health Literacy Scale for Low Salt Consumption - Hong Kong population (CHLSalt-HK). Based on previous studies on salt intake and nutrition label reading in other countries, we developed similar questions that were appropriate for the Chinese population in Hong Kong. The questions covered the following eight broad areas: functional literacy (term recognition and nutrition label reading), knowledge of the salt content of foods, knowledge of the diseases related to high salt intake, knowledge of international standards, myths about salt intake, attitudes toward salt intake, salty food consumption practices, and nutrition label reading practices. Eight professionals, including doctors, nurses, and dietitians, provided feedback on the scale. The psychometric properties of the scale were assessed based on data collected from a convenience sample of 603 Chinese elderly adults recruited from Elderly Health Centres in Hong Kong. The 49-item CHLSalt-HK had a possible score range of 0 to 98, with a higher score indicating higher health literacy related to salt intake. The CHLSalt-HK had acceptable content validity; the item-level Content Validity Index ranged from 0.857 to 1.000, and the scale-level Content Validity Index was 0.994. Additionally, it had good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha of 0.799) and good test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.846). The mean CHLSalt-HK score among those who were aware of the public education slogan about nutrition labels and sodium intake was higher by 3.928 points (95% confidence interval: 1.742 to 6.115) than that among those who were not aware of the slogan, which

  18. Development and Validation of Chinese Health Literacy Scale for Low Salt Consumption-Hong Kong Population (CHLSalt-HK).

    PubMed

    Chau, P H; Leung, Angela Y M; Li, Holly L H; Sea, Mandy; Chan, Ruth; Woo, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Globally, sodium intake far exceeds the level recommended by the World Health Organization. Assessing health literacy related to salt consumption among older adults could guide the development of interventions that target their knowledge gaps, misconceptions, or poor dietary practices. This study aimed to develop and validate the Chinese Health Literacy Scale for Low Salt Consumption-Hong Kong population (CHLSalt-HK). Based on previous studies on salt intake and nutrition label reading in other countries, we developed similar questions that were appropriate for the Chinese population in Hong Kong. The questions covered the following eight broad areas: functional literacy (term recognition and nutrition label reading), knowledge of the salt content of foods, knowledge of the diseases related to high salt intake, knowledge of international standards, myths about salt intake, attitudes toward salt intake, salty food consumption practices, and nutrition label reading practices. Eight professionals, including doctors, nurses, and dietitians, provided feedback on the scale. The psychometric properties of the scale were assessed based on data collected from a convenience sample of 603 Chinese elderly adults recruited from Elderly Health Centres in Hong Kong. The 49-item CHLSalt-HK had a possible score range of 0 to 98, with a higher score indicating higher health literacy related to salt intake. The CHLSalt-HK had acceptable content validity; the item-level Content Validity Index ranged from 0.857 to 1.000, and the scale-level Content Validity Index was 0.994. Additionally, it had good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha of 0.799) and good test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.846). The mean CHLSalt-HK score among those who were aware of the public education slogan about nutrition labels and sodium intake was higher by 3.928 points (95% confidence interval: 1.742 to 6.115) than that among those who were not aware of the slogan, which supports

  19. An Overlooked Population in Community College: International Students' (In)Validation Experiences With Academic Advising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Guided by validation theory, this study aims to better understand the role that academic advising plays in international community college students' adjustment. More specifically, this study investigated how academic advising validates or invalidates their academic and social experiences in a community college context. Method: This…

  20. Development, reliability and validity of the psychosocial adaptation scale for Parkinson’s disease in Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tingting; Yin, Anchun; Sun, Xiaohong; Liu, Qigui; Song, Guirong; Li, Lianhong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To develop psychosocial adaptation scale for Parkinson’s disease (PD) in Chinese population and evaluate its reliability and validity. Methods: The items were designed by literature review, expert consultation and semi-structured interview. The methods of corrected item-total correlation, discrimination analysis and exploratory factor analysis were used for items selection. 427 valid scales from PD patients were collected in the study to test the reliability and validity. Results: The scale incorporated six dimensions: anxiety, self-esteem, attitude, self-acceptance, self-efficacy and social support, a total of 32 items. The scale possessed good internal consistency. The test-retest correlation coefficient was 0.99 and average content validation rate was 0.97. The Hoehn and Yahr stage were correlated with total score of the scale. Conclusions: The psychosocial adaptation scale in this study showed good reliability and validity, it can be used as a reliable and valid instrument to evaluate the psychosocial adaptation of PD objectively and effectively. PMID:26770638

  1. Population studies of Plasmodium vivax

    PubMed Central

    Rybalka, V. M.; Beljaev, A. E.; Lysenko, A. Ja.

    1977-01-01

    The authors investigate a mathematical model based on the theory they proposed in a previous publication. The model fits field data collected in re-established foci of tertian malaria. The patterns of distribution of manifestations of tertian malaria among the population may readily be explained on the basis of the theory of polymorphism of sporozoites. PMID:338189

  2. Validity Shrinkage in Ridge Regression: A Simulation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faden, Vivian; Bobko, Philip

    1982-01-01

    Ridge regression offers advantages over ordinary least squares estimation when a validity shrinkage criterion is considered. Comparisons of cross-validated multiple correlations indicate that ridge estimation is superior when the predictors are multicollinear, the number of predictors is large relative to sample size, and the population multiple…

  3. Validation of the FIB4 index in a Japanese nonalcoholic fatty liver disease population

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A reliable and inexpensive noninvasive marker of hepatic fibrosis is required in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). FIB4 index (based on age, aspartate aminotransferase [AST] and alanine aminotransferase [ALT] levels, and platelet counts) is expected to be useful for evaluating hepatic fibrosis. We validated the performance of FIB4 index in a Japanese cohort with NAFLD. Methods The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC) for FIB4 and six other markers were compared, based on data from 576 biopsy-proven NAFLD patients. Advanced fibrosis was defined as stage 3-4 fibrosis. FIB4 index was assessed as: age (yr) × AST (IU/L)/(platelet count (109/L) × √ALT (IU/L)) Results Advanced fibrosis was found in 64 (11%) patients. The AUROC for FIB4 index was superior to those for the other scoring systems for differentiating between advanced and mild fibrosis. Only 6 of 308 patients with a FIB4 index below the proposed low cut-off point (< 1.45) were under-staged, giving a high negative predictive value of 98%. Twenty-eight of 59 patients with a FIB4 index above the high cut-off point (> 3.25) were over-staged, giving a low positive predictive value of 53%. Using these cutoffs, 91% of the 395 patients with FIB-4 values outside 1.45-3.25 would be correctly classified. Implementation of the FIB4 index in the Japanese population would avoid 58% of liver biopsies. Conclusion The FIB4 index was superior to other tested noninvasive markers of fibrosis in Japanese patients with NAFLD, with a high negative predictive value for excluding advanced fibrosis. The small number of cases of advanced fibrosis in this cohort meant that this study had limited power for validating the high cut-off point. PMID:22221544

  4. Validity of the Addiction Severity Index (adapted version) in a Costa Rican population group.

    PubMed

    Sandí Esquivel, L E; Avila Corrales, K

    1990-01-01

    Until recently, no adapted and validated instrument was available for assessing the alcohol and drug problems of individuals in Costa Rica. This article reports the results of a study performed by Costa Rica's Institute on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence in order to test an adapted version of one such instrument, the Addiction Severity Index (ASI), in a Costa Rican setting. The instrument was used to interview 100 male subjects 18 to 64 years old (51 with diagnosed alcohol or drug problems and 49 controls). In general, the subjects with previously diagnosed alcohol or drug problems were assigned substantially higher scores. More specifically, statistical analysis indicated highly significant correlations (p less than 0.001) between the type of subject (test subject or control) and the likelihood that noteworthy problems would be found in the areas of alcohol use, family/social relations, work/finances, and psychological status. Overall, the study demonstrated that the instrument was capable of distinguishing between the affected and unaffected populations, and also of gauging the severity of the problems involved and the patients' treatment needs. PMID:2331561

  5. Adaptation and validation of the Michigan Incontinence Severity Index in a Turkish population

    PubMed Central

    Sargın, Mehmet Akif; Yassa, Murat; Taymur, Bilge Dogan; Ergun, Emrah; Akca, Gizem; Tug, Niyazi

    2016-01-01

    The translated and cross-culturally adapted M-ISI showed good validity, reproducibility, and reliability that allow its use in Turkish-speaking populations with urinary incontinence. Its comprehensive structure means that it has become a practical instrument that is available for utilization in the primary health care setting, clinical research, and epidemiological trials in Turkey. PMID:27307713

  6. Strategies in postoperative pain assessment: validation study.

    PubMed

    Sjöström, B; Dahlgren, L O; Haljamäe, H

    1999-10-01

    Pain assessment and management are major clinical problems that many categories of healthcare professionals have to deal with. Although there are many potentially successful approaches available for pain management, there is still a shortage of knowledge about the strategies used by staff members for the actual assessment of pain and how reliable these strategies are. The fact that patients often undergo a great deal of suffering from pain and lack of adequate pain relief may be considered an indicator of this shortage of knowledge. Clinical studies from different parts of the world reveal that the incidence of pain reported by patients is still high, with about 75% reporting moderate pain and an additional 15% severe pain. The aim of the present study was to validate different categories used in acute pain assessment and their accuracy in a new clinical sample and to explore further different dimensions of how staff members experience pain assessment. Intensive care nurses (n = 10) were carrying out pain assessment of postoperative patients (n = 30). Each pain assessment was followed by a detailed interview and indicating the estimated pain intensity on a visual analogue scale (VAS, 0-10 cm). The pain ratings by the nurses were compared to those of the patients to assess the accuracy of the pain assessments of the staff members. A previously developed category system for describing the initial empirical material regarding criteria the nurses relied on when assessing pain, combined with what experience has taught them in this respect, was used to assess the validity of previous observations. The results indicate that similar approaches were still used by the nurses but the accuracy of pain assessment had considerably improved. PMID:10808821

  7. Validation study of Polar V800 accelerometer

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Vicente, Adrián; De Cocker, Katrien; Garatachea, Nuria

    2016-01-01

    Background The correct quantification of physical activity (PA) and energy expenditure (EE) in daily life is an important target for researchers and professionals. The objective of this paper is to study the validity of the Polar V800 for the quantification of PA and the estimation of EE against the ActiGraph (ActiTrainer) in healthy young adults. Methods Eighteen Caucasian active people (50% women) aged between 19–23 years wore an ActiTrainer on the right hip and a Polar V800 on the preferred wrist during 7 days. Paired samples t-tests were used to analyze differences in outcomes between devices, and Pearson’s correlation coefficients to examine the correlation between outcomes. The agreement was studied using the Bland-Altman method. Also, the association between the difference and the magnitude of the measurement (heteroscedasticity) was examined. Sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC-AUC value) were calculated to evaluate the ability of the devices to accurately define a person who fulfills the recommendation of 10,000 daily steps. Results The devices significantly differed from each other on all outcomes (P<0.05), except for Polar V800’s alerts vs. ActiTrainer’s 1 hour sedentary bouts (P=0.595) and Polar V800’s walking time vs. ActiTrainer’s lifestyle time (P=0.484). Heteroscedasticity analyses were significant for all outcomes, except for Kcal and sitting time. The ROC-AUC value was fair (0.781±0.048) and the sensitivity and specificity was 98% and 58%, respectively. Conclusions The Polar V800 accelerometer has a comparable validity to the accelerometer in free-living conditions, regarding “1 hour sedentary bouts” and “V800’s walking time vs. ActiTrainer’s lifestyle time” in young adults. PMID:27570772

  8. Validation Studies for the Diet History Questionnaire II

    Cancer.gov

    Data show that the DHQ I instrument provides reasonable nutrient estimates, and three studies were conducted to assess its validity/calibration. There have been no such validation studies with the DHQ II.

  9. Rapid estimation of Aedes aegypti population size using simulation modeling, with a novel approach to calibration and field validation.

    PubMed

    Williams, Craig R; Johnson, Petrina H; Long, Sharron A; Rapley, Luke P; Ritchie, Scott A

    2008-11-01

    New approaches for control of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (L.) are being developed, including the potential introduction of life-shortening symbiont bacteria into field populations and the release of transgenic strains with reduced vector competency. With these new approaches comes the need for rapid estimations of existing field population size. Here, we describe the use of simulation modeling with container-inhabiting mosquito simulation (CIMSiM) for estimation of Ae. aegypti pupal crop size in north Queensland, Australia. CIMSiM was calibrated for local conditions by deploying "sentinel key containers" (tire, 2-liter plastic bucket, 0.6-liter pot plant base, and tarpaulin indentation) in which water flux and pupal productivity were studied for 72 d. Iterative adjustment of CIMSiM parameters was used to fit model outputs to match that of sentinel key containers. This calibrated model was then used in a blind field validation, in which breeding container and local meteorological data were used to populate CIMSiM, and model outputs were compared with a field pupal survey. Actual pupae per ha during two 10-d periods in 2007 fell within 95% confidence intervals of simulated pupal crop estimates made by 10 replicate simulations in CIMSiM, thus providing a successful field validation. Although the stochasticity of the field environment can never be wholly simulated, CIMSiM can provide field-validated estimates of pupal crop in a timely manner by using simple container surveys. PMID:19058645

  10. Population legislation: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Zou, P

    1991-01-01

    Legislation on birth and population control has received increased attention in China where a scientific approach is sought based on Marxist principles and the realities of the country. There are 6 categories of lawmaking: 1) a bill is drafted when conditions call for it, 2) the bill is passed in part when conditions are ripe, 3) the bill is adopted on a trial basis, 4) the State Council issues tentative rules and regulations, 5) administrative rules and local ordinances are issued, and 6) government policies take the place of missing laws and regulations. The Marriage Act of 1950 was tried based on the principle of ripe conditions, and it proved to be appropriate. Delegates to the National People's Congress and members of the Political Consultative Conference solicited the enactment of laws on birth control. Regarding the legislative process one opinion is to hold off until conditions are ripe, another view deems birth control too complex for lawmaking to enforce, and still another holds that the dynamics of demography makes frequent changes necessary with an effect on the stability of any law. This latter view ought to consider that the Chinese Constitution has been revised 4 times in the last 30 years without affecting its stability. Still another position is the recommendation of local rules and regulations before promulgating a national birth control act. The requirements of population legislation entail coordination between various population laws, norms, executive orders, regulations, and local rules. The provisions have to be consistent with agreement between form and content (bigamy is prohibited by the Marriage Law and punished under the penal code). Technical requirements mandate clear and precise language and avoidance of repetition of clauses. PMID:12317648

  11. Validity of Self-Reported Physical Fitness and Body Mass Index in a Military Population.

    PubMed

    Martin, Robyn C; Grier, Tyson; Canham-Chervak, Michelle; Anderson, Morgan K; Bushman, Timothy T; DeGroot, David W; Jones, Bruce H

    2016-01-01

    Many epidemiological studies rely on valid physical fitness data. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the validity of self-reported Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) data and determine whether men and women recall APFT performance differently. U.S. Army soldiers (N = 1,047) completed a survey, including questions on height, weight, and most recent APFT performance. Height, weight, and APFT performance were also obtained from unit records. The mean ± SDs for unit and self-reported push-up repetitions were 63.5 ± 13.1 and 66.3 ± 14.0 for men and 37.7 ± 12.8 and 40.2 ± 12.8 for women, respectively. The mean ± SD for unit- and self-reported sit-up repetitions were 66.3 ± 11.4 and 68.1 ± 12.1 for men and 64.2 ± 13.6 and 66.5 ± 12.9 for women, respectively. The mean ± SD unit- and self-reported 2-mile run times were 15.2 ± 1.8 and 14.9 ± 1.6 minutes for men, and 18.0 ± 2.9 and 17.4 ± 1.9 minutes for women, respectively. Unit- and self-reported body mass indices (BMIs) (calculated by height and weight) were 26.4 ± 3.4 and 26.3 ± 3.6 for men and 24.6 ± 2.8 and 24.2 ± 3.3 for women. Correlations between unit- and self-reported scores for push-ups, sit-ups, 2-mile run, height, weight, and BMI were 0.82, 0.78, 0.85, 0.87, 0.97, and 0.88 for men and 0.86, 0.84, 0.87, 0.78, 0.98, and 0.78 for women, respectively. On average, men and women slightly overreported performance on the APFT and overestimated height, resulting in underestimated BMI. There was no difference in recall ability between men and women (p > 0.05). The very good to excellent correlations (r = 0.78-0.98) between unit- and self-reported scores indicate that self-reported data are valid for capturing physical fitness performance in this population. PMID:26683633

  12. The Swedish Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale (ESES-S): reliability and validity in a rheumatoid arthritis population

    PubMed Central

    Nessen, Thomas; Demmelmaier, Ingrid; Nordgren, Birgitta; Opava, Christina H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate aspects of reliability and validity of the Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale (ESES-S) in a rheumatoid arthritis (RA) population. Methods: A total of 244 people with RA participating in a physical activity stkudy were included. The six-item ESES-S, exploring confidence in performing exercise, was assessed for test–retest reliability over 4–6 months, and for internal consistency. Construct validity investigated correlation with similar and other constructs. Results: An intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.59 (95% CI 0.37–0.73) was found for 84 participants with stable health perceptions between measurement occasions. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients of 0.87 and 0.89 were found at the first and second measurements. Corrected item-total correlation single ESES-S items ranged between 0.53 and 0.73. Construct convergent validity for the ESES-S was partly confirmed by correlations with health-enhancing physical activity and outcome expectations respectively (Pearson’s r = 0.18, p < 0.01). Construct divergent validity was confirmed by the absence of correlations with age or gender. No floor or ceiling effects were found for ESES-S. Conclusions: The results indicate that the ESES-S has moderate test–retest reliability and respectable internal consistency in people with RA. Construct validity was partially supported in the present sample. Further research on construct validity of the ESES-S is recommended.Implications for RehabilitationPhysical exercise is crucial for management of symptoms and co-morbidity in rheumatoid arthritis.Self-efficacy for exercise is important to address in rehabilitation as it regulates exercise motivation and behavior.Measurement properties of self-efficacy scales need to be assessed in specific populations and different languages. PMID:25572319

  13. 29 CFR 1607.7 - Use of other validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of other validity studies. 1607.7 Section 1607.7 Labor... EMPLOYEE SELECTION PROCEDURES (1978) General Principles § 1607.7 Use of other validity studies. A. Validity studies not conducted by the user. Users may, under certain circumstances, support the use of...

  14. 40 CFR 761.395 - A validation study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false A validation study. 761.395 Section...)(4) § 761.395 A validation study. (a) Decontaminate the following prepared sample surfaces using the... must be 10 µg/100 cm2, then the validation study failed and the solvent may not be used...

  15. 40 CFR 761.395 - A validation study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false A validation study. 761.395 Section...)(4) § 761.395 A validation study. (a) Decontaminate the following prepared sample surfaces using the... must be 10 µg/100 cm2, then the validation study failed and the solvent may not be used...

  16. Validation of an Eulerian population model for the marine copepod Calanus finmarchicus in the Norwegian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alver, Morten Omholt; Broch, Ole Jacob; Melle, Webjørn; Bagøien, Espen; Slagstad, Dag

    2016-08-01

    Calanus finmarchicus is an important zooplankton species in the Norwegian Sea, as a dominant food organism for pelagic fish larvae, and a potentially large source of marine lipids and proteins. Its position in the marine food web also makes it an important model species in assessing the risk posed by oil spills in the Norwegian and Arctic Seas. In this study, an Eulerian population model for C.finmarchicus, coupled to the physical and ecological model SINMOD, is presented. The model includes the full life cycle of C. finmarchicus with a representation of all developmental stages. The model has been validated against field measurements made in different areas of the Norwegian Sea in 1997 and 1998. The model displays geographical and temporal distributions of development stages that is in line with observed patterns. When comparing time series for selected regions, we see a high degree of variability both in the field samples and model output. On average, the model deviations are near half of the summed variability of the field data and model estimates. The model has applications within assessment of ecological production, and the potential for harvesting in the Norwegian and Arctic Seas, but in combination with other models, also for the assessment of ecological effects of oil spills and other types of pollution.

  17. The global status of freshwater fish age validation studies and a prioritization framework for future research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, Kevin L.; Hamel, Martin J.; Pegg, Mark A.; Spurgeon, Jonathan J.

    2016-01-01

    Age information derived from calcified structures is commonly used to estimate recruitment, growth, and mortality for fish populations. Validation of daily or annual marks on age structures is often assumed, presumably due to a lack of general knowledge concerning the status of age validation studies. Therefore, the current status of freshwater fish age validation studies was summarized to show where additional effort is needed, and increase the accessibility of validation studies to researchers. In total, 1351 original peer-reviewed articles were reviewed from freshwater systems that studied age in fish. Periodicity and age validation studies were found for 88 freshwater species comprising 21 fish families. The number of age validation studies has increased over the last 30 years following previous calls for more research; however, few species have validated structures spanning all life stages. In addition, few fishes of conservation concern have validated ageing structures. A prioritization framework, using a combination of eight characteristics, is offered to direct future age validation studies and close the validation information gap. Additional study, using the offered prioritization framework, and increased availability of published studies that incorporate uncertainty when presenting research results dealing with age information are needed.

  18. FETAX interlaboratory validation study: Phase 2 testing

    SciTech Connect

    Bantle, J.A. . Dept. of Zoology); Burton, D.T. ); Dawson, D.A. . Dept. of Biology and Toxicology)

    1994-10-01

    The Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus (FETAX) is a 96-h whole embryo developmental toxicity screening assay that can be used in ecotoxicology and in detecting mammalian developmental toxicants when an in vitro metabolic activation system is employed. A standardized American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) guide for the conduct of FETAX has been published along with a companion atlas that helps in embryo staging and identifying malformations. As part of the ASTM process, an interlaboratory validation study was undertaken to evaluate the repeatability and reliability of FETAX. Six different laboratories participated in the study. Each laboratory utilized one technician with the exception of one laboratory, which utilized two independent technicians. In Phase 1, FETAX proved to be more repeatable and reliable than many other bioassays. However, some excessive variation was observed in a few laboratories. Some of this variation may have been due to an initial lack of experience with the assay by some technicians. Phase 2, which is reported here, showed far less intralaboratory and interlaboratory variability than did Phase 1. Nonteratogens such as saccharin and sodium cyclamate showed the most consistent results, whereas more variability was observed for the teratogens caffeine and 5-fluorouracil. Interlaboratory coefficient of variation values for all FETAX end points ranged from 7.3 to 54.7%. The minimum concentration to inhibit growth proved to be the most variable end point for three of the four test chemicals, whereas the LC50 and EC50 (malformation) proved to be less variable.

  19. Validation and population studies of the loci LDLR, GYPA, HBGG, D7S8, and Gc (PM loci), and HLA-DQ alpha using a multiplex amplification and typing procedure.

    PubMed

    Budowle, B; Lindsey, J A; DeCou, J A; Koons, B W; Giusti, A M; Comey, C T

    1995-01-01

    Studies were performed to evaluate the forensic applicability of multiplex amplification of the loci low density lipoprotein receptor, glycophorin A, hemoglobin G gammaglobin, D7S8, and group-specific component (PM loci) and simultaneous typing of these loci using a reverse dot blot approach where allele specific oligonucleotide probes are immobilized on a nylon membrane strip. These results were obtained by using the AmpliType PM PCR Amplification and Typing Kit. The experiments included: mixed body fluid studies; chemical contaminant effects on the DNA in body fluid samples; the effect of typing DNA from body fluid samples deposited on various substrates; the effect of microorganism contamination on typing DNA derived from blood and semen; the effect of sunlight and storage conditions on DNA typing; determination of the sensitivity of detection of the PM test kit; determination of cross-reactivity of DNA from species other than human; typing DNA derived from various tissues from an individual; and an evaluation of the hybridization temperature of the assay. The data demonstrate that DNA exposed to a variety of environmental insults yields reliable PM typing results. Allele and genotype frequencies for six loci (PM loci and HLA-DQ alpha) were determined in African Americans. Caucasians, southeastern Hispanics, and southwestern Hispanics. All loci meet Hardy-Weinberg expectations and there is little evidence for association of alleles between the loci. The frequency data can be used in forensic analyses and paternity tests to estimate the frequency of a multiple locus DNA profile in various general United States populations. PMID:7876801

  20. Assessing autistic traits in a Taiwan preschool population: cross-cultural validation of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS).

    PubMed

    Wang, Jessica; Lee, Li-Ching; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Hsu, Ju-Wei

    2012-11-01

    The cross-cultural validity of the Mandarin-adaptation of the social responsiveness scale (SRS) was examined in a sample of N = 307 participants in Taiwan, 140 typically developing and 167 with clinically-diagnosed developmental disorders. This scale is an autism assessment tool that provides a quantitative rather than categorical measure of social impairment in the general population. SRS total and subscale scores distinguished significantly between autism spectrum disorder and other developmental disorders (p < 0.01). Total SRS scores and sensitivity and specificity of the scale for diagnosing developmental disorders in the Taiwan study were similar to those observed in Western studies. These findings support the cross-cultural validity of the SRS scale for detecting autistic traits and for distinguishing between autism and other neuropsychiatric conditions. PMID:22407579

  1. Validation study of the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey at a Hispanic-serving institution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawtelle, Vashti; Brewe, Eric; Kramer, Laird

    2009-12-01

    The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) has been widely acknowledged as a useful measure of student cognitive attitudes about science and learning. The initial University of Colorado validation study included only 20% non-Caucasian student populations. In this Brief Report we extend their validation to include a predominately under-represented minority population. We validated the CLASS instrument at Florida International University, a Hispanic-serving institution, by interviewing students in introductory physics classes using a semistructured protocol, examining students’ responses on the CLASS item statements, and comparing them to the items’ intended meaning. We find that in our predominately Hispanic population, 94% of the students’ interview responses indicate that the students interpret the CLASS items correctly, and thus the CLASS is a valid instrument. We also identify one potentially problematic item in the instrument which one third of the students interviewed consistently misinterpreted.

  2. Validation of the standardised assessment of personality – abbreviated scale in a general population sample

    PubMed Central

    Seegobin, Seth; Frissa, Souci; Hatch, Stephani L.; Hotopf, Matthew; Hayes, Richard D.; Moran, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Personality disorder (PD) is associated with important health outcomes in the general population. However, the length of diagnostic interviews poses a significant barrier to obtaining large scale, population‐based data on PD. A brief screen for the identification of people at high risk of PD in the general population could be extremely valuable for both clinicians and researchers. Aim We set out to validate the Standardised Assessment of Personality – Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS), in a general population sample, using the Structured Clinical Interviews for DSM‐IV Personality Disorders (SCID‐II) as a gold standard. Method One hundred and ten randomly selected, community‐dwelling adults were administered the SAPAS screening interview. The SCID‐II was subsequently administered by a clinical interviewer blind to the initial SAPAS score. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to assess the discriminatory performance of the SAPAS, relative to the SCID‐II. Results Area under the curve for the SAPAS was 0.70 (95% CI = 0.60 to 0.80; p < 0.001), indicating moderate overall discriminatory accuracy. A cut point score of 4 on the SAPAS correctly classified 58% of participants. At this cut point, the sensitivity and specificity were 0.69 and 0.53 respectively. Conclusion The SAPAS operates less efficiently as a screen in general population samples and is probably most usefully applied in clinical populations. © 2015 The Authors Personality and Mental Health published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd PMID:26314385

  3. Psychometric Properties and Construct Validity of the Weight-Related Eating Questionnaire in a Diverse Population

    PubMed Central

    Schembre, Susan M.; Geller, Karly S.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the 16-item, four-factor Weight-Related Eating Questionnaire (WREQ), which assesses theory-based aspects of eating behavior, across diverse, nonclinical subgroups. A total of 621 men and women aged 18–81 years (34.3 ± 16.4) with a mean BMI of 25.7 ± 6.1 kg/m2 (range 15.5–74.1 kg/m2) were recruited from general education classes at the University of Hawai’i, Manoa and an online survey panel of Hawai’i residents to complete a web-based survey. Participants were predominantly white (23%), Asian/Asian-mix (42%), or Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (18%). The WREQ’s factor structure was successfully replicated by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) for the entire sample and by weight status, gender, age, and race with strong internal consistency. Four-week test–retest reliability (n = 31) for the subscales was excellent with interclass correlations of 0.849–0.932. Tests of population invariance confirmed the generalizability of the WREQ across all subgroups having provided no evidence that the factor structure, factor loadings, or indicator intercepts varied significantly between the groups. Multivariate regression analyses showed that emotional eating was independently associated with BMI (β = 0.272, P < 0.001) as well as moderate- and long-term weight change rates (weight gain) in young adults (β = 0.152, P = 0.042) and adults (β = 0.217, P = 0.001). Compensatory restraint was negatively associated with weight gain in adults (β = −0.133, P = 0.039). Routine restraint and emotional eating were highest among dieters. All associations remained significant after accounting for gender, age, and race. The hypothesized WREQ measurement model demonstrated very good construct validity, confirming the unbiased generalizability of the WREQ measure across sex, age, race, and BMI subgroups, and excellent criterion-related validity with respect to current BMI, weight change, and weight control status. PMID:21546931

  4. Expert system verification and validation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, Scott W.; Hamilton, David

    1992-01-01

    Five workshops on verification and validation (V&V) of expert systems (ES) where taught during this recent period of performance. Two key activities, previously performed under this contract, supported these recent workshops (1) Survey of state-of-the-practice of V&V of ES and (2) Development of workshop material and first class. The first activity involved performing an extensive survey of ES developers in order to answer several questions regarding the state-of-the-practice in V&V of ES. These questions related to the amount and type of V&V done and the successfulness of this V&V. The next key activity involved developing an intensive hands-on workshop in V&V of ES. This activity involved surveying a large number of V&V techniques, conventional as well as ES specific ones. In addition to explaining the techniques, we showed how each technique could be applied on a sample problem. References were included in the workshop material, and cross referenced to techniques, so that students would know where to go to find additional information about each technique. In addition to teaching specific techniques, we included an extensive amount of material on V&V concepts and how to develop a V&V plan for an ES project. We felt this material was necessary so that developers would be prepared to develop an orderly and structured approach to V&V. That is, they would have a process that supported the use of the specific techniques. Finally, to provide hands-on experience, we developed a set of case study exercises. These exercises were to provide an opportunity for the students to apply all the material (concepts, techniques, and planning material) to a realistic problem.

  5. An Agenda for NAEP Validity Research: NAEP Validity Studies. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stancavage, Frances B.

    The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) Validity Studies Panel undertook a systematic analysis to consider the domain of validity threats to NAEP and to identify the most urgent research priorities. A framework of six broad categories was developed: (1) the constructs measured within each of NAEP's subject domains; (2) the manner in…

  6. Idaho NTE Core Battery Validation: Study Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zetler, Alan G.

    The content validity of the National Teacher Examinations (NTE) Core Battery tests of communications skills, general knowledge, and professional knowledge was examined to determine whether this commercially available test was suitable for initial teacher certification in Idaho. Focus was on recommending adoption scores (cut scores) to the State…

  7. Validation Study of the Malay Version of the Work-Family Conflict Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    SANAZ, Aazami; SYAQIRAH, Akmal; KHADIJAH, Shamsuddin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Work-family conflict has received increasing attention in recent decades in the area of workplace stressors, which can affect employees’ health. However, the dimensionality of the work–family conflict construct among the Malay-speaking population has not been clarified. In order to do so, it is crucial to use an instrument that is appropriate and valid for the Malay-speaking population. As such, the goal of this study was to validate and test the dimensionality of the Malay version of the Work-Family Conflict Questionnaire. Methods: The present study conducted exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, discriminant validity, convergent validity, and internal consistency, using Cronbach’s alpha, of the work–family conflict construct among 332 working women in Malaysia. Results: The results supported the existence of four dimensions in the Work-Family Conflict Questionnaire that distinguish between time based and strain-based work-family conflict and family-work conflict. The discriminant validity, convergent validity, and internal consistency of this construct are adequately supported. Conclusion: The findings of this study supported the existence of discriminant and convergent validity, as well as adequate reliability, for the construct. Thus, the Work–Family Conflict Questionnaire is a valid and reliable instrument among Malay-speaking working women. PMID:24639612

  8. Validation of the osteoporosis quality of life questionnaire QUALEFFO-41 for the Serbian population

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Vertebral fractures could lead to reduced physical, social and mental functioning, and loss of personal independence. Therefore, during the treatment of osteoporosis, it has become necessary to examine the changes in everyday functioning, well-being and health related quality of life (HRQOL). To that effect, this study aims to translate, culturally adapt, and validate the Serbian version of Quality of Life Questionnaire of the European Foundation for Osteoporosis (QUALEFFO-41) for patients with vertebral fractures. Methods Nine female patients with osteoporosis participated in the pre-validation study. A validation, case–control study included two groups of female patients: one that consisted of 50 female patients with osteoporosis, and with at least one vertebral fracture, and another one that consisted of 50 control patients with osteoporosis but without fractures. They completed the QUALEFFO-41 and the EuroQol group questionnaire with five dimensions (EQ-5D) twice within a month. The validation study examined internal consistency, concurrent validity, test-retest reliability, sensitivity and specificity. Results During the pre-validation study, three of the items in the QUALEFFO-41 were slightly changed. Afterwards, during the validation study, the statistically significant differences (adjusted for: age, duration of menopause, current employment and marital status) in the mean values of all domains and total scores between the groups were noted. For the case group, the internal consistency of the QUALEFFO-41 domains and of total questionnaire was above 0.70. The test-retest reliability was tested by the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) that were in range 0.87 – 0.96 for the case, and 0.15 – 0.83 for the control group. Correlations between the total scores of the QUALEFFO-41 and the EQ-5D health state value, for both groups were negative and statistically significant (r = -0.78, p<0.001 and r = -0.73, p<0.001, respectively). The

  9. SAMICS Validation. SAMICS Support Study, Phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    SAMICS provides a consistent basis for estimating array costs and compares production technology costs. A review and a validation of the SAMICS model are reported. The review had the following purposes: (1) to test the computational validity of the computer model by comparison with preliminary hand calculations based on conventional cost estimating techniques; (2) to review and improve the accuracy of the cost relationships being used by the model: and (3) to provide an independent verification to users of the model's value in decision making for allocation of research and developement funds and for investment in manufacturing capacity. It is concluded that the SAMICS model is a flexible, accurate, and useful tool for managerial decision making.

  10. Construct Validation Theory Applied to the Study of Personality Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Zapolski, Tamika C. B.; Guller, Leila; Smith, Gregory T.

    2013-01-01

    The authors review theory validation and construct validation principles as related to the study of personality dysfunction. Historically, personality disorders have been understood to be syndromes of heterogeneous symptoms. The authors argue that the syndrome approach to description results in diagnoses of unclear meaning and constrained validity. The alternative approach of describing personality dysfunction in terms of homogeneous dimensions of functioning avoids the problems of the syndromal approach and has been shown to provide more valid description and diagnosis. The authors further argue that description based on homogeneous dimensions of personality function/dysfunction is more useful, because it provides direct connections to validated treatments. PMID:22321263

  11. One School Many Differences: A Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tadlock-Marlo, Rebecca L.

    2012-01-01

    Due to the ever growing diversity of school populations in the United States, it becomes increasingly more vital that school counselors are efficient in multicultural counseling. As the significance of effective multicultural competencies increases, so too does the importance of accurately assessing these proficiencies. The central focus of this…

  12. 29 CFR 1607.14 - Technical standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... study. Nothing in these guidelines is intended to preclude the development and use of other... technically feasible for a user to conduct a validity study, the user has the obligation otherwise to comply... information about the job. Any validity study should be based upon a review of information about the job...

  13. 29 CFR 1607.14 - Technical standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... study. Nothing in these guidelines is intended to preclude the development and use of other... technically feasible for a user to conduct a validity study, the user has the obligation otherwise to comply... information about the job. Any validity study should be based upon a review of information about the job...

  14. 29 CFR 1607.14 - Technical standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... study. Nothing in these guidelines is intended to preclude the development and use of other... technically feasible for a user to conduct a validity study, the user has the obligation otherwise to comply... information about the job. Any validity study should be based upon a review of information about the job...

  15. 29 CFR 1607.14 - Technical standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... study. Nothing in these guidelines is intended to preclude the development and use of other... technically feasible for a user to conduct a validity study, the user has the obligation otherwise to comply... information about the job. Any validity study should be based upon a review of information about the job...

  16. 29 CFR 1607.14 - Technical standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... study. Nothing in these guidelines is intended to preclude the development and use of other... technically feasible for a user to conduct a validity study, the user has the obligation otherwise to comply... information about the job. Any validity study should be based upon a review of information about the job...

  17. Validation of a Mental Health Assessment in an African Conflict Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertl, Verena; Pfeiffer, Anett; Saile, Regina; Schauer, Elisabeth; Elbert, Thomas; Neuner, Frank

    2010-01-01

    We studied the validity of the assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression within the context of an epidemiological mental health survey among war-affected adolescents and young adults in northern Uganda. Local language versions of the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS) and the Depression section of the Hopkins Symptom…

  18. Validation of a 2D multispectral camera: application to dermatology/cosmetology on a population covering five skin phototypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolivot, Romuald; Nugroho, Hermawan; Vabres, Pierre; Ahmad Fadzil, M. H.; Marzani, Franck

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the validation of a new multispectral camera specifically developed for dermatological application based on healthy participants from five different Skin PhotoTypes (SPT). The multispectral system provides images of the skin reflectance at different spectral bands, coupled with a neural network-based algorithm that reconstructs a hyperspectral cube of cutaneous data from a multispectral image. The flexibility of neural network based algorithm allows reconstruction at different wave ranges. The hyperspectral cube provides both high spectral and spatial information. The study population involves 150 healthy participants. The participants are classified based on their skin phototype according to the Fitzpatrick Scale and population covers five of the six types. The acquisition of a participant is performed at three body locations: two skin areas exposed to the sun (hand, face) and one area non exposed to the sun (lower back) and each is reconstructed at 3 different wave ranges. The validation is performed by comparing data acquired from a commercial spectrophotometer with the reconstructed spectrum obtained from averaging the hyperspectral cube. The comparison is calculated between 430 to 740 nm due to the limit of the spectrophotometer used. The results reveal that the multispectral camera is able to reconstruct hyperspectral cube with a goodness of fit coefficient superior to 0,997 for the average of all SPT for each location. The study reveals that the multispectral camera provides accurate reconstruction of hyperspectral cube which can be used for analysis of skin reflectance spectrum.

  19. Genomewide single nucleotide polymorphism discovery in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): validation in wild and farmed American and European populations.

    PubMed

    Yáñez, J M; Naswa, S; López, M E; Bassini, L; Correa, K; Gilbey, J; Bernatchez, L; Norris, A; Neira, R; Lhorente, J P; Schnable, P S; Newman, S; Mileham, A; Deeb, N; Di Genova, A; Maass, A

    2016-07-01

    A considerable number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are required to elucidate genotype-phenotype associations and determine the molecular basis of important traits. In this work, we carried out de novo SNP discovery accounting for both genome duplication and genetic variation from American and European salmon populations. A total of 9 736 473 nonredundant SNPs were identified across a set of 20 fish by whole-genome sequencing. After applying six bioinformatic filtering steps, 200 K SNPs were selected to develop an Affymetrix Axiom(®) myDesign Custom Array. This array was used to genotype 480 fish representing wild and farmed salmon from Europe, North America and Chile. A total of 159 099 (79.6%) SNPs were validated as high quality based on clustering properties. A total of 151 509 validated SNPs showed a unique position in the genome. When comparing these SNPs against 238 572 markers currently available in two other Atlantic salmon arrays, only 4.6% of the SNP overlapped with the panel developed in this study. This novel high-density SNP panel will be very useful for the dissection of economically and ecologically relevant traits, enhancing breeding programmes through genomic selection as well as supporting genetic studies in both wild and farmed populations of Atlantic salmon using high-resolution genomewide information. PMID:26849107

  20. Methodological problems with population cancer studies: The forgotten confounding factors

    PubMed Central

    Blaylock, Russell L.

    2015-01-01

    Among clinical physicians it is the population study that is considered to be the “gold standard” of medical evidence concerning acceptable treatments. As new information comes to light concerning the many variables and confounding factors that can affect such studies, many older studies lose much of their original impact. While newer population studies take into consideration a far greater number of confounding factors many are still omitted and a number of these omitted factors can have profound effects on interpretation and validity of the study. In this editorial, I will discuss some of the omitted confounding factors and demonstrate how they can alter the interpretation of these papers and their clinical application. PMID:26097772

  1. Adaptation and Validation of the Instrument Treatment Outcomes Profile to the Chilean Population.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Carniglia, Álvaro; Marín, José D; Soto-Brandt, Gonzalo; Donoso, María Paz; Piñol, Diego; San Martín, Juan; Huepe, David; Alvarado, Rubén; Eastwood, Brian; Portilla Huidobro, Rodrigo

    2015-09-01

    This study aims to psychometrically validate the Chilean version of the treatment outcomes profile (TOP), an instrument that can be used by treatment centers to monitor the results of drug and alcohol treatments. Specifically, this study is interested in evaluating the inter-rater reliability, concurrent validity, change sensitivity and discriminant and construct validity of this instrument. The TOP was modified to reflect the Chilean context and then applied in three successive stages: an initial application at the beginning of treatment, a retest after 1week, and a follow up after a month. The sample was composed of 411 users of different types of drugs who were in treatment centers in the three largest regions of the country. The TOP reliability was greater than .75 for most items. Regarding concurrent validity, all the coefficients were in the expected direction and statistically significant. Change over time, as measured by Cohen's d statistic and the Reliable Change Index, was significant for most items. Users in treatment for less than 3months showed higher alcohol consumption (odds ratio [OR]=1.07; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.01-1.13), poorer psychological health (OR=0.94; 95% CI: 0.87-1.00), fewer days worked (0.56; 0.95-0.99) and poorer housing conditions (OR=2.76; 95% CI: 1.22-6.23) than did their counterparts who had more than 3months of treatment. Researchers extracted six components with eigenvalues greater than one, accounting for 69.0% of the total variance. In general, the Chilean TOP is a reliable and valid mechanism to monitor outcomes of people treated for problems with drug and alcohol abuse in Chile, but further validation work is required in some dimensions. PMID:25858760

  2. Cross-population validation of statistical distance as a measure of physiological dysregulation during aging.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Alan A; Milot, Emmanuel; Li, Qing; Legault, Véronique; Fried, Linda P; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2014-09-01

    Measuring physiological dysregulation during aging could be a key tool both to understand underlying aging mechanisms and to predict clinical outcomes in patients. However, most existing indices are either circular or hard to interpret biologically. Recently, we showed that statistical distance of 14 common blood biomarkers (a measure of how strange an individual's biomarker profile is) was associated with age and mortality in the WHAS II data set, validating its use as a measure of physiological dysregulation. Here, we extend the analyses to other data sets (WHAS I and InCHIANTI) to assess the stability of the measure across populations. We found that the statistical criteria used to determine the original 14 biomarkers produced diverging results across populations; in other words, had we started with a different data set, we would have chosen a different set of markers. Nonetheless, the same 14 markers (or the subset of 12 available for InCHIANTI) produced highly similar predictions of age and mortality. We include analyses of all combinatorial subsets of the markers and show that results do not depend much on biomarker choice or data set, but that more markers produce a stronger signal. We conclude that statistical distance as a measure of physiological dysregulation is stable across populations in Europe and North America. PMID:24802990

  3. The accuracy of the Alvarado score in predicting acute appendicitis in the black South African population needs to be validated

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Victor Y.; Van Der Linde, Stefan; Aldous, Colleen; Handley, Jonathan J.; Clarke, Damian L.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Alvarado score is the most widely used clinical prediction tool to facilitate decision-making in patients with acute appendicitis, but it has not been validated in the black South African population, which has much wider differential diagnosis than developed world populations. We investigated the applicability of this score to our local population and sought to introduce a checklist for rural doctors to facilitate early referral. Methods We analyzed patients with proven appendicitis for the period January 2008 to December 2012. Alvarado scores were retrospectively assigned based on patients’ admission charts. We generated a clinical probability score (1–4 = low, 5–6 = intermediate, 7–10 = high). Results We studied 1000 patients (54% male, median age 21 yr). Forty percent had inflamed, nonperforated appendices and 60% had perforated appendices. Alvarado scores were 1–4 in 20.9%, 5–6 in 35.7% and 7–10 in 43.4%, indicating low, intermediate and high clincial probability, respectively. In our subgroup analysis of 510 patients without generalized peritonitis, Alvarado scores were 1–4 in 5.5%, 5–6 in 18.1% and 7–10 in 76.4%, indicating low, intermediate and high clinical probability, respectively. Conclusion The widespread use of the Alvarado score has its merits, but its applicability in the black South African population is unclear, with a significant proportion of patients with the disease being potentially missed. Further prospective validation of the Alvarado score and possible modification is needed to increase its relevance in our setting. PMID:25078937

  4. CFD Validation Studies for Hypersonic Flow Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.

    2001-01-01

    A series of experiments to measure pressure and heating for code validation involving hypersonic, laminar, separated flows was conducted at the Calspan-University at Buffalo Research Center (CUBRC) in the Large Energy National Shock (LENS) tunnel. The experimental data serves as a focus for a code validation session but are not available to the authors until the conclusion of this session. The first set of experiments considered here involve Mach 9.5 and Mach 11.3 N, flow over a hollow cylinder-flare with 30 deg flare angle at several Reynolds numbers sustaining laminar, separated flow. Truncated and extended flare configurations are considered. The second set of experiments, at similar conditions, involves flow over a sharp, double cone with fore-cone angle of 25 deg and aft-cone angle of 55 deg. Both sets of experiments involve 30 deg compressions. Location of the separation point in the numerical simulation is extremely sensitive to the level of grid refinement in the numerical predictions. The numerical simulations also show a significant influence of Reynolds number on extent of separation. Flow unsteadiness was easily introduced into the double cone simulations using aggressive relaxation parameters that normally promote convergence.

  5. CFD Validation Studies for Hypersonic Flow Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.

    2001-01-01

    A series of experiments to measure pressure and heating for code validation involving hypersonic, laminar, separated flows was conducted at the Calspan-University at Buffalo Research Center (CUBRC) in the Large Energy National Shock (LENS) tunnel. The experimental data serves as a focus for a code validation session but are not available to the authors until the conclusion of this session. The first set of experiments considered here involve Mach 9.5 and Mach 11.3 N2 flow over a hollow cylinder-flare with 30 degree flare angle at several Reynolds numbers sustaining laminar, separated flow. Truncated and extended flare configurations are considered. The second set of experiments, at similar conditions, involves flow over a sharp, double cone with fore-cone angle of 25 degrees and aft-cone angle of 55 degrees. Both sets of experiments involve 30 degree compressions. Location of the separation point in the numerical simulation is extremely sensitive to the level of grid refinement in the numerical predictions. The numerical simulations also show a significant influence of Reynolds number on extent of separation. Flow unsteadiness was easily introduced into the double cone simulations using aggressive relaxation parameters that normally promote convergence.

  6. What population studies can do for business.

    PubMed

    Hugo, G

    1991-05-01

    This paper examines how specific skills essential to demography, the scientific study of human populations, can be useful in private and public sector planning. Over the past 2 decades, Australia's population has undergone profound transformations -- a shift to below replacement level fertility and a change in ethnic composition, to name a few. And these changes have reshaped the markets for goods, services, and labor. Because demography seeks to analyze and explain changes in the size, composition, and spatial distribution of people, this discipline requires certain skills that can be particularly valuable to both private and public sector planning. These skills include: 1) a sound knowledge of why and how populations change over time; 2) a wide range of concepts (the "cohort," for example) which allow demographers to analyze the dynamics of change in a population; 3) statistical techniques; and 4) life tables techniques. Having named the specific skills of demographers, the author identifies the areas of business and public administration where these skills can be most useful, areas that include the following: strategic long-term planning, marketing, market segmentation, small area analysis, household and family level analysis, projections and estimates, human resources analysis, and international population trends. Finally, the author discusses the implications of applied population analysis on the training of demographers in Australia, emphasizing the role of the Australian Population Association in improving the status of demography as an important planning tool. PMID:12343380

  7. Assessing the Validity of a Stage Measure on Physical Activity in a Population-Based Sample of Individuals with Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Lippke, Sonia; Reinbold-Matthews, Melissa; Courneya, Kerry S.; Karunamuni, Nandini; Sigal, Ronald J.; Birkett, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to test the validity of a transtheoretical model's physical activity (PA) stage measure with intention and different intensities of behavior in a large population-based sample of adults living with diabetes (Type 1 diabetes, n = 697; Type 2 diabetes, n = 1,614) and examine different age groups. The overall "specificity"…

  8. A Comparative Analysis of the Validity of US State- and County-Level Social Capital Measures and Their Associations with Population Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chul-Joo; Kim, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The goals of this study were to validate a number of available collective social capital measures at the US state and county levels, and to examine the relative extent to which these social capital measures are associated with population health outcomes. Measures of social capital at the US state level included aggregate indices based on the…

  9. Factor Structure and Convergent Validity of the Aggression Questionnaire in an Offender Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Tamra Y.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Whether the four-factor structure of the Aggression Questionnaire (A. Buss and M. Perry, 1992) from previous studies would be replicated in an offender population was studied with 200 adult offenders. Results of a confirmatory factor analysis indicate that a two-factor structure is a better fit with offenders. (SLD)

  10. Evolutionary game theory for physical and biological scientists. I. Training and validating population dynamics equations

    PubMed Central

    Liao, David; Tlsty, Thea D.

