Science.gov

Sample records for population worries economists

  1. Population ageing: what should we worry about?

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Adair

    2009-01-01

    Approximately half the world's population now has replacement-level fertility or below. The UK experience in accommodating to a changing dependency ratio provides some generalizable insights. A mechanistic approach assuming a fixed retirement age and a need to raise fertility or increase immigration in order to maintain pensions at a fixed proportion of the gross domestic product (GDP) is overstated and wrong. It needs to be replaced by a welfare optimizing model, which takes into account the increasing years of healthy life, a slow rise in the pensionable age, capital inheritance and wider welfare considerations of population density that are not reflected in GDP measures. A combined replacement ratio (CRR) is suggested for developed countries combining the impact of the fertility rate and immigration rate. A CRR above 2 implies continued population growth. The current UK CRR of 2.48 is higher than needed for pension reasons, and it is suggested that it exceeds the welfare maximizing level. PMID:19770152

  2. Do not worry, be mindful: effects of induced worry and mindfulness on respiratory variability in a nonanxious population.

    PubMed

    Vlemincx, Elke; Vigo, Daniel; Vansteenwegen, Debora; Van den Bergh, Omer; Van Diest, Ilse

    2013-02-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is characterized by chronic worry. Mindfulness-based stress reduction is thought to remediate excessive worry, because it counteracts a permanent defense state of enhanced vigilance to potential threats. The present study aimed to compare respiratory variability (RV) during worry and mindfulness. Following an 8-minute baseline, 37 healthy participants underwent 11-min worry and mindfulness inductions, in randomized order, using auditory scripts. Respiration was measured by chest and abdominal inductance belts. RV was quantified by (1) autocorrelation to assess linear breathing variability and (2) sample entropy to assess nonlinear breathing variability. Compared to baseline and mindfulness, worry showed decreased autocorrelation in all respiratory parameters and compared to mindfulness, worry showed decreased entropy in respiratory rate. These results suggest that, in contrast to mindfulness, worry is characterized by decreased respiratory stability and flexibility, and therefore worry and mindfulness seem to have countering effects on RV and respiratory regulation. PMID:23266658

  3. Differences and similarities between obsessive intrusive thoughts and worry in a non-clinical population: study 2.

    PubMed

    Langlois, F; Freeston, M H; Ladouceur, R

    2000-02-01

    Differences between obsessions and worry have been clearly demonstrated on several variables [Langlois, F., Freeston, M. H., & Ladouccur, R. (2000). Differences and similarities between obsessive intrusive thoughts and worry in a non-clinical population: study 1. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38, 157-173.]. Previous factor analysis of obsessions or worries have typically been used in developing measures for OCD and GAD symptoms. These studies generally support the distinctiveness of obsessions and worries but there have been no direct comparisons of the factor structure of obsession and worry on the same measure. This study aimed to compare the general structure of worry and obsessional intrusions. It also attempted to identify the relations between the respective factors identified in the appraisals of intrusions and the factor structures of coping strategies used in reaction to the thoughts. 254 students participated in the study. They first identified an obsession-like intrusion and a worry and then evaluated them with the Cognitive Intrusion Questionnaire. Different factor structures were obtained for worry and obsessive intrusive thoughts. However, the factor structure for the strategies used to counter the thoughts were highly similar for both types of thought. Furthermore, regression analysis identified interesting relationships between the strategies, the thought characteristics and appraisal. Thus, despite the ability to find differences between obsessive intrusive thoughts and worry, and even to accurately categorize them based on these differences, there may in fact exist common processes that are shared over much of a continuum. Sharp differences in the processes involved may only become clear in prototypical cases. The implications for models of cognitive intrusion are discussed. PMID:10661002

  4. Response to “Worrying Trends in Econophysics”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCauley, Joseph L.

    2006-11-01

    This article is a response to the recent “Worrying Trends in Econophysics” critique written by four respected theoretical economists [M. Gallegatti, S. Keen, T. Lux, P. Ormerod, Worrying trends in econophysics, Physica A (2006), submitted for publication [1

  5. Differences and similarities between obsessive intrusive thoughts and worry in a non-clinical population: study 1.

    PubMed

    Langlois, F; Freeston, M H; Ladouceur, R

    2000-02-01

    Worry is the central characteristic of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) and obsessions are a central feature of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). There are strong similarities between these disorders: repetitive cognitive intrusions, negative emotions, difficulty dismissing the intrusion and finally, loss of mental control. Direct comparisons between obsessions and worries are almost non-existent in the literature but key distinctions have been proposed. The study attempted to specify the differences between obsessive intrusive thoughts and worry in a nonclinical population across a series of variables drawn from current models (appraisal, general descriptors and emotional reactions). 254 students participated in the study. They first identified an obsession-like intrusion and a worry and then evaluated them with the Cognitive Intrusion Questionnaire. Within-subject comparisons demonstrated significant differences on several variables: frequency, duration, percentage of verbal and image content, interference, egodystonic nature, stimuli awareness, emotions, etc. Most of these differences remained significant after controlling for frequency of thought. Discriminant analysis demonstrated a low classification error rate when using nine variables to categorize thoughts as obsessions or worries. Results generally support the differences postulated in the literature with the exception that obsessive intrusive thoughts are better controlled. The egodystonic/egosyntonic dimension emerged as an important variable in understanding obsessions and worry. PMID:10661001

  6. What Economists Teach and What Economists Do

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colander, David

    2005-01-01

    Fifty years ago what was taught in the principles of economics course reflected reasonably well what economists did in their research. That, however, is no longer the case; today what economists teach has a more nuanced relation to what they do. The reason is that the economics profession and the textbooks have evolved differently. The author…

  7. What Led Eminent Economists to Become Economists?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Brent A.; Grimes, Paul W.; Becker, William E.

    2012-01-01

    The authors analyze the various factors that highly recognized economists cite as reasons for pursuing a career in economics. They obtained data for 62 of the 67 Nobel Laureates in economics and included another 22 prominent economists who have made significant contributions in economic research. The authors' basic quest was to discover how these…

  8. Worry, worry attacks, and PTSD among Cambodian refugees: a path analysis investigation.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Devon E; Nickerson, Angela; Bryant, Richard A

    2011-06-01

    Among traumatized Cambodian refugees, this article investigates worry (e.g., the types of current life concerns) and how worry worsens posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). To explore how worry worsens PTSD, we examine a path model of worry to see whether certain key variables (e.g., worry-induced somatic arousal and worry-induced trauma recall) mediate the relationship between worry and PTSD. Survey data were collected from March 2010 until May 2010 in a convenience sample of 201 adult Cambodian refugees attending a psychiatric clinic in Massachusetts, USA. We found that worry was common in this group (65%), that worry was often about current life concerns (e.g., lacking financial resources, children not attending school, health concerns, concerns about relatives in Cambodia), and that worry often induced panic attacks: in the entire sample, 41% (83/201) of the patients had "worry attacks" (i.e., worry episodes that resulted in a panic episode) in the last month. "Worry attacks" were highly associated with PTSD presence. In the entire sample, generalized anxiety disorder was also very prevalent, and was also highly associated with PTSD. Path analysis revealed that the effect of worry on PTSD severity was mediated by worry-induced somatic arousal, worry-induced catastrophic cognitions, worry-induced trauma recall, inability to stop worry, and irritability. The final model accounted for 75% of the variance in PTSD severity among patients with worry. The public health and treatment implications of the study's findings that worry may have a potent impact on PTSD severity in severely traumatized populations are discussed: worry and daily concerns are key areas of intervention for these worry-hypersensitive (and hence daily-stressor-hypersensitive) populations. PMID:21663803

  9. Worries of the Oldest-Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Hae-Sook; Dunkle, Ruth; Roberts, Beverly L.

    2006-01-01

    With the emerging population of the oldest-old (those ages 85 and older), it is crucial to understand and prepare for their psychosocial needs. Worry is linked to psychological well-being and physical health, but little is known about the oldest-old's everyday worries. The authors explored four research questions: (1) What are the worries of the…

  10. Diversifying the Economists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2006-01-01

    The American Economists Association's (AEA's) summer and minority scholarship program at Duke University is an academic pipeline program that has been in operation for 33 years. The eight-week summer experience prepares its participants for the rigors of first- and second-year study in master's and doctorate programs in economics. The program also…

  11. Consensus among Economists Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Dan; Geide-Stevenson, Doris

    2003-01-01

    Explores consensus among economists on specific propositions on the basis of a fall 2000 survey of American Economic Association members. Finds consensus generally within the profession, although the degree of consensus varies among propositions that are international, macroeconomic, and microeconomic in nature. States the profession displays…

  12. Helping Kids Handle Worry

    MedlinePlus

    ... or at school. Things like terrorism, war, pollution, global warming, endangered animals, and natural disasters can become a ... worry about big stuff — like terrorism, war, or global warming — that they hear about at school or on ...

  13. Process characteristics of worry and obsessive intrusive thoughts.

    PubMed

    Clark, D A; Claybourn, M

    1997-12-01

    One hundred and twenty-five university students were administered a battery of self-report measures to assess worry disposition and content, frequency of obsessive intrusive thoughts, and 10 conceptually derived appraisal dimensions of worry and obsessional intrusions. Process ratings indicated that the worrisome thoughts were considered more disturbing than the ego-dystonic intrusive thoughts. Worry was also distinguished by a focus on the possible consequences of negative events, whereas concern about the personal meaning of the thought was a unique process dimension for obsessive intrusive thoughts. Both content and process variables are important in differentiating worry and obsessive-like intrusive thoughts in a nonclinical population. PMID:9465447

  14. The worried mind: autonomic and prefrontal activation during worrying.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Stefan G; Moscovitch, David A; Litz, Brett T; Kim, Hyo-Jin; Davis, Lissa L; Pizzagalli, Diego A

    2005-12-01

    To study the psychophysiological correlates of worrying, the authors recorded heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), skin conductance level, and alpha electroencephalographic asymmetry in healthy males during baseline, relaxation, worry induction, and anticipation of an impromptu speech task. Compared with baseline, relaxation, and anticipation, worrying was associated with greater heart rate and lower RSA. Worrying was further characterized by higher skin conductance levels compared with baseline but lower levels than during anticipation. Finally, worrying was associated with relatively greater left frontal activity compared with anticipation. Trait public speaking anxiety was positively correlated with left frontal activity during worrying. These results support the notion that worrying is a unique emotional state that is different from fearful anticipation. PMID:16366750

  15. The Economist as Public Intellectual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, R. Glenn

    2004-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the rising number of outlets for communication through cable networks and electronic broadcasting (not to mention self-promoting Web "blogs") has stimulated the demand for economic commentary. Only the academic economist, as "public intellectual," can provide this commentary in a coherent and rigorous way via the three…

  16. Who Are These Economists, Anyway?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbraith, James K.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the author ventures into the nether wastes of economics, and attempts a brief survey of the main currents that didn't get it wrong. He looks at the failure of the nation's leading academic economists to understand the current financial crisis or the shaky underpinnings of the nation's financial system. The author's method consists…

  17. Energy policy: an economist's confessions

    SciTech Connect

    Schlesinger, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    Dr. Schlesinger, former Secretary of Energy, feels that energy policy will determine how the industrial economies perform and whether the western political institutions survive. He says that energy policy does not, however, respond to traditional economic analysis in that there is no economic theory to adequately cover depleting resources. Economists gain strength by approaching energy problems in the context of supply and the price mechanism, with attention to arithmetic rather than emotion. Dr. Schlesinger believes, however, that there are weaknesses in the economists' view in the curative powers granted to the marketplace, which are better at making small adjustments over a long period of time than large adjustments in a short time. He notes that tendency to use inappropriate syllogisms obscures the problem of a rapidly diminishing lead time to solving the energy problem. He observes that total reliance on the marketplace will have to give way to government subsidies to research, develop, and commercialize fuels. (DCK)

  18. Waste, Economists and American Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-five years ago, Uwe Reinhardt pointed out that sheer bureaucratic waste, particularly in the private sector, accounted for much of the extraordinarily high cost of American health-care. Last year an expert panel of the Institute of Medicine reconfirmed his point, estimating that in 2009, administrative waste accounted for $190 billion out of a total of $765 billion in various forms of waste – 31% of overall American spending on healthcare. Reinhardt recently noted a peculiar schizophrenia among American economists, simultaneously deploring this monumental waste while celebrating the contribution of healthcare, and particularly medical research, to the American economy. The apparent paradox may arise from a confusion between the meanings of “value” in economic and everyday language, and from economists' tendency to create pseudo-aggregates of diverse and non-commensurate entities. PMID:24359713

  19. The Developmental Psychopathology of Worry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kertz, Sarah J.; Woodruff-Borden, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Although childhood generalized anxiety disorder is generally understudied, worry, the cardinal feature of GAD, appears to be relatively common in youth. Despite its prevalence, there are few conceptual models of the development of clinical worry in children. The current review provides a framework for integrating the developmental psychopathology…

  20. Resources for Economists on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goffe, William L.; Braden, Elise

    2000-01-01

    Describes the Web site Resources for Economists on the Internet (RFE) that is sponsored by the American Economic Association under the Journal of Economic Literature. States that RFE focuses on the needs of academic economists. Explains that RFE includes over 900 Internet resources and discusses the "Teaching Resources" section. (CMK)

  1. Needed: Home Economists in the Peace Corps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Frances J.

    1978-01-01

    The primary reason home economists, nutritionists, and dietitians are being recruited by the Peace Corps is the national priority goal for achieving improved nutritional status in impoverished countries such as Costa Rica. However, several ways in which a home economist can contribute to Peace Corps activities and the role of this professional in…

  2. Home Economists and Hospice: A Needed Combination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Story, Marilyn D.

    1983-01-01

    Hospice is a family-centered concept of care which needs home economists from all subject-matter areas in volunteer or paid professional roles. In turn, home economists can grow personally as well as professionally through their involvement with hospice. (Author)

  3. Worrying About Terrorism and Other Acute Environmental Health Hazard Events

    PubMed Central

    Babcock-Dunning, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To better understand why some people worry more about terrorism compared with others, we measured how much US residents worried about a terrorist event in their area and examined the association of their fears with their concerns about acute and chronic hazards and other correlates. Methods. In 2008 (n = 600) and 2010 (n = 651), we performed a random-digit dialing national landline telephone survey. We asked about worries about terrorism and 5 other environmental health hazard issues. We also collected demographic and socioeconomic data. Results. Only 15% worried “a great deal” about a terrorist event in their area and 18% to 33% were greatly concerned about other environmental issues. Fear about acute hazard events was a stronger predictor of a great deal of concern about terrorism than were age, race/ethnicity, gender, educational achievement, and other correlates. Conclusions. Those who worried most about acute environmental health hazard events were most likely to worry about terrorism. Also, those who were older, poorer, Blacks, or Latinos, or who lived in populous urban areas felt they were most vulnerable to terrorist attacks. We recommend methods to involve US citizens as part of disaster planning. PMID:22397346

  4. Cancer-Related Worry in Canadian Thyroid Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Bresner, Lauren; Banach, Rita; Rodin, Gary; Thabane, Lehana; Ezzat, Shereen

    2015-01-01

    Context: Little is known about cancer-related worry in thyroid cancer survivors. Objectives: We quantified cancer-related worry in Canadian thyroid cancer survivors and explored associated factors. Design, Setting, and Participants: We performed a cross-sectional, self-administered, written survey of thyroid cancer survivor members of the Thyroid Cancer Canada support group. Independent factors associated with cancer-related worry were identified using a multivariable linear regression analysis. Main Outcome Measure: We used the Assessment of Survivor Concerns (ASC) questionnaire, which includes questions on worry about diagnostic tests, second primary malignancy, recurrence, dying, health, and children's health. Results: The response rate for eligible members was 60.1% (941 of 1567). Most respondents were women (89.0%; 837 of 940), and the age was < 50 years in 54.0% of participants (508 of 941). Thyroid cancer was diagnosed within ≤ 5 years in 66.1% of participants (622 of 940). The mean overall ASC score was 15.34 (SD, 4.7) (on a scale from 6 [least worry] to 24 [most worry]). Factors associated with increased ASC score included: younger age (P < .001), current suspected or proven recurrent/persistent disease (ie, current proven active disease or abnormal diagnostic tests) (P < .001), partnered marital status (P = .021), having children (P = .029), and ≤5 years since thyroid cancer diagnosis (P = .017). Conclusions: In a population of Canadian thyroid cancer survivors, cancer-related worry was greatest in younger survivors and those with either confirmed or suspected disease activity. Family status and time since thyroid cancer diagnosis were also associated with increased worry. More research is needed to confirm these findings and to develop effective preventative and supportive strategies for those at risk. PMID:25393643

  5. Worries of Pregnant Women: Testing the Farsi Cambridge Worry Scale

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Forough; Akaberi, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy adds many sources of concerns to women's daily life worries. Excessive worry can affect maternal physiological and psychological state that influences the pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to validate the Cambridge Worry Scale (CWS) in a sample of Iranian pregnant women. After translation of the CWS, ten experts evaluated the items and added six items to the 17-item scale. In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 405 of pregnant women booked for prenatal care completed the Farsi CWS. We split the sample randomly. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted on the first half of the sample to disclose the factorial structure of the 23-item scale. The results of the EFA on the Farsi CWS indicated four factors altogether explained 51.5% of variances. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was done on the second half of the sample. The results of the CFA showed that the model fit our data (chi-square/df = 2.02, RMSEA = 0.071, SRMR = 0.071, CFI = 0.95, and NNFI = 0.94). Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the Farsi CWS was 0.883. The Farsi CWS is a reliable and valid instrument for understanding common pregnancy worries in the third trimester of pregnancy in Iranian women. PMID:27293974

  6. Worry, Intolerance of Uncertainty, and Statistics Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Amanda S.

    2013-01-01

    Statistics anxiety is a problem for most graduate students. This study investigates the relationship between intolerance of uncertainty, worry, and statistics anxiety. Intolerance of uncertainty was significantly related to worry, and worry was significantly related to three types of statistics anxiety. Six types of statistics anxiety were…

  7. A Home Economist Does Historic Preservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Margaret N.

    1975-01-01

    The research director of the University of Iowa's Bicentennial "Old Capitol" restoration project discusses restoration rationale and employment possibilities for home economists, stressing that the most important training for students is in aesthetic responsibility and historical accuracy. She reviews step-by-step the restoration work done in one…

  8. Learning Not to Think Like an Economist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, David R.

    2007-01-01

    This essay describes my progress bringing the core ideas of economics into conversations with noneconomists about important public policy issues within my faith community, through local politics, and through interdisciplinary conversations in academia. Thinking like an economist is essential to conducting research and performing careful analysis…

  9. Consensus among Economists--An Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Dan; Geide-Stevenson, Doris

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore consensus among economists on specific propositions based on a fall 2011 survey of American Economic Association members. Results are based on 568 responses and provide evidence of changes in opinion over time by including propositions from earlier studies in 2000 (Fuller and Geide-Stevenson 2003) and 1992…

  10. Penn State Worry Questionnaire: structure and psychometric properties of the Chinese version*

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Jie; Wang, Chun; Li, Jie; Liu, Jun

    2009-01-01

    The Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) is a measure of worry phenomena and has been demonstrated valid in cross-cultural populations. The present study examined the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Chinese version of PSWQ (Ch-PSWQ) in a Chinese college sample (n=1243). Exploratory factor analysis of the Ch-PSWQ revealed a two-factor solution (engagement of worry and absence of worry). Confirmatory factor analysis and model comparison supported that the model of one factor with method effect provided the best fit to the data. The Ch-PSWQ and its factors evidenced good internal consistency and both convergent and discriminate validity. The present study supports the opinion that the second factor of PSWQ not only contains the component of evaluating pathological worry, but also might represent other traits. PMID:19283876

  11. The When, Why, and How of Worry Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Heiden, Colin; ten Broeke, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Worry is a component of many psychological disorders. Worry exposure is a technique that is useful in the treatment of excessive worry. However, there is little in the psychological literature on worry exposure. This leads to the impression that clinicians do not make much use of worry exposure. This paper offers a step-by-step description of the…

  12. Initial Validation of the Children's Worry Management Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeman, Janice Lillian; Cassano, Michael; Suveg, Cynthia; Shipman, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the psychometric properties of a new instrument, the Children's Worry Management Scale (CWMS). The CWMS has three subscales that specify methods of regulating worry: inhibition (the suppression of worry), dysregulation (exaggerated displays of worry), and coping (constructive ways of managing worry). Using a Caucasian, middle-class…

  13. 7 CFR 2.70 - Deputy Chief Economist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deputy Chief Economist. 2.70 Section 2.70 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY BY THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE AND GENERAL OFFICERS OF THE DEPARTMENT Delegations of Authority by the Chief Economist § 2.70 Deputy Chief Economist. Pursuant to § 2.29, the...

  14. Systematic information processing style and perseverative worry.

    PubMed

    Dash, Suzanne R; Meeten, Frances; Davey, Graham C L

    2013-12-01

    This review examines the theoretical rationale for conceiving of systematic information processing as a proximal mechanism for perseverative worry. Systematic processing is characterised by detailed, analytical thought about issue-relevant information, and in this way, is similar to the persistent, detailed processing of information that typifies perseverative worry. We review the key features and determinants of systematic processing, and examine the application of systematic processing to perseverative worry. We argue that systematic processing is a mechanism involved in perseverative worry because (1) systematic processing is more likely to be deployed when individuals feel that they have not reached a satisfactory level of confidence in their judgement and this is similar to the worrier's striving to feel adequately prepared, to have considered every possible negative outcome/detect all potential danger, and to be sure that they will successfully cope with perceived future problems; (2) systematic processing and worry are influenced by similar psychological cognitive states and appraisals; and (3) the functional neuroanatomy underlying systematic processing is located in the same brain regions that are activated during worrying. This proposed mechanism is derived from core psychological processes and offers a number of clinical implications, including the identification of psychological states and appraisals that may benefit from therapeutic interventions for worry-based problems. PMID:24056060

  15. Cancer recurrence worry, risk perception, and informational-coping styles among Appalachian cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kimberly M; Shedlosky-Shoemaker, Randi; Porter, Kyle; Desimone, Philip; Andrykowski, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Despite a growing literature on the psychosocial impact of the threat of cancer recurrence, underserved populations, such as those from the Appalachian region, have been understudied. To examine worry and perceived risk in cancer survivors, Appalachian and non-Appalachian cancer patients at an ambulatory oncology clinic in a university hospital were surveyed. Appalachians had significantly higher worry than non-Appalachians. Cancer type and lower need for cognition were associated with greater worry. Those with missing perceived risk data were generally older, less educated, and lower in monitoring, blunting, and health literacy. Additional resources are needed to assist Appalachians and those with cancers with poor prognoses (e.g., liver cancer, pancreatic cancer) to cope with worry associated with developing cancer again. More attention for cancer prevention is critical to improve quality of life in underserved populations where risk of cancer is greater. PMID:21240722

  16. Are Attentional Control Resources Reduced by Worry in Generalized Anxiety Disorder?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This is the first study to examine attentional control capacities in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). GAD is characterized by uncontrollable worry. Individuals diagnosed with GAD and healthy participants (HPs) performed a random key-pressing task while thinking about a worrisome or a positive future event, to assess the extent to which attentional control resources are used by worry. Attentional control was also assessed when participants were not instructed to think about a specific topic using the N-back task, which varies in task difficulty, and therefore is sensitive to subtle differences in ability to handle increasing demands on attentional control within the same paradigm. GAD participants (but not HPs) were less random while worrying than thinking about a positive event during the key-pressing task, suggesting that worry consumed more attentional control resources in this population. During the N-Back task, GAD participants performed worse than HPs during the high load conditions only, indicating greater difficulty in sustaining focus on conditions requiring a higher degree of attentional control, even without concurrent task activity. Poor attentional control might underpin the difficulty of GAD individuals to stop worrying and switch to thinking more benign information. Further research could investigate whether worry consumes attentional control resources in other psychological disorders with high rates of worry (e.g., panic disorder, psychosis), as well as the extent to which attentional control is used by other forms of repetitive thinking, such as depressive rumination. PMID:24886007

  17. Are attentional control resources reduced by worry in generalized anxiety disorder?

    PubMed

    Stefanopoulou, Evgenia; Hirsch, Colette R; Hayes, Sarra; Adlam, Anna; Coker, Sian

    2014-05-01

    This is the first study to examine attentional control capacities in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). GAD is characterized by uncontrollable worry. Individuals diagnosed with GAD and healthy participants (HPs) performed a random key-pressing task while thinking about a worrisome or a positive future event, to assess the extent to which attentional control resources are used by worry. Attentional control was also assessed when participants were not instructed to think about a specific topic using the N-back task, which varies in task difficulty, and therefore is sensitive to subtle differences in ability to handle increasing demands on attentional control within the same paradigm. GAD participants (but not HPs) were less random while worrying than thinking about a positive event during the key-pressing task, suggesting that worry consumed more attentional control resources in this population. During the N-Back task, GAD participants performed worse than HPs during the high load conditions only, indicating greater difficulty in sustaining focus on conditions requiring a higher degree of attentional control, even without concurrent task activity. Poor attentional control might underpin the difficulty of GAD individuals to stop worrying and switch to thinking more benign information. Further research could investigate whether worry consumes attentional control resources in other psychological disorders with high rates of worry (e.g., panic disorder, psychosis), as well as the extent to which attentional control is used by other forms of repetitive thinking, such as depressive rumination. PMID:24886007

  18. Worry as an Uncertainty-Associated Emotion: Exploring the Role of Worry in Health Information Seeking.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun Young; Hawkins, Robert P

    2016-08-01

    This study was carried out to understand how and why worry motivates health-related information seeking, and whether worry decreases after obtaining health-related information. It was proposed that worry influences health-related information-seeking behavior indirectly through cancer patients' desire for obtaining additional information. It was further expected that perceived knowledge about cancer could be increased after 2 months of searching for health information over the Internet, which would subsequently affect levels of worry. Using panel data collected from 224 women diagnosed with breast cancer, worry was found to predict patients' health information seeking via the perceived need for additional information. The results further showed significant increases in patients' perceived knowledge about breast cancer and decreased levels of worry after the seeking of health information for 2 months. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:26752071

  19. Worry in older community-residing adults.

    PubMed

    Brock, Kaye; Clemson, Lindy; Cant, Rosemary; Ke, Liang; Cumming, Robert G; Kendig, Hal; Mathews, Mark

    2011-01-01

    With rising longevity, increasing numbers of older people are experiencing changes in their everyday family and social life, changes in their financial status, and a greater number of chronic conditions affecting their health. We took the opportunity to explore these relationships with worry in a group of volunteer community-living elderly (n = 310). Findings showed that that those people under 75 years of age had a higher risk of worrying (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.0-3.1) compared to the older age groups. Women worried more than men and an important finding was that those with chronic health conditions such as arthritis of the hip and knee were more prone to worry than those who were healthy or had acute conditions (OR = 3.5, 95% CI = 1.4-8.9). This latter finding suggests the importance placed on the role of the hip and knee in maintaining functional capacity to perform life skills. PMID:21977675

  20. "My worries are rational, climate change is not": habitual ecological worrying is an adaptive response.

