Science.gov

Sample records for population worries economists

  1. Population ageing: what should we worry about?

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Adair

    2009-01-01

    Approximately half the world's population now has replacement-level fertility or below. The UK experience in accommodating to a changing dependency ratio provides some generalizable insights. A mechanistic approach assuming a fixed retirement age and a need to raise fertility or increase immigration in order to maintain pensions at a fixed proportion of the gross domestic product (GDP) is overstated and wrong. It needs to be replaced by a welfare optimizing model, which takes into account the increasing years of healthy life, a slow rise in the pensionable age, capital inheritance and wider welfare considerations of population density that are not reflected in GDP measures. A combined replacement ratio (CRR) is suggested for developed countries combining the impact of the fertility rate and immigration rate. A CRR above 2 implies continued population growth. The current UK CRR of 2.48 is higher than needed for pension reasons, and it is suggested that it exceeds the welfare maximizing level. PMID:19770152

  2. Do not worry, be mindful: effects of induced worry and mindfulness on respiratory variability in a nonanxious population.

    PubMed

    Vlemincx, Elke; Vigo, Daniel; Vansteenwegen, Debora; Van den Bergh, Omer; Van Diest, Ilse

    2013-02-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is characterized by chronic worry. Mindfulness-based stress reduction is thought to remediate excessive worry, because it counteracts a permanent defense state of enhanced vigilance to potential threats. The present study aimed to compare respiratory variability (RV) during worry and mindfulness. Following an 8-minute baseline, 37 healthy participants underwent 11-min worry and mindfulness inductions, in randomized order, using auditory scripts. Respiration was measured by chest and abdominal inductance belts. RV was quantified by (1) autocorrelation to assess linear breathing variability and (2) sample entropy to assess nonlinear breathing variability. Compared to baseline and mindfulness, worry showed decreased autocorrelation in all respiratory parameters and compared to mindfulness, worry showed decreased entropy in respiratory rate. These results suggest that, in contrast to mindfulness, worry is characterized by decreased respiratory stability and flexibility, and therefore worry and mindfulness seem to have countering effects on RV and respiratory regulation. PMID:23266658

  3. Differences and similarities between obsessive intrusive thoughts and worry in a non-clinical population: study 2.

    PubMed

    Langlois, F; Freeston, M H; Ladouceur, R

    2000-02-01

    Differences between obsessions and worry have been clearly demonstrated on several variables [Langlois, F., Freeston, M. H., & Ladouccur, R. (2000). Differences and similarities between obsessive intrusive thoughts and worry in a non-clinical population: study 1. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38, 157-173.]. Previous factor analysis of obsessions or worries have typically been used in developing measures for OCD and GAD symptoms. These studies generally support the distinctiveness of obsessions and worries but there have been no direct comparisons of the factor structure of obsession and worry on the same measure. This study aimed to compare the general structure of worry and obsessional intrusions. It also attempted to identify the relations between the respective factors identified in the appraisals of intrusions and the factor structures of coping strategies used in reaction to the thoughts. 254 students participated in the study. They first identified an obsession-like intrusion and a worry and then evaluated them with the Cognitive Intrusion Questionnaire. Different factor structures were obtained for worry and obsessive intrusive thoughts. However, the factor structure for the strategies used to counter the thoughts were highly similar for both types of thought. Furthermore, regression analysis identified interesting relationships between the strategies, the thought characteristics and appraisal. Thus, despite the ability to find differences between obsessive intrusive thoughts and worry, and even to accurately categorize them based on these differences, there may in fact exist common processes that are shared over much of a continuum. Sharp differences in the processes involved may only become clear in prototypical cases. The implications for models of cognitive intrusion are discussed. PMID:10661002

  4. Response to “Worrying Trends in Econophysics”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCauley, Joseph L.

    2006-11-01

    This article is a response to the recent “Worrying Trends in Econophysics” critique written by four respected theoretical economists [M. Gallegatti, S. Keen, T. Lux, P. Ormerod, Worrying trends in econophysics, Physica A (2006), submitted for publication [1

  5. Differences and similarities between obsessive intrusive thoughts and worry in a non-clinical population: study 1.

    PubMed

    Langlois, F; Freeston, M H; Ladouceur, R

    2000-02-01

    Worry is the central characteristic of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) and obsessions are a central feature of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). There are strong similarities between these disorders: repetitive cognitive intrusions, negative emotions, difficulty dismissing the intrusion and finally, loss of mental control. Direct comparisons between obsessions and worries are almost non-existent in the literature but key distinctions have been proposed. The study attempted to specify the differences between obsessive intrusive thoughts and worry in a nonclinical population across a series of variables drawn from current models (appraisal, general descriptors and emotional reactions). 254 students participated in the study. They first identified an obsession-like intrusion and a worry and then evaluated them with the Cognitive Intrusion Questionnaire. Within-subject comparisons demonstrated significant differences on several variables: frequency, duration, percentage of verbal and image content, interference, egodystonic nature, stimuli awareness, emotions, etc. Most of these differences remained significant after controlling for frequency of thought. Discriminant analysis demonstrated a low classification error rate when using nine variables to categorize thoughts as obsessions or worries. Results generally support the differences postulated in the literature with the exception that obsessive intrusive thoughts are better controlled. The egodystonic/egosyntonic dimension emerged as an important variable in understanding obsessions and worry. PMID:10661001

  6. What Economists Teach and What Economists Do

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colander, David

    2005-01-01

    Fifty years ago what was taught in the principles of economics course reflected reasonably well what economists did in their research. That, however, is no longer the case; today what economists teach has a more nuanced relation to what they do. The reason is that the economics profession and the textbooks have evolved differently. The author…

  7. What Led Eminent Economists to Become Economists?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Brent A.; Grimes, Paul W.; Becker, William E.

    2012-01-01

    The authors analyze the various factors that highly recognized economists cite as reasons for pursuing a career in economics. They obtained data for 62 of the 67 Nobel Laureates in economics and included another 22 prominent economists who have made significant contributions in economic research. The authors' basic quest was to discover how these…

  8. Worry, worry attacks, and PTSD among Cambodian refugees: a path analysis investigation.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Devon E; Nickerson, Angela; Bryant, Richard A

    2011-06-01

    Among traumatized Cambodian refugees, this article investigates worry (e.g., the types of current life concerns) and how worry worsens posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). To explore how worry worsens PTSD, we examine a path model of worry to see whether certain key variables (e.g., worry-induced somatic arousal and worry-induced trauma recall) mediate the relationship between worry and PTSD. Survey data were collected from March 2010 until May 2010 in a convenience sample of 201 adult Cambodian refugees attending a psychiatric clinic in Massachusetts, USA. We found that worry was common in this group (65%), that worry was often about current life concerns (e.g., lacking financial resources, children not attending school, health concerns, concerns about relatives in Cambodia), and that worry often induced panic attacks: in the entire sample, 41% (83/201) of the patients had "worry attacks" (i.e., worry episodes that resulted in a panic episode) in the last month. "Worry attacks" were highly associated with PTSD presence. In the entire sample, generalized anxiety disorder was also very prevalent, and was also highly associated with PTSD. Path analysis revealed that the effect of worry on PTSD severity was mediated by worry-induced somatic arousal, worry-induced catastrophic cognitions, worry-induced trauma recall, inability to stop worry, and irritability. The final model accounted for 75% of the variance in PTSD severity among patients with worry. The public health and treatment implications of the study's findings that worry may have a potent impact on PTSD severity in severely traumatized populations are discussed: worry and daily concerns are key areas of intervention for these worry-hypersensitive (and hence daily-stressor-hypersensitive) populations. PMID:21663803

  9. Worries of the Oldest-Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Hae-Sook; Dunkle, Ruth; Roberts, Beverly L.

    2006-01-01

    With the emerging population of the oldest-old (those ages 85 and older), it is crucial to understand and prepare for their psychosocial needs. Worry is linked to psychological well-being and physical health, but little is known about the oldest-old's everyday worries. The authors explored four research questions: (1) What are the worries of the…

  10. Consensus among Economists Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Dan; Geide-Stevenson, Doris

    2003-01-01

    Explores consensus among economists on specific propositions on the basis of a fall 2000 survey of American Economic Association members. Finds consensus generally within the profession, although the degree of consensus varies among propositions that are international, macroeconomic, and microeconomic in nature. States the profession displays…

  11. Diversifying the Economists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2006-01-01

    The American Economists Association's (AEA's) summer and minority scholarship program at Duke University is an academic pipeline program that has been in operation for 33 years. The eight-week summer experience prepares its participants for the rigors of first- and second-year study in master's and doctorate programs in economics. The program also…

  12. Helping Kids Handle Worry

    MedlinePlus

    ... or at school. Things like terrorism, war, pollution, global warming, endangered animals, and natural disasters can become a ... worry about big stuff — like terrorism, war, or global warming — that they hear about at school or on ...

  13. Process characteristics of worry and obsessive intrusive thoughts.

    PubMed

    Clark, D A; Claybourn, M

    1997-12-01

    One hundred and twenty-five university students were administered a battery of self-report measures to assess worry disposition and content, frequency of obsessive intrusive thoughts, and 10 conceptually derived appraisal dimensions of worry and obsessional intrusions. Process ratings indicated that the worrisome thoughts were considered more disturbing than the ego-dystonic intrusive thoughts. Worry was also distinguished by a focus on the possible consequences of negative events, whereas concern about the personal meaning of the thought was a unique process dimension for obsessive intrusive thoughts. Both content and process variables are important in differentiating worry and obsessive-like intrusive thoughts in a nonclinical population. PMID:9465447

  14. The worried mind: autonomic and prefrontal activation during worrying.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Stefan G; Moscovitch, David A; Litz, Brett T; Kim, Hyo-Jin; Davis, Lissa L; Pizzagalli, Diego A

    2005-12-01

    To study the psychophysiological correlates of worrying, the authors recorded heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), skin conductance level, and alpha electroencephalographic asymmetry in healthy males during baseline, relaxation, worry induction, and anticipation of an impromptu speech task. Compared with baseline, relaxation, and anticipation, worrying was associated with greater heart rate and lower RSA. Worrying was further characterized by higher skin conductance levels compared with baseline but lower levels than during anticipation. Finally, worrying was associated with relatively greater left frontal activity compared with anticipation. Trait public speaking anxiety was positively correlated with left frontal activity during worrying. These results support the notion that worrying is a unique emotional state that is different from fearful anticipation. PMID:16366750

  15. The Economist as Public Intellectual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, R. Glenn

    2004-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the rising number of outlets for communication through cable networks and electronic broadcasting (not to mention self-promoting Web "blogs") has stimulated the demand for economic commentary. Only the academic economist, as "public intellectual," can provide this commentary in a coherent and rigorous way via the three…

  16. Who Are These Economists, Anyway?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbraith, James K.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the author ventures into the nether wastes of economics, and attempts a brief survey of the main currents that didn't get it wrong. He looks at the failure of the nation's leading academic economists to understand the current financial crisis or the shaky underpinnings of the nation's financial system. The author's method consists…

  17. Energy policy: an economist's confessions

    SciTech Connect

    Schlesinger, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    Dr. Schlesinger, former Secretary of Energy, feels that energy policy will determine how the industrial economies perform and whether the western political institutions survive. He says that energy policy does not, however, respond to traditional economic analysis in that there is no economic theory to adequately cover depleting resources. Economists gain strength by approaching energy problems in the context of supply and the price mechanism, with attention to arithmetic rather than emotion. Dr. Schlesinger believes, however, that there are weaknesses in the economists' view in the curative powers granted to the marketplace, which are better at making small adjustments over a long period of time than large adjustments in a short time. He notes that tendency to use inappropriate syllogisms obscures the problem of a rapidly diminishing lead time to solving the energy problem. He observes that total reliance on the marketplace will have to give way to government subsidies to research, develop, and commercialize fuels. (DCK)

  18. Waste, Economists and American Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-five years ago, Uwe Reinhardt pointed out that sheer bureaucratic waste, particularly in the private sector, accounted for much of the extraordinarily high cost of American health-care. Last year an expert panel of the Institute of Medicine reconfirmed his point, estimating that in 2009, administrative waste accounted for $190 billion out of a total of $765 billion in various forms of waste – 31% of overall American spending on healthcare. Reinhardt recently noted a peculiar schizophrenia among American economists, simultaneously deploring this monumental waste while celebrating the contribution of healthcare, and particularly medical research, to the American economy. The apparent paradox may arise from a confusion between the meanings of “value” in economic and everyday language, and from economists' tendency to create pseudo-aggregates of diverse and non-commensurate entities. PMID:24359713

  19. The Developmental Psychopathology of Worry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kertz, Sarah J.; Woodruff-Borden, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Although childhood generalized anxiety disorder is generally understudied, worry, the cardinal feature of GAD, appears to be relatively common in youth. Despite its prevalence, there are few conceptual models of the development of clinical worry in children. The current review provides a framework for integrating the developmental psychopathology…

  20. Resources for Economists on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goffe, William L.; Braden, Elise

    2000-01-01

    Describes the Web site Resources for Economists on the Internet (RFE) that is sponsored by the American Economic Association under the Journal of Economic Literature. States that RFE focuses on the needs of academic economists. Explains that RFE includes over 900 Internet resources and discusses the "Teaching Resources" section. (CMK)

  1. Needed: Home Economists in the Peace Corps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Frances J.

    1978-01-01

    The primary reason home economists, nutritionists, and dietitians are being recruited by the Peace Corps is the national priority goal for achieving improved nutritional status in impoverished countries such as Costa Rica. However, several ways in which a home economist can contribute to Peace Corps activities and the role of this professional in…

  2. Home Economists and Hospice: A Needed Combination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Story, Marilyn D.

    1983-01-01

    Hospice is a family-centered concept of care which needs home economists from all subject-matter areas in volunteer or paid professional roles. In turn, home economists can grow personally as well as professionally through their involvement with hospice. (Author)

  3. Worrying About Terrorism and Other Acute Environmental Health Hazard Events

    PubMed Central

    Babcock-Dunning, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To better understand why some people worry more about terrorism compared with others, we measured how much US residents worried about a terrorist event in their area and examined the association of their fears with their concerns about acute and chronic hazards and other correlates. Methods. In 2008 (n = 600) and 2010 (n = 651), we performed a random-digit dialing national landline telephone survey. We asked about worries about terrorism and 5 other environmental health hazard issues. We also collected demographic and socioeconomic data. Results. Only 15% worried “a great deal” about a terrorist event in their area and 18% to 33% were greatly concerned about other environmental issues. Fear about acute hazard events was a stronger predictor of a great deal of concern about terrorism than were age, race/ethnicity, gender, educational achievement, and other correlates. Conclusions. Those who worried most about acute environmental health hazard events were most likely to worry about terrorism. Also, those who were older, poorer, Blacks, or Latinos, or who lived in populous urban areas felt they were most vulnerable to terrorist attacks. We recommend methods to involve US citizens as part of disaster planning. PMID:22397346

  4. Cancer-Related Worry in Canadian Thyroid Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Bresner, Lauren; Banach, Rita; Rodin, Gary; Thabane, Lehana; Ezzat, Shereen

    2015-01-01

    Context: Little is known about cancer-related worry in thyroid cancer survivors. Objectives: We quantified cancer-related worry in Canadian thyroid cancer survivors and explored associated factors. Design, Setting, and Participants: We performed a cross-sectional, self-administered, written survey of thyroid cancer survivor members of the Thyroid Cancer Canada support group. Independent factors associated with cancer-related worry were identified using a multivariable linear regression analysis. Main Outcome Measure: We used the Assessment of Survivor Concerns (ASC) questionnaire, which includes questions on worry about diagnostic tests, second primary malignancy, recurrence, dying, health, and children's health. Results: The response rate for eligible members was 60.1% (941 of 1567). Most respondents were women (89.0%; 837 of 940), and the age was < 50 years in 54.0% of participants (508 of 941). Thyroid cancer was diagnosed within ≤ 5 years in 66.1% of participants (622 of 940). The mean overall ASC score was 15.34 (SD, 4.7) (on a scale from 6 [least worry] to 24 [most worry]). Factors associated with increased ASC score included: younger age (P < .001), current suspected or proven recurrent/persistent disease (ie, current proven active disease or abnormal diagnostic tests) (P < .001), partnered marital status (P = .021), having children (P = .029), and ≤5 years since thyroid cancer diagnosis (P = .017). Conclusions: In a population of Canadian thyroid cancer survivors, cancer-related worry was greatest in younger survivors and those with either confirmed or suspected disease activity. Family status and time since thyroid cancer diagnosis were also associated with increased worry. More research is needed to confirm these findings and to develop effective preventative and supportive strategies for those at risk. PMID:25393643

  5. Worries of Pregnant Women: Testing the Farsi Cambridge Worry Scale

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Forough; Akaberi, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy adds many sources of concerns to women's daily life worries. Excessive worry can affect maternal physiological and psychological state that influences the pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to validate the Cambridge Worry Scale (CWS) in a sample of Iranian pregnant women. After translation of the CWS, ten experts evaluated the items and added six items to the 17-item scale. In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 405 of pregnant women booked for prenatal care completed the Farsi CWS. We split the sample randomly. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted on the first half of the sample to disclose the factorial structure of the 23-item scale. The results of the EFA on the Farsi CWS indicated four factors altogether explained 51.5% of variances. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was done on the second half of the sample. The results of the CFA showed that the model fit our data (chi-square/df = 2.02, RMSEA = 0.071, SRMR = 0.071, CFI = 0.95, and NNFI = 0.94). Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the Farsi CWS was 0.883. The Farsi CWS is a reliable and valid instrument for understanding common pregnancy worries in the third trimester of pregnancy in Iranian women. PMID:27293974

  6. Worry, Intolerance of Uncertainty, and Statistics Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Amanda S.

    2013-01-01

    Statistics anxiety is a problem for most graduate students. This study investigates the relationship between intolerance of uncertainty, worry, and statistics anxiety. Intolerance of uncertainty was significantly related to worry, and worry was significantly related to three types of statistics anxiety. Six types of statistics anxiety were…

  7. A Home Economist Does Historic Preservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Margaret N.

    1975-01-01

    The research director of the University of Iowa's Bicentennial "Old Capitol" restoration project discusses restoration rationale and employment possibilities for home economists, stressing that the most important training for students is in aesthetic responsibility and historical accuracy. She reviews step-by-step the restoration work done in one…

  8. Learning Not to Think Like an Economist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, David R.

    2007-01-01

    This essay describes my progress bringing the core ideas of economics into conversations with noneconomists about important public policy issues within my faith community, through local politics, and through interdisciplinary conversations in academia. Thinking like an economist is essential to conducting research and performing careful analysis…

  9. Consensus among Economists--An Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Dan; Geide-Stevenson, Doris

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore consensus among economists on specific propositions based on a fall 2011 survey of American Economic Association members. Results are based on 568 responses and provide evidence of changes in opinion over time by including propositions from earlier studies in 2000 (Fuller and Geide-Stevenson 2003) and 1992…

  10. Penn State Worry Questionnaire: structure and psychometric properties of the Chinese version*

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Jie; Wang, Chun; Li, Jie; Liu, Jun

    2009-01-01

    The Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) is a measure of worry phenomena and has been demonstrated valid in cross-cultural populations. The present study examined the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Chinese version of PSWQ (Ch-PSWQ) in a Chinese college sample (n=1243). Exploratory factor analysis of the Ch-PSWQ revealed a two-factor solution (engagement of worry and absence of worry). Confirmatory factor analysis and model comparison supported that the model of one factor with method effect provided the best fit to the data. The Ch-PSWQ and its factors evidenced good internal consistency and both convergent and discriminate validity. The present study supports the opinion that the second factor of PSWQ not only contains the component of evaluating pathological worry, but also might represent other traits. PMID:19283876

  11. 7 CFR 2.70 - Deputy Chief Economist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deputy Chief Economist. 2.70 Section 2.70 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY BY THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE AND GENERAL OFFICERS OF THE DEPARTMENT Delegations of Authority by the Chief Economist § 2.70 Deputy Chief Economist. Pursuant to § 2.29, the...

  12. The When, Why, and How of Worry Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Heiden, Colin; ten Broeke, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Worry is a component of many psychological disorders. Worry exposure is a technique that is useful in the treatment of excessive worry. However, there is little in the psychological literature on worry exposure. This leads to the impression that clinicians do not make much use of worry exposure. This paper offers a step-by-step description of the…

  13. Initial Validation of the Children's Worry Management Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeman, Janice Lillian; Cassano, Michael; Suveg, Cynthia; Shipman, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the psychometric properties of a new instrument, the Children's Worry Management Scale (CWMS). The CWMS has three subscales that specify methods of regulating worry: inhibition (the suppression of worry), dysregulation (exaggerated displays of worry), and coping (constructive ways of managing worry). Using a Caucasian, middle-class…

  14. Systematic information processing style and perseverative worry.

    PubMed

    Dash, Suzanne R; Meeten, Frances; Davey, Graham C L

    2013-12-01

    This review examines the theoretical rationale for conceiving of systematic information processing as a proximal mechanism for perseverative worry. Systematic processing is characterised by detailed, analytical thought about issue-relevant information, and in this way, is similar to the persistent, detailed processing of information that typifies perseverative worry. We review the key features and determinants of systematic processing, and examine the application of systematic processing to perseverative worry. We argue that systematic processing is a mechanism involved in perseverative worry because (1) systematic processing is more likely to be deployed when individuals feel that they have not reached a satisfactory level of confidence in their judgement and this is similar to the worrier's striving to feel adequately prepared, to have considered every possible negative outcome/detect all potential danger, and to be sure that they will successfully cope with perceived future problems; (2) systematic processing and worry are influenced by similar psychological cognitive states and appraisals; and (3) the functional neuroanatomy underlying systematic processing is located in the same brain regions that are activated during worrying. This proposed mechanism is derived from core psychological processes and offers a number of clinical implications, including the identification of psychological states and appraisals that may benefit from therapeutic interventions for worry-based problems. PMID:24056060

  15. Cancer recurrence worry, risk perception, and informational-coping styles among Appalachian cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kimberly M; Shedlosky-Shoemaker, Randi; Porter, Kyle; Desimone, Philip; Andrykowski, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Despite a growing literature on the psychosocial impact of the threat of cancer recurrence, underserved populations, such as those from the Appalachian region, have been understudied. To examine worry and perceived risk in cancer survivors, Appalachian and non-Appalachian cancer patients at an ambulatory oncology clinic in a university hospital were surveyed. Appalachians had significantly higher worry than non-Appalachians. Cancer type and lower need for cognition were associated with greater worry. Those with missing perceived risk data were generally older, less educated, and lower in monitoring, blunting, and health literacy. Additional resources are needed to assist Appalachians and those with cancers with poor prognoses (e.g., liver cancer, pancreatic cancer) to cope with worry associated with developing cancer again. More attention for cancer prevention is critical to improve quality of life in underserved populations where risk of cancer is greater. PMID:21240722

  16. Are attentional control resources reduced by worry in generalized anxiety disorder?

    PubMed

    Stefanopoulou, Evgenia; Hirsch, Colette R; Hayes, Sarra; Adlam, Anna; Coker, Sian

    2014-05-01

    This is the first study to examine attentional control capacities in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). GAD is characterized by uncontrollable worry. Individuals diagnosed with GAD and healthy participants (HPs) performed a random key-pressing task while thinking about a worrisome or a positive future event, to assess the extent to which attentional control resources are used by worry. Attentional control was also assessed when participants were not instructed to think about a specific topic using the N-back task, which varies in task difficulty, and therefore is sensitive to subtle differences in ability to handle increasing demands on attentional control within the same paradigm. GAD participants (but not HPs) were less random while worrying than thinking about a positive event during the key-pressing task, suggesting that worry consumed more attentional control resources in this population. During the N-Back task, GAD participants performed worse than HPs during the high load conditions only, indicating greater difficulty in sustaining focus on conditions requiring a higher degree of attentional control, even without concurrent task activity. Poor attentional control might underpin the difficulty of GAD individuals to stop worrying and switch to thinking more benign information. Further research could investigate whether worry consumes attentional control resources in other psychological disorders with high rates of worry (e.g., panic disorder, psychosis), as well as the extent to which attentional control is used by other forms of repetitive thinking, such as depressive rumination. PMID:24886007

  17. Are Attentional Control Resources Reduced by Worry in Generalized Anxiety Disorder?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This is the first study to examine attentional control capacities in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). GAD is characterized by uncontrollable worry. Individuals diagnosed with GAD and healthy participants (HPs) performed a random key-pressing task while thinking about a worrisome or a positive future event, to assess the extent to which attentional control resources are used by worry. Attentional control was also assessed when participants were not instructed to think about a specific topic using the N-back task, which varies in task difficulty, and therefore is sensitive to subtle differences in ability to handle increasing demands on attentional control within the same paradigm. GAD participants (but not HPs) were less random while worrying than thinking about a positive event during the key-pressing task, suggesting that worry consumed more attentional control resources in this population. During the N-Back task, GAD participants performed worse than HPs during the high load conditions only, indicating greater difficulty in sustaining focus on conditions requiring a higher degree of attentional control, even without concurrent task activity. Poor attentional control might underpin the difficulty of GAD individuals to stop worrying and switch to thinking more benign information. Further research could investigate whether worry consumes attentional control resources in other psychological disorders with high rates of worry (e.g., panic disorder, psychosis), as well as the extent to which attentional control is used by other forms of repetitive thinking, such as depressive rumination. PMID:24886007

  18. Worry as an Uncertainty-Associated Emotion: Exploring the Role of Worry in Health Information Seeking.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun Young; Hawkins, Robert P

    2016-08-01

    This study was carried out to understand how and why worry motivates health-related information seeking, and whether worry decreases after obtaining health-related information. It was proposed that worry influences health-related information-seeking behavior indirectly through cancer patients' desire for obtaining additional information. It was further expected that perceived knowledge about cancer could be increased after 2 months of searching for health information over the Internet, which would subsequently affect levels of worry. Using panel data collected from 224 women diagnosed with breast cancer, worry was found to predict patients' health information seeking via the perceived need for additional information. The results further showed significant increases in patients' perceived knowledge about breast cancer and decreased levels of worry after the seeking of health information for 2 months. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:26752071

  19. Worry in older community-residing adults.

    PubMed

    Brock, Kaye; Clemson, Lindy; Cant, Rosemary; Ke, Liang; Cumming, Robert G; Kendig, Hal; Mathews, Mark

    2011-01-01

    With rising longevity, increasing numbers of older people are experiencing changes in their everyday family and social life, changes in their financial status, and a greater number of chronic conditions affecting their health. We took the opportunity to explore these relationships with worry in a group of volunteer community-living elderly (n = 310). Findings showed that that those people under 75 years of age had a higher risk of worrying (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.0-3.1) compared to the older age groups. Women worried more than men and an important finding was that those with chronic health conditions such as arthritis of the hip and knee were more prone to worry than those who were healthy or had acute conditions (OR = 3.5, 95% CI = 1.4-8.9). This latter finding suggests the importance placed on the role of the hip and knee in maintaining functional capacity to perform life skills. PMID:21977675

  20. "My worries are rational, climate change is not": habitual ecological worrying is an adaptive response.

    PubMed

    Verplanken, Bas; Roy, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Qualifications such as "global warming hysteria" and "energy policy schizophrenia" put forward by some climate change skeptics, usually outside the academic arena, may suggest that people who seriously worry about the environment suffer from psychological imbalance. The present study aimed to refute this thesis. While habitual worrying in general is strongly associated with psychopathological symptoms, in a survey a near-zero correlation was found between habitual ecological worrying and pathological worry. Instead, habitual ecological worrying was associated with pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors, and with a personality structure characterized by imagination and an appreciation for new ideas. The study had sufficient statistical power and measures were valid and reliable. The results confirm that those who habitually worry about the ecology are not only lacking in any psychopathology, but demonstrate a constructive and adaptive response to a serious problem. In the public domain, these findings may contribute to a more rational and less emotional debate on climate change and to the prevention of stigmatization of people who are genuinely concerned about our habitat and are prepared to do something about it ("habitual worriers are not crazy"). In the academic arena this study may contribute to environmental psychology ("habitual worrying is part of a green identity"), as well as to the literature on worry and anxiety ("habitual worrying can be a constructive response"). PMID:24023958

  1. Intrusive pain and worry about health in older men: the CHAMP study.

    PubMed

    Blyth, F M; Cumming, R G; Nicholas, M K; Creasey, H; Handelsman, D J; Le Couteur, D G; Naganathan, V; Sambrook, P N; Seibel, M J; Waite, L M

    2011-02-01

    The role of anxiety in pain is less well understood than the role of depression. Based on recent conceptual thinking about worry and pain, we explored the relationship between pain status and worry about health and anxiety in 1217 community-dwelling men aged 70 years or older who participated in the baseline phase of the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project study, a large population-based epidemiological study of healthy ageing based in Sydney, Australia. We hypothesised that worry about health would be associated with having persistent pain, and that the association would be stronger in the presence of co-existing pain-related interference with activities (intrusive pain). Of men in the study, 12.5% had persistent and intrusive pain, 22.4% were worried about their health, and 6.3% had anxiety. We found a strong association between worry about health and pain that was both persistent and intrusive, and that remained after accounting for age, number of comorbidities, depression, self-rated health status, arthritis, and gait speed (adjusted odds ratio 2.9; 95% confidence interval 1.8-4.7), P<0.0001). The corresponding adjusted odds ratio for the association between anxiety and pain was 2.3 (95% confidence interval 1.0-4.8; P=0.0363). These findings suggest that at a population level, subthreshold anxiety and pain are strongly related, and worry about health occurs much more commonly than anxiety itself. To our knowledge, this is the first study to explore, specifically, the relationship between pain status and worry about health in older men. In older community-dwelling men, pain was robustly associated with worry about health, highlighting the potential importance of subthreshold anxiety-related psychological factors. PMID:21168971

  2. Economists' Group Adjusts Policy on Discriminatory Language in Job Ads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, David

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how an economists' group brought forth policy adjustments on advertising issues. Since 1986 the association has banned advertisements in its newsletter, Job Openings for Economists, that discriminate "on the basis of race, color, religion, gender, national origin, sexual preference, or physical handicap." Facing…

  3. Clustering of worry appraisals among college students.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Nicholas G; Cullum, Jerry C; Harton, Helen C

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the potential clustering of worry appraisals within college social networks. Participants living in campus residence buildings responded to online surveys across the course of several months. Worry appraisals were measured 10 weeks into the fall semester and again approximately 6 months later. Analysis of sociometric data suggests that the majority of participants' social interactions occurred within their respective residence building floors, indicating that proximity strongly influenced the development of social network ties and sources of social influence. Further, significant clustering of worry appraisals occurred across time, and more importantly, within residence building floors. The present findings compliment previous work suggesting that several physical and psychological states appear to spread and cluster within social networks. Implications for the study of emotional appraisals and future research are discussed. PMID:26541710

  4. The biologist and the economist: is dialogue possible?

    PubMed

    Keyfitz, N

    1992-06-01

    There is a need for demography to be brought into policy-making discussions. In the time of Malthus, both economists and ecologists spoke the same language and each group was receptive to and supportive of the ideas of the other. The present organization of academic life precludes interdisciplinary communication. Malthus saw the limit as food supply; today, technology seems to be the defining criteria, although access to world supplies is also unevenly distributed. Minerals were once thought to present limits, but again technology was able to generate replacements as the Green Revolution provided an option for expanding food supply. During the 1950s and 1960s, limits were perceived by Arthur Lewis, Coale, and Hoover to be in shortages of capital. Now capital is seen as a result of development and not a cause. The strongest argument for limiting population growth appears to be the stability of planetary support systems (species diversity, ozone layer, global climate, and others). Knowledge of these support systems is limited and it would be wise not to press the world's carrying capacity under such conditions. Ignorance of planetary support systems may mean that the circle may be tightening closer than we know, or that a sudden disaster is possible. It is a complex task to circumscribe boundaries to various essentials for human life. Regardless of whether there is a solution to various essentials for human life. Regardless of whether there is a solution to the known or unknown environmental problems, it is possible, easy, and reliable to reduce the population by having fewer births than deaths. Economists argue that the vagaries and uncertainties of environmental damage prevent taking environmental constraints into account, when uncertainties have always been with us. A real debate on the issues instead of disciplines talking past each other would occur if all facts and conclusions were accepted by all parties. The conclusion should be that population increases must

  5. Worry in Older Community-Residing Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Kaye; Clemson, Lindy; Cant, Rosemary; Ke, Liang; Cumming, Robert G.; Kendig, Hal; Mathews, Mark

    2011-01-01

    With rising longevity, increasing numbers of older people are experiencing changes in their everyday family and social life, changes in their financial status, and a greater number of chronic conditions affecting their health. We took the opportunity to explore these relationships with worry in a group of volunteer community-living elderly (n =…

  6. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): When Worry Gets Out of Control

    MedlinePlus

    Generalized Anxiety Disorder: When Worry Gets Out of Control Are you extremely worried about everything in your life, even ... go badly? If so, you may have an anxiety disorder called generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). national institute ...

  7. Penn State Worry Questionnaire - 10: A new tool for measurement-based care.

    PubMed

    Yao, Beier; Sripada, Rebecca K; Klumpp, Heide; Abelson, James L; Muzik, Maria; Zhao, Zhuo; Rosenblum, Katherine; Briggs, Hedieh; Kaston, Michelle; Warren, Ricks

    2016-05-30

    The Penn State Worry Questionnaire - Past Week (PSWQ-PW) is an adaptation of the widely used Penn State Worry Questionnaire, measuring pathological worry weekly. However, it contains problematic negatively worded items and has not been validated in a large sample yet. To meet the needs of measurement-based care (MBC), we developed a shortened version (PSWQ-10) based on the PSWQ-PW, retaining only positively worded items, and examined its psychometric properties and clinical utility. Patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), and other anxiety disorders completed the PSWQ-10 and other instruments during routine evaluation in an academic anxiety clinic. A second cohort from a perinatal clinic was evaluated similarly. The PSWQ-10 displayed excellent internal consistency, convergent and discriminant validity, and criterion group validity. Patients with GAD scored significantly higher than those with other anxiety disorders but did not differ from those with MDD. The PSWQ-10 showed sensitivity to change over time and demonstrated excellent psychometric properties in the perinatal population. The PSWQ-10 is a reliable, valid, efficient, and straightforward worry-focused instrument that can be readily used in MBC and help clinicians objectively measure worry as a treatment outcome in broad clinical populations. PMID:27137962

  8. Worry as a Phenomenon Relevant to the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisocki, Patricia A.

    Given the facilitating conditions and the characteristic qualities of worry, the elderly seem to be particularly susceptible to the experience of worry. The Worry Scale was developed in response to the concerns expressed about life events measures and as an attempt to address the needs of elderly people directly. Older adults (N=94) from 11 senior…

  9. Examining the Relationship between Worry and Trait Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, William E.

    2004-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that worry and anxiety are synonymous. However, there is growing evidence that anxiety and worry are separate, yet related, constructs (i.e., Davey, Hampton, Farrell, & Davidson, 1992; Davey, 1993; Gana, Martin, & Canouet, 2001 ). Worry, is generally defined as a stream of negative thoughts (Kelly & Miller, 1999). Anxiety,…

  10. Economic worry and the presence of safety hazards on farms.

    PubMed

    Hagel, Louise; Pahwa, Punam; Dosman, James A; Pickett, William

    2013-04-01

    In recent years the agricultural sector has experienced historical levels of economic challenges. Yet, the effects of these economic conditions on the physical safety of farm work environments remain poorly understood. We studied these possible etiological relationships in a cross-sectional analysis. A baseline survey of 2390 Saskatchewan farm operations was conducted in 2007. A single respondent from each farm provided information about the farm operation, its residents, perceptions of worry surrounding farm economic conditions, and the presence of six types of physical hazards. Binomial regression analyses were used to study the focal relationships between economics and safety while simultaneously adjusting for confounders at the farm level. Farms with high perceived levels of economic worry experienced elevations in risk for: the absence of well maintained buildings (RR 1.52; 95% CI: 1.27-1.87), the absence of safety shields on combines (RR 1.41; 95% CI: 1.05-1.89), and the absence of safety shields on augers (RR 1.15; 95% CI: 1.02-1.30). No apparent differences were observed by level of economic worry for the presence of ROPS on tractors, ladder safety cages on grain bins, and barriers around water hazards. We observed that financial conditions on farms appear to contribute to the decisions that farm operators make about safety. These are not innocuous choices as they in turn affect the health and safety of the entire population that works and lives in these occupational environments. Farm operators need to be supported in decisions to invest the physical safety of their farms. They also require evidence that investments in safety are indeed economically sensible and healthy management decisions. PMID:23434843

  11. Psychosocial, clinical and demographic features related to worry in patients with melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Faye; Kasparian, Nadine A.; Bishop, D. Timothy; Barrett, Jennifer H.; Newton-Bishop, Julia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate clinical, demographic and psychosocial predictors of melanoma-related worry. A questionnaire-based study in a population-ascertained cohort of individuals diagnosed with melanoma in the previous 3–6 months was carried out to identify factors associated with worry about melanoma shortly after diagnosis. A total of 520 patients felt worried about their future with respect to melanoma and 1568 patients felt confident about their future with respect to melanoma. Worry was less likely in men with partners than women with partners [adjusted odds ratio (OR)=0.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.39–0.67)], and increasing age was protective against worry [adjusted OR=0.96 per year, 95% CI (0.95–0.97)]. Worry was more likely for patients with stage III/IV melanoma [adjusted OR=1.90, 95% CI (1.41–2.56) compared with stages IB–IIC], melanoma arising in sun-protected sites (compared with a limb), no occupation (compared with workers), those who reported insufficient emotional support from healthcare providers [adjusted OR=2.20, 95% CI (1.56–3.09) compared with sufficient support], lower knowledge of melanoma [adjusted OR=4.50, 95% CI (2.82–7.18) compared with well informed], perceived financial hardship compared with no financial hardship and over three previous negative life events compared with none/one. Worry about melanoma outcomes after diagnosis is multifactorial in origin. PMID:27196629

  12. Coping strategies as psychological risk factor for antenatal anxiety, worries, and depression among Greek women.

    PubMed

    Gourounti, Kleanthi; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios; Lykeridou, Katerina

    2013-10-01

    A range of psychosocial, medical, and demographic variables may influence pregnant women's psychological status. However the association between coping strategies, anxiety, worries, and depression during pregnancy is a relatively neglected area of research. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between coping strategies, antenatal anxiety, pregnancy worries, and depressive symptomatology after controlling for the effects of background variables. The study sample consisted of 163 pregnant women, with gestational age ranging from 11 to 26 weeks, attending antenatal screening at a Greek public hospital. Coping strategies were measured with Brief COPE, pregnancy worries were measured with Cambridge Worry Scale (CWS), anxiety was assessed using State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-X version), and depression was measured with Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D). Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated among all study variables, followed by hierarchical multiple linear regression. In the univariate analysis, low annual income, unemployment, conception after an IVF treatment, and a previous history of miscarriage were associated with anxiety, depression, and worries. Additionally, almost all coping strategies (denial, behavioral disengagement, self-blame, self-distraction, substance use, acceptance, positive reframing, active coping, and seeking emotional support) were significantly associated with antenatal anxiety, worries, and depression. Linear regression analysis showed that only previous history of miscarriage, conception after IVF, as well as denial, behavioral disengagement and acceptance coping strategies were significantly related to anxiety, worries and depressive symptomatology. The risk factors found in this study could help clinicians target anxiety and depression screening to high-risk populations of pregnant women. Provision of adequate training for obstetricians and midwives in the detection and

  13. Breaking Barriers: Can Student Journalists and Economists Learn Together?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsay, Glenworth; Silvia, Antone

    1993-01-01

    Two University of Rhode Island teachers, of journalism and economics, designed student projects simulating real interactions between professional journalists and economists. The projects increased both groups' ability to communicate, awareness of communication needs, interdisciplinary understanding, and mutual respect. (MSE)

  14. Judging risk for multiple diseases: the role of disease worry.

    PubMed

    Senay, Ibrahim; Hensley-Alford, Sharon; Kaphingst, Kimberly A

    2013-04-01

    Risk perceptions and disease worry of 1,959 healthy adults were measured in a telephone-based survey. In the model for each of eight health conditions, people's perceived risk was related to their worry for that condition (p < .0001) and their worry for the other seven conditions (p < .001). There was also an interaction indicating that the less people were worried about a certain condition, the more their worry about the other seven conditions increased their risk perception for that condition (p < .0001). The results are important for preventing biased risk perceptions in multiple-disease contexts. PMID:22843634

  15. Cancer Survivors’ Health Worries and Associations with Lifestyle Practices

    PubMed Central

    Mosher, Catherine E.; Lipkus, Isaac M.; Sloane, Richard; Kraus, William E.; Snyder, Denise Clutter; Peterson, Bercedis; Jones, Lee W.; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    This study examined among recently diagnosed breast and prostate cancer survivors (N = 678) associations between worry about a future diagnosis of heart disease or cancer and hypothetical and actual adherence to exercise and dietary guidelines. Greater worry about future illness was reported under the hypothetical scenario of non-adherence to guidelines relative to the scenario of adherence. Worry about potential heart disease was associated with actual adherence to guidelines, whereas worry about a potential cancer diagnosis was not. Findings suggest that the motivational properties of worry should be considered when developing interventions to reduce heart disease risk among cancer survivors. PMID:18987083

  16. Clinical correlates of generalized worry in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Jared M; Arnett, Peter

    2009-08-01

    Anxiety disorders are common in multiple sclerosis (MS). Chronic worry is the defining feature of generalized anxiety. Despite this, only one study has examined the impact of chronic worry in MS. The present investigation explored the relationship between excessive worry and common physical, emotional, and neuropsychological symptoms in a community-based sample of 50 patients with relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive MS. As expected, MS patients reported significantly more worry than a group of 45 healthy controls. Correlational analyses revealed that MS patients' elevated worry was associated with fatigue, sleep disturbance, problem-solving deficits, pain, and disability status. Follow-up analyses indicated that worry and anxiety may represent related but distinct constructs. Clinicians are urged to regularly monitor and treat pathological worry in MS. PMID:19107677

  17. A survey on worries of pregnant women - testing the German version of the Cambridge Worry Scale

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Pregnancy is a transition period in a woman's life characterized by increased worries and anxiety. The Cambridge Worry Scale (CWS) was developed to assess the content and extent of maternal worries in pregnancy. It has been increasingly used in studies over recent years. However, a German version has not yet been developed and validated. The aim of this study was (1) to assess the extent and content of worries in pregnancy on a sample of women in Germany using a translated and adapted version of the Cambridge Worry Scale, and (2) to evaluate the psychometric properties of the German version. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study and enrolled 344 pregnant women in the federal state of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Women filled out structured questionnaires that contained the CWS, the Spielberger-State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory (STAI), as well as questions on their obstetric history. Antenatal records were also analyzed. Results The CWS was well understood and easy to fill in. The major worries referred to the process of giving birth (CWS mean value 2.26) and the possibility that something might be wrong with the baby (1.99), followed by coping with the new baby (1.57), going to hospital (1.29) and the possibility of going into labour too early (1.28). The internal consistency of the scale (0.80) was satisfactory, and we found a four-factor structure, similar to previous studies. Tests of convergent validity showed that the German CWS represents a different construct compared with state and trait anxiety but has the desired overlap. Conclusions The German CWS has satisfactory psychometric properties. It represents a valuable tool for use in scientific studies and is likely to be useful also to clinicians. PMID:20038294

  18. Salient Worries of At-Risk Youth: Needs Assessment Using the Things I Worry about Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esters, Irvin G.

    2003-01-01

    At-risk students in southern United States were surveyed using the "Things I Worry About Scale." From their responses, 13 categories were ranked from most salient to least salient. The rank order was then compared to that obtained with a normative group in Northern Ireland. The significant correlation between the two seemingly disparate samples…

  19. Statistics Anxiety and Worry: The Roles of Worry Beliefs, Negative Problem Orientation, and Cognitive Avoidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Amanda S.

    2015-01-01

    Statistics anxiety is a common problem for graduate students. This study explores the multivariate relationship between a set of worry-related variables and six types of statistics anxiety. Canonical correlation analysis indicates a significant relationship between the two sets of variables. Findings suggest that students who are more intolerant…

  20. Worry Among Mexican American Caregivers of Community-Dwelling Elders

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Bronwynne C.; Coon, David W.; Belyea, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    This mixed methods, multi-site, National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR)-funded, interdisciplinary, descriptive study aimed to identify expressions of worry in qualitative data obtained from caregiving Mexican American (MA) families assisting older adults. The purpose of this portion of the inquiry was to determine how worry is expressed, what happens to caregivers when they worry, and what adaptive strategies they used. We examined semi-structured interviews completed during six in-home visits with 116 caregivers. We identified 366 worry quotations from 639 primary documents in ATLAS.ti, entered them into matrices, and organized findings under thematic statements. Caregivers expressed cultural and contextual worries, worried about transitions and turning points in care, and identified adaptive strategies. Despite these strategies, worry persisted. Constant worry may be an allied, important aspect of caregiver burden. We need additional longitudinal research to better understand the experience of MA caregivers for older adults and to provide empirically supported interventions, programs, and services that reduce worry. PMID:27228120

  1. “My Worries Are Rational, Climate Change Is Not”: Habitual Ecological Worrying Is an Adaptive Response

    PubMed Central

    Verplanken, Bas; Roy, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Qualifications such as “global warming hysteria” and “energy policy schizophrenia” put forward by some climate change skeptics, usually outside the academic arena, may suggest that people who seriously worry about the environment suffer from psychological imbalance. The present study aimed to refute this thesis. While habitual worrying in general is strongly associated with psychopathological symptoms, in a survey a near-zero correlation was found between habitual ecological worrying and pathological worry. Instead, habitual ecological worrying was associated with pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors, and with a personality structure characterized by imagination and an appreciation for new ideas. The study had sufficient statistical power and measures were valid and reliable. The results confirm that those who habitually worry about the ecology are not only lacking in any psychopathology, but demonstrate a constructive and adaptive response to a serious problem. In the public domain, these findings may contribute to a more rational and less emotional debate on climate change and to the prevention of stigmatization of people who are genuinely concerned about our habitat and are prepared to do something about it (“habitual worriers are not crazy”). In the academic arena this study may contribute to environmental psychology (“habitual worrying is part of a green identity”), as well as to the literature on worry and anxiety (“habitual worrying can be a constructive response”). PMID:24023958

  2. Black Economists: An "Elite Clan of Warrior Intellectuals."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffins, Paul

    1996-01-01

    Black economists feel even more isolation and frustration than many African American academics and PhDs, because they continually confront the contradictions between economic theory and blacks' daily experience. The proportion of African Americans with PhDs in economics is very low relative to the undergraduates who study economics or have degrees…

  3. The Public Debt as Seen by the Classical Economists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labbens, Jean

    1987-01-01

    Reviews classical economists' views on the issue of public debt. Notes that from antiquity to modern times, it has always been rare for a state not to be in debt. Includes an examination of a state's repudiation of its debt and the impact such an action might have on its international relations. (JDH)

  4. Gender Differences in Research Patterns among PhD Economists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbezat, Debra A.

    2006-01-01

    This study is based on a 1996 survey of PhD economists working in the academic and nonacademic sectors since 1989. Despite a raw gender difference in all types of research output, the male dummy variable proves statistically significant in predicting only one publication measure. In a full sample and faculty subsample, number of years since…

  5. Environmental Economics for Watershed Restoration: Valuation for Non-Economists

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA economists completed research projects and summarized related valuation methods and case studies, mostly dealing with acid mine drainage. Their recent book (edited by Thurston, et al.) is intended to make stakeholders more comfortable talking about economic jargon and to info...

  6. An Economist's Approach to Reforming the Uniform Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Gary T.

    1977-01-01

    The standardized approach (Uniform Methodology) to estimating the expected parental contribution for dependent students is evaluated from an economist's perspective. The UM model is shown to fail to treat assets and income in a consistent manner, and recommendations for improvement are offered. (LBH)

  7. Economists Concoct New Method for Comparing Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, David

    2007-01-01

    A pair of economists at the College of William and Mary have devised a new way of comparing colleges' graduation rates--a method, borrowed from business analysis, that they believe is fairer and more useful than the techniques used by "U.S. News & World Report" and the Education Trust. That general technique of regression analysis underlies the…

  8. Football experts versus sports economists: Whose forecasts are better?

    PubMed

    Frick, Bernd; Wicker, Pamela

    2016-08-01

    Given the uncertainty of outcome in sport, predicting the outcome of sporting contests is a major topic in sport sciences. This study examines the accuracy of expert predictions in the German Bundesliga and compares their predictions to those of sports economists. Prior to the start of each season, a set of distinguished experts (head coaches and players) express their subjective evaluations of the teams in school grades. While experts may be driven by irrational sentiments and may therefore systematically over- or underestimate specific teams, sports economists use observable characteristics to predict season outcomes. The latter typically use team wage bills given the positive pay-performance relationship as well as other factors (average team age, tenure, appearances on national team, and attendance). Using data from 15 consecutive Bundesliga seasons, the predictive accuracy of expert evaluations and sports economists is analysed. The results of separate estimations show that relative grade and relative wage bill significantly affect relative points, while age, tenure, appearances, and attendance are insignificant. In a joint model, relative grade and relative wage bill are still statistically significant, suggesting that the two types of predictions are complements rather than substitutes. Consequently, football experts and sports economists seem to rely on completely different sources of information when making their predictions. PMID:26651849

  9. Opportunity Cost and the Intelligence of Economists: A Comment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arce, Daniel G.