    2014-01-01

    Failure to understand evolutionary dynamics has been hypothesized as limiting our ability to control biological systems. An increasing awareness of similarities between macroscopic ecosystems and cellular tissues has inspired optimism that game theory will provide insights into the progression and control of cancer. To realize this potential, the ability to compare game theoretic models and experimental measurements of population dynamics should be broadly disseminated. In this tutorial, we present an analysis method that can be used to train parameters in game theoretic dynamics equations, used to validate the resulting equations, and used to make predictions to challenge these equations and to design treatment strategies. The data analysis techniques in this tutorial are adapted from the analysis of reaction kinetics using the method of initial rates taught in undergraduate general chemistry courses. Reliance on computer programming is avoided to encourage the adoption of these methods as routine bench activities. PMID:25097751

  11. PLCO Ovarian Phase III Validation Study — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    Our preliminary data indicate that the performance of CA 125 as a screening test for ovarian cancer can be improved upon by additional biomarkers. With completion of one additional validation step, we will be ready to test the performance of a consensus marker panel in a phase III validation study. Given the original aims of the PLCO trial, we believe that the PLCO represents an ideal longitudinal cohort offering specimens for phase III validation of ovarian cancer biomarkers.

  12. Matrix population models from 20 studies of perennial plant populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, Martha M.; Williams, Jennifer L.; Lesica, Peter; Bell, Timothy J.; Bierzychudek, Paulette; Bowles, Marlin; Crone, Elizabeth E.; Doak, Daniel F.; Ehrlen, Johan; Ellis-Adam, Albertine; McEachern, Kathryn; Ganesan, Rengaian; Latham, Penelope; Luijten, Sheila; Kaye, Thomas N.; Knight, Tiffany M.; Menges, Eric S.; Morris, William F.; den Nijs, Hans; Oostermeijer, Gerard; Quintana-Ascencio, Pedro F.; Shelly, J. Stephen; Stanley, Amanda; Thorpe, Andrea; Tamara, Ticktin; Valverde, Teresa; Weekley, Carl W.

    2012-01-01

    Demographic transition matrices are one of the most commonly applied population models for both basic and applied ecological research. The relatively simple framework of these models and simple, easily interpretable summary statistics they produce have prompted the wide use of these models across an exceptionally broad range of taxa. Here, we provide annual transition matrices and observed stage structures/population sizes for 20 perennial plant species which have been the focal species for long-term demographic monitoring. These data were assembled as part of the 'Testing Matrix Models' working group through the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS). In sum, these data represent 82 populations with >460 total population-years of data. It is our hope that making these data available will help promote and improve our ability to monitor and understand plant population dynamics.

  13. Matrix population models from 20 studies of perennial plant populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, Martha M.; Williams, Jennifer L.; Lesica, Peter; Bell, Timothy J.; Bierzychudek, Paulette; Bowles, Marlin; Crone, Elizabeth E.; Doak, Daniel F.; Ehrlen, Johan; Ellis-Adam, Albertine; McEachern, Kathryn; Ganesan, Rengaian; Latham, Penelope; Luijten, Sheila; Kaye, Thomas N.; Knight, Tiffany M.; Menges, Eric S.; Morris, William F.; den Nijs, Hans; Oostermeijer, Gerard; Quintana-Ascencio, Pedro F.; Shelly, J. Stephen; Stanley, Amanda; Thorpe, Andrea; Tamara, Ticktin; Valverde, Teresa; Weekley, Carl W.

    2012-01-01

    Demographic transition matrices are one of the most commonly applied population models for both basic and applied ecological research. The relatively simple framework of these models and simple, easily interpretable summary statistics they produce have prompted the wide use of these models across an exceptionally broad range of taxa. Here, we provide annual transition matrices and observed stage structures/population sizes for 20 perennial plant species which have been the focal species for long-term demographic monitoring. These data were assembled as part of the "Testing Matrix Models" working group through the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS). In sum, these data represent 82 populations with >460 total population-years of data. It is our hope that making these data available will help promote and improve our ability to monitor and understand plant population dynamics.

  14. Isolation of a circulating CD45−, CD34dim cell population and validation of their endothelial phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Tropea, Margaret M.; Harper, Bonnie J. A.; Graninger, Grace M.; Phillips, Terry M.; Ferreyra, Gabriela; Mostowski, Howard S.; Danner, Robert L.; Suffredini, Anthony F.; Solomon, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Accurately detecting circulating endothelial cells (CECs) is important since their enumeration has been proposed as a biomarker to measure injury to the vascular endothelium. However, there is no single methodology for determining CECs in blood, making comparison across studies difficult. Many methods for detecting CECs rely on characteristic cell surface markers and cell viability indicators, but lack secondary validation. Here, a CEC population in healthy adult human subjects was identified by flow cytometry as CD45−, CD34dim that is comparable to a previously described CD45−, CD31bright population. In addition, nuclear staining with 7-aminoactinomycin D (7-AAD) was employed as a standard technique to exclude dead cells. Unexpectedly, the CD45−, CD34dim, 7-AAD− CECs lacked surface detectable CD146, a commonly used marker of CECs. Furthermore, light microscopy revealed this cell population to be composed primarily of large cells without a clearly defined nucleus. Nevertheless, immunostains still demonstrated the presence of the lectin Ulex europaeus and van Willebrand factor. Ultramicro analytical immunochemistry assays for the endothelial cell proteins CD31, CD34, CD62E, CD105, CD141, CD144 and vWF indicated these cells possess an endothelial phenotype. However, only a small amount of RNA, which was mostly degraded, could be isolated from these cells. Thus the majority of CECs in healthy individuals as defined by CD45−, CD34dim, and 7-AAD− have shed their CD146 surface marker and are senescent cells without an identifiable nucleus and lacking RNA of sufficient quantity and quality for transcriptomal analysis. This study highlights the importance of secondary validation of CEC identification. PMID:25057108

  15. Validation of a mental health assessment in an African conflict population.

    PubMed

    Ertl, Verena; Pfeiffer, Anett; Saile, Regina; Schauer, Elisabeth; Elbert, Thomas; Neuner, Frank

    2010-06-01

    We studied the validity of the assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression within the context of an epidemiological mental health survey among war-affected adolescents and young adults in northern Uganda. Local language versions of the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS) and the Depression section of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (DHSCL) were administered by trained local interviewers. Correlations with probable predictor variables (i.e., trauma exposure), outcomes (e.g., impaired functioning), and local idioms of distress (i.e., spirit possession) were determined to estimate criterion-related construct validity. To assess convergent validity, expert clinicians reinterviewed a subsample using structured interviews (the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale [CAPS] and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview [MINI]). Depression and PTSD symptoms as assessed by the local interviewers correlated with the context variables as predicted. After optimizing the scoring algorithm, we found good agreement between the PDS-based diagnoses and expert diagnoses. However, the concordance for depression diagnoses was not satisfactory. Results show that mental health assessments in African languages can produce reliable and valid data but that caution is warranted in the unevaluated transfer of cutoff scores and scoring algorithms. PMID:20528059

  16. Factorial validation of a walking safety scale (GEM scale) for the geriatric population.

    PubMed

    Dubé, François; Rousseau, Jacqueline; Nadeau, Sylvie; Kaegi, Christine; Boudreault, Renee

    2010-04-22

    The GEM scale is an objective assessment tool evaluating walking safety of elderly individuals. It includes 33 walking items divided into three subscales (A, B, and C). The purpose of this study was to estimate the internal consistency and factorial validation of the scale. Seventy-four subjects (> or = 65 years) recruited from geriatric units were assessed by a total of 11 physical therapists. The internal consistency data were analyzed by using the Cronbach alpha coefficient. An exploratory factor analysis was performed to analyze the factorial structure of the scale and determine the construct validation. The internal consistency for the three subscales revealed high Cronbach alpha (subscales A = 0.90; B = 0.76, and C = 0.85). The preliminary analyses of the factorial validation did not confirm the original structure of the scale. For subscales A and B, a three-factor solution was supported by the analyses and explained 61% of the total variance. For subscale C, a four-factor solution was extracted and explained 87% of the total variance. The three subscales showed excellent item homogeneity. The factorial validation results support a new structure for the GEM scale regrouping the items in two sub-scales under different factors. The reorganization of the walking items into representative factors will allow a better understanding and interpretation of the scale. PMID:20331374

  17. The Validity of the WHO-5 as an Early Screening for Apathy in an Elderly Population

    PubMed Central

    Lucas-Carrasco, Ramona; Allerup, Peter; Bech, Per

    2012-01-01

    Aim. The objective of our study has been to evaluate the WHO-5 as a new early screening instrument for apathy in a group of elderly persons. Methods. The WHO-5 was compared to the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15). The GDS contains five items measuring well-being and ten items measuring depression. The internal validity of the WHO-5 (total score being a sufficient statistic) was evaluated with both parametric and nonparametric item response theory models. The external validity of the WHO-5 and the GDS was evaluated by ROC using depression as index of validity. Results. The item response theory analyses confirmed that the total score of the WHO-5 is a sufficient statistic. The ROC analysis shows an adequate sensitivity (61%) and specificity (84%). The GDS15 and its two subscales obtained low sensitivity (25–42%), but high specificity (90–98%). Conclusion. The WHO-5 was found both internally and externally valid when considering decreased positive well-being to be an early indication of apathy reflecting that the wind has begun to be taken out of the “motivation sail.” PMID:22991511

  18. Investigating the Knowledge Needed for Teaching Mathematics: An Exploratory Validation Study Focusing on Teaching Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charalambous, Charalambos Y.

    2016-01-01

    Central in the frameworks proposed to capture the knowledge needed for teaching mathematics is the assumption that teachers need more than pure subject-matter knowledge. Validation studies exploring this assumption by recruiting contrasting populations are relatively scarce. Drawing on a sample of 644 Greek-Cypriots preservice and inservice…

  19. Validation of the CDA CAMBRA caries risk assessment--a six-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Doméjean, Sophie; White, Joel M; Featherstone, John D B

    2011-10-01

    The present manuscript presents the results of a six-year retrospective study validating caries risk assessment in a caries management by risk assessment program in a large predominantly adult patient population seeking dental care. CRA was successful in accurately identifying patients at high caries risk. Caries risk assessment in a CAMBRA program is a good clinical tool for everyday dental practice. PMID:22132582

  20. Characteristics of the population studies in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, C

    1989-01-01

    The author presents a brief historical sketch of the origins of Chinese population studies and provides 8 characteristics of the post-1978 advances made in population science. Chinese scholars were among the 1st to research population issues but ceased their work in the 18th century. In the late 19th century scholars used the theories of Thomas Malthus to explain population growth. This research peaked in the 1st half of the 20th century and continued in the Malthusian tradition and sociological point of view. Soviet theories on population were popular in the 1930's and 40's, and adopted by the administration with the founding of New China in 1949. Sociologically oriented scholars were criticized, even for Marxist views. The 1978 3rd plenary session of the 11th Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party adopted a policy which emphasized the quest for truth from facts, future planning, and unification. Between 1978-88 huge advances were made in population studies which attracted world attention and contributed to solving China's population problems. Demographic societies were founded at the national, provincial, and municipal levels. Institutions of higher education formed professional departments. Training centers were formed for government family planning officers, and exchanges of students and scholars were made with other countries. An extensive network of party schools and FP departments contributed to population studies. The 8 characteristics which contributed to the originality of the effort were as follows: 1) A blend of Western and Marxist theory was developed. 2) Qualitative and quantitative research was conducted, which surpassed the boring and abstract Soviet research and the Western research short on sociological analyses. 3) Theoretical research was combined with practical research, which lead to the publication of a 30 volume series. 4) Population studies have utilized the theories and methodologies of other related sciences such as economics

  1. Psychometric Properties of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children in Italy: Testing the Validity among a General and Clinical Pediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    Gobbi, Erica; Elliot, Catherine; Varnier, Maurizio; Carraro, Attilio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to assess an Italian version of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C-It). Three separate studies were conducted, whereby testing general psychometric properties, construct validity, concurrent validity and the factor structure of the PAQ-C-It among general and clinical pediatric population. Study 1 (n = 1170) examined the psychometric properties, internal consistency, factor structure (exploratory factor analysis, EFA) and construct validity with enjoyment perception during physical activity. Study 2 (n = 59) reported on reliability, construct validity with enjoyment and BMI, and on cross-sectional concurrent validity with objectively measured MVPA (tri-axial accelerometry) over the span of seven consecutive days. Study 3 (n = 58) examined the PAQ-C-It reliability, construct validity with BMI and VO2max as the objective measurement among a population of children with congenital heart defects (CHD). In study 2 and 3, the factor structure of the PAQ-C-It was then re-examined with an EFA. The PAQ-C-It showed acceptable to good reliability (alpha .70 to .83). Results on construct validity showed moderate but significant association with enjoyment perception (r = .30 and .36), with BMI (r = -.30 and -.79 for CHD simple form), and with the VO2max (r = .55 for CHD simple form). Significant concurrent validity with the objectively measured MVPA was reported (rho = .30, p < .05). Findings of the EFA suggested a two-factor structure for the PAQ-C-It, with items 2, 3, and 4 contributing little to the total score. This study supports the PAQ-C-It as an appropriate instrument to assess the MVPA levels of Italian children, including children with simple forms of CHD. Support is given to the possible instrument effectiveness on a large international perspective in order to level out data gathering across the globe. PMID:27228050

  2. Measuring Long-Distance Romantic Relationships: A Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pistole, M. Carole; Roberts, Amber

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated aspects of construct validity for the scores of a new long-distance romantic relationship measure. A single-factor structure of the long-distance romantic relationship index emerged, with convergent and discriminant evidence of external validity, high internal consistency reliability, and applied utility of the scores.…

  3. Comparison of validity and reliability of the Migraine disability assessment (MIDAS) versus headache impact test (HIT) in an Iranian population

    PubMed Central

    Chitsaz, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Background Migraine is one of the most common headaches that affect 11% or more adult population. Recently, researchers have designed two questionnaires, namely Headache Impact Test (HIT) and Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS), with the aim of improving migraine care. These two tests provide a standard measurement about migraine's effects on people's life style that divide patients into 4 groups (grades) based on headaches intensity. The aim of this study was to compare the validity and reliability of these two tests. Methods This study was designed as a multicenter, descriptive study to compare validity and reliability of Persian version of MIDAS and HIT questionnaires in 240 males and females with a migraine diagnosis according to criteria for headache and facial pain of the International Headache Society (IHS). The patients were enrolled in the study from 3 neurology clinics in Isfahan, Iran, between July 2004 and January 2005 and were evaluated at baseline (visit 1) and 4 weeks later (visit 2). Results According to our study, there was a high correlation between two tests (r = 0.94). This decreased their MIDAS grade in comparison to their grade HIT questionnaire. Conclusion These findings demonstrated that Persian version of HIT have the same validity and reliability as MIDAS. Replying to HIT questionnaire was easier than MIDAS for Iranian patients. Physicians can reliably use the Persian translation of both MIDAS and HIT questionnaires to define the severity of illness and its treatment strategy as a self-administered report by migraine patients. However, we recommend HIT for its simplicity in headache clinics. PMID:24250844

  4. Cross-Cultural Validation of Holland's Interest Structure in Chinese Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Weiwei; Stokes, Garnett S.; Hui, C. Harry

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated Holland's (1973, 1985, 1997) structural hypotheses--circular order and circumplex--in two populations in China at both the subtest (Activities, Competencies, Occupational Preferences, and Self-ratings on Abilities) and the entire test levels of the Self-Directed Search (SDS; Holland, 1994). Confirmatory factor analyses…

  5. Evaluating the Invariance and Validity of the Structure of Dysfunctional Attitudes in an Adolescent Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prenoveau, Jason M.; Zinbarg, Richard E.; Craske, Michelle G.; Mineka, Susan; Griffith, James W.; Rose, Raphael D.

    2009-01-01

    Form A of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS-A), a self-report measure of depressive beliefs, is widely used to test Beck's cognitive model of depression. The present study is the first to evaluate the DAS-A factor structure in an adolescent population of 542 high school juniors and the first to examine a hierarchical model. Findings support…

  6. Studies on the Ozyorsk population: dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Khokhryakov, Victor V.; Drozhko, Evgeniy G.; Glagolenko, Y V.; Rovny, Sergey I.; Vasilenko, E K.; Suslov, A; Anspaugh, L R.; Napier, Bruce A. ); Bouville, A; Khokhryakov, V F.; Suslova, K G.; Romanov, S A.

    2001-12-01

    The Mayak Production Association (MPA) is located in the northern part of Chelyabinsk Oblast. Operating areas are about 10 km from the town of Ozyorsk, the largest populated area nearby, but other nearby populated areas include Novogorny Village, New Metlino Village, and Kyshtym Town. The long-term objective of this (unfunded) project is reconstruction of the time-dependent individual radiation doses to residents of Ozyorsk and the surrounding area from atmospheric releases of radionuclides from the facilities of the Mayak Production Association (MPA). The time period is from 1948 to the present. This information could be used in several epidemiologic studies of the regional population. Two pilotscale studies of thyroid disease among residents of Ozyorsk have found an increase in thyroid nodules among exposed persons compared to unexposed persons and an increase in thyroid carcinoma in Ozyorsk. The success of follow-on studies would depend upon the availability of thyroid doses proposed to be provided. The availability of credible thyroid doses would allow the quantification of risk of thyroid disease and the evaluation of factors such as host susceptibility, age and time effects, and gender differences. Perhaps more importantly, studies of the Ozyorsk residents would not be encumbered with the complications associated with previous early detection screening, as in the Chernobyl studies, or previous medical conditions, as in the I-131 medical studies. The releases to the atmosphere from MPA stacks are a source of exposure to other populations that are the subject of epidemiologic investigation; these populations include the Extended Techa River Cohort (JCCRER Direction 1), the MPA workers (JCCRER Direction 2), and proposed studies of the East Urals Radioactive Trace (EURT) cohort. The doses received by these cohorts from atmospheric releases at the MPA represent a confounding variable that cannot be considered without the information proposed to be provided.

  7. Validating an Elicited Imitation Task as a Measure of Implicit Knowledge: Comparisons with Other Validation Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spada, Nina; Shiu, Julie Li-Ju; Tomita, Yasuyo

    2015-01-01

    This study builds on research investigating the construct validity of elicited imitation (EI) as a measure of implicit second language (L2) grammatical knowledge. It differs from previous studies in that the EI task focuses on a single grammatical feature and time on task is strictly controlled. Seventy-three EFL learners and 20 native English…

  8. [The research protocol III. Study population].

    PubMed

    Arias-Gómez, Jesús; Villasís-Keever, Miguel Ángel; Miranda-Novales, María Guadalupe

    2016-01-01

    The study population is defined as a set of cases, determined, limited, and accessible, that will constitute the subjects for the selection of the sample, and must fulfill several characteristics and distinct criteria. The objectives of this manuscript are focused on specifying each one of the elements required to make the selection of the participants of a research project, during the elaboration of the protocol, including the concepts of study population, sample, selection criteria and sampling methods. After delineating the study population, the researcher must specify the criteria that each participant has to comply. The criteria that include the specific characteristics are denominated selection or eligibility criteria. These criteria are inclusion, exclusion and elimination, and will delineate the eligible population. The sampling methods are divided in two large groups: 1) probabilistic or random sampling and 2) non-probabilistic sampling. The difference lies in the employment of statistical methods to select the subjects. In every research, it is necessary to establish at the beginning the specific number of participants to be included to achieve the objectives of the study. This number is the sample size, and can be calculated or estimated with mathematical formulas and statistic software. PMID:27174763

  9. Population Validity and Cross-Validity: Applications of Distribution Theory for Testing Hypotheses, Setting Confidence Intervals, and Determining Sample Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algina, James; Keselman, H. J.

    2008-01-01

    Applications of distribution theory for the squared multiple correlation coefficient and the squared cross-validation coefficient are reviewed, and computer programs for these applications are made available. The applications include confidence intervals, hypothesis testing, and sample size selection. (Contains 2 tables.)

  10. Identifying Primary Spontaneous Pneumothorax from Administrative Databases: A Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Frechette, Eric; Guidolin, Keegan; Seyam, Ayman; Choi, Yun-Hee; Jones, Sarah; McClure, J. Andrew; Winick-Ng, Jennifer; Welk, Blayne; Malthaner, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) is a disorder commonly encountered in healthy young individuals. There is no differentiation between PSP and secondary pneumothorax (SP) in the current version of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). This complicates the conduct of epidemiological studies on the subject. Objective. To validate the accuracy of an algorithm that identifies cases of PSP from administrative databases. Methods. The charts of 150 patients who consulted the emergency room (ER) with a recorded main diagnosis of pneumothorax were reviewed to define the type of pneumothorax that occurred. The corresponding hospital administrative data collected during previous hospitalizations and ER visits were processed through the proposed algorithm. The results were compared over two different age groups. Results. There were 144 cases of pneumothorax correctly coded (96%). The results obtained from the PSP algorithm demonstrated a significantly higher sensitivity (97% versus 81%, p = 0.038) and positive predictive value (87% versus 46%, p < 0.001) in patients under 40 years of age than in older patients. Conclusions. The proposed algorithm is adequate to identify cases of PSP from administrative databases in the age group classically associated with the disease. This makes possible its utilization in large population-based studies.

  11. Physical activity promotion in Latin American populations: a systematic review on issues of internal and external validity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to determine the degree to which physical activity interventions for Latin American populations reported on internal and external validity factors using the RE-AIM framework (reach & representativeness, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintenance). We systematically identified English (PubMed; EbscoHost) and Spanish (SCIELO; Biblioteca Virtual en Salud) language studies published between 2001 and 2012 that tested physical activity, exercise, or fitness promotion interventions in Latin American populations. Cross-sectional/descriptive studies, conducted in Brazil or Spain, published in Portuguese, not including a physical activity/fitness/exercise outcome, and with one time point assessment were excluded. We reviewed 192 abstracts and identified 46 studies that met the eligibility criteria (34 in English, 12 in Spanish). A validated 21-item RE-AIM abstraction tool was used to determine the quality of reporting across studies (0-7 = low, 8-14 = moderate, and 15-21 = high). The number of indicators reported ranged from 3–14 (mean = 8.1 ± 2.6), with the majority of studies falling in the moderate quality reporting category. English and Spanish language articles did not differ on the number of indicators reported (8.1 vs. 8.3, respectively). However, Spanish articles reported more across reach indicators (62% vs. 43% of indicators), while English articles reported more across effectiveness indicators (69% vs 62%). Across RE-AIM dimensions, indicators for reach (48%), efficacy/effectiveness (67%), and implementation (41%) were reported more often than indicators of adoption (25%) and maintenance (10%). Few studies reported on the representativeness of participants, staff that delivered interventions, or the settings where interventions were adopted. Only 13% of the studies reported on quality of life and/or potential negative outcomes, 20% reported on intervention fidelity, and 11% on cost of implementation

  12. Accuracy of Population Validity and Cross-Validity Estimation: An Empirical Comparison of Formula-Based, Traditional Empirical, and Equal Weights Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raju, Nambury S.; Bilgic, Reyhan; Edwards, Jack E.; Fleer, Paul F.

    1999-01-01

    Performed an empirical Monte Carlo study using predictor and criterion data from 84,808 U.S. Air Force enlistees. Compared formula-based, traditional empirical, and equal-weights procedures. Discusses issues for basic research on validation and cross-validation. (SLD)

  13. English Consequential Validity Study, Fall 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Diego Community Coll. District, CA. Research and Planning.

    This study, conducted by the San Diego Community College District in fall 2002, aims to answer the following research questions regarding student preparedness for courses in writing, reading, study skills, and composition: (1) Is there a relationship between instructor perception of preparedness and student performance? (2) Is there a relationship…

  14. Assessing Adolescent Mindfulness: Validation of an Adapted Mindful Attention Awareness Scale in Adolescent Normative and Psychiatric Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kirk Warren; West, Angela Marie; Loverich, Tamara M.; Biegel, Gina M.

    2011-01-01

    Interest in mindfulness-based interventions for children and adolescents is burgeoning, bringing with it the need for validated instruments to assess mindfulness in youths. The present studies were designed to validate among adolescents a measure of mindfulness previously validated for adults (e.g., Brown & Ryan, 2003), which we herein call the…

  15. A Validity Study of the NAEP Full Population Estimates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedges, Larry V.; Bandeira de Mello, Victor

    2013-01-01

    In early 2001, to support an internal evaluation of the impact of changing exclusion rates on reports of statistically significant gains across states, the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) sponsored research on imputation procedures of National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) scores for the excluded students and provided…

  16. Validation of Horne and Ostberg morningness-eveningness questionnaire in a middle-aged population of French workers.

    PubMed

    Taillard, Jacques; Philip, Pierre; Chastang, Jean-François; Bioulac, Bernard

    2004-02-01

    As suggested by the authors, the Horne and Ostberg morning/evening questionnaire (MEQ) has never been adapted to evaluate a nonstudent population. The purpose of this study was to validate this MEQ in a sample of middle-aged workers by modifying only the cutoffs. It was administered in 566 non-shift-workers aged 51.2 to 3.2 years who presented no sleep disorders. According to the Home and Ostberg classification, the sample consisted of 62.1% morning type, 36.6% neither type, and 2.2% evening type. Multiple correspondence analysis, which determines the principal components, was performed on all MEQ items. Then an ascending hierarchical classification was applied to determine 3 clusters from these principal components. On the basis of these 3 clusters, new cutoffs were determined: evening types were considered as scoring under 53 and morning types above 64, thus giving 28.1% morning type, 51.7% neither type, and 20.2% evening type. As an external validation, eveningness was associated with later bedtime and waking-up time (more pronounced at the weekend), greater need for sleep, larger daily sleep debt, greater morning sleepiness, and ease of returning to sleep in the early morning. A positive correlation between age and morningness was again found. This study confirms that "owls" are not rare in a middle-aged sample. We conclude that this adapted MEQ could be useful when investigating age-related changes in sleep. PMID:14964706

  17. Sensor data validation and reconstruction. Phase 1: System architecture study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The sensor validation and data reconstruction task reviewed relevant literature and selected applicable validation and reconstruction techniques for further study; analyzed the selected techniques and emphasized those which could be used for both validation and reconstruction; analyzed Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) hot fire test data to determine statistical and physical relationships between various parameters; developed statistical and empirical correlations between parameters to perform validation and reconstruction tasks, using a computer aided engineering (CAE) package; and conceptually designed an expert system based knowledge fusion tool, which allows the user to relate diverse types of information when validating sensor data. The host hardware for the system is intended to be a Sun SPARCstation, but could be any RISC workstation with a UNIX operating system and a windowing/graphics system such as Motif or Dataviews. The information fusion tool is intended to be developed using the NEXPERT Object expert system shell, and the C programming language.

  18. Designing SoTL Studies--Part I: Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartsch, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter discusses how to improve validity in SoTL studies through generating appropriate measures and using designs that examine causality between an activity and students' performance. [Part II available at EJ1029365.

  19. Genotoxicity Studies Performed in the Ecuadorian Population

    PubMed Central

    Paz-y-Miño, César; Cumbal, Nadia; Sánchez, María Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    Genotoxicity studies in Ecuador have been carried out during the past two decades. The focuses of the research were mainly the area of environmental issues, where the populations have been accidentally exposed to contaminants and the area of occupational exposure of individuals at the workplace. This paper includes studies carried out in the population of the Amazon region, a zone known for its rich biodiversity as well as for the ecological damage caused by oil spills and chemical sprayings whose consequences continue to be controversial. Additionally, we show the results of studies comprised of individuals occupationally exposed to toxic agents in two very different settings: flower plantation workers exposed to pesticide mixtures and X-ray exposure of hospital workers. The results from these studies confirm that genotoxicity studies can help evaluate current conditions and prevent further damage in the populations exposed to contaminants. As such, they are evidence of the need for biomonitoring employers at risk, stricter law enforcement regarding the use of pesticides, and increasingly conscientious oil extraction activities. PMID:22496977

  20. Convergent validity of the eating disorder inventory and the anorexia nervosa inventory for self-rating in an Austrian nonclinical population.

    PubMed

    Rathner, G; Rumpold, G

    1994-12-01

    This study assesses the convergent and divergent validity of the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI--German version) and the Anorexia Nervosa Inventory for Self-Rating (ANIS) in a German-speaking nonclinical population. One hundred fifty-five female and 224 male Austrian medical students were surveyed. Validity was studied at a dimensional level, separately for both sexes, by correlating with conceptually related as well as distinct scales. These instruments included the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). The intercorrelation coefficients of the EDI and the ANIS were similar to the original samples. In women, the convergent validity of the EDI and the ANIS was confirmed, especially for the subscales measuring the specific psychopathology (r = .43 to .84) and for ineffectiveness/feelings of inadequacy (r = .63). The EDI subscales Maturity Fears and Interpersonal Distrust and the ANIS subscales Obsessive-Compulsive Traits and Sexual Anxiety address traits not included in the other test and these showed divergent validity. Divergent validity of the ANIS and to a lesser degree the EDI with the GHQ was established. Both tests can be equally recommended for female subjects. In males however, the validity indices of both tests were generally lower and convergent and divergent validity was not established. PMID:7866417

  1. Conducting Internet Research With the Transgender Population: Reaching Broad Samples and Collecting Valid Data.

    PubMed

    Miner, Michael H; Bockting, Walter O; Romine, Rebecca Swinburne; Raman, Sivakumaran

    2012-05-01

    Health research on transgender people has been hampered by the challenges inherent in studying a hard-to-reach, relatively small, and geographically dispersed population. The Internet has the potential to facilitate access to transgender samples large enough to permit examination of the diversity and syndemic health disparities found among this population. In this article, we describe the experiences of a team of investigators using the Internet to study HIV risk behaviors of transgender people in the United States. We developed an online instrument, recruited participants exclusively via websites frequented by members of the target population, and collected data using online quantitative survey and qualitative synchronous and asynchronous interview methods. Our experiences indicate that the Internet environment presents the investigator with some unique challenges and that commonly expressed criticisms about Internet research (e.g., lack of generalizable samples, invalid study participants, and multiple participation by the same subject) can be overcome with careful method design, usability testing, and pilot testing. The importance of both usability and pilot testing are described with respect to participant engagement and retention and the quality of data obtained online. PMID:24031157

  2. Experiments to populate and validate a processing model for polyurethane foam :

    SciTech Connect

    Mondy, Lisa Ann; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Shelden, Bion; Soehnel, Melissa Marie; O'Hern, Timothy J.; Grillet, Anne; Celina, Mathias Christopher; Wyatt, Nicholas B.; Russick, Edward Mark; Bauer, Stephen J.; Hileman, Michael Bryan; Urquhart, Alexander; Thompson, Kyle Richard; Smith, David Michael

    2014-03-01

    We are developing computational models to elucidate the expansion and dynamic filling process of a polyurethane foam, PMDI. The polyurethane of interest is chemically blown, where carbon dioxide is produced via the reaction of water, the blowing agent, and isocyanate. The isocyanate also reacts with polyol in a competing reaction, which produces the polymer. Here we detail the experiments needed to populate a processing model and provide parameters for the model based on these experiments. The model entails solving the conservation equations, including the equations of motion, an energy balance, and two rate equations for the polymerization and foaming reactions, following a simplified mathematical formalism that decouples these two reactions. Parameters for the polymerization kinetics model are reported based on infrared spectrophotometry. Parameters describing the gas generating reaction are reported based on measurements of volume, temperature and pressure evolution with time. A foam rheology model is proposed and parameters determined through steady-shear and oscillatory tests. Heat of reaction and heat capacity are determined through differential scanning calorimetry. Thermal conductivity of the foam as a function of density is measured using a transient method based on the theory of the transient plane source technique. Finally, density variations of the resulting solid foam in several simple geometries are directly measured by sectioning and sampling mass, as well as through x-ray computed tomography. These density measurements will be useful for model validation once the complete model is implemented in an engineering code.

  3. Temporal lobe signs: electroencephalographic validity and enhanced scores in special populations.

    PubMed

    Makarec, K; Persinger, M A

    1985-06-01

    Internal and external validity tests were completed for an inventory that has been used to infer signs of temporal lobe lability. Strong, positive correlations were reported for a normal (reference) population between the numbers of responses that referred to paranormal experiences (including feelings of a "presence") and separately to religious beliefs and the numbers of spikes per minute within electroencephalographic recordings from the temporal lobe. Numbers of spikes were also correlated with the subjects' scores on the hysteria, schizophrenia, and psychasthenia scales from the MMPI. These clusters of items were not correlated with electrical activity from the occipital lobe (the comparison region). Numbers of responses to control clusters of mundane experiences were not correlated with the temporal lobe measures. A group of student poets scored higher on different subclusters of temporal lobe signs and on the schizophrenia and mania scales of the MMPI than the reference group. For both groups, there were positive correlations between the amount of alpha activity in the temporal lobe only and answers to items such as "hearing inner voices" and "feeling as if things were not real." These results demonstrate that quantitative measures of electrical changes in the temporal lobe are correlated with (or with the report of) specific experiences that are prevalent during surgical or epileptic stimulation of this brain region. PMID:3927256

  4. Validity and feasibility of a satellite imagery-based method for rapid estimation of displaced populations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Estimating the size of forcibly displaced populations is key to documenting their plight and allocating sufficient resources to their assistance, but is often not done, particularly during the acute phase of displacement, due to methodological challenges and inaccessibility. In this study, we explored the potential use of very high resolution satellite imagery to remotely estimate forcibly displaced populations. Methods Our method consisted of multiplying (i) manual counts of assumed residential structures on a satellite image and (ii) estimates of the mean number of people per structure (structure occupancy) obtained from publicly available reports. We computed population estimates for 11 sites in Bangladesh, Chad, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Haiti, Kenya and Mozambique (six refugee camps, three internally displaced persons’ camps and two urban neighbourhoods with a mixture of residents and displaced) ranging in population from 1,969 to 90,547, and compared these to “gold standard” reference population figures from census or other robust methods. Results Structure counts by independent analysts were reasonably consistent. Between one and 11 occupancy reports were available per site and most of these reported people per household rather than per structure. The imagery-based method had a precision relative to reference population figures of <10% in four sites and 10–30% in three sites, but severely over-estimated the population in an Ethiopian camp with implausible occupancy data and two post-earthquake Haiti sites featuring dense and complex residential layout. For each site, estimates were produced in 2–5 working person-days. Conclusions In settings with clearly distinguishable individual structures, the remote, imagery-based method had reasonable accuracy for the purposes of rapid estimation, was simple and quick to implement, and would likely perform better in more current application. However, it may have insurmountable

  5. Development and validation of a web-based questionnaire for surveying the health and working conditions of high-performance marine craft populations

    PubMed Central

    de Alwis, Manudul Pahansen; Lo Martire, Riccardo; Äng, Björn O; Garme, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Background High-performance marine craft crews are susceptible to various adverse health conditions caused by multiple interactive factors. However, there are limited epidemiological data available for assessment of working conditions at sea. Although questionnaire surveys are widely used for identifying exposures, outcomes and associated risks with high accuracy levels, until now, no validated epidemiological tool exists for surveying occupational health and performance in these populations. Aim To develop and validate a web-based questionnaire for epidemiological assessment of occupational and individual risk exposure pertinent to the musculoskeletal health conditions and performance in high-performance marine craft populations. Method A questionnaire for investigating the association between work-related exposure, performance and health was initially developed by a consensus panel under four subdomains, viz. demography, lifestyle, work exposure and health and systematically validated by expert raters for content relevance and simplicity in three consecutive stages, each iteratively followed by a consensus panel revision. The item content validity index (I-CVI) was determined as the proportion of experts giving a rating of 3 or 4. The scale content validity index (S-CVI/Ave) was computed by averaging the I-CVIs for the assessment of the questionnaire as a tool. Finally, the questionnaire was pilot tested. Results The S-CVI/Ave increased from 0.89 to 0.96 for relevance and from 0.76 to 0.94 for simplicity, resulting in 36 items in the final questionnaire. The pilot test confirmed the feasibility of the questionnaire. Conclusions The present study shows that the web-based questionnaire fulfils previously published validity acceptance criteria and is therefore considered valid and feasible for the empirical surveying of epidemiological aspects among high-performance marine craft crews and similar populations. PMID:27324717

  6. Depression and violence: a Swedish population study

    PubMed Central

    Fazel, Seena; Wolf, Achim; Chang, Zheng; Larsson, Henrik; Goodwin, Guy M; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Depression increases the risk of a range of adverse outcomes including suicide, premature mortality, and self-harm, but associations with violent crime remain uncertain. We aimed to determine the risks of violent crime in patients with depression and to investigate the association between depressive symptoms and violent crime in a cohort of twins. Methods We conducted two studies. The first was a total population study in Sweden of patients with outpatient diagnoses of depressive disorders (n=47 158) between 2001 and 2009 and no lifetime inpatient episodes. Patients were age and sex matched to general population controls (n=898 454) and risk of violent crime was calculated. Additionally, we compared the odds of violent crime in unaffected half-siblings (n=15 534) and full siblings (n=33 516) of patients with the general population controls. In sensitivity analyses, we examined the contribution of substance abuse, sociodemographic factors, and previous criminality. In the second study, we studied a general population sample of twins (n=23 020) with continuous measures of depressive symptoms for risk of violent crime. Findings During a mean follow-up period of 3·2 years, 641 (3·7%) of the depressed men and 152 (0·5%) of the depressed women violently offended after diagnosis. After adjustment for sociodemographic confounders, the odds ratio of violent crime was 3·0 (95% CI 2·8–3·3) compared with the general population controls. The odds of violent crime in half-siblings (adjusted odds ratio 1·2 [95% CI 1·1–1·4]) and full siblings (1·5, 95% CI 1·3–1·6) were significantly increased, showing some familial confounding of the association between depression and violence. However, the odds increase remained significant in individuals with depression after adjustment for familial confounding, and in those without substance abuse comorbidity or a previous violent conviction (all p<0·0001). In the twin study, during the mean

  7. Human Rights Attitude Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ercan, Recep; Yaman, Tugba; Demir, Selcuk Besir

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a valid and reliable attitude scale having quality psychometric features that can measure secondary school students' attitudes towards human rights. The study group of the research is comprised by 710 6th, 7th and 8th grade students who study at 4 secondary schools in the centre of Sivas. The study group…

  8. Test of Creative Imagination: Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundogan, Aysun; Ari, Meziyet; Gonen, Mubeccel

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate validity and reliability of the test of creative imagination. This study was conducted with the participation of 1000 children, aged between 9-14 and were studying in six primary schools in the city center of Denizli Province, chosen by cluster ratio sampling. In the study, it was revealed that the…

  9. Validation Theory and Research for a Population-Level Measure of Children's Development, Wellbeing, and School Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guhn, Martin; Zumbo, Bruno D.; Janus, Magdalena; Hertzman, Clyde

    2011-01-01

    This paper delineates general validity and research questions that are underlying an ongoing program of research pertaining to the Early Development Instrument (EDI, Janus and Offord 2007), a population-level measure, on which teachers rate kindergarten children's developmental outcomes in the social, emotional, physical, cognitive, and…

  10. The Universal Patient Centeredness Questionnaire: reliability and validity of a one-page questionnaire following surveys in three patient populations

    PubMed Central

    Bjertnaes, Oyvind; Iversen, Hilde Hestad; Holmboe, Olaf; Danielsen, Kirsten; Garratt, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Background This study developed and tested the reliability and validity of the Universal Patient Centeredness Questionnaire (UPC-Q). Methods The UPC-Q developed in this study has three parts: 1) the aspects that patients consider the most important when receiving a relevant health care service, rating the health care services on these aspects and their prioritization, 2) the overall experiences of patients using the relevant health care service, and 3) suggestions for improvements. The UPC-Q was tested in four different patient-experience surveys in 2015, including psychiatric inpatients (n=109), general practitioner (GP) patients (n=1,059), and inpatients from two hospital samples (n=973, n=599). The UPC-Q was tested for item completeness and ceiling effects, while the UPC-Q scale consisting of the first part of the UPC-Q was tested for internal consistency reliability and construct validity. Results The percentage of patients rating at least one aspect was 70.6% for psychiatric inpatients, 77.6% for hospital inpatients, and 90.6% for GP patients, while 88.9% of the psychiatric inpatients, 93.1% of the hospital inpatients, and 95.3% of the GP patients were able to prioritize the aspects. The internal consistency reliability of the UPC-Q scale was acceptable in all samples (Cronbach’s alpha >0.7), and construct validity was supported by 20 of 21 significant associations between the UPC-Q and related variables. The UPC-Q total score was skewed toward positive evaluations, but the ceiling effect was smaller for an unbalanced response scale than for a balanced scale. Conclusion The UPC-Q includes ratings of what is most important for individual patients, while at the same time providing data for improving the quality of health care and making it possible to monitor trends within and across patient populations. This study included psychiatric inpatients, hospital inpatients, and GP patients, and found that the UPC-Q performed well in terms of acceptance, internal

  11. The Well-Being 5: Development and Validation of a Diagnostic Instrument to Improve Population Well-being

    PubMed Central

    Sears, Lindsay E.; Agrawal, Sangeeta; Sidney, James A.; Castle, Patricia H.; Coberley, Carter R.; Witters, Dan; Pope, James E.; Harter, James K.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Building upon extensive research from 2 validated well-being instruments, the objective of this research was to develop and validate a comprehensive and actionable well-being instrument that informs and facilitates improvement of well-being for individuals, communities, and nations. The goals of the measure were comprehensiveness, validity and reliability, significant relationships with health and performance outcomes, and diagnostic capability for intervention. For measure development and validation, questions from the Well-being Assessment and Wellbeing Finder were simultaneously administered as a test item pool to over 13,000 individuals across 3 independent samples. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on a random selection from the first sample and confirmed in the other samples. Further evidence of validity was established through correlations to the established well-being scores from the Well-Being Assessment and Wellbeing Finder, and individual outcomes capturing health care utilization and productivity. Results showed the Well-Being 5 score comprehensively captures the known constructs within well-being, demonstrates good reliability and validity, significantly relates to health and performance outcomes, is diagnostic and informative for intervention, and can track and compare well-being over time and across groups. With this tool, well-being deficiencies within a population can be effectively identified, prioritized, and addressed, yielding the potential for substantial improvements to the health status, performance, and quality of life for individuals and cost savings for stakeholders. (Population Health Management 2014;17:357–365) PMID:24892873

  12. The positive mental health instrument: development and validation of a culturally relevant scale in a multi-ethnic asian population

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Instruments to measure mental health and well-being are largely developed and often used within Western populations and this compromises their validity in other cultures. A previous qualitative study in Singapore demonstrated the relevance of spiritual and religious practices to mental health, a dimension currently not included in exiting multi-dimensional measures. The objective of this study was to develop a self-administered measure that covers all key and culturally appropriate domains of mental health, which can be applied to compare levels of mental health across different age, gender and ethnic groups. We present the item reduction and validation of the Positive Mental Health (PMH) instrument in a community-based adult sample in Singapore. Methods Surveys were conducted among adult (21-65 years) residents belonging to Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnicities. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (EFA, CFA) were conducted and items were reduced using item response theory tests (IRT). The final version of the PMH instrument was tested for internal consistency and criterion validity. Items were tested for differential item functioning (DIF) to check if items functioned in the same way across all subgroups. Results: EFA and CFA identified six first-order factor structure (General coping, Personal growth and autonomy, Spirituality, Interpersonal skills, Emotional support, and Global affect) under one higher-order dimension of Positive Mental Health (RMSEA = 0.05, CFI = 0.96, TLI = 0.96). A 47-item self-administered multi-dimensional instrument with a six-point Likert response scale was constructed. The slope estimates and strength of the relation to the theta for all items in each six PMH subscales were high (range:1.39 to 5.69), suggesting good discrimination properties. The threshold estimates for the instrument ranged from -3.45 to 1.61 indicating that the instrument covers entire spectrums for the six dimensions. The instrument demonstrated

  13. Scoring of nonmetric cranial traits: a population study

    PubMed Central

    BRASILI, P.; ZACCAGNI, L.; GUALDI-RUSSO, E.

    1999-01-01

    The aims of the present study were: (1) to supply further knowledge about variations in nonmetric cranial traits in relation to sex, age and laterality and (2) to evaluate biological distance between samples from a recent population. The incidence of 18 nonmetric variants of the cranium were determined in 3 adult samples of 394 skulls of known sex from North Sardinia (Sassari, Alghero and Ozieri); for the Sassari sample (n = 200) age at death was also known. Some significant sex differences were observed. Age did not appear to influence the frequency of the discontinuous traits but did for legibility. Side differences may provide important information about environmental influences. The interpopulation analysis indicates a stronger relationship between samples that are geographically closer (Sassari and Alghero), in accordance with other studies, strengthening the hypothesis of the validity of the use of nonmetric traits in the study of the peopling of a territory. PMID:10634694

  14. Radionuclide migration laboratory studies for validation of batch sorption data

    SciTech Connect

    Triay, I.R.; Mitchell, A.J.; Ott, M.A.

    1991-12-31

    Advective and diffusive migration experiments (within the Dynamic Transport Column Experiments and Diffusion Studies of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project) involve utilizing crushed material, intact, and fractured tuff in order to test and improve (if necessary) transport models by experimentally observing the migration of sorbing and non-sorbing radionuclides on a laboratory scale. Performing a validation of the sorption data obtained with batch techniques (within the Batch Sorption Study) is an integral part of the mission of the Dynamic Transport Column Experiments and Diffusion Studies. In this paper the work scope of the radionuclide migration laboratory experiments (as they apply to validation of batch sorption data) is reviewed.

  15. Development and Validation of a Cross-Cultural Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Survey Instrument for Chronic Kidney Disease in a Swahili-Speaking Population

    PubMed Central

    Stanifer, John W.; Karia, Francis; Voils, Corrine I.; Turner, Elizabeth L.; Maro, Venance; Shimbi, Dionis; Kilawe, Humphrey; Lazaro, Matayo; Patel, Uptal D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Non-communicable diseases are a growing global burden, and structured surveys can identify critical gaps to address this epidemic. In sub-Saharan Africa, there are very few well-tested survey instruments measuring population attributes related to non-communicable diseases. To meet this need, we have developed and validated the first instrument evaluating knowledge, attitudes and practices pertaining to chronic kidney disease in a Swahili-speaking population. Methods and Results Between December 2013 and June 2014, we conducted a four-stage, mixed-methods study among adults from the general population of northern Tanzania. In stage 1, the survey instrument was constructed in English by a group of cross-cultural experts from multiple disciplines and through content analysis of focus group discussions to ensure local significance. Following translation, in stage 2, we piloted the survey through cognitive and structured interviews, and in stage 3, in order to obtain initial evidence of reliability and construct validity, we recruited and then administered the instrument to a random sample of 606 adults. In stage 4, we conducted analyses to establish test-retest reliability and known-groups validity which was informed by thematic analysis of the qualitative data in stages 1 and 2. The final version consisted of 25 items divided into three conceptual domains: knowledge, attitudes and practices. Each item demonstrated excellent test-retest reliability with established content and construct validity. Conclusions We have developed a reliable and valid cross-cultural survey instrument designed to measure knowledge, attitudes and practices of chronic kidney disease in a Swahili-speaking population of Northern Tanzania. This instrument may be valuable for addressing gaps in non-communicable diseases care by understanding preferences regarding healthcare, formulating educational initiatives, and directing development of chronic disease management programs that

  16. THE RELIABILITY, MINIMAL DETECTABLE CHANGE AND CONSTRUCT VALIDITY OF A CLINICAL MEASUREMENT FOR QUANTIFYING POSTERIOR SHOULDER TIGHTNESS IN THE POST‐OPERATIVE POPULATION

    PubMed Central

    Kolber, Morey J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Posterior shoulder tightness (PST) has been implicated in the etiology of numerous shoulder disorders. Although reliable and valid measures have been described for the non‐operative population one does not exist for the post‐operative population. Study Design: Blinded repeated measures design. Purpose: Investigate the intrarater reliability, minimal detectable change at the 90% confidence interval (MDC90) and construct validity of an inclinometric measurement designed to quantify PST in the post‐operative population. Methods: One investigator performed PST measurements on the operative shoulder of 23 participants. Passive internal and external rotation measurements were performed for the validity component of the investigation. Results: Intrarater reliability using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) model 3,k was good (ICC = 0.79). The MDC90 indicated that a change of greater than or equal to 8 degrees would be required to be 90% certain that a change in the measurement would not be the result of inter‐trial variability or measurement error. Construct validity was supported by a statistically significant relationship between PST and internal rotation r = 0.54 and by a relationship between PST and external rotation r = 0.30 which was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The sidelying procedure described in this investigation appears to be a reliable and valid means for quantifying PST in the post‐operative population. Moreover, the use of inclinometry provides an absolute angle of tightness that may be used for intersubject comparison, documenting change, and to determine reference values. Level of Evidence: Therapy, level 2b PMID:23316420

  17. 41 CFR 60-3.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., content, and construct validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a... this part. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a content validity study.... Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure through a construct validity study...