    PubMed

    Verplanken, Bas; Roy, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Qualifications such as "global warming hysteria" and "energy policy schizophrenia" put forward by some climate change skeptics, usually outside the academic arena, may suggest that people who seriously worry about the environment suffer from psychological imbalance. The present study aimed to refute this thesis. While habitual worrying in general is strongly associated with psychopathological symptoms, in a survey a near-zero correlation was found between habitual ecological worrying and pathological worry. Instead, habitual ecological worrying was associated with pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors, and with a personality structure characterized by imagination and an appreciation for new ideas. The study had sufficient statistical power and measures were valid and reliable. The results confirm that those who habitually worry about the ecology are not only lacking in any psychopathology, but demonstrate a constructive and adaptive response to a serious problem. In the public domain, these findings may contribute to a more rational and less emotional debate on climate change and to the prevention of stigmatization of people who are genuinely concerned about our habitat and are prepared to do something about it ("habitual worriers are not crazy"). In the academic arena this study may contribute to environmental psychology ("habitual worrying is part of a green identity"), as well as to the literature on worry and anxiety ("habitual worrying can be a constructive response"). PMID:24023958

  1. Intrusive pain and worry about health in older men: the CHAMP study.

    PubMed

    Blyth, F M; Cumming, R G; Nicholas, M K; Creasey, H; Handelsman, D J; Le Couteur, D G; Naganathan, V; Sambrook, P N; Seibel, M J; Waite, L M

    2011-02-01

    The role of anxiety in pain is less well understood than the role of depression. Based on recent conceptual thinking about worry and pain, we explored the relationship between pain status and worry about health and anxiety in 1217 community-dwelling men aged 70 years or older who participated in the baseline phase of the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project study, a large population-based epidemiological study of healthy ageing based in Sydney, Australia. We hypothesised that worry about health would be associated with having persistent pain, and that the association would be stronger in the presence of co-existing pain-related interference with activities (intrusive pain). Of men in the study, 12.5% had persistent and intrusive pain, 22.4% were worried about their health, and 6.3% had anxiety. We found a strong association between worry about health and pain that was both persistent and intrusive, and that remained after accounting for age, number of comorbidities, depression, self-rated health status, arthritis, and gait speed (adjusted odds ratio 2.9; 95% confidence interval 1.8-4.7), P<0.0001). The corresponding adjusted odds ratio for the association between anxiety and pain was 2.3 (95% confidence interval 1.0-4.8; P=0.0363). These findings suggest that at a population level, subthreshold anxiety and pain are strongly related, and worry about health occurs much more commonly than anxiety itself. To our knowledge, this is the first study to explore, specifically, the relationship between pain status and worry about health in older men. In older community-dwelling men, pain was robustly associated with worry about health, highlighting the potential importance of subthreshold anxiety-related psychological factors. PMID:21168971

  2. Clustering of worry appraisals among college students.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Nicholas G; Cullum, Jerry C; Harton, Helen C

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the potential clustering of worry appraisals within college social networks. Participants living in campus residence buildings responded to online surveys across the course of several months. Worry appraisals were measured 10 weeks into the fall semester and again approximately 6 months later. Analysis of sociometric data suggests that the majority of participants' social interactions occurred within their respective residence building floors, indicating that proximity strongly influenced the development of social network ties and sources of social influence. Further, significant clustering of worry appraisals occurred across time, and more importantly, within residence building floors. The present findings compliment previous work suggesting that several physical and psychological states appear to spread and cluster within social networks. Implications for the study of emotional appraisals and future research are discussed. PMID:26541710

  3. Economists' Group Adjusts Policy on Discriminatory Language in Job Ads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, David

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how an economists' group brought forth policy adjustments on advertising issues. Since 1986 the association has banned advertisements in its newsletter, Job Openings for Economists, that discriminate "on the basis of race, color, religion, gender, national origin, sexual preference, or physical handicap." Facing…

  4. The biologist and the economist: is dialogue possible?

    PubMed

    Keyfitz, N

    1992-06-01

    There is a need for demography to be brought into policy-making discussions. In the time of Malthus, both economists and ecologists spoke the same language and each group was receptive to and supportive of the ideas of the other. The present organization of academic life precludes interdisciplinary communication. Malthus saw the limit as food supply; today, technology seems to be the defining criteria, although access to world supplies is also unevenly distributed. Minerals were once thought to present limits, but again technology was able to generate replacements as the Green Revolution provided an option for expanding food supply. During the 1950s and 1960s, limits were perceived by Arthur Lewis, Coale, and Hoover to be in shortages of capital. Now capital is seen as a result of development and not a cause. The strongest argument for limiting population growth appears to be the stability of planetary support systems (species diversity, ozone layer, global climate, and others). Knowledge of these support systems is limited and it would be wise not to press the world's carrying capacity under such conditions. Ignorance of planetary support systems may mean that the circle may be tightening closer than we know, or that a sudden disaster is possible. It is a complex task to circumscribe boundaries to various essentials for human life. Regardless of whether there is a solution to various essentials for human life. Regardless of whether there is a solution to the known or unknown environmental problems, it is possible, easy, and reliable to reduce the population by having fewer births than deaths. Economists argue that the vagaries and uncertainties of environmental damage prevent taking environmental constraints into account, when uncertainties have always been with us. A real debate on the issues instead of disciplines talking past each other would occur if all facts and conclusions were accepted by all parties. The conclusion should be that population increases must

  5. Worry in Older Community-Residing Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Kaye; Clemson, Lindy; Cant, Rosemary; Ke, Liang; Cumming, Robert G.; Kendig, Hal; Mathews, Mark

    2011-01-01

    With rising longevity, increasing numbers of older people are experiencing changes in their everyday family and social life, changes in their financial status, and a greater number of chronic conditions affecting their health. We took the opportunity to explore these relationships with worry in a group of volunteer community-living elderly (n =…

  6. Penn State Worry Questionnaire - 10: A new tool for measurement-based care.

    PubMed

    Yao, Beier; Sripada, Rebecca K; Klumpp, Heide; Abelson, James L; Muzik, Maria; Zhao, Zhuo; Rosenblum, Katherine; Briggs, Hedieh; Kaston, Michelle; Warren, Ricks

    2016-05-30

    The Penn State Worry Questionnaire - Past Week (PSWQ-PW) is an adaptation of the widely used Penn State Worry Questionnaire, measuring pathological worry weekly. However, it contains problematic negatively worded items and has not been validated in a large sample yet. To meet the needs of measurement-based care (MBC), we developed a shortened version (PSWQ-10) based on the PSWQ-PW, retaining only positively worded items, and examined its psychometric properties and clinical utility. Patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), and other anxiety disorders completed the PSWQ-10 and other instruments during routine evaluation in an academic anxiety clinic. A second cohort from a perinatal clinic was evaluated similarly. The PSWQ-10 displayed excellent internal consistency, convergent and discriminant validity, and criterion group validity. Patients with GAD scored significantly higher than those with other anxiety disorders but did not differ from those with MDD. The PSWQ-10 showed sensitivity to change over time and demonstrated excellent psychometric properties in the perinatal population. The PSWQ-10 is a reliable, valid, efficient, and straightforward worry-focused instrument that can be readily used in MBC and help clinicians objectively measure worry as a treatment outcome in broad clinical populations. PMID:27137962

  7. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): When Worry Gets Out of Control

    MedlinePlus

    Generalized Anxiety Disorder: When Worry Gets Out of Control Are you extremely worried about everything in your life, even ... go badly? If so, you may have an anxiety disorder called generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). national institute ...

  8. Worry as a Phenomenon Relevant to the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisocki, Patricia A.

    Given the facilitating conditions and the characteristic qualities of worry, the elderly seem to be particularly susceptible to the experience of worry. The Worry Scale was developed in response to the concerns expressed about life events measures and as an attempt to address the needs of elderly people directly. Older adults (N=94) from 11 senior…

  9. Examining the Relationship between Worry and Trait Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, William E.

    2004-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that worry and anxiety are synonymous. However, there is growing evidence that anxiety and worry are separate, yet related, constructs (i.e., Davey, Hampton, Farrell, & Davidson, 1992; Davey, 1993; Gana, Martin, & Canouet, 2001 ). Worry, is generally defined as a stream of negative thoughts (Kelly & Miller, 1999). Anxiety,…

  10. Economic worry and the presence of safety hazards on farms.

    PubMed

    Hagel, Louise; Pahwa, Punam; Dosman, James A; Pickett, William

    2013-04-01

    In recent years the agricultural sector has experienced historical levels of economic challenges. Yet, the effects of these economic conditions on the physical safety of farm work environments remain poorly understood. We studied these possible etiological relationships in a cross-sectional analysis. A baseline survey of 2390 Saskatchewan farm operations was conducted in 2007. A single respondent from each farm provided information about the farm operation, its residents, perceptions of worry surrounding farm economic conditions, and the presence of six types of physical hazards. Binomial regression analyses were used to study the focal relationships between economics and safety while simultaneously adjusting for confounders at the farm level. Farms with high perceived levels of economic worry experienced elevations in risk for: the absence of well maintained buildings (RR 1.52; 95% CI: 1.27-1.87), the absence of safety shields on combines (RR 1.41; 95% CI: 1.05-1.89), and the absence of safety shields on augers (RR 1.15; 95% CI: 1.02-1.30). No apparent differences were observed by level of economic worry for the presence of ROPS on tractors, ladder safety cages on grain bins, and barriers around water hazards. We observed that financial conditions on farms appear to contribute to the decisions that farm operators make about safety. These are not innocuous choices as they in turn affect the health and safety of the entire population that works and lives in these occupational environments. Farm operators need to be supported in decisions to invest the physical safety of their farms. They also require evidence that investments in safety are indeed economically sensible and healthy management decisions. PMID:23434843

  11. Psychosocial, clinical and demographic features related to worry in patients with melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Faye; Kasparian, Nadine A.; Bishop, D. Timothy; Barrett, Jennifer H.; Newton-Bishop, Julia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate clinical, demographic and psychosocial predictors of melanoma-related worry. A questionnaire-based study in a population-ascertained cohort of individuals diagnosed with melanoma in the previous 3–6 months was carried out to identify factors associated with worry about melanoma shortly after diagnosis. A total of 520 patients felt worried about their future with respect to melanoma and 1568 patients felt confident about their future with respect to melanoma. Worry was less likely in men with partners than women with partners [adjusted odds ratio (OR)=0.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.39–0.67)], and increasing age was protective against worry [adjusted OR=0.96 per year, 95% CI (0.95–0.97)]. Worry was more likely for patients with stage III/IV melanoma [adjusted OR=1.90, 95% CI (1.41–2.56) compared with stages IB–IIC], melanoma arising in sun-protected sites (compared with a limb), no occupation (compared with workers), those who reported insufficient emotional support from healthcare providers [adjusted OR=2.20, 95% CI (1.56–3.09) compared with sufficient support], lower knowledge of melanoma [adjusted OR=4.50, 95% CI (2.82–7.18) compared with well informed], perceived financial hardship compared with no financial hardship and over three previous negative life events compared with none/one. Worry about melanoma outcomes after diagnosis is multifactorial in origin. PMID:27196629

  12. Coping strategies as psychological risk factor for antenatal anxiety, worries, and depression among Greek women.

    PubMed

    Gourounti, Kleanthi; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios; Lykeridou, Katerina

    2013-10-01

    A range of psychosocial, medical, and demographic variables may influence pregnant women's psychological status. However the association between coping strategies, anxiety, worries, and depression during pregnancy is a relatively neglected area of research. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between coping strategies, antenatal anxiety, pregnancy worries, and depressive symptomatology after controlling for the effects of background variables. The study sample consisted of 163 pregnant women, with gestational age ranging from 11 to 26 weeks, attending antenatal screening at a Greek public hospital. Coping strategies were measured with Brief COPE, pregnancy worries were measured with Cambridge Worry Scale (CWS), anxiety was assessed using State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-X version), and depression was measured with Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D). Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated among all study variables, followed by hierarchical multiple linear regression. In the univariate analysis, low annual income, unemployment, conception after an IVF treatment, and a previous history of miscarriage were associated with anxiety, depression, and worries. Additionally, almost all coping strategies (denial, behavioral disengagement, self-blame, self-distraction, substance use, acceptance, positive reframing, active coping, and seeking emotional support) were significantly associated with antenatal anxiety, worries, and depression. Linear regression analysis showed that only previous history of miscarriage, conception after IVF, as well as denial, behavioral disengagement and acceptance coping strategies were significantly related to anxiety, worries and depressive symptomatology. The risk factors found in this study could help clinicians target anxiety and depression screening to high-risk populations of pregnant women. Provision of adequate training for obstetricians and midwives in the detection and

  13. Breaking Barriers: Can Student Journalists and Economists Learn Together?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsay, Glenworth; Silvia, Antone

    1993-01-01

    Two University of Rhode Island teachers, of journalism and economics, designed student projects simulating real interactions between professional journalists and economists. The projects increased both groups' ability to communicate, awareness of communication needs, interdisciplinary understanding, and mutual respect. (MSE)

  14. Cancer Survivors’ Health Worries and Associations with Lifestyle Practices

    PubMed Central

    Mosher, Catherine E.; Lipkus, Isaac M.; Sloane, Richard; Kraus, William E.; Snyder, Denise Clutter; Peterson, Bercedis; Jones, Lee W.; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    This study examined among recently diagnosed breast and prostate cancer survivors (N = 678) associations between worry about a future diagnosis of heart disease or cancer and hypothetical and actual adherence to exercise and dietary guidelines. Greater worry about future illness was reported under the hypothetical scenario of non-adherence to guidelines relative to the scenario of adherence. Worry about potential heart disease was associated with actual adherence to guidelines, whereas worry about a potential cancer diagnosis was not. Findings suggest that the motivational properties of worry should be considered when developing interventions to reduce heart disease risk among cancer survivors. PMID:18987083

  15. Judging risk for multiple diseases: the role of disease worry.

    PubMed

    Senay, Ibrahim; Hensley-Alford, Sharon; Kaphingst, Kimberly A

    2013-04-01

    Risk perceptions and disease worry of 1,959 healthy adults were measured in a telephone-based survey. In the model for each of eight health conditions, people's perceived risk was related to their worry for that condition (p < .0001) and their worry for the other seven conditions (p < .001). There was also an interaction indicating that the less people were worried about a certain condition, the more their worry about the other seven conditions increased their risk perception for that condition (p < .0001). The results are important for preventing biased risk perceptions in multiple-disease contexts. PMID:22843634

  16. Clinical correlates of generalized worry in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Jared M; Arnett, Peter

    2009-08-01

    Anxiety disorders are common in multiple sclerosis (MS). Chronic worry is the defining feature of generalized anxiety. Despite this, only one study has examined the impact of chronic worry in MS. The present investigation explored the relationship between excessive worry and common physical, emotional, and neuropsychological symptoms in a community-based sample of 50 patients with relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive MS. As expected, MS patients reported significantly more worry than a group of 45 healthy controls. Correlational analyses revealed that MS patients' elevated worry was associated with fatigue, sleep disturbance, problem-solving deficits, pain, and disability status. Follow-up analyses indicated that worry and anxiety may represent related but distinct constructs. Clinicians are urged to regularly monitor and treat pathological worry in MS. PMID:19107677

  17. A survey on worries of pregnant women - testing the German version of the Cambridge Worry Scale

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Pregnancy is a transition period in a woman's life characterized by increased worries and anxiety. The Cambridge Worry Scale (CWS) was developed to assess the content and extent of maternal worries in pregnancy. It has been increasingly used in studies over recent years. However, a German version has not yet been developed and validated. The aim of this study was (1) to assess the extent and content of worries in pregnancy on a sample of women in Germany using a translated and adapted version of the Cambridge Worry Scale, and (2) to evaluate the psychometric properties of the German version. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study and enrolled 344 pregnant women in the federal state of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Women filled out structured questionnaires that contained the CWS, the Spielberger-State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory (STAI), as well as questions on their obstetric history. Antenatal records were also analyzed. Results The CWS was well understood and easy to fill in. The major worries referred to the process of giving birth (CWS mean value 2.26) and the possibility that something might be wrong with the baby (1.99), followed by coping with the new baby (1.57), going to hospital (1.29) and the possibility of going into labour too early (1.28). The internal consistency of the scale (0.80) was satisfactory, and we found a four-factor structure, similar to previous studies. Tests of convergent validity showed that the German CWS represents a different construct compared with state and trait anxiety but has the desired overlap. Conclusions The German CWS has satisfactory psychometric properties. It represents a valuable tool for use in scientific studies and is likely to be useful also to clinicians. PMID:20038294

  18. Salient Worries of At-Risk Youth: Needs Assessment Using the Things I Worry about Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esters, Irvin G.

    2003-01-01

    At-risk students in southern United States were surveyed using the "Things I Worry About Scale." From their responses, 13 categories were ranked from most salient to least salient. The rank order was then compared to that obtained with a normative group in Northern Ireland. The significant correlation between the two seemingly disparate samples…

  19. Statistics Anxiety and Worry: The Roles of Worry Beliefs, Negative Problem Orientation, and Cognitive Avoidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Amanda S.

    2015-01-01

    Statistics anxiety is a common problem for graduate students. This study explores the multivariate relationship between a set of worry-related variables and six types of statistics anxiety. Canonical correlation analysis indicates a significant relationship between the two sets of variables. Findings suggest that students who are more intolerant…

  20. Worry Among Mexican American Caregivers of Community-Dwelling Elders

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Bronwynne C.; Coon, David W.; Belyea, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    This mixed methods, multi-site, National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR)-funded, interdisciplinary, descriptive study aimed to identify expressions of worry in qualitative data obtained from caregiving Mexican American (MA) families assisting older adults. The purpose of this portion of the inquiry was to determine how worry is expressed, what happens to caregivers when they worry, and what adaptive strategies they used. We examined semi-structured interviews completed during six in-home visits with 116 caregivers. We identified 366 worry quotations from 639 primary documents in ATLAS.ti, entered them into matrices, and organized findings under thematic statements. Caregivers expressed cultural and contextual worries, worried about transitions and turning points in care, and identified adaptive strategies. Despite these strategies, worry persisted. Constant worry may be an allied, important aspect of caregiver burden. We need additional longitudinal research to better understand the experience of MA caregivers for older adults and to provide empirically supported interventions, programs, and services that reduce worry. PMID:27228120

  1. “My Worries Are Rational, Climate Change Is Not”: Habitual Ecological Worrying Is an Adaptive Response

    PubMed Central

    Verplanken, Bas; Roy, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Qualifications such as “global warming hysteria” and “energy policy schizophrenia” put forward by some climate change skeptics, usually outside the academic arena, may suggest that people who seriously worry about the environment suffer from psychological imbalance. The present study aimed to refute this thesis. While habitual worrying in general is strongly associated with psychopathological symptoms, in a survey a near-zero correlation was found between habitual ecological worrying and pathological worry. Instead, habitual ecological worrying was associated with pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors, and with a personality structure characterized by imagination and an appreciation for new ideas. The study had sufficient statistical power and measures were valid and reliable. The results confirm that those who habitually worry about the ecology are not only lacking in any psychopathology, but demonstrate a constructive and adaptive response to a serious problem. In the public domain, these findings may contribute to a more rational and less emotional debate on climate change and to the prevention of stigmatization of people who are genuinely concerned about our habitat and are prepared to do something about it (“habitual worriers are not crazy”). In the academic arena this study may contribute to environmental psychology (“habitual worrying is part of a green identity”), as well as to the literature on worry and anxiety (“habitual worrying can be a constructive response”). PMID:24023958

  2. Gender Differences in Research Patterns among PhD Economists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbezat, Debra A.

    2006-01-01

    This study is based on a 1996 survey of PhD economists working in the academic and nonacademic sectors since 1989. Despite a raw gender difference in all types of research output, the male dummy variable proves statistically significant in predicting only one publication measure. In a full sample and faculty subsample, number of years since…

  3. Environmental Economics for Watershed Restoration: Valuation for Non-Economists

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA economists completed research projects and summarized related valuation methods and case studies, mostly dealing with acid mine drainage. Their recent book (edited by Thurston, et al.) is intended to make stakeholders more comfortable talking about economic jargon and to info...

  4. An Economist's Approach to Reforming the Uniform Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Gary T.

    1977-01-01

    The standardized approach (Uniform Methodology) to estimating the expected parental contribution for dependent students is evaluated from an economist's perspective. The UM model is shown to fail to treat assets and income in a consistent manner, and recommendations for improvement are offered. (LBH)

  5. Economists Concoct New Method for Comparing Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, David

    2007-01-01

    A pair of economists at the College of William and Mary have devised a new way of comparing colleges' graduation rates--a method, borrowed from business analysis, that they believe is fairer and more useful than the techniques used by "U.S. News & World Report" and the Education Trust. That general technique of regression analysis underlies the…

  6. Black Economists: An "Elite Clan of Warrior Intellectuals."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffins, Paul

    1996-01-01

    Black economists feel even more isolation and frustration than many African American academics and PhDs, because they continually confront the contradictions between economic theory and blacks' daily experience. The proportion of African Americans with PhDs in economics is very low relative to the undergraduates who study economics or have degrees…

  7. The Public Debt as Seen by the Classical Economists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labbens, Jean

    1987-01-01

    Reviews classical economists' views on the issue of public debt. Notes that from antiquity to modern times, it has always been rare for a state not to be in debt. Includes an examination of a state's repudiation of its debt and the impact such an action might have on its international relations. (JDH)

  8. Opportunity Cost and the Intelligence of Economists: A Comment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arce, Daniel G.

    2016-01-01

    In "Opportunity Cost: A Reexamination," Professor Parkin contrasts forgone physical quantities with forgone values as measures of the opportunity cost of basic economic decisions. The impetus for his study stems from an experiment conducted by Ferraro and Taylor (2005), in which professional economists could not reach a consensus over…

  9. Football experts versus sports economists: Whose forecasts are better?

    PubMed

    Frick, Bernd; Wicker, Pamela

    2016-08-01

    Given the uncertainty of outcome in sport, predicting the outcome of sporting contests is a major topic in sport sciences. This study examines the accuracy of expert predictions in the German Bundesliga and compares their predictions to those of sports economists. Prior to the start of each season, a set of distinguished experts (head coaches and players) express their subjective evaluations of the teams in school grades. While experts may be driven by irrational sentiments and may therefore systematically over- or underestimate specific teams, sports economists use observable characteristics to predict season outcomes. The latter typically use team wage bills given the positive pay-performance relationship as well as other factors (average team age, tenure, appearances on national team, and attendance). Using data from 15 consecutive Bundesliga seasons, the predictive accuracy of expert evaluations and sports economists is analysed. The results of separate estimations show that relative grade and relative wage bill significantly affect relative points, while age, tenure, appearances, and attendance are insignificant. In a joint model, relative grade and relative wage bill are still statistically significant, suggesting that the two types of predictions are complements rather than substitutes. Consequently, football experts and sports economists seem to rely on completely different sources of information when making their predictions. PMID:26651849

  10. Big Worry: Implications of Anxiety in Indigenous Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adermann, Jenny; Campbell, Marilyn

    2007-01-01

    Excessive anxiety and worry can prevent young people from participating fully in school and life opportunities. Anxiety can involve fear of being apart from significant people or being left alone; avoidance of certain situations or activities for fear of embarrassment; worrying about normal life issues; repetitive thoughts and behaviours used as…

  11. Intolerance of Uncertainty, Fear of Anxiety, and Adolescent Worry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugas, Michel J.; Laugesen, Nina; Bukowski, William M.