    2016-01-01

    In "Opportunity Cost: A Reexamination," Professor Parkin contrasts forgone physical quantities with forgone values as measures of the opportunity cost of basic economic decisions. The impetus for his study stems from an experiment conducted by Ferraro and Taylor (2005), in which professional economists could not reach a consensus over…

  10. Intolerance of Uncertainty, Fear of Anxiety, and Adolescent Worry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugas, Michel J.; Laugesen, Nina; Bukowski, William M.

    2012-01-01

    A 5 year, ten wave longitudinal study of 338 adolescents assessed the association between two forms of cognitive vulnerability (intolerance of uncertainty and fear of anxiety) and worry. Multilevel mediational analyses revealed a bidirectional and reciprocal relation between intolerance of uncertainty and worry in which change in one variable…

  11. Big Worry: Implications of Anxiety in Indigenous Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adermann, Jenny; Campbell, Marilyn

    2007-01-01

    Excessive anxiety and worry can prevent young people from participating fully in school and life opportunities. Anxiety can involve fear of being apart from significant people or being left alone; avoidance of certain situations or activities for fear of embarrassment; worrying about normal life issues; repetitive thoughts and behaviours used as…

  12. Homeschooling Worries: Trusting That the Dots Will Connect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivero, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Homeschooling parents worry a lot. And homeschooling parents of gifted children seem to worry even more than most. Parents who homeschool intense, smart, sensitive, and perfectionist children and teens are often themselves intense, smart, sensitive, and perfectionistic, even if they don't always think of themselves as gifted. One shouldn't be too…

  13. The Influence of Social Factors and Health on Depressive Symptoms and Worry: A Study of Older Vietnamese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Leggett, Amanda; Zarit, Steven H.; Nguyen, Ngoc H.; Hoang, Chuong N.; Nguyen, Ha T.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Vietnam has a growing older population, many of whom experienced war and social upheavals in their lives. Prior research has described the health of the older population, but little work has explored mental health. The current study examines the frequency and correlates of two mental health indicators: depressive symptoms and worry. Method A representative sample of 600 adults 55 and older stratified by gender (50% women), age (mean = 70.33), and rural/urban (50% rural) was recruited in Da Nang, Vietnam and surrounding rural districts. Participants were interviewed in their homes by trained interviewers. Dependent variables were a Vietnamese version of the CES-D and a culturally specific worry scale. Results Forty-seven percent of the sample had scores above the cut-off for clinical depression and scores on the worry scale were high. Using multiple linear regressions we found that women, the less educated and individuals with more material hardship had higher depressive symptoms whereas rural residents, women, married, and young-old individuals were more worried. Pain, ADL assistance and emotional support were significant predictors of both depressive symptoms and worry, though the direction of the association for emotional support differed. Illnesses were only a predictor of depressive symptoms. Conclusion The high reports of depressive symptoms and worry suggests the need for incorporating mental health screening as part of health programs for older adults in Vietnam. Attention to factors associated with depressive symptoms and worry, such as economic hardship, health problems and lack of emotional support, may contribute to alleviation of symptoms. PMID:22486622

  14. Do as I Do, Not as I Say: Assessing Outcomes when Students Think like Economists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Joseph; Lavin, Angeline M.

    2004-01-01

    The authors measured the pedagogical value of sharing with students what economists do and how they do it. Ostensibly, thinking and researching like economists will transform students into better and more engaged learners as well as provide instructors with effective assessment tools. One way to bring students closer to what economists do is to…

  15. Roundtable on energy efficiency and the economists -- An assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.

    1995-11-01

    Anyone trying to follow the debate between conservationists and economists (and many others in the industry) on energy efficiency might understandably decide there is little possibility for reconciling their views on policies. Views range from high levels of government intervention, frequently inspired by conservationists, to essentially noninterference with market development other than to tax or regulate pollution. The main disagreement concern the respective roles of prices and nonprice measures in energy policy. The main possibilities for progress lie with conservationists, on the one hand, recognizing the importance of prices in achieving allocative efficiency, and not overreacting to known sources of market inefficiency; and with economists, on the other, seeking to translate work on the frontier of their subject--on risk and information theory, on regulation, on the roles of law and government, and on property rights--into operational policies. If this can be done, one shall improve economic efficiency measured from the starting points of either the conservationist or the neoclassical economist.

  16. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): When Worry Gets Out of Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... to have GAD? For More Information Share Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): When Worry Gets Out of Control ... go badly? If so, you may have an anxiety disorder called generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). What is ...

  17. Understanding Anxiety Disorders: When Panic, Fear, and Worries Overwhelm

    MedlinePlus

    ... link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Understanding Anxiety Disorders When Panic, Fear, and Worries Overwhelm Many ... or help us focus. But for people with anxiety disorders, they can be overwhelming. Anxiety disorders affect ...

  18. Attentional Control and Suppressing Negative Thought Intrusions in Pathological Worry

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Elaine; Dutton, Kevin; Yates, Alan; Georgiou, George A.; Mouchlianitis, Elias

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive behavior relies on the ability to effectively and efficiently ignore irrelevant information, an important component of attentional control. The current research found that fundamental difficulties in ignoring irrelevant material are related to dispositional differences in trait propensity to worry, suggesting a core deficit in attentional control in high worriers. The degree of deficit in attentional control correlated with the degree of difficulty in suppressing negative thought intrusions in a worry assessment task. A cognitive training procedure utilizing a flanker task was used in an attempt to improve attentional control. Although the cognitive training was largely ineffective, improvements in attentional control were associated with improvements in the ability to suppress worry-related thought intrusions. Across two studies, the findings indicate that the inability to control worry-related negative thought intrusions is associated with a general deficiency in attentional control. PMID:26504672

  19. The relationships between perfectionism, pathological worry and generalised anxiety disorder

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationships between perfectionism, pathological worry and generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) were investigated in a clinical sample presenting for treatment of perfectionism. Method This study explored the utility of perfectionism in predicting pathological worry in a sample of individuals with elevated perfectionism and GAD (n = 36). Following this, the study examined whether perfectionism could predict a principal GAD diagnosis in the full sample (n = 42). Results Scores on the perfectionism dimensions Concern over Mistakes, Personal Standards, and Clinical Perfectionism significantly predicted pathological worry among participants with GAD after controlling for gender and depression. The perfectionism dimension Doubts about Actions significantly predicted whether individuals from the full sample received a principal diagnosis of GAD. Conclusions These findings support certain dimensions of perfectionism having significant associations with pathological worry and GAD. PMID:24693946

  20. Sharing concerns: Interpersonal worry regulation in romantic couples.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Brian; Simons, Gwenda; Niven, Karen

    2016-06-01

    Two dyadic studies investigated interpersonal worry regulation in heterosexual relationships. In Study 1, we video-recorded 40 romantic couples discussing shared concerns. Male partners' worry positively predicted female partners' interpersonal calming attempts, and negatively predicted female partners' interpersonal alerting attempts (i.e., attempts to make their partners appreciate the seriousness of concerns). Video-cued recall data also indicated that changes in partner A's worry over time positively predicted partner B's motivation to reduce partner A's worry, and that this effect was stronger when B was the female partner. Study 2 was a dyadic survey of 100 couples. Individual differences in partner A's negative affect were positive predictors of partner B's interpersonal calming, and individual differences in partner A's expressive suppression were negative predictors of partner B's interpersonal calming. Further, individual differences in male partners' expressivity were significant positive predictors of female partners' interpersonal calming, and individual differences in male partners' reappraisal were significant positive predictors of female partners' interpersonal alerting. These findings suggest that interpersonal worry regulation relates to partners' expression and intrapersonal regulation of worry, but not equally for men and women. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26882336

  1. Sharing Concerns: Interpersonal Worry Regulation in Romantic Couples

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Two dyadic studies investigated interpersonal worry regulation in heterosexual relationships. In Study 1, we video-recorded 40 romantic couples discussing shared concerns. Male partners’ worry positively predicted female partners’ interpersonal calming attempts, and negatively predicted female partners’ interpersonal alerting attempts (i.e., attempts to make their partners appreciate the seriousness of concerns). Video-cued recall data also indicated that changes in partner A’s worry over time positively predicted partner B’s motivation to reduce partner A’s worry, and that this effect was stronger when B was the female partner. Study 2 was a dyadic survey of 100 couples. Individual differences in partner A’s negative affect were positive predictors of partner B’s interpersonal calming, and individual differences in partner A’s expressive suppression were negative predictors of partner B’s interpersonal calming. Further, individual differences in male partners’ expressivity were significant positive predictors of female partners’ interpersonal calming, and individual differences in male partners’ reappraisal were significant positive predictors of female partners’ interpersonal alerting. These findings suggest that interpersonal worry regulation relates to partners’ expression and intrapersonal regulation of worry, but not equally for men and women. PMID:26882336

  2. Accidents and unpleasant incidents: worry in transport and prediction of travel behavior.

    PubMed

    Backer-Grøndahl, Agathe; Fyhri, Aslak; Ulleberg, Pål; Amundsen, Astrid Helene

    2009-09-01

    Worry on nine different means of transport was measured in a Norwegian sample of 853 respondents. The main aim of the study was to investigate differences in worry about accidents and worry about unpleasant incidents, and how these two sorts of worry relate to various means of transport as well as transport behavior. Factor analyses of worry about accidents suggested a division between rail transport, road transport, and nonmotorized transport, whereas analyses of worry about unpleasant incidents suggested a division between transport modes where you interact with other people and "private" transport modes. Moreover, mean ratings of worry showed that respondents worried more about accidents than unpleasant incidents on private transport modes, and more about unpleasant incidents than accidents on public transport modes. Support for the distinction between worry about accidents and unpleasant incidents was also found when investigating relationships between both types of worry and behavioral adaptations: worry about accidents was more important than worry about unpleasant incidents in relation to behavioral adaptations on private means of transport, whereas the opposite was true for public means of transport. Finally, predictors of worry were investigated. The models of worry about accidents and worry about unpleasant incidents differed as to what predictors turned out significant. Knowledge about peoples' worries on different means of transport is important with regard to understanding and influencing transport and travel behavior, as well as attending to commuters' welfare. PMID:19645756

  3. The Effects of Worry and Rumination on Affect States and Cognitive Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Borkovec, Thomas D.; Sibrava, Nicholas J.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of worry and rumination on affective states and mentation type were examined in an unselected undergraduate sample in Study 1 and in a sample of individuals with high trait worry and rumination, high rumination, and low worry/rumination in Study 2. Participants engaged in worry and rumination inductions, counterbalanced in order across…

  4. Experience and appraisal of worry among high worriers with and without generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Ruscio, Ayelet Meron; Borkovec, T D

    2004-12-01

    Recent research has revealed that a large number of highly worried individuals do not qualify for a diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). This raises the intriguing question of why some high worriers are more impaired and distressed by their worrying than others, particularly when the severity of their worry is the same. The present investigation sought to address this question by examining whether GAD and non-GAD high worriers differ in their actual worry experiences, their subjective appraisals of worry experiences, or both experiences and appraisals of worry. GAD and non-GAD worriers, selected for matching levels of trait worry severity, completed an attention-focus task with thought sampling before and after a brief worry induction. They also completed questionnaires assessing their experiences during and after the worry induction, as well as their general beliefs about worry. GAD worriers experienced less control over negative intrusive thoughts immediately after worrying, reported greater somatic hyperarousal following worry, and endorsed several negative beliefs about worry more strongly than their worry-matched controls. Results suggest that GAD is associated with unique experiences and appraisals that distinguish it from other forms of severe worry. PMID:15500816

  5. Worry tendencies predict brain activation during aversive imagery.

    PubMed

    Schienle, Anne; Schäfer, Axel; Pignanelli, Roman; Vaitl, Dieter

    2009-09-25

    Because of its abstract nature, worrying might function as an avoidance response in order to cognitively disengage from fearful imagery. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study investigated neural correlates of aversive imagery and their association with worry tendencies, as measured by the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ). Nineteen healthy women first viewed, and subsequently imagined pictures from two categories, 'threat' and 'happiness'. Worry tendencies were negatively correlated with brain activation in the anterior cingulate cortex, the prefrontal cortex (dorsolateral, dorsomedial, ventrolateral), the parietal cortex and the insula. These negative correlations between PSWQ scores and localized brain activation were specific for aversive imagery. Moreover, activation in the above mentioned regions was positively associated with the experienced vividness of both pleasant and unpleasant mental pictures. As the identified brain regions are involved in emotion regulation, vivid imagery and memory retrieval, a lowered activity in high PSWQ scorers might be associated with cognitive disengagement from aversive imagery as well as insufficient refresh rates of mental pictures. Our preliminary findings encourage future imagery studies on generalized anxiety disorder patients, as one of the main symptoms of this disorder is excessive worrying. PMID:19545612

  6. Delineating the Role of Negative Verbal Thinking in Promoting Worry, Perceived Threat, and Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Colette R.; Perman, Gemma; Hayes, Sarra; Eagleson, Claire; Mathews, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Worry is characterized by streams of verbal thoughts about potential negative outcomes. Individuals with high levels of worry (and particularly those with generalized anxiety disorder) find it very difficult to control worry once it has started. What is not clear is the extent to which verbal negative thinking style maintains worry. Our study aimed to disentangle the effects of verbal versus imagery based thinking, and negative versus positive worry-related content on subsequent negative intrusive thoughts. High worriers were trained to engage in imagery or verbal processing, focusing on either negative or positive outcomes of their current main worry. Both thinking style and valence of worry content influenced later negative intrusive thoughts that play a role in initiating worry episodes. In contrast, only valence influenced subjective ratings of worry outcomes (i.e., cost, concern, and ability to cope, although not probability), with positive valence leading to lower ratings, irrespective of thinking style. PMID:27110477

  7. A Brief Look at What Economists Are Saying about the Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    This essay canvasses selected studies undertaken by economists on the community college. Key authors and journals are noted, followed by an examination of what economists contribute to our understanding of the community college in terms of costs, price and financial aid, economic and social benefits, and the institution's role in furthering…

  8. Educational Insights of the Economist: Tibor Scitovsky on Education, Production and Creative Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilead, Tal

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades education is increasingly perceived as an instrument for generating economic growth and enhancing production. Unexpectedly, however, many prominent economists, throughout history, have rejected this view of education. This article examines the grounds on which Tibor Scitovsky, who was one of the leading economists of twentieth…

  9. Intelligence Makes People Think like Economists: Evidence from the General Social Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, Bryan; Miller, Stephen C.

    2010-01-01

    Education is by far the strongest predictor of whether a non-economist will share the economic beliefs of the average economist. (Caplan, 2001) Is the effect of education as large as it seems? Or is education largely a proxy for cognitive ability? Using data from the General Social Survey (GSS), we show that the estimated effect of education…

  10. Coverage of Major Topics in Economics in the Undergraduate Curriculum: Economists as Gatekeepers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, Suzanne

    Over the last 25 years, less attention has been devoted to the role of the economist as teacher or professor than to the role of economist as scholar or researcher. Teachers have been seen as passive recipients of advances in economics research that they simply hand on to their students. Yet teachers perform an important gatekeeping function when…

  11. Cervical cancer worry and screening among appalachian women.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kimberly M; Schoenberg, Nancy; Wilson, Tomorrow D; Atkins, Elvonna; Dickinson, Stephanie; Paskett, Electra

    2015-04-01

    Although many have sought to understand cervical cancer screening (CCS) behavior, little research has examined worry about cervical cancer and its relationship to CCS, particularly in the underserved, predominantly rural Appalachian region. Our mixed method investigation aimed to obtain a more complete and theoretically-informed understanding of the role of cancer worry in CCS among Appalachian women, using the Self-Regulation Model (SRM). Our quantitative analysis indicated that the perception of being at higher risk of cervical cancer and having greater distress about cancer were both associated with greater worry about cancer. In our qualitative analysis, we found that, consistent with the SRM, negative affect had a largely concrete-experiential component, with many women having first-hand experience of the physical consequences of cervical cancer. Based on the results of this manuscript, we describe a number of approaches to lessen the fear associated with CCS. Intervention in this elevated risk community is merited and may focus on decreasing feelings of worry about cervical cancer and increasing communication of objective risk and need for screening. From a policy perspective, increasing the quantity and quality of care may also improve CCS rates and decrease the burden of cancer in Appalachia. PMID:25416153

  12. Variations in Fearfulness and Worries of Xhosa Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akande, Adebowale

    2010-01-01

    Xhosa-speaking South African children in school settings face several academic and emotional challenges. These may be due to family obligation, conformity to authority figures and over expectations from parents, teachers and society. This study examines the differences in the number and types of reported fears and worries in 200 South African…

  13. How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love Standardized Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moxey, Tim

    2005-01-01

    The benefits of standardized testing for a teacher are mentioned for which the teacher has to prepare for the students only for the test and not worry for preparing the students for college, work and life. Standardized testing takes away individualized instruction, does not allow creativity, does not measure true progress or advance critical…

  14. Exploring Sex Differences in Worry with a Cognitive Vulnerability Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zalta, Alyson K.; Chambless, Dianne L.

    2008-01-01

    A multivariate model was developed to examine the relative contributions of mastery, stress, interpretive bias, and coping to sex differences in worry. Rumination was incorporated as a second outcome variable to test the specificity of these associations. Participants included two samples of undergraduates totaling 302 men and 379 women. A path…

  15. Perfectionism, Rumination, Worry, and Depressive Symptoms in Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flett, Gordon L.; Coulter, Lisa-Marie; Hewitt, Paul L.; Nepon, Taryn

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined trait perfectionism, automatic perfectionistic thoughts, rumination, worry, and depressive symptoms in early adolescents. A group of 81 elementary school students in Grades 7 and 8 completed 5 questionnaires: the Child-Adolescent Perfectionism Scale, the Perfectionism Cognitions Inventory, the Children's Response Styles…

  16. The Impact of Written Exposure on Worry: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Natalie; Dugas, Michel J.; Sexton, Kathryn A.; Gervais, Nicole J.

    2007-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to examine the effect of written exposure on generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)-related symptoms in high worriers. Thirty nonclinical high worriers were randomly assigned to either a written exposure condition or a control writing condition. Self-report measures were used to assess worry, GAD somatic symptoms,…

  17. Cervical Cancer Worry and Screening Among Appalachian Women

    PubMed Central

    Schoenberg, Nancy; Wilson, Tomorrow D.; Atkins, Elvonna; Dickinson, Stephanie; Paskett, Electra

    2015-01-01

    Although many have sought to understand cervical cancer screening (CCS) behavior, little research has examined worry about cervical cancer and its relationship to CCS, particularly in the underserved, predominantly rural Appalachian region. Our mixed method investigation aimed to obtain a more complete and theoretically-informed understanding of the role of cancer worry in CCS among Appalachian women, using the Self-Regulation Model (SRM). Our quantitative analysis indicated that the perception of being at higher risk of cervical cancer and having greater distress about cancer were both associated with greater worry about cancer. In our qualitative analysis, we found that, consistent with the SRM, negative affect had a largely concrete-experiential component, with many women having first-hand experience of the physical consequences of cervical cancer. Based on the results of this manuscript, we describe a number of approaches to lessen the fear associated with CCS. Intervention in this elevated risk community is merited and may focus on decreasing feelings of worry about cervical cancer and increasing communication of objective risk and need for screening. From a policy perspective, increasing the quantity and quality of care may also improve CCS rates and decrease the burden of cancer in Appalachia. PMID:25416153

  18. Retrospective analysis of attitudes to ageing in the Economist: apocalyptic demography for opinion formers

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Ruth; Williams, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the description of older people and ageing in a major weekly newspaper, influential in political and financial circles, to see whether it reflected ageing in a balanced manner, and to what extent it indulged in apocalyptic demography—the portrayal of population ageing as a financial burden rather than a scientific advance. Design Electronic search of the digital archive of the Economist of articles published between January 1997 and April 2008. Main outcomes measures Categorisation of articles as portraying population ageing as a burden or a benefit or with a balanced view. Results Of 6306 identified articles, 262 were relevant. Most featured pensions, demography, and politics. Of these 262, 64% portrayed population ageing as a burden and 12% as a benefit; 24% had a balanced view. Most articles therefore showed a predominantly ageist view of older people as a burden on society, often portraying them as frail non-contributors. Recurrent themes included pension and demographic “time bombs” and future unsustainable costs of health care for older people. Conclusion This negative view of older people might be influential in shaping the attitudes of readers, who include opinion formers in political and economic circles. Gerontologists (including geriatricians) need to engage with influential media, as well as helping to promote a professional development of journalists that is informed and knowledgeable about the negative impact of ageism on the wellbeing of older people. PMID:19995819

  19. The power of positive thinking: Pathological worry is reduced by thought replacement in Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Eagleson, Claire; Hayes, Sarra; Mathews, Andrew; Perman, Gemma; Hirsch, Colette R.

    2016-01-01

    Worry in Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), takes a predominantly verbal form, as if talking to oneself about possible negative outcomes. The current study examined alternative approaches to reducing worry by allocating volunteers with GAD to conditions in which they either practiced replacing the usual form of worry with images of possible positive outcomes, or with the same positive outcomes represented verbally. A comparison control condition involved generating positive images not related to worries. Participants received training in the designated method and then practiced it for one week, before attending for reassessment, and completing follow-up questionnaires four weeks later. All groups benefited from training, with decreases in anxiety and worry, and no significant differences between groups. The replacement of worry with different forms of positive ideation, even when unrelated to the content of worry itself, seems to have similar beneficial effects, suggesting that any form of positive ideation can be used to effectively counter worry. PMID:26802793

  20. Relating Worry and Executive Functioning During Childhood: The Moderating Role of Age.

    PubMed

    Geronimi, Elena M C; Patterson, Heather L; Woodruff-Borden, Janet

    2016-06-01

    The associations between worry and executive functioning across development have not been previously explored. Examining the interrelationships between these variables in childhood may further elucidate the cognitive nature of worry as well as its developmental course. Hypotheses predicted that difficulties with executive functioning would correlate with child worry; based on extant literature, age-related hypotheses were proposed for particular aspects of executive functioning. Children (N = 130) participated in the present study. Difficulties with executive functioning and child worry were assessed. Results demonstrated that each executive functioning subscale correlated with worry. The relations between worry and several facets of executive functioning were no longer significant at older ages, while the relations between worry and the facets of inhibition, shifting, and emotional control did not demonstrate age-related interaction effects. Overall, the findings suggest that worry is associated with executive functioning at young ages and that this association takes distinct forms during different childhood stages. PMID:26268800

  1. The elderly patient: no reason to worry!?

    PubMed

    Glenz, Fabienne; Brand, Christina; Besimo, Christian E; Carlo, Carlo P

    2015-01-01

    In December 2013, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has placed Switzerland for the first time at the top of the list of countries’ general population life ex- pectancy. The augmenting life expectancy and demographic changes are leading to an increase in the number of older people who are dependent on care (Höpflinger & Hugentobler 2003, Höpflinger et al. 2011). Multimorbidity and the resulting polypharmacy have inevitable consequences for the oral health and present a challenge for dentists (Fried et al. 2001). As dental treatment for multimorbid and bedridden adults can be quite complex, it seems necessary also from a dental perspective to detect age-related defi- ciencies as early as possible. If depression, dementia or malnutrition is suspected, an immediate referral to a specialist physician is recommended for an in-depth assessment and treatment. For older adults in particular, dental measures alone do not necessarily lead to an improvement in well-being and nutritional state. PMID:26169180

  2. Worry as a Predictor of Nutrition Behaviors: Results from a Nationally Representative Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer, Rebecca A.; Bergman, Hannah E.; Klein, William M. P.

    2013-01-01

    Worry has been shown to predict a variety of health behaviors, such as cancer screening, yet there are few studies linking worry and nutrition. This study used nationally representative data from National Cancer Institute's Food Attitudes and Behavior Survey ("n" = 3,397) to examine the association between health-related worry and a variety of…

  3. The Worries Adult Children and Their Parents Experience for One Another

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Elizabeth L.; Fingerman, Karen L.; Lefkowitz, Eva S.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the worries adults and their parents experience for one another. To date, relatively little research has considered the experience of worry in this relationship. A small number of studies, however, suggest worry is relatively common in this relationship (Boutain, 2001; Cicirelli, 1988; Parker, Call, Dunkle, & Vaitkus, 2002).…

  4. Writing about testing worries boosts exam performance in the classroom.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Gerardo; Beilock, Sian L

    2011-01-14

    Two laboratory and two randomized field experiments tested a psychological intervention designed to improve students' scores on high-stakes exams and to increase our understanding of why pressure-filled exam situations undermine some students' performance. We expected that sitting for an important exam leads to worries about the situation and its consequences that undermine test performance. We tested whether having students write down their thoughts about an upcoming test could improve test performance. The intervention, a brief expressive writing assignment that occurred immediately before taking an important test, significantly improved students' exam scores, especially for students habitually anxious about test taking. Simply writing about one's worries before a high-stakes exam can boost test scores. PMID:21233387

  5. Modern health worries - the dark side of spirituality?

    PubMed

    Köteles, Ferenc; Simor, Péter; Czető, Márton; Sárog, Noémi; Szemerszky, Renáta

    2016-08-01

    Modern health worries (MHWs) are widespread in modern societies. MHWs were connected to both negative and positive psychological characteristics in previous studies. The study aimed to investigate the relationships among intuitive-experiential information processing style, spirituality, MHWs, and psychological well-being. Members of the Hungarian Skeptic Society (N = 128), individuals committed to astrology (N = 601), and people from a non-representative community sample (N = 554) completed questionnaires assessing intuitive-experiential information processing style, spirituality, modern health worries (MHWs), and psychological well-being. Astrologers showed higher levels of spirituality, intuitive-experiential thinking, and modern health worries than individuals from the community sample; and skeptics scored even lower than the latter group with respect to all three constructs. Within the community sample, medium level connections between measures of spirituality and the experiential thinking style, and weak to medium level correlations between spirituality and MHWs were found. The connection between MHWs and experiential thinking style was completely mediated by spirituality. Individuals with higher levels of spirituality are particularly vulnerable to overgeneralized messages on health related risks. Official communication of potential risks based on rational scientific reasoning is not appropriate to persuade them as it has no impact on the intuitive-experiential system. PMID:27231809

  6. Distress Tolerance and Pathological Worry: Tests of Incremental and Prospective Relationships.

    PubMed

    Macatee, Richard J; Capron, Daniel W; Guthrie, Whitney; Schmidt, Norman B; Cougle, Jesse R

    2015-07-01

    Pathological worry and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) have been linked with low distress tolerance (DT), although questions remain including whether this association exists independent of depression and comorbidity, the directionality of the relationship between worry and DT, and DT's nonredundancy with other worry-relevant variables (i.e., emotional reactivity, stressful life events). Further, it is unclear whether DT is merely a correlate of excessive worry or acts as a risk factor for its development. Two independent studies were completed to evaluate these questions. In Study 1, DT was examined in patients with GAD and healthy controls. In Study 2, a nonclinical sample completed baseline measures of DT, negative affect, and worry, as well as daily assessments of these constructs and stressors for 1month. In Study 1, lower DT was associated with GAD diagnosis and greater worry symptoms independent of extent of comorbidity and depressive symptoms. In Study 2, lower baseline DT predicted unique variance in daily worry and increases in worry over time, whereas baseline worry did not predict daily DT or decreases in DT 1month later. Findings suggest that low DT plays a role in excessive worry independent of relevant covariates (i.e., comorbidity, emotional reactivity, stressful life events) and that this relationship is unidirectional. Further, preliminary evidence indicates that low DT may be an overall risk factor for the development of worry, particularly during periods of romantic stress, although further research and replication is required. PMID:26163710

  7. The worries adult children and their parents experience for one another.

    PubMed

    Hay, Elizabeth L; Fingerman, Karen L; Lefkowitz, Eva S

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the worries adults and their parents experience for one another. To date, relatively little research has considered the experience of worry in this relationship. A small number of studies, however, suggest worry is relatively common in this relationship (Boutain, 2001; Cicirelli, 1988; Parker, Call, Dunkle, & Vaitkus, 2002). Furthermore, worrying may be linked with mental and physical health (Beck et al., 2001; Hoyer, Becker, & Roth, 2001). A son or daughter (aged 22 to 49) and mother and father (aged 40 to 84) from 213 families participated. Adult children worried primarily about their parents' health. Interestingly, adult children with older parents were not more likely than adult children with younger parents to worry about their parents' health. In contrast, parents' worries were more diverse than those of adult children and included worries about their adult children's health, safety, relationships, and finances, among others. Furthermore, parents' worries were associated with their perceptions of relationship quality. Notably, parents who worried about their adult children's finances reported having poorer quality relationships with their adult children than parents who experienced other worries (e.g., about safety). PMID:20063846

  8. Does Worrying Mean Caring Too Much? Interpersonal Prototypicality of Dimensional Worry Controlling for Social Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Thane M; Newman, Michelle G; Siebert, Erin C; Carlile, Jessica A; Scarsella, Gina M; Abelson, James L

    2016-01-01

    Worry, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms are dimensions that have each been linked to heterogeneous problems in interpersonal functioning. However, the relationships between these symptoms and interpersonal difficulties remain unclear given that most studies have examined diagnostic categories, not accounted for symptoms' shared variability due to general distress, and investigated only interpersonal problems (neglecting interpersonal traits, interpersonal goals, social behavior in daily life, and reports of significant others). To address these issues, students (Study 1; N=282) endorsed symptoms and interpersonal circumplex measures of traits and problems, as well as event-contingent social behaviors during one week of naturalistic daily interactions (N=184; 7,036 records). Additionally, depressed and anxious patients (N=47) reported symptoms and interpersonal goals in a dyadic relationship, and significant others rated patients' interpersonal goals and impact (Study 2). We derived hypotheses about prototypical interpersonal features from theories about the functions of particular symptoms and social behaviors. As expected, worry was uniquely associated with prototypically affiliative tendencies across all self-report measures in both samples, but predicted impacting significant others in unaffiliative ways. As also hypothesized, social anxiety was uniquely and prototypically associated with low dominance across measures, and general distress was associated with cold-submissive tendencies. Findings for depressive symptoms provided less consistent evidence for unique prototypical interpersonal features. Overall, results suggest the importance of multimethod assessment and accounting for general distress in interpersonal models of worry, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms. PMID:26763494

  9. Health-Related Worries, Self-Image, and Life Outlooks of Long-Term Survivors of Childhood Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zebrack, Brad J.; Chesler, Mark

    2001-01-01

    This article poses three questions: What do childhood cancer survivors worry about? What characteristics prompt some to worry more and others less? What effect do worries have on survivors' self-image and life outlooks? Data demonstrated significant relationships among worries, "objective" factors like physical after-effects or relapse, and…

  10. Validation of the Worry about Sexual Outcomes Scale for Use in STI/HIV Prevention Interventions for Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Jessica M.; Spitalnick, Josh; Milhausen, Robin R.; Wingood, Gina M.; Diclemente, Ralph J.; Salazar, Laura F.; Crosby, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of a new scale to measure adolescents' worry regarding outcomes of risky sexual behavior (i.e. sexually transmitted infections, including HIV [STI/HIV], and unintended pregnancy). The 10-item worry about sexual outcomes (WASO) scale, resulting in two subscales STI/HIV worry and pregnancy worry, was…

  11. Psychometric properties of an insomnia-specific measure of worry: the Anxiety and Preoccupation about Sleep Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Jansson-Frojmark, Markus; Harvey, Allison G; Lundh, Lars-Gunnar; Norell-Clarke, Annika; Linton, Steven J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Anxiety and Preoccupation about Sleep Questionnaire (APSQ), with a focus on factorial validity and internal consistency as well as discriminative, convergent, and association with sleep parameters and daytime impairment. Among a randomly selected sample from the general population (N = 5,000), 2,333 participants completed a survey on nighttime symptoms, daytime symptoms, health outcomes, and psychological processes. The study sample consisted of 1800 participants who did not fulfill criteria for another sleep disorder than insomnia. A two-factor solution, accounting for 70.7% of the variance, was extracted from the 10 APSQ items. One six-item factor determined worries about the consequences of poor sleep (α = .91); the second factor, with four items, assessed worries about the uncontrollability of sleep (α = .86). The two factors were significantly intercorrelated (ρ = .65) and significantly associated with the total APSQ (ρs = .97 and .76, respectively). The APSQ and the two subscales showed discriminant validity between three sleep status groups (normal sleep, poor sleep, and insomnia disorder; R(2) = .33-.41). The APSQ and the subscales demonstrated convergent validity with measures on cognitive arousal, sleep-related beliefs, anxiety, and depression. They also were significantly correlated with sleep parameters and daytime impairment. The findings suggest that the APSQ is a psychometrically sound instrument for assessing worry in insomnia. PMID:21337216

  12. Stakeholder position paper: economist's perspectives on antibiotic use in animals.

    PubMed

    Miller, Gay Y; McNamara, Paul E; Singer, Randall S

    2006-02-24

    . There is also evidence for the potential gains to consumers, both from an economic perspective as well as from a health perspective. Economists can help identify the implications of these relationships both at a micro- and macro-economic level; both relative to producer and to consumer welfare. We are at a pivotal time in history with sufficient analytical expertise and tools to address this complex issue from a scientific perspective. Linking various agencies so there can be coordination of data collection and data sharing is needed to successfully address this topic. PMID:16256228

  13. Weak economy and politics worry US coal operators

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2009-01-15

    A potential decrease in demand, a new administration, and production constraints have coal operators worried about prospects for 2009. This and other interesting facts are revealed in this 2009 forecast by the journal Coal Age. Results are presented of the survey answered by 69 of the 646 executives contacted, on such questions about expected coal production, coal use, attitude in the coal industry, capital expenditure on types of equipment and productive capacity. Coal Age forecasts a 2.3% decline in coal production in 2009, down to 1.145 billion tons from 1.172 billion tons. 8 figs.

  14. PTSD and re-offending risk: the mediating role of worry and a negative perception of other people's support

    PubMed Central

    Ardino, Vittoria; Milani, Luca; Di Blasio, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are mainly focused on victims of trauma. Very few studies explored the links between PTSD symptoms and re-offending risk in perpetrators of violence. Objective The aim of the study was to assess the effect of PTSD symptoms on re-offending risk in prisoner populations with a focus on indirect effects of worry and a negative perception of other people’s support on the relationship between PTSD and re-offending risk. Methods 75 prisoners (25 females, mean age: 44.36 years; 50 males, mean age: 34.7 years) were assessed for exposure to child abuse and neglect, PTSD symptoms, worry, a negative perception of other people’s support and re-offending risk. Mediation analyses tested the indirect effects of worry and a negative perception of other people’s support on the relationship between PTSD and re-offending risk. Results 72% participants presented PTSD symptoms and 30.7% were at risk of re-offending. Mediation analyses supported the hypothesis of a mediation pathway from PTSD to worry and a negative perception of other people’s support to an increased risk of re-offending. Conclusions The results indicate that prisoners report high rates of PTSD symptoms; furthermore, they highlight an important relationship between PTSD and re-offending risk. Findings suggest that future research should test further the indirect effects of negative cognitive and emotional states on the relationship of PTSD and re-offending risk and explore more in depth the role of PTSD to assess and treat prisoners. PMID:24371516

  15. [Health and quality of life within the context of unemployment and job worries].

    PubMed

    Zenger, Markus; Hinz, Andreas; Petermann, Franz; Brähler, Elmar; Stöbel-Richter, Yve

    2013-03-01

    Unemployment is associated with mental and physical complaints. The aim of this study is to examine the impact of frequency and duration of unemployment experiences in a representative sample of the German general population. In total, 2426 persons were interviewed about their employment biography and they answered the following questionnaires: Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-4), Questionnaire of life satisfaction (FLZ) and Zerssen-Complaints-List (B-LR). Unemployed persons reported significantly more anxiety, depression, health complaints and reduced life. The operationalisation of unemployment about the frequency or the duration did not matter. Severe worries about one's job have a similar impact as the experience of unemployment. Especially persons with a longer duration or frequent experiences of unemployment are at risk for higher burden, whereas a single or short time experience of unemployment can rather be compensated. PMID:23526087

  16. Cardiovascular activity during laboratory tasks in women with high and low worry.

    PubMed

    Knepp, Michael M; Friedman, Bruce H

    2008-12-01

    Worry has been related to delayed stress recovery and cardiovascular disease risk. Cardiovascular responses to a range of laboratory tasks were examined in this study of high and low worriers. Undergraduate women were recruited with the Penn State Worry Questionnaire to form low (n=19) and high (n=22) worry groups. These individuals engaged in six laboratory tasks (orthostatic stress, supine rest, hand cold pressor, mental arithmetic, and worry and relaxation imagery) while heart rate (HR), HR spectral analysis, impedance cardiography, and blood pressure were acquired. The only significant group difference found was a consistently greater HR across tasks in high worriers (p<.05). No group by condition interactions emerged. High trait worry in healthy young women appears to be marked by elevated HR in the absence of autonomic abnormalities. These findings are discussed relative to the literature on worry, with particular reference to its health implications. PMID:18706472

  17. Contribution of concrete cognition to emotion: neutral symptoms as elicitors of worry about cancer.

    PubMed

    Easterling, D V; Leventhal, H

    1989-10-01

    The relationship between worry about cancer and judged cancer risk was examined among 54 expatients who had been cured of breast cancer and 81 women with no history of cancer. Worry required both a perception of substantial risk and the presence of concrete perceptual cues. Worry promoters include visits to a physician and concrete, noncancerlike symptoms (e.g., fever, pain). Supporting analyses indicate that the symptom effects are not due to self-report biases or attributions of symptoms to cancer but are the result of a reminder process whereby vulnerability beliefs are aroused by somatic cues. Judged cancer risk was unrelated to affective cues, suggesting that across-time variation in worry about cancer reflects the onset and offset of symptom episodes rather than a shift in risk appraisals. Expatients were more worried overall than nonpatient controls. The results have implications for controlling disease worry and initiating preventive behaviors. PMID:2793775

  18. On the worrying fate of Data Deficient amphibians.

    PubMed

    Nori, Javier; Loyola, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    The 'Data Deficient' (DD) category of the IUCN Red List assembles species that cannot be placed in another category due to insufficient information. This process generates uncertainty about whether these species are safe or actually in danger. Here, we give a global overview on the current situation of DD amphibian species (almost a quarter of living amphibians) considering land-use change through habitat modification, the degree of protection of each species and the socio-political context of each country harboring DD species. We found that DD amphibians have, on average, 81% of their ranges totally outside protected areas. Worryingly, more than half of DD species have less than 1% of their distribution represented in protected areas. Furthermore, the percentage of overlap between species' range and human-modified landscapes is high, at approximately 58%. Many countries harboring a large number of DD species show a worrying socio-political trend illustrated by substantial, recent incremental increases in the Human Development Index and lower incremental increases in the establishment of protected areas. Most of these are African countries, which are located mainly in the central and southern regions of the continent. Other countries with similar socio-political trends are in southeastern Asia, Central America, and in the northern region of South America. This situation is concerning, but it also creates a huge opportunity for considering DD amphibians in future conservation assessments, planning, and policy at different levels of government administration. PMID:25965422

  19. On the Worrying Fate of Data Deficient Amphibians

    PubMed Central

    Nori, Javier; Loyola, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    The ‘Data Deficient’ (DD) category of the IUCN Red List assembles species that cannot be placed in another category due to insufficient information. This process generates uncertainty about whether these species are safe or actually in danger. Here, we give a global overview on the current situation of DD amphibian species (almost a quarter of living amphibians) considering land-use change through habitat modification, the degree of protection of each species and the socio-political context of each country harboring DD species. We found that DD amphibians have, on average, 81% of their ranges totally outside protected areas. Worryingly, more than half of DD species have less than 1% of their distribution represented in protected areas. Furthermore, the percentage of overlap between species’ range and human-modified landscapes is high, at approximately 58%. Many countries harboring a large number of DD species show a worrying socio-political trend illustrated by substantial, recent incremental increases in the Human Development Index and lower incremental increases in the establishment of protected areas. Most of these are African countries, which are located mainly in the central and southern regions of the continent. Other countries with similar socio-political trends are in southeastern Asia, Central America, and in the northern region of South America. This situation is concerning, but it also creates a huge opportunity for considering DD amphibians in future conservation assessments, planning, and policy at different levels of government administration. PMID:25965422

  20. Effects of cognitive behaviour therapy for worry on persecutory delusions in patients with psychosis (WIT): a parallel, single-blind, randomised controlled trial with a mediation analysis

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Daniel; Dunn, Graham; Startup, Helen; Pugh, Katherine; Cordwell, Jacinta; Mander, Helen; Černis, Emma; Wingham, Gail; Shirvell, Katherine; Kingdon, David

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Worry might be a contributory causal factor in the occurrence of persecutory delusions in patients with psychotic disorders. Therefore we postulated that reducing worry with cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) would reduce persecutory delusions. Methods For our two-arm, assessor-blinded, randomised controlled trial (Worry Intervention Trial [WIT]), we recruited patients aged 18–65 years with persistent persecutory delusions but non-affective psychosis from two centres: the Oxford Health National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust (Oxford, UK) and the Southern Health NHS Foundation Trust (Southampton, UK). The key inclusion criteria for participants were a score of at least 3 on the Psychotic Symptoms Rating Scale (PSYRATS) denoting a current persecutory delusion; that the delusion had persisted for at least 3 months; a clinical diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or delusional disorder; and a clinically significant level of worry. We randomly assigned (1:1) eligible patients, using a randomly permuted block procedure with variable block sizes and division by four strata, to either six sessions of worry-reduction CBT intervention done over 8 weeks added to standard care (the CBT-intervention group), or to standard care alone (the control group). The assessors were masked to patient allocations and did their assessments at week 0 (baseline), 8 weeks (end of treatment), and 24 weeks, follow-up. The primary outcomes were worry measured by the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) and delusions measured by the PSYRATS-delusion scale; we did the analyses in the intention-to-treat population, and also did a planned mediation analysis. This trial is registered with the ISRCTN Registry (number ISRCTN23197625) and is closed to new participants. Findings From Nov 1, 2011, to Sept 9, 2013, we recruited 150 eligible participants and randomly assigned 73 to the CBT intervention group, and 77 to the control group. 143 patients (95

  1. An examination of worry in relation to anxious responding to voluntary hyperventilation among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Leen-Feldner, Ellen W; Feldner, Matthew T; Tull, Matthew T; Roemer, Lizabeth; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2006-12-01

    This study examined the association between worry and fearful responding to a 3-min voluntary hyperventilation procedure. Participants were 160 adolescents (71 females) between the ages of 12 and 17 years (M=14.92 years). After accounting for the significant effects of state anxiety and anxiety sensitivity, results indicated that pre-challenge levels of worry indexed by the Penn State Worry Questionnaire-Child Version predicted post-challenge anxiety and intensity of panic symptoms. Results are discussed in terms of the role of worry in relation to panic-relevant emotional vulnerability among youth. PMID:16500618

  2. Worry as an adaptive avoidance strategy in healthy controls but not in pathological worriers.

    PubMed

    Ottaviani, Cristina; Borlimi, Rosita; Brighetti, Gianni; Caselli, Gabriele; Favaretto, Ettore; Giardini, Irene; Marzocchi, Camilla; Nucifora, Valeria; Rebecchi, Daniela; Ruggiero, Giovanni M; Sassaroli, Sandra

    2014-09-01

    The cognitive avoidance model of worry assumes that worry has the adaptive function to keep under control the physiological arousal associated with anxiety. This study aimed to test this model by the use of a fear induction paradigm in both pathological and healthy individuals. Thirty-one pathological worriers and 36 healthy controls accepted to be exposed to a fear induction paradigm (white noise) during three experimental conditions: worry, distraction, and reappraisal. Skin conductance (SCR) and heart rate variability (HRV) were measured as indices of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system functioning. Worriers showed increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic activation during the worry condition compared to non-worriers. There were no differences between groups for the distraction and reappraisal conditions. SCRs to the white noises during worry were higher in worriers versus controls throughout the entire worry period. Intolerance of uncertainty - but not metacognitive beliefs about worry - was a significant moderator of the relationship between worry and LF/HF-HRV in pathological worriers. Results support the cognitive avoidance model in healthy controls, suggesting that worry is no longer a functional attitude when it becomes the default/automatic and pathological response. PMID:24873888

  3. A Preliminary Investigation of Stimulus Control Training for Worry: Effects on Anxiety and Insomnia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGowan, Sarah Kate; Behar, Evelyn

    2013-01-01

    For individuals with generalized anxiety disorder, worry becomes associated with numerous aspects of life (e.g., time of day, specific stimuli, environmental cues) and is thus under poor discriminative stimulus control (SC). In addition, excessive worry is associated with anxiety, depressed mood, and sleep difficulties. This investigation sought…

  4. Efficacy of self-administered treatments for pathological academic worry: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B; Telch, Michael J

    2010-09-01

    Research on treatments for reducing pathological worry is limited. In particular, academic worry is a common theme in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) samples as well as non-clinical student samples. Given the high cost of anxiety disorders to society, research is needed to examine the efficacy of self-administered treatments designed to reduce pathological worry. The primary goal of this study was to investigate the benefits of three self-administered interventions for reducing academic worry. College students (N = 113) experiencing clinically significant academic worry were randomized to either: (a) worry exposure (WE); (b) expressive writing (EW); (c) relaxation consisting of pulsed audio-photic stimulation (APS); or (d) waitlist control (WLC). Participants were instructed to practice their interventions three times per week for one month and completed home practice logs online to track treatment adherence. Academic worry, general anxiety, and perceived stress were assessed at baseline and post-treatment. Academic worry and general anxiety were also assessed at a three-month follow-up. Those assigned to the WE and APS conditions showed significant improvement relative to EW and WLC at post-treatment. All treatment conditions showed continued improvement by follow-up, with no between-group differences. Treatment and public health implications are discussed. PMID:20663491

  5. Worry in Children: Changing Associations with Fear, Thinking, and Problem-Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Imogen; Szabó, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    Worry in adults has been conceptualized as a thinking process involving problem-solving attempts about anticipated negative outcomes. This process is related to, though distinct from, fear. Previous research suggested that compared to adults, children's experience of worry is less strongly associated with thinking and more closely related to…

  6. Relation of Childhood Worry to Information-Processing Factors in an Ethnically Diverse Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez-Morales, Lourdes; Bell, Debora

    2006-01-01

    This study examined information-processing variables in relation to worry in a sample of 292 fifth-grade children from Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic backgrounds. Results revealed that worry was related to threat interpretations for hypothetical situations and, when stress level was not controlled, to higher estimates of future…

  7. Fear, Worry, and Ritualistic Behaviour in Childhood: Developmental Trends and Interrelations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laing, Sarah V.; Fernyhough, Charles; Turner, Michelle; Freeston, Mark H.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies of childhood fear, worry, and ritualistic behaviour have been limited by restricted age ranges, narrow ranges of anxiety phenomena, non-comparable methodologies, and assessment of typical behaviour within a pathological context. Content and intensity of fear, worry, and ritualistic behaviour, and associations among these…

  8. Worry about Terror in Israel: Differences between Jewish and Arab Adolescents and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peleg, Ora

    2010-01-01

    The current study examines group differences in (1) levels of worry about terror and (2) trait anxiety among a sample of high-school and university students, where groups are defined by cultural affiliation, religious commitment, place of residence, gender and age. The revealed group differences in levels of worry about terror point to the ability…

  9. Relationships among Perceived Racial Stress, Intolerance of Uncertainty, and Worry in a Black Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucker, LaTanya S.; West, Lindsey M.; Roemer, Lizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among chronic worry, perceived racial stress, and intolerance of uncertainty in a sample of adults who racially identify as Black. Intolerance of uncertainty has been associated with worry and generalized anxiety disorder in predominantly White samples. Given that racial stress is likely…

  10. Research Note: Development of a Worry Questionnaire for Nursing Home Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertzsprung, Emerenciana A.; Konnert, Candace; Brinker, Jaylene

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a new measure, the Worry Questionnaire for Nursing Home Residents (WQNHR), designed to assess the frequency of specific worries. It was administered to 67 residents. Psychometric evaluation showed an average item-to-total correlation of 0.20 (range = 0.15 to 0.58), an internal consistency estimate of 0.79, and a test-retest…

  11. The Relation between Self-Reported Worry and Annoyance from Air and Road Traffic

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Frits; Verhagen, Claudia; Uitenbroek, Daan

    2015-01-01

    Negative perceptions such as fear or worry are known to be an important determinant of annoyance. Annoyance caused by noise and odour has been analysed in relation to worry about safety or health due to environmental hazards, using responses to a health survey. In the survey area high environmental impacts come from air and road traffic. The survey results show a correlation between worry due to the airport or passing aircraft and noise and odour annoyance from aircraft (correlation coefficient (c.c.) close to 0.6). For the relation between worry about a busy street and annoyance from road traffic the correlation is lower (c.c. 0.4–0.5). Worries about different situations, such as living below sea level, close to an airport, busy street or chemical industry, are highly correlated (c.c. 0.5–0.9), also for situations that are not obviously related. Personal factors can also lead to more worry: being female, above 35 years of age, having a high risk for anxiety/depression and being in bad health increase the odds for being worried. The results thus suggest that worry about safety or health is correlated to both personal and environmental factors. PMID:25723645

  12. The relation between self-reported worry and annoyance from air and road traffic.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Frits; Verhagen, Claudia; Uitenbroek, Daan

    2015-03-01

    Negative perceptions such as fear or worry are known to be an important determinant of annoyance. Annoyance caused by noise and odour has been analysed in relation to worry about safety or health due to environmental hazards, using responses to a health survey. In the survey area high environmental impacts come from air and road traffic. The survey results show a correlation between worry due to the airport or passing aircraft and noise and odour annoyance from aircraft (correlation coefficient (c.c.) close to 0.6). For the relation between worry about a busy street and annoyance from road traffic the correlation is lower (c.c. 0.4-0.5). Worries about different situations, such as living below sea level, close to an airport, busy street or chemical industry, are highly correlated (c.c. 0.5-0.9), also for situations that are not obviously related. Personal factors can also lead to more worry: being female, above 35 years of age, having a high risk for anxiety/depression and being in bad health increase the odds for being worried. The results thus suggest that worry about safety or health is correlated to both personal and environmental factors. PMID:25723645

  13. A Humanistic Approach to the Teaching of International Business: Integration of the Liberal Arts through Use of "The Economist."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuck, James M.