  18. 41 CFR 60-3.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., content, and construct validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a... this part. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a content validity study.... Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure through a construct validity study...

  19. 41 CFR 60-3.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., content, and construct validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a... this part. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a content validity study.... Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure through a construct validity study...

  20. 41 CFR 60-3.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., content, and construct validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a... this part. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a content validity study.... Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure through a construct validity study...

  1. 41 CFR 60-3.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., content, and construct validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a... this part. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a content validity study.... Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure through a construct validity study...

  2. Verification, Validation and Sensitivity Studies in Computational Biomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Andrew E.; Ellis, Benjamin J.; Weiss, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    Computational techniques and software for the analysis of problems in mechanics have naturally moved from their origins in the traditional engineering disciplines to the study of cell, tissue and organ biomechanics. Increasingly complex models have been developed to describe and predict the mechanical behavior of such biological systems. While the availability of advanced computational tools has led to exciting research advances in the field, the utility of these models is often the subject of criticism due to inadequate model verification and validation. The objective of this review is to present the concepts of verification, validation and sensitivity studies with regard to the construction, analysis and interpretation of models in computational biomechanics. Specific examples from the field are discussed. It is hoped that this review will serve as a guide to the use of verification and validation principles in the field of computational biomechanics, thereby improving the peer acceptance of studies that use computational modeling techniques. PMID:17558646

  3. California Diploma Project Technical Report III: Validity Study--Validity Study of the Health Sciences and Medical Technology Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGaughy, Charis; Bryck, Rick; de Gonzalez, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    This study is a validity study of the recently revised version of the Health Science Standards. The purpose of this study is to understand how the Health Science Standards relate to college and career readiness, as represented by survey ratings submitted by entry-level college instructors of health science courses and industry representatives. For…

  4. A Validation Study of the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keck Seeley, Susan. M.; Perosa, Sandra, L.; Perosa, Linda, M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to further the validation process of the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale (A-DES). In this study, a 6-item Likert response format with descriptors was used when responding to the A-DES rather than the 11-item response format used in the original A-DES. Method: The internal reliability and construct…

  5. The Basic "How To's" for Validating a Study Skills Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blasingame, Virginia G.

    To find out what study skills were used by successful students at an urban commuter school whose primary degree program is business, the College Reading and Study Skills (CRSS) inventory was validated on 150 students. First the CRSS inventory was evaluated and revised slightly. The language of the statements was made positive and jargon free. The…

  6. Developing the Educational Belief Scale: The Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Kursad; Altinkurt, Yahya; Cokluk, Omay

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a valid and reliable scale that can be used in determining educational beliefs of teachers and prospective teachers. After studies such as scale expert views and the evaluation of intelligibility, the measure is administered to a sample consisting of 154 teachers and 305 prospective teachers with a total number…

  7. A Re-analysis of Published Differential Validity Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruch, William W.

    A survey of recent literature was undertaken to locate validity studies of paper-and-pencil tests which met the following criteria: (1) Studies were conducted in a business or industrial (i.e. non-education, non-military) setting; (2) Separate statistics were available for blacks and whites; (3) Race was not confounded with some outside variable…

  8. The Jackson Career Explorer: Two Further Validity Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schermer, Julie Aitken

    2012-01-01

    The present report consists of two further validity studies using the Jackson Career Explorer (JCE), a short form and continuous version of the Jackson Vocational Interest Survey, measuring 34 interests. The first study examined the relationships between the JCE and five personality factors, from a sample of 528 individuals. The correlations found…

  9. Validation of Genotyping-By-Sequencing Analysis in Populations of Tetraploid Alfalfa by 454 Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Rocher, Solen; Jean, Martine; Castonguay, Yves; Belzile, François

    2015-01-01

    Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) is a relatively low-cost high throughput genotyping technology based on next generation sequencing and is applicable to orphan species with no reference genome. A combination of genome complexity reduction and multiplexing with DNA barcoding provides a simple and affordable way to resolve allelic variation between plant samples or populations. GBS was performed on ApeKI libraries using DNA from 48 genotypes each of two heterogeneous populations of tetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa spp. sativa): the synthetic cultivar Apica (ATF0) and a derived population (ATF5) obtained after five cycles of recurrent selection for superior tolerance to freezing (TF). Nearly 400 million reads were obtained from two lanes of an Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencer and analyzed with the Universal Network-Enabled Analysis Kit (UNEAK) pipeline designed for species with no reference genome. Following the application of whole dataset-level filters, 11,694 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci were obtained. About 60% had a significant match on the Medicago truncatula syntenic genome. The accuracy of allelic ratios and genotype calls based on GBS data was directly assessed using 454 sequencing on a subset of SNP loci scored in eight plant samples. Sequencing depth in this study was not sufficient for accurate tetraploid allelic dosage, but reliable genotype calls based on diploid allelic dosage were obtained when using additional quality filtering. Principal Component Analysis of SNP loci in plant samples revealed that a small proportion (<5%) of the genetic variability assessed by GBS is able to differentiate ATF0 and ATF5. Our results confirm that analysis of GBS data using UNEAK is a reliable approach for genome-wide discovery of SNP loci in outcrossed polyploids. PMID:26115486

  10. Evaluation of Berlin Questionnaire Validity for Sleep Apnea Risk in Sleep Clinic Populations

    PubMed Central

    Khaledi-Paveh, Behnam; Khazaie, Habibolah; Nasouri, Marzie; Ghadami, Mohammad Rasoul; Tahmasian, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The Berlin questionnaire (BQ) is a common tool to screen for Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) in the general population, but its application in the clinical sleep setting is still challenging. The aim of this study was to determine the specificity and sensitivity of the BQ compared to the apnea-hypopnea index obtained from polysomnography recordings obtained from a sleep clinic in Iran. Methods: We recruited 100 patients who were referred to the Sleep Disorders Research Center of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences for the evaluation of suspected sleep-disorder breathing difficulties. Patients completed a Persian version of BQ and underwent one night of PSG. For each patient, Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI) was calculated to assess the diagnosis and severity of OSA. Severity of OSA was categorized as mild when AHI was between 5 and 15, moderate when it was between 15 and 30, and severe when it was more than 30. Results: BQ results categorized 65% of our patients as high risk and 35% as low risk for OSA. The sensitivity and the specificity of BQ for OSA diagnosis with AHI>5 were 77.3% and 23.1%, respectively. Positive predictive value was 68.0% and negative predictive value was 22.0%. Moreover, the area under curve was 0.53 (95% CI: 0.49 – 0.67, P=0.38). Discussion: Our findings suggested that BQ, despite its advantages in the general population, is not a precise tool to determine the risk of sleep apnea in the clinical setting, particularly in the sleep clinic population. PMID:27303598

  11. A Comparative Analysis of the Validity of US State- and County-Level Social Capital Measures and Their Associations with Population Health

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chul-joo; Kim, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The goals of this study were to validate a number of available collective social capital measures at the U.S. state and county levels, and to examine the relative extent to which these social capital measures are associated with population health outcomes. Measures of social capital at the U.S. state level included aggregate indices based on the Annenberg National Health Communication Survey (ANHCS) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), Petris Social Capital Index (PSCI), Putnam’s index, and Kim et al.’s scales. County-level measures consisted of Rupasingha et al.’s social capital index (RGFI) and a BRFSS-derived measure. These measures, except for the PSCI, showed evidence of acceptable validity. Moreover, we observed differences across the social capital measures in their associations with population health outcomes. The implications of the findings for future research in this area are discussed. PMID:25574069

  12. Concurrent Validity of the Schwartz Outcome Scale with a Chemically Dependent Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, John M.; Ahern, Bob

    2003-01-01

    Explored validity of Schwartz Outcome Scale (SOS-10) for use with people possibly motivated to "fake good," and therefore unwilling to admit problems, and with people who, because of denial, might be unaware of their psychological distress. Investigated discriminant validity of SOS-10 by comparing it with another inventory designed primarily to…

  13. Systematic review of validated case definitions for diabetes in ICD-9-coded and ICD-10-coded data in adult populations

    PubMed Central

    Khokhar, Bushra; Jette, Nathalie; Metcalfe, Amy; Cunningham, Ceara Tess; Kaplan, Gilaad G; Butalia, Sonia; Rabi, Doreen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives With steady increases in ‘big data’ and data analytics over the past two decades, administrative health databases have become more accessible and are now used regularly for diabetes surveillance. The objective of this study is to systematically review validated International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-based case definitions for diabetes in the adult population. Setting, participants and outcome measures Electronic databases, MEDLINE and Embase, were searched for validation studies where an administrative case definition (using ICD codes) for diabetes in adults was validated against a reference and statistical measures of the performance reported. Results The search yielded 2895 abstracts, and of the 193 potentially relevant studies, 16 met criteria. Diabetes definition for adults varied by data source, including physician claims (sensitivity ranged from 26.9% to 97%, specificity ranged from 94.3% to 99.4%, positive predictive value (PPV) ranged from 71.4% to 96.2%, negative predictive value (NPV) ranged from 95% to 99.6% and κ ranged from 0.8 to 0.9), hospital discharge data (sensitivity ranged from 59.1% to 92.6%, specificity ranged from 95.5% to 99%, PPV ranged from 62.5% to 96%, NPV ranged from 90.8% to 99% and κ ranged from 0.6 to 0.9) and a combination of both (sensitivity ranged from 57% to 95.6%, specificity ranged from 88% to 98.5%, PPV ranged from 54% to 80%, NPV ranged from 98% to 99.6% and κ ranged from 0.7 to 0.8). Conclusions Overall, administrative health databases are useful for undertaking diabetes surveillance, but an awareness of the variation in performance being affected by case definition is essential. The performance characteristics of these case definitions depend on the variations in the definition of primary diagnosis in ICD-coded discharge data and/or the methodology adopted by the healthcare facility to extract information from patient records. PMID:27496226

  14. Practical Bias Correction in Aerial Surveys of Large Mammals: Validation of Hybrid Double-Observer with Sightability Method against Known Abundance of Feral Horse (Equus caballus) Populations.

    PubMed

    Lubow, Bruce C; Ransom, Jason I

    2016-01-01

    Reliably estimating wildlife abundance is fundamental to effective management. Aerial surveys are one of the only spatially robust tools for estimating large mammal populations, but statistical sampling methods are required to address detection biases that affect accuracy and precision of the estimates. Although various methods for correcting aerial survey bias are employed on large mammal species around the world, these have rarely been rigorously validated. Several populations of feral horses (Equus caballus) in the western United States have been intensively studied, resulting in identification of all unique individuals. This provided a rare opportunity to test aerial survey bias correction on populations of known abundance. We hypothesized that a hybrid method combining simultaneous double-observer and sightability bias correction techniques would accurately estimate abundance. We validated this integrated technique on populations of known size and also on a pair of surveys before and after a known number was removed. Our analysis identified several covariates across the surveys that explained and corrected biases in the estimates. All six tests on known populations produced estimates with deviations from the known value ranging from -8.5% to +13.7% and <0.7 standard errors. Precision varied widely, from 6.1% CV to 25.0% CV. In contrast, the pair of surveys conducted around a known management removal produced an estimated change in population between the surveys that was significantly larger than the known reduction. Although the deviation between was only 9.1%, the precision estimate (CV = 1.6%) may have been artificially low. It was apparent that use of a helicopter in those surveys perturbed the horses, introducing detection error and heterogeneity in a manner that could not be corrected by our statistical models. Our results validate the hybrid method, highlight its potentially broad applicability, identify some limitations, and provide insight and guidance

  15. Practical Bias Correction in Aerial Surveys of Large Mammals: Validation of Hybrid Double-Observer with Sightability Method against Known Abundance of Feral Horse (Equus caballus) Populations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Reliably estimating wildlife abundance is fundamental to effective management. Aerial surveys are one of the only spatially robust tools for estimating large mammal populations, but statistical sampling methods are required to address detection biases that affect accuracy and precision of the estimates. Although various methods for correcting aerial survey bias are employed on large mammal species around the world, these have rarely been rigorously validated. Several populations of feral horses (Equus caballus) in the western United States have been intensively studied, resulting in identification of all unique individuals. This provided a rare opportunity to test aerial survey bias correction on populations of known abundance. We hypothesized that a hybrid method combining simultaneous double-observer and sightability bias correction techniques would accurately estimate abundance. We validated this integrated technique on populations of known size and also on a pair of surveys before and after a known number was removed. Our analysis identified several covariates across the surveys that explained and corrected biases in the estimates. All six tests on known populations produced estimates with deviations from the known value ranging from -8.5% to +13.7% and <0.7 standard errors. Precision varied widely, from 6.1% CV to 25.0% CV. In contrast, the pair of surveys conducted around a known management removal produced an estimated change in population between the surveys that was significantly larger than the known reduction. Although the deviation between was only 9.1%, the precision estimate (CV = 1.6%) may have been artificially low. It was apparent that use of a helicopter in those surveys perturbed the horses, introducing detection error and heterogeneity in a manner that could not be corrected by our statistical models. Our results validate the hybrid method, highlight its potentially broad applicability, identify some limitations, and provide insight and guidance

  16. Validation of SNP Allele Frequencies Determined by Pooled Next-Generation Sequencing in Natural Populations of a Non-Model Plant Species

    PubMed Central

    Rellstab, Christian; Zoller, Stefan; Tedder, Andrew; Gugerli, Felix; Fischer, Martin C.

    2013-01-01

    Sequencing of pooled samples (Pool-Seq) using next-generation sequencing technologies has become increasingly popular, because it represents a rapid and cost-effective method to determine allele frequencies for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in population pools. Validation of allele frequencies determined by Pool-Seq has been attempted using an individual genotyping approach, but these studies tend to use samples from existing model organism databases or DNA stores, and do not validate a realistic setup for sampling natural populations. Here we used pyrosequencing to validate allele frequencies determined by Pool-Seq in three natural populations of Arabidopsis halleri (Brassicaceae). The allele frequency estimates of the pooled population samples (consisting of 20 individual plant DNA samples) were determined after mapping Illumina reads to (i) the publicly available, high-quality reference genome of a closely related species (Arabidopsis thaliana) and (ii) our own de novo draft genome assembly of A. halleri. We then pyrosequenced nine selected SNPs using the same individuals from each population, resulting in a total of 540 samples. Our results show a highly significant and accurate relationship between pooled and individually determined allele frequencies, irrespective of the reference genome used. Allele frequencies differed on average by less than 4%. There was no tendency that either the Pool-Seq or the individual-based approach resulted in higher or lower estimates of allele frequencies. Moreover, the rather high coverage in the mapping to the two reference genomes, ranging from 55 to 284x, had no significant effect on the accuracy of the Pool-Seq. A resampling analysis showed that only very low coverage values (below 10-20x) would substantially reduce the precision of the method. We therefore conclude that a pooled re-sequencing approach is well suited for analyses of genetic variation in natural populations. PMID:24244686

  17. The well-being 5: development and validation of a diagnostic instrument to improve population well-being.

    PubMed

    Sears, Lindsay E; Agrawal, Sangeeta; Sidney, James A; Castle, Patricia H; Rula, Elizabeth Y; Coberley, Carter R; Witters, Dan; Pope, James E; Harter, James K

    2014-12-01

    Building upon extensive research from 2 validated well-being instruments, the objective of this research was to develop and validate a comprehensive and actionable well-being instrument that informs and facilitates improvement of well-being for individuals, communities, and nations. The goals of the measure were comprehensiveness, validity and reliability, significant relationships with health and performance outcomes, and diagnostic capability for intervention. For measure development and validation, questions from the Well-being Assessment and Wellbeing Finder were simultaneously administered as a test item pool to over 13,000 individuals across 3 independent samples. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on a random selection from the first sample and confirmed in the other samples. Further evidence of validity was established through correlations to the established well-being scores from the Well-Being Assessment and Wellbeing Finder, and individual outcomes capturing health care utilization and productivity. Results showed the Well-Being 5 score comprehensively captures the known constructs within well-being, demonstrates good reliability and validity, significantly relates to health and performance outcomes, is diagnostic and informative for intervention, and can track and compare well-being over time and across groups. With this tool, well-being deficiencies within a population can be effectively identified, prioritized, and addressed, yielding the potential for substantial improvements to the health status, performance, and quality of life for individuals and cost savings for stakeholders. PMID:24892873

  18. Age and education adjusted normative data and discriminative validity for Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test in the elderly Greek population.

    PubMed

    Messinis, Lambros; Nasios, Grigorios; Mougias, Antonios; Politis, Antonis; Zampakis, Petros; Tsiamaki, Eirini; Malefaki, Sonia; Gourzis, Phillipos; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) is a widely used neuropsychological test to assess episodic memory. In the present study we sought to establish normative and discriminative validity data for the RAVLT in the elderly population using previously adapted learning lists for the Greek adult population. We administered the test to 258 cognitively healthy elderly participants, aged 60-89 years, and two patient groups (192 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, aMCI, and 65 with Alzheimer's disease, AD). From the statistical analyses, we found that age and education contributed significantly to most trials of the RAVLT, whereas the influence of gender was not significant. Younger elderly participants with higher education outperformed the older elderly with lower education levels. Moreover, both clinical groups performed significantly worse on most RAVLT trials and composite measures than matched cognitively healthy controls. Furthermore, the AD group performed more poorly than the aMCI group on most RAVLT variables. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to examine the utility of the RAVLT trials to discriminate cognitively healthy controls from aMCI and AD patients. Area under the curve (AUC), an index of effect size, showed that most of the RAVLT measures (individual and composite) included in this study adequately differentiated between the performance of healthy elders and aMCI/AD patients. We also provide cutoff scores in discriminating cognitively healthy controls from aMCI and AD patients, based on the sensitivity and specificity of the prescribed scores. Moreover, we present age- and education-specific normative data for individual and composite scores for the Greek adapted RAVLT in elderly subjects aged between 60 and 89 years for use in clinical and research settings. PMID:26588427

  19. Translation, Cross-Cultural Adaptation, and Validation of the Lee Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease Symptom Scale in a Brazilian Population.

    PubMed

    Vasconcellos de Souza, Clarissa; Vigorito, Afonso Celso; Miranda, Eliana C M; Garcia, Celso; Rensi Colturato, Vergílio Antonio; Mauad, Marcos Augusto; Rodrigues Moreira, Maria Cláudia; da Silva Bouzas, Luis Fernando; Lermontov, Simone; Hamerschlak, Nelson; Rodrigues, Morgani; Carlos de Almeida Barros, Jose; Chiattone, Ricardo; Lee, Stephanie J; Flowers, Mary E D

    2016-07-01

    The Lee Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease (GVHD) Symptom Scale is a patient-reported instrument developed and validated in English to measure the symptoms and functional impact of cGVHD. This tool has not yet been validated in a Latin American population, however. The Brazil-Seattle Chronic GVHD Consortium conducted a multicenter study at 5 Brazilian institutions to validate the Lee cGVHD Symptom Scale in adults with cGVHD. Study objectives included the translation and validation of the instrument in Brazilian Portuguese and evaluation of the correlation with other quality of life (QoL) tools, including the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) and Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy with Bone Marrow Transplant subscale (FACT-BMT). Translation and validation were done according to the American Association of Orthopedic Surgeons Outcome Committee guidelines. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to measure construct validity. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach's α and intraclass correlation coefficients. Between April 2011 and August 2012, 47 patients with cGVHD based on the 2005 National Institutes of Health criteria (29 males [62%], 18 females [38%]; median age, 48 years; range, 23 to 69 years) were enrolled in this study. The reliability of the Lee cGVHD Symptom Scale was adequate (Cronbach's α = 0.62 to 0.83). The correlations between similar domains of the Lee cGVHD Symptom Scale, SF-36, and FACT-BMT were moderate to high. Our data indicate that the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Lee cGVHD Symptom Scale is valid and reliable and can be used in clinical trials of cGVHD in Brazil. PMID:27058616

  20. Teachers' Engagement at Work: An International Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Robert M.; Aldhafri, Said; Mansfield, Caroline F.; Purwanto, Edy; Siu, Angela F. Y.; Wong, Marina W.; Woods-McConney, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the validity of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale in a sample of 853 practicing teachers from Australia, Canada, China (Hong Kong), Indonesia, and Oman. The authors used multigroup confirmatory factor analysis to test the factor structure and measurement invariance across settings, after which they examined the relationships…

  1. A Validation Study of the Existential Anxiety Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hullett, Michael A.

    Logotherapy is a meaning-centered psychotherapy which focuses on both the meaning of human existence and the personal search for meaning. If the will to search for meaning is frustrated, "existential frustration" may result. This study validates the Existential Anxiety Scale (EAS) developed by Good and Good (1974). Basic principles of logotherapy…

  2. Reflective Thinking Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basol, Gulsah; Evin Gencel, Ilke

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to adapt Reflective Thinking Scale to Turkish and investigate its validity and reliability over a Turkish university students' sample. Reflective Thinking Scale (RTS) is a 5 point Likert scale (ranging from 1 corresponding Agree Completely, 3 to Neutral, and 5 to Not Agree Completely), purposed to measure…

  3. A Validation Study of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, Rex J.

    A study was conducted to expand the body of research that tests the validity of Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory in a work context where it often serves as a guide for the supervisor's relationships with his subordinates. Data was gathered by questionnaire which tested for a hierarchy of needs among instructors at four community colleges…

  4. The Theoretical Orientation Profile Scale-Revised: A Validation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthington, Roger L.; Dillon, Frank R.

    2003-01-01

    This study supported evidence of reliability and validity of the Theoretical Orientation Profile Scale-Revised (TOPS-R) scores. The TOPS-R was designed to measure theoretical orientation among counselors and trainees. Factor analysis yielded a 6-factor solution accounting for 87.5% of the total variance in the scale. The 6 factors corresponded to…

  5. A Validity Study of the Self-Esteem Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landis, H. John

    Results of this validation study of a slightly modified version of the Coppersmith Self-Esteem Inventory substantiate its use with seventh graders to assess Goal I (concerning self-understanding and appreciation of self-worth) of the Educational Quality Assessment Program in Pennsylvania. Appendixes include the definition and rationale for Goal I,…

  6. A Framework for Conducting ESL/EFL Construct Validation Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouw, John T.; Perkins, Kyle

    The purpose for which a test is used and the examinees' stage of learning are two anchor points that are incorporated into a suggested framework for conducting construct validation studies for tests of students with English as a second language (ESL) or English as a foreign language (EFL). The framework includes the use of generalizability theory,…

  7. Rap-Music Attitude and Perception Scale: A Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyson, Edgar H.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study tests the validity of the Rap-music Attitude and Perception (RAP) Scale, a 1-page, 24-item measure of a person's thoughts and feelings surrounding the effects and content of rap music. The RAP was designed as a rapid assessment instrument for youth programs and practitioners using rap music and hip hop culture in their work…

  8. A Validation Study of Early Adolescents' Pubertal Self-Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Katharine E.; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Nichols, Jeanne F.; Irvin, Veronica L.; Keating, Kristen; Simon, Gayle M.; Gehrman, Christine; Jones, Kenneth Lee

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether self-assessed puberty is sufficiently reliable and valid to substitute for physician examination when feasibility of physician examination is low (e.g., behavioral research). Adolescents (convenience sample N = 178 endocrinology patients and N = 125 from educational trial; mean age 12.7 and 11.3 years,…

  9. Understanding Foreign Language Learning Strategies: A Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tragant, Elsa; Thompson, Marilyn S.; Victori, Mia

    2013-01-01

    The present work aims to contribute to our understanding of the underlying dimensions of language learning strategies in foreign language contexts. The study analyzes alternative factor structures underlying a recently developed instrument (Tragant and Victori, 2012) and it includes the age factor in the examination of its construct validity. The…

  10. 29 CFR 1607.7 - Use of other validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... procedures by validity studies conducted by other users or conducted by test publishers or distributors and described in test manuals. While publishers of selection procedures have a professional obligation to... seeking to obtain selection procedures from publishers and distributors should be careful to...

  11. 29 CFR 1607.7 - Use of other validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... procedures by validity studies conducted by other users or conducted by test publishers or distributors and described in test manuals. While publishers of selection procedures have a professional obligation to... seeking to obtain selection procedures from publishers and distributors should be careful to...

  12. 29 CFR 1607.7 - Use of other validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... procedures by validity studies conducted by other users or conducted by test publishers or distributors and described in test manuals. While publishers of selection procedures have a professional obligation to... seeking to obtain selection procedures from publishers and distributors should be careful to...

  13. 29 CFR 1607.7 - Use of other validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... procedures by validity studies conducted by other users or conducted by test publishers or distributors and described in test manuals. While publishers of selection procedures have a professional obligation to... seeking to obtain selection procedures from publishers and distributors should be careful to...

  14. Dimensions of Intuition: First-Round Validation Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrugtman, Rosanne

    2009-01-01

    This study utilized confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), canonical correlation analysis (CCA), regression analysis (RA), and correlation analysis (CA) for first-round validation of the researcher's Dimensions of Intuition (DOI) instrument. The DOI examined 25 personal characteristics and situations purportedly predictive of intuition. Data was…

  15. Research Measures for Dyscalculia: A Validity and Reliability Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiman, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate a measure of dyscalculia to determine its validity and reliability. It also tested use of the instrument with seventh graders and ascertained where errors attributed to dyscalculia were also present in an average sample of seventh graders. Results varied. (MNS)

  16. Conceptualization and Utility of University Mattering: A Construct Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    France, Megan K.; Finney, Sara J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gather validity evidence for the University Mattering Scale. Theoretically based factor structures were tested, resulting in the four-factor conceptualization of mattering being championed. As predicted, university mattering related positively to academic motivational and relatedness constructs and negatively to…

  17. 40 CFR 761.395 - A validation study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false A validation study. 761.395 Section 761.395 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL... selected testing parameters and experimental conditions. Take a standard wipe sample of the...

  18. Assessing Meritorious Teacher Performance: A Differential Validity Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellett, Chad D; Capie, William

    The Teacher Assessment and Development System (TADS) - Meritorious Teacher Program (MTP) FORM instrument is used in the Dade County Public Schools, Miami, Florida, to evaluate teachers. Its validity for decisions concerning merit pay for master teachers was examined in this study. Specifically, its ability to discriminate between high performing…

  19. Homework Purpose Scale for Middle School Students: A Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Jianzhong

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to test the validity of scores on the Homework Purpose Scale (HPS) for middle school students. The participants were 1,181 eighth graders in the southeastern United States, including (a) 699 students in urban school districts and (b) 482 students in rural school districts. First, confirmatory factor analysis was…

  20. Homework Purpose Scale for High School Students: A Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Jianzhong

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test the validity of scores on the Homework Purpose Scale using 681 rural and 306 urban high school students. First, confirmatory factor analysis was conducted on the rural sample. The results reveal that the Homework Purpose Scale comprises three separate yet related factors, including Learning-Oriented Reasons,…

  1. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Ankle Osteoarthritis Scale for use in French-speaking populations

    PubMed Central

    Angers, Magalie; Svotelis, Amy; Balg, Frederic; Allard, Jean-Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Background The Ankle Osteoarthritis Scale (AOS) is a self-administered score specific for ankle osteoarthritis (OA) with excellent reliability and strong construct and criterion validity. Many recent randomized multicentre trials have used the AOS, and the involvement of the French-speaking population is limited by the absence of a French version. Our goal was to develop a French version and validate the psychometric properties to assure equivalence to the original English version. Methods Translation was performed according to American Association of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) 2000 guidelines for cross-cultural adaptation. Similar to the validation process of the English AOS, we evaluated the psychometric properties of the French version (AOS-Fr): criterion validity (AOS-Fr v. Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index [WOMAC] and SF-36 scores), construct validity (AOS-Fr correlation to single heel-lift test), and reliability (AOS-Fr test–retest). Sixty healthy individuals tested a prefinal version of the AOS-Fr for comprehension, leading to modifications and a final version that was approved by C. Saltzman, author of the AOS. We then recruited patients with ankle OA for evaluation of the AOS-Fr psychometric properties. Results Twenty-eight patients with ankle OA participated in the evaluation. The AOS-Fr showed strong criterion validity (AOS:WOMAC r = 0.709 and AOS:SF-36 r = −0.654) and construct validity (r = 0.664) and proved to be reliable (test–retest intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.922). Conclusion The AOS-Fr is a reliable and valid score equivalent to the English version in terms of psychometric properties, thus is available for use in multicentre trials. PMID:27007093

  2. Comparative Study of Population Growth and Agricultural Change: C - Case Study of India. Asian Population Studies Series No. 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok (Thailand).

    This report, the third in a series of five reports of the Comparative Study of Population Growth and Agricultural Change, describes a study of the two states of India (Punjaband and Orissa) which attempted to clarify the relationship between population pressure and agricultural change through a time series analysis. This study: (1) outlines trends…

  3. Population Study of Fears in Two Generations of Ukrainians

    PubMed Central

    Filiptsova, O. V.; Kobets, Yu. N.; Kobets, M. N.; Timoshyna, I. A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Fear is an ancient natural reaction of a human being to a threat and it is also an adaptive feature. Obsessive fear can transfer into phobias, which lead to a clinical problem. In spite of many studies done on fear, many questions are yet not clarified. In the former Soviet Union, research on human behaviour traits was mostly tabooed. The current research will fill some gaps on the ‘behavioural map’ of Ukraine in relationship to fear distributions in two successive generations of residents of Ukraine. Subjects and Methods: Eight hundred and sixty-seven residents of Ukraine, predominantly residents of Kharkov and Kharkov region participated in the study. All participants were distributed into groups of younger and older generations. Twenty-four emotional states of fear have been studied by Ivleva-Shcherbatyh questionnaire, developed and validated in Slavs samples. Results: The population analysis of 24 types of fear has shown that sex differences were found mostly among members of the younger generation. The average value of sex differences from the amplitude trait of variation made up approximately 20%. More significant differences between members of different generations have been found in females. The age dynamics of fears within each generation has been detected. Conclusions: The population analysis of fears in Ukraine has demonstrated that the strongest fears independently of the generation were related to diseases of relatives and to problems in the case of diseases of relatives. PMID:26664078

  4. Quality indicators in postoperative pain management: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Idvall, E; Hamrin, E; Sjöström, B; Unosson, M

    2001-01-01

    Quality indicators in postoperative pain management: a validation study. In a previous study, strategic and clinical quality indicators were developed from a tentative model to assess high quality in postoperative pain management. The aim of the present study was to investigate the content validity of these 15 indicators. The indicators were compiled in a questionnaire, and two groups of nurses (n=210, n=321) scored each indicator on a 5-point scale (strongly disagree to strongly agree) from three different standpoints: whether it was essential for achieving high quality, whether it was realistic to carry out, and whether it was possible for nurses to influence management. The respondents were also asked to choose the most crucial indicators for the quality of care. The results showed that both groups of nurses judged the 15 indicators to have content validity from all three standpoints. Both groups also found the same six indicators to be the most crucial. These indicators concerned detecting and acting on signs and symptoms, performing prescriptions, informing and educating, acting on behalf of patients, competence/knowledge, and attitudes. The validated indicators should be useful to consider when implementing a strategy for postoperative pain management and when planning to evaluate the quality of care. PMID:12453175

  5. Construct Validity of Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) and General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) in Patients with Drug Addiction and Diabetes, and Normal Population

    PubMed Central

    ARDAKANI, Abolfazl; SEGHATOLESLAM, Tahereh; HABIL, Hussain; JAMEEI, Fahimeh; RASHID, Rusdi; ZAHIRODIN, Alireza; MOTLAQ, Farid; MASJIDI ARANI, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Given that validity is the baseline of psychological assessments, there is a need to provide evidence-based data for construct validity of such scales to advance the clinicians for evaluating psychiatric morbidity in psychiatric and psychosomatic setting. Methods: This comparative cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the construct validity of the Malaysian version of the GHQ-28 and the SCL-90-R. The sample comprised 660 individuals including diabetics, drug dependents, and normal population. The research scales were administered to the participants. Convergent and discriminant validity of both scales were investigated by Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) using AMOS. The Pearson correlation coefficient was utilized to obtain the relationship between the two scales. Results: The internal consistency of the GHQ-28 and SCL-90-R were highly acceptable, and confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the convergent validity of both scales. The results of this study revealed that the construct validity of GHQ-28 was acceptable, whereas discriminant validity of SCL-90-R was not adequate. According to Pearson correlation coefficient the relationships between three common subscales of the GHQ-28 and SCL-90-R were significantly positive; somatization (r=0.671, P<0.01), Anxiety (r=0.728, P<0.01), and Depression (r=0.660, P <0.01). Conclusions: This study replicated the construct of the Malaysian version of GHQ-28, yet failed to support the nine-factor structure of the SCL-90-R. Therefore, multidimensionality of the SCL-90-R as clinical purposes is questionable, and it may be a better unitary measure for assessing and screening mental disorders. Further research need to be carried out to prove this finding. PMID:27252914

  6. [Food and population: study of three countries].

    PubMed

    1988-12-01

    In 1985, despite a nearly 25% worldwide surplus of cereals, more than 700 million poor people had insufficient food and some 17 million children died of malnutrition or related causes. 16% of the developing world's population is undernourished. Rapid population growth is a major reason for the world's hunger. Large families exhaust the resources of many urban couples and rural couples with little land. Closely spaced pregnancies deplete the nutritional resources of the mother and lead to low birth weight babies and inadequate lactation. Population growth in already densely populated countries reduces the land available for each family, inevitably contributing to poverty and rural malnutrition. Unemployment and underemployment reach alarming proportions in the city, where the combination of high fertility rates and migration from the countryside have produced growth twice that of the world population as a whole. Few developing countries have been able to generate sufficient investment to create new jobs for all seeking them. Unstable governments attempt to pacify urban unrest by subsidizing food prices and concentrating social and economic investments in the cities, causing further deterioration in rural conditions. Today more than 60 countries have food deficits, although not all are suffering. India, Kenya, and Mexico are 3 countries that have had some success in balancing population growth and food production, but each still has undernourished population sectors because of economic policies that fail to provide sufficient help to their poor and because of implacable population growth. Ending malnutrition in the 3 countries will require reducing the cost of food for households and increasing their incomes, but both objectives are made more difficult by rapid population growth. As a result of the green revolution and other factors, food production in India has tripled since 1950, but population has almost doubled in the same years. With rapid population growth, per

  7. Assessment of the face validity of two pain scales in Kenya: a validation study using cognitive interviewing

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients in sub-Saharan Africa commonly experience pain, which often is un-assessed and undertreated. One hindrance to routine pain assessment in these settings is the lack of a single-item pain rating scale validated for the particular context. The goal of this study was to examine the face validity and cultural acceptability of two single-item pain scales, the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) and the Faces Pain Scale-Revised (FPS-R), in a population of patients on the medical, surgical, and pediatric wards of Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital in Kenya. Methods Swahili versions of the NRS and FPS-R were developed by standard translation and back-translation. Cognitive interviews were performed with 15 patients at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital in Eldoret, Kenya. Interview transcripts were analyzed on a question-by-question basis to identify major themes revealed through the cognitive interviewing process and to uncover any significant problems participants encountered with understanding and using the pain scales. Results Cognitive interview analysis demonstrated that participants had good comprehension of both the NRS and the FPS-R and showed rational decision-making processes in choosing their responses. Participants felt that both scales were easy to use. The FPS-R was preferred almost unanimously to the NRS. Conclusions The face validity and acceptability of the Swahili versions of the NRS and FPS-R has been demonstrated for use in Kenyan patients. The broader application of these scales should be evaluated and may benefit patients who currently suffer from pain. PMID:22512923

  8. Reliability and validity of 6MWT for outpatients with schizophrenia: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Eluana; Bastos, Tânia; Probst, Michel; Ribeiro, José Carlos; Silva, Gustavo; Corredeira, Rui

    2016-03-30

    Although the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) has been widely used in patients with schizophrenia, there is a lack of scientific evidence about its reliability and validity in this population. The first goal of this study was to explore the test-retest reliability of the 6MWT and to identify the associated parameters that contribute to the variability of the distance walked during the 6MWT in outpatients with schizophrenia. The second goal was to assess the criterion validity of the 6MWT in men with schizophrenia. Fifty one outpatients with schizophrenia participated in the study. To test-retest reliability (men=39; women=12), participants performed the 6MWT twice within 3 days interval. To test criterion validity (men=13), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) was measured on a treadmill. For the associated parameters with the distance walked (n=51), medications use, smoking behavior, body and bone composition, and physical activity levels were analyzed. No significant differences between the means of the two 6MWTs were found. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.94 indicating good reliability. 6MWT correlated significantly with VO2peak (r=0.67) indicating criterion validity. Height, body fat mass, smoking behavior and minutes of PA/week were significantly associated with the 6MWT. Results suggest that 6MWT shows good reliability for individuals with schizophrenia and good validity for the small sample of male participants in this study. PMID:26921049

  9. Psychedelics and Mental Health: A Population Study

    PubMed Central

    Krebs, Teri S.; Johansen, Pål-Ørjan

    2013-01-01

    Background The classical serotonergic psychedelics LSD, psilocybin, mescaline are not known to cause brain damage and are regarded as non-addictive. Clinical studies do not suggest that psychedelics cause long-term mental health problems. Psychedelics have been used in the Americas for thousands of years. Over 30 million people currently living in the US have used LSD, psilocybin, or mescaline. Objective To evaluate the association between the lifetime use of psychedelics and current mental health in the adult population. Method Data drawn from years 2001 to 2004 of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health consisted of 130,152 respondents, randomly selected to be representative of the adult population in the United States. Standardized screening measures for past year mental health included serious psychological distress (K6 scale), mental health treatment (inpatient, outpatient, medication, needed but did not receive), symptoms of eight psychiatric disorders (panic disorder, major depressive episode, mania, social phobia, general anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and non-affective psychosis), and seven specific symptoms of non-affective psychosis. We calculated weighted odds ratios by multivariate logistic regression controlling for a range of sociodemographic variables, use of illicit drugs, risk taking behavior, and exposure to traumatic events. Results 21,967 respondents (13.4% weighted) reported lifetime psychedelic use. There were no significant associations between lifetime use of any psychedelics, lifetime use of specific psychedelics (LSD, psilocybin, mescaline, peyote), or past year use of LSD and increased rate of any of the mental health outcomes. Rather, in several cases psychedelic use was associated with lower rate of mental health problems. Conclusion We did not find use of psychedelics to be an independent risk factor for mental health problems. PMID:23976938

  10. Genomewide study and validation of markers associated with production traits in German Landrace boars.

    PubMed

    Strucken, E M; Schmitt, A O; Bergfeld, U; Jurke, I; Reissmann, M; Brockmann, G A

    2014-05-01

    We present results from a genomewide association study (GWAS) and a single-marker association study. The GWAS was performed with the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip from which 5 markers were selected for a validation analysis. Genetic effects were estimated for feed intake, weight gain, and traits of fat and muscle tissue in German Landrace boars kept on performance test stations. The GWAS was performed in a population of 288 boars and the validation study for another 432 boars. No statistically significant effect was found in the GWAS after adjusting for multiple testing. Effects of 2 markers, which were significant genomewide before correction for multiple testing (P < 0.00005), could be confirmed in the validation study. The major allele of marker ALGA0056781 on SSC1 was positively associated with both higher weight gain and fat deposition. The effect on live-weight gain was 2.25 g/d in the GWAS (P = 0.0003) and 3.73 g/d in the validation study (P = 0.01) and for back fat thickness was 0.15 mm in the GWAS (P < 0.0001) and 0.20 mm in the validation study (P = 0.02). The marker had similar effects on test-day weight gain (GWAS: 3.85 g/d, P = 0.001; validation study: 6.80 g/d, P = 0.003) and back fat area (GWAS: 0.27 cm(2), P < 0.0001; validation study: 0.35 cm(2), P = 0.03). Marker ASGA0056782 on SSC13 was associated with live-weight gain. The major allele had negative effects in both studies (GWAS: -4.88 g/d, P < 0.0001; validation study: -3.75 g/d, P = 0.02). The effects of these 2 markers would have been excluded based on the GWAS alone but were shown to be significantly trait associated in the validation study indicating a false-negative result. The G protein-coupled receptor 126 (GPR126) gene approximately 200 kb downstream of marker ALGA0001781 was shown to be associated with human height and therefore might explain the association with weight gain in pigs. Several traits were affected in an economically desired direction by the minor allele of the markers

  11. Validation of the Social Communication Questionnaire in a Population Cohort of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Susie; Charman, Tony; Baird, Gillian; Simonoff, Emily; Loucas, Tom; Meldrum, David; Scott, Mimi; Pickles, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the properties of the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) in a population cohort of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and in the general population. Method: SCQ data were collected from three samples: the Special Needs and Autism Project (SNAP) cohort of 9- to 10-year-old children with special educational…

  12. Sources of Self-Efficacy in Mathematics: A Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usher, Ellen L.; Pajares, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate items with which to assess A. Bandura's (1997) theorized sources of self-efficacy among middle school mathematics students. Results from Phase 1 (N=1111) were used to develop and refine items for subsequent use. In Phase 2 of the study (N=824), a 39-item, four-factor exploratory model fit best.…

  13. Validation of self-reported anthropometrics in the Adventist Health Study 2

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Relying on self-reported anthropometric data is often the only feasible way of studying large populations. In this context, there are no studies assessing the validity of anthropometrics in a mostly vegetarian population. The objective of this study was to evaluate the validity of self-reported anthropometrics in the Adventist Health Study 2 (AHS-2). Methods We selected a representative sample of 911 participants of AHS-2, a cohort of over 96,000 adult Adventists in the USA and Canada. Then we compared their measured weight and height with those self-reported at baseline. We calculated the validity of the anthropometrics as continuous variables, and as categorical variables for the definition of obesity. Results On average, participants underestimated their weight by 0.20 kg, and overestimated their height by 1.57 cm resulting in underestimation of body mass index (BMI) by 0.61 kg/m2. The agreement between self-reported and measured BMI (as a continuous variable), as estimated by intraclass correlation coefficient, was 0.97. The sensitivity of self-reported BMI to detect obesity was 0.81, the specificity 0.97, the predictive positive value 0.93, the predictive negative value 0.92, and the Kappa index 0.81. The percentage of absolute agreement for each category of BMI (normoweight, overweight, and obese) was 83.4%. After multivariate analyses, predictors of differences between self-reported and measured BMI were obesity, soy consumption and the type of dietary pattern. Conclusions Self-reported anthropometric data showed high validity in a representative subsample of the AHS-2 being valid enough to be used in epidemiological studies, although it can lead to some underestimation of obesity. PMID:21466678

  14. [Epilepsy: spidemiological study in a child population].

    PubMed

    Pascual López, M A; Pascual Gispert, J; Rodríguez Rivera, L; Rojas Ochoa, F; Tejeiros, A

    1980-01-01

    The principal aims of this paper were to know the epidemiologic and clinical aspects of epilepsy in children and the use of an original methodology in the study of chronic illnesses. A survey was carried out through home calls by sampling an area in Havana City, Cuba; 14,445 children were studied. The sample was chosen at random by groups with proportional probabilities as to size, single stage. It was carried out by: --Detection of suspects by questioning. --Confirmation of suspects by means of a clinical exmination performed by specialists. Prevalence in children resulted in 7.5 epileptic children out of a thousand inhabitants. The lowest rate present was from 0 to 4 years of age (3.5) and the highest, from 10 to 14 (10). 39.4% of the cases had their first attack during the first year of lie. A highest rate was present was from 0 to 4 years of age (3.5) and the highest, from 10 to 14 (10). 39.4% of the cases had their first attack during the first year of life. A highest rate was present in the male sex (8.4 and lowest in females (6.5). Educational level was lower than the population's average; 37% did not attend classes, 87% of children showed generalized attacks, 48.1% were classified as having primary epilepsy (idiopathic) and 51.8% as organic (secondary). Some other clinical phenomena are also described, as well as aspects of medical care. PMID:7407013

  15. Cell cycle population effects in perturbation studies

    PubMed Central

    O'Duibhir, Eoghan; Lijnzaad, Philip; Benschop, Joris J; Lenstra, Tineke L; van Leenen, Dik; Groot Koerkamp, Marian JA; Margaritis, Thanasis; Brok, Mariel O; Kemmeren, Patrick; Holstege, Frank CP

    2014-01-01

    Growth condition perturbation or gene function disruption are commonly used strategies to study cellular systems. Although it is widely appreciated that such experiments may involve indirect effects, these frequently remain uncharacterized. Here, analysis of functionally unrelated Saccharyomyces cerevisiae deletion strains reveals a common gene expression signature. One property shared by these strains is slower growth, with increased presence of the signature in more slowly growing strains. The slow growth signature is highly similar to the environmental stress response (ESR), an expression response common to diverse environmental perturbations. Both environmental and genetic perturbations result in growth rate changes. These are accompanied by a change in the distribution of cells over different cell cycle phases. Rather than representing a direct expression response in single cells, both the slow growth signature and ESR mainly reflect a redistribution of cells over different cell cycle phases, primarily characterized by an increase in the G1 population. The findings have implications for any study of perturbation that is accompanied by growth rate changes. Strategies to counter these effects are presented and discussed. PMID:24952590

  16. Construct Validity of the SF-12v2 for the Homeless Population with Mental Illness: An Instrument to Measure Self-Reported Mental and Physical Health

    PubMed Central

    Chum, Antony; Skosireva, Anna; Tobon, Juliana; Hwang, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Background Self-reported health measures are important indicators used by clinicians and researchers for the evaluation of health interventions, outcome assessment of clinical studies, and identification of health needs to improve resource allocation. However, the application of self-reported health measures relies on developing reliable and valid instruments that are suitable across diverse populations. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the construct validity of the SF-12v.2, an instrument for measuring self-rated physical and mental health, for homeless adults with mental illness. Various interventions have been aimed at improving the health of homeless people with mental illness, and the development of valid instruments to evaluate these interventions is imperative. Study Design We measured self-rated mental and physical health from a quota sample of 575 homeless people with mental illness using the SF-12v2, EQ-5D, Colorado Symptoms Index, and physical/mental health visual analogue scales. We examined the construct validity of the SF-12v2 through confirmatory factor analyses (CFA), and using ANOVA/correlation analyses to compare the SF-12v2 to the other instruments to ascertain discriminant/convergent validity. Results Our CFA showed that the measurement properties of the original SF-12v2 model had a mediocre fit with our empirical data (χ2 = 193.6, df = 43, p < .0001, CFI = 0.85, NFI = 0.83, RMSEA = 0.08). We demonstrate that changes based on theoretical rationale and previous studies can significantly improve the model, achieving an excellent fit in our final model (χ2 = 160.6, df = 48, p < .0001, CFI = 0.95, NFI = 0.95, RMSEA = 0.06). Our CFA results suggest that an alternative scoring method based on the new model may optimize health status measurement of a homeless population. Despite these issues, convergent and discriminant validity of the SF-12v2 (scored based on the original model) was supported through multiple comparisons with other

  17. Validity of the Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey: A Confirmatory Study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The objectives of the present study were to evaluate whether investigator bias influenced the Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS) scores of children with normal binocular vision (NBV) in our original validation study, reevaluate the usefulness of the cut-off score of 16, and reexamine the validity of the CISS. Methods Six clinical sites participating in the Convergence Insufficiency Treatment Trial (CITT) enrolled 46 children 9 - <18 years with NBV. Examiners masked to the child’s binocular vision status administered the CISS. The mean CISS score was compared to that from the children with NBV in the original, unmasked CISS study and also to that of the 221 symptomatic CI children enrolled in the CITT. Results The mean (±SD) CISS score for 46 subjects with NBV was 10.4 (±8.1). This was comparable to that from our prior unmasked NBV study (mean = 8.1(± 6.2); p = 0.11), but was significantly different from that of the CITT CI group (mean = 29.8 ± 9.0; p < 0.001). Eighty-three percent of these NBV subjects scored less than 16 on the CISS, which is not statistically different from the 87.5% found in the original unmasked study (p = 0.49). Conclusions Examiner bias did not affect the CISS scores for subjects with NBV in our prior study. The CISS continues to be a valid instrument for quantifying symptoms in 9 to <18 year-old children and these results confirm the validity of a cut-point of ≥ 16 in distinguishing children with symptomatic CI from those with NBV. PMID:19289977

  18. General method to unravel ancient population structures through surnames, final validation on Italian data.

    PubMed

    Boattini, Alessio; Lisa, Antonella; Fiorani, Ornella; Zei, Gianna; Pettener, Davide; Manni, Franz

    2012-06-01

    We analyze the geographic location of 77,451 different Italian surnames (17,579,891 individuals) obtained from the lists of telephone subscribers of the year 1993. By using a specific neural network analysis (Self-Organizing Maps, SOMs), we automatically identify the geographic origin of 49,117 different surnames. To validate the methodology, we compare the results to a study, previously conducted, on the same database, with accurate supervised methods. By comparing the results, we find an overlap of 97%, meaning that the SOMs methodology is highly reliable and well traces back the geographic origin of surnames at the time of their introduction (Late Middle Ages/Renaissance in Italy). SOMs results enables one to distinguish monophyletic surnames from polyphyletic ones, that is surnames having had a single geographic and historic origin from those that started to be in use, with an identical spelling, in different locations (respectively, 76.06% and 21.05% of the total). As we are interested in geographic origins, polyphyletic surnames are excluded from further analyses. By comparing the present location of each monophyletic surname to its inferred geographic origin in late Middle Ages/Renaissance, we measure the extent of the migrations having occurred in Italy since that time. We find that the percentage of individuals presently living in the very area where their surname started to be in use centuries ago is extremely variable (ranging from 22.77% to 77.86% according to the province), thus meaning that self-assessed regional identities seldom correspond to the "autochthony" they imply. For example the upper part of the Thyrennian coast (Northern Latium, Tuscany) has a strong identity but few "autochthonous" inhabitants (∼28%) having been a passageway from the North to the South of Italy. PMID:23020096

  19. A study of a complex system: Development of crack populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spyropoulos, Chrysanthe

    Using a model of populations of cracks we construct new solutions for the study of the spatiotemporal evolution of normal faults. The physics incorporated in the model are slip-weakening friction, strain-hardening rheology, and heterogeneous yield strength. We investigate how the populations evolution depends on these three effects. We asymptotically approximate the growth of faults as a long time-scale phenomenon, thereby avoiding modeling the short time-scale earthquakes and show that this assumption is valid. This implies that faults that creep and faults with earthquakes have indistinguishable spatiotemporal evolutions. We find that the distribution of lengths gradually transitions from a power law at low strains to an exponential at high strains. At low strain the self-similarity of the cracks results in a power law distribution as is typical of self-organized critical systems. As brittle strain increases, stress shadowing increases which reduces the crack nucleation rate. Crack coalescence rate, conversely increases with brittle strain, leading to the annihilation of smaller cracks in the production of fewer larger cracks. Both of these processes progressively starve the population of small cracks and bloat it with intermediate size cracks, leading the initial power law distribution to be distorted until it eventually takes the appearance of an exponential distribution. This agrees with natural fault populations observed in low and high strain settings. We perform clay extension laboratory experiments to test the model and find very good agreement. These results indicate that actual fault populations can range from power law to exponential size-frequency distributions. We then consider the effects of fault interactions and boundary conditions on the vertical structure of the faults by comparing the model with field data observations of geological faults. Their complicated vertical structure is the accrued result of stress field interactions. We also find that

  20. Convergent validity of preschool children's television viewing measures among low-income Latino families: a cross-sectional study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Television viewing is an important modifiable risk factor for childhood obesity. However, valid methods for measuring children's TV viewing are sparse and few studies have included Latinos, a population disproportionately affected by obesity. The goal of this study was to test the reliability and co...