    2012-01-01

    A 5 year, ten wave longitudinal study of 338 adolescents assessed the association between two forms of cognitive vulnerability (intolerance of uncertainty and fear of anxiety) and worry. Multilevel mediational analyses revealed a bidirectional and reciprocal relation between intolerance of uncertainty and worry in which change in one variable…

  12. Homeschooling Worries: Trusting That the Dots Will Connect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivero, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Homeschooling parents worry a lot. And homeschooling parents of gifted children seem to worry even more than most. Parents who homeschool intense, smart, sensitive, and perfectionist children and teens are often themselves intense, smart, sensitive, and perfectionistic, even if they don't always think of themselves as gifted. One shouldn't be too…

  13. The Influence of Social Factors and Health on Depressive Symptoms and Worry: A Study of Older Vietnamese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Leggett, Amanda; Zarit, Steven H.; Nguyen, Ngoc H.; Hoang, Chuong N.; Nguyen, Ha T.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Vietnam has a growing older population, many of whom experienced war and social upheavals in their lives. Prior research has described the health of the older population, but little work has explored mental health. The current study examines the frequency and correlates of two mental health indicators: depressive symptoms and worry. Method A representative sample of 600 adults 55 and older stratified by gender (50% women), age (mean = 70.33), and rural/urban (50% rural) was recruited in Da Nang, Vietnam and surrounding rural districts. Participants were interviewed in their homes by trained interviewers. Dependent variables were a Vietnamese version of the CES-D and a culturally specific worry scale. Results Forty-seven percent of the sample had scores above the cut-off for clinical depression and scores on the worry scale were high. Using multiple linear regressions we found that women, the less educated and individuals with more material hardship had higher depressive symptoms whereas rural residents, women, married, and young-old individuals were more worried. Pain, ADL assistance and emotional support were significant predictors of both depressive symptoms and worry, though the direction of the association for emotional support differed. Illnesses were only a predictor of depressive symptoms. Conclusion The high reports of depressive symptoms and worry suggests the need for incorporating mental health screening as part of health programs for older adults in Vietnam. Attention to factors associated with depressive symptoms and worry, such as economic hardship, health problems and lack of emotional support, may contribute to alleviation of symptoms. PMID:22486622

  14. Do as I Do, Not as I Say: Assessing Outcomes when Students Think like Economists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Joseph; Lavin, Angeline M.

    2004-01-01

    The authors measured the pedagogical value of sharing with students what economists do and how they do it. Ostensibly, thinking and researching like economists will transform students into better and more engaged learners as well as provide instructors with effective assessment tools. One way to bring students closer to what economists do is to…

  15. Roundtable on energy efficiency and the economists -- An assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.

    1995-11-01

    Anyone trying to follow the debate between conservationists and economists (and many others in the industry) on energy efficiency might understandably decide there is little possibility for reconciling their views on policies. Views range from high levels of government intervention, frequently inspired by conservationists, to essentially noninterference with market development other than to tax or regulate pollution. The main disagreement concern the respective roles of prices and nonprice measures in energy policy. The main possibilities for progress lie with conservationists, on the one hand, recognizing the importance of prices in achieving allocative efficiency, and not overreacting to known sources of market inefficiency; and with economists, on the other, seeking to translate work on the frontier of their subject--on risk and information theory, on regulation, on the roles of law and government, and on property rights--into operational policies. If this can be done, one shall improve economic efficiency measured from the starting points of either the conservationist or the neoclassical economist.

  16. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): When Worry Gets Out of Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... to have GAD? For More Information Share Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): When Worry Gets Out of Control ... go badly? If so, you may have an anxiety disorder called generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). What is ...

  17. Understanding Anxiety Disorders: When Panic, Fear, and Worries Overwhelm

    MedlinePlus

    ... link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Understanding Anxiety Disorders When Panic, Fear, and Worries Overwhelm Many ... or help us focus. But for people with anxiety disorders, they can be overwhelming. Anxiety disorders affect ...

  18. Attentional Control and Suppressing Negative Thought Intrusions in Pathological Worry

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Elaine; Dutton, Kevin; Yates, Alan; Georgiou, George A.; Mouchlianitis, Elias

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive behavior relies on the ability to effectively and efficiently ignore irrelevant information, an important component of attentional control. The current research found that fundamental difficulties in ignoring irrelevant material are related to dispositional differences in trait propensity to worry, suggesting a core deficit in attentional control in high worriers. The degree of deficit in attentional control correlated with the degree of difficulty in suppressing negative thought intrusions in a worry assessment task. A cognitive training procedure utilizing a flanker task was used in an attempt to improve attentional control. Although the cognitive training was largely ineffective, improvements in attentional control were associated with improvements in the ability to suppress worry-related thought intrusions. Across two studies, the findings indicate that the inability to control worry-related negative thought intrusions is associated with a general deficiency in attentional control. PMID:26504672

  19. The relationships between perfectionism, pathological worry and generalised anxiety disorder

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationships between perfectionism, pathological worry and generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) were investigated in a clinical sample presenting for treatment of perfectionism. Method This study explored the utility of perfectionism in predicting pathological worry in a sample of individuals with elevated perfectionism and GAD (n = 36). Following this, the study examined whether perfectionism could predict a principal GAD diagnosis in the full sample (n = 42). Results Scores on the perfectionism dimensions Concern over Mistakes, Personal Standards, and Clinical Perfectionism significantly predicted pathological worry among participants with GAD after controlling for gender and depression. The perfectionism dimension Doubts about Actions significantly predicted whether individuals from the full sample received a principal diagnosis of GAD. Conclusions These findings support certain dimensions of perfectionism having significant associations with pathological worry and GAD. PMID:24693946

  20. Sharing Concerns: Interpersonal Worry Regulation in Romantic Couples

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Two dyadic studies investigated interpersonal worry regulation in heterosexual relationships. In Study 1, we video-recorded 40 romantic couples discussing shared concerns. Male partners’ worry positively predicted female partners’ interpersonal calming attempts, and negatively predicted female partners’ interpersonal alerting attempts (i.e., attempts to make their partners appreciate the seriousness of concerns). Video-cued recall data also indicated that changes in partner A’s worry over time positively predicted partner B’s motivation to reduce partner A’s worry, and that this effect was stronger when B was the female partner. Study 2 was a dyadic survey of 100 couples. Individual differences in partner A’s negative affect were positive predictors of partner B’s interpersonal calming, and individual differences in partner A’s expressive suppression were negative predictors of partner B’s interpersonal calming. Further, individual differences in male partners’ expressivity were significant positive predictors of female partners’ interpersonal calming, and individual differences in male partners’ reappraisal were significant positive predictors of female partners’ interpersonal alerting. These findings suggest that interpersonal worry regulation relates to partners’ expression and intrapersonal regulation of worry, but not equally for men and women. PMID:26882336

  1. Sharing concerns: Interpersonal worry regulation in romantic couples.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Brian; Simons, Gwenda; Niven, Karen

    2016-06-01

    Two dyadic studies investigated interpersonal worry regulation in heterosexual relationships. In Study 1, we video-recorded 40 romantic couples discussing shared concerns. Male partners' worry positively predicted female partners' interpersonal calming attempts, and negatively predicted female partners' interpersonal alerting attempts (i.e., attempts to make their partners appreciate the seriousness of concerns). Video-cued recall data also indicated that changes in partner A's worry over time positively predicted partner B's motivation to reduce partner A's worry, and that this effect was stronger when B was the female partner. Study 2 was a dyadic survey of 100 couples. Individual differences in partner A's negative affect were positive predictors of partner B's interpersonal calming, and individual differences in partner A's expressive suppression were negative predictors of partner B's interpersonal calming. Further, individual differences in male partners' expressivity were significant positive predictors of female partners' interpersonal calming, and individual differences in male partners' reappraisal were significant positive predictors of female partners' interpersonal alerting. These findings suggest that interpersonal worry regulation relates to partners' expression and intrapersonal regulation of worry, but not equally for men and women. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26882336

  2. Accidents and unpleasant incidents: worry in transport and prediction of travel behavior.

    PubMed

    Backer-Grøndahl, Agathe; Fyhri, Aslak; Ulleberg, Pål; Amundsen, Astrid Helene

    2009-09-01

    Worry on nine different means of transport was measured in a Norwegian sample of 853 respondents. The main aim of the study was to investigate differences in worry about accidents and worry about unpleasant incidents, and how these two sorts of worry relate to various means of transport as well as transport behavior. Factor analyses of worry about accidents suggested a division between rail transport, road transport, and nonmotorized transport, whereas analyses of worry about unpleasant incidents suggested a division between transport modes where you interact with other people and "private" transport modes. Moreover, mean ratings of worry showed that respondents worried more about accidents than unpleasant incidents on private transport modes, and more about unpleasant incidents than accidents on public transport modes. Support for the distinction between worry about accidents and unpleasant incidents was also found when investigating relationships between both types of worry and behavioral adaptations: worry about accidents was more important than worry about unpleasant incidents in relation to behavioral adaptations on private means of transport, whereas the opposite was true for public means of transport. Finally, predictors of worry were investigated. The models of worry about accidents and worry about unpleasant incidents differed as to what predictors turned out significant. Knowledge about peoples' worries on different means of transport is important with regard to understanding and influencing transport and travel behavior, as well as attending to commuters' welfare. PMID:19645756

  3. The Effects of Worry and Rumination on Affect States and Cognitive Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Borkovec, Thomas D.; Sibrava, Nicholas J.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of worry and rumination on affective states and mentation type were examined in an unselected undergraduate sample in Study 1 and in a sample of individuals with high trait worry and rumination, high rumination, and low worry/rumination in Study 2. Participants engaged in worry and rumination inductions, counterbalanced in order across…

  4. Experience and appraisal of worry among high worriers with and without generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Ruscio, Ayelet Meron; Borkovec, T D

    2004-12-01

    Recent research has revealed that a large number of highly worried individuals do not qualify for a diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). This raises the intriguing question of why some high worriers are more impaired and distressed by their worrying than others, particularly when the severity of their worry is the same. The present investigation sought to address this question by examining whether GAD and non-GAD high worriers differ in their actual worry experiences, their subjective appraisals of worry experiences, or both experiences and appraisals of worry. GAD and non-GAD worriers, selected for matching levels of trait worry severity, completed an attention-focus task with thought sampling before and after a brief worry induction. They also completed questionnaires assessing their experiences during and after the worry induction, as well as their general beliefs about worry. GAD worriers experienced less control over negative intrusive thoughts immediately after worrying, reported greater somatic hyperarousal following worry, and endorsed several negative beliefs about worry more strongly than their worry-matched controls. Results suggest that GAD is associated with unique experiences and appraisals that distinguish it from other forms of severe worry. PMID:15500816

  5. Worry tendencies predict brain activation during aversive imagery.

    PubMed

    Schienle, Anne; Schäfer, Axel; Pignanelli, Roman; Vaitl, Dieter

    2009-09-25

    Because of its abstract nature, worrying might function as an avoidance response in order to cognitively disengage from fearful imagery. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study investigated neural correlates of aversive imagery and their association with worry tendencies, as measured by the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ). Nineteen healthy women first viewed, and subsequently imagined pictures from two categories, 'threat' and 'happiness'. Worry tendencies were negatively correlated with brain activation in the anterior cingulate cortex, the prefrontal cortex (dorsolateral, dorsomedial, ventrolateral), the parietal cortex and the insula. These negative correlations between PSWQ scores and localized brain activation were specific for aversive imagery. Moreover, activation in the above mentioned regions was positively associated with the experienced vividness of both pleasant and unpleasant mental pictures. As the identified brain regions are involved in emotion regulation, vivid imagery and memory retrieval, a lowered activity in high PSWQ scorers might be associated with cognitive disengagement from aversive imagery as well as insufficient refresh rates of mental pictures. Our preliminary findings encourage future imagery studies on generalized anxiety disorder patients, as one of the main symptoms of this disorder is excessive worrying. PMID:19545612

  6. Delineating the Role of Negative Verbal Thinking in Promoting Worry, Perceived Threat, and Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Colette R.; Perman, Gemma; Hayes, Sarra; Eagleson, Claire; Mathews, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Worry is characterized by streams of verbal thoughts about potential negative outcomes. Individuals with high levels of worry (and particularly those with generalized anxiety disorder) find it very difficult to control worry once it has started. What is not clear is the extent to which verbal negative thinking style maintains worry. Our study aimed to disentangle the effects of verbal versus imagery based thinking, and negative versus positive worry-related content on subsequent negative intrusive thoughts. High worriers were trained to engage in imagery or verbal processing, focusing on either negative or positive outcomes of their current main worry. Both thinking style and valence of worry content influenced later negative intrusive thoughts that play a role in initiating worry episodes. In contrast, only valence influenced subjective ratings of worry outcomes (i.e., cost, concern, and ability to cope, although not probability), with positive valence leading to lower ratings, irrespective of thinking style. PMID:27110477

  7. Educational Insights of the Economist: Tibor Scitovsky on Education, Production and Creative Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilead, Tal

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades education is increasingly perceived as an instrument for generating economic growth and enhancing production. Unexpectedly, however, many prominent economists, throughout history, have rejected this view of education. This article examines the grounds on which Tibor Scitovsky, who was one of the leading economists of twentieth…

  8. A Brief Look at What Economists Are Saying about the Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    This essay canvasses selected studies undertaken by economists on the community college. Key authors and journals are noted, followed by an examination of what economists contribute to our understanding of the community college in terms of costs, price and financial aid, economic and social benefits, and the institution's role in furthering…

  9. Intelligence Makes People Think like Economists: Evidence from the General Social Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, Bryan; Miller, Stephen C.

    2010-01-01

    Education is by far the strongest predictor of whether a non-economist will share the economic beliefs of the average economist. (Caplan, 2001) Is the effect of education as large as it seems? Or is education largely a proxy for cognitive ability? Using data from the General Social Survey (GSS), we show that the estimated effect of education…

  10. Coverage of Major Topics in Economics in the Undergraduate Curriculum: Economists as Gatekeepers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, Suzanne

    Over the last 25 years, less attention has been devoted to the role of the economist as teacher or professor than to the role of economist as scholar or researcher. Teachers have been seen as passive recipients of advances in economics research that they simply hand on to their students. Yet teachers perform an important gatekeeping function when…

  11. Variations in Fearfulness and Worries of Xhosa Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akande, Adebowale

    2010-01-01

    Xhosa-speaking South African children in school settings face several academic and emotional challenges. These may be due to family obligation, conformity to authority figures and over expectations from parents, teachers and society. This study examines the differences in the number and types of reported fears and worries in 200 South African…

  12. How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love Standardized Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moxey, Tim

    2005-01-01

    The benefits of standardized testing for a teacher are mentioned for which the teacher has to prepare for the students only for the test and not worry for preparing the students for college, work and life. Standardized testing takes away individualized instruction, does not allow creativity, does not measure true progress or advance critical…

  13. Cervical cancer worry and screening among appalachian women.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kimberly M; Schoenberg, Nancy; Wilson, Tomorrow D; Atkins, Elvonna; Dickinson, Stephanie; Paskett, Electra

    2015-04-01

    Although many have sought to understand cervical cancer screening (CCS) behavior, little research has examined worry about cervical cancer and its relationship to CCS, particularly in the underserved, predominantly rural Appalachian region. Our mixed method investigation aimed to obtain a more complete and theoretically-informed understanding of the role of cancer worry in CCS among Appalachian women, using the Self-Regulation Model (SRM). Our quantitative analysis indicated that the perception of being at higher risk of cervical cancer and having greater distress about cancer were both associated with greater worry about cancer. In our qualitative analysis, we found that, consistent with the SRM, negative affect had a largely concrete-experiential component, with many women having first-hand experience of the physical consequences of cervical cancer. Based on the results of this manuscript, we describe a number of approaches to lessen the fear associated with CCS. Intervention in this elevated risk community is merited and may focus on decreasing feelings of worry about cervical cancer and increasing communication of objective risk and need for screening. From a policy perspective, increasing the quantity and quality of care may also improve CCS rates and decrease the burden of cancer in Appalachia. PMID:25416153

  14. The Impact of Written Exposure on Worry: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Natalie; Dugas, Michel J.; Sexton, Kathryn A.; Gervais, Nicole J.

    2007-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to examine the effect of written exposure on generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)-related symptoms in high worriers. Thirty nonclinical high worriers were randomly assigned to either a written exposure condition or a control writing condition. Self-report measures were used to assess worry, GAD somatic symptoms,…

  15. Exploring Sex Differences in Worry with a Cognitive Vulnerability Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zalta, Alyson K.; Chambless, Dianne L.

    2008-01-01

    A multivariate model was developed to examine the relative contributions of mastery, stress, interpretive bias, and coping to sex differences in worry. Rumination was incorporated as a second outcome variable to test the specificity of these associations. Participants included two samples of undergraduates totaling 302 men and 379 women. A path…

  16. Perfectionism, Rumination, Worry, and Depressive Symptoms in Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flett, Gordon L.; Coulter, Lisa-Marie; Hewitt, Paul L.; Nepon, Taryn

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined trait perfectionism, automatic perfectionistic thoughts, rumination, worry, and depressive symptoms in early adolescents. A group of 81 elementary school students in Grades 7 and 8 completed 5 questionnaires: the Child-Adolescent Perfectionism Scale, the Perfectionism Cognitions Inventory, the Children's Response Styles…

  17. Cervical Cancer Worry and Screening Among Appalachian Women

    PubMed Central

    Schoenberg, Nancy; Wilson, Tomorrow D.; Atkins, Elvonna; Dickinson, Stephanie; Paskett, Electra

    2015-01-01

    Although many have sought to understand cervical cancer screening (CCS) behavior, little research has examined worry about cervical cancer and its relationship to CCS, particularly in the underserved, predominantly rural Appalachian region. Our mixed method investigation aimed to obtain a more complete and theoretically-informed understanding of the role of cancer worry in CCS among Appalachian women, using the Self-Regulation Model (SRM). Our quantitative analysis indicated that the perception of being at higher risk of cervical cancer and having greater distress about cancer were both associated with greater worry about cancer. In our qualitative analysis, we found that, consistent with the SRM, negative affect had a largely concrete-experiential component, with many women having first-hand experience of the physical consequences of cervical cancer. Based on the results of this manuscript, we describe a number of approaches to lessen the fear associated with CCS. Intervention in this elevated risk community is merited and may focus on decreasing feelings of worry about cervical cancer and increasing communication of objective risk and need for screening. From a policy perspective, increasing the quantity and quality of care may also improve CCS rates and decrease the burden of cancer in Appalachia. PMID:25416153

  18. Retrospective analysis of attitudes to ageing in the Economist: apocalyptic demography for opinion formers

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Ruth; Williams, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the description of older people and ageing in a major weekly newspaper, influential in political and financial circles, to see whether it reflected ageing in a balanced manner, and to what extent it indulged in apocalyptic demography—the portrayal of population ageing as a financial burden rather than a scientific advance. Design Electronic search of the digital archive of the Economist of articles published between January 1997 and April 2008. Main outcomes measures Categorisation of articles as portraying population ageing as a burden or a benefit or with a balanced view. Results Of 6306 identified articles, 262 were relevant. Most featured pensions, demography, and politics. Of these 262, 64% portrayed population ageing as a burden and 12% as a benefit; 24% had a balanced view. Most articles therefore showed a predominantly ageist view of older people as a burden on society, often portraying them as frail non-contributors. Recurrent themes included pension and demographic “time bombs” and future unsustainable costs of health care for older people. Conclusion This negative view of older people might be influential in shaping the attitudes of readers, who include opinion formers in political and economic circles. Gerontologists (including geriatricians) need to engage with influential media, as well as helping to promote a professional development of journalists that is informed and knowledgeable about the negative impact of ageism on the wellbeing of older people. PMID:19995819

  19. Relating Worry and Executive Functioning During Childhood: The Moderating Role of Age.

    PubMed

    Geronimi, Elena M C; Patterson, Heather L; Woodruff-Borden, Janet

    2016-06-01

    The associations between worry and executive functioning across development have not been previously explored. Examining the interrelationships between these variables in childhood may further elucidate the cognitive nature of worry as well as its developmental course. Hypotheses predicted that difficulties with executive functioning would correlate with child worry; based on extant literature, age-related hypotheses were proposed for particular aspects of executive functioning. Children (N = 130) participated in the present study. Difficulties with executive functioning and child worry were assessed. Results demonstrated that each executive functioning subscale correlated with worry. The relations between worry and several facets of executive functioning were no longer significant at older ages, while the relations between worry and the facets of inhibition, shifting, and emotional control did not demonstrate age-related interaction effects. Overall, the findings suggest that worry is associated with executive functioning at young ages and that this association takes distinct forms during different childhood stages. PMID:26268800

  20. The power of positive thinking: Pathological worry is reduced by thought replacement in Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Eagleson, Claire; Hayes, Sarra; Mathews, Andrew; Perman, Gemma; Hirsch, Colette R.

    2016-01-01

    Worry in Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), takes a predominantly verbal form, as if talking to oneself about possible negative outcomes. The current study examined alternative approaches to reducing worry by allocating volunteers with GAD to conditions in which they either practiced replacing the usual form of worry with images of possible positive outcomes, or with the same positive outcomes represented verbally. A comparison control condition involved generating positive images not related to worries. Participants received training in the designated method and then practiced it for one week, before attending for reassessment, and completing follow-up questionnaires four weeks later. All groups benefited from training, with decreases in anxiety and worry, and no significant differences between groups. The replacement of worry with different forms of positive ideation, even when unrelated to the content of worry itself, seems to have similar beneficial effects, suggesting that any form of positive ideation can be used to effectively counter worry. PMID:26802793

  1. The elderly patient: no reason to worry!?

    PubMed

    Glenz, Fabienne; Brand, Christina; Besimo, Christian E; Carlo, Carlo P

    2015-01-01

    In December 2013, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has placed Switzerland for the first time at the top of the list of countries’ general population life ex- pectancy. The augmenting life expectancy and demographic changes are leading to an increase in the number of older people who are dependent on care (Höpflinger & Hugentobler 2003, Höpflinger et al. 2011). Multimorbidity and the resulting polypharmacy have inevitable consequences for the oral health and present a challenge for dentists (Fried et al. 2001). As dental treatment for multimorbid and bedridden adults can be quite complex, it seems necessary also from a dental perspective to detect age-related defi- ciencies as early as possible. If depression, dementia or malnutrition is suspected, an immediate referral to a specialist physician is recommended for an in-depth assessment and treatment. For older adults in particular, dental measures alone do not necessarily lead to an improvement in well-being and nutritional state. PMID:26169180

  2. The Worries Adult Children and Their Parents Experience for One Another

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Elizabeth L.; Fingerman, Karen L.; Lefkowitz, Eva S.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the worries adults and their parents experience for one another. To date, relatively little research has considered the experience of worry in this relationship. A small number of studies, however, suggest worry is relatively common in this relationship (Boutain, 2001; Cicirelli, 1988; Parker, Call, Dunkle, & Vaitkus, 2002).…

  3. Worry as a Predictor of Nutrition Behaviors: Results from a Nationally Representative Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer, Rebecca A.; Bergman, Hannah E.; Klein, William M. P.