    An Indiana professor of business used the British magazine "The Economist" as required reading in courses on international business in order to introduce a global and humanistic element. "The Economist" is a 100-plus page news weekly of economics and finance with a principal goal of increasing understanding of the critical interrelationships…

  14. The Engineers versus the Economists: The Disunity of Technocracy in Indonesian Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amir, Sulfikar

    2008-01-01

    This article observes the competition between two groups of technocrats in Indonesia during the New Order era that has hitherto afflicted national policy making. The first group is the engineers who advocate technology-based development strategy. The other group is the market-oriented economists who promote a comparative-advantages approach in…

  15. Interrelationships of a Home Economist: Legacy of an Extension Agent in New Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makela, Carole J.

    2012-01-01

    Many pioneers in family and consumer sciences (FCS) are not recognized for what they accomplished. How evident this became as the author learned of a home economist who preceded many members and did so much for her state and its people during much of the 1900s. The author read an article from "New Mexico Magazine" which features three women--the…

  16. Home Economists Working with Low-Income Families and Implications for College Food and Nutrition Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopel, Bernice Helene

    To identify implications for college food and nutrition curriculum, multiple-choice questionnaires were developed to provide general characteristics of home economists and the concerns they had in their work with low-income families. Job concerns were ranked and analyzed according to the degree of concern expressed by the 129 respondents (70.8…

  17. Knowledge and Attitudes of Selected Home Economists toward Irradiation in Food Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Faye C. Stucy

    1990-01-01

    A survey of the knowledge and attitudes of 485 California home economists toward the use of irradiation to preserve food revealed that they lacked the knowledge although they had a positive attitude toward it. An interactive teleconference on irradiation increased positive attitudes and improved knowledge. (JOW)

  18. Facing up to Realities: Harvard Economist Investigates the Racial Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    As an economist, Dr. Ronald F. Ferguson often applies quantitative analysis to public policy dilemmas, which yields data models and quantitative measures of complex issues. In tackling the racial achievement gap, the Harvard-based social policy expert has added investigation techniques from sociology and psychology to explore what might seem a…

  19. NCTQ Square-Off: Are Teachers Underpaid? Two Economists Tackle an Intractable Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podgursky, Michael; Mishel, Lawrence

    2005-01-01

    Over the past year, two economists--Michael Podgursky, currently Middlebush Professor and Chairman in the Departmentof Economics at the University of Missouri-Columbia, and Lawrence Mishel, President of the Economic Policy Institute in Washington, D.C.--have been debating whether or not teachers are adequately paid, at least compared to other…

  20. The Topological Scaling of Consciousness: The World in the Perspectives of Economists and Technologists. No. 34.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierschenk, Bernhard

    The psychological concept of consciousness is examined in this article. It is argued that the intentionality of an individual's behavior is the key to the measurement and representation of his consciousness. The experiment examined concerns groups of students of business administration and civil engineering as well as professional economists, and…

  1. The Linguistic Representation of Rhetorical Function: A Study of How Economists Present Their Knowledge Claims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Trine

    2009-01-01

    This article deals with how economists present their new knowledge claim in the genre of the research article. In the discipline of economics today, the claim is typically included not only in the obvious results/discussion section(s) but also in three other locations of the article: the abstract, the introduction, and the conclusion. The present…

  2. How Do Economists Respond to the Storytellers? A Look at "The Rhetoric of Economics."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baake, Ken

    Teachers of college writing have a vested interest in the tremors of rhetoric surfacing from within the discipline of economics. In the past 15 years, some economists, philosophers of science, and humanists have challenged the positivist mantel of economics. They argue that economic methodology would be more ethical, more honest to the profession…

  3. The Interaction of Publications and Appointments: New Evidence on Academic Economists in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckmann, Klaus; Schneider, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Using a new panel data set comprising publication and appointment data for 889 German academic economists over a quarter of a century, we confirm the familiar hypothesis that publications are important for professorial appointments, but find only a small negative effect of appointments on subsequent research productivity, in particular if one…

  4. How to Support a One-Handed Economist: The Role of Modalisation in Economic Forecasting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue, James P.

    2006-01-01

    Economic forecasting in the world of international finance confronts economists with challenging cross-cultural writing tasks. Producing forecasts in English which convey confidence and credibility entails an understanding of linguistic conventions which typify the genre. A typical linguistic feature of commercial economic forecasts produced by…

  5. A 2004 unanswered letter to the Economist magazine requesting a retraction (and apology).

    PubMed

    Ling, Gilbert N

    2012-01-01

    This is a copy of (the bulk of) a letter I mailed on May 13, 2004 to Sir Robert P. Wilson, President, and three editors of the magazine, the Economist. With the letter, I also sent each recipient a copy of my latest book, "Life at the Cell and Below-Cell Level" as a gesture of good will. PMID:24437003

  6. Patterns of alpha asymmetry in those with elevated worry, trait anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms: A test of the worry and avoidance models of alpha asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ezra E; Zambrano-Vazquez, Laura; Allen, John J B

    2016-05-01

    Some authors have argued that worry cues lateralization of frontal brain activity leftward, whereas other varieties of avoidance motivation cue lateralization of frontal brain activity rightward. By comparison, more right-than-left parietal activity correlates with anxious arousal. The purpose of the present report was to test two models of brain lateralization and anxiety: one model that proposed that worry correlates with more left-frontal activity and another model that proposed that avoidance motivation (including worry) correlates with more right-frontal activity. Undergraduate students were selected for worry, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and trait anxiety using self-report questionnaires. A subset of participants also met DSM-IV criteria for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) or Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Alpha asymmetry and also a global-power-adjusted metric of alpha power were calculated from each participant's resting-state EEG. It was expected that participants with elevated worry and participants meeting criteria for GAD would show more left-than-right frontal activity. In contrast, participants with elevated trait anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and those with an OCD diagnosis were expected to exhibit more right-than-left frontal activity. Participants with elevated worry, participants with a GAD diagnosis, and participants with elevated obsessive-compulsive symptoms, had more left frontal activity than low symptom individuals. Those with high scores on trait anxiety, but low worry, had greater right frontal and parietal activity compared to controls. The present results suggest that brain lateralization is not solely related to avoidance motivation, and suggest that facets of anxiety may cut across dimensions not well-represented by DSM-based categories. PMID:26970143

  7. Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Pat; Landahl, John

    This pamphlet has been prepared in response to a new problem, a rapidly increasing population, and a new need, population education. It is designed to help teachers provide their students with some basic population concepts with stress placed on the elements of decision making. In the first section of the pamphlet, some of the basic concepts of…

  8. A Taxometric Investigation of the Latent Structure of Worry: Dimensionality and Associations with Depression, Anxiety, and Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Broman-Fulks, Joshua J.; Bergman, Shawn M.; Green, Bradley A.; Zlomke, Kimberly R.

    2010-01-01

    Worry has been described as a core feature of several disorders, particularly generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). The present study examined the latent structure of worry by applying 3 taxometric procedures (MAXEIG, MAMBAC, and L-Mode) to data collected from 2 large samples. Worry in the first sample (Study 1) of community participants (n = 1,355)…

  9. Annoyance and Worry in a Petrochemical Industrial Area—Prevalence, Time Trends and Risk Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Axelsson, Gösta; Stockfelt, Leo; Andersson, Eva; Gidlof-Gunnarsson, Anita; Sallsten, Gerd; Barregard, Lars

    2013-01-01

    In 1992, 1998, and 2006, questionnaires were sent to stratified samples of residents aged 18–75 years living near petrochemical industries (n = 600–800 people on each occasion) and in a control area (n = 200–1,000). The aims were to estimate the long-term prevalence and change over time of annoyance caused by industrial odour, industrial noise, and worries about possible health effects, and to identify risk indicators. In 2006, 20% were annoyed by industrial odour, 27% by industrial noise (1–4% in the control area), and 40–50% were worried about health effects or industrial accidents (10–20% in the control area). Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed significantly lower prevalence of odour annoyance in 1998 and 2006 than in 1992, while industrial noise annoyance increased significantly over time. The prevalence of worry remained constant. Risk of odour annoyance increased with female sex, worry of health effects, annoyance by motor vehicle exhausts and industrial noise. Industrial noise annoyance was associated with traffic noise annoyance and worry of health effects of traffic. Health-risk worry due to industrial air pollution was associated with female sex, having children, annoyance due to dust/soot in the air, and worry of traffic air pollution. PMID:23552810

  10. Effects of momentary assessed stressful events and worry episodes on somatic health complaints.

    PubMed

    Verkuil, Bart; Brosschot, Jos F; Meerman, Esther E; Thayer, Julian F

    2012-01-01

    Somatic health complaints are extremely common and are responsible for a large part of human suffering and healthcare costs. It has been recognised that psychosocial stress can affect somatic health. According to the 'perseverative cognition hypothesis', stressful events affect somatic health because people keep on worrying about them. Worry would prolong stress-related physiological activity that can ultimately lead to health problems. In this ambulatory study we tested whether stressful events and worry predict daily somatic complaints, and whether worry mediates the effects of stressful events. In addition, it was tested whether these effects were independent from negative affect. Using electronic diaries, 69 teachers (age 21-60 years) from Dutch primary and secondary schools reported daily stressful events, worry episodes, negative affect and somatic complaints for a period of 6 days. Results showed that worry intensity predicted the number of somatic complaints and mediated the effect of stressful events on somatic complaints. Furthermore, these results were independent from biobehavioural variables and daily negative affect. These findings support the perseverative cognition hypothesis proposing that the negative somatic health effects of stressful events are largely due to the worry; that is, to the prolonged cognitive representation of stressors. PMID:21038174

  11. Assessment of the Greek worry-related metacognitions: the Greek version of the Metacognitions Questionnaire (MCQ-30).

    PubMed

    Typaldou, G M; Konstantakopoulos, G; Roxanis, I; Nidos, A; Vaidakis, N; Papadimitriou, G N; Wells, A

    2014-01-01

    significant differences between genders had been found in the original study. The assumption that the differences in score levels and the gender effect might reflect cultural differences warrants further investigation. The findings of the present study indicate that the Greek version of the MCQ-30 is a comprehensible and psychometrically adequate instrument, as well as a reliable tool in assessing a range of dimensions of worry-related metacognitions in the Greek population. The Greek version of this scale facilitates crosscultural research in metacognition and wider testing of the metacognitive approach to emotional vulnerability, psychological disturbances and mental disorders. PMID:24739501

  12. Heart rate and autonomic response to stress after experimental induction of worry versus relaxation in healthy, high-worry, and generalized anxiety disorder individuals.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Aaron J; Newman, Michelle G

    2013-04-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is the most commonly occurring anxiety disorder and has been related to cardiovascular morbidity such as cardiac ischemia, sudden cardiac death, and myocardial infarction. Both GAD and its cardinal symptom - worry - have been shown to promote muted physiological reactivity in response to laboratory and ecological stressors. Importantly, no study to date has examined the concurrent and relative contributions of trait and state worry within healthy controls, (non-clinical) high trait-worry controls, and GAD participants. The present study examined heart rate (HR), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) responses to laboratory stress during and following the experimental induction of worry versus relaxation in healthy controls (n=42), high trait worriers (n=33) and participants with GAD (n=76). All groups exhibited increased HR and decreased RSA in response to the stressor, with no differences by condition. Baseline sAA significantly moderated HR and RSA reactivity, such that higher sAA predicted greater increases in HR and decreases in RSA. There was a significant group by baseline sAA interaction such that in GAD, higher baseline sAA predicted decreased change in sAA during stress, whereas higher baseline sAA predicted greater sAA change in healthy controls. High-worry controls fell non-significantly between these groups. The present study provides additional evidence for the effect of worry on diminished HR stress response and points to possible suppression of adrenergic sympathetic stress responses in GAD. PMID:23384513

  13. Community worry about heart disease: a needs survey in the Coalfields and Newcastle areas of the Hunter region.

    PubMed

    Higginbotham, N; Heading, G; Pont, J; Plotnikoff, R; Dobson, A J; Smith, E; Metcalfe, A; Valenti, L; Croce, N

    1993-12-01

    A needs survey was administered by mail in the Coalfields area of the Hunter region (a lower socioeconomic area around Cessnock) and in a higher socioeconomic area of Newcastle. The purpose was to assist planning for Coalfields Healthy Heartbeat--a community-action heart disease prevention program. Response rates from random samples of residents were 435/897 (49 per cent) for the Coalfields and 565/875 (65 per cent) for Newcastle. In both study areas heart attack was ranked eleventh from a list of 17 potential community worries, well below drugs, crime, road safety, the environment, cancer and 'loss of health'. Coalfields respondents were more worried about all issues on the list than were the residents in Newcastle and were less likely to have heard about recent health promotion campaigns. Coalfields respondents felt that heart disease prevention was the responsibility of the individual, the family, and the medical profession, in that order, and much less the responsibility of local community groups. Results suggest that health promotion strategies incorporating values, language and symbols that are meaningful to distinct subgroups may be more successful than disease-specific programs aimed at the general population. PMID:8204711

  14. Does worry moderate the relation between aggression and depression in adolescent girls?

    PubMed

    Blain-Arcaro, Christine; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2016-06-01

    Aggressive girls, more so than aggressive boys, are at an increased risk for depression. Despite disconcerting outcomes, few researchers have examined factors that may attenuate or exacerbate the relation between aggression and depression. Competing hypotheses for explaining the role of worry in the relation between aggressive behaviour and depressive symptoms, commonly co-occurring problems in girls, have been proposed. In the present study, we examined worry as a possible moderator in the relation between girls nominated as aggressive by their peers and self-reported depressive symptoms in a sample of 226 girls aged 13 (M = 12.92, SD = 1.28) at Time 1. We found that worry exacerbated the risk of depressive symptoms concurrently and one year later for physically aggressive girls, but not relationally aggressive girls. These results suggest that worry plays an important role in the prediction of depression for aggressive girls, which varies by the form aggression takes. PMID:26986843

  15. Eastern region represents a worrying cluster of active hepatitis C in Algeria in 2012.

    PubMed

    Bensalem, Aïcha; Selmani, Karima; Hihi, Narjes; Bencherifa, Nesrine; Mostefaoui, Fatma; Kerioui, Cherif; Pineau, Pascal; Debzi, Nabil; Berkane, Saadi

    2016-08-01

    Algeria is the largest country of Africa, peopled with populations living a range of traditional/rural and modern/urban lifestyles. The variations of prevalence of chronic active hepatitis care poorly known on the Algerian territory. We conducted a retrospective survey on all patients (n = 998) referred to our institution in 2012 and confirmed by us for an active hepatitis C. Half of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) isolates were genotyped. Forty Algerian regions out of the 48 were represented in our study. Three geographical clusters (Aïn-Temouchent/SidiBelAbbes, Algiers, and a large Eastern region) with an excess of active hepatitis C were observed. Patients coming from the Eastern cluster (Batna, Khenchela, Oum el Bouaghi, and Tebessa) were strongly over-represented (49% of cases, OR = 14.5, P < 0.0001). The hallmarks of Eastern region were an excess of women (65% vs. 46% in the remaining population, P < 0.0001) and the almost exclusive presence of HCV genotype 1 (93% vs. 63%, P = 0.0001). The core of the epidemics was apparently located in Khenchela (odds ratio = 24.6, P < 0.0001). This situation is plausibly connected with nosocomial transmission or traditional practices as scarification (Hijama), piercing or tattooing, very lively in this region. Distinct hepatitis C epidemics are currently affecting Algerian population. The most worrying situation is observed in rural regions located east of Algeria. J. Med. Virol. 88:1394-1403, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26856380

  16. Factors Associated With Cancer Worry Among People Aged 50 or Older, Spain, 2012–2014

    PubMed Central

    Sotos, Joseba Rabanales; Herráez, María José Simarro; Rosa, Monchi Campos; López, Jaime López-Torres; Ortiz, María Pilar Sánchez

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cancer worry varies among patients and may influence their participation in preventive activities. We tested whether sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle, locus of control, comorbidity, and perceived health status were associated with the level of cancer worry among adults aged 50 or older. Methods We conducted an observational cross-sectional study of 666 adults in Spain aged 50 or older. Participants were selected by simple random sampling and asked to visit their designated health center for a personal interview. The study variables were level of cancer worry (measured by Cancer Worry Scale [CWS]), sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle, personal history or family history of cancer, comorbidity, self-perceived health, locus of control, and social support. Results More than half of participants, 58.1%, were women; mean age was 60.5 years (standard deviation [SD], 6.8 y). Measurement of the frequency and severity of cancer worry (possible scale of 6–24 points) yielded a mean CWS score of 9.3 (95% confidence interval, 9.0–9.5); 31.9% of participants reported being concerned about cancer. Scores were higher among women (9.7 [SD, 3.3]) than men (8.7 [SD, 2.7]) (P < .001) and among participants in rural settings (10.0 [SD, 3.4]) than in urban settings (9.0 [SD, 3.0]) (P < .001). Multiple linear regression showed a greater degree of cancer worry among people with personal or family history of cancer, more health problems, worse self-perceived health, and lower social support. Conclusion Cancer worry is frequent among older adults, and the level of such concern is related not only to personal characteristics but also to lifestyle and health status. Further research is required to understand how contextual factors can influence cancer worry and how such concern changes behavior patterns related to cancer prevention activities. PMID:26704444

  17. Associations between risk perceptions and worry about common diseases: a between- and within-subjects examination.

    PubMed

    Shiloh, Shoshana; Wade, Christopher H; Roberts, J Scott; Alford, Sharon Hensley; Biesecker, Barbara B

    2013-01-01

    The relationships between worry and perceptions of likelihood and severity were evaluated across eight common diseases. Individual and disease variability in worry and perceptions were examined. 294 participants were recruited through the Multiplex Initiative, in which a genetic susceptibility test for eight common diseases was offered to healthy adults. Participants completed a baseline telephone survey and web-based surveys without a commitment to be tested, and then made a choice on testing. Between- and within-subjects analyses yielded the following main findings: (1) worry is more closely related to likelihood perceptions than to severity perceptions; (2) severity perceptions add significantly to explained worry variances above and beyond likelihood perceptions; (3) risk perceptions and worries form two clusters: cancer diseases and cardiovascular-metabolic diseases; and (4) variance in risk perception and worry is explained by a combination of between- and within-subjects variances. Risk perception research should attend to severity perceptions, within-subjects variability and inter-disease differences, and to strategies for grouping conditions. PMID:23121110

  18. Relationship between irritable bowel syndrome, worry and stress in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Song, Sang-Wook; Park, Seo-Jin; Kim, Se-Hong; Kang, Sung-Goo

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) among adolescents and difference in worry and stress between normal and IBS groups. Questionnaire survey was conducted at a girl's middle and high school. Students from seventh to eleventh grade participated in the examination on Rome II criteria, lifestyle and dietary habits. Worry and stress were measured with the Korean version Penn State Worry Questionnaire-Children and the Korean version Brief Encounter Psychosocial Instrument. Worry score was significantly higher in the IBS group (22.07 ± 9.38, P < 0.001) than in the normal group (18.65 ± 8.99) and was higher in high school students than in middle school students (P = 0.02). Stress score also was higher in the IBS group than in the normal group (P < 0.001) and was higher in the high school girls than in the middle school ones (P = 0.04). Of all the lifestyle factors influencing IBS preference for fatty foods, preference for salty foods, drinking alcohol and sleeping for less than six hours a day were found to be significant. Worry and stress seem to be associated with IBS symptoms. The findings of this study draw a clue that less worry and stress will help decrease IBS symptoms. PMID:23166424

  19. Worry about terror among young adults living in ongoing security uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Peleg, Ora; Mass-Friedman, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate worry about terror as a mediating variable, with the exogenous variables being media viewing, differentiation of self, and trait anxiety, and the endogenous variables being somatic symptoms and perceptions of security-related stress. Participants were divided into two groups by age/academic level: 248 high school students and 191 university students. A pathway correlation model was used to investigate worry about terror as a mediating variable. The central finding was that worry about terror was a significant mediating variable in the relationship between the extent of media viewing following terror events and the level of perception of security-related stress. That is, young people who said they worried a lot reported a high level of stress relating to the terror events they saw covered in the media. In addition, trait anxiety was found to have an effect on stress perception only via the level of worry about terror. This means that high levels of stress are not experienced by all highly trait-anxious people, but only by those who suffer from higher levels of worry about terror. PMID:22551319

  20. Beliefs about worry and intrusions: the Meta-Cognitions Questionnaire and its correlates.

    PubMed

    Cartwright-Hatton, S; Wells, A

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the development of the Meta-Cognitions Questionnaire to measure beliefs about worry and intrusive thoughts. Factor analyses of the scale demonstrated five empirically distinct and relatively stable dimensions of meta-cognition. Four of the factors representing beliefs were: Positive Beliefs About Worry: Negative Beliefs About the Controllability of Thoughts and Corresponding Danger; Cognitive Confidence; and Negative Beliefs about Thoughts in General, including Themes of Superstition, Punishment and Responsibility. The fifth factor represented Meta-Cognitive processes-Cognitive Self-Consciousness-a tendency to be aware of and monitor thinking. The measure showed good psychometric properties on a range of indices of reliability and validity. Scores on the questionnaire subscales predicted measures of worry proneness, proneness to obsessional symptoms, and anxiety. Regression analyses showed that the independent predictors of worry were: Positive Beliefs about Worry; Negative Beliefs About the Controllability of Thoughts and Corresponding Danger: and Cognitive Confidence. Significant differences in particular MCQ subscales were demonstrated between patients with intrusive thoughts, clinical controls and normals. The implications of these findings for models of worry and intrusive thoughts are discussed. PMID:9220301

  1. Assessing treatments used to reduce rumination and/or worry: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Querstret, Dawn; Cropley, Mark

    2013-12-01

    Perseverative cognitions such as rumination and worry are key components of mental illnesses such as depression and anxiety. Given the frequent comorbidity of conditions in which rumination and worry are present, it is possible that they are underpinned by the same cognitive process. Furthermore, rumination and worry appear to be part of a causal chain that can lead to long-term health consequences, including cardiovascular disease and other chronic conditions. It is important therefore to understand what interventions may be useful in reducing their incidence. This systematic review aimed to assess treatments used to reduce worry and/or rumination. As we were interested in understanding the current treatment landscape, we limited our search from 2002 to 2012. Nineteen studies were included in the review and were assessed for methodological quality and treatment integrity. Results suggested that mindfulness-based and cognitive behavioural interventions may be effective in the reduction of both rumination and worry; with both Internet-delivered and face-to-face delivered formats useful. More broadly, it appears that treatments in which participants are encouraged to change their thinking style, or to disengage from emotional response to rumination and/or worry (e.g., through mindful techniques), could be helpful. Implications for treatment and avenues for future research are discussed. PMID:24036088

  2. Effect of worry on regional cerebral blood flow in nonanxious subjects.

    PubMed

    Hoehn-Saric, Rudolf; Lee, Jae Sung; McLeod, Daniel R; Wong, Dean F

    2005-12-30

    Several studies suggest that cognitive tasks attenuate activation of the limbic system by emotional stimuli. We investigated the possibility that worry would similarly inhibit the limbic system by examining its effects on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). Ten nonanxious volunteers underwent four scans within one session, using positron emission tomography (PET) with H(2)(15)O as tracer. The first two scans recorded emotionally neutral thinking induced after listening to tapes describing neutral statements. Preceding the third and fourth scans, subjects listened to the self-recorded tape describing their individual worries, were instructed to continue to worry, and were scanned 5 min later. Subjects rated themselves as more anxious during the worry scans but showed no significant heart interbeat or skin conductance changes. During worry, rCBF increases were found bilaterally in the medial fronto-orbital gyri and the right thalamus; rCBF decreases were found bilaterally in the hippocampi and amygdalae, in the right insula, the left and right inferior, middle and superior temporal gyri and the occipito-temporal gyri, the right inferior occipital gyrus and the left supramarginal gyrus. Activity of the left orbito-frontal gyrus was negatively correlated with activity of the amygdalae. The results support the hypothesis that worry-induced prefrontal activity suppresses affect-related subcortical regions. PMID:16297605

  3. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia during worry forecasts stress-related increases in psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Gouin, Jean-Philippe; Deschênes, Sonya S; Dugas, Michel J

    2014-09-01

    Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) has been conceptualized as an index of emotion regulation abilities. Although resting RSA has been associated with both concurrent and prospective affective responses to stress, the impact of RSA reactivity on emotional responses to stress is inconsistent across studies. The type of emotional stimuli used to elicit these phasic RSA responses may influence the adaptive value of RSA reactivity. We propose that RSA reactivity to a personally relevant worry-based stressor might forecast future affective responses to stress. To evaluate whether resting RSA and RSA reactivity to worry inductions predict stress-related increases in psychological distress, an academic stress model was used to prospectively examine changes in psychological distress from the well-defined low- and high-stress periods. During the low-stress period, 76 participants completed self-report mood measures and had their RSA assessed during a resting baseline, free worry period and worry catastrophizing interview. Participants completed another mood assessment during the high-stress period. Results indicated that baseline psychological distress predicted larger decreases in RSA during the worry inductions. Lower resting RSA and greater RSA suppression to the worry inductions at baseline prospectively predicted larger increases in psychological distress from the low- to high-stress period, even after accounting for the impact of baseline distress on RSA. These results provide further evidence that RSA may represent a unique index of emotion regulation abilities in times of stress. PMID:25089936

  4. Influences of personal standards and perceived parental expectations on worry for Asian American and White American college students.

    PubMed

    Saw, Anne; Berenbaum, Howard; Okazaki, Sumie

    2013-03-01

    The current study examined perceptions of living up to parental expectations (LPE) and personal standards as possible mediators of the relationship between ethnicity and worry in a sample of 836 Asian American and 856 White American college students. Asian Americans reported higher frequency of academic- and family-related worries, but they did not report higher levels of global tendency to worry. Perceptions of LPE of current academic performance and personal standards for preparation for a future career partially explained ethnic differences in frequency of academic worry. Personal standards and perceptions of LPE for respect for the family partially explained ethnic differences in frequency of family worry. The findings highlight the importance of targeting domain-specific personal standards and perceived parental expectations to reduce worry among Asian Americans. PMID:22416875

  5. Influences of Personal Standards and Perceived Parental Expectations on Worry for Asian American and White American College Students

    PubMed Central

    Berenbaum, Howard; Okazaki, Sumie

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined perceptions of living up to parental expectations and personal standards as possible mediators of the relationship between ethnicity and worry in a sample of 836 Asian American and 856 White American college students. Asian Americans reported higher frequency of academic- and family-related worry, but they did not report higher levels of global tendency to worry. Perceptions of living up to parental expectations of current academic performance and personal standards for preparation for a future career partially explained ethnic differences in frequency of academic worry. Personal standards and perceptions of living up to parental expectations for respect for the family partially explained ethnic differences in frequency of family worry. The findings highlight the importance of targeting domain-specific personal standards and perceived parental expectations to reduce worry among Asian Americans. PMID:22416875

  6. Daily worry is related to low heart rate variability during waking and the subsequent nocturnal sleep period.

    PubMed

    Brosschot, Jos F; Van Dijk, Eduard; Thayer, Julian F

    2007-01-01

    Stress and anxiety are risk factors for cardiovascular (CV) disease. Worry might be a mediator of their risks by prolonging their cognitive representation and concomitant CV activity. We hypothesized that daily stressors and worry, and trait anxiety and trait worry would be associated with high heart rate (HR) and low heart rate variability (HRV) during waking and the subsequent nocturnal sleep period, and that worry would mediate the effects of daily stressors. Low HRV and high HR are physiological risk factors for CV disease. Using an hourly diary, stressors, worry frequency and duration, and biobehavioral variables were measured during one day in 52 healthy subjects. During this time and the subsequent nocturnal sleep period, ambulatory ECG was measured. Stressors, worry and traits were related to higher HR and lower HRV during waking, and the effects of stressors and worry were extended into the sleeping period. Worry duration mediated the effects of stressors. The results were largely independent of biobehavioral variables including sleep quality. The results support the notion that worry, by prolonging CV activity, is a mediator of the CV risks of stress. They also imply a role for unconscious cognitive representation of stress. PMID:17020787

  7. Cognitive processing variables in breast cancer: worry and distress at the end of treatment.

    PubMed

    Costa-Requena, Gema; Rodríguez, Ana; Fernández, Rosina; Palomera, Elisabet; Gil, Francisco L

    2011-06-01

    This study assessed the influence of cognitive processing variables on cancer worries and distress after breast cancer treatment. In multivariate analyses, while independent variables were intolerance of uncertainty and intrusive thoughts, constructs' variables were anxiety and depression symptoms and cancer-related worries. The intolerance to uncertainty had a tendency to influence on distress and concerns about cancer after the end of treatment (Wilks' λ = 0.687, p = 0.074). Whereas, thought intrusion had a significant influence on distress and cancer related worries (Wilks' λ = 0.228, p = 0.000). Cognitive variables could be addressed by the oncology nurse when considering the patients' concerns related to cancer and psychological distress. PMID:20623349

  8. Measuring Dispositional Cancer Worry in China and Belgium: A Cross-Cultural Validation

    PubMed Central

    Bernat, Jennifer Kim; Jensen, Jakob D.

    2014-01-01

    Dispositional cancer worry (DCW) is the uncontrollable tendency to dwell on cancer independent of relevant stimuli (e.g., diagnosis of the disease). Past research has suggested that DCW has two underlying dimensions (severity and frequency). Available measures of DCW severity and frequency were translated and validated in two countries: China and Belgium. Participants (N=623) completed translated scales, as well as measures of general dispositional worry, cancer fear, and perceived risk. In both locations, DCW measures were reliable (Cronbach’s alphas ranged from .78 – .93) and demonstrated strong convergent, divergent, and concurrent validity. Severity and frequency factors loaded as expected in exploratory factor analysis. Future research should pursue longitudinal tests of DCW’s predictive validity and explore DCW in theoretical models predicting the relationship between worry and cancer prevention and early detection behaviors. PMID:24365045

  9. Development and initial validation of the Worry-Reduction Alcohol Expectancy Scale.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joshua P; Tran, Giao Q

    2007-10-01

    Recent research on the relation between generalized anxiety and heavy drinking highlighted a need for a measure of worry-reduction alcohol expectancies. The current study aimed to develop and to assess the psychometric properties of the Worry-Reduction Alcohol Expectancy Scale. The development and initial validation of the WRAES occurred across two phases with two separate non-clinical undergraduate samples. Phase I was focused on scale construction and item selection, while Phase II included an assessment of the WRAES' reliability, validity and cross-validation of factor structure. Results from both study phases support a two-factor model. Cronbach's alpha for the total scale was .96 and Pearson r test-retest reliability was .75. Additionally, the mean correlation between the WRAES and convergent measures was significantly higher than the mean correlation between the WRAES and discriminant measures. Overall, the results provide initial support for the WRAES as a measure of worry-reduction alcohol expectancies. PMID:17434687

  10. Reliability and Validity of the Korean Version of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire in Primary School Children

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sung-Goo; Shin, Jin-Hee

    2010-01-01

    Worry is a generalized psychological phenomenon seen among most people. When worry is excessive and nearly uncontrollable, people usually suffer psychological pain. The Penn State Worry Questionnaire for Children (PSWQ-C) was developed to measure worry objectively. It comprises 14 items for measuring excessive, generalized, and uncontrollable worry in children. This study, conducted with a large group of elementary children (3rd through 6th graders, ages 8-12 yr; N=973), investigated the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire for Children (PSWQ-CK). The PSWQ-CK showed high reliability by test-retest and also excellent internal consistency results. To examine the validity of the PSWQ-CK, we calculated its correlation with the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS). The PSWQ-CK had a higher correlation with the worry/oversensitivity factor than with other subscales of the RCMAS, and it showed no correlation with the lie factor. When 3 reversed PSWQ-CK items were eliminated, the instrument showed higher internal consistency. However, this did not improve its correlation with other anxiety-measuring tools. In conclusion, the PSWQ-CK's reliability and validity were satisfactory, and it is a useful tool for objectively measuring the worry of Korean children of this age group. PMID:20676335

  11. Effects of Homework Motivation and Worry Anxiety on Homework Achievement in Mathematics and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Eunsook; Mason, Elsa; Peng, Yun; Lee, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Direct and mediating effects of homework worry anxiety on homework effort and homework achievement and the differences in the structural relations among homework motivation constructs and homework achievement across mathematics and English homework were examined in 268 tenth graders in China. Homework motivation included task value, homework…

  12. Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention for Worry, Uncertainty, and Insomnia for Cancer Survivors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-22

    Anxiety Disorder; Worry; Uncertainty; Sleep Disorders; Insomnia; Fatigue; Pain; Depression; Cognitive-behavioral Therapy; Psychological Intervention; Esophageal Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Leukemia; Lung Cancer; Multiple Myeloma; Ovarian Neoplasm; Stage III or IV Cervical or Uterine Cancer; Stage IIIB, IIIC, or IV Breast Cancer; Glioblastoma Multiforme; Relapsed Lymphoma; Stage III or IV Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIC or IV Melanoma

  13. The impact of parents' sleep quality and hypoglycemia worry on diabetes self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Linda Jones; Monaghan, Maureen; Cogen, Fran; Streisand, Randi

    2015-01-01

    Parents of young children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) may experience poor sleep quality, possibly impacting their confidence in T1D management. This study investigated sleep characteristics among parents of children with T1D and relationships among parents' sleep quality, hypoglycemia worry, and diabetes self-efficacy. As part of baseline assessment for a randomized clinical trial (RCT) to promote parental management of T1D, 134 parents of children ≤ age 6 reported on demographics, parent sleep characteristics, hypoglycemia worry, and diabetes self-efficacy. Parents reported they slept less time than recommended by the National Sleep Foundation and endorsed greater global sleep problems than standardized norms of healthy adults; one third of parents reported their overall sleep quality was "fairly bad" or "very bad." Hypoglycemia worry and parents' sleep quality were both significantly related to diabetes self-efficacy, but parents' sleep quality did not mediate the relationship of hypoglycemia worry and diabetes self-efficacy. Many parents experience disrupted sleep that impacts their perceived ability to perform T1D management. Interventions designed to improve parental T1D self-efficacy should consider sleep and concerns about children's hypoglycemia. PMID:24738994

  14. Knowledge about aging and worry in older adults: Testing the mediating role of intolerance of uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Nuevo, Roberto; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Montorio, Ignacio; Ruiz, Miguel A.; Cabrera, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aims to explore the relationship between knowledge about aging and severity of worry in older adults, and to test the potential mediational role of intolerance of uncertainty. Method The sample was composed of 120 community-dwelling older adults, with a mean of age of 71.0 years (SD = 6.3). Mediational analyses and structural equation modeling were used to analyze and compare different models. Results Greater knowledge about aging was negatively related to both intolerance of uncertainty and worry, and its effect on worry was partially mediated by intolerance of uncertainty. The mediational model obtained an excellent fit to the data (i.e. Goodness of fit index (GFI) = 0.995) and clearly had a better fit than alternative models. Conclusion These results suggest that a good knowledge of the aging process could help decrease aversive uncertainty and thus reduce the level of worry among older adults. Thus, educational programs to increase knowledge about aging could serve as one preventive strategy for anxiety in old age. PMID:19197699

  15. Effects of Personality on Psychiatric and Somatic Symptoms in Pregnant Women: The Role of Pregnancy Worries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puente, Cecilia Penacoba; Monge, Francisco Javier Carmona; Abellan, Isabel Carretero; Morales, Dolores Marin

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of personality and pregnancy worries on pregnant women's mental and physical health with 154 women in the first half of their gestational period. Self-report questionnaires were used to collect information about control variables, sociodemographic (age, educational level, and work), and pregnancy variables…

  16. Effects of Test Anxiety on Performance, Worry, and Emotionality in Naturally Occurring Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Deitz, Sheila R.

    1978-01-01

    Test performance and reported anxiety levels of high and low test-anxious subjects taking either a regular exam or an exam containing brief, written relaxation instructions were compared. High test-anxious subjects performed more poorly and reported greater worry and emotionality. Results provide greater external validity for Test Anxiety Scale.…

  17. The Impact of Parents’ Sleep Quality and Hypoglycemia Worry on Diabetes Self-Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Linda Jones; Monaghan, Maureen; Cogen, Fran; Streisand, Randi

    2014-01-01

    Parents of young children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) may experience poor sleep quality possibly impacting their confidence in T1D management. This study investigated sleep characteristics among parents of children with T1D and relationships amongst parents’ sleep quality, hypoglycemia worry, and diabetes self-efficacy. As part of baseline assessment for a randomized clinical trial (RCT) to promote parental management of T1D, 134 parents of children ≤ age 6 reported on demographics, parent sleep characteristics, hypoglycemia worry, and diabetes self-efficacy. Parents reported they slept less time than recommended by the National Sleep Foundation and endorsed greater global sleep problems than standardized norms of healthy adults; 1/3 of parents reported their overall sleep quality was “fairly bad” or “very bad.” Hypoglycemia worry and parents’ sleep quality were both significantly related to diabetes self-efficacy, but parents’ sleep quality did not mediate the relationship of hypoglycemia worry and diabetes self-efficacy. Many parents experience disrupted sleep that impacts their perceived ability to perform T1D management. Interventions designed to improve parental T1D self-efficacy should consider sleep and concerns about children’s hypoglycemia. PMID:24738994

  18. The Worry List: What They Are and How to Deal with Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In this article, four directors discuss the security challenges that keep them worried and what they do about it. Dwayne Alton describes how his school district, IT School District of Lee County, Fort Meyers, Florida, collaborated with Cisco and installed an intrusion detection system which alerts IT staff when someone creates their own access…

  19. Life associated with fear and worry: A major concern among the cardiac valve-replaced patients

    PubMed Central

    Taghadosi, Mohsen; Memarian, Robabeh; Ahmadi, Fazlollah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Few attempts were made for alleviating the physical/psychological problems among the cardiac valve–replaced patients and no comprehensive study was done based on the experiences of such patients. This study was undertaken to describe the stressful experiences of the heart valve-replaced patients. Materials and Methods: In this qualitative study performed during 2012-2013 with a content analysis approach, 13 patients from Tehran and Kashan therapeutic centers participated. The study sampling was accomplished with purposeful sampling using a semi-structured interview that continued until data saturat ion. All interviews were recorded, and were immediately handwritten word by word and finally typewritten. Description and analysis of the data were done by Graneheim and Lundman content analysis. Results: One hundred and seventy-five primary codes were derived among the 680 codes taken from the participants interviewed. Using abstract and deep perception of the categories, 14 subcategories and 5 themes were derived. The themes are as follows: worry of care conditions, worry of life with the ongoing condition of having prosthetic cardiac valve, worry regarding the instability in life, fear of hospital, and fear of unknown factors. Each theme consisted of special subsidiary themes with specific functions. Conclusions: The main themes of fear and worry about on losing the valve were identified and introduced in the cardiac valve-replaced patients. As the nature and function of these themes are different in different societies, recognition and discrete definition of them are necessary for care planning and promotion. PMID:25709701

  20. Uncertainty beyond probabilities of BSE: appraisals predicting worry and coping strategies in the Canadian public.

    PubMed

    Markon, Marie-Pierre L; Lemyre, Louise; Krewski, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The impact of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is not limited to the infection with the BSE agent but also affects psychosocial responses, such as worry and loss of confidence in public authorities. It was shown in past crises that these reactions depended upon the way the event was perceived by the public. Understanding the nature of the perceptions of BSE is therefore of great importance for risk management in all phases of the risk, including the period before the onset of a crisis, when BSE is still only a pending threat to human health. This study analyzed data from a representative national survey of Canadians (n = 1,517) on the perceived risk of prion diseases. Factor analysis revealed emerging dimensions of BSE appraisals and regression analysis identified variables that predicted worry and coping strategies. Results yielded three significant factors, each relating differently to reactions to BSE: (1) Perceived impact, which combined perceived risk for health and likelihood of occurrence of BSE crises, was the main predictor of worry about eating tainted beef; (2) perceived mastery, consisting of personal knowledge and control, predicted taking action to avoid the disease; and (3) perceived intricacy, composed of perceived complexity and uncertainty, uniquely predicted trying to ignore BSE-related risks. Further regression analysis and analysis of variance exposed a moderating role of perceived intricacy on the relationship between perceived impact of BSE crises and worry. The implications of these findings for risk communication and management are described. PMID:21218348

  1. Worry as a Predictor of Fear Acquisition in a Nonclinical Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joos, Els; Vansteenwegen, Debora; Hermans, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    People seem to differ in their conditionability, that is, the ease by which fear associations (neutral stimulus-unconditioned stimulus [CS-US] contingencies) are learned. Recently, the level of trait worry has been proposed as a predictor of heightened conditionability. The current research aimed to (a) further investigate this influence of…

  2. Worries about Middle School Transition and Subsequent Adjustment: The Moderating Role of Classroom Goal Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duchesne, Stephane; Ratelle, Catherine F.; Roy, Amelie

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study had three objectives: (a) to identify different profiles of second-year middle school students (Grade 8) in terms of academic, emotional, and social adjustment; (b) to test the contribution of worries at the end of Grade 6 to distinguish these profiles; and (c) to examine the moderating effect of mastery (MG) and…

  3. Concern or confidence? Adolescents' identity capital and future worry in different school contexts.

    PubMed

    Tikkanen, Jenni

    2016-01-01

    This present study investigated the roles identity capital and school's socio-economic status have on adolescent worry about future education, employment, and social status. The 354 participants were 14- to 15-year-old students from affluent (56.8%) and disadvantaged (43.2%) Finnish lower secondary schools. Structural equation modelling was used to test the hypothesis that a higher level of family-related identity capital is connected to a lower level of future worry, and that this connection is mediated through intrapersonal forms of identity capital, specifically academic self-concept and general self-efficacy. Adolescent future worry was also examined across school status with an independent samples t-test. The findings suggest that, in the relatively equal societal context in Finland, adolescents are rather confident about their future education, employment, and social status regardless of the socio-economic status of the school they attend, and when their level of identity capital is high the future worry decreases further. PMID:26559012

  4. Leaving School: A Comparison of the Worries Held by Adolescents with and without Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, R.; Dagnan, D.; Jahoda, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Leaving school is an important time for adolescents, with increasing autonomy and developing adult identities. The present study sought to shed light on the content and emotional impact of worries amongst adolescents with and without intellectual disabilities (IDs) at this time of change. Methods: Twenty-five adolescents with mild to…

  5. Economists, capitalists, and the making of globalization: North American free trade in comparative-historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Fairbrother, Malcolm

    2014-03-01

    Why did globalization happen? Current explanations point to a variety of conditions under which states have made the free market policy changes driving international economic integration since the 1980s. Such accounts disagree, however, about the key actors involved. This article provides a reconciliation, showing how two different combinations of actors, and two different political economic pathways, have led to globalization in recent decades. In developed countries, mobilization by business has been central; elsewhere, technocrats both constrained and empowered by international finance have pursued globalization more independently of business. In both contexts, economists' technical authority has helped legitimate liberalization, despite the limited diffusion of their ideas. The article validates and elaborates this model using a comparative-historical study of how the United States, Canada, and Mexico proposed, negotiated, and ratified agreements for free trade in North America. PMID:25097930

  6. A slippery slope: economists and social insurance in the United States.

    PubMed

    Du Boff, R B

    1997-01-01

    Since the 1980s welfare state protections have been blamed for a host of economic problems. In the United States, conservatives have always disliked Social Security but could not effectively attack this popular program until the 1980s, when they devised a new tactic--warning young people that they would never get their "money's worth" from Social Security, which is on the brink of "bankruptcy." The political climate, dominated by a drive to cut back "big government," also became favorable for attempts to destabilize Social Security politically. Thus, negative images of Social Security have been forced onto the public agenda, and economists who consider themselves "liberal" have uncritically accepted this new set of political "givens." It is an example of how they address "crises" as separable issues tied to no particular social context. PMID:9285273

  7. Round Table of Bankers, Economists and Financiers on Literacy; Final Report (Rome, Italy, February 11-13, 1969).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    A report on the Round Table of Bankers, Economists and Financiers on Literacy contains a brief summary of discussion, the eleven recommendations of the Round Table, and the opening address given by Mr. Rene Maheu, Director-General of Unesco. The consensus of the participants' opinions was that literacy is essential to development, that functional…

  8. Schizotypy--do not worry, it is not all worrisome.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Christine; Claridge, Gordon

    2015-03-01

    A long-standing tradition in personality research in psychology, and nowadays increasingly in psychiatry, is that psychotic and psychotic-like thoughts are considered common experiences in the general population. Given their widespread occurrence, such experiences cannot merely reflect pathological functioning. Moreover, reflecting the multi-dimensionality of schizotypy, some dimensions might be informative for healthy functioning while others less so. Here, we explored these possibilities by reviewing research that links schizotypy to favorable functioning such as subjective wellbeing, cognitive functioning (major focus on creativity), and personality correlates. This research highlights the existence of healthy people with psychotic-like traits who mainly experience positive schizotypy (but also affective features mapping onto bipolar disorder). These individuals seem to benefit from a healthy way to organize their thoughts and experiences, that is, they employ an adaptive cognitive framework to explain and integrate their unusual experiences. We conclude that, instead of focusing only on the pathological, future studies should explore the behavioral, genetic, imaging, and psychopharmacological correlates that define the healthy expression of psychotic-like traits. Such studies would inform on protective or compensatory mechanisms of psychosis-risk and could usefully inform us on the evolutionary advantages of the psychosis dimension. PMID:25810058

  9. Schizotypy—Do Not Worry, It Is Not All Worrisome

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, Christine; Claridge, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    A long-standing tradition in personality research in psychology, and nowadays increasingly in psychiatry, is that psychotic and psychotic-like thoughts are considered common experiences in the general population. Given their widespread occurrence, such experiences cannot merely reflect pathological functioning. Moreover, reflecting the multi-dimensionality of schizotypy, some dimensions might be informative for healthy functioning while others less so. Here, we explored these possibilities by reviewing research that links schizotypy to favorable functioning such as subjective wellbeing, cognitive functioning (major focus on creativity), and personality correlates. This research highlights the existence of healthy people with psychotic-like traits who mainly experience positive schizotypy (but also affective features mapping onto bipolar disorder). These individuals seem to benefit from a healthy way to organize their thoughts and experiences, that is, they employ an adaptive cognitive framework to explain and integrate their unusual experiences. We conclude that, instead of focusing only on the pathological, future studies should explore the behavioral, genetic, imaging, and psychopharmacological correlates that define the healthy expression of psychotic-like traits. Such studies would inform on protective or compensatory mechanisms of psychosis-risk and could usefully inform us on the evolutionary advantages of the psychosis dimension. PMID:25810058

  10. Differential contributions of worry, anxiety, and obsessive compulsive symptoms to ERN amplitudes in response monitoring and reinforcement learning tasks.

    PubMed

    Zambrano-Vazquez, Laura; Allen, John J B

    2014-08-01

    Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is characterized by intrusive thoughts (i.e. obsessions) and future-oriented worrisome cognitions that are associated with behavioral ritualistic compensations (i.e. compulsions) and anxious arousal. Research has found an enhanced error-related negativity (ERN) among those with OCD in choice response tasks such as the flankers task, but not in probabilistic learning tasks. To date, research has not directly investigated whether the ERN effect observed in individuals with OCD is specific to the central features of OCD (obsessions and compulsions), or is related more closely to the worry or anxiety observed in this disorder. This study compared groups with relatively pure symptom profiles on OC, worry, and anxiety symptoms (e.g. high on OC, low on worry and anxiety) relative to a "typical" OC presentation group (e.g. high OC, mild to high worry and anxiety) and a non-anxious non-worry Control group, in both flankers and probabilistic learning tasks. For the flankers task, only the Worry group had a significantly enhanced ERN relative to controls. For the probabilistic learning task, the OC typical group had significantly enhanced ERN amplitude on suboptimal choices relative to controls. Across tasks, the experimental groups had significantly enhanced activity on error/suboptimal choices relative to the OC specific group. The results highlight the role of worry across both tasks, and to a lesser extent anxiety and OC symptoms, in performance-monitoring processes. PMID:24971709

  11. Interest in information as a function of worry and perceived control in the aftermath of nuclear disaster.

    PubMed

    Prince-Embury, S; Rooney, J F

    1987-01-01

    A survey of residents in the vicinity of the Three Mile Island nuclear generating facility four years after the accident examined level of interest in cancer detection and treatment, radiation monitoring, and epidemiology of cancer as a function of degree of ongoing worry, perceived control and demographic variables. Interest in information was found to be related to worry for all three topics, indicating that residents who had higher degrees of worry were more interested in seeking information than avoiding it. Control expectancy was related to interest in information about epidemiological distribution of cancer. Implications for the dissemination of information in the aftermath of a disaster are discussed. PMID:20841181

  12. Sleep Paralysis Among Egyptian College Students: Association With Anxiety Symptoms (PTSD, Trait Anxiety, Pathological Worry).