  1. Pooled results from 5 validation studies of dietary self-report instruments using recovery biomarkers for energy and protein intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We pooled data from 5 large validation studies of dietary self-report instruments that used recovery biomarkers as references to clarify the measurement properties of food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 24-hour recalls. The studies were conducted in widely differing U.S. adult populations from...

  2. A multisite validity study of self-reported anesthesia outcomes.

    PubMed

    Walker, Peter; Pekmezaris, Renee; Lesser, Martin L; Nouryan, Christian N; Rosinia, Frank; Pratt, Kathy; LaVopa, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of a multisite anesthesia voluntary adverse event reporting process. A data validation methodology was used through medical chart review on live records at 3 facilities (N = 600). The per-item aggregated error rate among all 42 data items was 0.3%: 0.1% for quality indicators, 1.3% for demographic/status variables, and 1.7% for administrative items. The per-patient error rate among all 42 data items was 6.3%: 3.0% for quality indicators, 1.7% for demographic/status variables, and 3.0% for administrative items. Trends such as better accuracy for more serious events continue, but observed error rates were lower than those found in previous surveys-an indication that, while further study is needed, nonpunitive voluntary reporting may reduce errors in anesthesia care. PMID:22326979

  3. The presence of two local myocardial sheet populations confirmed by diffusion tensor MRI and histological validation

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Geoff; Nguyen, Tom C.; Itoh, Aki; Skare, Stefan; Ingels, Neil B.; Miller, D. Craig; Ennis, Daniel B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To establish the correspondence between the two histologically observable and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTMRI) measurements of myolaminae orientation for the first time and show that single myolaminar orientations observed in local histology may result from histological artifact. Materials and Methods DTMRI was performed on six sheep left ventricles (LV), then corresponding direct histological transmural measurements were made within the antero-basal and lateral-equatorial LV. Secondary and tertiary eigenvectors of the diffusion tensor were compared to each of the two locally observable sheet orientations from histology. Diffusion tensor invariants were calculated to compare differences in microstructural diffusive properties between histological locations with one observable sheet population and two observable sheet populations. Results Mean difference ± one standard deviation between DTMRI and histology measured sheet angles was 8° ± 27°. Diffusion tensor invariants showed no significant differences between histological locations with one observable sheet population and locations with two observable sheet populations. Conclusion DTMRI measurements of myolaminae orientations derived from the secondary and tertiary eigenvectors correspond to each of the two local myolaminae orientations observed in histology. Two local sheet populations may exist throughout LV myocardium and one local sheet population observed in histology may be a result of preparation artifact. PMID:21932362

  4. Validation of disease states in schizophrenia: comparison of cluster analysis between US and European populations

    PubMed Central

    Thokagevistk, Katia; Millier, Aurélie; Lenert, Leslie; Sadikhov, Shamil; Moreno, Santiago; Toumi, Mondher

    2016-01-01

    Background There is controversy as to whether use of statistical clustering methods to identify common disease patterns in schizophrenia identifies patterns generalizable across countries. Objective The goal of this study was to compare disease states identified in a published study (Mohr/Lenert, 2004) considering US patients to disease states in a European cohort (EuroSC) considering English, French, and German patients. Methods Using methods paralleling those in Mohr/Lenert, we conducted a principal component analysis (PCA) on Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale items in the EuroSC data set (n=1,208), followed by k-means cluster analyses and a search for an optimal k. The optimal model structure was compared to Mohr/Lenert by assigning discrete severity levels to each cluster in each factor based on the cluster center. A harmonized model was created and patients were assigned to health states using both approaches; agreement rates in state assignment were then calculated. Results Five factors accounting for 56% of total variance were obtained from PCA. These factors corresponded to positive symptoms (Factor 1), negative symptoms (Factor 2), cognitive impairment (Factor 3), hostility/aggression (Factor 4), and mood disorder (Factor 5) (as in Mohr/Lenert). The optimal number of cluster states was six. The kappa statistic (95% confidence interval) for agreement in state assignment was 0.686 (0.670–0.703). Conclusion The patterns of schizophrenia effects identified using clustering in two different data sets were reasonably similar. Results suggest the Mohr/Lenert health state model is potentially generalizable to other populations. PMID:27386054

  5. Validation of the Strengths and Stressors Tracking Device with a Child Welfare Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Marianne; Cash, Scottye J.; Mathiesen, Sally G.

    2003-01-01

    Examined the validity and reliability of the Strengths and Stressors Tracking Device (SSTD), a rapid assessment measure of family well-being to help guide case planning and evaluate treatment effectiveness. Found high internal consistency in all domains measured: environmental conditions, social support, caregiver skills, and child well-being.…

  6. [Nutrition and population: study of three countries].

    PubMed

    1988-12-01

    The cases of Mexico, Kenya, and India are described to illustrate the difficulty of assuring national food supplies in the face of rapid population growth. In 1985, despite a world cereal surplus, some 700 million of the earth's poorest inhabitants lacked sufficient food to support a normal life, and some 17 million children died of malnutrition or diseases aggravated by malnutrition. 16% of today's Third World population lacks sufficient food to maintain health. Rapid population growth is a cause of hunger in both countries and households. In already densely populated countries such as Bangladesh, population growth reduces the availability of agricultural land for each rural family, causing rural incomes to decrease and worsening rural unemployment. Few developing countries have been able to avoid serious urban unemployment and underemployment. Unstable governments try to calm urban unrest by concentrating all social and economic investment in the cities, causing suffering and diminished production in the countryside. Today more than 60 countries have food deficits. The majority of them are poor and becoming poorer. India, Kenya, and Mexico have had relative success in balancing food production and population growth, but each still has malnutrition due to inadequate economic policies for most of the poor and to implacable population growth. India's population of 785 million is growing at a rate of 2.3%/year. 1984 per capita calorie consumption was 92% of the required minimum. The poorest 20% of the population shared 7% of total household income. Since 1950 food production in India has almost tripled, but population nearly doubled in the same years. Poor food distribution and unequal agricultural progress have meant that malnutrition continues to plague India. Approximately 45% of the population suffered some degree of malnutrition in 1986. It is unlikely that India's future agricultural progress will be as rapid as that of the past 3 decades. Erosion

  7. Collection and validation of data in the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority mortality study.

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, P; Booth, M; Beral, V; Inskip, H; Firsht, S; Speak, S

    1985-01-01

    The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority mortality study investigated the relation between mortality and recorded exposure to ionising radiation among employees working at the authority's seven establishments between 1946 and 1979. This report examines the design of the study and methods of data collection and validation. The completeness of the study population was deemed to be unsatisfactory at two establishments, where records of employment before 1965 had been destroyed. Assessment of the magnitude of the deficit led to the conclusion that the data from these establishments were too incomplete for inclusion in the mortality analysis. At the other establishments validation showed that the data collected were accurate and unbiased. Certain characteristics of the 39 546 employees included in the mortality analysis were identified which were relevant in interpreting the findings. PMID:3926231

  8. Intent inferencing by an intelligent operator's associate - A validation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Patricia M.

    1988-01-01

    In the supervisory control of a complex, dynamic system, one potential form of aiding for the human operator is a computer-based operator's associate. The design philosophy of the operator's associate is that of 'amplifying' rather than automating human skills. In particular, the associate possesses understanding and control properties. Understanding allows it to infer operator intentions and thus form the basis for context-dependent advice and reminders; control properties allow the human operator to dynamically delegate individual tasks or subfunctions to the associate. This paper focuses on the design, implementation, and validation of the intent inferencing function. Two validation studies are described which empirically demonstrate the viability of the proposed approach to intent inferencing.

  9. Population substructure in Cache County, Utah: the Cache County study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Population stratification is a key concern for genetic association analyses. In addition, extreme homogeneity of ethnic origins of a population can make it difficult to interpret how genetic associations in that population may translate into other populations. Here we have evaluated the genetic substructure of samples from the Cache County study relative to the HapMap Reference populations and data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Results Our findings show that the Cache County study is similar in ethnic diversity to the self-reported "Whites" in the ADNI sample and less homogenous than the HapMap CEU population. Conclusions We conclude that the Cache County study is genetically representative of the general European American population in the USA and is an appropriate population for conducting broadly applicable genetic studies. PMID:25078123

  10. In-depth study of Marxist population theory, promote China's population science.

    PubMed

    Liu, J

    1983-01-01

    The 3rd National Population Science Seminar, held in Beijng from Feb. 21-27, 1981, brought together over 270 Chinese population researchers and professionals, as well as social science and family planning workers. Participants presented over 220 papers and reports, which showed a higher level of scholarship than previous seminar papers. Chen Dau, the head of the Planning Bureau of the Chinese Academy for Social Sciences, gave the opening address and explained the seminar's 2 tasks: 1) to exchange academic ideas and 2) to found the Population Association of China (PAC), and suggested 3 topics for theoretical discussion: 1) Marxist theory on the 2 kinds of production, 2) the differences between China's population control and old and NeoMalthusianism, and 3) the 1 child policy. Xu Dixin, the vice-president of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, spoke on socialist population laws, planned population control, and potential problems with the 1 child family policy. 8 special groups at the seminar discussed 1) Marxist theory on the 2 types of production, 2) Marx and Malthus on population, 3) China's population control policy, 4) population studies, 5) China's population problems, 6) problems with population control in rural areas, 7) urban population issues, and 8) the population problems of minority nationalities. Participants founded the PAC on the last day of the seminar. Vice-premier Cheu Muhua also addressed the seminar on the tremendous success the family planning program has had in the last 2 years and the difficulty of the task of controlling China's population growth. Population research must explain China's population laws so that growth can be controlled. PMID:12313987

  11. Predictive Validity Study of the APS Writing and Reading Tests [and] Validating Placement Rules for the APS Writing Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of the Canyons, Valencia, CA. Office of Institutional Development.

    California's College of the Canyons has used the College Board Assessment and Placement Services (APS) test to assess students' abilities in basic and college English since spring 1993. These two reports summarize data from a May 1994 study of the predictive validity of the APS writing and reading tests and a June 1994 effort to validate the cut…

  12. Population Mean Scores Predict Child Mental Disorder Rates: Validating SDQ Prevalence Estimators in Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Anna; Goodman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Background: For adult physical and mental health, the population mean predicts the proportion of individuals with "high" scores. This has not previously been investigated for child mental health. It is also unclear how far symptom scores on brief questionnaires provide an unbiased method of comparing children with different individual, family or…

  13. Bioecological Theory, Early Child Development and the Validation of the Population-Level Early Development Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guhn, Martin; Goelman, Hillel

    2011-01-01

    The Early Development Instrument (EDI; Janus and Offord in "Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science" 39:1-22, 2007) project is a Canadian population-level, longitudinal research project, in which teacher ratings of Kindergarten children's early development and wellbeing are linked to health and academic achievement variables at the individual…

  14. Summarising and validating test accuracy results across multiple studies for use in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Riley, Richard D; Ahmed, Ikhlaaq; Debray, Thomas P A; Willis, Brian H; Noordzij, J Pieter; Higgins, Julian P T; Deeks, Jonathan J

    2015-06-15

    Following a meta-analysis of test accuracy studies, the translation of summary results into clinical practice is potentially problematic. The sensitivity, specificity and positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values of a test may differ substantially from the average meta-analysis findings, because of heterogeneity. Clinicians thus need more guidance: given the meta-analysis, is a test likely to be useful in new populations, and if so, how should test results inform the probability of existing disease (for a diagnostic test) or future adverse outcome (for a prognostic test)? We propose ways to address this. Firstly, following a meta-analysis, we suggest deriving prediction intervals and probability statements about the potential accuracy of a test in a new population. Secondly, we suggest strategies on how clinicians should derive post-test probabilities (PPV and NPV) in a new population based on existing meta-analysis results and propose a cross-validation approach for examining and comparing their calibration performance. Application is made to two clinical examples. In the first example, the joint probability that both sensitivity and specificity will be >80% in a new population is just 0.19, because of a low sensitivity. However, the summary PPV of 0.97 is high and calibrates well in new populations, with a probability of 0.78 that the true PPV will be at least 0.95. In the second example, post-test probabilities calibrate better when tailored to the prevalence in the new population, with cross-validation revealing a probability of 0.97 that the observed NPV will be within 10% of the predicted NPV. PMID:25800943

  15. Online crowdsourcing for efficient rating of speech: A validation study

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Tara McAllister; Halpin, Peter F.; Szeredi, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Blinded listener ratings are essential for valid assessment of interventions for speech disorders, but collecting these ratings can be time-intensive and costly. This study evaluated the validity of speech ratings obtained through online crowdsourcing, a potentially more efficient approach. 100 words from children with /r/ misarticulation were electronically presented for binary rating by 35 phonetically trained listeners and 205 naïve listeners recruited through the Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) crowdsourcing platform. Bootstrapping was used to compare different-sized samples of AMT listeners against a “gold standard” (mode across all trained listeners) and an “industry standard” (mode across bootstrapped samples of 3 trained listeners). There was strong overall agreement between trained and AMT listeners. The “industry standard” level of performance was matched by bootstrapped samples with n = 9 AMT listeners. These results support the hypothesis that valid ratings of speech data can be obtained in an efficient manner through AMT. Researchers in communication disorders could benefit from increased awareness of this method. PMID:25578293

  16. Quantum mechanics concept assessment: Development and validation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadaghiani, Homeyra R.; Pollock, Steven J.

    2015-06-01

    As part of an ongoing investigation of students' learning in first semester upper-division quantum mechanics, we needed a high-quality conceptual assessment instrument for comparing outcomes of different curricular approaches. The process of developing such a tool started with converting a preliminary version of a 14-item open-ended quantum mechanics assessment tool (QMAT) to a multiple-choice (MC) format. Further question refinement, development of effective distractors, adding new questions, and robust statistical analysis has led to a 31-item quantum mechanics concept assessment (QMCA) test. The QMCA is used as post-test only to assess students' knowledge about five main topics of quantum measurement: the time-independent Schrödinger equation, wave functions and boundary conditions, time evolution, and probability density. During two years of testing and refinement, the QMCA has been given in alpha (N =61 ) and beta versions (N =263 ) to students in upper division quantum mechanics courses at 11 different institutions with an average post-test score of 54%. By allowing for comparisons of student learning across different populations and institutions, the QMCA provides instructors and researchers a more standard measure of effectiveness of different curricula or teaching strategies on student conceptual understanding of quantum mechanics. In this paper, we discuss the construction of effective distractors and the use of student interviews and expert feedback to revise and validate both questions and distractors. We include the results of common statistical tests of reliability and validity, which suggest the instrument is presently in a stable, usable, and promising form.

  17. Construct Validity of the eHealth Literacy Scale (eHEALS) Among Two Adult Populations: A Rasch Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Moorhouse, Michael; Curbow, Barbara; Christie, Juliette; Walsh-Childers, Kim; Islam, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    Background The Internet has become a ubiquitous venue for information seeking, especially for health information. Public health practitioners have noticed the promise and potential of the Internet, however, little is known about individuals' skills of their eHealth literacy. The eHealth Literacy Scale, eHEALS, was designed to measure perceptions of individuals' eHealth literacy skills. Objective The objective of the study was to examine the psychometric validity and reliability of the eHEALS with two adult populations using the Rasch Model. Methods A college-aged sample and an Internet-based sample (Amazon's MTurk) were recruited to complete the eHEALS, demographic questions, and a health literacy scale. Using WINSTEPS and SPSS, unidimensionality, item fit, rating scale, item hierarchy, person ability-item match, and reliability were analyzed, compared, and contrasted against each sample and to other samples found in the literature. Results An exploratory factor analysis supported unidimensionality in both samples. More than 90% of respondents from both samples fit the model. No items were outright misfitting. Both samples separated into three distinct groups. Conclusions Based on the results, the eHEALS is a reliable and consistent measurement tool for a college sample and an Internet-based sample. As these individuals are most likely to use the Internet as a health resource, it is necessary to learn and know their skills versus perceiving that they can critically and successfully navigate the Internet. Further analyses are necessary to ensure that the eHEALS can serve as a standard eHealth literacy measure for public health. PMID:27244771

  18. Being WISE. I. Validating stellar population models and M {sub *}/L ratios at 3.4 and 4.6 μm

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, Mark A.; Meidt, Sharon; Van de Ven, Glenn; Schinnerer, Eva; Groves, Brent; Querejeta, Miguel

    2014-12-10

    Using data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer mission, we have measured near infra-red (NIR) photometry of a diverse sample of dust-free stellar systems (globular clusters, dwarf and giant early-type galaxies) which have metallicities that span the range -2.2 < [Fe/H] (dex) < 0.3. This dramatically increases the sample size and broadens the metallicity regime over which the 3.4 (W1) and 4.6 μm (W2) photometry of stellar populations have been examined. We find that the W1 – W2 colors of intermediate and old (>2 Gyr) stellar populations are insensitive to the age of the stellar population, but that the W1 – W2 colors become bluer with increasing metallicity, a trend not well reproduced by most stellar population synthesis (SPS) models. In common with previous studies, we attribute this behavior to the increasing strength of the CO absorption feature located in the 4.6 μm bandpass with metallicity. Having used our sample to validate the efficacy of some of the SPS models, we use these models to derive stellar mass-to-light ratios in the W1 and W2 bands. Utilizing observational data from the SAURON and ATLAS3D surveys, we demonstrate that these bands provide extremely simple, yet robust stellar mass tracers for dust free older stellar populations that are freed from many of the uncertainties common among optical estimators.

  19. The Six-Minute Walk Test for Adults with Intellectual Disability: A Study of Validity and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasuti, Gabriella; Stuart-Hill, Lynneth; Temple, Viviene A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT) has been used with clinical and healthy populations to assess functional capacity and cardiovascular fitness. The aim of this study was to determine the test-retest reliability of a modified-6MWT as well as concurrent validity of walk distance with peak oxygen uptake (VO[subscript 2] peak). Method:…

  20. Experimental validation of a critical domain size in reaction–diffusion systems with Escherichia coli populations

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Nicolas

    2005-01-01

    In a one-variable, finite size reaction–diffusion system, the existence of a minimal domain size required for the existence of a non-zero steady state is predicted, provided that the reaction–diffusion variable has a fixed value of zero at the boundaries of the domain (Dirichlet boundary conditions). This type of reaction diffusion model can be applied in population biology, in which the finite domain of the system represents a refuge where individuals can live normally immersed in a desert, or region where the conditions are so unfavourable that individuals cannot live in it. Building on a suggestion by Kenkre and Kuperman, and using non-chemotactic E. coli populations and a quasi-one-dimensional experimental design, we were able to find a minimal size (approximately 0.8 cm) for a refuge immersed in a region irradiated with intense UV light. The observed minimal size is in reasonable agreement with theory. PMID:16849196

  1. Validation of holistic nursing competencies: role-delineation study, 2012.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Helen Lorraine; Erickson, Margaret Elizabeth; Campbell, Joan A; Brekke, Mary E; Sandor, M Kay

    2013-12-01

    The American Holistic Nurses Credentialing Corporation (AHNCC), certifying body for nurses practicing within the precepts of holistic nursing, uses a systematic process to guide program development. A previous publication described their early work that distinguished basic and advanced holistic nursing and development of related examinations. A more recent publication described the work of AHNCC from 2004 to 2012, including a role-delineation study (RDS) that was undertaken to identify and validate competencies currently used by holistic nurses. A final report describes the RDS design, methods, and raw data information. This article discusses AHNCC's goals for undertaking the 2012 Holistic Nursing RDS and the implications for the certification programs. PMID:23783664

  2. Annotations on Mexico's WISC-IV: a validity study.

    PubMed

    Fina, Anthony D; Sánchez-Escobedo, Pedro; Hollingworth, Liz

    2012-01-01

    This project seeks to provide evidence on the internal structure of the Escala Wechsler de Inteligencia para Niños-IV (EWIN-IV; Wechsler, 2007a ) through a confirmatory factor analysis and intercorrelational study. Also provided is information on the adaptation process and other sources of validity evidence in support of the EWIN-IV norms. The standardization data for the EWIN-IV were used for all analyses. The factor loadings and correlational patterns found on the EWIN-IV are comparable to those seen in the American versions of the test. The proposed factor and scoring structure of the EWIN-IV was supported. PMID:23428273

  3. Low frequency eddy current benchmark study for model validation

    SciTech Connect

    Mooers, R. D.; Boehnlein, T. R.; Cherry, M. R.; Knopp, J. S.; Aldrin, J. C.; Sabbagh, H. A.

    2011-06-23

    This paper presents results of an eddy current model validation study. Precise measurements were made using an impedance analyzer to investigate changes in impedance due to Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) notches in aluminum plates. Each plate contained one EDM notch at an angle of 0, 10, 20, or 30 degrees from the normal of the plate surface. Measurements were made with the eddy current probe both scanning parallel and perpendicular to the notch length. The experimental response from the vertical and oblique notches will be reported and compared to results from different numerical simulation codes.

  4. A Study of Equating in NAEP. NAEP Validity Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedges, Larry V.; Vevea, Jack L.

    This study investigates the amount of uncertainty added to National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) estimates by equating error under both ideal and less than ideal circumstances. Data from past administrations are used to guide simulations of various equating designs and error due to equating is estimated empirically. The design…

  5. Developmental validation of an X-Insertion/Deletion polymorphism panel and application in HAN population of China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Suhua; Sun, Kuan; Bian, Yingnan; Zhao, Qi; Wang, Zheng; Ji, Chaoneng; Li, Chengtao

    2015-01-01

    InDels are short-length polymorphisms characterized by low mutation rates, high inter-population diversity, short amplicon strategy and simplicity of laboratory analysis. This work describes the developmental validation of an X-InDels panel amplifying 18 bi-allelic markers and Amelogenin in one single PCR system. Developmental validation indicated that this novel panel was reproducible, accurate, sensitive and robust for forensic application. Sensitivity testing of the panel was such that a full profile was obtainable even with 125 pg of human DNA with intra-locus balance above 70%. Specificity testing was demonstrated by the lack of cross-reactivity with a variety of commonly encountered animal species and microorganisms. For the stability testing in cases of PCR inhibition, full profiles have been obtained with hematin (≤1000 μM) and humic acid (≤150 ng/μL). For the forensic investigation of the 18 X-InDels in the HAN population of China, no locus deviated from the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium and linkage disequilibrium. Since they are independent from each other, the CDPfemale was 0.999999726 and CDPmale was 0.999934223. The forensic parameters suggested that this X-Indel panel is polymorphic and informative, which provides valuable X-linked information for deficient relationship cases where autosomal markers are uninformative. PMID:26655948

  6. Validation of the Patient-Doctor-Relationship Questionnaire (PDRQ-9) in a Representative Cross-Sectional German Population Survey

    PubMed Central

    van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina; Brähler, Elmar; Häuser, Winfried

    2014-01-01

    The patient-doctor relationship (PDR) as perceived by the patient is an important concept in primary care and psychotherapy. The PDR Questionnaire (PDRQ-9) provides a brief measure of the therapeutic aspects of the PDR in primary care. We assessed the internal and external validity of the German version of the PDRQ-9 in a representative cross-sectional German population survey that included 2,275 persons aged≥14 years who reported consulting with a primary care physician (PCP). The acceptance of the German version of this questionnaire was good. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that the PRDQ-9 was unidimensional. The internal reliability (Cronbach's α) of the total score was .95. The corrected item-total correlations were≥.94. The mean satisfaction index of persons with a probable depressive disorder was lower than that of persons without a probable depressive disorder, indicating good discriminative concurrent criterion validity. The correlation coefficient between satisfaction with PDR and satisfaction with pain therapy was r = .51 in 489 persons who reported chronic pain, indicating good convergent validity. Despite the limitation of low variance in the PDRQ-9 total scores, the results indicate that the German version of the PDRQ-9 is a brief questionnaire with good psychometric properties to assess German patients' perceived therapeutic alliance with PCPs in public health research. PMID:24637904

  7. Validation of the Patient-Doctor-Relationship Questionnaire (PDRQ-9) in a representative cross-sectional German population survey.

    PubMed

    Zenger, Markus; Schaefert, Rainer; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina; Brähler, Elmar; Häuser, Winfried

    2014-01-01

    The patient-doctor relationship (PDR) as perceived by the patient is an important concept in primary care and psychotherapy. The PDR Questionnaire (PDRQ-9) provides a brief measure of the therapeutic aspects of the PDR in primary care. We assessed the internal and external validity of the German version of the PDRQ-9 in a representative cross-sectional German population survey that included 2,275 persons aged ≥14 years who reported consulting with a primary care physician (PCP). The acceptance of the German version of this questionnaire was good. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that the PRDQ-9 was unidimensional. The internal reliability (Cronbach's α) of the total score was .95. The corrected item-total correlations were ≥.94. The mean satisfaction index of persons with a probable depressive disorder was lower than that of persons without a probable depressive disorder, indicating good discriminative concurrent criterion validity. The correlation coefficient between satisfaction with PDR and satisfaction with pain therapy was r = .51 in 489 persons who reported chronic pain, indicating good convergent validity. Despite the limitation of low variance in the PDRQ-9 total scores, the results indicate that the German version of the PDRQ-9 is a brief questionnaire with good psychometric properties to assess German patients' perceived therapeutic alliance with PCPs in public health research. PMID:24637904

  8. Validation and cross-cultural adaptation of sexual dysfunction modified scale in multiple sclerosis for Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Silva, Raquel Ataíde Peres da; Olival, Guilherme Sciascia do; Stievano, Lívia Palma; Toller, Vania Balardin; Jordy, Sergio Semeraro; Eloi, Marina; Tilbery, Charles Peter

    2015-08-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS). These patients suffer from various comorbidities, including sexual dysfunction (SD). The lesions of MS may affect regions of the CNS along the pathway of sexual response. The Multiple Sclerosis Intimacy and Sexuality Questionnaire-19 (MSISQ-19) is a scale that assesses sexual dysfunction. Adapt and validate the MSISQ-19 to Brazilian patients with MS. 204 individuals were evaluated, 134 patients with MS and 70 healthy persons for the control group. It was determined reproducibility, validity, internal consistency and sensitivity of the MSISQ-19-BR. Among patients with MS, 54.3% of male and 71.7% of female presented some kind of SD. In the control group the results were 12.5% and 19.5%, respectively. The MSISQ-19-BR is reproducible, reliable and valid for the Brazilian population and may be used as a tool for assessing the impact of sexual dysfunction in patients with MS. PMID:26222360

  9. Validated Competing Event Model for the Stage I-II Endometrial Cancer Population

    SciTech Connect

    Carmona, Ruben; Gulaya, Sachin; Murphy, James D.; Rose, Brent S.; Wu, John; Noticewala, Sonal; McHale, Michael T.; Yashar, Catheryn M.; Vaida, Florin; Mell, Loren K.

    2014-07-15

    Purpose/Objectives(s): Early-stage endometrial cancer patients are at higher risk of noncancer mortality than of cancer mortality. Competing event models incorporating comorbidity could help identify women most likely to benefit from treatment intensification. Methods and Materials: 67,397 women with stage I-II endometrioid adenocarcinoma after total hysterectomy diagnosed from 1988 to 2009 were identified in Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) and linked SEER-Medicare databases. Using demographic and clinical information, including comorbidity, we sought to develop and validate a risk score to predict the incidence of competing mortality. Results: In the validation cohort, increasing competing mortality risk score was associated with increased risk of noncancer mortality (subdistribution hazard ratio [SDHR], 1.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.60-2.30) and decreased risk of endometrial cancer mortality (SDHR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.55-0.78). Controlling for other variables, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) = 1 (SDHR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.45-1.82) and CCI >1 (SDHR, 3.31; 95% CI, 2.74-4.01) were associated with increased risk of noncancer mortality. The 10-year cumulative incidences of competing mortality within low-, medium-, and high-risk strata were 27.3% (95% CI, 25.2%-29.4%), 34.6% (95% CI, 32.5%-36.7%), and 50.3% (95% CI, 48.2%-52.6%), respectively. With increasing competing mortality risk score, we observed a significant decline in omega (ω), indicating a diminishing likelihood of benefit from treatment intensification. Conclusion: Comorbidity and other factors influence the risk of competing mortality among patients with early-stage endometrial cancer. Competing event models could improve our ability to identify patients likely to benefit from treatment intensification.

  10. Prediction of liver disease in patients whose liver function tests have been checked in primary care: model development and validation using population-based observational cohorts

    PubMed Central

    McLernon, David J; Donnan, Peter T; Sullivan, Frank M; Roderick, Paul; Rosenberg, William M; Ryder, Steve D; Dillon, John F

    2014-01-01

    Objective To derive and validate a clinical prediction model to estimate the risk of liver disease diagnosis following liver function tests (LFTs) and to convert the model to a simplified scoring tool for use in primary care. Design Population-based observational cohort study of patients in Tayside Scotland identified as having their LFTs performed in primary care and followed for 2 years. Biochemistry data were linked to secondary care, prescriptions and mortality data to ascertain baseline characteristics of the derivation cohort. A separate validation cohort was obtained from 19 general practices across the rest of Scotland to externally validate the final model. Setting Primary care, Tayside, Scotland. Participants Derivation cohort: LFT results from 310 511 patients. After exclusions (including: patients under 16 years, patients having initial LFTs measured in secondary care, bilirubin >35 μmol/L, liver complications within 6 weeks and history of a liver condition), the derivation cohort contained 95 977 patients with no clinically apparent liver condition. Validation cohort: after exclusions, this cohort contained 11 653 patients. Primary and secondary outcome measures Diagnosis of a liver condition within 2 years. Results From the derivation cohort (n=95 977), 481 (0.5%) were diagnosed with a liver disease. The model showed good discrimination (C-statistic=0.78). Given the low prevalence of liver disease, the negative predictive values were high. Positive predictive values were low but rose to 20–30% for high-risk patients. Conclusions This study successfully developed and validated a clinical prediction model and subsequent scoring tool, the Algorithm for Liver Function Investigations (ALFI), which can predict liver disease risk in patients with no clinically obvious liver disease who had their initial LFTs taken in primary care. ALFI can help general practitioners focus referral on a small subset of patients with higher predicted risk

  11. Use of wearable technology for performance assessment: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Papi, Enrica; Osei-Kuffour, Denise; Chen, Yen-Ming A; McGregor, Alison H

    2015-07-01

    The prevalence of osteoarthritis is increasing globally but current compliance with rehabilitation remains poor. This study explores whether wearable sensors can be used to provide objective measures of performance with a view to using them as motivators to aid compliance to osteoarthritis rehabilitation. More specifically, the use of a novel attachable wearable sensor integrated into clothing and inertial measurement units located in two different positions, at the waist and thigh pocket, was investigated. Fourteen healthy volunteers were asked to complete exercises adapted from a knee osteoarthritis rehabilitation programme whilst wearing the three sensors including five times sit-to-stand test, treadmill walking at slow, preferred and fast speeds. The performances of the three sensors were validated against a motion capture system and an instrumented treadmill. The systems showed a high correlation (r(2) > 0.7) and agreement (mean difference range: -0.02-0.03 m, 0.005-0.68 s) with gold standards. The novel attachable wearable sensor was able to monitor exercise tasks as well as the inertial measurement units (ICC > 0.95). Results also suggested that a functional placement (e.g., situated in a pocket) is a valid position for performance monitoring. This study shows the potential use of wearable technologies for assessing subject performance during exercise and suggests functional solutions to enhance acceptance. PMID:25937613

  12. A validation study of an Italian version of the ID Migraine: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Brighina, Filippo; Salemi, Giuseppe; Fierro, Brigida; Gasparro, Antonio; Balletta, Giovanni; Aloisio, Antonina; La Pegna, Giovanni Battista; Randisi, Giovanna; Saporito, Vincenzo; Calagna, Giuseppe; Lanaia, Filippo; Morana, Rossana

    2005-09-01

    Migraine is a highly prevalent and disabling disease that is substantially undiagnosed in primary care. Recently, the ID Migraine, a self-administered questionnaire, was shown to be a valid and reliable screener for migraine in primary care in the USA. To validate an Italian version of the ID Migraine, we planned a multicentric study, evaluating at least 220 patients affected by various form of headache. The responses to the questionnaire were compared with the diagnosis of headache made by a headache specialist blind to the result of the questionnaire. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for migraine were calculated. The statistical analysis on 140 patients now examined showed a very good performance of the ID Migraine with high sensitivity: 0.94 (95% CI: 0.89-0.95), specificity: 0.70 (95% CI: 0.54-0.86) and positive predictive value: 0.89 (0.82-0.95). If confirmed, these results would establish ID Migraine as a valid screening instrument for migraine in Italian headache patients and warrant further investigation in primary care to assess the validity of this ID screener in Italian population. PMID:16362668

  13. Validity and reliability study of the Turkish psychiatric nurses of job motivation scale.

    PubMed

    Engin, E; Cam, O

    2009-06-01

    This methodological study was planned to explore the validity and reliability of the evaluation scale for measuring the job motivation of nurses who work in psychiatric clinics. The sample was composed of 378 nurses who work in all psychiatric units or psychiatric hospitals located in Turkey's four large cities - Ankara, Istanbul, Izmir and Manisa. For testing reliability of 'job motivation scale', the internal consistency tests were executed with split scale analysis, Cronbach's alpha coefficient and item-total score correlation. For construct validity, factor analysis was used. For the first part of scale, Cronbach's alpha was determined to be 0.79. For the second part, Cronbach's alpha was 0.72. Factor analysis was performed in an attempt to establish validity and underlying associations between items in the scale. The first analysis produced nine eigenvalues (>1) and nine factors were extracted. The scree test indicated that a two-factor model would be suitable. The factor structure of the tool for measuring the job motivation of nurses who work in psychiatric clinics was parallel with motivation concepts. Validity and reliability levels of the scale for measuring the job motivation of nurses who work in psychiatric clinics were found to be sufficient in the Turkish population. PMID:19538603

  14. Assessing the validity of respondents’ reports of their partners’ ages in a rural South African population-based cohort

    PubMed Central

    Harling, Guy; Tanser, Frank; Mutevedzi, Tinofa; Bärnighausen, Till

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the validity of using respondents’ reports of age disparity in their sexual relationships (perceived disparity), compared to age disparity based on each partner's report of their own date of birth (actual disparity). Setting The study was conducted using data from a longitudinal population-based cohort in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, between 2005 and 2012. Participants The study used 13 831 reports of partner age disparity within 7337 unique conjugal relationships. 10 012 (72.4%) reports were made by women. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome was the Lin concordance correlation of perceived and actual age disparities. Secondary outcomes included the sensitivity/specificity of perceived disparities to assess whether the man in the relationship was more than five or more than 10 years older than the woman. Results Mean relationship age disparity was 6 years. On average, respondents slightly underestimated their partners’ ages (male respondents: 0.50 years; female respondents: 0.85 years). Almost three-quarters (72.3%) of age disparity estimates fell within 2 years of the true values, although a small minority of reports were far from correct. The Lin concordance correlation of perceived and actual age disparities (men: ρ=0.61; women: ρ=0.78), and assessments of whether the man in the relationship was more than five, or more than 10 years older than the woman (sensitivity >60%; specificity >75%), were relatively high. Accuracy was higher for spouses and people living in the same household, but was not affected by relationship duration. Conclusions Rural South Africans reported their sexual partners’ ages imperfectly, but with less error than in some other African settings. Further research is required to determine how generalisable these findings are. Self-reported data on age disparity in sexual relationships can be used with caution for research, intervention design, and targeting

  15. Genome-wide association studies in diverse populations

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Noah A; Huang, Lucy; Jewett, Ethan M; Szpiech, Zachary A; Jankovic, Ivana; Boehnke, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified a large number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with disease phenotypes. As most GWA studies have been performed primarily in populations of European descent, this review examines the issues involved in extending consideration of GWA studies to diverse worldwide populations. Although challenges exist with such issues as imputation, admixture, and replication, investigation of diverse populations in GWA studies has significant potential to advance the project of mapping the genetic determinants of complex diseases for the human population as a whole. PMID:20395969

  16. Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test in an Italian Population.

    PubMed

    Culicchia, Greta; Nobilia, Marta; Asturi, Marilyn; Santilli, Valter; Paoloni, Marco; De Santis, Rita; Galeoto, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This paper describes the Italian translation and adaptation to the Italian culture of the original version of the Jebsen-Taylor hand function test and conveys the procedure for testing its validity and reliability. Design. The cultural adaptation process and validation were based on data from a group of people with no clinical evidence of disease or impairment of the upper limbs. The process required a forward and reverse translation in its original language. The scale obtained was reviewed by 8 experts in the field of psychometrics dealing with statistical methods that are useful for the behavioral and social sciences. The Italian adapted version of the JTHFT was then produced and validated. Participants. The test was submitted to 320 people with no clinical evidence of disease in order to test its acceptability and consistency. Results. The total time required to perform each subtest was 80.16 ± 43.13 seconds for the nondominant hand (NDH) and 49.97 ± 27.28 seconds for the dominant hand (DH). The internal consistency (assessed with Pearson's r) and the reliability or the construct validity (assessed with Cronbach's alpha) are significative. Conclusions. This is the first study reporting the result of the translation, cultural adaptation, and validation protocols of the JTHFT in Italian. It provides a new tool for Italian professionals to measure the functionality of the hand in participants with various upper limb pathologies. PMID:27504203

  17. Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test in an Italian Population

    PubMed Central

    Culicchia, Greta; Nobilia, Marta; Asturi, Marilyn; Santilli, Valter; Paoloni, Marco; De Santis, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This paper describes the Italian translation and adaptation to the Italian culture of the original version of the Jebsen-Taylor hand function test and conveys the procedure for testing its validity and reliability. Design. The cultural adaptation process and validation were based on data from a group of people with no clinical evidence of disease or impairment of the upper limbs. The process required a forward and reverse translation in its original language. The scale obtained was reviewed by 8 experts in the field of psychometrics dealing with statistical methods that are useful for the behavioral and social sciences. The Italian adapted version of the JTHFT was then produced and validated. Participants. The test was submitted to 320 people with no clinical evidence of disease in order to test its acceptability and consistency. Results. The total time required to perform each subtest was 80.16 ± 43.13 seconds for the nondominant hand (NDH) and 49.97 ± 27.28 seconds for the dominant hand (DH). The internal consistency (assessed with Pearson's r) and the reliability or the construct validity (assessed with Cronbach's alpha) are significative. Conclusions. This is the first study reporting the result of the translation, cultural adaptation, and validation protocols of the JTHFT in Italian. It provides a new tool for Italian professionals to measure the functionality of the hand in participants with various upper limb pathologies. PMID:27504203

  18. Validity of Rorschach Inkblot Scores for Discriminating Psychopaths from Nonpsychopaths in Forensic Populations: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, James M.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Nezworski, M. Teresa; Garb, Howard N.; Allen, Keli Holloway; Wildermuth, Jessica L.

    2010-01-01

    Gacono and Meloy (2009) have concluded that the Rorschach Inkblot Test is a sensitive instrument with which to discriminate psychopaths from nonpsychopaths. We examined the association of psychopathy with 37 Rorschach variables in a meta-analytic review of 173 validity coefficients derived from 22 studies comprising 780 forensic participants. All…

  19. [French validation study of the levels of emotional awareness scale].

    PubMed

    Bydlowski, S; Corcos, M; Paterniti, S; Guilbaud, O; Jeammet, P; Consoli, S M

    2002-01-01

    According to a thesis based on the idea of an influence of cognitions in the structuring of internal reality, emotional awareness, ie the capacity of representing your own emotional experience and that of others, is a cognitive process that goes into maturation. Defining this concept, Lane and Schwartz present a cognitivo-developmental model in five stages of the processes of symbolization, accounting for the differences in levels of emotional awareness observed in individuals. The organization of these cognitive processes would thus be structured in well differentiated stages, in which the development of the emotions would be inseparable from the development of ego and of the relation to others. These authors focus on the capacity of representing in a conscious way the emotional experience and consider that verbal representations used to describe the contents of what is experience constitute a good reflection of the organization structural of the emotional awareness. Therefore, they worked out an instrument of evaluation: the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS), which measures the capacity to describe your own emotional experience and the one you allow to others, in an emotional situation. The system of quotation of this scale is based on the analysis of the verbal contents of the provided answers, in direct reference to the authors' theory of the levels of differentiation and integration of the emotional experience. It is therefore an empirical measurement which is centered specifically on the structural organization of the emotional experience. The various studies of validation of this instrument show that it presents solid metrological properties. This work presents the validation of the French version of Lane and Schwartz's LEAS. Validity and fidelity were studied in a group of 121 healthy subjects. This setting is part of a larger clinical evaluation, also including a collection of socio-demographic and clinical data, and other instruments of self

  20. Human paraoxonase polymorphism: Hungarian population studies in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Szabó, I; Róna, K; Czinner, A; Gachályi, B

    1991-06-01

    The paraoxonase phenotype distribution pattern was studied in a Hungarian population of 102 children and 100 adults. All the subjects were of Caucasian origin and are not related. The adult population showed the trimodality in phenotype distribution similar to other European population data. The gene frequencies obtained were statistically not significantly different either. There was no correlation between the activity of serum paraoxonase and activity of cholinesterase, sex, age and body weight. The phenotype distribution was trimodal in the children's population too. There was a significant difference in gene frequency, however, compared to data from adult population. PMID:1651288

  1. Matching Strategies for Genetic Association Studies in Structured Populations

    PubMed Central

    Hinds, David A.; Stokowski, Renee P.; Patil, Nila; Konvicka, Karel; Kershenobich, David; Cox, David R.; Ballinger, Dennis G.

    2004-01-01

    Association studies in populations that are genetically heterogeneous can yield large numbers of spurious associations if population subgroups are unequally represented among cases and controls. This problem is particularly acute for studies involving pooled genotyping of very large numbers of single-nucleotide–polymorphism (SNP) markers, because most methods for analysis of association in structured populations require individual genotyping data. In this study, we present several strategies for matching case and control pools to have similar genetic compositions, based on ancestry information inferred from genotype data for ∼300 SNPs tiled on an oligonucleotide-based genotyping array. We also discuss methods for measuring the impact of population stratification on an association study. Results for an admixed population and a phenotype strongly confounded with ancestry show that these simple matching strategies can effectively mitigate the impact of population stratification. PMID:14740319

  2. The Fast Scattering Code (FSC): Validation Studies and Program Guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinetti, Ana F.; Dunn, Mark H.

    2011-01-01

    The Fast Scattering Code (FSC) is a frequency domain noise prediction program developed at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) to simulate the acoustic field produced by the interaction of known, time harmonic incident sound with bodies of arbitrary shape and surface impedance immersed in a potential flow. The code uses the equivalent source method (ESM) to solve an exterior 3-D Helmholtz boundary value problem (BVP) by expanding the scattered acoustic pressure field into a series of point sources distributed on a fictitious surface placed inside the actual scatterer. This work provides additional code validation studies and illustrates the range of code parameters that produce accurate results with minimal computational costs. Systematic noise prediction studies are presented in which monopole generated incident sound is scattered by simple geometric shapes - spheres (acoustically hard and soft surfaces), oblate spheroids, flat disk, and flat plates with various edge topologies. Comparisons between FSC simulations and analytical results and experimental data are presented.