    2013-01-01

    Worry has been shown to predict a variety of health behaviors, such as cancer screening, yet there are few studies linking worry and nutrition. This study used nationally representative data from National Cancer Institute's Food Attitudes and Behavior Survey ("n" = 3,397) to examine the association between health-related worry and a variety of…

  4. Writing about testing worries boosts exam performance in the classroom.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Gerardo; Beilock, Sian L

    2011-01-14

    Two laboratory and two randomized field experiments tested a psychological intervention designed to improve students' scores on high-stakes exams and to increase our understanding of why pressure-filled exam situations undermine some students' performance. We expected that sitting for an important exam leads to worries about the situation and its consequences that undermine test performance. We tested whether having students write down their thoughts about an upcoming test could improve test performance. The intervention, a brief expressive writing assignment that occurred immediately before taking an important test, significantly improved students' exam scores, especially for students habitually anxious about test taking. Simply writing about one's worries before a high-stakes exam can boost test scores. PMID:21233387

  5. Modern health worries - the dark side of spirituality?

    PubMed

    Köteles, Ferenc; Simor, Péter; Czető, Márton; Sárog, Noémi; Szemerszky, Renáta

    2016-08-01

    Modern health worries (MHWs) are widespread in modern societies. MHWs were connected to both negative and positive psychological characteristics in previous studies. The study aimed to investigate the relationships among intuitive-experiential information processing style, spirituality, MHWs, and psychological well-being. Members of the Hungarian Skeptic Society (N = 128), individuals committed to astrology (N = 601), and people from a non-representative community sample (N = 554) completed questionnaires assessing intuitive-experiential information processing style, spirituality, modern health worries (MHWs), and psychological well-being. Astrologers showed higher levels of spirituality, intuitive-experiential thinking, and modern health worries than individuals from the community sample; and skeptics scored even lower than the latter group with respect to all three constructs. Within the community sample, medium level connections between measures of spirituality and the experiential thinking style, and weak to medium level correlations between spirituality and MHWs were found. The connection between MHWs and experiential thinking style was completely mediated by spirituality. Individuals with higher levels of spirituality are particularly vulnerable to overgeneralized messages on health related risks. Official communication of potential risks based on rational scientific reasoning is not appropriate to persuade them as it has no impact on the intuitive-experiential system. PMID:27231809

  6. The worries adult children and their parents experience for one another.

    PubMed

    Hay, Elizabeth L; Fingerman, Karen L; Lefkowitz, Eva S

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the worries adults and their parents experience for one another. To date, relatively little research has considered the experience of worry in this relationship. A small number of studies, however, suggest worry is relatively common in this relationship (Boutain, 2001; Cicirelli, 1988; Parker, Call, Dunkle, & Vaitkus, 2002). Furthermore, worrying may be linked with mental and physical health (Beck et al., 2001; Hoyer, Becker, & Roth, 2001). A son or daughter (aged 22 to 49) and mother and father (aged 40 to 84) from 213 families participated. Adult children worried primarily about their parents' health. Interestingly, adult children with older parents were not more likely than adult children with younger parents to worry about their parents' health. In contrast, parents' worries were more diverse than those of adult children and included worries about their adult children's health, safety, relationships, and finances, among others. Furthermore, parents' worries were associated with their perceptions of relationship quality. Notably, parents who worried about their adult children's finances reported having poorer quality relationships with their adult children than parents who experienced other worries (e.g., about safety). PMID:20063846

  7. Distress Tolerance and Pathological Worry: Tests of Incremental and Prospective Relationships.

    PubMed

    Macatee, Richard J; Capron, Daniel W; Guthrie, Whitney; Schmidt, Norman B; Cougle, Jesse R

    2015-07-01

    Pathological worry and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) have been linked with low distress tolerance (DT), although questions remain including whether this association exists independent of depression and comorbidity, the directionality of the relationship between worry and DT, and DT's nonredundancy with other worry-relevant variables (i.e., emotional reactivity, stressful life events). Further, it is unclear whether DT is merely a correlate of excessive worry or acts as a risk factor for its development. Two independent studies were completed to evaluate these questions. In Study 1, DT was examined in patients with GAD and healthy controls. In Study 2, a nonclinical sample completed baseline measures of DT, negative affect, and worry, as well as daily assessments of these constructs and stressors for 1month. In Study 1, lower DT was associated with GAD diagnosis and greater worry symptoms independent of extent of comorbidity and depressive symptoms. In Study 2, lower baseline DT predicted unique variance in daily worry and increases in worry over time, whereas baseline worry did not predict daily DT or decreases in DT 1month later. Findings suggest that low DT plays a role in excessive worry independent of relevant covariates (i.e., comorbidity, emotional reactivity, stressful life events) and that this relationship is unidirectional. Further, preliminary evidence indicates that low DT may be an overall risk factor for the development of worry, particularly during periods of romantic stress, although further research and replication is required. PMID:26163710

  8. Does Worrying Mean Caring Too Much? Interpersonal Prototypicality of Dimensional Worry Controlling for Social Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Thane M; Newman, Michelle G; Siebert, Erin C; Carlile, Jessica A; Scarsella, Gina M; Abelson, James L

    2016-01-01

    Worry, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms are dimensions that have each been linked to heterogeneous problems in interpersonal functioning. However, the relationships between these symptoms and interpersonal difficulties remain unclear given that most studies have examined diagnostic categories, not accounted for symptoms' shared variability due to general distress, and investigated only interpersonal problems (neglecting interpersonal traits, interpersonal goals, social behavior in daily life, and reports of significant others). To address these issues, students (Study 1; N=282) endorsed symptoms and interpersonal circumplex measures of traits and problems, as well as event-contingent social behaviors during one week of naturalistic daily interactions (N=184; 7,036 records). Additionally, depressed and anxious patients (N=47) reported symptoms and interpersonal goals in a dyadic relationship, and significant others rated patients' interpersonal goals and impact (Study 2). We derived hypotheses about prototypical interpersonal features from theories about the functions of particular symptoms and social behaviors. As expected, worry was uniquely associated with prototypically affiliative tendencies across all self-report measures in both samples, but predicted impacting significant others in unaffiliative ways. As also hypothesized, social anxiety was uniquely and prototypically associated with low dominance across measures, and general distress was associated with cold-submissive tendencies. Findings for depressive symptoms provided less consistent evidence for unique prototypical interpersonal features. Overall, results suggest the importance of multimethod assessment and accounting for general distress in interpersonal models of worry, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms. PMID:26763494

  9. Health-Related Worries, Self-Image, and Life Outlooks of Long-Term Survivors of Childhood Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zebrack, Brad J.; Chesler, Mark

    2001-01-01

    This article poses three questions: What do childhood cancer survivors worry about? What characteristics prompt some to worry more and others less? What effect do worries have on survivors' self-image and life outlooks? Data demonstrated significant relationships among worries, "objective" factors like physical after-effects or relapse, and…

  10. Validation of the Worry about Sexual Outcomes Scale for Use in STI/HIV Prevention Interventions for Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Jessica M.; Spitalnick, Josh; Milhausen, Robin R.; Wingood, Gina M.; Diclemente, Ralph J.; Salazar, Laura F.; Crosby, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of a new scale to measure adolescents' worry regarding outcomes of risky sexual behavior (i.e. sexually transmitted infections, including HIV [STI/HIV], and unintended pregnancy). The 10-item worry about sexual outcomes (WASO) scale, resulting in two subscales STI/HIV worry and pregnancy worry, was…

  11. Psychometric properties of an insomnia-specific measure of worry: the Anxiety and Preoccupation about Sleep Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Jansson-Frojmark, Markus; Harvey, Allison G; Lundh, Lars-Gunnar; Norell-Clarke, Annika; Linton, Steven J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Anxiety and Preoccupation about Sleep Questionnaire (APSQ), with a focus on factorial validity and internal consistency as well as discriminative, convergent, and association with sleep parameters and daytime impairment. Among a randomly selected sample from the general population (N = 5,000), 2,333 participants completed a survey on nighttime symptoms, daytime symptoms, health outcomes, and psychological processes. The study sample consisted of 1800 participants who did not fulfill criteria for another sleep disorder than insomnia. A two-factor solution, accounting for 70.7% of the variance, was extracted from the 10 APSQ items. One six-item factor determined worries about the consequences of poor sleep (α = .91); the second factor, with four items, assessed worries about the uncontrollability of sleep (α = .86). The two factors were significantly intercorrelated (ρ = .65) and significantly associated with the total APSQ (ρs = .97 and .76, respectively). The APSQ and the two subscales showed discriminant validity between three sleep status groups (normal sleep, poor sleep, and insomnia disorder; R(2) = .33-.41). The APSQ and the subscales demonstrated convergent validity with measures on cognitive arousal, sleep-related beliefs, anxiety, and depression. They also were significantly correlated with sleep parameters and daytime impairment. The findings suggest that the APSQ is a psychometrically sound instrument for assessing worry in insomnia. PMID:21337216

  12. Stakeholder position paper: economist's perspectives on antibiotic use in animals.

    PubMed

    Miller, Gay Y; McNamara, Paul E; Singer, Randall S

    2006-02-24

    . There is also evidence for the potential gains to consumers, both from an economic perspective as well as from a health perspective. Economists can help identify the implications of these relationships both at a micro- and macro-economic level; both relative to producer and to consumer welfare. We are at a pivotal time in history with sufficient analytical expertise and tools to address this complex issue from a scientific perspective. Linking various agencies so there can be coordination of data collection and data sharing is needed to successfully address this topic. PMID:16256228

  13. Weak economy and politics worry US coal operators

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2009-01-15

    A potential decrease in demand, a new administration, and production constraints have coal operators worried about prospects for 2009. This and other interesting facts are revealed in this 2009 forecast by the journal Coal Age. Results are presented of the survey answered by 69 of the 646 executives contacted, on such questions about expected coal production, coal use, attitude in the coal industry, capital expenditure on types of equipment and productive capacity. Coal Age forecasts a 2.3% decline in coal production in 2009, down to 1.145 billion tons from 1.172 billion tons. 8 figs.

  14. PTSD and re-offending risk: the mediating role of worry and a negative perception of other people's support

    PubMed Central

    Ardino, Vittoria; Milani, Luca; Di Blasio, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are mainly focused on victims of trauma. Very few studies explored the links between PTSD symptoms and re-offending risk in perpetrators of violence. Objective The aim of the study was to assess the effect of PTSD symptoms on re-offending risk in prisoner populations with a focus on indirect effects of worry and a negative perception of other people’s support on the relationship between PTSD and re-offending risk. Methods 75 prisoners (25 females, mean age: 44.36 years; 50 males, mean age: 34.7 years) were assessed for exposure to child abuse and neglect, PTSD symptoms, worry, a negative perception of other people’s support and re-offending risk. Mediation analyses tested the indirect effects of worry and a negative perception of other people’s support on the relationship between PTSD and re-offending risk. Results 72% participants presented PTSD symptoms and 30.7% were at risk of re-offending. Mediation analyses supported the hypothesis of a mediation pathway from PTSD to worry and a negative perception of other people’s support to an increased risk of re-offending. Conclusions The results indicate that prisoners report high rates of PTSD symptoms; furthermore, they highlight an important relationship between PTSD and re-offending risk. Findings suggest that future research should test further the indirect effects of negative cognitive and emotional states on the relationship of PTSD and re-offending risk and explore more in depth the role of PTSD to assess and treat prisoners. PMID:24371516

  15. [Health and quality of life within the context of unemployment and job worries].

    PubMed

    Zenger, Markus; Hinz, Andreas; Petermann, Franz; Brähler, Elmar; Stöbel-Richter, Yve

    2013-03-01

    Unemployment is associated with mental and physical complaints. The aim of this study is to examine the impact of frequency and duration of unemployment experiences in a representative sample of the German general population. In total, 2426 persons were interviewed about their employment biography and they answered the following questionnaires: Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-4), Questionnaire of life satisfaction (FLZ) and Zerssen-Complaints-List (B-LR). Unemployed persons reported significantly more anxiety, depression, health complaints and reduced life. The operationalisation of unemployment about the frequency or the duration did not matter. Severe worries about one's job have a similar impact as the experience of unemployment. Especially persons with a longer duration or frequent experiences of unemployment are at risk for higher burden, whereas a single or short time experience of unemployment can rather be compensated. PMID:23526087

  16. Contribution of concrete cognition to emotion: neutral symptoms as elicitors of worry about cancer.

    PubMed

    Easterling, D V; Leventhal, H

    1989-10-01

    The relationship between worry about cancer and judged cancer risk was examined among 54 expatients who had been cured of breast cancer and 81 women with no history of cancer. Worry required both a perception of substantial risk and the presence of concrete perceptual cues. Worry promoters include visits to a physician and concrete, noncancerlike symptoms (e.g., fever, pain). Supporting analyses indicate that the symptom effects are not due to self-report biases or attributions of symptoms to cancer but are the result of a reminder process whereby vulnerability beliefs are aroused by somatic cues. Judged cancer risk was unrelated to affective cues, suggesting that across-time variation in worry about cancer reflects the onset and offset of symptom episodes rather than a shift in risk appraisals. Expatients were more worried overall than nonpatient controls. The results have implications for controlling disease worry and initiating preventive behaviors. PMID:2793775

  17. Cardiovascular activity during laboratory tasks in women with high and low worry.

    PubMed

    Knepp, Michael M; Friedman, Bruce H

    2008-12-01

    Worry has been related to delayed stress recovery and cardiovascular disease risk. Cardiovascular responses to a range of laboratory tasks were examined in this study of high and low worriers. Undergraduate women were recruited with the Penn State Worry Questionnaire to form low (n=19) and high (n=22) worry groups. These individuals engaged in six laboratory tasks (orthostatic stress, supine rest, hand cold pressor, mental arithmetic, and worry and relaxation imagery) while heart rate (HR), HR spectral analysis, impedance cardiography, and blood pressure were acquired. The only significant group difference found was a consistently greater HR across tasks in high worriers (p<.05). No group by condition interactions emerged. High trait worry in healthy young women appears to be marked by elevated HR in the absence of autonomic abnormalities. These findings are discussed relative to the literature on worry, with particular reference to its health implications. PMID:18706472

  18. On the worrying fate of Data Deficient amphibians.

    PubMed

    Nori, Javier; Loyola, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    The 'Data Deficient' (DD) category of the IUCN Red List assembles species that cannot be placed in another category due to insufficient information. This process generates uncertainty about whether these species are safe or actually in danger. Here, we give a global overview on the current situation of DD amphibian species (almost a quarter of living amphibians) considering land-use change through habitat modification, the degree of protection of each species and the socio-political context of each country harboring DD species. We found that DD amphibians have, on average, 81% of their ranges totally outside protected areas. Worryingly, more than half of DD species have less than 1% of their distribution represented in protected areas. Furthermore, the percentage of overlap between species' range and human-modified landscapes is high, at approximately 58%. Many countries harboring a large number of DD species show a worrying socio-political trend illustrated by substantial, recent incremental increases in the Human Development Index and lower incremental increases in the establishment of protected areas. Most of these are African countries, which are located mainly in the central and southern regions of the continent. Other countries with similar socio-political trends are in southeastern Asia, Central America, and in the northern region of South America. This situation is concerning, but it also creates a huge opportunity for considering DD amphibians in future conservation assessments, planning, and policy at different levels of government administration. PMID:25965422

  19. On the Worrying Fate of Data Deficient Amphibians

    PubMed Central

    Nori, Javier; Loyola, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    The ‘Data Deficient’ (DD) category of the IUCN Red List assembles species that cannot be placed in another category due to insufficient information. This process generates uncertainty about whether these species are safe or actually in danger. Here, we give a global overview on the current situation of DD amphibian species (almost a quarter of living amphibians) considering land-use change through habitat modification, the degree of protection of each species and the socio-political context of each country harboring DD species. We found that DD amphibians have, on average, 81% of their ranges totally outside protected areas. Worryingly, more than half of DD species have less than 1% of their distribution represented in protected areas. Furthermore, the percentage of overlap between species’ range and human-modified landscapes is high, at approximately 58%. Many countries harboring a large number of DD species show a worrying socio-political trend illustrated by substantial, recent incremental increases in the Human Development Index and lower incremental increases in the establishment of protected areas. Most of these are African countries, which are located mainly in the central and southern regions of the continent. Other countries with similar socio-political trends are in southeastern Asia, Central America, and in the northern region of South America. This situation is concerning, but it also creates a huge opportunity for considering DD amphibians in future conservation assessments, planning, and policy at different levels of government administration. PMID:25965422

  20. Effects of cognitive behaviour therapy for worry on persecutory delusions in patients with psychosis (WIT): a parallel, single-blind, randomised controlled trial with a mediation analysis

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Daniel; Dunn, Graham; Startup, Helen; Pugh, Katherine; Cordwell, Jacinta; Mander, Helen; Černis, Emma; Wingham, Gail; Shirvell, Katherine; Kingdon, David

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Worry might be a contributory causal factor in the occurrence of persecutory delusions in patients with psychotic disorders. Therefore we postulated that reducing worry with cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) would reduce persecutory delusions. Methods For our two-arm, assessor-blinded, randomised controlled trial (Worry Intervention Trial [WIT]), we recruited patients aged 18–65 years with persistent persecutory delusions but non-affective psychosis from two centres: the Oxford Health National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust (Oxford, UK) and the Southern Health NHS Foundation Trust (Southampton, UK). The key inclusion criteria for participants were a score of at least 3 on the Psychotic Symptoms Rating Scale (PSYRATS) denoting a current persecutory delusion; that the delusion had persisted for at least 3 months; a clinical diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or delusional disorder; and a clinically significant level of worry. We randomly assigned (1:1) eligible patients, using a randomly permuted block procedure with variable block sizes and division by four strata, to either six sessions of worry-reduction CBT intervention done over 8 weeks added to standard care (the CBT-intervention group), or to standard care alone (the control group). The assessors were masked to patient allocations and did their assessments at week 0 (baseline), 8 weeks (end of treatment), and 24 weeks, follow-up. The primary outcomes were worry measured by the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) and delusions measured by the PSYRATS-delusion scale; we did the analyses in the intention-to-treat population, and also did a planned mediation analysis. This trial is registered with the ISRCTN Registry (number ISRCTN23197625) and is closed to new participants. Findings From Nov 1, 2011, to Sept 9, 2013, we recruited 150 eligible participants and randomly assigned 73 to the CBT intervention group, and 77 to the control group. 143 patients (95

  1. An examination of worry in relation to anxious responding to voluntary hyperventilation among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Leen-Feldner, Ellen W; Feldner, Matthew T; Tull, Matthew T; Roemer, Lizabeth; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2006-12-01

    This study examined the association between worry and fearful responding to a 3-min voluntary hyperventilation procedure. Participants were 160 adolescents (71 females) between the ages of 12 and 17 years (M=14.92 years). After accounting for the significant effects of state anxiety and anxiety sensitivity, results indicated that pre-challenge levels of worry indexed by the Penn State Worry Questionnaire-Child Version predicted post-challenge anxiety and intensity of panic symptoms. Results are discussed in terms of the role of worry in relation to panic-relevant emotional vulnerability among youth. PMID:16500618

  2. Worry as an adaptive avoidance strategy in healthy controls but not in pathological worriers.

    PubMed

    Ottaviani, Cristina; Borlimi, Rosita; Brighetti, Gianni; Caselli, Gabriele; Favaretto, Ettore; Giardini, Irene; Marzocchi, Camilla; Nucifora, Valeria; Rebecchi, Daniela; Ruggiero, Giovanni M; Sassaroli, Sandra

    2014-09-01

    The cognitive avoidance model of worry assumes that worry has the adaptive function to keep under control the physiological arousal associated with anxiety. This study aimed to test this model by the use of a fear induction paradigm in both pathological and healthy individuals. Thirty-one pathological worriers and 36 healthy controls accepted to be exposed to a fear induction paradigm (white noise) during three experimental conditions: worry, distraction, and reappraisal. Skin conductance (SCR) and heart rate variability (HRV) were measured as indices of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system functioning. Worriers showed increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic activation during the worry condition compared to non-worriers. There were no differences between groups for the distraction and reappraisal conditions. SCRs to the white noises during worry were higher in worriers versus controls throughout the entire worry period. Intolerance of uncertainty - but not metacognitive beliefs about worry - was a significant moderator of the relationship between worry and LF/HF-HRV in pathological worriers. Results support the cognitive avoidance model in healthy controls, suggesting that worry is no longer a functional attitude when it becomes the default/automatic and pathological response. PMID:24873888

  3. Research Note: Development of a Worry Questionnaire for Nursing Home Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertzsprung, Emerenciana A.; Konnert, Candace; Brinker, Jaylene

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a new measure, the Worry Questionnaire for Nursing Home Residents (WQNHR), designed to assess the frequency of specific worries. It was administered to 67 residents. Psychometric evaluation showed an average item-to-total correlation of 0.20 (range = 0.15 to 0.58), an internal consistency estimate of 0.79, and a test-retest…

  4. The Relation between Self-Reported Worry and Annoyance from Air and Road Traffic

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Frits; Verhagen, Claudia; Uitenbroek, Daan

    2015-01-01

    Negative perceptions such as fear or worry are known to be an important determinant of annoyance. Annoyance caused by noise and odour has been analysed in relation to worry about safety or health due to environmental hazards, using responses to a health survey. In the survey area high environmental impacts come from air and road traffic. The survey results show a correlation between worry due to the airport or passing aircraft and noise and odour annoyance from aircraft (correlation coefficient (c.c.) close to 0.6). For the relation between worry about a busy street and annoyance from road traffic the correlation is lower (c.c. 0.4–0.5). Worries about different situations, such as living below sea level, close to an airport, busy street or chemical industry, are highly correlated (c.c. 0.5–0.9), also for situations that are not obviously related. Personal factors can also lead to more worry: being female, above 35 years of age, having a high risk for anxiety/depression and being in bad health increase the odds for being worried. The results thus suggest that worry about safety or health is correlated to both personal and environmental factors. PMID:25723645

  5. Relation of Childhood Worry to Information-Processing Factors in an Ethnically Diverse Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez-Morales, Lourdes; Bell, Debora

    2006-01-01

    This study examined information-processing variables in relation to worry in a sample of 292 fifth-grade children from Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic backgrounds. Results revealed that worry was related to threat interpretations for hypothetical situations and, when stress level was not controlled, to higher estimates of future…

  6. Fear, Worry, and Ritualistic Behaviour in Childhood: Developmental Trends and Interrelations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laing, Sarah V.; Fernyhough, Charles; Turner, Michelle; Freeston, Mark H.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies of childhood fear, worry, and ritualistic behaviour have been limited by restricted age ranges, narrow ranges of anxiety phenomena, non-comparable methodologies, and assessment of typical behaviour within a pathological context. Content and intensity of fear, worry, and ritualistic behaviour, and associations among these…

  7. Worry about Terror in Israel: Differences between Jewish and Arab Adolescents and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peleg, Ora

    2010-01-01

    The current study examines group differences in (1) levels of worry about terror and (2) trait anxiety among a sample of high-school and university students, where groups are defined by cultural affiliation, religious commitment, place of residence, gender and age. The revealed group differences in levels of worry about terror point to the ability…

  8. Relationships among Perceived Racial Stress, Intolerance of Uncertainty, and Worry in a Black Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucker, LaTanya S.; West, Lindsey M.; Roemer, Lizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among chronic worry, perceived racial stress, and intolerance of uncertainty in a sample of adults who racially identify as Black. Intolerance of uncertainty has been associated with worry and generalized anxiety disorder in predominantly White samples. Given that racial stress is likely…

  9. A Preliminary Investigation of Stimulus Control Training for Worry: Effects on Anxiety and Insomnia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGowan, Sarah Kate; Behar, Evelyn

    2013-01-01

    For individuals with generalized anxiety disorder, worry becomes associated with numerous aspects of life (e.g., time of day, specific stimuli, environmental cues) and is thus under poor discriminative stimulus control (SC). In addition, excessive worry is associated with anxiety, depressed mood, and sleep difficulties. This investigation sought…

  10. Efficacy of self-administered treatments for pathological academic worry: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B; Telch, Michael J

    2010-09-01

    Research on treatments for reducing pathological worry is limited. In particular, academic worry is a common theme in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) samples as well as non-clinical student samples. Given the high cost of anxiety disorders to society, research is needed to examine the efficacy of self-administered treatments designed to reduce pathological worry. The primary goal of this study was to investigate the benefits of three self-administered interventions for reducing academic worry. College students (N = 113) experiencing clinically significant academic worry were randomized to either: (a) worry exposure (WE); (b) expressive writing (EW); (c) relaxation consisting of pulsed audio-photic stimulation (APS); or (d) waitlist control (WLC). Participants were instructed to practice their interventions three times per week for one month and completed home practice logs online to track treatment adherence. Academic worry, general anxiety, and perceived stress were assessed at baseline and post-treatment. Academic worry and general anxiety were also assessed at a three-month follow-up. Those assigned to the WE and APS conditions showed significant improvement relative to EW and WLC at post-treatment. All treatment conditions showed continued improvement by follow-up, with no between-group differences. Treatment and public health implications are discussed. PMID:20663491

  11. Worry in Children: Changing Associations with Fear, Thinking, and Problem-Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Imogen; Szabó, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    Worry in adults has been conceptualized as a thinking process involving problem-solving attempts about anticipated negative outcomes. This process is related to, though distinct from, fear. Previous research suggested that compared to adults, children's experience of worry is less strongly associated with thinking and more closely related to…

  12. The relation between self-reported worry and annoyance from air and road traffic.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Frits; Verhagen, Claudia; Uitenbroek, Daan

    2015-03-01

    Negative perceptions such as fear or worry are known to be an important determinant of annoyance. Annoyance caused by noise and odour has been analysed in relation to worry about safety or health due to environmental hazards, using responses to a health survey. In the survey area high environmental impacts come from air and road traffic. The survey results show a correlation between worry due to the airport or passing aircraft and noise and odour annoyance from aircraft (correlation coefficient (c.c.) close to 0.6). For the relation between worry about a busy street and annoyance from road traffic the correlation is lower (c.c. 0.4-0.5). Worries about different situations, such as living below sea level, close to an airport, busy street or chemical industry, are highly correlated (c.c. 0.5-0.9), also for situations that are not obviously related. Personal factors can also lead to more worry: being female, above 35 years of age, having a high risk for anxiety/depression and being in bad health increase the odds for being worried. The results thus suggest that worry about safety or health is correlated to both personal and environmental factors. PMID:25723645

  13. A Humanistic Approach to the Teaching of International Business: Integration of the Liberal Arts through Use of "The Economist."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuck, James M.