    PubMed

    Jalal, Baland; Hinton, Devon E

    2015-11-01

    Among Egyptian college students in Cairo (n = 100), this study examined the relationship between sleep paralysis (SP) and anxiety symptoms, viz., posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), trait anxiety, and pathological worry. SP rates were high; 43% of participants reported at least one lifetime episode of SP, and 24% of those who reported at least one lifetime episode had experienced four or more episodes during the previous year. Fourteen percent of men had experienced SP as compared to 86% of women. As hypothesized, relative to non-SP experiencers, participants who had SP reported higher symptoms of PTSD, trait anxiety, and pathological worry. Also, as hypothesized, the experiencing of hypnogogic/hypnopompic hallucinations during SP, even after controlling for negative affect, was highly correlated with symptoms of PTSD and trait anxiety. The study also investigated possible mechanisms by examining the relationship of hallucinations to anxiety variables. PMID:26488914

  13. Worry is reasonable: the role of explanations in pessimism about future personal events.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, A K; Williams, J M; Bekerian, D A

    1991-11-01

    This experiment examines one component of worry, elevated subjective probabilities of negative events, and attempts to elucidate the cognitive processes on which this is based. The results suggest that the pessimistic subjective probabilities shown by chronic worriers can be understood using general theories of judgment, specifically, by the use of the availability heuristic (Tversky & Kahneman, 1973). However, it is the availability of a particular pattern of cognitions--an increased accessibility of explanations for why a negative event would occur, combined with a reduced accessibility of explanations for why it would not--that is important. The results are integrated within a description of the worry process, and possible clinical applications through the use of reason-generation techniques are discussed. PMID:1757661

  14. Trait susceptibility to worry modulates the effects of cognitive load on cognitive control: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Owens, Max; Derakshan, Nazanin; Richards, Anne

    2015-10-01

    According to the predictions of attentional control theory (ACT) of anxiety (Eysenck, Derakshan, Santos, & Calvo, 2007), worry is a central feature of anxiety that interferes with the ability to inhibit distracting information necessary for successful task performance. However, it is unclear how such cognitive control deficits are modulated by task demands and by the emotionality of the distractors. A sample of 31 participants (25 female) completed a novel flanker task with emotional and neutral distractors under low- and high-cognitive-load conditions. The negative-going N2 event-related potential was measured to index participants' level of top-down resource allocation in the inhibition of distractors under high- and low-load conditions. Results showed N2 amplitudes were larger under high- compared with low-load conditions. In addition, under high but not low load, trait worry was associated with greater N2 amplitudes. Our findings support ACT predictions that trait worry adversely affects goal-directed behavior, and is associated with greater recruitment of cognitive resources to inhibit the impact of distracting information under conditions in which cognitive resources are taxed. PMID:25775232

  15. Cancer Worry, Perceived Risk and Cancer Screening in First-Degree Relatives of Patients with Familial Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Jenny; Hart, Tae L; Aronson, Melyssa; Crangle, Cassandra; Govindarajan, Anand

    2016-06-01

    Currently, there is a lack of evidence evaluating the psychological impact of cancer-related risk perception and worry in individuals at high risk for gastric cancer. We examined the relationships between perceived risk, cancer worry and screening behaviors among first-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with familial gastric cancer. FDRs of patients diagnosed with familial gastric cancer with a non-informative genetic analysis were identified and contacted. Participants completed a telephone interview that assessed socio-demographic information, cancer risk perception, cancer worry, impact of worry on daily functioning, and screening behaviors. Twenty-five FDRs completed the telephone interview. Participants reported high levels of comparative and absolute cancer risk perception, with an average perceived lifetime risk of 54 %. On the other hand, cancer-related worry scores were low, with a significant minority (12 %) experiencing high levels of worry. Study participants exhibited high levels of confidence (median = 70 %) in the effectiveness of screening at detecting a curable cancer. Participants that had undergone screening in the past showed significantly lower levels of cancer-related worry compared to those that had never undergone screening. In conclusion, individuals at high-risk for gastric cancer perceived a very high personal risk of cancer, but reported low levels of cancer worry. This paradoxical result may be attributed to participants' high levels of confidence in the effectiveness of screening. These findings highlight the importance for clinicians to discuss realistic risk appraisals and expectations towards screening with unaffected members of families at risk for gastric cancer, in an effort to help mitigate anxiety and help with coping. PMID:26493173

  16. Worrying about wasting GP time as a barrier to help-seeking: a community-based, qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Cromme, Susanne K; Whitaker, Katriina L; Winstanley, Kelly; Renzi, Cristina; Smith, Claire Friedemann; Wardle, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Background Worrying about wasting GP time is frequently cited as a barrier to help-seeking for cancer symptoms. Aim To explore the circumstances under which individuals feel that they are wasting GP time. Design and setting Community-based, qualitative interview studies that took place in London, the South East and the North West of England. Method Interviewees (n = 62) were recruited from a sample (n = 2042) of adults aged ≥50 years, who completed a ‘health survey’ that included a list of cancer ‘alarm’ symptoms. Individuals who reported symptoms at baseline that were still present at the 3-month follow-up (n = 271), and who had also consented to be contacted (n = 215), constituted the pool of people invited for interview. Analyses focused on accounts of worrying about wasting GP time. Results Participants were worried about wasting GP time when time constraints were visible, while dismissive interactions with their GP induced a worry of unnecessary help-seeking. Many felt that symptoms that were not persistent, worsening, or life-threatening did not warrant GP attention. Additionally, patients considered it time-wasting when they perceived attention from nurses or pharmacists to be sufficient, or when appointment structures (for example, ‘one issue per visit’) were not adhered to. Close relationships with GPs eased worries about time-wasting, while some patients saw GPs as fulfilling a service financed by taxpayers. Conclusion Worrying about wasting GP time is a complex barrier to help-seeking. GP time and resource scarcity, symptom gravity, appointment etiquette, and previous GP interactions contribute to increasing worries. Friendly GP relationships, economic reasoning, and a focus on the GP’s responsibilities as a medical professional reduce this worry. PMID:27215569

  17. Work-related psychosocial factors, worry about work conditions and health complaints among female and male ambulance personnel.

    PubMed

    Aasa, Ulrika; Brulin, Christine; Angquist, Karl-Axel; Barnekow-Bergkvist, Margareta

    2005-09-01

    This study aimed at investigating the relationships between work-related psychosocial factors, worry about work conditions and health complaints (sleeping problems, headache and stomach symptoms) among female and male ambulance personnel. Out of 4000 ambulance personnel in Sweden, 1500 (300 female and 1200 male personnel) were randomly selected. They answered a questionnaire including items on self-reported health complaints, individual characteristics, work-related psychological demands, decision latitude, social support and worry about work conditions. Twenty-five per cent of the female and 20% of the male ambulance personnel reported two or more health complaints sometimes or often. According to the demand-control-support questionnaire, ambulance personnel reported a generally positive psychosocial work environment, although psychological demands were associated with sleeping problems, headache and stomach symptoms among both female and male ambulance personnel. Another factor that was significantly associated with health complaints among both genders was worry about work conditions. When worry about work conditions was added to the regression models, this variable took over the role from psychological demands as a predictor for health complaints among the female ambulance personnel. The prevalence of sleeping problems, headache and stomach symptoms were significantly associated with psychological demands among both female and male ambulance personnel. Notably, worry about work conditions seems to be an important risk factor for health complaints. This suggests that worry about work conditions should not be neglected when considering risk factors among ambulance personnel. PMID:16101853

  18. Climate of fear: Why we shouldn`t worry about global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, T.G.

    1998-04-01

    Most climate experts agree that industrial emissions of carbon dioxide either already have led or will soon lead to an increase in global temperatures. While many consider that reason enough to undertake dramatic political action, economist Thomas Gale Moore asks, `So what.` Both historical and economic analysis suggests, he argues, that a warmer climate would be, on balance, beneficial to both mankind and the environment. The book calls into question the entire campaign led by Vice President Al Gore and others to ratify the proposed treaty on global warming scheduled to be debated in the U.S. Senate early in 1998.

  19. Hidden Worries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reclaiming Children and Youth, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Sometimes children are stressed about seemingly small events that escalate into problem behavior. In this article, an insightful teacher discusses restoration of emotional balance by mobilizing positive support from both school and family using A Response Ability Pathways (RAP) intervention. The RAP techniques and how they can be used are…

  20. Fraud worries insurance companies but should concern physicians too, industry says

    PubMed Central

    Baer, N

    1997-01-01

    The amount of insurance fraud is increasing in Canada. This should worry physicians, because all personal-injury claims must be substantiated by a medical certificate. The vast majority of physicians are honest and ethical, fraud investigators say, but some are being duped as patients scheme to cheat the insurance industry. In one sensational auto-insurance-fraud case, some Ontario physicians are being investigated about possible involvement in a self-referral scheme. Nicole Baer looks at insurance fraud and the challenges it poses for doctors. PMID:9012734

  1. Unraveling the anxious mind: anxiety, worry, and frontal engagement in sustained attention versus off-task processing.

    PubMed

    Forster, Sophie; Nunez Elizalde, Anwar O; Castle, Elizabeth; Bishop, Sonia J

    2015-03-01

    Much remains unknown regarding the relationship between anxiety, worry, sustained attention, and frontal function. Here, we addressed this using a sustained attention task adapted for functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants responded to presentation of simple stimuli, withholding responses to an infrequent "No Go" stimulus. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activity to "Go" trials, and dorsal anterior cingulate (dACC) activity to "No Go" trials were associated with faster error-free performance; consistent with DLPFC and dACC facilitating proactive and reactive control, respectively. Trait anxiety was linked to reduced recruitment of these regions, slower error-free performance, and decreased frontal-thalamo-striatal connectivity. This indicates an association between trait anxiety and impoverished frontal control of attention, even when external distractors are absent. In task blocks where commission errors were made, greater DLPFC-precuneus and DLPFC-posterior cingulate connectivity were associated with both trait anxiety and worry, indicative of increased off-task thought. Notably, unlike trait anxiety, worry was not linked to reduced frontal-striatal-thalamo connectivity, impoverished frontal recruitment, or slowed responding during blocks without commission errors, contrary to accounts proposing a direct causal link between worry and impoverished attentional control. This leads us to propose a new model of the relationship between anxiety, worry and frontal engagement in attentional control versus off-task thought. PMID:24062316

  2. Somali immigrant women and the American health care system: discordant beliefs, divergent expectations, and silent worries.

    PubMed

    Pavlish, Carol Lynn; Noor, Sahra; Brandt, Joan

    2010-07-01

    The civil war in Somalia resulted in massive resettlement of Somali refugees. The largest diaspora of Somali refugees in the United States currently reside in Minnesota. Partnering with three community organizations in 2007-8, we implemented the Community Connections and Collaboration Project to address health disparities that Somali refugees experienced. Specifically, we examined factors that influenced Somali women's health experiences. Utilizing a socio-ecological perspective and a social action research design, we conducted six community-based focus groups with 57 Somali women and interviewed 11 key informants including Somali healthcare professionals. Inductively coding, sorting and reducing data into categories, we analyzed each category for specific patterns. The categorical findings on healthcare experiences are reported here. We found that Somali women's health beliefs related closely to situational factors and contrasted sharply with the biological model that drives Western medicine. These discordant health beliefs resulted in divergent expectations regarding treatment and healthcare interactions. Experiencing unmet expectations, Somali women and their healthcare providers reported multiple frustrations which often diminished perceived quality of health care. Moreover, silent worries about mental health and reproductive decision making surfaced. To provide high quality, transcultural health care, providers must encourage patients to voice their own health explanations, expectations, and worries. PMID:20494500

  3. Transport priorities, risk perception and worry associated with mode use and preferences among Norwegian commuters.

    PubMed

    Nordfjærn, Trond; Simşekoğlu, Özlem; Lind, Hans Brende; Jørgensen, Stig Halvard; Rundmo, Torbjørn

    2014-11-01

    There is currently scant research on the role of transport priorities, risk perception and worry for travel mode use and preferences. The present study aims to examine these factors in relation to mode use and preferences among Norwegian commuters. A web-based survey was conducted in a randomly obtained representative sample of daily commuters in the extended greater Oslo area (n=690). The results showed that those who prioritized efficiency and flexibility tended to commute by car, while those who prioritized safety and comfort used public (e.g. metro, tram, and train) or active (e.g. walking and cycling) transport. In a free choice scenario, the respondents who prioritized flexibility reported a preference for using a car, whereas those who prioritized safety and comfort preferred public and active transport for their commuter travels. Risk perception of high impact events, such as terrorism and major accidents, as well as risk perception related to personal impact risks (theft, violence etc.) were related to car use on commuter travels. Transport-related worry exerted weak influences on mode use and preferences. Increased speed on rail transport and more frequent departures may be effective in reducing car use on commuter travels. Risk communication should focus on highlighting the low risk of experiencing security and safety issues in the public transport sector, and this message should be complemented by efforts to reduce the probability of negative events affecting public transport. PMID:25129446

  4. Teachers' use of fear appeals in the mathematics classroom: worrying or motivating students?

    PubMed

    Putwain, David W; Symes, Wendy

    2011-09-01

    AIM. This study examined whether teachers' use of fear appeals in the classroom, attempts to motivate students to perform well in high-stakes examinations by highlighting the educational, and/or occupational consequences of failure did indeed motivate students or whether it contributed to an increase in worry, anxiety, and fear of failure. SAMPLE. A total of 132 secondary school students. METHOD. Self-report data were collected for teachers' use of fear appeals, test anxiety, and achievement goals in the context of Mathematics at the end of Years 10 and 11, the final 2 years of compulsory schooling. RESULTS. The frequency with which teachers were reported to make fear appeals was unrelated to future test anxiety and achievement goals. When fear appeals were perceived to be threatening, however, they were related to an increase in the worry and tension components of test anxiety and increases in performance-avoidance and mastery-approach goals. CONCLUSION. Fear appeals appear to have competing positive and negative outcomes, resulting in both anxiety and a fear of failure, and a mastery-approach goal. PMID:21199486

  5. "Don't worry, be happy"--may be a first line therapy in cardiovascular diseases?

    PubMed

    Bălan, H; Popescu, Livia

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases represent the most frequent type of pathology nowadays. One can consider that their high prevalence is generated by an unhealthy living style, by the increasing prevalence of all kind of metabolic abnormalities, by smoking and other bad habits, but we must not forget the role of stress. The present paper highlights the fact that a pathophysiological link between stress, adverse affect and poor quality of sleep and cardiovascular diseases is represented by the sympathetic overdrive. As opposite, positive affect can offer a significant protection against pro-atherogenic effects that are generating a significant increase of the prevalence and severity of cardiovascular diseases. Finally, the present paper underlines the deleterious cardiovascular effects of antidepressive and antipsychotic drugs, so that the final conclusion is: "Don't worry, be happy" and have positive thoughts for a healthier future. PMID:24294809

  6. The m-z relation for Type Ia supernovae: safety in numbers or safely without worry?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helbig, Phillip

    2015-11-01

    The m-z relation for Type Ia supernovae is compatible with the cosmological concordance model if one assumes that the Universe is homogeneous, at least with respect to light propagation. This could be due to the density along each line of sight being equal to the overall cosmological density, or to `safety in numbers', with variation in the density along all lines of sight averaging out if the sample is large enough. Statistical correlations (or lack thereof) between redshifts, residuals (differences between the observed distance moduli and those calculated from the best-fitting cosmological model), and observational uncertainties suggest that the former scenario is the better description, so that one can use the traditional formula for the luminosity distance safely without worry.

  7. Worrying about the wrong thing: patient mobility versus mobility of health care professionals.

    PubMed

    Glinos, Irene

    2012-10-01

    Patients and health care professionals in the European Union (EU) benefit from legislation on the freedom of movement between Member States. In relative terms, many more doctors and nurses move within the EU than patients. Despite this, patient mobility has attracted more attention from policy-makers and the public while workforce mobility remains largely ignored. This is paradoxical and imprudent. On the one hand, the scope of patient mobility is narrow and self-limited. On the other hand, current and forecasted health care workforce shortages across the EU, global competition for health care professionals, and current economic pressures are all good reasons to start worrying about the mobility of health care professionals and its implications for health systems. PMID:22914545

  8. Effects of cost sharing on physiological health, health practices, and worry.

    PubMed Central

    Keeler, E B; Sloss, E M; Brook, R H; Operskalski, B H; Goldberg, G A; Newhouse, J P

    1987-01-01

    In a randomized trial of the effects of medical insurance on spending and the health status of the nonaged, we previously reported that patients with limited cost sharing had approximately one-third less use of medical services, similar general self-assessed health, and worse blood pressure, functional far vision, and dental health than those with free care. Of the 20 additional measures of physiological health studied here on 3,565 adults, people with cost sharing scored better on 12 measures and significantly worse only for functional near vision. People with cost sharing had less worry and pain from physiological conditions on 33 of 44 comparisons. There were no significant differences between plans in nine health practices, but those with cost sharing fared worse on three types of cancer screening and better on weight, exercise, and drinking. Overall, except for patients with hypertension or vision problems, the effects of cost sharing on health were minor. PMID:3119520

  9. Youth Supervision While Mothers Work: A Daily Diary Study of Maternal Worry

    PubMed Central

    Blocklin, Michelle K.; Crouter, Ann C.; McHale, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Using data from a daily diary study of hourly hotel employees in the U.S. and their children, this study examined links between youth supervision arrangements and maternal worry while at work, examining both differences between individuals and day-to-day variation within individuals. Multilevel model analyses revealed both between- and within-person effects linking youth supervision to maternal worry. Mothers' partner status functioned as moderator, and maternal knowledge also emerged as a protective factor when youth were in self-care, highlighting a potential target for future work-family interventions, particularly those for hourly employees with limited access to family-friendly workplace policies. En utilisant les données d'une étude de journal quotidien des employés horaires de l'hôtel aux États-Unis et leurs enfants, cette étude a examiné les liens entre les modalités de supervision des jeunes et l'inquiétude maternelle pendant le travail, en examinant à la fois les différences inter individus et la variation intra individus au jour le jour. Analyses multi-niveaux ont révélé à la fois des effets inter et intra reliant la supervision des jeunes à l'inquiétude maternelle. Statut de partenaire des mères a fonctionné en tant que modérateur, et la connaissance maternelle est également apparue comme un facteur de protection lorsque les jeunes ont pris soins d'eux-mêmes, soulignant une cible potentielle pour des interventions de conciliation travail-famille, en particulier ceux conçus pour des employés horaires avec un accès limité à des politiques favorables à la famille. PMID:23109814

  10. Early Adolescent Attachment to Parents, Emotional Problems, and Teacher-Academic Worries about the Middle School Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duchesne, Stephane; Ratelle, Catherine F.; Poitras, Sarah-Caroline; Drouin, Evelyne

    2009-01-01

    This study examines how attachment to mother and father predicts worries about academic demands and relationships with teachers generated by the transition from elementary to middle school through its contribution to adolescents' emotional problems (depression and anxiety). The study sample includes 626 young adolescents (289 boys and 337 girls)…

  11. Relations among Perceived Control over Anxiety-Related Events, Worry, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder in a Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frala, Jamie L.; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W.; Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Barreto, Carolina C.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations among perceived control over anxiety-related events, worry, and both symptoms and diagnoses of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). The sample was comprised of 140 adolescents (60 girls) between the ages of 10 and 17 years (M[subscript age] = 14.6 years; SD = 2.25) recruited from the general community. Findings…

  12. Anxiety and Depression in Academic Performance: An Exploration of the Mediating Factors of Worry and Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Matthew; Stevenson, Jim; Hadwin, Julie A.; Norgate, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety and depression are linked to lower academic performance. It is proposed that academic performance is reduced in young people with high levels of anxiety or depression as a function of increased test-specific worry that impinges on working memory central executive processes. Participants were typically developing children (12 to…

  13. Do You Know How I Feel? Parents Underestimate Worry and Overestimate Optimism Compared to Child Self-Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagattuta, Kristin Hansen; Sayfan, Liat; Bamford, Christi

    2012-01-01

    Three studies assessed parent-child agreement in perceptions of children's everyday emotions in typically developing 4- to 11-year-old children. Study 1 (N = 228) and Study 2 (N = 195) focused on children's worry and anxiety. Study 3 (N = 90) examined children's optimism. Despite child and parent reporters providing internally consistent…

  14. Psychometric properties of a brief version of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire in African Americans and European Americans.

    PubMed

    DeLapp, Ryan C T; Chapman, L Kevin; Williams, Monnica T

    2016-05-01

    The reliable and valid assessment of chronic worry in African Americans is vital when attempting to draw cross-cultural comparisons between African Americans and other ethnic groups. As such, the current study examined the psychometric properties of a brief version of a gold standard assessment of chronic worry, specifically the Penn State Worry Questionnaire-Abbreviated (PSWQ-A; Hopko et al., 2003) in a college sample of African Americans (n = 100) and European Americans (n = 121). Results indicated that the PSWQ-A total score has good internal consistency and convergent validity with another measure of anxiety, but less than favorable discriminant validity with a measure of depression in African American and European American students. Also, the 1-factor solution for the 8-item PSWQ-A had excellent model fit in our full sample and was partially invariant between ethnic groups. Collectively, the present study provides evidence that the PSWQ-A is a psychometrically sound option for assessing chronic worry and suggests that this brief measure may enhance the time efficiency and clinical utility of research and clinical assessments in ethnically diverse samples. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26375429

  15. What keeps low-SES children from sleeping well: the role of presleep worries and sleep environment

    PubMed Central

    Bagley, Erika J.; Kelly, Ryan J.; Buckhalt, Joseph A.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Children in families of low socioeconomic status (SES) have been found to have poor sleep, yet the reasons for this finding are unclear. Two possible mediators, presleep worries and home environment conditions, were investigated as indirect pathways between SES and children’s sleep. Participants/Methods The participants consisted of 271 children (M (age) = 11.33 years; standard deviation (SD) = 7.74 months) from families varying in SES as indexed by the income-to-needs ratio. Sleep was assessed with actigraphy (sleep minutes, night waking duration, and variability in sleep schedule) and child self-reported sleep/wake problems (e.g., oversleeping and trouble falling asleep) and sleepiness (e.g., sleeping in class and falling asleep while doing homework). Presleep worries and home environment conditions were assessed with questionnaires. Results Lower SES was associated with more subjective sleep/wake problems and daytime sleepiness, and increased exposure to disruptive sleep conditions and greater presleep worries were mediators of these associations. In addition, environmental conditions served as an intervening variable linking SES to variability in an actigraphy-derived sleep schedule, and, similarly, presleep worry was an intervening variable linking SES to actigraphy-based night waking duration. Across sleep parameters, the model explained 5–29% of variance. Conclusions Sleep environment and psychological factors are associated with socioeconomic disparities, which affect children’s sleep. PMID:25701537

  16. Smoking-Specific Experiential Avoidance is Indirectly Associated with Trait Worry and Smoking Processes among Treatment-Seeking Smokers.

    PubMed

    Farris, Samantha G; Zvolensky, Michael J; Norton, Peter J; Hogan, Julianna; Smith, Angela H; Talkovsky, Alexander M; Garey, Lorra; Schmidt, Norman B

    2016-01-01

    Limited work has examined worry, or apprehensive anticipation about future negative events, in terms of smoking. One potential explanatory factor is the tendency to respond inflexibly and with avoidance in the presence of smoking-related distress (smoking-specific experiential avoidance). Participants (n = 465) were treatment-seeking daily smokers. Cross-sectional (pre-treatment) self-report data were utilized to assess trait worry, smoking-specific experiential avoidance, and four smoking criterion variables: nicotine dependence, motivational aspects of quitting, perceived barriers to smoking cessation, and severity of problematic symptoms reported in past quit attempts. Trait worry was significantly associated with greater levels of nicotine dependence, motivation to quit smoking, perceived barriers for smoking cessation, and more severe problems while quitting in the past; associations occurred indirectly through higher levels of smoking-specific experiential avoidance. Findings provide initial support for the potential role of smoking-specific experiential avoidance in explaining the association between trait worry and a variety of smoking processes. PMID:25398072

  17. Physician trust moderates the relationship between intolerance of uncertainty and cancer worry interference among women with Lynch syndrome.

    PubMed

    Torbit, Lindsey A; Albiani, Jenna J; Aronson, Melyssa; Holter, Spring; Semotiuk, Kara; Cohen, Zane; Hart, Tae L

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the extent to which intolerance of uncertainty was associated with cancer worry interference, anxiety and depression among women with Lynch syndrome (LS), and whether having greater trust in one's physician moderated those relationships. Women with confirmed LS (N = 128) were recruited from a high-risk of cancer registry and completed a one-time self-report questionnaire. Women who reported greater intolerance of uncertainty and more trust in their physician reported less cancer worry interference compared to women who had greater intolerance of uncertainty and less trust in their physician, who reported the highest worry interference, b = -1.39, t(99) = -2.27, p = .03. No moderation effect of trust in physician was found for anxiety or depression. Trust in one's physician buffered the impact of high intolerance of uncertainty on cancer worry interference, underscoring the need for supportive provider-patient relationships, particularly for LS patients. PMID:26762124

  18. A Social Relations Analysis of Liking for and by Peers: Associations with Gender, Depression, Peer Perception, and Worry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.; Waters, Allison M.; Kindermann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We used social relations modeling (SRM; mixed modeling and SOREMO) to examine liking among peers ("affective preferences") in relation to gender and socioemotional problems. Participants (N = 278, age 10 to 13) rated how much they liked each other and reported depressive symptoms, negative beliefs, and social worries. Boys and girls were equally…

  19. Effects of Population Change on Family Life and the Child: Implications for Home Economics Programs in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okobiah, Omamurhomu Solomon

    1981-01-01

    Outlines some of the population-related factors and effects upon the family and child. Because of their vested interests and wealth of experience in family life, home economists are challenged to take the lead in planning and providing curriculum materials, and to promote population education in the schools. (Author)

  20. Prospects for Rural America as the Nation Matures: An Agricultural Economist's Prognosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breimyer, Harold F.

    1990-01-01

    Examines socioeconomic forces affecting U.S. rural population. Describes signs of nation's maturity, changing national issues, and elements of rural diversity and social stratification. Discusses role of transportation, demise of animal agriculture, industrial and economic changes. Emphasizes conjectural nature of conclusions about society's…

  1. Rural America's Stake in the Digital Economy. The Main Street Economist: Commentary on the Rural Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staihr, Brian

    This first article in a series on telecommunications in rural America provides an overview of several key telecommunication issues facing rural regions. High speed data services known as broadband have the potential to make rural areas less isolated and improve the rural quality of life, but physical barriers, sparse population density, and few…

  2. The Broadband Quandary for Rural America. The Main Street Economist: Commentary on the Rural Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staihr, Brian

    High speed data services known as broadband have the potential to make rural areas less isolated and improve the rural quality of life, but physical barriers, sparse population density, and few markets present significant obstacles to their deployment in rural areas. Broadband applications such as e-commerce, distance education, and telemedicine…

  3. Superior perception of phasic physiological arousal and the detrimental consequences of the conviction to be aroused on worrying and metacognitions in GAD.

    PubMed

    Andor, Tanja; Gerlach, Alexander L; Rist, Fred

    2008-02-01

    Although people suffering from generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) often report arousal symptoms, psychophysiological studies show no evidence of autonomic hyperarousal. Hypersensitivity toward and catastrophic interpretation of phasic arousal cues may explain this discrepancy. The authors tested (a) whether GAD sufferers perceive nonspecific skin conductance fluctuations (NSCFs), an indicator of phasic autonomic arousal, better than controls do and (b) whether the conviction to be aroused contributes to the maintenance of worrying and metacognitive beliefs about worrying. Thirty-three GAD sufferers and 34 healthy controls participated in 2 experiments. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to detect their own NSCFs during a signal detection task. GAD sufferers accurately detected more of their NSCFs than did controls, who tended to miss NSCFs. In Experiment 2, participants were instructed to relax following worry induction. While relaxing, they received nonveridical feedback indicating either arousal or relaxation. Arousal feedback conserved negative metacognitive beliefs regarding worrying and also maintained negative mood and worry exclusively in GAD participants. These findings suggest that superior perception of phasic arousal cues and their catastrophic misinterpretation increases worrying, negative metacognitive beliefs about worrying, and anxious mood in GAD. PMID:18266497

  4. Participatory monitoring of water levels with worrying citizens in a recreational area in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottow, Bouke; Ellen, Gerald Jan

    2013-04-01

    In the recreational area of Loosdrecht, the water board decided to apply flexible water level management: letting the water level be determined by rainfall and evatranspiration between predefined limits. This caused the citizens to worry for the wooden foundations of their houses and possible limitations of the possibilities for water recreation. This eventually lead to lawsuits by private citizens, interest groups and the municipality against the water manager. In this tense situation we started with participatory monitoring: placing water level instruments at the properties of those citizens that wanted to participate in the measuring. 15 citizens participated, including the ones that filed the lawsuits. At all of these sites the water level was gauged automatically. 8 of the citizens also measured the water level by hand with devices supplied to them by the water manager. During 1 year, all the measurements were collected and processed and discussed with the citizens in 2 meetings. At the end of this year, the the citizens expressed the growth of their understanding of the hydrological situation, the understanding of the different points of view and their trust in eachother.

  5. The association of ownership type with job insecurity and worry about job stability: the moderating effects of fair management, positive leadership, and employment type.

    PubMed

    Heponiemi, Tarja; Elovainio, Marko; Kouvonen, Anne; Noro, Anja; Finne-Soveri, Harriet; Sinervo, Timo

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether the ownership type is associated with job insecurity and worry about job stability and whether the type of employment contract, positive leadership, and fair management moderated these associations. Survey data from 1249 Finnish female elderly care staff aged 18 to 69 years were used. Job insecurity and worry about job stability were highest in not-for-profit sheltered homes. However, positive leadership and fair management were able to mitigate this insecurity and worry. Job insecurity was highest among fixed-term employees in public sheltered homes or not-for-profit nursing homes. Thus, promoting good leadership and fair management would be of importance. PMID:22293609

  6. The Influence of Absolute and Comparative Risk Perceptions on Cervical Cancer Screening and the Mediating Role of Cancer Worry.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xinyan; Nan, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates the interrelationships between cancer risk perceptions (absolute and comparative risk perceptions), cancer worry, and cervical cancer screening. Using a nationally representative survey data set (N = 2,304) from the 2012 Health Information National Trends Survey Circle 1, we found that although neither absolute risk perceptions nor comparative risk perceptions exerted a direct impact on women's compliance with the cervical cancer screening recommendation (i.e., that women ages 21 to 65 obtain Pap smear every 3 years; U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, 2012 ), both types of risk perceptions had an indirect effect on cervical cancer screening through the mediation of cancer worry. These results suggest a primal role of affect in health decision making. Implications of the findings for cancer risk communication are discussed. PMID:26312444

  7. Worry and Generalized Anxiety Disorder: A Review and Theoretical Synthesis of Evidence on Nature, Etiology, Mechanisms, and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Michelle G.; Llera, Sandra J.; Erickson, Thane M.; Przeworski, Amy; Castonguay, Louis G.

    2016-01-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is associated with substantial personal and societal cost yet is the least successfully treated of the anxiety disorders. In this review, research on clinical features, boundary issues, and naturalistic course, as well as risk factors and maintaining mechanisms (cognitive, biological, neural, interpersonal, and developmental), are presented. A synthesis of these data points to a central role of emotional hyperreactivity, sensitivity to contrasting emotions, and dysfunctional attempts to cope with strong emotional shifts via worry. Consistent with the Contrast Avoidance model, evidence shows that worry evokes and sustains negative affect, thereby precluding sharp increases in negative emotion. We also review current treatment paradigms and suggest how the Contrast Avoidance model may help to target key fears and avoidance tendencies that serve to maintain pathology in GAD. PMID:23537486

  8. Relationship between Beliefs, Motivation and Worries about Physical Activity and Physical Activity Participation in Persons with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Ehrlich-Jones, Linda; Lee, Jungwha; Semanik, Pamela; Cox, Cheryl; Dunlop, Dorothy; Chang, Rowland W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship between beliefs, motivation, and worries about physical activity and physical activity participation in persons with rheumatoid arthritis. Methods A cross-sectional study used baseline data from 185 adults with rheumatoid arthritis enrolled in a randomized clinical trial assessing the effectiveness of an intervention to promote physical activity. Data included patients’ self-reported beliefs that physical activity can be beneficial for their disease, motivation for physical activity participation, worries about physical activity participation, and average daily accelerometer counts of activity over a week’s time. Body mass index, gender, age, race, and disease activity were measured as potential statistical moderators of physical activity. Results Physical activity participation was greater for those with higher scores on scales measuring beliefs that physical activity is beneficial for their disease (p for trend= 0.032) and motivation for physical activity participation (p for trend= 0.007) when adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, race, and disease activity. There was a positive but non-significant trend in physical activity participation in relation to worries. Conclusion Stronger beliefs that physical activity can be helpful for managing disease and increased motivation to engage in physical activity are related to higher levels of physical activity participation. These data provide a preliminary empiric rationale for why interventions targeting these concepts should lead to improved physical activity participation in adults with rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:21905252

  9. The interaction of affective with psychotic processes: a test of the effects of worrying on working memory, jumping to conclusions, and anomalies of experience in patients with persecutory delusions.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Daniel; Startup, Helen; Dunn, Graham; Černis, Emma; Wingham, Gail; Pugh, Katherine; Cordwell, Jacinta; Kingdon, David

    2013-12-01

    Worry has traditionally been considered in the study of common emotional disorders such as anxiety and depression, but recent studies indicate that worry may be a causal factor in the occurrence and persistence of persecutory delusions. The effect of worry on processes traditionally associated with psychosis has not been tested. The aim of the study was to examine the short-term effects of a bout of worry on three cognitive processes typically considered markers of psychosis: working memory, jumping to conclusions, and anomalous internal experience. Sixty-seven patients with persecutory delusions in the context of a non-affective psychotic disorder were randomised to a worry induction, a worry reduction, or a neutral control condition. They completed tests of the cognitive processes before and after the randomisation condition. The worry induction procedure led to a significant increase in worry. The induction of worry did not affect working memory or jumping to conclusions, but it did increase a range of mild anomalous experiences including feelings of unreality, perceptual alterations, and temporal disintegration. Worry did not affect the occurrence of hallucinations. The study shows that a period of worry causes a range of subtle odd perceptual disturbances that are known to increase the likelihood of delusions. It demonstrates an interaction between affective and psychotic processes in patients with delusions. PMID:23871449

  10. Interpretability of the PedsQL gastrointestinal symptoms scales and gastrointestinal worry scales in pediatric patients with functional and organic gastrointestinal diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study investigates the clinical interpretability of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventor (PedsQL) Gastrointestinal Symptoms Scales and Worry Scales in pediatric patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders or organic gastrointestinal diseases in comparison with healthy controls....

  11. Energy efficiency and the economists: The case for a policy based on economic principles

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.

    1995-11-01

    People interested in energy policy, whether in business, finance, government, or the environmental movement, should welcome and support an approach based on economic principles for three reasons. By solving the financing problem and encouraging innovation and cost-efficiency, the economic-efficiency approach will enable all countries to meet energy demands. By giving proper weight to the development and use of low-polluting technologies this approach will enable reduction of local and, over the long-term global pollution as energy demands grow. And in developing countries especially, an economic approach will enable the industry to play its part in raising living standards for the population at large. Given good policies, there is no reason at all why developing countries, like the industrial countries before them, should not enjoy the benefits of much higher levels of energy consumption than they do today.

  12. Exploring the relationship between worry and impulsivity in military recruits: the role of mindfulness and self-compassion as potential mediators.

    PubMed

    Mantzios, Michail

    2014-12-01

    When military recruits cannot tolerate the stressful environment in the military, they typically become more impulsive. Impulsivity serves to avoid the stress, or, in other words, to release the pressure and cope. Becoming more impulsive, however, is related to damaging behaviours and unsuccessful coping. This research explored the relationship between worry and impulsivity in armed forces, and the possibility of mindfulness and self-compassion mediating this relationship. Participants (n = 166), who were in the second week of their basic military training, completed questionnaires in mindfulness, self-compassion, worry and impulsivity. Results indicated that worry related positively to impulsivity. Further, the negative relationship of worry with mindfulness and self-compassion mediated the relationship between worry and impulsivity. Findings support the notion that lacking mindfulness and self-compassion, in excessive worriers, may lead to impulsivity. This research concluded that mindfulness and self-compassion may assist military personnel who are exposed to highly stressful environments. Alternative explanations and future directions are discussed. PMID:25476964

  13. The effects of providing lung age and respiratory symptoms feedback on community college smokers' perceived smoking-related health risks, worries and desire to quit.

    PubMed

    Lipkus, Isaac M; Prokhorov, Alexander V

    2007-03-01

    This study examined the effects of providing lung age, as assessed via a lung function test (spirometry), and respiratory symptoms feedback on college smokers' perceived smoking-related risks, worries and desire to quit. We also investigated whether smokers reacted defensively to this feedback. One hundred and twenty-four smokers were randomized to either receive lung age and respiratory symptoms feedback (intervention group) or a brochure containing facts about smoking only (control group). Perceived risks, worries and desire to quit did not differ between groups. In both groups, worries, but not perceived risks, were correlated with a stronger desire to quit. With increasing lung age, smokers rated the feedback as less relevant and reported exerting less effort breathing in and out while undergoing spirometry. The latter two outcomes were associated with less worry. These findings suggest that lung age and respiratory symptoms feedback does not translate readily into appreciable changes in motivation to quit as well as do other often reported mediators of change (e.g., perceived risks and worries). PMID:16824688

  14. Pathways involving traumatic losses, worry about family, adult separation anxiety and posttraumatic stress symptoms amongst refugees from West Papua.

    PubMed

    Tay, Alvin Kuowei; Rees, Susan; Chen, Jack; Kareth, Moses; Silove, Derrick

    2015-10-01

    There is some evidence that adult separation anxiety disorder (ASAD) symptoms are closely associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) amongst refugees exposed to traumatic events (TEs), but the pathways involved remain to be elucidated. A recent study suggests that separation anxiety disorder precedes and predicts onset of PTSD. We examined a path model testing whether ASAD symptoms and worry about family mediated the path from traumatic losses to PTSD symptoms amongst 230 refugees from West Papua. Culturally adapted measures were applied to assess TE exposure and symptoms of ASAD and PTSD. A structural equation model indicated that ASAD symptoms played an important role in mediating the effects of traumatic losses and worry about family in the pathway to PTSD symptoms. Although based on cross-sectional data, our findings suggest that ASAD symptoms may play a role in the path from traumatic losses to PTSD amongst refugees. We propose an evolutionary model in which the ASAD and PTSD reactions represent complementary survival responses designed to protect the individual and close attachments from external threats. PMID:26275507

  15. Sexual sensation-seeking and worry about sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Martínez, Olga; Bermúdez, María Paz; Teva, Inmaculada; Buela-Casal, Gualberto

    2007-11-01

    The target of this study is to assess the relationship between sexual sensation-seeking, worry about STD/HIV infection, and risky sexual behaviours among 182 adolescents aged 13-18 years. Results showed that participants who engaged in a wider range of potentially risky behaviours (e.g., sexual experience, higher number of sexual partners in last six months, and the last sexual contact with a casual partner) obtained higher sensation-seeking scores. It was also found that adolescents who engaged in sex with a casual partner in their last sexual contact reported being worried about STD/HIV infection, but adolescents having sex with a steady partner underestimated their risk of STD/HIV infection. These results support the idea that preventive programmes may benefit from including components aimed at teaching adolescents to satisfy their preferences for sexual sensation-seeking through novel and stimulating sexual behaviours involving minimum risk. Similarly, the need to include components aimed at making adolescents become realistically aware of the STD/HIV risk involved in unprotected intercourse with steady love partners is highlighted. PMID:17959123

  16. Terrorism-Related Fear and Avoidance Behavior in a Multiethnic Urban Population

    PubMed Central

    Glik, Deborah; Ong, Michael; Zhou, Qiong; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Long, Anna; Fielding, Jonathan; Asch, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine whether groups traditionally most vulnerable to disasters would be more likely than would be others to perceive population-level risk as high (as measured by the estimated color-coded alert level) would worry more about terrorism, and would avoid activities because of terrorism concerns. Methods. We conducted a random digit dial survey of the Los Angeles County population October 2004 through January 2005 in 6 languages. We asked respondents what color alert level the country was under, how often they worry about terrorist attacks, and how often they avoid activities because of terrorism. Multivariate regression modeled correlates of worry and avoidance, including mental illness, disability, demographic factors, and estimated color-coded alert level. Results. Persons who are mentally ill, those who are disabled, African Americans, Latinos, Chinese Americans, Korean Americans, and non-US citizens were more likely to perceive population-level risk as high, as measured by the estimated color-coded alert level. These groups also reported more worry and avoidance behaviors because of concerns about terrorism. Conclusions. Vulnerable populations experience a disproportionate burden of the psychosocial impact of terrorism threats and our national response. Further studies should investigate the specific behaviors affected and further elucidate disparities in the disaster burden associated with terrorism and terrorism policies. PMID:19008521

  17. Energy Efficient Economists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Judy; Lamp, Nancy

    This interdisciplinary economics project helped first and second graders learn how to conserve energy and save money. The project started because of an announcement by the elementary school principal that, if school utility bills could be lowered, the Board of Education would give the school half the money saved. Students were first introduced to…

  18. Strange bedfellows: A Russian prince, A Scottish Economist, and the role of empathy in early theories for the evolution of cooperation.

    PubMed

    Dugatkin, Lee Alan

    2013-11-01

    From 1888 to his death in 1921, Russian Prince Peter Kropotkin forced biologists to ask themselves whether natural selection inevitably led to a dog-eat-dog world, or whether pro-social behavior could also be a product of the evolutionary process. In this historical vignette, I focus on Kropotkin's theory of "mutual aid," with emphasis on the role that empathy played in that theory, and the unexpected source--economist Adam Smith's 1759 book, The Theory of Moral Sentiments--of Kropotkin's ideas on empathy in animals. PMID:23847042

  19. Providing Preoperative Information for Children Undergoing Surgery: A Randomized Study Testing Different Types of Educational Material to Reduce Children's Preoperative Worries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandes, S. C.; Arriaga, P.; Esteves, F.

    2014-01-01

    This study developed three types of educational preoperative materials and examined their efficacy in preparing children for surgery by analysing children's preoperative worries and parental anxiety. The sample was recruited from three hospitals in Lisbon and consisted of 125 children, aged 8-12 years, scheduled to undergo outpatient surgery.…

  20. Ethnicity, Effort, Self-Efficacy, Worry, and Statistics Achievement in Malaysia: A Construct Validation of the State-Trait Motivation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awang-Hashim, Rosa; O'Neil, Harold F., Jr.; Hocevar, Dennis

    2002-01-01

    The relations between motivational constructs, effort, self-efficacy and worry, and statistics achievement were investigated in a sample of 360 undergraduates in Malaysia. Both trait (cross-situational) and state (task-specific) measures of each construct were used to test a mediational trait (r) state (r) performance (TSP) model. As hypothesized,…

  1. The Application of the Things I Worry about Scale to a Sample of At-Risk American Adolescents: An Examination of Psychometric Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esters, Irvin G.; Tracey, Anne; Millar, Rob

    2007-01-01

    To date, published studies regarding the Things I Worry About Scale have been conducted exclusively in Northern Ireland and have included relatively homogeneous samples of students. The present study reexamined the psychometric properties of the scale using data collected from a sample of at-risk adolescents in the United States. The factor…

  2. A little uncertainty goes a long way: state and trait differences in uncertainty interact to increase information seeking but also increase worry.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Natalie O; Knäuper, Bärbel

    2009-04-01

    This study examines the effect of an interaction between intolerance of uncertainty (IU) and situational uncertainty (SU) on worry due to uncertainty and on information seeking. Health providers may benefit from knowing when communicating uncertain information is beneficial. The study was a 2 (IU condition: high vs. low) x 2 (SU condition: high vs. low) experimental design resulting in four conditions to which university students (N = 153) were randomly assigned. IU was manipulated through a linguistic manipulation of responses to an IU questionnaire coupled with written false feedback. SU was manipulated by modifying the information participants read about a fictitious infection. Individuals in the high IU and high SU condition sought the most information and worried most due to uncertainty compared to people in the low IU and low SU condition, who sought the least information and worried least. Findings suggest that high IU may increase positive health behaviors such as screening intentions when individuals are faced with an uncertain health threat, but that it also increases worries due to that uncertainty. Providing opportunities for discussing one's emotional response to uncertainty and providing instrumental support for managing uncertainty (e.g., booking the follow-up appointment) is essential when communicating uncertain information. PMID:19415555

  3. PedsQL gastrointestinal symptoms scales and gastrointestinal worry scales in pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease in comparison with healthy controls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Patient-reported outcomes are essential in determining the broad impact of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and treatments from the patient's perspective. The primary study objectives were to compare the gastrointestinal symptoms and worry of pediatric patients with IBD with matched healthy controls...

  4. Having mentors and campus social networks moderates the impact of worries and video gaming on depressive symptoms: a moderated mediation analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Easy access to the internet has spawned a wealth of research to investigate the effects of its use on depression. However, one limitation of many previous studies is that they disregard the interactive mechanisms of risk and protective factors. The aim of the present study was to investigate a resilience model in the relationship between worry, daily internet video game playing, daily sleep duration, mentors, social networks and depression, using a moderated mediation analysis. Methods 6068 Korean undergraduate and graduate students participated in this study. The participants completed a web-based mental health screening questionnaire including the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and information about number of worries, number of mentors, number of campus social networks, daily sleep duration, daily amount of internet video game playing and daily amount of internet searching on computer or smartphone. A moderated mediation analysis was carried out using the PROCESS macro which allowed the inclusion of mediators and moderator in the same model. Results The results showed that the daily amount of internet video game playing and daily sleep duration partially mediated the association between the number of worries and the severity of depression. In addition, the mediating effect of the daily amount of internet video game playing was moderated by both the number of mentors and the number of campus social networks. Conclusions The current findings indicate that the negative impact of worry on depression through internet video game playing can be buffered when students seek to have a number of mentors and campus social networks. Interventions should therefore target individuals who have higher number of worries but seek only a few mentors or campus social networks. Social support via campus mentorship and social networks ameliorate the severity of depression in university students. PMID:24884864

  5. The role of cues, self-efficacy, level of worry, and high-risk behaviors in college student condom use.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, C A

    1995-01-01

    A sample of 879 undergraduate students were recruited from a public university in western New York state during the 1993-94 academic year in order to study condom use among sexually active young people 18-24 years old. A 104-item questionnaire was administered consisting of 5 instruments and single-item measures of sexual behavior and demographics. The instruments were: the Condom Use Self-Efficacy Scale (CUSES), the Perceived Barriers to Condom Use, the Perceived Susceptibility to HIV/AIDS and other STDs, the Cues to Condom Action Scale, and the Perceived Norms scale. 92% of students reported having had sexual intercourse in the past, while 86.75 reported having sexual intercourse in the previous year. About 61% reported having 1 sex partner in the previous 12 months, whereas 35.2% reported having 3 or more partners. 22.4% reported 2 or more 1-night stands. 54.5% reported worrying about HIV/AIDS occasionally, while 23.1% reported doing so frequently. 17.2% (99) of the students were classified as non-users of condoms, 50.2% (289) as sporadic users, and 32.6% (188) as consistent users. 78 (12%) could not be classified. A multiple discriminant function analysis was also conducted to distinguish among the 3 condom user groups totalling 576 cases. The variables were age, gender, frequency of drunkenness during sexual intercourse, number of sex partners, and number of 1-night stands in the past 12 months, perceived barriers, worrying about HIV/AIDS, perceived susceptibility, condom use self-efficacy, and cues to condom action. Two significant functions emerged. Function 1 clearly separated the sporadic users from the consistent users (p 0.001), while Function 2 clearly separated the sporadic users from the non-users (p 0.001). The discriminating variables correctly classified 64.58% of the respondents into the 3 condom user groups. The variables were most effective at correctly classifying non-users (68.7%), consistent users (67.8%), and sporadic users (61.2%). Sporadic

  6. Resistance to niclosamide in Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum: should we be worried?

    PubMed

    Dai, Jian-Rong; Li, You-Zi; Wang, Wei; Xing, Yun-Tian; Qu, Guo-Li; Liang, You-Sheng

    2015-02-01

    As the currently only available molluscicide, niclosamide has been widely used for snail control for over 2 decades in China. There is therefore a concern about the emergence of niclosamide-resistant snail populations following repeated, extensive use of the chemical. The purpose of this study was to investigate the likelihood of niclosamide resistance in Oncomelania hupensis in China. Active adult O. hupensis snails derived from 20 counties of 10 schistosomiasis-endemic provinces of China, of 10 snails in each drug concentration, were immersed in solutions of 1, 0.5, 0.25, 0.125, 0.063, 0.032, 0.016 and 0.008 mg L-1 of a 50% wettable powder of niclosamide ethanolamine salt (WPN) for 24 and 48 h at 25 °C, and the median lethal concentration (LC50) was estimated. Then, the 24- and 48-h WPN LC50 values were compared with those determined in the same sampling sites in 2002. The results indicated that the 24- and 48-h WPN LC50 values for O. hupensis were not significantly different from those determined in 2002 (P = 0.202 and 0.796, respectively). It is concluded that the current sensitivity of O. hupensis to niclosamide has not changed after more than 2 decades of repeated, extensive application in the main endemic foci of China, and there is no evidence of resistance to niclosamide detected in O. hupensis. PMID:25003984

  7. "What--me worry?" "Why so serious?": a personal view on the Fukushima nuclear reactor accidents.