  3. A validation study for vinyl electrical tape end matches.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Maureen J; Gauntt, Jennifer M; Mehltretter, Andria H; Lowe, Preston C; Wright, Diana M

    2011-05-01

    Fracture matches are considered the strongest conclusion in the forensic examination of rigid materials, such as glass, metal, and paint. However, publications that support the fracture matching of polymeric films, such as tape backings, are limited. This study was designed to determine the validity and error rate associated with conducting end-match (fracture match) examinations on vinyl electrical tape. Test designs varied the source roll of tape, test preparer, or mode of separation from the roll. Results indicated that each affected the resulting severed tape ends. The analysts examining the end matches also had an effect on the results. Eight end matches in the study were not identified by the initial analysts and were considered inconclusive. One end match was misidentified, resulting in one false positive and an error rate of 0.049%. These results support a comprehensive physical and chemical tape comparison regardless of indications of an end match. PMID:21361956

  4. Parameter Optimization and Field Validation of the Functional–Structural Model GREENLAB for Maize at Different Population Densities

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yuntao; Wen, Meiping; Guo, Yan; Li, Baoguo; Cournède, Paul-Henry; de Reffye, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Plant population density (PPD) influences plant growth greatly. Functional–structural plant models such as GREENLAB can be used to simulate plant development and growth and PPD effects on plant functioning and architectural behaviour can be investigated. This study aims to evaluate the ability of GREENLAB to predict maize growth and development at different PPDs. Methods Two field experiments were conducted on irrigated fields in the North China Plain with a block design of four replications. Each experiment included three PPDs: 2·8, 5·6 and 11·1 plants m−2. Detailed observations were made on the dimensions and fresh biomass of above-ground plant organs for each phytomer throughout the seasons. Growth stage-specific target files (a description of plant organ weight and dimension according to plant topological structure) were established from the measured data required for GREENLAB parameterization. Parameter optimization was conducted using a generalized least square method for the entire growth cycles for all PPDs and years. Data from in situ plant digitization were used to establish geometrical symbol files for organs that were then applied to translate model output directly into 3-D representation for each time step of the model execution. Key Results The analysis indicated that the parameter values of organ sink variation function, and the values of most of the relative sink strength parameters varied little among years and PPDs, but the biomass production parameter, computed plant projection surface and internode relative sink strength varied with PPD. Simulations of maize plant growth based on the fitted parameters were reasonably good as indicated by the linearity and slopes similar to unity for the comparison of simulated and observed values. Based on the parameter values fitted from different PPDs, shoot (including vegetative and reproductive parts of the plant) and cob fresh biomass for other PPDs were simulated. Three

  5. Validation of the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation-II model in an urban Indian population and comparison with three other risk scoring systems

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, Biju Sivam; Baloria, Kanwar Aditya; Selot, Nandini

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: The aims were to compare the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE)-II system against three established risk scoring systems for predictive accuracy in an urban Indian population and suggest improvements or amendments in the existing scoring system for adaptation in Indian population. Materials and Methods: EuroSCORE-II, Parsonnet score, System-97 score, and Cleveland score were obtained preoperatively for 1098 consecutive patients. EuroSCORE-II system was analyzed in comparison to each of the above three scoring systems in an urban Indian population. Calibrations of scoring systems were assessed using Hosmer–Lemeshow test. Areas under receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves were compared according to the statistical approach suggested by Hanley and McNeil. Results: All EuroSCORE-II subgroups had highly significant P values stating good predictive mortality, except high-risk group (P = 0.175). The analysis of ROC curves of different scoring systems showed that the highest predictive value for mortality was calculated for the System-97 score followed by the Cleveland score. System-97 revealed extremely high predictive accuracies across all subgroups (curve area >80%). This difference in predictive accuracy was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The present study suggests that the EuroSCORE-II model in its present form is not validated for use in the Indian population. An interesting observation was significantly accurate predictive abilities of the System-97 score. PMID:26139738

  6. Validation of the STOP-Bang Questionnaire as a Screening Tool for Obstructive Sleep Apnea among Different Populations: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Auckley, Dennis; Ramachandran, Satya Krishna; Memtsoudis, Stavros; Mokhlesi, Babak

    2015-01-01

    Background Diagnosing obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is clinically relevant because untreated OSA has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The STOP-Bang questionnaire is a validated screening tool for OSA. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the effectiveness of STOP-Bang for screening patients suspected of having OSA and to predict its accuracy in determining the severity of OSA in the different populations. Methods A search of the literature databases was performed. Inclusion criteria were: 1) Studies that used STOP-Bang questionnaire as a screening tool for OSA in adult subjects (>18 years); 2) The accuracy of the STOP-Bang questionnaire was validated by polysomnography—the gold standard for diagnosing OSA; 3) OSA was clearly defined as apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) or respiratory disturbance index (RDI) ≥ 5; 4) Publications in the English language. The quality of the studies were explicitly described and coded according to the Cochrane Methods group on the screening and diagnostic tests. Results Seventeen studies including 9,206 patients met criteria for the systematic review. In the sleep clinic population, the sensitivity was 90%, 94% and 96% to detect any OSA (AHI ≥ 5), moderate-to-severe OSA (AHI ≥15), and severe OSA (AHI ≥30) respectively. The corresponding NPV was 46%, 75% and 90%. A similar trend was found in the surgical population. In the sleep clinic population, the probability of severe OSA with a STOP-Bang score of 3 was 25%. With a stepwise increase of the STOP-Bang score to 4, 5, 6 and 7/8, the probability rose proportionally to 35%, 45%, 55% and 75%, respectively. In the surgical population, the probability of severe OSA with a STOP-Bang score of 3 was 15%. With a stepwise increase of the STOP-Bang score to 4, 5, 6 and 7/8, the probability increased to 25%, 35%, 45% and 65%, respectively. Conclusion This meta-analysis confirms the high performance of the STOP-Bang questionnaire in the sleep

  7. Reliability and validity study of Persian modified version of MUSIC (musculoskeletal intervention center) – Norrtalje questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Alipour, Akbar; Ghaffari, Mostafa; Jensen, Irene; Shariati, Batoul; Vingard, Eva

    2007-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are a major health problem in the world. Self-reported questionnaires are a known method for estimating the prevalence of MSDs among the population. One of the studies concerning MSDs and their relation to work-related physical and psychosocial factors, as well as non-work-related factors, is the MUSIC-Norrtalje study in Sweden. In this study, the research group developed a questionnaire, which has been validated during its development process and is now considered a well-known instrument. The aim of this study is to validate the Persian version of this questionnaire. Methods The first step was to establish two expert panel groups in Iran and Sweden. The Focus Group Discussion (FGD) method was used to detect questionnaire face and content validity. To detect questionnaire reliability, we used the test-retest method. Results Except for two items, all other questions that respondents had problems with in the focus group (20 of 297), had unclear translations; the ambiguity was related to the stem of the questions and the predicted answers were clear for the participants. The concepts of 'household/spare time' and 'physical activity in the workplace' were not understood by the participants of FGD; this has been solved by adding further descriptions to these phrases in the translation. In the test-retest study, the reliability coefficient was relatively high in most items (only 5 items out of 297 had an ICC or kappa below 0.7). Conclusion The findings from the present study provide evidence that the Persian version of the MUSIC questionnaire is a reliable and valid instrument. PMID:17764557

  8. A validation study of a stochastic model of human interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchfield, Mitchel Talmadge

    The purpose of this dissertation is to validate a stochastic model of human interactions which is part of a developmentalism paradigm. Incorporating elements of ancient and contemporary philosophy and science, developmentalism defines human development as a progression of increasing competence and utilizes compatible theories of developmental psychology, cognitive psychology, educational psychology, social psychology, curriculum development, neurology, psychophysics, and physics. To validate a stochastic model of human interactions, the study addressed four research questions: (a) Does attitude vary over time? (b) What are the distributional assumptions underlying attitudes? (c) Does the stochastic model, {-}N{intlimitssbsp{-infty}{infty}}varphi(chi,tau)\\ Psi(tau)dtau, have utility for the study of attitudinal distributions and dynamics? (d) Are the Maxwell-Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac, and Bose-Einstein theories applicable to human groups? Approximately 25,000 attitude observations were made using the Semantic Differential Scale. Positions of individuals varied over time and the logistic model predicted observed distributions with correlations between 0.98 and 1.0, with estimated standard errors significantly less than the magnitudes of the parameters. The results bring into question the applicability of Fisherian research designs (Fisher, 1922, 1928, 1938) for behavioral research based on the apparent failure of two fundamental assumptions-the noninteractive nature of the objects being studied and normal distribution of attributes. The findings indicate that individual belief structures are representable in terms of a psychological space which has the same or similar properties as physical space. The psychological space not only has dimension, but individuals interact by force equations similar to those described in theoretical physics models. Nonlinear regression techniques were used to estimate Fermi-Dirac parameters from the data. The model explained a high degree

  9. Validation of Urine Test for Detection of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Indonesian Population

    PubMed Central

    Syam, Ari Fahrial; Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Uwan, Willy Brodus; Simanjuntak, David; Uchida, Tomohisa; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    We measured the accuracy of the urine test (RAPIRUN) for detection of Helicobacter pylori infection in Indonesia (Jakarta, Pontianak, and Jayapura) using histology confirmed by immunohistochemistry and/or culture as gold standards. We also used immunohistochemistry to identify CagA phenotype and analyzed H. pylori CagA diversity in Indonesia. The overall prevalence of H. pylori infection in 88 consecutive dyspeptic patients based on the urine test was 15.9% (14/88), 38.1% for patients in Jayapura that had higher prevalence of H. pylori infection than that in Jakarta (9.7%, P = 0.02) and Pontianak (8.3%, P = 0.006). Overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of RAPIRUN were 83.3%, 94.7%, 71.4%, 97.3%, and 93.2%, respectively. All of the H. pylori-positive patients were immunoreactive for anti-CagA antibody but not immunoreactive for East Asian specific anti-CagA antibody in all H. pylori-positive subjects. We confirmed the high accuracy of RAPIRUN in Indonesian population. In general, we found less virulent type of H. pylori in Indonesia, which partly explained the low incidence gastric cancer in Indonesia. PMID:26824034

  10. Comparative study of normal and sensitive skin aerobic bacterial populations

    PubMed Central

    Hillion, Mélanie; Mijouin, Lily; Jaouen, Thomas; Barreau, Magalie; Meunier, Pauline; Lefeuvre, Luc; Lati, Elian; Chevalier, Sylvie; Feuilloley, Marc G J

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if the sensitive skin syndrome, a frequent skin disorder characterized by abnormal painful reactions to environmental factors in the absence of visible inflammatory response, could be linked to a modification in the skin bacterial population. A total of 1706 bacterial isolates was collected at the levels of the forehead, cheekbone, inner elbow, and lower area of the scapula on the skin of normal and sensitive skin syndrome-suffering volunteers of both sexes and of different ages. Among these isolates, 21 strains were randomly selected to validate in a first step the Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (MALDI)-Biotyper process as an efficient identification tool at the group and genus levels, by comparison to API® strips and 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing identification techniques. In a second step, identification of the skin microbiota isolates by the MALDI-Biotyper tool allowed to pinpoint some differences in terms of bacterial diversity with regard to the collection area, and the volunteer's age and gender. Finally, comparison of the skin microbiota from normal and sensitive skin syndrome-suffering volunteers pointed out gender-related variations but no detectable correlation between a phylum, a genus or a dominant bacterial species and the sensitive skin phenotype. This study reveals that there is no dysbiosis of aerobic cultivable bacteria associated with the sensitive skin syndrome and further demonstrates that the MALDI-Biotyper is a powerful technique that can be efficiently employed to the study of cultivable human skin bacteria. To our knowledge, this is the first study focusing on bacteria in the sensitive skin syndrome. These results are of potential importance for pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, which are looking for new strategies to treat this multiparametric disorder. PMID:24151137

  11. Comparative study of normal and sensitive skin aerobic bacterial populations.

    PubMed

    Hillion, Mélanie; Mijouin, Lily; Jaouen, Thomas; Barreau, Magalie; Meunier, Pauline; Lefeuvre, Luc; Lati, Elian; Chevalier, Sylvie; Feuilloley, Marc G J

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if the sensitive skin syndrome, a frequent skin disorder characterized by abnormal painful reactions to environmental factors in the absence of visible inflammatory response, could be linked to a modification in the skin bacterial population. A total of 1706 bacterial isolates was collected at the levels of the forehead, cheekbone, inner elbow, and lower area of the scapula on the skin of normal and sensitive skin syndrome-suffering volunteers of both sexes and of different ages. Among these isolates, 21 strains were randomly selected to validate in a first step the Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (MALDI)-Biotyper process as an efficient identification tool at the group and genus levels, by comparison to API(®) strips and 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing identification techniques. In a second step, identification of the skin microbiota isolates by the MALDI-Biotyper tool allowed to pinpoint some differences in terms of bacterial diversity with regard to the collection area, and the volunteer's age and gender. Finally, comparison of the skin microbiota from normal and sensitive skin syndrome-suffering volunteers pointed out gender-related variations but no detectable correlation between a phylum, a genus or a dominant bacterial species and the sensitive skin phenotype. This study reveals that there is no dysbiosis of aerobic cultivable bacteria associated with the sensitive skin syndrome and further demonstrates that the MALDI-Biotyper is a powerful technique that can be efficiently employed to the study of cultivable human skin bacteria. To our knowledge, this is the first study focusing on bacteria in the sensitive skin syndrome. These results are of potential importance for pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, which are looking for new strategies to treat this multiparametric disorder. PMID:24151137

  12. Taxi-cabs as Subjects for a Population Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, J. A.; Bradley, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the use of capture-recapture techniques to estimate the population of taxis in Liverpool and demonstrates the points of similarity to animal population estimation. Considers advantages of studying taxis rather than organisms in introductory studies of the techniques. (AL)

  13. Secondary traumatic stress and vicarious trauma: a validational study.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Sharon Rae; Baird, Stephanie

    2002-10-01

    Vicarious trauma (VT) and secondary traumatic stress (STS) or compassion fatigue both describe effects of working with traumatized persons on therapists. Despite conceptual similarities, their emphases differ: cognitive schemas vs. posttraumatic symptoms and burnout, respectively. The TSI Belief Scale (TSI-BSL) measures VT; the Compassion Fatigue Self-Test (CFST) for Psychotherapists measures STS. Neither has substantial psychometric evidence yet, nor has their association been studied. Results for 99 sexual assault and domestic violence counselors show concurrent validity between TSI-BSL and CFST, moderate convergence with burnout but useful discrimination, and strong convergence with general distress, but adequate independent shared variance. Counselors with interpersonal trauma histories scored higher on CFST, but not TSI-BSL or burnout, consistent with the CFST's emphasis on trauma symptomatology. PMID:12392231

  14. A Single 9-Colour Flow Cytometric Method to Characterise Major Leukocyte Populations in the Rat: Validation in a Model of LPS-Induced Pulmonary Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Barnett-Vanes, Ashton; Sharrock, Anna; Birrell, Mark A.; Rankin, Sara

    2016-01-01

    The rat is a commonly used model for immunological investigation. Yet basic research and characterisation of leukocyte populations and sub-sets lags far behind murine research, with inconsistency on reported leukocyte markers and their overlap. These shortcomings limit the opportunity for more complex and advanced rat immunology research. In this study, we developed a robust 9-colour flow-cytometric protocol to elucidate the major blood and tissue rat leukocyte populations, and validated it in a model of LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation. Blood and tissues (lung, BALF, spleen, liver, bone marrow) from naïve Sprague-Dawley rats were collected and analysed by flow cytometry (FCM). Rats were exposed to aerosolised saline or LPS (1mg/mL), at 3 and 24hrs thereafter blood, lung and BALF were collected and analysed using FCM and ELISA. Neutrophils, two monocyte subsets, NK Cells, B Cells, CD4+, CD8+ T Cells and alveolar macrophages can be identified simultaneously across different tissues using a 9-colour panel. Neutrophils and monocytes can be distinguished based upon differential expression of CD43 and His48. Neutrophils and CD43Lo/His48Hi monocyte-macrophages are elevated in the lung at 3 and 24hrs during LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation. This validated method for leukocyte enumeration will offer a platform for greater consistency in future rat immunology and inflammation research. PMID:26764486

  15. Optimizing Training Population Data and Validation of Genomic Selection for Economic Traits in Soft Winter Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Hoffstetter, Amber; Cabrera, Antonio; Huang, Mao; Sneller, Clay

    2016-01-01

    Genomic selection (GS) is a breeding tool that estimates breeding values (GEBVs) of individuals based solely on marker data by using a model built using phenotypic and marker data from a training population (TP). The effectiveness of GS increases as the correlation of GEBVs and phenotypes (accuracy) increases. Using phenotypic and genotypic data from a TP of 470 soft winter wheat lines, we assessed the accuracy of GS for grain yield, Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) resistance, softness equivalence (SE), and flour yield (FY). Four TP data sampling schemes were tested: (1) use all TP data, (2) use subsets of TP lines with low genotype-by-environment interaction, (3) use subsets of markers significantly associated with quantitative trait loci (QTL), and (4) a combination of 2 and 3. We also correlated the phenotypes of relatives of the TP to their GEBVs calculated from TP data. The GS accuracy within the TP using all TP data ranged from 0.35 (FHB) to 0.62 (FY). On average, the accuracy of GS from using subsets of data increased by 54% relative to using all TP data. Using subsets of markers selected for significant association with the target trait had the greatest impact on GS accuracy. Between-environment prediction accuracy was also increased by using data subsets. The accuracy of GS when predicting the phenotypes of TP relatives ranged from 0.00 to 0.85. These results suggest that GS could be useful for these traits and GS accuracy can be greatly improved by using subsets of TP data. PMID:27440921

  16. Using Massive Parallel Sequencing for the Development, Validation, and Application of Population Genetics Markers in the Invasive Bivalve Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha)

    PubMed Central

    Peñarrubia, Luis; Sanz, Nuria; Pla, Carles; Vidal, Oriol; Viñas, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha, Pallas, 1771) is one of the most invasive species of freshwater bivalves, due to a combination of biological and anthropogenic factors. Once this species has been introduced to a new area, individuals form dense aggregations that are very difficult to remove, leading to many adverse socioeconomic and ecological consequences. In this study, we identified, tested, and validated a new set of polymorphic microsatellite loci (also known as SSRs, Single Sequence Repeats) using a Massive Parallel Sequencing (MPS) platform. After several pruning steps, 93 SSRs could potentially be amplified. Out of these SSRs, 14 were polymorphic, producing a polymorphic yield of 15.05%. These 14 polymorphic microsatellites were fully validated in a first approximation of the genetic population structure of D. polymorpha in the Iberian Peninsula. Based on this polymorphic yield, we propose a criterion for establishing the number of SSRs that require validation in similar species, depending on the final use of the markers. These results could be used to optimize MPS approaches in the development of microsatellites as genetic markers, which would reduce the cost of this process. PMID:25780924

  17. Using Massive Parallel Sequencing for the development, validation, and application of population genetics markers in the invasive bivalve zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha).

    PubMed

    Peñarrubia, Luis; Sanz, Nuria; Pla, Carles; Vidal, Oriol; Viñas, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha, Pallas, 1771) is one of the most invasive species of freshwater bivalves, due to a combination of biological and anthropogenic factors. Once this species has been introduced to a new area, individuals form dense aggregations that are very difficult to remove, leading to many adverse socioeconomic and ecological consequences. In this study, we identified, tested, and validated a new set of polymorphic microsatellite loci (also known as SSRs, Single Sequence Repeats) using a Massive Parallel Sequencing (MPS) platform. After several pruning steps, 93 SSRs could potentially be amplified. Out of these SSRs, 14 were polymorphic, producing a polymorphic yield of 15.05%. These 14 polymorphic microsatellites were fully validated in a first approximation of the genetic population structure of D. polymorpha in the Iberian Peninsula. Based on this polymorphic yield, we propose a criterion for establishing the number of SSRs that require validation in similar species, depending on the final use of the markers. These results could be used to optimize MPS approaches in the development of microsatellites as genetic markers, which would reduce the cost of this process. PMID:25780924

  18. Studying planet populations with Einstein's blip.

    PubMed

    Dominik, Martin

    2010-08-13

    Although Einstein originally judged that 'there is no great chance of observing this phenomenon', the 'most curious effect' of the bending of starlight by the gravity of intervening foreground stars--now commonly referred to as 'gravitational microlensing'--has become one of the successfully applied techniques to detect planets orbiting stars other than the Sun, while being quite unlike any other. With more than 400 extra-solar planets known altogether, the discovery of a true sibling of our home planet seems to have become simply a question of time. However, in order to properly understand the origin of Earth, carrying all its various life forms, models of planet formation and orbital evolution need to be brought into agreement with the statistics of the full variety of planets like Earth and unlike Earth. Given the complementarity of the currently applied planet detection techniques, a comprehensive picture will only arise from a combination of their respective findings. Gravitational microlensing favours a range of orbital separations that covers planets whose orbital periods are too long to allow detection by other indirect techniques, but which are still too close to their host star to be detected by means of their emitted or reflected light. Rather than being limited to the Solar neighbourhood, a unique opportunity is provided for inferring a census of planets orbiting stars belonging to two distinct populations within the Milky Way, with a sensitivity not only reaching down to Earth mass, but even below, with ground-based observations. The capabilities of gravitational microlensing extend even to obtaining evidence of a planet orbiting a star in another galaxy. PMID:20603366

  19. A validation study of elementary science ISTEP+ scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonelli, Glenn

    The Indiana Statewide Testing for Educational Progress-Plus (ISTEP+) was designed to assess student mastery of key educational goals. The 5th grade ISTEP+ Science Test (5-GIST) is part of the ISTEP+ testing regime. The Indiana Academic Standards were developed to guide instruction in the state, and questions on the ISTEP+ were aligned with these standards. Since its inception, the use of the ISTEP+ exam has been changed to comply with the dictates of both Indiana Public Law 221 and the national No Child Left Behind act. With these modifications, the purpose of the tests has shifted from assessment of individual student academic progress to evaluation of the quality of the educational institution administering the tests. The validity of this use has never been established. The purpose of this study is to assess the validity of the 5-GIST as an instrument for assessing and forming judgments about the quality of science instruction in a particular school. ISTEP+ scores of 2 cohorts of students in a Midwestern school district were converted into Z-scores and tracked from 3rd to 5th grade. A regression line was established to account for the general aptitude and the socio-economic status (SES) of the students. Examining the residuals of the 5-GIST scores revealed that between 57% and 60% of the variance in the scores can be attributed to the general aptitude and SES of the students, leaving between 40% and 43% that can be interpreted as reflecting the effect of the school on student learning.

  20. Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Pat; Landahl, John

    This pamphlet has been prepared in response to a new problem, a rapidly increasing population, and a new need, population education. It is designed to help teachers provide their students with some basic population concepts with stress placed on the elements of decision making. In the first section of the pamphlet, some of the basic concepts of…

  1. Utilization of data from human population studies for setting air quality standards: evaluation of important issues.

    PubMed Central

    Lebowitz, M D

    1983-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of community populations are highly relevant to the process of setting national ambient air quality primary standards, as criteria for those standards are the protection of human populations against adverse effects on health. Nevertheless, because of the difficulties of performing adequate community population studies of a quality commensurate with the needs of standard setting, the use of data derived from studies is problematic. This paper addresses the important issues of appropriate exposure assessment and health assessment, and discusses the problems of multiplex variables and colinearity as they are critical in assessments of exposure-effect relationships. It is concluded that a major problem in the use of data from such studies for standard setting is not necessarily one of scientific reliability or validity, but arises from the attempt of translating adequate science into policy decisions. PMID:6653523

  2. 41 CFR 60-3.14 - Technical standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... be met in conducting a validity study. Nothing in these guidelines is intended to preclude the... procedures. Where it is not technically feasible for a user to conduct a validity study, the user has the... should be based on review of information about the job. Any validity study should be based upon a...

  3. 41 CFR 60-3.14 - Technical standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... be met in conducting a validity study. Nothing in these guidelines is intended to preclude the... procedures. Where it is not technically feasible for a user to conduct a validity study, the user has the... should be based on review of information about the job. Any validity study should be based upon a...

  4. 41 CFR 60-3.14 - Technical standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... be met in conducting a validity study. Nothing in these guidelines is intended to preclude the... procedures. Where it is not technically feasible for a user to conduct a validity study, the user has the... should be based on review of information about the job. Any validity study should be based upon a...

  5. 41 CFR 60-3.14 - Technical standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... be met in conducting a validity study. Nothing in these guidelines is intended to preclude the... procedures. Where it is not technically feasible for a user to conduct a validity study, the user has the... should be based on review of information about the job. Any validity study should be based upon a...

  6. 41 CFR 60-3.14 - Technical standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... be met in conducting a validity study. Nothing in these guidelines is intended to preclude the... procedures. Where it is not technically feasible for a user to conduct a validity study, the user has the... should be based on review of information about the job. Any validity study should be based upon a...

  7. The Adaptive Behavior Scale: A Study of Criterion Validity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spreat, Scott

    1980-01-01

    The validity of the Adaptive Behavior Scale (ABS) for placement purposes was estimated using as Ss 95 formerly institutionalized retarded persons, 97 institutional residents referred for discharge, and 178 institutional residents. Results suggest that knowledge of an individual's ABS scores would enable a test user to make valid estimates of group…

  8. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory: A Construct Validation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Brian W.

    1983-01-01

    Regression analyses indicated that the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory has convergent validity with regard to the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale and the Coopersmith Behavioral Academic Assessment Scale, has discriminant validity with regard to the Children's Social Desirability Scale, is sensitive to differences in achievement level,…

  9. A Delphi Study and Initial Validation of Counselor Supervision Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuer Colburn, Anita A.; Grothaus, Tim; Hays, Danica G.; Milliken, Tammi

    2016-01-01

    The authors addressed the lack of supervision training standards for doctoral counseling graduates by developing and validating an initial list of supervision competencies. They used content analysis, Delphi polling, and content validity methods to generate a list, vetted by 2 different panels of supervision experts, of 33 competencies grouped…

  10. Examining Temporal Stability of Scale Validity in Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko

    2006-01-01

    A method for examining invariance in validity of multiple-component instruments in repeated measure designs is outlined. The approach is developed within the framework of covariance structure modeling and is applicable for purposes of ascertaining temporal stability in scale validity. In addition, the procedure provides a range of plausible values…

  11. Portuguese validation of the Internet Addiction Test: An empirical study

    PubMed Central

    PONTES, HALLEY M.; PATRÃO, IVONE M.; GRIFFITHS, MARK D.

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: Research into Internet addiction (IA) has increased greatly over the last decade. Despite its various definitions and general lack of consensus regarding its conceptualisation amongst researchers, instruments for measuring this phenomenon have proliferated in a number of countries. There has been little research on IA in Portugal and this may be partly due to the absence of standardised measurement tools for assessing IA. Methods: This study attempted to address this issue by adapting a Portuguese version of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) via a translation-back translation process and Confirmatory Factor Analysis in a sample of 593 Portuguese students that completed a Portuguese version of the IAT along with questions related to socio-demographic variables. Results: The findings suggested that the IAT appears to be a valid and reliable instrument for measuring IA among Portuguese young adults as demonstrated by its satisfactory psychometric properties. However, the present findings also suggest the need to reword and update some of the IAT’s items. Prevalence of IA found in the sample was 1.2% and is discussed alongside findings relating to socio-demographic correlates. Limitations and implications of the present study are also discussed. Conclusions: The present study calls for a reflection of the IAT while also contributing to a better understanding of the basic aspects of IA in the Portuguese community since many health practitioners are starting to realise that Internet use may pose a risk for some individuals. PMID:25215221

  12. The reliability and validity of the short version of the WHO Quality of Life Instrument in an Arab general population

    PubMed Central

    Ohaeri, Jude U.; Awadalla, Abdel W.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There is rising interest in quality of life (QOL) research in Arabian countries. The aim of this study was to assess in a nationwide sample of Kuwaiti subjects the reliability and validity of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF), a shorter version of the widely used QOL assessment instrument that comprises 26 items in the domains of physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and the environment. METHODS: A one-in-three systematic random proportionate sample of consenting Kuwaiti nationals attending large cooperative stores and municipal government offices in the six governorates completed the Arabic translation of the questionnaire. The indices assessed included test-retest reliability, internal consistency, item internal consistency (IIC), item discriminant validity (IDV), known-groups and construct validity. RESULTS: There were 3303 participants (44.8% males, 55.2% females, mean age 35.4 years, range 16 to 87 years). The intra-class correlation for the test-retest statistic and the internal consistency values for the full questionnaire and the domains had a Cronbach's alpha≥0.7. Of the 24 items that constitute the domains, 21 met the IIC requirement of correlation ≥0.4 with the corresponding domain, while 16 met the IDV criterion of having a higher correlation with their corresponding domain than other domains. Domain scores discriminated significantly between well and sick groups. In the factor analysis, four strong factors emerged with the same construct as in the WHO report. CONCLUSION: The Arabic translation of the WHOQOL-BREF has impressive reliability and validity indices. The poor IDV findings are due to the multidimensional nature of the questionnaire. The highly significant validity indices should reassure researchers that the questionnaire represents the same constructs across cultures. Negatively worded items possibly need refinement. PMID:19318760

  13. Verification and Validation Studies for the LAVA CFD Solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moini-Yekta, Shayan; Barad, Michael F; Sozer, Emre; Brehm, Christoph; Housman, Jeffrey A.; Kiris, Cetin C.

    2013-01-01

    The verification and validation of the Launch Ascent and Vehicle Aerodynamics (LAVA) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver is presented. A modern strategy for verification and validation is described incorporating verification tests, validation benchmarks, continuous integration and version control methods for automated testing in a collaborative development environment. The purpose of the approach is to integrate the verification and validation process into the development of the solver and improve productivity. This paper uses the Method of Manufactured Solutions (MMS) for the verification of 2D Euler equations, 3D Navier-Stokes equations as well as turbulence models. A method for systematic refinement of unstructured grids is also presented. Verification using inviscid vortex propagation and flow over a flat plate is highlighted. Simulation results using laminar and turbulent flow past a NACA 0012 airfoil and ONERA M6 wing are validated against experimental and numerical data.

  14. Cross-Validation of the Emotion Awareness Questionnaire for Children in Three Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahaye, Magali; Mikolajczak, Moira; Rieffe, Carolien; Villanueva, Lidon; Van Broeck, Nady; Bodart, Eddy; Luminet, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to examine the cross-cultural equivalence of a newly developed questionnaire, the Emotion Awareness Questionnaire (EAQ30) that assesses emotional awareness of children through self-report. Participants were recruited in three countries: the Netherlands (N = 665), Spain (N = 464), and Belgium (N = 707),…

  15. Factorial and Structural Validity of Holland's Hexagonal Model for an Asian Student Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tay, Kenneth Kim; Hill, Joseph A.; Ward, Connie M.

    A study examined the utility of Holland's hexagonal model as a culturally appropriate theoretical framework for U.S. career psychologists working with Asian international students. Chinese-descent international students enrolled in three Southeastern universities (n=170) completed three instruments: Holland's Self-Directed Search (SDS), an…

  16. Validation of Fusarium head blight resistance QTL using the NC-Neuse / Bess doubled haploid population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) is one of the most damaging diseases of wheat. It lowers the grain yield and quality, and contaminates grain with the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON). Genetic resistance is a critical control measure and breeding objective. Many studies have focused on the genetic basis of ...

  17. Multidisciplinary population monitoring when demographic data are sparse: a case study of remote trout populations

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Dylan J; Calvert, Anna M; Bernatchez, Louis; Coon, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The potential of genetic, genomic, and phenotypic metrics for monitoring population trends may be especially high in isolated regions, where traditional demographic monitoring is logistically difficult and only sporadic sampling is possible. This potential, however, is relatively underexplored empirically. Over eleven years, we assessed several such metrics along with traditional ecological knowledge and catch data in a socioeconomically important trout species occupying a large, remote lake. The data revealed largely stable characteristics in two populations over 2–3 generations, but possible contemporary changes in a third population. These potential shifts were suggested by reduced catch rates, reduced body size, and changes in selection implied at one gene-associated single nucleotide polymorphism. A demographic decline in this population, however, was ambiguously supported, based on the apparent lack of temporal change in effective population size, and corresponding traditional knowledge suggesting little change in catch. We illustrate how the pluralistic approach employed has practicality for setting future monitoring efforts of these populations, by guiding monitoring priorities according to the relative merits of different metrics and availability of resources. Our study also considers some advantages and disadvantages to adopting a pluralistic approach to population monitoring where demographic data are not easily obtained. PMID:24455128

  18. Validity and reliability of the critical care pain observation tool: a replication study.

    PubMed

    Keane, Kathleen Marie

    2013-12-01

    Critically ill patients are often not able to self-report the presence of pain. Currently there is no generally accepted assessment tool for this population. The Critical-Care Pain Observation Tool (CPOT) was developed for pain assessment of critically ill patients. The purpose of this study was to replicate the findings of the Gelinas et al. (2006) CPOT reference study and examine the interrater reliability (IRR), discriminant validity (DV), and criterion validity (CV) of the CPOT. This quantitative study used a repeated measures design with a convenience sample of 21 postoperative open heart surgery patients cared for in a tertiary-care teaching hospital. Testing for IRR in this sample showed a range of results resulting in fair to almost perfect IRR; the findings of this study suggest that the instrument's IRR is acceptable but variable. Testing for DV demonstrated a significant difference in mean scores between noxious (painful) and nonnoxious (nonpainful) procedures. Testing for CV showed a weak nonsignificant Spearman correlation of 0.26 (P < .312) between CPOT scores and patient self-report during repositioning after extubation. This replication study adds to four studies that have examined psychometric attributes of the instrument and contributes to the process of translating the use of this instrument to the clinical setting. PMID:24315275

  19. Population Education in Social Studies: Some Sample Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    This booklet contains sample lessons and learning materials from the countries of Asia and Oceania for teaching population education in social studies. The booklet is one of a series of six, each of which brings out population education concepts as part of a particular subject area. The subject areas treated in the other booklets are home…

  20. Development and Validation of a Fine-Motor Assessment Tool for Use with Young Children in a Chinese Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siu, Andrew M. H.; Lai, Cynthia Y. Y.; Chiu, Amy S. M.; Yip, Calvin C. K.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Most of the fine-motor assessment tools used in Hong Kong have been designed in Western countries, so there is a need to develop a standardized assessment which is relevant to the culture and daily living tasks of the local (that is, Chinese) population. This study aimed to (1) develop a fine-motor assessment tool (the Hong Kong…

  1. A new tool for identifying children with motor problems: reliability and validity study.

    PubMed

    Zuk, Luba; Tlumek, Hila; Katz-Leurer, Michal; Peretz, Chava; Carmeli, Eli

    2014-05-01

    This study examined reliability and validity of the Zuk Assessment for diagnosis of motor problems and determined standardized scores in an Israeli population aged 5 to 6 years. For standardization, 156 children recruited from 13 Kindergartens of typically developing children were evaluated with the Zuk Assessment. Intrarater and interrater reliability were examined on 2 samples of 15 and 13 children, respectively. A total of 151 children referred for motor problems were examined with the Zuk and Movement Assessment Battery for Children assessment tools for validation of the Zuk Assessment. Findings showed that the Zuk total score had a normal distribution similar to that found in the literature identifying 5.1% (-2 standard deviations) and 12% (between -1 and -2 standard deviations) of children with motor-related problems. Reliability was indicated by high intraclass correlation scores both in intrarater (intraclass correlation = .89) and interrater (intraclass correlation = .95) paradigms. The Zuk assessment identified differences in subgroups, namely, typical, suspicious, and impaired, as found in the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, confirming the Zuk validity. PMID:24453151

  2. Algorithms for verbal autopsies: a validation study in Kenyan children.

    PubMed Central

    Quigley, M. A.; Armstrong Schellenberg, J. R.; Snow, R. W.

    1996-01-01

    The verbal autopsy (VA) questionnaire is a widely used method for collecting information on cause-specific mortality where the medical certification of deaths in childhood is incomplete. This paper discusses review by physicians and expert algorithms as approaches to ascribing cause of deaths from the VA questionnaire and proposes an alternative, data-derived approach. In this validation study, the relatives of 295 children who had died in hospital were interviewed using a VA questionnaire. The children were assigned causes of death using data-derived algorithms obtained under logistic regression and using expert algorithms. For most causes of death, the data-derived algorithms and expert algorithms yielded similar levels of diagnostic accuracy. However, a data-derived algorithm for malaria gave a sensitivity of 71% (95% Cl: 58-84%), which was significantly higher than the sensitivity of 47% obtained under an expert algorithm. The need for exploring this and other ways in which the VA technique can be improved are discussed. The implications of less-than-perfect sensitivity and specificity are explored using numerical examples. Misclassification bias should be taken into consideration when planning and evaluating epidemiological studies. PMID:8706229

  3. Moral judgment reloaded: a moral dilemma validation study

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Julia F.; Flexas, Albert; Calabrese, Margareta; Gut, Nadine K.; Gomila, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    We propose a revised set of moral dilemmas for studies on moral judgment. We selected a total of 46 moral dilemmas available in the literature and fine-tuned them in terms of four conceptual factors (Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, Evitability, and Intention) and methodological aspects of the dilemma formulation (word count, expression style, question formats) that have been shown to influence moral judgment. Second, we obtained normative codings of arousal and valence for each dilemma showing that emotional arousal in response to moral dilemmas depends crucially on the factors Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, and Intentionality. Third, we validated the dilemma set confirming that people's moral judgment is sensitive to all four conceptual factors, and to their interactions. Results are discussed in the context of this field of research, outlining also the relevance of our RT effects for the Dual Process account of moral judgment. Finally, we suggest tentative theoretical avenues for future testing, particularly stressing the importance of the factor Intentionality in moral judgment. Additionally, due to the importance of cross-cultural studies in the quest for universals in human moral cognition, we provide the new set dilemmas in six languages (English, French, German, Spanish, Catalan, and Danish). The norming values provided here refer to the Spanish dilemma set. PMID:25071621

  4. Hyper-X Stage Separation Trajectory Validation Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tartabini, Paul V.; Bose, David M.; McMinn, John D.; Martin, John G.; Strovers, Brian K.

    2003-01-01

    An independent twelve degree-of-freedom simulation of the X-43A separation trajectory was created with the Program to Optimize Simulated trajectories (POST II). This simulation modeled the multi-body dynamics of the X-43A and its booster and included the effect of two pyrotechnically actuated pistons used to push the vehicles apart as well as aerodynamic interaction forces and moments between the two vehicles. The simulation was developed to validate trajectory studies conducted with a 14 degree-of-freedom simulation created early in the program using the Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanics Systems (ADAMS) simulation software. The POST simulation was less detailed than the official ADAMS-based simulation used by the Project, but was simpler, more concise and ran faster, while providing similar results. The increase in speed provided by the POST simulation provided the Project with an alternate analysis tool. This tool was ideal for performing separation control logic trade studies that required the running of numerous Monte Carlo trajectories.

  5. Elaboration, validation and standardization of the five to fifteen (FTF) questionnaire in a Danish population sample.

    PubMed

    Lambek, Rikke; Trillingsgaard, Anegen

    2015-03-01

    The five to fifteen (FTF) is a parent questionnaire developed to assess ADHD, its common comorbid conditions and associated problems in children and adolescents. The present study examined (1) the psychometric properties of scores on the new teacher version of the FTF, (2) competing models of the FTF subdomain structure and (3) the psychometric properties and utility of scores on the newly developed FTF impact questions. Parents (n=4258) and teachers (n=1298) of Danish children and adolescents (ages 5 to 17 years), selected using simple random sampling, completed the FTF. In the largest study of the FTF to date, parent and teacher scores had acceptable psychometric properties. The FTF subdomains were organized into six domains labelled cognitive skills, motor/perception, emotion/socialization/behaviour, attention, literacy skills and activity control and analysis of these domains may provide additional information when applying the FTF in the future. The impact questions yielded information above and beyond that provided by symptom count alone and appeared to increase the ability of the FTF to identify at risk children and adolescents. PMID:25590170

  6. Psychometric Properties and Validation of the Positive and Negative Suicide Ideation (PANSI) Inventory in an Outpatient Clinical Population in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sinniah, Aishvarya; Oei, Tian P S; Chinna, Karuthan; Shah, Shamsul A; Maniam, T; Subramaniam, Ponnusamy

    2015-01-01

    The PANSI is a measure designed to assess the risk and protective factors related to suicidal behaviors. The present study evaluated the psychometric properties and factor structure of the Positive and Negative Suicide Ideation (PANSI) Inventory in a sample of clinical outpatients at a major hospital in Malaysia. In this study, 283 psychiatric patients and 200 medical (non-psychiatric) patients participated. All the patients completed the PANSI and seven other self-report instruments. Confirmative factor analysis supported the 2-factor oblique model. The internal consistency of the two subscales of PANSI-Negative and the PANSI-Positive were 0.93 and 0.84, respectively. In testing construct validity, PANSI showed sizable correlation with the other seven scales. Criterion validity was supported by scores on PANSI which differentiated psychiatric patients from medical patients. Logistic regression analyses showed PANSI can be used to classify the patients into suicidal or non-suicidal. The PANSI is a reliable and valid instrument to measure the severity of suicidal ideation among clinical outpatients in Malaysia. PMID:26733920

  7. Psychometric Properties and Validation of the Positive and Negative Suicide Ideation (PANSI) Inventory in an Outpatient Clinical Population in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Sinniah, Aishvarya; Oei, Tian P. S.; Chinna, Karuthan; Shah, Shamsul A.; Maniam, T.; Subramaniam, Ponnusamy

    2015-01-01

    The PANSI is a measure designed to assess the risk and protective factors related to suicidal behaviors. The present study evaluated the psychometric properties and factor structure of the Positive and Negative Suicide Ideation (PANSI) Inventory in a sample of clinical outpatients at a major hospital in Malaysia. In this study, 283 psychiatric patients and 200 medical (non-psychiatric) patients participated. All the patients completed the PANSI and seven other self-report instruments. Confirmative factor analysis supported the 2-factor oblique model. The internal consistency of the two subscales of PANSI-Negative and the PANSI-Positive were 0.93 and 0.84, respectively. In testing construct validity, PANSI showed sizable correlation with the other seven scales. Criterion validity was supported by scores on PANSI which differentiated psychiatric patients from medical patients. Logistic regression analyses showed PANSI can be used to classify the patients into suicidal or non-suicidal. The PANSI is a reliable and valid instrument to measure the severity of suicidal ideation among clinical outpatients in Malaysia. PMID:26733920

  8. A Case Study for Probabilistic Methods Validation (MSFC Center Director's Discretionary Fund, Project No. 94-26)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price J. M.; Ortega, R.

    1998-01-01

    Probabilistic method is not a universally accepted approach for the design and analysis of aerospace structures. The validity of this approach must be demonstrated to encourage its acceptance as it viable design and analysis tool to estimate structural reliability. The objective of this Study is to develop a well characterized finite population of similar aerospace structures that can be used to (1) validate probabilistic codes, (2) demonstrate the basic principles behind probabilistic methods, (3) formulate general guidelines for characterization of material drivers (such as elastic modulus) when limited data is available, and (4) investigate how the drivers affect the results of sensitivity analysis at the component/failure mode level.

  9. Using focus groups to improve the validity of cross-national survey research: a study of physician decision making.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Amy B; Lutfey, Karen E; Marceau, Lisa D; McKinlay, John B

    2007-09-01

    In this article, the authors demonstrate how qualitative methods can form a foundation for quantitative research by improving instrument validity, informing the data collection process, and improving cost-effectiveness in a study of physician decision making. To test terminology, applicability, and comprehension of a quantitative questionnaire for doctors in the United States and United Kingdom, each country's researchers conducted physician focus groups with questions organized around the experiment, including (a) validity of video vignettes of actor "patients," (b) population accessibility, (c) level of remuneration, (d) appropriate endorsement figure, and (e) question comprehension. Focus group data collected during instrument development and fieldwork planning streamlined processes and achieved cost efficiencies and effectiveness for the overall study. Beyond simply adding a post hoc qualitative component to an already free-standing quantitative methodology, focus groups were used in the study formulation, where the qualitative methodology was integrated into the process of developing a valid survey instrument. PMID:17724109

  10. Cyber Victim and Bullying Scale: A Study of Validity and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cetin, Bayram; Yaman, Erkan; Peker, Adem

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a reliable and valid scale, which determines cyber victimization and bullying behaviors of high school students. Research group consisted of 404 students (250 male, 154 male) in Sakarya, in 2009-2010 academic years. In the study sample, mean age is 16.68. Content validity and face validity of the scale was…

  11. A population study of binocular function.

    PubMed

    Bosten, J M; Goodbourn, P T; Lawrance-Owen, A J; Bargary, G; Hogg, R E; Mollon, J D

    2015-05-01

    As part of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of perceptual traits in healthy adults, we measured stereo acuity, the duration of alternative percepts in binocular rivalry and the extent of dichoptic masking in 1060 participants. We present the distributions of the measures, the correlations between measures, and their relationships to other psychophysical traits. We report sex differences, and correlations with age, interpupillary distance, eye dominance, phorias, visual acuity and personality. The GWAS, using data from 988 participants, yielded one genetic association that passed a permutation test for significance: The variant rs1022907 in the gene VTI1A was associated with self-reported ability to see autostereograms. We list a number of other suggestive genetic associations (p<10(-5)). PMID:25771401

  12. A pragmatic approach to the design of population pharmacokinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Roy, Amit; Ette, Ene I

    2005-01-01

    The publication of a seminal article on nonlinear mixed-effect modeling led to a revolution in pharmacokinetics (PKs) with the introduction of the population approach. Since then, interest in obtaining accurate and precise estimates of population PK parameters has led to work on population PK study design that extended previous work on optimal sampling designs for individual PK parameter estimation. The issues and developments in the design of population PK studies are reviewed as a prelude to investigating, via simulation, the performance of 2 approaches (population Fisher information matrix D-optimal design and informative block [profile] randomized [IBR] design) for designing population PK studies. The results of our simulation study indicate that the designs based on the 2 approaches yielded efficient parameter estimates. The designs based on the 2 approaches performed similarly, and in some cases designs based on the IBR approach were slightly better. The ease with which the IBR designs can be generated makes them preferable in drug development, where pragmatism and time are of great consideration. We, therefore, refer to the IBR designs as pragmatic designs. Pragmatic designs that achieve high efficiency in the estimation parameters should be used in the design of population PK studies, and simulation should be used to determine the efficiency of the designs. PMID:16353920

  13. A Validity Study of the Kinetic School Drawing Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prout, H. Thompson; Celmer, David S.

    1984-01-01

    Examined the relationship between Kinetic School Drawing responses and academic achievement in 100 normal fifth-grade students. Significant correlations were found for a number of measures, generally supporting the validity of the technique. (JAC)

  14. Fit-for-purpose bioanalytical cross-validation for LC-MS/MS assays in clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaohui; Ji, Qin C; Jemal, Mohammed; Gleason, Carol; Shen, Jim X; Stouffer, Bruce; Arnold, Mark E

    2013-01-01

    The paradigm shift of globalized research and conducting clinical studies at different geographic locations worldwide to access broader patient populations has resulted in increased need of correlating bioanalytical results generated in multiple laboratories, often across national borders. Cross-validations of bioanalytical methods are often implemented to assure the equivalency of the bioanalytical results is demonstrated. Regulatory agencies, such as the US FDA and European Medicines Agency, have included the requirement of cross-validations in their respective bioanalytical validation guidance and guidelines. While those documents provide high-level expectations, the detailed implementation is at the discretion of each individual organization. At Bristol-Myers Squibb, we practice a fit-for-purpose approach for conducting cross-validations for small-molecule bioanalytical methods using LC-MS/MS. A step-by-step proposal on the overall strategy, procedures and technical details for conducting a successful cross-validation is presented herein. A case study utilizing the proposed cross-validation approach to rule out method variability as the potential cause for high variance observed in PK studies is also presented. PMID:23256474

  15. MINET validation study using steam generator test data

    SciTech Connect

    Van Tuyle, G.J.; Guppy, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    Three steam generator transient test cases that were simulated using the MINET computer code are described, with computed results compared against experimental data. The MINET calculations closely agreed with the experiment for both the once-through and the U-tube steam generator test cases. The effort is part of an ongoing effort to validate the MINET computer code for thermal-hydraulic plant systems transient analysis, and strongly supports the validity of the MINET models.

  16. Validation studies for brain blood flow assessment by radioxenon tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Rezai, K.; Kirchner, P.T.; Armstrong, C.; Ehrhardt, J.C.; Heistad, D.

    1988-03-01

    A tomographic technique has been used recently for cerebral blood flow measurements with inhaled radioxenon. Based on experiments in a specially developed dynamic phantom and on studies in primates in vivo, we have analyzed the validity of this method for measurements of both regional and total blood flow in the brain. We have also examined the errors introduced into flow computations as a function of changes in such parameters as: rate of xenon input, size of region of interest, magnitude of regional flow rates, and inter-regional flow differences. Our findings indicate a reasonable degree of accuracy for flow measurements in gray matter regions that are 3 cm in diameter or larger, while white matter blood flow is generally overestimated. The accuracy for regional flow assessments degrades as a function of: diminishing region size, increasing inter-regional flow differences, and flow rates in excess of 100 ml/100 g/min. Measurements for brain regions 2 cm or smaller in diameter can be in error by 25-50% as a result of partial volume averaging. Although the technique is not ideal for accurate flow measurements in small regions of the brain, it nevertheless provides a convenient means of assessing perfusion in major vascular territories of the brain in routine clinical applications.

  17. Validation study of the Questionnaire on School Maladjustment Problems (QSMP).

    PubMed

    de la Fuente Arias, Jesús; Peralta Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Sánchez Roda, María Dolores; Trianes Torres, María Victoria

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the exploratory and confirmatory structure, as well as other psychometric properties, of the Cuestionario de Problemas de Convivencia Escolar (CPCE; in Spanish, the Questionnaire on School Maladjustment Problems [QSMP]), using a sample of Spanish adolescents. The instrument was administered to 60 secondary education teachers (53.4% females and 46.6% males) between the ages of 28 and 54 years (M= 41.2, SD= 11.5), who evaluated a total of 857 adolescent students. The first-order exploratory factor analysis identified 7 factors, explaining a total variance of 62%. A second-order factor analysis yielded three dimensions that explain 84% of the variance. A confirmatory factor analysis was subsequently performed in order to reduce the number of factors obtained in the exploratory analysis as well as the number of items. Lastly, we present the results of reliability, internal consistency, and validity indices. These results and their implications for future research and for the practice of educational guidance and intervention are discussed in the conclusions. PMID:22420365

  18. Virtual Faces Expressing Emotions: An Initial Concomitant and Construct Validity Study

    PubMed Central

    Joyal, Christian C.; Jacob, Laurence; Cigna, Marie-Hélène; Guay, Jean-Pierre; Renaud, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Background: Facial expressions of emotions represent classic stimuli for the study of social cognition. Developing virtual dynamic facial expressions of emotions, however, would open-up possibilities, both for fundamental and clinical research. For instance, virtual faces allow real-time Human–Computer retroactions between physiological measures and the virtual agent. Objectives: The goal of this study was to initially assess concomitants and construct validity of a newly developed set of virtual faces expressing six fundamental emotions (happiness, surprise, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust). Recognition rates, facial electromyography (zygomatic major and corrugator supercilii muscles), and regional gaze fixation latencies (eyes and mouth regions) were compared in 41 adult volunteers (20 ♂, 21 ♀) during the presentation of video clips depicting real vs. virtual adults expressing emotions. Results: Emotions expressed by each set of stimuli were similarly recognized, both by men and women. Accordingly, both sets of stimuli elicited similar activation of facial muscles and similar ocular fixation times in eye regions from man and woman participants. Conclusion: Further validation studies can be performed with these virtual faces among clinical populations known to present social cognition difficulties. Brain–Computer Interface studies with feedback–feedforward interactions based on facial emotion expressions can also be conducted with these stimuli. PMID:25324768

  19. Resveratrol Does Not Affect Health, Longevity in Population Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... You are here Home Resveratrol does not affect health, longevity in population study May 16, 2014 Resveratrol, ... disease. Researchers have found it to improve the health (and in some cases, longevity) of animals, including ...