    An Indiana professor of business used the British magazine "The Economist" as required reading in courses on international business in order to introduce a global and humanistic element. "The Economist" is a 100-plus page news weekly of economics and finance with a principal goal of increasing understanding of the critical interrelationships…

  14. Home Economists Working with Low-Income Families and Implications for College Food and Nutrition Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopel, Bernice Helene

    To identify implications for college food and nutrition curriculum, multiple-choice questionnaires were developed to provide general characteristics of home economists and the concerns they had in their work with low-income families. Job concerns were ranked and analyzed according to the degree of concern expressed by the 129 respondents (70.8…

  15. Knowledge and Attitudes of Selected Home Economists toward Irradiation in Food Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Faye C. Stucy

    1990-01-01

    A survey of the knowledge and attitudes of 485 California home economists toward the use of irradiation to preserve food revealed that they lacked the knowledge although they had a positive attitude toward it. An interactive teleconference on irradiation increased positive attitudes and improved knowledge. (JOW)

  16. Facing up to Realities: Harvard Economist Investigates the Racial Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    As an economist, Dr. Ronald F. Ferguson often applies quantitative analysis to public policy dilemmas, which yields data models and quantitative measures of complex issues. In tackling the racial achievement gap, the Harvard-based social policy expert has added investigation techniques from sociology and psychology to explore what might seem a…

  17. NCTQ Square-Off: Are Teachers Underpaid? Two Economists Tackle an Intractable Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podgursky, Michael; Mishel, Lawrence

    2005-01-01

    Over the past year, two economists--Michael Podgursky, currently Middlebush Professor and Chairman in the Departmentof Economics at the University of Missouri-Columbia, and Lawrence Mishel, President of the Economic Policy Institute in Washington, D.C.--have been debating whether or not teachers are adequately paid, at least compared to other…

  18. The Topological Scaling of Consciousness: The World in the Perspectives of Economists and Technologists. No. 34.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierschenk, Bernhard

    The psychological concept of consciousness is examined in this article. It is argued that the intentionality of an individual's behavior is the key to the measurement and representation of his consciousness. The experiment examined concerns groups of students of business administration and civil engineering as well as professional economists, and…

  19. The Linguistic Representation of Rhetorical Function: A Study of How Economists Present Their Knowledge Claims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Trine

    2009-01-01

    This article deals with how economists present their new knowledge claim in the genre of the research article. In the discipline of economics today, the claim is typically included not only in the obvious results/discussion section(s) but also in three other locations of the article: the abstract, the introduction, and the conclusion. The present…

  20. How Do Economists Respond to the Storytellers? A Look at "The Rhetoric of Economics."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baake, Ken

    Teachers of college writing have a vested interest in the tremors of rhetoric surfacing from within the discipline of economics. In the past 15 years, some economists, philosophers of science, and humanists have challenged the positivist mantel of economics. They argue that economic methodology would be more ethical, more honest to the profession…

  1. The Interaction of Publications and Appointments: New Evidence on Academic Economists in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckmann, Klaus; Schneider, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Using a new panel data set comprising publication and appointment data for 889 German academic economists over a quarter of a century, we confirm the familiar hypothesis that publications are important for professorial appointments, but find only a small negative effect of appointments on subsequent research productivity, in particular if one…

  2. The Engineers versus the Economists: The Disunity of Technocracy in Indonesian Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amir, Sulfikar

    2008-01-01

    This article observes the competition between two groups of technocrats in Indonesia during the New Order era that has hitherto afflicted national policy making. The first group is the engineers who advocate technology-based development strategy. The other group is the market-oriented economists who promote a comparative-advantages approach in…

  3. Interrelationships of a Home Economist: Legacy of an Extension Agent in New Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makela, Carole J.

    2012-01-01

    Many pioneers in family and consumer sciences (FCS) are not recognized for what they accomplished. How evident this became as the author learned of a home economist who preceded many members and did so much for her state and its people during much of the 1900s. The author read an article from "New Mexico Magazine" which features three women--the…

  4. How to Support a One-Handed Economist: The Role of Modalisation in Economic Forecasting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue, James P.

    2006-01-01

    Economic forecasting in the world of international finance confronts economists with challenging cross-cultural writing tasks. Producing forecasts in English which convey confidence and credibility entails an understanding of linguistic conventions which typify the genre. A typical linguistic feature of commercial economic forecasts produced by…

  5. A 2004 unanswered letter to the Economist magazine requesting a retraction (and apology).

    PubMed

    Ling, Gilbert N

    2012-01-01

    This is a copy of (the bulk of) a letter I mailed on May 13, 2004 to Sir Robert P. Wilson, President, and three editors of the magazine, the Economist. With the letter, I also sent each recipient a copy of my latest book, "Life at the Cell and Below-Cell Level" as a gesture of good will. PMID:24437003

  6. Patterns of alpha asymmetry in those with elevated worry, trait anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms: A test of the worry and avoidance models of alpha asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ezra E; Zambrano-Vazquez, Laura; Allen, John J B

    2016-05-01

    Some authors have argued that worry cues lateralization of frontal brain activity leftward, whereas other varieties of avoidance motivation cue lateralization of frontal brain activity rightward. By comparison, more right-than-left parietal activity correlates with anxious arousal. The purpose of the present report was to test two models of brain lateralization and anxiety: one model that proposed that worry correlates with more left-frontal activity and another model that proposed that avoidance motivation (including worry) correlates with more right-frontal activity. Undergraduate students were selected for worry, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and trait anxiety using self-report questionnaires. A subset of participants also met DSM-IV criteria for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) or Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Alpha asymmetry and also a global-power-adjusted metric of alpha power were calculated from each participant's resting-state EEG. It was expected that participants with elevated worry and participants meeting criteria for GAD would show more left-than-right frontal activity. In contrast, participants with elevated trait anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and those with an OCD diagnosis were expected to exhibit more right-than-left frontal activity. Participants with elevated worry, participants with a GAD diagnosis, and participants with elevated obsessive-compulsive symptoms, had more left frontal activity than low symptom individuals. Those with high scores on trait anxiety, but low worry, had greater right frontal and parietal activity compared to controls. The present results suggest that brain lateralization is not solely related to avoidance motivation, and suggest that facets of anxiety may cut across dimensions not well-represented by DSM-based categories. PMID:26970143

  7. Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Pat; Landahl, John

    This pamphlet has been prepared in response to a new problem, a rapidly increasing population, and a new need, population education. It is designed to help teachers provide their students with some basic population concepts with stress placed on the elements of decision making. In the first section of the pamphlet, some of the basic concepts of…

  8. A Taxometric Investigation of the Latent Structure of Worry: Dimensionality and Associations with Depression, Anxiety, and Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Broman-Fulks, Joshua J.; Bergman, Shawn M.; Green, Bradley A.; Zlomke, Kimberly R.

    2010-01-01

    Worry has been described as a core feature of several disorders, particularly generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). The present study examined the latent structure of worry by applying 3 taxometric procedures (MAXEIG, MAMBAC, and L-Mode) to data collected from 2 large samples. Worry in the first sample (Study 1) of community participants (n = 1,355)…

  9. Annoyance and Worry in a Petrochemical Industrial Area—Prevalence, Time Trends and Risk Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Axelsson, Gösta; Stockfelt, Leo; Andersson, Eva; Gidlof-Gunnarsson, Anita; Sallsten, Gerd; Barregard, Lars

    2013-01-01

    In 1992, 1998, and 2006, questionnaires were sent to stratified samples of residents aged 18–75 years living near petrochemical industries (n = 600–800 people on each occasion) and in a control area (n = 200–1,000). The aims were to estimate the long-term prevalence and change over time of annoyance caused by industrial odour, industrial noise, and worries about possible health effects, and to identify risk indicators. In 2006, 20% were annoyed by industrial odour, 27% by industrial noise (1–4% in the control area), and 40–50% were worried about health effects or industrial accidents (10–20% in the control area). Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed significantly lower prevalence of odour annoyance in 1998 and 2006 than in 1992, while industrial noise annoyance increased significantly over time. The prevalence of worry remained constant. Risk of odour annoyance increased with female sex, worry of health effects, annoyance by motor vehicle exhausts and industrial noise. Industrial noise annoyance was associated with traffic noise annoyance and worry of health effects of traffic. Health-risk worry due to industrial air pollution was associated with female sex, having children, annoyance due to dust/soot in the air, and worry of traffic air pollution. PMID:23552810

  10. Effects of momentary assessed stressful events and worry episodes on somatic health complaints.

    PubMed

    Verkuil, Bart; Brosschot, Jos F; Meerman, Esther E; Thayer, Julian F

    2012-01-01

    Somatic health complaints are extremely common and are responsible for a large part of human suffering and healthcare costs. It has been recognised that psychosocial stress can affect somatic health. According to the 'perseverative cognition hypothesis', stressful events affect somatic health because people keep on worrying about them. Worry would prolong stress-related physiological activity that can ultimately lead to health problems. In this ambulatory study we tested whether stressful events and worry predict daily somatic complaints, and whether worry mediates the effects of stressful events. In addition, it was tested whether these effects were independent from negative affect. Using electronic diaries, 69 teachers (age 21-60 years) from Dutch primary and secondary schools reported daily stressful events, worry episodes, negative affect and somatic complaints for a period of 6 days. Results showed that worry intensity predicted the number of somatic complaints and mediated the effect of stressful events on somatic complaints. Furthermore, these results were independent from biobehavioural variables and daily negative affect. These findings support the perseverative cognition hypothesis proposing that the negative somatic health effects of stressful events are largely due to the worry; that is, to the prolonged cognitive representation of stressors. PMID:21038174

  11. Assessment of the Greek worry-related metacognitions: the Greek version of the Metacognitions Questionnaire (MCQ-30).

    PubMed

    Typaldou, G M; Konstantakopoulos, G; Roxanis, I; Nidos, A; Vaidakis, N; Papadimitriou, G N; Wells, A

    2014-01-01

    significant differences between genders had been found in the original study. The assumption that the differences in score levels and the gender effect might reflect cultural differences warrants further investigation. The findings of the present study indicate that the Greek version of the MCQ-30 is a comprehensible and psychometrically adequate instrument, as well as a reliable tool in assessing a range of dimensions of worry-related metacognitions in the Greek population. The Greek version of this scale facilitates crosscultural research in metacognition and wider testing of the metacognitive approach to emotional vulnerability, psychological disturbances and mental disorders. PMID:24739501

  12. Heart rate and autonomic response to stress after experimental induction of worry versus relaxation in healthy, high-worry, and generalized anxiety disorder individuals.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Aaron J; Newman, Michelle G

    2013-04-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is the most commonly occurring anxiety disorder and has been related to cardiovascular morbidity such as cardiac ischemia, sudden cardiac death, and myocardial infarction. Both GAD and its cardinal symptom - worry - have been shown to promote muted physiological reactivity in response to laboratory and ecological stressors. Importantly, no study to date has examined the concurrent and relative contributions of trait and state worry within healthy controls, (non-clinical) high trait-worry controls, and GAD participants. The present study examined heart rate (HR), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) responses to laboratory stress during and following the experimental induction of worry versus relaxation in healthy controls (n=42), high trait worriers (n=33) and participants with GAD (n=76). All groups exhibited increased HR and decreased RSA in response to the stressor, with no differences by condition. Baseline sAA significantly moderated HR and RSA reactivity, such that higher sAA predicted greater increases in HR and decreases in RSA. There was a significant group by baseline sAA interaction such that in GAD, higher baseline sAA predicted decreased change in sAA during stress, whereas higher baseline sAA predicted greater sAA change in healthy controls. High-worry controls fell non-significantly between these groups. The present study provides additional evidence for the effect of worry on diminished HR stress response and points to possible suppression of adrenergic sympathetic stress responses in GAD. PMID:23384513

  13. Community worry about heart disease: a needs survey in the Coalfields and Newcastle areas of the Hunter region.

    PubMed

    Higginbotham, N; Heading, G; Pont, J; Plotnikoff, R; Dobson, A J; Smith, E; Metcalfe, A; Valenti, L; Croce, N

    1993-12-01

    A needs survey was administered by mail in the Coalfields area of the Hunter region (a lower socioeconomic area around Cessnock) and in a higher socioeconomic area of Newcastle. The purpose was to assist planning for Coalfields Healthy Heartbeat--a community-action heart disease prevention program. Response rates from random samples of residents were 435/897 (49 per cent) for the Coalfields and 565/875 (65 per cent) for Newcastle. In both study areas heart attack was ranked eleventh from a list of 17 potential community worries, well below drugs, crime, road safety, the environment, cancer and 'loss of health'. Coalfields respondents were more worried about all issues on the list than were the residents in Newcastle and were less likely to have heard about recent health promotion campaigns. Coalfields respondents felt that heart disease prevention was the responsibility of the individual, the family, and the medical profession, in that order, and much less the responsibility of local community groups. Results suggest that health promotion strategies incorporating values, language and symbols that are meaningful to distinct subgroups may be more successful than disease-specific programs aimed at the general population. PMID:8204711

  14. Does worry moderate the relation between aggression and depression in adolescent girls?

    PubMed

    Blain-Arcaro, Christine; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2016-06-01

    Aggressive girls, more so than aggressive boys, are at an increased risk for depression. Despite disconcerting outcomes, few researchers have examined factors that may attenuate or exacerbate the relation between aggression and depression. Competing hypotheses for explaining the role of worry in the relation between aggressive behaviour and depressive symptoms, commonly co-occurring problems in girls, have been proposed. In the present study, we examined worry as a possible moderator in the relation between girls nominated as aggressive by their peers and self-reported depressive symptoms in a sample of 226 girls aged 13 (M = 12.92, SD = 1.28) at Time 1. We found that worry exacerbated the risk of depressive symptoms concurrently and one year later for physically aggressive girls, but not relationally aggressive girls. These results suggest that worry plays an important role in the prediction of depression for aggressive girls, which varies by the form aggression takes. PMID:26986843

  15. Eastern region represents a worrying cluster of active hepatitis C in Algeria in 2012.

    PubMed

    Bensalem, Aïcha; Selmani, Karima; Hihi, Narjes; Bencherifa, Nesrine; Mostefaoui, Fatma; Kerioui, Cherif; Pineau, Pascal; Debzi, Nabil; Berkane, Saadi

    2016-08-01

    Algeria is the largest country of Africa, peopled with populations living a range of traditional/rural and modern/urban lifestyles. The variations of prevalence of chronic active hepatitis care poorly known on the Algerian territory. We conducted a retrospective survey on all patients (n = 998) referred to our institution in 2012 and confirmed by us for an active hepatitis C. Half of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) isolates were genotyped. Forty Algerian regions out of the 48 were represented in our study. Three geographical clusters (Aïn-Temouchent/SidiBelAbbes, Algiers, and a large Eastern region) with an excess of active hepatitis C were observed. Patients coming from the Eastern cluster (Batna, Khenchela, Oum el Bouaghi, and Tebessa) were strongly over-represented (49% of cases, OR = 14.5, P < 0.0001). The hallmarks of Eastern region were an excess of women (65% vs. 46% in the remaining population, P < 0.0001) and the almost exclusive presence of HCV genotype 1 (93% vs. 63%, P = 0.0001). The core of the epidemics was apparently located in Khenchela (odds ratio = 24.6, P < 0.0001). This situation is plausibly connected with nosocomial transmission or traditional practices as scarification (Hijama), piercing or tattooing, very lively in this region. Distinct hepatitis C epidemics are currently affecting Algerian population. The most worrying situation is observed in rural regions located east of Algeria. J. Med. Virol. 88:1394-1403, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26856380

  16. Factors Associated With Cancer Worry Among People Aged 50 or Older, Spain, 2012–2014

    PubMed Central

    Sotos, Joseba Rabanales; Herráez, María José Simarro; Rosa, Monchi Campos; López, Jaime López-Torres; Ortiz, María Pilar Sánchez

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cancer worry varies among patients and may influence their participation in preventive activities. We tested whether sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle, locus of control, comorbidity, and perceived health status were associated with the level of cancer worry among adults aged 50 or older. Methods We conducted an observational cross-sectional study of 666 adults in Spain aged 50 or older. Participants were selected by simple random sampling and asked to visit their designated health center for a personal interview. The study variables were level of cancer worry (measured by Cancer Worry Scale [CWS]), sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle, personal history or family history of cancer, comorbidity, self-perceived health, locus of control, and social support. Results More than half of participants, 58.1%, were women; mean age was 60.5 years (standard deviation [SD], 6.8 y). Measurement of the frequency and severity of cancer worry (possible scale of 6–24 points) yielded a mean CWS score of 9.3 (95% confidence interval, 9.0–9.5); 31.9% of participants reported being concerned about cancer. Scores were higher among women (9.7 [SD, 3.3]) than men (8.7 [SD, 2.7]) (P < .001) and among participants in rural settings (10.0 [SD, 3.4]) than in urban settings (9.0 [SD, 3.0]) (P < .001). Multiple linear regression showed a greater degree of cancer worry among people with personal or family history of cancer, more health problems, worse self-perceived health, and lower social support. Conclusion Cancer worry is frequent among older adults, and the level of such concern is related not only to personal characteristics but also to lifestyle and health status. Further research is required to understand how contextual factors can influence cancer worry and how such concern changes behavior patterns related to cancer prevention activities. PMID:26704444

  17. Relationship between irritable bowel syndrome, worry and stress in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Song, Sang-Wook; Park, Seo-Jin; Kim, Se-Hong; Kang, Sung-Goo

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) among adolescents and difference in worry and stress between normal and IBS groups. Questionnaire survey was conducted at a girl's middle and high school. Students from seventh to eleventh grade participated in the examination on Rome II criteria, lifestyle and dietary habits. Worry and stress were measured with the Korean version Penn State Worry Questionnaire-Children and the Korean version Brief Encounter Psychosocial Instrument. Worry score was significantly higher in the IBS group (22.07 ± 9.38, P < 0.001) than in the normal group (18.65 ± 8.99) and was higher in high school students than in middle school students (P = 0.02). Stress score also was higher in the IBS group than in the normal group (P < 0.001) and was higher in the high school girls than in the middle school ones (P = 0.04). Of all the lifestyle factors influencing IBS preference for fatty foods, preference for salty foods, drinking alcohol and sleeping for less than six hours a day were found to be significant. Worry and stress seem to be associated with IBS symptoms. The findings of this study draw a clue that less worry and stress will help decrease IBS symptoms. PMID:23166424

  18. Worry about terror among young adults living in ongoing security uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Peleg, Ora; Mass-Friedman, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate worry about terror as a mediating variable, with the exogenous variables being media viewing, differentiation of self, and trait anxiety, and the endogenous variables being somatic symptoms and perceptions of security-related stress. Participants were divided into two groups by age/academic level: 248 high school students and 191 university students. A pathway correlation model was used to investigate worry about terror as a mediating variable. The central finding was that worry about terror was a significant mediating variable in the relationship between the extent of media viewing following terror events and the level of perception of security-related stress. That is, young people who said they worried a lot reported a high level of stress relating to the terror events they saw covered in the media. In addition, trait anxiety was found to have an effect on stress perception only via the level of worry about terror. This means that high levels of stress are not experienced by all highly trait-anxious people, but only by those who suffer from higher levels of worry about terror. PMID:22551319

  19. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia during worry forecasts stress-related increases in psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Gouin, Jean-Philippe; Deschênes, Sonya S; Dugas, Michel J

    2014-09-01

    Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) has been conceptualized as an index of emotion regulation abilities. Although resting RSA has been associated with both concurrent and prospective affective responses to stress, the impact of RSA reactivity on emotional responses to stress is inconsistent across studies. The type of emotional stimuli used to elicit these phasic RSA responses may influence the adaptive value of RSA reactivity. We propose that RSA reactivity to a personally relevant worry-based stressor might forecast future affective responses to stress. To evaluate whether resting RSA and RSA reactivity to worry inductions predict stress-related increases in psychological distress, an academic stress model was used to prospectively examine changes in psychological distress from the well-defined low- and high-stress periods. During the low-stress period, 76 participants completed self-report mood measures and had their RSA assessed during a resting baseline, free worry period and worry catastrophizing interview. Participants completed another mood assessment during the high-stress period. Results indicated that baseline psychological distress predicted larger decreases in RSA during the worry inductions. Lower resting RSA and greater RSA suppression to the worry inductions at baseline prospectively predicted larger increases in psychological distress from the low- to high-stress period, even after accounting for the impact of baseline distress on RSA. These results provide further evidence that RSA may represent a unique index of emotion regulation abilities in times of stress. PMID:25089936

  20. Associations between risk perceptions and worry about common diseases: a between- and within-subjects examination.

    PubMed

    Shiloh, Shoshana; Wade, Christopher H; Roberts, J Scott; Alford, Sharon Hensley; Biesecker, Barbara B

    2013-01-01

    The relationships between worry and perceptions of likelihood and severity were evaluated across eight common diseases. Individual and disease variability in worry and perceptions were examined. 294 participants were recruited through the Multiplex Initiative, in which a genetic susceptibility test for eight common diseases was offered to healthy adults. Participants completed a baseline telephone survey and web-based surveys without a commitment to be tested, and then made a choice on testing. Between- and within-subjects analyses yielded the following main findings: (1) worry is more closely related to likelihood perceptions than to severity perceptions; (2) severity perceptions add significantly to explained worry variances above and beyond likelihood perceptions; (3) risk perceptions and worries form two clusters: cancer diseases and cardiovascular-metabolic diseases; and (4) variance in risk perception and worry is explained by a combination of between- and within-subjects variances. Risk perception research should attend to severity perceptions, within-subjects variability and inter-disease differences, and to strategies for grouping conditions. PMID:23121110

  1. Beliefs about worry and intrusions: the Meta-Cognitions Questionnaire and its correlates.

    PubMed

    Cartwright-Hatton, S; Wells, A

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the development of the Meta-Cognitions Questionnaire to measure beliefs about worry and intrusive thoughts. Factor analyses of the scale demonstrated five empirically distinct and relatively stable dimensions of meta-cognition. Four of the factors representing beliefs were: Positive Beliefs About Worry: Negative Beliefs About the Controllability of Thoughts and Corresponding Danger; Cognitive Confidence; and Negative Beliefs about Thoughts in General, including Themes of Superstition, Punishment and Responsibility. The fifth factor represented Meta-Cognitive processes-Cognitive Self-Consciousness-a tendency to be aware of and monitor thinking. The measure showed good psychometric properties on a range of indices of reliability and validity. Scores on the questionnaire subscales predicted measures of worry proneness, proneness to obsessional symptoms, and anxiety. Regression analyses showed that the independent predictors of worry were: Positive Beliefs about Worry; Negative Beliefs About the Controllability of Thoughts and Corresponding Danger: and Cognitive Confidence. Significant differences in particular MCQ subscales were demonstrated between patients with intrusive thoughts, clinical controls and normals. The implications of these findings for models of worry and intrusive thoughts are discussed. PMID:9220301

  2. Assessing treatments used to reduce rumination and/or worry: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Querstret, Dawn; Cropley, Mark

    2013-12-01

    Perseverative cognitions such as rumination and worry are key components of mental illnesses such as depression and anxiety. Given the frequent comorbidity of conditions in which rumination and worry are present, it is possible that they are underpinned by the same cognitive process. Furthermore, rumination and worry appear to be part of a causal chain that can lead to long-term health consequences, including cardiovascular disease and other chronic conditions. It is important therefore to understand what interventions may be useful in reducing their incidence. This systematic review aimed to assess treatments used to reduce worry and/or rumination. As we were interested in understanding the current treatment landscape, we limited our search from 2002 to 2012. Nineteen studies were included in the review and were assessed for methodological quality and treatment integrity. Results suggested that mindfulness-based and cognitive behavioural interventions may be effective in the reduction of both rumination and worry; with both Internet-delivered and face-to-face delivered formats useful. More broadly, it appears that treatments in which participants are encouraged to change their thinking style, or to disengage from emotional response to rumination and/or worry (e.g., through mindful techniques), could be helpful. Implications for treatment and avenues for future research are discussed. PMID:24036088

  3. Effect of worry on regional cerebral blood flow in nonanxious subjects.

    PubMed

    Hoehn-Saric, Rudolf; Lee, Jae Sung; McLeod, Daniel R; Wong, Dean F

    2005-12-30

    Several studies suggest that cognitive tasks attenuate activation of the limbic system by emotional stimuli. We investigated the possibility that worry would similarly inhibit the limbic system by examining its effects on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). Ten nonanxious volunteers underwent four scans within one session, using positron emission tomography (PET) with H(2)(15)O as tracer. The first two scans recorded emotionally neutral thinking induced after listening to tapes describing neutral statements. Preceding the third and fourth scans, subjects listened to the self-recorded tape describing their individual worries, were instructed to continue to worry, and were scanned 5 min later. Subjects rated themselves as more anxious during the worry scans but showed no significant heart interbeat or skin conductance changes. During worry, rCBF increases were found bilaterally in the medial fronto-orbital gyri and the right thalamus; rCBF decreases were found bilaterally in the hippocampi and amygdalae, in the right insula, the left and right inferior, middle and superior temporal gyri and the occipito-temporal gyri, the right inferior occipital gyrus and the left supramarginal gyrus. Activity of the left orbito-frontal gyrus was negatively correlated with activity of the amygdalae. The results support the hypothesis that worry-induced prefrontal activity suppresses affect-related subcortical regions. PMID:16297605

  4. Influences of personal standards and perceived parental expectations on worry for Asian American and White American college students.