    PubMed

    Gallucci, Raymond

    2012-09-01

    Infrequently, it seems that a significant accident precursor or, worse, an actual accident, involving a commercial nuclear power reactor occurs to remind us of the need to reexamine the safety of this important electrical power technology from a risk perspective. Twenty-five years since the major core damage accident at Chernobyl in the Ukraine, the Fukushima reactor complex in Japan experienced multiple core damages as a result of an earthquake-induced tsunami beyond either the earthquake or tsunami design basis for the site. Although the tsunami itself killed tens of thousands of people and left the area devastated and virtually uninhabitable, much concern still arose from the potential radioactive releases from the damaged reactors, even though there was little population left in the area to be affected. As a lifelong probabilistic safety analyst in nuclear engineering, even I must admit to a recurrence of the doubt regarding nuclear power safety after Fukushima that I had experienced after Three Mile Island and Chernobyl. This article is my attempt to "recover" my personal perspective on acceptable risk by examining both the domestic and worldwide history of commercial nuclear power plant accidents and attempting to quantify the risk in terms of the frequency of core damage that one might glean from a review of operational history. PMID:22394214

  8. The 2000 Census and Growth Patterns in Rural America. The Main Street Economist: Commentary on the Rural Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheaff, Katharine

    The 2000 Census reveals four patterns of change in rural America. Rural areas in states such as Florida and Arizona are gaining population due to high retiree growth. These areas will experience growth in service sector jobs that have low pay and low educational requirements. Florida and Arizona trail the nation in high school and college…

  9. Mobility Device Use Among Older Adults and Incidence of Falls and Worry About Falling: Findings From the 2011–2012 National Health and Aging Trends Study

    PubMed Central

    Gell, Nancy M.; Wallace, Robert B.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Mroz, Tracy M.; Patel, Kushang V.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To examine mobility device use prevalence among community-dwelling older adults in the U.S. and to investigate the incidence of falls and worry about falling by the type and number of mobility devices used. DESIGN Analysis of cross-sectional and longitudinal data from the 2011–2012 National Health and Aging Trends Study SETTING In-person interviews in the homes of study participants PARTICIPANTS Nationally representative sample of Medicare beneficiaries(N=7609). MEASUREMENTS Participants were asked about mobility device use (e.g., canes, walkers, wheelchairs and scooters) in the last month, one-year fall history and worry about falling. RESULTS Twenty-four percent of adults age ≥65 reported mobility device use in 2011 and 9.3% reported using multiple devices within the last month. Mobility device use increased with advancing age and was associated with non-White race/ethnicity, female sex, lower education level, greater multi-morbidity, and obesity (all P-values < 0.001). Adjusting for demographic, health characteristics, and physical function, the incidence of falls and recurrent falls were not associated with the use of multiple devices or any one particular type of mobility device. Activity-limiting worry about falling was significantly higher in cane-only users, compared with non-users. CONCLUSION The percentage of older adults reporting mobility device use is higher compared to results from previous national surveys and multiple device use is common among those who use any device. Mobility device use is not associated with increased incidence of falls compared to non-device users. Cane-only users may compensate for worry about falling by limiting activity. PMID:25953070

  10. Training Home Economists for Rural Development. Report of a Global Study on the Development of Criteria for Establishing Training Institutions for Home Economics Staff in Rural Development. FAO Economic and Social Development Paper 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY.

    In 1973 a global study aimed toward the development of criteria for establishing institutions for training home economists for rural development programs was initiated by the Home Economics and Social Programmes Services of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the U.N. As a first step, a survey was developed on the variety of roles appropriate…

  11. "I can't stop worrying about everything"—experiences of rural Bangladeshi women during the first postpartum months.

    PubMed

    Edhborg, Maigun; Nasreen, Hashima E; Kabir, Zarina Nahar

    2015-01-01

    Over recent years, researchers have found evidence which indicates that the prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms crosses cultural boundaries and is reported to be at least as high in non-Western countries as in Western countries. However, qualitative studies about new mothers' experiences from non-Western countries, such as Bangladesh, are rare, particularly in rural areas. This study aims to describe the experiences and concerns of rural Bangladeshi mothers with postpartum depressive symptoms. Open narrative interviews were conducted with 21 mothers with depressive symptoms 2-3 months postpartum, consecutively selected from a longitudinal study about prevalence and risk factors of perinatal depressive symptoms. Inductive content analysis was used to analyse data and three themes emerged: family dynamics, living at the limits of survival, and role of the cultural context after childbirth. These themes were based on six categories and 15 subcategories. The findings show that troublesome family relationships, including intimate partner violence and violence in the family, influenced the mothers' mental well-being. They and their families lived at the limit of survival and the mothers expressed fear and worries about their insecure situation regarding economic difficulties and health problems. They felt sorry for being unable to give their infants a good start in life and sad because they could not always follow the traditional norms related to childbirth. Thus, it is important to focus on the depressive symptoms among new mothers and offer counselling to those showing depressive symptoms, as the cultural traditions do not always alleviate these symptoms in the changing Bangladeshi society today. PMID:25595913

  12. Subjective Well-Being in a Multicultural Urban Population: Structural, and Multivariate Analyses of the Ontario Health Survey Well-Being Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Lindsay Herbert

    2004-01-01

    The validity of a scale, from the Ontario Health Survey, measuring the subjective sense of well-being, for a large multicultural population in Metropolitan Toronto, is examined through principal components analysis with oblique rotation. Four factors are extracted. Factor 1, is a stress and strain factor, and consists of health worries, feeling…

  13. Panels worry about jobs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-09

    Responsible Care grew out of the chemical industry's need to improve its place in the public's trust, especially in the arena of safety, health, and environment. But as companies sit down with a growing number of interested members of the public, the people who live in the communities that surround chemical plants, they are hearing that another issue - economics - is of equal importance.

  14. Worrying about weird winters

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Brent

    2014-01-01

    Winter is a key determinant of biological processes in temperate, alpine, and polar environments. Winters are changing, yet we currently lack the knowledge to adequately predict the impacts of climate change on winter biology, or to link winter conditions to the growing-season performance of most organisms.

  15. Worrying trends in econophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallegati, Mauro; Keen, Steve; Lux, Thomas; Ormerod, Paul

    2006-10-01

    Econophysics has already made a number of important empirical contributions to our understanding of the social and economic world. These fall mainly into the areas of finance and industrial economics, where in each case there is a large amount of reasonably well-defined data. More recently, Econophysics has also begun to tackle other areas of economics where data is much more sparse and much less reliable. In addition, econophysicists have attempted to apply the theoretical approach of statistical physics to try to understand empirical findings. Our concerns are fourfold. First, a lack of awareness of work that has been done within economics itself. Second, resistance to more rigorous and robust statistical methodology. Third, the belief that universal empirical regularities can be found in many areas of economic activity. Fourth, the theoretical models which are being used to explain empirical phenomena. The latter point is of particular concern. Essentially, the models are based upon models of statistical physics in which energy is conserved in exchange processes. There are examples in economics where the principle of conservation may be a reasonable approximation to reality, such as primitive hunter-gatherer societies. But in the industrialised capitalist economies, income is most definitely not conserved. The process of production and not exchange is responsible for this. Models which focus purely on exchange and not on production cannot by definition offer a realistic description of the generation of income in the capitalist, industrialised economies.

  16. Feeling Anxious or Worried

    MedlinePlus

    ... uncomfortable feelings. Panic disorder means a person has panic attacks, which are sudden, strong feelings of fear that ... difficulty breathing, and dizziness. A person having a panic attack may feel like she is going to die. ...

  17. Reform of the Buy-and-Bill System for Outpatient Chemotherapy Care Is Inevitable: Perspectives from an Economist, a Realpolitik, and an Oncologist.

    PubMed

    Polite, Blase; Conti, Rena M; Ward, Jeffery C

    2015-01-01

    Treating patients with cancer with infused or injected oncolytics is a core component of outpatient oncology practice. Currently, practices purchase drugs and then bill insurers, colloquially called "buy and bill." Reimbursement for these drugs is the largest source of gross revenue for oncology practices, and as the prices of cancer drugs have grown over time, these purchases have had significant impact on the financial health of practices and pose a risk that jeopardizes the ability of many practices to operate and provide patient care. Medicare Part B spending on drugs is under political scrutiny because of federal spending pressures, and the margin between buy and bill, lowered to 6% by the Medicare Modernization Act and further decreased to 4.3% by sequestration, is a convenient and popular target of budgetary discussions and proposals, scored to save billions of dollars over 10-year budget windows for each percentage-point reduction. Alternatives to the buy-and-bill system have been proposed to include invoice pricing, least costly alternative reimbursement, bundling of drugs into episode-of-care payments, shifting Part B drugs to the Medicare Part D benefit, and revision of the failed Competitive Acquisition Program. This article brings the perspectives of policy makers, health care economists, and providers together to discuss this major challenge in oncology payment reform. PMID:25993241

  18. To survive is not enough. Quality of life in CKD--the need for a new generation of health-oriented economists.

    PubMed

    De Santo, Natale G; De Santo, Rosa Maria; Perna, Alessandra F; Anastasio, Pietro; Bilancio, Giancarlo; Pollastro, Rosa Maria; Di Leo, Vito A; Cirillo, Massimo

    2008-01-01

    CKD is utilized as a paradigm, a chronic disease which allows decades of life conquered with great effort through a machine, a life with many losses and many dependencies. We must understand the patient's needs, which are not related to availability of drugs and machines and hospitals. We cannot provide good medical care with the limited amount of national product devoted to health care. Society is much older than ever before. We need a new cadre of economists working on health care with vision and ability, keeping in mind that there are no resources and there are no expenses which can be cut in medical care nowadays. We have to switch from curative medicine towards prevention, by implementing clinical research, bearing in mind that in the Western world, democracy was granted through the correct allocation of resources. The search for happiness and good quality of life are old concepts born in the Mediterranean area over the centuries, starting with Hesiod and Homer, and sleep and dreams were being investigated centuries before Freud was born. PMID:18446731

  19. Reform of the Buy-and-Bill System for Outpatient Chemotherapy Care Is Inevitable: Perspectives from an Economist, a Realpolitik, and an Oncologist

    PubMed Central

    Polite, Blase; Conti, Rena M.; Ward, Jeffery C.

    2015-01-01

    OVERVIEW Treating patients with cancer with infused or injected oncolytics is a core component of outpatient oncology practice. Currently, practices purchase drugs and then bill insurers, colloquially called “buy and bill.” Reimbursement for these drugs is the largest source of gross revenue for oncology practices, and as the prices of cancer drugs have grown over time, these purchases have had significant impact on the financial health of practices and pose a risk that jeopardizes the ability of many practices to operate and provide patient care. Medicare Part B spending on drugs is under political scrutiny because of federal spending pressures, and the margin between buy and bill, lowered to 6% by the Medicare Modernization Act and further decreased to 4.3% by sequestration, is a convenient and popular target of budgetary discussions and proposals, scored to save billions of dollars over 10-year budget windows for each percentage-point reduction. Alternatives to the buy-and-bill system have been proposed to include invoice pricing, least costly alternative reimbursement, bundling of drugs into episode-of-care payments, shifting Part B drugs to the Medicare Part D benefit, and revision of the failed Competitive Acquisition Program. This article brings the perspectives of policy makers, health care economists, and providers together to discuss this major challenge in oncology payment reform. PMID:25993241

  20. [Policies of economic development and population].

    PubMed

    Aleman, J L

    1974-01-01

    This literature review attempts to evaluate critically the theoretical and empirical evidence regarding the relationship between development policies and population and to assess the logical coherence of the principal types of population policy as they relate to economic development. The 1st part, on the relationship between economic development and population growth, consists of 5 sections which discuss: 1) the theories of classical economists including Quesnay, Malthus, Pareto, Marshall, and Pigou; 2) attempts to correlate population growth and economic development in developed countries by Kuznets and in developing countries by Adelman, Weintraub, Heer, Kirk, and others; 3) macroeconomic arguments used to defend aggressive policies of population control, including the scarcity of natural resources, the difficulty of increasing the rates of savings and investment with growing populations, and the disadvantages of rural-urban migration; 4) economic analyses of the desire to limit births which view children as either producer or consumer goods; and 5) the influence of economic development on social structure as it relates to the demand for children. In the 2nd part, 3 principal "ideal types" of population and economic development policy are identified: policies oriented toward growth of the modern sector of the economy, policies oriented toward population control, and policies oriented toward income distribution and education. The assumptions, mode of action, probabilities of success and limitations of each strategy are assessed. It is concluded that neither development of the modern sector alone nor attempts to promote birth control alone are sufficient to curb population growth appreciably. A concentrated policy to develop the most backward sectors of the economy might be the most likely to lead to a significant slowing of population growth but such a policy is unlikely to be tolerated by the wealthier classes in the absence of extreme coercion. A combination of

  1. Are Worry and Rumination Specific Pathways Linking Neuroticism and Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Major Depressive Disorder and Mixed Anxiety-Depressive Disorder?

    PubMed Central

    Merino, Hipólito; Ferreiro, Fátima

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between neuroticism (higher-order vulnerability factor), the cognitive styles of worry, brooding and reflection (second-order vulnerability factors) and symptoms of anxiety and depression in three groups of patients: patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and with Mixed Anxiety-Depressive Disorder (MADD). One hundred and thirty four patients completed a battery of questionnaires including measures of neuroticism, worry, rumination (brooding and reflection), anxiety and depression. Multiple mediation analyses indicate that worry may act as a mediating mechanism linking neuroticism and anxiety symptoms in the three diagnostic groups, whereas brooding-rumination may play a mediating role between neuroticism and depressive symptoms in patients with MDD and MADD and, with less certainty, in patients with GAD. Overall, our findings suggest that neuroticism may increase the risk of anxious and depressive symptoms via specific links involving either worry or brooding, respectively, and that both worry and brooding may operate in the three groups examined, irrespectively of whether anxiety or depression are the main emotions or whether they coexist without any clear predominance; consequently, we hypothesize the existence of "specific transdiagnostic" mechanisms. PMID:27243462

  2. Factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire: differences between African-American and White-American college students.

    PubMed

    Carter, Michele M; Sbrocco, Tracy; Miller, Oscar; Suchday, Sonia; Lewis, Evelyn L; Freedman, Rachel E K

    2005-01-01

    This study examined differences in the factor structure of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) between African-American (n=181) and White-American (n=180) college students. Results from a confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the traditional single-factor solution did not provide the best fit for the data from either ethnic group. A multiple-group factor analysis indicated that underlying structure of Factor 1 was roughly equivalent between ethnic groups. Structure of Factor 2, however, differed between groups. Specifically, item 10 loaded on different factors for each group. In support of these analyses, an exploratory factor analyses (EFA) among White-American participants indicated the presence of a two-factor model while an EFA among African-Americans indicated the presence of three factors. Despite some overlap in the overall factor structure between ethnic groups, African-Americans scored significantly lower on the PSWQ than the White-American group. Furthermore, among African-Americans level of ethnic identity was negatively related to state and trait measures of anxiety, but unrelated to measures of depression and worry. PMID:16243633

  3. Examining Factor Structure and Validating the Persian Version of the Pregnancy’s Worries and Stress Questionnaire for Pregnant Iranian Women

    PubMed Central

    Navidpour, Fariba; Dolatian, Mahrokh; Yaghmaei, Farideh; Majd, Hamid Alavi; Hashemi, Seyed Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Pregnant women tend to experience anxiety and stress when faced with the changes to their biology, environment and personal relationships. The identification of these factors and the prevention of their side effects are vital for both mother and fetus. The present study was conducted to validate and to examine the factor structure of the Persian version of the Pregnancy’s Worries and Stress Questionnaire. Materials and Methods: The 25-item PWSQ was first translated by specialists into Persian. The questionnaire’s validity was determined using face, content, criterion and construct validity and reliability of questionnaire was examined using Cronbach’s alpha. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed in AMOS and SPSS 21. Participants included healthy Iranian pregnant women (8-39 weeks) who refer to selected hospitals for prenatal care. Hospitals included private, social security and university hospitals and selected through the random cluster sampling method. Findings: The results of validity and reliability assessments of the questionnaire were acceptable. Cronbach’s alpha calculated showed a high internal consistency of 0.89. The confirmatory factor analysis using the χ2, CMIN/DF, IFI, CFI, NFI and NNFI indexes showed the 6-factor model to be the best fitted model for explaining the data. Conclusion: The questionnaire was translated into Persian to examine stress and worry specific to Iranian pregnant women. The psychometric results showed that the questionnaire is suitable for identifying Iranian pregnant women with pregnancy-related stress. PMID:26153186

  4. Reduced Worries of Hypoglycaemia, High Satisfaction, and Increased Perceived Ease of Use after Experiencing Four Nights of MD-Logic Artificial Pancreas at Home (DREAM4)

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Claudia; Liberman, Alon; Nimri, Revital; Muller, Ido; Klemenčič, Simona; Bratina, Nataša; Bläsig, Sarah; Remus, Kerstin; Phillip, Moshe; Battelino, Tadej; Kordonouri, Olga; Danne, Thomas; Lange, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Aims. This study assesses the impact of using an AP-system at home on fear of hypoglycaemia. In addition, satisfaction and acceptance of the new technology are evaluated. Methods. In a multicentre, multinational study of 75 patients using the MD-Logic AP during four consecutive nights in home setting 59 of them (aged 10–54 years, 54% male, HbA1c 7.89 ± 0.69% [62.72 ± 7.51 mmol/mol], diabetes duration 11.6 ± 8.4 yrs) answered standardized questionnaires (HFS, adapted TAM, and AP satisfaction) before and after using the AP. Results. After experiencing the AP in home setting worries of hypoglycaemia were significantly reduced (before 1.04 ± 0.53 versus after 0.90 ± 0.63; P = 0.017). Perceived ease of use as a measure of acceptance with the AP significantly increased after personal experience (before 4.64 ± 0.94 versus after 5.06 ± 1.09; P = 0.002). The overall satisfaction mean score after using the AP was 3.02 ± 0.54 (range 0–4), demonstrating a high level of satisfaction with this technology. Conclusions. The four-night home-based experience of using MD Logic AP was associated with reduced worries of hypoglycaemia, high level of satisfaction, and increased perceived ease of use of the new technology in children, adolescents, and adults. PMID:26581230

  5. The construction of a "population problem" in colonial India, 1919-1947.

    PubMed

    Nair, Rahul

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the construction of a "population problem" among public health officials in India during the inter-war period. British colonial officials came to focus on India's population through their concern with high Indian infant and maternal mortality rates. They raised the problem of population as one way in which to highlight the importance of dealing with public health at an all-India basis, in a context of constitutional devolution of power to Indians where they feared such matters would be relegated to relative local unimportance. While they failed to significantly shape government policy, their arguments in support of India's 'population problem' nevertheless found a receptive audience in the colonial public sphere among Indian intellectuals, economists, eugenicists, women social reformers and birth controllers. The article contributes to the history of population control by situating its pre-history in British colonial public health and development policy and outside the logic of USA's Cold War strategic planning for Asia. PMID:21961187

  6. The Money Buffer Effect in China: A Higher Income Cannot Make You Much Happier but Might Allow You to Worry Less

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bin; Li, Aimei; Wang, Xiaotian; Hou, Yunsong

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the possibility that there is a curvilinear relationship between income and subjective well-being in China. This study also investigated whether this curvilinear relationship is moderated by social class and mediated by respondents' material affluence. The study was conducted in China, and the sample consisted of 900 blue-collar workers and 546 white-collar workers. The results for emotional well-being showed that income significantly predicted negative affect but not positive affect. This finding indicates that in China, high incomes may not make people happier but might allow them to worry less, which we call the “money buffer effect.” The results also showed that material affluence mediates the interaction effect between income and social class on subjective well-being. The implications of these results for future research and practice are discussed. PMID:26941687

  7. Adolescent political activism and long-term happiness: a 21-year longitudinal study on the development of micro- and macrosocial worries.

    PubMed

    Boehnke, Klaus; Wong, Becky

    2011-03-01

    Utilizing latent growth modeling, the long-term development of worries among peace movement supporters is examined. Data originate from a seven-wave German longitudinal study started in 1985 with on average 14-year-olds. Waves were interspersed 3 and a half years each. Activists are assumed to have lower (self-related) microworries (Hypothesis 1) and higher macroworries (concerned with larger entities; Hypothesis 2) than nonactivists at the onset of the study. Nonactivists who appraised the threat of nuclear war as high in 1985 are assumed to report worse mental health than their activist age-mates 21 years later (Hypothesis 3). Activists are assumed to express relatively more macroworries than nonactivists in midadulthood (Hypothesis 4). All four hypotheses were confirmed. Results are interpreted in a stress-coping (Lazarus) and resource (Elder) framework, suggesting that refraining from acting out against a perceived sociopolitical threat is a long-term risk for a positive mental health trajectory. PMID:21307181

  8. The Money Buffer Effect in China: A Higher Income Cannot Make You Much Happier but Might Allow You to Worry Less.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Li, Aimei; Wang, Xiaotian; Hou, Yunsong

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the possibility that there is a curvilinear relationship between income and subjective well-being in China. This study also investigated whether this curvilinear relationship is moderated by social class and mediated by respondents' material affluence. The study was conducted in China, and the sample consisted of 900 blue-collar workers and 546 white-collar workers. The results for emotional well-being showed that income significantly predicted negative affect but not positive affect. This finding indicates that in China, high incomes may not make people happier but might allow them to worry less, which we call the "money buffer effect." The results also showed that material affluence mediates the interaction effect between income and social class on subjective well-being. The implications of these results for future research and practice are discussed. PMID:26941687

  9. Understanding Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mothner, Ira

    Activities and concerns of Ford Foundation supported population research and training centers are described in this report. The centers are concerned with population growth, consequences of growth for human welfare, forces that determine family planning, interrelations among population variables, economics of contraceptive distribution, and…

  10. Counting Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Scientists use sampling to get an estimate of things they cannot easily count. A population is made up of all the organisms of one species living together in one place at the same time. All of the people living together in one town are considered a population. All of the grasshoppers living in a field are a population. Scientists keep track of the…

  11. Utility of telephone assessments in an older adult population.

    PubMed

    Senior, Ashley C; Kunik, Mark E; Rhoades, Howard M; Novy, Diane M; Wilson, Nancy L; Stanley, Melinda A

    2007-06-01

    Telephone assessments are commonly used in mental health research and may be especially beneficial in older populations. The current study assessed the psychometric properties of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (T. J. Meyer, M. L. Miller, R. L. Metzger, & T. D. Borkovec, 1990) and the Beck Depression Inventory--II (A. T. Beck, R. A. Steer, & G. K. Brown, 1996), when administered over the telephone in an older adult population. Results indicate no differences in mean symptom level or internal consistency across two modes of administration. Correlations between the in-person and telephone-administered measures and diagnostic categories suggest adequate validity of the telephone-administered measures. With this demonstrated evidence, the telephone assessment method can be applied in a variety of research and clinical settings. PMID:17563195

  12. [Population education].

    PubMed

    1977-01-01

    Goal of population education is to raise knowledge and comprehension of causes and consequences, either personal or social, of excessive population growth. These days it is possible to plan the growth and evolution of the population to reach a level of balance and harmony between number of inhabitants of a country, and the country's natural resoruces. general objectives of population education are: 1) knowledge of basic demographic processes; 2) knowledge of effects of evolution and growth of population on social and economic life inside the family and inside society; 3) family size as related to nutrition, health, education, and job; and, 4) knowledge of population dynamics which the individual can influence through personal behavior, i.e. age at marriage, and spacing and number of children. PMID:12309627

  13. Caffeine Use in Children: What we know, what we have left to learn, and why we should worry

    PubMed Central

    Temple, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    Caffeine is a widely used psychoactive substance in both adults and children that is legal, easy to obtain, and socially acceptable to consume. Although once relatively restricted to use among adults, caffeine-containing drinks are now consumed regularly by children. In addition, some caffeine-containing beverages are specifically marketed to children as young as four years of age. Unfortunately, our knowledge of the effects of caffeine use on behavior and physiology of children remains understudied and poorly understood. The purpose of this article is to review what is known about caffeine use in children and adolescents, to discuss why children and adolescents may be particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of caffeine, and to propose how caffeine consumption within this population may potentiate the rewarding properties of other substances. The following topics are reviewed: 1) tolerance and addiction to caffeine 2) sensitization and cross-sensitization to the effects of caffeine 3) caffeine self-administration and reinforcing value and 4) conditioning of preferences for caffeine-containing beverages in both adults and children. PMID:19428492

  14. Population Blocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  15. MAINE POPULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    MEPOP250 depicts Maine's 1950-1990 population data by town or Census in unorganized territories. Populations were compiled from US Census Bureau data where available or from Maine Municipal Information (mainly for older records). Unorganized towns with very low or zero pop...

  16. Worries about being judged versus being harmed: disentangling the association of social anxiety and paranoia with schizotypy.

    PubMed

    Horton, Leslie E; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus; Silvia, Paul J; Kwapil, Thomas R

    2014-01-01

    Paranoia is a dimension of clinical and subclinical experiences in which others are believed to have harmful intentions. Mild paranoid concerns are relatively common in the general population, and more clinically severe paranoia shares features with social anxiety and is a key characteristic of schizotypy. Given that subclinical manifestations of schizotypy and paranoia may predict the occurrence of more severe symptoms, disentangling the associations of these related constructs may advance our understanding of their etiology; however no known studies to date have comprehensively evaluated how paranoia relates to social anxiety and schizotypy. The current research sought to examine the association of paranoia, assessed across a broad continuum of severity, with 1) the positive and negative schizotypy dimensions and 2) social anxiety. Specifically, the study tested a series of six competing, a priori models using confirmatory factor analysis in a sample of 862 young adults. As hypothesized, the data supported a four-factor model including positive schizotypy, negative schizotypy, social anxiety, and paranoia factors, suggesting that these are distinct constructs with differing patterns of interrelationships. Paranoia had a strong association with positive schizotypy, a moderate association with social anxiety, and a minimal association with negative schizotypy. The results are consistent with paranoia being part of a multidimensional model of schizotypy and schizophrenia. Prior studies treating schizotypy and schizophrenia as homogenous constructs often produce equivocal or non-replicable results because these dimensions are associated with distinct etiologies, presentations, and treatment responses; thus, the present conceptualization of paranoia within a multidimensional schizotypy framework should advance our understanding of these constructs. PMID:24914672

  17. How a trend towards a stationary population affects consumer demand.

    PubMed

    Espenshade, T J

    1978-03-01

    Abstract During the great depression of the 1930seconomists in both the United States and Europe tried to analyse the economic consequences of declining rates of population growth. Not only were birth rates in many industrial countries at the lowest levels ever, but they coincided with high rates of unemployment. Of the many economists who held that demographic trends were partly responsible for the adverse economic conditions, a prominent example was John Maynard Keynes. According to his so-called stagnation thesis, population growth stimulates investment demand in two ways: more people need more goods and services and, hence, more investment in factories and machinery; and with population growing, businessmen are more likely to regard their investment misallocations as less serious than when the growth is slow or nil.(1)A minority of writers were more optimistic about the economic consequences of slower rates of population growth. For example, Thompson argued that with a lower ratio of consumers to producers the population would enjoy a higher standard of living and the education of children should improve.(2). PMID:22091937

  18. Worry or craving? A selective review of evidence for food-related attention biases in obese individuals, eating-disorder patients, restrained eaters and healthy samples.

    PubMed

    Werthmann, Jessica; Jansen, Anita; Roefs, Anne

    2015-05-01

    Living in an 'obesogenic' environment poses a serious challenge for weight maintenance. However, many people are able to maintain a healthy weight indicating that not everybody is equally susceptible to the temptations of this food environment. The way in which someone perceives and reacts to food cues, that is, cognitive processes, could underlie differences in susceptibility. An attention bias for food could be such a cognitive factor that contributes to overeating. However, an attention bias for food has also been implicated with restrained eating and eating-disorder symptomatology. The primary aim of the present review was to determine whether an attention bias for food is specifically related to obesity while also reviewing evidence for attention biases in eating-disorder patients, restrained eaters and healthy-weight individuals. Another aim was to systematically examine how selective attention for food relates (causally) to eating behaviour. Current empirical evidence on attention bias for food within obese samples, eating-disorder patients, and, even though to a lesser extent, in restrained eaters is contradictory. However, present experimental studies provide relatively consistent evidence that an attention bias for food contributes to subsequent food intake. This review highlights the need to distinguish not only between different (temporal) attention bias components, but also to take different motivations (craving v. worry) and their impact on attentional processing into account. Overall, the current state of research suggests that biased attention could be one important cognitive mechanism by which the food environment tempts us into overeating. PMID:25311212

  19. The relationship between autistic traits and social anxiety, worry, obsessive-compulsive, and depressive symptoms: specific and non-specific mediators in a student sample.

    PubMed

    Liew, Shi Min; Thevaraja, Nishta; Hong, Ryan Y; Magiati, Iliana

    2015-03-01

    The high prevalence of anxiety symptoms in individuals with autism spectrum disorders has now been well documented. There is also a positive relationship between autistic traits and anxiety symptoms in unselected samples and individuals with anxiety disorders have more autistic traits compared to those without. Less is known, however, regarding which elements of autistic traits (i.e., social versus non-social/behavioral) or which other variables may mediate this relationship. This study investigated the shared and specific role of five autistic-trait related mediators (social problem-solving, social competence, teasing experiences, prevention from/punishment for preferred repetitive behaviors and aversive sensory experiences) in a non-clinical sample of 252 university students. Autistic traits positively correlated with both anxiety and depressive symptoms. Social competence mediated the relationship between autistic traits and social anxiety symptoms only, while only prevention from preferred repetitive behaviors and frequent aversive sensory experiences mediated the relationship between autistic traits, worry and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Replication of these findings is required in longitudinal studies and with clinical samples. Limitations of the study are discussed and possible implications for intervention are tentatively suggested. PMID:25234480

  20. The role of instrumental emotion regulation in the emotions-creativity link: how worries render individuals with high neuroticism more creative.

    PubMed

    Leung, Angela K-Y; Liou, Shyhnan; Qiu, Lin; Kwan, Letty Y-Y; Chiu, Chi-Yue; Yong, Jose C

    2014-10-01

    Based on the instrumental account of emotion regulation (Tamir, 2005), the current research seeks to offer a novel perspective to the emotions-creativity debate by investigating the instrumental value of trait-consistent emotions in creativity. We hypothesize that emotions such as worry (vs. happy) are trait-consistent experiences for individuals higher on trait neuroticism and experiencing these emotions can facilitate performance in a creativity task. In 3 studies, we found support for our hypothesis. First, individuals higher in neuroticism had a greater preference for recalling worrisome (vs. happy) events in anticipation of performing a creativity task (Study 1). Moreover, when induced to recall a worrisome (vs. happy) event, individuals higher in neuroticism came up with more creative design (Study 2) and more flexible uses of a brick (Study 3) when the task was a cognitively demanding one. Further, Study 3 offers preliminary support that increased intrinsic task enjoyment and motivation mediates the relationship between trait-consistent emotion regulation and creative performance. These findings offer a new perspective to the controversy concerning the emotions-creativity relationship and further demonstrate the role of instrumental emotion regulation in the domain of creative performance. PMID:24866525

  1. Population crises and population cycles.

    PubMed

    Russell, C; Russell, W M

    2000-01-01

    To prevent a population irretrievably depleting its resources, mammals have evolved a behavioural and physiological response to population crisis. When a mammalian population becomes dangerously dense, there is a reversal of behaviour. Co-operation and parental behaviour are replaced by competition, dominance and aggressive violence, leading to high mortality, especially of females and young, and a reduced population. The stress of overpopulation and the resulting violence impairs both the immune and the reproductive systems. Hence epidemics complete the crash of the population, and reproduction is slowed for three or four generations, giving the resources ample time to recover. In some mammal species, crisis and crisis response recur regularly, leading to cycles of population growth and relapse, oscillating about a fixed mean. Population crisis response and population cycles have been equally prominent in the history of human societies. But in man successive advances in food production have made possible growing populations, though with every such advance population soon outgrew resources again. Hence human cycles have been superimposed on a rising curve, producing a saw-tooth graph. Because advances in food production amounted to sudden disturbances in the relations between human populations and their environments, the crisis response in man has failed to avert famine and resource damage. In the large human societies evolved since the coming of settled agriculture and cities, the basic effects of violence, epidemics, famine and resource damage have been mediated by such specifically human disasters as inflation, unemployment, and political tyranny. An account of past crises, periods of relative relief from population pressure, and resulting cycles, is given for a number of regions: China, North Africa and Western Asia, the northern Mediterranean, and north-western Europe. The paper ends with an account of the present world-wide population crisis, and the solution

  2. Population policy.

    PubMed

    1987-03-01

    Participants in the Seminar on Population Policies for Top-level Policy Makers and Program Managers, meeting in Thailand during January 1987, examined the challenges now facing them regarding the implementation of fertility regulation programs in their respective countries -- Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. This Seminar was organized to coincide with the completion of an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) study investigating the impact and efficiency of family planning programs in the region. Country studies were reviewed at the Seminar along with policy issues about the status of women, incentive and disincentive programs, and socioeconomic factors affecting fertility. In Bangladesh the government recognizes population growth as its top priority problem related to the socioeconomic development of the country and is working to promote a reorientation strategy from the previous clinic-oriented to a multidimensional family welfare program. China's family planning program seeks to postpone marraige, space the births of children between 3-5 years, and promote the 1-child family. Its goal is to reduce the rate of natural increase from 12/1000 in 1978 to 5/1000 by 1985 and 0 by 2000. India's 7th Five-Year-Plan (1986-90) calls for establishing a 2-child family norm by 2000. In Indonesia the government's population policy includes reducing the rate of population growth, achieving a redistribution of the population, adjusting economic factors, and creating prosperous families. The government of Indonesia reversed its policy to reduce the population growth rate in 1984 and announced its goal of achieving a population of 70 million by 2100 in order to support mass consumption industries. It has created an income tax deduction system favoring large families and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children as incentives. Nepal's official policy is to

  3. Singapore: population.

    PubMed

    1980-08-01

    The population of Singapore reached 2,381,993 as of May, 1980. Singapore's population growth reached replacement level in 1975 thanks to the Singapore Family Planning and Population Board, which has maintained the demographic goal of a 2-child family, ultimately to reach zero population growth. Women have more opportunity to join the labor force. 21.2% of the working force in 1957 were women, compared to 48.1% in 1978. The government will impose restrictions on foreigners buying property in Singapore to protect local buyers from artificially inflated prices. Rentals of private and luxury apartments increased by 30% from 1979-80. The gross national product went up 8.5% to S$5,600 per year. The population estimates by ethnic groups in thousands are as follows: 180.4 Malay males, 174.7 females; 905.2 Chinese males, 893.9 females; 93.4 Indian males, 67.6 females; and 24.3 male others, 23.2 females. The majority of the population is aged 15-24. PMID:12233387

  4. Are there ecological limits to population?

    PubMed Central

    Keyfitz, N

    1993-01-01

    Policy on population and environment in the United States and abroad has been vacillating, unsure of its course; it would be more decisive if the several disciplines could agree on the nature of the problems and their urgency. The two disciplines principally concerned are biology and economics, and the contribution of this paper is to identify eight of the many axes or directions on which the methods and traditions of the two are different. For example, the first of the axes runs between contingency and orderly progress, with biology tending to seek out the former and economics the latter; thus biologists can more easily comprehend catastrophes, such as the demise of the dinosaurs or widespread desertification. The third axis concerns indefinite market-driven substitutability, seen by economists as resulting from scientific discovery; natural scientists, including biologists, whose discoveries make possible the substitutions, are skeptical. Axis 7 results from the fact that economics concentrates on goods that are on the market, and so deals with a truncated part of the commodity cycle, while ecology aims at the whole; because goods disappear from economic statistics once they pass into the hands of consumers many of their ecological effects are invisible. I believe that from similar further study of the two disciplines a common set of policy recommendations will ultimately emerge. PMID:8346195

  5. New light on old problem: population.

    PubMed

    Padilla, T

    1982-01-01

    A central issue of the Third Asian and Pacific Population Conference, to be held in Sri Lanka in September 1982, is the need for full recognition on the part of developing countries that an integrated approach to population and development is essential. Such an approach requires the following: management of internal migration and urbanization; women's participation in development; and increased involvement in promoting family planning, family welfare, and family health programs. Of much concern is the fact that the ESCAP region's urban population is projected to grow from 660 million in 1980 to 1347 million by the year 2000. Much of this increase will occur in the largest cities. Unplanned urbanization and a growing population reservoir in rural areas will continue to spur movements to the cities, aggravating the urban malaise, yet migration is young people's only option if rural populations are to survive. These problems plague most governments. A recent conference held in Rome urged governments to formulate comprehensive population policies and programs, to specify goals on the rate of population growth and on the distribution of population between urban and rural areas, and to plan for the redistribution of population. The conference also recommended that cities pay attention to problems of the shantytown and slum dwellers who are principally rural migrants and the urban poor. In addition the region's corps of development planners and experts worry about the staggering increase in migration by 3rd world guest workers to the high income OPEC members in the Middle East and the industrialized market economy nations. The proper management of international migration should increase the reabsorptive capacity of sending countries to ensure the reintegration of returning off-loaded guest workers and should try to prevent the rural stagnation due to large scale migration by the young and the better educated from the countryside. Internal and international migration give

  6. Stellar Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peletier, Reynier F.

    2013-10-01

    This is a summary of my lectures during the 2011 Canary Islands Winter School in Puerto de la Cruz. I give an introduction to the field of stellar populations in galaxies, and highlight some new results. Since the title of the Winter School is Secular Evolution in Galaxies I mostly concentrate on nearby galaxies, which are best suited to study this theme. Of course, the understanding of stellar populations is intimately connected to understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies, one of the great outstanding problems of astronomy. We are currently in a situation where very large observational advances have been made in recent years. Galaxies have been detected up to a redshift of ten. A huge effort has to be made so that stellar population theory can catch up with observations. Since most galaxies are far away, information about them has to come from stellar population synthesis of integrated light. Here I will discuss how stellar evolution theory, together with observations in our Milky Way and Local Group, are used as building blocks to analyse these integrated stellar populations.

  7. “I can't stop worrying about everything”—Experiences of rural Bangladeshi women during the first postpartum months

    PubMed Central

    Edhborg, Maigun; Nasreen, Hashima E; Kabir, Zarina Nahar

    2015-01-01

    Over recent years, researchers have found evidence which indicates that the prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms crosses cultural boundaries and is reported to be at least as high in non-Western countries as in Western countries. However, qualitative studies about new mothers’ experiences from non-Western countries, such as Bangladesh, are rare, particularly in rural areas. This study aims to describe the experiences and concerns of rural Bangladeshi mothers with postpartum depressive symptoms. Open narrative interviews were conducted with 21 mothers with depressive symptoms 2–3 months postpartum, consecutively selected from a longitudinal study about prevalence and risk factors of perinatal depressive symptoms. Inductive content analysis was used to analyse data and three themes emerged: family dynamics, living at the limits of survival, and role of the cultural context after childbirth. These themes were based on six categories and 15 subcategories. The findings show that troublesome family relationships, including intimate partner violence and violence in the family, influenced the mothers’ mental well-being. They and their families lived at the limit of survival and the mothers expressed fear and worries about their insecure situation regarding economic difficulties and health problems. They felt sorry for being unable to give their infants a good start in life and sad because they could not always follow the traditional norms related to childbirth. Thus, it is important to focus on the depressive symptoms among new mothers and offer counselling to those showing depressive symptoms, as the cultural traditions do not always alleviate these symptoms in the changing Bangladeshi society today. PMID:25595913

  8. [Yunnan population].

    PubMed

    1981-03-23

    In 1980, the population growth rate in Yunnan was reduced to 10.25/1000. Compared with 1979, the number of births was reduced by 152,000 persons. The population growth rate was reduced by 4.35/1000. Localities in which the population growth rate was below 10/1000 in 1980 include Kunming, Baoshan, Yuxi, Chuxiong, Dongchuan, Lijiang, Dali, and Honghe prefectures, autonomous prefectures and municipalities. This growth rate was also achieved in 69 counties, districts and towns as well as 665 communes. Some 66,500 couples throughout the province received 1-child certificates. In 1980, under the leadership of the party and government, the trade unions, CYL, women's federations, and public health departments paid attention to grasping planned parenthood work. PMID:12264026

  9. [Population and crisis. Economic inflexibility or demographic subordination].

    PubMed

    Morelos, J B

    1989-01-01

    Much speculation, fact-based and subjective, has centered on the links between population and economic crisis, and between population and progress. In the past, famines directly affected the size and dynamics of population in affected regions, and such cycles inspired theories that regarded subsistence as the adjustment mechanism for demographic regimes. Population has alternatively been viewed as a crucial factor of production and a force for modernization and progress. After World War I and the Great Depression, many economists believed that population growth would be indispensable for renewing economic expansion. The favorable view of population growth in Mexico led to measures to repatriate emigrants, attract immigrants, and improve health conditions. The gross national product grew by around 6.0% annually on average between 1940 and 1960, and the per capita GNP by about 3%. Demographic dynamics acquired momentum by the 1960s, with high growth rates, a young age structure, considerable demographic inertia, and relative predominance of the urban population. Indications began to appear that a primarily economic solution to achieving full development would be unlikely. The polarization of development, distributive insufficiency, distortions in exchange relations for agricultural products, and incorporation of inappropriate technologies were factors decreasing the ability of the economy to respond adequately to population demands. National development was insufficient to meet growing demographic pressures in the labor market, educational system, housing, and urban services. The adjustment programs reduced even further the flexibility of the government to respond to pressures. Expectations for the future have been seriously compromised by the fall of real incomes. PMID:12158103

  10. Heterozygosity-fitness correlations in a declining seabird population.

    PubMed

    Velando, Alberto; Barros, Álvaro; Moran, Paloma

    2015-03-01

    Loss of genetic diversity is thought to lead to increased risk of extinction in endangered populations due to decreasing fitness of homozygous individuals. Here, we evaluated the presence of inbreeding depression in a long-lived seabird, the European shag (Phalacrocorax aristotelis), after a severe decline in population size by nearly 70%. During three reproductive seasons, 85 breeders were captured and genotyped at seven microsatellite loci. Nest sites were monitored during the breeding season to estimate reproductive success as the number of chicks surviving to full-size-grown per nest. Captured birds were tagged with a ring with an individual code, and resighting data were collected during 7-year period. We found a strong effect of multilocus heterozygosity on female reproductive performance, and a significant, although weaker, effect on breeder survival. However, our matrix population model suggests that this relatively small effect of genetic diversity on breeder survival may have a profound effect on fitness. This highlights the importance of integrating life history consequences in HFC studies. Importantly, heterozygosity was correlated across loci, suggesting that genomewide effects, rather than single loci, are responsible for the observed HFCs. Overall, the HFCs are a worrying symptom of genetic erosion in this declining population. Many long-lived species are prone to extinction, and future studies should evaluate the magnitude of fitness impact of genetic deterioration on key population parameters, such as survival of breeders. PMID:25626726

  11. Population success.

    PubMed

    1982-01-01

    "The commitment to population programs is now widespread," says Rafael Salas, Executive Director of the UNFPA, in its report "State of World Population." About 80% of the total population of the developing world live in countries which consider their fertility levels too high and would like them reduced. An important impetus came from the World Conference of 1974. The Plan of Action from the conference projected population growth rates in developing countries of 2.0% by 1985. Today it looks as though this projection will be realized. While in 1969, for example, only 26 developing countries had programs aimed at lowering or maintaining fertility levels, by 1980 there were 59. The International Population Conference, recently announced by the UN for 1984, will, it is hoped, help sustain that momentum. Cuba is the country which has shown the greatest decline in birth rate so far. The birth rate fell 47% between 1965-1970 and 1975-1980. Next came China with a 34% decline in the same period. After these came a group of countries--each with populations of over 10 million--with declines of between 15 and 25%: Chile, Colombia, India, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia and Thailand. Though birth rates have been dropping significantly the decline in mortality rates over recent years has been less than was hoped for. The 1974 conference set 74 years as the target for the world's average expectation of life, to be reached by the year 2000. But the UN now predicts that the developing countries will have only reached 63 or 64 years by then. High infant and child mortality rates, particularly in Africa, are among the major causes. The report identifies the status of women as an important determinant of family size. Evidence from the UNFPA-sponsored World Fertility Survey shows that in general the fertility of women decreases as their income increases. It also indicates that women who have been educated and who work outside the home are likely to have smaller families

  12. Fiscal Worries Shadow State Elections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2008-01-01

    This article reports that the new class of governors and state legislators to be elected November 4 will inherit financial problems that pose both immediate and long-term threats to existing education programs, while constraining their ability to mount new initiatives. The prospect of a deepening economic slowdown--with state-level budget deficits…

  13. Chronic Disease in a General Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Lohr, Kathleen N.; Kamberg, Caren J.; Goldberg, George A.; Brook, Robert H.; Keeler, Emmett B.; Calabro, Thomas A.

    1986-01-01

    Using questionnaire and physical screening examination data for a general population of 4,962 adults aged 18 to 61 years enrolled in the Rand Health Insurance Experiment, we calculated the prevalence of 13 chronic illnesses and assessed disease impact. Low-income men had a significantly higher prevalence of anemia, chronic airway disease and hearing impairment than their high-income counterparts, low-income women a higher prevalence of congestive heart failure, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hearing impairment and vision impairment. Of our sample, 30% had one chronic condition and 16% had two or more. Several significant pairs or “clusters” of chronic illnesses were found. With few exceptions (diabetes, hypertension), the use of physician care in the previous year for a specific condition tended to be low. Disease impact (worry, activity restriction) was widespread but mild. Persons with angina, congestive heart failure, mild chronic joint disorders and peptic ulcer disease reported a greater impact than persons with other illnesses. PMID:3788141

  14. Psychometric properties of the multidimensional assessment of interoceptive awareness (MAIA) in a Chilean population

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela-Moguillansky, Camila; Reyes-Reyes, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The multidimensional assessment of interoceptive awareness (MAIA) is an instrument designed to assess interoceptive awareness. The aim of this study was to adapt the original MAIA scale to Spanish and to analyze its psychometric properties in a Chilean population. The MAIA was administered to 470 adults, aged 18–70 years, 76.6% women and 23.4% men, residents of the provinces of Valparaíso and Concepción, Chile. Exploratory factor analysis reduced the scale from 32 to 30 items. Confirmatory factor analysis supports a structure of eight interrelated factors (Noticing, Not-Distracting, Not-Worrying, Attention Regulation, Emotional Awareness, Self- Regulation, Body Listening, and Trusting), similar to the original scale (χ2(371) = 659.78, p = 0.0001; CFI = 0.92, TLI = 0.91, RMSEA = 0.056 and SRMR = 0.059). The Spanish version showed appropriate indicators of construct validity and reliability, with a Cronbach’s α of 0.90 for the total scale, and values between 0.40 and 0.86 for the different subscales. Similar to previous studies, low reliability was observed in two of the eight scales (Not-Distracting and Not-Worrying), thus further revision of these subscales is suggested. The Spanish version of MAIA proved to be a valid and reliable tool to investigate interoceptive awareness in the Chilean population. PMID:25717312

  15. Population geography.

    PubMed

    Nash, A

    1994-03-01

    Population geographers are involved in contemporary policy issues, the production of quality work, and successful communication of research findings. This article reviewed some contributions population geographers have made to the understanding of the geographic impact of aging and the consequences of migration. Geographers have come late to the study of aging and have focused primarily on four main policy issues: 1) fertility decline, 2) housing demography, 3) aged patterns of housing and migration, and 4) government policy. Fertility decline research has highlighted information diffusion theories for fertility decline by researchers such as Zelinsky, Skeldon, and Noin. Changes in attitudes and the removal on constraints has been examined by Woods. Residential mobility studies have been the focus of researchers such as Gober, Moore, and Clark, and Myers. Regional labor markets and the movement of the "baby boom" through the life course have been examined by Miron, Plane and Rogerson, and Clout, who studied the empty nesters and the movement out of suburbia. Private residential housing has increased for the elderly in England and Wales (Hamnett and Mullings), and seasonal migration of Minnesotans results in lost sales revenues and high health and social costs for those too ill to travel (Craig). Geographers have not accomplished a significant thrust into the literature on demographic aging. Contributions to the transnational and international literature have resulted in internal migration studies by Clout on "counterurbanization" in northwestern industrial Europe, while Fielding, Baltensperger, Marchand and Scott, and Jones have examined the continuing rural-urban migration. The loss of urban population has been associated with inner city problems, the impact of labor supply and market demand, and the revenue and health care consequences in the work of Champion, Gibson, and Champion and Illeris, and Craig. Impacts are felt differently by geographic location, and

  16. Volcanic risk perception in the Vesuvius population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberi, F.; Davis, M. S.; Isaia, R.; Nave, R.; Ricci, T.