  20. The Predictive Validity of Preadmission Measures in Graduate Management Education: Three Years of the GMAC Validity Study Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Lawrence W.; Powers, Donald E.

    The Graduate Management Admission Council (GMAC) Validity Study Service was created to enable graduate schools of management to investigate the adequacy of the devices and procedures they use for selection purposes and to facilitate the accumulation and summary of data from many individual graduate management schools. Participating schools are…

  1. A Validation Study of the Dutch Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form: Factor Structure, Reliability, and Known-Groups Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thombs, Brett D.; Bernstein, David P.; Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The 28-item Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF) has been translated into at least 10 different languages. The validity of translated versions of the CTQ-SF, however, has generally not been examined. The objective of this study was to investigate the factor structure, internal consistency reliability, and known-groups…

  2. [The "Neuropsychological Screening Test (NST)": initial validation and reliability studies].

    PubMed

    Schmidgen, H; Hoell, T; Regard, M; Landis, T; Rudolf, K H; Berzewski, H; Brock, M

    1994-01-01

    Medical examinations only insufficiently measure cognitive impairment in neurological and neurosurgical patients. Due to costs an personnel shortages, adequate neuropsychological test methods are typically bypassed. Indeed, the very size and methodological problems of current tests impede their application in clinical practice. To resolve this dissatisfying state of affairs, we have developed a standardized, scored form of initial neuropsychological examination. The Neuropsychological Screening Test (NST) comprises 45 items, is easy to handle, and can be conducted in 15-20 min. The NST measures psychic performance along functional parameters such as orientation in place and time, primary and secondary language, visuospatial ability, attention, and memory skills. We have assessed the validity and reliability of the NST in a prospective study. 129 neurosurgical patients (60% malignant or benign cerebral tumors, 21% vascular malformations with and without subarachnoid hemorrhage, 6% traumatic brain injury, 3% hydrocephalus, 10% others) and 52 control subjects were included in the study. The difference in average total NST-scores was highly significant for the two groups (t = -7.84, DF = 177.93, p < .001). In addition, two chronologically separate subsamples of NCH patients (N = 81) and controls (N = 35) were tested using the Mini-Mental State (MMS). The correlation between total NST-score and MMS results was r = .49 (p < .001). Cross-tabulation was used to set a cut-off score, by means of which 80% of the neurosurgical patients were identified as true positive and 74% of the controls as true negative. A 24-hour retest confirmed the NST as reliable to .85 (p < .001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7887046

  3. [Factor structure validity of the social capital scale used at baseline in the ELSA-Brasil study].

    PubMed

    Souto, Ester Paiva; Vasconcelos, Ana Glória Godoi; Chor, Dora; Reichenheim, Michael E; Griep, Rosane Härter

    2016-07-21

    This study aims to analyze the factor structure of the Brazilian version of the Resource Generator (RG) scale, using baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Health Study in Adults (ELSA-Brasil). Cross-validation was performed in three random subsamples. Exploratory factor analysis using exploratory structural equation models was conducted in the first two subsamples to diagnose the factor structure, and confirmatory factor analysis was used in the third to corroborate the model defined by the exploratory analyses. Based on the 31 initial items, the model with the best fit included 25 items distributed across three dimensions. They all presented satisfactory convergent validity (values greater than 0.50 for the extracted variance) and precision (values greater than 0.70 for compound reliability). All factor correlations were below 0.85, indicating full discriminative factor validity. The RG scale presents acceptable psychometric properties and can be used in populations with similar characteristics. PMID:27462850

  4. Alaska North Slope Tundra Travel Model and Validation Study

    SciTech Connect

    Harry R. Bader; Jacynthe Guimond

    2006-03-01

    of variability in snow depth cover throughout the period of field experimentation. The amount of change in disturbance indicators was greater in the tundra communities of the Foothills than in those of the Coastal Plain. However the overall level of change in both community types was less than expected. In Coastal Plain communities, ground hardness and snow slab thickness were found to play an important role in change in active layer depth and soil moisture as a result of treatment. In the Foothills communities, snow cover had the most influence on active layer depth and soil moisture as a result of treatment. Once certain minimum thresholds for ground hardness, snow slab thickness, and snow depth were attained, it appeared that little or no additive effect was realized regarding increased resistance to disturbance in the tundra communities studied. DNR used the results of this modeling project to set a standard for maximum permissible disturbance of cross-country tundra travel, with the threshold set below the widely accepted standard of Low Disturbance levels (as determined by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service). DNR followed the modeling project with a validation study, which seemed to support the field trial conclusions and indicated that the standard set for maximum permissible disturbance exhibits a conservative bias in favor of environmental protection. Finally DNR established a quick and efficient tool for visual estimations of disturbance to determine when investment in field measurements is warranted. This Visual Assessment System (VAS) seemed to support the plot disturbance measurements taking during the modeling and validation phases of this project.

  5. Primer ID Validates Template Sampling Depth and Greatly Reduces the Error Rate of Next-Generation Sequencing of HIV-1 Genomic RNA Populations

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shuntai; Jones, Corbin; Mieczkowski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Validating the sampling depth and reducing sequencing errors are critical for studies of viral populations using next-generation sequencing (NGS). We previously described the use of Primer ID to tag each viral RNA template with a block of degenerate nucleotides in the cDNA primer. We now show that low-abundance Primer IDs (offspring Primer IDs) are generated due to PCR/sequencing errors. These artifactual Primer IDs can be removed using a cutoff model for the number of reads required to make a template consensus sequence. We have modeled the fraction of sequences lost due to Primer ID resampling. For a typical sequencing run, less than 10% of the raw reads are lost to offspring Primer ID filtering and resampling. The remaining raw reads are used to correct for PCR resampling and sequencing errors. We also demonstrate that Primer ID reveals bias intrinsic to PCR, especially at low template input or utilization. cDNA synthesis and PCR convert ca. 20% of RNA templates into recoverable sequences, and 30-fold sequence coverage recovers most of these template sequences. We have directly measured the residual error rate to be around 1 in 10,000 nucleotides. We use this error rate and the Poisson distribution to define the cutoff to identify preexisting drug resistance mutations at low abundance in an HIV-infected subject. Collectively, these studies show that >90% of the raw sequence reads can be used to validate template sampling depth and to dramatically reduce the error rate in assessing a genetically diverse viral population using NGS. IMPORTANCE Although next-generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized sequencing strategies, it suffers from serious limitations in defining sequence heterogeneity in a genetically diverse population, such as HIV-1 due to PCR resampling and PCR/sequencing errors. The Primer ID approach reveals the true sampling depth and greatly reduces errors. Knowing the sampling depth allows the construction of a model of how to maximize

  6. Validation Study of the Spanish Version of the Disability Assessment for Dementia Scale.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Pérez, Alicia; López-Roig, Sofía; Pérez, Ana Pampliega; Gómez, Paula Peral; Pastor, María Ángeles; Pomares, Miriam Hurtado

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine reliability and validity of the Spanish version of the Disability Assessment for Dementia Scale (DAD-E) in the following areas: content, response process, internal structure, and relation to other constructs.We designed a cross-sectional observational study. The DAD-E was administered to 132 participants diagnosed with mild cognitive decline, prodromal Alzheimer disease, Alzheimer disease, or no cognitive decline. For the reliability study, we performed analyses of internal consistency, test-retest, and equivalent measures. To study validity, we performed item analysis, principal components analysis, and correlations with other measures.The sample was composed of 37 healthy participants (28%) and 95 patients (72%). In the total scale, Cronbach alpha was 0.963, intraclass correlation coefficient in the test-retest analysis was 0.983 (95% CI [95% confidence interval] = 0.969-0.991), and the analysis for equivalent measures was 0.949 (95% CI = 0.897-0.975). Out of the 40 items, we found that 37 presented a correlation index with the total score above 0.40. The principal components analysis suggests that 61.7% of the variance is explained by a single component that groups all scores on Activities of Daily Living. The DAD total score presents correlations with Barthel's Index of 0.882 (P = 0.000) and with Lawton and Brodie's Index of 0.877 (P = 0.000) and with the Mini Mental State Examination of 0.679 (P = 0.000).The DAD-E is a reliable and valid instrument to assess functional disability in people with cognitive decline in Spanish population. PMID:26554794

  7. The validity of a questionnaire-based epidemiological study of occupational dermatosis.

    PubMed

    Carstensen, Ole; Rasmussen, Kurt; Pontén, Ann; Gruvberger, Birgitta; Isaksson, Marléne; Bruze, Magnus

    2006-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of a questionnaire and medical anamnesis to identify persons with dermatitis in an occupational setting. The design was a clinical epidemiological cross-sectional study. The study was performed between the second and fourth week of January 2001. A questionnaire was followed a week later by a medical occupational interview and a clinical dermatological examination, including a comprehensive patch test with potential workplace chemicals. The anamnesis and the clinical examination were made independently by occupational and dermatological physicians, and the skin examination was performed blinded to anamnestic data. The setting was the mother plants of a Danish-based international company producing wind turbine systems. The study population was a workplace cohort, highly exposed to epoxy resin systems and other chemicals, and totalled 724 production workers at 4 facilities. The rate of participation was 84.7%. Using enquete questions of current skin rash against the clinical presence of dermatitis, we found a sensitivity of 22% and a specificity of 89%, compared to 45% and 87%, respectively, when the anamnestic work history, taken by an occupational physician, was the screening parameter. Using 'workplace periodic prevalence' of dermatitis, we found sensitivities in the range of 63-76% by a questionnaire and 70-83% by medical anamnesis. Questionnaire screening by skin symptoms gave the highest values for redness, a sensitivity of 33% and a specificity of 76%, and decreasing validity parameters as more symptoms were added to the list of screening questions. We found that the use of a questionnaire and medical anamnesis were problematic, when the purpose was screening for contact dermatitis and allergy, in this industrial cohort manufacturing reinforced plastic products. But these instruments might be useful for epidemiological surveillance, when the questionnaire has been validated in the given occupational setting

  8. Validation Study of the Spanish Version of the Disability Assessment for Dementia Scale

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Pérez, Alicia; López-Roig, Sofía; Pérez, Ana Pampliega; Gómez, Paula Peral; Pastor, María Ángeles; Pomares, Miriam Hurtado

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to determine reliability and validity of the Spanish version of the Disability Assessment for Dementia Scale (DAD-E) in the following areas: content, response process, internal structure, and relation to other constructs. We designed a cross-sectional observational study. The DAD-E was administered to 132 participants diagnosed with mild cognitive decline, prodromal Alzheimer disease, Alzheimer disease, or no cognitive decline. For the reliability study, we performed analyses of internal consistency, test–retest, and equivalent measures. To study validity, we performed item analysis, principal components analysis, and correlations with other measures. The sample was composed of 37 healthy participants (28%) and 95 patients (72%). In the total scale, Cronbach alpha was 0.963, intraclass correlation coefficient in the test–retest analysis was 0.983 (95% CI [95% confidence interval] = 0.969–0.991), and the analysis for equivalent measures was 0.949 (95% CI = 0.897–0.975). Out of the 40 items, we found that 37 presented a correlation index with the total score above 0.40. The principal components analysis suggests that 61.7% of the variance is explained by a single component that groups all scores on Activities of Daily Living. The DAD total score presents correlations with Barthel's Index of 0.882 (P = 0.000) and with Lawton and Brodie's Index of 0.877 (P = 0.000) and with the Mini Mental State Examination of 0.679 (P = 0.000). The DAD-E is a reliable and valid instrument to assess functional disability in people with cognitive decline in Spanish population. PMID:26554794

  9. Psychometric Validation Study of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale - Self-Reported Version for Brazilian Portuguese

    PubMed Central

    Forni dos Santos, Larissa; Loureiro, Sonia Regina; Crippa, José Alexandre de Souza; Osório, Flávia de Lima

    2013-01-01

    Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is prevalent and rarely diagnosed due to the difficulty in recognizing its symptoms as belonging to a disorder. Therefore, the evaluation/screening scales are of great importance for its detection, with the most used being the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS). Thus, this study proposed to evaluate the psychometric properties of internal consistency and convergent validity, as well as the confirmatory factorial analysis and reliability of the self-reported version of the LSAS (LSAS-SR), translated into Brazilian Portuguese, in a sample of the general population (N = 413) and in a SAD clinical sample (N = 252). The convergent validity with specific scales for the evaluation of SAD and a general anxiety scale presented correlations ranging from 0.21 to 0.84. The confirmatory factorial analysis did not replicate the previously indicated findings of the literature, with the difficulty being in obtaining a consensus factorial structure common to the diverse cultures in which the instrument was studied. The LSAS-SR presented excellent internal consistency (α = 0.90–0.96) and test-retest reliability (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient = 0.81; Pearson’s = 0.82). The present findings support those of international studies that attest to the excellent psychometric properties of the LSAS-SR, endorsing its status as the gold standard. PMID:23922961

  10. Physics validation studies for muon collider detector background simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Aaron Owen; /Northern Illinois U.

    2011-07-01

    Within the broad discipline of physics, the study of the fundamental forces of nature and the most basic constituents of the universe belongs to the field of particle physics. While frequently referred to as 'high-energy physics,' or by the acronym 'HEP,' particle physics is not driven just by the quest for ever-greater energies in particle accelerators. Rather, particle physics is seen as having three distinct areas of focus: the cosmic, intensity, and energy frontiers. These three frontiers all provide different, but complementary, views of the basic building blocks of the universe. Currently, the energy frontier is the realm of hadron colliders like the Tevatron at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) or the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. While the LHC is expected to be adequate for explorations up to 14 TeV for the next decade, the long development lead time for modern colliders necessitates research and development efforts in the present for the next generation of colliders. This paper focuses on one such next-generation machine: a muon collider. Specifically, this paper focuses on Monte Carlo simulations of beam-induced backgrounds vis-a-vis detector region contamination. Initial validation studies of a few muon collider physics background processes using G4beamline have been undertaken and results presented. While these investigations have revealed a number of hurdles to getting G4beamline up to the level of more established simulation suites, such as MARS, the close communication between us, as users, and the G4beamline developer, Tom Roberts, has allowed for rapid implementation of user-desired features. The main example of user-desired feature implementation, as it applies to this project, is Bethe-Heitler muon production. Regarding the neutron interaction issues, we continue to study the specifics of how GEANT4 implements nuclear interactions. The GEANT4 collaboration has been contacted regarding the minor discrepancies in the neutron

  11. Validation of the Spanish Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression and Zung Self-Rating Depression Scales: A Comparative Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Arevalo, Jorge M.; Chavez, Kristhy; Vilela, Ana; Lazo, Maria; Huapaya, Julio

    2012-01-01

    Background Depressive disorders are leading contributors to burden of disease in developing countries. Research aiming to improve their diagnosis and treatment is fundamental in these settings, and psychometric tools are widely used instruments to support mental health research. Our aim is to validate and compare the psychometric properties of the Spanish versions of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZSDS). Methodology/Principal Findings A Spanish version of the CES-D was revised by 5 native Spanish speaking psychiatrists using as reference the English version. A locally standardized Spanish version of the ZSDS was used. These Spanish versions were administered to 70 patients with a clinical diagnosis of DSM-IV Major Depressive Episode (MDE), 63 without major depression but with clinical diagnosis of other psychiatric disorders (OPD), and 61 with no evidence of psychiatric disorders (NEP). For both scales, Cronbach's alpha (C-α) and Hierarchical McDonald Omega for polychoric variables (MD-Ω) were estimated; and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis performed. For the CES-D and ZSDS scales, C-α was 0.93 and 0.89 respectively, while MD-Ω was 0.90 and 0.75 respectively. The area under the ROC curve in MDE+OPD was 0.83 for CES-D and 0.84 for ZSDS; and in MDE+NEP was 0.98 for CES-D and 0.96 for ZSDS. Cut-off scores (co) for the highest proportions of correctly classified (cc) individuals among MDE+OPD were ≥29 for CES-D (sensitivity (ss) = 77.1/specificity (sp) = 79.4%/(cc) = 78.2%) and ≥47 for ZSDS (ss = 85.7%/sp = 71.4%/cc = 78.9%). In the MDE+NEP, co were ≥24 for the CES-D (ss = 91.4%/sp = 96.7%/cc = 93.9%) and ≥45 for the ZSDS (ss = 91.4%/sp = 91.8%/cc = 91.6%). Conclusion Spanish versions of the CES-D and ZSDS are valid instruments to detect depression in clinical settings and could be useful for both epidemiological

  12. Study on the Validity and Reliability of Melbourne Decision Making Scale in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çolakkadioglu, Oguzhan; Deniz, M. Engin

    2015-01-01

    This study is to analyze the validity and reliability of Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire (MDMQ). The sample consisted of 650 university students. The structural validity of the MDMQ, as well as correlations among its sub-scales, measure-bound validity, internal consistency, item total correlations and test-retest reliability coefficients…

  13. Fun and Games: The Validity of Games for the Study of Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Barry R.; Bonoma, Thomas V.

    1978-01-01

    Examines claimed advantages and criticisms of the use of games in the study of social conflict, differentiating the advantages and criticisms into questions of internal validity, external validity, and ecological validity. Available from: Sage Publications, Inc., 275 South Beverly Drive, Beverly Hills, California 90212. (JG)

  14. Contributions of Middle Grade Students to the Validation Process of a National Science Assessment Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morell, Linda

    2008-01-01

    This study used a national validity project to investigate specific research questions regarding the intersections among aspects of validity, educational measurement, and cognitive theory. Validity evidence was collected through traditional paper and pencil tests, surveys, think-alouds, and exit interviews of fifth and sixth grade students, as…

  15. Propeller aircraft interior noise model utilization study and validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    Utilization and validation of a computer program designed for aircraft interior noise prediction is considered. The program, entitled PAIN (an acronym for Propeller Aircraft Interior Noise), permits (in theory) predictions of sound levels inside propeller driven aircraft arising from sidewall transmission. The objective of the work reported was to determine the practicality of making predictions for various airplanes and the extent of the program's capabilities. The ultimate purpose was to discern the quality of predictions for tonal levels inside an aircraft occurring at the propeller blade passage frequency and its harmonics. The effort involved three tasks: (1) program validation through comparisons of predictions with scale-model test results; (2) development of utilization schemes for large (full scale) fuselages; and (3) validation through comparisons of predictions with measurements taken in flight tests on a turboprop aircraft. Findings should enable future users of the program to efficiently undertake and correctly interpret predictions.

  16. Propeller aircraft interior noise model utilization study and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, L. D.

    1984-09-01

    Utilization and validation of a computer program designed for aircraft interior noise prediction is considered. The program, entitled PAIN (an acronym for Propeller Aircraft Interior Noise), permits (in theory) predictions of sound levels inside propeller driven aircraft arising from sidewall transmission. The objective of the work reported was to determine the practicality of making predictions for various airplanes and the extent of the program's capabilities. The ultimate purpose was to discern the quality of predictions for tonal levels inside an aircraft occurring at the propeller blade passage frequency and its harmonics. The effort involved three tasks: (1) program validation through comparisons of predictions with scale-model test results; (2) development of utilization schemes for large (full scale) fuselages; and (3) validation through comparisons of predictions with measurements taken in flight tests on a turboprop aircraft. Findings should enable future users of the program to efficiently undertake and correctly interpret predictions.

  17. Validation of the self-reported hearing questions in the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing against the Whispered Voice Test

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Self report questions are often used in population studies to assess sensory efficacy and decline. These questions differ in their validity in assessing sensory impairment depending on the wording of the question and the characteristics of the population. We tested the validity of the self-report questions on hearing efficacy (self reported hearing, ability in following a conversation, use of a telephone and use of hearing aids) used in The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA). Methods We tested sensitivity and specificity, positive and negative predictive values of each question against the Whispered Voice Test, a relatively easy to administer and cost effective alternative to the standard audiometric test. Results In this population the question ‘Is your hearing (with or without a hearing appliance)/ Excellent/Very Good/Good/Fair/Poor?’ showed the best diagnostic value in relation to the other questions (sensitivity 55.56% and specificity 94.67%). The question ‘Can you use a normal telephone?’ was deemed ineffective because of a very poor sensitivity (5.56%) and was proposed for exclusion from subsequent waves of TILDA. Conclusions We showed that this validity check was useful to select the questions that most effectively assess hearing deficits and provided crucial information for the subsequent waves. We argue that longitudinal studies using self-reports of sensory efficacy would benefit from a similar check. PMID:24928453

  18. The EU-Emotion Stimulus Set: A validation study.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Helen; Pigat, Delia; Fridenson, Shimrit; Berggren, Steve; Tal, Shahar; Golan, Ofer; Bölte, Sven; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Lundqvist, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    The EU-Emotion Stimulus Set is a newly developed collection of dynamic multimodal emotion and mental state representations. A total of 20 emotions and mental states are represented through facial expressions, vocal expressions, body gestures and contextual social scenes. This emotion set is portrayed by a multi-ethnic group of child and adult actors. Here we present the validation results, as well as participant ratings of the emotional valence, arousal and intensity of the visual stimuli from this emotion stimulus set. The EU-Emotion Stimulus Set is available for use by the scientific community and the validation data are provided as a supplement available for download. PMID:26424443

  19. Simulation verification techniques study. Subsystem simulation validation techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, L. M.; Reddell, J. P.; Schoonmaker, P. B.

    1974-01-01

    Techniques for validation of software modules which simulate spacecraft onboard systems are discussed. An overview of the simulation software hierarchy for a shuttle mission simulator is provided. A set of guidelines for the identification of subsystem/module performance parameters and critical performance parameters are presented. Various sources of reference data to serve as standards of performance for simulation validation are identified. Environment, crew station, vehicle configuration, and vehicle dynamics simulation software are briefly discussed from the point of view of their interfaces with subsystem simulation modules. A detailed presentation of results in the area of vehicle subsystems simulation modules is included. A list of references, conclusions and recommendations are also given.

  20. Lessons Learned from CFD Validation Study of Protuberance Heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, Brandon; Blaisdell, Greogory

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this presentation are: (1) Share lessons learned from a recent exercise in CFD validation of protuberance heating (2) Impact of experimental data reduction assumptions and techniques on validation activity (3) Advanced data reduction techniques may provide useful data from non-typical test methods (4) Significance of the recovery factor for high-speed flows (5) Show typical results of the Lag turbulence model on protuberances (6) Introduce and inform the listener of a protuberance heating dataset which will soon be available for comparison

  1. Accounting for population stratification in DNA methylation studies.

    PubMed

    Barfield, Richard T; Almli, Lynn M; Kilaru, Varun; Smith, Alicia K; Mercer, Kristina B; Duncan, Richard; Klengel, Torsten; Mehta, Divya; Binder, Elisabeth B; Epstein, Michael P; Ressler, Kerry J; Conneely, Karen N

    2014-04-01

    DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mechanism that has been linked to complex diseases and is of great interest to researchers as a potential link between genome, environment, and disease. As the scale of DNA methylation association studies approaches that of genome-wide association studies, issues such as population stratification will need to be addressed. It is well-documented that failure to adjust for population stratification can lead to false positives in genetic association studies, but population stratification is often unaccounted for in DNA methylation studies. Here, we propose several approaches to correct for population stratification using principal components (PCs) from different subsets of genome-wide methylation data. We first illustrate the potential for confounding due to population stratification by demonstrating widespread associations between DNA methylation and race in 388 individuals (365 African American and 23 Caucasian). We subsequently evaluate the performance of our PC-based approaches and other methods in adjusting for confounding due to population stratification. Our simulations show that (1) all of the methods considered are effective at removing inflation due to population stratification, and (2) maximum power can be obtained with single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based PCs, followed by methylation-based PCs, which outperform both surrogate variable analysis and genomic control. Among our different approaches to computing methylation-based PCs, we find that PCs based on CpG sites chosen for their potential to proxy nearby SNPs can provide a powerful and computationally efficient approach to adjust for population stratification in DNA methylation studies when genome-wide SNP data are unavailable. PMID:24478250

  2. Survival and population size estimation in raptor studies: A comparison of two methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gould, William R.; Fuller, Mark R.

    1995-01-01

    ABSTRACT.--The Jolly-Seber model is a capture-recapture model that can provide less-biased survival and population size estimates than those produced from simple counting procedures. Parameter estimation by simple counts and Jolly-Seber methods are based on certain assumptions that directly determine the validity of estimates. Evuluation of assumptions for parameter estimation is a focus of this paper and used as a basis for determining which methods are more likely to produce better estimates. An example of population size and survival estimation for a peregrine falcon(Falco peregrinus) population in western Greenland is used to compare the two methods.Based on results from the Greenland peregrine population, and an assessment of the underlying assumptions of simple counts and the Jolly-Seber model,we suggest that Jolly-Seber estimation of survival and population size is less biased than simple counts in studies with marked birds. We recommend the use of a Jolly-Seber analysis of data when capture-recapture techniques are employed in raptor population studies.

  3. Reproducibility and Validity of a Food Frequency Questionnaire for Assessing Dietary Consumption via the Dietary Pattern Method in a Chinese Rural Population

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xudong; Wang, Xiaorong; Lin, Sihao; Song, Qingkun; Lao, Xiangqian; Yu, Ignatius Tak-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to assess the reproducibility and validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) that was developed to assess the overall dietary consumption via dietary pattern method in a rural population in southwest China. Methods A total of 179 participants aged between 40 and 70 years old were included in this study. Participants administered FFQ at baseline (FFQ1) and one year later (FFQ2) to assess the reproducibility. Six 3-day 24-hour recalls (24HRs) were completed between the administrations of two FFQs to determine the validity. Dietary patterns from three separate dietary sources were derived by using principle component factor analysis. Comparisons between dietary pattern scores were made by using Pearson or intraclass correlation coefficient, cross-classification analysis, weighted kappa (κ) statistic and Bland-Altman analysis. The de-attenuated method was adopted to correct the monthly and seasonally variation and the partial correlation analysis was used correct the influence by total energy intake. Results Two major dietary factors, labeled as prudent pattern and processed food pattern, were identified. The prudent pattern was characterized by higher factor loadings of wheat, rice, fresh vegetables, bean products, nuts, red meat, white meat and fresh eggs; and the processed food pattern was characterized by higher factor loadings of pickled vegetables, preserved vegetables and salted meat. Between Two FFQs, intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.57 for prudent pattern and 0.55 for processed food pattern, partial Pearson correlation coefficients were 0.51 for the prudent pattern and 0.56 for the processed food pattern; weighted κ statistic ranged from 0.45 (for the prudent pattern) to 0.56 (for the processed food pattern). Between FFQs and 24HRs, de-attenuated correlation coefficients ranged from 0.54 to 0.78 for the prudent pattern and from 0.55 to 0.61 for the processed food pattern; partial Pearson correlation

  4. Individualizing Pharmacotherapy in Patients with Renal Impairment: The Validity of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Formula in Specific Patient Populations with a Glomerular Filtration Rate below 60 Ml/Min. A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kramers, Cornelis; Derijks, Hieronymus J.; Wensing, Michel; Wetzels, Jack F. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula is widely used in clinical practice to assess the correct drug dose. This formula is based on serum creatinine levels which might be influenced by chronic diseases itself or the effects of the chronic diseases. We conducted a systematic review to determine the validity of the MDRD formula in specific patient populations with renal impairment: elderly, hospitalized and obese patients, patients with cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases, diabetes mellitus, liver cirrhosis and human immunodeficiency virus. Methods and Findings We searched for articles in Pubmed published from January 1999 through January 2014. Selection criteria were (1) patients with a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) < 60 ml/min (/1.73m2), (2) MDRD formula compared with a gold standard and (3) statistical analysis focused on bias, precision and/or accuracy. Data extraction was done by the first author and checked by a second author. A bias of 20% or less, a precision of 30% or less and an accuracy expressed as P30% of 80% or higher were indicators of the validity of the MDRD formula. In total we included 27 studies. The number of patients included ranged from 8 to 1831. The gold standard and measurement method used varied across the studies. For none of the specific patient populations the studies provided sufficient evidence of validity of the MDRD formula regarding the three parameters. For patients with diabetes mellitus and liver cirrhosis, hospitalized patients and elderly with moderate to severe renal impairment we concluded that the MDRD formula is not valid. Limitations of the review are the lack of considering the method of measuring serum creatinine levels and the type of gold standard used. Conclusion In several specific patient populations with renal impairment the use of the MDRD formula is not valid or has uncertain validity. PMID:25741695

  5. Columbia River Stock Identification Study; Validation of Genetic Method, 1980-1981 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Milner, George B.; Teel, David J.; Utter, Fred M.

    1981-06-01

    The reliability of a method for obtaining maximum likelihood estimate of component stocks in mixed populations of salmonids through the frequency of genetic variants in a mixed population and in potentially contributing stocks was tested in 1980. A data base of 10 polymorphic loci from 14 hatchery stocks of spring chinook salmon of the Columbia River was used to estimate proportions of these stocks in four different blind'' mixtures whose true composition was only revealed subsequent to obtaining estimates. The accuracy and precision of these blind tests have validated the genetic method as a valuable means for identifying components of stock mixtures. Properties of the genetic method were further examined by simulation studies using the pooled data of the four blind tests as a mixed fishery. Replicated tests with samples sizes between 100 and 1,000 indicated that actual standard deviations on estimated contributions were consistently lower than calculated standard deviations; this difference diminished as sample size increased. It is recommended that future applications of the method be preceded by simulation studies that will identify appropriate levels of sampling required for acceptable levels of accuracy and precision. Variables in such studies include the stocks involved, the loci used, and the genetic differentiation among stocks. 8 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Training Objectives, Transfer, Validation and Evaluation: A Sri Lankan Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickramasinghe, Vathsala M.

    2006-01-01

    Using a stratified random sample, this paper examines the training practices of setting objectives, transfer, validation and evaluation in Sri Lanka. The paper further sets out to compare those practices across local, foreign and joint-venture companies based on the assumption that there may be significant differences across companies of different…

  7. Public health preparedness and response capacity inventory validity study.

    PubMed

    Costich, Julia Field; Scutchfield, F Douglas

    2004-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Public Health Practice Program Office has issued a Public Health Preparedness and Response Capacity Inventory to help state and local public health systems assess their progress towards achievement of the critical capacities and benchmarks specified in the federal Supplemental Funds for Public Health Preparedness and Response for Bioterrorism. The criterion validity of the capacity inventory was assessed by comparing selected state and local agency responses with documentation provided by the agencies to corroborate their answers. Content validity assessment took the form of a mailed survey that also identified the most important questions from the perspective of a separate set of state and local officials. Responses generally upheld the validity of the capacity inventory, although circumstantial threats to validity were identified in the testing process. The instrument's use has been reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention by approximately half the states and over 800 local public health entities. An interactive electronic version includes a scoring mechanism that allows agencies to judge progress towards the critical capacities and benchmarks over time. PMID:15253518

  8. Ecological Validity in Eye-Tracking: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinner, Patti; Gass, Susan M.; Behney, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Eye-trackers are becoming increasingly widespread as a tool to investigate second language (L2) acquisition. Unfortunately, clear standards for methodology--including font size, font type, and placement of interest areas--are not yet available. Although many researchers stress the need for ecological validity--that is, the simulation of natural…

  9. A Validity Study of the Salter Environmental Type Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Daniel W.

    2002-01-01

    Correlational analyses of data from 202 students on the Work Environment Scale and Salter Environmental Type Assessment (SETA) supported concurrent validity. Factor analysis identified three factors accounting for 70% of variance: positive work settings, structure, and work pressure/task orientation. SETA appears useful as a commensurate Myers…

  10. Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale: Two Studies of Convergent Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trout, Alexandra L.; Ryan, Joseph B.; La Vigne, Steven P.; Epstein, Michael H.

    2003-01-01

    As the field of mental health services shifts its focus to early intervention, the need to develop valid and reliable measures of young children's behavioral functioning is clear. Traditional assessment instruments have focused on deficits, problems, and pathologies to the exclusion of strengths and competencies. However, assessing child strengths…

  11. Measuring Elementary Student's Mathematics Motivation: A Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orosco, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The psychometric properties of a 10-item math motivation scale were empirically validated with an independent sample consisting of 182 elementary-school students. Analysis of the model dimensionality supported a one-factor structure fit. Item parameter estimates from a Classical Test Theory framework revealed that most items were highly…

  12. The Validity and Reliability Study of the Sports Facility Utilization Scale of University Students: The Case of Karabük University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceyhun, Serdar

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to develop a valid and reliable measurement instrument with the intent of determining the interest levels of university students towards utilizing sports facilities. In the context, target population of the study consists of the Karabük University while its sampling consists of 700 (290 females and 410 males) students who study in…

  13. Reliability and Construct Validity of Two Versions of Chalder Fatigue Scale among the General Population in Mainland China

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Meng-Juan; Lin, Wei-Quan; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Jia-Ji; Tang, Jie; Jiang, En-She; Lei, Yi-Xiong; Wang, Pei-Xi

    2016-01-01

    The 14-item Chalder Fatigue Scale (CFS) is widely used, while the 11-item version is seldom to be found in current research in mainland China. The objectives of the present study is to compare the reliability and construct validity between these two versions and to confirm which may be better for the mainland Chinese setting. Based on a cross-sectional health survey with a constructive questionnaire, 1887 individuals aged 18 years or above were selected. Socio-demographic, health-related, gynecological data were collected, and 11-item and 14-item Chalder Fatigue Scale (CFS) were used to assess fatigue. Confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) were performed to test the fit of models of the two versions. Confirmatory factor analysis of the two versions of CFS did not support the two-factor theorized models. In addition, a three-factor ESEM model of the 11-item version, but not the 14-item version, showed better factor structure and fitness than the other models examined. Both the versions had good internal consistency reliability and a satisfactory internal consistency (Ω = 0.78–0.96, omega coefficient indicates the internal consistency reliability) was obtained from the optimal model. This study provided evidence for satisfactory reliability and structural validity for the three-factor model of the 11-item version, which was proven to be superior to the 14-item version for this data. PMID:26805863

  14. Reliability and Construct Validity of Two Versions of Chalder Fatigue Scale among the General Population in Mainland China.

    PubMed

    Jing, Meng-Juan; Lin, Wei-Quan; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Jia-Ji; Tang, Jie; Jiang, En-She; Lei, Yi-Xiong; Wang, Pei-Xi

    2016-01-01

    The 14-item Chalder Fatigue Scale (CFS) is widely used, while the 11-item version is seldom to be found in current research in mainland China. The objectives of the present study is to compare the reliability and construct validity between these two versions and to confirm which may be better for the mainland Chinese setting. Based on a cross-sectional health survey with a constructive questionnaire, 1887 individuals aged 18 years or above were selected. Socio-demographic, health-related, gynecological data were collected, and 11-item and 14-item Chalder Fatigue Scale (CFS) were used to assess fatigue. Confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) were performed to test the fit of models of the two versions. Confirmatory factor analysis of the two versions of CFS did not support the two-factor theorized models. In addition, a three-factor ESEM model of the 11-item version, but not the 14-item version, showed better factor structure and fitness than the other models examined. Both the versions had good internal consistency reliability and a satisfactory internal consistency (Ω = 0.78-0.96, omega coefficient indicates the internal consistency reliability) was obtained from the optimal model. This study provided evidence for satisfactory reliability and structural validity for the three-factor model of the 11-item version, which was proven to be superior to the 14-item version for this data. PMID:26805863

  15. A rangewide population genetic study of trumpeter swans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oyler-McCance, S.J.; Ransler, F.A.; Berkman, L.K.; Quinn, T.W.

    2007-01-01

    For management purposes, the range of naturally occurring trumpeter swans (Cygnus buccinator) has been divided into two populations, the Pacific Coast Population (PP) and the Rocky Mountain Population (RMP). Little is known about the distribution of genetic variation across the species' range despite increasing pressure to make difficult management decisions regarding the two populations and flocks within them. To address this issue, we used rapidly evolving genetic markers (mitochondrial DNA sequence and 17 nuclear microsatellite loci) to elucidate the underlying genetic structure of the species. Data from both markers revealed a significant difference between the PP and RMP with the Yukon Territory as a likely area of overlap. Additionally, we found that the two populations have somewhat similar levels of genetic diversity (PP is slightly higher) suggesting that the PP underwent a population bottleneck similar to a well-documented one in the RMP. Both genetic structure and diversity results reveal that the Tri-State flock, a suspected unique, non-migratory flock, is not genetically different from the Canadian flock of the RMP and need not be treated as a unique population from a genetic standpoint. Finally, trumpeter swans appear to have much lower mitochondrial DNA variability than other waterfowl studied thus far which may suggest a previous, species-wide bottleneck. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  16. What makes a BIA equation unique? Validity of 8-electrode multifrequency-BIA to estimate body compostion in a healthy adult population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The validity of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) for body composition analysis is limited by assumptions relating to body shape. Improvement in BIA technology could overcome these limitations and reduce the population specificity of the BIA algorithm. BIA equations for the prediction of fat ...

  17. Systematic validation of disease models for pharmacoeconomic evaluations. Swiss HIV Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Sendi, P P; Craig, B A; Pfluger, D; Gafni, A; Bucher, H C

    1999-08-01

    Pharmacoeconomic evaluations are often based on computer models which simulate the course of disease with and without medical interventions. The purpose of this study is to propose and illustrate a rigorous approach for validating such disease models. For illustrative purposes, we applied this approach to a computer-based model we developed to mimic the history of HIV-infected subjects at the greatest risk for Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection in Switzerland. The drugs included as a prophylactic intervention against MAC infection were azithromycin and clarithromycin. We used a homogenous Markov chain to describe the progression of an HIV-infected patient through six MAC-free states, one MAC state, and death. Probability estimates were extracted from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study database (1993-95) and randomized controlled trials. The model was validated testing for (1) technical validity (2) predictive validity (3) face validity and (4) modelling process validity. Sensitivity analysis and independent model implementation in DATA (PPS) and self-written Fortran 90 code (BAC) assured technical validity. Agreement between modelled and observed MAC incidence confirmed predictive validity. Modelled MAC prophylaxis at different starting conditions affirmed face validity. Published articles by other authors supported modelling process validity. The proposed validation procedure is a useful approach to improve the validity of the model. PMID:10461580

  18. Cold intolerance of the hand measured by the CISS questionnaire in a normative study population.

    PubMed

    Ruijs, A C J; Jaquet, J-B; Daanen, H A M; Hovius, S E R

    2006-10-01

    Cold intolerance has been recognized as one of the most disabling sequelae of upper extremity trauma, especially when neurovascular structures are involved. In this study, we aimed to describe cold intolerance in a normative study population, validate the Cold Intolerance Symptom Severity (CISS) questionnaire and define the threshold for abnormal cold intolerance. One hundred and eight volunteers participated in our study. In addition to the CISS score, information about age, gender and previous surgery or trauma to the upper extremity was obtained. There were no volunteers with previous peripheral nerve injury and subjects with a history of Raynaud's disease, upper extremity injury or surgery were excluded (n=40). The CISS scores of the study population (n=68) averaged 12.9 (SD 8.2). Age and gender were not correlated with CISS score. The upper 95% confidence interval of the CISS scores for healthy subjects is about 30. We suggest this value as a threshold for pathological cold intolerance. PMID:16808991

  19. Environmental education curriculum evaluation questionnaire: A reliability and validity study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minner, Daphne Diane

    The intention of this research project was to bridge the gap between social science research and application to the environmental domain through the development of a theoretically derived instrument designed to give educators a template by which to evaluate environmental education curricula. The theoretical base for instrument development was provided by several developmental theories such as Piaget's theory of cognitive development, Developmental Systems Theory, Life-span Perspective, as well as curriculum research within the area of environmental education. This theoretical base fueled the generation of a list of components which were then translated into a questionnaire with specific questions relevant to the environmental education domain. The specific research question for this project is: Can a valid assessment instrument based largely on human development and education theory be developed that reliably discriminates high, moderate, and low quality in environmental education curricula? The types of analyses conducted to answer this question were interrater reliability (percent agreement, Cohen's Kappa coefficient, Pearson's Product-Moment correlation coefficient), test-retest reliability (percent agreement, correlation), and criterion-related validity (correlation). Face validity and content validity were also assessed through thorough reviews. Overall results indicate that 29% of the questions on the questionnaire demonstrated a high level of interrater reliability and 43% of the questions demonstrated a moderate level of interrater reliability. Seventy-one percent of the questions demonstrated a high test-retest reliability and 5% a moderate level. Fifty-five percent of the questions on the questionnaire were reliable (high or moderate) both across time and raters. Only eight questions (8%) did not show either interrater or test-retest reliability. The global overall rating of high, medium, or low quality was reliable across both coders and time, indicating

  20. Structural Validity of the Tonic Immobility Scale in a Population Exposed to Trauma: Evidence from Two Large Brazilian Samples

    PubMed Central

    Reichenheim, Michael; Souza, Wanderson; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Figueira, Ivan; Quintana, Maria Inês; de Mello, Marcelo Feijó; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca; de Jesus Mari, Jair; Andreoli, Sergio Baxter

    2014-01-01

    Background Tonic Immobility is a temporary state of motor inhibition in situations involving extreme fear. The first scale developed for its assessment was the 10-item Tonic Immobility Scale (TIS). However, there are still few studies on its structural (dimensional) validity. The objective of this study was to reassess the factor structure of the TIS applied to representative samples exposed to general trauma of two Brazilian mega-cities. Methods The sample comprised 3,223 participants reporting at least one traumatic experience. In São Paulo (n = 2,148), a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) first tested the originally proposed two-dimensional structure. This was followed by sequential Exploratory Structural Equation Models to identify the best fitting model, and subsequently tested in Rio de Janeiro (n = 1,075) via CFA. Alternative reduced versions were further explored using the aggregate sample. Model-based Item Response Theory (IRT) location parameters were also investigated. Results An absence of factor-based convergent and discriminant validity rejected the original proposition. However, the one-dimensional structure still held several residual correlations. Further exploration indicated the sustainability of reduced versions with seven (alternative A) and six (alternative B) items. Both presented excellent fit and no relevant residual item correlation. According to the IRT location parameters, items in alternative B covered a wider range of the latent trait. The Loevinger's H scalability coefficients underscored this pattern. Conclusions The original model did not hold. A one-factor solution was the most tenable in both large samples, but with significant item residual correlations, indicating that content redundancies persisted. Further reduced and simplified versions of the TIS proved promising. Although studies are yet to be carried out in other settings, it is the authors' impression that the restricted versions of the TIS are already apt for

  1. Incorporating Case Studies into a World Food and Population Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Econopouly, Bethany F.; Byrne, Patrick F.; Johnson, Marc A.

    2010-01-01

    The use of case studies in college courses can increase student engagement with the subject matter and improve analytical, problem-solving, and communication skills. Case studies were introduced in a relatively large (54 students) undergraduate world food and population course at Colorado State University in the spring semester of 2008 and…

  2. DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE NHEXAS-ARIZONA BORDER STUDY POPULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NHEXAS-Arizona Border Study employed a population based probability design to recruit a representative cohort residing within 40 Km of the US-Mexico Border in Arizona. As an extension of the NHEXAS Arizona statewide survey, the border study was designed to determine the dis...

  3. Ancient population genomics and the study of evolution

    PubMed Central

    Parks, M.; Subramanian, S.; Baroni, C.; Salvatore, M. C.; Zhang, G.; Millar, C. D.; Lambert, D. M.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the study of ancient DNA (aDNA) has been greatly enhanced by the development of second-generation DNA sequencing technologies and targeted enrichment strategies. These developments have allowed the recovery of several complete ancient genomes, a result that would have been considered virtually impossible only a decade ago. Prior to these developments, aDNA research was largely focused on the recovery of short DNA sequences and their use in the study of phylogenetic relationships, molecular rates, species identification and population structure. However, it is now possible to sequence a large number of modern and ancient complete genomes from a single species and thereby study the genomic patterns of evolutionary change over time. Such a study would herald the beginnings of ancient population genomics and its use in the study of evolution. Species that are amenable to such large-scale studies warrant increased research effort. We report here progress on a population genomic study of the Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae). This species is ideally suited to ancient population genomic research because both modern and ancient samples are abundant in the permafrost conditions of Antarctica. This species will enable us to directly address many of the fundamental questions in ecology and evolution. PMID:25487332

  4. A Serious Game for Clinical Assessment of Cognitive Status: Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Chignell, Mark; Tierney, Mary C.; Lee, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Background We propose the use of serious games to screen for abnormal cognitive status in situations where it may be too costly or impractical to use standard cognitive assessments (eg, emergency departments). If validated, serious games in health care could enable broader availability of efficient and engaging cognitive screening. Objective The objective of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of a game-based cognitive assessment delivered on tablet technology to a clinical sample and to conduct preliminary validation against standard mental status tools commonly used in elderly populations. Methods We carried out a feasibility study in a hospital emergency department to evaluate the use of a serious game by elderly adults (N=146; age: mean 80.59, SD 6.00, range 70-94 years). We correlated game performance against a number of standard assessments, including the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), and the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM). Results After a series of modifications, the game could be used by a wide range of elderly patients in the emergency department demonstrating its feasibility for use with these users. Of 146 patients, 141 (96.6%) consented to participate and played our serious game. Refusals to play the game were typically due to concerns of family members rather than unwillingness of the patient to play the game. Performance on the serious game correlated significantly with the MoCA (r=–.339, P <.001) and MMSE (r=–.558, P <.001), and correlated (point-biserial correlation) with the CAM (r=.565, P <.001) and with other cognitive assessments. Conclusions This research demonstrates the feasibility of using serious games in a clinical setting. Further research is required to demonstrate the validity and reliability of game-based assessments for clinical decision making. PMID:27234145

  5. Relative validity of the geisinger rural aging study food frequency questionniare

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To determine the relative validity of a population specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and evaluate the effectiveness of the instrument for assessing nutritional risk in older adults. Design: A cross-over design with participants completing two different dietary assessment inst...

  6. Validity and responsiveness of the Clubfoot Assessment Protocol (CAP). A methodological study

    PubMed Central

    Andriesse, Hanneke; Roos, Ewa M; Hägglund, Gunnar; Jarnlo, Gun-Britt

    2006-01-01

    compared with the Dimeglio. Conclusion The Clubfoot Assessment Protocol shows in this study good validity and responsiveness. The CAP is more responsive when severity ranges between mild – moderate to severe, while the Dimeglio focuses more on the extremes. The ability to discriminate between different mobility status of the right and left foot in bilaterally affected children in this population was higher compared with the Dimeglio score implicating a better sensitivity for the CAP. PMID:16539716

  7. EFFECTS OF CHRONIC STRESS ON WILDLIFE POPULATIONS: A POPULATION MODELING APPROACH AND CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter describes a matrix modeling approach to characterize and project risks to wildlife populations subject to chronic stress. Population matrix modeling was used to estimate effects of one class of environmental contaminants, dioxin-like compounds (DLCs), to populations ...