    PubMed

    Saw, Anne; Berenbaum, Howard; Okazaki, Sumie

    2013-03-01

    The current study examined perceptions of living up to parental expectations (LPE) and personal standards as possible mediators of the relationship between ethnicity and worry in a sample of 836 Asian American and 856 White American college students. Asian Americans reported higher frequency of academic- and family-related worries, but they did not report higher levels of global tendency to worry. Perceptions of LPE of current academic performance and personal standards for preparation for a future career partially explained ethnic differences in frequency of academic worry. Personal standards and perceptions of LPE for respect for the family partially explained ethnic differences in frequency of family worry. The findings highlight the importance of targeting domain-specific personal standards and perceived parental expectations to reduce worry among Asian Americans. PMID:22416875

  5. Influences of Personal Standards and Perceived Parental Expectations on Worry for Asian American and White American College Students

    PubMed Central

    Berenbaum, Howard; Okazaki, Sumie

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined perceptions of living up to parental expectations and personal standards as possible mediators of the relationship between ethnicity and worry in a sample of 836 Asian American and 856 White American college students. Asian Americans reported higher frequency of academic- and family-related worry, but they did not report higher levels of global tendency to worry. Perceptions of living up to parental expectations of current academic performance and personal standards for preparation for a future career partially explained ethnic differences in frequency of academic worry. Personal standards and perceptions of living up to parental expectations for respect for the family partially explained ethnic differences in frequency of family worry. The findings highlight the importance of targeting domain-specific personal standards and perceived parental expectations to reduce worry among Asian Americans. PMID:22416875

  6. Daily worry is related to low heart rate variability during waking and the subsequent nocturnal sleep period.

    PubMed

    Brosschot, Jos F; Van Dijk, Eduard; Thayer, Julian F

    2007-01-01

    Stress and anxiety are risk factors for cardiovascular (CV) disease. Worry might be a mediator of their risks by prolonging their cognitive representation and concomitant CV activity. We hypothesized that daily stressors and worry, and trait anxiety and trait worry would be associated with high heart rate (HR) and low heart rate variability (HRV) during waking and the subsequent nocturnal sleep period, and that worry would mediate the effects of daily stressors. Low HRV and high HR are physiological risk factors for CV disease. Using an hourly diary, stressors, worry frequency and duration, and biobehavioral variables were measured during one day in 52 healthy subjects. During this time and the subsequent nocturnal sleep period, ambulatory ECG was measured. Stressors, worry and traits were related to higher HR and lower HRV during waking, and the effects of stressors and worry were extended into the sleeping period. Worry duration mediated the effects of stressors. The results were largely independent of biobehavioral variables including sleep quality. The results support the notion that worry, by prolonging CV activity, is a mediator of the CV risks of stress. They also imply a role for unconscious cognitive representation of stress. PMID:17020787

  7. Development and initial validation of the Worry-Reduction Alcohol Expectancy Scale.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joshua P; Tran, Giao Q

    2007-10-01

    Recent research on the relation between generalized anxiety and heavy drinking highlighted a need for a measure of worry-reduction alcohol expectancies. The current study aimed to develop and to assess the psychometric properties of the Worry-Reduction Alcohol Expectancy Scale. The development and initial validation of the WRAES occurred across two phases with two separate non-clinical undergraduate samples. Phase I was focused on scale construction and item selection, while Phase II included an assessment of the WRAES' reliability, validity and cross-validation of factor structure. Results from both study phases support a two-factor model. Cronbach's alpha for the total scale was .96 and Pearson r test-retest reliability was .75. Additionally, the mean correlation between the WRAES and convergent measures was significantly higher than the mean correlation between the WRAES and discriminant measures. Overall, the results provide initial support for the WRAES as a measure of worry-reduction alcohol expectancies. PMID:17434687

  8. Measuring Dispositional Cancer Worry in China and Belgium: A Cross-Cultural Validation

    PubMed Central

    Bernat, Jennifer Kim; Jensen, Jakob D.

    2014-01-01

    Dispositional cancer worry (DCW) is the uncontrollable tendency to dwell on cancer independent of relevant stimuli (e.g., diagnosis of the disease). Past research has suggested that DCW has two underlying dimensions (severity and frequency). Available measures of DCW severity and frequency were translated and validated in two countries: China and Belgium. Participants (N=623) completed translated scales, as well as measures of general dispositional worry, cancer fear, and perceived risk. In both locations, DCW measures were reliable (Cronbach’s alphas ranged from .78 – .93) and demonstrated strong convergent, divergent, and concurrent validity. Severity and frequency factors loaded as expected in exploratory factor analysis. Future research should pursue longitudinal tests of DCW’s predictive validity and explore DCW in theoretical models predicting the relationship between worry and cancer prevention and early detection behaviors. PMID:24365045

  9. Cognitive processing variables in breast cancer: worry and distress at the end of treatment.

    PubMed

    Costa-Requena, Gema; Rodríguez, Ana; Fernández, Rosina; Palomera, Elisabet; Gil, Francisco L

    2011-06-01

    This study assessed the influence of cognitive processing variables on cancer worries and distress after breast cancer treatment. In multivariate analyses, while independent variables were intolerance of uncertainty and intrusive thoughts, constructs' variables were anxiety and depression symptoms and cancer-related worries. The intolerance to uncertainty had a tendency to influence on distress and concerns about cancer after the end of treatment (Wilks' λ = 0.687, p = 0.074). Whereas, thought intrusion had a significant influence on distress and cancer related worries (Wilks' λ = 0.228, p = 0.000). Cognitive variables could be addressed by the oncology nurse when considering the patients' concerns related to cancer and psychological distress. PMID:20623349

  10. Reliability and Validity of the Korean Version of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire in Primary School Children

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sung-Goo; Shin, Jin-Hee

    2010-01-01

    Worry is a generalized psychological phenomenon seen among most people. When worry is excessive and nearly uncontrollable, people usually suffer psychological pain. The Penn State Worry Questionnaire for Children (PSWQ-C) was developed to measure worry objectively. It comprises 14 items for measuring excessive, generalized, and uncontrollable worry in children. This study, conducted with a large group of elementary children (3rd through 6th graders, ages 8-12 yr; N=973), investigated the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire for Children (PSWQ-CK). The PSWQ-CK showed high reliability by test-retest and also excellent internal consistency results. To examine the validity of the PSWQ-CK, we calculated its correlation with the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS). The PSWQ-CK had a higher correlation with the worry/oversensitivity factor than with other subscales of the RCMAS, and it showed no correlation with the lie factor. When 3 reversed PSWQ-CK items were eliminated, the instrument showed higher internal consistency. However, this did not improve its correlation with other anxiety-measuring tools. In conclusion, the PSWQ-CK's reliability and validity were satisfactory, and it is a useful tool for objectively measuring the worry of Korean children of this age group. PMID:20676335

  11. Effects of Test Anxiety on Performance, Worry, and Emotionality in Naturally Occurring Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Deitz, Sheila R.

    1978-01-01

    Test performance and reported anxiety levels of high and low test-anxious subjects taking either a regular exam or an exam containing brief, written relaxation instructions were compared. High test-anxious subjects performed more poorly and reported greater worry and emotionality. Results provide greater external validity for Test Anxiety Scale.…

  12. The Impact of Parents’ Sleep Quality and Hypoglycemia Worry on Diabetes Self-Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Linda Jones; Monaghan, Maureen; Cogen, Fran; Streisand, Randi

    2014-01-01

    Parents of young children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) may experience poor sleep quality possibly impacting their confidence in T1D management. This study investigated sleep characteristics among parents of children with T1D and relationships amongst parents’ sleep quality, hypoglycemia worry, and diabetes self-efficacy. As part of baseline assessment for a randomized clinical trial (RCT) to promote parental management of T1D, 134 parents of children ≤ age 6 reported on demographics, parent sleep characteristics, hypoglycemia worry, and diabetes self-efficacy. Parents reported they slept less time than recommended by the National Sleep Foundation and endorsed greater global sleep problems than standardized norms of healthy adults; 1/3 of parents reported their overall sleep quality was “fairly bad” or “very bad.” Hypoglycemia worry and parents’ sleep quality were both significantly related to diabetes self-efficacy, but parents’ sleep quality did not mediate the relationship of hypoglycemia worry and diabetes self-efficacy. Many parents experience disrupted sleep that impacts their perceived ability to perform T1D management. Interventions designed to improve parental T1D self-efficacy should consider sleep and concerns about children’s hypoglycemia. PMID:24738994

  13. The Worry List: What They Are and How to Deal with Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In this article, four directors discuss the security challenges that keep them worried and what they do about it. Dwayne Alton describes how his school district, IT School District of Lee County, Fort Meyers, Florida, collaborated with Cisco and installed an intrusion detection system which alerts IT staff when someone creates their own access…

  14. Life associated with fear and worry: A major concern among the cardiac valve-replaced patients

    PubMed Central

    Taghadosi, Mohsen; Memarian, Robabeh; Ahmadi, Fazlollah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Few attempts were made for alleviating the physical/psychological problems among the cardiac valve–replaced patients and no comprehensive study was done based on the experiences of such patients. This study was undertaken to describe the stressful experiences of the heart valve-replaced patients. Materials and Methods: In this qualitative study performed during 2012-2013 with a content analysis approach, 13 patients from Tehran and Kashan therapeutic centers participated. The study sampling was accomplished with purposeful sampling using a semi-structured interview that continued until data saturat ion. All interviews were recorded, and were immediately handwritten word by word and finally typewritten. Description and analysis of the data were done by Graneheim and Lundman content analysis. Results: One hundred and seventy-five primary codes were derived among the 680 codes taken from the participants interviewed. Using abstract and deep perception of the categories, 14 subcategories and 5 themes were derived. The themes are as follows: worry of care conditions, worry of life with the ongoing condition of having prosthetic cardiac valve, worry regarding the instability in life, fear of hospital, and fear of unknown factors. Each theme consisted of special subsidiary themes with specific functions. Conclusions: The main themes of fear and worry about on losing the valve were identified and introduced in the cardiac valve-replaced patients. As the nature and function of these themes are different in different societies, recognition and discrete definition of them are necessary for care planning and promotion. PMID:25709701

  15. Uncertainty beyond probabilities of BSE: appraisals predicting worry and coping strategies in the Canadian public.

    PubMed

    Markon, Marie-Pierre L; Lemyre, Louise; Krewski, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The impact of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is not limited to the infection with the BSE agent but also affects psychosocial responses, such as worry and loss of confidence in public authorities. It was shown in past crises that these reactions depended upon the way the event was perceived by the public. Understanding the nature of the perceptions of BSE is therefore of great importance for risk management in all phases of the risk, including the period before the onset of a crisis, when BSE is still only a pending threat to human health. This study analyzed data from a representative national survey of Canadians (n = 1,517) on the perceived risk of prion diseases. Factor analysis revealed emerging dimensions of BSE appraisals and regression analysis identified variables that predicted worry and coping strategies. Results yielded three significant factors, each relating differently to reactions to BSE: (1) Perceived impact, which combined perceived risk for health and likelihood of occurrence of BSE crises, was the main predictor of worry about eating tainted beef; (2) perceived mastery, consisting of personal knowledge and control, predicted taking action to avoid the disease; and (3) perceived intricacy, composed of perceived complexity and uncertainty, uniquely predicted trying to ignore BSE-related risks. Further regression analysis and analysis of variance exposed a moderating role of perceived intricacy on the relationship between perceived impact of BSE crises and worry. The implications of these findings for risk communication and management are described. PMID:21218348

  16. Worry as a Predictor of Fear Acquisition in a Nonclinical Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joos, Els; Vansteenwegen, Debora; Hermans, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    People seem to differ in their conditionability, that is, the ease by which fear associations (neutral stimulus-unconditioned stimulus [CS-US] contingencies) are learned. Recently, the level of trait worry has been proposed as a predictor of heightened conditionability. The current research aimed to (a) further investigate this influence of…

  17. Effects of Homework Motivation and Worry Anxiety on Homework Achievement in Mathematics and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Eunsook; Mason, Elsa; Peng, Yun; Lee, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Direct and mediating effects of homework worry anxiety on homework effort and homework achievement and the differences in the structural relations among homework motivation constructs and homework achievement across mathematics and English homework were examined in 268 tenth graders in China. Homework motivation included task value, homework…

  18. Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention for Worry, Uncertainty, and Insomnia for Cancer Survivors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-22

    Anxiety Disorder; Worry; Uncertainty; Sleep Disorders; Insomnia; Fatigue; Pain; Depression; Cognitive-behavioral Therapy; Psychological Intervention; Esophageal Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Leukemia; Lung Cancer; Multiple Myeloma; Ovarian Neoplasm; Stage III or IV Cervical or Uterine Cancer; Stage IIIB, IIIC, or IV Breast Cancer; Glioblastoma Multiforme; Relapsed Lymphoma; Stage III or IV Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIC or IV Melanoma

  19. The impact of parents' sleep quality and hypoglycemia worry on diabetes self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Linda Jones; Monaghan, Maureen; Cogen, Fran; Streisand, Randi

    2015-01-01

    Parents of young children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) may experience poor sleep quality, possibly impacting their confidence in T1D management. This study investigated sleep characteristics among parents of children with T1D and relationships among parents' sleep quality, hypoglycemia worry, and diabetes self-efficacy. As part of baseline assessment for a randomized clinical trial (RCT) to promote parental management of T1D, 134 parents of children ≤ age 6 reported on demographics, parent sleep characteristics, hypoglycemia worry, and diabetes self-efficacy. Parents reported they slept less time than recommended by the National Sleep Foundation and endorsed greater global sleep problems than standardized norms of healthy adults; one third of parents reported their overall sleep quality was "fairly bad" or "very bad." Hypoglycemia worry and parents' sleep quality were both significantly related to diabetes self-efficacy, but parents' sleep quality did not mediate the relationship of hypoglycemia worry and diabetes self-efficacy. Many parents experience disrupted sleep that impacts their perceived ability to perform T1D management. Interventions designed to improve parental T1D self-efficacy should consider sleep and concerns about children's hypoglycemia. PMID:24738994

  20. Knowledge about aging and worry in older adults: Testing the mediating role of intolerance of uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Nuevo, Roberto; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Montorio, Ignacio; Ruiz, Miguel A.; Cabrera, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aims to explore the relationship between knowledge about aging and severity of worry in older adults, and to test the potential mediational role of intolerance of uncertainty. Method The sample was composed of 120 community-dwelling older adults, with a mean of age of 71.0 years (SD = 6.3). Mediational analyses and structural equation modeling were used to analyze and compare different models. Results Greater knowledge about aging was negatively related to both intolerance of uncertainty and worry, and its effect on worry was partially mediated by intolerance of uncertainty. The mediational model obtained an excellent fit to the data (i.e. Goodness of fit index (GFI) = 0.995) and clearly had a better fit than alternative models. Conclusion These results suggest that a good knowledge of the aging process could help decrease aversive uncertainty and thus reduce the level of worry among older adults. Thus, educational programs to increase knowledge about aging could serve as one preventive strategy for anxiety in old age. PMID:19197699

  1. Effects of Personality on Psychiatric and Somatic Symptoms in Pregnant Women: The Role of Pregnancy Worries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puente, Cecilia Penacoba; Monge, Francisco Javier Carmona; Abellan, Isabel Carretero; Morales, Dolores Marin

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of personality and pregnancy worries on pregnant women's mental and physical health with 154 women in the first half of their gestational period. Self-report questionnaires were used to collect information about control variables, sociodemographic (age, educational level, and work), and pregnancy variables…

  2. Leaving School: A Comparison of the Worries Held by Adolescents with and without Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, R.; Dagnan, D.; Jahoda, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Leaving school is an important time for adolescents, with increasing autonomy and developing adult identities. The present study sought to shed light on the content and emotional impact of worries amongst adolescents with and without intellectual disabilities (IDs) at this time of change. Methods: Twenty-five adolescents with mild to…

  3. Concern or confidence? Adolescents' identity capital and future worry in different school contexts.

    PubMed

    Tikkanen, Jenni

    2016-01-01

    This present study investigated the roles identity capital and school's socio-economic status have on adolescent worry about future education, employment, and social status. The 354 participants were 14- to 15-year-old students from affluent (56.8%) and disadvantaged (43.2%) Finnish lower secondary schools. Structural equation modelling was used to test the hypothesis that a higher level of family-related identity capital is connected to a lower level of future worry, and that this connection is mediated through intrapersonal forms of identity capital, specifically academic self-concept and general self-efficacy. Adolescent future worry was also examined across school status with an independent samples t-test. The findings suggest that, in the relatively equal societal context in Finland, adolescents are rather confident about their future education, employment, and social status regardless of the socio-economic status of the school they attend, and when their level of identity capital is high the future worry decreases further. PMID:26559012

  4. Worries about Middle School Transition and Subsequent Adjustment: The Moderating Role of Classroom Goal Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duchesne, Stephane; Ratelle, Catherine F.; Roy, Amelie

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study had three objectives: (a) to identify different profiles of second-year middle school students (Grade 8) in terms of academic, emotional, and social adjustment; (b) to test the contribution of worries at the end of Grade 6 to distinguish these profiles; and (c) to examine the moderating effect of mastery (MG) and…

  5. Economists, capitalists, and the making of globalization: North American free trade in comparative-historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Fairbrother, Malcolm

    2014-03-01

    Why did globalization happen? Current explanations point to a variety of conditions under which states have made the free market policy changes driving international economic integration since the 1980s. Such accounts disagree, however, about the key actors involved. This article provides a reconciliation, showing how two different combinations of actors, and two different political economic pathways, have led to globalization in recent decades. In developed countries, mobilization by business has been central; elsewhere, technocrats both constrained and empowered by international finance have pursued globalization more independently of business. In both contexts, economists' technical authority has helped legitimate liberalization, despite the limited diffusion of their ideas. The article validates and elaborates this model using a comparative-historical study of how the United States, Canada, and Mexico proposed, negotiated, and ratified agreements for free trade in North America. PMID:25097930

  6. A slippery slope: economists and social insurance in the United States.

    PubMed

    Du Boff, R B

    1997-01-01

    Since the 1980s welfare state protections have been blamed for a host of economic problems. In the United States, conservatives have always disliked Social Security but could not effectively attack this popular program until the 1980s, when they devised a new tactic--warning young people that they would never get their "money's worth" from Social Security, which is on the brink of "bankruptcy." The political climate, dominated by a drive to cut back "big government," also became favorable for attempts to destabilize Social Security politically. Thus, negative images of Social Security have been forced onto the public agenda, and economists who consider themselves "liberal" have uncritically accepted this new set of political "givens." It is an example of how they address "crises" as separable issues tied to no particular social context. PMID:9285273

  7. Schizotypy--do not worry, it is not all worrisome.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Christine; Claridge, Gordon

    2015-03-01

    A long-standing tradition in personality research in psychology, and nowadays increasingly in psychiatry, is that psychotic and psychotic-like thoughts are considered common experiences in the general population. Given their widespread occurrence, such experiences cannot merely reflect pathological functioning. Moreover, reflecting the multi-dimensionality of schizotypy, some dimensions might be informative for healthy functioning while others less so. Here, we explored these possibilities by reviewing research that links schizotypy to favorable functioning such as subjective wellbeing, cognitive functioning (major focus on creativity), and personality correlates. This research highlights the existence of healthy people with psychotic-like traits who mainly experience positive schizotypy (but also affective features mapping onto bipolar disorder). These individuals seem to benefit from a healthy way to organize their thoughts and experiences, that is, they employ an adaptive cognitive framework to explain and integrate their unusual experiences. We conclude that, instead of focusing only on the pathological, future studies should explore the behavioral, genetic, imaging, and psychopharmacological correlates that define the healthy expression of psychotic-like traits. Such studies would inform on protective or compensatory mechanisms of psychosis-risk and could usefully inform us on the evolutionary advantages of the psychosis dimension. PMID:25810058

  8. Schizotypy—Do Not Worry, It Is Not All Worrisome

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, Christine; Claridge, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    A long-standing tradition in personality research in psychology, and nowadays increasingly in psychiatry, is that psychotic and psychotic-like thoughts are considered common experiences in the general population. Given their widespread occurrence, such experiences cannot merely reflect pathological functioning. Moreover, reflecting the multi-dimensionality of schizotypy, some dimensions might be informative for healthy functioning while others less so. Here, we explored these possibilities by reviewing research that links schizotypy to favorable functioning such as subjective wellbeing, cognitive functioning (major focus on creativity), and personality correlates. This research highlights the existence of healthy people with psychotic-like traits who mainly experience positive schizotypy (but also affective features mapping onto bipolar disorder). These individuals seem to benefit from a healthy way to organize their thoughts and experiences, that is, they employ an adaptive cognitive framework to explain and integrate their unusual experiences. We conclude that, instead of focusing only on the pathological, future studies should explore the behavioral, genetic, imaging, and psychopharmacological correlates that define the healthy expression of psychotic-like traits. Such studies would inform on protective or compensatory mechanisms of psychosis-risk and could usefully inform us on the evolutionary advantages of the psychosis dimension. PMID:25810058

  9. Round Table of Bankers, Economists and Financiers on Literacy; Final Report (Rome, Italy, February 11-13, 1969).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    A report on the Round Table of Bankers, Economists and Financiers on Literacy contains a brief summary of discussion, the eleven recommendations of the Round Table, and the opening address given by Mr. Rene Maheu, Director-General of Unesco. The consensus of the participants' opinions was that literacy is essential to development, that functional…

  10. Differential contributions of worry, anxiety, and obsessive compulsive symptoms to ERN amplitudes in response monitoring and reinforcement learning tasks.

    PubMed

    Zambrano-Vazquez, Laura; Allen, John J B

    2014-08-01

    Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is characterized by intrusive thoughts (i.e. obsessions) and future-oriented worrisome cognitions that are associated with behavioral ritualistic compensations (i.e. compulsions) and anxious arousal. Research has found an enhanced error-related negativity (ERN) among those with OCD in choice response tasks such as the flankers task, but not in probabilistic learning tasks. To date, research has not directly investigated whether the ERN effect observed in individuals with OCD is specific to the central features of OCD (obsessions and compulsions), or is related more closely to the worry or anxiety observed in this disorder. This study compared groups with relatively pure symptom profiles on OC, worry, and anxiety symptoms (e.g. high on OC, low on worry and anxiety) relative to a "typical" OC presentation group (e.g. high OC, mild to high worry and anxiety) and a non-anxious non-worry Control group, in both flankers and probabilistic learning tasks. For the flankers task, only the Worry group had a significantly enhanced ERN relative to controls. For the probabilistic learning task, the OC typical group had significantly enhanced ERN amplitude on suboptimal choices relative to controls. Across tasks, the experimental groups had significantly enhanced activity on error/suboptimal choices relative to the OC specific group. The results highlight the role of worry across both tasks, and to a lesser extent anxiety and OC symptoms, in performance-monitoring processes. PMID:24971709

  11. Interest in information as a function of worry and perceived control in the aftermath of nuclear disaster.

    PubMed

    Prince-Embury, S; Rooney, J F

    1987-01-01

    A survey of residents in the vicinity of the Three Mile Island nuclear generating facility four years after the accident examined level of interest in cancer detection and treatment, radiation monitoring, and epidemiology of cancer as a function of degree of ongoing worry, perceived control and demographic variables. Interest in information was found to be related to worry for all three topics, indicating that residents who had higher degrees of worry were more interested in seeking information than avoiding it. Control expectancy was related to interest in information about epidemiological distribution of cancer. Implications for the dissemination of information in the aftermath of a disaster are discussed. PMID:20841181

  12. Sleep Paralysis Among Egyptian College Students: Association With Anxiety Symptoms (PTSD, Trait Anxiety, Pathological Worry).