    2008-05-01

    A volcanic risk perception study of the population residing near Vesuvius was carried out between May and July, 2006. A total of 3600 questionnaires with 45 items were distributed to students, their parents and the general population. The largest number of surveys (2812) were distributed in the 18 towns of the Red Zone, the area nearest to the volcano that is exposed to pyroclastic flow hazards and whose 550,000 residents, according to the civil protection emergency plan (in operation since 1995), should be evacuated in case of an eruption crisis. The remaining 788 questionnaires were distributed in 3 additional towns and 3 neighborhoods of Naples, all within the Yellow Zone, which is an area exposed to pyroclastic fallout hazards. A total of 2655 surveys were returned, resulting in a response rate of 73.7%. Results indicated that people have a realistic view of the risk: they think that an eruption is likely, that it will have serious consequences for their towns and for themselves and their families and they are quite worried about the threat. However, several other social, economic, and security-related issues were listed as a problem more often than Vesuvius. The study also demonstrated a widespread lack of knowledge about the emergency plan, a lack of confidence in the plan's success and in public officials and low feelings of self-efficacy. People want to be more deeply involved in public discussions with scientists and civil protection officials on emergency planning and individual preparedness measures. It is clear from the results that a major education-information effort is still needed to improve the public's knowledge, confidence and self-efficacy, thereby improving their collective and individual capability to positively face a future volcanic emergency.

  17. The great population debates: how relevant are they for the 21st century?

    PubMed Central

    Sinding, S W

    2000-01-01

    Two great debates--whether population growth is a problem and how to address the problem if one exists--dominated population policy discussions in the 20th century. The debate about whether pitted those who saw rapid population growth as a problem against those who believed the cries of alarm were false. The debate about how was conducted between advocates of the direct delivery of contraceptives through family planning programs and those who counseled a broader, more holistic approach. The debate about how was largely resolved by the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development at Cairo; the debate about whether remains unresolved. Environmentalists, ecologists, and physical scientists generally support the view that rapid population growth is harmful, but economists remain largely unconvinced. Contemporary declines in fertility and the end of the population crisis mentality of the mid- to late 20th century could, ironically, diminish public support for precisely those programs that have been responsible for the rapid fertility decline of the past 3 decades--programs that will be required to complete the "demographic transition" in those parts of the developing world where fertility remains very high. PMID:11111253

  18. Exploring the acceptability and feasibility of conducting a large longitudinal population-based study in Canada.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, Susan A; Raina, Parminder S; Wolfson, Christina; Strople, Geoff; Kits, Olga; Dukeshire, Steven; Angus, Camille L; Szala-Meneok, Karen; Uniat, Jennifer; Keshavarz, Homa; Furlini, Linda; Pelletier, Amélie

    2009-09-01

    ABSTRACTSuccessful recruitment and retention for population-based longitudinal studies requires understanding facilitators and barriers to participation. This study explored Canadians' views regarding one such study, the proposed Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA). Focus groups of participants > or =40 years of age were held in six proposed CLSA data collection sites (Halifax, Montreal, Hamilton, Winnipeg, Calgary, and Vancouver) to discuss participating in a long-term study of healthy aging. There was fundamental support for longitudinal research on health and aging. Altruism was a key motivation to participation, and universities were viewed as credible parties to conduct such studies. Participants had few worries about providing biological samples but expressed concern about potential misuse of genetic materials, commercialization of participant data, and privacy issues. These findings have already informed current, and will inform future, work on the CLSA, and will also provide useful information to researchers who undertake other population-based longitudinal studies. PMID:19860978

  19. Daily Hassles' Role in Health Seeking Behavior among Low-income Populations

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Rebekah; Arnold, Lauren D.; Hunleth, Jean; Greiner, K. Allen; James, Aimee S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To adapt a daily hassles measure for a low-income population and assess the relationship between hassles and health seeking behavior. Methods The mixed methods approach used cognitive interviews (N = 23) to inform an adapted measure of daily hassles. The adapted scale was then tested via surveys (N = 144) in community health centers; multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess relationships among variables. Results Hassle concerning having enough money for emergencies (76.5%) and worrying about personal health (68.8%) were among the most common. Increased health-related hassles were associated with an increased likelihood to delay needed care. Conclusions Findings suggest daily hassles are unique among low-income populations and should be considered in health behavior interventions. PMID:24629558

  20. Temporal dynamics of linkage disequilibrium in two populations of bighorn sheep

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Joshua M; Poissant, Jocelyn; Malenfant, René M; Hogg, John T; Coltman, David W

    2015-01-01

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD) is the nonrandom association of alleles at two markers. Patterns of LD have biological implications as well as practical ones when designing association studies or conservation programs aimed at identifying the genetic basis of fitness differences within and among populations. However, the temporal dynamics of LD in wild populations has received little empirical attention. In this study, we examined the overall extent of LD, the effect of sample size on the accuracy and precision of LD estimates, and the temporal dynamics of LD in two populations of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) with different demographic histories. Using over 200 microsatellite loci, we assessed two metrics of multi-allelic LD, D′, and χ′2. We found that both populations exhibited high levels of LD, although the extent was much shorter in a native population than one that was founded via translocation, experienced a prolonged bottleneck post founding, followed by recent admixture. In addition, we observed significant variation in LD in relation to the sample size used, with small sample sizes leading to depressed estimates of the extent of LD but inflated estimates of background levels of LD. In contrast, there was not much variation in LD among yearly cross-sections within either population once sample size was accounted for. Lack of pronounced interannual variability suggests that researchers may not have to worry about interannual variation when estimating LD in a population and can instead focus on obtaining the largest sample size possible. PMID:26380673

  1. Between Worry and Security: The Situation of the "Aged" in the Federal Republic of Germany. Special Analysis. Sozial Report 2-82(e).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kischke, Martina I.

    German people are thinking about how senior citizens, who comprise about 15% of the population, can live a better life. Women predominate among the senior citizens in Germany. Investigators into the educational needs of older women living alone found that a very small number take part in further educational opportunities. Two major problems of…

  2. Effective population size of korean populations.

    PubMed

    Park, Leeyoung

    2014-12-01

    Recently, new methods have been developed for estimating the current and recent changes in effective population sizes. Based on the methods, the effective population sizes of Korean populations were estimated using data from the Korean Association Resource (KARE) project. The overall changes in the population sizes of the total populations were similar to CHB (Han Chinese in Beijing, China) and JPT (Japanese in Tokyo, Japan) of the HapMap project. There were no differences in past changes in population sizes with a comparison between an urban area and a rural area. Age-dependent current and recent effective population sizes represent the modern history of Korean populations, including the effects of World War II, the Korean War, and urbanization. The oldest age group showed that the population growth of Koreans had already been substantial at least since the end of the 19th century. PMID:25705160

  3. In the grips of growth.

    PubMed

    Sherman, D

    1992-04-01

    Rapid population growth and increasing environmental degradation threaten the likelihood of a better life for citizens in the US and those in developing countries in the future. To achieve sustainable development, population cannot continue to grow (possible 3-fold increase during the 20th century) since it only burdens the earth and future generations with more and more pollution, waste, and resource depletion. Warning signs already exist: global warming, ozone depletion, vanishing species, and deforestations. Future projections for population growth highlight the problem of employment, unemployment, and underemployment, and underemployment in the US and even more so in developing countries where they are already of great concern. The US population is growing faster than any other developed nation. Yet many economists believe that population growth equated a healthy economy and environmental degradation is necessary for progress. The Workforce 2000 report prepared by conservative think tank contends that even though unemployment increases steadily, the US will soon face a shortage of workers. The report used misleading data and false assumptions, however. For example, it shows the work force growing at 1%/year in the 1990s compared with 3% in the 1970s, but the higher growth in the 1970s was due to the maturing of the baby boomers. Other economists note that in a stable population, fewer people compete for jobs which increases wages and thus the standard of living for most people. Communities can monitor local food, water, and energy supplies, jobs, and health care in a stable population. Company worries about labor shortages are really worries about shortages of cheap labor, consequently many companies are moving factories outside the US where they can employ cheap labor. An economist who favors self-reliance notes that the US population policy is to let population take its natural course, which is antiquated thinking. PMID:12285221

  4. 7 CFR 2.29 - Chief Economist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Budget. (13) Related to environment. (i) Coordinate implementation of section 1245 of the Food Security... assessments and cost-benefit analyses prepared by any agency of the Department. (3) Related to food and.... (ix) Conduct a study on biofuels infrastructure under section 9002 of the Food, Conservation,...

  5. 7 CFR 2.29 - Chief Economist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and in materials prepared for release through the press, radio, and television. (2) Related to risk... appropriate methods of risk assessment and cost-benefit analyses and coordinate and review all...

  6. 7 CFR 2.29 - Chief Economist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and in materials prepared for release through the press, radio, and television. (2) Related to risk... appropriate methods of risk assessment and cost-benefit analyses and coordinate and review all...

  7. [Control of health care by the economist?].

    PubMed

    Henke, K D

    2000-12-01

    Although the health care system has to deal with huge financial problems one cannot neglect that this labour-intensive service branch creates the most jobs with social security obligations. Corrective strategies will have to increase the orientation of health care to patients' needs which requires better information and more decision-making autonomy for the insured people as well as a maximising of efficiency. Competition needs to be strengthened in order to improve quality and reduce costs. This requires more contractual freedom for insurance funds and a dismantling of the current monopolistic structures. Finally, adequate remuneration schedules and patients' individual responsibility play a major role to meet the future challenges in the European internal market. PMID:11190916

  8. The Elementary Economist, Volumes 1 and 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesley Coll., Cambridge, MA. National Center of Economic Education for Children.

    These six newsletters present classroom tested activities in elementary economics. Each issue treats specific topics: scarcity, opportunity cost, production and specialization, consumption and demand, supply and production, prices and efficiency. In each issue, separate activities are provided for grades K-12, 3-4, and 5-6. For the most part,…

  9. 7 CFR 2.29 - Chief Economist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Service, or by any other agency or office of the Department. (4) Related to weather and climate. (i) Advise the Secretary on climate and weather activities, and coordinate the development of policy options on weather and climate. (ii) Coordinate all weather and climate information and monitoring...

  10. 7 CFR 2.29 - Chief Economist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Service, or by any other agency or office of the Department. (4) Related to weather and climate. (i) Advise the Secretary on climate and weather activities, and coordinate the development of policy options on weather and climate. (ii) Coordinate all weather and climate information and monitoring...

  11. Why Economists Are Part of the Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marglin, Stephen A.

    2009-01-01

    Economics is a two-faced discipline. It claims to be a science, describing the world without preconception or value judgment. The reality is that descriptive economics has been shaped by a framework of assumptions geared more to its normative message than to its pretensions. The self-interested individual--who rationally calculates how to achieve…

  12. Effective population size and population subdivision in demographically structured populations.

    PubMed Central

    Laporte, Valérie; Charlesworth, Brian

    2002-01-01

    A fast-timescale approximation is applied to the coalescent process in a single population, which is demographically structured by sex and/or age. This provides a general expression for the probability that a pair of alleles sampled from the population coalesce in the previous time interval. The effective population size is defined as the reciprocal of twice the product of generation time and the coalescence probability. Biologically explicit formulas for effective population size with discrete generations and separate sexes are derived for a variety of different modes of inheritance. The method is also applied to a nuclear gene in a population of partially self-fertilizing hermaphrodites. The effects of population subdivision on a demographically structured population are analyzed, using a matrix of net rates of movement of genes between different local populations. This involves weighting the migration probabilities of individuals of a given age/sex class by the contribution of this class to the leading left eigenvector of the matrix describing the movements of genes between age/sex classes. The effects of sex-specific migration and nonrandom distributions of offspring number on levels of genetic variability and among-population differentiation are described for different modes of inheritance in an island model. Data on DNA sequence variability in human and plant populations are discussed in the light of the results. PMID:12242257

  13. Emerging health issues: the widening challenge for population health promotion.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Anthony J; Butler, Colin D

    2006-12-01

    The spectrum of tasks for health promotion has widened since the Ottawa Charter was signed. In 1986, infectious diseases still seemed in retreat, the potential extent of HIV/AIDS was unrecognized, the Green Revolution was at its height and global poverty appeared less intractable. Global climate change had not yet emerged as a major threat to development and health. Most economists forecast continuous improvement, and chronic diseases were broadly anticipated as the next major health issue. Today, although many broadly averaged measures of population health have improved, many of the determinants of global health have faltered. Many infectious diseases have emerged; others have unexpectedly reappeared. Reasons include urban crowding, environmental changes, altered sexual relations, intensified food production and increased mobility and trade. Foremost, however, is the persistence of poverty and the exacerbation of regional and global inequality. Life expectancy has unexpectedly declined in several countries. Rather than being a faint echo from an earlier time of hardship, these declines could signify the future. Relatedly, the demographic and epidemiological transitions have faltered. In some regions, declining fertility has overshot that needed for optimal age structure, whereas elsewhere mortality increases have reduced population growth rates, despite continuing high fertility. Few, if any, Millennium Development Goals (MDG), including those for health and sustainability, seem achievable. Policy-makers generally misunderstand the link between environmental sustainability (MDG #7) and health. Many health workers also fail to realize that social cohesion and sustainability--maintenance of the Earth's ecological and geophysical systems--is a necessary basis for health. In sum, these issues present an enormous challenge to health. Health promotion must address population health influences that transcend national boundaries and generations and engage with the

  14. Population control II: The population establishment today.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, B

    1997-01-01

    Although population assistance represents a relatively small share of official development assistance, it influences many other aspects of development planning. The organizations that comprise the population establishment have a common purpose--the reduction of population growth in the Third World--but they are not homogeneous and sometimes have conflicting goals and strategies. National governments, multilateral agencies, nongovernmental organizations, foundations, academic centers, and pressure groups all contribute to creating and sustaining what has become a virtual population control industry. Through scholarships, travel grants, awards, and favorable publicity, Third World elites have been encouraged to join the population establishment. The World Bank, the U.S. Agency for International Development, and the U.N. Fund for Population Activities have pursued explicit strategies for pressuring Third World governments to design and implement population policies, most recently in Africa. PMID:9285281

  15. Simulating Population Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byington, Scott

    1997-01-01

    Presents a strategy to help students grasp the important implications of population growth. Involves an interactive demonstration that allows students to experience exponential and logistic population growth followed by a discussion of the implications of population-growth principles. (JRH)

  16. Predicting Population Curves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunton, Matt

    2003-01-01

    Uses graphs to involve students in inquiry-based population investigations on the Wisconsin gray wolf. Requires students to predict future changes in the wolf population, carrying capacity, and deer population. (YDS)

  17. Education Vital Signs: Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakariya, Sally Banks

    1985-01-01

    Population changes and demographics shape the future of public schools. Includes statistics on ethnic makeup of student population, the projected baby boomlet, children of working mothers, households without children, and the aging population. (MD)

  18. Avoidance behaviors and negative psychological responses in the general population in the initial stage of the H1N1 pandemic in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background During the SARS pandemic in Hong Kong, panic and worry were prevalent in the community and the general public avoided staying in public areas. Such avoidance behaviors could greatly impact daily routines of the community and the local economy. This study examined the prevalence of the avoidance behaviors (i.e. avoiding going out, visiting crowded places and visiting hospitals) and negative psychological responses of the general population in Hong Kong at the initial stage of the H1N1 epidemic. Methods A sample of 999 respondents was recruited in a population-based survey. Using random telephone numbers, respondents completed a structured questionnaire by telephone interviews at the 'pre-community spread phase' of the H1N1 epidemic in Hong Kong. Results This study found that 76.5% of the respondents currently avoided going out or visiting crowded places or hospitals, whilst 15% felt much worried about contracting H1N1 and 6% showed signs of emotional distress. Females, older respondents, those having unconfirmed beliefs about modes of transmissions, and those feeling worried and emotionally distressed due to H1N1 outbreak were more likely than others to adopt some avoidance behaviors. Those who perceived high severity and susceptibility of getting H1N1 and doubted the adequacy of governmental preparedness were more likely than others to feel emotionally distressed. Conclusions The prevalence of avoidance behaviors was very high. Cognitions, including unconfirmed beliefs about modes of transmission, perceived severity and susceptibility were associated with some of the avoidance behaviors and emotional distress variables. Public health education should therefore provide clear messages to rectify relevant perceptions. PMID:20509887

  19. Population Education Country Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Education in Asia and the Pacific Newsletter, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Describes population programs in Afghanistan (nonformal, population education literacy program), India (problems in planning/managing population education in higher education), Indonesia (training for secondary/out-of-school inspectors), and Pakistan (integration of population education into school curricula). Programs in China, Korea, Vietnam,…

  20. Understanding Rural Population Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGranahan, David A.; Beale, Calvin L.

    2002-01-01

    A quarter of nonmetro counties lost population in the 1990s, but population loss was not related to poverty rate or low educational levels, perhaps because low-skill workers can no longer expect better wages in urban areas. Population loss was related to low population density and remoteness (which decrease access to services), lack of natural…

  1. WHAT IS A POPULATION?

    EPA Science Inventory

    The word "population" has several meanings, a situation that can lead to confusion in risk assessments. A management goal "to protect wildlife populations," for example, might relate to populations as defined by population biologists, or it might mean simply to protect animals in...

  2. Human Population Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmel, Thomas C.; Sligh, Michael M.

    1970-01-01

    Asserts that overpopulation is the most pressing world problem. Topics discussed include population control in primitive societies, population growth and control in modern societies, methods of motivational population control, consequences of no population control, and mass famines during the 1970's in underdeveloped countries. Cities 33…

  3. The Population Reference Bureau's Population Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haupt, Arthur; Kane, Thomas T.

    This handbook offers information on population dynamics. The population data resource is intended for use by journalists, policymakers, teachers, high school and college students, libraries, advertising agencies, and family planning groups. The document is presented in 12 sections. Section I introduces demography, explains the purpose and scope of…

  4. Examining intuitive risk perceptions for cancer in diverse populations

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Jennifer L.; Baser, Raymond; Weinstein, Neil D.; Li, Yuelin; Primavera, Louis; Kemeny, M. Margaret

    2014-01-01

    In this article we examine intuitive dimensions of personal cancer risk likelihood, which theory and empirical evidence indicate may be important elements in the risk perception process. We draw on data from a study of risk perceptions in three social groups, university students, men living in the community, and primary care patients living in urban area. The study took place in 2007-2011, in New York State (Garden City and New York City) and Boston, Massachusetts. This study used items developed from categories identified in prior qualitative research specifying emotions and attitudes activated in cancer risk determination to examine perception of cancer risks. Across three samples - university students (N=568), community men (N=182), and diverse, urban primary care patients (N=127) - we conducted exploratory factor and construct analyses. We found that the most reliable two factors within the five-factor solution were Cognitive Causation, tapping beliefs that risk thoughts may encourage cancer development, and Negative Affect in Risk, assessing negative feelings generated during the risk perception process. For these factors, there were high levels of item endorsement, especially in minority groups, and only modest associations with established cancer risk perception and worry assessments, indicating novel content. These items may prove useful in measuring and comparing intuitive cancer risk perceptions across diverse population subgroups. PMID:24999304

  5. Glaucoma in Asian Populations

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us Donate In This Section Glaucoma In Asian Populations email Send this article to a friend by ... an even more serious problem as the world population and longevity increases. The other major glaucoma type ...

  6. Population, poverty and economic development.

    PubMed

    Sinding, Steven W

    2009-10-27

    Economists, demographers and other social scientists have long debated the relationship between demographic change and economic outcomes. In recent years, general agreement has emerged to the effect that improving economic conditions for individuals generally lead to lower birth rates. But, there is much less agreement about the proposition that lower birth rates contribute to economic development and help individuals and families to escape from poverty. The paper examines recent evidence on this aspect of the debate, concludes that the burden of evidence now increasingly supports a positive conclusion, examines recent trends in demographic change and economic development and argues that the countries representing the last development frontier, those of Sub-Saharan Africa, would be well advised to incorporate policies and programmes to reduce high fertility in their economic development strategies. PMID:19770153

  7. Population, poverty and economic development

    PubMed Central

    Sinding, Steven W.

    2009-01-01

    Economists, demographers and other social scientists have long debated the relationship between demographic change and economic outcomes. In recent years, general agreement has emerged to the effect that improving economic conditions for individuals generally lead to lower birth rates. But, there is much less agreement about the proposition that lower birth rates contribute to economic development and help individuals and families to escape from poverty. The paper examines recent evidence on this aspect of the debate, concludes that the burden of evidence now increasingly supports a positive conclusion, examines recent trends in demographic change and economic development and argues that the countries representing the last development frontier, those of Sub-Saharan Africa, would be well advised to incorporate policies and programmes to reduce high fertility in their economic development strategies. PMID:19770153

  8. Genetics and population history of Caucasus populations.

    PubMed

    Bulayeva, Kazima; Jorde, Lynn B; Ostler, Christopher; Watkins, Scott; Bulayev, Oleg; Harpending, Henry

    2003-12-01

    We describe aspects of genetic diversity in several ethnic populations of the Caucasus Mountains of Daghestan using mitochondrial DNA sequences and a sample of 100 polymorphic Alu insertion loci. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences are like those of Europe. Principal coordinates and nearest neighbor statistics show that there is little detectable structure in the distances among populations computed from mtDNA. The Alu frequencies of the Caucasus populations suggest that they have undergone more genetic drift than most other groups since the dispersal of modern humans. Genetic differences among these populations are not large; instead, they are of the same order as distances among populations of Europe. We compare two methods of inference about the demography of ancient colonizing populations from Africa, one based on conventional FST statistics and one based on mean Alu insertion frequencies. The two approaches agree reasonably well if we assume that there was demographic growth in Africa before the diaspora of ancestors of contemporary regional human groups outside Africa. PMID:15018034

  9. Planning for Growing Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassen, Robert, Ed.; Wolfson, Margaret, Ed.

    The basic needs and services that the vast masses of the population in developing countries must have to improve their quality of life are examined. Chapter 1 of nine chapters discusses implications of rapid population growth for social and economic planning. Rapid population growth in the developing countries is discussed in chapter 2. Food…

  10. Impact of Population Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Paul R.; Holdren, John P.

    1971-01-01

    Discusses the interrelated crises in population growth, natural resources, and environmental quality. Major problems include population control, redirection of technology, closed resource cycles, equitable opportunity distribution and prosperity. Population growth is regarded as causing a disportionate world-wide negative environmental impact.…

  11. Teaching about Population Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otero, George G., Jr., Comp.

    This teaching guide on population issues contains 19 activities for students in grades 7-12. The objective is to analyze population issues that have resulted from human population dynamics. In this guide, four categories of activities are included: some are discussion starters, some provide factual data, some focus on thinking skills, and some are…

  12. Modeling Exponential Population Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Bonnie

    2009-01-01

    The concept of population growth patterns is a key component of understanding evolution by natural selection and population dynamics in ecosystems. The National Science Education Standards (NSES) include standards related to population growth in sections on biological evolution, interdependence of organisms, and science in personal and social…

  13. [Population Growth and Development].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clausen, A. W.

    Rapid population growth as a central development problem, the proper domain of government in reducing population growth, and effective measures which can be taken to reduce fertility are examined. Rapid population growth puts a brake on development because it exacerbates the difficult choice between higher consumption now and the investment needed…

  14. Controlling Population with Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Population models are often discussed in algebra, calculus, and differential equations courses. In this article we will use the human population of the world as our application. After quick looks at two common models we'll investigate more deeply a model which incorporates the negative effect that accumulated pollution may have on population.

  15. [Prehistoric population studies].

    PubMed

    Posse, Z C

    1985-01-01

    Studies concerning prehistoric populations in the Americas are discussed. "A review is made of research conducted in America focusing...on indigenous populations prior to contacts with Europeans, and those which, employing archaeological and historical sources, seek to evaluate the population and establish depopulation indexes for the said societies." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12341861

  16. Populations, Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conard, David; Lawson, Chester A.

    This Teacher's Guide is designed for use with the Science Curriculum Improvement Study's (SCIS) unit Population. Populations is the third of a six-unit sequence of SCIS's Life Science Program for grades K-6. The Populations guide consists of activity outlines along with suggestions for guiding children's observation and manipulations of living…

  17. Teaching Population Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, George W.; Schwartzberg, Julie

    Written under the sponsorship of the Population Council, with the financial support of the Population Instructional Materials Project, this work is intended to provide the thoughtful teacher of the social sciences with some suggestions and techniques for introducing population study to students in terms of concrete case studies which explore the…

  18. Population Education Country Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Education in Asia and the Pacific Newsletter, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Discusses population education programs in China, India, Indonesia, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam. Sri Lanka is developing audio-visual materials and integrating population education into secondary science and social studies curricula. Nepal is transmitting nonformal population education messages to adults through…

  19. Population Education in Baltimore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Caroline S.; McCrea, Lester C.

    First in a series of six documents, this report describes the Urban Life-Population Education Institute (ULPEI) program which was designed to demonstrate population realities to Baltimore public schools so that teachers can introduce population studies into the school curriculum. The first part of the paper presents background information on the…

  20. Population: A Lively Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFalls, Joseph A., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The study of demography must begin with an understanding of the three sources of population changes: fertility, mortality, and migration. This paper leads prospective demographers--or anyone interested in population--through the dynamics of these three variables, introducing them to the forces that cause populations to grow or decline, and that…

  1. Teaching about Population Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otero, George G., Jr., Comp.

    This teaching guide contains 20 activities on population growth for students in grades 6-12. The purpose is to help students gain the skills, knowledge, and understanding of population dynamics so that they can make rational decisions and take responsible action regarding population matters and public policy. Activities are organized around the…

  2. Population issues in economic planning: uses of demography in business.

    PubMed

    Graham, R J

    1984-01-01

    Economists use demography in planning and forecasting business needs. As a bank, Westpac uses the information for its own internal business purposes and to assess general economic trends. Externally, the bank is expected by government and the public to have some authoritative views on the state of the economy. To form these views, it is necessary to understand a very wide array of statistical indicators, including demographic statistics. The main population issues of concern are: size, location, and changes in the population of Australia as a whole and by State; labor force (including projections); age profile of Australia and by State. The major source for this information is the Australian Bureau of Statistics. More detailed patterns often emerge, particularly for individual States, from papers prepared by others. This information is used by Westpac in 3 main planning areas and 2 broad assessment areas: planning -- location of bank branches, products/services offered, and marketing of products/services; and assessment -- economic outlook (labor force, housing needs, demand for funds) and specific industries. Recently, Westpac restructured its organization to cater to the changing needs of customers and the changing geographic patterns of population spread. The bank now has 4 major groups: retail financial services for personal and commercial markets; corporate and international; management services; and group planning (includes economic department). To offer products that fit the market, the bank needs to know the characteristics of the population by age, spending patterns, lifestyle preferences, and investment needs. Within Australia, a relatively new service offered by most financial institutions, which is directly related to population issues, is a counseling service for retirees. Westpac has a product called Club 55, which is a package of services designed for persons who have retired or are planning to retire. Another clearly perceived community need is for

  3. Population and Environment

    PubMed Central

    de Sherbinin, Alex; Carr, David; Cassels, Susan; Jiang, Leiwen

    2009-01-01

    The interactions between human population dynamics and the environment have often been viewed mechanistically. This review elucidates the complexities and contextual specificities of population-environment relationships in a number of domains. It explores the ways in which demographers and other social scientists have sought to understand the relationships among a full range of population dynamics (e.g., population size, growth, density, age and sex composition, migration, urbanization, vital rates) and environmental changes. The chapter briefly reviews a number of the theories for understanding population and the environment and then proceeds to provide a state-of-the-art review of studies that have examined population dynamics and their relationship to five environmental issue areas. The review concludes by relating population-environment research to emerging work on human-environment systems. PMID:20011237

  4. [Population policies and population trends in China].

    PubMed

    Pressat, R

    1983-04-01

    Although relatively little has been known about the Chinese population in recent centuries, figures are available for more remote times. In the year 2 the Chinese population was recorded at 60 million. In 1928, when the last pre-Revolution census was conducted, China had a population of 475 million. The population was not believed to have grown very much due to internal disorders, war, and foreigh invasion, but the 1953 census counted 582 million to which were added 18 million to include Taiwan and overseas Chinese. The figure of 600 million appears to mark the beginning of concern over demographic problems. The crude birth rate was estimated at 37/1000 and the death rate at 17/1000. The 1953 census was conducted with Soviet aid and was given some publicity. The period 1953-58 was marked by a mortality decline and a steady fertility rate, but the population is believed to have declined from 647 million in 1958 to 643 million in 1962, the end of the Great Leap Forward. A census suppressed until recently gave a total of 694 million for 1964. Population growth was considerable from 1961-66. In the 1st part of the Cultural Revolution from 1966-70, no effort was made to control population growth; in 1971, the crude birth rate was estimated at 30-35/1000, the mortality rate was 8/1000, and the growth rate was 2.6%. 1971-79 marked the 1st phase of birth limitation, which became more pressing with time. The population was counted at 1 billion 8 million in 1982, with a birth rate of 21/1000, a death rate of 6/1000, and a growth rate of 1.5%. Because of China's comprehensive system of population registration, the results of the 1982 census were not completely unexpected. Wide differences in growth rates were noted between provinces, and the minorities grew at a faster rate than the Han majority. Immediately after the Revolution, population was relatively neglected in China in favor of greater attention to economic growth. The 1st warnings about the consequences of overly

  5. An analysis of the basic population structure of Shanghai Municipality.

    PubMed

    Shen, A

    1984-01-01

    This paper analyzes the changes in Shanghai's population structure over the last 30 years in the 4 aspects of age structure, sex composition, urban and rural composition, and labor and employment structure. In 1953 those of the 0 to 6 age group accounted for 21.2% of the total population; in 1957 the group represented a proportion of 24.6%. Since the 1960s, especially after the 1970s, the family planning program gradually took effect, and the birthrate of the entire municipality fell drastically. The number of school-age children in 1979 was 1 1/2 times more than the same age group in 1953; there should be no worry that population control may result in a shortage of manpower to meet the needs of the work force and the armed forces either toward the end of this century or at the beginning of the next. The economy in China is underdeveloped, production and technology remain at a low level, average wages for employees are low, and for a long time the low living standard of the people has shown little sign of improvement. The problem is mainly manifest in the following areas: 1) distribution of the work force in heavy and light industries is not sufficiently rational, 2) the distribution of the work force between captial construction and transport and communications on the 1 hand and the national economy on the other is out of proportion, 3) the distribution of the work force between commerce, service trades, and public utilities on the 1 hand and the national economy on the other is disproportionated, and 4) the distribution of the work force between undertakings of culture, education, scientific research, health, and medical care on the 1 hand and economic construction on the other is improper. How to control population growth and adjust parts of the population structure to suit the national economic development poses a problem that calls for further in-depth study and analysis to resolve it step by step. PMID:12314770

  6. Population information resources.

    PubMed

    Pasquariella, S K

    1984-12-01

    This article describes print and computerized services that are dedicated to bibliographic coverage of 1 or more areas of population studies. Major printed bibliographic information resources for population material include: ADOPT, DOCPAL Resumenes sobre Poblacion en America Latina, PIDSA Abstracts, Population Index and Review of Population Reviews. ADOPT is an annotated computer-aided current-awareness bibliographic journal which has been published monthly since January 1975 by the Regional Population Information Center of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP). DOCPAL Resumenes is a computer-produced biannual collection of abstracts containing indexes and between 600 and 700 summaries of both published and unpublished population documents. PIDSA is intended to make available documentary information about population matters in sub-Saharan Africa. Population Index, 1 of the oldest and most definitive bibliographies in the demography field, is international in scope and is arranged as a classified and annotated bibliography of monographs, journal articles and 2ndary source material relevant to all aspects of demography. Review of Population Reviews, published 4 times a year, are annotated bibliographies containing summaries of articles that have been published in 83 periodicals in 37 countries. Cited articles are assigned subject-heading descriptors from the Population Multilingual Thesaurus. Major computerized information resources are: DOCPAL, DOCPOP, EBIS/POPFILE, MANPINS, POPLINE and POPULATION BIBLIOGRAPHY. DOCPAL was established to assist Latin Ameran countries in the collection, storage, processing and retrieval of population documents about Latin America. DOCPAL contains over 19,000 bibliographic citations. DOCPOP was established as the 1st Latin American national computerized population documentation system for Brazilian material. POPLINE is a computerized retrieval service cooperatively produced in the US which covers the

  7. Population and development.

    PubMed

    Okita, S

    1989-03-01

    This speech on the life and work of Rafael Salas, who had been the first executive director of the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) and who contributed immensely to global awareness of population as a vital issue, inaugurated the Rafael M. Salas Lecture Series at the UN. Salas was concerned with individual rights and socioeconomic development while maintaining a balance between population and the environment. He built a large multinational assistance program for population activities and increased funding from $2.5 million in 1969 to $175 million to support 2500 projects in 130 developing countries. He organized both the 1974 World Population Conference and the 1984 International Conference on Population. In developing countries malnutrition and poverty are intertwined, lowering productivity and making people prone to diseases. Infant and child mortality rises with the malnutrition of mothers, therefore campaigns modelled after the postwar Japanese efforts are needed to improve nutrition, to train dietitians, and to introduce school lunch programs. Population stabilization could also be achieved in developing countries by raising income levels, although in Latin American countries birth rates have stayed the same despite increasing income. Direct measures are effective in reducing the birth rate: primary school education, increased income, improved nutrition, decline in infant mortality, higher status of women, and decisive governmental population policy. The Club of Rome report The Limits to Growth predicted that sometime in the 21st century a sudden decline in both population and industrial capacity will be reached at the present growth trends. PMID:12282132

  8. Population policies in perspective.

    PubMed

    Duden, B

    1992-01-01

    This paper consists of excerpts of the author's population chapter in The Development Dictionary: A Guide to Knowledge as Power. The author opens by noting the general tendency for people to fear and connote overpopulation when exposed to the term population. Population evokes emotional, value-laden paranoia among populations of industrialized countries, who fear that the rapid population growth of developing countries will lead to a world dominated by individuals of yellow and brown skin complexion. Populations grow, consume, pollute, need, demand, and are entitled. They are objects which can be acted upon, controlled, developed, and limited. As such, the author presents her view of how population has been transformed over 40 years of development discourse and the social realities engendered by its use. She contends that the term has become a tool for the verbal extermination of people. The discussion is presented in brief sections under the following headings: how people became populations, birth control for development, and population control for survival. PMID:12286349

  9. Costs of children--benefit theory and population control.

    PubMed

    Tian, X

    1989-01-01

    In order to stem the rising fertility and growth rates in China, new theories and measures are needed. The author suggests new insights into the relationships between reproductive behavior and economic interests, regulation of individual reproductive behavior by such economic interests, and governmental performance with these interests in mind. Topics are devoted to the benefit theory about the costs of children, trends in Chinese children's costs and benefits, and family planning (FP) based on children's costs and benefits. Natural biological law governed people's reproductive behavior and the number of offspring until there was control over human reproduction. Factors which determine the desired number of children can be economic, cultural, political, historical, or geographical. In modern times and with the commercialism of society, children have been sometimes viewed as commodities and Western economists (Becker and Leibenstein) have theorized the cost benefit ratio to parents. Expected positive benefits are support, labor force contribution, and family happiness. Negative benefits are the direct and indirect costs in time and money raising children. Children are produced where benefits are positive, and where benefits and costs are equal, circumstances will determine the result. No children will be produced when costs exceed benefits. The concept of net costs is described. Chinese trends indicate a direction toward a market oriented economy. Instead of following Western theory, as economic development has advanced rapidly the value of children has grown. The reasons are explained as marginal children may still bring benefits in a market where the function of regulation of a labor market is limited, children still render better support for their parents without a developed social security system, and boys are expected to secure their families fortunes during the changing economic conditions. The author recognizes that other conditions such as the number of

  10. Population education resources.

    PubMed

    Larkin, R P; Peters, G L

    1981-01-01

    This article provides information on those population education materials and services which are available from the Population Reference Bureau (PRB) and explores their usefulness in secondary school and college environments. PRB data sheets are a most useful source of information. Demographic and socioeconomic information (birth and death rates, natural increase, population doubling times, projections for the year 2000, life expectancies, per capita gross national product, etc.) are included. The World's Women Data Sheet is a special publication issued to mark the midway point of the UN Decade for Women. 161 countries are included with information on demographic, health, employment, and educational status of women. There is a nominal cost for these data sheets. To help students learn about population dynamics and world patterns of population, mapping exercises can be developed. The Population Bulletin is published 6 times/year and each issue concentrates on specific aspects of population. The 28 bulletins which have been published since January 1976 are listed. The PRB Chart Series is a multicolor graphic presentation of topical issues in population and development trends worldwide. A total of 26 charts in 4 series have been produced and cover such topics as world population growth, urbanization, world energy consumption, age structure in the U.S., and adolescent pregnancy in the U.S. This material is best used with high school students. A monthly international population news magazine called Intercom is desinged to inform about worldwide trends and activities in population and family planning. It is published in both English and Spanish and is a useful source of current information in capsulized form. For population educators there is the bimonthly newsletter Interchange. PRB's teaching-learning modules are valuable publications for teachers. Thus far there are 9, each of which is a self-contained unit with classroom activities for junior high to college students

  11. A man with a worrying potassium deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Tabasum, A; Shute, C; Datta, D; George, L

    2014-01-01

    Summary Hypokalaemia may present as muscle cramps and Cardiac arrhythmias. This is a condition commonly encountered by endocrinologists and general physicians alike. Herein, we report the case of a 43-year-old gentleman admitted with hypokalaemia, who following subsequent investigations was found to have Gitelman's syndrome (GS). This rare, inherited, autosomal recessive renal tubular disorder is associated with genetic mutations in the thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride co-transporter and magnesium channels in the distal convoluted tubule. Patients with GS typically presents at an older age, and a spectrum of clinical presentations exists, from being asymptomatic to predominant muscular symptoms. Clinical suspicion should be raised in those with hypokalaemic metabolic alkalosis associated with hypomagnesaemia. Treatment of GS consists of long-term potassium and magnesium salt replacement. In general, the long-term prognosis in terms of preserved renal function and life expectancy is excellent. Herein, we discuss the biochemical imbalance in the aetiology of GS, and the case report highlights the need for further investigations in patients with recurrent hypokalaemic episodes. Learning points Recurrent hypokalaemia with no obvious cause warrants investigation for hereditary renal tubulopathies.GS is the most common inherited renal tubulopathy with a prevalence of 25 per million people.GS typically presents at an older age and clinical suspicion should be raised in those with hypokalaemic metabolic alkalosis associated with hypomagnesaemia.Confirmation of diagnosis is by molecular analysis for mutation in the SLC12A3 gene. PMID:24683481

  12. [Some worries about Dendrobium officinale industry].

    PubMed

    Li, Guang; Lu, Juan; Chen, Xi

    2013-02-01

    In recent years, with the continuous development of the industry of Dendrobium officinale, the technological alliance on CEEUSRO has been established. However, many problems also exposed with the rapid expansion of the industry, such as weak basic research, single species of the product, lack of in-depth studies and difficult to guarantee the quality. Industrial foam was gradually formed. To guard against the D. officinale becoming another "Puer Tea" , the authors believe that the key to sustainable development of the industry is enterprises and research institutes should strengthen basic research, speed up development of application of integrated innovations, government should strengthen guidance, regulate the operation of the market, then protect the quality of D. officinale in the market. PMID:23713266

  13. Should You Worry about School Violence?

    MedlinePlus

    ... schools safer is greater awareness of problems like bullying and discrimination. Many schools have started programs to ... obsession with violent movies or playing violent games bullying or threatening other people cruelty to pets or ...

  14. Flexibility on SES Pleases Districts, Worries Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2011-01-01

    The author reports on some $800 million in money set aside for Supplemental Education Services which is being freed up under the Obama administration's NCLB waiver plan. The U.S. Department of Education's plan to grant states broad flexibility under the No Child Left Behind Act will free up as much as $800 million in money school districts now…

  15. Washing Away the Worries About Germs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Fresh fruits and vegetables have been in demand by orbiting astronauts since the early days of the Space Shuttle. As one can imagine, however, oranges, onions, tomatoes, garlic, and other fresh items can provide a cornucopia of smells in a closed environment such as the Space Shuttle or the International Space Station (ISS), especially when they begin to perish. It does not help that they are loaded onto the Space Shuttle up to 24 hours in advance of a launch, and that the on-orbit shelf life is just 2 to 3 days for most, due to a lack of refrigeration. While such produce adds significant variety to astronauts diets and increases their morale, the odor that emanates from it as it ages can cause nausea. One of the last things astronauts need is associating this healthy fare with feelings of nausea. NASA is currently investigating the use of a commercial sanitation product it helped develop with private industry to thoroughly cleanse and, thus, increase the shelf life of fruits and vegetables being sent into space. Meanwhile, this product is ripe for the picking for consumers looking to do the same, and more, on Earth.

  16. Human Capital Key Worry for Reformers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2008-01-01

    Corporations have been striving to perfect the "people side" of their operations for decades. Most hunt aggressively for the right talent, train workers to produce at high levels, and reward top performers with promotions and higher pay. In public education, though, school districts have been more passive in managing this vital asset. Most rely on…

  17. Should we worry about income inequality?

    PubMed

    Wade, Robert Hunter

    2006-01-01

    Liberals (in the European sense) argue that a liberal free-market economic policy regime-nationally and globally-is good for economic growth and poverty reduction and for keeping income inequality within tolerable limits. Second, they argue that substantial income inequality is desirable because of its good effects on other things, notably incentives, innovation, and panache; and conversely, they dismiss concerns about growing inequality as "the politics of envy." Third, they argue that the core liberal theory of capitalist political economy satisfactorily explains the central tendencies in the role of the state in advanced capitalist economies. This essay challenges all three arguments on both conceptual and empirical grounds. It then suggests why the arguments are nevertheless widely accepted, proposes criteria for deciding how much inequality is fair, and ends by suggesting ways for achieving higher salience for income redistribution (downwards) in political agendas. PMID:16878393

  18. Planned Topaz 2 launch worries space scientists

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, G.M.

    1993-02-01

    US plans to launch into orbit a Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) experiment powered by a Russian-supplied Topaz 2 space reactor has raised objections from some space scientists. They say that radiation from the reactor could adversely affect about a dozen present and future scientific satellites - such as the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) launched in 1991 - by disrupting instruments and computers, and causing damage. In response, SDIO said it is working to address the concerns of the scientific community.

  19. Researchers warn of 'worrying imprudence' over cuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2012-08-01

    Italian physicists reacted with anger to proposed cuts to the country's research funding. Particularly hard hit would be the National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), which has been slated to absorb nearly half of the €120m reduction in the research ministry's budget as outlined in a decree on 6 July.

  20. As Credit Crisis Chills Campuses, Worries Mount

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Robin

    2008-01-01

    When the stock market plunged 778 points last week, losing almost 9% of its value in one day, higher education responded in an uncharacteristic way: It began to buckle. Colleges have often considered themselves recession-proof. However, last week's events compounded an already difficult year for many institutions, which have suffered from…

  1. Populations, Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Berkeley. Science Curriculum Improvement Study.

    The Science Curriculum Improvement Study has developed this teacher's guide to "Populations," the third part of a six-unit life science curriculum sequence. The six basic units, emphasizing organism-environment interactions, are organisms, life cycles, populations, environments, communities, and ecosystems; and they make use of scientific and…

  2. World Population Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Paul R.; Ehrlich, Anne H.

    1986-01-01

    Rapid population growth, rising competition for resources, and increasing environmental deterioration are intertwined factors in the human predicament that feed political tensions and conflicts of the late twentieth century. Outlines dimensions of this predicament (including data on population, growth, military spending, quality of life, and…

  3. Measuring Populations, Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillner, Harry

    This autoinstructional lesson dealing with the study of population growth is the second part of a two-part sequence. This is a learning activity for high school students who have completed Part 1 of "Measuring Populations" and are capable of using a microscope and of preparing slides to be observed. The behavioral objectives, both general and…

  4. The Population Threat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Robert S.

    1969-01-01

    In an address delivered at the University of Notre Dame, May 1969, Secretary McNamara discussed the threat of unmanageable population pressure which is undervalued and misunderstood by the general public. Unrestricted population growth will have catastrophic consequences unless it is dealt with rapidly and rationally. Copies from: Office of…

  5. Junior Biology, Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton City Board of Education (Ontario).

    Twenty-one studies related to populations are included in this student manual for a junior high school biology course. Each activity or study provides questions, diagrams, experiments, and/or descriptive material to which the student must respond. Population studies pertain to individual plants and animals, their physical environments, reactions…

  6. Population. Headline Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheimer, Valerie K.

    Useful as background reading or secondary classroom material, this pamphlet reviews several dimensions of world population growth and control. The first of seven chapters, World Population Growth: Past, Present and Future, discusses some of the reasons for the greatly accelerated growth since 1950, and points out that even significantly rapid…

  7. Teaching Notes on Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Center for International Programs and Cooperative Services.

    This newsletter is designed to serve as a clearinghouse for the exchange of ideas and information on new strategies of teaching and instructional resources about population in colleges and universities. The first article discusses some of the contemporary problems faced in teaching population studies to undergraduates. The second article outlines…

  8. Population Trends and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauldin, W. Parker

    1980-01-01

    Future trends in population are described as they relate to developed and developing nations. It is suggested that for the next 20 years there will be a decrease in population growth rates for all areas of the world except Africa. (Author/SA)

  9. The Population Activist's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Inst., Washington, DC.

    This handbook is a guide to effective action strategies on dealing with overpopulation. Divided into five sections, the book outlines programs, suggests references, and lists resources that are helpful for thinking and for planning action on population issues. Section one focuses on strategies to change the current population policy choices made…

  10. Mentoring Special Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, Keith E.; Edwards, Christopher L.

    2011-01-01

    Mentorship is critical for career development. Members of special populations are at increased risk of information shortfalls and advice that is not framed with cultural sensitivity. Special knowledge and skills are needed to successfully mentor members of ethnic minority and other special populations. Midlevel and senior scientists need…

  11. Diversity of Poissonian populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo I.; Sokolov, Igor M.

    2010-01-01

    Populations represented by collections of points scattered randomly on the real line are ubiquitous in science and engineering. The statistical modeling of such populations leads naturally to Poissonian populations—Poisson processes on the real line with a distinguished maximal point. Poissonian populations are infinite objects underlying key issues in statistical physics, probability theory, and random fractals. Due to their infiniteness, measuring the diversity of Poissonian populations depends on the lower-bound cut-off applied. This research characterizes the classes of Poissonian populations whose diversities are invariant with respect to the cut-off level applied and establishes an elemental connection between these classes and extreme-value theory. The measures of diversity considered are variance and dispersion, Simpson’s index and inverse participation ratio, Shannon’s entropy and Rényi’s entropy, and Gini’s index.

  12. Quantifying Health Across Populations.

    PubMed

    Kershnar, Stephen

    2016-07-01

    In this article, I argue that as a theoretical matter, a population's health-level is best quantified via averagism. Averagism asserts that the health of a population is the average of members' health-levels. This model is better because it does not fall prey to a number of objections, including the repugnant conclusion, and because it is not arbitrary. I also argue that as a practical matter, population health-levels are best quantified via totalism. Totalism asserts that the health of a population is the sum of members' health-levels. Totalism is better here because it fits better with cost-benefit analysis and such an analysis is the best practical way to value healthcare outcomes. The two results are compatible because the theoretical and practical need not always align, whether in general or in the context of population health. PMID:26766584

  13. Shifts that divide population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muneepeerakul, Rachata; Qubbaj, Murad; Aggarwal, Rimjhim; Anderies, John M.; Janssen, Marco

    2014-05-01

    How does a population of organisms in an ecosystem or of people in a society respond to rapid shifts in the environment? Answers to this question are critical to our ability to anticipate and cope with a changing ecohydrological system. We have developed a generic model of adaptation mechanisms, based on replicator dynamics, in which we derive a simple and insightful threshold condition that separates two important types of responses: 'cohesive transition' in which the whole population changes gradually together, and 'population-dividing transition' in which the population splits into two groups with one eventually dominating the other. The threshold depends on the magnitude of the shift and the shape of the fitness landscape. Division in populations can fundamentally alter the functioning of and induce subsequent feedbacks within the system; knowing the condition that gives rise to such division is thus fundamentally important.