  8. The Austroasiatic Munda population from India and Its enigmatic origin: a HLA diversity study.

    PubMed

    Riccio, Maria Eugenia; Nunes, José Manuel; Rahal, Melissa; Kervaire, Barbara; Tiercy, Jean-Marie; Sanchez-Mazas, Alicia

    2011-06-01

    The Austroasiatic linguistic family disputes its origin between two geographically distant regions of Asia, India, and Southeast Asia, respectively. As genetic studies based on classical and gender-specific genetic markers provided contradictory results to this debate thus far, we investigated the HLA diversity (HLA-A, -B, and -DRB1 loci) of an Austroasiatic Munda population from Northeast India and its relationships with other populations from India and Southeast Asia. Because molecular methods currently used to test HLA markers often provide ambiguous results due to the high complexity of this polymorphism, we applied two different techniques (reverse PCR-SSO typing on microbeads arrays based on Luminex technology, and PCR-SSP typing) to type the samples. After validating the resulting frequency distributions through the original statistical method described in our companion article ( Nunes et al. 2011 ), we compared the HLA genetic profile of the sampled Munda to those of other Asiatic populations, among which Dravidian and Indo-European-speakers from India and populations from East and Southeast Asia speaking languages belonging to different linguistic families. We showed that the Munda from Northeast India exhibit a peculiar genetic profile with a reduced level of HLA diversity compared to surrounding Indian populations. They also exhibit less diversity than Southeast Asian populations except at locus DRB1. Several analyses using genetic distances indicate that the Munda are much more closely related to populations from the Indian subcontinent than to Southeast Asian populations speaking languages of the same Austroasiatic linguistic family. On the other hand, they do not share a closer relationship with Dravidians compared with Indo-Europeans, thus arguing against the idea that the Munda share a common and ancient Indian origin with Dravidians. Our results do not favor either a scenario where the Munda would be representative of an ancestral Austroasiatic

  9. Ethiopian population dermatoglyphic study reveals linguistic stratification of diversity.

    PubMed

    Yohannes, Seile; Bekele, Endashaw

    2015-01-01

    The manifestation of ethnic, blood type, & gender-wise population variations regarding Dermatoglyphic manifestations are of interest to assess intra-group diversity and differentiation. The present study reports on the analysis of qualitaive and quantitative finger Dermatoglyphic traits of 382 individuals cross-sectionally sampled from an administrative region of Ethiopia, consisting of five ethnic cohorts from the Afro-Asiatic & Nilo-Saharan affiliations. These Dermatoglyphic parameters were then applied in the assessment of diversity & differentiation, including Heterozygosity, Fixation, Panmixia, Wahlund's variance, Nei's measure of genetic diversity, and thumb & finger pattern genotypes, which were inturn used in homology inferences as summarized by a Neighbour-Joining tree constructed from Nei's standard genetic distance. Results revealed significant correlation between Dermatoglyphics & population parameters that were further found to be in concordance with the historical accounts of the ethnic groups. Such inductions as the ancient north-eastern presence and subsequent admixure events of the Oromos (PII= 15.01), the high diversity of the Amharas (H= 0.1978, F= 0.6453, and P= 0.4144), and the Nilo-Saharan origin of the Berta group (PII= 10.66) are evidences to this. The study has further tested the possibility of applying Dermatoglyphics in population genetic & anthropologic research, highlighting on the prospect of developing a method to trace back population origins & ancient movement patterns. Additionally, linguistic clustering was deemed significant for the Ethiopian population, coinciding with recent genome wide studies that have ascertained that linguistic clustering as to being more crucial than the geographical patterning in the Ethiopian context. Finally, Dermatoglyphic markers have been proven to be endowed with a strong potential as non-invasive preliminary tools applicable prior to genetic studies to analyze ethnically sub-divided populations and

  10. Studying Health Outcomes in Farmworker Populations Exposed to Pesticides

    PubMed Central

    McCauley, Linda A.; Anger, W. Kent; Keifer, Matthew; Langley, Rick; Robson, Mark G.; Rohlman, Diane

    2006-01-01

    A major goal of studying farmworkers is to better understand how their work environment, including exposure to pesticides, affects their health. Although a number of health conditions have been associated with pesticide exposure, clear linkages have yet to be made between exposure and health effects except in cases of acute pesticide exposure. In this article, we review the most common health end points that have been studied and describe the epidemiologic challenges encountered in studying these health effects of pesticides among farmworkers, including the difficulties in accessing the population and challenges associated with obtaining health end point data. The assessment of neurobehavioral health effects serves as one of the most common and best examples of an approach used to study health outcomes in farmworkers and other populations exposed to pesticides. We review the current limitations in neurobehavioral assessment and strategies to improve these analytical methods. Emerging techniques to improve our assessment of health effects associated with pesticide exposure are reviewed. These techniques, which in most cases have not been applied to farmworker populations, hold promise in our ability to study and understand the relationship between pesticide exposure and a variety of health effects in this population. PMID:16760000

  11. Validity of Internet-Based Longitudinal Study Data: The Elephant in the Virtual Room

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Kim M; Bronsvoort, B Mark C; Handel, Ian G; Clements, Dylan N

    2015-01-01

    Background Internet-based data collection relies on well-designed and validated questionnaires. The theory behind designing and validating questionnaires is well described, but few practical examples of how to approach validation are available in the literature. Objective We aimed to validate data collected in an ongoing Internet-based longitudinal health study through direct visits to participants and recall of their health records. We demonstrate that despite extensive pre-planning, social desirability can still affect data in unexpected ways and that anticipation of poor quality data may be confounded by positive validation. Methods Dogslife is a large-scale, Web-based longitudinal study of canine health, in which owners of Labrador Retrievers were recruited and questioned at regular intervals about the lifestyle and health of their dogs using an Internet-based questionnaire. The Dogslife questionnaire predominantly consists of closed-answer questions. In our work, two separate validation methodologies were used: (1) direct interviews with 43 participants during visits to their households and (2) comparison of owner-entered health reports with 139 historical health records. Results Our results indicate that user-derived measures should not be regarded as a single category; instead, each measurement should be considered separately as each presents its own challenge to participants. We recommend trying to ascertain the extent of recall decay within a study and, if necessary, using this to guide data collection timepoints and analyses. Finally, we recommend that multiple methods of communication facilitate validation studies and aid cohort engagement. Conclusions Our study highlighted how the theory underpinning online questionnaire design and validation translates into practical data issues when applied to Internet-based studies. Validation should be regarded as an extension of questionnaire design, and that validation work should commence as soon as sufficient

  12. Identifying risk for dementia across populations: A study on the prevalence of dementia in tribal elderly population of Himalayan region in Northern India

    PubMed Central

    Raina, Sunil Kumar; Raina, Sujeet; Chander, Vishav; Grover, Ashoo; Singh, Sukhjit; Bhardwaj, Ashok

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Studies have suggested that dementia is differentially distributed across populations with a lower prevalence in developing regions than the developed ones. A comparison in the prevalence of dementia across populations may provide an insight into its risk factors. Keeping this in view, a study was planned to evaluate the prevalence of dementia in tribal elderly population. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional comprehensive two-phase survey of all residents aged 60 years and older was conducted. Phase one involved screening of all individuals aged 60 and above with the help of a cognitive screen specifically developed for the tribal population. Phase two involved clinical examination of individuals who were suspected of dementia as per the developed cognitive screening test. Results: The results revealed that no individual above 60 years of age in the studied population was diagnosed as a case of dementia. Thereby, pointing out at some unknown factors, which are responsible for prevention of dementia. Discussion: The differences between the prevalence rate in this study and other studies in India appear to be a function of a valid regional difference. Environmental, phenotypic and genetic factors may contribute to regional and racial variations in dementia. Societies living in isolated hilly and tribal areas seem less predisposed to dementia, particularly age related neurodegenerative and vascular dementia, which are the most common causes for dementia in elderly. This may be because some environmental risk factors are much less prevalent in these settings. PMID:24339597

  13. Evaluating and validating abundance monitoring methods in the absence of populations of known size: review and application to a passive tracking index.

    PubMed

    Allen, Lee R; Engeman, Richard M

    2015-02-01

    Rarely is it possible to obtain absolute numbers in free-ranging populations and although various direct and indirect methods are used to estimate abundance, few are validated against populations of known size. In this paper, we apply grounding, calibration and verification methods, used to validate mathematical models, to methods of estimating relative abundance. To illustrate how this might be done, we consider and evaluate the widely applied passive tracking index (PTI) methodology. Using published data, we examine the rationality of PTI methodology, how conceptually animal activity and abundance are related and how alternative methods are subject to similar biases or produce similar abundance estimates and trends. We then attune the method against populations representing a range of densities likely to be encountered in the field. Finally, we compare PTI trends against a prediction that adjacent populations of the same species will have similar abundance values and trends in activity. We show that while PTI abundance estimates are subject to environmental and behavioural stochasticity peculiar to each species, the PTI method and associated variance estimate showed high probability of detection, high precision of abundance values and, generally, low variability between surveys, and suggest that the PTI method applied using this procedure and for these species provides a sensitive and credible index of abundance. This same or similar validation approach can and should be applied to alternative relative abundance methods in order to demonstrate their credibility and justify their use. PMID:25223358

  14. Validation and extension of the PREMM1,2 model in a population-based cohort of colorectal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Balaguer, Francesc; Balmaña, Judith; Castellví-Bel, Sergi; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Andreu, Montserrat; Llor, Xavier; Jover, Rodrigo; Syngal, Sapna; Castells, Antoni

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background and aims Early recognition of patients at risk for Lynch syndrome is critical but often difficult. Recently, a predictive algorithm -the PREMM1,2 model- has been developed to quantify the risk of carrying a germline mutation in the mismatch repair (MMR) genes, MLH1 and MSH2. However, its performance in an unselected, population-based colorectal cancer population as well as its performance in combination with tumor MMR testing are unknown. Methods We included all colorectal cancer cases from the EPICOLON study, a prospective, multicenter, population-based cohort (n=1,222). All patients underwent tumor microsatellite instability analysis and immunostaining for MLH1 and MSH2, and those with MMR deficiency (n=91) underwent tumor BRAF V600E mutation analysis and MLH1/MSH2 germline testing. Results The PREMM1,2 model with a ≥5% cut-off had a sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) of 100%, 68% and 2%, respectively. The use of a higher PREMM1,2 cut-off provided a higher specificity and PPV, at expense of a lower sensitivity. The combination of a ≥5% cut-off with tumor MMR testing maintained 100% sensitivity with an increased specificity (97%) and PPV (21%). The PPV of a PREMM1,2 score ≥20% alone (16%) approached the PPV obtained with PREMM1,2 score ≥5% combined with tumor MMR testing. In addition, a PREMM1,2 score of <5% was associated with a high likelihood of a BRAF V600E mutation. Conclusions The PREMM1,2 model is useful to identify MLH1/MSH2 mutation carriers among unselected colorectal cancer patients. Quantitative assessment of the genetic risk might be useful to decide on subsequent tumor MMR and germline testing. PMID:18061181

  15. Cartography and Population Geography as Current Events: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comenetz, Joshua

    2003-01-01

    The Sanders housing lawsuit in Pennsylvania provides a case study of how to incorporate current events into the teaching of cartography or population geography at the high school or college level. Settlement of the Sanders case resulted in the release of information about the segregation of public housing by race in the Pittsburgh area. The issues…

  16. Involving study populations in the review of genetic research.

    PubMed

    Sharp, R R; Foster, M W

    2000-01-01

    Genetic research can present risks to all members of a study population, not just those who choose to participate in research. The authors suggest that community-based reviews of research protocols can help identify and minimize such research-related risks. PMID:11067631

  17. COMPARISON OF SAMPLING TECHNIQUES USED IN STUDYING LEPIDOPTERA POPULATION DYNAMICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four methods (light traps, foliage samples, canvas bands, and gypsy moth egg mass surveys) that are used to study the population dynamics of foliage-feeding Lepidoptera were compared for 10 species, including gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. Samples were collected weekly at 12 sit...

  18. Turkish Adaptation of the Mentorship Effectiveness Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yirci, Ramazan; Karakose, Turgut; Uygun, Harun; Ozdemir, Tuncay Yavuz

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to adapt the Mentoring Relationship Effectiveness Scale to Turkish, and to conduct validity and reliability tests regarding the scale. The study group consisted of 156 university science students receiving graduate education. Construct validity and factor structure of the scale was analyzed first through exploratory…

  19. Conducting Licensure Validity Studies: The Need To Broaden the Evidentiary Base.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poggio, John P.; Glasnapp, Douglas R.; Green, Sam B.; Tollefson, Nona

    Findings are reported from a series of comprehensive and detailed empirical investigations that evaluated four different teacher certification paper-and-pencil tests through a typical content validation method and from three distinct and independent empirical validation studies of these devices. These latter studies can be understood as providing…

  20. Reliable Digit Span: A Systematic Review and Cross-Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Ryan W.; Twumasi-Ankrah, Philip; Baade, Lyle E.; Marshall, Paul S.

    2012-01-01

    Reliable Digit Span (RDS) is a heavily researched symptom validity test with a recent literature review yielding more than 20 studies ranging in dates from 1994 to 2011. Unfortunately, limitations within some of the research minimize clinical generalizability. This systematic review and cross-validation study was conducted to address these…

  1. A Global Population Genetic Study of Pantala flavescens

    PubMed Central

    Troast, Daniel; Suhling, Frank; Jinguji, Hiroshi; Sahlén, Göran; Ware, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Among terrestrial arthropods, the dragonfly species Pantala flavescens is remarkable due to their nearly global distribution and extensive migratory ranges; the largest of any known insect. Capable of migrating across oceans, the potential for high rates of gene flow among geographically distant populations is significant. It has been hypothesized that P. flavescens may be a global panmictic population but no sufficient genetic evidence has been collected thus far. Through a population genetic analysis of P. flavescens samples from North America, South America, and Asia, the current study aimed to examine the extent at which gene flow is occurring on a global scale and discusses the implications of the genetic patterns we uncovered on population structure and genetic diversity of the species. This was accomplished using PCR-amplified cytochrome oxidase one (CO1) mitochondrial DNA data to reconstruct phylogenetic trees, a haplotype network, and perform molecular variance analyses. Our results suggested high rates of gene flow are occurring among all included geographic regions; providing the first significant evidence that Pantala flavescens should be considered a global panmictic population. PMID:26934181

  2. A Global Population Genetic Study of Pantala flavescens.

    PubMed

    Troast, Daniel; Suhling, Frank; Jinguji, Hiroshi; Sahlén, Göran; Ware, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Among terrestrial arthropods, the dragonfly species Pantala flavescens is remarkable due to their nearly global distribution and extensive migratory ranges; the largest of any known insect. Capable of migrating across oceans, the potential for high rates of gene flow among geographically distant populations is significant. It has been hypothesized that P. flavescens may be a global panmictic population but no sufficient genetic evidence has been collected thus far. Through a population genetic analysis of P. flavescens samples from North America, South America, and Asia, the current study aimed to examine the extent at which gene flow is occurring on a global scale and discusses the implications of the genetic patterns we uncovered on population structure and genetic diversity of the species. This was accomplished using PCR-amplified cytochrome oxidase one (CO1) mitochondrial DNA data to reconstruct phylogenetic trees, a haplotype network, and perform molecular variance analyses. Our results suggested high rates of gene flow are occurring among all included geographic regions; providing the first significant evidence that Pantala flavescens should be considered a global panmictic population. PMID:26934181

  3. Progress in GYRO validation studies of DIII-D H-mode plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, C.; Petty, C. C.; Schmitz, L.; Burrell, K. H.; McKee, G. R.; Rhodes, T. L.; Candy, J.

    2012-11-01

    The need for a validated predictive capability of turbulent transport in ITER is now widely recognized. However, to date most validation studies of nonlinear codes such as GYRO (Candy and Waltz 2003 J. Comput. Phys. 186 545) have focused upon low power L-mode discharges, which have significant differences in key dimensionless parameters such as ρ* = ρs/a from more ITER-relevant H-mode discharges. In order to begin addressing this gap, comparisons of the turbulent transport and fluctuations predicted by nonlinear GYRO simulations for a number of DIII-D (Luxon 2002 Nucl. Fusion 42 614) H-mode discharges to power balance analyses and experimental measurements are presented. The results of two H-mode studies are presented in this paper, this first of which investigates the importance of nonlocality at typical DIII-D H-mode ρ* values. Electrostatic global GYRO simulations of H-mode discharges at low and high rotation are shown to predict turbulence and transport levels lower than corresponding local simulations, and which are consistent with or slightly above experimental measurements and power balance analyses, even at ‘near-edge’ radii where gyrofluid and gyrokinetic models systematically underpredict turbulence and transport levels. The second study addresses the stabilizing effect of a significant density of energetic particles on turbulent transport. The results of local GYRO simulations of low-density QH-mode plasmas are presented, which model the fast beam ion population as a separate, dynamic ion species. The simulations show a significant reduction of transport with this fast ion treatment, which helps to understand previously reported results (Holland et al 2011 Phys. Plasmas 18 056113) in which GYRO simulations without this treatment significantly overpredicted (by a factor of 10 or more) power balance calculations. These results are contrasted with simulations of a high-density, low fast ion fraction QH-mode discharge, which predict transport levels

  4. Genetic study of 15 STRs loci of Identifiler system in Angola population.

    PubMed

    Melo, Miguel Manuel; Carvalho, Mónica; Lopes, Virgínia; Anjos, Maria João; Serra, Armando; Vieira, Duarte Nuno; Sequeiros, Jorge; Corte-Real, Francisco

    2010-10-01

    Angola is located in the African continent, in the area of southern Africa and has a population of approximately 14 million inhabitants. The Angola population has origin from Occidental and Southern Bantu people that came from the great lakes region, creating the most ever known African migration of our days. Allele frequencies for the 15 STRs loci in the AmpFlSTR Identifiler kit (D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, HUMTH01, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, HUMVWA, TPOX, D18S51, D5S818, HUMFIBRA/FGA and including the segment of the X-Y homologous gene amelogenin) were studied for Angola population. The genotype frequency of the 15 STR loci showed no significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations and great values for the combined power of discrimination and combined power of a priori exclusion validate the application of these markers in forensic genetics. Comparative analyses between Angola population data and other relevant population database from Africa, Europe and American are presented. PMID:20457105

  5. A Population Synthesis Study of the MS+WD Population in the SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Berro, E.; Torres, S.; Camacho, J.; Rebassa-Mansergas, A.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Schreiber, M. R.; Zorotovic, M.

    2015-06-01

    Detached white dwarf + main sequence (WD+MS) systems represent the simplest population of post-common envelope binaries (PCEBs), and their ensemble properties carry important information about common-envelope phase. However, most population synthesis studies do not fully consider the effects of the observational selection biases of the samples used to compare with the theoretical simulations. We present a set of detailed Monte Carlo simulations of the population of WD+MS binaries in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7, which allows us to make a sound comparison with the available observed data. We find that our simulations correctly reproduce the properties of the observed distribution of WD+MS PCEBs. This includes the distribution of orbital periods and of masses of the white dwarf and main sequence stars. These distributions can be correctly reproduced for several choices of the free parameters, although models in which ≤ 10% of the internal energy is used to eject the common envelope, and in which a small common envelope efficiency ≤ 0.3 seem to fit the observational data better. We also find that systems with He-core white dwarfs are over-represented in the observed sample, because of selection effects.

  6. Craniometric study for sex determination in a Thai population.

    PubMed

    Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk; Sinthubua, Apichat; Prasitwattanaseree, Sukon; Ruengdit, Sitthiporn; Singsuwan, Phruksachat; Praneatpolgrang, Sithee; Duangto, Phuwadon

    2015-12-01

    Sex determination is an important step in biological identification from skeletal remains, especially in forensic circumstances. Many authors suggested that the morphological study was more subjective than the metric. There are various craniometric studies in different populations. They revealed that there was population-specific for the sex discriminant equation derived from each population. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate sexual dimorphism and develop the discriminant function from 200 Thai skulls. Twenty-five standard cranial measurements were examined. The results revealed that males' cranium were statistically significant larger than females' in all measurements (P<0.05), except for minimum breadth of nasal bone. Sexual dimorphism index also expressed relatively high male/female ratio indicating great sexual dimorphism. The best practical equation for sex determination with six measurements (maximum cranial length, bizygomatic breadth, biauricular breadth, nasal height, biorbital breadth and right mastoid length) was derived from a stepwise discriminant method. This equation with 90.6% accuracy (91.1% in male and 90.0% in female) can provide valuable application utilizing in sex determination from skull in a Thai population. PMID:26770879

  7. Assessing survival in a multi-population system: a case study on bat populations.

    PubMed

    Papadatou, Eleni; Ibáñez, Carlos; Pradel, Roger; Juste, Javier; Gimenez, Olivier

    2011-04-01

    In long-lived animals, adult survival is among the most important determinants of population dynamics. Although it may show considerable variation both in time and among populations and sites, a single survival estimate per species is often used in comparative evolutionary studies or in conservation management to identify threatened populations. We estimated adult survival of the isabelline serotine bat Eptesicus isabellinus using capture-recapture data collected on six maternity colonies scattered over a large area (distance 8-103 km) during periods varying from 8 to 26 years. We modelled temporal and inter-colony variations as random effects in a Bayesian framework and estimated mean annual adult survival of females on two scales and a single survival value across all colonies. On a coarse scale, we grouped colonies according to two different habitat types and investigated the effect on survival. A difference in adult survival was detected between the two habitat types [posterior mean of annual survival probability 0.71; 95% credible interval (CI) 0.51-0.86 vs. 0.60; 0.28-0.89], but it was not statistically supported. On a fine scale, survival of the six colonies ranged between 0.58 (95% CI 0.23-0.92) and 0.81 (0.73-0.88), with variation between only two colonies being statistically supported. Overall survival was 0.72 (95% CI 0.57-0.93) with important inter-colony variability (on a logit scale 0.98; 95% CI 0.00-8.16). Survival varied temporally in a random fashion across colonies. Our results show that inference based solely on single colonies should be treated with caution and that a representative unbiased estimate of survival for any species should ideally be based on multiple populations. PMID:20852896

  8. Interval estimation for mark-recapture studies of closed populations.

    PubMed

    Cormack, R M

    1992-06-01

    Textbooks continue to recommend the use of an asymptotic normal distribution to provide an interval estimate for the unknown size, N, of a closed population studied by a mark-recapture experiment or multiple-record system. A likelihood interval approach is proposed and its implementation demonstrated for a range of models for such studies, including all main effect and interaction models for incomplete contingency tables. PMID:1637979

  9. Institute for the Study of Sparsely Populated Areas. A Centre for Interdisciplinary Research into Sparsely Populated and Peripheral Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, Peter G.

    The Institute for the Study of Sparsely Populated Areas is a multidisciplinary research unit which acts to coordinate, further, and initiate studies of the economic and social conditions of sparsely populated areas. Short summaries of the eight studies completed in the session of 1977-78 indicate work in such areas as the study of political life…

  10. Assessing children’s competence to consent in research by a standardized tool: a validity study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Currently over 50% of drugs prescribed to children have not been evaluated properly for use in their age group. One key reason why children have been excluded from clinical trials is that they are not considered able to exercise meaningful autonomy over the decision to participate. Dutch law states that competence to consent can be presumed present at the age of 12 and above; however, in pediatric practice children’s competence is not that clearly presented and the transition from assent to active consent is gradual. A gold standard for competence assessment in children does not exist. In this article we describe a study protocol on the development of a standardized tool for assessing competence to consent in research in children and adolescents. Methods/design In this study we modified the MacCAT-CR, the best evaluated competence assessment tool for adults, for use in children and adolescents. We will administer the tool prospectively to a cohort of pediatric patients from 6 to18 years during the selection stages of ongoing clinical trials. The outcomes of the MacCAT-CR interviews will be compared to a reference standard, established by the judgments of clinical investigators, and an expert panel consisting of child psychiatrists, child psychologists and medical ethicists. The reliability, criterion-related validity and reproducibility of the tool will be determined. As MacCAT-CR is a multi-item scale consisting of 13 items, power was justified at 130–190 subjects, providing a minimum of 10–15 observations per item. MacCAT-CR outcomes will be correlated with age, life experience, IQ, ethnicity, socio-economic status and competence judgment of the parent(s). It is anticipated that 160 participants will be recruited over 2 years to complete enrollment. Discussion A validity study on an assessment tool of competence to consent is strongly needed in research practice, particularly in the child and adolescent population. In this study we will establish

  11. Strategies to assess the validity of recommendations: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) become quickly outdated and require a periodic reassessment of evidence research to maintain their validity. However, there is little research about this topic. Our project will provide evidence for some of the most pressing questions in this field: 1) what is the average time for recommendations to become out of date?; 2) what is the comparative performance of two restricted search strategies to evaluate the need to update recommendations?; and 3) what is the feasibility of a more regular monitoring and updating strategy compared to usual practice?. In this protocol we will focus on questions one and two. Methods The CPG Development Programme of the Spanish Ministry of Health developed 14 CPGs between 2008 and 2009. We will stratify guidelines by topic and by publication year, and include one CPG by strata. We will develop a strategy to assess the validity of CPG recommendations, which includes a baseline survey of clinical experts, an update of the original exhaustive literature searches, the identification of key references (reference that trigger a potential recommendation update), and the assessment of the potential changes in each recommendation. We will run two alternative search strategies to efficiently identify important new evidence: 1) PLUS search based in McMaster Premium LiteratUre Service (PLUS) database; and 2) a Restrictive Search (ReSe) based on the least number of MeSH terms and free text words needed to locate all the references of each original recommendation. We will perform a survival analysis of recommendations using the Kaplan-Meier method and we will use the log-rank test to analyse differences between survival curves according to the topic, the purpose, the strength of recommendations and the turnover. We will retrieve key references from the exhaustive search and evaluate their presence in the PLUS and ReSe search results. Discussion Our project, using a highly structured and transparent

  12. The validation of a French-language version of the Aging Perceptions Questionnaire (APQ) and its extension to a population aged 55 and over

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Several studies have shown the influence of the perceptions of aging on the cognitive functioning and the mental and physical health of older people. These relationships have not to date been studied in France where validated instruments are lacking. The primary objective of this study was to validate a French-language version of the Aging Perceptions Questionnaire (APQ) in the French general population aged 65 and over. The secondary objective was to study the stability of the dimensions of this instrument among participants aged 55 to 64. Methods The study was proposed to the cohort of the Observatoire Régional du Vieillissement (OPREVI) (observatory of aging), located in a small town in Poitou-Charentes (western France). An anonymous questionnaire including the APQ was sent by mail to inhabitants aged 55 and over. The original English language APQ was described with adults aged 65 and older. It has 32 items distributed on 7 dimensions: timeline chronic and cyclical, positive and negative consequences, positive and negative control and emotional representations. Results 656 adults participated in this survey (286 men, 370 women). Among those aged 65 and over (n = 394), the seven-factor structure estimated by confirmatory factor analysis was coherent with original findings. Internal consistency as evaluated by Cronbach alpha, was between 0.83 for consequences negative and 0.52 for control negative. Several dimensions were strongly correlated. Among participants aged 55 to 64 (n = 262), the same factorial model yielded an acceptable fit. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis concluded to approximate factorial invariance between the two age groups with a null delta in comparative fit index. Conclusion This study among French people aged 65 and over, added further evidence of the multidimensional structure of the French version of the APQ which is superimposed to the dimensions of the original Irish version. The same factorial structure applies

  13. Population movement studied at microscale: experience and extrapolation.

    PubMed

    Chapman, M

    1987-12-01

    The context for this paper is the nature of generalization deriving from the study of particular cases of human behavior. With specific reference to field research on population movement conducted among individuals, households, small groups, and village communities in 3rd world societies, it challenges the convention that both generalization and extrapolation are based inevitably and exclusively on the number of events subject to examination. An evaluation is made of the methodological aspects of 4 different studies of population mobility at microscale, undertaken between 1965 and 1977 in the Solomon Islands and northwest Thailand. On this basis, integrated field designs that incorporate a range of intersecting instruments are favored for their technical flexibility and logical strength. With case studies of 3rd world villages, market centers, and urban neighborhoods, generalization and extrapolation is based on depth of understanding and power of theoretical connections. PMID:12315702

  14. Can large surveys conducted on highly selected populations provide valid information on the epidemiology of common health conditions? An analysis of UK Biobank data on musculoskeletal pain

    PubMed Central

    Macfarlane, Gary J; Beasley, Marcus; Smith, Blair H; Jones, Gareth T; Macfarlane, Tatiana V

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Biobank-type studies are typically large but have very low participation rates. It has been suggested that these studies may provide biased estimates of prevalence but are likely to provide valid estimates of association. We test these hypotheses using data collected on pain in a large Biobank study in the United Kingdom. Methods: UK Biobank recruited 503,325 persons aged 40–69 years (participation rate 5.5%). Participants completed questionnaires, including pain, lifestyle and environment factors. As a comparison, we used both a large population study of pain (MUSICIAN: n = 8847, aged: 40–69 years) conducted 2008–2009 and the National Child Development study (NCDS) which recruited all persons in Great Britain born during one week of 1958 and followed them up at age 44 years (n = 9377). Results: ‘Any pain’ (UK Biobank 61.0%; MUSICIAN 63.9%), chronic pain (42.9%, 52.2%) and site-specific musculoskeletal pain (back 26.2%, 29.7%; shoulder/neck 23.3%, 25.3%) were generally similar in UK Biobank and MUSICIAN. The prevalence of chronic pain and most regional musculoskeletal pains in UK Biobank were all within 2% of that in NCDS. Conclusion: UK Biobank has provided estimates of the prevalence of pain which are similar to those from previous large-scale studies, although a formal comparison of the estimates cannot be made. It has also confirmed known associations with the reporting of pain. Despite its very low participation rate, such a study provides the opportunity to investigate novel exposure–pain relationships and investigate rarer exposures and characteristics to further our knowledge of the epidemiology of pain. PMID:26526341

  15. Importance of population-based studies in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Ronnie, George; Ve, Ramesh Sathyamangalam; Velumuri, Lokapavani; Asokan, Rashima; Vijaya, Lingam

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade, there have been reports on the prevalence of glaucoma from the Vellore Eye Survey, Andhra Pradesh Eye Diseases Survey, Aravind Comprehensive Eye Survey, Chennai Glaucoma Study and West Bengal Glaucoma Study. Population-based studies provide important information regarding the prevalence and risk factors for glaucoma. They also highlight regional differences in the prevalence of various types of glaucoma. It is possible to gather important insights regarding the number of persons affected with glaucoma and the proportion with undiagnosed disease. We reviewed the different population-based studies from India and compare their findings. The lacunae in ophthalmic care that can be inferred from these studies are identified and possible reasons and solutions are discussed. We also discuss the clinical relevance of the various findings, and how it reflects on clinical practice in the country. Since India has a significantly high disease burden, we examine the possibility of population-based screening for disease in the Indian context. PMID:21150021

  16. Human population studies and the World Health Organization.

    PubMed

    de Chadarevian, Soraya

    2015-01-01

    This essay draws attention to the role of the WHO in shaping research agendas in the biomedical sciences in the postwar era. It considers in particular the genetic studies of human populations that were pursued under the aegis of the WHO from the late 1950s to 1970s. The study provides insights into how human and medical genetics entered the agenda of the WHO. At the same time, the population studies become a focus for tracking changing notions of international relations, cooperation, and development and their impact on research in biology and medicine in the post-World War I era. After a brief discussion of the early history of the WHO and its position in Cold War politics, the essay considers the WHO program in radiation protection and heredity and how the genetic study of "vanishing" human populations and a world-wide genetic study of newborns fitted this broader agenda. It then considers in more detail the kind of support offered by the WHO for these projects. The essay highlights the role of single individuals in taking advantage of WHO support for pushing their research agendas while establishing a trend towards cooperative international projects in biology. PMID:26775433

  17. Assessment of Lower Limb Muscle Strength and Power Using Hand-Held and Fixed Dynamometry: A Reliability and Validity Study

    PubMed Central

    Perraton, Luke G.; Bower, Kelly J.; Adair, Brooke; Pua, Yong-Hao; Williams, Gavin P.; McGaw, Rebekah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hand-held dynamometry (HHD) has never previously been used to examine isometric muscle power. Rate of force development (RFD) is often used for muscle power assessment, however no consensus currently exists on the most appropriate method of calculation. The aim of this study was to examine the reliability of different algorithms for RFD calculation and to examine the intra-rater, inter-rater, and inter-device reliability of HHD as well as the concurrent validity of HHD for the assessment of isometric lower limb muscle strength and power. Methods 30 healthy young adults (age: 23±5yrs, male: 15) were assessed on two sessions. Isometric muscle strength and power were measured using peak force and RFD respectively using two HHDs (Lafayette Model-01165 and Hoggan microFET2) and a criterion-reference KinCom dynamometer. Statistical analysis of reliability and validity comprised intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), Pearson correlations, concordance correlations, standard error of measurement, and minimal detectable change. Results Comparison of RFD methods revealed that a peak 200ms moving window algorithm provided optimal reliability results. Intra-rater, inter-rater, and inter-device reliability analysis of peak force and RFD revealed mostly good to excellent reliability (coefficients ≥ 0.70) for all muscle groups. Concurrent validity analysis showed moderate to excellent relationships between HHD and fixed dynamometry for the hip and knee (ICCs ≥ 0.70) for both peak force and RFD, with mostly poor to good results shown for the ankle muscles (ICCs = 0.31–0.79). Conclusions Hand-held dynamometry has good to excellent reliability and validity for most measures of isometric lower limb strength and power in a healthy population, particularly for proximal muscle groups. To aid implementation we have created freely available software to extract these variables from data stored on the Lafayette device. Future research should examine the reliability

  18. A simulation study of the effects of acaricides and vaccination on Boophilus cattle-tick populations.

    PubMed

    Lodos, J; Ochagavia, M E; Rodriguez, M; De La Fuente, J

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a simulation model to evaluate different control strategies for Boophilus microplus. The model combines a dynamic life-history module for tick-population dynamics with other modules for vaccination, sterile-hybrid larval release and use of acaricide dipping vats. The tick life-history module considers the cattle's nutritional level and allows for distribution of ticks by age at all stages of growth. Appropriately, the model was sensitive to host resistance and to host-nutritional status. The validity of the life-history module--as well as that of the vaccination and acaricide dipping--vats modules--was demonstrated by comparing simulated and real data for several geographical locations in Cuba and Brazil. Optimum tick-control strategies for the first year of vaccination were designed and the effect of long-term vaccination on tick population was also studied. PMID:10022052

  19. Pilot In-Trail Procedure Validation Simulation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bussink, Frank J. L.; Murdoch, Jennifer L.; Chamberlain, James P.; Chartrand, Ryan; Jones, Kenneth M.

    2008-01-01

    A Human-In-The-Loop experiment was conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) to investigate the viability of the In-Trail Procedure (ITP) concept from a flight crew perspective, by placing participating airline pilots in a simulated oceanic flight environment. The test subject pilots used new onboard avionics equipment that provided improved information about nearby traffic and enabled them, when specific criteria were met, to request an ITP flight level change referencing one or two nearby aircraft that might otherwise block the flight level change. The subject pilots subjective assessments of ITP validity and acceptability were measured via questionnaires and discussions, and their objective performance in appropriately selecting, requesting, and performing ITP flight level changes was evaluated for each simulated flight scenario. Objective performance and subjective workload assessment data from the experiment s test conditions were analyzed for statistical and operational significance and are reported in the paper. Based on these results, suggestions are made to further improve the ITP.

  20. Prediction of absolute risk of fragility fracture at 10 years in a Spanish population: validation of the WHO FRAX ™ tool in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Age-related bone loss is asymptomatic, and the morbidity of osteoporosis is secondary to the fractures that occur. Common sites of fracture include the spine, hip, forearm and proximal humerus. Fractures at the hip incur the greatest morbidity and mortality and give rise to the highest direct costs for health services. Their incidence increases exponentially with age. Independently changes in population demography, the age - and sex- specific incidence of osteoporotic fractures appears to be increasing in developing and developed countries. This could mean more than double the expected burden of osteoporotic fractures in the next 50 years. Methods/Design To assess the predictive power of the WHO FRAX™ tool to identify the subjects with the highest absolute risk of fragility fracture at 10 years in a Spanish population, a predictive validation study of the tool will be carried out. For this purpose, the participants recruited by 1999 will be assessed. These were referred to scan-DXA Department from primary healthcare centres, non hospital and hospital consultations. Study population: Patients attended in the national health services integrated into a FRIDEX cohort with at least one Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurement and one extensive questionnaire related to fracture risk factors. Measurements: At baseline bone mineral density measurement using DXA, clinical fracture risk factors questionnaire, dietary calcium intake assessment, history of previous fractures, and related drugs. Follow up by telephone interview to know fragility fractures in the 10 years with verification in electronic medical records and also to know the number of falls in the last year. The absolute risk of fracture will be estimated using the FRAX™ tool from the official web site. Discussion Since more than 10 years ago numerous publications have recognised the importance of other risk factors for new osteoporotic fractures in addition to low BMD. The extension of a

  1. DNA Fingerprinting Validates Seed Dispersal Curves from Observational Studies in the Neotropical Legume Parkia

    PubMed Central

    Heymann, Eckhard W.; Lüttmann, Kathrin; Michalczyk, Inga M.; Saboya, Pedro Pablo Pinedo; Ziegenhagen, Birgit; Bialozyt, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Background Determining the distances over which seeds are dispersed is a crucial component for examining spatial patterns of seed dispersal and their consequences for plant reproductive success and population structure. However, following the fate of individual seeds after removal from the source tree till deposition at a distant place is generally extremely difficult. Here we provide a comparison of observationally and genetically determined seed dispersal distances and dispersal curves in a Neotropical animal-plant system. Methodology/Principal Findings In a field study on the dispersal of seeds of three Parkia (Fabaceae) species by two Neotropical primate species, Saguinus fuscicollis and Saguinus mystax, in Peruvian Amazonia, we observationally determined dispersal distances. These dispersal distances were then validated through DNA fingerprinting, by matching DNA from the maternally derived seed coat to DNA from potential source trees. We found that dispersal distances are strongly right-skewed, and that distributions obtained through observational and genetic methods and fitted distributions do not differ significantly from each other. Conclusions/Significance Our study showed that seed dispersal distances can be reliably estimated through observational methods when a strict criterion for inclusion of seeds is observed. Furthermore, dispersal distances produced by the two primate species indicated that these primates fulfil one of the criteria for efficient seed dispersers. Finally, our study demonstrated that DNA extraction methods so far employed for temperate plant species can be successfully used for hard-seeded tropical plants. PMID:22514748

  2. Wealth Inequality and Mental Disability Among the Chinese Population: A Population Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhenjie; Du, Wei; Pang, Lihua; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Gong; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2015-01-01

    In the study described herein, we investigated and explored the association between wealth inequality and the risk of mental disability in the Chinese population. We used nationally represented, population-based data from the second China National Sample Survey on Disability, conducted in 2006. A total of 1,724,398 study subjects between the ages of 15 and 64, including 10,095 subjects with mental disability only, were used for the analysis. Wealth status was estimated by a wealth index that was derived from a principal component analysis of 10 household assets and four other variables related to wealth. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for mental disability for each category, with the lowest quintile category as the referent. Confounding variables under consideration were age, gender, residence area, marital status, ethnicity, education, current employment status, household size, house type, homeownership and living arrangement. The distribution of various types and severities of mental disability differed significantly by wealth index category in the present population. Wealth index category had a positive association with mild mental disability (p for trend <0.01), but had a negative association with extremely severe mental disability (p for trend <0.01). Moreover, wealth index category had a significant, inverse association with mental disability when all severities of mental disability were taken into consideration. This study’s results suggest that wealth is a significant factor in the distribution of mental disability and it might have different influences on various types and severities of mental disability. PMID:26492258

  3. Clinical risk factors for fracture in postmenopausal Canadian women: a population-based prevalence study.

    PubMed

    Leslie, William D; Anderson, William A; Metge, Colleen J; Manness, Lori-Jean

    2007-04-01

    Clinical risk factor assessment can be used to enhance fracture risk estimation based upon bone densitometry alone. Population- and age-specific risk factor prevalence data are required for the construction of these risk models. Our objective was to derive population-based prevalence estimates of specific clinical risk factors for postmenopausal women resident in the Province of Manitoba, Canada. A random sample of 40,300 women age 50 or older identified from the provincial health plan was mailed a validated self-report risk factor survey. The response rate was 8747 (21.7%) with a final study population of 8027 women after exclusions. The individual prevalence for each clinical risk factor ranged from 5.8% for hyperthyroidism to 33.0% for a fall in the preceding 12 months. Most point prevalence estimates were similar to other large cohort studies, though the prevalences of inactivity and poor mobility were higher than expected while height at age 25 and the prevalence of any fracture after age 50 were lower than expected. Most of the respondents (86.9%) had at least one non-age clinical risk factor, 60.6% had two or more, and 33.5% had three or more. Age affected risk factor prevalence, and older age was associated with a higher rate of multiple risk factors. The availability of age-specific risk factor prevalence rates in this population may allow for more accurate fracture risk modeling. PMID:17182296

  4. The Early Maladaptive Schema Questionnaire-Short Form: A Construct Validity Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Brian A.; Campbell, Linda F.; Calhoun, Georgia B.; Bates, Jeffrey M.; Petrocelli, John V.

    2002-01-01

    N.B. Schmidt, T.E. Joiner, J.E. Young, and M.J. Telch (1995) provided preliminary construct validity for scores from J.E. Young's (1990) 205-item Early Maladaptive Schema Questionnaire. The present study extends this work by examining the construct validity of scores from the shorter 75-item version of this instrument-the Early Maladaptive Schema…

  5. Validating the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children in Rwanda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancourt, Theresa; Scorza, Pamela; Meyers-Ohki, Sarah; Mushashi, Christina; Kayiteshonga, Yvonne; Binagwaho, Agnes; Stulac, Sara; Beardslee, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We assessed the validity of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC) as a screen for depression in Rwandan children and adolescents. Although the CES-DC is widely used for depression screening in high-income countries, its validity in low-income and culturally diverse settings, including sub-Saharan…

  6. Quality Rating and Improvement System (QRIS) Validation Study Designs. CEELO FastFacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilder, D.

    2013-01-01

    In this "Fast Facts," a state has received Race to the Top Early Learning Challenge funds and is seeking information to inform the design of the Quality Rating and Improvement System (QRIS) validation study. The Center on Enhancing Early Learning Outcomes (CEELO) responds that according to Resnick (2012), validation of a QRIS is an…

  7. Validation of a Computerized Cognitive Assessment System for Persons with Stroke: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Chi Kwong; Man, David W. K.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the validity of a newly developed computerized cognitive assessment system (CCAS) that is equipped with rich multimedia to generate simulated testing situations and considers both test item difficulty and the test taker's ability. It is also hypothesized that better predictive validity of the CCAS in self-care of persons…

  8. Validation Study of a Gatekeeping Attitude Index for Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Dora M. Y.; Coleman, Heather

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a study designed to validate the Gatekeeping Attitude Index, a 14-item Likert scaling index. The authors collected data from a convenience sample of social work field instructors (N = 188) with a response rate of 74.0%. Construct validation by exploratory factor analysis identified a 2-factor solution on the index after…

  9. Cigarette smoking, nicotine dependence and anxiety disorders: a systematic review of population-based, epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Multiple studies have demonstrated that rates of smoking and nicotine dependence are increased in individuals with anxiety disorders. However, significant variability exists in the epidemiological literature exploring this relationship, including study design (cross-sectional versus prospective), the population assessed (random sample versus clinical population) and diagnostic instrument utilized. Methods We undertook a systematic review of population-based observational studies that utilized recognized structured clinical diagnostic criteria (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) or International Classification of Diseases (ICD)) for anxiety disorder diagnosis to investigate the relationship between cigarette smoking, nicotine dependence and anxiety disorders. Results In total, 47 studies met the predefined inclusion criteria, with 12 studies providing prospective information and 5 studies providing quasiprospective information. The available evidence suggests that some baseline anxiety disorders are a risk factor for initiation of smoking and nicotine dependence, although the evidence is heterogeneous and many studies did not control for the effect of comorbid substance use disorders. The identified evidence however appeared to more consistently support cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence as being a risk factor for development of some anxiety disorders (for example, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder), although these findings were not replicated in all studies. A number of inconsistencies in the literature were identified. Conclusions Although many studies have demonstrated increased rates of smoking and nicotine dependence in individuals with anxiety disorders, there is a limited and heterogeneous literature that has prospectively examined this relationship in population studies using validated diagnostic criteria. The most consistent evidence supports smoking and nicotine dependence as increasing the risk of

  10. The Relevance of HLA Sequencing in Population Genetics Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Mazas, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) is currently being adapted by different biotechnological platforms to the standard typing method for HLA polymorphism, the huge diversity of which makes this initiative particularly challenging. Boosting the molecular characterization of the HLA genes through efficient, rapid, and low-cost technologies is expected to amplify the success of tissue transplantation by enabling us to find donor-recipient matching for rare phenotypes. But the application of NGS technologies to the molecular mapping of the MHC region also anticipates essential changes in population genetic studies. Huge amounts of HLA sequence data will be available in the next years for different populations, with the potential to change our understanding of HLA variation in humans. In this review, we first explain how HLA sequencing allows a better assessment of the HLA diversity in human populations, taking also into account the methodological difficulties it introduces at the statistical level; secondly, we show how analyzing HLA sequence variation may improve our comprehension of population genetic relationships by facilitating the identification of demographic events that marked human evolution; finally, we discuss the interest of both HLA and genome-wide sequencing and genotyping in detecting functionally significant SNPs in the MHC region, the latter having also contributed to the makeup of the HLA molecular diversity observed today. PMID:25126587

  11. Application of population pharmacokinetics for preclinical safety and efficacy studies.

    PubMed

    Porzio, Stefano

    2013-08-01

    From the beginning of the 1980s, population PK has been primarily used in clinical development and only in the last decade has it been convincingly applied in a preclinical setting. Sparse sampling and covariate analyses are key features of preclinical popPK, useful for toxicology and efficacy studies in animals to assemble data obtained from different studies; for describing individual PK and PD; for building mechanistic models; and for performing interspecies scaling-up of disposition and efficacy. Application in disease models, mainly in behavioral and neurological models, allows the quantitative description of PK and PD without frequent blood sampling and recurrent physiological measurements, which are the critical and compromising perturbations of experimental systems. A preclinical population approach to PK and PD, by its versatility and possibility of simulating 'what if' scenarios, offers a unique and potent tool in the development of new drugs, in particular biologics. PMID:23937139

  12. Birth interval study in a culturally stable urban population.

    PubMed

    Ayangade, S O

    1978-01-01

    Five hundred women were interviewed within 2 days of delivery to examine indigenous birth spacing among the urban and rural population of Ife township. The crude birth interval was between 30 and 40 months due mainly to cultural attitudes towards lactation and sexual abstinence. The women studied possessed considerable knowledge of Western contraceptive methods, but they rejected them. The possible cause of this rejection is examined and solutions to the problem are suggested. PMID:29795

  13. Study the Effect of Urban Ecosystem to Floating Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Wubin; Zhang, Lingxian; Zhang, Xiaoshuan; Fu, Zetian

    The urban ecosystem is a complex system hat are compounded of environment -economic-social ,the factors of urban ecosystem affect the decision of the floating population to chose city .In this paper ,we according to the urban ecosystem to design the questionnaire ,and study the weights of the factors that influence the decision by AHP ,and find that economy is most important which is 0.6806, the society and ecological environment are 0.2014and0.1180.

  14. The consumer quality index anthroposophic healthcare: a construction and validation study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Accounting for the patients’ perspective on quality of care has become increasingly important in the development of Evidence Based Medicine as well as in governmental policies. In the Netherlands the Consumer Quality (CQ) Index has been developed to measure the quality of care from the patients’ perspective in different healthcare sectors in a standardized manner. Although the scientific accountability of anthroposophic healthcare as a form of integrative medicine is growing, patient experiences with anthroposophic healthcare have not been measured systematically. In addition, the specific anthroposophic aspects are not measured by means of existing CQ Indexes. To enable accountability of quality of the anthroposophic healthcare from the patients’ perspective the aim of this study is the construction and validation of a CQ Index for anthroposophic healthcare. Method Construction in three phases: Phase 1. Determining anthroposophic quality aspects: literature study and focus groups. Phase 2. Adding new questions and validating the new questionnaire. Research population: random sample from 7910 patients of 22 anthroposophic GPs. Data collection: survey, mixed mode by means of the Dillman method. Measuring instrument: experience questionnaire: CQ Index General Practice (56 items), added with 27 new anthroposophic items added and an item-importance questionnaire (anthroposophic items only). Statistical analyses: Factor analysis, scale construction, internal consistency (Chronbach’s Alpha), inter-item-correlation, discriminative ability (Intra Class Correlation) and inter-factor-correlations. Phase 3. Modulation and selection of new questions based on results. Criteria of retaining items: general: a limited amount of items, statistical: part of a reliable scale and inter-item-correlation <0,7, and theoretical. Results Phase 1. 27 anthroposophic items. Phase 2. Two new anthroposophic scales: Scale AntroposophicTreatmentGP: seven items, Alpha=0,832, ICC

  15. ASSERT--the Autism Symptom SElf-ReporT for adolescents and adults: bifactor analysis and validation in a large adolescent population.