    PubMed

    Jalal, Baland; Hinton, Devon E

    2015-11-01

    Among Egyptian college students in Cairo (n = 100), this study examined the relationship between sleep paralysis (SP) and anxiety symptoms, viz., posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), trait anxiety, and pathological worry. SP rates were high; 43% of participants reported at least one lifetime episode of SP, and 24% of those who reported at least one lifetime episode had experienced four or more episodes during the previous year. Fourteen percent of men had experienced SP as compared to 86% of women. As hypothesized, relative to non-SP experiencers, participants who had SP reported higher symptoms of PTSD, trait anxiety, and pathological worry. Also, as hypothesized, the experiencing of hypnogogic/hypnopompic hallucinations during SP, even after controlling for negative affect, was highly correlated with symptoms of PTSD and trait anxiety. The study also investigated possible mechanisms by examining the relationship of hallucinations to anxiety variables. PMID:26488914

  13. Worry is reasonable: the role of explanations in pessimism about future personal events.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, A K; Williams, J M; Bekerian, D A

    1991-11-01

    This experiment examines one component of worry, elevated subjective probabilities of negative events, and attempts to elucidate the cognitive processes on which this is based. The results suggest that the pessimistic subjective probabilities shown by chronic worriers can be understood using general theories of judgment, specifically, by the use of the availability heuristic (Tversky & Kahneman, 1973). However, it is the availability of a particular pattern of cognitions--an increased accessibility of explanations for why a negative event would occur, combined with a reduced accessibility of explanations for why it would not--that is important. The results are integrated within a description of the worry process, and possible clinical applications through the use of reason-generation techniques are discussed. PMID:1757661

  14. Trait susceptibility to worry modulates the effects of cognitive load on cognitive control: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Owens, Max; Derakshan, Nazanin; Richards, Anne

    2015-10-01

    According to the predictions of attentional control theory (ACT) of anxiety (Eysenck, Derakshan, Santos, & Calvo, 2007), worry is a central feature of anxiety that interferes with the ability to inhibit distracting information necessary for successful task performance. However, it is unclear how such cognitive control deficits are modulated by task demands and by the emotionality of the distractors. A sample of 31 participants (25 female) completed a novel flanker task with emotional and neutral distractors under low- and high-cognitive-load conditions. The negative-going N2 event-related potential was measured to index participants' level of top-down resource allocation in the inhibition of distractors under high- and low-load conditions. Results showed N2 amplitudes were larger under high- compared with low-load conditions. In addition, under high but not low load, trait worry was associated with greater N2 amplitudes. Our findings support ACT predictions that trait worry adversely affects goal-directed behavior, and is associated with greater recruitment of cognitive resources to inhibit the impact of distracting information under conditions in which cognitive resources are taxed. PMID:25775232

  15. Worrying about wasting GP time as a barrier to help-seeking: a community-based, qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Cromme, Susanne K; Whitaker, Katriina L; Winstanley, Kelly; Renzi, Cristina; Smith, Claire Friedemann; Wardle, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Background Worrying about wasting GP time is frequently cited as a barrier to help-seeking for cancer symptoms. Aim To explore the circumstances under which individuals feel that they are wasting GP time. Design and setting Community-based, qualitative interview studies that took place in London, the South East and the North West of England. Method Interviewees (n = 62) were recruited from a sample (n = 2042) of adults aged ≥50 years, who completed a ‘health survey’ that included a list of cancer ‘alarm’ symptoms. Individuals who reported symptoms at baseline that were still present at the 3-month follow-up (n = 271), and who had also consented to be contacted (n = 215), constituted the pool of people invited for interview. Analyses focused on accounts of worrying about wasting GP time. Results Participants were worried about wasting GP time when time constraints were visible, while dismissive interactions with their GP induced a worry of unnecessary help-seeking. Many felt that symptoms that were not persistent, worsening, or life-threatening did not warrant GP attention. Additionally, patients considered it time-wasting when they perceived attention from nurses or pharmacists to be sufficient, or when appointment structures (for example, ‘one issue per visit’) were not adhered to. Close relationships with GPs eased worries about time-wasting, while some patients saw GPs as fulfilling a service financed by taxpayers. Conclusion Worrying about wasting GP time is a complex barrier to help-seeking. GP time and resource scarcity, symptom gravity, appointment etiquette, and previous GP interactions contribute to increasing worries. Friendly GP relationships, economic reasoning, and a focus on the GP’s responsibilities as a medical professional reduce this worry. PMID:27215569

  16. Cancer Worry, Perceived Risk and Cancer Screening in First-Degree Relatives of Patients with Familial Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Jenny; Hart, Tae L; Aronson, Melyssa; Crangle, Cassandra; Govindarajan, Anand

    2016-06-01

    Currently, there is a lack of evidence evaluating the psychological impact of cancer-related risk perception and worry in individuals at high risk for gastric cancer. We examined the relationships between perceived risk, cancer worry and screening behaviors among first-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with familial gastric cancer. FDRs of patients diagnosed with familial gastric cancer with a non-informative genetic analysis were identified and contacted. Participants completed a telephone interview that assessed socio-demographic information, cancer risk perception, cancer worry, impact of worry on daily functioning, and screening behaviors. Twenty-five FDRs completed the telephone interview. Participants reported high levels of comparative and absolute cancer risk perception, with an average perceived lifetime risk of 54 %. On the other hand, cancer-related worry scores were low, with a significant minority (12 %) experiencing high levels of worry. Study participants exhibited high levels of confidence (median = 70 %) in the effectiveness of screening at detecting a curable cancer. Participants that had undergone screening in the past showed significantly lower levels of cancer-related worry compared to those that had never undergone screening. In conclusion, individuals at high-risk for gastric cancer perceived a very high personal risk of cancer, but reported low levels of cancer worry. This paradoxical result may be attributed to participants' high levels of confidence in the effectiveness of screening. These findings highlight the importance for clinicians to discuss realistic risk appraisals and expectations towards screening with unaffected members of families at risk for gastric cancer, in an effort to help mitigate anxiety and help with coping. PMID:26493173

  17. Work-related psychosocial factors, worry about work conditions and health complaints among female and male ambulance personnel.

    PubMed

    Aasa, Ulrika; Brulin, Christine; Angquist, Karl-Axel; Barnekow-Bergkvist, Margareta

    2005-09-01

    This study aimed at investigating the relationships between work-related psychosocial factors, worry about work conditions and health complaints (sleeping problems, headache and stomach symptoms) among female and male ambulance personnel. Out of 4000 ambulance personnel in Sweden, 1500 (300 female and 1200 male personnel) were randomly selected. They answered a questionnaire including items on self-reported health complaints, individual characteristics, work-related psychological demands, decision latitude, social support and worry about work conditions. Twenty-five per cent of the female and 20% of the male ambulance personnel reported two or more health complaints sometimes or often. According to the demand-control-support questionnaire, ambulance personnel reported a generally positive psychosocial work environment, although psychological demands were associated with sleeping problems, headache and stomach symptoms among both female and male ambulance personnel. Another factor that was significantly associated with health complaints among both genders was worry about work conditions. When worry about work conditions was added to the regression models, this variable took over the role from psychological demands as a predictor for health complaints among the female ambulance personnel. The prevalence of sleeping problems, headache and stomach symptoms were significantly associated with psychological demands among both female and male ambulance personnel. Notably, worry about work conditions seems to be an important risk factor for health complaints. This suggests that worry about work conditions should not be neglected when considering risk factors among ambulance personnel. PMID:16101853

  18. Climate of fear: Why we shouldn`t worry about global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, T.G.

    1998-04-01

    Most climate experts agree that industrial emissions of carbon dioxide either already have led or will soon lead to an increase in global temperatures. While many consider that reason enough to undertake dramatic political action, economist Thomas Gale Moore asks, `So what.` Both historical and economic analysis suggests, he argues, that a warmer climate would be, on balance, beneficial to both mankind and the environment. The book calls into question the entire campaign led by Vice President Al Gore and others to ratify the proposed treaty on global warming scheduled to be debated in the U.S. Senate early in 1998.

  19. Hidden Worries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reclaiming Children and Youth, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Sometimes children are stressed about seemingly small events that escalate into problem behavior. In this article, an insightful teacher discusses restoration of emotional balance by mobilizing positive support from both school and family using A Response Ability Pathways (RAP) intervention. The RAP techniques and how they can be used are…

  20. Fraud worries insurance companies but should concern physicians too, industry says

    PubMed Central

    Baer, N

    1997-01-01

    The amount of insurance fraud is increasing in Canada. This should worry physicians, because all personal-injury claims must be substantiated by a medical certificate. The vast majority of physicians are honest and ethical, fraud investigators say, but some are being duped as patients scheme to cheat the insurance industry. In one sensational auto-insurance-fraud case, some Ontario physicians are being investigated about possible involvement in a self-referral scheme. Nicole Baer looks at insurance fraud and the challenges it poses for doctors. PMID:9012734

  1. Unraveling the anxious mind: anxiety, worry, and frontal engagement in sustained attention versus off-task processing.

    PubMed

    Forster, Sophie; Nunez Elizalde, Anwar O; Castle, Elizabeth; Bishop, Sonia J

    2015-03-01

    Much remains unknown regarding the relationship between anxiety, worry, sustained attention, and frontal function. Here, we addressed this using a sustained attention task adapted for functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants responded to presentation of simple stimuli, withholding responses to an infrequent "No Go" stimulus. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activity to "Go" trials, and dorsal anterior cingulate (dACC) activity to "No Go" trials were associated with faster error-free performance; consistent with DLPFC and dACC facilitating proactive and reactive control, respectively. Trait anxiety was linked to reduced recruitment of these regions, slower error-free performance, and decreased frontal-thalamo-striatal connectivity. This indicates an association between trait anxiety and impoverished frontal control of attention, even when external distractors are absent. In task blocks where commission errors were made, greater DLPFC-precuneus and DLPFC-posterior cingulate connectivity were associated with both trait anxiety and worry, indicative of increased off-task thought. Notably, unlike trait anxiety, worry was not linked to reduced frontal-striatal-thalamo connectivity, impoverished frontal recruitment, or slowed responding during blocks without commission errors, contrary to accounts proposing a direct causal link between worry and impoverished attentional control. This leads us to propose a new model of the relationship between anxiety, worry and frontal engagement in attentional control versus off-task thought. PMID:24062316

  2. Transport priorities, risk perception and worry associated with mode use and preferences among Norwegian commuters.

    PubMed

    Nordfjærn, Trond; Simşekoğlu, Özlem; Lind, Hans Brende; Jørgensen, Stig Halvard; Rundmo, Torbjørn

    2014-11-01

    There is currently scant research on the role of transport priorities, risk perception and worry for travel mode use and preferences. The present study aims to examine these factors in relation to mode use and preferences among Norwegian commuters. A web-based survey was conducted in a randomly obtained representative sample of daily commuters in the extended greater Oslo area (n=690). The results showed that those who prioritized efficiency and flexibility tended to commute by car, while those who prioritized safety and comfort used public (e.g. metro, tram, and train) or active (e.g. walking and cycling) transport. In a free choice scenario, the respondents who prioritized flexibility reported a preference for using a car, whereas those who prioritized safety and comfort preferred public and active transport for their commuter travels. Risk perception of high impact events, such as terrorism and major accidents, as well as risk perception related to personal impact risks (theft, violence etc.) were related to car use on commuter travels. Transport-related worry exerted weak influences on mode use and preferences. Increased speed on rail transport and more frequent departures may be effective in reducing car use on commuter travels. Risk communication should focus on highlighting the low risk of experiencing security and safety issues in the public transport sector, and this message should be complemented by efforts to reduce the probability of negative events affecting public transport. PMID:25129446

  3. Somali immigrant women and the American health care system: discordant beliefs, divergent expectations, and silent worries.

    PubMed

    Pavlish, Carol Lynn; Noor, Sahra; Brandt, Joan

    2010-07-01

    The civil war in Somalia resulted in massive resettlement of Somali refugees. The largest diaspora of Somali refugees in the United States currently reside in Minnesota. Partnering with three community organizations in 2007-8, we implemented the Community Connections and Collaboration Project to address health disparities that Somali refugees experienced. Specifically, we examined factors that influenced Somali women's health experiences. Utilizing a socio-ecological perspective and a social action research design, we conducted six community-based focus groups with 57 Somali women and interviewed 11 key informants including Somali healthcare professionals. Inductively coding, sorting and reducing data into categories, we analyzed each category for specific patterns. The categorical findings on healthcare experiences are reported here. We found that Somali women's health beliefs related closely to situational factors and contrasted sharply with the biological model that drives Western medicine. These discordant health beliefs resulted in divergent expectations regarding treatment and healthcare interactions. Experiencing unmet expectations, Somali women and their healthcare providers reported multiple frustrations which often diminished perceived quality of health care. Moreover, silent worries about mental health and reproductive decision making surfaced. To provide high quality, transcultural health care, providers must encourage patients to voice their own health explanations, expectations, and worries. PMID:20494500

  4. Teachers' use of fear appeals in the mathematics classroom: worrying or motivating students?

    PubMed

    Putwain, David W; Symes, Wendy

    2011-09-01

    AIM. This study examined whether teachers' use of fear appeals in the classroom, attempts to motivate students to perform well in high-stakes examinations by highlighting the educational, and/or occupational consequences of failure did indeed motivate students or whether it contributed to an increase in worry, anxiety, and fear of failure. SAMPLE. A total of 132 secondary school students. METHOD. Self-report data were collected for teachers' use of fear appeals, test anxiety, and achievement goals in the context of Mathematics at the end of Years 10 and 11, the final 2 years of compulsory schooling. RESULTS. The frequency with which teachers were reported to make fear appeals was unrelated to future test anxiety and achievement goals. When fear appeals were perceived to be threatening, however, they were related to an increase in the worry and tension components of test anxiety and increases in performance-avoidance and mastery-approach goals. CONCLUSION. Fear appeals appear to have competing positive and negative outcomes, resulting in both anxiety and a fear of failure, and a mastery-approach goal. PMID:21199486

  5. "Don't worry, be happy"--may be a first line therapy in cardiovascular diseases?

    PubMed

    Bălan, H; Popescu, Livia

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases represent the most frequent type of pathology nowadays. One can consider that their high prevalence is generated by an unhealthy living style, by the increasing prevalence of all kind of metabolic abnormalities, by smoking and other bad habits, but we must not forget the role of stress. The present paper highlights the fact that a pathophysiological link between stress, adverse affect and poor quality of sleep and cardiovascular diseases is represented by the sympathetic overdrive. As opposite, positive affect can offer a significant protection against pro-atherogenic effects that are generating a significant increase of the prevalence and severity of cardiovascular diseases. Finally, the present paper underlines the deleterious cardiovascular effects of antidepressive and antipsychotic drugs, so that the final conclusion is: "Don't worry, be happy" and have positive thoughts for a healthier future. PMID:24294809

  6. The m-z relation for Type Ia supernovae: safety in numbers or safely without worry?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helbig, Phillip

    2015-11-01

    The m-z relation for Type Ia supernovae is compatible with the cosmological concordance model if one assumes that the Universe is homogeneous, at least with respect to light propagation. This could be due to the density along each line of sight being equal to the overall cosmological density, or to `safety in numbers', with variation in the density along all lines of sight averaging out if the sample is large enough. Statistical correlations (or lack thereof) between redshifts, residuals (differences between the observed distance moduli and those calculated from the best-fitting cosmological model), and observational uncertainties suggest that the former scenario is the better description, so that one can use the traditional formula for the luminosity distance safely without worry.

  7. Effects of cost sharing on physiological health, health practices, and worry.

    PubMed Central

    Keeler, E B; Sloss, E M; Brook, R H; Operskalski, B H; Goldberg, G A; Newhouse, J P

    1987-01-01

    In a randomized trial of the effects of medical insurance on spending and the health status of the nonaged, we previously reported that patients with limited cost sharing had approximately one-third less use of medical services, similar general self-assessed health, and worse blood pressure, functional far vision, and dental health than those with free care. Of the 20 additional measures of physiological health studied here on 3,565 adults, people with cost sharing scored better on 12 measures and significantly worse only for functional near vision. People with cost sharing had less worry and pain from physiological conditions on 33 of 44 comparisons. There were no significant differences between plans in nine health practices, but those with cost sharing fared worse on three types of cancer screening and better on weight, exercise, and drinking. Overall, except for patients with hypertension or vision problems, the effects of cost sharing on health were minor. PMID:3119520

  8. Worrying about the wrong thing: patient mobility versus mobility of health care professionals.

    PubMed

    Glinos, Irene

    2012-10-01

    Patients and health care professionals in the European Union (EU) benefit from legislation on the freedom of movement between Member States. In relative terms, many more doctors and nurses move within the EU than patients. Despite this, patient mobility has attracted more attention from policy-makers and the public while workforce mobility remains largely ignored. This is paradoxical and imprudent. On the one hand, the scope of patient mobility is narrow and self-limited. On the other hand, current and forecasted health care workforce shortages across the EU, global competition for health care professionals, and current economic pressures are all good reasons to start worrying about the mobility of health care professionals and its implications for health systems. PMID:22914545

  9. Youth Supervision While Mothers Work: A Daily Diary Study of Maternal Worry

    PubMed Central

    Blocklin, Michelle K.; Crouter, Ann C.; McHale, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Using data from a daily diary study of hourly hotel employees in the U.S. and their children, this study examined links between youth supervision arrangements and maternal worry while at work, examining both differences between individuals and day-to-day variation within individuals. Multilevel model analyses revealed both between- and within-person effects linking youth supervision to maternal worry. Mothers' partner status functioned as moderator, and maternal knowledge also emerged as a protective factor when youth were in self-care, highlighting a potential target for future work-family interventions, particularly those for hourly employees with limited access to family-friendly workplace policies. En utilisant les données d'une étude de journal quotidien des employés horaires de l'hôtel aux États-Unis et leurs enfants, cette étude a examiné les liens entre les modalités de supervision des jeunes et l'inquiétude maternelle pendant le travail, en examinant à la fois les différences inter individus et la variation intra individus au jour le jour. Analyses multi-niveaux ont révélé à la fois des effets inter et intra reliant la supervision des jeunes à l'inquiétude maternelle. Statut de partenaire des mères a fonctionné en tant que modérateur, et la connaissance maternelle est également apparue comme un facteur de protection lorsque les jeunes ont pris soins d'eux-mêmes, soulignant une cible potentielle pour des interventions de conciliation travail-famille, en particulier ceux conçus pour des employés horaires avec un accès limité à des politiques favorables à la famille. PMID:23109814

  10. Smoking-Specific Experiential Avoidance is Indirectly Associated with Trait Worry and Smoking Processes among Treatment-Seeking Smokers.

    PubMed

    Farris, Samantha G; Zvolensky, Michael J; Norton, Peter J; Hogan, Julianna; Smith, Angela H; Talkovsky, Alexander M; Garey, Lorra; Schmidt, Norman B

    2016-01-01

    Limited work has examined worry, or apprehensive anticipation about future negative events, in terms of smoking. One potential explanatory factor is the tendency to respond inflexibly and with avoidance in the presence of smoking-related distress (smoking-specific experiential avoidance). Participants (n = 465) were treatment-seeking daily smokers. Cross-sectional (pre-treatment) self-report data were utilized to assess trait worry, smoking-specific experiential avoidance, and four smoking criterion variables: nicotine dependence, motivational aspects of quitting, perceived barriers to smoking cessation, and severity of problematic symptoms reported in past quit attempts. Trait worry was significantly associated with greater levels of nicotine dependence, motivation to quit smoking, perceived barriers for smoking cessation, and more severe problems while quitting in the past; associations occurred indirectly through higher levels of smoking-specific experiential avoidance. Findings provide initial support for the potential role of smoking-specific experiential avoidance in explaining the association between trait worry and a variety of smoking processes. PMID:25398072

  11. Physician trust moderates the relationship between intolerance of uncertainty and cancer worry interference among women with Lynch syndrome.

    PubMed

    Torbit, Lindsey A; Albiani, Jenna J; Aronson, Melyssa; Holter, Spring; Semotiuk, Kara; Cohen, Zane; Hart, Tae L

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the extent to which intolerance of uncertainty was associated with cancer worry interference, anxiety and depression among women with Lynch syndrome (LS), and whether having greater trust in one's physician moderated those relationships. Women with confirmed LS (N = 128) were recruited from a high-risk of cancer registry and completed a one-time self-report questionnaire. Women who reported greater intolerance of uncertainty and more trust in their physician reported less cancer worry interference compared to women who had greater intolerance of uncertainty and less trust in their physician, who reported the highest worry interference, b = -1.39, t(99) = -2.27, p = .03. No moderation effect of trust in physician was found for anxiety or depression. Trust in one's physician buffered the impact of high intolerance of uncertainty on cancer worry interference, underscoring the need for supportive provider-patient relationships, particularly for LS patients. PMID:26762124

  12. A Social Relations Analysis of Liking for and by Peers: Associations with Gender, Depression, Peer Perception, and Worry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.; Waters, Allison M.; Kindermann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We used social relations modeling (SRM; mixed modeling and SOREMO) to examine liking among peers ("affective preferences") in relation to gender and socioemotional problems. Participants (N = 278, age 10 to 13) rated how much they liked each other and reported depressive symptoms, negative beliefs, and social worries. Boys and girls were equally…

  13. Early Adolescent Attachment to Parents, Emotional Problems, and Teacher-Academic Worries about the Middle School Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duchesne, Stephane; Ratelle, Catherine F.; Poitras, Sarah-Caroline; Drouin, Evelyne

    2009-01-01

    This study examines how attachment to mother and father predicts worries about academic demands and relationships with teachers generated by the transition from elementary to middle school through its contribution to adolescents' emotional problems (depression and anxiety). The study sample includes 626 young adolescents (289 boys and 337 girls)…

  14. Relations among Perceived Control over Anxiety-Related Events, Worry, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder in a Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frala, Jamie L.; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W.; Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Barreto, Carolina C.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations among perceived control over anxiety-related events, worry, and both symptoms and diagnoses of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). The sample was comprised of 140 adolescents (60 girls) between the ages of 10 and 17 years (M[subscript age] = 14.6 years; SD = 2.25) recruited from the general community. Findings…

  15. Anxiety and Depression in Academic Performance: An Exploration of the Mediating Factors of Worry and Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Matthew; Stevenson, Jim; Hadwin, Julie A.; Norgate, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety and depression are linked to lower academic performance. It is proposed that academic performance is reduced in young people with high levels of anxiety or depression as a function of increased test-specific worry that impinges on working memory central executive processes. Participants were typically developing children (12 to…

  16. Do You Know How I Feel? Parents Underestimate Worry and Overestimate Optimism Compared to Child Self-Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagattuta, Kristin Hansen; Sayfan, Liat; Bamford, Christi

    2012-01-01

    Three studies assessed parent-child agreement in perceptions of children's everyday emotions in typically developing 4- to 11-year-old children. Study 1 (N = 228) and Study 2 (N = 195) focused on children's worry and anxiety. Study 3 (N = 90) examined children's optimism. Despite child and parent reporters providing internally consistent…

  17. What keeps low-SES children from sleeping well: the role of presleep worries and sleep environment

    PubMed Central

    Bagley, Erika J.; Kelly, Ryan J.; Buckhalt, Joseph A.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Children in families of low socioeconomic status (SES) have been found to have poor sleep, yet the reasons for this finding are unclear. Two possible mediators, presleep worries and home environment conditions, were investigated as indirect pathways between SES and children’s sleep. Participants/Methods The participants consisted of 271 children (M (age) = 11.33 years; standard deviation (SD) = 7.74 months) from families varying in SES as indexed by the income-to-needs ratio. Sleep was assessed with actigraphy (sleep minutes, night waking duration, and variability in sleep schedule) and child self-reported sleep/wake problems (e.g., oversleeping and trouble falling asleep) and sleepiness (e.g., sleeping in class and falling asleep while doing homework). Presleep worries and home environment conditions were assessed with questionnaires. Results Lower SES was associated with more subjective sleep/wake problems and daytime sleepiness, and increased exposure to disruptive sleep conditions and greater presleep worries were mediators of these associations. In addition, environmental conditions served as an intervening variable linking SES to variability in an actigraphy-derived sleep schedule, and, similarly, presleep worry was an intervening variable linking SES to actigraphy-based night waking duration. Across sleep parameters, the model explained 5–29% of variance. Conclusions Sleep environment and psychological factors are associated with socioeconomic disparities, which affect children’s sleep. PMID:25701537

  18. Psychometric properties of a brief version of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire in African Americans and European Americans.

    PubMed

    DeLapp, Ryan C T; Chapman, L Kevin; Williams, Monnica T

    2016-05-01

    The reliable and valid assessment of chronic worry in African Americans is vital when attempting to draw cross-cultural comparisons between African Americans and other ethnic groups. As such, the current study examined the psychometric properties of a brief version of a gold standard assessment of chronic worry, specifically the Penn State Worry Questionnaire-Abbreviated (PSWQ-A; Hopko et al., 2003) in a college sample of African Americans (n = 100) and European Americans (n = 121). Results indicated that the PSWQ-A total score has good internal consistency and convergent validity with another measure of anxiety, but less than favorable discriminant validity with a measure of depression in African American and European American students. Also, the 1-factor solution for the 8-item PSWQ-A had excellent model fit in our full sample and was partially invariant between ethnic groups. Collectively, the present study provides evidence that the PSWQ-A is a psychometrically sound option for assessing chronic worry and suggests that this brief measure may enhance the time efficiency and clinical utility of research and clinical assessments in ethnically diverse samples. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26375429

  19. Effects of Population Change on Family Life and the Child: Implications for Home Economics Programs in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okobiah, Omamurhomu Solomon

    1981-01-01

    Outlines some of the population-related factors and effects upon the family and child. Because of their vested interests and wealth of experience in family life, home economists are challenged to take the lead in planning and providing curriculum materials, and to promote population education in the schools. (Author)

  20. Prospects for Rural America as the Nation Matures: An Agricultural Economist's Prognosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breimyer, Harold F.

    1990-01-01

    Examines socioeconomic forces affecting U.S. rural population. Describes signs of nation's maturity, changing national issues, and elements of rural diversity and social stratification. Discusses role of transportation, demise of animal agriculture, industrial and economic changes. Emphasizes conjectural nature of conclusions about society's…

  1. Rural America's Stake in the Digital Economy. The Main Street Economist: Commentary on the Rural Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staihr, Brian

    This first article in a series on telecommunications in rural America provides an overview of several key telecommunication issues facing rural regions. High speed data services known as broadband have the potential to make rural areas less isolated and improve the rural quality of life, but physical barriers, sparse population density, and few…

  2. The Broadband Quandary for Rural America. The Main Street Economist: Commentary on the Rural Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staihr, Brian

    High speed data services known as broadband have the potential to make rural areas less isolated and improve the rural quality of life, but physical barriers, sparse population density, and few markets present significant obstacles to their deployment in rural areas. Broadband applications such as e-commerce, distance education, and telemedicine…

  3. Superior perception of phasic physiological arousal and the detrimental consequences of the conviction to be aroused on worrying and metacognitions in GAD.