  14. Understanding population health terminology.

    PubMed

    Kindig, David A

    2007-01-01

    Population health is a relatively new term, with no agreement about whether it refers to a concept of health or a field of study of health determinants. There is debate, sometimes heated, about whether population health and public health are identical or different. Discussions of population health involve many terms, such as outcomes, disparities, determinants, and risk factors, which may be used imprecisely, particularly across different disciplines, such as medicine, epidemiology, economics, and sociology. Nonetheless, thinking and communicating clearly about population health concepts are essential for public and private policymakers to improve the population's health and reduce disparities. This article defines and discusses many of the terms and concepts characterizing this emerging field. PMID:17319809

  15. Cairo: repackaging population control.

    PubMed

    Simons, H

    1995-01-01

    Aid agencies, charities, and other nongovernmental organizations once denounced population control programs as racist interference in the third world. Yet, at the United Nations Conference on Population and Development in Cairo last September, these same organizations endorsed very similar ideas. The U.N. can now claim that even its fiercest critics not only have muted their criticism of population control programs but now positively endorse them. Over the last 30 years, population control has been consciously repackaged by the U.S. establishment. The image of population control has changed from being overtly anti-third world to being about giving the people of the third world--especially women--basic rights in family planning. Wrapped up in the language of women's empowerment and environmentalism, the establishment's old arguments about there being too many nonwhite babies in the world, have, unfortunately, won the day. PMID:7591381

  16. Global population growth.

    PubMed

    Langmore, J

    1992-07-01

    The global population passed 5 billion in 1987. In the year 2000 the world's population will be more than 6 billion, increasing by 90-100 million each year. About 95% of future demographic growth will take place in developing countries. The number of school age children is projected to increase from 940 million in 1980 to 1280 million by the year 2000. Under current labor force growth projections in developing countries, around 1.6 billion new jobs will have to be created between 1980 and 2025, with nearly 1 billion of them in Asia. Population often increases at a more rapid rate than agricultural growth. Food production per capita has declined in 70 developing countries. Much of the projected population increase will take place in environmentally fragile regions of the developing world. Population pressures contribute to deforestation, desertification, and scarcity of clean water. The United Nations Population Fund has estimated that in Asia over 43% of women not using family planning would like to postpone, space, or limit their childbearing. Over half of the world's couples of reproductive age are now using contraception. Family planning to postpone the first birth and to eliminate late child bearing would reduce both child loss and maternal illness and death. Both infant and maternal mortality are greater with higher order births. Reducing average family size is an effective way of reducing infant and maternal mortality. The World Bank has given high priority to population assistance, with large programs in Bangladesh, Egypt, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. Population assistance provided by the Australian International Development Assistance Bureau totaled about $4.5 million during 1989-90 and is expected to be about $8 million during 1991-92. Australia should increase the proportion of its development assistance budget devoted to population, and family planning programs should increase to around $26 million in line with other major donors

  17. The population threat.

    PubMed

    Teitelbaum, M S

    1992-01-01

    Commentary is provided on the challenges faced by the new Clinton administration in formulating US key foreign policy initiatives. There is an urgent need to provide balanced and effective foreign aid for reducing high fertility rates in the developing world. There is also a need to effectively monitor the large migrations of populations. Over the past 10 years, the US has not been actively practicing world leadership on population issues. 3 changes in 1993 give impetus to redirect foreign policy: 1) the waning influence of fringe groups who controlled population issues; 2) the campaign promises to restore UN population stabilization programs; and 3) the evidence from the Persian Gulf and Yugoslavia that demographic issues require planning and assessment. Global population growth has been concentrated in the past 40 years, in part due to mortality declines and sustained high fertility. Of significance is the rapidness and momentum of growth. A high percentage are and will be children. Urban population is also growing rapidly in high fertility countries. Countries with high fertility and significant rural-to-urban migration also have large international migrations. The evolution of policy since the 1950s, which for the most part ignored population issues, is discussed. The American debates have been charged with emotionalism: about human sexuality, legitimacy of voluntary fertility control, the role and status of women and men, abortion, intergenerational transfer of obligations, ethnic solidarity and the sovereignty of national borders, and the proper roles of the state versus the marketplace. There have been over 200 years of ideological argument over population issues. The Malthusian argument was that large population size did not increase prosperity, and growth should be limited. The Marxist-Leninist position was that contraception was Malthusian, abortion was a woman's right, and population growth was neutral. By late 1970 the Chinese Maoists adopted the moral

  18. Public attitudes towards genomic risk profiling as a component of routine population screening1

    PubMed Central

    Nicholls, S.G.; Wilson, B.J.; Craigie, S.M.; Etchegary, H.; Castle, D.; Carroll, J.C.; Potter, B.K.; Lemyre, L.; Little, J.

    2016-01-01

    Including low penetrance genomic variants in population-based screening might enable personalization of screening intensity and follow up. The application of genomics in this way requires formal evaluation. Even if clinically beneficial, uptake would still depend on the attitudes of target populations. We developed a deliberative workshop on two hypothetical applications (in colorectal cancer and newborn screening) in which we applied stepped, neutrally-framed, information sets. Data were collected using nonparticipant observation, free-text comments by individual participants, and a structured survey. Qualitative data were transcribed and analyzed using thematic content analysis. Eight workshops were conducted with 170 individuals (120 colorectal cancer screening and 50 newborn screening for type 1 diabetes). The use of information sets promoted informed deliberation. In both contexts, attitudes appeared to be heavily informed by assessments of the likely validity of the test results and its personal and health care utility. Perceived benefits included the potential for early intervention, prevention, and closer monitoring while concerns related to costs, education needs regarding the probabilistic nature of risk, the potential for worry, and control of access to personal genomic information. Differences between the colorectal cancer and newborn screening groups appeared to reflect different assessments of potential personal utility, particularly regarding prevention. PMID:24237344

  19. Population trends of forest birds at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Camp, Richard J.; Pratt, Thane K.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Jeffrey, John J.; Woodworth, Bethany L.

    2010-01-01

    The Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge was established to protect native Hawaiian forest birds, particularly endangered species. Management for forest restoration on the refuge has consisted mainly of removing feral ungulates, controlling invasive alien plants, and reforesting former pastures. To assess effects of this habitat improvement for forest birds, we estimated density annually by distance sampling and examined population trends for native and alien passerines over the 21 years since the refuge was established. We examined long-term trends and recent short-term trajectories in three study areas: (1) reforested pastureland, (2) heavily grazed open forest that was recovering, and (3) lightly grazed closed forest that was relatively intact. Three species of native birds and two species of alien birds had colonized the reforested pasture and were increasing. In the open forest, densities of all eight native species were either stable or increasing. Long-term trends for alien birds were also generally stable or increasing. Worryingly, however, during the most recent 9 years, in the open forest trajectories of native species were decreasing or inconclusive, but in the reforested pasture they generally increased. The closed forest was surveyed in only the most recent 9 years, and trajectories of native species there were mixed. Overall, long-term population trends in Hakalau are stable or increasing, contrasting with declines in most other areas of Hawai'i over the same period. However, more recent mixed results may indicate emergent problems for this important bird area.

  20. Hanford Area 2000 Population

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas B.; Scott, Michael J.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Rhoads, Kathleen

    2004-05-28

    This report was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office, Surface Environmental Surveillance Project, to provide demographic data required for ongoing environmental assessments and safety analyses at the DOE Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. This document includes 2000 Census estimates for the resident population within an 80-kilometer (50-mile) radius of the Hanford Site. Population distributions are reported relative to five reference points centered on meteorological stations within major operating areas of the Hanford Site - the 100 F, 100 K, 200, 300, and 400 Areas. These data are presented in both graphical and tabular format, and are provided for total populations residing within 80 km (50 mi) of the reference points, as well as for Native American, Hispanic and Latino, total minority, and low-income populations.

  1. AMPHIBIAN POPULATION DYNAMICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Agriculture has contributed to loss of vertebrate biodiversity in many regions, including the U.S. Corn Belt. Amphibian populations, in particular, have experienced widespread and often inexplicable declines, range reductions, and extinctions. However, few attempts have been made...

  2. Parallel grid population

    DOEpatents

    Wald, Ingo; Ize, Santiago

    2015-07-28

    Parallel population of a grid with a plurality of objects using a plurality of processors. One example embodiment is a method for parallel population of a grid with a plurality of objects using a plurality of processors. The method includes a first act of dividing a grid into n distinct grid portions, where n is the number of processors available for populating the grid. The method also includes acts of dividing a plurality of objects into n distinct sets of objects, assigning a distinct set of objects to each processor such that each processor determines by which distinct grid portion(s) each object in its distinct set of objects is at least partially bounded, and assigning a distinct grid portion to each processor such that each processor populates its distinct grid portion with any objects that were previously determined to be at least partially bounded by its distinct grid portion.

  3. Population genetics of Lithuanians.

    PubMed

    Ku inskas, V

    2001-01-01

    The primary objective of this article was to overview the present-day knowledge on genetic features of the Lithuanian population. Genetic differentiation within the Lithuanian population and the relationship between Lithuanians and other European populations was analysed by means of blood groups, serum protein polymorphisms and DNA markers including mtDNA. The results of the research have shown small differences between present-day Lithuanian ethnolinguistic groups, which probably go back to the prehistoric Baltic tribal structure. The Baltic peoples show a mixture of eastern and western genetic traits, e.g. a high frequency of the blood group B combined with a very high frequency of the Rh-negative blood group. Studies of the Baltic 'tribal gene' LWb indicate the presence of a considerable Baltic admixture in the neighbouring Finno-Ugric and Slavic populations. PMID:11201326

  4. Population Education. Awareness Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouse, Deborah E.

    1990-01-01

    Described are awareness activities that deal with human population growth, resources, and the environment. Activities include simulations, mathematical exercises, and discussions of the topic. Specific examples of what individuals can do to help are listed. (KR)

  5. Modeling Honey Bee Populations

    PubMed Central

    Torres, David J.; Ricoy, Ulises M.; Roybal, Shanae

    2015-01-01

    Eusocial honey bee populations (Apis mellifera) employ an age stratification organization of egg, larvae, pupae, hive bees and foraging bees. Understanding the recent decline in honey bee colonies hinges on understanding the factors that impact each of these different age castes. We first perform an analysis of steady state bee populations given mortality rates within each bee caste and find that the honey bee colony is highly susceptible to hive and pupae mortality rates. Subsequently, we study transient bee population dynamics by building upon the modeling foundation established by Schmickl and Crailsheim and Khoury et al. Our transient model based on differential equations accounts for the effects of pheromones in slowing the maturation of hive bees to foraging bees, the increased mortality of larvae in the absence of sufficient hive bees, and the effects of food scarcity. We also conduct sensitivity studies and show the effects of parameter variations on the colony population. PMID:26148010

  6. Food for tomorrow's population.

    PubMed

    Hugo, G

    1983-06-01

    This discussion outlines and clarifies the dimensions of the world's current food-population balance and examines likely future changes in this balance over the next 20 years. The 1st section summarizes the contemporary world demographic situation in the early 1980s, focusing on regional differences in patterns of population growth and the significant food shortages in the developing countries. A subsequent section considers the outlook for population growth up to the year 2000 with particular reference to the most recent UN population projects. The discussion of food production and supply includes some specific comments on the situation in Indonesia. The world's population in 1983 has been estimated at 4677 million. It will reach 5 billion in the next 5 years. The countries which can least afford it are growing the fastest. These countries will account for 79% of the world's population in 2000 and 83% by 2020. Fertility in the less developed countries (LDCs) is twice that of more developed countries, with women in the former group having an average of around 4.5 children and in the latter, 1.9. The substantial declines in fertility in many countries are not fully reflected in declines in population growth and natural increase rates. This is because of major improvements which have occurred in mortality. During recent decades there has been a marked increase in world food production. In the developed countries increases in food production have continued at more than twice those for population, but this was not the case in the less developed countries where the margin narrowed during the 1950s and 1960s until in the early 1970s population was increasing at a slightly faster rate overall than was food production. Food crisis situations continue to occur with disturbing frequency in several regions. Seasonal, regional, and national variations in food shortages are not the only dimensions to food-population imbalances. Within nations there is inequality in access to

  7. Pharmacogenetics in Jewish populations

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yao; Peter, Inga; Scott, Stuart A.

    2014-01-01

    Spanning over 2000 years, the Jewish population has a long history of migration, population bottlenecks, expansions, and geographical isolation, which has resulted in a unique genetic architecture among the Jewish people. As such, many Mendelian disease genes and founder mutations for autosomal recessive diseases have been discovered in several Jewish groups, which have prompted recent genomic studies in the Jewish population on common disease susceptibility and other complex traits. Although few studies on the genetic determinants of drug response variability have been reported in the Jewish population, a number of unique pharmacogenetic variants have been discovered that are more common in Jewish populations than in other major racial groups. Notable examples identified in the Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) population include the vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) c.106G>T (p.D36Y) variant associated with high warfarin dosing requirements and the recently reported cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) allele, CYP2C19*4B, that harbors both loss-of-function [*4 (c.1A>G)] and increased-function [*17 (c.−806C>T)] variants on the same haplotype. These data are encouraging in that like other ethnicities and subpopulations, the Jewish population likely harbors numerous pharmacogenetic variants that are uncommon or absent in other larger racial groups and ethnicities. In addition to unique variants, common multi-ethnic variants in key drug metabolism genes (e.g., ABCB1, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, NAT2) have also been detected in the AJ and other Jewish groups. This review aims to summarize the currently available pharmacogenetics literature and discuss future directions for related research with this unique population. PMID:24867283

  8. Extinction of oscillating populations.

    PubMed

    Smith, Naftali R; Meerson, Baruch

    2016-03-01

    Established populations often exhibit oscillations in their sizes that, in the deterministic theory, correspond to a limit cycle in the space of population sizes. If a population is isolated, the intrinsic stochasticity of elemental processes can ultimately bring it to extinction. Here we study extinction of oscillating populations in a stochastic version of the Rosenzweig-MacArthur predator-prey model. To this end we develop a WKB (Wentzel, Kramers and Brillouin) approximation to the master equation, employing the characteristic population size as the large parameter. Similar WKB theories have been developed previously in the context of population extinction from an attracting multipopulation fixed point. We evaluate the extinction rates and find the most probable paths to extinction from the limit cycle by applying Floquet theory to the dynamics of an effective four-dimensional WKB Hamiltonian. We show that the entropic barriers to extinction change in a nonanalytic way as the system passes through the Hopf bifurcation. We also study the subleading pre-exponential factors of the WKB approximation. PMID:27078294

  9. Extinction of oscillating populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Naftali R.; Meerson, Baruch

    2016-03-01

    Established populations often exhibit oscillations in their sizes that, in the deterministic theory, correspond to a limit cycle in the space of population sizes. If a population is isolated, the intrinsic stochasticity of elemental processes can ultimately bring it to extinction. Here we study extinction of oscillating populations in a stochastic version of the Rosenzweig-MacArthur predator-prey model. To this end we develop a WKB (Wentzel, Kramers and Brillouin) approximation to the master equation, employing the characteristic population size as the large parameter. Similar WKB theories have been developed previously in the context of population extinction from an attracting multipopulation fixed point. We evaluate the extinction rates and find the most probable paths to extinction from the limit cycle by applying Floquet theory to the dynamics of an effective four-dimensional WKB Hamiltonian. We show that the entropic barriers to extinction change in a nonanalytic way as the system passes through the Hopf bifurcation. We also study the subleading pre-exponential factors of the WKB approximation.

  10. [Population and food scarcity].

    PubMed

    Castro, E S

    1995-07-01

    Rapid population growth and increasing industrialization threaten to exhaust the world's natural resources, while the air, water, and soil are contaminated by wastes. Efforts to modify processes endangering man's survival are merely local palliatives. World population increased by 2 billion in the past 10 years. El Salvador's population is growing at 2% annually and now exceeds 5 million. These facts are well known, but the average person does not feel personally affected by them, trusting in scientific and technological progress to solve problems. The reality is that 2/3 of the world's people are vulnerable to hunger. Technological advances in agriculture have been outpaced by rapid population growth. Droughts and other climatic disturbances lead to hunger, and lost harvests constitute calamities. El Salvador's ecological situation is critical, with widespread degradation of agricultural lands. Thousands of hectares are lost each year. The high cost of basic foods is due to the collapse of agricultural production, itself a result of poor planning. El Salvador has become an importer of many essential foodstuffs. Experts have predicted that rapid population growth will soon mean that the country is no longer able to produce all the food it needs. Campaigns for responsible parenthood are needed to slow population growth. Couples should decide how many children to have based on their ability to support and educate them. The government should adopt a realistic position and encourage responsible parenthood, with free medical advice and family planning services for those desiring to avoid pregnancy. PMID:12179419

  11. Population growth and consumption.

    PubMed

    Chalkley, K

    1997-04-01

    The relationship between population growth, resource consumption, and environmental degradation is complex. The rise in "greenhouse gases" that will cause climatic change is clearly due to human activity, and pollutants are often concentrated in densely populated areas. However, even an area with a negative population growth, such as Russia, can experience severe environmental degradation due to poor management. Consumption patterns have the most effect on ozone depletion, while population growth threatens biodiversity of and within species through the destruction of ecosystems. Migration joins population growth and social factors, such as land inequality, as major causes of deforestation, and global demand for water is expected to increase faster than the rate of population growth. Coastal development and over-fishing threaten to deplete the oceans, while soil quality is threatened by inappropriate land use. Estimates of the earth's carrying capacity range from less than 3 billion to more than 44 billion people, indicating how difficult it is to assess this figure. Development efforts throughout the world may lead to human gains that will ultimately be negated by environmental losses. These factors have led to growing support for environmentally sustainable development. PMID:12319715

  12. Population and human health.

    PubMed

    Hefnawi, F I; Ahmed, W

    1982-01-01

    The nature, proportions, causes, effects and cures of the Egyptian population crisis are analyzed. If the world population growth rate of 2% continues by the year 2000 a population of 6.5 billion can be expected. By 2115 the world population will have doubled. The greatest increase in population is made by developing countries, e.g. Egypt's population will double in 25 years, Turkey's in 26 years, and Algeria's in 21 years. National health goals become increasingly difficult to achieve under these conditions. For overpopulated countries the options of migration, resource transfer, and fertility control have both positive and negative effects. For Egypt, migration of medical manpower is a major factor responsible for low health standards. Technology transferred from developed countries to assist overpopulated developing countries to increase production of all resources is a slow procedure. Fertility control will slow population growth, reduce maternal morbidity, create smaller families which may result in better psychological family health and therefore better level of job performance. It will also permit women to participate in the work force more easily and earn independent incomes. The effects of health improvement have also been positive and negative in Egypt. The Egyptian population is still growing at a rate .3% higher than the world rate. This situation has resulted from a decline in the death rate rather than in an increase in fertility. The death rate dropped from 32.9 in 1937 to 26.8 in 1947 to 15.8 in 1967. Fertility is close to 5.5 which is no higher than the world average. The drop in death rattes is due to better sanitation, extension of medical services, immunization campaigns, expansiion of health education and greater availability of foo. Reduction of morbidity coupled with health improvement is hoped to foster increased acceptance of fertility control, increased population attention to and acceptance of fertility counseling and increased funding

  13. CITIES WITH 1990 POPULATION TOTALS AND 1999 POPULATION ESTIMATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Point locations represent cities with 1990 Census population totals and 1999 Census population estimates. Cities represent Census Designated Place (CDP) as classified by the US Bureau of the Census. CDP comprise densely settled concentrations of population that are identifiable...

  14. Concerns About Cancer Risk and Experiences With Genetic Testing in a Diverse Population of Patients With Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jagsi, Reshma; Griffith, Kent A.; Kurian, Allison W.; Morrow, Monica; Hamilton, Ann S.; Graff, John J.; Katz, Steven J.; Hawley, Sarah T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate preferences for and experiences with genetic testing in a diverse cohort of patients with breast cancer identified through population-based registries, with attention to differences by race/ethnicity. Methods We surveyed women diagnosed with nonmetastatic breast cancer from 2005 to 2007, as reported to the SEER registries of metropolitan Los Angeles and Detroit, about experiences with hereditary risk evaluation. Multivariable models evaluated correlates of a strong desire for genetic testing, unmet need for discussion with a health care professional, and receipt of testing. Results Among 1,536 patients who completed the survey, 35% expressed strong desire for genetic testing, 28% reported discussing testing with a health care professional, and 19% reported test receipt. Strong desire for testing was more common in younger women, Latinas, and those with family history. Minority patients were significantly more likely to have unmet need for discussion (failure to discuss genetic testing with a health professional when they had a strong desire for testing): odds ratios of 1.68, 2.44, and 7.39 for blacks, English-speaking Latinas, and Spanish-speaking Latinas compared with whites, respectively. Worry in the long-term survivorship period was higher among those with unmet need for discussion (48.7% v 24.9%; P <.001). Patients who received genetic testing were younger, less likely to be black, and more likely to have a family cancer history. Conclusion Many patients, especially minorities, express a strong desire for genetic testing and may benefit from discussion to clarify risks. Clinicians should discuss genetic risk even with patients they perceive to be at low risk, as this may reduce worry. PMID:25847940

  15. The Population Multilingual Thesaurus.

    PubMed

    1982-04-01

    The idea of a multilingual thesaurus to facilitate indexing and retrieval of population information came about when the UN Population Commission expressed interest, in 1973, in computerizing demographic information along the lines developed by UNESCO in the social sciences; it was recommended that the Population Division of the UN Secretariat collaborate with the Committee for International Cooperation in National Research in Demography, with financial support from UNFPA. Work was begun in 1975 by a group of experts with a diversity of interests encompassing demography, population studies, and family planning. The Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques (INED) made its computer equipment available to the project. The resulting Population Multilingual Thesaurus (PMT) was published in August 1979 in English, Spanish, and French. The PMT is an important tool for documentation units and essential for the effective operation of the Population Information Network. Efforts were made to include all terminology pertinent to analysis of demographic and socioeconomic information, and relevant to problems and characteristics of differing geographical areas. Attention was given to compatability with other relevant vocabularies, in particular the Macrothesaurus for Information Processing in the Field of Economic and Social Development published by OECD. Recommendations and guidelines from a POPIN Working Group on the Management of the PMT which met in March 1982 are presented under the following headings: harmonization (PMT and Macrothesaurus; PMT and specifically population oriented thesauri); geographic names; possible expansion; reporting additional terms; deletion of unnecessary terms; priorities in thesaurus related activities (maintenance of PMT given priority over development of micro thesauri). The role of INED in the maintenance of the PMT through electronic data processing is described, including the modules used for online management. PMID:12312008

  16. Population, science, and technology.

    PubMed

    1979-08-01

    In the past 10 years, concepts of population and its determinants and consequences have broadened. Adoption of the World Population Plan of Action by 135 governments in 1974 demonstrated that consensus had been achieved on the role of population in the context of development; it was no longer popularly viewed as eternal to the process--it had become the focal point of development. The population session of a Colloquium to be held in Vienna in August will seek, out of a spirit of concern for "humanity in technology" to describe the current demographic scene and identify the issues most in need of attention. The major challenges of the 1980s appear to be the spatial distribution of population; the fertility patterns of the new generation of youth; access to educational and training opportunities; the status of women; and community responsibility to the individual. The scientific and technological community will be examining these and related issues and looking for new answers to another "when and how?" PMID:12335929

  17. Pharmacogenomics in admixed populations.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme

    2005-04-01

    Personalized drug therapy proffered by pharmacogenomics must be based on the recognition of inherent genetic individuality, rather than relying on inter-ethnic differences in the frequency of polymorphisms that affect the pharmacokinetics and targets of drugs. This is particularly significant in admixed populations, in which the substructure created by inter-ethnic crosses further increases the fluidity of racial and/or ethnic labels. Inter-ethnic admixture is either common or increasing quickly in many, if not most, populations, and so extrapolation on a global scale of pharmacogenomic data from well-defined ethnic groups is plagued with uncertainty. To impact positively on global health, pharmacogenomics must broaden its scope of investigation with respect to both target and population diversity, and avoid the risk of contributing to the creation of a genomics divide between regions and nations. In this review, I examine the challenges and advantages of studying pharmacogenomics in admixed populations, drawing examples mainly from the trihybrid populations of the Americas. PMID:15808344

  18. Marketing and population problems.

    PubMed

    Farley, J U; Leavitt, H J

    1971-07-01

    There are many elements in population programs that are more familiar to marketing men than to some population experts. Advertising is essential to reach the target population, and advertising evaluation techniques (e.g., surrogate indexes or audience measures) might be useful for evaluating both population information activities and the import of the entire program. Fundamental research on basid demand for fertility control is needed and a marketer's experience with planning and evaluating test markets can be useful in assessing potential selling targets and evaluating alternative promotional and distributional strategies. Special family planning clinics have certain disadvantages: expensive and scarce personnel are needed; red tape may be present; the network is based on the assumption that the client is willing to travel relatively great distances repeatedly; and clinics lack anonymity which may scare potential acceptors away. Most developing cultures have an intensively functioning distribution structure which delivers basic commodities to the most remote areas, providing relatively anonymous outlets that are physically close to the customs. Materials requiring a prescription might be distributed in exchange for script issued at and ultimately redeemed by clinics, this requiring only an occasional visit to a clinic. Mail-order service can be used to supplement a clinic's distribution of some contraceptives. It should be remembered that population administrators often have an antipathetic view toward business and marketing and "suspect" the profit motive. PMID:12276119

  19. Distance Learning for Special Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Rodger A.

    2012-01-01

    Distance education strategies for remotely deployed, highly mobile, or institutionalized populations are reviewed and critiqued. Specifically, asynchronous, offline responses for special military units, Native Americans on remote reservations, prison populations and other geographically, temporally or technologically isolated niche populations are…

  20. Constructing populations in biobanking.

    PubMed

    Tupasela, Aaro; Snell, Karoliina; Cañada, Jose A

    2015-01-01

    This article poses the question of whether biobanking practices and standards are giving rise to the construction of populations from which various biobanking initiatives increasingly draw on for legitimacy? We argue that although recent biobanking policies encourage various forms of engagement with publics to ensure legitimacy, different biobanks conceptualize their engagement strategies very differently. We suggest that biobanks undertake a broad range of different strategies with regard to engagement. We argue that these different approaches to engagement strategies are contributing to the construction of populations, whereby specific nationalities, communities, societies, patient groups and political systems become imbued or bio-objectified with particular characteristics, such as compliant, distant, positive, commercialized or authoritarian. This bio-objectification process is problematic in relation to policy aspirations ascribed to biobanking engagement since it gives rise to reified notions of different populations. PMID:26194269

  1. Thermodynamics and Human Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordry, Sean M.

    2010-09-01

    This paper discusses a Fermi-problem exercise through which I take students in several of my college courses. Students work in teams, determining the average daily Caloric needs per person. Then they use insolation values to determine the size of a collection area needed to absorb the previously determined daily energy requirements. Adjustments to the size of the collection area are made based on energy absorption per biological trophic level, as well as the consideration that most diets are a mixture of plant- and animal-derived elements. Finally, using the total amount of farmland available on the planet, students calculate a maximum population value. Although the maximum population values derived herewith should not be considered authoritative, the exercise has three beneficial purposes: 1) a chance to talk about the modeling process and extrapolations, 2) an unexpected application of physics to social contexts, and 3) raising student awareness of population and energy issues.

  2. Population and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, Brian C.; Landis MacKellar, F.; Lutz, Wolfgang

    2000-11-01

    Population and Climate Change provides the first systematic in-depth treatment of links between two major themes of the 21st century: population growth (and associated demographic trends such as aging) and climate change. It is written by a multidisciplinary team of authors from the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis who integrate both natural science and social science perspectives in a way that is comprehensible to members of both communities. The book will be of primary interest to researchers in the fields of climate change, demography, and economics. It will also be useful to policy-makers and NGOs dealing with issues of population dynamics and climate change, and to teachers and students in courses such as environmental studies, demography, climatology, economics, earth systems science, and international relations.

  3. Population and development.

    PubMed

    Pavlik, Z

    1995-01-01

    During the Paleolithic period, 10,000-100,000 people lived on the earth; their number exceeded 1 million at the beginning of the Neolithic period, reached 10 million during the Bronze Age, 100 million at the beginning of the Iron Age, 1 billion at the beginning of the 19th century, and 5.7 billion in 1995. The estimated global population will be 10 billion by the middle of the 21st century and is expected to stabilize at around 10-12 billion subsequently. Increased agricultural production helped bring about greater numbers of humanity and the advancement of society with a developing social hierarchy, although life expectancy was low at 22-28 years. In Europe, the Renaissance gradually evolved into the Industrial Revolution, and a demographic revolution accompanied this process. In some countries, population size increased more than five times. Eventually, mortality and fertility levels decreased and life expectancy increased. In Western civilization, increased individualism, secularization, compulsory school attendance, decreased agricultural population, emancipation of women, increased costs of raising children, and social and economic progress ensued. All this was preceded by 18th century conditions, when, in England, capital accumulation led to wealth on the one side and destitution on the other, giving rise to Malthus's famous theory. However, during the 19th century these social inequalities gradually evened out. After World War II, the question arose of whether the populations of other civilizations (Confucian, Japanese, Islamic, Hindu, Slavic-Orthodox, Latin American, and African) would also undergo a demographic transition and how soon. At any rate, developed country population size, as a percentage of global population, will drop from 22% to 13%, and that of Africa will increase from 12% to 26%, during the 21st century. PMID:12292830

  4. Population differentiation without speciation

    PubMed Central

    Magurran, A. E.

    1998-01-01

    Population differentiation is often viewed as an important step towards speciation, and part of the rationale for conserving variation at the intraspecific level is that the potential to generate more biological diversity should be retained. Yet, speciation is not an inevitable consequence of population divergence. This paper reviews recent work on the Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata, a species that is renowned for its capacity for population differentiation. Guppy populations evolve rapidly, within 101 to 102 generations, as a response to changes in selection exerted by predators. The rates of evolution involved can be up to seven orders of magnitude greater than those seen in the fossil record. Sexual selection, particuarly female choice, appears to reinforce the divergence that natural selection has generated. Perplexingly, however, there is no reproductive isolation (either prezygotic or postzygotic) between populations, even those that have been separated for at least 106 generations. Sexual conflict may be the key to explaining this absence of speciation. Male reproductive behaviour, particularly the high incidence of sneaky mating, may be instrumental in producing sufficient gene flow to prevent reproductive isolation. Sneaky mating has the potential to undermine female choice, and is known to be an important means of sperm transfer in wild populations. Sexual dimorphism, also a result of sexual conflict in guppies, may inhibit speciation in another way. Morphological differences between the sexes, that have arisen for reproductive reasons, mean that males and females are pre-adapted for different foraging niches. This, in turn, reduces the opportunity for the development of feeding polymorphisms, a mechanism that seems to have been important in the sympatric speciation of other fish species.

  5. Having quality population.

    PubMed

    Ramos, F V

    1993-06-01

    This speech was delivered during Population and Development Week in the Philippines. Attention was drawn to population statistics: an annual growth rate of 2.3%, density of 202 persons/sq km, and an expected population of 75 million by the year 2000. Coupled with rapid population growth is the uneven distribution of wealth: the top 20% have over 50% of the total income and the lowest 20% have only 5% of the income. In such a social situation, it is women and children who are the most vulnerable. In cities, unemployment is high due to population growth and the migration of the rural poor. The rural poor living in areas of declining resources also move onto marginal uplands, which adds pressure to the already fragile ecology. Everyone must accept that the nation's problems are due to overpopulation. The government's development plans aim for sustainable growth, poverty alleviation, reduction in equality, generation of job opportunities, and achievement of social justice. People in government are determined to lead the Philippines toward a higher standard comparable with other dynamic Asian neighbors. The strategy is empowerment of the people. THe value is in the welfare of individuals and their families and the welfare of the nation. Couples have the right to manage their family size voluntarily and responsibly. The government's role is to provide adequate information on family planning in accordance with individual's religious convictions. Policies will also be directed to improved access to quality education, child survival, and maternal health, employment opportunities, and access and control over resources for people. There must be fuller participation of women in development. Support for the government's population program is sought from government officials, the private sector, and nongovernmental organizations. All provincial governors, city and municipal mayors, and all local executives will be directed to formulate population plans and to provide family

  6. Highways and Population Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voss, Paul R.; Chi, Guangqing

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we return to an issue often discussed in the literature regarding the relationship between highway expansion and population change. Typically it simply is assumed that this relationship is well established and understood. We argue, following a thorough review of the relevant literature, that the notion that highway expansion leads to…

  7. Fitness in Special Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shephard, Roy J.

    This book examines fitness research among special populations, including research on fitness assessment, programming, and performance for persons with various forms of physical disabilities. The book covers such topics as diseases that complicate life in a wheelchair, disability classifications, physiological responses to training, positive…

  8. [Population and development].

    PubMed

    Trias, M

    1987-01-01

    Human reproduction and development are contrasted; they are intimately linked despite the fact that they may be considered antitheses of each other from many points of view. Presently technological development and the advance of humans into every available corner of living space threaten to place the whole world environment in danger. The Green revolution of the 1960s addressed problems of underproduction of food for the world's population, without providing for the effective distribution of the new surpluses, and without addressing the problem of the ecological impact. 2 trends which are regarded by some with alarm: the migration of populations to the cities and the aging of the population with the connected burden on health care systems, are inevitable, and it is not clear that they are completely negative trends. Addressing these issues will have positive effects in the long run: congestion in the cities, the result of mechanization of rural industry which also results in a greater abundance of agricultural products necessary to society, should force serious consideration of problems such as solid waste management. Coming to terms with the costs of intervention to save lives among the very frail elderly and the prematurely born will have the effect of bringing controversial topics such as euthenasia and eugenics to discussion. The important role played by economic development in the braking of population expansion is underlined. PMID:12315175

  9. [Population census, 1980].

    PubMed

    Suharto, S

    1980-12-01

    The author describes the types of data collected in the 1980 population census of Indonesia, considers the differences between the 1971 and 1980 censuses, and discusses which data and tables are scheduled to be published. A copy of the census questionnaire and an explanation of the concepts and definitions used are also included. PMID:12338729

  10. Mentoring Special Youth Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britner, Preston A.; Balcazar, Fabricio E.; Blechman, Elaine A.; Blinn-Pike, Lynn; Larose, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Whereas mentoring programs are well received as support services, very little empirical research has been conducted to assess the effectiveness of these programs to meet the diverse needs of different special populations of youth. Potentially useful theoretical orientations (attachment, parental acceptance-rejection, social support, adult…

  11. Working with Specific Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, David; And Others

    This document consists of the second section of a book written to educate and inform those in the helping professions on how to deal with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The five chapters in section 2 focus on diversity, each dealing with a special population with its own needs and a unique way of handling issues associated with AIDS.…

  12. Puppets and Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Bil

    This document focuses on the use of puppets for educating the illiterate populations of the world in food production and family planning. It is presented as one practical and effective tool for the adult educator and literacy worker. When used as part of a total program of functional literacy for family life planning, it can help young adults gain…

  13. Population and Development Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Sharon; Garran, Christopher

    1998-01-01

    Describes a unit on demographics for a high school world-history course that addresses questions of uneven population growth and the "problem of global overpopulation." Provides a detailed outline of the two-day unit including unit and daily goals and objectives, daily activities and questions, and ideas for further student research. (DSK)

  14. Stellar population in LLAGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Delgado, Rosa M.

    2004-11-01

    LLAGN that include low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs), and transition-type objects (TOs) represent the most common type of nuclear activity. Here, a study of the central stellar population of LLAGN is presented. Our goal is to search for spectroscopic signatures of young and intermediate age stars, and to investigate their relationship with the ionization mechanism in LLAGN. The method used is based on the stellar population synthesis of the UV-optical continuum of the innermost (20-100 pc) regions in these galaxies. Half of the LINERs and TOs of the Palomar catalogue are analysed. It is found that weak-[OI] ([OI]/Hα≤0.25) LLAGN have an intermediate age stellar population that dominates the optical light. But young stellar clusters dominate the UV continuum in these objects. These clusters can co-exist with a black-hole in spatial scales of a few pc. Most of the strong-[OI] LLAGN have a predominantly old stellar population. These results suggest that young and intermediate age stars do not play a significant role in the ionization of LLAGN with strong [OI].

  15. [Population trends and poverty].

    PubMed

    Olmedo, C

    1998-04-01

    Implications of population growth in Ecuador for the quality of life of the poor population are analyzed. It is argued that if the gross national product (GNP) were to grow at a sustained annual rate of 5% or more, demographic trends would not present a significant obstacle to reducing poverty. National economic projections are for growth of only 2.5-3.5% annually. The continuing rapid growth of the poor population despite general slowing of demographic growth, the young age structure, the need for increased formal education to enable the poor to overcome their poverty, and the effect of unemployment on the dependency ratio will tend to hamper improvements in average productivity and per capita GNP. The need for spending on education, health, basic services, and housing will divert funds away from productive investment, generating a direct negative impact on economic growth. Over half of Ecuadorian children suffer from some degree of malnutrition, indicating that food production is inadequate to meet demand. The export-oriented agricultural policy and poor weather have led to a chronic shortage of basic foods. Progressive increase and diversification of agricultural production, along with maintenance of low prices and substantial increases in income levels and agricultural productivity, will be required if the entire population is to be fed adequately. Intense efforts will be needed from all sectors to bring demographic growth into balance with economic and development needs. PMID:12178231

  16. [The Marxist outlook on population].

    PubMed

    Qin, R

    1984-09-29

    Marxist population theory and world population are discussed. From his study of capitalist population theory Marx concluded, "In capitalist reproduction, poverty produces population," thus rejecting Malthusian population determinism theory and developing economic determinism. According to UN statistics, world population has stabilized since the middle of this century after having doubled every hundred years for the last 300; population in the developed countries showed a positive decrease and average net population growth of the developing countries also decreased. The premise of this paper is that population grows according to social economy development. During the last several hundred years, world wealth increased much faster than population; in the last 200 years alone, the population has increased fivefold, but wealth fortyfold. In addition, world population analysis reveals an inverse relationship between wealth and population in the developed and developing countries: the poorer the country, the greater the population. From this perspective, the study of population must begin with surplus labor. Accumulation of surplus production is the foundation of continuous social development and the basis for population growth. The major difference in methods between capitalist countries and China is that the capitalist-planned fertility affects the individual family while Chinese-planned fertility has the whole nation in mind. Human fertility is determined by the economic system. Private ownership determines the private nature of fertility and public ownership determines the public nature of fertility. Thus population development is determined by the accumulation of social wealth. PMID:12159280

  17. Human Population Admixture in Asia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Genetic admixture in human, the result of inter-marriage among people from different well-differentiated populations, has been extensively studied in the New World, where European colonization brought contact between peoples of Europe, Africa, and Asia and the Amerindian populations. In Asia, genetic admixing has been also prevalent among previously separated human populations. However, studies on admixed populations in Asia have been largely underrepresented in similar efforts in the New World. Here, I will provide an overview of population genomic studies that have been published to date on human admixture in Asia, focusing on population structure and population history. PMID:23166524

  18. Population attribute compression

    DOEpatents

    White, James M.; Faber, Vance; Saltzman, Jeffrey S.

    1995-01-01

    An image population having a large number of attributes is processed to form a display population with a predetermined smaller number of attributes that represent the larger number of attributes. In a particular application, the color values in an image are compressed for storage in a discrete look-up table (LUT). Color space containing the LUT color values is successively subdivided into smaller volumes until a plurality of volumes are formed, each having no more than a preselected maximum number of color values. Image pixel color values can then be rapidly placed in a volume with only a relatively few LUT values from which a nearest neighbor is selected. Image color values are assigned 8 bit pointers to their closest LUT value whereby data processing requires only the 8 bit pointer value to provide 24 bit color values from the LUT.

  19. Equatorially trapped plasma populations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    The SCATHA observations of the equatorially trapped plasmas are presented in order to emphasize the importance of making measurements at the equator. The UCSD plasma detector and the GSFC electric field experiment are described, as are the pertinent characteristics of the magnetometer and mass spectrometers. The electron distribution reveals a width of 20 deg to 60 deg, narrowing with increasing energy. The 20- to 100-eV ion fluxes typically exhibit temperatures in the 20to 50-eV range and densities of 1-10 per cu cm. The electron population typically ranges from 50 to 500 eV, with temperatures of 100-200 eV and densities also in the 1-10 per cu cm range. Field-aligned populations of lower energy are occasionally found in both ions and electrons at the same location.

  20. Population, environment and development.

    PubMed

    Karkal, M

    1994-06-01

    Western development models label subsistence economies, which do not participate in the market economy on a grand scale and do not consume commodities produced for and distributed through the market, to be poor. Yet, subsistence does not always indicate a low quality of life. The Western development process has destroyed wholesome and sustainable lifestyles. In India, the Green Revolution caused many small farmers to lose their land. In comparison to traditional economies, industrial economies have longer technological chains dependent on higher energy and resource inputs and exclude large numbers of people without power to buy goods. Further, they generate new and artificial needs, necessitating increased production of industrial goods and services. They erode resource bases for survival. This erosion is marginalizing people who were traditionally in nature's economy. Developed countries did not deliver 0.15% of their GNP to development projects in developing countries as promised. The US made population growth in these countries its cause. The UN and other multinational agencies during 1962-1972, at the US's request, began to support population and family planning programs in developing countries. These countries opposed the 1st draft at the 1974 Bucharest Population Conference, but by the conference in Mexico City, most supported the need for family planning. Yet, the US politicized this conference and had a greater say in the recommendations than did developing countries. Structural adjustments and external debt repayments required of developing countries in the 1980s set them back. In fact, the number of developing countries increased from 31 to 42. The UN recognizes the right to development, but social inequalities are barriers to this right. If environmental degradation continues, poverty will only increase. Women's groups are playing a great role in preparations for the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in September 1994. PMID

  1. Magnetospheric particle populations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vette, J. I.

    1972-01-01

    Significant results of magnetospheric charged particle measurements conducted within the past two years are reviewed in an attempt to provide a general description of relationships among particle populations in the magnetosheath, plasma sheet, extraterrestrial ring current region, electron trough, pseudotrapping region, and stable-trapping region. Special attention is given to the characteristics of protons, electrons, alpha particles, and particles with charge greater than three in the stable trapping region.

  2. [Poverty and population growth].

    PubMed

    1983-07-01

    In the mid-1970s, some 120 million Latin Americans were unable to satisfy their most basic material needs. 55 million of them were in extreme indigency, unable to satisfy their minimal food needs even by using their entire incomes for that purpose. The rapid rate of demographic growth in Latin America influences the growth of the poor strata, who in absolute and relative terms show the highest rates of population growth. Despite heterogeneity in the manifestations of poverty, the poor have certain traits in common: employment outside the modern sector, with low productivity and little hope of generating stable incomes, low consumption capability, and lack of political power. 1 of the great problems of economic development in Latin America is the exclusion of the poorest strata from employment in better paid jobs. The high rate of fertility and rapid population growth provoke a negative interaction between population and development, in which the poorest strata reproduce most rapidly, becoming even poorer. A program of family planning within a development effort providing employment and income is needed to mitigate the problem, and no avenue or effort of implementation should be neglected on ideological grounds. Between 1960-70, the share of the poorest 20% of the population declined from 3.1% to 2.5% of the toal income of the region, while that of the poorest 1/2 increased slightly from 13.4% to 13.9%. In 1970 the poorest 20% had a per capita income of about US $70/year. It has been estimated that the proportion of the poor in Latin America declined from 51% in 1960 to 40% in 1970 and 33% at present, but the absolute number of persons affected continues to increase. PMID:12339314

  3. [Population, ethics and equity].

    PubMed

    Berlinguer, G

    1997-01-01

    "Demography is, explicitly and not, imbued with an [ethical] content.... As demography involves both public policies and individual choices, the [ethical] slant should be [examined]. Thus, what we have on the one hand is an [ethical] state, which dictates its citizens' personal behaviour and, on the other, a state based on liberty, backed up by three shared values: human rights, pluralism and equality. This article looks at how today these may be reinterpreted when making decisions regarding the population." (EXCERPT) PMID:12293335

  4. Sleeping worries away or worrying away sleep? Physiological evidence on sleep-emotion interactions.

    PubMed

    Talamini, Lucia M; Bringmann, Laura F; de Boer, Marieke; Hofman, Winni F

    2013-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that sleep might serve a role in emotional coping. However, most findings are based on subjective reports of sleep quality, while the relation with underlying sleep physiology is still largely unknown. In this study, the impact of an emotionally distressing experience on the EEG correlates of sleep was assessed. In addition, the association between sleep physiological parameters and the extent of emotional attenuation over sleep was determined. The experimental set up involved presentation of an emotionally neutral or distressing film fragment in the evening, followed by polysomnographic registration of undisturbed, whole-night sleep and assessment of emotional reactivity to film cues on the next evening. We found that emotional distress induced mild sleep deterioration, but also an increase in the proportion of slow wave sleep (SWS) and altered patterning of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Indeed, while REM sleep occurrence normally increases over the course of the night, emotional distress flattened this distribution and correlated with an increased number of REM periods. While sleep deterioration was negatively associated to emotional attenuation over sleep, the SWS response was positively related to such attenuation and may form part of a compensatory response to the stressor. Interestingly, trait-like SWS characteristics also correlated positively with the extent of emotion attenuation over sleep. The combined results provide strong evidence for an intimate reciprocal relation between sleep physiology and emotional processing. Moreover, individual differences in subjects' emotional and sleep responses suggest there may be a coupling of certain emotion and sleep traits into distinct emotional sleep types. PMID:23671601

  5. Food and population.

    PubMed

    1985-04-01

    Agricultural producttivity is currently characterized by the paradox of an abundace of food in the developed world and hunger in much of the developing world. In China, India, and many other countries of Asia, the general food supply has kept pace with population growth and should continue to if family planning programs gain momentum. In Africa, on the other hand, the food supply has been falling behind the growth of the population in the majority of countries for the past decade. The situation is especially serious in the Sahel, where the production wf crops for export has been prioritized over local needs. The Food and Agriculture Organization's global information and early warning system is a promising development and can provide alerts when weather or other conditions threaten a harvest. Donor countries can then send in cereals and other foods before there is an actual famine. About 20 disasters in the Sahel are etimated to have been averted by this system, in operation since 1975. In developed countries, the farming industry needs to be restructured in relation to changes in markets and technologies. Solution of the food-population problem depends upon agricultural policies that balance the economic interests of farmers and consumers and also takes into account the need to preserve the countryside. PMID:2858671

  6. Stellar population synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Feng-Hui; Li, Li-Fang; Han, Zhan-Wen

    In this paper we review the study of stellar population synthesis. So far there exist three methods in the study of the integrated light of stellar population-trail-and error, automated, and evolutionary population synthesis (EPS). We have discussed advantages and disadvantages for these methods. Among the three methods the EPS is the most direct approach to model galaxies. In this scheme, the model builder starts with knowledge of stellar evolution and attempts to build a model galaxy with physical input parameters such as star formation rate (SFR) and the initial mass function (IMF) slope. Therefore we have discussed emphatically the EPS method. First we have described and given the often used grids of several key ingredients in the EPS studies: (1) the library of evolutionary tracks used to calculate isochrones in the color-magnitude diagram (CMD), (2) the libraries of spectra adopted, which include empirical and theoretical stellar spectral libraries, star cluster library, active galactic nuclear (AGN) library and galaxy library, to derive the integrated spectral energy distributions (ISED) or magnitudes and colors in the suitable passbands, (3) the IMF used to evaluate the relative proportions of stars in the various evolutionary phases, and (4) the assumption for the underlying star formation rate (SFR) and chemical enrichment. Then we have listed several population synthesis criterions, i.e. broadband color indices, the integrated spectral energy distribution (ISED) and narrow band color indices, given the basic method of calculating broadband colors and flux-distribution for a simple stellar population (SSP). At last we have discussed simply the existed limitations, which are caused by some uncertainties in its two principal building blocks: stellar evolution models and spectral libraries in the studies of the EPS. Stellar evolution models are often subject to limitations in the following areas: the atomic data (radiative opacities, heavy element mixture

  7. Multidimensional environmental influences on timing of breeding in a tree swallow population facing climate change

    PubMed Central

    Bourret, Audrey; Bélisle, Marc; Pelletier, Fanie; Garant, Dany

    2015-01-01

    Most phenological traits are extremely sensitive to current climate change, and advances in the timing of important life-history events have been observed in many species. In birds, phenotypic plasticity in response to temperature is thought to be the main mechanism underlying yearly adjustment in the timing of breeding. However, other factors could be important and interact to affect the levels of plastic responses between and/or within-individuals. Here, we use long-term individual-based data on tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) to identify the spatial and environmental drivers affecting plasticity in laying date and to assess their importance at both population and individual levels. We found that laying date has advanced by 4.2 days over 10 years, and that it was mainly influenced by latitude and an interaction between spring temperature and breeder density. Analyses of individual plasticity showed that increases in temperature, but not in breeder density, resulted in within-individual advances in laying date. Our results suggest that females can adjust their laying date as a function of temperature, but that this adjustment will be partly constrained in habitats with lower breeder densities. Such potential constraint is especially worrying for the broad array of species already declining as a result of climate change. PMID:26640519

  8. Population synthesis of massive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanbeveren, Dany

    2014-09-01

    This review deals with massive star population synthesis with a realistic population of binaries. We focus on the comparison between observed star numbers (as a function of metallicity) and theoretically predicted numbers of stellar populations in regions of continuous star formation and in starburst regions. Special attention is given to the O-type/WR/red supergiant stellar population, the population of blue supergiants, the pulsar and binary pulsar population, and the supernova rates. Finally, we consider massive double compact star mergers and the link with gravitational wave sources (the advanced LIGO II) and r-process element production sites.