    PubMed

    Posserud, Maj-Britt; Breivik, Kyrre; Gillberg, Christopher; Lundervold, Astri J

    2013-12-01

    With a view to developing a brief screening instrument for autism symptoms in a general population of adolescents, seven items from the Asperger syndrome (and high-functioning autism) diagnostic interview were adapted for use as self-report in an online questionnaire for youths aged 16-19 years (N=10,220). The selected items target lack of social understanding (4 items) and rigid and repetitive behavior and interests (RRBI; 3 items). Factor analyses were performed, and the seven items were also validated against self-reported ASD diagnosis. Best statistical model fit was found for a bifactor model with one general factor and two domain specific factors tied to social difficulties and RRBI. Both the general and the domain specific factors were associated with self-reported ASD diagnoses. The scale (referred to as the Autism Symptom SElf-ReporT for Adolescents and Adults--ASSERT) had good screening properties with a receiver operating curve-area under the curve (ROC-AUC) of 0.87 and a diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) of 15.8. Applying a modified scoring of the scale further improved the screening properties leading to a ROC-AUC of 0.89 and a DOR of 24.9. The ASSERT holds promise as a brief self-report screen for autism symptoms in adolescents, and further studies should explore its usefulness for adults. PMID:24176259

  16. Validation for clinical use of, and initial clinical experience with, a novel approach to population-based carrier screening using high-throughput, next-generation DNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Hallam, Stephanie; Nelson, Heather; Greger, Valerie; Perreault-Micale, Cynthia; Davie, Jocelyn; Faulkner, Nicole; Neitzel, Dana; Casey, Kristie; Umbarger, Mark A; Chennagiri, Niru; Kramer, Alexander C; Porreca, Gregory J; Kennedy, Caleb J

    2014-03-01

    Traditional carrier screening assays are designed to look for only the most common mutations within a gene owing to cost considerations. Although this can yield high detection rates in specific populations for specific genes (such as cystic fibrosis in Caucasians), they are suboptimal for other ethnicities or for patients of mixed or unknown ethnic background. Next-generation DNA sequencing provides an opportunity to provide carrier screening using more comprehensive mutation panels that are limited primarily by information about the clinical impact of detected sequence changes. We describe a next-generation DNA sequencing-based assay capable of reliably screening patient samples in a timely and comprehensive manner. The analytic accuracy in a research setting has been documented. Here, we describe the additional studies performed to ensure the accuracy (analytic validity) and robustness of our assay for use in clinical practice and provide data from our experience offering this testing. Our clinical experience using this approach to screen 11,691 in vitro fertilization patients has identified 449 mutant alleles: 447 in carriers and 2 in an affected individual. In total, we found 87 distinct mutations in 14 different genes. Approximately one quarter of the mutations found are not included in traditional, limited, mutation panels, including 16 known mutations unique to our panel, and novel truncating mutations in several genes. PMID:24374108

  17. Design and Implementation Content Validity Study: Development of an instrument for measuring Patient-Centered Communication

    PubMed Central

    Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Ghahramanian, Akram; Rassouli, Maryam; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Alavi-Majd, Hamid; Nikanfar, Ali-Reza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The importance of content validity in the instrument psychometric and its relevance with reliability, have made it an essential step in the instrument development. This article attempts to give an overview of the content validity process and to explain the complexity of this process by introducing an example. Methods: We carried out a methodological study conducted to examine the content validity of the patient-centered communication instrument through a two-step process (development and judgment). At the first step, domain determination, sampling (item generation) and instrument formation and at the second step, content validity ratio, content validity index and modified kappa statistic was performed. Suggestions of expert panel and item impact scores are used to examine the instrument face validity. Results: From a set of 188 items, content validity process identified seven dimensions includes trust building (eight items), informational support (seven items), emotional support (five items), problem solving (seven items), patient activation (10 items), intimacy/friendship (six items) and spirituality strengthening (14 items). Content validity study revealed that this instrument enjoys an appropriate level of content validity. The overall content validity index of the instrument using universal agreement approach was low; however, it can be advocated with respect to the high number of content experts that makes consensus difficult and high value of the S-CVI with the average approach, which was equal to 0.93. Conclusion: This article illustrates acceptable quantities indices for content validity a new instrument and outlines them during design and psychometrics of patient-centered communication measuring instrument. PMID:26161370

  18. Evaluation of microsatellite markers for populations studies and forensic identification of African lions (Panthera leo).

    PubMed

    Miller, Susan M; Harper, Cindy K; Bloomer, Paulette; Hofmeyr, Jennifer; Funston, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    The South African lion (Panthera leo) population is highly fragmented. One-third of its wild lions occur in small (<1000 km(2)) reserves. These lions were reintroduced from other areas of the species' historical range. Management practices on these reserves have not prioritized genetic provenance or heterozygosity. These trends potentially constrain the conservation value of these lions. To ensure the best management and long-term survival of these subpopulations as a viable collective population, the provenance and current genetic diversity must be described. Concurrently, poaching of lions to supply a growing market for lion bones in Asia may become a serious conservation challenge in the future. Having a standardized, validated method for matching confiscated lion parts with carcasses will be a key tool in investigating these crimes. We evaluated 28 microsatellites in the African lion using samples from 18 small reserves and 1 captive facility in South Africa, two conservancies in Zimbabwe, and Kruger National and Kgalagadi Transfrontier Parks to determine the loci most suited for population management and forensic genetic applications. Twelve microsatellite loci with a match probability of 1.1×10(-5) between siblings were identified for forensics. A further 10 could be added for population genetics studies. PMID:25151647

  19. Validation sampling can reduce bias in healthcare database studies: an illustration using influenza vaccination effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jennifer C.; Marsh, Tracey; Lumley, Thomas; Larson, Eric B.; Jackson, Lisa A.; Jackson, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objective Estimates of treatment effectiveness in epidemiologic studies using large observational health care databases may be biased due to inaccurate or incomplete information on important confounders. Study methods that collect and incorporate more comprehensive confounder data on a validation cohort may reduce confounding bias. Study Design and Setting We applied two such methods, imputation and reweighting, to Group Health administrative data (full sample) supplemented by more detailed confounder data from the Adult Changes in Thought study (validation sample). We used influenza vaccination effectiveness (with an unexposed comparator group) as an example and evaluated each method’s ability to reduce bias using the control time period prior to influenza circulation. Results Both methods reduced, but did not completely eliminate, the bias compared with traditional effectiveness estimates that do not utilize the validation sample confounders. Conclusion Although these results support the use of validation sampling methods to improve the accuracy of comparative effectiveness findings from healthcare database studies, they also illustrate that the success of such methods depends on many factors, including the ability to measure important confounders in a representative and large enough validation sample, the comparability of the full sample and validation sample, and the accuracy with which data can be imputed or reweighted using the additional validation sample information. PMID:23849144

  20. Perspectives on elasmobranch life-history studies: a focus on age validation and relevance to fishery management.

    PubMed

    Cailliet, G M

    2015-12-01

    Life-history (age, growth, age validation, reproduction and demography) studies of elasmobranchs date back to the middle of the last century with major early contributions made by British fishery scientists. As predicted by Holden in the early 1970s, many sharks and rays can be vulnerable to fishery mortality because they grow slowly, mature late in life, reproduce infrequently, have relatively low fecundities and can have relatively long life spans. As has now been found, however, not all species exhibit these traits. Also, ageing structures (neural arches and caudal thorns), other than vertebrae and spines, have since been evaluated. Various methods for validating age and growth estimates have been developed and tested on numerous species of elasmobranchs. These include tag-recapture analyses, oxytetracycline injections, centrum or spine edge and marginal increment analyses, and bomb radiocarbon dating of calcified structures. Application of these techniques has sometimes not only validated relatively slow growth and long life span estimates, but also has produced other results. A brief historical perspective on the applications and limitations of these techniques for elasmobranchs is provided, along with a discussion of selected species for which these techniques worked well, did not work at all or have produced variable and conflicting results. Because many fishery management techniques utilize age or stage-specific information, often through demographic analyses, accurate information on the life histories of fished populations, especially age validation, is extremely important for the fishery management of these cartilaginous fishes. PMID:26709208

  1. Clinical Predictive Models for Chemotherapy-Induced Febrile Neutropenia in Breast Cancer Patients: A Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Liling; Su, Fengxi; Jia, Weijuan; Deng, Xiaogeng

    2014-01-01

    Background Predictive models for febrile neutropenia (FN) would be informative for physicians in clinical decision making. This study aims to validate a predictive model (Jenkin’s model) that comprises pretreatment hematological parameters in early-stage breast cancer patients. Patients and Methods A total of 428 breast cancer patients who received neoadjuvant/adjuvant chemotherapy without any prophylactic use of colony-stimulating factor were included. Pretreatment absolute neutrophil counts (ANC) and absolute lymphocyte counts (ALC) were used by the Jenkin’s model to assess the risk of FN. In addition, we modified the threshold of Jenkin’s model and generated Model-A and B. We also developed Model-C by incorporating the absolute monocyte count (AMC) as a predictor into Model-A. The rates of FN in the 1st chemotherapy cycle were calculated. A valid model should be able to significantly identify high-risk subgroup of patients with FN rate >20%. Results Jenkin’s model (Predicted as high-risk when ANC≦3.1*10∧9/L;ALC≦1.5*10∧9/L) did not identify any subgroups with significantly high risk (>20%) of FN in our population, even if we used different thresholds in Model-A(ANC≦4.4*10∧9/L;ALC≦2.1*10∧9/L) or B(ANC≦3.8*10∧9/L;ALC≦1.8*10∧9/L). However, with AMC added as an additional predictor, Model-C(ANC≦4.4*10∧9/L;ALC≦2.1*10∧9/L; AMC≦0.28*10∧9/L) identified a subgroup of patients with a significantly high risk of FN (23.1%). Conclusions In our population, Jenkin’s model, cannot accurately identify patients with a significant risk of FN. The threshold should be changed and the AMC should be incorporated as a predictor, to have excellent predictive ability. PMID:24945817

  2. Strength Training and Detraining in Different Populations: Case Studies

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Mário C.; Zajac, Adam; Pereira, Ana; Costa, Aldo M.

    2011-01-01

    Many researchers have demonstrated that a specific strength training program can improve maximal strength and, the rate of force production, reduce the incidence of muscle-skeletal injury, and contribute to faster injury recovery times, thereby minimizing the number of missed practice sessions or competitions. Yet, to our best knowledge, there is no apparent consensus on the appropriate method of muscle strength and power training to enhance performance in distinct populations groups. Interruptions in training process because of illness, injury, holidays, post-season break or other factors are normal situations in any kind of sport. However, the detraining period and its consequences are not well reported in sports literature, and namely during puberty. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to discuss several case studies concerning different populations such us physical students, age-swimming competitors and elite power athletes. PMID:23487418

  3. Field epidemiologic studies of populations exposed to waste dumps.

    PubMed

    Heath, C W

    1983-02-01

    Epidemiologic studies are required for assessing health risks related to toxic waste exposure. Since the settings in which such studies must be performed are extremely diverse, epidemiologic approaches must be versatile. For any particular study, three fundamental requirements are to assess what toxic materials are present, understand how human exposure may occur, and objectively measure possible biologic effects. In assessing links between exposure and disease, epidemiologists must be particularly aware of: expected disease frequencies in relation to the size of populations studied, implications of long or varied disease latencies for study design and competing causes of disease and associated confounding variables. These concepts are illustrated by discussion of epidemiologic studies related to the Love Canal toxic waste dump site in Niagara Falls, NY. PMID:6825633

  4. An exploratory study into the effect of time-restricted internet access on face-validity, construct validity and reliability of postgraduate knowledge progress testing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Yearly formative knowledge testing (also known as progress testing) was shown to have a limited construct-validity and reliability in postgraduate medical education. One way to improve construct-validity and reliability is to improve the authenticity of a test. As easily accessible internet has become inseparably linked to daily clinical practice, we hypothesized that allowing internet access for a limited amount of time during the progress test would improve the perception of authenticity (face-validity) of the test, which would in turn improve the construct-validity and reliability of postgraduate progress testing. Methods Postgraduate trainees taking the yearly knowledge progress test were asked to participate in a study where they could access the internet for 30 minutes at the end of a traditional pen and paper test. Before and after the test they were asked to complete a short questionnaire regarding the face-validity of the test. Results Mean test scores increased significantly for all training years. Trainees indicated that the face-validity of the test improved with internet access and that they would like to continue to have internet access during future testing. Internet access did not improve the construct-validity or reliability of the test. Conclusion Improving the face-validity of postgraduate progress testing, by adding the possibility to search the internet for a limited amount of time, positively influences test performance and face-validity. However, it did not change the reliability or the construct-validity of the test. PMID:24195696

  5. Comorbidity profile of poliomyelitis survivors in a Chinese population: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jiunn-Horng; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2011-06-01

    Previous reports of comorbid conditions in poliomyelitis survivors mainly focused on some disease categories, such as respiratory diseases, gastrointestinal diseases, psychiatric diseases, neurological diseases and cancer. Data regarding a wide spectrum of medical comorbidities in patients with poliomyelitis is still sparse. This study aimed to investigate and profile the wide range of comorbidities among the survivors of paralytic poliomyelitis in a Chinese population. In total, 2,032 paralytic poliomyelitis patients were selected as the study group and the comparison group consisted of 10,160 randomly selected enrollees. The comorbidities for analysis were based on a modified version of the Elixhauser Comorbidity Index. Conditional logistic regression analyses were computed to investigate the risk of comorbidities for these two groups. As compared to controls, patients with paralytic poliomyelitis had significantly higher prevalence of hypertension, ischemic heart disease, hyperlipidemia, congestive heart failure, cardiac arrhythmias, peripheral vascular disorder, stroke, paralysis, migraines, Parkinson's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, pulmonary circulation disorders, chronic pulmonary disease, liver disease, peptic ulcers, hepatitis B or C, deficiency anemias, depression, and lymphoma. Most of the differences are of clinical interest, ORs often being between 2 and 3. No significant difference between poliomyelitis patients and controls was observed in the prevalence of SLE, tuberculosis, alcohol abuse and drug abuse. Our findings demonstrate that survivors of paralytic poliomyelitis in Taiwan are at higher risk of having multiple medical comorbidities although some potential confounding factors including educational level, marital status, obesity and physical activity are not available in our database. The pattern is generally consistent with previous observations from Western populations. Nevertheless, we found several novel associations

  6. [Study thoroughly the Marxist theory on population, develop population science in China].

    PubMed

    Liu, J Y

    1981-04-01

    The Third National Population Science Congress emphasized the production theory of Marxism, the basic difference between China's population control and the old and new Malthusianism, and possible social problems caused by the one child per couple policy. The meeting was well-organized, and the participants were actively involved; it included a keynote speech, group discussions, and seminars by specialists. Most people agreed that population production should be included in the social economy and that both material and population production should together decide the development of the society. Some people believed that Malthus' population theory is antirevolutionary and totally unacceptable. Others thought that there are some positive aspects such as the coordination of population with consumer goods and his population control measures. Many valuable suggestions were made in the meeting concerning population control. This Congress also established a Chinese Population Society, passed the bylaws, and elected members of the board of directors for the Society. Vice-Premier Chen gave an important closing speech about the importance of family planning and population control. PMID:12311031

  7. A population-based study of the stratum corneum moisture

    PubMed Central

    de Farias Pires, Thiago; Azambuja, Ana Paula; Horimoto, Andrea Roseli Vançan Russo; Nakamura, Mary Sanae; de Oliveira Alvim, Rafael; Krieger, José Eduardo; Pereira, Alexandre Costa

    2016-01-01

    Background The stratum corneum (SC) has important functions as a bound-water modulator and a primary barrier of the human skin from the external environment. However, no large epidemiological study has quantified the relative importance of different exposures with regard to these functional properties. In this study, we have studied a large sample of individuals from the Brazilian population in order to understand the different relationships between the properties of SC and a number of demographic and self-perceived variables. Methods One thousand three hundred and thirty-nine individuals from a rural Brazilian population, who were participants of a family-based study, were submitted to a cross-sectional examination of the SC moisture by capacitance using the Corneometer® CM820 and investigated regarding environmental exposures, cosmetic use, and other physiological and epidemiological measurements. Self-perception-scaled questions about skin conditions were also applied. Results We found significant associations between SC moisture and sex, age, high sun exposure, and sunscreen use frequency (P<0.025). In specific studied sites, self-reported race and obesity were also found to show significant effects. Dry skin self-perception was also found to be highly correlated with the objective measurement of the skin. Other environmental effects on SC moisture are also reported. PMID:27143945

  8. Norms and Construct Validity of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale in Canadian High School Populations: Implications for Counselling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagley, Christopher; Bolitho, Floyd; Bertrand, Lorne

    1997-01-01

    Reports on instrument validity regarding self-esteem among high school students (N=2,108) in the Province of Alberta. Results indicate significant variation of mean scores across age-groups within female students even though females had significantly lower self-esteem than males. Findings support the reliability of the self-esteem instrument. (RJM)

  9. Assessing Autistic Traits in a Taiwan Preschool Population: Cross-Cultural Validation of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jessica; Lee, Li-Ching; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Hsu, Ju-Wei

    2012-01-01

    The cross-cultural validity of the Mandarin-adaptation of the social responsiveness scale (SRS) was examined in a sample of N = 307 participants in Taiwan, 140 typically developing and 167 with clinically-diagnosed developmental disorders. This scale is an autism assessment tool that provides a quantitative rather than categorical measure of…

  10. Validation of self-reported and hospital-diagnosed atrial fibrillation: the HUNT study

    PubMed Central

    Malmo, Vegard; Langhammer, Arnulf; Bønaa, Kaare H; Loennechen, Jan P; Ellekjaer, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Background Self-reported atrial fibrillation (AF) and diagnoses from hospital registers are often used to identify persons with AF. The objective of this study was to validate self-reported AF and hospital discharge diagnoses of AF among participants in a population-based study. Materials and methods Among 50,805 persons who participated in the third survey of the HUNT Study (HUNT3), 16,247 participants from three municipalities were included. Individuals who reported cardiovascular disease, renal disease, or hypertension in the main questionnaire received a cardiovascular-specific questionnaire. An affirmative answer to a question on physician-diagnosed AF in this second questionnaire defined self-reported AF diagnoses in the study. In addition, AF diagnoses were retrieved from hospital and primary care (PC) registers. All AF diagnoses were verified by review of hospital and PC medical records. Results A total of 502 HUNT3 participants had a diagnosis of AF verified in hospital or PC records. Of these, 249 reported their AF diagnosis in the HUNT3 questionnaires and 370 had an AF diagnosis in hospital discharge registers before participation in HUNT3. The sensitivity of self-reported AF in HUNT3 was 49.6%, specificity 99.2%, positive predictive value (PPV) 66.2%, and negative predictive value (NPV) 98.4%. The sensitivity of a hospital discharge diagnosis of AF was 73.7%, specificity 99.7%, PPV 88.5%, and NPV 99.2%. Conclusion Use of questionnaires alone to identify cases of AF has low sensitivity. Extraction of diagnoses from health care registers enhances the sensitivity substantially and should be applied when estimates of incidence and prevalence of AF are studied. PMID:27354826

  11. Virtual Environment Interpersonal Trust Scale: Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usta, Ertugrul

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is in the process of interpersonal communication in virtual environments is available from the trust problem is to develop a measurement tool. Trust in the process of distance education today, and has been a factor to be investigated. People, who take distance education course, they could may remain within the process…

  12. Unmasking the Capability of Strategic Learning: A Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siren, Charlotta A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The strategic learning perspective has attracted increased interest among strategic management scholars, yet the operationalisation of this concept is still in its infancy. The aim of this study is to develop a multidimensional understanding of the strategic learning process and to build an instrument to measure this concept.…

  13. A Validation Study of a Measure of Musical Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltzer, Sam

    1988-01-01

    Studies reliability of the Measures of Creativity in Sound and Music (MCSM), a test developed by Cecilia Wang. Compares the MCSM scores with subjects' academic achievement scores, sex, and age with music and classroom teacher ratings of subjects' creativity. Concludes that research is still needed to define a theory of musical creativity, define…

  14. Book Reading Motivation Scale: Reliability and Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katranci, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Book reading enhances the intellectual world of people. It is very important to know the factors that motivate children to read books as it will help to instill book reading habit in them. As such, the present study aims to develop a "Book Reading Motivation Scale" to determine elementary and secondary school students' reading…

  15. Evaluating the Reliability, Validity, and Usefulness of Education Cost Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Bruce D.

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies that purport to estimate the costs of constitutionally adequate education have been described as either a "gold standard" that should guide legislative school finance policy design and judicial evaluation, or as pure "alchemy." Methods for estimating the cost of constitutionally adequate education can be roughly divided into two…

  16. A Validity Study: Attitudes towards Statistics among Japanese College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satake, Eike

    2015-01-01

    This cross-cultural study investigated the relationship between attitudes toward statistics (ATS) and course achievement (CA) among Japanese college students. The sample consisted of 135 male and 134 female students from the first two-year liberal arts program of a four-year college in Tokyo, Japan. Attitudes about statistics were measured using…

  17. Theoretical Evaluation Self-Test (Test): A Preliminary Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Over nearly 40 years, several scales have been developed to measure therapist theoretical orientation (Poznanski & McLennan, 1995). This study, unlike previous efforts, focuses on "community clinicians"--social workers and other mental health professionals (such as psychologists, counselors, psychiatrists, and psychiatric nurses) who work in…

  18. Genetic disorders in children and young adults: a population study.

    PubMed Central

    Baird, P A; Anderson, T W; Newcombe, H B; Lowry, R B

    1988-01-01

    The data base of an ongoing population-based registry with multiple sources of ascertainment was used to estimate the present population load from genetic disease in more than 1 million consecutive live births. It was found that, before approximately age 25 years, greater than or equal to 53/1,000 live-born individuals can be expected to have diseases with an important genetic component. This total was composed of single-gene disorders (3.6/1,000), consisting of autosomal dominant (1.4/1,000), autosomal recessive (1.7/1,000), and X-linked recessive disorders (0.5/1,000). Chromosomal anomalies accounted for 1.8/1,000, multifactorial disorders (including those present at birth and those of onset before age 25 years) accounted for 46.4/1,000, and cases of genetic etiology in which the precise mechanism was not identified accounted for 1.2/1,000. Previous studies have usually considered all congenital anomalies (ICD 740-759) as part of the genetic load, but only those judged to fit into one of the above categories were included in the present study. Data for congenital anomalies are therefore also presented separately, to facilitate comparison with earlier studies. If all congenital anomalies are considered as part of the genetic load, then greater than or equal to 79/1,000 live-born individuals have been identified as having one or other genetic disorder before approximately age 25 years. These new data represent a better estimate of the genetic load in the population than do previous studies. PMID:3358420

  19. Reliability and validity of the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire in a sample of European adolescents - the HELENA study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Since stress is hypothesized to play a role in the etiology of obesity during adolescence, research on associations between adolescent stress and obesity-related parameters and behaviours is essential. Due to lack of a well-established recent stress checklist for use in European adolescents, the study investigated the reliability and validity of the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire (ASQ) for assessing perceived stress in European adolescents. Methods The ASQ was translated into the languages of the participating cities (Ghent, Stockholm, Vienna, Zaragoza, Pecs and Athens) and was implemented within the HELENA cross-sectional study. A total of 1140 European adolescents provided a valid ASQ, comprising 10 component scales, used for internal reliability (Cronbach α) and construct validity (confirmatory factor analysis or CFA). Contributions of socio-demographic (gender, age, pubertal stage, socio-economic status) characteristics to the ASQ score variances were investigated. Two-hundred adolescents also provided valid saliva samples for cortisol analysis to compare with the ASQ scores (criterion validity). Test-retest reliability was investigated using two ASQ assessments from 37 adolescents. Results Cronbach α-values of the ASQ scales (0.57 to 0.88) demonstrated a moderate internal reliability of the ASQ, and intraclass correlation coefficients (0.45 to 0.84) established an insufficient test-retest reliability of the ASQ. The adolescents' gender (girls had higher stress scores than boys) and pubertal stage (those in a post-pubertal development had higher stress scores than others) significantly contributed to the variance in ASQ scores, while their age and socio-economic status did not. CFA results showed that the original scale construct fitted moderately with the data in our European adolescent population. Only in boys, four out of 10 ASQ scale scores were a significant positive predictor for baseline wake-up salivary cortisol, suggesting a rather poor

  20. Validity of a two-point acetaminophen pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Scavone, J M; Greenblatt, D J; Blyden, G T; Luna, B G; Harmatz, J S

    1990-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of a single 650-mg intravenous dose of acetaminophen were determined in 82 volunteers using multiple (13 or more) plasma acetaminophen concentrations measured by high pressure liquid chromatography during 24 h after dosage. Kinetic values from the complete study were compared with kinetic estimates based on only two data points: (a) the 2- and 6-h points only; and (b) the 3 and 6-h points only. For elimination half-life, values from the complete study (mean 2.42 h) were highly correlated (r = 0.87 and 0.84) with methods a and b (means 2.41 and 2.43 h), with regression slopes of 1.00 and 0.99, respectively. For clearance, the complete study values (mean 312 ml/min) were highly correlated (r = 0.97 and 0.97) with method a and b values, but both two-point methods significantly overestimated clearance (means 350 and 355 ml/min) by an average of 13 and 14%, respectively. Results for volume of distribution were similar to those for clearance. Although acetaminophen elimination half-life can be estimated with reasonable precision using a two-point blood-sampling procedure, clearance and volume of distribution values using the two-point method overestimate the actual values. PMID:2305419

  1. Surname lists to identify South Asian and Chinese ethnicity from secondary data in Ontario, Canada: a validation study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Surname lists are useful for identifying cohorts of ethnic minority patients from secondary data sources. This study sought to develop and validate lists to identify people of South Asian and Chinese origin. Methods Comprehensive lists of South Asian and Chinese surnames were reviewed to identify those that uniquely belonged to the ethnic minority group. Surnames that were common in other populations, communities or ethnic groups were specifically excluded. These surname lists were applied to the Registered Persons Database, a registry of the health card numbers assigned to all residents of the Canadian province of Ontario, so that all residents were assigned to South Asian ethnicity, Chinese ethnicity or the General Population. Ethnic assignment was validated against self-identified ethnicity through linkage with responses to the Canadian Community Health Survey. Results The final surname lists included 9,950 South Asian surnames and 1,133 Chinese surnames. All 16,688,384 current and former residents of Ontario were assigned to South Asian ethnicity, Chinese ethnicity or the General Population based on their surnames. Among 69,859 respondents to the Canadian Community Health Survey, both lists performed extremely well when compared against self-identified ethnicity: positive predictive value was 89.3% for the South Asian list, and 91.9% for the Chinese list. Because surnames shared with other ethnic groups were deliberately excluded from the lists, sensitivity was lower (50.4% and 80.2%, respectively). Conclusions These surname lists can be used to identify cohorts of people with South Asian and Chinese origins from secondary data sources with a high degree of accuracy. These cohorts could then be used in epidemiologic and health service research studies of populations with South Asian and Chinese origins. PMID:20470433

  2. Comparison and Validation of 10 Equations Including a Novel Method for Estimation of LDL-cholesterol in a 168,212 Asian Population.

    PubMed

    Rim, John Hoon; Lee, Yong-Ho; Lee, Myung Ha; Kim, Ha Yan; Choi, Jiin; Lee, Byung-Wan; Kang, Eun Seok; Lee, Hyun Chul; Kim, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Sang-Guk; Cha, Bong-Soo

    2016-04-01

    Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is frequently estimated using the empirical Friedewald equation. We compared the accuracy of the novel equation named as the 180-cell method (180-c), which estimates LDL-C using a stratification approach, to those of 9 previously suggested formulas, including the Friedewald equation.We compared the accuracy of 10 equations by calculating intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and weighted kappa index in relation to direct LDL-C measurement values. Two independent populations used in the validation were the Severance Hospital LDL-C (SHL) registry (n = 164,358) and the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2009 to 2010 (n = 3,854), each representing the hospital patient population and the general Korean population, respectively.The 180-c and DeLong equations showed the highest ICCs, indicating the best agreement with direct LDL-C measurement. The 180-c and Chen equations showed the highest kappa indices. For the hypertriglyceridemic subpopulation from SHL, the 180-c equation showed the best agreement with direct LDL-C measurement in terms of ICC.We compared the novel 180-c method for LDL-C estimation with 9 previous formulas in a non-US population as the first external validation. The 180-c equation, with Chen equation, appeared to be more accurate than the Friedewald equation. Although the DeLong equation showed better performance in the hypertriglyceridemic subpopulation, the 180-c equation performed appropriately in Asian population. PMID:27057857

  3. Young adults' trajectories of Ecstasy use: a population based study.

    PubMed

    Smirnov, Andrew; Najman, Jake M; Hayatbakhsh, Reza; Plotnikova, Maria; Wells, Helene; Legosz, Margot; Kemp, Robert

    2013-11-01

    Young adults' Ecstasy use trajectories have important implications for individual and population-level consequences of Ecstasy use, but little relevant research has been conducted. This study prospectively examines Ecstasy trajectories in a population-based sample. Data are from the Natural History Study of Drug Use, a retrospective/prospective cohort study conducted in Australia. Population screening identified a probability sample of Ecstasy users aged 19-23 years. Complete data for 30 months of follow-up, comprising 4 time intervals, were available for 297 participants (88.4% of sample). Trajectories were derived using cluster analysis based on recent Ecstasy use at each interval. Trajectory predictors were examined using a generalized ordered logit model and included Ecstasy dependence (World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Instrument), psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale), aggression (Young Adult Self Report) and contextual factors (e.g. attendance at electronic/dance music events). Three Ecstasy trajectories were identified (low, intermediate and high use). At its peak, the high-use trajectory involved 1-2 days Ecstasy use per week. Decreasing frequency of use was observed for intermediate and high-use trajectories from 12 months, independently of market factors. Intermediate and high-use trajectory membership was predicted by past Ecstasy consumption (>70 pills) and attendance at electronic/dance music events. High-use trajectory members were unlikely to have used Ecstasy for more than 3 years and tended to report consistently positive subjective effects at baseline. Given the social context and temporal course of Ecstasy use, Ecstasy trajectories might be better understood in terms of instrumental rather than addictive drug use patterns. PMID:23899430

  4. Population genetic studies in the Balkans. I. Serum proteins.

    PubMed

    Scheil, H G; Scheffrahn, W; Schmidt, H D; Huckenbeck, W; Efremovska, L; Xirotiris, N

    2001-09-01

    Within a study of the genetics of Southeastern European populations seven serum protein polymorphisms (AMY2, BF, C3, CP, GC, HPA, TF) were examined in three samples of Aromuns (Albania: the village of Andon Poci, province Gjirocaster, Republic of Macedonia: Stip region, Romania: the village Kogalniceanu, province Dobruja) and four reference samples (Albanians: Tirana, Romanians: Constanta and Ploiesti as well as Greeks (Northeastern Greece)). The Aromun samples from Albania and Romania form one separate cluster and the reference samples together with the Aromuns from Macedonia (Stip region) form a second one. PMID:11591047

  5. Human Identification via Lateral Patella Radiographs: A Validation Study.

    PubMed

    Niespodziewanski, Emily; Stephan, Carl N; Guyomarc'h, Pierre; Fenton, Todd W

    2016-01-01

    This research examines the utility of patella outline shape for matching 3D scans of patellae to knee radiographs using elliptical Fourier analysis and subjective methods of human visual comparison of patellae across radiographs for identification purposes. Repeat radiographs were captured of cadaver's knees for visual comparison before patellae were extracted and skeletonized for quantitative comparisons. Quantitative methods provided significant narrowing down of the candidate pool to just a few potential matches (<5% of original sample), while the human analysts showed high capacity for correctly matching radiographs, irrespective of educational level (positive predictive value = 99.8%). The successful computerized matching based on a single quantified patella trait (outline shape) helps explain the potency achieved by subjective visual examination. This work adds to a growing body of studies demonstrating the value of single isolated infracranial bones for human identification via radiographic comparison. PMID:26234529

  6. The Effects of Finite Sampling on State Assessment Sample Requirements. NAEP Validity Studies. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chromy, James R.

    This study addressed statistical techniques that might ameliorate some of the sampling problems currently facing states with small populations participating in State National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) assessments. The study explored how the application of finite population correction factors to the between-school component of…

  7. Validation of a Poisson-distributed limiting dilution assay (LDA) for a rapid and accurate resolution of multiclonal infections in natural Trypanosoma cruzi populations.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Juan David; Herrera, Claudia; Bogotá, Yizeth; Duque, María Clara; Suárez-Rivillas, Alejandro; Guhl, Felipe

    2013-02-15

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of American trypanosomiasis, a complex zoonotic disease that affects more than 10million people in the Americas. Strains of this parasite possess a significant amount of genetic variability and hence can be divided into at least six discrete typing units (DTUs). The life cycle of this protist suggests that multiclonal infections may emerge due to the likelihood of contact of triatomine insects with more than 100 mammal species. To date, there have been a few studies on but no consensus regarding standardised methodologies to identify multiclonal infections caused by this parasite. Hence, the aim of this study was to develop and validate a limiting dilution assay (LDA) to identify multiclonal infections in T. cruzi populations by comparing the feasibility and reliability of this method with the widely applied solid phase blood agar (SPBA) methodology. We cloned reference strains belonging to three independent genotypes (TcI, TcII, and TcIV) and mixed infections (TcI+TcII) using LDA and SPBA; the comparison was conducted by calculating the feasibility and reliability of the methods employed. Additionally, we implemented LDA in strains recently isolated from Homo sapiens, Rhodnius prolixus, Triatoma venosa, Panstrongylus geniculatus, Tamandua tetradactyla, Rattus rattus, Didelphis marsupialis and Dasypus novemcinctus, with the aim of resolving multiclonal infections using molecular characterization employing SL-IR (spliced leader intergenic region of mini-exon gene), the 24Sα rDNA gene and microsatellite loci. The results reported herein demonstrate that LDA is an optimal methodology to distinguish T. cruzi subpopulations based on microsatellite markers by showing the absence of multiple peaks within a single locus. Conversely, SPBA showed patterns of multiple peaks within a single locus suggesting multiclonal events. The biological consequences of these results and the debate between multiclonality and aneuploidy are

  8. The Swedish SF-36 Health Survey--I. Evaluation of data quality, scaling assumptions, reliability and construct validity across general populations in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, M; Karlsson, J; Ware, J E

    1995-11-01

    We document the applicability of the SF-36 Health Survey, which was translated into Swedish using methods later adopted by the International Quality of Life Assessment (IQOLA) Project procedures. To test its appropriateness for use in Sweden, it was administered through mail-out/mail-back questionnaires in seven general population studies with an average response rate of 68%. The 8930 respondents varied by gender (48.2% men), age (range 15-93 years, mean age 42.7), marital status, education, socio-economic status, and geographical area. Psychometric methods used in the evaluation of the SF-36 in the U.S. were replicated. Over 90% of respondents had complete items for each of the eight SF-36 scales, although more missing data were observed for subjects 75 years and over. Scale scores could be computed for the vast majority of respondents (95% and over); slightly fewer in the oldest subgroup. Item-internal consistency was consistently high across socio-demographic subgroups and the eight scales. Most reliability estimates exceeded the 0.80 level. The highest reliability was observed for the Bodily Pain Scale where all subgroups met the 0.90 level recommended for individual comparisons; coefficients at or above 0.90 were also observed in most subgroups for the Physical Functioning Scale. Tests of scaling assumptions including hypothesized item groupings, which reflect the construct validity of scales, were consistently favorable across subgroups, although lower rates were noted in the oldest age group. In conclusion, these studies have yielded empirical evidence supporting the feasibility of a non-English language reproduction of the SF-36 Health Survey. The Swedish SF-36 is ready for further evaluation. PMID:8560302

  9. A Study of Transmigrated Canine in an Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Gaurav; Nagpal, Archna

    2014-01-01

    Aim. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of transmigrated canines in a north Indian population and association with gender, side, associated pathologies, and dental anomalies. Subjects and methods. The prospective study consisted of panoramic radiographs of 3000 patients from two dental colleges in north India. The panoramic radiographs were screened for radiographically identified position of the transmigrated tooth, retained canine, and other coexisting dental anomalies. Results. The overall prevalence of transmigrated canines (15 mandibular and 5 maxillary) was 0.66%. The prevalence of mandibular transmigrated canine was 0.5% and maxillary transmigrated canine was 0.16%. All the transmigrated canines were unilateral. The age range was 15–53 years (average age 24.1 years) and there were 12 males (60%) and 8 females (40%). Type 1 mandibular canine transmigration was the commonest type found in our study (10 cases), followed by types 2 and 4 (2 cases each) and 1 case of type 5 transmigration. Conclusion. The prevalence of transmigrated canines in the north Indian population was 0.66% and no gender predilection was evident. The transmigrated canines have a low complication rate (10.0%) and no correlation with other dental anomalies was found. Type 3 canine is the rarest form of mandibular canine transmigration.

  10. Tracking Study for Top-off Safety Validation at SSRL

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, X.; Bauer, J.; Corbett, J.; Dell'Orco, D.; Hettel, B.; Liu, J.; Rabedeau, T.; Safranek, J.; Schmerge, J.; Sebek, J.; Tanabe, J.; Terebilo, A.; Wang, L.

    2011-08-19

    A tracking study was performed at SSRL to identify necessary controls and to prove the safety of top-off operation from radiation hazard under such conditions. The safety rationale, tracking setup and the results are presented. Top-off operational mode has become a trend for existing and planned third-generation storage ring light sources for the many benefits such as increased average brightness, improved thermal stability and elimination of the interruption to user experiments due to traditional injection [1, 2]. Unlike the traditional decay mode injection which happens a few times a day and during which the photon beamline shutters are closed, top-off mode injection requires photon beamline shutters to remain open during injection and occurs much more frequently, from once every 5 seconds to once every 30 minutes. Therefore injection may be transparent to user experiments and the stored current variation can be significantly reduced. For a facility equipped with a full-energy injector, the biggest challenge to the implementation of the top-off mode may be the control of radiation hazard. Studies at ALS and SSRL [2, 3] have shown that a single injected electron pulse that enters the photon beamline and exits the radiation shield wall would cause unacceptable radiation doses on the experimental floor. For the protection of users and experimental equipment, it is hence a prerequisite for top-off operation to establish controls that absolutely prevent such occurrences. Similar to other facilities such as ALS and APS [2, 4], tracking simulations were conducted at SSRL to identify the control measures, define the specifications and prove the radiation safety. However, a different approach toward the proof of safety is taken at SSRL. In this paper we first describe the SSRL accelerator complex with emphasis on the aspects related to top-off in section 2. The general considerations and requirements for top-off are presented in section 3. Section 4 and 5 give a detailed

  11. Validity of Self-Reports of Height and Weight among the General Adult Population in Japan: Findings from National Household Surveys, 1986

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Nayu

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives Growing evidence indicates that self-reported height and weight are biased, but little is known about systematic errors in the general adult population in Japan. This study takes advantage of the unique opportunity to examine this issue provided by the 1986 National Nutrition Survey. Subjects/Methods Individual-level data on a nationally representative sample aged 20–89 years from the National Nutrition Survey (November 1986) were merged with Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions (September 1986) data to obtain a dataset containing both self-reported and measured data on height and weight for each person (n = 10,469). Discrepancies between self-reported and measured means of height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) were tested across measured BMI categories (<18.5, 18.5–24.9, 25.0–27.4, 27.5–29.9, and ≥30.0 kg/m2), age groups (20–44, 45–64, and 65–89 years), and sexes. Reporting bias in mean BMI was decomposed into the contributions of misreporting height and weight. The sensitivity and specificity of self-reported BMI categories were estimated. Results Mean self-reported BMI was substantially underestimated in older women (P<0.001; Cohen’s d, -0.4), and the major contributor to the bias was their over-reported height. Mean self-reported BMI was also considerably underestimated in both men and women who were overweight and obese (P<0.001; Cohen’s d, -1.0 to -0.6), due mainly to their underreported weight. In contrast, mean self-reported BMI was considerably overestimated in underweight men (P<0.001; Cohen’s d, 0.5), due largely to their over-reported weight. The sensitivity of self-reported BMI categories was particularly low for individuals who had a measured BMI of 27.5–29.9 kg/m2 (40.9% for men and 26.8% for women). Conclusions Self-reported anthropometric data were not sufficiently accurate to assert the validity of their use in epidemiological studies on the general adult population in Japan in the late 1980s

  12. Validation and Further Validation of a Measure of Creative Identity among USA and Finland Pre-Service Music Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randles, Clint; Muhonen, Sari

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate a measure of creative identity with a population of pre-service teachers in the USA, to further validate the measure with a Finnish population, and to compare both populations regarding their perceptions of themselves as creative musicians. The researcher developed a tool, the "Creative Identity…

  13. Concept study and validation of Antarctic telescope tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanford, Ephraim; Swain, Mark; Meyers, Catherine; Muramatsu, Tamao; Nielson, Greg; Olson, Valerie; Ronsse, Sebastien; Vinding Nyden, Emily; Hammerschlag, Robert; Little, Patrick

    2006-06-01

    Studies by Mark Swain and a colleague at the Max Planck Institut fur Astronomie, coupled with results from past and ongoing projects at Harvey Mudd College, strongly suggest that it may be possible to achieve imaging performance comparable to the Hubble Space Telescope at relatively low cost using available, commercial products. This is achievable by placing a 2.4 m telescope, with readily available adaptive optics, on a 30 m tower located at a high-elevation geological "dome" in Antarctica. An initial project surveyed relevant tower design approaches, then generated and evaluated six concept designs for telescope towers. Using data for typical and extreme wind at Dome C to generate wind loads, finite element analysis yielded lateral deflections at the top of 0.3 mm for typical winds and 12.1 mm for extreme gusts, with the lowest resonant frequency at 0.7 Hz; some tower concepts are innovative and allow for easy shipment, setup, and relocation. A subsequent project analyzed a tower designed by Hammerschlag and found fundamental resonance frequencies at 4.3 Hz for bending and 5.9 Hz for torsion; this project also designed and simulated an active telescope control system that maintained 17 milliarcsecond pointing error for the telescope atop the tower during typical wind conditions.

  14. An external construct validity study of Rorschach personality variables.

    PubMed

    Greenwald, D F

    1990-01-01

    This study examined (a) hypothesized relationships between Rorschach variables and self-report test measures relating to nominally similar aspects of personality functioning and (b) interrelationships among Rorschach variables. Sixty-two undergraduates were administered the Rorschach, Barron Ego Strength Scale, Kaplan Self-Derogation Scale, Eagly Self-Esteem Scale, Multiple Affective Adjective Checklist (MAACL), Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale, and the Rotter Locus of Control Scale. Only a few of the predictions received confirmation: inanimate movement (m) correlated, as expected, with MAACL anxiety and hostility, the egocentricity index (3r + 2)/R (R = total responses) correlated significantly with self-esteem, and human movement with minus form level (M-) correlated (inversely) with ego strength. Among the unpredicted findings were some that appear inconsistent with standard Rorschach interpretation. Rorschach variables human movement (M), and experience actual (EA), generally interpreted as reflecting coping resources, related significantly with self-report measures of poor coping and of dysphoric affect. In general, the Rorschach appears better at identifying weaknesses in the ego rather than strengths. PMID:2280339

  15. Validation of Maturity Offset in the Fels Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Malina, Robert M; Choh, Audrey C; Czerwinski, Stefan A; Chumlea, Wm Cameron

    2016-08-01

    Sex-specific equations for predicting maturity offset, time before or after peak height velocity (PHV), were evaluated in 63 girls and 74 boys from the Fels Longitudinal Study. Serially measured heights (0.1 cm), sitting heights (0.1 cm), weights (0.1 kg), and estimated leg lengths (0.1 cm) from 8 to 18 years were used. Predicted age at PHV (years) was calculated as the difference between chronological age (CA) and maturity offset. Actual age at PHV for each child was derived with a triple logistic model (Bock-Thissen-du Toit). Mean predicted maturity offset was negative and lowest at 8 years and increased linearly with increasing CA. Predicted ages at PHV increased linearly with CA from 8 to 18 years in girls and from 8 to 13 years in boys; predictions varied within relatively narrow limits from 12 to 15 years and then increased to 18 years in boys. Differences between predicted and actual ages at PHV among youth of contrasting maturity status were significant across the age range in both sexes. Dependence of predicted age at PHV upon CA at prediction and on actual age at PHV limits its utility as an indicator of maturity timing and in sport talent programs. PMID:26757350

  16. Population Periodicals. A Directory of Serial Population Publications in the ESCAP Region. Asian Population Studies Series No. 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok (Thailand).

    This publication has been prepared for government personnel, research workers, librarians/documentalists, teachers, and students. Contained within the directory are materials published in the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) region on population-related topics. The publication is arranged in four sections. The user's…

  17. Illustrative Projections of World Populations to the 21st Century. Current Population Reports, Special Studies Series P-23, No. 79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Maurice J., Ed.; O'Connell, Martin, Ed.

    The document presents high, medium, and low projections of the world's population for the year 2000. The objective of the study is to determine demands on natural resources and the environment which will be brought about by changes in the world's population. The document is presented in three major sections. Section I provides an overview of the…

  18. Subsurface Immobilization of Plutonium: Experimental and Model Validation Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Rittmann, Bruce E; Deo, Randhir P; Reed, Donald T

    2008-08-13

    We conducted a coordinated experimental and modeling study centered on the interaction of Shewanella alga BrY (S. alga) with plutonium species and phases. Plutonium is the key contaminant of concern at several DOE sites that are being addressed by the overall ERSP program. The over-arching goal of this research was to understand the long-term stability of bio-precipitated immobilized plutonium phases under changing redox conditions in biologically active systems. To initiate the process of plutonium immobilization, a side-by-side comparison of the bioreduction of uranyl and plutonyl species was conducted with S. alga. Uranyl was reduced in our system, consistent with literature reports, but we noted coupling between abiotic and biotic processes and observed that non-reductive pathways to precipitation typically exist. Additionally, a key role of biogenic Fe2+, which is known to reduce uranyl at low pH, is suggested. In contrast, residual organics, present in biologically active systems, reduce Pu(VI) species to Pu(V) species at near-neutral pH. The predominance of relatively weak complexes of PuO2+ is an important difference in how the uranyl and plutonyl species interacted with S. alga. Pu(V) also led to increased toxicity towards S. alga and is also more easily reduced by microbial activity. Biogenic Fe2+, produced by S. alga when Fe3+ is present as an electron acceptor, also played a key role in understanding redox controls and pathways in this system. Overall, the bioreduction of plutonyl was observed under anaerobic conditions, which favor its immobilization in the subsurface. Understanding the mechanism by which redox control is established in biologically active systems is a key aspect of remediation and immobilization strategies for actinides when they are present as subsurface contaminants.

  19. Intelligent Emergency Department: Validation of Sociometers to Study Workload.

    PubMed

    Yu, Denny; Blocker, Renaldo C; Sir, Mustafa Y; Hallbeck, M Susan; Hellmich, Thomas R; Cohen, Tara; Nestler, David M; Pasupathy, Kalyan S

    2016-03-01

    Sociometers are wearable sensors that continuously measure body movements, interactions, and speech. The purpose of this study is to test sociometers in a smart environment in a live clinical setting, to assess their reliability in capturing and quantifying data. The long-term goal of this work is to create an intelligent emergency department that captures real-time human interactions using sociometers to sense current system dynamics, predict future state, and continuously learn to enable the highest levels of emergency care delivery. Ten actors wore the devices during five simulated scenarios in the emergency care wards at a large non-profit medical institution. For each scenario, actors recited prewritten or structured dialogue while independent variables, e.g., distance, angle, obstructions, speech behavior, were independently controlled. Data streams from the sociometers were compared to gold standard video and audio data captured by two ward and hallway cameras. Sociometers distinguished body movement differences in mean angular velocity between individuals sitting, standing, walking intermittently, and walking continuously. Face-to-face (F2F) interactions were not detected when individuals were offset by 30°, 60°, and 180° angles. Under ideal F2F conditions, interactions were detected 50 % of the time (4/8 actor pairs). Proximity between individuals was detected for 13/15 actor pairs. Devices underestimated the mean duration of speech by 30-44 s, but were effective at distinguishing the dominant speaker. The results inform engineers to refine sociometers and provide health system researchers a tool for quantifying the dynamics and behaviors in complex and unpredictable healthcare environments such as emergency care. PMID:26645317

  20. A population-based study of birth defects in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Thong, M K; Ho, J J; Khatijah, N N

    2005-01-01

    Birth defects are one of the leading causes of paediatric disability and mortality in developed and developing countries. Data on birth defects from population-based studies originating from developing countries are lacking. One of the objectives of this study was to determine the epidemiology of major birth defects in births during the perinatal period in Kinta district, Perak, Malaysia over a 14-month period, using a population-based birth defect register. There were 253 babies with major birth defects in 17,720 births, giving an incidence of 14.3/1000 births, a birth prevalence of 1 in 70. There were 80 babies with multiple birth defects and 173 with isolated birth defects. The exact syndromic diagnosis of the babies with multiple birth defects could not be identified in 18 (22.5%) babies. The main organ systems involved in the isolated birth defects were cardiovascular (13.8%), cleft lip and palate (11.9%), clubfeet (9.1%), central nervous system (CNS) (including neural tube defects) (7.9%), musculoskeletal (5.5%) and gastrointestinal systems (4.7%), and hydrops fetalis (4.3%). The babies with major birth defects were associated with lower birth weights, premature deliveries, higher Caesarean section rates, prolonged hospitalization and increased specialist care. Among the cohort of babies with major birth defects, the mortality rate was 25.2% during the perinatal period. Mothers with affected babies were associated with advanced maternal age, birth defects themselves or their relatives but not in their other offspring, and significantly higher rates of previous abortions. The consanguinity rate of 2.4% was twice that of the control population. It is concluded that a birth defects register is needed to monitor these developments and future interventional trials are needed to reduce birth defects in Malaysia. PMID:16096215