    PubMed

    Andor, Tanja; Gerlach, Alexander L; Rist, Fred

    2008-02-01

    Although people suffering from generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) often report arousal symptoms, psychophysiological studies show no evidence of autonomic hyperarousal. Hypersensitivity toward and catastrophic interpretation of phasic arousal cues may explain this discrepancy. The authors tested (a) whether GAD sufferers perceive nonspecific skin conductance fluctuations (NSCFs), an indicator of phasic autonomic arousal, better than controls do and (b) whether the conviction to be aroused contributes to the maintenance of worrying and metacognitive beliefs about worrying. Thirty-three GAD sufferers and 34 healthy controls participated in 2 experiments. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to detect their own NSCFs during a signal detection task. GAD sufferers accurately detected more of their NSCFs than did controls, who tended to miss NSCFs. In Experiment 2, participants were instructed to relax following worry induction. While relaxing, they received nonveridical feedback indicating either arousal or relaxation. Arousal feedback conserved negative metacognitive beliefs regarding worrying and also maintained negative mood and worry exclusively in GAD participants. These findings suggest that superior perception of phasic arousal cues and their catastrophic misinterpretation increases worrying, negative metacognitive beliefs about worrying, and anxious mood in GAD. PMID:18266497

  4. Participatory monitoring of water levels with worrying citizens in a recreational area in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottow, Bouke; Ellen, Gerald Jan

    2013-04-01

    In the recreational area of Loosdrecht, the water board decided to apply flexible water level management: letting the water level be determined by rainfall and evatranspiration between predefined limits. This caused the citizens to worry for the wooden foundations of their houses and possible limitations of the possibilities for water recreation. This eventually lead to lawsuits by private citizens, interest groups and the municipality against the water manager. In this tense situation we started with participatory monitoring: placing water level instruments at the properties of those citizens that wanted to participate in the measuring. 15 citizens participated, including the ones that filed the lawsuits. At all of these sites the water level was gauged automatically. 8 of the citizens also measured the water level by hand with devices supplied to them by the water manager. During 1 year, all the measurements were collected and processed and discussed with the citizens in 2 meetings. At the end of this year, the the citizens expressed the growth of their understanding of the hydrological situation, the understanding of the different points of view and their trust in eachother.

  5. The association of ownership type with job insecurity and worry about job stability: the moderating effects of fair management, positive leadership, and employment type.

    PubMed

    Heponiemi, Tarja; Elovainio, Marko; Kouvonen, Anne; Noro, Anja; Finne-Soveri, Harriet; Sinervo, Timo

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether the ownership type is associated with job insecurity and worry about job stability and whether the type of employment contract, positive leadership, and fair management moderated these associations. Survey data from 1249 Finnish female elderly care staff aged 18 to 69 years were used. Job insecurity and worry about job stability were highest in not-for-profit sheltered homes. However, positive leadership and fair management were able to mitigate this insecurity and worry. Job insecurity was highest among fixed-term employees in public sheltered homes or not-for-profit nursing homes. Thus, promoting good leadership and fair management would be of importance. PMID:22293609

  6. Worry and Generalized Anxiety Disorder: A Review and Theoretical Synthesis of Evidence on Nature, Etiology, Mechanisms, and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Michelle G.; Llera, Sandra J.; Erickson, Thane M.; Przeworski, Amy; Castonguay, Louis G.

    2016-01-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is associated with substantial personal and societal cost yet is the least successfully treated of the anxiety disorders. In this review, research on clinical features, boundary issues, and naturalistic course, as well as risk factors and maintaining mechanisms (cognitive, biological, neural, interpersonal, and developmental), are presented. A synthesis of these data points to a central role of emotional hyperreactivity, sensitivity to contrasting emotions, and dysfunctional attempts to cope with strong emotional shifts via worry. Consistent with the Contrast Avoidance model, evidence shows that worry evokes and sustains negative affect, thereby precluding sharp increases in negative emotion. We also review current treatment paradigms and suggest how the Contrast Avoidance model may help to target key fears and avoidance tendencies that serve to maintain pathology in GAD. PMID:23537486

  7. The Influence of Absolute and Comparative Risk Perceptions on Cervical Cancer Screening and the Mediating Role of Cancer Worry.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xinyan; Nan, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates the interrelationships between cancer risk perceptions (absolute and comparative risk perceptions), cancer worry, and cervical cancer screening. Using a nationally representative survey data set (N = 2,304) from the 2012 Health Information National Trends Survey Circle 1, we found that although neither absolute risk perceptions nor comparative risk perceptions exerted a direct impact on women's compliance with the cervical cancer screening recommendation (i.e., that women ages 21 to 65 obtain Pap smear every 3 years; U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, 2012 ), both types of risk perceptions had an indirect effect on cervical cancer screening through the mediation of cancer worry. These results suggest a primal role of affect in health decision making. Implications of the findings for cancer risk communication are discussed. PMID:26312444

  8. Relationship between Beliefs, Motivation and Worries about Physical Activity and Physical Activity Participation in Persons with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Ehrlich-Jones, Linda; Lee, Jungwha; Semanik, Pamela; Cox, Cheryl; Dunlop, Dorothy; Chang, Rowland W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship between beliefs, motivation, and worries about physical activity and physical activity participation in persons with rheumatoid arthritis. Methods A cross-sectional study used baseline data from 185 adults with rheumatoid arthritis enrolled in a randomized clinical trial assessing the effectiveness of an intervention to promote physical activity. Data included patients’ self-reported beliefs that physical activity can be beneficial for their disease, motivation for physical activity participation, worries about physical activity participation, and average daily accelerometer counts of activity over a week’s time. Body mass index, gender, age, race, and disease activity were measured as potential statistical moderators of physical activity. Results Physical activity participation was greater for those with higher scores on scales measuring beliefs that physical activity is beneficial for their disease (p for trend= 0.032) and motivation for physical activity participation (p for trend= 0.007) when adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, race, and disease activity. There was a positive but non-significant trend in physical activity participation in relation to worries. Conclusion Stronger beliefs that physical activity can be helpful for managing disease and increased motivation to engage in physical activity are related to higher levels of physical activity participation. These data provide a preliminary empiric rationale for why interventions targeting these concepts should lead to improved physical activity participation in adults with rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:21905252

  9. The interaction of affective with psychotic processes: a test of the effects of worrying on working memory, jumping to conclusions, and anomalies of experience in patients with persecutory delusions.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Daniel; Startup, Helen; Dunn, Graham; Černis, Emma; Wingham, Gail; Pugh, Katherine; Cordwell, Jacinta; Kingdon, David

    2013-12-01

    Worry has traditionally been considered in the study of common emotional disorders such as anxiety and depression, but recent studies indicate that worry may be a causal factor in the occurrence and persistence of persecutory delusions. The effect of worry on processes traditionally associated with psychosis has not been tested. The aim of the study was to examine the short-term effects of a bout of worry on three cognitive processes typically considered markers of psychosis: working memory, jumping to conclusions, and anomalous internal experience. Sixty-seven patients with persecutory delusions in the context of a non-affective psychotic disorder were randomised to a worry induction, a worry reduction, or a neutral control condition. They completed tests of the cognitive processes before and after the randomisation condition. The worry induction procedure led to a significant increase in worry. The induction of worry did not affect working memory or jumping to conclusions, but it did increase a range of mild anomalous experiences including feelings of unreality, perceptual alterations, and temporal disintegration. Worry did not affect the occurrence of hallucinations. The study shows that a period of worry causes a range of subtle odd perceptual disturbances that are known to increase the likelihood of delusions. It demonstrates an interaction between affective and psychotic processes in patients with delusions. PMID:23871449

  10. Interpretability of the PedsQL gastrointestinal symptoms scales and gastrointestinal worry scales in pediatric patients with functional and organic gastrointestinal diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study investigates the clinical interpretability of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventor (PedsQL) Gastrointestinal Symptoms Scales and Worry Scales in pediatric patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders or organic gastrointestinal diseases in comparison with healthy controls....

  11. Energy efficiency and the economists: The case for a policy based on economic principles

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.

    1995-11-01

    People interested in energy policy, whether in business, finance, government, or the environmental movement, should welcome and support an approach based on economic principles for three reasons. By solving the financing problem and encouraging innovation and cost-efficiency, the economic-efficiency approach will enable all countries to meet energy demands. By giving proper weight to the development and use of low-polluting technologies this approach will enable reduction of local and, over the long-term global pollution as energy demands grow. And in developing countries especially, an economic approach will enable the industry to play its part in raising living standards for the population at large. Given good policies, there is no reason at all why developing countries, like the industrial countries before them, should not enjoy the benefits of much higher levels of energy consumption than they do today.

  12. The effects of providing lung age and respiratory symptoms feedback on community college smokers' perceived smoking-related health risks, worries and desire to quit.

    PubMed

    Lipkus, Isaac M; Prokhorov, Alexander V

    2007-03-01

    This study examined the effects of providing lung age, as assessed via a lung function test (spirometry), and respiratory symptoms feedback on college smokers' perceived smoking-related risks, worries and desire to quit. We also investigated whether smokers reacted defensively to this feedback. One hundred and twenty-four smokers were randomized to either receive lung age and respiratory symptoms feedback (intervention group) or a brochure containing facts about smoking only (control group). Perceived risks, worries and desire to quit did not differ between groups. In both groups, worries, but not perceived risks, were correlated with a stronger desire to quit. With increasing lung age, smokers rated the feedback as less relevant and reported exerting less effort breathing in and out while undergoing spirometry. The latter two outcomes were associated with less worry. These findings suggest that lung age and respiratory symptoms feedback does not translate readily into appreciable changes in motivation to quit as well as do other often reported mediators of change (e.g., perceived risks and worries). PMID:16824688

  13. Exploring the relationship between worry and impulsivity in military recruits: the role of mindfulness and self-compassion as potential mediators.

    PubMed

    Mantzios, Michail

    2014-12-01

    When military recruits cannot tolerate the stressful environment in the military, they typically become more impulsive. Impulsivity serves to avoid the stress, or, in other words, to release the pressure and cope. Becoming more impulsive, however, is related to damaging behaviours and unsuccessful coping. This research explored the relationship between worry and impulsivity in armed forces, and the possibility of mindfulness and self-compassion mediating this relationship. Participants (n = 166), who were in the second week of their basic military training, completed questionnaires in mindfulness, self-compassion, worry and impulsivity. Results indicated that worry related positively to impulsivity. Further, the negative relationship of worry with mindfulness and self-compassion mediated the relationship between worry and impulsivity. Findings support the notion that lacking mindfulness and self-compassion, in excessive worriers, may lead to impulsivity. This research concluded that mindfulness and self-compassion may assist military personnel who are exposed to highly stressful environments. Alternative explanations and future directions are discussed. PMID:25476964

  14. Pathways involving traumatic losses, worry about family, adult separation anxiety and posttraumatic stress symptoms amongst refugees from West Papua.

    PubMed

    Tay, Alvin Kuowei; Rees, Susan; Chen, Jack; Kareth, Moses; Silove, Derrick

    2015-10-01

    There is some evidence that adult separation anxiety disorder (ASAD) symptoms are closely associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) amongst refugees exposed to traumatic events (TEs), but the pathways involved remain to be elucidated. A recent study suggests that separation anxiety disorder precedes and predicts onset of PTSD. We examined a path model testing whether ASAD symptoms and worry about family mediated the path from traumatic losses to PTSD symptoms amongst 230 refugees from West Papua. Culturally adapted measures were applied to assess TE exposure and symptoms of ASAD and PTSD. A structural equation model indicated that ASAD symptoms played an important role in mediating the effects of traumatic losses and worry about family in the pathway to PTSD symptoms. Although based on cross-sectional data, our findings suggest that ASAD symptoms may play a role in the path from traumatic losses to PTSD amongst refugees. We propose an evolutionary model in which the ASAD and PTSD reactions represent complementary survival responses designed to protect the individual and close attachments from external threats. PMID:26275507

  15. Sexual sensation-seeking and worry about sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Martínez, Olga; Bermúdez, María Paz; Teva, Inmaculada; Buela-Casal, Gualberto

    2007-11-01

    The target of this study is to assess the relationship between sexual sensation-seeking, worry about STD/HIV infection, and risky sexual behaviours among 182 adolescents aged 13-18 years. Results showed that participants who engaged in a wider range of potentially risky behaviours (e.g., sexual experience, higher number of sexual partners in last six months, and the last sexual contact with a casual partner) obtained higher sensation-seeking scores. It was also found that adolescents who engaged in sex with a casual partner in their last sexual contact reported being worried about STD/HIV infection, but adolescents having sex with a steady partner underestimated their risk of STD/HIV infection. These results support the idea that preventive programmes may benefit from including components aimed at teaching adolescents to satisfy their preferences for sexual sensation-seeking through novel and stimulating sexual behaviours involving minimum risk. Similarly, the need to include components aimed at making adolescents become realistically aware of the STD/HIV risk involved in unprotected intercourse with steady love partners is highlighted. PMID:17959123

  16. Terrorism-Related Fear and Avoidance Behavior in a Multiethnic Urban Population

    PubMed Central

    Glik, Deborah; Ong, Michael; Zhou, Qiong; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Long, Anna; Fielding, Jonathan; Asch, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine whether groups traditionally most vulnerable to disasters would be more likely than would be others to perceive population-level risk as high (as measured by the estimated color-coded alert level) would worry more about terrorism, and would avoid activities because of terrorism concerns. Methods. We conducted a random digit dial survey of the Los Angeles County population October 2004 through January 2005 in 6 languages. We asked respondents what color alert level the country was under, how often they worry about terrorist attacks, and how often they avoid activities because of terrorism. Multivariate regression modeled correlates of worry and avoidance, including mental illness, disability, demographic factors, and estimated color-coded alert level. Results. Persons who are mentally ill, those who are disabled, African Americans, Latinos, Chinese Americans, Korean Americans, and non-US citizens were more likely to perceive population-level risk as high, as measured by the estimated color-coded alert level. These groups also reported more worry and avoidance behaviors because of concerns about terrorism. Conclusions. Vulnerable populations experience a disproportionate burden of the psychosocial impact of terrorism threats and our national response. Further studies should investigate the specific behaviors affected and further elucidate disparities in the disaster burden associated with terrorism and terrorism policies. PMID:19008521

  17. Energy Efficient Economists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Judy; Lamp, Nancy

    This interdisciplinary economics project helped first and second graders learn how to conserve energy and save money. The project started because of an announcement by the elementary school principal that, if school utility bills could be lowered, the Board of Education would give the school half the money saved. Students were first introduced to…

  18. Strange bedfellows: A Russian prince, A Scottish Economist, and the role of empathy in early theories for the evolution of cooperation.

    PubMed

    Dugatkin, Lee Alan

    2013-11-01

    From 1888 to his death in 1921, Russian Prince Peter Kropotkin forced biologists to ask themselves whether natural selection inevitably led to a dog-eat-dog world, or whether pro-social behavior could also be a product of the evolutionary process. In this historical vignette, I focus on Kropotkin's theory of "mutual aid," with emphasis on the role that empathy played in that theory, and the unexpected source--economist Adam Smith's 1759 book, The Theory of Moral Sentiments--of Kropotkin's ideas on empathy in animals. PMID:23847042

  19. Ethnicity, Effort, Self-Efficacy, Worry, and Statistics Achievement in Malaysia: A Construct Validation of the State-Trait Motivation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awang-Hashim, Rosa; O'Neil, Harold F., Jr.; Hocevar, Dennis

    2002-01-01

    The relations between motivational constructs, effort, self-efficacy and worry, and statistics achievement were investigated in a sample of 360 undergraduates in Malaysia. Both trait (cross-situational) and state (task-specific) measures of each construct were used to test a mediational trait (r) state (r) performance (TSP) model. As hypothesized,…

  20. The Application of the Things I Worry about Scale to a Sample of At-Risk American Adolescents: An Examination of Psychometric Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esters, Irvin G.; Tracey, Anne; Millar, Rob

    2007-01-01

    To date, published studies regarding the Things I Worry About Scale have been conducted exclusively in Northern Ireland and have included relatively homogeneous samples of students. The present study reexamined the psychometric properties of the scale using data collected from a sample of at-risk adolescents in the United States. The factor…

  1. Providing Preoperative Information for Children Undergoing Surgery: A Randomized Study Testing Different Types of Educational Material to Reduce Children's Preoperative Worries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandes, S. C.; Arriaga, P.; Esteves, F.

    2014-01-01

    This study developed three types of educational preoperative materials and examined their efficacy in preparing children for surgery by analysing children's preoperative worries and parental anxiety. The sample was recruited from three hospitals in Lisbon and consisted of 125 children, aged 8-12 years, scheduled to undergo outpatient surgery.…

  2. A little uncertainty goes a long way: state and trait differences in uncertainty interact to increase information seeking but also increase worry.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Natalie O; Knäuper, Bärbel

    2009-04-01

    This study examines the effect of an interaction between intolerance of uncertainty (IU) and situational uncertainty (SU) on worry due to uncertainty and on information seeking. Health providers may benefit from knowing when communicating uncertain information is beneficial. The study was a 2 (IU condition: high vs. low) x 2 (SU condition: high vs. low) experimental design resulting in four conditions to which university students (N = 153) were randomly assigned. IU was manipulated through a linguistic manipulation of responses to an IU questionnaire coupled with written false feedback. SU was manipulated by modifying the information participants read about a fictitious infection. Individuals in the high IU and high SU condition sought the most information and worried most due to uncertainty compared to people in the low IU and low SU condition, who sought the least information and worried least. Findings suggest that high IU may increase positive health behaviors such as screening intentions when individuals are faced with an uncertain health threat, but that it also increases worries due to that uncertainty. Providing opportunities for discussing one's emotional response to uncertainty and providing instrumental support for managing uncertainty (e.g., booking the follow-up appointment) is essential when communicating uncertain information. PMID:19415555

  3. PedsQL gastrointestinal symptoms scales and gastrointestinal worry scales in pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease in comparison with healthy controls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Patient-reported outcomes are essential in determining the broad impact of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and treatments from the patient's perspective. The primary study objectives were to compare the gastrointestinal symptoms and worry of pediatric patients with IBD with matched healthy controls...

  4. Having mentors and campus social networks moderates the impact of worries and video gaming on depressive symptoms: a moderated mediation analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Easy access to the internet has spawned a wealth of research to investigate the effects of its use on depression. However, one limitation of many previous studies is that they disregard the interactive mechanisms of risk and protective factors. The aim of the present study was to investigate a resilience model in the relationship between worry, daily internet video game playing, daily sleep duration, mentors, social networks and depression, using a moderated mediation analysis. Methods 6068 Korean undergraduate and graduate students participated in this study. The participants completed a web-based mental health screening questionnaire including the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and information about number of worries, number of mentors, number of campus social networks, daily sleep duration, daily amount of internet video game playing and daily amount of internet searching on computer or smartphone. A moderated mediation analysis was carried out using the PROCESS macro which allowed the inclusion of mediators and moderator in the same model. Results The results showed that the daily amount of internet video game playing and daily sleep duration partially mediated the association between the number of worries and the severity of depression. In addition, the mediating effect of the daily amount of internet video game playing was moderated by both the number of mentors and the number of campus social networks. Conclusions The current findings indicate that the negative impact of worry on depression through internet video game playing can be buffered when students seek to have a number of mentors and campus social networks. Interventions should therefore target individuals who have higher number of worries but seek only a few mentors or campus social networks. Social support via campus mentorship and social networks ameliorate the severity of depression in university students. PMID:24884864

  5. The role of cues, self-efficacy, level of worry, and high-risk behaviors in college student condom use.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, C A

    1995-01-01

    A sample of 879 undergraduate students were recruited from a public university in western New York state during the 1993-94 academic year in order to study condom use among sexually active young people 18-24 years old. A 104-item questionnaire was administered consisting of 5 instruments and single-item measures of sexual behavior and demographics. The instruments were: the Condom Use Self-Efficacy Scale (CUSES), the Perceived Barriers to Condom Use, the Perceived Susceptibility to HIV/AIDS and other STDs, the Cues to Condom Action Scale, and the Perceived Norms scale. 92% of students reported having had sexual intercourse in the past, while 86.75 reported having sexual intercourse in the previous year. About 61% reported having 1 sex partner in the previous 12 months, whereas 35.2% reported having 3 or more partners. 22.4% reported 2 or more 1-night stands. 54.5% reported worrying about HIV/AIDS occasionally, while 23.1% reported doing so frequently. 17.2% (99) of the students were classified as non-users of condoms, 50.2% (289) as sporadic users, and 32.6% (188) as consistent users. 78 (12%) could not be classified. A multiple discriminant function analysis was also conducted to distinguish among the 3 condom user groups totalling 576 cases. The variables were age, gender, frequency of drunkenness during sexual intercourse, number of sex partners, and number of 1-night stands in the past 12 months, perceived barriers, worrying about HIV/AIDS, perceived susceptibility, condom use self-efficacy, and cues to condom action. Two significant functions emerged. Function 1 clearly separated the sporadic users from the consistent users (p 0.001), while Function 2 clearly separated the sporadic users from the non-users (p 0.001). The discriminating variables correctly classified 64.58% of the respondents into the 3 condom user groups. The variables were most effective at correctly classifying non-users (68.7%), consistent users (67.8%), and sporadic users (61.2%). Sporadic

  6. Resistance to niclosamide in Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum: should we be worried?

    PubMed

    Dai, Jian-Rong; Li, You-Zi; Wang, Wei; Xing, Yun-Tian; Qu, Guo-Li; Liang, You-Sheng

    2015-02-01

    As the currently only available molluscicide, niclosamide has been widely used for snail control for over 2 decades in China. There is therefore a concern about the emergence of niclosamide-resistant snail populations following repeated, extensive use of the chemical. The purpose of this study was to investigate the likelihood of niclosamide resistance in Oncomelania hupensis in China. Active adult O. hupensis snails derived from 20 counties of 10 schistosomiasis-endemic provinces of China, of 10 snails in each drug concentration, were immersed in solutions of 1, 0.5, 0.25, 0.125, 0.063, 0.032, 0.016 and 0.008 mg L-1 of a 50% wettable powder of niclosamide ethanolamine salt (WPN) for 24 and 48 h at 25 °C, and the median lethal concentration (LC50) was estimated. Then, the 24- and 48-h WPN LC50 values were compared with those determined in the same sampling sites in 2002. The results indicated that the 24- and 48-h WPN LC50 values for O. hupensis were not significantly different from those determined in 2002 (P = 0.202 and 0.796, respectively). It is concluded that the current sensitivity of O. hupensis to niclosamide has not changed after more than 2 decades of repeated, extensive application in the main endemic foci of China, and there is no evidence of resistance to niclosamide detected in O. hupensis. PMID:25003984

  7. "What--me worry?" "Why so serious?": a personal view on the Fukushima nuclear reactor accidents.

    PubMed

    Gallucci, Raymond

    2012-09-01

    Infrequently, it seems that a significant accident precursor or, worse, an actual accident, involving a commercial nuclear power reactor occurs to remind us of the need to reexamine the safety of this important electrical power technology from a risk perspective. Twenty-five years since the major core damage accident at Chernobyl in the Ukraine, the Fukushima reactor complex in Japan experienced multiple core damages as a result of an earthquake-induced tsunami beyond either the earthquake or tsunami design basis for the site. Although the tsunami itself killed tens of thousands of people and left the area devastated and virtually uninhabitable, much concern still arose from the potential radioactive releases from the damaged reactors, even though there was little population left in the area to be affected. As a lifelong probabilistic safety analyst in nuclear engineering, even I must admit to a recurrence of the doubt regarding nuclear power safety after Fukushima that I had experienced after Three Mile Island and Chernobyl. This article is my attempt to "recover" my personal perspective on acceptable risk by examining both the domestic and worldwide history of commercial nuclear power plant accidents and attempting to quantify the risk in terms of the frequency of core damage that one might glean from a review of operational history. PMID:22394214

  8. The 2000 Census and Growth Patterns in Rural America. The Main Street Economist: Commentary on the Rural Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheaff, Katharine

    The 2000 Census reveals four patterns of change in rural America. Rural areas in states such as Florida and Arizona are gaining population due to high retiree growth. These areas will experience growth in service sector jobs that have low pay and low educational requirements. Florida and Arizona trail the nation in high school and college…

  9. Mobility Device Use Among Older Adults and Incidence of Falls and Worry About Falling: Findings From the 2011–2012 National Health and Aging Trends Study

    PubMed Central

    Gell, Nancy M.; Wallace, Robert B.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Mroz, Tracy M.; Patel, Kushang V.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To examine mobility device use prevalence among community-dwelling older adults in the U.S. and to investigate the incidence of falls and worry about falling by the type and number of mobility devices used. DESIGN Analysis of cross-sectional and longitudinal data from the 2011–2012 National Health and Aging Trends Study SETTING In-person interviews in the homes of study participants PARTICIPANTS Nationally representative sample of Medicare beneficiaries(N=7609). MEASUREMENTS Participants were asked about mobility device use (e.g., canes, walkers, wheelchairs and scooters) in the last month, one-year fall history and worry about falling. RESULTS Twenty-four percent of adults age ≥65 reported mobility device use in 2011 and 9.3% reported using multiple devices within the last month. Mobility device use increased with advancing age and was associated with non-White race/ethnicity, female sex, lower education level, greater multi-morbidity, and obesity (all P-values < 0.001). Adjusting for demographic, health characteristics, and physical function, the incidence of falls and recurrent falls were not associated with the use of multiple devices or any one particular type of mobility device. Activity-limiting worry about falling was significantly higher in cane-only users, compared with non-users. CONCLUSION The percentage of older adults reporting mobility device use is higher compared to results from previous national surveys and multiple device use is common among those who use any device. Mobility device use is not associated with increased incidence of falls compared to non-device users. Cane-only users may compensate for worry about falling by limiting activity. PMID:25953070

  10. Training Home Economists for Rural Development. Report of a Global Study on the Development of Criteria for Establishing Training Institutions for Home Economics Staff in Rural Development. FAO Economic and Social Development Paper 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY.

    In 1973 a global study aimed toward the development of criteria for establishing institutions for training home economists for rural development programs was initiated by the Home Economics and Social Programmes Services of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the U.N. As a first step, a survey was developed on the variety of roles appropriate…