  9. An optimum world population.

    PubMed

    Willey, D

    2000-01-01

    The optimum population of the world is the one that is most likely to make the option of a good quality of life available to everyone everywhere, both now and in the future. Establishing a consensus about the size of such a population would be an important step towards achieving it. Estimates of an optimum involve three main steps. First, estimate the maximum (carrying capacity) assuming a specified lifestyle. The main criteria are the maintenance of biodiversity, the availability of freshwater, and the availability of land--for agriculture, forestry and artificial systems but above all for the conversion of energy. (In applying the criteria, there are always two questions to ask: 'What is the maximum amount of consumption that the biosphere can stand?' and 'What is an adequate share of such consumption per person?') Second, convert the maximum (two to three billion) into an optimum by applying a far wider range of criteria, including personal liberty, mobility, recreation and political representation. Third, consider just two criteria (economies of scale and technological innovation) in order to ensure that the optimum (one to two billion) has not fallen below the minimum (half to one billion). The estimates are so low because of the need for a huge increase in median per capita consumption if everyone is to have the option of an adequate material standard of living. Opinion-formers are likely not to take much notice of such estimates, but it is probable that minds will be concentrated by an energy shock some time during the next decade. Achieving an optimum world population will not solve the world's major problems, but it would make them solvable. PMID:10824524

  10. Canada's population is aging.

    PubMed

    Verma, Jennifer; Samis, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Canada's population is aging, and the authors of this issue's lead article, Neena Chappell and Marcus Hollander, present a policy prescription for how to design a healthcare system that better responds to needs of older Canadians. The timing of this issue of Healthcare Papers is important: the first of the baby boomers turned 65 in January 2011. There is a pressing need to develop policies and implement sustainable reforms that will allow older adults to stay healthier and maintain their independence longer in their place of choice, while also creating efficiencies and quality improvements in our overall healthcare system that will benefit Canadians of all ages. PMID:21464621

  11. [Roma populations and health].

    PubMed

    Jackson, Y; Tabin, J P; Hourton, G; Bodenmann, P

    2015-03-25

    The health status of the so-called "Roma" is usually much poorer than that of neighbouring non-Roma populations with a life expectancy gap of 5-15 years. This results from prolonged exposure to adverse determinants of health and to persistent exclusion from social and political arenas. Scientific and social research has only poorly addressed the health issues of Roma and evidences are scarce. Insufficient access to public services, including to health care and non optimal clinical practices are modifiable factors. If correctly addressed, this could contribute to reduce health disparities, including in Switzerland. PMID:26027205

  12. Population in Perspective: Regional Views. A Population Learning Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Reference Bureau, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The world's population faces a series of problems that are similar in all countries, although more exacerbated in developing nations. This population study presents statistical facts and information concerning developed and developing nations and their populations, growth, the status of women, migration, the labor force, changing age structures,…

  13. Population Trends and the Status of Population Policy in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogge, John R.

    1982-01-01

    The major trend towards worldwide easing of the birthrate does not include the current population patterns in Africa. The population policies of African nations range along a continuum from totally pronatal to strongly antinatal. However, even antinatal policies have had little effect on the overall spiralling upward population trend. (JA)

  14. Population and sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Visaria, P

    1989-01-01

    This paper assesses the feasibility of sustainable development for various low-income countries in the context of prospective population growth. In that context, development that is sustainable is development that does not endanger the natural systems that support life on earth. Since a short time has elapsed since the Mexico City Conference, not all the developmental goals highlighted at that meeting could be reviewed. Emphasis in this paper is placed on an assessment of recent trends in food production and availability, employment and poverty issues, with an emphasis on India, China, and a few other Asian countries on which the author has had access to information. In the view of the author, the key to sustained development in the face of likely continued population growth up to the end of the 21st century lies in technological change and effective use of the human and physical resources in developing countries. Adequate planning and judicious adaptation of the institutional framework can help to avoid the suffering and misery of millions of people currently alive and also those who will be born during further decades. PMID:12282630

  15. Genetics of population isolates.

    PubMed

    Arcos-Burgos, M; Muenke, M

    2002-04-01

    Genetic isolates, as shown empirically by the Finnish, Old Order Amish, Hutterites, Sardinian and Jewish communities among others, represent a most important and powerful tool in genetically mapping inherited disorders. The main features associated with that genetic power are the existence of multigenerational pedigrees which are mostly descended from a small number of founders a short number of generations ago, environmental and phenotypic homogeneity, restricted geographical distribution, the presence of exhaustive and detailed records correlating individuals in very well ascertained pedigrees, and inbreeding as a norm. On the other hand, the presence of a multifounder effect or admixture among divergent populations in the founder time (e.g. the Finnish and the Paisa community from Colombia) will theoretically result in increased linkage disequilibrium among adjacent loci. The present review evaluates the historical context and features of some genetic isolates with emphasis on the basic population genetic concepts of inbreeding and genetic drift, and also the state-of-the-art in mapping traits, both Mendelian and complex, on genetic isolates. PMID:12030885

  16. Migration of the population.

    PubMed

    Krasinets, E

    1998-03-01

    Two factors influence foreign migration balance of the Russian Federation. The first factor involves the migration process between Russia and former union republics. The influx of population to the Russian Federation from other republics of the former Soviet Union is considered as one of the largest in the world. The average annual migratory growth of Russia during the years 1991-94 as a result of this migration exchange has tripled as compared with 1986-90, with a total of 2.7 million Russians who migrated into Russia. However, from 1996 up to the present time, the number of persons arriving in Russia declined dramatically. Meanwhile, the second factor that determines the country's migration balance is emigration to the far abroad. The most significant trend in determining the development of internal migration in Russia is the outflow of population from northern and eastern regions. The directions of internal and external migratory flows have a large influence on the migration balance in Russia's rural areas. The reduction of migratory flows in rural areas is the direct result of processes in the economic sphere. It confirms the reconstruction of rural-urban migratory exchange. PMID:12294009

  17. POPULATION III HYPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Smidt, Joseph; Whalen, Daniel J.; Wiggins, Brandon K.; Even, Wesley; Fryer, Chris L.; Johnson, Jarrett L.

    2014-12-20

    Population III supernovae have been of growing interest of late for their potential to directly probe the properties of the first stars, particularly the most energetic events that are visible near the edge of the observable universe. Until now, hypernovae, the unusually energetic Type Ib/c supernovae that are sometimes associated with gamma-ray bursts, have been overlooked as cosmic beacons at the highest redshifts. In this, the latest of a series of studies on Population III supernovae, we present numerical simulations of 25-50 M {sub ☉} hypernovae and their light curves done with the Los Alamos RAGE and SPECTRUM codes. We find that they will be visible at z = 10-15 to the James Webb Space Telescope and z = 4-5 to the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope, tracing star formation rates in the first galaxies and at the end of cosmological reionization. If, however, the hypernova crashes into a dense shell ejected by its progenitor, it is expected that a superluminous event will occur that may be seen at z ∼ 20 in the first generation of stars.

  18. Massive Stars: Stellar Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Luciana

    2007-07-01

    Massive stars dominate the chemical and dynamical evolution of the ISM, and ultimately of their parent galaxy and the universe, because of their fast evolution and intense supersonic winds. Four decades ago, the first rocket UV spectra of massive stars revealed the importance of mass loss and began to change our understanding of their evolution. Recently, advances in stellar modeling, and the observation of crucial ions in the far-UV spectral range, led to the resolution of long-standing issues in our understanding of massive star atmospheres. A revised (downwards) calibration of Teff for early spectral types is emerging as a result. Meanwhile, HST imaging, and large ground-based telescopes with multislit spectroscopic capabilities, had opened the possibility of resolved studies of stellar populations in Local Group galaxies, which sample a variety of metallicity and environment conditions. More recently, GALEX is providing a global, deep view of the young stellar populations for hundreds of nearby galaxies, revealing their recent star-formation history and modalities. The wide-field coverage and sensitivity of the GALEX UV imaging, easily detecting extremely low levels of star formation, is again changing some of our views on massive star formation in galaxies.

  19. Population's political clout.

    PubMed

    Schima, M E; Viel, B; Chen, P C; Gille, H; Epstein, S G

    1980-03-01

    China's birth planning program has its own separate administrative hierarchy. The political commitment to population planning which originates with the top leadership extends to peer pressure exerted on couples at the brigade and neighborhood level. While family planning services are primarily delivered in health structures, responsibility for the population program falls to the Leading Group on Birth Planning. Not only health officials but also officials responsible for economic planning, political propaganda, scientific research, trade unions, women's affairs, and all those whose participation is considered necessary to the program's success attend meeting. The Leading Group on Birth Planning is chaired by a Vice-Premier. At each administrative level, provincial to work brigade, the same pattern is repeated: centralized responsibility combined with broad representation and high-level potitical leadership. With a tight, working structure, China has been able to enact its birth control program with remarkable speed and effectiveness. Each production brigade has its own planned birth leading group headed by the captain of the brigade or the captain of the women's team. The leading group supervises the barefoot doctors, midwives, and team level health aides who deliver contraceptives to households or accompany people to the community health center to obtain surgical services. PMID:12261795

  20. NASA Orbital Debris Baseline Populations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krisko, Paula H.; Vavrin, A. B.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office has created high fidelity populations of the debris environment. The populations include objects of 1 cm and larger in Low Earth Orbit through Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit. They were designed for the purpose of assisting debris researchers and sensor developers in planning and testing. This environment is derived directly from the newest ORDEM model populations which include a background derived from LEGEND, as well as specific events such as the Chinese ASAT test, the Iridium 33/Cosmos 2251 accidental collision, the RORSAT sodium-potassium droplet releases, and other miscellaneous events. It is the most realistic ODPO debris population to date. In this paper we present the populations in chart form. We describe derivations of the background population and the specific populations added on. We validate our 1 cm and larger Low Earth Orbit population against SSN, Haystack, and HAX radar measurements.

  1. False precision and population science.

    PubMed

    Weigel, G

    1994-09-01

    The author compares proponents of reducing population growth to alchemists and astrologers, thereby whole-heartedly dismissing the validity of the field of population science. His vitriolic essay argues thus: population science cannot predict the growth rate of human populations over long periods of time, population science can determine neither when nor how fertility rates will decline, only 10% of developing country populations are covered by reliable vital statistic registration systems, and population science has no scientifically precise definition of overpopulation. The images of disease, hunger, and overcrowding evoked by the notion overpopulation are instead due to poverty and material deprivation. Were delegates to the 1994 UN International Conference on Population and Development to address these real, latter issues, positive social change may result. Since conference attendees are, however, committed to a narrowly focused and flawed agenda, the world should dismiss conference policies as the nonsense that they are. PMID:12345660

  2. Frequently Asked Questions about Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Journal of Science Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Emphasizes the issue of human population growth. Provides information on current demographic trends; their social, economic, and environmental impacts; and Zero Population Growth's (ZPG) position on several controversial topics. (ASK)

  3. Correlations and Neuronal Population Information.

    PubMed

    Kohn, Adam; Coen-Cagli, Ruben; Kanitscheider, Ingmar; Pouget, Alexandre

    2016-07-01

    Brain function involves the activity of neuronal populations. Much recent effort has been devoted to measuring the activity of neuronal populations in different parts of the brain under various experimental conditions. Population activity patterns contain rich structure, yet many studies have focused on measuring pairwise relationships between members of a larger population-termed noise correlations. Here we review recent progress in understanding how these correlations affect population information, how information should be quantified, and what mechanisms may give rise to correlations. As population coding theory has improved, it has made clear that some forms of correlation are more important for information than others. We argue that this is a critical lesson for those interested in neuronal population responses more generally: Descriptions of population responses should be motivated by and linked to well-specified function. Within this context, we offer suggestions of where current theoretical frameworks fall short. PMID:27145916

  4. Teaching Population Concepts. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Pat; Landahl, John

    This edition is designed to help teachers provide their students with some basic population concepts with stress placed on the elements of decision making. In the first section of the pamphlet, some of the basic concepts of population study are presented. These include populations, growth rates, birth and death rates, doubling time, migration, age…

  5. A Population of Assessment Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daro, Phil; Burkhardt, Hugh

    2012-01-01

    We propose the development of a "population" of high-quality assessment tasks that cover the performance goals set out in the "Common Core State Standards for Mathematics." The population will be published. Tests are drawn from this population as a structured random sample guided by a "balancing algorithm."

  6. Psychology and Population: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawcett, James T.

    Psychology and Population is defined as the study of individual dispositions and behavior that affect the size, structure and dispersion of the population, and the way in which acts of individuals enter into the dynamics of population change. Even this definition was viewed as inadequate, ignoring, as it does, the reciprocal effect of population…

  7. Population and Development [Issue Packet].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Freedom from Hunger Foundation, Washington, DC.

    A variety of informational materials is compiled in this issue packet concentrating on population and development. The materials have been assembled to understand the issues associated with the facts of the world's population and to try to invent new forms of action and thought necessary to find the possibilities hidden in the population issue.…

  8. [Changes in the Gypsy population].

    PubMed

    Hooz, I

    1987-01-01

    The problems involved in estimating the numbers of the Gypsy population in Hungary are described. The author describes the first census of Gypsies carried out in 1983 and other attempts to survey this population. A comparative analysis of changes in the age distribution of the Gypsy and general population over the past 100 years is included. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS) PMID:12341019

  9. Population Education: A Knowledge Base.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Willard J.

    To aid junior high and high school educators and curriculum planners as they develop population education programs, the book provides an overview of the population education knowledge base. In addition, it suggests learning activities, discussion questions, and background information which can be integrated into courses dealing with population,…

  10. The politics of population.

    PubMed

    1994-09-01

    Whatever succeeds or fails to materialize at the UN Conference on Population and Development in Cairo, most of the peoples of the Earth are represented in one room where their common future is being charted. That is a staggering achievement after the chaotic and fragmented history of the human race up to this point. It is less a development willed by foresighted leaders than an inevitable response to the shrinkage of the planet due to population growth and resource depletion--plus the advent of instantaneous worldwide communication. Some of the alliances, disputes and side issues are momentous. There are governments dedicated to policies of controlling population, such as Egypt and the Philippines, in conflict with their own religious authorities. The Catholic Church finds itself in lock-step with the Islamic theologians opposing birth control and condemning abortion, raising the possibility of a previously unthinkable ecumenical breakthrough to add to the Vatican's dialogues with Protestant Christians and with Jews. There is President Hosni Mubarak of Egypt who wanted to host the conference to show off the stability of his country and regime, only to demonstrate the opposite as extremists threatened the same terror against delegates they have inflicted on tourists. Some Islamic regimes stayed away. There is the ultimate Western feminism and environmentalism expressed by Prime Minister Gro Harlem Brundtland of Norway. And an astounding expression of women's rights to control such matters as childbearing, expressed by Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto of Pakistan, braving the wrath of clerics in her own country to attend, combined with a forceful denunciation of abortion startling to many of her Western admirers. The seriousness of the US effort, led by Vice President Al Gore, to pass a meaningful document that will frame policy for world organizations, contrasts with the previous indifference of the predecessor Reagan and Bush administrations to the issue. The effort

  11. The population slide.

    PubMed

    Mukerjee, M

    1998-12-01

    The level of total fertility in Bangladesh has fallen from 7 in 1975 to 3 today, the sharpest fertility transition in South Asia. Fertility decline in Bangladesh and Nepal follows such transition occurring first in Sri Lanka, then in India. While in Western countries, levels of fertility began to fall once an advanced stage of development had been reached, these new declines in South Asia are not directly correlated with indicators of development such as increased literacy or the alleviation of poverty. Bangladesh has experienced major fertility decline despite being one of the world's 20 poorest countries. Fertility decline in Bangladesh may be attributed to a combination of an effective government family planning program, a general desire among Bangladesh's population to bear fewer children, reductions in mortality, the availability of microcredit, changes in women's status, and the provision of health and family planning information over the radio 6 hours per day. PMID:9867622

  12. Population and the World Bank.

    PubMed

    Sankaran, S

    1973-12-01

    The World Bank Group regards excessive population growth as the single greatest obstacle to economic and social advance in the underdeveloped world. Since 1969 the Bank and the International Development Agency have provided countries with technical assistance through education, fact-finding, and analysis and given 65.7 million dollars for population projects. These projects, in India, Indonesia, Iran, Jamaica, and Malaysia provide training centers, population education, research, and evaluation as well as actual construction of clinics and mobile units. Because population planning touches sensitive areas of religion, caste, race, morality, and politics, the involved nation's political commitment to plan population growth is critical to the success of any program. PMID:12257161

  13. Discreteness effects in population dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guevara Hidalgo, Esteban; Lecomte, Vivien

    2016-05-01

    We analyse numerically the effects of small population size in the initial transient regime of a simple example population dynamics. These effects play an important role for the numerical determination of large deviation functions of additive observables for stochastic processes. A method commonly used in order to determine such functions is the so-called cloning algorithm which in its non-constant population version essentially reduces to the determination of the growth rate of a population, averaged over many realizations of the dynamics. However, the averaging of populations is highly dependent not only on the number of realizations of the population dynamics, and on the initial population size but also on the cut-off time (or population) considered to stop their numerical evolution. This may result in an over-influence of discreteness effects at initial times, caused by small population size. We overcome these effects by introducing a (realization-dependent) time delay in the evolution of populations, additional to the discarding of the initial transient regime of the population growth where these discreteness effects are strong. We show that the improvement in the estimation of the large deviation function comes precisely from these two main contributions.

  14. Knowledge About Head and Neck Cancer in the Population of Vojvodina: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Mumović, Gordana; Golijan, Borislav; Skrbić, Renata; Kravos, Alenka

    2015-09-01

    In 2009, the Institute of Oncology of Vojvodina reported the total of 553 newly registered patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) in the Province of Vojvodina, with a lethal outcome in 332 HNC patients. These facts impose the need of investigating the health education of the general population and proposing possible prevention measures. The present prospective study included 200 subjects classified into two groups. Group 1 (100 subjects) consisted of randomly selected adults from urban and rural regions of Vojvodina. Group II (100 subjects) included the adults from the same regions affected by HNC. All subjects answered the anonymous questionnaire which complied with the standards of a similar European Union research project "About Face". The results showed that 96% of the subjects from the Group II and only 77% of the subjects from the Group I were familiar with the term "head and neck cancer" what represented a significant difference. The results from Vojvodina were significantly better than those from the European study (23%). Most subjects were informed about HNC through television programs (60%), hospital leaflets (41%) or internet (37%). Both the patients and the citizens of Vojvodina were better informed about the most common localizations of HNC-pharynx and larynx, but less informed about other HNC localizations than the citizens of seven European countries. The citizens and the HNC patients from Vojvodina were equally well informed about some risk factors (e.g., smoking, alcoholism, aging and sun exposure) as the citizens in Europe. Both the patients and the general population of Vojvodina are mostly worried about the consequences/side effects of the applied surgical treatment. The obtained results may be a good starting point in the prevention and early detection of HNC in Vojvodina. PMID:26898078

  15. Psychological morbidity among suicide-bereaved and non-bereaved parents: a nationwide population survey

    PubMed Central

    Omerov, Pernilla; Steineck, Gunnar; Nyberg, Tommy; Runeson, Bo; Nyberg, Ullakarin

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine how psychological premorbidity affects the risk of depression in parents who lost a child through suicide. Design Population-based survey. Setting Sweden, between 2009 and 2010. Participants All parents who lost a child, age 15–30, through suicide between 2004 and 2007 according to National population registries. Non-bereaved parents matched for age, sex, living area, marital status, number of children. Exclusion criteria: born outside a Nordic country, not Swedish speaking, contact details missing. Participants: 666 of 915 (73%) suicide-bereaved and 377 of 508 (74%) non-bereaved parents. Main outcome measures Depression measured by the nine-item depression scale of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and study-specific questions to assess psychological premorbidity and experience of the child's presuicidal morbidity. Results In all, 94 (14%) suicide-bereaved and 51 (14%) non-bereaved parents (relative risk 1.0; 95% CI 0.8 to 1.4) had received their first treatment for psychological problems or had been given a psychiatric diagnosis more than 10 years earlier. The prevalence of moderate-to-severe depression was 115 (18%) in suicide-bereaved versus 28 (7%) in non-bereaved parents (RR 2.3; 95% CI 1.6 to 3.5). For those without psychological premorbidity, the relative risk was 2.3 (95% CI 1.4 to 3.6). 339 (51%) suicide-bereaved parents expressed worry over the child's psychological health during the month preceding the suicide and 259 (39%) had anticipated the suicide. Conclusions In parents who lost a child through suicide in Sweden we did not find a higher prevalence of long-term psychological premorbidity than among parents who had not lost a child; the more than twofold risk of depression among the bereaved can probably be explained by the suicide and the stressful time preceding the suicide. PMID:23996818

  16. Population subdivision and adaptation in asexual populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kryazhimskiy, Sergey; Rice, Daniel P; Desai, Michael M

    2012-06-01

    Population subdivision limits competition between individuals, which can have a profound effect on adaptation. Subdivided populations maintain more genetic diversity at any given time compared to well-mixed populations, and thus "explore" larger parts of the genotype space. At the same time, beneficial mutations take longer to spread in such populations, and thus subdivided populations do not "exploit" discovered mutations as efficiently as well-mixed populations. Whether subdivision inhibits or promotes adaptation in a given environment depends on the relative importance of exploration versus exploitation, which in turn depends on the structure of epistasis among beneficial mutations. Here we investigate the relative importance of exploration versus exploitation for adaptation by evolving 976 independent asexual populations of budding yeast with several degrees of geographic subdivision. We find that subdivision systematically inhibits adaptation: even the luckiest demes in subdivided populations on average fail to discover genotypes that are fitter than those discovered by well-mixed populations. Thus, exploitation of discovered mutations is more important for adaptation in our system than a thorough exploration of the mutational neighborhood, and increasing subdivision slows adaptation. PMID:22671557

  17. An Economist's View on Bibliometrically Measuring Scientific Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veugelers, Reinhilde

    2005-01-01

    Since the use of bibliometric instruments has grown and will continue to grow in the future, the quality, availability, and accessibility of data on publications and citations is of tantamount importance. But equally important is a correct use of the data. This means that an important task of the bibliometric field is to highlight not only what…

  18. Why Are Economists Evaluating the Impact of Gifted Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettler, Todd

    2016-01-01

    Bui, Craig, and Imberman assessed the impact of gifted and talented programs on student achievement using regression discontinuity and random assignment to gifted magnet schools. In both analyses, they found minimal impact of the gifted and talented programs on student achievement. This commentary addresses two concerns associated with the study.…

  19. QALYs: are they enough? A health economist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Mooney, G

    1989-09-01

    John Rawles's criticism of QALYs are seen as being both imprecise and largely unhelpful. This paper accepts that there are problems in both QALYs themselves and in the current decision-making processes with which they seek to help. The QALY pliers tend to play down the former and the QALY knockers the latter. It is suggested that theories (regret theory and prospect theory) other than expected utility theory, which is normally seen as the basis for QALYs, may provide better approaches to measuring health service outputs. Thus equity, information and decision-making per se are not handled as well in the expected utility QALYs as they could be. Developing better QALYs, with qualifications, is the goal. PMID:2521138

  20. A Comment on "Economic Inefficiency: A Failure of Economists."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohanon, Cecil E.

    1990-01-01

    Critiques Michael Staten and John Umbeck's article ("Journal of Economic Education," Winter 1989) on the concept of inefficiency in applied economic analysis. Suggests the Staten-Umbeck article is useful in forcing a precise analysis of the exercise of welfare economics. Concludes that the term efficient is semantic and provides an exercise to…

  1. Resources for Higher Education: An Economist's View. (Reprint).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Theodore W.

    1969-01-01

    The limitations of economic analysis are evident when one considers the complexity of our society's needs and problems. Seven propositions which may be useful in planning and in financing higher education are: education is a form of human capital; the 3 major functions of higher education are discovering talent, instruction and research; there are…

  2. The Undergraduate Origins of PhD Economists Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stock, Wendy A.; Siegfried, John J.

    2015-01-01

    The authors update prior analyses of the undergraduate origins of individuals who earn a PhD in economics in the United States. They include the list of the top institutions worldwide graduating the largest number of undergraduates who subsequently earn an economics PhD from a U.S. university and lists of American institutions with the largest…

  3. The Economist's Approach to Pollution and Its Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solow, Robert M.

    1971-01-01

    Shows that excess pollution arises because the waste disposal capacity of the environment is provided free of charge. Proposes a tax on materials removed from the environment, with refunds varying with the method of disposal: harmless methods obtaining full refund, most harmful disposal attracting no refund. Tax to be based on social cost of most…

  4. Online Information Retrieval for Economists: The Economic Literature Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekwurzel, Drucilla; Saffran, Bernard

    1985-01-01

    The basics of online searching for bibliographic citations are presented through use of the "Economic Literature Index" (ELI), which is available as File 139 on Dialog Information Services. This article focuses on the choice of media for bibliographic searches, search strategies, and the selection of alternative databases, such as "Social…

  5. How Broad Liberal Arts Training Produces Phd Economists: Carleton's Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourne, Jenny; Grawe, Nathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Several recent studies point to strong performance in economics PhD programs of graduates from liberal arts colleges. While every undergraduate program is unique and the likelihood of selection bias combines with small sample sizes to caution against drawing strong conclusions, the authors reflect on their experience at Carleton College to…

  6. Public policy versus individual rights and responsibility: an economist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Chaloupka, Frank J

    2011-09-01

    Interventions to reduce childhood obesity entail ethical considerations. Although a rationale exists for government to intervene in a way that limits individual rights while protecting the public's health, a clear economic rationale also exists. The markets for goods and services that contribute to obesity are characterized by multiple failures that create an economic rationale for government to intervene (eg, consumers' lack of accurate information regarding obesogenic foods and beverages). If effective public policies for reducing obesity and its consequences are to be developed and implemented, individual rights and government interests must be balanced. PMID:21843403

  7. A Home Economist Speaks Out: Need for a Parenting Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolny, Candice

    1996-01-01

    Social trends indicating change in family structure and roles, more single-parent and blended families, and the important role of parents in socialization demonstrate the need for parenting education. A parenting course should include understanding of healthy family life and parental roles, parenting styles, child development, and parenting…

  8. Economists are Grading Students Away from the Subject.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashworth, John; Evans, Lynne

    2000-01-01

    Explores evidence of English student interest and achievement in their chosen A-level subjects. Focuses on economics among ten major A-level subjects. Concludes that students may be discouraged to study A-level economics by severe grading at the mid-point of A-level study. Includes references. (CMK)

  9. The Evolution of Economist's Labour Market in Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaic-Maniu, Alexandru; Herteliu, Claudiu

    2006-01-01

    The modern world is undergoing a fundamental transformation characterized by a lot of challenges, dynamism, globalization, and the increasing influence of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). These new technologies have implications for all aspects of the society and economy; they are changing the way of doing business, the way of…

  10. Information Seeking and Use Behaviour of Economists and Business Analysts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thivant, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this paper is to deal with the information seeking and use problem in a professional context and understand how activity can influence practices, by taking as examples, the research undertaken by economic analysts. We analyse the relationship between the situational approach, described by Cheuk, the work environment…

  11. The Undergraduate Origins of PhD Economists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegfried, John J.; Stock, Wendy A.; Walstad, William

    2007-01-01

    The authors document the types of undergraduate colleges and universities attended by those who earned a doctorate in economics from an American university from 1966 through 2003. They examine relationships between type of undergraduate institution and attrition and time-to-degree in PhD programs. The total number of new economics PhDs awarded to…

  12. Interventions That Work: An Interview with Economist Greg Duncan. Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Studies indicate investments in social programs that raise a poor working mother's income may be especially beneficial to her children when they are of preschool age. Other studies show that high-quality preschool education interventions can have long-term beneficial impacts on school dropout, lifetime earnings and incarceration rates for…

  13. Interethnic variability of plasma paraoxonase (PON1) activity towards organophosphates and PON1 polymorphisms among Asian populations--a short review.

    PubMed

    Mohamed Ali, Safiyya; Chia, Sin Eng

    2008-08-01

    Organophosphate (OP) poisoning is a progressively worrying phenomenon as worldwide pesticide production and consumption has doubled. On average, WHO estimates that 3% of agricultural workers in developing Asian countries suffer an episode of pesticide poisoning every year. Furthermore, the threat of OP usage in terrorism is existent, as seen by the subway tragedy in Tokyo in 1995 where sarin was used. Despite these alarming facts, there is currently no global system to track poisonings related to pesticide use. Human serum paraoxonase (PON1) is the enzyme that hydrolyses OP compounds. Serum PON1 levels and activity vary widely among different ethnic populations. Two commonly studied polymorphisms of PON1 are PON1Q192R and PON1L55M. PON1R192 hydrolyses paraoxon faster than PON1Q192 but hydrolyses diazoxon, sarin and soman eight times slower, and vice versa. PON1M55 has lower plasma levels of PON1 than PON1L55. As the prevalence of the different alleles and genotypic distribution vary between the Asian populations we studied, we propose the necessity to study PON1 polymorphisms and its role in OP toxicity in Asian populations. This would help safeguard the proper care of agricultural workers who might be affected by OP poisoning, and alert relevant anti biological terrorism agencies on possible risks involved in the event of an OP attack and provide effective counter measures. PMID:18716378

  14. Population Analysis: Communicating in Context

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Thaxton, Sherry

    2008-01-01

    Providing accommodation to a widely varying user population presents a challenge to engineers and designers. It is often even difficult to quantify who is accommodated and who is not accommodated by designs, especially for equipment with multiple critical anthropometric dimensions. An approach to communicating levels of accommodation referred to as population analysis applies existing human factors techniques in novel ways. This paper discusses the definition of population analysis as well as major applications and case studies. The major applications of population analysis consist of providing accommodation information for multivariate problems and enhancing the value of feedback from human-in-the-loop testing. The results of these analyses range from the provision of specific accommodation percentages of the user population to recommendations of design specifications based on quantitative data. Such feedback is invaluable to designers and results in the design of products that accommodate the intended user population.

  15. Pharmacogenetics: detecting sensitive populations.

    PubMed Central

    Shields, P G

    1994-01-01

    Risk assessment models strive to predict risks to humans from toxic agents. Safety factors and assumptions are incorporated into these models to allow a margin of error. In the case of cancer, substantial evidence shows that the carcinogenic process is a multistage process driven by the interaction of exogenous carcinogenic exposures, genetic traits, and other endogenous factors. Current risk assessment models fail to consider genetic predispositions that make people more sensitive or resistant to exogenous exposures and endogenous processes. Several cytochrome P450 enzymes, responsible for metabolically activating carcinogens and medications, express wide interindividual variation whose genetic coding has now been identified as polymorphic and linked to cancer risk. For example, a restriction fragment-length polymorphism for cytochrome P4501A1, which metabolizes polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and cytochrome P4502E1, which metabolizes N-nitrosamines and benzene, is linked to lung cancer risk. Cytochrome P4502D6, responsible for metabolizing many clinically important medications, also is linked to lung cancer risk. The frequency for each of these genetic polymorphisms vary among different ethnic and racial groups. In addition to inherited factors for the detection of sensitive populations, determining the biologically effective doses for carcinogenic exposures also should quantitatively and qualitatively enhance the risk assessment process. Levels of carcinogen-DNA adducts reflect the net effect of exposure, absorption, metabolic activation, detoxification, and DNA repair. These effects are genetically predetermined, inducibility notwithstanding. The combination of adduct and genotyping assays provide an assessment of risk that reflects recent exogenous exposure as well as one's lifetime ability to activate and detoxify carcinogens. PMID:7737047

  16. Modeling sandhill crane population dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, D.H.

    1979-01-01

    The impact of sport hunting on the Central Flyway population of sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) has been a subject of controversy for several years. A recent study (Buller 1979) presented new and important information on sandhill crane population dynamics. The present report is intended to incorporate that and other information into a mathematical model for the purpose of assessing the long-range impact of hunting on the population of sandhill cranes.The model is a simple deterministic system that embodies density-dependent rates of survival and recruitment. The model employs four kinds of data: (1) spring population size of sandhill cranes, estimated from aerial surveys to be between 250,000 and 400,000 birds; (2) age composition in fall, estimated for 1974-76 to be 11.3% young; (3) annual harvest of cranes, estimated from a variety of sources to be about 5 to 7% of the spring population; and (4) age composition of harvested cranes, which was difficult to estimate but suggests that immatures were 2 to 4 times as vulnerable to hunting as adults.Because the true nature of sandhill crane population dynamics remains so poorly understood, it was necessary to try numerous (768 in all) combinations of survival and recruitment functions, and focus on the relatively few (37) that yielded population sizes and age structures comparable to those extant in the real population. Hunting was then applied to those simulated populations. In all combinations, hunting resulted in a lower asymptotic crane population, the decline ranging from 5 to 54%. The median decline was 22%, which suggests that a hunted sandhill crane population might be about three-fourths as large as it would be if left unhunted. Results apply to the aggregate of the three subspecies in the Central Flyway; individual subspecies or populations could be affected to a greater or lesser degree.

  17. Genetic differentiation of Jewish populations.

    PubMed

    Klitz, W; Gragert, L; Maiers, M; Fernandez-Viña, M; Ben-Naeh, Y; Benedek, G; Brautbar, C; Israel, S

    2010-12-01

    The Jewish diaspora can be viewed as a natural process in population dispersion and differentiation. We extend genetic studies on the Jewish diaspora to an analysis of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotype distributions in the Jewish peoples, and show the value of this information for the design of Jewish marrow donor registries. HLA data from the Hadassah Bone Marrow Registry having parental country-of-origin information comprise samples of geographically discrete regions. We analyzed the HLA allele and haplotype frequencies for each national sample using population genetic and clustering methods. Population differentiation among diaspora populations was shown on the basis of HLA haplotype frequencies, including differences within the more recently diverged European groups. A method of haplotype and population clustering showed patterns of unique haplotype affinities associated with specific Jewish populations. The evidence showed that diaspora Jewish populations can be sorted into distinct clades of which the Ashkenazi are but one. Relationships among Jewish populations are interpretable in light of the historical record. We suggest that a major contributing factor to the genetic divergence between Jewish groups may have been admixture with local host populations, while, at the same time, threads of Eastern Mediterranean ancestry remain evident. PMID:20860586

  18. [Population control and environment protection].

    PubMed

    Qu, G

    1982-01-29

    Although many factors cause environmental pollution and damage, the most important and basic factor is a rapidly increasing population. Therefore, a balanced development of population and environment is essential. The pressure a rapidly increasing populaton exerts on the environment has many aspects. The pressure of population on land resources results in increased land use and increased insecticide use due to increased insect tolerance leading to decreased productivity of cultivated land, increased desert formation, and decreased food supply. Population pressure on forest resources leads to land erosion; one of the major causes of the 1981 flood in Sichuan was attributed to excessive logging activities. Demand for fuels (firewood, straws, animal manures) by an increasing population leads to decrease in natural fertilizers, decreased food production, and energy shortage in rural areas. Population pressure on cities leads to air, water, noise and other environmental pollution as well as decrease in housing facilities and in green vegetation. Problems resulting from population pressures on industrial development include industrial and environmental pollution and unemployment. Population increases and accompanying industrial activities affect the weather which in turn affects the quality of agriculture, forests, and lakes. Thus, if unchecked, atmospheric carbon dioxide level would double by the middle of the next century, which would lead to increase in atmospheric temperature with disastrous consequences. Therefore, a well planned program for population control is essential for achieving decent quality of life. PMID:12338285

  19. Population-Sample Regression in the Estimation of Population Proportions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weitzman, R. A.

    2006-01-01

    Focusing on a single sample obtained randomly with replacement from a single population, this article examines the regression of population on sample proportions and develops an unbiased estimator of the square of the correlation between them. This estimator turns out to be the regression coefficient. Use of the squared-correlation estimator as a…

  20. USING POPULATION MODELS TO EVALUATE RISK IN POPULATION OF BIRDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wildlife populations are exposed to varying habitat structure and quality, as well as an array of human-induced environmental stressors. Predicting the consequences to a real population of one perturbation (e.g. a pesticide application) without considering other human activities ...

  1. Matrix population models from 20 studies of perennial plant populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, Martha M.; Williams, Jennifer L.; Lesica, Peter; Bell, Timothy J.; Bierzychudek, Paulette; Bowles, Marlin; Crone, Elizabeth E.; Doak, Daniel F.; Ehrlen, Johan; Ellis-Adam, Albertine; McEachern, Kathryn; Ganesan, Rengaian; Latham, Penelope; Luijten, Sheila; Kaye, Thomas N.; Knight, Tiffany M.; Menges, Eric S.; Morris, William F.; den Nijs, Hans; Oostermeijer, Gerard; Quintana-Ascencio, Pedro F.; Shelly, J. Stephen; Stanley, Amanda; Thorpe, Andrea; Tamara, Ticktin; Valverde, Teresa; Weekley, Carl W.

    2012-01-01

    Demographic transition matrices are one of the most commonly applied population models for both basic and applied ecological research. The relatively simple framework of these models and simple, easily interpretable summary statistics they produce have prompted the wide use of these models across an exceptionally broad range of taxa. Here, we provide annual transition matrices and observed stage structures/population sizes for 20 perennial plant species which have been the focal species for long-term demographic monitoring. These data were assembled as part of the 'Testing Matrix Models' working group through the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS). In sum, these data represent 82 populations with >460 total population-years of data. It is our hope that making these data available will help promote and improve our ability to monitor and understand plant population dynamics.

  2. Matrix population models from 20 studies of perennial plant populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, Martha M.; Williams, Jennifer L.; Lesica, Peter; Bell, Timothy J.; Bierzychudek, Paulette; Bowles, Marlin; Crone, Elizabeth E.; Doak, Daniel F.; Ehrlen, Johan; Ellis-Adam, Albertine; McEachern, Kathryn; Ganesan, Rengaian; Latham, Penelope; Luijten, Sheila; Kaye, Thomas N.; Knight, Tiffany M.; Menges, Eric S.; Morris, William F.; den Nijs, Hans; Oostermeijer, Gerard; Quintana-Ascencio, Pedro F.; Shelly, J. Stephen; Stanley, Amanda; Thorpe, Andrea; Tamara, Ticktin; Valverde, Teresa; Weekley, Carl W.

    2012-01-01

    Demographic transition matrices are one of the most commonly applied population models for both basic and applied ecological research. The relatively simple framework of these models and simple, easily interpretable summary statistics they produce have prompted the wide use of these models across an exceptionally broad range of taxa. Here, we provide annual transition matrices and observed stage structures/population sizes for 20 perennial plant species which have been the focal species for long-term demographic monitoring. These data were assembled as part of the "Testing Matrix Models" working group through the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS). In sum, these data represent 82 populations with >460 total population-years of data. It is our hope that making these data available will help promote and improve our ability to monitor and understand plant population dynamics.

  3. [Population policy: speeches and actions].

    PubMed

    Soto Lopez, A

    1991-06-01

    Mexico's population policy was created almost 20 years ago in response to the need to regulate the country's population growth. Currently the policy stresses more balanced distribution of the population in accordance with realistic development possibilities. By 1986 it was recognized that population policy in Mexico had gone beyond mere control of fertility to encompass direct government intervention in more complex global problems. It was concluded that the possibility of achieving rational population distribution depended on balanced regional development. A strong family planning policy, efforts to integrate demographic programs into general development plans, employment policies, and measures to encourage harmonious spatial distribution were viewed as necessary, but it was also felt that greater speed was required and that the population policy should play a larger role in the development strategy. The National Population Program for 1989-94 has the objectives of promoting the integration of demographic objectives into economic and social planning and promoting a decline in the rate of population growth from 1.8% in 1995 to 1.5% in 2000 through fertility decline. It seeks a more rational population distribution in which the weight of large metropolitan zones would be reduced and growth of intermediate and small cities promoted. It seeks to encourage greater participation by women in the nation's life, and to contribute to integrated development and elevation in the living standards of indigenous groups. In presentation of the National Population Program it was noted that the economic crisis of the 1980s had reversed some previous demographic achievements. greater efforts are necessary to involve the rural and indigenous groups. In presentation of the National Population Program it was noted that the economic crisis of the 1980s had reversed some previous demographic achievements. Greater efforts are necessary to involve the rural and indigenous populations

  4. Evaluation of the social and economic burden of road traffic noise-attributed myocardial infarction in Bulgarian urban population.

    PubMed

    Dzhambov, Angel M; Dimitrova, Donka D

    2015-03-01

    Road traffic noise is a widely studied environmental risk factor for ischaemic heart disease and myocardial infarction in particular. Given that myocardial infarction is a leading disability and mortality cause in Bulgaria and that a significant proportion of the urban population is exposed to high noise levels, quantification of the burden of disease attributable to traffic noise is essential for environmental health policy making and noise control engineering. This study aimed at estimating the burden of the myocardial infarction cases attributable to road traffic noise in the Bulgarian urban population. We used the methodology for estimating the burden of disease attributable to environmental noise outlined by the World Health Organization. Risk data were extracted from a recently published meta-analysis providing updated exposure-response relationship between traffic noise and the risk for myocardial infarction. Based on these data we calculated the fraction of myocardial infarction cases attributable to traffic noise, loss of quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and the economic burden, assuming € 12,000 per QALY. About 2.9 % or 101 of all myocardial infarction cases could be attributed to road traffic noise. Fifty-five of these were fatal. Nine hundred and sixty-eight QALYs were lost to these cases. The monetary value of these QALYs was about € 11.6 million. Although the measures used in this study are crude and give only an approximation of the real burden of disease from road traffic noise, they are indicative of the important social and economic aspect of noise pollution in Bulgaria. Hopefully, these results will direct the attention of epidemiologists, environmental hygienists, and health economists to this pivotal environmental issue. PMID:25719277

  5. Interactions between populations and resources

    SciTech Connect

    Daily, G.C.

    1992-01-01

    Several unrelated projects, each dealing with the interactions between animal populations and their resources in evolutionary and community level contexts are presented. Three focus on the behavior of natural populations and communities of non-human species, while the other two explore several dimensions of human populations and resources. The first chapter investigates the factors that determine the spatial distribution of adults in an insect population and relates these to the evolution of insect mating systems. The second chapter describes subtle, indirect interactions in a keystone species complex comprised of a woodpecker, certain willow species, aspen trees, and a heartwood fungus. The third chapter examines the influence of social dominance status upon foraging behavior in large, heterospecific assemblages of birds at fruiting trees in Costa Rica. Several possible ramifications of social dominance hierarchies at the population and community levels are discussed. Chapter four describes the results of a stochastic simulation model of the effects of rapid climatic change on agriculture and the global human population. The model suggests that even favorable climatic changes may not prevent a several-fold increase in deaths (over past levels) if population growth outpaces food production by about 0.8 percent per annum or more. Finally, the fifth chapter outlines the current human population-environment situation and develops a framework for analyzing the carrying capacity of the planet for Homo sapiens. Biophysical and social dimensions of sustainability and carrying capacity are discussed.

  6. Estimated population near uranium tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomster, C.H.; Brown, D.R.; Bruno, G.A.; Craig, S.N.; Dirks, J.A.; Griffin, E.A.; Reis, J.W.; Young, J.K.

    1984-01-01

    Population studies, which took place during the months of April, May, and June 1983, were performed for 27 active and 25 inactive mill sites. For each mill site, a table showing population by radius (1/2, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 km) in 16 compass directions was generated. 22 references, 6 tables.

  7. Topological Signatures for Population Admixture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Topological Signatures for Population AdmixtureDeniz Yorukoglu1, Filippo Utro1, David Kuhn2, Saugata Basu3 and Laxmi Parida1* Abstract Background: As populations with multi-linear transmission (i.e., mixing of genetic material from two parents, say) evolve over generations, the genetic transmission...

  8. Population Growth: Stretching the Limits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouse, Deborah E.

    1990-01-01

    Three population education activities that can be used to illustrate the effects of uncontrolled population growth are presented. Included are "Crowding Can Be Seedy," which uses seeds; "Something for Everyone," which illustrates competition for resources; and "More or Less," which illustrates the relationship between humans and the environment.…

  9. Population. Global Issues Education Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Amy E.

    One of the most critical issues that faces humanity is the world population boom. The high rate of population growth can directly affect sensitive issues such as the state of the environment, economic development, health, resource uses, and consumption. Though we have achieved the capability to override many of nature's limitations, we live in a…

  10. Population Control and Scientific Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Zev

    1978-01-01

    Garrett Hardin, a trained biologist, made a plea for coercive population control in a prestigious scientific journal (Science, 1968). His theory on how to control population is examined, the net effects of a situational vs an absolute ethics is weighed, and the limits to science and its methodology are evaluated. (Author/RK)

  11. Ten Charming Delusions About Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, Garrett

    1975-01-01

    Presents an open ended list of delusions about population which are based on expansionist economics and contends that dispelling these delusions, and others, will allow us to come to grip with the population problem. Some of the delusions presented concern birth control, sharing the wealth, and energy shortages. (BR)

  12. Information, Education, Communication in Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. East-West Center.

    Programs and services of the Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA) are reviewed in this report on resources available for the support of population information, education, and communication activities. Four major sections describe in concise, outline form: (1) the agency and its programs, (2) the specific program in population/family…

  13. A Discussion of Population Invariance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    The discussion here covers five articles that are linked in the sense that they all treat population invariance. This discussion of population invariance is a somewhat broader treatment of the subject than simply a discussion of these five articles. In particular, occasional reference is made to publications other than those in this issue. The…

  14. Population Growth: Crisis and Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaton, John R., Ed.; Doberenz, Alexander R., Ed.

    The proceedings of this first annual symposium on population growth considers the consequences of this growth, along with possible means of regulation. Topics of speeches include: Population Outlook in Asia (Irene Taeuber); Malnutrition is a Problem of Ecology (Paul Gyorgy); The Leisure Explosion (E. H. Storey); Effects of Pollution on Population…

  15. A Population Health Surveillance Theory

    PubMed Central

    Bigras-Poulin, Michel; Michel, Pascal; Ravel, André

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Despite its extensive use, the term "Surveillance" often takes on various meanings in the scientific literature pertinent to public health and animal health. A critical appraisal of this literature also reveals ambiguities relating to the scope and necessary structural components underpinning the surveillance process. The authors hypothesized that these inconsistencies translate to real or perceived deficiencies in the conceptual framework of population health surveillance. This paper presents a population health surveillance theory framed upon an explicit conceptual system relative to health surveillance performed in human and animal populations. METHODS The population health surveillance theory reflects the authors' system of thinking and was based on a creative process. RESULTS Population health surveillance includes two broad components: one relating to the human organization (which includes expertise and the administrative program), and one relating to the system per se (which includes elements of design and method) and which can be viewed as a process. The population health surveillance process is made of five sequential interrelated steps: 1) a trigger or need, 2) problem formulation, 3) surveillance planning, 4) surveillance implementation, and 5) information communication and audit. CONCLUSIONS The population health surveillance theory provides a systematic way of understanding, organizing and evaluating the population health surveillance process. PMID:23251837

  16. Play Therapy with Special Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    This paper notes that therapists often feel unqualified to deal with special populations of children because of a lack of understanding of the universalness of play therapy. Suggestions are offered for beginning play therapists who may work with a number of special populations of children. It is recommended that the social learning approach to…

  17. U.S. Population Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillner, Harry

    This autoinstructional lesson deals with the study of man and his environment. No previous experience or learning in this field is required. Emphasis is placed on analysis of population growth and the impact population growth and trends have on natural resource depletion. The behavioral objectives (five) are listed. The study guide for the…

  18. Paths for Future Population Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigsby, Jill S.

    Population aging refers to an entire age structure becoming older. The age structure of a population is the result of three basic processes: fertility, mortality, and migration. Age structures reflect both past effects and current patterns of these processes. At the town, city, or regional level, migration becomes an important factor in raising…

  19. Population and policy in Finland.

    PubMed

    Hulkko, J

    1989-03-01

    Finland, with a population of 4.9 million, currently has an overall fertility rate of 1.6. There is a small population growth, but this is due to a large reproductive age group, return migration of Finns from Sweden, and a decrease in mortality that has increased the proportion of old people in the population. The state has no official population policy. A recommendation of the Finnish Committee on the World Population Year 1974 that the government establish an agency for population policy has not been adopted. The coalition government now in power has a program, however, aimed at influencing population growth. The program includes proposals to reduce work hours for parents with small children, increase the age limit for participation in the child allowance system, and increase the number of municipal day care facilities. Concerning regional policy, the government wants a balanced development of the country's different regions. Subsidiary industries of agriculture and forestry are being encouraged to preserve population levels in sparse areas. Finland also supports a health policy emphasizing preventive and non-institutional aspects of health care, with targets of life expectancy set at 82 years for women and 75 years for men by the year 2000. PMID:12222205

  20. Information Networking in Population Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    The rapidly increasing body of knowledge in population education has created the need for systematic and effective information services. Information networking entails sharing resources so that the information needs of all network participants are met. The goals of this manual are to: (1) instill in population education specialists a more…